RF Annual Report - 1951 - The Rockefeller Foundation

RF Annual Report - 1951 - The Rockefeller Foundation

The Rockefeller Annual Foundation Report ' 9 5 ' • V x'-• ' v* 0^ 49 West 49th Street, New York 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation 31 PRIN 1L...

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The

Rockefeller

Annual

Foundation

Report

' 9 5 '

• V x'-• ' v* 0^

49 West 49th Street, New

York

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

31

PRIN 1LD IN THE UNITED STATES Ol' AMERICA

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

CONTENTS

LETTER OF TRANSMISSION

XV

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

99

105

DIVISION OF NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

219

DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

323

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES

389

OTHER APPROPRIATIONS

429

FELLOWSHIPS

44!

REPORT OF THE TREASURER

449

INDEX

529

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

ILLUSTRATIONS Page Research at Indiana University on the genetics o/Oenothera, the evening primrose Dr. Max

iv

Theiler, jpjf Nobel Prize winner in Physiology

and Medicine

25

Virus investigations at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Researcht Melbourne, Australia Conference on cell physiology, University of Sao Paulo Fulani herdsman in West Africa

26 26 39

Unloading specimens for Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

39

Agricultural Experiment Station, Palmira, Colombia

40

Sculpture class, Mayor's Advisory Committee for the Aged, New York City

61

Urban land use and housing studies at Columbia University

61

Demographic survey, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Poona, India

62

Law-science instruction, Tulane University, New Orleans

8?

Lecture at the America Institute, University of Cologne, Germany

87

Modern dance group in Japan

88

Study sponsored by the New Dramatists Committee, Inc.

88

Field trip, the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia

127

Program in constitutional medicine at the University of Oregon Medical Se/wol

128

Group psychotherapy at the Wilhelmina Hospital, Amsterdam

128

Demonstration in connection with Law-Science Program at Tulane University

147

Scottish terriers us id for behavior studies at McGill University Afield crew of the malaria control campaign in Sardinia Manifold for filtration at New

147 148

York laboratories of the

Division of Medicine and Public Health

148

Apparatus for determining catalytic activity of soils in the decomposition of DDT

193

Drainage ditching in the malaria control campaign, Mysore State, India

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Page Research in neurophysiology, University of Pisa

194

Air view of village in Iran

194

Photographing a crystal at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

243

Research in fruit-fly genetics at Indiana University

243

Investigations in cell chemistry at University College, Dublin

244

Laboratory for Cell Physiology, University of Sao Paulo

244

Biochemical research, Carlsberg Foundation, Copenhagen

259

X-ray crystallography at Pennsylvania State College

259

Taking blood sample from shark at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts Cross pollination of wheat at Chapingo, Mexico Sorghum experiments at Irapuato, Mexico

260 283 284

Mexican Agricultural Program; conference of staff and visiting experts

303

Industrial water needs under study by the Conservation Foundation

304

Wheat breeding near Bogotd, Colombia

304

Studies of Anglo-American relations, conducted jointly by the Council on Foreign Relations and the Royal Institute of International Affairs

347

A member of the demographic survey staff of the Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Poona, interviews an Indian family Recreation activity, sponsored by the Mayor's Advisory Committee for the Aged, New

York City

Training at Institnt de Science Economique Appliquee, Paris A Fulani camp, West Africa

372 372

Members of the second seminar in American studies at Tokyo University

399

Gallery of Historians, Pan American Institute of Geography and History, Mexico, D. F,

399

"Dancing Children/' by Douglas 0. Portway

400

Craft seminar, New Dramatists Committee, Inc., New York

400

Geology field trip, Anttoch College

415

Faculty seminar, the University of Chicago

416

Staff conference on personnel studies at the American Council of Learned Societies, Washington, D. C,

416

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION Trustees, Committees and Officers 1951 TRUSTEES JOHN FOSTER DULLES WILLIAM I. MYERS DOUGLAS S. FREEMAN » THOMAS PARRAN. M.D. HERBERT S. GASSER, M.D. JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER. 3RD WALLACE K. HARRISON » DEAN RUSK ROBERT F. LOEB, M.D. GEOFFREY S. SMITH ROBERT A. LOVETT ROBERT G. SPROUL HENRY ALLEN MOE ARTHUR HAYS SULZBERGER HBNRV P. VAN DUSEN EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE THE PRESIDENT, Chairman HAROLD W. DODDS JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, $RD JOHN FOSTER DULLES GEOFFREY S. SMITH ROBERT F. LOEB, M.D. HERBERT S. GASSER, M.D.,« alternate member HENRY ALLEN MOE WALLACE K. HARRISON,' alternate member HENRY P. VAN DUSBN, alternate member FINANCE COMMITTEE WINTHROP W. ALDRICH,' Chairman LEWIS W. DOUGLAS* GEOFFREY S. SMITH,' Chairman JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, 3RD,1 alternate member WILLIAM H. CLAFLIN, JR. ARTHUR HAYS SULZBERGER,' alternate member THE PRESIDENT THE CHAIRMAN OP THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES

WINTHROP W. ALDRICH > CHESTER I. BARNARD WILLIAM H. CLAFLIN, JR. KARL T. COMPTON JOHN S. DICKEY HAROLD W. DODDS LEWIS W. DOUGLAS

BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC CONSULTANTS FOR THE DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH6 DEAN A. CLARK, M.D. KENNETH F. MAXCY, M.D. GORDON M, FAIR HUGH J. MORGAN, M.D. WILTON L. HALVERSON, M.D. THOMAS PARBAN, M.D. ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES E. C. STAKMAN, Chairman RICHARD BRADFIELD P. C. MANGELSDORF OFFICERS Chairman of the Board of Trustees JOHN FOSTER DULLES President CHESTER I . BARNARD President-Elect DEAN RUSK B Vice-Presidents ALAN GREGG, M.D.' LlNDSLEY F. KlMBALI. Secretary FLORA M. RHIND Treasurer EDWARD ROBINSON Comptroller GEORGE J. DEAL Director for the Division of Medicine and Public Health > GEORGE K. STRODE, M.D.9 ANDREW J. WARREN, M.D."* Director for the Division of Natural Sciences and Agriculture WARREN WEAVER Deputy Director for Agriculture J. G. HARRAR » Director for the Division of Social Sciences JOSEPH H. WILLITS Director for the Division of Humanities CHARLES B, FAHS COUNSEL CIIAUNCLY BELKNAP VANDBR 1111.1 Wunn 1 Retired June 30, 1951. " Effective May i, • 5 Retired December 5, 1051. 'Division of Medicine and Public s Effective July i, 1951. ' Health was formed by the merging of * Unlit June 30, 1951. the International Health Division ami * Effective December s. i9Si. the Medical Sciences, May i, 1951« Successor to the International * Retired May 31, 1931. Health Division Board of Scientific » Effective June i, 1951Consultants, May i, 1951. u Effective December s, 1951. xit

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER

FOUNDATION

Trustees, Committees and Officers 1952 TRUSTEES HERBERT S. GASSER, M.D. JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, 3RD WALLACE K. HARBISON DEAN RUSK ROBERT F. LOEB, M.D, GEOFFREY S. SMITH ROBERT A. LOVETT ROBERT G. SPROUL HENRY ALLEN MOE ROBERT T. STEVENS » WILLIAM I. MYERS ARTHUR HAYS SULZBERGER THOMAS PARRAN, M.D. HENRY P. VAN DUSEN EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE THE PRESIDENT, Chairman HAROLD W. DODDS HENRY ALLEN MOE JOHN FOSTER DULLES JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, 3RD WALLACE K, HARRISON> GEOFFREY S. SMITH,* alternate member ROBERT F. LOEB, M.D. HENRY P. VAN DUSEN, alternate member FINANCE COMMITTEE GEOFFREY S. SMITH, Chairman WILLIAM H. CLAFLIN, JR. JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, 3RD, alternate member LEWIS W. DOUGLAS ARTHUR HAYS SuLgBSRGER, alternate member THE PRESIDENT THE CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES CHESTER I. BARNARD > WILLIAM H. CLAPLIN, JR. KARL T. COMPTON JOHN S. DICKEY HAROLD W. DODDS LEWIS W. DOUGLAS JOHN FOSTER DULLES

BOARD OF CONSULTANTS FOR MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH3 DEAN A. CLARK, M.D. WARD DARLEY, M.D.» JOHN H. DINGLE, M.D.1

A. MCGEHEE HARVEY, M.D.* HUGH R. LEAVELL, M.D.» HUGH J. MORGAN, M.D.

BOARD OF CONSULTANTS FOR AGRICULTURE 4 E. C. STAKMAN, Chairman GUSTAV BOHSIEDT* P. C. MANGELSDORF RICHARD BRADFIELD ERNEST C. YOUNG 6 OFFICERS Chairman of the Board oj Trustees JOHN FOSTER DULLES President CHESTER I. BARNARD i DEAN RUSK » Vice-Presidents ALAN GREGG, M.D. LlNDSLEY F. KlM BALL Secretary FLORA M. RHIND Treasurer EDWARD ROBINSON Comptroller GEORGE J. BEAL Director for the Division of Medicine and Public Health ANDRUW J. WARREN, M.D. Director for the Division oj Natural Sciences and Agriculture WARREN WEAVER DeptUy Director for Agriculture J. G. HARRAR Director for the Division of Social Sciences JOSEPH H. WILLITS Director for the Division of Humanities CHARLES D. FAHS COUNSEL CHAUNCEY BELKNAP VANDBRBILT WEBB 1 Retired June 30, 1952. * Successor to the Advisory Commit* 1 Effective April 2,1952. tee for Agricultural Activities, April a, * Successor to Board of Scientific Con1952. sultaiits for the Division of Medicine * Effective January 18, 1952. and Public Health, April a, 1952. »Effective July i, adii

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

To the Trustees of The

Rockefeller

Foundation GENTLEMEN: I have the honor to transmit herewith

a general

review of the work of The Rockefeller Foundation for the

years

1950

and

1951, together

reports of the Secretary Foundation and

and

with

detailed

the Treasurer of the

the Directors for the Divisions of

Medicine and Public Health, Natural Sciences and Agriculture, Social Sciences, and

Humanities for the

period January I, 1951 to December 31, 1951. Respectfully yours, CHESTER I. BARNARD President

XV

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW for 1950 and

1951

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENTS REVIEW

STATISTICAL SUMMARY

5

A TIME OF TRANSITION

6

SECURITY AND FREEDOM

8

SURVEYS AND ANALYSES

14

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

18

PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

24

MEDICAL CARE

27

THE UNKNOWN VIRUSES

31

DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES

33

THE NATURAL SCIENCES

35

AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

41

THE STATE OF MEXICO PROJECT

45

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

47

GENETICS — BIOCHEMISTRY — CONSERVATION

51

THE LITTLE AND THE BIG

54

THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

58

TOWARD A SCIENCE OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR

60

PROJECTS IN ECONOMICS

67

THE INTERNATIONAL SCENE

68

STUDIES OF AGING

70

CAPITAL FUNDS FOR THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

72

THE LAW AND MORALS

74

THE HUMANITIES

76

LANGUAGE, LOGIC AND SYMBOLISM

77

INTERCULTURAL UNDERSTANDING

79

HUMANE VALUES

84

FREEDOM OF THE PRESS

90

MR, FOSDICK'S HISTORY

91

APPLICATIONS DECLINED DURING 1951

92

ORGANIZATION CHANGES IN 1951

94

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S

1950

FOR

REVIEW

AND

1951*

STATISTICAL SUMMARY FOR 1950 AND 1951

OR

reasons made evident below, the Review

for the year 1950 was

not published in 1951.

The present Review therefore covers both 1950 and

1951. The

following'statistical summary is for

both years. The

details will be found in the Annual

Report for 1950 published in 1951, and in this Annual Report for 1951. The

Foundation's income during

1950 was

828,195, and during 1951 it was $16,972,914 — return of $29,801,109 for the two years. The for 1951 was

$12,a total

income

the largest ever received in a twelve-

month, the previous high record being $14,746,495 in 1929. The market value of the Principal Fund at the end of 1951 was $315,070,601. The applications for aid received during 1950-1951 totaled approximately 7,500. Grants and

appropria-

tions were made to assist some 1,200 projects. * Received for publication June 18, 1952.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

6

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION The

grants and

appropriations for the two years

were distributed as follows: 1950 Public Health

1951

$2,326,840)

Medical Sciences

,

6

1,240,900 f

J)/y * '

2,092,515

3,680,208

Social Sciences

2,122,085

4^586,895

Humanities

1,491,250

1,658,072

Natural Sciences and Agriculture

General Education Board

5,001,625

General

477>5OO

680,526

1,496,874

1,755,284

$11,247,964 o

$21,158,880

Administration

At the end of 1951 the Foundation's professional staff, including executive officers, totaled 91, and

the

number.of clerical and other personnel was 147 — a total of 238 employees.

A TIME OF TRANSITION The years 1950 and 1951 were for The Rockefeller Foundation a period of world survey, self-examination and adjustment to the changing conditions of a world

in

transition;

and

during

the

time

these

processes of reorganization were under way, it was impracticable

to attempt any

definitive

discussion

of plans and programs. For that reason the annual Review of the preceding year's work was omitted in

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW 1951, and

7

the present recapitulation

will

therefore

span two years. Actually, plans and programs are continually under appraisal. The

Foundation, from the beginning, has

conceived its role to be that of a pioneer and

a sup-

porter of pioneers; and with an assignment as broad as " the well-being of mankind throughout the world/* resilience to change is a practical necessity. The of mankind The

are multitudinous. The

Rockefeller

they are but

Foundation

wants

resources of

are limited —

indeed,

as the Biblical grain of mustard seed

compared with the myriad wants. Because of this disparity, only those wants which represent critical needs and which provide opportunities for service in fields that are germinal to human well-being on a wide scale can be regarded as appropriate objectives for support. The

great volume and

variety of the

requests place a grave responsibility on the Foundation's Trustees and Officers, who the numerous applicants and

select, from among

the wide range of op-

portunities, the particular ones that are to receive assistance. This sense of responsibility process of appraisal and

makes the

reappraisal necessarily

a

continuous one, and at the same time explains the exceptions to program which occur every year. The

stream of events and experiences which gives

consciousness of the passage of time has been likened to the ceaseless flowing of a river. We

are living in a

period of history when the river seems to move with the

speed

and

weight

of an

avalanche,

bringing

changes so radical and far-reaching that the whole of civilization is shaken and

terrorized. After winning

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

8

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

a world-wasting struggle against one form of totalitarianism, it is a bitter irony to find ourselves

now

confronted by another dictatorship that was our ally Jess than a decade ago. The one

world

luminous hope for the

of mankind, which

burned

so brightly

during the war, has been supplanted by a spreading fear of hidden treachery from within and

surprise

attack from without. Never has the world stood in greater need

of calmness, wisdom

and

courage in

the evaluation of its problems; and yet perhaps never before has the sense of urgency and impending panic gripped so many nations and peoples. In this interval of armed truce —• the twilight zone in

which

we

exist, suspended

war and peace —

somewhere between

what is the right course for men of

good will to pursue? At The

Rockefeller Foundation

we have been asking that question during this critical biennium. By

the definition of our charter we have

had to view the question on the global scale, in terms of humanity as a whole; and our surveys of course have been projected against the background of nearly four decades of experience in administering the trust bestowed by Mr. John D. Rockefeller in setting up the Foundation in 1913.

SECURITY AND FREEDOM One

of the most difficult problems confronting

philanthropic foundations, universities^churches and other institutions which are concerned|with the intellectual, moral and spiritual well-being of mankind is the increase of restraints on individual and group

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW freedoms imposed in the interests of national security. Our

way

of life is built on freedom as its chief

cornerstone. The code of morals prevalent in Western society rests on the twin pillars of the freedom responsibility of the individual. At with

international relations as

and

the same time,

tense

as

they

are

today, we have to face the fact of a discordant world. That fact makes necessary a sharper vigilance than was

required in earlier, less complicated days, before

the rise of Stalinism to the stature of a world power and

the

development

of

weapons

of

wholesale

destruction. It is as impossible as it is undesirable for an institution to avoid the problems which concern the society in which

it Jives. The

ivory tower attitude

would be as unreasonable as the iron curtain attitude is. Recognizing the necessity for security, and mitting

also

the

difficulties of attaining

ad-

it, what

adjustment can be made that will preserve the life of the mind

and

yet not endanger the safety of our

nation? Scholars

are sometimes charged

with

making a

fetish of academic freedom, but this is not a fair or useful appraisal of the position of scholars and scientists. Most of us who

administer the affairs of The

Rockefeller Foundation are not practicing scholars in a strict professional sense, and many of us never have been; but for nearly 40 years the Foundation has been closely associated with the academic institutions and with the creative minds of research and learning on

both sides of the Atlantic, in the Near

East, in India and China. This puts us in a position

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

IO and

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION under the obligation

to express

an

informed

opinion from a detached and relatively disinterested point of view. No

doubt, sometimes professors, like

others, say or write things that seem foolish under critical examination or appraisal with hindsight, or make dubious associations; and I should say that perhaps the sense of responsibility to institutional and public interest within the academic fraternity is not on the whole as mature as is desirable. Nevertheless, in a world in which so many of our activities in government, business, religion and other fields are largely and

necessarily subject to formal coordination

and

hierarchical direction, the free discussion in the academic world becomes of increasing importance, as it does also in legislative halls, if democratic political institutions are to be maintained. Our

experience in fostering research

and

learning

has made us believe that only the free mind can do really productive work in intellectual fields, either in research who

or teaching, and

that the man

or woman

has an ideological ax to grind is conspicuously

less successful as a contributor of knowledge than one who

is free of such a restriction.

Academic freedom is not a concept promoted to favor a selfish interest or to maintain a position of special privilege. Freedom to inquire, to observe, to theorize, to exchange ideas and cize, is essential to fundamental

experiences, to critiresearch. Science is

largely rooted in the experimental method. But unless the

experimenters

are able

findings to fellow workers —

to communicate

their

unless they can freely

meet with their peers in research

and

discuss their

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

11

results, relate their findings to what other investigators have

found, obtain

petent criticism

and

be

the discipline

challenged

prove their conclusions —

of

com-

to defend

and

in short, unless they are

able, in John Milton's phrase, "to utter and

argue

freely," their contributions are likely to suffer avoidable defects. And

this freedom is necessary to the

fullest production

and

only in science but

the correction of error, not

equally in scholarly pursuits in

art, literature, industry and

business. It is the essen-

tial freedom which anyone must have if he is to do creative work of any kind. Having made that affirmation, we have to recognize that in the present state of world relations there is a special problem. And we

we must treat it as such



cannot disregard it. This special problem is pre-

sented by the fact that some areas of research directly involve

the national security. In

scholar's

traditional

freely" can no

liberty

"to

these utter

longer be granted

areas and

the

argue

as an inalienable

right but is subject to restriction in the interests of the nation

and

society. A

scholar

may

object

that he

cannot fulfill his responsibility in research unless he can freely communicate with other scholars and share their discoveries. In

that case it is his responsibility

to the nation and society either to accept the restriction, recognizing it as an unavoidable evil, or else to withdraw from the sensitive area and work in some other field which does not involve weapons or other factors related to security. And, nation

and

costly. By

society

on their part, the

must recognize

that secrecy is

shutting off communication among scien-

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

12

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

tists, they may ies and

impair our scholarship, our discover-

development in the very fields they seek to

protect. It has not been the practice of The

Rockefeller

Foundation to inquire into the politics, religion, skin color or racial origin of applicants for its grants and fellowships. The

only personal criteria by

judges eligibility are two:

the applicant's

which it technical

competence and his integrity as a scholar. The first requisite to intellectual integrity is an open mind. Scientists have learned

through long

experience

that they must take facts as the facts present themselves —

all the facts, without favoritism, the "ugly"

fact along with the "pretty'1 fact. For every trial of nature reveals something of nature's hidden meaning; and

though the result often is different from

what was

expected, it can

be understood only

considering all the facts. "In remarked

Professor

by

the face of a fact,"

P. W. Bridgman

University, "there is only one

of Harvard

possible course of

action for the scientist, namely acceptance, no matter how

much the fact may

anticipations, and

no

be at variance with his

matter

what havoc

it may

wreak on his carefully thought-out theories." This commitment to follow the fact, irrespective of where it may

lead, is the universal sign of member-

ship in the fellowship of research. In exchange for his dedication of himself to the search for truth, society grants the scholar certain immunities. But when he becomes a partisan in his search, when he accepts the dictation of external authority as to how

he

shall interpret the phenomena, and selectively slants

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

13

his observations and colors his conclusions to support an approved hypothesis, then a man

ceases to be a

scholar. He has made himself something else, by no means necessarily inferior or useless —

a journalist,

a propagandist, a statesman. Having sacrificed his freedom to a party line, he has disqualified himself for research and shut himself off from its immunities. The

Rockefeller Foundation is concerned in part

with the life of the mind, the outreaching of the human

spirit, as fundamental to the well-being of man-

kind. It is committed to the advancement, not in one place but throughout the world, of particular spiritual realities which experience has shown can contribute to human well-being. Within the framework of our government's

legitimate controls, and

recognizing

the areas in which restrictions are necessary, we shall continue to search for true scholars in the fields of our programs in whatever lands fellowships, grants in aid and

they

exist. Through

appropriations for the

support of research, creative work and the application of knowledge to the alleviation of human needs, we

shall continue, as in the past, to work through

gifted individuals or small groups of individuals. The great society — the "mankind" of our charter — and

the innumerable lesser societies of nations, cults,

classes, professions and

associations which make it

up are themselves in turn constituted of small groups and individuals. And

the mass decisions of the great

society, the pattern

of beliefs, morals, tolerances,

prejudices and

behavior which characterize its cul-

ture, are determined in the last analysis by the decisions arrived at and

attitudes and

understandings

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

14

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

prevailing in the small groups. Irrespective, therefore, of the magnitude of the project which is to be undertaken or of the size of the grant which is to finance it, we must work perforce with small groups, such

as university

and individuals, who and

departments, laboratory

teams

are both technically competent

intellectually free.

SURVEYS AND ANALYSES Immediately

following

the

German

surrender

which terminated the conflict in Europe, officers of The

Rockefeller Foundation

began

to resume con-

tacts with institutions and

individuals of the war-

isolated

were

countries.

Grants

made

to

relieve

acute situations in universities and other outposts of research and

learning, to replenish gaps in libraries,

re-equip empty or obsolescent laboratories and, what was

perhaps

the most important of all, to break

through the intellectual blackout imposed by the war and

restore the commerce of ideas which is so vital

to the advancement of learning and of

understanding

and

fellowship

the promotion

among

peoples.

Many of these postwar actions, however, were in the nature of temporary measures, to meet obvious pressing needs. It was realized that the legacy of dislocations and

upheavals left by

the war

called for

more than improvisations. There must be a complete re-examination of the existing program, a survey of the human situation in terms of its postwar setting and

a rethinking of the charter obligation to serve

"the well-being of mankind throughout the world."

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW The

Foundation was

15

then functioning, as it had

been for many years, through an organization of five divisions: i) the International Health Division, working in the broad field of public health; 2) the Medical Sciences division, devoted to the promotion of research in medicine, with particular attention to studies related

to psychiatry; 3) the Natural Sciences

division, with a program largely concentrated in experimental biology; 4) the Social Sciences division, concerned with

problems of interhuman relations;

and 5) the Humanities division, occupied with studies and

creative work in literature, linguistics, history,

philosophy, drama and other humanisticfields.Although

each

division

was

necessarily working in

selected areas of its field, this fivefold organization provided a framework which encompasses the greater part of the intellectual interests of mankind. The

directors of these divisions were asked to can-

vass their respective fields of interest in the light of postwar conditions. Several of the officers made extended visits to key centers in Europe, Asia and Africa for on-the-spot observations. A

special commission

organized and

of population experts was

dispatched to the Far East to study

problems of human congestion in lands where they are most critical. Indeed, human ecology, the relation of man

to his environment, was deemed so fundamen-

tal to the whole planning operation that an officer of the International Health Division was detached from his regular duties and deputized as a special assistant to collect and

correlate data on population studies

and advise the President of the Foundation on the

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

status of knowledge in this field throughout

the

world. As a pilot study in human ecology, a survey was made of Crete, with the cooperation of the Greek government, using the island community as an isolated society for examining the interrelations of population growth, health conditions, agricultural production, nutritional standards, water supplies and other natural resources. An

Advisory Committee for Agricultural Activi-

ties, which had

been

organized

during the war

in

connection with the agricultural development program in Mexico, made a survey of the needs and opportunities for similar work in other countries. Finally, in the spring of 1950, a commission

was

appointed to review the organization and program of the International Health Division, as well as its relation to agricultural work. The commission was asked to make recommendations for planning the future operation of the division, taking into consideration relations not only to public health problems but also to those in the medical sciences and agriculture. This Commission on Review of the International Health Division, to give its official name, was made up of seven present or former Trustees of the Foundation: Mr.

Walter S. Gifford, Dr. Robert F. Loeb,

Mr. Henry Allen Moe, Mr. William I. Myers, Dr. Thomas Parran, Mr. John D. Rockefeller, jrd, and Mr. Walter W. Stewart; three officers of the Foundation: Dr. Alan Gregg, Mr. Warren Weaver and Mr. Joseph H. Willits; and 12 members drawn from outside

institutions:

Professor

Richard

Bradfield

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

of

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

17

Cornell University, Dr. Dean A. Clark of Massachusetts General Hospital, Dr. L. T. Coggeshall of the University of Chicago, Professor Gordon M. Fair of Harvard University, Dr. Wilson L. Halverson of the California State Department of Health, Professor Paul

C. Mangelsdorf of Harvard

University, Dr.

Kenneth F. Maxcy of the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Dr. Hugh J. Morgan of Vanderbilt University, Dr. Hugo Muench of the Harvard School of Public Health, Mr. Fairfield Osborn

of

the

Conservation

Foundation,

Professor

Lowell J. Reed of the Johns Hopkins University and Professor E. C, Stakman of the University of Minnesota. All of these members, except Mr. Osborn, had a present or former responsible official connection with the Foundation. The membership included public health officers and teachers; medical scientists, educators and administrators; natural economists and and

scientists; agricultural specialists; other social scientists; businessmen;

a conservationist. The

group was carefully se-

lected

to represent every area of human

which

we

thought would need

interest

to be considered in

the course of the survey. The commission devoted a full year to the study, and the report which it made has become the chart and compass of our planning, Three outcomes in particular resulted from

this

year-Jong survey: First —

The International Health Division and the

Medical Sciences division, the two

oldest branches

of the Foundation, were merged in 1951 to form a single unified Division of Medicine and Public Health,

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

18

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

with a corresponding revision and integration of the program

to focus the services of the new

division

directly on four critical areas of the health problem. I shall describe this fourfold program later in this Review. Second —

In the same year the Natural Sciences

division was reconstituted as the Division of Natural Sciences and Agriculture, the change in name reflecting a shift in the emphasis of the program toward an increasing interest in the application of the natural sciences to agriculture. Third —

Beyond this consolidation and change of

emphasis, the commission recommended a closer coordination of all activities of the Foundation. This could be accomplished, it pointed out, through the development of related programs integrated the

broad

front of health, agriculture,

along

education,

social sciences and humanistic studies. It voiced the conviction

that such coordinated

action of all four

divisions offers the surest approach toward a solution of the world problem of population growth and the attainment of adequate usable resources — a judgment in accordance with our belief that the broad basis of our planning should be human ecology.

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Before

describing

the

Division of Medicine and

current

program

of

Public Health, it may

the be

helpful to sketch briefly the history of past efforts and accomplishments in these two

closely related fields.

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW Public health was the earliest interest of the Foundation and, indeed, was the main interest that gave it birth. The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research had

been established in 1901 to assist the conquest of

disease through increase of knowledge, and the General Education Board was founded in 1902 to advance education in the United States "without distinction of sex, race, or creed." In the course of developing its educational plans, an officer of the Board learned of the prevalence and

debilitating effect of hookworm

disease throughout

wide areas of the South and at

once realized that education could make only limited headway among populations infested with this chronic infection. Inquiry disclosed that the nature and cause of hookworm disease were known, an effective cure was known and sanitary measures for preventing the spread of the disease were known. And for individual efforts here and ened

physicians were

little was

treating

being done to put

yet, except

there where enlightindividual

patients,

the knowledge to use.

The immediate outcome of this discovery that knowledge was

lying idle in the face of a great need for its

application

was

the launching

of the Rockefeller

Sanitary Commission in 1909. Subsequent experience taught that this knowledge was not as well known as was supposed. The mere

application

effort involved more than the

of a

complete

body

of existing

knowledge. This has been a repeated experience of the Foundation. A

campaign for eradication of hookworm disease,

waged by the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission in 11

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

southern states, not only restored tens of thousands of anemic men, women

and

children

to health

and

cleared whole regions of the disease, but it provided a demonstration of how

a community could tackle a

public health problem and master it. There was wisdom,

too, in the decision to conduct the campaign

on a cooperative basis, as a joint project of the government, state and county, on the one hand, and of the private agency, the Sanitary

Commission, on the

other. This idea of cooperative effort became a guiding principle in all subsequent activities of the Rockefeller boards and has contributed in no small measure to their success. Not only in the United States, but throughout the world, the public health movement was given powerful assistance by

that wise decision of 1909 to put

an existent body of knowledge to work. For when, four years

later, Mr.

Rockefeller

Rockefeller

Foundation —

established

The

and his decision was in-

fluenced in large measure by

this successful demon-

stration in the South •— the first act of the Foundation was

to incorporate the hookworm fighters into

its staff as the International

Health

Board. This

group of workers, which later became the International Health

Division, was

immediately

commis-

sioned

to carry the fight against hookworm to in-

fested

lands

of both

hemispheres. Soon

it added

malaria and yellow fever control to hookworm work and extended the warfare against disease to include the recruitment and training of public health officers and nurses, the support and conduct of scientific research

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

21

in public health, aid to state and local health services and, eventually, the building of public health schools and institutes of hygiene in more than a dozen strategic centers of the Americas, Europe and Asia. The total Foundation expenditures for these efforts, from the beginning of the program in 1913 to the end of our survey in 1951, was $100,800,000. Meanwhile, beginning only a little later, was

a

parallel interest in general medicine. This program was first directed at the strengthening of teaching in

medical schools and

was

conducted

through

a

Division of Medical Education until the late 1920*3. During this period the General Education Board also was deeply concerned with the improvement of medical education, but its charter confined its operations to the United States, whereas the Foundation

was

empowered to work anywhere. Thus, while the General Education Board was pouring millions into upbuilding a score of American medical schools distributed

over

the

country,

the

Foundation

was

equally active in financing medical school developments

in Canada, Brazil, Great

Britain,

France,

Belgium, Syria, China, Southeast Asia and Australia. These

ventures

in

medical

education

had

thor-

oughly demonstrated their value by 1929, and in that year the emphasis of the program was shifted from education

to research, with particular reference to

psychiatry, neurology, endocrinology, human genetics and other specialties related to psychiatry. With this change in program the division was renamed the division of Medical Sciences, and as such it operated

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

until the merger with the International Health Division

last

Foundation

year. The

total

for medical

education

the medical sciences, from

expenditures and

of

the

research in

1914 to the end of our

survey in 1951, was $123,800,000. Now, in all these activities, both health and

those in public

those in medical education and

the Foundation had

research,

been a trail blazer, an experi-

menter, if you will, an advance guard moving across the

frontiers

of the known, trying out

knowledge, sponsoring new

the

new

methods in research and

education, and passing back the results of its experiences.

In

the

venture

against

yellow

fever, for

example, which had begun with the appointment of its yellow fever commission in 1916 and continued

had

been

through extensive field studies in Africa

and South America, through

the establishment and

operation of a research laboratory in New

York, and

with the close cooperation of the public health authorities of Brazil, Colombia, the British Colonial Service, Nigeria, Uganda and other native governments

of Africa, the

Foundation's

scientists

had

isolated and identified the causal agent of the disease and

had

then

through a long series of experiments

with this virus developed an effective vaccine.

The

more than two decades of work, which cost the lives of six scientists and

the expenditure by

the Foun-

dation of nearly $14,000,000, reached a culmination in the development of a practical method of culturing the virus for large-scale production of the vaccine a result

that was

accomplished

just on



the eve of

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW World War

II. In consequence, the Allied commands

were able to assign millions of troops to service in the tropics in the assurance that they were protected against yellow fever. Further investigation will doubtless unveil additional facts about yellow fever, but the Foundation believes that the pioneering job has been completed. Indeed, even before the review commission began its survey, research on yellow fever had been terminated, and staff members who

had participated in the long

fight were engaged in writing a definitive history of their work. This monumental book of some 700 pages, edited by

Dr. George K. Strode, was

published in

1951 under the title Yellow Fever. In the same year the Nobel Prize in Physiology awarded

to Dr. Max

and

Medicine

was

Theiler, a staff virologist

who

had been a key member of the team which developed the yellow fever vaccine. These two events, the publication and the award, may

be viewed in a symbolic

sense as marking the end of an era. They coincided closely in time with the merger of the old divisions and the adoption of a new program. The new program, which was agreed on in 1951 and is now

in process of being developed along four fronts,

has as its objectives: i) the advancement of professional education, 2) the study of medical care, 3) the investigation and control of specific diseases and deficiencies, and

4) the development of the health

sciences. Each of these headings represents a broad field of interest, and

it is by careful selection of the

specific problems to be attacked in each area that the

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

24

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

program

becomes

pertinent

to the present

world

situation.

PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

Most of the nations outside of North America and Europe are sadly deficient in medical personnel and this lack stems directly

from

the lack

of modern

medical schools in these regions. To be sure, in many of the countries one finds physicians of top quality, but usually they are persons who

obtained their pro-

fessional training in Europe, the United

States or

Canada. Training abroad, however, is costly; fellowships can be provided only for the occasional brilliant student who

shows unusual promise; and, moreover,

the number of outside applicants for whom places can be found in American and narrowly

limited. The

European schools is

only permanent solution of

the problem is the development offirst-classtraining centers

within

the

countries

themselves.

It

was

recognition of this acute situation that led the Foundation to put professional educationfirstin formulating its program in medicine and public health. The

return to education naturally calls to mind the

large-scale activities of the former Division of Medical Education back in the 1920*3, but I should hasten to explain that the present program is conceived in a different framework from that of the former one. It is not our plan to make large appropriations for buildings or endowment; the plan is projected on a qualitative rather than a quantitative basis, with the idea of using relatively modest grants at strategic places

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Photograph

Excised

Here

» Dr. MaxThuU-r, ^l».um-noi tin- ,.,;i \nlvl I'n/i-HI l^M Malionc t«.r .li^.ucm-s in o.niu-cti.m w i t h tin- \JKrn k-\vr v.K'cmc

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Virus investigations at the \Yalter and Kliz;i Hal! Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia Tlii .Ifsrr. \Iflhourm

Photograph

Excised

Here

Staff confiTi-ncc at the I' n i v c r s i t \ of Sao Paulo's I..iliciMtor\ I'm Cell IMnMolujj}

F^hiotoQ r^johi

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

27

within a faculty to strengthen its teaching. There is a recent instance in South America in which a department of physiology was

developed

through a

series of grants in aid; the resulting superiority of teaching and laboratory work in physiology spurred other departments to higher standards and in consequence raised the level of the entire medical school. An officer of the Foundation is now

in South America

making an exploratory survey of the status of medical education in the various lands of that continent. Additional surveys in other regions are planned. The program contemplates assisting the training not only of physicians but

also of public health nurses and

sanitary engineers.

MEDICAL CARE How

to make available to the entire population

the preventive, diagnostic and

curative services of

modern medicine is a key problem of contemporary society. In commending this subject of medical care for intensified systematic study, the Commission on Review of the International Health Division recorded the following observations: Technical difficulties in the broader application of medical knowledge and

skill are immense. Worst of

all, serious impediments have been placed in the way of experimenting with new methods offinancingand of organizing medical service. Progress in this field, therefore, faces not only the problems raised by scientific

and

organized

technical

inadequacies

but

also vigorous

resistance to change. Both research

and

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

28

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

statesmanship are required if the great benefits of medical science are to be brought effectively to the service of the people. Too

little attention, further-

more, has been given to the problem of quality of service that can be rendered. There is, too, a great need to tie preventive medical care into the general program. . . . The commission therefore urges the Foundation to devote an adequate share of its funds to support careful, objective studies and in medical care, and designed

particularly

experimental programs

teaching

to support welland field demon-

strations, under voluntary and public auspices, aimed at developing sound methods for the distribution of medical care, in the belief that only through such strong measures can the technical, social and political obstacles to adequate distribution of comprehensive medical care of high quality be overcome.

On

this recommendation, medical care has been

made one of the four major concerns of the program in medicine and

public health, but

the fact is that

the subject has been a Foundation interest for more than two decades. As

long ago as 1928 it financed

the comprehensive survey conducted by the mittee on

Costs of Medical

Care. In

Com-

subsequent

years grants were made to several other organizations interested in various aspects of medical care, and in 1945 a staff member of the International Health Division was

assigned to survey postwar operations

and trends. His report, based on visits to health centers and consultations with authorities in the United States, Canada, Great Britain and Sweden, provided a valuable summary of working principles and showed

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT S REVIEW up

29

the need for specific information as a basis for

planning, organizing and administering. It was mainly to obtain actual facts on public demand for medical care,

organizational

requirements

and

operating

problems that the Foundation in 1946 began a series of grants now

totaling over $500,000 to the Health

Insurance Plan of Greater New tion, which

provides health

York. This organizainsurance to various

groups of city employees, labor unions and

other

agencies, including the employees of the United tions in New

Na-

York, has served as a pilot plant for

medical care on a community scale. It has provided a working demonstration of medical care, operated under private auspices, in a large metropolitan population center. We

know vastly less of the problems and require-

ments in a rural setting, and one of the main undertakings of the new program will be to support studies in sparsely settled communities. The zation and Carolina

recent reorgani-

enlargement of the University of North

School

of Medicine

at Chapel Hill

has

opened an admirable opportunity. Here is a medical school in a small town, in a state which is predominantly rural. It is now of dentistry

and

university. Thus

a four-year school, and schools

nursing have been Chapel

Hill

has a

added

to the

well-rounded

medical center, one which has assumed the responsibility of lifting the level of medical care for the entire state. It has

established a professorship in medical

care. A planning committee has been appointed, and the Foundation made a grant in 1952 to finance the work of this committee whose job is to survey the

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

30

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

state's needs in the field of medical care, appraise the university's resources and needs and then submit a comprehensive plan

through

which

the necessary

service can be rendered. The

Foundation's program in medical care will be

concentrated mainly on training and research, giving special attention to the support of studies in the biosociology of disease. This is a greatly neglected field. Medical schools as constituted today require of their matriculants no knowledge of the social and political conditions related to disease and health, a situation in marked contrast with their stiff requirements in fields of the natural sciences. The

old idea that bio-

physics and biochemistry would eventually unravel all the problems of health and disease is less tenable today than was the case 40 or 50 years ago. There is a growing realization that interrelated social factors outside of the physics and

chemistry

of the body

are also involved. These biosocial relations are foremost among the frontiers that must be explored and mapped before we can expect to have adequate medical care for the entire population of a community. When research has accumulated and systematized the data into a scientific discipline, biosocial medicine may

become an

curriculum. We

indispensable part

may

introduce students medicine with

an

of the school

expect medical schools then to to the practice of community

emphasis on

"social diagnosis"

comparable to that on physical diagnosis. The

Foundation's program in medical care will be

concentrated mainly in the United States and will be restricted to scientific aspects of the subject. Despite

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

31

the mounting political and social pressures for altering the existing systems of producing and distributing medical care, there is a dearth of information of the sort necessary for the intelligent comparison of the competing proposals. The concern

itself with

Foundation will not

arguments about the relative

merits of different schemes, whether governmental or private. It will confine its efforts to the support of objective studies, to ascertaining facts and to making known the findings.

THE UNKNOWN VIRUSES Under the heading specific diseases and deficiencies> the program in medicine and public health is being directed at the study of virus infections of the types which

are

transmitted

by

mosquitoes,

ticks, lice

and other insects. These infections include some of the least understood and

most predatory microbial

invasions

human

to

which

the

therefore, the field is one

body

is subject;

that stands in need

of

investigation. It was recognized, moreover, that the Foundation's long experience with the yellow fever virus gave its staff an exceptional training for work with other insect-borne viruses. An was

additional detail

the fact that in the course of the extensive

surveys

which

the International Health

Division

conducted in its search for yellow fever in the jungles of East Africa, West Africa, Brazil and the field workers discovered

Colombiaj

18 viruses of unknown

identity. These discoveries were made in the period 1937 to 1948, and as each virus was found, it was

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

preserved

In

frozen

tissue

and

transferred

Foundation's laboratories in New Here then was

the

York.

a whole collection of fresh virus

material awaiting attention; and search at the New

to

so the current re-

York laboratories, which the Foun-

dation operates in one of the buildings of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical

Research, has been fo-

cused on the study of these unknown agents of unknown diseases. Preliminary studies have brought to light many striking differences. Although all are invisible in the

optical microscope, it is possible to

obtain images of the viruses with the enormous magnifying power of the electron microscope, and reveal

a wide range of sizes. The

these

ultracentrifuge

shows that they vary also in weight, from the Semliki Forest virus, which is small and of light weight, like the agent of yellow fever, ranging up to the gigantic Bwamba fever virus, which is dozens of times heavier. Similarities have also been found; no fewer than six of the viruses appear to have some kinship with agents which are already known to cause disease in man

and in animals. Although the studies have not

progressed far beyond the preliminary stages, enough has been glimpsed to suggest that this research be expected to yield much new

may

knowledge of virus

nature, as well as of the specific diseases which the unknown agents transmit. Two

recent developments have been i) the dis-

patch of a staff member to Cairo, Egypt, to cooperate with a United States Naval medical research unit in a survey of the major virus problems of Egypt, and

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

33

i) the establishment of a virus research

laboratory

at Poona, India, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health of the Indian government. Two

members

of the Foundation staff have been assigned to Poona, other workers are being provided by and the laboratory is now

the ministry,

in process of being set up

in a building of the local medical school. Last December, $350,000 was designated

to sup-

port virus research in 1952 — $i 50,000 for the

New

York laboratories; $125,000 for projected studies in Africa, South America and elsewhere; and $75,000 for the virus research laboratory in India.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES Under this final heading of the fourfold program, provision is made for such additional medical

and

public health projects as the developing concept of human ecology may the

Commission

make opportune. On

on

Review expressed

this point

its opinion

that: The

problem of population is certainly one of the

most challenging within the area of interest of

The

Rockefeller Foundation and should receive the support of the Foundation on the broad front of health, agriculture, education, the social sciences, and

hu-

manistic studies. All of these must work together if the patterns of population growth are to be identified and

scientific means for the direction

and

control

of growth are to be discovered and applied. It was felt

that although

a program

of this kind would

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

require a long period of careful development, and that the costs would be considerable, a beginning could be made within the existing sphere of operations of The Rockefeller Foundation. The

development

of the health sciences

therefore

designates an inclusive category for projects in medicine and

public health which contribute to the de-

sired ecological point of view

and

yet cannot

be

classified under professional education, medical care or the study of specific diseases. For example, the 1951 grant of $100,000 to the University of Oregon Medical School for research in constitutional medicine may

be listed

under

this heading. Similarly,

several grants made during the biennium for studies of child

psychology, child

growth, child

guidance

and other aspects of the development of the human individual are essentially contributory to the promotion

of the health sciences. The

medical studies

of old age, correlated with the studies of sociological and economic problems of aging supported

through

the Division of Social Sciences, also belong in this category. Numerous other projects now be mentioned; and

active could

doubtless many new

ones will

be taken on as the program advances and the unifying

principle

of human

ecology

penetrates

more

deeply into our thinking and planning. The Division of Medicine and Public Health bines the staffs of the two

com-

former divisions, and

at

the beginning of 1952 totaled 50 persons. This includes members of the staff of the divisional laboratories in New

York, in addition to divisional officers

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT S REVIEW

35

at the European office of the Foundation in Paris and others of the field staff stationed countries. The

new

division

in various foreign

is both

an

agency, conducting research with its own and

a fund-dispensing

operating personnel,

agency, making grants to

universities and other institutions. Dr. Andrew J. Warren, formerly an Associate Director of the International Health Division, was appointed Director of the consolidated division in 1951.

THE NATURAL SCIENCES

Although the Natural Sciences

division was

not

formally set up until 1928, the Foundation's interest in this branch of knowledge dates back almost another decade. The first assistance was voted in 1919 in

an

appropriation

of $50,000

to

the

National

Research Council to provide fellowships in chemistry and physics to young Americans and Canadians who had

reached

the postdoctoral stage of education.

This fellowship program, which soon was expanded to include biology and

other natural sciences

and

mathematics, has been continued in unbroken succession ever since, financed by the Foundation administered by the council. Up 1,100 natural scientists had

and

to last year some

been given

advanced

training on these National Research Council fellowships at a cost of $4,267,539. It is doubtful that any equal

expenditure of funds has yielded

such rich

returns. Former fellows now occupy many important

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

posts in research and universities

and

four

teaching, several preside over have

been

awarded

Nobel

Prizes. After

the Natural

Sciences

division

was

estab-

lished, several years were spent prospecting various fields

of physics, chemistry, biology

and

related

sciences, and it was not until 1933 that the decision was made to concentrate the program on experimental biology. Experimental biology is concerned with the constitution, structure and

function of living

things and of the parts which make them up. It was felt that of all the natural sciences this one, dealing with life itself, was then in the greatest need of support and gave promise of increasing man's knowledge of himself. Both the medical sciences and sciences stood

the social

to gain useful knowledge from

the

findings of experimental biology; there was therefore an important element of unity in the choice. Moreover, the life sciences were

less advanced

toward

the ideal of exact quantitative knowledge than the case with chemistry and physics. Few

was

universities

had adequate endowment for biological research, and outside sources of funds were few and limited. This was the situation in the early 1930*5, when the Foundation

decided

to make

experimental

biology

a

primary concern. In the two decades since that decision, there has been a remarkable development in the methods of biological

investigation. The

change

is especially

marked in the application of physical tools and techniques, such as the ultracentrifuge, the electrophoresis apparatus, spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, the

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW electron microscope and grants and

fellowships

isotopic

37

tracers. Through

the Foundation contributed

to the development of some of these tools of research and to the application and extension of all of them to biological problems. The

Foundation funds avail-

able for support of experimental biology have rarely exceeded $2,000,000 a year; but by careful appraisal of the specialties to be aided, and

of the workers in

those specialties, the funds have been put to effective use in many strategic places. Among the specialties in which research has thus been catalyzed, in carefully selected here and

there in Europe and

small groups

the Americas, are

genetics, embryology, cellular anatomy and ology, biochemistry and

physi-

biophysics. These are the

present-day frontiers of the life sciences, and

they

are the very fields in which experimental biology has made its most fruitful recent advances. Indeed, the search for the secret of life, growth and reproduction has been pushed

beyond

the cell and

the organic

components of the cell to the very molecules which make up these components. Today, in many of the Foundation-assisted laboratories of enzymology, endocrinology,

protein

structure

and

nucleic

acid

research, experimental biology has become molecular biology. It was natural and

inevitable that as research in

biology yielded findings which could be put to work in medicine, agriculture and would attract new

other applied fields, it

and increased support. Another

factor was the development of the atomic bomb. The spectacular announcement of this powerful weapon

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

dramatized the vast gap which exists between man's understanding

of physical

standing of animate

forces and

nature, including

his underman. The

harnessing of nuclear energy highlighted parity on a frightening scale and

this dis-

is responsible for

at least some of the postwar intensification of interest in the contributions of biology. A review of the outside funds which are now available to universities and

other institutions for basic

research in biology shows that the total is around $25,000,000 a year. This is 10 to 12 times the amount that was available 19 years ago when The Rockefeller Foundation entered upon its program. Most of the increased support comes from sources which did not exist as fund-dispensing agencies at that time, such as the National Foundation

for Infantile Paralysis,

the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research, the Office of Air Research and the grants program of the United States Public Health Service. In addition, many of the large pharmaceutical manufacturers have stepped up their laboratory programs in basic research, and some of them regularly make systematic grants to universities for fundamental investigations in biology. Recognizing this radically changed pattern of circumstances

affecting

the

support

of biology, the

Foundation last year made a searching re-examination

of its program

in the

natural sciences.

The

questions raised were twofold: First, in view of the large funds which were available from other sources, was

now

the Foundation

justified in continuing to concentrate its efforts on

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

'

'li

i

a

A Fulani herdsman tends his cattle at a rainy season camp; the International African Institute is studying the culture of Fulanispeaking people in West Africa

Photograph Excised Here

Darvtt Fnr/tr

Unloading specimens for the Marine Biological Laboratory, U'ooils Hole, Massachusetts, which has received Foundation support

a Photograph

Excised

Here

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Photograph

Excised

Here

Comparing the yield of test varieties of com at the Agricultural Experiment Station, Palmira, Colombia

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

41

experimental biology, especially within the United States? Second, was there not some other field of activity within the knowledge and experience of the Foundation

which offered afirst-classopportunity

to do

another job in pioneering? These considerations have led to a shift in

em-

phasis, a decision that was arrived at by the Trustees at

their

semiannual

meeting in December

1951.

According to this decision, experimental biology will continue to be

an

active interest of the

sciences program, but United States, and

on

natural

a reduced scale in the

the greater part of the effort

will hereafter be devoted to the promotion of scientific agriculture.

AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT The

Foundation has been operating a program in

agricultural research

and

development in Mexico

since 1943, conducting it as a joint project with the Secretariat of Agriculture and Animal Industry of Mexico. The success of this demonstration below the Rio Grande has made a favorable impression on other republics

of Latin America. Several

have requested

governments

the Foundation to conduct similar

programs in their countries, and in 1950 a project for the improvement of corn and wheat and other basic food crops was begun in Colombia. Under the revised program for the natural sciences referred to in the preceding

section, operating

projects in scientific

agriculture similar to those in Mexico and Colombia

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

42

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

will presumably be extended to certain other countries.

The

Board

of Consultants

for Agriculture

visited the South American continent in the spring of 1952 in response to invitations received by the Foundation

from

various governments. They, in con-

sultation with

Foundation officers, have made an

on-the-ground

appraisal

of the

opportunities

for

cooperative projects. Perhaps I should explain

that

this program in

agriculture, as developed in Mexico, later extended to Colombia and now

to be introduced in other lands

of our southern neighbors, is an operating program. That

is to

say,

the

Foundation

itself

employs

plant geneticists, breeders, pathologists, entomologists, soil scientists and other agricultural specialists and

sets

the

group up

in well-equipped

labora-

tories where it operates as a unit of the Foundation staff. In Mexico, where the project is organized as the Office of Special Studies within the Secretariat of Agriculture and Animal Industry, the laboratories have been established on the grounds of the College of Agriculture at Chapingo, with numerous experimental plots scattered over the various states of the republic. As of the end of 1951, the staff here consisted of n American scientists employed by the Foundation and 55 Mexican scientists assigned by the Secretariat. In Colombia, where the project also represents a collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture, the Foundation employs a staff of three American scientists (soon to be increased to six), and facilities are divided between two of agronomy, one

at Medellin

the laboratory

national colleges

and

the other

at

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW Palmira, and

government

43

laboratories

in Bogota.

As at Chapingo, close cooperative working relations are maintained

between

the Foundation staff, the

two agricultural faculties in Colombia and

govern-

ment scientists. Now

the primary objective of all these operations

in agriculture is eminently practical, although they are expected The

to contribute to scientific knowledge.

Foundation embarked upon its initial project

in 1943, with the direct purpose of increasing the yield per acre of the Mexican food crops as well as increasing their quality. The was

improvement of corn

tackled first, to be followed

by

programs for

improving wheat and beans. Today, after nine years of collecting varieties and crossbreeding them, highyielding stocks of corn, rust-resistant wheats improved

varieties of beans have been

and

developed,

The seeds of these better-yielding cereals and legumes are being distributed to the farmers through government agencies, and each year larger areas are being planted to the Improved varieties. Corn yields have been increased up to 25 per cent in many localities. The introduction of rust-resistant wheat has made it possible to grow this cereal profitably despite the epidemics of fungus disease which occasionally sweep over adjacent fields that are still planted with the traditional varieties. In addition

to improving the

stocks of food crops, the project has made contributions to Mexican agriculture through studies of forage crops, native soils, green manures and other fertilizers, plant diseases, insect pests and insecticides and fungicides. Animal husbandry is being added to

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

44

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

the program in 1952, beginning with chickens

and

swine, and in time we intend to include both dairy and beef cattle. The Mexican Agricultural Program is now ing on an annual appropriation

operat-

of about $320,000

from the Foundation, with additional funds provided by the Mexican government. Since making its preliminary survey of Mexican agricultural needs and opportunities in 1941, followed by the inauguration of the project in 1943, the Foundation has spent $i,727,905 on this undertaking. The

Colombian project was started with an ap-

propriation of $40,000 in 1949, which was followed by $50,000 in 1950 and $135,600 in 1951. It has benefited in many ways from the pioneering in Mexico. For example, some of the new which

our

plant

breeders

varieties of wheat

developed

for Mexico

through several years of experimentation there, have proved to be remarkably well adapted to Colombia. Practically speaking, they can be transplanted from Mexico to Colombia without the necessity of crossbreeding or other time-consuming experiments. This fortunate adaptability is true also of some of the new

varieties of corn, though to a lesser extent.

While the Mexican project will continue to operate at its present level as a developmental program for Mexico, we plan to use it as a hub for training and, as it were, seeding the extension of the work to other countries. The men who

are operating the program

in Colombia were trained on the job in Mexico, and the personnel to man

the proposed projects in other

Latin American countries will similarly be trained

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

4$

through a year or more of experience on

the staff

in Mexico. Last December $60,000 was allocated to the Mexican project for the development of new personnel to be assigned there in 1952. The

new

program in agriculture is therefore pri-

marily an extension Mexico. We

of the demonstration made in

are not assuming that it will be prac-

ticable to reduplicate the Mexican project in every country with which we cooperate. Conditions of soil, climate, law and customs vary from one region to another, and necessarily each project must be tailored tofitlocal needs, preferences and other circumstances. At

the same time, we

gained in Mexico and

expect that the experience the pattern of operation de-

veloped there will be applicable to other lands of Latin America, as proved to be the case in Colombia. There is another facet to our program. Agricultural improvements derive from

new

discoveries in the

sciences which are basic to agriculture. Genetics underlies plant breeding; mycology and involved

virology are

in many diseases which afflict crops.

mones, enzymes

and

other

physiologically

chemical compounds affect plant life no animal

and

human

life.

We

therefore

Hor-

active

less than intend

to

make use of opportunities to assist projects in the fundamental

sciences which

bear

directly

on

the

improvement of agriculture.

THE STATE OF MEXICO PROJECT The

shift in the natural sciences program to give

increased emphasis to agriculture has an ecological connotation. Population problems are affected not

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

46

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

only by supply

the incidence of disease, but of food, by

the availability

also by

the

of water

and

power and by the state of education and technology. Usually disease problems are studied by one group under one set of conditions, while the food problems are the concern of another group of specialists working in another setting. This compart men talization is no doubt necessary to get at certain facts and to take effective action, but

in actual life all the problems

are present simultaneously, and

each impinges on

the others in the framework of a population. From an ecological point of view, it would be highly desirable to study the whole complex of situations affecting a community —

problems of disease and health, prob-

lems of food production and nutrition, and the other social problems which arise in this business of many thousands of people rubbing elbows with other.

Fortunately, an

integrated study

opportunity

to

of this kind presented

one make

anan

itself last

year in an application from the State of Mexico. The

State of Mexico is one of the 28 states which

constitute the Republic of Mexico, and a few months ago its governor proposed a six-year plan for agricultural

development.

Making

his wishes

known

through the Mexican Secretariat of Agriculture and Animal Industry, Governor Sdnchez Colin requested the collaboration of The

Rockefeller Foundation in

working out the plan and putting it into effect.

The

project calls for the establishment of a state office of agriculture, a state agricultural experiment station and demonstration farm, and

seven extension

zones, * all to be coordinated • in a state-wide move-

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT S REVIEW

47

ment to improve farming methods, agricultural production

and

rural

life.

Examination

showed at once that this was

of

the

plan

a project closely in

line with the objectives of the Foundation's agricultural program, and warmly

the request for cooperation

welcomed. An

appropriation

was

of $100,000

was made in December to help finance the agricultural aspects of the plan project is now But

for three years, and

the

in progress.

the program is not restricted to one interest.

In addition to calling on the services of our agricultural experts, Governor Sanchez Colin welcomed the advice of our medical scientists on problems of sanitation, hygiene and health and of our social scientists on opportunities for home industries, domestic science education and

other social factors of rural life.

An

officer of the Division of Medicine and Public Health has already visited the area and made a preliminary survey; a consultant of the Division of Social Sciences is at present engaged upon a survey of the social problems involved. The gram

expressing

way

is thus open for a pro-

a coordinated

"human

ecology"

approach to the entwined problems of food, health, education

and

social relations, and

possibly

other

factors, in a population that is predominantly rural.

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE During the six postwar years the grants made for experimental

biology

and

related fields of science,

but not including the agricultural programs in Mexico and Colombia, averaged $2,000,000 a year. The funds

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

48

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

were voted to institutions in a number of countries, and

the annual geographical distribution followed

this pattern: United States

$1,150,000

58 per cent

Europe

400,000

20 per cent

Latin America

400,000

20 per cent

50,000

2 per cent

Elsewhere A

further analysis of the items shows that of the

$1,600,000 annually distributed in the United States, Europe and "Elsewhere," 80 per cent went for projects in experimental

biology, about 10 per cent for

the general support of science (such as the National Research Council fellowship programs), and the remaining 10 per cent for special projects (such as the 2oo-inch

telescope on

Mount Palomar). In Latin

America the breakdown is somewhat different. This program

is entirely separate from

the agricultural

programs in Mexico and Colombia and is conducted through grants made to Latin American universities and

other institutions. Analysis of the distribution

of the $400,000 shows that about 70 per cent went for agricultural projects, 20 per biology and

cent for experimental

10 per cent for the physical sciences.

Under the revision of program, which was authorized by the Trustees in December 1951, the Foundation has reduced

the allotment of future funds for

distribution in the United States and

intends by a

tapering process over the next several years to fix the annual budget for the United States at about $500,000. This will involve the termination of support to activities which have been carried through the pioneering stage and

which should now

obtain

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW adequate support

from

49

other sources. It will also

remove the Foundation from quasi competition with other agencies for the privilege of supporting projects which are generally accepted as deserving and which therefore can look to one or more of several sources for funds. Apart from these, however, there are certain

types of desirable and

important ventures in

experimental biology which might have a hard time obtaining

support, even

in the

sums for other purposes; and venturesome and

presence of large

it is projects of this

imaginative kind which

continued attention and support from The feller Foundation. They may bility and involve

and

terms

Rocke-

require particular flexi-

promptness in handling, and

sums

warrant

they

of years which

may

are not

available to other organizations. The conditions which prompt the reduction of program in the United States do not apply to Europe. On

the contrary, the need there warrants an increase

from the present annual level of $400,000 to at least $500,000. And

the need

is matched by the oppor-

tunity, for some of the most venturesome and imaginative work in experimental biology today is being done by

European

investigators, working in some

cases with meager equipment and under heavy economic burdens. There are unlimited possibilities in Latin America. Here we look for opportunity to strengthen research and

teaching in whichever of the natural sciences it

may

be found. From the present level of $400,000

a year we think it may

be feasible and justifiable to

enlarge the grant-dispensing and fellowship program

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

5O

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

in Latin America to a scale of $700,000 within the next few years. A sizable proportion of this aid would go to universities and professional schools to upbuild their departments of agriculture. The

operating programs in agriculture constitute

thefinalelement of our plan. The Mexican and Colombian projects between them, with the additional grants made for training personnel, now

account for

$500,000 or more of Foundation appropriations annually. It is expected that the new

operating projects

to be developed in Latin America will eventually require an additional $1,000,000, bringing the annual total to $1,500,000. Looking forward, then, three or four years hence, we anticipate that the distribution of funds through the Division of Natural Sciences and Agriculture will, in round numbers, follow this pattern:

United States

$500,000

15.5 per cent

Europe

500,000

15.5 per cent

Latin America

700,000

22

per cent

1,500,000

47

percent

Operating Agriculture

Several years must necessarily elapse before the new

operating projects

equipped

and

brought

can

be

to full

located, manned, development.

The

intervening time will be used as a period of transition to taper the program in the United States

to the

magnitude which seems appropriate in the light of changed circumstances at home and the presence of these significant opportunities abroad. Mr. Warren Weaver, who has directed the Natural Sciences division since 1932, continues as

Director

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW of the enlarged

Division

51

of Natural Sciences

Agriculture. Mr. J. G. Harrar, who

and

was in charge of

the Mexican Agricultural Program from its inception in

1943, has been appointed

Deputy

Agriculture, with headquarters in New

Director for York.

GENETICS — BIOCHEMISTRY — CONSERVATION The grants made for projects in the natural sciences during 1950-1951 numbered 116, and of these 88 fell within the program in experimental biology. Fourteen of the biological grants and aid went for work in genetics and These funds were distributed

15 grants in

totaled $557,848.

in varying

amounts

among the following institutions: Columbia University, Cornell University,

the

Genetics

Society

of

America, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Northwestern University, Princeton University, the Universities of Indiana, Texas and Wisconsin, Smith College and Washington University

(St. Louis) in the

United

States; the Institute of Genetics at Gif, France; the University

of Vienna, Austria; the

University

of

Copenhagen, Denmark; the University

of

Sweden; the University

Scotland;

of Edinburgh,

Lund,

University College, London, England; the University of Dublin, Ireland; the Universities of Naples and Pavia, Italy; the University of Zagreb, Yugoslavia; and the Universities of Brazil, Sao Paulo and Parana. In size, the grants ranged from $200,000 to Indiana University, to assist the studies of Professors H. J. Muller, Tracy M. Sonneborn and Ralph E. Cleland, to $850 to the University of Sao Paulo, to purchase

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

52

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

a few simple items offieldequipment for the work of Professor Warwick Kerr. It is of further interest, I think, that Professor Muller is studying fruit flies. Professor Sonneborn

the paramecium

or "slipper

bug," Professor Cleland the evening primrose, and Professor Kerr the honey bee, while the project at Cornell is concerned with maize and one at Wisconsin with

the

colon

bacillus and

other

bacteria. It is

through the technique of the many-sided attack that the geneticists are progressively unveiling new knowledge of heredity. While the Natural Sciences division has concentrated its support in this field on fundamental genetics, a program which necessarily involves lower organisms as the subjects for study, the Medical Sciences division has given considerable assistance over the years to genetical studies of man

and other mam-

mals, and grants and grants in aid under its program during 1950-1951 came to $293,034. Thus, through the two

divisions, more than $850,000 has gone to

genetics in the biennium. But

our

largest area of interest in experimental

biology has been biochemistry, including enzymology and the study of protein structure. In the two years 43 grants and 38 grants in aid totaling $1,469,665 were made. The largest amount to a single institution was $ 168,615 to the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn toward financing an intensive attack on the problem of protein structure launched in 1950 under the direction of Dr. David Harker, This question, how the tens of thousands of atoms are arranged in each case to form

the giant

molecules

of albumin, insulin.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

53

hemoglobin and the numerous other specific proteins which function in the body, is perhaps the key problem of biochemistry. For when chemists have unraveled the structure, they should be able to understand the mode of action of these vitally important substances. Dr. Marker's project is the most recent of many studies of protein analysis which have been supported. The structures are so complicated and the analysis so intricate that the problem calls for sallies from many different fronts. Enzymes are proteins, but they are such a distinct class that their study constitutes a science in itself. Enzymes are the catalysts of life, molecules which promote the processes of digestion, respiration other biochemical interchanges

without

and

themselves

entering into the reactions — and biochemists estimate that thousands of different kinds of enzymes operate in every living cell. Fifteen of the grants listed under biochemistry, totaling

$589,000, were

for the support of work in this important field. One of the largest, $80,000 to Yale University, is to provide research

assistance

to Dr. Joseph S. Fruton

over afive-yearperiod. Other grants include $55,000 to the Massachusetts General Hospital, where

Dr.

Fritz A. Lipmann is working on the mechanism of enzymatic

energy

exchanges,

and

$35,000 to the

University of Sheffield, England, for the work

of

Dr. Hans Adolf Krebs, whose contributions to our knowledge of sugar metabolism are a landmark in enzymology, I must turn from these all too brief and necessarily fragmentary citations of work in experimental biology

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

54

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

to mention an outside project which was

assisted

because of its significance for human ecology. This is the program of the Conservation Foundation, an organization established in New the leadership of Mr.

Fairfield Osborn. Its object

is to promote conservation porting

resources —

animal

sources and productive soils — and

York in 1948 under

of the earth's life-suplife, plant

through both research

education. Beginning with an

$75,000 in 1949, The

life, water

Rockefeller

initial grant of Foundation

has

given a total of $202,000 toward its support.

The

Conservation Foundation has made rapid progress in the survey of water resources, and last year

saw

publication of The Conservation of Ground Water, a comprehensive water situation

book reporting the present groundin the United

States. This

study

was conducted and the book written by Dr. H. E. Thomas, formerly of the United

States Geological

Survey. Other projected surveys include studies of soil erosion, of soil and

nutrition relationships, of

the management of livestock ranges, of the use of "trash fish" and

other marine

resources, and

an

ecological study of Alaska.

THE LITTLE AND THE BIG There is a certain embarrassment in singling out specific grants for mention in this appraisal of the work. Space limitation dictates that one confine the account

to specimen

projects, but

it is always a

question which particular projects are most deserving of such

prominence.

The

temptation is to select

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

55

those which involve the largest funds, but I am

not

sure that this is the most reliable measure of either present importance or future significance. The correct yardstick for any decision granting aid is the principle of adequacy. How

much does the

applicant need to accomplish the purpose of his project? It may

be that he needs only an improved micro-

scope or other piece of equipment, or a supply of mice with which to conduct a series of tests, or a fund of a few hundred

dollars with

which

to buy

chemical

supplies or to fill some serious gaps in his working library. He may need a fellowship or a travel grant to enable him to spend a year working with one of the great masters in his field of knowledge. Perhaps the applicant needs a laboratory assistant and

has in

line a promising young apprentice in his class of postgraduates whom he would like to appoint to the job but can find no margin in his budget to care for the additional salary. Any

one

of these needs, which

seem almost trifling in a budget of several million dollars, may

in the course of a few years prove to

have been a turning point in the career of a scientist or in the work of an institution. A

biochemist who now

occupies a top position in

an eastern university recently remarked that a grant of $650, made 12 years ago to build a magnet for his study of chemical structure, played a decisive role in shaping up

his research career. If we

with gifted individuals and

small groups, we

work must

be prepared to make small grants to meet individual needs. Moreover, when the grant is a large one, the recipient has to break it down into small allotments

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

56

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

for distribution among the small groups which constitute the

over-all organization. It is these small

groups, and

not the director or organization as a

whole, that do the work. On

looking over ourfilesrecently, my

caught by surgeon

the records relating to a young neuro-

who first attracted the attention

Foundation about 25 years ago. At was

eye was

an

of the

that time he

assistant professor in the Columbia

Uni-

versity College of Physicians and Surgeons. McGill University

at Montreal, needing

a man

to teach

neurosurgery in its medical school, picked this assistant professor. The director of the Division of Medical Education

of the Foundation

agreed

appointee a fellowship to enable him

to give

the

to spend six

months at the University of Breslau, in preparation for his new

responsibilities. At

Breslau he studied

focal epilepsy under the distinguished Professor Otfried Foerster, and the fellowship grant that made this possible amounted to only $2,784. Measured by the yardstick of dollars, it seemed a diminutive sum to appropriate for the advancement of neurology in Canada

or anywhere else. But

yardstick

of adequacy, it was

measured

by

the

exactly what

was

needed. The young man Penfield,

and

the

of the fellowship was Dr. Wilder Foundation

next

appropriated

$85,000 to assist the development, over a four-year period, of a program of surgical research at McGill, including studies in neurosurgery under Dr. Penfield. Before the four years were up, however, Dr. Penfield and his associates had conceived a much larger venture for the advancement of neurology

and

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

were

PRESIDENT S REVIEW

57

drawing plans for a modern institute to be devoted to research and Foundation the

clinical practice in this field. The

agreed

building

and

to contribute equipment

$232,652 toward

fund

and

pledged

$1,000,000 toward endowment; and after this Montreal Neurological Institute came into use, our Trustees voted additional funds to support specific studies in the institute — $1,441,252. But

bringing the total of the grants to it all started with

that fellowship

award of $2,784. A

Foundation officer, visiting a leading British

chemist a few years ago, mentioned that a grant had been recommended for one of his colleagues. "That's splendid," commented the chemist. "His deserves it," and

work richly

then he added, "Don't spoil him,

though, will you?" From a financial point of view there are many ways of spoiling a scientist, and they run

all the way

from giving too little help too late

to giving too much too soon. How

large to make a

grant must be judged in terms of local usage, of local needs and

of local academic environment. A green

plant requires carbon dioxide to manufacture food and

to survive, but the plant will surely "drown"

if the concentration of the gas becomes too high for its particular tolerance. Just so with the scientist. He will not long survive if he must dilute his research effort in a constant endeavor to find funds for equipment, for supplies and for salaries. But just as surely he will "drown" if these funds are so concentrated that he feels under pressure to produce proportionate results and

has

to defend

himself among his as-

sociates because the level of outside aid seems to have signaled him

as an extraordinary fellow.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

When the rule of adequacy is fairly applied, there will be both large grants and small ones, and either may

turn out to be crucial in obtaining an important

result. THE SOCIAL SCIENCES When research is turned to the study of human beings as members of a society, there arise differences of opinion regarding the relationship of questions of value to questions of fact. WThat is social science? Critics have posed this question, often as a challenge and sometimes ironically, with the implication that only those entities which can be measured on

the

centimeter-gram-second scale are admissible to the domain of authentic science. But surely the criterion in evaluating a subject for systematic study is not the degree to which it is measurable in exact quantitative terms, but the degree to which it contributes to man's knowledge of himself as a part of nature or alternatively the degree to which it affects man's well-being. Appraised

on

either

scale,

the

social

sciences are potentially of supreme importance. For it is here that we come face to face with the problems of man's behavior, his relations with his fellows, his intergroup

antagonisms

and

cooperations —

inter-

human, interracial, intercultural and international. The

membership of the Social Science Research

Council is made up of representatives of anthropology, psychology, history, economics, political science, sociology, statistics

and

related fields. Several

of

these are borderlandfields.In anthropology, psychology and statistics, for example, the social sciences over-

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

59

lap the natural sciences. In history they become one with the humanities. Sociology and economics have their repercussions in medicine and

public health,

as many a practicing physician can testify from his experience in trying to treat various physical illnesses which arise from, or at least are associated with, the

anxieties, frustrations and

social pressures

of

civilizations. A member of our medical staff brought back from a recent visit to a southern city the story of a case of tuberculosis which cleared up as though by

magic when the social

stress which

overburdening the patient was

had

been

removed. The

im-

portance of studying biosocial relations and the need for social diagnosis become highly pertinent. The social sciences occupy a central position in any comprehensive program in human ecology. Population studies are directly dependent on the knowledge and techniques developed by anthropology, sociology, economics and statistics, We

expect to see increasing

collaboration between the social sciences and divisions in conducting ecological studies — the survey of Crete which was and

other

such as

recently completed

the State of Mexico project which is now

in its

beginning. The any all

Foundation's program is not concentrated in

single field of social studies but seeks to assist the disciplines which

can

contribute to one

or

more of these objectives:

i) The development of a science of social behavior 2) The

application

of social

science

to human

problems

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

60

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

3) The discovery and development of social science talent 4) The

establishment of a firm basis for social

philosophy There is admittedly a certain interdependence interlocking

among

these

and

objectives. Application

depends on development; and the discovery and training of gifted young people to man

posts in the social

sciences will contribute to the goals both of development and of application. Even though the objectives are not

sharply

separable in practice, there is an

obvious

advantage

1-2-3-4 order. The

in setting

the goals

down in

aim is high, and the magnitude

and complexities of the difficulties are not minimized; but the stakes are high too, and mankind will be the beneficiary of whatever is gained, TOWARD A SCIENCE OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR There is much confusion in the public mind as well as in academic circles as to the meaning of the phrase "social science'* and as to whether "social scientists" may some

properly kinds

be regarded

as scientists. Excepting

of psychologists

social scientists are not

and

anthropologists,

admitted to membership in

the National Academy of Sciences, Thus, "science" in

this sense

than

one

is a

that

much

would

more

include

restricted

category

the so-called

social

sciences. Some believe there is no such thing as a science of human relations, some that there can be no such thing. Professor Wigner of Princeton University goes so far as to say could understand

that no

psychologist

theoretical physics, and

very few

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Photograph Excised

Here

Sculptiin- cliiss sponsored l>y Mayor's Advisory Committee lor the Aijni, New York City Analysis of New York City real estate charts at Columbia I'mversiry's Institute for I'rhati Luriil I'se .uiil 1 lousing Studies

Photograph

Excised

•' j

Here

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Photograph Excised Here

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

63

theoretical physicists could understand psychology— a statement that seems to imply that the difficulty is not

the superficial one

equipment

and

of difference in technical

experience, but

rather

the more

fundamental one of difference of view of reality, of epistemology, of metaphysical assumptions, of the criteria of validity. This confusion is more confused by the variety of understandings and misunderstandings of the implications of the term "application of science." At extreme are those who

one

imply that unless social scien-

tists can apply their knowledge as "social engineers/* there are no

social scientists or at least no

social

sciences. At the other extreme are those who

imply

that if there

is a

science it almost automatically

applies itself— the social problems involved, such as social

values, economics, politics, engineering, or-

ganization,

management, being

merely

subsidiary

or incidental. These remarks are pertinent to the functions of the division the

of The

Division

Rockefeller Foundation known as

of Social

Sciences. A

review

of the

activities supported through this division, some of which are stated in the following pages, shows that they may

be placed

Those which, in my

in the following categories: a) opinion, relate to strictly scien-

tific effort. (This does not sarily

is a

sufficient

imply

body

of

that there neces-

scientifically

tested

knowledge and scientifically usable theory to warrant the

assertion

that

there

is a

social

science.) b)

Activities that are not scientific but are those rather of scholarly research, such

as studies in economic

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

64

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

history, c) Those that have the character of the kind of inquiry or investigation made by men

of affairs for

purposes of decision or planning, leading to interpretation and evaluation rather than to scientific knowledge, d) Studies involving matter-of-fact, scientific knowledge, if available —

interest and values leading

to a philosophical orientation useful for intellectual interest or as expressing practical wisdom. In the light of the above I should like to close the introduction to this section with some brief observations concerning scientists, science and

the applica-

tion of science chiefly growing out of my

experience

in the Foundation. First — A scientist is an individual who

attempts

to secure knowledge by observation or experiment or both, with a high degree of detachment or objectivity, his observations or experiments being

sus-

ceptible at least in principle to scrutiny or repetition by

others under similar conditions. He

constructs

concepts and tests hypotheses for this purpose; and where the data are sufficient he

tries to

construct

theories consistent with the data that promote the further acquisition of knowledge and

facilitate

com-

munication on his subject. In general, his perceptions are more accurate and his discriminations finer than those of laymen who

happen to have an interest in

the subject matter; and by training and experience he

is able to use

effectively intellectual and

other

tools as a whole not ordinarily available to others for the same field of inquiry. It is not necessary that the scientist

have

available

to him

a

science

in

the

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW sense given

below. Thus, Newton

65 was

a scientist

helping to found, though he did not have available at the time, a science of mechanics or physics. On

this view there are, in my

gaged in studies of human who

opinion, many en-

behavior and

relations

are genuine scientists.

Second —

A

science is a substantial or relatively

"dense" body of knowledge: i) validated in general by criteria accepted by the relevant group of scientists; 2) in general interconnected and self-consistent; 3) integrated by

a theory

or theories accepted

by

most scientists of the time as useful for further development

of knowledge

and

its communication;

and 4) associated with a living, active group of scientists who

use it.

In this conception I do not think there are as yet any social sciences. This does not mean that there will not be such sciences. Moreover, in the last 15 years great progress has

been made in

examining

human beings and

their behavior directly, in con-

trast

philosophizing

to

armchair

on

assumptions

about human nature or about the structure of vast complexes of social aggregates. Third —

There can be no talk of applying a non-

existent science. But if, as some insist, there are now social sciences, or if, as I expect, there will be, then one is confronted with the frequent assumption that the application of social science is quite a different matter from die application of the physical or biological sciences. This is allegedly due of values —

to the intrusion

customs, politics, conflicts of economic

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

66

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

and other interests —

in the case of applied social

science, and their nonintrusion in the case of applied natural science. Scientists, and sometimes engineers, lend

credence to this assumption by

the habit of

eliding all that occurs between the availability of a scientific idea or a body of scientific knowledge and the end product of its application —

a thermionic

tube and its mass production; a working radio transmitter and

receiver and

their production

and dis-

tribution in quantity; a test tube phenomenon and therapeutic penicillin; the discovery of the malaria plasmodium and its life cycle and

the suppression of

malaria by the wholesale destruction of the anopheline vectors of this protozoan. Between any science and its application to human purpose, i.e., its utilization for the realizing of values, there impinge alternative values and

interests, in-

vention, organization, management, regulation, patents and other factors, which have to be harmonized and integrated — culty

even

when

a matter frequently of great diffiserious

conflicts of interest

and

controversy are not especially important, as in much engineering. The

possible important difference be-

tween application of a social science and of a natural science may

be that controversial attack in the former

case is likely to be against the science itself or its formulated theories, whereas in the case of a natural science the attack more exclusively will be on

the

means of application rather than on the science itself. However, the past conflicts on the theory of evolution, the present Soviet view of genetics and the opposition

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

67

to immunology by some groups are instances to the contrary.

PROJECTS IN ECONOMICS In support of research in economics, $400,000 was appropriated

to the National Bureau of Economic

Research in 1950. This grant continues a long-term program of assistance to the bureau

by the Laura

Spelman Rockefeller Memorial and The

Rockefeller

Foundation, dating back to 1922, and now

totaling

more than $5,000,000. Another grant in economics, $140,000 to Harvard University, is financing a study of the economic structure under the direction of Professor Wassily Leontief. Professor Leontief uses input-output analysis, a technique which relates the distribution of the output of one industry to that of other industries and also the contributions which the other industries make to one particular industry. The

Foundation's

grant, made in 1951, will be used to refine the technique, applying it to analysis of changes in the economic structure. The United States Air Force is also making a substantial contribution to this research, which promises important applications to government economic policy. Six grants and

grants in aid,

totaling $122,750,

were made to the Food Research Institute of Stanford University during the biennium. A

portion of

these funds is for completion of the five-year study of world

operations in food and

agriculture in World

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

68 War

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION II, a large-scale program involving the labors

of economists in several countries (in addition to the staff at Palo Alto), toward which

the Foundation

made a grant of $300,000 in 1946. The results of this study are reported in a 22-volume history which is now

in the process of publication by

the Stanford

University Press. A smaller portion of these funds is for the completion of the institute's study of Soviet economic development, begun in 1948 with a grant of ^25,000 from the Foundation. An additional project begun by the Food Research Institute last year, supported by $41,000 from the Foundation, will analyze the factors responsible for changes in consumption levels and

living standards of the "sugar islands"

during the last half-century. The islands to be studied are

the Hawaiian

Guadeloupe,

Islands, Puerto

the Cape

Verde

Rico, Jamaica,

Islands, Mauritius,

Reunion, the Fiji Islands and New

Caledonia.

THE INTERNATIONAL SCENE With the enigma of Russian intentions still the top problem in world politics, the Russian

Institute of

Columbia University's School of International Affairs continues to be a key center for research and training in this field. Its two-year course, requiring familiarity with the Rus.sian language and

providing intensive

postgraduate instruction in the history, economics, law, politics and

culture of Russia, has in five years

supplied the United States Army, the Department of State and other government services with more than

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

69

100 trained men. Staff members are frequently called on to lecture at the National War War

College, the Air

College and outside universities. Earlier grants

for the

institute, which

totaled $362,000; and propriated

an

was

established

in 1946,

in 1950 the Foundation ap-

additional $420,000 toward

support

over afive-yearperiod. An

important aid to contemporary research on

Russia is the Current Digest of the Soviet Press, a weekly publication which carries English translations of

significant

articles

selected

Russian newspapers and

from

the

magazines. The

leading

Digest is

published under the auspices of the Joint Committee on

Slavic

Council

Studies

and

cieties. The

of the Social Science Research

the American Council of Learned So-

Social Science Research Council, as fiscal

agent, is receiving a special grant from the Foundation to care for production costs. A

postwar development of the Brookings Insti-

tution is its International Studies Group, organized in

1946 for research, education

and publication on

questions of American foreign policy. Directed Dr. Leo Pasvolsky and

by

using a technique which it

calls "the problem method," the group has held ten seminars in various parts of the United

States for

university teachers, advanced students, government administrators and journalists. To

date some 800

university professors have shared in foreign policy analysis through participation in these seminars, Research activities are reflected in a number of books, notably

in the annual Major Problems of United

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

70

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

States Foreign Policy^ which has been adopted as a textbook at West Point, Annapolis and various universities and now

colleges. A

in the planning

projected

study which is

stage will analyze the basic

framework of international relations, including the fundamental concepts and objectives of the major nations, patterns of economic behavior, political attitudes in international relations, the

channels

instrumentalities of national action, and the whole pattern which condition

of internal and

and

in general

external factors

the international scene. Since the

International Studies Group began six years ago, the Foundation

has

appropriated

$480,000 toward its

program, including $180,000 in 1950.

STUDIES OF AGING The

progressive extension of the average span of

human life, the increasing percentage of the population that is over 65 years of age, and

the growing

practice of early compulsory retirement pose a wide range of problems. Society is attempting to provide pensions and old-age assistance, but with a good deal of confusion as to methods and ignorance as to costs. Moreover, granting pensions to old people reaches only one side of the problem. The

continued utiliza-

tion of persons whose prime is past but who produce

according

to their powers

and

wish to tastes is

desirable for society and essential to the dignity and self-respect of the individual. There are other aspects of the human, economic and political problems of

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

71

old age which need systematic study, and in recent years the Foundation has given its support to several research projects in this field. The

University of Chicago's Committee on the

Study of Later Maturity is investigating representative samples of older people in selected occupational and

retired groups to determine the meaning and

function of work in their lives. The

group has also

made a survey of the retirement practices now in use in American business, with

a view to discovering

patterns which provide a moreflexiblearrangement than the typical scheme of retirement at a fixed age. Another study which is also operating

under a

grant from the Foundation is being conducted at the University of California under the joint direction of Professor Clark Kerr, economist, and Professor Lloyd Fisher, political scientist. Both economic and political aspects of the question are under inquiry here, and

the investigators are also interested in physio-

logical and psychological measurements of aging as contrasted with the inflexible chronological measure by years. Some 600,000 citizens of 65 years and older are concentrated within the metropolitan area of

New

York City, and here, aided by a Foundation grant, the Mayor's Advisory Committee for the Aged is making

a

pilot

study

of the human-adjustment

problems presented by this segment of the population. Still another study was undertaken by a group at Cornell University under the direction of Professor Edward Suchman. Using the city of Elmira as a field

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

laboratory, the Cornell investigators made a crosssectional survey of several hundred elderly persons with particular reference to their social adjustment. In addition to this initial study, which was

begun

in 1950 under a Foundation grant, Cornell has since launched

three other research

projects on

different

aspects of the old-age problem.

CAPITAL FUNDS FOR THE SOCIAL SCIENCES The

distinction

in the terms "endowment"

"capital fund" as currently used by The Foundation

should

be noted. The

and

Rockefeller

word

"endow-

ment" connotes a permanent or long-term principal fund, the income from specified

purpose

or

which

is to be

purposes. While

used

for a

the present

policy of the Board of Trustees does not arbitrarily prohibit grants for permanent endowment, the Trustees

have

recorded

a

strong

grants for that purpose. In

reluctance

to make

the case of what is re-

ferred to above as "capital fund" they have taken action to permit, with some restrictions as to the rate of expenditure, the use of principal as well as income after five years. For

appropriations of substantial

amounts of this character the term "capital fund" is now

used, meaning that the gift may

be retained

as an endowment fund if the recipient so desires, or may

be used up

at its election, subject to certain

time restrictions. In recent years the Foundation has made no endowment or capital fund gifts, except a gift in 1947 to the China Medical Board, Inc.; and

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

73

whether it does so depends upon many factors, such as the state of its principal fund, the rate at which ordinary appropriations are depleting principal, the market value of assets, etc., and, in general, the policy of the Trustees from time to time with respect to the use of principal. In

December 1951, a grant

of } 1,500,000 was

made to the Social Science Research Council as a capital fund to be held intact for ten years. Added to the numerous previous grants voted to the council since its establishment in 1923, this brought the total of appropriations

from

the Rockefeller

boards to

more than $ 10,000,000. But most of the preceding grants

were

for research

operating budget. The

projects, fellowships or

latest grant is unique in that

it becomes the beginning of a capital fund, to which it is hoped others will presses the

contribute. This action ex-

belief that the usefulness of this insti-

tution merits the security and independence

that a

capital gift implies. In addition to the grant of capital funds, other funds to a total of $615,000 were given the council last

year

for specific

uses, including

$220,000 to

finance fellowships through June 1953. This fellowship program has been one of the most important of the many useful operations of the council. It was started in 1925 with a grant from the Laura Spelman Rockefeller

Memorial

and

continued

under

those

auspices until 1929, when the Foundation assumed responsibility for the financing; to date, about 1,000 men

and women have been trained

through these

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

74

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

fellowships. Most of them are now

active in social

science research, many in places of responsibility and leadership; two

are university presidents, and

was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. An shows that appropriations

one

accounting

for the fellowships have

totaled $i77,592 from the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial, $i 97,182. from

the General

Education

Board and $2,381,658 from the Foundation—a grand total of $2,756,432 in Rockefeller grants. In addition, some $1,200,000 from other sources has gone into the council's fellowships, most of it within the last five years.

THE LAW AND MORALS The urgent need for developing a science of human behavior is nowhere more marked than in the warfare between

crime

American

and

the law. It would

lawmakers have given

more

seem

that

systematic

attention to the development of private Jaw and of the public law relating to the regulation of economic operations

than

they

code. The

wide

ramifications

with its gangs and

have

accorded

the criminal

of organized

crime,

syndicates of Interstate and even

international scope, have made a mockery enforcement, especially in many of our

of law

cities, and

the inadequacy of the law to cope with these conditions is an open scandal. Recent grants totaling $242,500 are enabling the American Law

Institute of Philadelphia to mobilize

the thinking of social scientists as well as that of

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

75

members of the legal profession in the preparation of a comprehensive criminal code for recommendation to the state and federal governments. The situation is confused by

existing

differences in laws among

states and by inconsistencies within the states themselves. The

philosophy underlying the criminal law

needs to be re-examined both for internal consistency and for congruity with contemporary social philosophy. Several years ago the American Bar Association appointed

a Committee on Organized

Crime, and

during the last two years the Foundation made grants totaling $50,000 to the American

Bar

Association

Endowment to support the work of this committee. It is seeking, in collaboration with a special committee of the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, to spot the loopholes

in our

existing laws and draft model statutes. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes characterized as "the

Jaw

witness and external deposit of our moral

life." Despite this high recognition, the moral philosophy of American law has received inadequate attention. By

some critics this lack is attributed to

preoccupation with the technology

of the law

and

with current devices for political reform. Perhaps the highlights I have cited from the past two

years in the social sciences will give some im-

pression of the enormous importance of work in this field, where the human being is both the subject and the beneficiary of the research. Altogether 1 1 1 projects

were

assisted

,122,085, anc*

in

1950, with

grants

totaling

!34 projects in 1951, with grants

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

j6

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

amounting to $4,586,895 —

a grand total of approxi-

mately six and three-quarter million dollars for the biennium.

THE HUMANITIES The

program in the humanities, like that in the

social, natural and jected to review and

medical sciences, has been subrevision in the light of present-

day world developments. Beginning in the early part of 1950, the Foundation officers surveyed the wide range of opportunities in this diverse field. Obviously no program can cover or even touch all the humanities, for the subject matter embraces such

varied

interests as linguistics, literature, the drama, journalism, music, painting, sculpture, history, religion and philosophy. But herence and

with a central

theme to give co-

unity to the effort, it is practicable to

make a selection of subjects which can be focused in one direction and brought to bear on a well-defined objective. The

question then became: What choice

of subjects, what combination of work in the humanities which is manageable within our resources, will best serve the needs of our contemporary world? The

outcome of this analysis was a selection and

classification

of

humanistic

studies

under

three

headings: First —

Language, Logic

and

Symbolism^

repre-

senting our long-time interest in the means and processes of communication Second —

Intercultuml Understanding^ with the ef-

fort directed at research on, and the dissemination of

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT S REVIEW

77

knowledge about, certain selected cultures or groups of cultures which need to be better understood Third —

Humane Values', under which is gathered

our concern for creative writing, literature, history, philosophy and work in the other arts,

LANGUAGE, LOGIC AND SYMBOLISM In these three related subjects the humanities approach in modes of thought and analysis the stricter discipline of the natural the

projects

sponsored

sciences. Indeed, one

under this program

of

repre-

sents a definite alliance with physics, through its use of acoustics, and

with

biology, through its use

of human physiology, in a study that is basically linguistic. This study is centered at Harvard University and is in the charge of Professor Roman Jakobson, an authority in Slavic linguistics and literature. Professor Jakobson has undertaken — in a five-year program under a $50,000 grant — and

a detailed analysis

description of the Russian language. This in-

volves study of the sounds of the spoken language. The

functioning of the vocal cords, the laws of acous-

tics and

the application of psychology, logic and criti-

cism are all part of the research, which has the collaboration of specialists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Northeastern

University as

well as of colleagues at Harvard. Beginning with the most complete analysis of the sounds of the Russian language, the study will pass on to problems of syntax and eventually to the higher levels of expression. It has

been suggested

that such an analysis

may

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

facilitate the application to living languages of the mathematical theory of communication worked out by Mr. Claude E. Shannon and Mr. Warren Weaver. If this could be done with a representative sample of the living languages of the world, it might be possible to achieve a fairly complete description of the fundamentals of human speech. But

that, of course, can

be regarded only as a long-range objective. On

the

side of immediacy, the study will help in the teaching of Russian, which sufficient

analysis

has and

been

handicapped

inadequate

by in-

description

many important aspects of the language. The

of re-

sults of this work should contribute, moreover, to the

improvement

of international

communication

and negotiation. Various aspects bolism

of language structure

have been

studied by

and

anthropologists,

symlin-

guists, literary critics, psychologists, sociologists and other specialists, but usually in a strictly compartmented fashion, each discipline working in isolation and keeping within its recognized preserves. A

plan

for an integrated study, bringing to bear the different points of view in a coordinated attack on the theory of language and

symbolism, was

launched

University of Michigan two years ago,

at the

aided by a

grant of $$69,600. Such topics as the growth of concepts, the powers and

limitations of languages, the

relationship

cognitive

between

and

noncognitive

aspects of communication, and the role of communication in the arts and

its relationship to personality

are subjects of the study. Professor Charles L. Stevenson and

Professor Paul Henle, of the Department

of Philosophy, assisted

by

Michigan

colleagues in

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW sociology and

79

psychology, have been active in the

project, which has

also benefited from

the contri-

butions of visiting scholars from other universities. Another project in the field of linguistics and logic had

its origin in a visit that our Director for the

Humanities made to Tokyo University shortly after the Japanese surrender. There Mr. Fahs met

Pro-

fessor Hajime Nakamura, an expert in the history, philosophy and languages of the Far East. Professor Nakamura was

the author of an interesting study.

He had taken a set of logical propositions found in the Buddhist

scriptures and

traced

the changes

that

occurred as these ideas were transported from India to Tibet, then from Tibet to China, and finally from China to Japan. It was an analysis of what happened to ideas in translating them from one language and culture into a series of different languages and cultures. Professor Nakamura's study had

been

pub-

lished in Japanese, and Mr. Fahs sent a copy of the two-volume

work

to Stanford

University

for ap-

praisal. As a result of the interest shown at Stanford, the Foundation made a grant to Tokyo University to finance a sample translation into English of part of Nakamura's

work. More

than

that, Stanford

University invited Professor Nakamura to come over as visiting

professor, and

he spent last winter at

Palo Alto in this capacity, participating in seminars and conferences.

INTERCULTURAL UNDERSTANDING From the^beginning of its program in the humanities

the

Foundation

has

been

actively

concerned

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

with

the

interpretation of contemporary cultures

to one another. Until 1950 this interest was

largely

concentrated

United

on

the

development

in

the

States of studies of Russia, the Far Eastern cultures of China

and

Japan, and

the

cultures of Latin

America. Scholars and educational programs which were assisted

during

portant

in government

roles

countries

and

that period

now

been

done; several

with

have well-established

im-

these to the

II. But the pioneer-

American

centers

training in these cultures; and we

relations

were of direct practical use

Allied cause during World War ing has

have played

universities

of research

and

the time has come,

believe, to shift our effort in the United States

to less well-known cultures—such as, for example, the Near East, India, Pakistan and Southeast Asia. Outside the United States the needs are in many places different. There are countries in which

Far

Eastern studies have been neglected and need support; in other

countries, such

as

India, a

understanding of the Near East may

better

be important

to world peace; and there are lands in which ignorance of the

United

States

makes

the

introduction

of

American studies opportune. In the study of Southeast Asia, an important start has been made at Cornell University. Cornell had already

developed

significant

anthropological

other research interests in Thailand and

and

wished to

expand the scope of its work and enlarge its research and teaching capacities into a well-rounded program on

Southeast Asia, The

Foundation

appropriated

$325,000 toward this plan in 1950, to enable the uni-

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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81

versity to add two professors to the staff, to provide fellowships for graduate students

and

to support

field work over afive-yearperiod. Field headquarters have been

established

at Bangkok, and

a staff is

working out of that center. Three lines of inquiry are under way:

i) the effects of technological

and

economic change on the peoples of Southeast Asia, 2) the effects of the United States and United

Na-

tions programs on the political structures and ideologies in the area, and 3) the status of Chinese

and

Indian minority groups in Southeast Asia. Professor Lauriston Sharp is in charge of the project, which combines a number of disciplines, including anthropology, sociology, economics and political science. An

important outpost of the movement for inter-

cultural

understanding is the

recently

established

Institute of Islamic Studies at McGill University in Montreal. Dr. Wilfred C. Smith, an authority on contemporary Islam, is director, and both Muslems and

Westerners participate in the teaching and re-

search which touch on Muslem history, law, theology and

literature of both

the Near East and

East. Special research associateships and ships are offered

to Muslem

the Far

assistant-

scholars who

will

be

invited to spend terms in residence at McGill, and fellowships will be provided students.

The

Foundation

for qualified

graduate

appropriated

$214,800

toward afive-yearsupport of this work. Japan, through the joint initiative of Tokyo University and Stanford University, has launched a program of American studies. It began with a four-week summer program at Tokyo University in 1950. Five

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

professors

of Stanford

University

seminars, which were attended

conducted

by more

the

than

100

professors, deans and graduate students from all over Japan. The purpose, as outlined by Professor Claude Buss of the history department of Stanford, was develop new

"to

bases for intellectual cooperation be-

tween the United States and Japan" through encouraging among Japanese scholars "a wide acquaintance with American life and

institutions." Four subjects

were presented: History of American Thought, The United States and International Organization, The Role of the United States in International Economic Affairs, and Problems of American Democracy. Although

planned

for only

four weeks, the interest

of the participants was so great that the conferences and lectures were continued for afifthweek, and then the group transferred another

week

to Hokkaido University for

concentrated

American life. A

on

selected

phases of

similar series of seminars was

held

by Stanford professors in the summer of 1951, and a recent appropriation assures support through 1957. The grants, which now

total $194,000, were recom-

mended as a joint action by our Division of Humanities and Division of Social Sciences. Before the the

Foundation supported

programs

on

war

Japanese

thought and life in several American universities, and these summer seminars in Tokyo represent an effort to do the same for Japan with reference to American thought

and

life. Another project, in

which

the

United States shared the benefits with Japan, India, Pakistan, Thailand and other lands of the Far East,

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

83

consisted of two series of seminars for writers held by American

visitors

to those countries — one

in the

winter of 1950-51 conducted by Mr. and Mrs.

Wal-

lace Stegner of Stanford University, the other in the winter of 1951-52 by Mr. and Mrs.

Paul Green of

the University of North Carolina. The

Greens gave

special emphasis to the drama in their lectures and discussions, while the Stegners covered literature

in general, with

fiction writing. The

the main

the field of

emphasis

on

purpose of this program was

to

encourage mature writing, to stimulate among writers a deeper sense of their role and

responsibility in

the development of their peoples and

finally to help

them realize that in meeting this responsibility they are not isolated munity

but are members of a wide

of writers

throughout

the world

com-

who

are

interested in similar problems. Both of these tours of the Far East met

with enthusiastic response in all

the lands visited; in each country a local university sponsored

the lectures and

discussion meetings; and

the reactions received from writers and

students of

writing have been very reassuring. In earlier postwar years, as was

reported in previ-

ous annual reports, groups of journalists and

radio

broadcasters from Germany, Japan and Korea were brought over for periods of exposure to American ideas and practices. Seminars were held at Columbia University, participated in by leading newspaper and radio men of the United States, and the visitors were given the opportunity to observe newspaper and radio operations

in various

cities.

A

somewhat

similar

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

84

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

program for ten Austrian journalists was

provided

in 1950 through a grant to the University of Missouri School of Journalism. Also similar, and artists from

abroad

yet different, is a program for sponsored

International Education in New

by

the Institute of

York. A wide range

of the arts is represented among the 44 young persons of exceptional these periods

promise who

were selected for

of acquaintance with

American life.

There were architects, painters, sculptors, dramatists, writers, composers and performers of music, and dancers from many parts of the world who the

advantages of a stay of several

United

were given

weeks in the

States. Among the nations represented are

France, Denmark, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Israel, Nigeria, South Africa, India, Indonesia, Japan, Peru, Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil, Haiti and

Iceland. In

addition to grants of $48,905 to finance this project for artists, the

Foundation contributed $50,000 to

the regular student exchange program of the Institute of International Education.

HUMANE VALUES Of the three main sections of our program in the humanities, the

activities

contemplated

under

our

third category, Humane Values^ are the most difficult to define and

the most delicate to put

into effect,

What we are thinking of here is the evaluations that people make or the attitudes they take which determine

their

decisions.

Some

of

the

attitudes

are

rational; many of them are nonrational. But in any

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW case, the

individual

85

continually finds it necessary

to try to bring some sort of order and

coherence

into the pattern of attitudes, evaluations or, if you please, the values by

which he lives. And

society

also finds it necessary to try to maintain a certain degree of coherence in these attitude systems. It seems to us that many of the contributions to humane values which history, philosophy, literature and the drama each can make aid the development of these systems of attitudes and evaluations within the individual. Both the individual and a society manifest constant

development

of new

attitudes

and

new

evaluations, and at the same time there is the everpresent need

of organizing them into coherent pat-

terns of the old and

the new. Such factors as tech-

nological development alone force changes in attitudes which create imbalance in the individual and thus make necessary

a

continuous process of re-

organization. It is, in our opinion, in terms of some such process as this that the greatest usefulness of the humanities lies. Perhaps it will aid understanding

to restate in a

brief recapitulation the plan of our program in the humanities. The first heading, on Language, Logic and

Symbolism, is analytical and

scientific in char-

acter; when the work is effective, it contributes to fundamental

knowledge. The

second

part

of the

program, on Intercultural Understanding, is a contribution to operational knowledge; it is a practical working program, and most of the results that are produced will contribute to the sort of working knowledge that we

need

to Jive from day

to day

in our

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

86

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

international relations. But

when we reach the third

part of the program, the emphasis is no longer on knowledge, but on and that may

the contribution that is needed

be made to the processes by which our

attitudes, beliefs

and

value judgments are devel-

oped, made more coherent

and

integrated into

a

harmonious pattern. Now

it seems to us that if these processes are to be

kept healthy in a free society, there are three conditions that need to be served. First, it is important that the society have creative effort which is really producing, developing new into

understandable

criticism^ which may

ideas and putting them

form.

The

next

essential is

be many things, but basically

and perhaps most importantly is a sort of self-regulating mechanism in society that helps to keep the creative workers operating on constructive lines and not going off on tangents and

turning out unintelligi-

ble work. The final requisite may ence, for want

of a

more

be called experi-

descriptive

term. It is

expressed by the question: Granted that this work is being done, how

does the public get access to it?

In terms of scholarship, how manities be

brought

professors can

from

understand

others can understand

can work in the hu-

the level

at which

the

it to the level at which

it? This poses problems of

interpretation, of popular writing, of survey courses and of other techniques of general education. Several

history-writing

projects, which

are cur-

rently active under Foundation grants, provide examples of creative work such as I have described.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

FO/>

A professor of anatomy instructs three lawyers who are enrolled in the Law-Science Program at Tulane I'niversity, f j Xe« Orleans V*^r

A lecture on economic history of the I'niuJ States at the Arncric;i Institute, L'ni\crsit\ of Colopne,

Photograph ^ I

Photograph

Excised

Excised

Here

Here

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Under :i program of playwright studies j'

Photograph Excised Here

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW One

on the process of history in the twentieth cen-

tury is being written by Professor Ralph Turner at Yale University. Another is Professor Edward Myers* work at Washington and preparation of an atlas and Toynbee's A

D.

Lee University in

gazetteer to accompany

Study of History y which is in addition

to assistance given Dr. Toynbee himself. Then there are two projects being sponsored by the Pan

Ameri-

can Institute of Geography and History: a comprehensive history of the Americas and, separately, a history of ideas in the Americas since 1875. All these undertakings are concerned with history in the large, which oversteps national boundaries and attempts to integrate the past of many different peoples —

an

aspect of history that seems especially important in the present stage of human affairs. The

Foundation is also fostering research and writ-

ing in modern history, both national and tional. Two

current undertakings in this

internafield

are

supported by grants to the Colegio de Mexico, for work on the modern history of Mexico, and

to the

Pan American Institute of Geography and History, for work on the modern history of Peru. Dr. Daniel Cosio Villegas, of the colegio, is writing the study of Mexico, covering the period from 1867 to 1910. Dr, Jorge Basadre, of the University of San

Marcos in

Lima, is writing the story of nineteenth century Peru. A

number of efforts to stimulate dramatic writing

are active. One

is the work of the New

Committee, Inc., New

York, which

Dramatists

has developed

an apprentice system for the training of playwrights,

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

90

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

giving them contact with plays at various stages of production, providing

opportunities for conferences

with authors and in other ways affording promising new playwrights the workshop contacts and experiences which are so helpful in gaining skill in this difficult field of writing. The

committee is made up

of prominent dramatists, producers and others active in the professional theater, and in 1951 the Foundation

appropriated

$47,500

toward

support

of its

work for three years. Experimental grants in aid were made to a number of university and

community theaters, such as the

Wisconsin Idea Theatre in Madison, the Karamu House in Cleveland and Margo Jones's theater in Dallas, to talented

enable

these

organizations to appoint

young people as playwrights-in-residence.

This gives the writer close association with a producing organization and at the same time provides the organization with the full-time services of a writer — a

reciprocal

arrangement

which

may

yield

good

results.

FREEDOM OF THE PRESS A

significant development

mane values was International

in furtherance of hu-

the organization last year of the

Press Institute, with the immediate

objective of advancing and safeguarding the freedom of the press throughout the world. The

institute is

also interested in the improvement of journalistic practices, the exchange

of accurate and

balanced

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

91

news among nations and in promoting mutual understanding The

among editors and

thus among peoples.

institute is an outgrowth of a visit to the United

States in 1950 of a group of editors from 14 countries, representing Europe, Latin America, Asia and

Aus-

tralia, which met here at the invitation of the American

Press Institute and

the American

Society of

Newspaper Editors. The International Press Institute was

formally organized

May

at a meeting in Paris in

of 1951, and Zurich, Switzerland, was chosen

as headquarters. The Foundation's grant of $i20,000 is toward operating expenses for three years. The

total

number of projects in

sisted through

all areas as-

the Division of Humanities was

in 1950, with grants totaling $1,491,250, and 1951, with

grants

totaling

123

134 in

$1,658,072, making

a

grand total of $3,149,322 for the biennium.

MR. FOSDICK'S HISTORY An

important undertaking which reached its cul-

mination last year was the writing of the history of the Foundation

by Mr. Raymond B. Fosdick. This

is a project that was

approved by

the Trustees in

1948. Indeed, as far back as 1938 a research worker was

assigned

the task of sifting through

and

abstracting data

for the history. But was

it was

felt

as well qualified as Mr.

history, both and

to serve as source that no

the files material one

else

Fosdick to write the

because of his long association with

participation in the Rockfeller boards and his

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

92

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

personal

acquaintance with

those who

the founder and

with

assisted in the original conception, and

because of his literary skill and artistry as a writer. And

so, while the records were being searched for per-

tinent information, a full decade passed until

Mr.

Fosdick reached the end of his term as President of the Foundation in the summer of 1948. Then he was free to devote full time to history writing. The script was

completed

manu-

in the early months of 1951,

and the book was recently published by Harper and Brothers under the tide. The Story of The Rockefeller Foundation. It is not only an authentic account of the nearly 40 years of Foundation activities, but treats of significant relationships with The

also

Rocke-

feller Institute for Medical Research, the General Education Board, the International Education Board and the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial. Publication

at this time of transition seems especially

opportune. The publisher has arranged

with a

Lon-

don firm to bring out a British edition.

APPLICATIONS DECLINED DURING 1951 * The

Foundation,

as may

be expected, receives

many more applications for aid than

it can grant.

During 1951 it was found necessary to decline 3,149 applications. Some of these applications represented projects within the Foundation's fields of interest, which were declined because other projects seemed more promising, or for various other reasons; but * A list of applications declined during 1950 was published in the Annual Report of The Rockefeller Foundation for that year.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

93

by far the greater number of these applications were declined

because

they

were

outside

the program

upon which the Foundation is at present concentrating. The

Foundation does not make gifts or loans to

individuals, finance patents or altruistic movements involving private profit, contribute tojthe building or maintenance of local

hospitals, churches, schools,

libraries or welfare agencies, subsidize cures or inventions, or support campaigns to influence public opinion. Aside from

the 973

scholarships and

applications for fellowships,

travel and

training grants, which

always form a large proportion of applications declined, the next largest number declined was 618 for support of scientific research

projects and

teaching

programs. This is a larger number than usual in this category and

reflects the increasing interest every-

where in scientific research. The general headings under which the 3,149 applications may

be described are as follows: fellowships,

scholarships and

travel

and

training grants,

support of scientific research projects and

973;

teaching

programs, 618; support (including buildings and endowments) of institutions of purely local character, for example, hospitals, churches, schools and

mu-

seums, 340; general development of educational and cultural institutions, projects and materials, 306; personal aid to individuals, 183; publication of miscellaneous manuscripts, 105; studies and

activities in

the creative arts, 94; cures, remedies, investigation of

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

94

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

theories and inventions, 65; charitable agencies or programs, 48; conferences and meetings, 38; continued aid to previously supported projects, 25; purchase or disposal of real and personal property, 22; public health

projects, 20; assistance

to displaced

persons, n; miscellaneous, 301.

ORGANIZATION CHANGES IN 1951 * Reorganization sion and

of the International Health Divi-

the Medical Sciences division in 1951 to

form a new Division of Medicine and Public Health was reported by the President in the Foreword to the Annual Report of The 1950 and

Rockefeller Foundation for

is further discussed on

page

17 of this

Review. Dr. Andrew J. Warren, former Associate Director of the International Health Division, became Director of the new The

division on June I, 1951.

other officers and staff members of the former

two divisions now

serve in the Division of Medicine

and Public Health. The

1950 Foreword also reported

the retirement,

in accordance with the age-retirement rule, of Dr, George K. Strode, Director of the former International Health Division, as of May appointment as of May

31, 1951; and the

i, 1951, of Dr. Alan Gregg,

Director of the former Medical Sciences, as VicePresident of the Foundation. On

December 5, 1951

the division

of

Natural

Sciences was renamed to indicate the Foundation's * Organization changes in 1950 were published in the Annual Report of The Rockefeller Foundation for that year.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW increased called

interest in agriculture so

95 that it is

the Division of Natural Sciences and

culture. The

now

Agri-

Advisory Committee for Agricultural

Activities was replaced by the Board of Consultants for Agriculture Stakman

on April 2, 1952, with

as Chairman. There was

membership. On

no

Mr.

E. C.

change in

the same date the Board of Scien-

tific Consultants for the Division of Medicine

and

Public Health was renamed the Board of Consultants for Medicine and Public Health. Mr. Winthrop W. Aldrich retired from the Board of Trustees and as Chairman of the Finance

Com-

mittee on June 30, 1951. Mr. Geoffrey S. Smith was elected to replace Mr. Finance

Aldrich as Chairman of the

Committee. Mr. Wallace K. Harrison, a

member of the firm of Harrison and

Abramovitz,

architects, was elected a Trustee tofillthe vacancy left by Mr. Aldrich. Mr. Douglas S. Freeman retired as Trustee on December 5, 1951. Both retirements were due

to the Foundation's age-retirement regu-

lation. Mr. Dean Rusk, at that time Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, was invited on cember 5, 1951 to become President- of The feller Foundation. He sistant

to the

De-

Rocke-

served in the capacity of As-

President of the Foundation from

March 4, 1952 and assumed the office of President on July i, 1952. Mr. Chester I. Barnard retired from the presidency on June 30, 1952, having reached the retirement age. Mr. currently

as

Barnard had been serving con-

Chairman

of

the

National

Science

Foundation since December 1951.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

96

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Dr. Hugh H. Smith, Assistant Director of the Division of Medicine and Public Health, was appointed Associate Director on September 28, 1951. Dr. John B. Grant, a member of the staff of the division, was appointed Associate Director; and Dr. Marshall C. Balfour and Miss Elizabeth W. Brackett, members of the staff, were appointed Assistant Directors of the division on December 5, 1951. Dr. Henry W. Kumm, who joined the staff of the former International Health Division in April 1927, resigned as of July 9, 1951

from

the Division of

Medicine and Public Health, into which the International Health Division had been merged, to become Assistant Director of Medical Research of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, New City.

Dr.

Kumm's

work

with

York

the International

Health Division was chiefly in yellow fever investigation and control. He

conducted studies, control work

and surveys in Nigeria, Brazil, Colombia and Central America. He

also worked for nearly two years in

Jamaica on the study and control of yaws and did research and field work in malaria at the New

York

laboratories and in Central America. He served as the International

Health

Division's representative in

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for about four and a half years. Miss Anna Mary Noll joined the staff of the former j j International Health Division October i, 1947 and was

attached

to the

Foundation's office in India,

where she was the staff member responsible for the nursing program in the Far

Eastern

area. She re-

signed as of March 31, 1951 to take a position in the United States.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRESIDENT'S REVIEW

97

Mr. J. G. Harrar, formerly Field Director for Agriculture, became Deputy Director for Agriculture in the Division of Natural Sciences and

Agriculture,

and Mr. E. J. Wellhausen, formerly geneticist of the Mexican Agricultural Program, became Local Director of that program on December 5, 1951. Mr. William F. Loomis resigned as Assistant Director of the Division of Natural Sciences and Agriculture on December 31, 1951. He

continues his as-

sociation with the division as Consultant. Three new members were added to the staff of the agricultural

program

of the

Division

of Natural

Sciences. Dr. John W. Gibler, formerly of the Department

of Plant Pathology, and Dr. Ralph

Richardson, Jr., formerly

of

the Department

W. of

Horticulture, University Farm, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, were appointed assistant plant pathologist and assistant geneticist, respectively, in the Mexican Agricultural Program. Dr. Ulysses J. Grant, formerly of the New

York State College of Agricul-

ture at Cornell University, was

appointed assistant

geneticist with the Colombian Agricultural Program. Mr. Frederic C. Lane joined the staff of the Foundation on July i, 1951 as Assistant Director of the Division of Social Sciences. Mr. Foundation

from

the Johns

Lane came to the

Hopkins

University,

where he has been professor of history since 1946. Mr. Philip E. Mosely resigned as Assistant Director in the Division of Social Sciences on June 30, 1951. His association with the Foundation had

been of a

part-time nature, as he was simultaneously connected with the Russian Institute at Columbia University

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION of which he is director. Mr. Mosely served as Consultant to the Division of Social Sciences in 1946 and 1947 and became Assistant Director in 1948. During 1952 he will continue to serve as Consultant to the division, as he has since July 1951. Mr. Robert Letort of the Paris office was appointed June

22,

1951

as

Assistant

Comptroller

of the

Foundation.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

SECRETARY'S

REPORT

"\HE Members and Trustees of The Rockefeller Foundation during the year 1951 were:

1 JOHN FOSTER DULLES, Chairman WINTHROP W. ALDRICH *

ROBERT F. LOEB, M.D.

CHESTER I. BARNARD

ROBERT A. LOVETT

WILLIAM H. CLAFLIN, JR.

HENRY ALLEN MOE

KARL T. COMPTON

WILLIAM I. MYERS

JOHN S. DICKEY

THOMAS PARRAN,

M.D.

HAROLD W. DODDS

JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, 3RD

LEWIS W. DOUGLAS

DEAN RUSK

DOUGLAS S. FREEMAN*

GEOFFREY S. SMITH

HERBERT S. GASSER, M.D.

ROBERT G. SPROUL

WALLACE K. HARRISON'

ARTHUR HAYS SULZBERGER

HENRY P. VAN DUSEN The officers of the Foundation were: JOHN FOSTER DULLES, Chairman of the Board of Trustees CHESTER I. BARNARD, President DEAN RUSK, President-Elect* ALAN GREGG, M.D.,

Vice-President*

LINDSLEY F. KIMBALL, Vice-President FLORA M. RHIND, Secretary EDWARD ROBINSON, Treasurer GEORGE J. BEAL, Comptroller GEORGE K. STRODE, M.D., Director for the Division of Medicine and Public Health* ANDREW J. WARREN, M.D., Directorfor the Division of Medicine and Public Health r WARREN WEAVER, Director for the Division of Natural Sciences and Agriculture JOSEPH H. WILLITS, Director for the Division of Social Sciences CHARLES B. FAHS, Directorfor the Division of Humanities 1 Retired June 30, 1951. 1 Retired December 5. 1951. »Effective July i, 1951. * Effective December 5, 1951.

* Effective May i, 1931. a Retired May 31, 1951. * Effective June i, 1951.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

102

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

The Foundation's counsel were Chauncey Belknap and Vanderbilt Webb. Dr. Herbert S. Gasser served as a Committee on Audit for the year 1951. The following were members of the Executive Committee during the year: THE PRESIDENT, Chairman HAROLD W. DODDS

HERBERT S. GASSER, M.D.,

JOHN FOSTER DULLES

alternate member1

ROBERT F. LOEB, M.D.

WALLACE K. HARRISON,

HENRY ALLEN MOE

alternate member*

JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, SRD GEOFFREY S. SMITH The

HENRY P. VAN DUSEN, alternate member

following served as members of a Board of

Scientific Consultants for the Division of Medicine and Public Health of the Foundation during 1951: DEAN A. CLARK, M.D.

KENNETH F. MAXCY, M.D.

GORDON M. FAIR

HUGH J. MORGAN, M.D.

WILTON L. HALVERSON, M.D.

THOMAS PARRAN, M.D.

The

following served as members of an Advisory

Committee for Agricultural Activities during 1951: E. C. STAKMAN, Chairman RICHARD BRADFIEF.D

P. C. MANGELSDORF

MEETINGS During 1951 regular meetings of The

Rockefeller

Foundation were held on April 4 and December 4 and 5; a special meeting was held on September 28. Five meetings of the Executive Committee were held in 1951 to take actions within general policies approved by the Trustees. 1 Until June 30,19511 Effective July i, 1951.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

SECRETARY S REPORT

IOJ

FINANCIAL STATEMENT A summary of the Appropriations Account of' the Foundation for the year 1951 and a statement of its Principal Fund follow: SUMMARY OF APPROPRIATIONS ACCOUNT FUNDS AVAILABLE Balance from 195(1 Income for 1951... Unexpended balances of appropriations allowed to Japse and refunds on prior year grunts

$10,643,614 16,972,914

1,545,846

FUNDS APPROPRIATED Appropriations Medicine and Public HeaJth Natural Sciences and Agriculture Social Sciences. Humanities.. . . General Education Board... Miscellaneous. . Administration Scientific Divisions General

$3,796,270

3,680,208 4,586,895 1,658,072 5,001,625 680,526

1,108,291 646,993 $21,158,880

Balance available for appropriation in 1952.... #29,162,374

8,003,494 £29,162,374

PRINCIPAL FUND Book value, December 31, 1950 Amount by which the proceeds of securities sold during 1951 exceeded the ledger value $10,209,256 Excess of quoted market value over cost of securities donated to General Education Board 2,534,907 Gift from anonymous donor 12,000

$\ 18,735,747

Book value, December 31, 1951

$131,491,910

12,756,163

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND

PUBLIC HEALTH

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND

PUBLIC HEALTH1 1951

BOARD OF SCIENTIFIC CONSULTANTS DEAN A. CLARK, M.D.

KENNETH F. MAXCY, M.D.

GORDON M. FAIR

HUGH J. MORGAN, M.D.

WILTON L. HALVERSON, M.D.

THOMAS PARRAN, M.D.

OFFICERS Director GEORGE K. STRODE, M.D.2 ANDREW J. WARREN, M.D.3 Associate Directors JOHN B. GRANT, M.D.4 ROBERT S. MORISON, M.D.* WADE W. OLIVER, M.D.S HUGH H. SMITH, M.D.6 K. R. STRUTHERS, M.D.a Assistant Directors MARSHALL C. BALFOUR, M.D.4 ELIZABETH W. BRACKETT4 GEORGE C. PAYNE, M.D.7 MARY ELIZABETH TENNANT* STAFF THOMAS H. G. AITKEN, PH.D.8 CHARLES R. ANDERSON, M.D.

RICHMOND K. ANDERSON, M.D., Pn.D.

' International Health Division and Office of Director for the Medical Sciences discontinued as of April 30,1951; Division of Medicine and Public Health created May i, 1931. > Director of International Health Division through April 30, 1951; Director of new Division May 1-31; retired May 31. 'Associate Director of International Health Division, January i-April 30, 1951; Acting Director of new Division May 1-31; and Director effective June i. * Effective December st J95J; staff member of new Division May i-December 4 and of Inteinational Health Division January i-April 30. »Of Medical Sciences and succeeding Division of Medicine and Public Health. 4 Effective September 28,1951; Assistant Director of new Division May i-September 27 and of International Health Division January i-April 30. 'Of Internationa) Health Division and succeeding Division of Medicine and Public Health. 8 On study leave, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health academic year 195I-I95J.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH MARSTON BATES, PH.D.

FREDERICK W. KNIPE

JOHANNES H. BAUER, M.D.

HENRY W. KUMM, M.D.3

GEORGE BEVIER, M.D.

JOHN A. LOGAN, D.Sc.

IOy

JOHN C. BUGHER, M.D.1

ESTUS H. MAGOON

ROBERT P. BURDEN, D.Sc.

JOHN MAIER, M.D.

HENRY P. CARR, M.D.

OLIVER R. McCov, M.D.

JOSEPH C. CARTER

WILLIAM A. MC!NTOSH, M.D.

Orris R. CAUSEY, Sc.D.

ANNA MARY NOLL*

DELPHINE H. CLARKE, M.D.

OSLER L. PETERSON, M.D.

WILBUR G. DOWNS, M.D.

ELSMERE R. RICKARD, M.D.:>

JOHN E. ELMENDORF, JR., M.D. PAUL F. RUSSELL, M.D. RICHARD G. HAHN, M.D.

BRUCE E. SASSE

GUY S. HAYES, M.D. •

KENNETH C. SMITHBURN, M.D.

ROLLA B. HILL, M.D.

RICHARD M. TAYLOR, M.D.

ESTHER M. HIRST

MAX THEFLER, M.R.C.S.,

JOHN L. HYDRICK, M.D.

L.R.C.P.

JOHN H. JANNEY, M.D.

ROBERT B. WATSON, M.D.

HARALD N. JOHNSON, M.D.

JOHN M. WEIR, M.D.

JOHN F. KENDRICK, M.D.2

LORING WHITMAN, M.D.

J. AUSTIN KERR, M.D.

D. BRUCE WILSON, M.D.

STUART F. KITCHEN, M.D.

C. BROOKE WORTH, M.D.

' On leave of absence, serving with the Division of Biology and Medicine of the Atomic Energy Commission. * Deceased June 18, 1951. * Resignation effective July 9, 1951. * Resignation effective March 31, 1951. s Deceased January 16, 1951.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT

111

PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION University of Colorado: Conference on the Teaching of Public Health and Preventive Medicine

115

Medical Library Association: Fellowships

116

Cornell University: Statistical Service

117

National League of Nursing Education: Accrediting Program

118

The Johns Hopkins University: History of Medicine Yale University: History of Medicine

120 121

MEDICAL CARE Family Health Care: Personnel Requirements

122

Health Insurance Plan of Greater New

124

York

INVESTIGATION AND CONTROL OF SPECIFIC DISEASES AND DEFICIENCIES

125 VIRUS INVESTIGATIONS

Laboratories of the Division of Medicine and Public Health

126 MALARIA RESEARCH AMD CONTROL

Sardinia: Campaign Against Malaria Vector

146

India: Mysore State Control Studies

151

Mexico: State Control Projects

153

Brazil: Malaria Institute

158

Island of Tobago: Control of Anopheles aquasalis

158

Venezuela: Nation-wide Control Campaign

159

Laboratories of the Division of Medicine

and Public

Health: Plasmodium Studies

160

OTHER STUDIES India: Mysore State Anemia Studies

166

Tennessee Department of Public Health: Williamson County Tuberculosis Study

167

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES MENTAL HEALTH AND DISEASE National Association for Mental Health

169

University of Chicago: Psychotherapy

170

CLINICAL RESEARCH University of Amsterdam: Psychosomatic Medicine Dalhousie University: Psychological Factors in Obstetrics University of Oregon: Constitutional Medicine

173 174 175

University of Minnesota: Dight Institute for Human Genetics

177

Child Research Council of Denver: Child Development

178

THE SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOR Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory: Genetic Psychology

179

Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology

180

Harvard University: Physiology of Behavior Patterns

181

McGill University: Perception and Learning Princeton University: Psychology of Perception

183 185

National Research Council: Committee for Research in Problems of Sex

186 PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES

University of Oslo: Respiratory Physiology

187

University of Illinois: Brain Chemistry

188

New

York

University: Rehabilitation

of Neurological

Patients

189

British Medical Research Council: National Institute for Medical Research

191

PROMOTION OF HEALTH SERVICES Iran: Rural Health Demonstration and Training Area

192

Chile: Aconcagua Health and Nutrition Service

195

Chile: Sanitary Engineering

197

SMALL APPROPRIATIONS

199

GRANTS IN AID

203

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION AND

I

MEDICINE

PUBLIC HEALTH

world both

OF

today

private and

contains

many

agencies,

governmental, dedicated

to the advancement of the welfare of man-

kind. This does not mean that thefieldis overcrowded, but it does mean that each such agency must give careful thought

to examining its program in rela-

tion to the programs and

activities of all the others,

thereby adding a complication to decisions at the level of strategy that was not present when the work of the medical divisions of The

Rockefeller Founda-

tion was first started. It places a particular responsibility on The

Rockefeller Foundation because in the

past so many of its activities have been pioneering, establishing patterns that have now

come to be ac-

cepted and supported by many other agencies. The particular advantage of The Rockefeller Foundation isflexibility.It does not have to adopt a cut-and-dried program with an elegant balance of internal consistency and the

external plausibility. It is free to continue

pioneering

patterns

of

tradition, involving

action

and

thought

the

not

testing yet

of

widely

recognized or accepted.

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112

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

This basic philosophy made possible the fusion of two former entities of the Foundation, the Medical Sciences

division

and

the

International

Health

Division. The merger was a recognition by the Trustees of the essential interdependence of the functions of these divisions in fostering education, research

and

application in the broad general field of medicine and health. The union was not the mere consolidation of staffs and programs, but the achievement of a framework that would permit the development of a new orientation of program through which the interrelations of the various kinds of medical problems would find adequate expression. It is recognized that such a reorientation of program should be a gradual process —

an evolutionary

growth

rather

experiment in surgical grafting. The

than

a drastic

program of the

new Division of Medicine and Public Health should emerge from a combination of the most pertinent elements of the older programs. Public health function

of the

is recognized state. The

and

accepted

as

greatest handicap

a of

government in utilizing available knowledge often is not the lack of funds, but the Jack of competent professional personnel. The health

therefore

depends

whole progress of public to a

very

great

degree

on the progress of professional education. The velopment

of

curative

and

preventive

waxes and wanes with the quality and the medical and

de-

medicine

quantity of

nursing professions. The

skeleton

personnel of the usual health department can never, alone, solve the problems of public health and

pre-

ventive medicine. Under a free enterprise system

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

IIJ

their solution must involve the private practitioners of medicine. Any

other solution is out of the question

because of the numbers of trained persons required, the financial outlay that would be necessary and the diffuse and all-pervading nature of the problem. Change is essential for any organization that hopes to remain adapted to the needs of a changing world. Shift in emphasis and new departures are in no sense a criticism of past policies which have been carried to a point where reorientation is possible. The objective is to develop a program that is devoted to the clarification of basic principles rather than to the demonstration of finished technologies that are applicable only in the economic and

cultural context in which

they were developed. The new division will function as both an operating and a disbursing agency. The

International Health

Division carried out its work by

means of a pro-

fessional staff resident in many parts of the world. This method of operation has proved effective, and the Division of Medicine and Public Health plans to continue it. Often

the Foundation's contributions

in staff services have been more valuable than its contributions in dollars. In past years the work of the International Health Division has been reported briefly in a section of the Annual Report of The Rockefeller Foundation in

more extended form

and

in a separately published

International Health Division report. This separate report has now

been discontinued; instead, a single

account of the work of the new

combined division is

given in the Annual Report.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

114

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

An

extended

account of the history

organization and

the new

of the re-

principles and

programs

which it has brought about has been given in pages 14 to 18 of the present Annual Report as a section of the President's Review. The

pages that follow will

give details on the grants made during 1951, as well as some account of the papers published by the staff and of thefieldwork still under way

in various parts

of the world. This report, as to subject matter, follows the outline set forth in the President's Review, subdividing the activities under the four heads of professional education, medical care, investigation and control of diseases

and

development

of

the health

sciences.

There will also be brief accounts of small appropriations and grants in aid. The

amounts spent under these headings in 1951

were professional education $201,250; medical care 1185,358; investigation and control of diseases $375,248; and promotion of the health sciences $1,093,070. In addition, $555,000 $600,000 to a sum

went

to

fellowship

programs;

to be allocated for grants in aid,

$400,000 of which was for 1952; and $736,344 to the field staff budget for 1952. Countries in which one or more staff members were maintained

in 1951

were

England, France, Italy,

Egypt, India, Iran, Japan, Canada, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Mexico and

Peru. These staff members acted

ants and

administrators of Foundation

as consultcooperation

in such fields as sanitary engineering, nursing, public

health

education,

government

health

services,

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH experimental

health

units

and

epidemic

11$

disease

control.

PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO Conference on the Teaching of Public Health and Preventive Medicine There is a great need for professional workers in the fields of public health and preventive medicine, yet relatively few

medical students elect to follow

careers in such fields. One

line of attack

on

this

problem might be through changes and improvements in undergraduate medical education. Effective teaching in the health and preventive fields would make future

practicing physicians

problems

and

requirements

more

aware

of these

of

aspects

the of

medicine and might influence more students to elect to specialize in such work. A large conference of professors of public health and preventive medicine was

held in 1946 at the Uni-

versity of Michigan to discuss these problems. ThivS conference was aided by a grant from The Rockefeller Foundation. The

method

of conference discussion

proved to be stimulating and effective. Consequently, plans have been started for a second conference which could continue discussion in the light of the changes in problems and

personnel

that have taken place

during the last five years. A

committee under Dr.

Lloyd Florio, of the School of Medicine of the University of Colorado, was formed to draw up plans for such

a conference. The

Rockefeller Foundation in

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Il6

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

1951 appropriated $15,000 toward the costs of this project, and the University of Colorado has accepted responsibility for administering the Foundation grant. The planning committee hopes that the conference will serve to clarify the kinds of relationships that should exist between undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate training in preventive

medicine

and

public health and that it will define the responsibilities of the special departments for undergraduate teaching, taking into consideration problems of curriculum and teaching method. The conference will be held in the fall of 1952, and plans are being made for attendance by about 100 representatives of schools and departments of public health and preventive medicine. MEDICAL LIBRARY ASSOCIATION Fellowships The

sum

of $30,000 was

appropriated

to the

Medical Library Association for its use over a threeyear

period

in

librarians from

financing

fellowships

for

abroad. This association

medical

has done

much to define proper medical library procedure and to

advance

techniques for effective

utilization

of

medical literature* especially in the United States. Recently

it has

extended

some of its services to

libraries in other countries where development modern medical research and up

of

teaching is being held

for want of adequate distribution of scientific

literature. Two

years ago, with assistance from the Founda-

tion, the

association established

an

experimental

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

Iiy

fellowship program, under which two Jibrarians from Chile, two from Austria, one from Uruguay, one from Northern Ireland and one from India spent a year in the United States studying and observing the latest library methods. Medical librarians and

general li-

brary schools cooperated enthusiastically with the association in setting up programs of study tailored to the needs of individual visitors. Continuation

of

this fellowship program will enable three or four more persons a year to acquire the skills upon which depend the success of many other private, public and international efforts to meet the literature needs of foreign scientists. CORNELL UNIVERSITY Statistical Service The Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine of Cornell University Medical College has recently organized a program that aims to improve statistical

teaching and

service in all departments

of the medical college. At present there are statisticians in several departments of the medical college. Under the ;new plan, the work of all of these will be coordinated by a statistical consultant, who

will be

a member of the Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine —

a logical hub for statistical

services because of its experience with the quantitative aspects of disease. The

statistical consultant will

teach the elements of statistics to medical students and give seminar courses for interns, residents and younger staff members engaged in research. He

will

cooperate with research workers in all departments

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Il8

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

in the formulation of their problems and

the eval-

uation of their results. By will

this means, it is hoped that statistical concepts diffuse

widely

Quantitative

through

methods

are

the

medical

becoming

college.

increasingly

important in all aspects of medicine, yet

medical

students receive little training in statistical methods and research workers are often naive in their handling of numerical data. The

Cornell experiment thus has

wide implications in relation to medical teaching and research. The

Rockefeller

Foundation

contributed

to the

establishment of this program in 1951 with a five-year appropriation

of $30,000, to be applied toward the

cost of the consultant's salary, secretarial

aid

and

office supplies. NATIONAL LEAGUE OF NURSING EDUCATION Accrediting Program In order to carry out a coordinated attack on the most pressing problems in nursing today, the six national United States nursing organizations in 1948 joined for

forces to establish

the

Improvement

of

the National Nursing

Committee

Services. This

committee was aided by The Rockefeller Foundation in 1949 through a small grant to the National League of Nursing Education. Further assistance was

pro-

vided in 1951 by means of an additional appropriation of $65,000. Recognizing

that

better

nursing

education

is

essential to better nursing service, the committee in 1949 conducted a questionnaire survey of practices

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND

PUBLIC HEALTH

119

in basic schools of nursing throughout the country. The results of the study, which have been published under the title Nursing Schools at the Mid-Century', showed that standards for the education of nurses exhibit a wide variation, with only 2£ per cent of the 1,193 schools that answered the questionnaire meeting or approaching standards set by 1937. The

the profession in

survey also indicated a serious shortage

of qualified nurse-instructors throughout the country. Several

steps have already

been

taken

toward

raising the level of education for nurses. Prominent among these is the program of the National Nursing Accrediting Service, for which the current Rockefeller Foundation grant was made. This service, formed in January 1949 through

the merger of four agencies

previously engaged in accrediting work, has recently embarked upon an intensive five-year plan. Basically, the plan is designed to bring about the accreditation, under a nation-wide, unified system, of every nursing school capable of measuring up to the agreed standards; the Accrediting Service will furnish advice and counsel to assist the schools in reaching the mark within the time schedule. The

plan includes a pro-

fessional visit to each school applying for accreditation

and

the holding of regional conferences for

nurse-educators. The

accreditation program

is expected

to spark

the improvement of some schools and the reorganization of others; it will also probably lead to the discontinuation of a number of training programs. At

the end of the five-year period

the Accrediting

Service will have carried out two complete screenings

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

I2O

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

of United States nursing schools, aimed at identifying the institutions of high standing and pointing out the weak spots in the nursing educational system. The Foundation's grant, available through the middle of 1952, was made to help initiate on an adequate footing this important attempt to promote the healthy growth and advancement of the nursing profession. THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY Institute of the History of Medicine The

Institute of the History of Medicine at the

Johns Hopkins University was founded in 1929 with the aid of an appropriation from the General

Edu-

cation Board. In the intervening years the institute has become a distinctive and important feature of medical education at the university. The

study of

medical history provides a mechanism for relating the practice and knowledge of medicine to the fabric of society as a whole, giving the student a perspective that is otherwise all too

easily lost in the mass of

detail of technical training. This general broadening and

integrating effect of historical study has been

particularly

stressed

by

the staff of the Hopkins

institute. The

staff of the institute give courses in several

departments and schools of the university, including the-Schools of Medicine, Hygiene and Public Health, and Higher Studies. Plans for the near future include a

program

for training

graduate

students in the

history of both medicine and the natural sciences and a program latter

to

for research

be

carried

out

in medical economics, the in cooperation

with

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

the

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

121

Department of Political Economy. The Rockefeller Foundation

has

been

institute since 1935. A

assisting

the work

of the

1951 grant of $30,000 covers

forward financing through June 1954 at the current rate of support of $30,000 per year. YALE UNIVERSITY History of Medicine A

three-year grant of $15,000 was made by The

Rockefeller

Foundation

in 1951

for work

in the

history of medicine by Dr. Henry E. Sigerist. From 1932 to 1947 Dr. Sigerist directed the Institute of the History of Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University. He

resigned

this post in order to devote

himself exclusively to the task of writing a compreprehensive history of medicine, based on material he had

systematically

collected

and

prepared

over a

span of many years. Dr. Sigerist has always been particularly interested in the social aspects and implications of the biological and

medical

stressed setting

sciences. His

work

has consistently

the importance of the social and in which

medical

knowledge and

practice have developed. The

cultural medical

history he is currently

writing is planned for eight volumes. The

first of

these, dealing with primitive and archaic medicine, was

published

Press

and

was

in 1951

by

the Oxford

enthusiastically

University

received by

both

medical and lay historians. Since his retirement from

Johns Hopkins, Dr.

Sigerist has held the position of nonresident research associate with professorial rank at Yale University,

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

122,

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

which has agreed to accept and administer the present Foundation grant.

MEDICAL CARE FAMILY HEALTH CARE Personnel Requirements The voked how

widening scope of welfare legislation has promuch thoughtful inquiry on

the subject of

to implement the medical care and social welfare

objectives set forth by the new laws. A major problem confronting administrators in all countries concerns the personnel required to take care of the basic health and

welfare needs of the family. Can

one type of

worker with proper training in the various branches of health and

social welfare adequately meet these

needs, or are several categories of workers necessary? In 1950 The Rockefeller Foundation set aside $16,700 toward the expenses of a study of this problem in collaboration with the World Health Organization; an additional sum

of $.30,358, available through the end

°f !953> was appropriated in 1951. The

preliminary task of planning and

the work has now

organizing

been completed, and the investi-

gation is currently under way

in both France and

England, the two countries selected as study areas. The

specific aims of the project are: i) To study the work now performed by all types of social and health workers in order to define its scope, nature and actual content 2) To ascertain the knowledge required and the criteria employed in the advisory and analytical phases of this type of work

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

123

3) To examine the relevance of the training of social and

health workers to the functions they actually

perform and to the technical skills and knowledge their work demands 4) To determine the extent to which functions carried out by

the social and

health worker meet the full

range of family health and welfare needs The director of the study is Dr. Rene Sand, formerly professor of social medicine Brussels, A of French

at

the

University

of

technical advisory committee composed and

British

experts

in social

research,

statistics, public health administration, nursing and social work meets regularly with him

to guide the

study and assist with the evaluation of the results. In addition, a technical panel has been set up to provide the

research

staff in

the field with

consultation

service on problems of methodology and procedure throughout the course of the investigation and during the preparation of the report. In Great Britain this study is being undertaken in the Department of Human Ecology at the University of Cambridge, under the direction of Professor Leslie Banks. Preliminary work began in Bedfordshire and its central market town, Luton, in October. The first objective of the study is to identify the organizations, official and

nonofficial, that work with families and

the programs which these groups are prepared

to

carry out. In the first six weeks, 70 organizations were found in this single county, all of which provide health or welfare

services for families. On

findings and

the basis of the

the techniques worked out in Bedford-

shire, a number of areas throughout England will be

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

124

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

examined, so as to obtain representative data for the whole country.

HEALTH INSURANCE PLAN OF GREATER NEW YORK Study of Its Experience The Health Insurance Plan of Greater New

York,

launched in 1947 to develop and operate a voluntary health

insurance program

in the New

York

City

area, is a private nonprofit group-membership corporation

now

reaching

some

340,000 individuals.

It has come to be the largest prepaid complete medical service in the United States, with resting on

a program

four major policies: family coverage for

comprehensive care; prepayment by subscribers for physician and auxiliary services; group medical practice; and

the payment of capitation or fixed fees by

the corporation

to medical groups as full compensa-

tion for the services they render to subscribers

and

their dependents. Along with its medical care operations, the corporation

has conducted

a continuous program

of

statistical research. It has built up the largest body of statistics available anywhere on the sickness experience

and

medical

needs

families, as indicated

by

of

typical

middle-class

the amount and

kind

of

medical care these families consume when they face no

economic barriers in asking for it. The

history

of both individuals and families can be traced during the period of health insurance because participating physicians are required to make detailed records of their services. These records are analyzed statistically

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

125

and a) classified by disease under treatment and b) linked by individuals and families within the insured populations to the participating medical groups and to the pertinent specialties within the groups. Aided

by

Foundation

appropriations from and

the

The

Rockefeller

Commonwealth

Fund, the

Health Insurance Plan has embarked on a study of its body of statistics and its experience. A committee of biostatistical experts has selected five areas to be covered by the investigation. These are: i) the need for medical care, 2) the incidence of illness in families and

its implication, 3) the effect of removal of eco-

nomic barriers, 4) the preventive aspects of the plan and

5) its method of conducting clinical

research.

The

intention is to explore these areas through

an

interview study of about 5,000 families insured under the plan and an equal number of families in the general New

York City population, comparing the health

conditions of the two groups and the medical services required by each group. The Foundation has previously allocated a total of $388,000 to the Health Insurance Plan toward the development and operation of the medical insurance program. The be

1951

available until

grant

is $155,000, which

the end

will

of 1954, the scheduled

completion date for the study.

INVESTIGATION AND DISEASES AND The

CONTROL OF SPECIFIC DEFICIENCIES

investigation and control of disease has been

a time-honored occupation of the International Health Division. The

new Division of Medicine and Public

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

126

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Health is continuing this interest and

giving special

attention to viruses. On page 23 of the President's Review, reference is made to Dr. Max

Theiler, who

has been with

Rockefeller Foundation since 1930, and who

The

in 1951

received a Nobel Prize for his basic discoveries in connection with a successful yellow

fever vaccine.

In his formal lecture at Stockholm on December n, 1951, as a Nobel Prize winner, Dr. Theiler gave a careful review of the scientific and discoveries in which he played

highly technical

a leading part. The

conclusions are that many millions of potential yellow fever victims have now

been protected

by vaccination,

a comparatively simple process, and

that in all

likelihood yellow fever will cease to be a public health menace. Next to the winning of a Nobel Prize by a staff member

of The

Rockefeller Foundation, an

out-

standing event of the year was the publishing within the covers of a single volume of a history and

sum-

mary of Foundation work in yellow fever. The editorin-chief of yellow Fever was Dr. George K. Strode, who

retired as Director of the Division of Medicine

and

Public Health in 1951. Collaborating with

him

were eight colleagues and staff members.

VIRUS INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORIES

OF THE

DIVISION

OF

MEDICINE

AND

PUBLIC HEALTH In the interval between 1937 and 1948 a number of unidentified viruses were encountered

by

members

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Photograph

Excised

Here

Kietd trip in connection w i t h virus studies at the Walter and Kli/.i I l.il! Institute of Medic.tl Kcso.)rclu M eltorni me, Austr.ili:i

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

measurement for the program in constitutional medicine at the University of Oregon Medical School

Photograph

I ; '

Excised Here

Asthma patents ,n,et tor ,n,up psjchotlKrapy at the Wilhclmina Hospital, Am.ter.lam

I—f V-\ ~9 ir±~\ t*^ k"i I I If \~ ~\ f -t1.r*% %^^* * —VJ * I OS mt^f I I

i— ff*-_-• ^- i ^ i • ^ J*^ ^^zirf^l ^^ *^J

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

I—I -* *Y ~^ ^ I I* ^ ^ I~{ ^

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND of The

Rockefeller

PUBLIC HEALTH

Foundation staff and

129

their col-

leagues during the course of a long-term investigation of yellow

fever in Africa and

South America.

The

virus of yellow fever, in fact, proved to be only one of a related series of viruses pathogenic for man

and

animals and transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks, mites and

other

biting

arthropods.

In

Europe, North

America and Asia, moreover, various similar viruses causing

encephalitis

implication

have

is that such

been

agents

discovered. may

The

at times be

important causes of disease, masked in the past by ignorance. As the new

agents were isolated, Foundation staff

made certain basic investigations on

them, but

no

systematic studies were possible until early in 1949. At that time a group of men

at the New

York labo-

ratories of the International Health Division, most of whom had yellow study

been

intimately associated with the

fever program, undertook of the viruses by

physical and

means of immunological,

chemical methods. By

years, intensive investigation had information the new

a comprehensive

on

the end of two

yielded important

the immunological relationships of

viruses. Some are related

agents of human diseases, and

to well-known

others appear to be

distinct entities which cause a number of unknown diseases. Several are already

known

to be widely

distributed geographically. On

the

basis of these preliminary

studies, the

newly reorganized Division of Medicine and Public Health has broadened its virus program to include studies

of

the

distribution

and

epidemiology

of

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION insect-borne virus diseases pathogenic for man domestic animals. In addition

to the new

and

viruses,

interest will focus on a large group of .viruses that are known to be related. It is the function of the Foundation's New

York

laboratories to carry out the exacting studies of the chemical and physical properties of the viruses and to make comparative studies of material collected in various parts of the world. The in

Foundation is now

process of establishing field investigation

units

in the important zoogeographical areas of the world. The first of these is located in Poona, a city in the hills about

120 miles from

being

carried

out

Bombay. Investigations are

in active

cooperation

with

the

Indian Medical Research Council. A Foundation staff has been assigned to Cairo to undertake a survey of the major virus problems of Egypt, in cooperation with the United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3.

During 1951, the Foundation appropriated $355,088 for virus research in New

York, India, Egypt and

any other countries in which it may

be advisable to

undertake field investigations. The

major part of

these funds is earmarked for use in 1952.

Epidemiology of Recently Discovered Viruses .In the table on page 131 are given the names and isolation history of the new

viral agents. It is of inter-

est that only three were isolated from human beings. All

were discovered accidentally, so to speak, by

virtue of the fact that the methods employed in the isolation of yellow fever virus are effective also for

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH other viral entities which are neurotropic for Swiss mice. This does not, of course, imply that the new agents are necessarily neurotropic in their natural hosts — whatever these may that they attack man

be. Nor does it mean

or, if so, with enough frequency

to create a public health problem. It is possible that some of the viruses may

play their leading roles as the

causative agents of diseases of wild animals in Africa or South America. It is also possible that the geographic

distribution

of some of them

may

be so

limited that, even though they attack human beings, they may

be only of local importance.

Isolation History of Recently Discovered Viruses

PROVED OR PRESUMED SOURCE VIRUS

Bwamba fever West Nile Semliki Forest Bunyamwera Ntaya Mengo Zika Uganda S Kumba Anopheles A Anopheles B Wyeomyia Ilheus Leucocelaenus Hfaemagogus A Sabcthes HLiemagogus B

COUNTRY OF ORIGIN

Uganda Uganda Uganda Uganda Uganda Uganda Uganda Uganda Cameroons Colombia Colombia Colombia Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil

No. YEAR STRAINS ISOLATED ISOLATED

1937 1937 1942 1943 1943 1946-7 1947-8 1947 1943 1940 1940 1940 1944 194S 1946 1946 1946

9 1 1 I 1 6 2 1 1 I 1 1

No. of strains isolated from

Man

Mosquitoes

Monkeys

Other wild animals

9 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Source: From Smithburn, K. C. "Studies on Certain Viruses Isolated in the Tropics of Africa and South AmericaJmmunological Reactions as Determined by Cross-Neutralization Tests." TAt Journal of Immunologyt Baltimore, 68:441-460 (April) 1952.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION It is certain, however, that at least one of the agents has a very wide geographic distribution, although its importance to man

is not yet clearly understood. The

Mengo virus, known to be closely related to or identical with the encephalomyocarditis (EMC), MM

and

Columbia-SK viruses, is one of a group having a very wide range. Originally encountered in New designated the Columbia-SK and MM next

isolated

designated

from

the EMC

a

chimpanzee

York and

strains, and

in Florida

and

virus, it was then shown to

have been the etiologic agent of an outbreak of illness in American soldiers in the Philippines. Next it was encountered

in Uganda, East Africa, and, being be-

lieved an unknown

agent, was

given still another

name, Mengo virus. Finally, in 1951, a new continent was added to the known range of the virus when an apparently identical strain was

isolated from a sick

monkey

in

Colombia, South

America. Although

believed

by

some not to be commonly

pathogen, it unquestionably

does

attack

a human man

on

occasion. In a recent survey of 297 indigenous residents of Uganda and Tanganyika, i per cent showed evidence of past infection with Mengo virus. Of the eight East African viruses, the Bwamba and West Nile, as well as the Mengo virus, were isolated from the blood of sick persons, and their etiological relationships to the respective illnesses were proved by the development of specific antibodies in the blood of each virus donor as a consequence of the illness. However, the remaining five viruses were isolated from wild mosquitoes (and in the case of Zika virus from

a naturally

infected

monkey) and

not from

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133

human beings. The only other information concerning infections with

these agents in human

beings

was

derived from limited immunity surveys. In the course of these surveys, however, antibodies to most of the new

viruses have been demonstrated in the blood of

human beings. All eight of the East African viruses had

attacked man

at some time in the past; and in

South America, although tests are not yet complete, several individuals immune to the Ilh6us virus have been found. In one

of the African surveys, testing of 1,428

human sera against West Nile virus indicated a broad geographic range and probably epidemic incidence of infection with this agent. Immunity to the West Nile virus is widely

distributed

in Central Africa, Past

incidence of the disease has been high not only in the semiarid regions of the Anglo-Egyptian also in the

Sudan, but

tropical forests of the Belgian Congo.

Workers from

Yale University have

recently dis-

covered a very high immunity rate to West Nile virus in Egyptian villages near Cairo. Tests of 313 sera from residents of Uganda against Semliki Forest virus showed 15 per cent of all the donors to be immune. A

recent testing of 615 sera

from residents of Uganda and Tanganyika against Bwamba fever virus showed that this agent attacks man

very

commonly, its range

equatorial Africa from

extending across

the Atlantic to the Indian

ocean. In a survey just concluded, 297 sera from residents of Uganda and Tanganyika were tested for neutralizing antibody against each of the eight viruses. It

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

appears that Mengo virus does not commonly attack human

beings

Bwamba,

in the localities sampled, but

Ntaya,

Zika,

Uganda

S, West

that Nile,

Bunyamwera and Semliki Forest viruses do attack human beings in widely separated localities in East Africa with greater or less frequency. None of these agents is limited in range to the local area in which it was encountered, and since the Ntaya, Zika, Uganda S, Bunyamwera and

Semliki

Forest viruses have

never been recovered from human beings, it is obvious that they are the etiologic agents of unknown infections in human beings. The prevalence

of infection

approximate order of

in human

beings

was

as

follows: Bwamba, Ntaya, Zika, Uganda S, West Nile, Bunyamwera and Semliki Forest. It is probably highly significant that a considerable number (68) of the sera were protective against more than one virus. No

evidence exists to indicate that

antibody evoked by one of the viruses will lead to cross protection against another of the group tested. It is believed

that the observed plural protection,

especially involving Ntaya, Zika, Uganda S and West Nile viruses, is probably a manifestation of common epidemiological

factors —

perhaps transmission

by

similar, related or even identical vectors. Whatever the meaning of the plural immunity, it seems clear that infection with

Bwamba virus is only casually

related to infection with any of the others.

Immunological Relationships In initiating studies of the new concern of the New

viruses, a primary

York staff was to classify them

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH into similar groups according to their immunological relationships. For this purpose series of both cross neutralization

tests and

cross complement fixation

tests were run on the group of new

viruses and on a

dozen well-known viruses which affect the nervous system. The compatible

results of the two series of tests were and

in

general

agreement.

One, the

Kumba virus from the British Cameroons, was soon eliminated because it proved identical with, or simply another

strain

Uganda. Two in

the

of, the

Semliki

virus from

other major reciprocal cross reactions

neutralization

tests

involved

spring-summer encephalitis and and

Forest

the Mengo and EMC

the

Russian

louping ill viruses,

viruses. In complement

fixation tests, the Mengo virus gave a one-way cross with the FA and GD VII strains of mouse encephalomyelitis and four of the Brazilian viruses. This suggests that there may be some relationship between the encephalomyocarditis and

encephalomyelitis groups

of viruses. These

four

Brazilian

viruses — Haemagogus

A,

Haemagogus B, Sabethes and Leucocelaenus — are immunologically related to one another and are also related to, if not identical with, the virus of spontaneous encephalomyelitis in mice. This mouse virus is a poliomyelitis-like agent of apparently world-wide distribution. All four Brazilian viruses or virus strains behaved similarly in the developing It seems likely that they may mice used in isolating and

chick embryo.

have originated in the

maintaining the viruses,

rather than from wild mosquitoes, as was originally assumed.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION Since the Kumba and the Semliki viruses are the same, the name Kumba virus disappears from the list and

Semliki remains. The Mengo, Haemagogus A,

Haemagogus B, Sabethes and Leucocelaenus viruses have been identified with other known viruses, and therefore they too disappear from the list of viruses under investigation. As

things stand now,

likely that the group of new

it seems

viruses comprises the

following ii entities: the Bwamba, West Nile, SemJiki Forest, Ntaya, Bunyamwera, Zika and Uganda S

viruses

isolated

in East Africa; the Anopheles

A, Anopheles B and Wyeomyia viruses isolated in Colombia; and

the Ilheus virus isolated in Brazil.

Five of these seem to be the etiologic agents of unknown diseases. No been

established

immunological relations have

between

the

Bwamba,

Semliki

Forest, Bunyamwera, Anopheles B and Wyeomyia viruses or with any of the known agents tested. The

remaining six appear to have antigenic com-

ponents in common with a vast group of previously known agents. These six, the Ilheus virus from Brazil, the Anopheles A

virus from Colombia, and the Zika, Ntaya,

Uganda S and West Nile viruses from East Africa, are related to the viruses of yellow fever, dengue, St. Louis encephalitis, Russian spring-summer encephalitis, louping

ill and

eastern

and

western

equine

encephalomyelitis. Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis and Rift Valley fever viruses may

also belong to

this group, although this remains to be proved. Within this large group it is apparent that although all produce a systemic disease, some have viscero-

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DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

137

tropic affinities and others an affinity for the nervous system. Yellow fever, Rift Valley fever and dengue are

examples of the viscerotropic

members.

The

various equine encephalomyelitides, St. Louis, Japanese B, louping ill and

Russian encephalitis belong

to the encephalitogenic group. That the two groups are related is clearly shown by overlaps, one

the immunological

of the most striking of which is that

between dengue and St. Louis encephalitis. The overlaps have been demonstrated by both neutralization and complement fixation tests. These immunological overlaps occur not only between

viruses causing

the

two

clinically

different

types of disease, but also between viruses of different epidemiological patterns. Thus, an immune serum against louping ill — entirely by ticks —

a virus transmitted

in nature

will neutralize dengue virus



which is transmitted by culicine mosquitoes. Similarly, a louping ill immune serum will neutralize the Ntaya virus, which was

isolated from and

presumably is

transmitted by mosquitoes. Growth and Behavior in Chick Embryos An

extensive study of the growth and behavior of

the new viruses in embryonated eggs was completed. All of the viruses had

been isolated by direct intra-

cerebral inoculation or subinoculation of Swiss mice and had

been carried

through varying numbers of

brain-to-brain passages in these animals. These studies indicated clearly that the developing chick embryo is highly susceptible to the

viruses.

In several instances parallel titrations in mice

and

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

embryonated eggs revealed a higher titer in eggs. In

general,

the susceptibility

of

chick

embryos

inoculated into the yolk sac compared favorably with that of young adult mice inoculated intracerebrally. After three

to ten passages in the

embryo, the

majority of the viruses were capable of infecting embryos when introduced into the yolk sac in dilutions equal to or higher than those required to produce a fatal infection in mice. With the exception of Wyeomyia, all of the viruses grew

readily and

could

be

maintained

in

serial

passage by yolk-sac inoculation, using a suspension of the brain or body of the embryo for passage material. However, it was cultivation

necessary

of Anopheles B virus by

inoculation. The

Wyeomyia

virus

to

initiate

intracerebral

was

the most

difficult to propagate in the embryo. It was

carried

through ten brain-to-brain passages in the embryo and

then lost.

While, with the above exception, all of the viruses also grew well when inoculation was made into the amniotic sac, the yolk-sac route was preferred because injection

could

embryo and

be made

at an

early

the infection followed

age

over

of the

a longer

period of time. Inoculation into the allantoic sac or upon the chorioallantoic membrane gave less consistent-results. It would appear therefore that none of these viruses grow so well in the allantoic sac as in the body or brain of the embryos. Ntaya, Bunyamwera, Bwamba, Uganda S, Anopheles A

and B

and Ilheus viruses exhibited

neuro-

tropism when inoculated into the yolk sac, for greater

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

139

concentrations of the virus were observed in the brain than in the body of the embryo. SemJiki Forest, Mengo, West Nile and Zika viruses may

be regarded as pantropic, as the virus concen-

trations in the body were equal to if not greater than those in the brain of the infected embryos. Haemagogus A and B, Leucocelaenus and Sabethes, the four Brazilian viruses which are probably identical with FA

mouse encephalitis virus, were consistently

found in greater concentrations

in the body of the

embryo than in the brain. Four of the African viruses, Semliki Forest, Mengo, West Nile and Ntaya, had one feature in common: they

were invariably lethal

Bunyamwera virus may an

inoculum

to the chick embryo.

also kill chick embryos when

containing

more

than

1,000

mouse

MLD (minimum lethal doses) is introduced into the yolk sac. The at least up

remaining viruses are usually not fatal

until a day

or two

before the time of

hatching. The

more obvious gross alterations consisted of

congestion, edema and

hemorrhage of the embryo

skin and brain. The occurrence of hemorrhage was an outstanding feature. Of

the four viruses that were

regularly fatal to embryos, Ntaya was the only one inducing gross lesions confined mainly to the brain. Bunyamwera, Bwamba, Uganda S, Anopheles A and B

and Ilheus viruses frequently produced pin-point

to large hemorrhages in the brain, especially during the latter stages of the infection; they appear to favor the brain as a locus of multiplication. No

definite

gross lesions were encountered among the embryos

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

inoculated with Zika, Haemagogus A and B, Leucocelaenus, Sabethes and Wyeomyia viruses. The Semliki Forest and Mengo viruses produce a fatal infection within two days after inoculation. The various organs of the embryos remain normal in appearance

until a few hours

before

death, when

hemorrhages appear in the soft tissues of the body and head. The Ntaya and West Nile viruses produce a fatal infection in four to five days. Foci of encephalomalacia are found in the white matter, and

there

are small foci of hemorrhage into the neuroglial tissue of the basal ganglia. Similar but

less extensive foci

of neuroglial degeneration develop in embryos infected with Zika and Anopheles B viruses, but these develop later and do not kill the embryos. The

Bwamba virus infection is associated with ex-

tensive encephalomalacia and

hemorrhage in both

the brain and spinal cord. There is also degeneration of the ependymal

epithelium

and

collection

of a

cellular exudate in the cerebral ventricles. The

chick

embryos

infected

with

Bunyamwera

virus showed foci of encephalomalacia in both the brain and spinal cord, not regularly associated with hemorrhage. The in

both

foci of neuroglial necrosis are found

the gray

and

white

matter.

The

lesions

observedjin the brain of embryos infected with Ilheus and Uganda S virus are essentially identical; they are also sufficiently characteristic to make it reasonably certain that one of the two

viruses is present when

such lesions are found. From the third to the sixth day after inoculation there is an acute degeneration of the cerebral cortex. Subsequently,

the cerebral

cortex fails to develop and hydrocephalus is produced.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH The

14!

gray matter of the spinal cord likewise fails to

develop. The infection is also associated with an acute degeneration of the retina. Pathology in Mice and Hamsters The pathology produced by the viruses in mice and hamsters infected by

intracerebral inoculation indi-

cates that some of these viruses prefer the neurons and

others the neuroglial tissue cells. The

viruses

which produce encephalomyelitis include the mouse encephalomyelitis virus, the Mengo virus and Semliki Forest virus. The

the

Mengo infection is very

similar to that of the mouse encephalomyelitis virus in

that there is a uniform

destruction of anterior

horn cells with an associated marked neuronophagia. The

lesions in the brain and

infected with

spinal cord of animals

the Semliki virus are focal and

asso-

ciated with neuroglial degeneration. The other viruses appear

to

involve

the

neuronal degeneration

neuroglial

tissue

is secondary. The

and

the

Bunyam-

wera virus produces focal neuroglial lesions in the gray matter of the cortex and spinal cord. The

Mengo virus is the only one of these agents

which produces a consistent destruction of the tissues of organs other than system, The of heart

those of the central nervous

lesions include focal acute degeneration

muscle fibers, of striated

muscle of the

extremities and acinar necrosis of the pancreas. Use of the Chick Embryo in Primary Isolation of Viruses There should be no difficulty in recognizing infection

of the embryo by

the viruses that regularly

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

142

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

result in death of the embryo, but the recognition of infection by

the nonfatal viruses poses a different

problem. Gross lesions caused by these viruses are neither constant nor characteristic, although hemorrhages may

brain

give a clue to infection. Thus, until

some simple means of identifying infection of the embryo by these viruses is devised, making it unnecessary to resort to subinoculation of mice for confirmation, nothing

is gained

by

using

embryos

instead of mice for primary inoculation. The embryo, moreover, has

chick

the disadvantage of being

highly susceptible to bacterial infection, and

bacteria

are inevitably present in suspensions of arthropods used in attempts to isolate viruses from arthropods. Nevertheless, the chick embryo should be used as an adjunct to mice and

other laboratory

animals in

seeking viruses of this general category. Some virus may

new

be encountered which, like other well-

known viruses, is infectious to the embryos but not to mice.

Biophysical Studies Studies of the physical characteristics of the viruses are now well advanced. A great deal of the preliminary effort has necessarily been devoted to die designing of special equipment and techniques

the development of new

for the study of viral agents. The

tech-

niques for ultrafiltration to determine size are

now

reasonably

are

well

defined.

Efforts

at

present

largely directed at perfecting the methods for purification and

concentration of the viruses. Precipita-

tion experiments with protamine sulfate show that

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143

four, at least, of the viruses remain in the supernate, but that two others are precipitated almost totally by the protamine sulfate and are to be found in the general

precipitation

of protein

substances

which

centrifugate out. Some work is also being done to improve the sensitivity of the optics of the centrifuge itself. In

connection

with

the

ultrafiltration

studies,

progress has been made in adapting methods for the manufacture porosity. The

of collodion

membranes of controlled

introduction

of known

water into the collodion mix

amounts of

is used as the basis for

determining the ultimate pore size. One simplification is the use of propyl alcohol and acetone as the only solvents. A second fundamental improvement is the design of a closed chamber for controlled evaporation of the solvents, thus obviating the necessity for precise temperature and humidity control of the room in which

the work

is done. As

the stock

of graded

collodion membranes has been built up, it has been possible to determine the approximate particle sizes of most of the new expressed

viruses. The

results have been

in terms of the smallest

pore diameter

consistently passed by the virus. The sizes range from less than 52 millimicrons to as large as 220 millimicrons. Sizes have been expressed in this way

because it is

clear that the structure of the membranes differs materially from that assumed in the development of the theory of ultrafiltration. There is considerable variability in the diameters and lengths of the pores. The

average pore

diameter (obtained

calibration) is calculated

on

the

by

basis of

water certain

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

144

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

assumptions, chief among them uniform

that the pores are

cylinders running at right

angles

to the

membrane surfaces. It is found in practice that the diameters of spherical particles which will in fact pass through such a membrane are considerably smaller. Examination of the actual structure of these

mem-

branes reveals that the passages are in no sense tubes of uniform cross section; the structure is a spongy one with intercommunicating, irregular passages of varying diameter running tortuously through the brane. The

mem-

length of passage is thus not the thickness

of the membrane but is always greater than this. The effective diameter of a passage, on will not

be

the other hand,

its average diameter, but

its minimal

value, It has

also become evident that there is consid-

erable variation in the permeability behavior of a lot of membranes cut from the same sheet. This variance not only gives a measure of what to expect in membranes taken

at random

from

the stock, but

also

gives some indication of the degree of variability of pore

diameters within

the individual

membranes.

In addition to the computed average pore diameter, a

second

which

statistical

is the

parameter is being employed,

standard

deviation

divided

by

the

average pore diameter. This has led to the definition of an Mend point/' that is, the average pore diameter which will pass a given virus one half of the time, It would seem advisable to confirm end points given by a particular set of membranes byfilteringadditional biological material of known size and

shape. More

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

145

definitive data on the size of the new viruses can then be obtained using the ultrafiltration techniques.

Egypt: Field Investigations In Egypt a survey of viral and rickettsial diseases has been started in cooperation with a United States Navy research unit. So far the investigations have comprised: i) efforts to isolate viruses and rickettsiae by inoculating human sera, suspensions of arthropods or the milk of cows, goats, sheep and gamooses into laboratory animals; 2) the collection of blood

sera

from native populations and animals to be tested for the presence of specific antibodies against viral

and

rickettsial agents. Most of the specimens were collected in the Sindbis area, firstly because a recent health and sanitary survey there has made collateral demographic because

information

infection

with

available, and

West

secondly

Nile virus has

been

identified in this area. From this preliminary work, it is evident that rickettsiae are harbored by Egyptian ticks, fleas and lice. At least some of these rickettsiae belong to the Rocky Mountain spotted fever-boutonneuse group. These rickettsiae are infectious to guinea pigs, although the manifestations of

infection

are inconstant. In

some instances rickettsiae have been observed in the spleen and brain of suckling mice following the inoculation of arthropod suspensions; whether or not they are pathogenic to man

remains to bejietermined.

While the West Nile virus was not isolated from human blood specimens, immunity tests suggest that

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

146

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

the infection is endemic. No

evidence has been ob-

tained as yet on the mode of transmission of the virus.

MALARIA RESEARCH AND CONTROL ISLAND OF SARDINIA Campaign Against Malaria Vector In 1946 the Italian government in cooperation with The

Rockefeller Foundation set up a special experi-

ment in the Island of Sardinia to find out whether it is feasible to eradicate a malaria-carrying species of mosquito that has been in an area for centuries. As in the rest of Italy, the leading indigenous vector was dnopheks

labranchiae.

In

this

special

however, it was planned to use DDT

campaign,

not only as a

residual spray but also as a larvicide. On

October

Division

of The

i,

1945, the International

Rockefeller

Foundation

Health

agreed to

assume technical direction of the campaign, and on April 12,1946, a semigovernmental agency under the Italian High

Commission for Hygiene and

Public

Health was established to carry out the work. This agency came to be referred

to as ERLAAS (Ente

Regionale per la Lotta Anti-Anofelica in Sardegna). Funds were made availablefirstby the United Nations Relief and

Rehabilitation Administration

and

later by the Economic Cooperation Administration. The campaign was concluded in 1950, after four and one-half years of intensive operations. It cost more than six billion lire, or 12 million dollars. Of this sum, the Foundation supplied $389,411, together with the services of several of its staff members.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Photograph Excised Here

As parr of Tulani- University's J,;t\v-Science Program, lawyers m key cities of the region .ueyiven gr.iphic tlcmnnstr.itioMSof nu\lic.tl problems Scottish terriers used for behavior studies at McGill University

V£R V

F O s s

^Ttira

r j & f y .

s < & % >

6 v ^ x

Photograph

Excised

Here

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Photograph Excised Here

A field crew of the malaria control campaign in the Islam! of Sardinia New York laboratories of the Division of Medicine and Public Health; manifold tor filtration of a biological fluid thinugli collodion membranes of various pore diameters

Photograph

Excised

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Here

In

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

149

the course of the campaign, alternate

DDT

residual spraying

and

larviciding

operations were

carried on each year. Near the end of the campaign, special eradication techniques were devised to find and

eliminate the few remaining labranchiae mos-

quitoes. The island was completely mapped to locate all shelters which might harbor adult specimens and all aquatic habitats of the larvae. The

island

was

divided and subdivided, the smallest unit for treatment and inspection purposes being a section of about 4.5 square kilometers. Many field camps were built to serve the various regions. Supplies and men

were

transported by afleetof over 250 former army jeeps and weapons carriers, aided by animal transport. Fog generators, helicopters, boats, rafts designed

larvicide

"bubblers*' were

and used

specially in

the

larviciding program. Considerable clearing and drainage work was necessary. In fact, by the end of the campaign some 30,000 hectares of swampland

had

been reclaimed. At one time (August 1948) the labor force amounted to more than 33,500 men. The result by 1951 was that Sardinia, formerly one of the most severely afflicted regions on earth, had been freed of malaria. It is now

possible to Jive

and

work anywhere in the island. Malaria transmission has been reduced to a very low level, and there is no reason to expect that it will again become a public health problem provided that adequate precautions are maintained. No and

of three new

new

cases were verified in 1950,

cases reported in 1951, only one

can be considered a primary infection. The number of malaria

cases fell from a total of 78,173 (primary

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION malaria, reinfections and

relapses) in 1944 to 44 in

1950, and to nine in 1951. Unfortunately,

the guilty

mosquito, Anopheles

labranchiae^ by reason of its centuries of adaptation to all types of habitats in the island, had

succeeded

in escaping complete annihilation. Despite the most painstaking

scouting

of all known

water surfaces

and possible adult shelters, this mosquito continued to be found occasionally in areas where eradication appeared to have been achieved much earlier. In 1950, as a result of over 2,200,000 larval inspections, a total of 1,379 specimens were collected. Twenty-eight adult labranchiae were

found

in the

course

of 178,279

inspections. On the conclusion of ERLAAS operations in 1951, the Italian government decided not to continue the attempt at labranchiae eradication in Sardinia

but

to include the island in its normal residual spraying program. The

regional government later elected to

continue the eradication attempt and reorganized

the

scouting

and

larviciding

utilizing former ERLAAS personnel. In activities were carried on

to this end service,

1951 these

simultaneously with the

residual spraying work. To

consolidate the health benefits of the malaria

campaign, Sardinia has established a regional public health organization

to administer health services on

an island-wide basis. The

regional director of health

plans to integrate the public health services through the establishment of health units in important communes and has requested the advisory services of a member of the Division

of Medicine

and

Public

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH Health. In 1951, The

151

Rockefeller Foundation made

a grant in aid of $5,170 for the purpose of supplying these services. The

radical decline in malaria and the extent of the

unexploited resources in Sardinia have aroused great interest in rehabilitation. The governments have

regional and

accordingly

established

central a

com-

mission to make a socioeconomic survey of the island. The survey will cover the fields of agriculture, mineral resources, social

sciences, industry, public

works,

commerce and finance. The long-range development plan expected to emerge from this survey will offer Sardinia an

opportunity

to conserve, develop and

utilize its potentially valuable island resources in the future. A

new

Italian frontier has been established

which is capable not only of internal development but also of absorbing some of the excess population from the mainland of Italy. INDIA Mysore State Control Studies The

malaria control program carried on by repre-

sentatives of The oration with

Rockefeller Foundation in collab-

the Mysore State health

department

concentrated during 1951 on a survey of the distribution

and

behavior of Anophelesftuviatilis.A

grant in aid of $8,354 from The

1951

Rockefeller Founda-

tion was made in support of the program. Past work in India incriminated this mosquito as the vector of hyperendemic

malaria

in some

of

the

hill

areas.

However, malaria is not always hyperendemic within the general range of A.fumattlts in the hills.

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

To

explain

this discrepancy, studies on

the bio-

nomics offluviatiliswere continued. These studies were started

in three areas near Sakleshpur field

station which had never had DDT reasonably

high malaria

rates and

treatment, had also

presented

varying examples of terrain. It is suspected

that

physiographic considerations may have a considerable bearing on the apparently

irrational distribution of

malaria in this area. The

chief difficulty in bringing all malarious areas

in the state under control at present is the shortage and high cost of DDT

and DDT sol vents. A system of

logistics is being worked out to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of supplyingfieldunits with materials

for house

spraying.

optimum dosage of DDT

Determinations

of

the

for house spraying pro-

grams, the most satisfactory interval between applications and the residual effectiveness of DDT

under

field conditions are almost completed. A

further project initiated in 1951 was the estab-

lishment of a school for training malaria workers at Mandya. Equipment and housing were arranged and a curriculum prepared. The first class of medical officers and

sanitarians was

in training at the

end

of the year. Another malaria project has been carried on in the Channarayapatna area

with

technical

help from the Foundation since 1950. A laria problem had

advice

serious ma-

developed in this area connected

with its irrigation system, A program of DDT ual spraying was

and

started by

resid-

dividing the area into

three zones and using a different method of treatment

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153

in each in order to determine the optimum spraying technique. The indication is that spraying the houses at three to four month intervals with 100 milligrams of DDT

per square foot gives adequate protection.

MEXICO In Mexico The

Rockefeller Foundation is bringing

to an end a long-standing program of cooperation with the government in the field of public health. For some 30 years, projects bearing on disease control and

the development of public health services and

training areas have been

administered jointly

by

the Mexican Secretariat of Health and Welfare and the Foundation; in most instances these projects have received supervision from

a field representative of

the Foundation. In arranging for the termination of Foundation aid, the several agencies of the secretariat are

preparing

to take over responsibility

for

the

various aspects of the program. Although malaria is still a major problem in Mexico, extensive studies have been made on the mosquito vectors, and control campaigns throughout the country are gradually forcing down the transmission rates. Chief among the campaigns in which the Foundation has cooperated are those in the States of Veracruz, Morelos and

Guerrero, the Southern

Lower California and

the Federal

Territory

of

District around

Mexico City. An insectary established at the Institute of Tropical Diseases just outside the capital fills an important role in supplying live material for programs of DDT

the

testing and for laboratory trans-

mission studies.

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Spraying Programs In the State of Morelos extensive experiments have been made to evaluate

the effectiveness of control

measures on the local vector, Anopheles pseudopuncttpennis. DDT

residual house spraying has proved an

effective weapon against this mosquito. Five years of observation in two villages of the region indicate that an estimated 75 to 90 per cent reduction in incidence of malaria has resulted after annual spraying. In one house sprayed in 1949 at the rate of 200 milligrams of DDT

per square foot the insecticide has retained

residual-activity up to 24 months. Incidentally, on two occasions, four and five years after the start of a DDT elines from

the region

spraying program, anophwere tested for evidence of

development of resistance. They proved to be no more

resistant

than

specimens

from

which had never been treated with The DDT

two

regions

DDT.

residual spraying program in the South-

ern Territory of Lower California has been successful

than

most of the control

more

programs in

Mexico. While the reasons are not entirely clear, it may be

concluded

region

that

are obliged

anophelines

in this semidesert

to seek favorable

microclimatic

conditions inside dwellings if they are Hence prompt and

dramatic

control

to survive.

of malaria is

achieved by residual spraying. In the State of Guerrero, antilarval services have been extended to 70 communities, and DDT

residual

spraying programs have been carried out in 15 communities. This program, which is one of work with

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155

a community level, will continue to

receive Foundation support in 1952. A considerable amount of information has now been accumulated on the endemic malaria problem in the Valley of Mexico. The Xochimilco-Mixquic region of this valley, well-known to tourists, is situated from 10 to 30 miles to the south of Mexico City at an altitude of some 7,500 feet. The

region contains a

maze of hundreds of kilometers

of canals, some

navigable with small boats. It is a fertile truck gardening and flower growing section. The

abundant water

vegetation which clogs the smaller canals is cut and spread over fields as fertilizer and

binder for the

mucky soil, or is fed to livestock. Anopheles aztecus is the principal malaria carrier of the region. It has been found naturally infected with Plasmodium

vivax, which

appears

to be

the only

endemic species of malaria parasite present in the area, and

it will transmit this parasite in the labo-

ratory. Adult mosquitoes may

be found in the houses

throughout the year and bite man the many favorable

freely. In spite of

breeding places, however, cli-

matic factors apparently limit the development of large numbers of aztecus in this region. In view of the house-haunting habits of the adult mosquitoes, DDT

residual house spraying was chosen

as the most effective, as well as the most economical, means of controlling

malaria

around

Xochimilco.

Following experimental spraying programs in two villages in 1948, the health authorities of the Federal District carried out more extensive work in 1949. A total of 5,421 houses were sprayed with DDT

at a

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total cost of about $3,000. Malaria surveys before and after treatment indicated that excellent control had been achieved. It was

recommended that a repeat

spraying be made in two years, that is in 1951. After this it would seem to be sufficient to keep watch over conditions in the area and respray only when

new

cases of malaria begin to appear. Duration of DDT

Residues

Observations made in different countries on the effectiveness of DDT

residual deposits in anopheline

control

far from

reveal

that

uniform

results are

obtained. Causes for this lack of uniformity may in several factors. The

rest

mosquito species is undoubt-

edly an important factor, or at least a confusing one, since species differ

markedly

in habits, including

house-resting routine, and they may response to minimal exposures factor of undoubted which

the DDT

possibly vary in

to DDT.

Another

importance is the surface on

is sprayed. Soil, as in sun-baked

adobe bricks, or in a plastering~Vnixture (wet

soil

alone, or wet soil mixed with straw_or manure) applied over a wall of woven reeds or branches, is a common construction material in the tropics. In some localities, a DDT

residue on these materials may

lose its toxic

effect within a few months or even weeks. Studies

in Mexico have shown

that with

adobes there is evidence of persistence of DDT ity for a period

some activ-

of years. In a series of controlled

experiments adobe bricks used in four malarious regions

were

sprayed

with

a DDT

water-wettable

powder at a rate of about 200 milligrams of DDT

per

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DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH square foot. Anopheles aztectts and

157

Anopheles albi-

manus were the mosquitoes used in these experiments. Adobe made with lake-bottom loamy soil with high organic content allowed the DDT

to retain a high

degree of activity for nearly three full years. Sandy clay from the State of Morelos held activity for a year and more. On

the other hand, the red clayey

soil from the State of Michoaca'n and deltaic deposit from

the Coyuca River in the State of Guerrero

inactivated the DDT It was

in three to six months.

found that this loss of activity was due to

sorption of the DDT,

with attendant Joss of crystal-

line structure, and

later actual decomposition, or

dehydrochlorination^ of the DDT.

Chemical analyses

reveal that the soils which catalyze the decomposition of DDT

most effectively are those highest in iron and

aluminum. The

conclusion

is that the iron oxide

fraction of the soil is responsible for the catalytic activity. The method worked out for determining the dehydrochlorination activity of different soils makes it possible to test a given soil in as short a time as three hours, thus eliminating the need for more timeconsuming soil analyses. The problem of very rapid decomposition of

DDT

when in contact with some soils demands the development of a practical method to avoid such decomposition. Whitewashed surfaces, for example, seem to retain DDT

activity for relatively long periods of

time, provided that whitewashes with low iron content are used. A search is being made for substances which can be added to the spray mixtures to inhibit the decomposition

of the DDT

by

blocking the

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THE ROCKEFELLER

catalyst.

Different

results

FOUNDATION

may

depending on whether the DDT

be

obtained also,

is applied as kerosene

solution, emulsion, or suspension of water-wettable powder. The

suspensions have been observed to be

more effective than kerosene solutions because the solutions sink deeper into the adobe, out of effective range as a contact insecticide, and

come in closer

contact with iron oxides in the adobe.

BRAZIL Malaria Institute During 1951 a Foundation staff member continued to cooperate with the personnel of the entomological laboratory of the Malaria Institute at Rio de Janeiro in testing insecticides, herbicides and

molluscacides

and their methods of application. Work was begun on malaria infection in primates, and

a field station for

raising mosquitoes has been set up. Because

malaria

mosquitoes

were

using water-

holding plants (bromeliads) as breeding places, the species control of bromeliads had

been worked out

in the laboratory, using 2,4, 5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The

acid can be applied directly to the plants

by means of a telescopic aluminum pole. This technique is now

ready for field rests,

ISLAND OF TOBAGO Control of Anopheles aquasaUs The malaria division of the Medical Department of Trinidad and Tobago continued its campaign for the control

and

possible

eradication

of

malaria

Anopheles aquasalis from the Island of Tobago.

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

and

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH The

159

campaign has been a cooperative project with

the International Health Division since 1948. In 1951 a grant in aid of $5,400 was

made available for the

support of this project. The

work of draining all

except two of the larger swamps was completed or nearing completion, while the usual residual spraying of all houses and an active larval control campaign were continued. No

adult aquasalis were caught, but

occasional larvae are still found in the undrained areas. The

incidence of malaria has fallen to an insignificant

level. Unfortunately

much

of the mosquito

breeding

swampland problem is caused by shifting sand and debris at the tidewater outlets of streams and ditches. Especially during the dry season, the wave action and

tides build up bars which close the sea outlets.

Although much has been accomplished by draining the larger swamps, oiling along streams and spraying houses with DDT, and

more drainage work is in prospect,

measures against the mosquitoes in both their

larval and adult stages must be continued.

VENEZUELA Nation-wide Control Campaign Some five years ago, the Venezuelan government and

The

Rockefeller Foundation

established a co-

operative malaria research laboratory at Maracay. In charge of the laboratory and head of the Division of Malariology

of the

National Health

Department

since 1936 is Dr. Arnoldo Gabaldon. Dr. Gabaldon is a former fellow of the International Health Division. Closely

coordinated

with

Venezuela's

nation-wide

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malaria control campaign the research program has been primarily concerned with testing the effectiveness of residual tomids and

insecticides on

other

mosquitoes, tria-

insects of medical

importance.

Studies have been made on the biology of various species offlies,and special tests were run on a strain ofCulex that has shown mutations following exposure to

DDT. In connection with experiments to breed a DDT-

resistant race of Culex fatigans, it is of interest that gynandromorphism

appeared

sixth filial generation. Of obtained

from

the sixth

in specimens of the

8,751

adult mosquitoes

through

the

tenth filial

generations, 50 gynandromorphs were observed. A form of hermaphroditism in which certain parts of the body reveal both male and female characters, gynandromorphism is very rare among mosquitoes. Up to the present time, only 25 mosquito gynandromorphs have been reported in the scientific literature. LABORATORIES OF THE DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH Plasmodium Studies Simultaneously

with

its field programs

in

the

control of malaria, The Rockefeller Foundation since 1933 has carried on extensive laboratory investigations on the malaria parasite and

its behavior in the

mosquito and the vertebrate host. With the close of the investigations in 1951 it was felt that many new avenues had been opened up which might be profitable to other workers.

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

l6l

The purpose of the malaria investigations has been to

discover

a

chemical

means of destroying

the

malaria parasite, or plasmodium, during its cycle in the human host. While there are several drugs that will suppress the disease, medical science at the present time has no

way

of curing the vivax type of

malaria, one of the two types that commonly attack man.

Because

the vivax parasite can

apparently

maintain itself indefinitely somewhere in the human body, it may

cause relapses over a period of years.

To find some new

line of attack, much attention

has been given to studying the life of the parasite. It passes its sexual cycle in certain species of anopheline mosquitoes, but once it has entered the human body or some other vertebrate host through the bite of an infected mosquito, it starts an which

asexual cycle

is not completely understood. In one

of its

several phases it grows and multiplies in the red blood cells, in another it apparently hides out in the liver. Some phases of the cycle are particularly resistant to drug therapy. The

laboratory

staff early recognized

that

one

important thing to look for was a difference between human metabolism and plasmodium metabolism. The search was complicated by the fact that the metabolic requirements of the parasite are astonishingly similar to

those

of man.

However, if some

critical

step

necessary to the parasite but not necessary to

man

could be detected, it might be possible to devise a drug

that

would

neutralize

that

step

and

thus

interrupt the chain of biochemical reactions by which

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the parasite lives. Such a drug would be injurious to the parasite but harmless to man. The

parasite most used

throughout

the malaria

studies was Plasmodium gallinaceumy which causes malaria in chickens. Aedes aegypti served as the insect host because it will transmit avian malaria in the laboratory and

is easily bred in captivity.

Copper Studies The malaria parasite has many types of hosts, but only one type of vector, the mosquito. On

the theory

that the parasite is highly adapted to the mosquito vector, an

attempt

was

made

to learn

whether

there was something in the mosquito's metabolism which

was not in man's and which, through long

association, had

become essential

to the parasite.

Arthropods are known to possess a high concentration of copper. Moreover, malaria-infected blood has a higher concentration of copper than healthy blood. Copper is presumed to serve as part of an oxidizing enzyme, and therefore the amount of oxygen being taken up by the malaria parasite is an index to the activity of copper. If copper could be neutralized by some reagent, the effect should be inactivation of the enzyme and thus a decrease in the amount of oxygen being

taken

up. Evidence was

obtained

that

the

parasite has an enzyme system or systems which can be blocked by a copper inhibitor. However, it was subsequently found that a similar blocking effect was produced

when

the same

inhibitors

were

tested

against tissues of the chicken, the vertebrate host of the parasite.

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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163

In another approach to investigating the possibility of key metallo-enzyme systems common to parasite and or

vector, the following agents known to chelate, bind, with

copper

against the parasite and

were

tested

for

activity

against A. aegypti larvae:

phenylthiourea, cupron, salicylaldoxime, potassium ethyl xanthate and the 8-hydroxyquinoline and oxine. All

agents, with

the exception

of oxine,

activity against both parasite and

showed

larvae but were

more active as larvicidal than as parasiticidal agents. The

tests for activity against the parasite were made

with sporozoites. (The

sporozoite is the form of the

parasite which is liberated from the oocysts located in the wall of the mosquito's stomach. The-sporozoites accumulate in the salivary glands and are transferred to man

in the act of feeding.) Oxine was much more

active against the sporozoite than the other agents studied, whereas its larvicidal potency was about the same as that of the other agents. In addition, sodium cyanide was

tested, as it is a

known inhibitor of both copper- and iron-containing enzymes. This substance was

much more effective

against the insect than against the parasite. Several known antimalarial drugs tested comparative manner were shown

in this

to have a much

greater degree of activity against the parasite than against the mosquito. In summaryj it was found that agents known to chelate with copper all inhibit to some degree the activity

of

the sporozoite

form

of

the

parasite.

Whether the activity of these copper-chelating agents can be taken as proof of the general importance of

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

copper to the parasite remains open to question. The addition of copper not only fails to reverse the inhibitory effect but, in certain cases, markedly enhances it. The

lack

of correlation

degree of parasiticidal and

observed

larvicidal action of the

metal chelators, on the one hand, and malarial drugs, on

between the

of the anti-

the other, does not favor the

hypothesis of key metabolic systems common to the parasite and

the insect host. However, only a rela-

tively small group of inhibitors has been studied in this comparative manner, and

it is entirely possible

that the extension of the same method to a variety of other types of inhibitors might yield more definitive results.

Parasite Growth Studies The

growth processes of the parasite were also

studied. Phosphorus is an essential element for the synthesis of many fats, proteins and nucleic acids and may form

be introduced into the growth medium in the of radioactive phosphate, which serves as a

tracer. In studies made with intact normal and parasitized cells it was

found

that the radioactivity of

various fractions of the cells was

significantly higher

in

cells. The

parasitized

than

in normal

greatest

differential activity in favor of the parasitized cell was found in nucleic acids. One contained

radioactivity

only

nucleic acid fraction

in the

case of para-

sitized cells, whereas the corresponding normal cell fraction was

completely inert. The

incorporation of

radioactive phosphorus into this nucleic acid fraction presumably

implies the synthesis of new

fraction.

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH Since such synthesis does not occur in the mature normal

cells

but

seems specifically

related

to the

presence of the parasite, the amount of radioactivity can be used

as a quantitative measure of parasite

growth processes. Such a technique has the advantage of complete objectivity which is lacking in the comparative examination of stained films. It also permits the detection

of much smaller differences between

various experimental

preparations than is possible

by film examinations.

In Vitro Studies The

blood, or erythrocytic, form of the parasite

was studied both by investigation of the conditions necessary for its prolonged cultivation in vitro

and

by determination of certain of its biochemical and metabolic major

characteristics.

requirements

Plasmodium

for

Optimal successful

gallinaceum

were

conditions cultivation

determined.

and of

Blood

plasma contains constituents essential to the parasite or parasitized cell. It was

suspected, however, that

certain components of plasma exert an unfavorable effect upon parasite multiplication. Solution of these difficulties was found by modifying a medium which was reported successful for the cultivation of lysed cell

preparations

of Plasmodium

lophurae, a fowl

malaria parasite. The medium consisted of a very high concentration of fresh normal red cell extract prepared in heat-inactivated plasma. The

highly concentrated

extract seemed an effective substitute for excess red blood cells. With this medium it was

found possible

to carry one culture through eight generations over

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

a period of 13 days without decrease in parasite concentration. Another culture was carried through ten generations with no decrease in the number of parasites as determined by direct count and by inoculation into chicks. That the parasites thus cultivated were in all respects normal was indicated by successful infection of mosquitoes on chicks inoculated from the culture with, in turn, successful transmission of the infection

via

these

mosquitoes

to normal chicks.

With the termination of the malaria program this culture

was

discontinued, although

there

was

no

reason to believe that it could not have been maintained indefinitely.

OTHER STUDIES INDIA Mysore State Anemia Studies The Mysore State anemia investigations, started in 1949 as a cooperative enterprise with

the Indian

Health Department, were continued during 1951 and a grant of $3,500 has been made to assist this work during 1952. The field studies have confirmed the expected

high percentage of anemias in the

area.

As the data available for evaluating the background of these anemias is insufficient, complete hematological examinations, stool examinations, blood smear examinations for malaria parasites, diet studies and general physical examinations were made whenever possible. The field studies of the Closepet health center area were completed early in 1951. These studies showed a

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167

high prevalence of microcytic-hypochromic anemia, confirming preliminary

observations. Anemias were

particularly prevalent and severe in the adult female group, presumably

accentuated

by

the stress of

repeated childbearing. Similar field studies were conducted in the Chickmagalur District, an area of high rainfall, formerly very malarious, and are now Chitaldrug District. In positive

reactions to

under way

in the drier

the Chickmagalur District

serological

syphilis

tests oc-

curred in 5 per cent of the persons tested, while in the Chitaldrug

District 30

to 40

per cent reacted

positively. Although the reasons for this apparently high syphilis rate may

not be of much importance as

a causative factor in anemia, they do call attention to the extent of the syphilis problem.

TENNESSEE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH Williamson County Tuberculosis Study The Williamson County Tuberculosis Study of the Tennessee Department of Public Health

has

since its initiation in 1931, the support of The feller Foundation. In

had,

Rocke-

1951 a grant of $17,160

was

made to continue this epidemiological study during the coming year. The findings are made available for teaching purposes in connection with the medical and nursing courses at Vanderbiit University. An early and significant finding of the study group was the high incidence in the county of persons with pulmonary calcifications. When these persons were checked by the tuberculin skin test, it was found that many

of

the

pulmonary

calcifications

were

not

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associated with tuberculous infection. A fungus disease, histoplasmosis, caused

by Histoplasma capsu-

latum, is probably the major cause of the pulmonary calcifications. During the past year the study group succeeded in isolating H. capsulatum from samples of soil from two different parts of the county. To trace various sources of infection, the testing of cattle for histoplasmosis has been started and laboratory studies of the disease have been extended. One of the primary methods used in the long-range program of the study of tuberculosis is the investigation of households with at least one

tubercular

member. In the past year, tuberculosis attack and death rates were analyzed for 1,358 household associates of 298 sputum-positive index cases which had been investigated during the 2o~year period of the study. Two

racial groups, white and Negro, were

studied and the amount of information obtained for each was

sufficient to permit analysis according to

age, sex and relationship of the household associates to the index case. In general, in all the categories the attack rates for the Negro associates were higher than for the white associates. The investigations according to age and sex showed tliat

the

females —

highest

attack

rates

occurred

in young

white females from 15 to 34 years old and

Negro females from 10 to 24 years old. The rate for males was

attack

lower but5 as in the case of the

females, the critical period for the incidence of the disease also tended to be in young adult life.

The

attack and death rates for the close relatives (parents,

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

169

children, and brothers and sisters) were two or three times

higher

than

for the other

members of the

household group.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES MENTAL HEALTH AND DISEASE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR MENTAL HEALTH General Support The National Association for Mental Health came into being in September 1950 through the merger of the three largest voluntary organizations in the field of mental

hygiene: the

National

Committee for

Mental Hygiene, the National Mental Health Foundation and the Psychiatric Foundation. The

consoli-

dation stemmed from the conviction, shared by all three agencies, that adequate promotion of mental hygiene in the United

States required pooling the

efforts of all concerned into one national association. The

new

organization places

building up

diversified and

strong

widespread

emphasis on support for

mental health activities on the state and local levels. The

program

of the association is threefold: to

continue the educational and

service activities of its

parent organizations; to give direction and

stimulus

to some 100 existing mental health societies throughout

the country, creating additional local societies

where advisable; and to conduct a vigorous campaign for funds from large numbers of individual contributors. In order to implement the first two of these

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goals the association is engaged in activities which include: i) Support for research projects on dementia praecox a) A hospital rating program for raising the standards of public and private mental hospitals 3) Preparation of professional and public educational material in the form of books, pamphlets, manuals, surveys, bibliographies, guides and exhibit material 4) Publication

of two

quarterly journals, Mental

Hygiene and Understanding the Child 5) Efforts to raise the level of training for mental hospital attendants and psychiatric aides 6) Studies of commitment procedures and of laws relating to the insane and mentally defective and to hospital practices 7) Advice to psychiatric and child guidance clinics The successful expansion of these activities requires fulfillment of the third goal. The mental hospitals and

level of care in our

child guidance clinics will de-

pend considerably on a broadened base of public support for mental health. A strong national voluntary organization is probably the most effective stimulus to such support. In recognition of this The

Rocke-

feller Foundation, which has given substantial assistance to the National Committee for Mental Hygiene and the National Mental Health Foundation, in 1951 appropriated $100,000, available for one year, to the National Association for Mental Health. UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO Psychotherapy Despite

the amount of public

and

professional

attention recently directed toward expanding facilities

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH for the treatment and

IJI

prevention of mental illness,

there is a paucity of data on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Little valid information exists on important points as how and feeling occur, how

such

often changes in behavior

long such changes last or what

conditions are most favorable for their appearance. This lack of accurate knowledge is the quite natural result of many factors, such as the intrinsic difficulty of the problem, the tendency of science to attack the less complex problems first and

the relative lack of

trained investigators in the profession of psychiatry. Nevertheless it seems desirable to encourage whenever possible the development of methods for evaluating and improving the results now

obtainable by

psychotherapy. One form of psychotherapy which has some peculiar advantages as a preliminary subject of study is that known

as client-centered

or nondirective

therapy.

It is based on rather simple assumptions, requires a relatively short period of time and

is largely used in

patients whose emotional problems are not

so in-

capacitating (and are presumably not so complicated) as those encountered in medical clinics. Furthermore it is a subject of considerable interest to professional psychologists, many of whom have given a good deal of thought to developing methods of scientific measurement of the elements of human behavior. The

principal protagonist of this method is Dr.

Carl R. Rogers, director of the Counseling Center of the University of Chicago. The

center, a division of

the university's Department of Psychology, offers assistance both to members of the university and to

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION the community at large and provides training in the special

nondirective

psychotherapeutic

techniques

pioneered by Dr. Rogers. During the past four or five years Dr. Rogers and his co-workers, who

include eight faculty members

from the Department of Psychology and about 10 candidates for the doctorate degree in clinical psychology^ have been devoting a large part of their energies to investigating the nature of the psychotherapeutic process. This research aspect of the center's activities has had the support of The Rockefeller Foundation

since

1949. In

1951

the Foundation

renewed its aid with a grant of $127,000 to help cover the expenses to be incurred during the coming threeyear period. The

current research program at the Counseling

Center is concerned with devising procedures for identifying the changes which may

occur in the client

during the course of therapy and also with analyzing the results so as to test the basic tenets of the psychotherapeutic method itself. All therapeutic interviews are recorded in their entirety. The

recordings are

then examined almost word by word for clues as to what is happening in the relationship between client and

the

the therapist. Records are also kept of

various physiological changes and

of the way

the

patient adjusts to his home and business situation. In this way

it is proving possible to identify significant

changes resulting from therapy and to assess in some measure the efficacy of treatment, It is hoped that some of the procedures under investigation at the University of Chicago may

be adopted for use by

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173

other groups and extended to the study of other types of treatment.

CLINICAL RESEARCH UNIVERSITY OF AMSTERDAM Psychosomatic Medicine One

of the medical cJinics in Europe interested in

the emotional aspects of organic illness is the psychosomatic

unit directed

by

Dr. Juda

Groen

at the

Wilhelmina Hospital, the principal teaching hospital associated with the University of Amsterdam. This unit was established by Dr. Groen with Rockefeller Foundation assistance shortly after the close of World War

II as a result of wartime experiences that con-

vinced

him

of the relationship between emotional

stress and organic disease. The unit has since become an

integral part

of the hospital

and

operates in

close cooperation with several other clinical departments, notably the Department of Psychiatry. Dr.

Groen's original findings concerned

the in-

testinal disorder known as ulcerative colitis; it was found that when emotional strain was colitis promptly improved. The

relieved the

program at the Wil-

helmina Hospital has thus far concentrated

mainly

on bronchial asthma, peptic ulcer and hypertension, plus additional cases of ulcerative colitis. Investigations on psychosomatic relationships in rheumatoid arthritis, hyperthyroidism,

diabetes

and

multiple

sclerosis are also under way. In an interesting project on cholesterol metabolism, Dr. Groen and his collaborators

have

found

that

emotional

stress

can

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

alter the blood cholesterol level entirely independently of the subject's diet, a finding which may

have some

bearing on the origin of degenerative diseases. For continuation and expansion of this program in psychosomatic medicine at the Wilhelmina Hospital, the Foundation in 1951 made a five-year grant of 158,500 to the University of Amsterdam. Plans for the future lie along two

main lines. The first is a

continuation of the effort to identify and psychogenic factors in diseases function is disturbed. The gram, in which

analyze

where physiologic

second phase of the pro-

the Department of Psychiatry co-

operates closely, is directed at developing convenient, reasonably rapid and economical methods of therapy. Dr. Groen is primarily a specialist in internal medicine, hence his interest in finding psychotherapeutic techniques which can usual

methods

of

be used as adjuncts to more

treatment. Encouraging

have already been

obtained

in the

of peptic ulcer and

ulcerative colitis, and

results

psychotherapy the group

wishes to explore the possibilities of psychotherapy, including group psychotherapy, in other It is also hoped

to offer training in the

diseases. psychoso-

matic aspects of medicine to young internists will spend periods of six months to one

who

year in the

unit under the combined guidance of the internist, the psychiatrist and

the physiologist.

DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY Psychological Factors in Obstetrics There is growing evidence that the psychological condition and emotional attitudes of the prospective

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175

mother during the prenatal period are important not onJy in the reproductive process itself but

in the

care of the future child as well. With the aid of a threeyear grant of $22,500 from The

Rockefeller Foun-

dation, a study of the psychological and psychiatric factors in pregnancy and

childbirth was

begun in

1951 by the Medical School at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. In this project, a joint undertaking of the partment of Obstetrics

and

Gynecology and

Dethe

Department of Psychiatry, thefirststep consists of determining as precisely as possible the psychological attitudes of women

attending the prenatal clinic.

These attitudes are then correlated with

the pa-

tient's general health during pregnancy and labor. The results of both these steps are in turn applied to an analysis of the subsequent maternal care of the children and

of the children's progress as observed

in the university's child guidance clinic. The

study is

also expected to help in the selection of patients for different methods of delivery. UNIVERSITY OF OREGON MEDICAL SCHOOL Constitutional Medicine Many practicing physicians have noticed from time to time that certain types of diseases tend to appear in certain types of people. Lay

persons, too, have

built up a whole series of generalizations about

who

gets which malady. Thus we have the popular image of the tall, reedy individual who from a "weak chest" and dividual who

is supposed to suffer

the stocky, red-faced in-

is assumed to be a likely candidate for

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

a stroke. However, these impressions have never been organized in a systematic way; the puzzling relationship of body type, or "constitution," to the incidence of disease remains to be clarified. Aided by afive-yeargrant of $ 100,000 from

The

Rockefeller Foundation, the University of Oregon Medical School in 1951 launched a broad-scale investigation into this problem. The

program is under

the direction of Dr. Howard P. Lewis, chairman of the Department of Medicine. The measurement and classification veloped

procedure used

by Dr. William

is the

technique

H. Sheldon

de-

of Columbia

University known as somatotyping. This system involves three fundamental components— endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy — which predominate in varying degrees in different individuals. Of course, very few people represent pure examples of any one type, but in a general way endomorph

it can be stated that the

is rotund, lightly

boned

and

lightly

muscled, the mesomorph sturdy with heavy bones and muscles and the ectomorph slender with a long and narrow

musculoskeletal development. By

assigning

a graded scale of values (from I to 7) to each component it is possible to arrive at a numerical formula for any given individual. The of

classifying

physique

somatotyping system

is simple

to use, reliable

among different observers and, most important, lends itself easily to statistical analysis. Preliminary use of somatotyping in several clinics has suggested that it is possible to correlate the incidence of certain diseases like peptic ulcer and hyperthyroidism

with

certain

identifiable

body

types.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH Professor Lewis and his group are now

177

attempting

to apply the method to a wide range of unselected cases in order to arrive at statistically valid results. At present only patients entering the general medical clinic are being included in the study, but plans have been made to somatotype patients from the specialty clinics and from the university hospitals later as the program progresses. A large store of information on the body type of patients over the entire organic disease spectrum will thus be built up. It is hoped that careful

analysis of this data

will

help

bring

the

discipline of constitutional medicine to a point where it will be utilizable for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disease. UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA Dight Institute for Human Genetics The sum of $27,300 was granted by The Rockefeller Foundation to the University of Minnesota in 1951 for research at the Dight Institute for Human Genetics over a period of three years. The

institute

was established in 1941 through a bequest from Dr, Charles F, Dight of Minneapolis for the purposes of providing education in human genetics, carrying on research

and

furnishing

free counseling service to

people with genetic problems. The institute are directed geneticist. Dr. Ray

by

activities of the

Dr. Sheldon C. Reed, a

C. Anderson, a physician

who

also is a member of the university's Department of Pediatrics, has chief responsibility for the counseling work. Several graduate students receive training and participate in the institute's program.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION Contacts with the state departments of education and

mental health and

a large collection of family

histories donated to the institute by the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories provide research materials. The state institutions are cooperating actively in studies aimed at unraveling the genetics of human intelligence and

feeble-mindedness. The

institute also en-

joys the advantage of close ties with the university hospitals, which enable it to observe hereditary anomalies that do not ordinarily fall within the purview of a purely scientific organization. The

genetic

advisory service represents a large

segment of the operations of the institute. Dr. Reed and Dr. Anderson work closely together on the analysis of all cases. The

case load, at present about

200 a year, is growing steadily, and mates that it may

soon reach

Dr. Reed esti-

1,000. However, the

counseling program is still primarily experimental in nature, for problems in medical genetics have been pretty much neglected despite the fact that they are quite common. Professor Reed wishes to expand research

program

accumulation

by

and

the institute's

augmenting considerably the

analysis

of scientific

data,

by

following up clients already served to see what effect the

counseling

has

had

counseling service. The

and

by

enlarging

the

aim is to arrive at a sound

and systematic method of handling genetic problems. CHILD RESEARCH COUNCIL OF DENVER Child Development Rockefeller

Foundation

support

for the

Child

Research Council of Denvers Colorado,firstgranted

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179

in 1939, was extended in 1951 with an appropriation of ^25,000 for use during the year beginning October 1955. This action brought to a total of $280,480 the Foundation's contribution toward the council's longrange study

of human

growth

and development.

Under the direction of Dr. Alfred H. Wash burn, steady progress has been made toward the ultimate goal of defining normal growth and behavior patterns in the human being. Close to 100 papers on the results of the

cooperative

investigations

by

the staff of

physicians, psychologists, biochemists, social workers and other specialists have been published, and plans have been made to collate the principal findings in monograph form during the next few years.

THE SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOR ROSCOE B. JACKSON MEMORIAL LABORATORY Genetic Psychology For

the last six years

the Roscoe B. Jackson

Memorial Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, aided by grants from The

Rockefeller Foundation, has been

conducting a study of the genetic aspects of behavior, with dogs as the primary experimental subjects. As a result of this work it has

been demonstrated

that

different strains of dogs exhibit differences in speed of learning, in presence and

intensity of emotional

reactions to specific stimuli and in degree of dependency on other dogs. In other words, the effect of the environment is not

uniform, but

is influenced

by

factors operating within the animals. What are these factors that mediate the effect, as expressed havior, of a given

stimulus on

in be-

a given species of

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

animal? It is not enough

to say

that such factors

represent basic differences in the make-up of the animals. It is important to find out how

these differ-

ences in make-up are produced. At Bar Harbor a genetic explanation is being sought through a crossbreeding program that should bring to light the hereditary mechanisms underlying variations in canine behavior from strain to strain. A program such as this, which can ultimately help show what is behind dissimilarities in human

behavior,

requires a considerable span of time in order to realize its full potentialities. The extended

for another

Foundation therefore has

year its present

support of

$50,000 annually; a 1951 appropriation of $50,000 assures Foundation assistance to the genetic research program at the Jackson Memorial Laboratory through the end of February 1954.

YERKES LABORATORIES OP PRIMATE BIOLOGY Rockefeller Foundation assistance for the Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology began in 1925 with a grant to Yale University for anthropoid research. Since then

the Foundation has provided over one

million dollars for support and laboratories, which

development of the

are located

in

Orange

Park,

Florida. Current Foundation aid in the form of a forward .contribution of $40,000 a year toward the general budget of the laboratories was

extended in

1951 with a $40,000 appropriation for use during the year beginning July I, 1954. The laboratories, now under the joint sponsorship of Harvard University and Yale University, were

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH established

like those at Bar

Harbor on

l8l

the basic

premise that study of a controlled subhuman group (mostly chimpanzees in this case) could do much to further the understanding of human behavior. The present program, directed by Dr. Karl S. Lashley, a distinguished experimental psychologist, is proceeding along four main lines: continued study of behavioral development; research on attitude

in

adult

motivation, interest and

animals; investigation

interaction in animal groups; and

of social

studies on birth

injuries.

HARVARD UNIVERSITY Physiology of Behavior Patterns The

Laboratory of Social Relations at Harvard

University was

established in 1947 to promote co-

operative research on problems of human behavior. Its program includes both experimental investigation on fundamental aspects of behavior (such as learning, memory and perception) and field studies of complex social relationships. A prominent feature of the laboratory's approach to the study of human relations is its attempt to bridge the gap between physiological psychology on the one hand and personality and social psychology on the other. In 1951 The the sum

Rockefeller Foundation appropriated

of $75,000, available for a five-year period,

to Harvard University to assist a research

program

dealing with the physiological aspects of the development of behavior patterns. The program is carried out by Dr. Richard L. Solomon, associate director of the Laboratory of Social Relations, in collaboration

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION with Dr. Lyman C. Wynne and Dr. John M. Whiting. Its central aim is to work out on animals, in this case dogs, the basic means by which the nervous system elaborates durable patterns of response to environmental changes. The

current investigations represent an extension

of earlier studies of "conditioned avoidance" reactions conducted by Dr. Solomon under a grant in aid from the Foundation. In conditioned avoidance reactions an animal learns to avoid a painful stimulus by

responding to an associated innocuous stimulus

toward

which

an

anxiety

state is built up.

Once

learned, avoidance reactions are almost impossible to extinguish, in contrast to the ordinary Pavlovian conditioned reflex, which can be eliminated without too much difficulty. The

group at Harvard

found

that some dogs would accept "punishment" as many as 200 times rather than remain in the presence of a signal that had previously warned them of an impending unpleasant experience. The development of anxiety

was

reexciting

shown

circle

to depend

of

activity

in part which

on

a self-

involves

the

sympathetic as well as the central nervous system. In other words, once a mild fear state is set up it produces physiological effects, such as an increased heart rate

and

constriction

of blood

vessels, and

these

sympathetic nervous system responses seem to serve as additional stimuli capable of increasing the central nervous system

anxiety, The

anxiety in turn

may

be the factor responsible for reinforcing the avoidance response

and

for preventing

the

obliteration

of

avoidance learning.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH As part of their program

183

Dr. Solomon and his

colleagues are exploring the possibilities of modifying these avoidance behavior patterns by various operative procedures. Also being tested is the effect of different social environments on

the persistence of

avoidance reactions. Closely allied to this work on anxiety and

avoidance learning are investigations

of abnormal behavior patterns and the production of emotional states akin to human guilt feelings. While information obtained with animals obviously cannot be applied directly to human beings, animal behavior patterns are enough alike to justify a working hypothesis that the basic principles of behavior throughout the animal series are similar. The ability

of avoidance

reactions in dogs

and

durtheir

resistance to "unlearning" or to any form of " therapy," for example, resemble strikingly some of the phobias that occur in human beings. MCGILL UNIVERSITY Perception and Learning McGill University, Montreal, in 1951 received a three-year grant of $30,000 from Foundation

for research on

The

Rockefeller

the physiological basis

of behavior under the direction of Professor Donald O. Hebb. Dr. Hebb, who is chairman of the university's Department of Psychology, has been engaged for many years in the study of the neurological events underlying the phenomena of learning, perception, memory and emotional expression, with the aim of developing a general theory of behavior founded on nervous system function.

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Because perception and learning underlie many of the other more complicated

elements of behavior,

understanding of these two almost inseparable phenomena is indispensable to the formulation of such a theory. Whereas the studies at Harvard described above are concerned with the mechanisms of avoidance reactions, Dr. Hebb's group is endeavoring to account for the persistence of positive, learned responses to particular stimuli. The

conditioned reflex

theory of pathways in the nervous tissue works very well with relatively simple stimuli such as the ringing of a bell or the flashing of a light. Difficulty arises, however, with more complicated or abstract stimuli: for example, an animal conditioned to respond to a circle responds to two-inch circles as well as to fourinch

circles

despite

the

obvious

difference

in

the

nerve cells that are excited. In other words, the animal responds to circularity, an abstraction. Considerations such as these imply that perception may

not be the simple, immediate phenomenon that

it seems by introspection, an idea now

being tested by

the group at McGill. Working with rats and dogs, Dr. Hebb and his colleagues are analyzing the process of perception into a series of subprocesses which

Dr.

Hebb terms "phase sequences,51 According to this theory, phase sequences learned early in life remain available to be put together into more complex perceptions and concepts later on as the occasion arises. The nonuni tary nature of perception is supported by observations on human behavior. Persons relieved by operation from congenital blindness are found to require months to learn to recognize the simplest visual

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DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

185

patterns, even though they "see" them as soon as vision

is restored. This has

been confirmed

experimental conditions in animals, and

under

at present

Dr. Hebb and his group are giving particular attention to the way the animal with integrated

into

intelligence. The

in which early experience provides the mechanisms which perceptions, concepts

are later

and

general

influence of genetic variability in

this process is also being studied. It is interesting that the experimental analysis of perception and learning has substantiated in at least one important respect the conclusions drawn from clinical experience with neurotic patients— the first few

years of life are critically significant for later

development of the personality.

It is hoped

that

further analysis of perception and learning will bring these two basic functions together in a self-consistent scheme and thereby lead to better understanding of the phenomena of attention, expectancy and psychic conflict or breakdown. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY Psychology of Perception Another

1951

Rockefeller

Foundation

grant in

support of perception studies was in the amount of $25,000 to Princeton University. This renews previous Foundation

aid amounting

for research conducted chology

in

to $95,000 since

1948

in the Department of Psy-

collaboration

with

Professor

Adelbert

Ames, Jr., of the Institute for Associated Research, Hanover, New

Hampshire. This work

is a direct

outgrowth of earlier basic studies in visual perception

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

carried out by Professor Ames before his retirement from

the faculty of Dartmouth College. Professor

Ames's original research, which also received assistance from the Foundation, focused on space perception. In

the present

Princeton-Hanover program,

the research emphasis is upon factors involved in the perception of movement, particularly the extent to which

past

experience

enters

into

the

ability to

perceive the objective world in motion. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Committee for Research in Problems of Sex The

Committee for Research in Problems of Sex

of the National Research Council has for the past 26 years been seeking out and supporting a wide variety of carefully selected projects in research on reproduction. Present knowledge of the basic role of the endocrine factors in reproductive physiology derives in large part from work supported by the committee. This knowledge in turn is serving as background for studies of the more complex behavioral and emotional aspects of sexual behavior in lower animals and

man.

The committee is now concentrating on two major interests. The first of these is its program of grants to investigators in universities throughout for research

on

such

subjects

the country

as the neural

and

hormonal basis of vertebrate sexual behavior; the biology

of sexual

differentiation

in

protozoa; the

physiologic action of the hormone progesterone in human

subjects; the mechanism of sexual development

in bees with both male and and

female characteristics;

the physiology of the oviduct, of fertilization

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and

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

187

of embryonic implantation

The

other

main

interest

of

the

in mammals.

committee

is in the

work of Dr. Alfred C. Kinsey and his colleagues at the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University. The first volume based

on the behavioral studies

carried out by this group was Sexual Behavior in the Human Male; the second volume, Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, is scheduled for publication at an early date; and the third volume, on the legal aspects of sexual behavior and aimed primarily at lawyers, administrators of penal institutions and committees, is now

legislative

in preparation.

Rockefeller Foundation assistance to the Committee for Research in Problems of Sex began in 1931; a current grant provides support at a rate of $80,000 a year through the middle of 1952. This aid was continued in 1951 with an appropriation of $160,000 for the following two years. As in prior years, 50 per cent of these funds is for the support of the group under Dr. Kinsey at the Indiana institute and 40 per cent is toward

support of the several smaller research

projects, with the remaining 10 per cent for general administrative purposes.

PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF OSLO Respiratory Physiology The

University of Oslo in 1951 received a three-

year appropriation of $19,500 from The

Rockefeller

Foundation to help establish a research laboratory of respiratory physiology. Modern surgical treatment

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

of thoracic lesions requires

accurate, reliable

and

objective methods of determining the patient's pulmonary function

as well as his circulatory

status.

Before such methods can be made available, there must be clearer and

more detailed

knowledge of

pulmonary physiology. The

director of the Oslo laboratory is Dr. Carl

Semb, professor of surgery, who has a special interest in

thoracic, cardiac

and

respiratory

surgery.

The

laboratory has been set up at the Ulleval Hospital, one

of the largest teaching hospitals in Oslo

and

recently officially recognized as a university affiliate. The large number of patients at the hospital will make it possible for Professor Semb and his co-workers to have adequate groups both of subjects with ailments and

of subjects

with

Jung

normal pulmonary

function. At present the major part of the work consists of studies that will refine existing methods for measuring the respiratory and circulatory processes. This program, which it is hoped to expand later to include the development of new

experimental tech-

niques, receives support from the Norwegian National Research Council and from industrial firms interested in respiratory research, as well as from the Foundation, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS Brain Chemistry Research

in neurochemistry

was

aided

by

The

Rockefeller Foundation in 1951 through a three-year grant of $24,000 to the University of Illinois for work under the direction of Dr. James A. Bain. Dr. Bain, who is a biochemist, teaches pharmacology to students

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH at the university's College of Medicine. The

189

major

portion of his time, however, is spent at the university-affiliated Illinois Neuropsychiatric Institute, where he supervises the training of several graduate students and conducts an active research program in the basic cellular metabolism of the brain. The

principal focus of this program is the metab-

olism of the brain in epilepsy. Electroencephalography has revealed that in the course of an epileptic fit the electrical activity of the brain increases. Dr. Bain is working on the chemical events that may

underlie

or accompany this heightened activity. The sources of energy

main

for chemical transformations in

nerve and muscle cells are what are known as the phosphate bonds, or linkages, within highly complex organic constituents of the cells. As a result of several series of preliminary experiments, Dr. Bain and his group are now

concentrating their attention on the

process which triggers the breakdown of these phosphate bonds, thereby releasing their energy. Work is also going forward on the metabolic effect of drugs whose anticonvulsant properties

may

new

make

them useful in the clinical treatment of epilepsy. NEW YORK UNIVERSITY Rehabilitation of Neurological Patients Interest in the rehabilitation of persons handicapped by was

the loss or paralysis of one or more extremities greatly

stimulated

by

World

aroused, this interest spread

War

naturally

II. Once to include

rehabilitation of persons incapacitated by disease of the nervous system, which often produces the same

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

kind of disability that injury does. The whole concept of rehabilitation took firm root as medical workers, social workers and lay persons alike realized that to stop the ravages of disabling disease the patient must be started on a new road toward self-sufficiency. In

1947 New

York

University

Institute of Physical Medicine and

established the Rehabilitation

with the specific aim of helping those whom disease of the nervous system had incapacitated to overcome their handicaps. In the five years of its existence the institute, which

is headed

by

Dr. Howard

Rusk,

former director of the Air Force rehabilitation program, has become a prominent center of public and professional

interest

in

rehabilitation. It recently

moved into new and specially constructed

quarters,

with about 80 in-patient beds and a large variety of treatment rooms. Undergraduate students from the university's medical school here have a first-hand opportunity to observe what new attitudes and

new

therapeutic procedures can accomplish in rehabilitating the handicapped. Advanced training in rehabilitation is provided for four resident physicians. In

addition to carrying on

its clinical services,

which are now on a self-supporting basis, the institute is also at work on a number of research

projects.

Among the most significant of these is the program now

being conducted jointly by the institute and the

university's Department of Neurology, of which Dr. S. Bernard Wortis is chairman. The

objective of the

study is to adapt procedures developed for the rehabilitation of persons handicapped through trauma to the treatment of chronic degenerative diseases of

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH the nervous system. The problem of rehabilitating the neurologically disabled is more complicated than the task of rehabilitating the injured, since most neurological diseases tend to be progressive. This means that the patient must be helped to adjust to a worsening situation

and

enabled to function

adequately

as long as possible. Rehabilitation techniques should therefore

ideally

methods directed

be

integrated

with

therapeutic

at slowing down or halting the

disease itself. This consideration has led the joint research unit to undertake a broad program of study which includes both rehabilitation per se and

a comprehensive in-

vestigation of the physiological and

metabolic dis-

turbances underlying the major neurological diseases. Through this approach it is hoped both to advance the scientific basis of rehabilitation and to demonstrate how

a well-integrated

restore increased

rehabilitation

program

can

numbers of the "helpless'* to a

reasonably normal, productive and happy life.

The

Rockefeller Foundation, with whose assistance the project was

initiated in 1949, this year allocated the

sum of $85,320 to New

York University for support

of the work over an additional five-year period, BRITISH MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL National Institute for Medical Research The

central laboratory for all of Great Britain for

research in fundamental problems of biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology and

other basic medical

sciences is the National Institute for Medical

Re-

search at Mill Hill, London. Its director is Sir Charles

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Harington, who

serves also as head of the Division of

Biochemistry. The

British Medical Research Council

sponsors the institute, and

the British

government

has furnished funds for most of the large array of modern

equipment

equipment is now

needed

by

the institute. This

complete except for two

major

pieces of apparatus currently unavailable in Great Britain. In order to permit the institute to acquire these essential research tools. The

Rockefeller Foun-

dation in 1951 made a grant of $38,000 to the British Medical Research Council. The

two instruments in question, which are to be

purchased in the United States, are an ultracentrifuge and

an infrared spectrophotometer with accessories.

Both will be at the disposal of all departments of the institute for use including

study

in a variety of different projects, of

the molecular

structure of an

iodine-containing component of the blood other than thyroxine, investigation of the different growth forms of viruses and work on a number of problems in the field of biophysics.

PROMOTION OF HEALTH SERVICES IRAN Rural Health Demonstration and Training Area As reported in the 1950 Annual Report of the International Health Division of The

Rockefeller Foun-

dation, a local health service was set up in Iran as a cooperative project of the Foundation, the Ministry of Health of the Iranian government and the Medical Faculty of the University of Tehran. Early in 1951

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

s> • ' '•Ti'TTT'^Sffl

N Photograph

Excised

Here

Apparatus for determining cataljtic activity of" soils in the decomposition ofDDT

Xs. ^\^>T K^^11^ ^ TtC^^Sil.

Wj

i

Drainage ditching in the malaria control c a m p a i g n , Mysore State, India

Photograph

Excised

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Here

ug

9&

* $ m

Photograph Excised Here

Research in neiiropliysiology, I'diversity of Pisu

Air view of vilhigc in li:in; "l>oml> craters" ;irc p.irt of the water supply system

Photograph

Excised

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Here

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH a grant of $15,000 was made by

195

the Foundation in

support of this work. The Foundation has since withdrawn from the program, which has been taken over by American Point Four authorities. The rural health agency was set up in the village of Robatkarim, roughly 25 miles agency served

from

as a demonstration

Tehran. This project for an

area comprising three districts with a population of approximately 70,000. Training of public health personnel and

instruction in the practical

aspects of

preventive medicine were primary objectives. Data were collected on the prevalence of certain manifest diseases, on habits relating to personal hygiene, on environmental sanitation, on on

average annual birth

and

infant mortality fertility

and

rates. It is

hoped that this information, some of it collected for the first time, will prove valuable in the course of future public health work in Iran.

CHILE Aconcagua Rural Heaith and Nutrition Service Another Foundation-supported local health project is the rural health and nutrition service of the Province of Aconcagua, Chile. This service was years ago in the Department of San

started

four

Felipe to serve

as a training center for rural health activities and as an experiment in a voluntary coordination of efforts by the various government medical care and health agencies. Government participation in this project was increased from one to four million pesos during the year to allow

extension of the

program to the

remaining two departments of the province. In 1951

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

The Rockefeller Foundation made a grant of $20,250 for further support of the service. ffnThe agriculture-nutrition program, conducted in cooperation tinues

with the Ministry of Agriculture, con-

to grow

and

gain

national

attention. Its

purpose is to raise farm production and improve the nutrition habits of the farm workers. While climatic and soil conditions in Aconcagua make this province one of the richest farming regions of Chile, production is not as high as it might be; moreover, since most of the produce is shipped to the cities of Santiago and Valparaiso, the provincial people frequently have had to buy meat and vegetables elsewhere at a high price. Through a community program in which the farmers and their families are actively participating, hundreds

of home

vegetable gardens

started. Demonstration scientific

cultivation

have

been

agents give instruction in

methods, animal

husbandry,

modern food preparation, preserving and sewing. The teen-agers belong to clubs of their own; they plant their own

gardens, raise rabbits, chickens or pigs and

learn how

to can surplus food. The local committees

of farmers, which meet informally once a month, are well attended, In

the past year the maternal and

infant care

program of the health service was strengthened by the addition to the staff of a full-time pediatrician.

New

well-baby clinics were established, bringing the total of these clinics to seven. The

2,000 infants, 1,600 pre-

school children and 300 pregnant women now being served by

these units represent, respectively, about

75 per cent of the infants in the Department of San

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DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

197

FeJipe, 30 per cent of the preschool children and 40 per cent of the pregnant women. Continuing

its campaign

against

communicable

disease, the health service in 1951 vaccinated 9,000 persons against diphtheria and 2,000 children against whooping cough and diphtheria. Over 10,000 persons or approximately half of the susceptible population of San Felipe were immunized with BCG. This antituberculosis

program

has

been

extended

to the

Departments of Los Andes and Petorca. CHILE Sanitary Engineering The National Department of Sanitary Engineering in Chile has been granted $22,500 for the continuation , during 1952 of its developmental program in sanitary engineering. Active support has been given to this program

by

related

government services and

the

University of Chile. Outside agencies such as the Pan American Sanitary Bureau and the Institute of Inter-American Affairs are also collaborating in an effective manner. The program has received Foundation aid since 1950 and

at the present time is under

the general supervision of a member of the Foundation's field staff who

serves as technical adviser to

the Chilean National Health Service. The

sanitary

engineering program

has already

resulted in coordinated sanitation control and a rapid extension of services. Environmental sanitation programs have been set up in all but the three southernmost provinces of the 24 provinces of Chile. By the end of the year, 25 engineers and numerous auxiliary

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

personnel

were giving

sanitation

and

full

time

to environmental

industrial hygiene. Direct sanitary

control of major water supplies has been established throughout

the country. Garbage

collection

and

disposal methods have been improved. Water and sewerage systems have been extended and increased in number, benefiting several thousand people helping

to develop

a sense

and

of local responsibility

in the rural communities. An important phase of the department's work is the selection and The

new

training of engineers and inspectors.

services have created a pressing need for

professional

training

to reach

the large group

of

engineers responsible for the design, construction and operation of water

and

sewerage systems. Several

members of the industrial hygiene staff have had an opportunity United

to

take

States and

postgraduate courses

in the

will receive technical guidance

in their work from a consultant appointed by the Institute of Inter-American Affairs. By arrangement with the University of Chile, the School of Public Health, in collaboration with the School of Engineering, gave a short course for engineers. Undergraduate courses in municipal engineering and

industrial hy-

giene were also offered during the year. To help the School of Public Health meet these new The

Rockefeller Foundation

demands,

in 1951 made a grant

in aid of $4,000. This school was cooperative

established in 1944 through the

efforts of the National Department of

Health, the University of Chile, the Bacteriological Institute and

The

Rockefeller

Foundation. In its

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DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

199

first seven years it has been successful in training personnel not only for Chile but American countries. It was

also for other South

recently selected

as an

international training center for sanitation personnel by the Pan American Sanitary Bureau.

SMALL APPROPRIATIONS Eight small appropriations, ranging from 586,000 to $12,750, made by The Rockefeller Foundation in the field of public health and

medicine during 1951 are

described briefly below.

UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE The

sum

of $6,000 was

made available to the

University of Melbourne for the purchase of equipment and supplies for its Department of Physiology. This department is one of the important centers in Australia

for teaching

and

research

in the basic

medical sciences. Its research activities center mainly on

the physiology of the digestive tract, with

em-

phasis on the mechanisms of gastrointestinal secretion and absorption. This work requires specialized equipment which at present is unobtainable in Australia and

is difficult to purchase abroad because of current

trade restrictions. Since 1948 The

Rockefeller Foun-

dation has been assisting the university in overcoming this

difficulty. The

1951

grant

will

continue the

assistance for another three years.

CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF CHILE An

appropriation

Rockefeller

of $7,500 was made

Foundation

in

1951

to

assist

by in

The the

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

development of medical education and

research at

the Medical School of the Catholic University of Chile, Santiago. This grant will provide assistance for the work of Professor Hector Croxatto, head of the Department of Physiology, of Professor Joaquin V. Luco, head of the Department of Neurophysiology, and of Professor Luis Vargas, head of the Department of Physiopathology. WALTER AND ELIZA HALL INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, AUSTRALIA The

Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical

Research, Melbourne, is one of the few internationally

known

research

organizations in Australasia.

The

major activity of the institute is basic research

on the nature of viruses. During the past year a study was made of the encephalitis outbreak in the Murray Valley. Currently, the institute is investigating the mosquito Culex apiculorostris as a possible vector of the encephalitis virus. The expenses of the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute are met chiefly by income from endowments and by grants from

the Australian

National Health

and

Medical Research Council. The Rockefeller Foundation in 1951 appropriated $8,300 to the institute to be used for purchasing research equipment. UNIVERSITY OF OSLO Because of their relatively stable populations and the advanced state of their public health methodology, the

Scandinavian

countries

offer

excellent

opportunities for the statistical study of disease. An

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

2OI

example of such work in the field of psychiatry is the program

conducted

by Dr. 0rnulv 0degard, pro-

fessor of psychiatry at the University of Oslo and director

of

the

Gaustad

Mental

Hospital.

Dr.

0degard has devoted his research efforts for the last few years to studies of the incidence of mental disease among the relatives of 250 hospitalized psychotics, He has also prepared a national register of the 40,000 individuals admitted to psychiatric hospitals in Norway

during the period 1916-1947. In order to permit

continuation and expansion of the work under the direction

of Dr. 0degard, The

Rockefeller Foun-

dation in 1951 appropriated $9,000, available until the middle of 1954, to the University of Oslo. JAPANESE MEDICAL SCHOOLS The postwar recovery of Japanese medical education has been handicapped by lack of current journals and medical books from abroad. In 1949 The Rockefeller Foundation set aside the sum

of $30,000 to

provide such materials, and today the supply of books is fairly adequate. Since currency restrictions still impede

the

normal

purchasing

schools, the Foundation

in 1951

activities

of the

allocated another

$10,000, available for one year, to meet the continuing need for journals. As in the case of the 1949 appropriation, the distribution will be supervised by

the

Japanese Council on Medical Education. TULANE UNIVERSITY The

Foundation has made an

appropriation of

$10,000 to Tulane University for research connected

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

with its Jaw-science program. The

purpose of this

program is to improve the usefulness of scientific evidence in deciding legal questions and building a discipline of forensic

to aid in

medicine

through

which modern scientific knowledge of behavior can be applied to the problem of crime. Under the direction of Dr. Hubert Winston Smith, the work has been proceeding along three principal lines: the education of medical students and physicians in regard to their legal rights and

obligations; the improvement

of

methods for obtaining medical evidence in crimes of violence; and the development among lawyers of an understanding of the ways in which natural sciences can

the social

contribute to the

and

formulation

of new laws and administrative procedures. UNIVERSITY OF PISA By means of a 1951 appropriation of $10,900 available for three years to the University of Pisa,

The

Rockefeller Foundation is providing support for the neurophysiological research program of Dr. Giuseppe Moruzzi, a former Foundation fellow and the present director of the Physiology Department. There are three major facets to Professor Moruzzi's program: research

work, which

at present

mainly with impulses deriving from center of the brain and

deals

the olfactory

with the physiology of the

cerebellum; provision of laboratory training for students from all over Italy and also from abroad; and a third phase into which training—Professor

enter both

Moruzzi's

research

interest

and

in Jinking

physiology with anatomy and with physics. With the

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH 2O3 latter interest in mind, Professor Moruzzi is establishing three-year postgraduate research fellowships for three young Italian scientists, one in neuroanatomy, one in neurophysiology and one in biophysics. The

fellows are to devote their full time to research

and

to helping to train graduate students

in the

department. UNIVERSITY OF UTRECHT A Rockefeller Foundation appropriation of $12,750, available for three years, was

made in 1951 to the

University of Utrecht, Netherlands, for support of teaching and research at the Institute of Clinical and Industrial Psychology. The institute

is to

advance

principal purpose of the

the

discipline

of applied

psychology in the Netherlands and to help meet the demands of industry for psychological services and techniques.

GRANTS IN AID

From funds set aside for grants in aid in medical sciences and public health, allotments made during 1951 amounted to $370,545.54. A total of 116 different projects received grants. Fifty-four grants were chiefly for research projects and 62 were travel grants. The 116 grants aided workers in 30 different countries. The

research gran ts covered such expenses as sala-

ries for research

and

technical assistants, research

equipment and supplies, and miscellaneous expenses relating to research programs.

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Travel grants are provided to enable mature research workers or teachers to visit other countries or other laboratories or schools in their own

countries,

where they work, observe and consult with colleagues for varying brief periods of time. The large number of grants for visits in 1951 reflects the continued postwar curiosity of scientists about developments in their fields and

their desire to widen contacts with their

colleagues. Thirty-seven of these travel grants were for visits of persons from foreign countries, either to the United States or to both the United States and Canada; 10, for visits from one foreign country to another; 4 for study or observation in the same country; and 9 for visits of workers in the United States to other countries. Fields of interest included

under

public health and preventive medicine were public health administration, public health nursing, sanitary engineering, malaria, tuberculosis and plague control, the use of insecticides and rodenticides, the study of bacterial

toxins

spectors, The cal

and

the

training

of sanitary in-

interests of other visitors were in medi-

education; psychiatry, neurology

fields; microbiology; thoracic

and

and

heart

related surgery;

pharmacology; endemic goiter; social medicine and medical care; and other medical subjects. The

travel grants in some cases provided traveling

expenses to and from a country and living expenses in the country visited, In other cases, when part of the expenses were provided from some other source, only traveling expenses-between the two countries or traveling and

living expenses within the country visited

were provided.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH The

following list gives a brief description of the

individual grants. ARGENTINA Dr. Miguel Covian, Institute of Biology and Experimental Medicine, Buenos Aires; ^6,500 for equipment for neurophysiological research BOLIVIA Division of Rural Endemic Diseases; $10,000 for general budget support BRAZIL Araraquara Rural Health

Training Center, State of Sao

Paulo; $10,000 for general budget support and purchase of equipment for nutrition program CANADA University of Saskatchewan; $10,000 to provide funds so that the university could allow Dr. Wendell Macleod to study problems of medical education and visit various medical schools in the United States CHILE Catholic University of Chile, Santiago; $850 for equipment for Professor Hector Croxatto in Department of Physiology Rural Health and Nutrition Service, Aconcagua; $3,500 University of Chile, Santiago: Faculty of Medicine: Department of Pediatrics; under direction of Dr. Herman Niemeyer, $5,000 for equipment Institute

of Experimental Physiology;

under

direction of Dr. Francisco Hoffman, $7,500 for equipment and running expenses

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2O6

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION School of Public Health; $4,000 for additional training courses Secci6n "A"

de Medicina del Hospital del Salvador;

$7,500 for apparatus and expenses of the department of medicine under direction of Dr. Hernan Alessandri Work

of Mr.

Alberto Villalon, medical librarian;

$9,600 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Endemic Disease Control Service; in cooperation with Dominican government, $3,000 FRANCE Association pour la Sante mentale de 1'Enfance, Paris; not more than 480,000 francs, approximately $1,440, for the salaries of Mile

Marcelle Geber

and

Mile Anne-Marie

SchoendoerfFer University of Lyon; 1,440,000 francs, approximately $4,320, for assistance

to Agrege Michel Berger, Department of

Biological Physics, Radiology and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine University of Marseille; up to 2,000,000 francs, approximately $6,000, for apparatus for use of Dr. Georges Morin, Laboratory of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine University of Paris: Institute for Cancer Research; 400,000 francs, approximately $1,200, for assistance to Professor Charles Oberling

Laboratory of Experimental Neurophysiology, Hospice de la Salpetriere; under direction of Professor Th. Alajouanine, $1,575 f°r equipment for use of Dr. Jean Scherrer

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

Q.OJ

University of Strasbourg, Laboratory of Applied Physiology; $3,800 for equipment for use of Dr. Bernard G. M. C. Metz University of Toulouse, Laboratory of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine; $1,375 f°r apparatus for use of Dr. Yves Laport •r GERMANY University of Heidelberg, Physiological Institute; under direction of Professor Hans Schaefer, $3,000 for equipment and running expenses University of Wiirzburg, University Neurological Clinic and Polydinic; up to 2,000 DM,

approximately $500, for techni-

cal assistance and supplies GREAT BRITAIN St. Thomas' Hospital Medical School, London, England; $825 toward equipment for use of Professor Henry Barcroft and colleagues in Sherrington School of Physiology University College, London, England; .£500, approximately $1,500, for equipment for use of Dr. Johnson Abercrombie, Department of Anatomy, for study of teaching methods INDIA King George Medical College, University of Lucknow, Department of Physiology; £534, approximately $1,600, for apparatus for the use of Dr. Autar S. Painta) Medical College, Department of Anatomy, Amritsar, Punjab; $3,500 for equipment for Dr. Ramji Dass Mysore State: Anemia studies in cooperation with Mysore Health Department; $3,500 Malaria studies and control demonstration in cooperation with Mysore Health Department; $8,354 Virus investigations; $10,000 for purchase of equipment for projected virus studies

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Dr. B. K. Anand; $3,645 for equipment for work in neurology at the Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab, or such other institution as the Indian Council on Medical Research

may

approve ITALY Second European Seminar for Sanitary Engineers, Rome; $2,250 for traveling expenses of Professor Gordon M. Fair of Harvard University and ten young Italian engineers who attended the seminar held November 12 to 17, 1951 University of Florence, Institute of Pharmacology; $3,775 for apparatus for use of Dr. Alberto Giotti University of Naples: Departments of General Biology and Human Genetics; 6,000,000 lire, approximately $10,000, for research under direction of Professor Giuseppe Montalenti Institute of Genetics; 2,000,000 lire, approximately $3,334, for genetic study on microcythaemia by Professor E. Silvestroni and Dr. I. Bianco under the direction of Professor Giuseppe Montalenti University of Turin, Neurological Clinic; $1,000 for equipment for use of Dr. Cosimo A. Marsan JAPAN Imperial University of Tokyo, School of Medicine; $9,200 for equipment, books and

supplies, and repair of equipment,

under direction of Dr. Kentaro Shimizu, Department of Surgery Institute of Public Health, Tokyo; $2,500 for health and demographic study in Japan by the Department of Public Health Demography Nagoya University Medical School; $7,000 for establishment of training center in psychiatry under the direction of Dr. Tsuneo Muramatsu

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH LEBANON American University of Beirut, School of Medicine, Department of Histology; $2,500 for research aid MEXICO Hospital for Nutritional Diseases, Mexico, D.F.; $2,750 for equipment for Dr. Jos6 Laguna National University of Mexico, Laboratory of Medical and Biological Studies, Mexico, D.F.; $2,700 for apparatus for studies of Dr. Efren C. del Pozo in problems of neuromuscular transmission Studies on control of insect vectors; 32,400 pesos, approximately $3,910, in addition to previous grants, during 1951 and 1952

SARDINIA Public health program in 1951; 3,100,000 lire, approximately $5>I7° SWEDEN University of Lund, Laboratory of Mycology, Department of Internal Medicine; $9a5oo for equipment for use of Dr. Ake Norden SWITZERLAND University of Basel, Institute of Hygiene and

Bacteriology;

$2,400 for salary of assistant to Professor Joseph Tomcsik TOBAGO, BRITISH WEST INDIES Malaria

and

anopheline control; in cooperation with the

government, to provide up to BWI $9,000, approximately $5,400 UGANDA, EAST AFRICA Makerere College

Medical

School, Kampala; $2,850 for

apparatus for Department of Biochemistry under direction of Dr. Eric G. Holmes

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA University of Natal, Durban; up to £1,980, approximately $5,940, to supplement salary of the dean of the medical school for native students UNITED STATES Columbia University, New

York; $9,600 for research in genet-

ics of nervous and mental disease under direction of Dr. Franz J. Kallmann Maryland State Planning Commission; $7,425 for assistance to the Maryland Committee on Medical Care in carrying out studies and surveys on medical care problems in Maryland National Fund for Medical Education, New

York; $10,000

for administrative expenses National Research Council, Washington, D. C.; $ 1,500 to aid Medical Fellowship Board's survey of fellowships New

York State Psychiatric Institute, New York; $7,500 for

investigation of visual critical flicker-fusion threshold University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Ann Arbor; $8,500 for the Bureau of Public Health Economics Sum

of $7,000 for fund for grants of small amounts for equip-

ment, consumable supplies, travel and miscellaneous purposes, allotted under supervision of the Director of the Division TRAVEL GRANTS ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN Dr. Wiljoughby Hugh Greany, provincial medical inspector, Blue Nile Province; $2,400 for a visit to observe public health administration in the United States and Canada AUSTRALIA Dr. A, D. Packer, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Adelaide; $600 for expenses while in the United States and Canada to visit selected medical schools

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DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

211

Dr. Gilbert E. Philips, lecturer in neurology, University of Sydney Medical School; $600 for expenses while working at neurological centers in Europe, and possibly the United States BOLIVIA Dr. Victor Lora Ponce, Division of Rural Endemic Diseases; $600 for expenses of attending course of training in use of insecticides at the Institute of Malariology, Brazil Dr. Roberto Marzana, chief, Plague Service, Division of Rural Endemic Diseases; $1,150 for expenses of studying organization of plague control in Brazil Dr. Nemesio Torres-Munoz, director, Division of Rural Endemic Diseases; $2,400 for a trip to the United States to observe public health work BRAZIL Dr. Helvecio Brandao, Faculty of Hygiene and Public Health, University of Sao Paulo; $850 for traveling expenses to and from United States for course in public health CANADA Mr.

Joachim

Henry Horowicz, Department of National

Health and Welfare, Ottawa; $800 for a visit to United States to observe methods of medical care Dr. Gordon Edward Wride, Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa; $1,000 for visit to health departments and institutions providing medical care in the United States Dr. John Wylie, professor of preventive medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario; $600 for expenses of observing teaching of preventive medicine and other activities in institutions in England and Scotland while representing Queen's University at ^ooth anniversary of the University of Glasgow CHILE Mr, Alberto Villalon, Medical School Library, University of Chile, Santiago; $1,450 for library studies in United States

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

DENMARK Mrs. Inga Scheibel, head, Department

of Immunology,

State Serum Institute, Copenhagen; $2,700 for visit to United States and Canada to observe methods of research with relation to bacterial toxins EL SALVADOR Dr. Alirio Menjivar, Health Department; $500 for visit to observe training of sanitary inspectors in Jamaica Dr. Jos6 Domingo Sosa-Orellana, chief sanitary inspector, Health Department; $500 for visit to observe training of sanitary inspectors in Jamaica FINLAND Dr. Martti Kaila, professor of psychiatry, University of Helsinki; $2,200 for three-month trip to the United States and Canada to observe modern methods of teaching and research in psychiatry FRANCE Dr. Lucien Viborel, director, Centre national d'Education sanitaire, demographique et sociale, Paris; $2,100 for visit to schools of public health in the United States GERMANY Dr. Richard Jung, professor of clinical neurophysiology and psychiatry, University of Freiburg; $2,200 for visit to the United States and Canada Professor

Alexander

Mitscherlich, director, Institute

of

Psychosomatic Medicine, University of Heidelberg; $2,450 for visit to the United States and Canada GREAT BRITAIN Professor Robert Cruickshank, Wright-Fleming Institute of Microbiology, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, London, England; $1,500 for visit to medical centers in the United States and Canada

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH Miss Elsa M. Goldberg, Medical Research Council, London, England; $2,250 for visit to the United States and Canada to observe teaching and research in social and psychosomatic medicine Miss Mabel Gordon Lawson, deputy chief nursing officer, Ministry of Health, London, England; $1,700 for observation of nursing administration and

nursing education in the

United States Mr, Thomas Laws Mackie, sanitary inspector, Port of London, England; $250 for trip to the United States to investigate use of new rodenticides (in addition to previous grant) Dr. Colin Fraser Brockmgton, professor of social medicine, University of Manchester, England; $2,515 for visit to United States and Canada to observe work in his field Professor Dugald Baird, obstetrics and versity of Aberdeen, Scotland, and Dr. May man,

North-East of Scotland

Regional

gynecology, UniD. Baird, chairHospital Board;

352,100 for visit to the United States and Canada Dr. Charles Mann Fleming, principal medical officer of Department of Health for Scotland; $2,400 for trip to observe medical care and medical education in the United States and Canada Dr. Margaret M. Methven, director, Child Guidance Department, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, Scotland; 32,250 for visit to United States to observe centers of child guidance work Professor William Malcolm Millar, Department of Mental Health, University of Aberdeen, Scotland; $2,100 for vjsjt to study methods of teaching and care of patients in America Dr.

Richard

Scott, University

of Edinburgh,

Scotland;

$2,370 for visit to the United States and Canada to observe teaching of preventive medicine and development of group practice

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Dr. John Greenwood Wilson, medical officer of health, Cardiff, Wales; $900 for expenses of observing public health work while in the United States to attend meeting of the American Public Health Association ICELAND Dr. Oli P. Hjaltested, medical director, Tuberculosis Clinic, Municipal Health Center, Reykjavik; $2,000 for visit to observe tuberculosis control measures in the United States INDIA Mrs.

A. Rukmini Amma, School of Nursing, Trivandrum;

$140 to study improvements in basic nursing courses at Vellore Medical College School of Nursing Dr. Dharmavadani Krishnier Viswanathan, Bombay State; $400 for visit to Malaria Institute, Delhi, and malaria control work in other parts of India and in Ceylon Jaswant Singh, director, Malaria Institute of India, Delhi; $700 (in addition to previous grant for visit to United States) for trip to Venezuela and additional time in England on return to observe work on antimalarial drugs and insecticide testing ITALY Professor Maria E. Allessandrini, Superior Institute of Public Health, Rome; $1,600 for extension of stay in the United States to observe methods of insect control Professor

Ferdinando Rossi, direcior, Institute of Normal

Human Anatomy, University of Genoa; $1,000 for visit to Sweden and Denmark to observe work in histochemistry and histology JAPAN Dr. Morio Yasuda, dean, Medical School, Hokkaido University; 13,300 for visit to representative medical schools in the United States and Canada to help in planning new medical school

buildings

and

modernizing

teaching

methods in

Hokkaido

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DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

215

NETHERLANDS Dr. Hermanns Marius Engelhard, Department for Mental Health, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Leiden; $600 for visit to centers of mental health in England Professor A. G. Brom, University of Leiden; $ 1,950 for trip to study thoracic and heart surgery techniques in the United States and Canada Professor Henri William Julius, director, Hygienic Laboratory, University of Utrecht; $750 for expenses in the United States while observing chemotherapy of tuberculosis and work on bacterial enzymes NEW ZEALAND Professor J. C. Eccles, Physiology Department, University of Otago, Dunedin; $1,000 for visits in the United States and Canada Sir Charles E. Hercus, dean, Medical School, University of Otago, Dunedin; $4,200 for visit to the United States and Canada to study recent developments in psychiatry, preventive medicine, child health, teaching in medical schools and care of the aged NORWAY Dr. KnutEngedal, chief health officer, Bergen; $2,210 for visits to state and local health organizations in the United States Dr. J3rnulv 0degard, director, Gaustad Mental Hospital, Oslo; $167.54 in addition to previous grant for visit to the United States and Canada Dr. Erik Poppe, chief radiologist. University Hospital, Oslo; $2,150 for visit to United States and Canada to study radiation biology Dr. Carl Wilhelm Sem-Jacobsen, Gaustad Mental Hospital; $2,650 to study hospital patients of Norwegian birth in the United States

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

SWEDEN Dr. Lars Torsten Friberg, Department of Industrial Health, National Institute of Public Health, Stockholm; $2,350 to observe occupational health in the United States and Canada Professor Ragnar Granit, director, Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm; $1,380 for visit to the United States and Canada to observe work in neurophysiology SWITZERLAND Professor Hans Zellweger, chief of clinic, Children's Hospital, Zurich; $2,350 for visit to the United States and Canada in preparation

for accepting professorship of pediatrics at

University of Beirut Symposium on medical education; $3,000 for expenses incurred by 19 representatives from medical faculties often European countries to symposium

held

at Vevey, Switzerland, in

August 1951 YUGOSLAVIA Professor Hrvoje Ivekovic, Faculty of Engineering, University of Zagreb; $1,275 f°r v'1Sit to other European countries, including Great Britain, to study engineering methods of value to the teaching of sanitary engineering Professor Nikola Paukovic, Faculty of Engineering, University of Zagreb; $1,700 for visits to Great Britain, France, the Netherlands and Sweden to observe engineering methods bearing on the teaching of sanitary engineering UNITED STATES Dr, Luis Amador, Department of Neurology and Neurological Surgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago; $1,400 for visit to Germany to study the human brain Dr, Hubert Bloch, Public Health Research Institute of the City of New

York, Inc.; $1,500 for visit to Germany to study

psychosomatic aspects of tuberculosis

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DIVISION OF MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

217

Miss Ruth Freeman, the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland; $750 for visits to schools offering graduate programs for public health nurses, to study administrative and curricular patterns Professor Karl Meyer, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New

York; $2,150 for trip to Europe to

study physiology and biochemistry of connective tissue Miss Janice E. Mickey, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; $1,000 for visits to study graduate programs for public health nurses at various institutions in the United States Miss Elizabeth Cogswell Phillips, executive director, Visiting Nurse Association, Rochester, New

York; $900 for visit to

Scandinavian countries and Finland to observe public health nursing service and education programs Dr. Leonard S. Rosenfeld, United States Public Health Service; $1,000 for honorarium while advising the Venezuelan Ministry of Health Dr. Nevitt Sanford, Berkeley, California; $5,000 for expenses of visiting lectureship at Tavistock Institute, London, England, and

for visits to the Continent to study clinical psychology

Dr. Lyman B. Smith, associate curator, Department of Botany, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.; $850 for travel expenses to and from Brazil to study bromeliads important in malaria control Dr. Harry Benjamin Van Dyke, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New

York; $1,400 for visit

to selected centers of pharmacological research in Europe Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; $5,000 for expenses of expedition to Mendoza, Argentina, of team attached to Massachusetts

General Hospital, Boston, for

study of endemic goiter

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF NATURAL

SCIENCES

AND

AGRICULTURE

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION

OF

NATURAL SCIENCES AND

AGRICULTURE

STAFF DURING 1951 Director WARREN WEAVER Associate Director HARRY M. MILLER, JR. Assistant Directors WILLIAM F. LOOMIS ! GERARD R, POMERAT AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS Deputy Director for Agriculture J. G. HARRAR^ Consultant P. C. MANGELSDORF Staff: Program in Mexico EDWIN J. WELLHAUSEN, Local Director* DOUGLAS BARNES

DOROTHY PARKER

NORMAN E. BORLAUG

JESSE P. PERRY, JR.

JOHN W. GiBLER4

JOHN B. PITNER

JOHN J. McKELVEY, JR. JOHN S. NIEDERKAUSER

RALPH W. RICHARDSON, JR.& L. STERLING WORTMAN, JR.

Staff: Program in Colombia LEWIS M. ROBERTS, Local Director ULYSSES J. GRANT6

JOSEPH A. RUPERT

ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES E. C. STAKMAN, Chairman RICHARD BRADFIELD P. C. MANGELSDORF > Resigned December 31* I95i> Appointed Consultant as of January i, 1952•Appointed Deputy Director for Agriculture December 5, 1951. •Appointment effective December 5, 1051. 'Appointment effective November i. 1951. •Appointment effective August I, 1931. 'Appointment effective October i, 1951.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF NATURAL SCIENCES AND

AGRICULTURE

INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT

225

EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY GENETICS Columbia University: Human Genetics

226

Indiana University: Cytogenetics

228

University of Texas: Genetics of Mutation

229

University of Wisconsin: Bacterial Genetics

231

Princeton University: Meiosis Studies

232

University of Lund: Institute of Genetics

232

Smith College: Plant Genetics

233

Cornell University: Maize Genetics Cooperation

234

CHEMISTRY OF THE NUCLEIC ACIDS

234

Columbia University: Nucleic Acid Structure and Functions

235

Stanford University: Analysis of the Nucleic Acids

236

Tufts College: Biochemistry of the Nucleic Acids

237

THE INDIVIDUAL CELL Stanford University: Metabolism Studies

238 238

University of Wisconsin: Nitrogen Fixation

239

University of Sheffield: Biochemistry of Cell Metabolism

241

University College, Dublin; Ion Exchange

242

University of Copenhagen: Ion Transport

245

Columbia University: Cellular Conversion of Sugar

246

University of Sao Paulo: Cytochemistry

247

Harvard University: Cellular Anatomy DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH

247 248

National Research Council: Committee on Developmental Biology

249

University of California: Hormone Functions

249

University of Wisconsin: Pathological Growth

251

Massachusetts General Hospital: Spectroscopy Techniques

252

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222

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY

253

Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Structure Determinations

254

Pennsylvania State College: Crystallographic Analysis

255

Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn: Determination of Protein Structure

256 PROTEIN RESEARCH

257

Stanford University: Chemistry of Protein Reactions

258

Carlsberg Foundation: Protein Behavior

258

University of Washington: Protein Digestion

261

Harvard University: Protein Structure

263

Iowa State College: Organic Chemistry of Proteins

264

University of Alabama: Properties of the Glycoproteins

264

GENERAL BIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY National Research Council: American Institute of Biological Sciences

265

University of Cambridge: Biochemistry

267

Yale University: Synthesis of Amino Acids

269

University of Paris: Biological Chemistry

270

University of Oxford: Organic Chemistry

271

Amherst College: Biology

271

Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole: Experimental Biology

272

Zoological Station of Naples: Marine Biology

273

University of Edinburgh: Carbohydrate Chemistry

274

Federal Technical Institute, Zurich: Chemistry of Natural Products

275

Harvard University: Biochemistry of the Trace Elements

276

Columbia University: Immunochemistry

278

Harvard University: Chemotherapy

279

University of Birmingham: Biochemical Studies

280

University of Oslo: Plant Physiology and X-ray Crystallography

280

AGRICULTURE PROGRAMS IN MEXICO AND COLOMBIA Mexican Agricultural Program

281

Latin American Agricultural Scholarships

289

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NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

223

Inter-American Symposium on Plant Breeding, Pests and Diseases

290

State of Mexico: Research, Demonstration and Extension Program

291

Colombian Agricultural Program

293

Agricultural Programs: Temporary Scientific Aides

296

AID TO RESEARCH AND TEACHING Ministry of Agriculture of Colombia: Experimental Greenhouse

297

National University of Colombia: Faculty of Agronomy, Palmira

298

University of Sao Paulo: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

300

University of North Carolina: Plant Genetics and Statistics

300

OTHER FIELDS National Research Council: Office of Scientific Personnel

301

University of Chicago: Applied Statistics

302

The

Conservation

Foundation: Utilization of Natural

Resources GRANTS IN AID

305 •

307

Grants in Aid of Research

308

Travel Grants

315

Other Grants

320

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF NATURAL SCIENCES

AND

AGRICULTURE

statement describing the programs, plans and aims of the recently reorganized Division of Natural Sciences and

Agriculture will

be

found in the President's Review section of this report, pages 35 to 54. The 72 appropriations made by the Foundation in these fields in 1951 totaled $3,680,208. Of these grants, 48, totaling $i,701,960, were in the field of experimental size

from

biology. The

$2,500 for chemical

grants ranged in

equipment

at

the

University of Edinburgh to $200,000 to assist cytogenetic studies at Indiana University. In 1951, a total of $867,248 was activities

appropriated for

in the field of agriculture. Of

this sum,

?757>748 represents 12 appropriations for use directly or

indirectly

for the operating programs

in

agri-

culture which are being carried out collaboratively with the governments of Mexico and of Colombia. In

these operating programs, the

nishes scientific staff, and under its own

Foundation

fur-

the funds are expended

administrative control. The remaining

$109,500 represents five other appropriations made to

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

226

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

institutions

or

governments

for projects

in

agri-

culture carried out under their administration. Four of the 1951 grants, totaling $211,000, were in fields other culture. One

than

experimental

biology

and

agri-

was to the National Research Council

in support of its Office of Scientific Personnel; another grant, made jointly

with

the

Division

of Social

Sciences, was for a program of advanced training in statistics at the University of Chicago; the other two were to the Conservation Foundation for its work on the utilization of natural resources. In addition to the grants just summarized, $900,000 was

appropriated for fellowships and

This sum

grants in aid.

includes a grant of $150,000 which

was

made to the National Research Council for fellowships in the natural sciences during period, the sum

a three-year

of $300,000 for fellowships to be ad-

ministered directly by the division during 1952 and $450,000 appropriated

for support to the natural

sciences through grants m aid in 1952.

EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY GENETICS COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Human Genetics Many of the mechanisms which determine human heredity and evolution are of a universal character shared with and arising from the same mechanisms in animals and have moved

plants. Researches in basic genetics

forward rapidly

in recent years, and

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NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

227

improved statistical techniques have been devised for the study

of genetic problems. It seems likely

that the resulting advances in our knowledge of the biology of man

will yield conclusions

and

develop

methods of value to the other sciences dealing with man. Excellent training in biology, as in anthropology or in medicine — each considered

individually— is

available for advanced students in many institutions, but

it has

broad

and

nevertheless been difficult fundamental

character of man. The

picture

of

to obtain

the

result is that

a

biological

cooperative

research has not yet taken place, at least to a satisfactory causes

degree, on and

marked

effects

such

problems

of the

as

variability

a characteristic of all

the

nature,

which

human

is so

beings and

cultures. To meet such needs, Columbia University is now setting up an Institute for the Study of the Biological Basis of Human Evolution. The

two men

who

will

direct the institute are Professors Leslie C. Dunn and Theodosius Dobzhansky of the Department of Zoology; they have been working for many years on projects of subhuman genetics with mice and

fruit

flies, respectively. Their experience in dealing with animal population problems and their understanding of the heredity relation

make-up

to environment

of these populations in

are sure

to be

profitable

when applied to human populations. The university proposes to house the new in

the Nevis Mansion

institute

at Irvington-on-Hudson. A

three-year grant of $90,000 from

The

Rockefeller

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

228

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Foundation will provide equipment and help to meet general expenses. INDIANA UNIVERSITY Cytogenetics Genetic studies at Indiana University, aided The

by

Rockefeller Foundation since 1940, this year re-

ceived afive-yeargrant of $200,000. The

university

has assembled a group of geneticists with diversified backgrounds and

a

notable record

research. While each pendently

of the men

of productive

is working inde-

in his own field, the over-all result is a

broad attack on the problems related to the mechanisms of inheritance. One of these men

is Professor H. J. Muller of the

Department of Zoology, a classical geneticist specializing in mutation as manifested in animals. Dr. Muller

received

demonstrations

the with

Nobel Prize

in

1946 for his

drosophila flies that

X-rays

can permanently alter the heredity of the cell. Artificial mutations so induced occur at as much as 150 times the natural rate, and

entirely new

forms can

be created. X-rays have since become an important tool of the geneticist, paving the way

for studies of

similar mutations originating from other sources. Another of the Indiana University geneticists is Professor

Ralph

Botany. Dr. and

E. del and of the Department of

Cleland

is interested

in the cytology

the genetics of plants, particularly

Oenothera, the evening primrose. The

the genus

chromosomes

of this genus are arranged in a distinctive ring-like structure, and

the consequently

modified behavior

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

229

of the chromosomes has been a challenge to research workers since early in the century. Dr. Cleland's studies have traced the outlines of a unique story of evolutionary

development. Further details are

beingfilledin by research on hybridization between the variously occurring Oenothera in both North and South America. The

work will be facilitated by the

eight acres of land, with

a field laboratory

and

greenhouse, which the university has recently placed at Dr. Cleland's disposal. The third member of this group is Professor Tracy M. Sonneborn of the Department of Zoology, who is studying the complex relationships between genetic particles in the cell fluid and recently it has are found

only

in the nucleus. Until

been generally accepted in chromosomes, and

that genes that

chains of genes alone control heredity. The mosomes are contained within

the inner

these chro-

core or

nucleus of the cell, which is surrounded by a thinner fluid known as cytoplasm. In the course of his 20 years at Indiana, Dr. Sonneborn has demonstrated that in the single-celled animal called paramecium the cytoplasm, as well as the chromosomal genes, can transmit hereditary traits. This fact appears to be true of a number of other organisms as well, so that the study of cytoplasmic inheritance is now

a

very active subdivision of genetics. UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS Genetics of Mutation ft After Professor H. J. Muller made his Nobel Prize discovery that genetic mutations in fruit flies can

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

23O

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

be artificially induced by X-rays, it was found that mutations can also be caused by heat and by chemical agents. A group under Professor Wilson S. Stone of the Department of Zoology at the University of Texas has now be

produced

shown that mutations can similarly in bacteria

organisms themselves, but

by

irradiating

not

the

the food which is fed to

them. Dr. Stone believes that when the medium in which the bacteria are grown is irradiated by

ultraviolet

light, hydrogen peroxide is released, and this in turn results in the formation of organic peroxides that affect the nucleic acid chain of the gene. Experiments of the same type using the neurospora mold, rather than bacteria, have given similar results. Mutations have also been induced by the introduction into the environment of a living cell of hydrogen peroxide alone, or of certain organic

peroxides other than

those formed by irradiation. The

Texas genetics group has

also studied the

cytology of over 200 of the 600 known species of the fruit fly. Whereas in 1936 only two cases of hybridization between species were known, over 91 species hybrids are now covered

recognized, of which 65 were dis-

at the University of Texas. Dr. Stone has

collaborated with Dr. John T. Patterson, the recipient of Rockefeller Foundation aid for his own

research,

in summarizing these observations in a book entitled Evolution in the Genus Drosophila. Support from the Foundation to Professor Stone continues with a three-year grant of $50,000. This sum

will help to staff and equip his expanding group

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE as it moves into the four-mill ion-dollar Experimental Science Building completed

this year by

the Uni-

versity of Texas. UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN Bacterial Genetics Professor Joshua Lederberg of the Department of Genetics

at the University of Wisconsin

has spe-

cialized in heredity studies of bacteria. During his work as a graduate student. Dr. Lederberg became convinced that these organisms at times demonstrate the phenomenon of sex. More specifically, he believed that if cells of different genetic constitution were allowed to grow for a time in close proximity to one

another, genetic recombination would

take

place. Professor

Lederberg's

work

at

Wisconsin, sup-

ported since 1948 by Rockefeller Foundation grantin-aid funds, has shown that several types of bacteria can react with one another by a process of conjugation

that results in the interchange of genes

and

inheritance according to Mendelian law, Thus far there is no evidence of sexual differentiation — that is, of stocks which can be labeled male or female —

so

that conjugation apparently occurs at random between

cells of pure or mixed cultures, and

detected

only

in terms

of reassortment

can

be

between

genetically differing cells. The Rockefeller Foundation in 1951 made a grant of $8,000 to the University of Wisconsin in support of Dr. Lederberg's research during the period ending August 31, 1953.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY Melosis Studies Sexual reproduction involves a cell process called meiosis whereby the number of chromosomes in the germ cells is reduced to half the number regularly found in the body cells. The normal number is subsequently restored by the fusion of two germ cells



that is, the egg cell and the sperm cell —

in fertiliza-

tion. It is the complicated mechanism

underlying

the chromosome segregations in meiosis that Professor Kenneth W. Cooper of the Department of Biology

at Princeton University

intends to study

during the next three years. Aid

from

The

Rockefeller

Foundation

in the

amount of $15,000 has been given Professor Cooper for this period. The

funds will be used largely for the

services of Dr. Jakov Krivshenko of the Department of Zoology at the University of Missouri, who

will

serve in the capacity of research associate to Professor Cooper. Their aim is to arrive at a new more

generalized

theory

of meiosiss

and

with specific

details on laws of chromosome segregation for the drosophila fruit fly. UNIVERSITY OF LUND Institute of Genetics A

one-year grant of $15,000 has been made by

The

Rockefeller Foundation to the University of

Lund in Sweden toward research in genetics under the direction of Professor Arne Miintzing. Before his appointment as professor of genetics at Lund, Dr.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE Muntzing was head of the cytogenetics department at the Plant Breeding

Institute in nearby Svalof.

His experience at this national agricultural station augmented

his interest

heritance in plants and and

adapting

in the in

mechanism

of in-

methods of controlling

this process for the improvement of

many essential food crops. At the university's Institute of Genetics, research activities under Professor Muntzing have similarly stressed

the cytological

and

genetical

behavior of

crop plants, with published studies including such topics as the mechanism of segregation grains, the cytology of mutation and aberration, and

in various

chromosome

different factors in plant sterility. In

recent years increasing emphasis has also been given to a study of chromosomal patterns in animals and humans. In 1950 the institute laboratories were housed in new quarters and the staff was expanded. Approximately two-thirds of the Foundation grant is for the purchase of new

equipment now

required, with the

remainder for general expenses of the research. SMITH COLLEGE Plant Genetics Smith College has received a one-year appropriation

of $9,000 in continuing

support

of research

carried out under the direction of Professor Albert F. Blakeslee. The

Rockefeller Foundation has aided

this work in genetics since 1942. Professor

Blakeslee specializes in plant genetics,

and after retiring from the Carnegie Institution of

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

234

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Washington he established

a Genetics

Experiment

Station at Smith. The factors favoring and hindering hybridization

between

species have constituted

a

majorfieldof investigation, together with the action of ovular tumors in inhibiting the development of hybrid

embryos. Close contacts have been

main-

tained with the neighboring colleges of Amherst and Mount Hoi yoke and with the University of Massachusetts, and biannual meetings are held at each of these four schools. CORNELL UNIVERSITY Maize Genetics Cooperation A two-year grant of $3,800 has been made by The Rockefeller Foundation to Cornell University toward expenses of the Maize Genetics Cooperation under the

leadership

of Professor H. H. Smith

Department of Plant Breeding. This has collected and preserved

of the

organization

the stock of corn seed

representing the more than 300 genes that have to date been correlated with specific characteristics and has distributed these seeds, when needed by responsible investigators. In addition, it has issued a yearly news letter

containing

an

inventory

of

available

seed, a bibliography of recent literature and

reports

on various phases of corn genetics.

CHEMISTRY OF THE NUCLEIC ACIDS One of the key problems of cellular biochemistry is the study of those unique compounds, the nucleic acids, which

are main

constituents of genes

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

and

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE chromosomes and which play so basic a role in the hereditary mechanisms. Somewhere in the detailed configurations of these nucleic acids are presumably laid down the blueprints according to which the egg is gradually transformed into a living adult organism. Despite recent advances, further knowledge of the biochemistry of the nucleic acids remains one of the chief and

one of the most promising fields in the

chemistry of life processes. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Nucleic Acid Structure and Functions One of the important laboratories in this country concentrating on

the chemistry

of nucleic acids is

that of Professor Erwin Chargaff of the Department of Biochemistry at Columbia University. Professor Chargaff has developed a technique making possible the analysis of nucleic acid samples as small as 0.005 milligram. His

present

investigations

chemical structure of nucleic acids and biological functions in cell division and

concern

the

their specific growth

and

in the transmission of hereditary properties. These studies will undoubtedly find wide application in work on normal and malignant growth, tissue culture, virus propagation, bacterial transformation

and

the

genetic problems of inheritance. In

1950 Professor ChargafFs group moved

into

enlarged laboratory quarters on the twelfth floor of a recent addition to the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. Up Rockefeller

Foundation

grant

to $12,000 of The of $50,000 may

used to purchase equipment for the new

be

laboratory.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION The remainder of The Rockefeller Foundation grant, extending as it does over a period of three years, will help to put the laboratory on a more stable footing than is currently possible. The

professional personnel

consists of both graduate students and postdoctorate research

fellows — important in that young scien-

tists are being trained for future chemical investigations of the basic units of heredity. Professor ChargafFs work also receives financial assistance, on an annual basis, from the United States Public Health Service, the American Cancer Society, the Life Insurance Medical Research Fund and the Nutrition Foundation. STANFORD UNIVERSITY Analysis of the Nucleic Acids In his 12 years at Stanford University, Professor Hubert S. Loring of the Department of Chemistry has

been

developing

chemical

methods

for the

separation of the various nucleotides which make up nucleic

acids. The

task

has

proved

exceptionally

difficult, as there are apparently several isomers of each

of

the nucleotides —

recently

become

a

fact

evident. With

that

the

has only

discovery of

methods for the separation of these isomers, progress can now

be expected in measuring these substances

and in defining the basic building stones from which the genes are assembled. Professor Loring's work follows three main directions:

i)

the analysis

objective of showing position

and

of

nucleic

acids

with

differences in chemical

establishing

that

nucleic

the com-

acids differ

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE depending

on

their

source; 2)

the isolation

and

chemical study of the structure and interrelationships of the isomeric

nucleotides; and

3) the mode of

action of the nucleases (those enzymes which split nucleic acid into its component nucleotides) and

the

nature of the components liberated. These studies are closely interrelated

and

will

also be significant in

research on the chemistry of other large molecules. Since 1945 The

Rockefeller

Foundation has pro-

vided continuous aid to Professor Loring's program. In addition, he was awarded a special fellowship in 1948

enabling

him

to

visit

various

biochemical

laboratories in Europe. This year he receives threeyear support in the amount of $36,000. TUFTS COLLEGE Biochemistry of the Nucleic Acids • Among the talented grated

to the United

oppression

was

German

chemists who

emi-

States with the rise of Nazi

Professor Gerhard

Schmidt. After

working at several institutions, including the laboratories of The

Rockefeller Institute for Medical

Re-

search, Professor Schmidt accepted a position at Tufts College. For the past ten years he has been associated there with Professor S. J, Thannhauser, himself a German refugee. The work of Professors Schmidt and Thannhauser was

originally

concerned

exclusively

with

brain

metabolism. A review of the program at the time of Dr. Thannhauser's retirement in 1950 disclosed that its focus has gradually shifted to the chemistry of the nucleic acids, regardless of tissue source.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

238

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

At present, Professor

Schmidt — like

Professors

Chargaff at Columbia and Loring at Stanford — is interested in getting at the basic chemical nature of the genes and chromosomes which determine man's hereditary make-up. Supported by a three-year Foundation grant of $30,000, the research at Tufts centers on the chemistry and metabolism of the higher nucleic acids and certain phospholipids. Professor Schmidt is developing enzymatic methods to split the nucleic acids step by step into their constituent parts, thereby obtaining

information

as to the various

ways in

which these pieces are joined together to form the functional gene.

THE INDIVIDUAL CELL Only in fairly recent years have scientists come to the realization that samples of protoplasm, whether found in the cells of men, mice or microbes, present essentially

common

functions in any significance

problems.

organism

in furthering

Studies

of cellular

are, therefore, of great basic knowledge of the

production and growth of all living matter. STANFORD

UNIVERSITY

Metabolism Studies Dr, C. B. van Niel of the Hopkins Marine Station at Stanford

University has chosen

to devote his

energies to the examination of the fundamental life processes in nonpathogenic bacteria. For the past 23 years he has been investigating these microorganisms with

their

easily

metabolism may

reproducible

systems

in which

be readily followed.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

239

Dr. van Niel's most remarkable contributions have been in explaining the mechanism of photosynthesis. Until recently, this was considered a unique reaction of the plant world whereby carbon dioxide is absorbed and fixed into leaf substance and oxygen is liberated to the atmosphere. Dr. van

Niel showed that this

reaction of plants is only one of a far broader group of photosynthetic reactions. He

demonstrated that

certain bacteria are able to utilize light and dioxide to produce their own

carbon

food and cell materials

by means of a form of photosynthesis simpler than that

of green

plants

equipped

with

chlorophyll.

Instead of reacting with carbon dioxide to release oxygen, the light

reacts

with

splitting it into two pieces. The

a

water

molecule,

resulting hydrogen

atoms react further in reducing and binding carbon dioxide

into

demonstration

organic

molecules.

Dr.

van

Niel's

of the four successive steps of this

photosynthetic transfer is widely recognized as an important advance in our knowledge, In addition, Dr. van Niel has isolated the lightabsorbing pigments in photosynthetic bacteria, finding them to be very different from those in the higher plants which carry on photosynthesis. Foundation aid to Dr. van Niel's research began in 1948 with a three-year grant of $20,000. This year the Foundation has appropriated $30,000 to continue support for another four years. UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN Nitrogen Fixation Just as all animal life on the face of the earth would cease without green

plants, so these green plants

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

24O

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

would eventually wither away without certain nitrogen-fixing

bacteria. These

organisms

are

able

to

take nitrogen gas from the air and combine it with other elements to form the soluble ammonias and nitrates used as fertilizer by growing plants. Some species work alone, processing nitrogen independently for their own nutritional requirements; others operate in partnership with leguminous plants, which grow nodules at their roots as little "rooms" to house the bacterial partners. Studies of these mechanisms at the University of Wisconsin have been under the direction of Professors Perry W. Wilson of the Department of Bacteriology and Robert H. Burris of the Department of Biochemistry. New

biochemical techniques such as isotopic

tracers and chromatography have been used successfully, and the research is currently being broadened to include not only biological nitrogen fixation but other phases of nitrogen metabolism bacteria, specifically

the

of plants and

assimilation

of inorganic

nitrogen by such agents. With the recent discovery that certain photosynthetic bacteria also fix nitrogen, and with the availability

of tracers

comparative

for

studies

photosynthesis

both

carbon

and

nitrogen,

of nitrogen metabolism

become

feasible.

Compounds

and are

labeled chemically or biosynthetically with isotopes and

supplied to plants or microorganisms. After a

time, various compounds, including

organic acids

and amino acids, are isolated and analyzed by standard chemical procedures. The ,750

current

Rockefeller

Foundation

grant

of

continues support begun in 1940 for this

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE program

of biochemical research

under

24!

Professors

Wilson and Burris. UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD Biochemistry of Cell Metabolism One

of the distinguished biochemists of this gen-

eration

is Professor

Hans Adolf

Krebs. Two

of

nature's main metabolic pathways are named for him, the Krebs oxidative cycle and the Krebs urea cycle. Born and educated in Germany, Dr. Krebs went to England

to study in 1933 and

remained

there when Hitler seized power in Germany. years later he

was

appointed

Department of Biochemistry

Two

to the staff" of the at the University

of

Sheffield, where he is at present both professor and chairman of the department. The

studies in cell metabolism under Dr. Krebs's

leadership are centered on the chemical mechanisms by

which living cells utilize foodstuff energy. Dif-

ferent aspects of general enzyme biochemistry included in the scope of the research are the intermediary

stages

of

the

oxidative

breakdown

of

nutrients in those organisms where the tricarboxylic acid cycle is not the major pathway of oxidation; the measurement of the free energy changes associated

with

oxidative

processes;

and

the

trans-

formation of the free energy into other kinds of work. It

is planned

to increase

the

use

of radioactive

tracers in exploring these problems, and a portion of the current Foundation grant will be used to procure labeled organic compounds. Dr. Krebs is director of a British Medical Research Council unit for research

in cell metabolism

and

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

242

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

receives support from the council as well as from the university. The

Rockefeller

Foundation

this

year

continues its aid with a three-year grant of $35,000, largely for the purchase of scientific equipment and chemical supplies. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN Ion Exchange Under Professor E. J. Con way of the Department of Biochemistry and

Pharmacology

at University

College, Dublin, a group of young scientists is studying certain aspects of the fundamental chemistry of the cell. Between the individual cell and

the tissues

which surround it, an exchange of inorganic ions is continually taking place. It is this process, and resulting ion accumulation, which

Professor

the Con-

way's laboratory is investigating. Particular attention is given to potassium and

chloride ions in the

cells of higher organisms. Also being studied are exchanges in the yeast cell during fermentation and at rest; the relation between membrane potentials and

ion exchange

rates; the

theory of hydrochloric acid secretion by cells of the gastric

mucosa; and

the

effect

of cortisone

and

insulin on the change of levels of phosphate esters and

inorganic ions in mammalian muscle. Further

methods

of microanalysis

and

microdifFusion

are

being developed in relation to carbon monoxide in blood, acetic acid and other volatile fatty acids, and chloroform in blood. The Rockefeller Foundation has made a three-year grant of $12,000 to University College, Dublin, in

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Photograph

Excised

Here

G the reciprocal liitticcol .1 irvst;il .it the Ma.s.s.ichusctts Iiisritutc i»l

Research in fruit-rlv izoiu-tics .it Imli;in;i I'niversitv

!i I

Rhotograph

Excised

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Here

Photograph Excised

Here

Investigations into tin- fundamental chemistry uf the cell at University College, Dublin

}

The Laboratory for Cell Physiology at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

Rhotograph

Excised

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Here

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

24$

support of Professor Con way *s research. This sum is to be used to purchase equipment, including a highspeed centrifuge, and

to supplement the salaries of

technical assistants in the laboratory. UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Ion Transport For almost 20 years The

Rockefeller Foundation

has supported research on the application of physical, chemical and

mathematical techniques to biological

problems at the University

of Copenhagen,

Den-

mark. The work, concerned primarily with the use of isotopes or tagged atoms, represents the successful cooperation

of personnel from several institutes of

the university. Present activities are under the general direction of Professor Niels Bohr of the Institute of Theoretical Physics and

Professor

P. Brandt

Rehberg

of the

Laboratory of Zoophysiology, with the collaboration of two former Rockefeller Foundation fellows, fessors

George

Hevesy

and

Hans

Pro-

Ussing. Recent

investigations have centered on the active transport of inorganic

ions

membranes. The

across isolated identity

surviving animal

of electric

current

and

active sodium ion transport has been demonstrated under various conditions. It is planned this

work

potentials

on

clarifying

and

currents

the by

origin

means

of

to continue bioelectric

of the isotope

technique developed in the laboratory. Since

the group's early efforts, its program

has

matured sufficiently to win it a permanent place at the university. Personnel appointments

have been

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

stabilized, and

a new

wing has been provided to

house all the biophysics work in a single laboratory. This year's grant of $32,000 from the Foundation is a

tapering one for a period

of five years and is

intended as terminal support for a project which has shown its ability to function independently. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Cellular Conversion of Sugar •One of the basic facts about the chemistry of the cell is that it uses two different purposes. One

kinds of sugars for quite sugar is used primarily as

fuel, while the other is used solely as building material for the construction of the nucleic acids that make up the genes and chromosomes. Thefirst,or fuel, type of sugar comprises the hexoses that have six carbon

atoms hooked

together in a chain; in

contrast to this, the nucleic acids utilize only pentoses, five carbon atoms long, in their construction. One

of the important problems in biochemistry is

how

the cell changes the six-carbon sugars into the

five and vice versa. Professor Zacharias Dische of the Department of Biochemistry

at

the

College

of

Physicians

and

Surgeons at Columbia University, having worked on this question for a number of years, has recently found an enzyme system that converts five-carbon sugars into six-carbon

sugars. His

present need is

for the services of a synthetic organic chemist to help him work out the intricacies of this conversion and

of

corresponding

reactions

in

the opposite

direction. For the salary of such a collaborator, as well

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

247

as for certain necessary chemicals and equipment, The Rockefeller Foundation has provided $20,000 over a three-year period for Dr. Dische's use. UNIVERSITY OF SAO PAULO Cytochemistry Professor Luiz Carlos Junqueira, a former fellow of both the Rockefeller and Guggenheim Foundations, was recently made head of the Department of Histology and Embryology of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Sao

Paulo, Brazil.

Dr.

Junqueira is in charge of a group there doing research in

the field of cytochemistry; his program on

the

normal and pathological functioning of the individual cell includes studies of protein

synthesis and

secretion, particularly the mechanism production

and

action. A

cell

of hormone

Rockefeller Foundation

grant of $14,000, available during the period ending May

31, 1953, is to be used toward equipment and

supplies

for

the

project

under

Dr.

Junqueira's

direction. HARVARD UNIVERSITY Cellular Anatomy A grant of $64,000 has been made by The Rockefeller Foundation to Harvard University to continue support of research in cellular anatomy under the direction

of Professor George

B. Wislocki of the

Medical School. Widely known for his earlier work on the comparative endocrinology of mammals, Professor Wislocki has developed in his department at Harvard a rather

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

broad program in histochemistry. This represents an extension of the olderfieldof morphological histology along lines of modern

biochemistry. Whereas the

chief emphasis of classical histology was the development of staining

techniques to render

visible the

detailed anatomy of the cell, the modern histological approach is to treat frozen sections (that have not been fixed with formalin) with various enzymes and enzyme stains in

order

to locate

in the

cell

the

relative positions of such substances as the nucleic acids and

such

enzymes as the phosphatases

and

lipases. Under Dr. Wislocki, the field of histological anatomy

already

has

been

significantly

extended.

He

now proposes to study the distribution and regulation of enzymes and

cells and

endocrine factors and

tissues, as controlled

by

vitamins, in relation to growth

and aging.

DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH Current biological research

is heavily concerned

with genetics on the one hand and

with physiology

on the other, but between the inception of an organism and a

its functioning in the adult state there lies

process of development

in which

the inherited

potentialities are realized. This middle zone between genetics and

physiology is still only very partially

understood. The increasingly organized

gaps

in our

evident with

research

on

knowledge

the emphasis

cancer, arthritis

become

of today's and

heart

disease; for any knowledge of abnormal development

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

249

must logically proceed from a thorough familiarity with normal growth mechanisms. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Committee on Developmental Biology The

National Research Council, recognizing the

inadequacy of our knowledge of development and growth, has

taken steps to improve this situation

by the creation of a Committee on Developmental Biology toward which The Rockefeller Foundation has made

a two-year grant of 125,000. The new

committee

is under the chairmanship of Dr. Paul

Weiss, professor of zoology

at the University

of

Chicago. Since a critical evaluation of the knowledge already available must necessarily be the first step in any such program, during the early years of its existence the committee proposes to stress small conferences of scientists from the several tributary fields, personnel exchanges among various laboratories, seminars for advanced students, workshops, surveys and reviews from

new

viewpoints, and

mately the aim by

bulletin

services. Ulti-

is to encourage cooperative attacks

presently scattered investigators on

unexplored

facets of development and growth, and

to promote

adequate attention to these areas in the educational programs of institutions of higher learning. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Hormone Functions What are the mechanisms by which growth occurs; how

is its rate determined; what causes abnormalities

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

250 and how

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION can they be prevented or treated? These

are some of the questions receiving the attention of Professor Choh Hao Li and his staff of 27 in the Department of Biochemistry

at the University

of

California. With these problems in mind, Dr. Li is investigating the growth regulating aspects of those proteins in the human body which are active as hormones, rather than as enzymes. Since 1938 he has specialized in the purification of pituitary hormones; five of the six known hormones of the anterior pituitary gland have been

isolated

by

successfully adapting tech-

niques used in enzyme chemistry. The pure hormone are now units and

molecules of

being cut down into smaller

determinations made as to the smallest

fraction which still retains the activity of the entire molecule. In this way

a structural analysis can be

made of the vital center which regulates hormone function, and

attempts at synthesis —

at present

impossible with the vastly larger hormone molecule —

become feasible. One of the five pituitary hormones is the anabolic

"growth hormone," another is the catabolic ACTH, Together they control the over-all rate of growth, in a

proportion which

injections

of

the

is being assessed

two

hormones

into

by

separate

laboratory

animals. Since the potentialities of ACTH in the treatment of arthritis and other diseases have been realized, the tendency has been to think of Dr. Li entirely in terms of his work on this one hormone. To

provide support for the more general aspects of

his research, The

Rockefeller Foundation has made

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE a grant of $25,200 which will cover a period of three years. UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN Pathological Growth For the past 20 years, Professor A, J. Riker of the University

of

Wisconsin

has

been

studying

the

fundamentals of pathological growth — what starts it, what keeps it going and what inhibits it. To attack the problem, Professor Riker and his associates in the Department of Plant Pathology are using plant, rather than animal, tissue. Any

disturbance of the

delicate balance that exists in normal plant growth has a definite bearing on parallel studies of animal tissue, for many of the basic components of the two types of tissue are similar or identical. The

advantages of using plants are numerous.

Plants have no complex nervous, digestive and circulatory systems to complicate metabolism; they are inexpensive

and

readily

available;

experimental

manipulation is easy; vegetative propagation makes it possible to avoid genetic variations; and, above all, plant tissue can be cultured on media containing only nutrients of known chemical formula, so that growth in such cultures is due entirely to known and measured substances and can be quantitatively evaluated merely by weighing the tissues. Professor Riker has concentrated his research on crown gall, an abnormal growth caused by

certain

bacteria entering wounds on rosaceous plants (raspberries, pears, apples and

roses, for example).

An

obvious counterpart in animal tissue is cancer, and

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

in recognition of the importance of Professor Hiker's work, the American Cancer Society, together with the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation, is assisting his laboratory. In 1951 The supplemented

this

Rockefeller Foundation

aid with

a five-year grant

of

$45,000. MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSPITAL Spectroscopy Techniques During recent years the application of physical methods to problems of biology

and medicine has

constantly increased in scope. Among these methods Spectroscopy, alone or in conjunction with microscopy, aids in the attempt to describe the structure and functioning of a single cell or a small group of cells in terms of the chemical substances involved. Almost any chemical compound — whether vitamin, hormone or coenzyme — of

specific

absorption

can be identified in terms curves. Certain

details

of

structure absorb light in the visible wave lengths, some absorb light in the ultraviolet and others in the infrared. A combination of the results obtained gives the research worker an analytic tool of great range and precision. For proper use of this technique, a large catalogue of absorption

spectra is essential. Thus far, the

tremendous labor involved has prohibited the compiling of such information except for a few classes of compounds. The

work

can now

be expedited by

means of newly available recording spectrophotometers for the visible, ultraviolet and infrared portions of the spectrum. These

instruments

represent

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

a

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE distinct advance in accuracy and

rapidity over the

previous nonrecording models. The setts

Spectroscopic Laboratory of the MassachuGeneral

Hospital,

located

in

the

recently

completed Research Building, has been granted the sum

of $21,310 by The

Rockefeller Foundation for

the purchase of a recording visible and

ultraviolet

spectrophotometer and a recording infrared spectrophotometer. The laboratory is under the supervision of Dr. Jesse Scott, also associated with the important spectroscopy group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Under investigation at the hospital laboratory is the relationship of the components of nucleic acids to the problems of normal and

abnormal growth,

specifically cancer. This is one of a number of research projects for which

the new

optical equipment will

prove useful.

X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY X-ray crystal analysis is one of the most promising tools for research

on

the biochemical structure of

crystalline substances. Briefly, it involves directing a beam of X-rays onto a crystal, photographing the complicated pattern of reflections of these rays from the various crystal planes and then trying to calculate the structure which produce the observed

the crystal must have had reflections. By

procedure, structural data may

to

means of this

be obtained on mole-

cules which have not yielded to any

other physical

or chemical techniques.

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Structure Determinations The

Rockefeller Foundation has made a grant of

$11,000

to the

Massachusetts

Institute of Tech-

nology in support of research carried out by Professor Martin Buerger of the Department of Geology. Dr. Buerger has been working on a new approach to the determination

of crystal structure by X-ray diffrac-

tion techniques. Up had

to now, crystallographers have

to go through

the arduous task

of imagining

structures, calculating the diffraction pattern which the imagined

structure would

produce, comparing

this with the actual pattern and then adjusting the assumed pattern until it fits the actual one. This complicated

procedure, together with

the extreme

length of the calculations involved, has often necessitated spending as long as two or three years on a single structure determination. Professor Buerger has attacked the problem from a somewhat different viewpoint. Instead of using the classic mathematical

formulation, he has evolved a

method which seeks to progress from the Patterson diagram obtained by

from the experimental data step

step back to the actual space array of the elec-

trons. A few tentative structure determinations have been made using the "image-seeking" functions of Dr. Buerger's process, but further corroboration is necessary to determine whether or not this procedure is of wide and useful application. The

Foundation's support of this project comple-

ments its interest in research

along other lines of

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

255

crystallographic investigation at such institutions as the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and by upwards of a dozen other men

or groups, and its indirect aid

to the International Union of Crystallography. Dr. Buerger attended the Stockholm meeting of the latter organization in the summer of 1951, then was enabled to extend his travel and visit the principal European crystallographic

laboratories. The

grant is to

used

be

balance

for research

of the

assistance

and

supplies. PENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGE Crystallographic Analysis One of the most troublesome bottlenecks in X-ray crystal

analysis

has

been

the

tedious

consuming mathematical computation

and

time-

involved. A

major advance was recently made by Dr. Raymond Pepinsky of Pennsylvania

State

College with his

design of an electronic device which can handle this very specialized computing job with great speed and power. About a hundred structures have now analyzed with

been

the aid of these machines, and

the

results have been of use to scientific workers all over the world. Research

under

Dr. Pepinsky

has

centered

on

problems which have presented particular difficulties to

scientists

approaching

standpoint but which seem X-ray

methods.

from

a

chemical

capable of solution by

Alkaloids, mitotic

biotics, sugars and examined, and

them

poisons, anti-

simpler compounds have been

computational

assistance

has

furnished in studies of vitamin Bi3, hemoglobin

been and

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

256

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

dried insulin. A

program for the X-ray analysis of

polypeptides is in its initial stages. To

provide Dr. Pepinsky with the services of at

least one professional biochemist who

will be avail-

able to select and prepare suitable specimens during the next three years. The

Rockefeller Foundation

has made a grant of $20,000 to Pennsylvania State College. POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE OF BROOKLYN Determination of Protein Structure The structure of a protein molecule is much more complex

than

that

analyzed so far, but

of

any

molecule

effectively

theoretical, experimental

and

mathematical methods are now sufficiently developed to give some assurance that even an attack on the three-dimensional structure of a protein can be successful. The difficult and

molecule

analysis, however, involves

painstaking research which will neces-

sarily require many years for completion. In 1950 The Rockefeller Foundation made a fouryear grant of $136,115 in support of a laboratory set up

at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn to

study

this problem. The

group, directed

by

Dr,

David Marker, has access to the computing facilities of the International Business Machines Corporation and is concentrating on methods of X-ray crystallography to determine

the detailed structure of at

least one protein molecule. Dr. Harker has shown that crystals consisting of large complicated

molecules

need not be attacked

immediately from the point of view of atomic ar-

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE rangement, but can be examined on a coarser scale by considering as units certain large groups of atoms in the structure. The can

be

located

relative positions of these units

from

the X-ray

diffraction

data

without a detailed knowledge of the atomic arrangement within each unit. Once this broad outline of the structure has been brought to light, it is possible to study the atomic arrangement within the units themselves as a second step in the process of

com-

plete structural determination. Collaboration and interchange of information have been established with laboratories pursuing similar research

throughout

the

incidental data obtained

world;

all results

and

at the institute are to be

published promptly, for this is a project which

may

have far-reaching consequences in all branches of science. This year, in accordance

with a policy of

"forward financing," the Foundation

continues its

support with a grant of 5532,500 for the year beginning July i, 1954.

PROTEIN RESEARCH How

does a cooked egg differ from an uncooked

egg? Why disease

does an antitoxin prevent one particular

but

not

others?

What

is the

distinction

between cancerous and healthy Jiving tissue? These are only a few of the questions which may concerning protein activity. Huge and

be asked

complicated

molecular structures containing thousands

or hun-

dreds of thousands of atoms each, proteins are the basic units from which all living stuff is formed.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

STANFORD UNIVERSITY Chemistry of Protein Reactions Among the techniques of physical biochemistry used to study the giant protein molecules are ultracentrifugation, electrophoresis, dialysis equilibrium, viscosity measurements and osmometry. All of these methods aim either to measure the physical characteristics of the large-size molecules or else to study their chemical interaction with other molecules such as those of the fatty

acids, sugars or salts. Both

the number of interacting molecules and the type of linkage are important, the smaller ions often altering the properties of the larger protein molecule. Over the past ten years, Professor J, Murray Luck of the Department of Chemistry at Stanford University has been intensively studying a number of these reactions. During the war his research was largely of a

practical nature, concerned with stabilizing the

serum albumin of the blood by means of fatty acid molecules; present

studies

pertain

to anion

and

cation binding, topics which are of significance in any research on protein chemistry, A

two-year grant of $i33ooo in 1951 continues

support given Dr. Luck by The Rockefeller Foundation since

938.

CARLSBERG FOUNDATION Protein Behavior One

of the laboratories in Europe

which

has

steadily attracted research workers from all over the world is the Carlsberg Foundation in Copenhagen,

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Photograph

Excised

Here

Don^itv measurements in hiMrlieinic.i! research .it theOrtaheri* KminJiitmn, Cciivnh.iLvn

E

\\Drkersin \ r.u iir\^t.ill(ii.ir.iiln .it Punmh ,im:i St;itii^ed

^ a -a m I I

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Rhotograph

Excised

Here

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

I aking ;i Nnoil sniiiple trom a tiger shark at the Marine Biological 1 ..ihoratory at \Vuods> 1 lolc.

Photograph

Excised

Here

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

26l

Denmark. During the 50 years of its existence, the Laboratory of Chemistry there has established itself as a center for the development of delicate microanalytical

techniques

adapted

to

the

study

of

individual cells. Under the direction of Dr. K. U. Linderstr^mLang, the activities of the laboratory are presently focused on the enzymatic breakdown and

synthesis

of proteins in vitro and in vivo. In 1943 a subunit of cytochemistry was set up under the direction of Dr. Heinz Holter, and moved into its own between the two

two

years later this group

laboratories. The

was

collaboration

groups is very close, and

current

projects include studies on the breakdown of globular proteins, the general structure of proteins as revealed by

their

behavior

in

aqueous

solution,

peptide

linkages and the sequence of amino acids in peptides, the purification of proteolytic enzymes, the determination of enzyme concentrations in single cells, the physiology of unicellular animals and the enzymatic changes which occur in the developing embryo. Since 1935 the work of Drs. Linderstr^m-Lang and Holter, both former Rockefeller Foundation fellows, has been supported by the Foundation. This year a grant of $42,500 has been made for the coming fiveyear period. UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Protein Digestion During his 12 years at Duke University, Professor Hans Neurath

built up

a small but good

team of

biophysical chemists working on the structure and

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

properties of various protein molecules. In 1950 Dr. Neurath resigned his position at Duke and accepted a professorship of biochemistry at the new

Medical

School of the University of Washington in Seattle. Dr. Neurath

has

been studying certain

of the

digestive enzymes which assist in the breakdown of protein foods such as egg albumin and

lean meat.

These proteolytic, or protein-breaking, enzymes are of special interest because they frequently tackle and fragmentize molecules as large as themselves. In these cases of giant meeting giant, the enzyme itself is never broken but

invariably digests the protein

material on which it works. One of the proteolytic enzymes, known as chymotrypsin, has the exact

been under intensive investigation. If

mechanism

by

which

this enzyme

con-

tributes to the digestive process can be determined, then eventually, perhaps, a general pattern can be established for all enzymatic action. The chymotrypsin is studied both as a protein and as an enzyme. As a protein, the molecule has a certain size, a certain

shape and

certain electrochemical

properties; as an enzyme, it has a specific affinity for certain other proteins and for those structures out of which proteins are built. In studying the compound from these two points of view, a connection is being sought between the chemical characteristics and the biological activity. These studies which Dr. Neurath pursued at Duke are being continued at the University of Washington. The new

13-million-dollar building there provides an

excellent research

environment, and

the necessary

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE equipment is gradually being accumulated. Current Foundation support of $24,000 covers two,years. HARVARD UNIVERSITY Protein Structure In a true solution, such as one of sugar in water, the particles of solute distributed

in

the

solvent

consist essentially of single molecules or ions.

A

suspension, on the other hand, contains particles that are large enough to be seen by the naked eye, or at least in the microscope. Between these two extremes are

the

colloidal

systems, characterized

by

the

presence of particles larger than molecules but not large enough to be seen in the microscope. The presence of these particles can be demonstrated by optical means; when a strong beam of light is passed

through

a colloidal

particles scatter

medium, the colloidal

the light. The

beam

visible, producing what is known

is rendered

as the Tyndall

effect. Since the size of certain protein molecules is about the same as that of colloidal particles, solutions

of

such

proteins

tend

to

exhibit

colloidal

behavior. Thus it is possible to employ the Tyndall effect to investigate protein structure. One of the scientists instrumental in developing a technique for quantitatively measuring this effect is Dr. Paul M. Doty, associate professor in the Department of Chemistry at Harvard University and one of the promising young biophysical chemists in the country. Dr.

Doty

is expert

molecular weight, size and molecules. Specifically, he

in determining

the

shape of large protein hopes

to elucidate

the

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

264

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

structure

and

behavior

of

the nucleic

acids

and

possibly of the nucleoproteins. In line with its policy of supporting studies of the basic life processes, The

Rockefeller Foundation in

1951 made a grant of $15,000 to further the program in the Harvard University Department of Chemistry. The

funds, available for a period

of three

years,

provide Dr. Doty with a salaried technician and allow him

to purchase a Spinco preparative centrifuge.

IOWA STATE COLLEGE Organic Chemistry of Proteins A

three-year grant of $ 12,000 has been made by

The

Rockefeller Foundation to Iowa State College,

Ames, toward

a

program

of research

in protein

chemistry under the direction of Professor Sidney W. Fox. Professor Fox

is studying the order of amino

acids in protein chains. He reagent —

and his staff have a

phenyl isocyanate —

new

that reacts with the

terminal amino acid, thus tagging it for subsequent identification. This method of analysis may revealing the structure of such important

aid in

peptides

as ACTH. UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA Properties of the Glycoproteins A program of research on glycoproteins, the cellular compounds which are half sugars and half proteins, has

been

inaugurated

in the Biochemistry

Department of the Medical College at the University of Alabama. The

director of the project is Professor

Ward Pigman, who

in 1947 was voted "one of the

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE ten ablest sugar chemists

in the country" by

American Chemical Society. A carbohydrate chemistry

265 the

specialist in applied

with a considerable knowl-

edge of protein chemistry as well, he is well qualified for work in the difficult hybrid field he has selected for his investigations. A

three-year

Rockefeller

Foundation

grant

of

$10,700 is to be used for the salaries of two graduate students to assist Professor Pigman in his research, and

also for the purchase of apparatus for electro-

phoretic

analysis. After

studying

various

properties of the glycoproteins, the

physical

nature

of the

constituent groups is to be determined and particular effort made to analyze the linkage connecting the sugar with the protein material. Professor

Pigman

is currently

investigating

the

glycoproteins from saliva, from the organic material of teeth, and from bone and cartilage. The number of such

compounds

ponents of animal tissue and

being

found

increasing in com-

the relatively limited

information available make this an extremely fertile field of interest. The

glycoproteins appear to interact

readily under conditions similar to those common in biological systems. In particular, the analogy to the mechanism of enzyme reactions is being explored.

GENERAL BIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL American Institute of Biological Sciences The

biological sciences today comprise so many

fields of endeavor that a comprehensive organization

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

266

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

emphasizing the unity rather than the diversity of these activities has become a real necessity. Under the auspices of the National Research Council, the American

Institute of Biological

Sciences

(AIBS)

was established in 1948. The

institute's

general

advancement of the

aim

is to promote

biological sciences and

application to human welfare by

the their

relating them to

the other sciences, to the arts and industries, and to the public good. In the three years of its existence, the

group

has made

a

considerable

measure

of

progress toward this goal. It has organized advisory committees compiled

to government

tabular data

boards, collected

and

for a biological handbook,

negotiated with the Office of Naval Research for a contract with Biological Abstracts to put its indices on a current basis and arranged for annual meetings of constituent societies. Projects under way

include the establishment and

maintenance of an up-to-date roster of biologists; implementation service; and

of

the

newly

formed

placement

consideration of a central publication

section to handle journals for the member societies or else assist them in arranging for publication, first setting up certain standards of format and style. In addition, the AIBS Bulletin is to be expanded. With

20

biological societies currently

the

institute

new

member groups and outsidefinancialsupport.

The

administration

years

is extending

affiliated,

its services to

is confident

the organization

can

be

attract

that within four self-supporting.

A

Rockefeller Foundation grant of $40,000 toward the

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

267

general budget has been made, to be applied in decreasing amounts over this four-year period. UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE Biochemistry Two

sums were appropriated by The Rockefeller

Foundation in 1951 to the University of Cambridge. The first is a two-year grant of $15,000 toward the purchase of equipment for research in the Department of Biochemistry, headed

by Professor F. G.

Young. This department is divided into five units dealing with enzyme chemistry, microbiological chemistry, protein

chemistry,

plant

biochemistry

and

hormone chemistryj the last-named group being under Professor Young's personal supervision. Current

lines

of research

include: a) the purification elucidation

in

the

department

of enzymes

of their mechanism

and

the

of action; b) the

investigation of the mechanism of synthesis of proteins and c) the

related substances in plants and

purification

of protein

hormones

animals; and

the

determination of the mechanism of the biological action of hormones, particularly with respect to their influence on enzyme systems; d) the investigation of

the

chemical

structure

of

biologically

active

proteins; e) the determination of the structure of polysaccharides and the elucidation of the mechanism of their enzymic production; 0 the biochemistry of microorganisms, especially the mechanism of the synthesis of proteins and

esters, and

the action of

chemotherapeutic agents; and g) the mechanism of oxygen production

in the chloroplast of the green

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

268

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

leaf and

the origin and

metabolism of glycosides in

plant tissues. Closely affiliated with the Department of Biochemistry is the University Chemical Laboratory under the

direction of Alexander R. Todd, professor of

organic chemistry. Professor Todd is well aware of the importance of firm rapport between the disciplines of organic chemistry and biochemistry, and has evidenced this interest by his work on the chemistry of living stuffs. The

laboratory's research program has laid stress

on the synthesis of the components of the nucleic acids, of certain vitamins such as the anti-pernicious anemia factor vitamin Bi2 and of various coenzymes. A few years ago this work in synthetic biochemistry led

to

the

first

total

phosphate, or ATP,

synthesis the key

of adenosine

substance

tri-

which is

responsible for storing within cells the energy released in the respiratory cycle. Professor Todd's sizable group is also

studying

chemical factors associated with parasitism, especially the nature of specific stimulants produced by host plants which bring about seed germination in certain plant parasites. Under investigation too is the chemistry of aphid coloring matters. These are a novel type of natural pigment, and more of their structure and

it is hoped to learn their function in the

insects. Previous Rockefeller Foundation support to Professor Todd has been toward the purchase of equipment needed

for his work. This year a five-year

grant of $82,500 was made, not only for this purpose

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

269

but also to subsidize postgraduate research workers and

thereby

stabilize the program

of this

distin-

guished laboratory. YALE UNIVERSITY Synthesis of Amino Acids Doubtless stimulated to some extent by

the out-

standing example of the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Cambridge, many universities today are attempting to create biochemistry departments that can present the subject as a unit, undisturbed

by

artificial dividing lines. Until lately,

American universities have provided training in biochemistry chiefly within the framework of a medical school program. There have, of course, been notable exceptions where biochemistry, as at the University of Wisconsin, is particularly emphasized in the College of Agriculture. In 1950 Yale

University

took

a major step in this respect by appointing Dr. Joseph S. Fruton as professor of biochemistry with responsibilities

to both

the

Medical

School

and

the uni-

versity proper. Dr. Fruton, who held a special Rockefeller Foundation fellowship in 1948, is studying the mechanism by which the cell synthesizes amino acids into peptides. This work is a direct outgrowth of his earlier research with Dr. Max

Bergmann at The Rockefeller

Institute for Medical Research on the enzymes that break

down

proteins into

their constituent amino

acids. Dr. Fruton has found that the same enzymes are active in the construction as well as in the breakdown

of body

proteins. With

the

aid of several

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graduate and postdoctoral workers he is investigating these reactions. Toward the salaries of his assistants and the costs of equipment and supplies, The Rockefeller Foundation continues for another five years the aid it has given Dr. Fruton since 1945, this year with a grant of $80,000. UNIVERSITY OF PARIS Biological Chemistry The

Laboratory of Biological Chemistry at the

University of Paris, under the direction of Professor Claude Fromageot, a former Rockefeller Foundation fellow, is one of the foremost of its kind in Continental Europe. Twice in the past decade —

once at the

University of Lyon, where a wartime bomb destroyed his entire laboratory, and versity of Paris — from

again in 1947 at the Uni-

Professor Fromageot has started

minimal facilities

to build up

an

important

and active laboratory. Present

work

under

Professor

Fromageot

falls

into four main categories: i) the structure of proteins, and more particularly the distribution and sequence of ammo acids in the peptide chain; 2) the nature and structure of hormones of peptide nature; 3) the role

played

by

certain

component

metals in the

structure and activity of enzymes and

other non-

enzymatic proteins; and 4) the metabolism of sulfur in biological systems. Afive-yeargrant by The Rockefeller Foundation in the amount of $25,000 is intended to help stabilize the research program of Professor Fromageot and to

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE provide him

with badly needed

equipment for his

laboratory. UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD Organic Chemistry Sir Robert Robinson, director of the Dyson Perrins Laboratory at the University of Oxford, has been occupied

for many

steroids. The istry

years

with

the

synthesis

of

recipient of the Nobel Prize for Chem-

in 1947, Sir Robert recently

announced

the

total synthesis of the male sex hormones. With this success it is anticipated that other valuable hormones of the steroid group, such as cortisone, may

soon be

synthesized also. Another field of investigation

at the laboratory

relates to alkaloids of the indole group, particularly strychnine, brucine

and

vomicine. The

work

on

strychnine has resulted in the first detailed explanation

of

this

alkaloid

projects concern

and

its derivatives.

Other

the branch-chain acids which are

present in the fatty substance of the tubercle bacillus, and

the isolation and structure determination of an

anticancer factor found in wheat middlings. The Rockefeller Foundation, which has supported Sir

Robert's

research

in

organic chemistry since

1933, continues this aid for the final four years before his retirement with a grant of $30,000. AMHERST COLLEGE

The

Department of Biology at Amherst College

provides a fine example of significant research at a

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

relatively

small liberal

arts college. Aided

by

the

Foundation since 1934, the department has developed a

program

focused

on

genetics and

experimental

embryology. Current support of $47,700 for a period of five years will aid various men

in the department. Active

in genetics research at Amherst are groups under Professor Harold H. Plough, Professor Taylor Hinton

and

Dr.

Philip T. Ives. Professor

interested in bacterial genetics and

Plough is

is working with

the food poisoning bacteria, Salmonella typhimurim. Professor Hinton is carrying on

the long-standing

tradition of drosophila work at the college, his investigations including eye tumors in drosophila and maintenance of the drosophila stocks. Dn Ives is occupied with the population genetics of this same fruit fly. In the field of experimental embryology, research is under the direction of Professor Schotte*, a

former

Rockefeller Foundation

Professor Schotte has

studied

Oscar fellow.

the regeneration in

amphibians of body sections removed by

accident

or surgery. MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY, WOODS HOLE Experimental Biology In the more than 60

years of its existence, the

Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, has become the nation's chief center for summertime research and

training in biology. Here

students and scientists from all over the world come together for a period of teaching, investigation

and

interchange of ideas; here also younger biologists are

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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273

given an opportunity to do mature research. In the reorganized course in marine physiology, each student last summer was required to prepare, analy/e and report as many as possible of the physical characteristics of a protein which he had himself procured from

a marine animal. Such

study-research com-

binations have proved valuable in many instances. The

facilities at Woods Hole, including the ex-

tensive biological library, are among the best in the country. Participants in the laboratory's program have at their disposal the full complement of equipment necessary for present-day biological research, and over 3,000 marine forms are available as specimens for experimentation. Rockefeller

Foundation

collaboration

with

the

laboratory dates back almost 30 years. A grant of $250,000 in 1948 provided one

of the laboratory

$ 150,000 to modernize

buildings and

$IOG,CCC for

general research support over a period of five years. The of

large numbers of people making continual use the

apparatus,

plus

the

tendency

of certain

equipment to wear out rapidly in the atmosphere of a marine environment, necessitate relatively frequent renewal of the equipment. The

current Foundation

grant of $75,000 for two years is to aid in the modernization and

or replacement of ineffective apparatus

the installation of new facilities.

ZOOLOGICAL STATION OF NAPLES Marine Biology The

European

counterpart of the Marine

Bio-

logical Laboratory at Woods Hole is the Zoological

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274 Station

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION of Naples. For

four decades

specialized

technical facilities, a wealth of marine specimens and an outstanding library have attracted scientists from all parts of the globe. The station serves as a clearinghouse where visitors from

many nations establish

and periodically renew contacts with their scientific colleagues and

exchange theories and

information

in their common field. Physical damage during the war was Annual symposia have

been resumed

not severe. and

foreign

organizations and individuals are once again renting "tables," or working spaces. Unfortunately

there is

a wide range in the dollar value of the rental fees because

of the

currencies and

discrepancy

between

present-day

the prewar levels on which the fees

are still based. In order to avoid a sudden shifting of these rates to a more realistic and equitable level, part of a four-year grant of $25,000 by The

Rocke-

feller Foundation is allotted so that the process

may

be carried out gradually and yet the station

may

have the income it requires to maintain its services. A

second portion of the grant is to be used for the

purchase

of equipment, and

the remainder

is for

general expenses. UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH Carbohydrate Chemistry Under the direction of Professor Edmund Langley Hirst, the Department of Chemistry

at the

Uni-

versity of Edinburgh, Scotland, is pursuing a broad program of research in carbohydrate chemistry. A detailed analysis is being made of the carbohydrate

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concentration of grasses and straws, of the potential value of seaweed as a food source and of food crops and their preservation. The Rockefeller Foundation in 1950 made a twoyear grant of $17,000 to the University of Edinburgh to furnish Professor Hirst with a Spinco analytical ultracentrifuge with accessories. The

present grant

of $2,500 is to supplement this sum, because the cost of the equipment has increased since the time of the original appropriation. FEDERAL TECHNICAL INSTITUTE, ZURICH Chemistry of Natural Products The

organic

chemistry

of

natural

products is

currently under investigation at the Federal Technical Institute in Zurich, Switzerland. Modern theoretical concepts, as well as the latest technical developments, are put to use in these intensive studies stressing compounds of physiological importance. About

a dozen

compounds have

been

isolated

from the urine of pregnant mares; the structure of these compounds indicates that they are degradation products of the carotinoids, a group of plant pigmentsdeposited

in animal tissues. The

carotinoid metab-

olism is believed to be highly important, and planned

to study

this

mechanism

on

it is

as broad

a

basis as possible. The

best way

of demonstrating

the relationship

between the compounds isolated from urine and the carotinoids is by

feeding "labeled" carotinoids to

test animals and

investigating

the carbon isotope

compounds extracted from the urine. An

alternative

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

method

is by

specific Jabeled

feeding

synthetic carotinoids

atoms to test

animals, and

following the biological degradation The

with

step

then

by

step.

group under the direction of Professor Vlado

Prelog at the Federal Technical Institute intends to explore both procedures. Their experience with the Cis urine compounds, combined with the new

tracer

techniques, should make possible significant advances in the field of physiological research. In support of the work under Dr. Prelog, The Rockefeller

Foundation

in 1951

made a grant of

,000 to cover a period of four years. HARVARD UNIVERSITY Biochemistry of the Trace Elements Minute quantities of the trace elements, among them iron, cobalt, copper and zinc, play an important role in both proportions

animal and

plant disease. The

of these substances

human diet may

in an

wrong

animal

or

lead to pathological symptoms or to

actual disease; a deficiency of trace minerals in the soil

means

fewer

and

natural balance of the plants, animals and

inferior

plants. When

soil is upset

the

in this way,

eventually human

beings are

affected. Due

to the low concentrations in which the trace

elements occur, it has

been extremely difficult to

study them quantitatively. Now, however, accurate methods have been developed which are applicable for even very small amounts, Instrumental in this advance has been Dr. Bert L. Vallee, now associate in medicine at the Harvard Medical School.

Two

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years of intensive work at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology resulted in the and

development

refinement of spectrographic techniques to the

point where simultaneous tative determinations

quantitative and

can now

quali-

be made on some

20 to 30 elements occurring in amounts as small as one ten-millionth of a gram per gram of specimen. Because of its bearing on medicine and

biology,

as well as other fields, a large-scale comprehensive program on the trace elements has been set up at Harvard University

under

Dr, Vallee's direction.

A grant of $100,000 by The Rockefeller Foundation will aid in

financing

this venture, which is to

be

carried out in collaboration with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, the latter furnishing space for new

labora-

tory quarters for the project. The

proposed

program

on

the occurrence

and

function of trace elements in biological systems is divided into three areas: i) Measurement of the occurrence of trace elements in human tissue (including bodyfluids)in normal and pathological states, using the facilities of the new laboratory in connection with the clinical interests and work at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital and elsewhere. 2) General application of the new techniques to fundamental biological problems of interest to the various departments of the medical school and the university. The proposed laboratory

will provide instrumentation

and

special skills for use by the several departments on a collaborative basis, 3) Further development

and refinement of spectro-

graphic and other analytical techniques, to be carried on

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

jointly with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, utilizing the facilities of the spectroscopy laboratory there. The results will be applied to the biological program in the new laboratory. An

active program in enzymology is contemplated

also, for there are indications that the physiological activity of trace elements may of their association with may

be explained in terms

proteins, which

may

or

not have enzymatic activity.

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Immunochemistry The cerned

science of immunology was almost wholly

originally

con-

with

the resistance of the

human body to disease. But

in striving for a more

complete understanding of the mechanism of immunity, investigators soon directed their attention to the specific biological and chemical reactions that occur when certain foreign materials are introduced into

the body. When

bacteria, for instance, are

present in the body the toxins they secrete set into motion a sequence of chemical actions which result in

the

production

of antitoxins to neutralize

the

adverse effects of the toxins. Dr. Michael Heidelberger of the Department of Medicine at Columbia University is a leading authority

on

the chemical aspects of this protective

process. By has

been

applying

able

to

quantitative

incorporate

reaction between antigens and

the

techniques, he immunological

antibodies into the

comprehensive field of protein chemistry.

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279

During the past few years, Professor Heidelberger has been studying the subsidiary substances manufactured

by the body to combat bacteria. One

these Is called complement, and

of

this has proved to

be a highly unstable and complex material. Of the four, and

possibly more, components

complement, one has been separated

of human

out in pure

form. Dr. Heidelberger is attempting to adapt similar methods for isolating the other constituents of both human

and guinea pig complement. A

thorough,

quantitative analysis of these substances would considerably advance present knowledge of the mechanism of complement fixation. The

Foundation has aided Dr. Heidelberger's re-

search at Columbia since 1946. This year it continues its support with a three-year grant of $42,000. HARVARD UNIVERSITY Chemotherapy Dr, Louis F. Fieser, professor of organic chemistry at

Harvard

University, has

long been

an

active

research worker in thefieldof chemotherapy. During World War

II he worked on antimalarial agents.

Since that time he has been studying the synthesis of various chemicals having therapeutic activity and the relationship between the physiological action of a chemical substance and its molecular structure. The

Rockefeller Foundation continues its support

of these studies in steroid chemistry with a grant of $15,000 for the

coming

year. Projected

under Dr. Fieser concerns

research

techniques of chemical

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28O

THE ROCKEFELLER

FOUNDATION

oxidation as related to biological processes, development of a synthesis of cortisone from research on

cholesterol,

the metabolism of cholesterol and its

newly isolated companion Jathosterol, and duction

of synthetic

alkaloids

which

the pro-

may

prove

effective in controlling hypertension. UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM Biochemical Studies The Rockefeller Foundation has made a three-year grant of $13,500 to the University of Birmingham, England, in support under The

the direction

university

has

of research

in biochemistry

of Professor

Maurice Stacey.

one

largest

of the

chemical

laboratories in Great Britain; work in the organic and

biological chemistry section

vestigations on

there includes in-

the chemistry of the nucleic acids

and fundamental studies on the carbohydrate groups of various

tissue

components. Practical

problems

concerning the chemistry of blood plasma substitutes, cortisone synthesis, and drug and

antibiotic action

also receive attention, UNIVERSITY OF OSLO Plant Physiology and X-ray Crystallography A The

two-year grant of $15,000 has been made by Rockefeller Foundation

to the University of

Oslo, Norway. Of this sum, approximately $8,000 is to be used for the construction of temporary laboratory and group

greenhouse space for the plant physiology

directed

by

Professor

Gunnar

Alvik.

The

remainder of the Foundation grant is for the purchase

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE of equipment needed by Professor Odd his

co-workers in the Department

Hassel and

of Chemistry.

This group is studying molecular structure by means of X-ray crystallography and is especially interested in the stereochemistry of compounds containing sixmembered rings of the cyclohexane and pyranose type.

AGRICULTURE PROGRAMS IN MEXICO AND COLOMBIA MEXICAN AGRICULTURAL PROGRAM In 1951 further progress was made by the Mexican Agricultural Program in improving the productivity of Mexico's agriculture, and in turn — the nutrition and

it is hoped



health of her people. With the

advance of both research and training activities, the coming year, the tenth since

the inception of the

project, will find the Mexican program more effective as one of the centers for all of Latin America in both these phases of its work, The

program

of corn

and

wheat improvement

continued during the year, with the latter assuming particular importance due to a new

type of stem

rust which originated in the spring wheat regions of the United States and Canada during 1950 and spread rapidly into Mexico in 1951. Fortunately, this occurred late enough to prevent serious damage to the fall-sown

wheat

importance

of

crop, but

developing

it did

emphasize

additional

varieties

the of

wheat which would be resistant to this disease, not only in Mexico but further north as well.

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Seventy per cent of all the wheat grown in Mexico during 1951 was produced from the improved varieties bred under the supervision of the program's Office of Special

Studies. One

of these

varieties,

known as Supremo, is suitable for summer culture; planting

during

this

season

had

been

previously

thought impossible because of the extreme moisture which is so conducive

to rusts. Supremo and

other

summer varieties were established in approximately 30,000 acres during 1950, adding substantially to the total annual wheat production

of Mexico. Between

80,000 and 95,000 acres were planted for the 1951 summer crop. The

development of higher-yielding corns for the

tropics and for certain high mountain valleys of the central plateau and

northern

Mexico was

stressed

during 1951, extending the previous work on improving corn for the high plateau area of central Mexico. It

is intended

to continue

distribution of the new The

hybridization

the

development

and

varieties during 1952. of beans, a

procedure, has progressed in an

time-consuming

attempt to evolve

breeds which are high yielding and at the same time resistant to disease and pests. The

nutritional quali-

ties of the improved varieties are being determined in collaboration with the National Institute of trition. In

the interim, the practice has

been

Nuto

distribute immediately the seeds of the best varieties currently

available. Demonstration

plots

serve to

instruct the local farmers in improved cultural practices and the use of insecticides so that beans, second only to corn in importance to the Mexican diet,

may

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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Photograph

Excised

Here

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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Excised

Mexico

Photograph

Excised

Here

i

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NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

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be grown on a more advantageous commercial scale. The entomology program has stressed control of the leading bean pests, as well as the testing of experimental insecticides. Complementing gations by

the

the breeding

program, investi-

soils division follow three principal

lines: experiments with commercial fertilizers on the crops being investigated by the program; crop rotation studies; and

the trial introduction of legumes,

grasses, sorghums and soybeans to be used for food, forage or rotation purposes. The

work

demonstrated

of the plant pathology that seed potatoes can

division

has

be produced

readily in Mexico as soon as the important potato diseases are controlled, thereby freeing the country of the necessity

for importing

this crop. Notable

progress

has

been made in this field, and

curbing

the

late blight

which

hinders

also in

large-scale

tomato production. A

new

project

also

designed

Mexican diet is the testing and varieties

of vegetables imported

States and niques

to

improve the

evaluation of from

new

the United

other areas. Fertility problems and tech-

for commercial seed

production

are under

investigation, with the hope of ultimately expanding the production of vegetables in Mexico and popularizing their use among individual farmers. In regard to the training portion of the Mexican Agricultural Program, during 1951 eight young

Mex-

ican agricultural scientists received scholarships for postgraduate study in the United States. Other scholarships were granted by the Foundation to graduates

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of South

American

agricultural

colleges, enabling

them to study in Mexico (see pages 289 to 290). The publication program has advanced this year, with six agricultural

bulletins completed and

dis-

tributed during 1951: Wellhausen, E. J., L. M. Roberts, and E. Hernandez X., in collaboration with P. C. Mangelsdorf. Razas de Maiz en

Mtxico, su

Origen, Caracteristicas y Distribuci6n.

Folleto Tecnico No. 5, Oficina de Estudios Especiales, Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderfa, Mexico, D. F., April 1951, 237 pp. Since 1943 workers in the Mexican Agricultural Program have collected varieties of corn from all parts of Mexico. The 2,000 varieties now in this collection have been intensively studied, and the classifications and evolutionary factors indicated by the collection are here discussed. Wellhausen, E. J. El Maiz Hibrido y su Utilizaci6n en • Mexico. Folleto T£cnico

No.

6, Oficina de

Estudios

Especiales, Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderfa, Mexico, D. F., April 1951, 57 pp. The

development of hybrid corn is explained.

The

author discusses strong points and deficiencies with respect to the use of hybrid corns in Mexico. Rupert, J. A. Rust Resistance in the Mexican Wheat Improvement Program. Folleto T6cnico No. 7, Oficina de Estudios Especiales, Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Mexico, D. F., April 1951. 44 pp. After long search, two

high-yielding, rust-resistant

wheats were selected for increase and distribution, and for thefirsttime in Mexico it was possible to produce wheat in the summer rainy season. Hybridization offers the greatest

promise in continuing

to develop improved

varieties for Mexico.

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McKelvey, J. J., A. C. Smith, J. Guevara C, and A. Cortes I. Biologia y Control de los Picudos del Genero Apion que Atacan al Frijol en Mexico. Folleto Tecnico No.

8, Oficina de Estudios Especiales, Secretaria de

Agricultura y Ganaderia, Mexico, D. F., September 1951. 42 pp.

Apion pod weevils periodically cause severe damage to beans in certain regions of Mexico. According to surveys conducted from 1946 through 1949, the weevils can be expected to occur, though in varying infestation, wherever beans are grown during the rainy season. This publication discusses the ecology of the pests and methods of preventing and combating them.

Mel^ndez de la Garza, M. de los Angeles. ReacctSn de Frijol en Mexico a Tres Razas de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Folleto Tecnico No. 9, Oficina de Estudios Especiales, Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Mexico, D. F., December 1951. 29 pp. The

resistance of various Mexican bean varieties to

the alpha, beta and gamma races of C. lindemuthianum was tested. Temperature and humidity were found to be vital factors affecting anthracnose infection.

Primera Asamblea Latinoamericana de Fttoparasifo/ogta. Folleto Misceldneo No. 4, Oficina de Estudios Especiales, Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderia, M6xico, D. F., October 1951. The proceedings of thefirstLatin American symposium on plant pests and diseases are summarized, and the contents of the various papers presented there are given.

The

circulation

of

these

publications

and

the

increasing number of fellows returning to their

own

countries have stimulated a great many requests for

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technical assistance and new

for experimental lots of the

seed varieties. Samples have been sent all over

Latin America, as well as to Africa, Canada, the Caribbean

Islands,

Islands, the United

India,

Israel,

States and

the

Philippine

much of Europe.

Valuable data have been obtained on their behavior and

growth

in these countries. The

exchange of

information has been furthered also by the visits of over 2,000 persons to the Mexican project in the course of the year. The Rockefeller Foundation continued its financial collaboration with the Mexican government by means of a supplementary appropriation of $3,048 toward 1951

expenses of the agricultural program

and

a

grant of $319,100 to be expended in 1952. An additional fund of $2,000 was

appropriated to defray

incidental administrative expenses in connection with the work. It is not planned to expand the Mexican program exclusively as a local project, but rather to develop further its functions training of Latin American

as a

center for the

personnel and

for the

development and distribution of improved varieties of crop plants. To

avoid what is likely to be the

greatest stumbling block in this expansion, a special appropriation of §60,000 was made by The Rockefeller Foundation to provide for the addition of six new

staff members

to the Mexican

Agricultural

Program. These American scientists will be trained for active participation in the program in Mexico, but

with

the understanding that

they will subse-

quently be assigned elsewhere as needed, in this

way

spreading to other countries in the hemisphere the

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techniques and knowledge acquired under the operating program in Mexico. LATIN AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL SCHOLARSHIPS To

help in training young agricultural scientists,

one of the two major goals of the Mexican Agricultural Program, The Rockefeller Foundation since 1945 has made a series of grants in aid and appropriations for scholarship purposes. The beginning was a modest fund enabling one or two of the outstanding members of the graduating classes of the Faculty of Agronomy at Medellm, Colombia, to go to Mexico as

apprentices for a

training. The

year

of intensive

practical

success of the initial experience en-

couraged the Foundation two years later to extend a similar opportunity to graduating class members of the second constituent school of the National

Uni-

versity of Colombia, the Faculty of Agronomy at Palmira. Last year requests for the same type of assistance were received from schools in other Latin American countries

including

Bolivia, Brazil

and

Peru.

A

Rockefeller Foundation grant of $50,000, made previously but available through 1953, provided a year of training in Mexico for approximately 24 Latin American scholars;fivestudents from the above three countries were awarded scholarships for the current year, in addition to the Colombian students named under another grant Again the value of the Mexican Agricultural Program

in serving, in effect, as

an

international graduate school of agriculture has been proved.

Agricultural

problems

throughout

Latin

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America are similar, and there is no language barrier as all the work is conducted in Spanish. Now

that the initial, experimental stage of the

scholarship program

has been successfully passed,

the need for unity in these activities has evident. Instead

become

of making a series of relatively

small grants to individual institutions, all scholarship functions pertaining to the Mexican program are to be combined

in a single appropriation. The

comprehensive

grant

of $53,000 extends

1951

through

June 30,1954 the scholarship funds of the institutions in the above three countries and of the two Colombian Faculties of Agronomy; at the same time there is a flexible provision for an average of four undesignated scholarships annually during the same period. The latter are to be awarded to graduates from other Latin men

American in official

agricultural colleges or posts

in research

to young

institutes, state

secretariats or ministries of agriculture —

depending

on the qualifications of the individual candidates. INTER-AMERICAN SYMPOSIUM ON PLANT BREEDING, PESTS AND DISEASES The

international aspects of the Mexican Agri-

cultural

Program

were

enhanced

in

1949

by

an

Inter-American Symposium on Plant Breeding held in Mexico City under the auspices of the Office of Special Studies of Mexico's Secretariat of Agriculture and Animal Industry. Specialists in plant breeding from Central and South America attended to present papers, to exchange information and to visit various field stations. The

success of the 1949 conference

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE stimulated a similar symposium the following year on

plant pests and

diseases. It was

again held in

and near Mexico City. Beyond

the technical

discussions and

the field

trips, the 1950 meeting had special merit in its planning for future work. The as a cooperative and

value of the symposium

technique was

clearly recognized,

the consensus of opinion was

ference

should

years. A would plant

be

joint

bring pest

held

meeting

that such a con-

approximately was

every

recommended

together the plant breeders

and

disease specialists. The

delegates suggested

two

which

and

the

Brazilian

that the next symposium, sched-

uled for early 1952, take place in their country under the joint

auspices

of Brazilian

agencies

and

the

Office of Special Studies. The

Rockefeller Foundation's grant

of $15,000,

available until December31,1953, again will facilitate the travel of delegates to the conference and will aid in meeting costs of publishing the proceedings of the symposium. Any

unexpended

balance will be used

for expenses of the continuing joint committee which was set up to keep members informed of important developments,

promote the exchange

of materials

and data, and plan future meetings. STATE OF MEXICO —

RESEARCH, DEMONSTRATION

AND EXTENSION PROGRAM Supplementing its Mexican Agricultural Program, The Rockefeller Foundation has undertaken to participate directly in the planning and development of a six-year agricultural project for the State of Mexico.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

At the request of the newly elected governor of the state, Salvador

Sanchez Colfn, himself

a

trained

agricultural scientist, a collaborative program been initiated. The

has

Foundation has made an ap-

propriation of $100,000 for the first three years of the project. An

agricultural office for administrative purposes

is being established near Toluca, the capital city of the state. Under the supervision of a director and a subdirector, this office will handle fiscal matters, keep records and

disseminate general

In addition, the state has purchased

information. 120 acres of

land near Toluca on which an experiment, demonstration and extension station will be set up. It will be directed by a chief and subchief and will keep in close contact with

all agricultural agencies within

the state, particularly the main research center in Chapingo. The State of Mexico, comprising over 9,000 square miles, has been zoned into six areas. Each of these will have an extension agent located in its principal city. These men,

corresponding

to the American

county agents, will supply liaison between the farmers and

the state agricultural authorities; they will give

advice on new varieties of seeds and new for soils management; and

techniques

they will help organize

large-scale seed raising programs,fielddays, meetings and possibly short courses. The

suggestion

has been

made that a practical

school of agriculture be established adjacent to the demonstration station at Toluca. Accepted in principle, the school is still far from being a reality, but it

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

£93

is hoped that at least a small group of students

may

be in residence by early 1953. In

addition to the land already purchased, the

State of Mexico is supplying all the base salaries and the general and

facilities of the experimental

will meet construction

elementary

station,

costs of the proposed

agricultural school. The

Foundation's

grant is a flexible contribution toward development of the experimental plies, seeds and

station

(machinery, field sup-

the like), travel expenditures

and

direct support of certain technical personnel. Also, preliminary surveys in 1952 will help determine the most satisfactory approaches to existing problems. If this project can be successfully developed it may well become the pattern for agricultural organizations in other states throughout the republic. And may

it

be that the program can ultimately be extended

to include domestic science, public health and tation,

to mention

comprehending of Mexico may

only

these

a

few

sani-

possibilities.

additional fields, the

By

State

become a pilot plant for a coordinated

"human ecology" approach to the over-all problems of food, health

and

education in

underdeveloped

countries. COLOMBIAN AGRICULTURAL PROGRAM The notable success of the Foundation's collaboration with the Mexican government has already been matched to some extent by its agricultural program operating along similar lines in Colombia. With the actual work started in mid-i95o, the year 1951 has been

one

of unusually

rapid progress. From

the

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

President and the Minister of Agriculture on down, the Colombians have enthusiastically supported the project. In fact, the results this year were so encouraging that the Colombian government the

sum

of 200,000 Colombian

pesos

original budget commitment, and Foundation

met

this

The

A

beyond its Rockefeller

expression of support

additional appropriations of its own of $15,000 and

allotted

with

in the amounts

$600 for expenditure during

1951.

report of thefirstyear's work, through May

1951, was

of

submitted to the Colombian Minister of

Agriculture and was published in the June issue of the Revista National de Agricultura. Like the Mexican Agricultural Program, the Colombian program is predicated upon the importance of corn and wheat, and has been able to draw upon its

predecessor program

technical

experience

stocks. Local and been

tested

altitudes

in Mexico

but

also

for

not

only

improved

for seed

imported varieties of corn have

for their

suitability

in Colombia, and

to

the

cooperation

different has

been

established with similar projects already under way, particularly those at the Tulio Ospina Experimental Station have

in Medellm. Both

been evaluated, with

pure and each

hybrid

strain

corns

numbered

under the generic name "Rocol"— for Rockefeller and'Colombia. As in the Mexican program, the best available

varieties

have

been

distributed

in

the

interim, with the idea of replacing them as quickly as possible with still further improved varieties. It is planned to intensify the development of improved strains

for low

temperatures, particularly

to find

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

295

varieties suitable for the Sabana, and similar * Bogota o areas. About 7,000 strains of wheat have been examined in

studies

closely

paralleling

those

of

corn. Con-

siderable progress has been made in the development of satisfactory rust-resistant breeds, the chief research center being near Bogota. Wheat, unlike corn, favors the cooler, higher climates rather than the warmer, lower ones. In the past, 90 per cent of the entire country's

production

has

come

from

only

departments, so that the problem now

three

is to breed

strains equally well adapted to the other regions. In addition to the corn and wheat activities, work has gone ahead forage

on

other small grains, beans

crops. Important

basic

diseases

pests are to be investigated, and operations into the realm

an

of animal

and

and

plant

extension of husbandry is

being considered. In view of the rapidity with which the work is expanding and in contemplation of future projects, the government of Colombia, with Rockefeller

Foundation

present experiment

collaboration,

is replacing

station with a new

and

the

greatly

improved one, to be called El Rubi. The

opportunities seem

Foundation's

contribution

considerably higher than

so

promising

for

1952

that

is on

a

the level

originally contemplated—

$120,000 for the calendar year. This expansion will be largely in terms of personnel. An sidered

entomologist, con-

in the earlier plans, will now

be added to

the staff; in addition, there will be a soils scientist, a

plant pathologist and, in response

request

of the Colombian

to a special

government, a

potato

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

specialist. The

current Rockefeller Foundation grant

will be matched in equal amount by the government of Colombia.

AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS —

TEMPORARY

SCIENTIFIC AIDES For

some

years it has

been

the policy

of the

Mexican Agricultural Program to employ, for special purposes and

on a temporary basis, young United

States agricultural scientists at about the level

of

the Master's degree. Nine persons thus far have been appointed as temporary scientific aides, representing such fields as agronomy, and

botany, genetics, three of these

Latin America at present. The now

entomology

men

and

are active in

appointments up to

have been included as part of the budget of the

Mexican Agricultural Program, but

the success of

this policy in getting special jobs done and in directing the interest Latin

of promising young

America

assignment

has

made

it desirable

of these aides as a

Accordingly, The

scientists

Rockefeller

toward

to consider

separate activity.

Foundation

has ap-

propriated #40,000 to cover such appointments for a period of three years. A second Rockefeller Foundation grant of $30,000 for three years has been made for the appointment of special, temporary scientific aides in connection with the Foundation's Mexican tural

programs. This

recognized

specialists

and

category in

Colombian agriculrefers

agricultural

to mature, science

who

occupy responsible positions in the United States or in

Europe. These

men

spend

a

relatively

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

short

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE period, usually

not

Mexico, Colombia

more or

than

other

three

297

months, in

countries on

special

problems important to Latin American agriculture, either locally or in a broader viduals, such

sense. Several indi-

as Dr. R. E. Karper of the Texas

Agricultural Station, Dr.

J. J. Christensen of the

University of Minnesota, Dr. E. S. McFadden of College Station, Texas, and Dr. B. B. Bayles of the United States Department of Agriculture, have already been invited to Mexico on this basis and the results have been extremely encouraging. The

immediate

programs derived

benefit from

to the Latin

American

the presence of these

types of specialists is obvious. But

two

there are also

the long-range gains. The first group of men

will

form a roster of young scientists with Latin American experience who

can be called upon for special assign-

ment when needed; the second

group

also will

be

available when needed for special assignment but in addition will be able to train younger men

for careers

in Latin America. In some cases these men

will be in

a position to place at the disposal of the Foundation's operating programs facilities which would otherwise not be available.

AID TO RESEARCH AND TEACHING MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE OF COLOMBIA Experimental Greenhouse A portion of the Colombian Agricultural Program's wheat-breeding Juan

Orjuela

activity

is under

Navarrete, a

the

direction

Foundation

of

fellow in

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THE ROCKEFELLER

1947-1948. He

FOUNDATION

is now investigating diseases of wheat

varieties at the Francisco Jos6 de Caldas Experiment Station of the Ministry of Agriculture. Several years ago Mr.

Orjuela constructed

the station; however, with

a small greenhouse at the rapid expansion of

the agricultural work in Colombia the greenhouse no longer suffices. In a greenhouse where temperature and ventilation can be properly regulated, resistance to certain diseases, for instance, can be measured in three weeks instead required

of the entire growing season

if the plants are grown in field plots.

The

Ministry of Agriculture is contributing $8,000 toward the estimated Rockefeller

cost of a new

Foundation

greenhouse, with

supplying

the

The

balance

of

,000. NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF COLOMBIA Faculty of Agronomy, Palmira The two

National

University

of Colombia includes

Faculties of Agronomy. The

agricultural

colleges

is at

older

Medellfn;

the

of these second,

formerly at Cali, has recently moved to Palmira. The

latter college was

started

independently in

1934 as a purely local venture. During the early years the faculty was and

part time, the student body small

the facilities pitifully inadequate. Nevertheless,

this embryonic college was a

rich

agricultural

persons took school

an

survived

located in the center of

area, and

politically

influential

interest in its development. and

became evident. In

a gradual 1946 it was

expansion

The

process

affiliated with the

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE National University and shortly thereafter

299

acquired

a new location near Palmira, 25 miles from the city of Cali and

adjoining the best national agricultural

experiment station in Colombia. With the erection of thefirstbuilding on the new site, the enrollment at Palmira increased ably and now

consider-

includes students from even the most

distant departments of the country. There are seven professors

on

full-time

part-time

teachers

who

salaries are

and

a

number of

investigators

at the

near-by experiment station. Relations with the community

and

the

farmers of the region

strengthened, and

are being

the school is even providing

com-

petition for its older sister college at Medellin. The

Rockefeller Foundation has aided

the Cali-

Palmira Faculty of Agronomy since its early days, first on a modest basis and then on a higher level of support. It has given fellowships to enable outstanding graduates to study under the program in Mexico and last year took exceptional action in contributing toward

the cost

This year two

of erecting a student dormitory.

Foundation grants were made: the

first, an appropriation of $40,000, is toward the cost of

equipment

for

a

second

scientific

laboratory

building; the second consists of $15,000 for teaching and research facilities, for study trips of staff bers and

mem-

to assist in bringing foreign professors to

the school. It is hoped that this assistance will help strengthen

the faculty as an

integral part

of the

broad plan for intensified training and research under the Colombian Agricultural Program.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

300

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

UNIVERSITY OF SAO PAULO Faculty of Veterinary Medicine The sum of $14,500 has been appropriated by The Rockefeller

Foundation

Paulo, Brazil, toward and

to the University

of

Sao

the purchase of equipment

supplies for the work of two professors in the

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. '

The first of these men, Dr. Joao Scares Veiga, is

professor of special animal husbandry and the faculty. He the

specializes in climatic physiology, or

acclimatization of cattle

ments, and

dean of

has recently

to

returned

tropical environto Brazil from

travel in the United States and Latin America on a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship. The second scientist is Professor

Paschoal^Mucciolo, also a recent

Foundation fellow. Dr. Mucciolo is professor of food inspection and

is particularly interested in the bac-

teriology of meat. The both of these men

Foundation's grant will aid

in investigating new

ideas

and

approaches evolved in the course of their fellowship experience.

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA Plant Genetics and Statistics Plant breeders everywhere are concerned with the most

effective

methods

of

bettering

their

crops,

particularly with respect to characteristics such as yield which are of economic importance. It is also desirable

that

plant

breeders

of improvement to be expected

know

the amount

within

a specified

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE period of time and know how

to maintain the rate of

improvement over long time intervals. These problems pose complex statistical questions and

involve numerical analyses of masses of data.

The

Institute of Statistics at the University of North

Carolina, which, with aid from the General Education Board, has developed into one of the strongest centers for pure and is

applied statistics in the United States,

collaborating with

Sciences

the

of the North

Division

Carolina

of Biological

State

College

of

Agriculture and Engineering (part of the university). A

program of theoretical and applied research

been

formulated

has

to elucidate some of the genetic

mechanisms which underlie and control inheritance in plants. Renewing aid which began in 1949, this year

The

Rockefeller Foundation has made a grant of $25,000 to

the

program

University of North of research

Carolina

in mathematical

toward its and

experi-

mental genetics. OTHER FIELDS NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Office of Scientific Personnel Early in the last war, the emergency demands of government agencies on various professional groups of the physical and

mathematical

sciences made it

expedient to organize under the National Research Council a bureau known as the Office of Scientific Personnel. As a free representative of science in the United States, this agency has become a center for

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

services

of an

investigative and

advisory

nature.

Its activities, including the establishment of a

Key

Roster of Scientific Personnel, have dealt with the supply, training and utilization of scientific personnel throughout the country. The Rockefeller Foundation, which from 1942 on has given direct and

indirect aid to the Office of

Scientific Personnel, this year continues its support with a six-month grant of $9,000. UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO Applied Statistics There is a serious gap today between the existing knowledge in mathematical statistics and

its useful

application to practical problems. In all fields there are many investigators who method of criticizing and

think of statistics as a

evaluating work

done, not realizing that this function to that of contributing

to

already

is secondary

the effective design

of

experiments and other exploratory programs. To

help remedy this situation, the University of

Chicago has originated a program of advanced training in applied statistics for three suitably qualified individuals per year. These are to be scholars on a postdoctoral search

level

which

with

would

a

be

statistical techniques. The one

each

from

definite

program

facilitated

by

of re-

advanced

trainees will be selected

the biological, physical

and

social

sciences and given a full year of intensified statistical study. In

addition, there will

portunity

for interdisciplinary

mutual help and stimulation by

be

an

unusual

op-

communication, for the interchange of

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Mexican Agricultural Program; conference of staff and visiting experts

Photograph

Excised

Here

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

^k'^-','. - , > ' '>"",-$$WJ^-' :v siW^fW^'P^I^^^

Photograph Excised Here

Standard Oil Co., A'. J Industri.i] uatcr needs arc under study by the Conservation Foundation; shown nhovu is the water reservoir of an oil refiner) Wheat breeding at the Krancisco Jose''de Cald.ts Experiment Station near Hogota, Colombia

C£ ^ RhotOQraph Excised

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Here

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE ideas and techniques —

305

with statistical methodology

as the coordinating factor. The

University of Chicago is in an exceptionally

good position to provide this sort of training, as it has a strong statistics group and an urgent sense of the necessity of fostering a closer intimacy between the statistical theorist and The

the practical researcher.

Rockefeller Foundation is supporting this pro-

gram for an initial five-year period with a grant of $75,000, sponsored jointly by the Division of Natural Sciences and Agriculture and the Division of Social Sciences. THE CONSERVATION

FOUNDATION

Utilization of Natural Resources The

Conservation Foundation of New

York is an

independent group founded in 1948 under the auspices of the New

York Zoological Society for the

purpose of initiating

and

advancing

research

and

education in the entire field of conservation — soil, water, forests, vegetation and wildlife. Its president is Mr. The

Fairfield Osborn. Conservation Foundation, which in 1949 re-

ceived a three-year Rockefeller Foundation grant of $75,000, this year is aided by two grants. The first of these is in die amount of $i 17,000, to be available during which

the period

ending

December 31, 1952, of

$15,000 will supplement

the administrative

budget. The

largest portion of the grant, $70,000, is to be

used for research on water resources. The are to some extent scientific and

problems

technical. But

to

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

a much larger degree they involve the short-range and

long-range interests, and

often the conflicting

interests, of communities, political organizations and powerful industries. The

Conservation Foundation

seems to be in a good position to carry out exploratory

studies

to define

certain

their interrelationships and

problems, indicate

bring the necessity for

action before the appropriate groups. In December of 1950 a brochure, Water in Industry, was

prepared

in collaboration

with

the National

Association of Manufacturers, and this year a volume en tided The Conservation of Ground Water was published. Further studies are to be made on industrial water needs to help in planning water utilization and to encourage economical

use in shortage areas. In-

vestigations are also to be made on

the effect of

vegetative cover on water yield, and on how

agri-

cultural practices or the manipulation of forest cover can

influence

water

conservation. A

third

study

concerns the possibility of converting salt water to fresh water, and

there have in fact been proposals

before the Congress for federal financing of pilot plants to determine the feasibility of such a program. The

sum

of $20,000 has been designated for a

preliminary survey of the productive power of the ocean's biological forces. Since less than 2 per cent of the protein currently used in human consumption is taken from marine sources, a thorough study of these virtually untapped resources may

yield economically

significant results. In addition to its research projects, the Conservation Foundation has an active educational program.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE Audio-visual

facilities

in

the

form

of

307

films

and

recordings, some directed particularly at elementary and high school students and

at commercial firms,

are nearing completion or are already available for circulation to the public. The

sum

of $12,000 is ear-

marked for the preparation of Spanish and

Portu-

guese sound tracks for certain of these educational films so that they can

be effectively distributed in

Latin America. The second 1951 grant made by The Foundation

to

the

Conservation

Rockefeller

Foundation is

toward preparation of the soil erosion survey undertaken in conjunction with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Under the direction of Dr. Mark Baldwin of the FAO,

the

survey will eventually report on soil erosion throughout the entire world. The

initial phase of the work,

treating North and South America, is nearing completion, and it is to cover final costs that the sum

of

$10,000 has been granted in addition to the funds already available under the 1949 Rockefeller Foundation grant.

GRANTS IN AID

In the Division of Natural Sciences and Agriculture a total of 105 grants in aid amounting to $292,118 were made during 1951 from funds set aside for this purpose. The grants were distributed among projects and individuals in 23 different countries. Of 58 grants for research, 50 were for equipment, salaries and

other aid to studies in the general field

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

of experimental biology, including ten for genetics research and two for X-ray crystallography. Of the other eight, two

were for calculating machines for

research in physical chemistry; one for spectroscopic research in rare earth elements, the structure of heavy metals and

physical problems of high intensity ion

sources; one for research in the geography of Brazil; one for research on problems relating to the automatic mechanical translation of one language to another; and

three to faculties of agriculture and

veterinary

medicine in Yugoslavia. Among the 39 travel grants were four which were made to permit the organizers of small international symposia to invite a few participants, and one for an exchange of personnel between the Institute of Agronomy

of the South, Pelotas, Brazil, and the Mexican

Agricultural Program. Of the other travel grants, 19 were for visits of scientists from other countries to the United States or for expenses within the country in certain instances in which the scientists were already in the United States; two were for visits to more than one country, including the United States; six were for visits of scientists

from

the United States to other

countries; and seven were for visits from one foreign country to another. Eight other grants were for miscellaneous purposes which are described below. GRANTS IN AID OF RESEARCH ARGENTINA Institute of Biochemical Investigations, Campomar Foundation, Buenos Aires; $6,000 for equipment and supplies for research in enzyme chemistry under Dr, Luis

F. Leloir,

director

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

309

National University of Buenos Aires, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences; $1,500 for research in organic chemistry under the direction of Professor Venancio Deulofeu AUSTRIA University of Graz, Institute for Theoretical and Physical Chemistry; $3,500 for study of structure of proteins and celluloses by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and the methods of ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy; equipment for use under the direction of Professor Otto Kratky University of Vienna: Second Chemical Laboratory; $3,000 toward research under the general direction of Professor Friedrich Wessely Faculty of Medicine; 19,200 Austrian schillings, approximately $768, toward research in population genetics under the direction of Professor Felix Mainx BRAZIL Institute of Biology, Bahia, State Secretariat of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce; $5,000 for equipment and supplies for research in animal and plant pathology University of Brazil, National Faculty of Philosophy, Rio de Janeiro: Professor A. G. Lagden Cavalcanti; $5,200 for equipment, supplies and

research assistance in genetics

Dr. Hilgard O'Reilly Sternberg, professor of geography of Brazil; $5,000 for equipment and supplies University of Parana", Faculty

of Philosophy, Curitiba;

$2,480 toward equipment and supplies for research in genetics under Professor Newton Freire-Maia University of Sao Paulo: Faculty of Philosophy, Science and Letters, Department of General Biology; $3,500 toward equipment and

supplies for work in drosophila population

genetics under Dr. A. B. da Cunha

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION School of Agriculturej Piracicaba; $850 toward equipment and

supplies for genetics research of

Dr. Warwick Kerr CANADA McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario; $1,500 toward biochemical studies of plants under the direction of Dr. S. Kirkwood, professor of biochemistry DENMARK University

of Copenhagen, Laboratory of Zoophysiology;

$3,000 toward equipment for research in the physiology of cell division under Dr. Erik Zeuthen FINLAND University of Helsinki, Department of Nutritional Chemistry; $4,000 toward research in biochemistry under the direction of Professor Paavo Roine FRANCE Pasteur Institute, Paris; $2,500 for a spectrophotometer for use under the general direction of Dr. Pierre Grabar, director of the Service of Microbial Chemistry University of Marseille, Faculty of Sciences; Laboratory of Biochemistry and Fats; $6,500 toward equipment

for studies of protein hydrolysis by

chemical and enzymatic agents and organic chemistry of fats and fatty acids under Professor Pierre Desnuelle Laboratory of Physiology; $600 for supplies for research on the structure of proteins under the direction of Dr. Jacques Chouteau, Chef de Travaux Pratiques University of Montpellier, Institute of Chemistry; $1,000 for physicochemical studies of organic products under Professor Max Mousseron

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE University

of Nancy, School of Industrial and

3! I Mineral

Chemistry; $1,000 for equipment for research under the direction of Professor Maurice Letort University of Strasbourg: The

physics of macromolecules; $300 for research

under the direction of Professor C. L. Sadron Institute of Biological Physics; $800 for equipment to be used under the direction of Professor Andre Chevallier University of Toulouse, Faculty of Science, Laboratories of Physical Chemistry; $1,800 toward equipment for research in X-ray crystallography under the direction of Dr. H. Brusset GREAT BRITAIN Strangeways Research

Laboratory, Cambridge, England;

$800 for equipment and supplies to be used under the direction of Dr. Honor B. Fell, largely for the biochemistry unit of the laboratory University of Leeds, England; $1,300 for two additional X-ray tubes for use under the direction of Professor E. G. Cox, Department of Chemistry University of Manchester, England; $650 toward equipment for research under the direction of Professor E. R. H. Jones, Department of Organic Chemistry ITALY University of Bologna, Institute of Comparative Anatomy; ?3»5°° f°r research under Professor Pasquale Pasquini University of Naples: Institute of Biological Chemistry; $2,500 toward materials for research under the general direction of Professor Gaetano Quagliariello Institute of Genetics; $5,000 toward equipment for „

research of Professor Giuseppi Montalenti

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION University of Padua, Institute of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy; $2,500 toward construction of a cold room for research of Professor Umberto D'Ancona University of Pavia, Institute of Genetics; $2,500 for research of Professor Adriano Buzzati-Traverso University of Rome, Institute of Comparative Anatomy; $1,700 for research of Professor Alberto Stefanelli in comparative embryology University of Turin, Institute of Human Anatomy; $60 for equipment for research of Dr. Rodolfo Amprino in microanatomy (in addition to previous grant in 1950) NETHERLANDS University of Amsterdam: Laboratory of Plant Physiology; $2,500 for equipment for work under the direction of Professor A. W. H. van Herk Zeeman Laboratory; $1,200 for equipment for spectroscopic research in rare earth elements, structure of heavy metals and physical problems of high intensity ion sources under Professor C. J, Bakker SWEDEN University of Uppsala; $1,200 for equipment to be used in X-ray crystallography by Dr. Einar Stenhagen in the Department of Biochemistry SWITZERLAND University of Basel: Research

in biochemistry under the direction of

Professor Theodore Posternak; $4,000 for equipment Department of Physical Chemistry; $880 for calculating machine to be used under the direction of Dr. Hans Kuhn

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

313

University of Bern, Institute of Mineralogy; $880 for calculating machine to be used under the direction of Professor Werner Nowacki YUGOSLAVIA University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agronomy, Institute for Agricultural Chemistry; $3,000 toward equipment for research under the direction of Professor Stevan Nikolic University of Zagreb: Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Institute for Plant Breeding and Genetics; $1,000 for genetics research under the direction of Professor Alois Tavcar Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Histology; $2,000 for equipment to be used under the direction of Professor Teodor D. Varicak Faculty of Sciences, University Chemical Laboratory; $3,500 for publications and

equipment for

research in biochemistry under the direction of Professor Kresimir Balenovic UNITED STATES Cornell University Medical College, Department of Public Health, New

York; $5,000 for research of Dr. Bernard D.

Davis in biosynthetic pathways of bacterial mutants Iowa State College, Department of Physics, Ames; $6,000 for research of Professor Robert L. Sinsheimer in biophysics (molecular biology) The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland; $5,000 for amino acid studies by Professor Emeritus E. V. McCollum National Bureau

of Standards, Institute for Numerical

Analysis, Los Angeles, California; $5,000 for research of Dr, Harry D. Huskey on problems related to the automatic mechanical translation of one language to another

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

314

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Northwestern

University, Evanston, Illinois; $5,000 for

research in genetics of Professor George H. Mickey, Department of Biology Oregon State College, Department of Chemistry, Corvallis; $4,500 for research of Professor Vernon H. Cheldelin relating to the mechanism of action of Coenzyme A in aerobic phosphorylation Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, Department of Chemistry, New

York; $4,000 for research on biological structure under

Dr. Gerald Oster Purdue University, Department of Biological Science, Lafayette, Indiana; $5,000 for study of isolatedflagellafrom a biochemical point of view by Professor Heinrich Koffler Rutgers University, Department of Zoology, New

Brunswick,

New Jersey; $5,000 for study by Professor Alan A. Boyden of evolutionary relationships

using

techniques of precipitin

specificity on samples of blood proteins University of California, Los Angeles; $7,000 for equipment for study of the biochemical mechanism of the induction of flowering under the direction of Professor Karl C. Hamner University of Chicago, Institute of Radiobiology and Biophysics, Illinois; $6,300 for research of Dr. Leo Szilard on mutagenic effects of caffeine, nucleic acids and other purine compounds University of Florida, Department of Biology, Gainesville; $6,000 for research in animal ecology by Professor W. C. Alice University of Michigan, Ann

Arbor; $5,000 for work of Pro-

fessor G. B. B. M. Sutherland on investigating protein structure by means of infrared spectroscopy University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, the John Herr Musser Department of Research Medicine, Philadelphia; $6,000 for research in steroid chemistry by Professor Maximilian R. Ehrenstein

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE Virginia Polytechnic

Institute, Department of

Blacksburg; $5,000 for research by Professor Max

315 Genetics, Levitan

Washington University, Department of Botany, St. Louis, Missouri; $5,000 for research in genetics by Professor Barry Commoner TRAVEL GRANTS AUSTRALIA Mr. Peter M. Nossal, University of Adelaide; $350 toward expenses while in the United States to study available equipment for a biochemical laboratory BELGIUM Professor Christian de Duve, Department of Biochemistry, University of Louvain; $700 for visits to universities and institutions within the United States BRAZIL Institute of Agronomy, Campinas, State of Sao Paulo Secretariat of Agriculture, Research Fund: For stipend of Professor Frank Yates, Rothamstead Agricultural Experiment Station, England, while conducting a two-month series of seminars in statistics at the Institute of Agronomy; $1,500 Allowance to enable Dr. Ahmes Pinto Viegas, head, Division of Plant Pathology, to gather information in Latin American countries for the Index of South American Literature on Fungi, and to study coffee diseases; $1,500 Institute of Agronomy of the North, Betem, Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture: For trip to India of Dr. Felisberto C. de Camargo, director, to select cattle for breeding program for Amazon Valley; $2,000 For one year's experience in Latin America, chiefly at the Institute of Agronomy of the North, working on cattle program, for Dr. Charles E. Eastin, recent veterinary graduate of Ohio State University; $3,575

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

3l6

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Institute of Agronomy of the South, Pelotas; $7,220 toward the exchange of scientific personnel with the Mexican Agricultural Program during a period of one year COLOMBIA Dr. Eduardo Mejfa V£lez, Secretary of Agriculture for the State of Antioquia, and Dr. Luis Eduardo Posada, director, Tulio Ospina Experiment Station, MedelHn; $1,760 for visits to the Mexican Agricultural Program Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Industry, Bogota"; $800 for expenses of visit of Dr. Bonifacio C. Bernardes, director, Rice Experiment Station, P6rto Alegre, Brazil, to advise and consult with the ministry on all aspects of rice production and marketing in Colombia DENMARK Dr. C. Barker Jorgensen, Laboratory of Zoophysiology, University of Copenhagen; $800 for expenses of visiting marine biological laboratories in the United States Professor Hakon Lund, Department of Chemistry, University of Aarhus; $1,500 for visit to the United States to become familiar with the techniques of using stable isotopes in the synthesis of organic compounds GREAT BRITAIN Dr. V. E. Cosslett, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, England; $250 for visits while in the United States to observe work being done on electron microscopy Alfred Tennant Cowie, National Institute for Research in Dairying, Reading, England; $3,000 toward the cost of a visit to the United States, where he has been appointed a research fellow in surgery at Harvard Medical School Dr. Dennis Gabor, Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London, England; $900 for expenses of visiting laboratories in the United States doing work in his special interests, chiefly electron dynamics and

optics,

communication theory and diffraction microscopy

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE

317

Dr. Edna M. F. Roe, Chester Beatty Research Institute, London, England; $700 for visits in the United States to centers of cancer research Society for Experimental Biology; $1,500 toward travel expenses of American scientists invited to take part in the symposium on structural aspects of cell physiology held in Bristol, July 1951 Professor J. Monteith Robertson, Department of Biochemistry, University of Glasgow, Scotland; $250 for visits to centers of research in electron microscopy in the United States GREECE Dr. P. Cntopoulos, assistant professor of plant pathology, University of Salonika; $1,200 for extension of visit in United States to study plant diseases IRELAND Dr.

George Mitchell, Department

of Irish

Archaeology,

Trinity College, Dublin; $2,500 to study collections dealing with Quaternary Era at various institutions in the United States ITALY Professor Pasquale Pasquini, director, Institute of Comparative Anatomy, University of Bologna; $1,500 for a threemonth visit to the United States to observe work in experimental embryology PERU Dr. J. Alberto Leon, director, National School of Agriculture, La Molina; $1,900 for visits in South and Central America, Mexico and the United States PORTUGAL Dr. Luis Bramao, National Agronomical Station, Lisbon; $1,400 for a visit to Brazil to advise the Institute of Agronomy, Campinas, in soil science, and to the United States to consult with agricultural scientists

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

3*8

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

SWEDEN Dr. Hans Borei, Wenner-Grens Institute, Stockholm; $600 for visits within the United States to centers of zoological research from the University of Pennsylvania, where he was visiting professor in the Department of Zoology, February to June 1951 Professor Einar Hammarsten, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm; $ 1,000 for visit to Italy to work in biochemical laboratories of the Superior Institute of Public Health, Rome Karolinska Institute, Stockholm; $1,000 toward expenses of symposium held at the Institute for Cell Research of the Karolinska Institute in September 1951, half for the expenses of delegates from the laboratory of Professor J. T. Randall, King's College, London SWITZERLAND Dr. Hans Burla, Zurich; $500 for a trip to Brazil to take up assistantship in genetics to Professor A. G. Lagden Cavalcanti of the University of Brazil URUGUAY Dr. Eduardo De Robertis, Department of Ultrastructures, Institute of Biological Sciences, Montevideo; $545 for trips in the United States to observe electron microscopy centers UNITED STATES Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, College Station; $ 1,300 toward expenses of Dr. G. L. Artecona while doing advanced work in animal husbandry prior to going to the Institute of Agronomy of the North, Bel&rn, Brazil Dr. Harold F. Blum, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; $1,200 for expenses of attending meetings and visits to various laboratories in Europe California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; $1,350 for expenses of Alberto Soriano of Argentina while working in experimental ecology in the Kerckhoff Laboratories of Biology

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE Professor

George A. Edwards, Tufts

319

College, Medford,

Massachusetts; $900 for travel to Brazil to work with Dr. Paulo Sawaya, professor of general and animal physiology at the University of Sao Paulo Gordon Research Conferences of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, held at New

Hampton, New

Hampshire, in August 1951: For

expenses

of European

scientists Invited to

participate in the conference on physical methods in nucleic acid and protein research; $4,000 For expenses of two European scientists invited to participate in the conference on general biochemistry; $2,000 Dr. W. A. Hagan, dean, and Professor P. P. Levine, New York State Veterinary College, Cornell University; Professor I. D. Wilson, Virginia Polytechnic Institute; and Professor J. L. Lush, Iowa State College; $4,100 for expenses of visiting South American centers of veterinary medicine and animal husbandry and of attendingfirstLatin American Congress on Veterinary Medicine Professor B. J. Luyet, Department of Biology, St. Louis University, Missouri; $1,200 for expenses of attending International

Symposium

on

Vitrification

in

England, June

Dr. Harrison D. Stalker, Department of Zoology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri; $600 for visit to laboratory of Dr. A. H. Sturtevaut, Department

of Biology, California

Institute of Technology University of Chicago, Illinois; $1,000 for traveling expenses of Dr. Norbert Uri in coming from the University of Manchester to work in the university's Institute of Radiobiology and Biophysics University of Minnesota, Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Pathology, St. Paul; a $600 allowance to provide continued training in plant pathology for Rosendo Postigo of Peru

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri; $3,300 for expenses of Dr. Tuneo Yamada, Biological Institute, Nagoya University, Japan, in coming to the United States to work in the Department of Zoology and to visit other laboratories engaged in experimental embryology

OTHER GRANTS COLOMBIA National University of Colombia: Faculties of Agronomy, Medellin

and

$9,350 for farm machinery, tools and

Palmira; equipment

needed in connection with the program of collaboration with Michigan State College promoted by the Technical Cooperation Administration of the United States Department of State Institute of Natural ScienceSj Bogota; $5,000 for acquisition of equipment, mainly herbarium

cases,

and bibliographic source materials University of the Andes, Bogota; $5,000 for equipment and supplies for teaching, primarily in the laboratories of physics and chemistry CUBA La Salle College, Vedado-Havana; $4,000 toward the cost of steel herbarium cases MEXICO Marine Secretariat; $6,000 for services of a technical expert and a special consultant from the United States for cooperative development of a rural fish culture project YUGOSLAVIA Council of the Academies of Yugoslavia, Belgrade; $7,500 for the purchase of scientific journals for the Universities of Belgrade, Zagreb, Ljubljana, Skoplje and Sarajevo

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE UNITED STATES Columbia University, Department of General and Comparative Linguistics, New

York; $3,000 for the preparation and

publication of a speech archive of different types of human communication in cooperation with an

acoustical engineer

Fund totaling $5,000 for grants of small amounts for equipment, materials, travel, honoraria and miscellaneous purposes, allotted under the supervision of the Director of the Division

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

STAFF DURING 1951

Director JOSEPH H. WILLITS

Associate Director LELAND C. DEVINNEY

Assistant Directors ROGER F. EVANS FREDERIC C. LANE l PHILIP E. MOSELY 2 ' Appointed Assistant Director July i, 1951. 3Resignation effective June 30, 1951. Appointed Consultant beginning July i, 1951-

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT

329

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL

329

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR ECONOMICS AND ECONOMIC HISTORY

330

Harvard University: Economic Research

330

University of Cambridge: Social Accounts Study

331

University of Manchester: Faculty of Economic and Social Studies

332

Harvard University: Research Center in Entrepreneurial History National

333 Institute of Economic and

Social Research,

Great Britain

334

The Johns Hopkins University: Department of Political Economy

335 POLITICAL BEHAVIOR

Harvard University: State Election Statistics Bennington College: Interaction in the Political Process INTERPERSONAL AND INTERGROUP BEHAVIOR

335 336 337 338

Yale University: Communication and Attitude Change

338

Rutgers University: Studies in Communication

339

Harvard University: Laboratory of Human Development

34!

Harvard University: Laboratory of Social Relations

342

RESEARCH TOOLS AND METHODS

343

University of Chicago: Applied Statistics

344

National Opinion Research Center: Studies of Interviewing

344

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

326

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

APPLICATIONS TO SOCIAL PROBLEMS INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND UNDERSTANDING

345

Princeton University: Institute of International Studies

345

Council on Foreign Relations, Inc.

346

Haverford College: Case Studies of Technical Assistance

350

Royal Institute of International Affairs, London

351

University of Florida: Land Tenure in the Middle East

353

International African Institute, London: Studies in West Africa

354

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe: Longrun Tendencies in the European Economy

355

Stanford University: Food Research Institute

356

Social Science Research Council: Current Digest of the Soviet Press

357

Library of Congress: Accessions Lists

358

Tokyo University and Stanford University: American Studies

358

Public Administration Clearing House: Consultant for Japan

359

Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, India

360

National Foundation of Political Sciences, France: International Relations

361

A STRONG AND VIGOROUS SOCIETY

361

American Law Institute: Model Criminal Code

361

American Bar Association Endowment: Commission on Organized Crime

363

University of Cambridge: History of English Criminal Law

364

Duke University: Income Study

365

University of Delaware: Income Tax Study

366

Columbia University: Institute for Urban Land Use and Housing Studies

367

University of Chicago: Agricultural Economics

368

University of Missouri: Rural Church Study

369

Mayor's Advisory Committee for the Aged, New

York

City

370

Cornell University: Civil Rights Study

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

373

DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

327

Harvard University: Foreign Labor Movements

374

University of Alberta: Local Government Problems

375

THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH TALENT

375

Canadian

Social Science

Research

Council: Research,

Publications, Fellowships and Professorial Leaves United

Nations

Economic

Commission

376

for Europe:

In-Service Training Fellowships

376

Institut de Science Economique Applique'e: In-Service Training Scholarships

377

American Economic Association: Graduate Training of Economists

378

Columbia University: Training in Social Research

378

GRANTS IN AID

380

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

IN

the President's Review section of this report on pages 58 to 76 will be found a discussion of the principles

and

programs

of The

Rockefeller

Foundation in the field of the social sciences.

The

pages that follow give details on specific grants made in 1951.

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL The Social Science Research Council was founded in 1923 for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences, The

council provides a much-needed

system of efficient communication between government agencies, foundations and other groups, on the one hand, and the research specialists in the various disciplines at universities throughout the country, on the other hand. The staff and committees of the council perform important tasks in identifying scientific and practical problems which are ready for research and

in helping to develop effective attacks on

such

problems. Such success as has been attained in this line has been achieved through winning the support and

loyalty of those genuinely concerned with the

development of objective, systematic and scientific methods for analyzing human and social problems. TheJRockefeller Foundation has contributed more than

$2,000,000 for support of the general admin-

istration and the conferences and planning program

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

330

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

of the council. The

current

annual

rate of sup-

port for these continuing basic expenses is $100,000. The

Rockefeller Foundation

in 1951

appropriated

$i,500,000 as a capital fund for the council. Two other grants, totaling $270,000, provided final grants for general

administration

and

for

conferences

and

planning. One of the significant services of the Social Science Research Council has been the administration of a program of modest grants in aid of research by individual scholars and stitutions which

scientists, chiefly in smaller in-

are unable

to provide funds for

faculty research. A 1951 grant of $75,000 continued for another three years Foundation support of this program.

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR ECONOMICS AND ECONOMIC HISTORY Present-day efforts to advance the understanding of economic behavior include many promising attempts at detailed study of actual economic operations and the analysis of empirical data derived from such study. The

Foundation continues

to support

efforts in this line, as well as studies which will deepen and enrich the understanding of economic history. HARVARD UNIVERSITY Economic Research The Rockefeller Foundation made a 1951 grant of $140,000 to Harvard University to support a fouryear program of economic research under Professor

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

33!

Wassily Leontief. In the course of his work at Harvard, Professor Leontief has devised a new technique known

as input-output analysis

for studying

the

structure of an economic system. The and

results of the research by Professor Leontief

his associates thus far are summarized in nu-

merous articles and in two books by him: The Structure of the American Economy and a recent volume, Studies in the Structure of the American Economy. Within the period of the new grant Professor Leontief plans to extend his research and data. He

apply it to

new

will seek to improve methods for analyzing

capital and capacity relationships and examine ways in which new techniques of production are introduced into the economy.

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE Social Accounts Study With a grant of £191,500 which The Rockefeller Foundation made to the University of Cambridge in 1951, the university's Department of Applied

Eco-

nomics has undertaken a study of the social accounts of the County of Cambridgeshire, a region sufficiently wide to test procedures which could be applied on a national scale. The purpose of the present study is to develop appropriate sampling methods for the collection of economic information necessary in constructing a system of social accounts, representing all monetary transactions among individuals and groups within a country's economy.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

332

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Mr. J. R. N. Stone, director of the Department of Applied Economics, is also the author of the current methods used in Great Britain to measure national income. It is expected that the proposed inquiry into the social accounts of Cambridgeshire will constitute an important check against those methods now for measuring national income and

used

its distribution.

Mr. Stone and his staff believe, furthermore, that the results of the survey will be important not only for their methodological interest but also for their ultimate practical value to economists and other workers in a number of sociological fields. The grant from the Foundation

gives

support to the survey

through

December 1955. UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER Faculty of Economic and Social Studies The

Faculty of Economic and Social Studies at

the University of Manchester, England, has been expanded to include, in addition to the well-established Economics Research Section, a new Department of Government and Administration. Professor Ely Devons, successor to Professor John Jewkes as dean of the Faculty of Economics and Social Studies, directs the research program, to which The Rockefeller Foundation has appropriated funds since 1933. In 1951 the Foundation

made a grant of £7,500 for research

activities during the next two years. The

Economics Research Section plans to under-

take during the next few years studies in the following areas: the administration and accounts of nationalized

industries; labor's

adaptation

to the modern

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

333

worJd; wage and salary structure; industrial development and the factors which foster or impede it; the economic development of unindustrialized countries; changes in Great Britain's economic development during the period

1870-1900; agricultural-economic

studies of the northwest section of England; and local government finance. Research by the Department of Government and Administration is to include studies on local and regional government; public corporations; the administration of social services from the client's point of view; and comparison studies of local government in Great Britain with counterparts in other countries. HARVARD UNIVERSITY Research Center in Entrepreneurial History Funds provided

by The

Rockefeller Foundation

since 1948 have helped to organize the Research Center in Entrepreneurial History at Harvard University. Under the direction of Professor Arthur H. Cole, the center has undertaken to study the role of the business entrepreneur as an agent of social change and

to investigate the historical relationship of men

and time to economic theory. Several students have now fessor Cole, and

been trained by Pro-

scholars outside Harvard

Univer-

sity have been stimulated to join the activities of the center. The

earliest work there resulted in a volume

entitled Change and the Entrepreneur. A second book, Men

in Business^ consists of 12 studies in the history

of entrepreneurship, among them: The American Industrial Elite in the iS/'o's: Their Social Origins; The

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

334

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Business Elite in Business Bureaucracies; Life Insurance in the Nineteenth Century: A Conflict of Two Systems; Frank Julian Sprague: Father of Electric Traction (1857-1934); Henry Varnum Poor: Philosopher of Management; and John Stevens^ General Entrepreneur (1749-1838}. A journal of informal discussion entitled Explorations in Entrepreneurial History is regularly published by the Research Center and

is widely distributed to

scholars and to libraries in this country and abroad. In 1951 The Rockefeller Foundation made a grant of $10,000 to the Research Center for a revision of Change and the Entrepreneur to embody the center's current thinking on

the nature of entrepreneurial

history. In addition, a special fund of $10,000 was set aside by The

Rockefeller Foundation officers to contribute

to the expenses of economic historians visiting the Research Center. Drawing from this fund, two grants have already been made: $3,000 to Wellesley College for Professor Leland M. Jenks to continue his work at the center, and $2,060 to the University of Chicago to

enable

Professor

Sylvia

Thrupp

to spend six

months at the center working on a study of the market as it operates in agrarian and

industrial societies.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RESEARCH, GREAT BRITAIN The

National Institute of Economic and

Research in Great Britain was

Social

established in 1938 to

pursue an independent research program and ats the same time to provide a nucleus for the coordination

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES and

promotion of studies in British universities and

independent research bodies. The Rockefeller Foundation has made a series of appropriations to the National Institute and in 1951 made an outright grant of £13,750 for its general purposes. Sir Henry Clay for many years directed the institute as president of the council and as a member of the executive committee, which also includes economists drawn from thefieldsof education., finance and government. He has recently retired, and Mr. W. A. B. Hopkin will become director on October i, 1952. THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY Department of Political Economy The

Rockefeller Foundation has made a grant of

$37>5°° to the Johns Hopkins University for salaries and

travel expenses of three professors from Europe

who

are to join the Department of Political Economy,

one each year during the three-year period beginning September i, 1951. The

European professors, through sharing their

experience and new

points of view, will, it is hoped,

strengthen the department as a center for advanced graduate work. The

visiting professors will join the

ten members of the department at present concerned, through research or theory, with problems of labor supply and demand,fiscalpolicy, international trade, Russian economic issues and mathematical economics. POLITICAL BEHAVIOR Studies of political behavior aided by the Foundation include work at Harvard University on state

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION election statistics. This and College on

a study at Bennington

political interest groups seek to deter-

mine the influence of organized

groups on

public

policy. HARVARD UNIVERSITY State Election Statistics Research in the field of political behavior would be facilitated by data on state elections assembled in a readily usable form. A

study in this field has been

undertaken by Professor V. O. Key with the aid of a three-year grant

of $47,500 from

Foundation. Professor Key

The

Rockefeller

is on the faculty of the

Harvard Graduate School of Public Administration and is the author of Southern Politics. His present research involves the collection and

analysis of state

election returns from 1910 to 1950 in the states east of the tier from North Dakota to Missouri and north of the Mason-Dixon line. Assembled material will increase current knowledge on such phases of the state electoral process as the relationship between the direct primary election and party irresponsibility; open and closed primaries and party irresponsibility; the sensitivity of state legislatures to shifts in party divisions in the electorate; the general nature of the state party systems; variations in electoral participation; voting behavior in relation to changing environmental conditions; the efficacy of the party machine; and

the interrelation

of state and national politics. A by-product of the current study is the elementary handbook on statistical methods in political research

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES which is being prepared by

337

members of Professor

Key's seminar on political behavior. BENNINGTON COLLEGE Interaction in the Political Process Closely related to Professor Key's research is another study representing an empirical

approach to

problems of political behavior. Dr. Oliver Garceau, professor

of government

Vermont, is working

on

at

Bennington

organized

College,

interest-group

interaction in the political process. The

Rockefeller

Foundation has made a three-year grant of $27,100 to Bennington College for the study, which will have its headquarters at the Harvard Graduate School of Public Administration, where Professor Garceau is serving as consultant at the Littauer School. For

purposes of this study, "interest group" is

defined as a formally organized association having a significant concern with major public policies but not primarily interested in capturing elective offices. Professor Garceau and his assistants are observing economic, civic and

professional organizations on

the

local, state and federal levels to determine how interest groups work together in selected arenas of political negotiation; circumstances which change these relations; the effect of group alignments and their influence on

major policy issues; and

the strategy of

interest-group politics in the context of party politics. A preliminary survey is being made to identify the political issues which attract die interest of organized groups. Observers will interview members and group leaders and

will analyze sessions of state legislatures.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

338

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Preliminary work has already been done on the level of state politics in Vermont. Data will be collected on urban and metropolitan areas. At a later stage the techniques and

concepts defined in these

situations will be applied to the study of interestgroup interaction in the federal government.

INTERPERSONAL AND INTERGROUP BEHAVIOR During recent years the Foundation has been actively seeking to reinforce efforts to extend rigorous scientific methods to the study of interpersonal and intergroup

behavior. The

present

efforts

studies of the process of communication

include

and com-

municated values, child personality development and surveys of cultural values. YALE UNIVERSITY Communication and Attitude Change Systematic studies of communications and of their influence on the formation of attitudes are increasing the general knowledge of how

and why

individual

citizens develop their fundamental beliefs and purposes. One

such study has been going on

at Yale

University since 1948 under the direction of Professor Carl I. Hovland. It is an experimental research program seeking to measure the effect which communications have on attitude change. When the study began. The Rockefeller Foundation made a grant of $68,400 to Yale, and

it has

now

renewed

support for the

project with a 1951 three-year grant of $147,900. In thefirststage of the study on

communications

and attitude change, Yale investigators focused their

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

339

attention on the following major aspects of the problem:

motivation

in relation to change in attitude;

group affiliation; intervening psychological processes; preparatory

communication for future attitude for-

mation; retention of attitude changes produced

by

communication; and personality factors in relation to individual reactions to the same communication. Encouraged by the results of the findings thus far, Professor Hovland and his associates are continuing the inquiry to determine particularly the extent to which

an attitude changes because

social influences and

of motivation,

past experiences. Present plans

also call for the expansion of the program to include areas

of language, symbolism, and

measurement

methodology. The allow

training aspects of the program continue to research

fellows and

graduate

assistants to

participate in each phase of the research, from original planning to final write-up. Jn addition, two cooperative phases have now

been added to the Yale program

on communication and attitude. Thefirstis a summer seminar bringing together the Yale investigators and outside people working in this samefield.The is occasional collaborative studies with

second

individuals

not a regular part of the Yale group, a measure designed to increase the quality of talent available for the project and to stimulate research in other places. RUTGERS UNIVERSITY Studies in Communication From data compiled in communication studies at Rutgers University, there appears to be a considerable

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

difference in the response of those children who

con-

verse primarily with their fellow students and those, on the other hand, who

communicate chiefly with

adults. Professor John W. Riley, Jr., chairman of the Department of Sociology, directed studies —

the two

pilot

thefirstamong 50 students in a New York

progressive school, the second among 400 children in a New

Jersey public school.

Professor Riley and his associates have now started a communications research project to explore more rigorously the differences in response and the influence of the group on the child's reception of communicated values. This current phase of the communications study has been given the support of The Rockefeller Foundation with a 1951 grant of $14,000. In the new survey 800 high school pupils who represent two or three comparatively homogeneous

com-

munities are individually interviewed and given selfadministering

questionnaires. After

classifying the

pupils as to whether they are primarily influenced by their parents or their fellow students, the Rutgers group will study the responses to material selected from the mass media of communication — vision, comics, for instance —

radio, tele-

hoping thereby to dis-

cover what differences in reactions are associated with differences in group orientation. The

immediate purpose of this study

tribute to the knowledge of how

is to con-

children derive their

values and opinions. As in the case of the Yale study previously described, this project aims at a more basic understanding of the role of social

groups in the

transmission of values.

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HARVARD UNIVERSITY Laboratory of Human Development Steady progress is being made at Harvard University's Laboratory of Human Development toward understanding the role of social and cultural factors in

the development

of a child's personality.

The

laboratory study is under the direction of Professor Robert R, Sears of the Faculty of Education. Professor Sears started his work on social and cultural factors in child development while at the University of Iowa, on the staff of the Child Welfare Research Station. The Rockefeller Foundation made a grant in 1947 to support this work at Iowa

and

another in 1950 following the transfer of the project to Harvard. The Foundation now has continued support with a grant of $64,500 to Harvard University for the three-year period beginning September I,1952. During the two years spent on the project at Iowa, data were collected and methods developed for a pilot study on the development of aggression and dependency in young children; these data were

analyzed

during the third year of the study. A second pilot study has measurably strengthened the hypotheses on

the origins of aggression

and

identification

of

children with their parents. The Harvard group, which has now developed into an

active research center for graduate students in

social relations, psychology and

education, is under-

taking, with the aid of Foundation funds, to continue its series of pilot studies and work on methodological development. Professor Sears and his associates plan

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

to investigate problems relating to the differential identification of girls and boys and produce revolt

the

the factors that

differences; problems concerning

against

identification

during

the

preadolescent

years, following the age offive;and problems relating to the role of identification in creating guilt on

the

one hand and positive values on the other, and the relations of both of these to the development of conscience and the internalization of social norms during the preschool period. HARVARD UNIVERSITY Laboratory of Social Relations Using as its field laboratory a small region in the southwestern

United

States, Harvard University's

Laboratory of Social Relations in 1949 began a study of comparative culture values. Here within a small area the research team is able to compare five different culture groups —

Mormons, Texans, Navahoes,

Zunis and Spanish Americans. By

observing and comparing cultures of groups

limited in size and

complexity, the Laboratory of

Social Relations hopes to develop objective methods for more extensive investigations of personal

and

group values. The work also provides an opportunity to test new methods and to promote interdisciplinary research in the field and classroom seminar. The

information to be gained in this study has in-

terested a variety of social scientists — gists, sociologists, social and

anthropolo-

clinical psychologists,

political scientists and historians. Many representatives of these disciplines, some of them from other

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institutions, have cooperated in the field work of this study. The intensivefieldwork in the study area was completed in 1951. During 1952-1953 the Harvard team proposes to analyze the data and work on preliminary reports. In 1953-1954 there will be more field work and testing of the refined theories. The next year will be devoted to the analysis of data and the writing of the final report. In the meantime the more significant findings are appearing in articles and monographs. Professors John M. Roberts and Evon Z. Vogt have directed and coordinated the study with the aid of an advisory committee consisting of Professor Talcott Parsons, chairman of the Department of Social Relations, Professor John O. Brew, director of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Professor Clyde Kluckhohn of the Harvard Department of Anthropology, and an executive committee from the laboratory. The

Rockefeller Foundation first contributed to

this study with a grant of $100,000 in 1949; another grant of $100,000 was made in 1951 for the cultural values study during the years 1952 to 1955. RESEARCH TOOLS AND METHODS The

dependence of improvements in empirical so-

cial science research on the continuing development of ever better research

tools is widely recognized.

Advances in the science of statistics and in its application to social research comprise one of the most important lines of such development.

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO Applied Statistics On joint recommendation by the Division of Social Sciences and

the Division of Natural Sciences

Agriculture, The

Rockefeller Foundation

and

in [1951

made a grant of $75,000 to the University of Chicago for a program of advanced training in applied statistics. An on and

account of this grant appears in the section

Natural

Sciences

and

Agriculture, pages

302

305.

NATIONAL OPINION RESEARCH CENTER Studies of Interviewing The National Opinion Research Center in Chicago is conducting a study on problems which challenge interviewers

conducting

study, designed

public opinion

to improve

current

polls.

The

interviewing

methods, was developed by a joint committee (of the Social Science Research Council and

the

National

Research Council) on the measurement of opinions, attitudes and

consumer wants. It resulted from the

recognition that while bias may

enter at any

stage

in the survey, errors arising during the interview are crucial, for it is in the interview that data are elicited and recorded. The primary objectives of the study at the National Opinion Research Center have been

to isolate the

variables introduced by interviewers and to determine the extent to which these factors influence both the person being interviewed and the interviewer himself. A further objective of the program is to control these

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variables through the selection, training and supervision of the interviewers and the preparation of improved questionnaires. Dr. Clyde Hart, director of the center, is in charge of the study, for which The

Rockefeller Foundation

in 1951 made a grant of $12,885. An

earlier appro-

priation for this study was made in 1947.

APPLICATIONS TO SOCIAL PROBLEMS INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND UNDERSTANDING For many years a major interest of the Division of Social Sciences has been to help bring scholarship and broad-gauge

thinking to bear

on

the far-reaching

problems of international relations. Several grants reflect a continuation of this interest. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY Institute of International Studies The Rockefeller Foundation has made a five-year grant of $200,000 to Princeton

University for the

Institute of International Studies. The

institute, until

1951 a part of Yale University, since 1935 has had support from the Foundation totaling $402,600. Dr. Frederick S. Dunn, director of the institute at Yale, continues as director at Princeton. In continuing research on foreign policy and

inter-

national affairs, members of the institute have contact with a wide variety of interdisciplinary social science groups at Princeton. These include the recently organized Center for Research stitutions, the

in World Political In-

Office of Population

Research, the

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

International Finance Section and the Office of Public Opinion Research. The

staff of the institute is continuing to publish

the quarterly journal, World Politics, as well as the monograph series and research memoranda on international relations. Dr. Dunn and members of his staff are regular consultants to the Department of State and

frequently

undertake

special

research

assign-

ments for the government.

COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS, INC. In 1951 The

Rockefeller Foundation made three

grants amounting to $86,000 to the Council on eign Relations, Inc., New

For-

York. The first grant of

$45,000 went to the council for the group studies which are a part of the general research program. The council has enlisted prominent scholars and

men

in

public life to take part in group studies on foreign policy issues of immediate importance. The issues and the men are:

who head the study groups

i) Aid to Europe: General Dwight D. Eisen-

hower, chairman, and

Professor Lindsay Rogers of

Columbia University, director of research; 2) Japanese Peace Treaty: President Everett Case of Colgate University, chairman, and Professor Hugh Borton of Columbia

University, director; 3)

United

States

Policy in the United Nations: the Honorable

Ben-

jamin V. Cohen, formerly counsellor of the Department of State, and Joseph E. Johnson, president of the

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace,

joint chairmen, and Leland M. Goodrich of Columbia University, director of research; 4) Power of Soviet

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

i of Anglo-American relations, conducted jointly by the Council on Foreign Relations and the Royal Institute of International Affairs

Photograph

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Here

in. .i.w.u>»ii i ..» MIII.I • . ~T-^t-i-t-"'"^'-'7«"'"»r """••*•!-•••••• •••T.T

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2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

.".:.,. ;„,. i.-TJ 7)v,. .,,;.,.•..,,., ^

A member of tlie demographic survey start of the Gokhalc Institute of Politics ami Kconomics, I'oona, interviews nn Indian family

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Here

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DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

349

Union: Professor Philip E. Mosely of Columbia University, director; and Democratic

5) Problems of Strengthening

Leadership Abroad: Whitney H. Shep-

ardson, director of the British Dominions Fund of the Carnegie Corporation, chairman. A

sixth study group is assigned to investigate po-

litical

implications

of economic

grams. For this project The

development

pro-

Rockefeller Foundation

made a separate two-year grant of $25,000. Many studies have been made on the economic consequences of programs for investment in underdeveloped areas, but the political implications of such programs have been

insufficiently

explored. Inevitably

large-scale

industrial development brings a change in political and social structures of the countries involved. Will these changes follow the pattern set in the nineteenth century when political democracy in both the United States and Great Britain followed industrialization? Or will the countries now

being industrialized head

in some other direction ? These and other possibilities are being explored in the investigation of economic aid and what it means to the national and international politics of the countries involved. Dr. Stacy May Corporation, New group. The

of the International Basic Economy York, is chairman of this study

project director is Dr. Eugene Staley,

senior economist at the Stanford Research Institute. At

the termination of the study, Dr. Staley will in-

corporate the findings and

the recommendations of

the study group members into a book. A third grant of $16,000 was made to the Council on Foreign Relations, Inc., for the study of BritishAmerican relations which the council has undertaken

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

35° jointly

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION with

the Royal

Institute

of International

Affairs in London. Members of both research organizations are studying British and American points of view on major foreign policy issues. They hope to explore the possible grounds for compromise on such issues as settlement in Korea, the future of Formosa, a policy

toward

Communist China, the future of

Japan and Germany, closer association of the countries of Western Europe and a policy with respect to the atom bomb. Members of the British and American groups are preparing to exchange critiques of the policy of each other's country, and later there will be a meeting to supplement written reports with a personal exchange of ideas. The

chairman of the British group is Admiral

Sir Henry Moore; Dr. Henry Wriston is chairman of the American group. HAVERFORD COLLEGE Case Studies of Technical Assistance Deposited at Haverford College, Pennsylvania, are the records of the American Friends Service mittee

containing the experiences

organization

in handling small

Com-

of that private

technical-assistance

programs in various parts of the world. Haverford College is to use these records, as well as its personal connections with the committee, in the development of a graduate program to train personnel for social and technical assistance in underdeveloped areas. One

of the required courses in the new

which began

in September

program,

1951, is a case study of

previous assistance projects. The

course is to consider

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351

the spirit and objectives of various types of programs, their organizational structure and

actual operating

techniques. In this study, due regard is to be given to the geographical and cultural background of the areas concerned. Much of the material on actual cases mustfirstbe collected in a readily usable form. Haverford College is appointing research personnel to do this work and to compile a casebook of the most revealing experience available in the United States. The Rockefeller Foundation made a 1951 grant of 120,550 to Haverford College for the salaries of research personnel working on this handbook and for the

expenses

connected

with

its preparation

eventual publication. It is expected materials collected should

and

that the case

be valuable not only for

this course but for agencies and practitioners in the field of aid to underdeveloped areas. ROYAL INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, LONDON The

research program pursued by

the Royal In-

stitute of International Affairs since 1945 has

em-

phasized studies on the Soviet Union, Eastern

and

Western Europe, the Middle and Far East, Southeast Asia, Latin America and on international organization. During the next five-year period work is to continue in all of these fields, as well as in contemporary history, international law, philosophy and

politics,

international economics and British Commonwealth relations. The

Rockefeller

Foundation, which

has

made grants to support the institute since 1932, now has

renewed

support

with

a

three-year

grant

of

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

£15,000 for the institute's research on underdeveloped

territories, the Middle East and

the Soviet

Union. Problems of underdeveloped

territories underlie

many of the regional studies made by the institute, particularly in the Middle East, tropical Africa and Southeast Asia. In all such projects the cooperation of Western scholars and

local specialists is secured.

Present plans call for a series of collaborative studies on the relation of economic standards in different regions or countries to the proportions in which labor, capital, land and

other resources contribute to their

productive activity. Other surveys planned on underdeveloped

areas include the relationship of West-

ern private enterprise to the governments of countries requiring development; also, the effects of the economic progress of underdeveloped countries on advanced countries. The institute's series on the Middle East will continue the economic, social and regional studies started in 1946. Plans include research on the attitude of the younger generation, particularly those members with Western education, toward

the economic develop-

ment of Middle Eastern countries. A

political and

economic survey of North Africa is also scheduled, the findings to be incorporated into a book which will be a companion piece to the 1950 volume The Middle East: A Political and Economic Survey. Since 1941, the institute's program on the Soviet Union has been designed to explain the Soviet policies both to the scholar and to the general reader. In continuation of this program the following studies are

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planned for the immediate future: Documents on the Comintern, 1919-1943; an Historical Analysis of the Principles Underlying Soviet Foreign Policy; Soviet Labor Policy; Soviet-Turkish Relations; Communist Agrarian Policy in Underdeveloped Countries; SovietGerman

Relations,

1922-1934;

and

Anglo-Soviet

Commercial Relations. UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Land Tenure in the Middle East The success of economic development programs in important areas of the world rests in part on the ability to resolve problems of land tenure and land use. In the Middle East, for instance, it is not always known who

actually owns large tracts of land. In

some cases it is not clear whether a given tract belongs to the state, to an absentee landlord or to the resident cultivator. In

other cases, the traditional grazing

rights of tribal groups are confused with the rights of ownership and cultivation. While communal ownership worked well enough when the tribal nomads were engaged in sedentary agriculture, under present conditions the system

is not satisfactory. It is neither

completely cooperative nor wholly private and consequently acts as a brake upon both group and individual initiative. Professor Raymond E. Crist, who was at the University of Maryland from 1947 to 1951, has made field studies of the existing land tenure systems in parts of Latin America, the Caribbean area and the Mediterranean countries. The

Rockefeller Founda-

tion in 1951 made a grant of $i 1,450 to the University

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

of Florida, where Professor Crist is now on the faculty of the Department of Geography, for a study of land tenure and land utilization in the Middle East. From headquarters at the American University of Beirut, Professor Crist is studying the situation in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and, if time permits, Palestine, Iraq and Saudi-Arabia. INTERNATIONAL AFRICAN INSTITUTE, LONDON Studies in West Africa The

Rockefeller Foundation has given £3,000 to

the International African Institute, London, toward the costs of field studies, by

British and French in-

vestigators, of the Fulani-speaking peoples of West Africa. The International African Institute, formerly called the International Institute of African Languages and Cultures, was established in 1926 by representatives of universities, scientific and missionary societies, and by the governments of Great Britain, the Union of South Africa, Egypt, France, Belgium, Italy, Germany, Austria, Sweden and the United States. Their purpose was

to create an international center where

organizations interested in African society and

eco-

nomics could effectively coordinate their activities and

cooperate in research projects related to African

problems. The

institute's chief interest has been in African

anthropological, and

sociological

and

linguistic studies,

in the application of the acquired knowledge to

a solution of problems caused by the impact of European civilization on primitive African

cultures. A

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DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES further continuing aim

355

is to bring about closer asso-

ciation between scientific knowledge and research, on the one hand, and

the practical interests of the ad-

ministrator, educator, missionary and colonist, on the other, in an attempt to make an increasingly effective contribution to the solution of the human problems of the African continent. The institute proposes to make an intensive study of the Fulani-speaking peoples in West Africa, particularly in Nigeria and French Niger. The Foundation grant will cover the salary of a field research worker, the costs of hisfieldequipment and his travel expenses between London and Africa, over a fouryear period. The

Colonial Social Sciences Research

Council of the British Colonial Office, the Nigerian government and

the French colonial authorities are

providing for the other field workers, for transportation and for housing required on the project. UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE Long-run Tendencies in the European Economy In connection with its over-all program on postwar recovery, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) in 1949 asked

Professor Ingvar

Svennilson, the Swedish economist, to undertake a study of long-run trends in the European economy. Professor

Svennilson

Geneva are now

and

a staff of assistants at

nearing the end of this work. It is

essentially a survey of trends in the European economy

for the years 1913-1950, with emphasis on popu-

lation, industrialization, manpower and

production,

the influence of foreign trade on production and

the

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

important factors contributing to economic growth in Europe. The Rockefeller Foundation appropriated $50,000 to the Economic Commission for Europe when Professor Svennilson began this work in 1949; in 1951 the Foundation made a one-year grant of $23,725 for expenses in connection survey. The

with the completion of the

United Nations intends to publish the

findings. STANFORD UNIVERSITY Food Research Institute The

resources of Stanford

University's Food Re-

search Institute are devoted entirely to the study of the economics, sociology and politics of food. The Rockefeller Foundation has made grants to the Food Research Institute since 1940. The largest appropriation was a grant of $300,000 made in 1946 for an historical survey of food and agriculture in World War

II. In 1951 a four-year grant of $70,000 was

made to continue support for this study. Parts of the grant are also being used for the institute's research on Soviet economy and for a new study of consumption levels in nine of the world's

sugar-producing

islands. Within the period of the present grant, the staff of the Food -Research Institute aims to complete a history, comprising 22 projects, related to problems of balancing food requirements for the armed forces and the civilian population during the years 1939-1945. Twelve projects deal with national and regional wartime food problems, three with international organizations and international cooperative arrangements.

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The remaining seven projects describe the history of specific food commodities. The

principal publication resulting from the in-

stitute's research on the Soviet economy is Dr. Naum Jasny's study entitled Socialized Agriculture of the U.StS.R. Dr. Jasny, collaborating with

Dr. Slave

Zagoroff and Dr. Vladimir Timoshenko, is preparing Essays on the Soviet Economy and

The Impact of

World War II on Soviet Food and Agriculture. The

Food Research Institute is undertaking com-

parative research on recent historical changes in consumption levels and the levels of Jiving. For this study the investigators have chosen nine sugar-producing islands with areas small enough to permit studies of the over-all economy. The islands tentatively selected are Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Guadeloupe, the Hawaiian Islands, the Cape Verde Islands, Mauritius, Reunion, the Fiji Islands and New comparatively

similar

Caledonia. These have

natural

conditions but

are

widely diverse from the standpoint of cultures, race characteristics, economics and politics. An tion is expected change on

investiga-

to reveal the stimuli or barriers to

islands which rely for their survival, in

varying degrees, on the export of sugar. The

initial

period of study and research at the Food Research Institute will be followed by visits to the islands. An historian and a sociologist or cultural anthropologist are joining economists in this study. SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL Current Digest of the Soviet Press Since 1949 The Current Digest of the Soviet Press has provided

a coverage of current Soviet materials to

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

United

States government agencies, other govern-

ments, United

Nations departments, universities,

libraries, public and private organizations and individual scholars. The New

Digest is published weekly in

York under the supervision of a subcommittee

of the Joint Committee on Slavic Studies, which is appointed jointly by the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council. The Current Digest of the Soviet Press contains translations of complete texts, condensed texts, summaries and index listings covering over 40 Soviet newspapers and

other periodicals. A

fuller description of this

work is given in The Rockefeller Foundation Annual Report for 1950. Toward support of The

Current

Digest of the Soviet Press $50,000 was appropriated by The Rockefeller Foundation in 1951, the project being sponsored by both the Division of Social Sciences and the Division of Humanities. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Accessions Lists Another grant sponsored jointly by the Divisions of Social Sciences and Humanities provided $8,700 to the Library of Congress toward the cost of preparing and publishing a list of its East European accessions and expanding the current list of Russian accessions. A fuller account of this grant appears in the report on the Division of Humanities, pages 402 to 403. TOKYO UNIVERSITY AND STANFORD UNIVERSITY American Studies A grant of $160,000 was made on the joint recommendation of the Division of Social Sciences and the

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359

Division of Humanities for expenses connected with five summer seminars on American studies in Japan. The program is sponsored by Tokyo University and Stanford University. A full account of this appropriation appears in the report on the Division of Humanities, pages 398 and 401. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CLEARING HOUSE Consultant for Japan Throughout the period of Allied

occupation

of

Japan there has been an effort to shift the emphasis of the Japanese governmental organization

from a

highly centralized bureaucratic control system to a more widely diffused pattern, with large areas of selfdetermination

in local matters delegated

to prefec-

tures, cities, towns and villages. One group in Japan which is sponsoring the spread of this movement is the recently organized Japan Public levels

Administration

Clearing

House. All three

of local government are represented in this

group, which is made up of delegates from the Tokyo Bureau of Municipal Research and the national associations of prefectural governors, prefectural assembly chairmen, municipal mayors, city assembly chairmen,

town and village mayors and town and village

assembly chairmen. Assistance was offered to the new

organization by

the Public Administration Clearing House of Chicago. With a grant of $10,740 from The Foundation,

the

Chicago

Clearing House arranged Japan and

Public

to send

Rockefeller

Administration a consultant to

to make its official resources available to

the group in Japan.

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Dr. George A. Warp, on leave of absence from his teaching duties at the University now

of Minnesota, is

in Japan to counsel the group on the develop-

ment of an administrative service and

to share his

knowledge of that Western experience which would be suited to Japanese needs and conditions. Dr. Warp is working with a selected group of young Japanese men who, when sufficiently trained, will carry on the work of the Public Administration Clearing House in their own country.

GOKHALE INSTITUTE OF POLITICS AND ECONOMICS, INDIA The Rockefeller Foundation has made a five-year grant of 105,000 Indian rupees to the Gokhale Institute of Politics and

Economics, Poona, India, for

the organization of a section devoted to Indian demography. The Foundation grant supports a series of investigations on fertility, morbidity and mortality in rural and urban centers of India. Relevant social and economic data will supplement the demographic statistics collected in interviews with representatives of different caste, occupational and income groups. The was

Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics

started

in 1930 under the sponsorship of the

Servants of India Society, a nonsectarian, nonpartisan organization whose activities are comparable to those of the American Society of Friends. Dr. D. R. Gadgil, who

has been director of the institute since it started,

has developed a program

of research on practical

problems of urban and rural life. Up

to the present

time 21 major studies have been prepared

by

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361

staff, which includes seven full-time members as well as part-time field and clerical workers. NATIONAL FOUNDATION OF POLITICAL SCIENCES, FRANCE International Relations The

National Foundation of Political Sciences in

Paris is a center for the promotion of research and teaching in the social sciences. In 1948 the National Foundation initiated a section on international relations, and since that date it has been building up a library to serve this section. A grant made by The Rockefeller Foundation in 1950 enabled

the National

Foundation

to acquire

maps and other library materials in the United States, A 1951 grant of $1,000 makes possible the continued purchase of foreign publications from dollar areas. A STRONG AND VIGOROUS SOCIETY An

indispensable

corollary

of effective

interna-

tional relations is the maintenance of a strong and vigorous society at home. This has never been more true than in the present world struggle for the preservation and extension of free institutions. A number of the Foundation's grants in 1951 were intended to contribute to efforts dealing with social problems which may

threaten the strength and vigor of our

society. AMERICAN LAW INSTITUTE Model Criminal Code A

model criminal code with commentaries is now

being prepared

by the American Law

Institute of

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION Philadelphia. A preliminary study of this subject was undertaken in 1950 with the aid of a grant of $20,000 from The Rockefeller Foundation. The actual project is now under way with a 1951 grant of $222,500 from the Foundation, to be available to the institute for the next five years. The present long-term project of the American Law Institute evolved from criminal

law

and

the institute's concern that

procedure

in the United States,

despite its cardinal importance, has not had the adequate or

specialized

attention

development of private law

that has aided

and

the

those aspects of

public law which bear directly on the regulation of important economic interests. The

actual code will in time be a technical docu-

ment designed to iron out the present inconsistencies, obsolete distinctions and confused language found in many penal statutes. The code and commentaries are intended

to reflect a redefinition of the philosophy

underlying criminal law and improving and

to contain proposals for

revising the present penal laws by

making use of insights gained from the social, medical and psychiatric sciences. The

preparation of the code and commentaries is

directed by a small policy committee composed of a psychiatrist, a criminologist, a sociologist and

two

lawyers, Ex-officio members of the policy committee are Harrison Tweed, president of the institute, and Judge Herbert F. Goodrich, director. The work on the

technical side is headed

by

Professor Herbert

Wechsler of the law faculty of Columbia University,

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DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES who

has

been

named

363

reporter for the institute's

project. AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION ENDOWMENT Commission on Organized Crime With a view toward strengthening the laws dealing with organized crime in this country, the American Bar Association's Commission on Organized Crime is now

preparing a series of model statutes.

The

Commission on Organized Crime came into

being in September 1950 under the chairmanship of the late Judge Robert P. Patterson. The commission was authorized by the American Bar Association to cooperate with the Senate Committee to Investigate Crime in Interstate Commerce and

to make inde-

pendent studies of the existing criminal law and procedure, law enforcement

and

sentencing practices.

The work of the commission was supported by a 1950 grant of $25,000 from The Rockefeller Foundation. In 1951 the Foundation made another $25,000 grant to the American Bar Association Endowment to finance the preparation by the commission of the following statutes, the need for which was clearly demonstrated by the disclosures of the Senate committee and the findings of the commission's own

research reports:

i) a model gambling code 2) a model statute providing greater state control and supervision over local police departments 3) a model statute providing for greater supervision by the Governor and Attorney General of each state over their state's local prosecutors

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

4) a model crime commission act 5) a uniform perjury statute 6) a uniform immunity statute The American Bar Association has authorized the commission

to draft these statutes in cooperation

with the special Committee on Uniform Acts to Prevent Organized Crime appointed by

the National

Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws. The

commission

and the National

Conference of

Commissioners together are making use of all help to be obtained from law schools, from individual state and

local officials, and from appropriate sections of

the American Bar State

Association and

Governments. Judge

the Council of

Morris Ploscowe con-

tinues as executive director of the Commission Organized

Crime and

on

is responsible for the super-

vision of the investigations. UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE History of English Criminal

Law

A definitive history of English criminal law and its administration from 1750 is being written by

Dr.

Leon Radzinowicz, a member of the Department of Criminal Science at the Faculty of Law, the University of Cambridge, England. In this four-volume work the author intends to bring out the interrelationship of criminal law

with the contemporary

aspects of

political and economic life. Volume one, Movementfor Reform^ was awarded the James Barr Ames prize and medal by the Harvard Law Dr. Radzinowicz is now

School in 1950. at work on

the second

volume, The Maintenance of Public Order. He

plans

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to complete the history with a volume on the Penal System and a final one on Machinery of Justice. A committee formed to advise Dr. Radzinowicz during the period of his research and writing has as its chairman Viscount Maugham, onetime Lord Chancellor of England, and Lord Wright, Lord Simonds, Sir Arnold McNair, Sir Percy Winfield, Professor H. A. Hollond and Mr. J. W. C. Turner. The

Rockefeller Foundation is contributing to the

completion of the historical review by

means of a

five-year appropriation of £6,250 to the University of Cambridge. DUKE UNIVERSITY Income Study Within the past 30 years there have been improvements in the methods of estimating national income and in developing techniques for analysis and interpretation. Similar

studies on

income estimates in

industries and individual states, so far few in number, are now

projected by economists. A

study by the

Department of Economics at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, is measuring the characteristics, behavior, sources and economic consequences of differences in state per capita incomes. Under the direction of Professor

Frank A. Hanna, the study

aims at establishing and

testing some of the more

important relationships on which further analysis and utilization of income payments by the separate states will depend. The

Rockefeller Foundation has made a grant of

,000 to support the project for five years.

The

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Foundation previously made a grant to the University of Wisconsin for income and income tax studies which Professor Hanna directed there from

1939 to

I942' In addition to the direct contribution which such a study will make, the project will provide intensive research training in the income field for the graduate students and junior faculty of the Department of Economics

who

are presently

assisting

Professor

Hanna in his work. UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE Income Tax Study Knowledge of the distribution of income by size, which would provide a most reliable gauge as to what our economic system contributes to the welfare of the individuals and the families that comprise the nation, is far from adequate, The

requirement of the State of Delaware that all

residents over 21 years of age mustfileincome tax returns provides the only complete body of information available on the distribution of income by size for the years prior to 1939. While the population of Delaware accounts for only a small portion of the national make-up, it is hoped that analysis of these data

may

produce results relevant to the nation as a whole. With the aid of funds which The Rockefeller Foundation previously gave to the University of Delaware, data have already been compiled for an analysis of the size of the distribution of income, based on individual tax returns in each

of the

years

1925

through 1936. In 1951 the Foundation made a grant

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of $35,000 for two more years of the study, which has been a joint project of the University of Delaware, the State Tax

Department and the National Bureau

of Economic Research. The Conference on Research in Income and Wealth of the National

Bureau of Economic Research has

appointed an advisory committee to serve throughout the study. The

members are Dr. Selma Goldsmith,

Department of Commerce; Professor William

Vick-

ery, Columbia University; and Professor James Tobin, Yale University. Professor Simon

Kuznets of

the University of Pennsylvania, author of several volumes on national income, is in close touch with the research team to offer counsel and technical aid. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Institute for Urban Land Use and Housing Studies When the Institute for Urban Land Use and Housing Studies was in

established at Columbia University

1947, members of its administrative board

were

drawn from the faculties of the Schools of Business, Law, Engineering and Architecture, and the Departments of Economics, Sociology, Public Government. The

institute, under

Law

and

the direction of

Dr. Ernest H. Fisher, has investigated the theoretical and

practical

problems of urban

land

use and

has

created a training program for graduate students in the techniques of investigation and

analysis in this

field.

Four special areas for coordinated study and longrange research are the dynamics of land use, particularly the functional relationship between land use and

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

the movement of people, goods and vehicles; urban real estate market behavior; social science research as applied to the problems of city planning and redevelopment; and specific studies of public and largescale housing development. The Rockefeller Foundation made a $100,000 grant to the

institute in 1948; in 1951

continued

the Foundation

its support of the program at Columbia

with an appropriation of $66,000 for another three years. UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO Agricultural Economics Professor T. W. Schultz and Professor D. Gale Johnson of the University of Chicago are undertaking a program of research on low productivity in agriculture and

the consequent

lowering of living levels.

This research is planned in two

phases. The first is

an attempt to delineate the areas of low productivity, investigate factors associated with low productivity in each area and

analyze the problems involved in

raising the level of productivity. As the second phase of the study, the agricultural economists hope to test two

propositions: low productivity in agriculture in

a given area is due

to a high ratio of labor to land

and capital associated with an outmoded technology; low

productivity

has

significant

self-perpetuating

effects if it has existed for as long as a generation. Most of the data needed for testing these hypotheses are readily available through the Bureau of the Census, the Bureau of Agricultural Economics and other

government

and

state

experiment

stations.

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Some supplementary field work by the university staff will be required. The

Rockefeller Foundation has given $16,000 to

the University of Chicago for three years of this research on low productivity in agriculture. A

1948

grant of $45,000 was given for the earlier phase of the work of Professors Schultz and Johnson on the effective use of agricultural resources. UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI Rural Church Study In the past 25 years there has been in rural America a constantly accelerating trend toward easier

com-

munication and population mobility, toward mechanization of agriculture and

economic improvement,

toward secularization and urbanization of farm people and rural life in general. In the face of these changes many rural churches have been abandoned, and the church appears to be losing ground relatively, if not absolutely, in the rural areas. With the aid of a fouryear grant of $51,425 from The Rockefeller Foundation, the University of Missouri is now

studying the

role of the rural church in Missouri as a social institution. Missouri provides a good laboratory for the projected study, as the state is a meeting-ground of several segments with distinct regional characteristics. The research group in the university's Department of Rural Sociology, in cooperation with the interdenominational Bible College of Missouri, is attempting to determine the present characteristics of the church as it exists and functions in rural society; the relation of

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

these

characteristics

to geographic, economic

and

cultural factors; the recent changes in the institution; and the outlook for the rural church as an institution and

as a social force in rural life.

The

study is under the general supervision of Pro-

fessor Charles E. Lively, chairman of the university's Department of Rural Sociology.

MAYOR'S ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR THE AGED, NEW

YORK CITY

There are in New

York City almost 1,000,000 per-

sons 60 years of age and

over, approximately one-

eighth of the city's total population. In order that New

York

City

might intelligently

approach the

problems facing this ever-increasing group, the Mayor in 1949 appointed a group of New

York citizens and

officials to the Mayor's Advisory Committee for the Aged. Mr.

Raymond Hilliard, Commissioner of Welfare

for the City of New mittee. The

York, is chairman of the com-

immediate objectives of the group are to

study housing and living conditions for the "senior citizens** and

to encourage the development of re-

search for preventing chronic illness and the provision of more clinic services for diseases which affect the aged. The

committee also seeks ways to encourage

the employment of the aged accepted

beyond

retirement age, to expand

facilities now

the normally the recreation

available in the city and

to broaden

the present opportunities for adult education. The

Rockefeller Foundation has given $25,000 to

the Mayor's Advisory Committee for the Aged for

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Ri'crc.ition activity sponsored by the Mayor's Advisory Committee (or the Aged, New York Citv

Photograph Excised

Here

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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Photograph

Excised

Here

Recipients of training scholarships :it the Institut de Science Kconomique Appliquee, Paris

Investigations of tin." Fulani-speaking people in West Africa are carried on by the Inter* national African Institute; below, a Fulani camp in the rainy season

Photograph

Excised

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an 18-month study of the human adjustment problems of the aged, specifically as these are presented in New

York. The research has the close collaboration

of Dr. Louis I. Dublin, vice-president of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company and a member of the Mayor's Committee. CORNELL UNIVERSITY Civil Rights Study The Rockefeller Foundation has made a grant of $6,000 to Cornell University to complete a study of the relation of civil rights to the control of subversive activities in the United States. Professor Robert E. Cushman is director of research for the Cornell study, which

the Foundation

has supported

with previous

grants made in 1948 and 1950. Seven publications resulting from this study have been completed or are nearing completion. These are Security, Loyalty, and Science by Walter Gellhorn of the Columbia University Law

School; The

Tenney

Committee (of California) by Edward L. Barrett, Jr., University of California Law

School; Legislative Con-

trol of Subversive Activities in New H. Chamberlain, dean

York by Lawrence

of Columbia

College; Un-

American Activities in the State of Washington Vern Countryman, Yale Law

by

School; The States and

Subversion edited by Mr. Gellhorn; The House

Com-

mittee on Un-American Activities by Robert K. Carr, Dartmouth

College; and

The

Presidents

Loyalty

Program by Eleanor Bontecou. Professor Cushman, in completing the project, is preparing a concluding

volume on

the experience

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

which this country has had

in reconciling the neces-

sary demands for security with the traditional American standards of liberty. HARVARD UNIVERSITY Foreign Labor Movements The

Rockefeller Foundation

in 1951

made

two

grants totaling $i 5,000 to Harvard University toward the completion of studies on the economic and political influence of labor movements and collective bargaining in six European countries. The

Harvard series began in 1949 with the aid of

funds from the United States Army Operations Office and the Department of State. Professor Sumner H. Slichter and Professor John Dunlop of the Harvard Department of Economics are supervising the studies assigned to individuals especially familiar with the background of the labor union activities in the selected countries. Professor Walter Galenson, assistant professor

of economics, Harvard

University,

and

formerly labor attache in Oslo, is studying Denmark and Norway; Mr. Daniel Horowitz, on leave from service as labor attach6 with the Department of State, Italy; Mr.

Val Lorwin, formerly with the Depart-

ment of State, France; Professor Carl E. Knoellinger, Abo

Akademi, Finland; and

Professor Clark Kerr,

director of the Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Western Germany. In

each

case

the studies cover the relations of

unions to management, characteristics of union government, and relations between unions and between

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES unions and political parties. The

375

day-to-day opera-

tion of labor movements in the economic and political areas is under study, with special attention given to the process of decision making, to policy considerations and to ideologies. The

1951 grants from

The

Rockefeller Foundation are being used for the costs of travel and

secretarial assistance required to com-

plete the studies. UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA Local Government Problems The

Department of Political Economy at the Uni-

versity of Alberta, Canada, has undertaken research on local government problems with Dominion-wide implications. The

Rockefeller

Foundation

is

con-

tributing to the expense of this research with a grant of $2,000, which follows earlier grants totaling $6,000 for the development of research in the social sciences.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH TALENT

In the long run social behavior and

both the building of a science of the application of the scientific

approach to social problems depend on the discovery and training of able social scientists. The seeks

to

assist

this

never-ending

Foundation

effort,

largely

through continuing the support it has given for many years to programs of predoctoral and postdoctoral training fellowships. For information on

the fellow-

ships given directly by the Division of Social Sciences and

those awarded

by

the Social Science Research

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Council with funds provided by the Foundation, see the section on Fellowships, pages 444 to 446. CANADIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL Research, Publications, Fellowships and Professorial Leaves The Canadian Social Science Research Council was created in 1940 for the purpose of encouraging and coordinating research in human relationships, history, government, economics, psychology, sociology, geography, population problems, and legal and constitutional matters. The

support given to the council by

The Rockefeller Foundation since 1942 was renewed in

1951 with two

grants. The first is C$22,ooo for

grants in aid of research and for publications. Another grant of C$a8,000 is for fellowships and

professorial

leaves. The program is directed by a council of 16 members under

the chairmanship of Professor

Falardeau. Four members represent

Jean-Charles the Canadian

Historical Association, the Canadian Committee of the International Geographic Union, the Canadian Political Science Association and

the Canadian Psy-

chological Association. Eight others are Canadian historians, economists, psychologists, sociologists, geographers and political scientists. The are Dominion and

remaining

four

provincial civil servants.

UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE In-Service Training Fellowships The

Rockefeller Foundation has made a grant of

$9,000 to the United Nations Economic Commission

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DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES for

Europe for the in-service

program

which

377

training scholarship

the commission

administers

at its

Geneva headquarters. Previous grants for the same program were made in 1948 and 1950. Students selected

as in-service

training scholars

work under the direct guidance of the Economic

Com-

mission's staff of international economists. Thus far in the program awards have been made to young economists from Yugoslavia, Finland, Norway

and Austria where training facilities are for the

most part inadequate. The current

Foundation

grant

commission is using the for

appointments

for

1951-1952. INSTITUT DE SCIENCE ECONOMIQUE APPLIQUEE In-Service Training Scholarships The

Institut de Science Economique Appliquee in

Paris has successfully experimented with in-service training scholarships as a method of giving specialized preparation

to qualified

economics

France and Western Europe. The

students

from

scholarships pro-

vide a two-year course of training, with six months devoted to intensive reading and discussion of basic economic works, a year devoted to a research project based on the handling of first-hand materials and a final six months spent in preparing the results for publication. Since 1946 The

Rockefeller Foundation has con-

tributed $46,568 to the support of the Institut de Science ficonomique Appliquee. The

1951 grant of

$10,000 provides four more scholarships during the two-year period beginning October i, 1951.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION AMERICAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION Graduate Training of Economists The

American Economic Association is currently

concerned with problems of training at the graduate level and proposes to sponsor a thoroughgoing study of such practices. The

purpose of the study

is to

clarify objectives, provide the facts about current practices, develop standards and in general point the way

for an improvement in both the substance and

the form of graduate training for economists. While the study is not meant to eliminate the diversity in graduate programs at the various institutions, it would formulate minimal standards and basic conditions which

an

institute should

meet before

offering graduate training to candidates for either an M.A. or a Ph.D. degree. The study would also provide information

and

principles on the basis of which

faculties of individual institutions could undertake self-criticism of their existing programs. Professor Howard R. Bowen of the University of Illinois is directing the 18-month study for which

The

Rockefeller Foundation has made a grant of $16,000. Professor Bowen and a small committee of qualified economists, chosen as representatives of diverse economic points of view, will prepare a report on their findings. The

report will later be published by the

American Economic Association.

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Training in Social Research There is growing concern among professional social scientists over the low yield of creative research

men

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coming out of the nation's graduate schools, especially as the demand for well-trained research workers in

the social disciplines has

increased

There is a need in government and

so

rapidly.

business for per-

sons better qualified to attack applied research problems and also a need in the universities for persons better equipped to advance basic knowledge. After

problems

involved, social

scientists at Columbia University

are launching a

two-year

examining

the

trial program for professional training in

social research. Professor Paul Lazarsfeld, chairman of the Department of Sociology and formerly director of the Columbia Bureau of Applied Social Research, will direct this program with the assistance of a fulltime codirector and two full-time research associates. During the two-year trial period efforts will made to prepare and

be

try out special teaching mate-

rials for systematic training in social research. These should constitute helpful training tools for the use of other universities as well as Columbia. It is expected that final products will be a casebook of classical writings in political science and sociology, reanalyzed in terms of present-day problems and research techniques; a set of "synthetic surveys" with explicit directions for their use in teaching systematic survey analysis; and a casebook of significant research projects, with analysis and codification of the procedures used. In 1951 The Rockefeller Foundation made a grant of $60,000 to Columbia University for this program, for

the period

extending

from

February

through September 30, 1954. This fund fessional salaries and

i,

1952

is for pro-

for the expenses of preparing

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

training materials. Columbia University is providing the same amount for other related expenses.

GRANTS IN AID Seventy-seven

separate

projects

in

the

social

sciences were allotted grants in aid from funds set aside for this purpose during 1951. The

77 grants

amounted to a total of $275,750 and were distributed among 14 different countries. AUSTRALIA Professor J. W. Davidson, Canberra University College; $725 to enable Professor Davidson to obtain a direct acquaintance with centers of Far Eastern and Pacific studies in the United States, Vancouver, Canada and Honolulu, Hawaii AUSTRIA Austrian College Society, Vienna; 78,000 Austrian schillings, approximately $3,200, in support of the society's Institute for Contemporary European Cultural Research CANADA McGill University, Montreal: In support of Dr. Jan M. Novotny's research in the field of public finance; $3,500 Institute of International Air Law; $3,000 to enable Mr. David Morgan Hughes, University of London, to spend a year at the institute University of Toronto: A general fund of $4,000 to be used for the furtherance of research in the social sciences To enable Professor S. D. Clark to complete his contribution to the Alberta Social Credit Studies and to edit other volumes in the series; $7,500

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To enable Professor Edgar Mclnnis to study the effort

to achieve

a

general postwar settlement;

$2,500 DENMARK Professor Theodor Geiger, University of Aarhus; $1,050 to enable Professor Geiger to visit social science research centers in the United States University of Copenhagen; $1,300 for the purchase of American books and other research materials for the university's Division of Sociology ENGLAND Professor S. Herbert Frankel, University of Oxford; $5,000 toward the costs of a visit to the United States, Jamaica, Brazil and South and Central Africa Dr. Ian M, D. Little, University of Oxford; $600 to enable Dr. Little to visit American specialists in the field of welfare economics National Institute of Economic and Social Research, London; £3,000, approximately $9,000, in support of Mr.

G. E.

Fasnacht's research project, "The History of Liberty in the Acton Manuscripts" Royal Institute of International Affairs, London; $4,890 toward the cost of work on the History of the War and the Peace Settlement by Professor William H. McNeill of the University of Chicago University of London; <£i,6oo, approximately $4,800, for the use of the Town Planning Department of University College in support of a study by Mrs, Ruth Glass of the contribution of the social sciences to town planning Professor Charles H. Wilson, University of Oxford; $700 to permit Professor Wilson to visit American centers of political science research

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

FRANCE Centre d'litudes de Politique 6trangere, Paris; $2,000 to enable the secretary general, Mr. Jacques Vernant, to visit American research centers in international relations Ecole Poly technique, Paris; 1,800,000 francs, approximately $5,400, for the salaries of two assistants in the econometric and statistical laboratory under the direction of Professor Frangois Divisia Institute of Statistics, University of Paris; 1,200,000 francs, approximately $3,600, for the salary of a research assistant for Professor Maurice Allais over a two-year period Institut de Science Economique Appliquee, Paris; $10,000 toward the costs of studies in the field of social accounting, the supplementation of salaries and secretarial assistance Professor Henri Lavaill, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chauss£es, Paris; $3,500 for visits to major American public utility undertakings and study of American teaching methods National School of Public Administration, Paris; $4,300 to enable Professor Roger Levy to study, in the United States and Japan, relations between the United States and countries of the Far East since 1925 GERMANY German Society for Foreign Studies, Munich; $1,000 for the purchase of research materials from abroad Professor Walther Hoffmann, University of Miinster; $3,800 to enable Professor Hoffmann to visit research centers in the United States Institute for Research in Economics, Munich; $1,000 for the purchase of research materials from abroad Institute for Social Research, University of Frankfurt; $5,000 toward the cost of securing non-German scholars in its research and training program School for Political Sciences, Munich; $2,000 for the purchase of books and periodicals within Germany and from abroad

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Soziographisches Institut, Frankfurt; $9,500 for the development of empirical research in the field of sociology JAPAN Professor Takeo Matsuda, Hokkaido University; $2,000 to enable Professor Matsuda to visit centers and leaders in agricultural economics in the United States and Europe NETHERLANDS Dr. T. Van

den Brink, Netherlands

Central Bureau of

Statistics, The Hague; $500 to enable Dr. Van den Brink to visit centers of demographic research in the United States Dutch Coordinating Committee for Cultural Relations with Germany; $1,500 toward the expenses of the committee's program of promoting better relations between groups in the two countries Netherlands

Economic Institute, Rotterdam; $1,400 for

publication of the proceedings of the 1950 Input-Output Conference held in Driebergen, Holland NORWAY University of Oslo; 3,000 Norwegian kroner, approximately $450, toward the costs of a study of municipal administration in Norway, under the direction of Professor James A. Storing SWITZERLAND Dr. Karl Brunner; $810 to enable Dr. Brunner to complete his period of study in the United States United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva; $6,000 for the costs of including two Asian stipendiaries in the in-service training scholarship program Dr. Albert Hunold, Swiss Institute of International Studies, Zurich; $2,350 toward the costs of visiting research institutions in the United States Professor Max

Silberschmidt, University of Zurich; $2,500

to enable Dr. Silberschmidt to visit centers of economic research in the United States

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

SYRIA Syrian University, Damascus; $2,500 toward the purchase of books in the social sciences YUGOSLAVIA Professor

Mijo

Mirkovic, University

of Zagreb; 561,400

toward additional expenses of travel in Italy and France in connection with Professor Mirkovic's study of agricultural economics UNITED STATES American Bar Association, New

York City; $1,000 toward

the expenses of the third annual meeting of the Conference of Chief Justices American Historical Association, Washington, D. C.; $2,500 toward the travel and conference expenses of the Committee on the Historian and the Federal Government Professor Hugh Borton, Columbia University, New

York;

$2,050 for a reconnaissance of Japanese organizations and personnel in the field of international organization and relations Columbia University, New York: Bureau of Applied Social Research; to enable Dr. Seymour M. Lipset to make a study of participation of members of a labor union in its governmental process; $8,000 To

permit Professor Charles W. Everett to visit

F.ngland to complete his study of the Constitutional Code of Jeremy Bent ham; $3,200 To supplement the expenses of a visit to India by Professor Kingsley Davis; $900 Toward the expenses of the university seminar on the Theory and Practice of Organization and Management in integrating in one volume a series of papers and proceedings on Measures of Organization^ $6,500

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385

Toward the costs of Professor Schuyler Wallace's visit to the Near and Middle East, Pakistan and India; $2,000 Cornell University, Ithaca, New

York; $4,750 in support of

Dr. Rudolf Loewenthal's project, "The Turkic Mohammedans of the Soviet Union: Bibliographic Survey and Pilot Study" Free Trade Union

Committee, American

Federation of

Labor; $6,000 toward the costs of a visit to the United States by three Turkish trade union leaders Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts: For a translation of Professor Eli Heckscher's volume on Swedish economic history, Svenskt Arbete ock Lioy under

the

supervision

of

Professor

Alexander

Gerschenkron of the Department of Economics; $2,500 For the completion of a series of studies on labor movements and collective bargaining in a number of Western European countries; $10,000 For use by the Laboratory of Human Development for additional field work and analysis in connection with its child development study; $5,900 Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New

Jersey:

To enable Professor F. W. D. Deakin, Warden of St. Anthony's College, Oxford, to visit leading American universities and research centers in the field of international relations; $1,100 To enable Professor Jean-Jacques Chevallier, University of Paris, to visit several leading American universities and

research centers in the field of

political history; $1,200 To permit Professor Michael Postan, University of Cambridge, to spend four and at the institute and

one-half months

to visit American centers of

research in economic history; $2,850

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION Johns

Hopkins

University,

Baltimore,

Maryland;

$7,500 toward the completion of Dr. W. S. Woytinski's study, "America in the Changing World" Professor Frank H. Knight, University of Chicago, Illinois; 562,200 to permit Professor Knight to visit Europe and the Near East for studies in the field of comparative law Professor Friedrich

A. Lutz, Princeton

University,

New

Jersey; $1,300 toward the costs of travel and other expenses in connection with research in Europe on economic developments in Western Germany since the currency reform New

School for Social Research, New

York:

For use by the Institute of World Affairs toward the costs of the completion of editorial work on Domestic Determinants of International Trade^

The by

Hans Neisser and Franco Modigliani; $2,000 Toward the cost of Dr. Hans Neisser's travel in connection with the study of postwar international trade problems in Europe; $1,250 New

York University; $8,760 toward a study, under the di-

rection of Professor H. Ashley Weeks, on the effectiveness of a program of short-term treatment of juvenile offenders Princeton University, New

Jersey; $1,500 for use by the Grad-

uate School to permit Mr.

Hanna Rizk of the American

University at Cairo to spend a second year of study in the United States Stanford University, California: For the use of the Hoover Institute and Library, to enable Dr. Evsey S. Rashba to complete his study of Soviet law; $4,000 Food Research Institute; to enable Dr. Jozo Tomasevich to complete his study, " Yugoslav Agriculture and Peasantry During the Interwar Period"; $750 Toward the cost of analysis of data relating to sex adjustment

in marriage, under the direction

Professor Paul Wallin; $4,475

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DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

387

Professor Edward C. Tolman, Berkeley, California; $4,000 toward the costs of preparing a definitive statement of his system of psychology University

of California, Berkeley; $1,515 to enable

Dr.

Arthur Geddes of the University of Edinburgh to take up his appointment as visiting professor of geography University of Chicago, Illinois: For the use of its Committee on Communication toward the costs of an analysis of voting patterns; $2,500 In support of research planning in the field of old age; $5,000 Toward the costs of continuation of work by William Stephenson on the development and refinement of Q-technique, a variant of factor analysis; $2,500 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; $8,500 for the use of the Research Center for Group Dynamics toward the costs of a. pilot study of the learning and other experience of a group of German exchange students and of designing a training and measurement program to aid in further similar studies University of Minnesota, Minneapolis; $3,375 to permit Dr. Leon Festinger to spend three months as consultant to the Institute for Preventive Medicine in Leiden University of Missouri, Columbia; $3,250 for preliminary work in connection with a proposed study in Missouri of the rural church as a social institution University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; $10,000 for analysis of data on internal migration in the United States and for planning a study of the redistribution of the labor force, capital and economic production World

Peace Foundation, Boston, Massachusetts; $7,000

toward the expenses of a Canadian and American conference on foreign relations at Niagara Falls, Ontario

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut; $3,650 to enable Professor Wu Wen-tsao to conduct sociological research in Japan and to take up a one-year appointment at Yale University To universities and research organizations in Europe; $800 to cover the costs of distributing 43 sets of Studies in Social Psychology in World War II Director's fund of $5,000 for travel, honoraria, books, journals and other research and miscellaneous expenses

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION

OF

HUMANITIES

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES

STAFF DURING 1951

Director CHARLES B. FAHS

Associate Directors EDWARD F. D'ARMS JOHN MARSHALL

Assistant Director CHADBOURNE GILPATRIC

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT

393

INTERCULTURAL UNDERSTANDING Conference on the Interpretation of Arab Tradition

393

Special Grant-in-Aid Fund: Visits to Islam

394

McGill University: Islamic Studies

396

University of Durham: Modern Near Eastern Cultures

397

Tokyo University and Stanford University: American Studies

398

University of California and American Council of Learned Societies: Korean Studies

401

University of Cologne: American Studies

402

Library of Congress: Accessions Lists

402

HUMANE VALUES New

Dramatists Committee, Inc.: General Support

403

Institute of International Education: Visiting Artists Program

404

Commission on History, Pan American Institute of Geography and History: History of the Americas

405

Commission on History, Pan American Institute of Geography and History: History of Ideas Colegio de Mexico: Contemporary Mexican History

406 406

National Institute of Economic and Social Research: de Tocqueville Papers

407

Abraham Lincoln Association: Edition of Lincoln Writings

408

Columbia University: Biography of Booker T. Washington

408

Princeton University: Military History

409

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION University of Cambridge, Downing College: English Studies

410

University of Chicago: Special Faculty Seminar

410

Antioch College: General Education

411

American Council of Learned Societies: Personnel in the Humanities American

Council

412 of

Learned

Societies:

Special

Fellowships

412

American Council of Learned Societies: Pacific Coast Committee for the Humanities

414

Humanities Research Council of Canada: Planning and Development

417

GRANTS IN AID

418

Language, Logic and Symbolism

418

Intercultural Understanding

419

Original Work

in Philosophy, History, Religion,

Literature and Drama

423

Criticism

425

General Education in the Humanities

426

Miscellaneous

428

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION

ON

OF

HUMANITIES

pages 76 to 91 in the President's Review section of this report there is given an

ex-

tensive account of the principles, aims and programs of the Division of Humanities. There is also presented in that section a brief resume* of some of the important 1950 and The

1951 projects in the humanities.

pages that follow contain details on

grants

made in 1951. These grants totaled $i,658,072. The order of presentation follows the order of discussion in

the President's Review. In

major grants classified

1951

there were

under Language, Logic

no and

Symbolism.

INTERCULTURAL UNDERSTANDING CONFERENCE ON THE INTERPRETATION OF ARAB TRADITION The interests of The Rockefeller Foundation in the development of studies of the Near East which

aim

at creating a better understanding of the cultures of that region have

been

reflected

in grants over

period of more than 15 years. But

a

the opportunity

of assisting Near Eastern scholars in the contribution which they could make to this process is one

that

has materialized only since the end of World War II. During these years a better acquaintance with the scholars of the Arab countries has made clear the importance of the contribution they could make. In

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

almost every Arab country there are now to be found scholars who

are both thoroughly schooled in Arab

tradition and

trained for its interpretation by

vanced studies in the Near East and

ad-

in the West.

Keenly aware as these scholars are of the evolution of Arab thought during the years in which the Arab countries have achieved independence and full participation in world affairs, they are equally aware of the fact that the Arabs of today are in considerable measure different from the image of the Arab which prevails in the world at large. Thus many such scholars, while their previous training and research dealt with earlier periods of Arab life and thought, are now convinced of the importance of a new interpretation which would more accurately portray the Arabs as they are today. During 1951 the possibility became evident that through discussions among Arab scholars agreement on scholarly work needed for that outcome might be reached. As

a basis for arranging discussions, the

Foundation appropriated $20,000 in 1951 for such expenditures as seemed to the officers of the Foundation most advantageous in working toward this general purpose. In

1951 discussions were in progress

which looked toward the assumption of responsibility for such arrangements by scholarly organizations of the Arab world. SPECIAL GRANT-IN-AID FUND Visits to Islam In any dispassionate view it has to be recognized that knowledge in the West of contemporary thought

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES

395

within Islam is hardly commensurate with the importance of a religion that constitutes a way

of life for

as many as 350,000,000 of the world's population. Certainly an

understanding of Islam as it is today

is fundamental for any

real

comprehension of this

great section of the world's population. There are, to be sure, outside Islam a small but highly qualified number of Islamicists, but they would be among the first to agree that even their knowledge of contemporary trends in Islam leaves something to be desired. In a sense it is hardly an because of the war

exaggeration

years and

to say

the subsequent

culties in travel, communication between Islam

that diffiand

its interpreters in the rest of the world, particularly in the West, has been seriously impaired. With a view to re-establishing such contact, the Foundation in 1951 appropriated

a special fund of

$30,000 to enable qualified Islamicists to revisit Islam and thus to study atfirsthand the thought and movement that characterize Islam today. Allocations from this fund

during

1951 enabled

Dr. A. J. Arberry,

Adams Professor of Arabic at the University of Cambridge, England, to visit French and Spanish

Mo-

rocco, Algeria and Tunisia during a five-month trip; Dr. Lewis V. Thomas, assistant professor of oriental languages at Princeton University and

coauthor of

The United States and Turkey and Iran to visit Turkey during

a four-month

period

status of Islam; Dr. Wilfred

to study

the present

Cantwell Smith, pro-

fessor of comparative religion at McGill University, to revisit Turkey, Pakistan and

India with a similar

intent. During 1951 arrangements were being made

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION to bring the total of such visits to approximately ten before the termination of the appropriation in June I953MCGILL UNIVERSITY Islamic Studies Likewise in the interests of creating a better understanding of Islam as it is today, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, with the aid of a grant of $214,800 made by The

Rockefeller Foundation during 1951,

established an Institute of Islamic Studies under the direction of Dr. Wilfred Cantwell Smith, professor of comparative religion in the Faculty of Divinity. Dr. Smith has for some years been principally concerned with studies of contemporary Islam and, in fact, in 1949, with the aid of a smaller grant from the Foundation,

undertook

an

investigation

of

this

subject across the Muslem world. Established within McGill's Faculty of Graduate Study and Research, the Institute of Islamic Studies will attempt, through the close collaboration of Muslem and non-MusIem scholars, an authoritative interpretation of the role of Islam in the contemporary world. The

plan is that

during each year of the Foundation's grant, which will be

available until August

1957, there will be

invited to McGill both older and

younger Muslem

scholars who, by study and discussion with qualified Western

scholars and

students, can, it is hoped,

achieve this end. The grant includes provision for the salaries and travel of scholars coming to McGill from the Muslem world and for the participation of nonMuslem scholars and students.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OP HUMANITIES The

397

institute will operate with the help of an ad-

visory committee which includes Dr. F. Cyril James, principal and vice-chancellor, Dr. J. S. Thomson, dean

of the Faculty of Divinity, and

Dr. D. L.

Thomson, dean of the Faculty of Graduate Studies at McGill. UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM Modern Near Eastern Cultures The

importance of oriental studies in Great Britain

received due

recognition in the years immediately

following World

War

II in the report of a royal

commission under the chairmanship of Lord Scarborough and consequently known as the Scarborough Commission. In accordance with the recommendations of this report, the British universities were invited to submit proposals for the development of such studies to the University Grants Committee, which administers funds provided by the British Treasury. As one of the nine university centers selected to develop work in this field, the University of Durham established

a School of Oriental Studies, under the

direction of Dr. T. W. Thacker, for the particular purpose of advancing the study of the modern Near East. Funds from the University Grants Committee made possible the recruitment of a well-qualified staff and the building up of requisite library facilities. It

became

evident, however,

to

this group

at

Durham that a realistic study of the contemporary cultures of the Near East called for the discovery and assembling of current materials, many of which do not readily come to the attention of Western scholars.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

39$

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

It was therefore proposed that the group at Durham should devote its particular attention to what termed

was

the "documentation" of the study of the

contemporary Near Eastern cultures. In

the first

place, agreement is to be reached as to features of the life of the Near Eastern cultures which are salient for

an

understanding

of them. As

agreement is

reached on this point, an inquiry is instituted as to what materials are essential for interpretative study. The

materials then decided on are to be assembled

at Durham for use there in teaching and

research.

Finally, a mimeographed bulletin is to be prepared on the results of such work for distribution to other interested centers of Near Eastern studies, A grant of $29,700 toward

the costs of this

project through

January 1955 was made by the Foundation in 1951. TOKYO UNIVERSITY AND STANFORD UNIVERSITY American Studies Tokyo University and Stanford University have been cooperating since 1950 in a summer training program in Japan for advanced

students and pro-

fessors. The aim is to develop an interest in American studies throughout Japan and to provide a more permanent place than presently exists for study of the United

States in

the

Japanese

system

of higher

education. The

second summer session in American studies

under the joint auspices of Tokyo University and Stanford University was Tokyo University. The

held in 1951 in Japan program was supported

at by

previous grants of $4,000 to Tokyo University and

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

\ t & F O / >

^X^VJND

Photograph

>>>^

Excised

Here

Mem herb of' the second -u-minar in -\mcric.in studio .it T<»k\n I'mvorvity visit I

K.irnr/;iu;i, Jap.sn

Pan American Institute of (ieour.iplu .ind History, Mexico, 1). I-'.; the (iallen of IIistori;ins

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

"Dancing Children," an oil painting on wood by South African Douglas O. Port way, who visited the United States under the international arts program of the Institute of International Education

Photograph

Excised

Here

Craft seminars arranged by the New Dramatists Committee, Inc., New York, provide a meeting around for tiie joiinieyman-plavwritiht and the master dramatist

hiotog

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES

40!

$20,000 to Stanford University, made by The Rockefeller

Foundation

Division

on

of Social

the recommendation

Sciences and

the

of the

Division

of

Humanities, for expenses and fellowships for visiting professors. Five American professors in the social sciences and the humanities participated in a four-week program which was

developed along lines similar to

the 1950 curriculum, fully described in The feller

Foundation

Annual

Rocke-

Report for 1950, pages

252 to 253, and in the President's Review section of this report, pages 81 to 82. In 1951 an additional $160,000 was

appropriated

for the continuation of these summer seminars under the leadership

of Tokyo University

and

Stanford

University over a period of five years. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AND AMERICAN COUNCIL OF LEARNED SOCIETIES Korean Studies In 1951 the Institute of Asiatic Studies of the University of California held a special six-week summer seminar

in Korean

studies

with

three

prominent

scholars participating in the teaching: Dr. L. George Paik, Minister of Education, Republic of Korea, and former president of the Chosen Christian College; Mr,

Kyoichi Arimitsu, professor of archaeology at

Kyoto University in Japan; and

Dr. Edgar A. J.

Johnson, director of the Korea Division of the Economic Cooperation Administration. The Foundation

appropriated

Rockefeller

$6,325 to the University

of California to make this summer seminar possible and gave $7,000 to the American Council of Learned

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

4O2

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Societies for special study grants to enable qualified teachers and graduate students from all parts of the country to attend the sessions at the University

of

California. UNIVERSITY OF COLOGNE American Studies Throughout creasing

desire

Western and

Germany

there

a growing need

is an

in-

for accurate

knowledge of the United States. The University of Cologne, situated between Bonn, the federal capital, and

the industrial Ruhr district, has demonstrated

its interest by setting up

an Institute of American

Studies which will provide academic work in American literature, history, sociology, law and economics. To assist this program, The

Rockefeller Foundation in

1951 made a grant of $i5,000 to the university, available over a two-year period, for expenses connected with obtaining visiting professors from the United States, especially in the field of history, and for the acquisition of books and library materials. The

University of Cologne will pay full salaries in

German marks to the visiting Foundation's grant will be

professors, and

used

the

for the necessary

dollar expenses of the guest professors. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Accessions Lists For some years the Library of Congress has been organizing and cataloguing its extensive holdings of Slavic materials. In addition, it has taken

on

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

the

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES

403

responsibility for preparing an inventory of the holdings of other libraries. A

Monthly List of Russian Accessions, started in

1948, includes materials currently published in the Slavic countries, particularly the Soviet Union, and received at the Library of Congress and at other key research libraries. This work is to be expanded to include

approximately

25,000

listings

a

year

of

Russian publications mentioned in Soviet periodicals but not yet received by these libraries. In cooperation with the National Committee for a Free Europe, the Library of Congress is also issuing a bimonthly East European Accessions List on the pattern of the Russian list. Coverage is to extend to publications received from Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Rumania and Yugoslavia. Toward the costs of preparation and publication of the East European Accessions List and sion

of

through

the Monthly

List

of Russian

Foundation, on of

Accessions

August 31, 1952, a grant of $8,700

made to the Library of Congress by The

sion

expan-

the recommendation

Humanities

and

the

was

Rockefeller

of the Divi-

Division

of

Social

Sciences.

HUMANE VALUES NEW DRAMATISTS COMMITTEE, INC. General Support In October 1951 a grant of $47,500 was made to the New

Dramatists Committee, Inc., by The Rockefeller

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

404

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Foundation toward the general support of its program over a period of three years. The

New

Dramatists

Committee is an organization of established playwrights which is endeavoring to provide improved opportunities for young playwrights to develop their skill in close association with the theater and

the

more experienced members of the profession. The basic program to which assistance was given by The Rockefeller Foundation enables a selected group of young playwrights to follow new plays through their preparation for showing on Broadway and to discuss the problems encountered with the authors and others associated with the production. This program is in direct association with the recently established Elinor Morgenthau New

Dramatists Workshop, under the

supervision of the same committee. INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION Visiting Artists Program A grant of $25,905 was made by The Rockefeller Foundation in 1951 to the Institute of International Education

to assist the institute in bringing to the

United States 24 young artists from other countries during the period January to June 1952, for purposes of study and observation. These artists, all under 35 years of

age, represent different

fields of art, in-

cluding painting and sculpture, musical composition and conducting, the theater and the literary arts. The

participants are divided

of eight

members

each.

A

into

separate

three groups program is

arranged for each group, with the three-month visit divided into an orientation period of approximately

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES

405

' two weeks, a period of individual work, travel and observation of about eight weeks, and afinalevaluation period of approximately two weeks. Through such visits by artists from other countries, it is anticipated that the visitors not only can learn more of American work in thefieldof the arts but also, by

contact with Americans and

with

artists from

different countries, can become acquainted with the common interests and objectives of the arts in different areas of the world. COMMISSION ON HISTORY, PAN AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY History of the Americas The

Commission on History of the Pan American

Institute of Geography and History is an organization established as a result of international agreement and receives

its basic

support

from

contributions

by

the members of the Organization of American States. For some time die commission has been

concerned

with the problem of developing interpretation of the history of the Americas on a basis which would provide effective integration of concepts with regard to the various cultures — indigenous, Spanish, Portuguese, French or English

in origin —

which exist together

on the American continents. In 1951 The Rockefeller Foundation made a grant of $30,000 to the Commission on History for work on this problem, over the period ending December 31, *953>

by

three groups which

concentrate

on pre-

Columbian, colonial and modern history, respectively. These three teams will endeavor to work out various

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

406

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

alternative ways in which history of this broad character may

be written. The

results are to be presented

at the meeting of the Commission on History to be held in Mexico in 1954. COMMISSION ON HISTORY, PAN AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY History of Ideas An additional grant of $i 5,000 was made in October 1951 to the Commission on History for a research program under the direction of its Committee on the History of Ideas for the period ending December 31, 1954. The

Committee on the History of Ideas was

established as a result of a resolution of the first Pan American meeting on history held in Mexico in 1947 by the Commission on History of the Pan

American

Institute of Geography and History. Its chairman is Dr. Leopoldo Zea, professor at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. The grant will be used to support a number of research studies to be undertaken by scholars in several different countries in the general field of the history of ideas during the period between 1875 and

1925, and with emphasis on com-

parison between developments in different countries of the Americas. COLEGIO DE MEXICO Contemporary Mexican History The Colegio de Mexico received a grant of 118,192 for research and a training seminar on contemporary Mexican history, under the direction of Dr. Daniel Cosio Villegas. The

Colegio de Mexico's research and

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES

407

training program is focused on the preparation of a six-volume history dealing with the political, economic, social and cultural life of Mexico from 1867 to 1910. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RESEARCH de Tocqueville Papers A new. edition of the complete works of Alexis de Tocqueville, under the editorship of Mr. Peter Mayer, is

being published

by

Gallimard

in France.

Two

volumes of Democracy in America have already been published. English Correspondence Regime are in press. The

and

The Ancient

estimated nine additional

volumes to be completed for publication include de Tocqueville^ other correspondence, both public and private, and

his political and philosophical writings.

Mr. Mayer, a British national, has been accorded by the present Comte Jean de Tocqueville the privilege of access to all the family papers and records. To enable Mr. Mayer to continue editing the de Tocqueville

writings, The

Rockefeller

Foundation

appro-

priated $9,500 to the National Institute of Economic and Social Research, London, which is sponsoring the project. The

three-year grant will be available until

the end of October 1953. From the beginning, this project has had operation and

the co-

support of leading scholars and his-

torians of ideas in Great Britain and France. An visory

committee

comprising

British

and

ad-

French

scholars guided die work in its early stages. A national commission has been set up by the French government for the continued support of this task, and the

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

408

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique

has

provided a full-time assistant for Mr. Mayer and has arranged for the collection of documents in suitable working quarters in the Institut de France. ABRAHAM LINCOLN ASSOCIATION Edition of Lincoln Writings The

Abraham Lincoln Association is a nonprofit

corporation

located

in Springfield, Illinois, whose

purpose is to collect and disseminate information on all phases of the life of Abraham Lincoln. Since 1924 the association has published the Abraham Lincoln Quarterly and an annual volume; these have made substantial contributions to the Lincoln story and to American history of the nineteenth century. An important project of the association is the preparation of an eight-volume annotated edition of the writings of Abraham lished by

Lincoln, which will be

pub-

the Rutgers University Press. Since this

project was initiated, $42,000 has been contributed to it by The

Rockefeller Foundation, the remainder

of the cost having been raised through contributions to a special fund of the association. It is expected that the work will be completed during 1952. Toward the expenses of the annotated edition of the writings of Abraham

Lincoln, The

Rockefeller Foundation in

1951 made an additional grant of $12,000. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Biography of Booker T. Washington Columbia University's Council for Research in the Social Sciences received an appropriation of $15,000

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES

409

from The Rockefeller Foundation for the preparation of a biography of Booker T. Washington Marquis James. The a

three-year

previously —

John

Mr.

work, which is being aided for

period, will

untapped

biographer

by

utilize

source

of Sam

a wide

range

material. Mr.

Houston, Andrew

Nance Garner and Alfred

of

James

Jackson,

I. DuPont — has

twice received the Pulitzer Prize for biography. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY Military History For

the development of a new

history, $20,000 was

course in military

appropriated to Princeton Uni-

versity. Responsibility for the presentation of military history required by the ROTC curriculum has been taken over by the Department of History. Plans include stress on tion, a

more

a high intellectual level of instruccomplete understanding

of contem-

porary military operations and a study of the ways in

which military

preparedness affects

present-day

society. Dr. Gordon Turner, who directs the work and who is preparing a body of new

readings, is a former

United States Army captain with experience in compiling military historical data. All of the professors on the advisory committee have served with the armed forces.

Consultants

working

with

this

group

are

scholars from the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, from Harvard University (naval history), Yale University (intelligence) and the United States Army

Historical

Division. Foundation

aid toward

the program in military history covers expenses for

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

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THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

personnel, travel and

the purchase of books and re-

lated materials. UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, DOWNING COLLEGE English Studies For the use of Downing College, $6,900 was appropriated

to the University of Cambridge, England,

toward the salary of an assistant to the director of English studies, Dr. F. R. Leavis. A leading center of English studies, particularly literary criticism, Downing

College

draws

students

from

Great

Britain,

America and Continental Europe. Dr. Leavis' work as a teacher and

as editor of the literary quarterly,

Scrutiny, is now recognized as a stimulating influence in the growth of British literary criticism. The

Rocke-

feller Foundation has aided these studies at Downing College since 1946. Current support for his assistant, Mr.

H. A. Mason, through

mid-1955

allows

Dr.

Leavis increasedflexibilityin his program. UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO Special Faculty Seminar The general education program of the College of the University of Chicago has been evolving for some 20

years, with

experience

and

changes new

and

alterations

insights. The

based

on

integration of

knowledge has been a basic problem. Afirstattempt at unification of the disciplines and values involved was made when the college reduced the number of courses offered and developed general courses in major fields such as the humanities, the social sciences, the natural sciences and mathematics,

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES

4! I

with auxiliary courses in English and other languages. Further amalgamation was

effected during the aca-

demic year 1949-1950. A course entitled Observation, Interpretation and Integration was offered. The

college is particularly interested in the role

played by history and philosophy in a liberal education. During the 1951-1952 academic year a special faculty seminar en tided The Uses and Mutual Relations of the Disciplines of History and Philosophy as Means of Integration within a Liberal Education is examining problems on history and philosophy in relation to each other and

to other disciplines. The

seminar was made possible by a grant of $15,150 from The

Rockefeller Foundation to the College of the

University of Chicago. Fundamental problems discussed

include: the source, nature and

validity of

historical generalizations;

the relationship between

existence and

the relationship between

value; and

historical inquiry and values. The

college is confident

that the seminar will be another step in the development of new

concepts and

their application in

teaching for the purpose of achieving integration in its program, ANTIOCH COLLEGE General Education Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, has emphasized general education

since 1921^ when a pro-

gram of required courses "to familiarize the student with the heritage of man" was developed. Today's Antioch students receive a parallel general education of a quite different character through the college's

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

412

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

cooperative

work plan, as well as through

its un-

usually extensive program of student participation in community government and college administration. The

college records since the initiation of these ac-

tivities provide an unusually rich source for studying the significance of this general education program. Toward such a study The

Rockefeller Foundation

made a grant of $i5,900 in 1951. AMERICAN COUNCIL OF LEARNED SOCIETIES Personnel in the Humanities During the last several years extensive studies have been made of the demands for and the possible supply in

the

United

academic having such

States

of personnel

training. Because

die

with

unusual

of the importance

humanities adequately represented

studies, The

Rockefeller Foundation

of in

in 1949

made a grant of $31,000 to the American Council of Learned Societies to permit the addition to its staff of Mr. J. F. Wellemeyer, Jr., as staff adviser on personnel studies. In view of the effective work done by the staff adviser, The

Rockefeller Foundation in

1951 made an additional two-year grant of $34,000 for continuation of this activity. AMERICAN COUNCIL OF LEARNED SOCIETIES Special Fellowships During 1951 other funds were given to the American Council of Learned Societies by The

Rockefeller

Foundation to relieve a critical situation which has arisen

among

the

younger

humanities

Educational institutions have estimated

personnel. that there

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES

413

will be a drop in enrollment of about 25 per cent for the next two-year period, as the direct result of the national mobilization of manpower, and they are decreasing their budgets accordingly. It has been fairly reliably estimated that the number of academic personnel facing dismissal in the humanities will be in the neighborhood of 7,500. The

levels most affected

are those at or under the status of assistant professor. Many of the younger humanists who are threatened with dismissal have already careers by

World

discouraged

War

been

II. They

delayed

in their

are likely

to be

from returning to the academic ranks

by the higher wages offered in government or civilian positions and by the fact that their academic services are charged as expendable in any Advanced may

students now

selecting

period of crisis. their professions

also be influenced by these factors. As a result,

the council believes, the ranks of the teaching staff in the humanities, already depleted by the gap caused during the years of World War

II, will suffer further

reduction. Unless some of the younger scholars of the age group now

28 to 32 are retained on the academic

scene, a great disparity

in age

and

outlook

may

develop between the senior personnel on permanent tenure and

those who

will be called upon after the

present emergency to fill the lower faculty ranks in the humanities. To relieve the present emergency, two grants were made in 1951 by The

Rockefeller Foundation to the

American Council of Learned Societies. One

of these

provided $200,000 for a special program of fellowships in the humanities during the period ending October

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

414 i,

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

1952. Approximately

awarded

by

50

fellowships

the council on a selective

are

to

be

basis in an

amount equal to the individual's salary for the past year but in no case exceeding $5,000. Appointments will be for one year. The

second grant, also in the

amount of $200,000, was

made for later allocation

during the period ending October i, 1953. The

pro-

gram should make a significant contribution to the development of scholarship and

alleviate, to some

extent, the precarious position of the humanists. AMERICAN COUNCIL OF LEARNED SOCIETIES Pacific Coast Committee for the Humanities The

Pacific Coast Committee for the Humanities

was established five years ago by the American Council of Learned Societies in the belief that the

geo-

graphical unity of the West Coast made it possible to attack

certain

problems

more

effectively

at

the

regional level. The

objectives of the committee are to stimulate

within the humanities a keener sense of the interrelatedness of the disciplines and of the opportunities to enrich the study and teaching of each of the various subjects by orienting them to related ideas in other fields, and

to encourage

humanists

to attempt

to

clarify to the nonacademic world the importance of the studies in which they believe and

the values in-

herent in these studies. The main activities of the committee have been a survey of humanistic research on the West Coast; the founding and support of the quarterly journal,

The

Pacific

aid

Spectator; the

allocation

of grants

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

in

limiting): li>r fossils dtirinu :i gcologv fiolil flip, Xiitmih ColK'L'i1; L'fulmjy I'oursi' is required ul all .students |ur their ue»cr;il educ:iticm prnijruiii

Photograph

Excised

Here

.. A

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

^ ? v * ^ \ ^

^ ^ ^

Photograph Excised

Here

Faculty of the University of' Chicago meet in a seminar on the role of history and philosophy in the college program Staff conference on personnel studies at the American Council of Lcnrned Societies, Washington, D. C.

^- -*-t v Ci. v _ ^ r r ~ t r ^ r ^ ^ /" ^tl C

* ^ c

^ x

Rhotograph

Excised

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Here

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES

417

for regional study and research among West Coast scholars; and ences, held

the organization

of regional

in the spring of 1951, on

confer-

Renaissance

studies, Arthurian studies, nineteenth century studies, and

history and

the humanities. Another of the

projects of the committee is a visiting writers program which

encompasses

eight

institutions. Under

program one group is active in the Bay

Region

this and

the Southwest, another in the Northwest, Toward Committee

general

support

of

the

Pacific

for the Humanities, The

Coast

Rockefeller

Foundation in 1951 made a grant of $6,000 to the American Council of Learned Societies, available over a period of three years.

HUMANITIES RESEARCH COUNCIL OF CANADA Planning and Development Following recommendations by the Royal Society of Canada and

with the financial assistance of die

Canadian Social Science Research Council, the

Hu-

manities Research Council of Canada was established in 1943. The

constitution of this council provides for

a membership of 16 scholars elected for limited terms, representing as many disciplines as possible. Committees and

on

publication, research, graduate studies

doctoral

council's

dissertations

general

carry

functions. The

out

some

chairman

of the of the

Humanities Research Council of Canada is Mr. J, Roy Daniells, professor of English, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Mr. John E. Robbins, secretary-treasurer, serves

the

Canadian

Social Science

Research Council in the same capacity.

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

418

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Each year since 1948 the council has organized a regional conference at which its members meet with local humanists to

discuss local

problems

in the

humanities. Each meeting takes place in a different section of Canada. Current projects under the council's program deal with specific problems on an area basis. These studies include a comparative analysis of the cultural development of the English-speaking areas of the British Commonwealth and work on the growth of the French language and culture in North America, under the direction of Professor Maurice Lebel of Laval University. In addition, an examination of the relationships between the universities and the community

in the humanistic

disciplines

was

begun during 1951 and carried over into the following year. Results obtained through area studies under the council's program form the basis for a current inquiry into the planning graduate

and

Rockefeller

of humanities courses at under-

postgraduate

Foundation

levels.

made

In

a grant

1951

The

of $19,200

toward continued support of the council's activities.

GRANTS IN AID Eighty-eight separate projects in the humanities received grants in aid in 1951, which amounted to a total of $295,970. i a. A

brief description of these

projects is given below, under the main headings of the current program of the Division of Humanities. LANGUAGE, LOGIC AND SYMBOLISM EGYPT Mohammed Farid abu-Hadid Bey; $500 for :i comparative study of literary Arabic and the colloquial Arabic of Cairo

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES

419

GERMANY Dr, F. Hepner (living in Heidelberg); $1,400 for completion of his study on the history of communications GREAT BRITAIN University of Oxford, England, Somerville College; $5,400 for work by Miss G. E. M. Anscombe on the philosophical writings of Ludwig Wittgenstein JAPAN Tokyo University; $1,900 for a study of how Japanese language affects Japanese ways of thinking, under the direction of Professors Takeyoshi Kawashima, Hajime Nakamura and Shunsuke Tsurumi UNITED STATES Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts; $6,900 for experimental studies by Dr. Heinz Werner on language expression and comprehension Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New

York; $4,500 for a study

of cultural factors in the use of language in the United States by Mrs. Dorothy Lee, associate professor of anthropology William Penn Charter School, Philadelphia; $650 for studies of linguistics and methods of teaching Latin by Dr. Waldo E. Sweet at the University of Michigan and elsewhere during the summer of 1951

INTERCULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AUSTRIA Austrian College Society, Vienna; 78,000 Austrian schillings, approximately $3,200, for the Institute for Contemporary European Cultural Research University of Vienna, Institute of Translation; $1,000 for traveling expenses of representatives of the institute to the United States

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

42O

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

CANADA University of Montreal, Quebec; $2,000 for visiting professor in American history from the United States CHILE University of Chile, Santiago; $2,000 for acquisition of original publications or microfilms of philosophical works for the library of the Faculty of Philosophy DENMARK University of Copenhagen; $6,000 for books and materials on American literature and civilization FRANCE Mr. Paul Mousset, French writer and journalist; $2,500 for a visit to the United States and Canada for a study of ways in which American culture might come to be better understood in Europe GERMANY Professor Helmut Papajewski, University of Cologne; $4,500 for a visit to educational institutions in the United States to study American literature and intellectual relations between Germany and America University of Munich, Amerika Institut; 12,200 German marks, approximately $3,100, for travel and other expenses of a seminar in American studies for German professors GREAT BRITAIN Dr. H. A. R. Gibb, professor of Arabic, University of Oxford, England; $350 for a visit to Lebanon University of Manchester, England; $7,000 for books, journals and other materials for the Department of American Studies INDIA Dr. Suniti Kumar Chatterji, professor of Indian linguistics, University of Calcutta; $800 for a trip to Mexico to gain a direct acquaintance with cultural and

linguistic problems

there for their relevance to similar problems in India

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES Dr. Asaf A. A, Fyzee, Public Service Commission, Bombay; $2,400 for a visit to the United States and Canada for development of studies of Muslem law IRAQ Dr. Abdul Aziz el-Duri, dean, College of Science and Letters, Baghdad; $2,700 for visits, principally to Great Britain, the United States and Turkey, to gain direct acquaintance with work in Near Eastern studies and college and university administration ISRAEL Hebrew University, Jerusalem; $2,500 for books and materials for the School of Oriental Studies Dr. Curt Wormann, librarian, Hebrew University, Jerusalem; $1,800 for visits to libraries and library schools in the United States LEBANON American University of Beirut; $700 for visits of Professor Nicolas A. Ziadeh to gain a firsthand acquaintance with Arab scholars in North Africa MEXICO Commission on History of the Pan Geography and History, Mexico, D.F.;

American Institute of $250 for the purchase

and distribution in Latin America of 100 copies of L'Oeuvre de la France en AmSriqtte du Nord SWITZERLAND Dr. Hans Curjei, University of Zurich; $3,340 for a visit to the United States for comparative study of American and European cultural phenomena in the twentieth century SYRIA Syrian University, Damascus: $7,500 for books in the humanities, $3,750 payable unconditionally, the balance payable on a dollar-fordollar basis as matched by other funds

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

422

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION $1,000 for Islamic studies in Great Britain by Dr. Adil Awwa

UNITED STATES American Council of Learned Societies, New

York; $3,000

for investigation of the development of area studies in the British universities by Professor Irving A. Leonard, University of Michigan Cornell University, Ithaca, New

York; $1,000 to enable

Professor Morris E. Opler (sociology and anthropology) to elaborate his theory of cultural themes, with particular reference to India Harvard University, Harvard-Yenching Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts; $1,000 for continuation of bibliographical survey of available materials on Chinese literature by Dr. James R. Hightower Library of Congress, Washington, D. C.; $2,350 for a visit to the United States by Mr. Joseph A. Dagher, conservateur of the National Library, Lebanon, to study collections of materials on the Near East in American libraries Museum of Modern Art, New York: For a study by Mr. George Amberg of the feasibility and cost of sending printed and audio-visual materials relevant to the drama to a number of Latin American centers; $750 For purchase and

shipment to centers in Latin

America of publications, photographs,films,recordings or comparable material of use in development of work on drama; $8,000 New

School for Social Research, Institute of World Affairs,

New York: Study of the experience of successful immigrants in acquiring knowledge of American culture, by Mr. Paul Grabbe; $10,000

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES

423

For research into enduring core value systems by Dr. Laura Thompson; #8,925 Society for Japanese Studies, New

York; $3,000 for prepara-

tion by Mr. Allen Eaton of a book on the art of the Japanese in relocation camps Stanford University, California; $5,500 toward the development of literary exchange with writers and publishers in Asia, under the direction of Professor Wallace Stegner University of Hawaii, Honolulu; $2,400 for expenses of Dr. Earle Ernst, associate professor of drama and the theater, while studying Japanese drama in Japan University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; $500 for books and periodicals for the further development of a program of comparative literature at the University of Nagoya, Japan University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; $5,000 for books, recordings and other material on drama and the theater for Waseda University, Japan, and other institutions in Asia University of Washington, Seattle: For purchase of a collection of books on Mongolia and Central Asia; $3,205.40 For expenses in connection with the visit of Professor Marius B. Jansen to Japan and his research on China; $9,882 ORIGINAL WORK IN PHILOSOPHY, HISTORY, RELIGION, LITERATURE AND DRAMA GREAT BRITAIN Mr. Asa Briggs, University of Oxford, England; $2,100 for a visit to the United States to obtain a direct acquaintance with scholars and programs in the field of history Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, England; $8,000 for the visit of Professor and Mrs, Arnold J. Toynbee to the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, to study the significance of religion in history

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

4^4

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

INDIA Dr. N. A. Nikam, Department of Philosophy, Majarani College, University of Mysore, Bangalore; $400 for a trip to Europe to study present philosophical trends MEXICO Mexico City College; $9,650 for a fellowship program for Mexican writers PHILIPPINE ISLANDS University of the Philippines, Manila; $1,700 for expenses of two writers from Indonesia and one from Malaya in attending a writers' seminar in the Philippine Islands UNITED STATES Actors Company Creative Theatre, Inc., Chicago, Illinois; $2,500 toward the expenses of a playwright in residence, Miss Ruth Herschberger Claremont College, California; $1,500 for the preparation of a general introduction to the Kegon School of Buddhist Philosophy by Dr. Daisetz T. Suzuki Columbia University, New York; $500 for a report and evaluation of the university seminar on religion and health Dallas Civic Theatre, Texas; $2,000 for aid to playwrights and other members of the staff on temporary duty Howard University, Washington, D. C.; $4,500 for completion of a book on the Negro in American culture by Professor Alain Locke Karamu House, Cleveland, Ohio: For expenses of a visit to the United States of Miss Ruth de Souza, connected with the Teatro Experimental do Negro, Rio de Janeiro; $5,000 For expenses of a playwright in residence,

Mr.

Junius Eddy, and administrative expenses; $5,000

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES

425

Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania; $1,000 for work in England by Professor Lawrence H. Gipson in connection with his study on "The British Empire Before the American Revolution" Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois; $5,000 for continuation of studies of American culture in relation to the community by Professor Baker Brownell Princeton University, New

Jersey; 58250 for traveling and

other expenses of members of a conference on the diplomacy of the Great Powers in the period 1919-1939 University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; $2,500 for a playwright in residence with the Carolina Playmakers,

Mr.

Kermit Hunter University of Wisconsin, Madison; $6,272.72 for playwrights in residence with the Wisconsin Idea Theatre, Miss Ruth Herschberger and Mr. Julius Landau Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia: For work by Professor Edward D. Myers on the atlas and gazetteer for Professor Arnold Toynbee's A Study of History; $1,500 For study of heroes of American culture by

Dr.

Marshall W. Fishwick; $750 Yale University, New

Haven, Connecticut; $3,000 toward

expense of preparing for publication A

World History for

Americans by Professor Ralph E. Turner and Dr. David A. Denker CRITICISM GREAT BRITAIN University of Birmingham, England; $3,000 for obtaining microfilms and other reproductions of materials needed by the Shakespeare Institute .

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

426

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

JAPAN Kyoto University; $3,200 for studies in Chinese literature by Professor Kojiro Yoshikawa TURKEY University of Ankara; $2,500 for a representative collection of books in English and in French on literary criticism for the Faculty of Letters UNITED STATES Mrs.

Dorothy B. Jones, Los Angeles, California; $545 for a

study of selected classic films Princeton University, New Jersey; $3,500 for a comprehensive evaluation by Mr. Robert Fitzgerald of the outcomes of the Princeton Seminars in Literary Criticism University of Chicago, Illinois; $6,500 for a study of response to narrative art by Simon O. Lesser University of Oklahoma, Norman; $9,500 for preparation for publication of critical appraisals of world literature over the past 25 years in its journal, Books Abroad GENERAL EDUCATION IN THE HUMANITIES COSTA RICA National Museum of Costa Rica, San Jose; $8,500 for the preparation of an exhibition of living history GERMANY Association of the West German Radio Stations; $8>ooo for a visit to Germany by Mr. Charles Siepmann of New

York

University and Mr. Clark Foreman, Bureau of Applied Social Research, Columbia University, to make a survey of the possibilities of improving operations of radio stations and radio programs Dr. Friedrich Schneider, chief administrator, University of Cologne; $2,100 for a visit to study organization and administration of American universities

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

DIVISION OF HUMANITIES

427

INDIA Kalakshetra (a center for the study of Indian arts in Madras); $2,450 toward the purchase of equipment for recording Indian dance music KOREA National Museums of Korea; $2,400 for the work of Dr. Kim Chewon, director general SWEDEN Professor Erik Lonnroth, University of Uppsala; $450 for visits, after completion of his term as visiting professor at Princeton University, to observe organization and scholarship of some American universities TURKEY Mr. Kadri Yorukoglu, president of the Council of Education > Ministry of Education: $3,000 for a visit to the United States and Canada to study educational developments $1,000 for the purchase of books and other materials in the United States and Canada, for the library of the ministry UNITED STATES Boston University, Massachusetts; $2,750 for study of problems connected with general education in American academic institutions, by Mr. Simon Williams Mr. Robert Darrell; $750 for a study of the present condition, maintenance

and

utilization of music records in selected

American educational institutions. Foundation for Integrated Education, Inc., New York; $2,100 for a summer workshop at Durham, New

Hampshire, in

August 1951

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

428

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

Harvard University, Graduate School of Education,

Cam-

bridge, Massachusetts; $5,500 for expenses of preparation of a manuscript on comparative education by Professor Robert Ulich University of Illinois, Urbana; $9,150 for a study of the possibilities of training personnel for popular writing on the humanities, under the direction of Dr. Wilbur Schramm, dean of the Division of Communications Mrs. Helen Wessells; $2,15° for a preliminary survey of the volume and character of American exports of publications, commercial and noncommercial MISCELLANEOUS HAITI Miss Luce Turnier, Port-au-Prince; $300 for artists' materials essential for her studies in painting in France as a fellow of the French government UNITED STATES American Council of Learned Societies, New for a visit to Great Britain by

York; $2,000

the executive director, to

obtain information concerning the effect of present legislation on the development of the humanities in Great Britain American Council on Education, Washington, D. C.; $7,500 for a general study of the Latin American countries with particular reference to work in the humanities, by Mr. Herschel Brickell Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis, Chicago, Illinois; $1,600 for expenses of foreign travel and meetings connected with the organization of the International Executive Committee of the International New

Testament Manuscripts

Project For small grants for travel, equipment, materials, consumable supplies, research and miscellaneous expenses for the work of individuals; $2,000 for allocation by

the Director of the

Division

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

OTHER APPROPRIATIONS

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

OTHER APPROPRIATIONS INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT

433

INTERNATIONAL PRESS INSTITUTE

433

SALZBURG SEMINAR IN AMERICAN STUDIES, INC.

434

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION: INTERNATIONAL YOUTH LIBRARY, MUNICH AMERICAN

COUNCIL

435 ON

EDUCATION:

COMMITTEE

ON

RELIGION AND EDUCATION

436

INSTITUTE or INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION

437

OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES

438

GENERAL EDUCATION BOARD

438

GRANTS IN AID

439

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

OTHER

APPROPRIATIONS

RANTS which

fall

somewhat outside the

specific divisional programs or include elements relating to more than one aspect of the Foundation's work are taken from general funds. In 1951 seven appropriations and nine grants in aid were of this character.

INTERNATIONAL PRESS INSTITUTE The

International

established on May

Press

Institute

was

formally

16, 1951 at the meeting of an

organizing committee in Paris. This committee had been chosen by an international group of editors met

in New

York in the fall of 1950. The

who

chief ob-

jective of the institute is to increase international understanding through the promotion of cooperation among editors and

the development of a free press

throughout the world. The

institute undertakes re-

search projects on problems of international interest relating to the press and house of information. The

also serves as a clearingFoundation contributed

$120,000, to be available during the period ending December 31, 1954, for the expenses of the institute. The

secretariat, headed by the director of the insti-

tute, Mr. E. J. B. Rose of the London Sunday Observery lias offices in Zurich, Switzerland, administrative and research center of the institute. An executive

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

434

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

board of 15 members, with Mr. Lester Markel of the New

York Times as chairman, has supervision of the

affairs of the institute. The

membership is composed of representatives of

newspaper staffs who

have a responsibility for the

editorial and news policies of their newspapers, and whose newspapers are devoted

to the principles of

freedom of the press. Since the establishment of the institute, 24 national committees have been formed. Members are recruited for the institute through the national committees. A general assembly of the entire membership is to be held annually, each year in a different country.

SALZBURG SEMINAR IN AMERICAN STUDIES, INC. In

1951

the

Foundation

gave

$100,000 to the

Salzburg Seminar in American Studies, Inc., held at Castle Leopoldskron about a mile outside Salzburg, Austria, toward its general expenses during the three years beginning June i, 1951. Grants totaling §78,000 were made m 1948, 1949 and

1950 for the seminar

through the World Student Service Fund before the seminar was organized as a business entity. The

seminar was initiated in the summer of 1947

by a few interested Americans, chiefly from Harvard University. In

1950 a series

of four-week

winter

sessions was introduced. The six-week summer session of 1951 covered philosophy and history and

religion, American

institutions, American government, in-

dustrial relations, poetry and and economics. The

literature, psychology

courses were presented by ten

faculty members from universities and colleges in the

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

OTHER APPROPRIATIONS

United States. About countries

outside

435

100 European students from

the

Iron

Curtain

attended

the

session. During the period January 3 to July 3 there were five four-week

sessions, all

jects. Each of these sessions was 45

students

from

a dozen

students are mature and

on

separate sub-

attended by about

countries. The

seminar

carefully selected; among

them have been college professors and graduate students,

radio

government

script

writers,

officials,

journalists,

sociologists,

lawyers,

economists

and

teachers. The

promotion of free discussion is perhaps one of

the seminar's most useful by-products. The association of

the

students

and

teachers

together

at

Castle

Leopoldskron affords an opportunity for establishing informal contacts outside the classroom between the American

instructors

and

the European

students,

as well as among the European students themselves.

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION International Youth Library, Munich The

Foundation

American

Library

appropriated

$35,000

to the

Association, Chicago, for dollar

expenses of the International Youth Library,

Mu-

nich, Germany, during a period of three years ending June 30, 1954. This grant continues aid which

was

provided in 1949 to help establish the library, under the Foundation's postwar European

Rehabilitation

Program. Contributions from German sources amount to roughly two-thirds of the total expenditures, and the

state of Bavaria

has provided

a

building for

the library.

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

436

THE ROCKEFELLER

FOUNDATION

The library serves children and young people from the ages of six to twenty. It was established as a result of the success of a circulating international book exhibition started under the auspices of the Information Control Division of the Office of Military Government of the United States soon after the termination of the war. The Lepman, who

library was organized by Mrs.

developed

Jella

the project and is now its

director. Books are obtained from many countries, and the interest of the children and young people is aroused and held by language instruction, storytelling hours, international films and records, puppet shows, children's drama and radio discussion groups. The

American Library Association acts as Ameri-

can sponsor for the Youth Library and has supplied technical counsel for its program. AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION Committee on Religion and Education The

Committee on Religion and Education of the

American

Council on

Education

is supervising

an

exploratory study of the relation of religion to general education, including

a

study

of projects

now

in

operation designed to enrich the school program in respect to moral and spiritual values. The

Founda-

tion provided $31,616 to finance the study for the year beginning July i, 1951, the approximate period considered

necessary

for making

the

study

and

completing a report. The

study is being conducted for the council by

Dr. Clarence Lin ton, on leave from Columbia University. On

the Committee on Religion and

Education

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

OTHER APPROPRIATIONS are Mr.

437

F. Ernest Johnson, professor emeritus of

Teachers College, Columbia University, chairman; Rabbi Louis Finkelstein, president, Jewish

Theo-

logical Seminary of America; the Reverend Frederick G. Hochwalt, secretary general, National

Catholic

Educational Association; Mr. John W. Nason, president, Swarthmore College; and

a number of other

representatives of public and private education. The

purpose of this exploratory study is to gather

information

from which issues may

be formulated

and recommendations made for possible further activities in this field by

the American

Council

on

Education or other agencies.

INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION The

sum of $50,000 has been given to the Institute

of International Education, New

York, to assist its

program of international exchange of students and related

services

during a

two-year

period

ending

June 30, 1953. The

Institute of International Education arranges

exchanges

of students, scholars and

specialists be-

tween the United States and foreign countries. Since the close of World War

II it has administered foreign

student programs of the United States government, including student awards under the Fulbright program. It also handles fellowship awards under the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

and

privately

sponsored

fellowships

such as those of Atlantique, for the exchange of social work trainees between France and the United States; the Seagram international fellowships, for training in

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION industrial chemistry; and awards of the Belgian Institute for the Encouragement of Scientific Research in Industry and

Chemistry. In connection with its

program the institute also operates an information and counseling service.

OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES The sum of $100,000 was made available in April 1951

to the Office

of the

United

Nations

High

Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva, for a survey of the extent of the refugee problem

and

the most

appropriate methods for its solution. The High Commissioner, Dr. D. J. van Heuven Goedhart, appointed

Mr.

Jacques Vernant, secre-

tary general of the Centre d'Etudes de Politique Etrangere, Paris, to head the survey. Mr. and

Vernant

his co-workers made a preliminary survey in

1951, a report of which was submitted to the High Commissioner

early in 1952. The

refugee problem

was studied in Trieste and the following 16 countries: the United Kingdom, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, Yugoslavia, Greece, Egypt, Syria and Lebanon.

GENERAL EDUCATION BOARD In 1946 when the General Education Board approaching the end

was

of its resources, the Trustees

of the General Education Board and of The

Rocke-

feller Foundation considered the question of additional funds to enable the Board to continue certain

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

OTHER APPROPRIATIONS phases of its work for which

there was

439 still a need,

especially in the southern states. As a result, in 1946, 1947 and

1948, a total of $10,500,000 was provided

by the Foundation for the work of the General Education Board through 1953. The

Board is devoting its attention chiefly to the

development

of graduate

education in the South

through aid to a few strong centers, the improvement of undergraduate

instruction in Negro colleges and

acceleration of educational advance in several states where resources for educational purposes are limited. As the funds which the Foundation had already given the General Education Board were not sufficient to cover estimated needs for projects which appear to be of special value during the next two years, additional grants totaling approximately $5,000,000 were made in 1951, to be available through 1953. These grants consisted of securities amounting to $3,001,625 and a fund of $2,000,000.

GRANTS IN AID

\Vorld Student Service Fund, New

York; $6,500 for expenses

of five student representatives from the United States to a seminar for German, European and American students held at Frankfurt, Germany, in the summer of 1951, promoted by the National Student Association of the United States Austro-American

Institute

of

Education, Vienna, Austria;

£7,000 for administrative expenses of the institute's work in promoting student

and

cultural exchange between the

United States and Austria, over a three-year period

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

440 Mr.

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION and Mrs. Olav Brennhovd, Fridtjof Nansen Haus,

Gottingen, Germany; #4,500 to cover expenses of a trip to the United States for study and observation relating to the purposes of Nansen Haus, an international student house in Gottingen National Travelers Aid Association, New

York; $3,800 to

cover expenses of delegate to international conference of travelers aid societies at Canberra, Australia, in May

1951

Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, New Jersey; $10,000 for a pilot study of student exchange under the Department of State, with particular reference to Belgium, for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of the student exchange programs Japanese-United States cultural relations; $8,700 for the expenses of an exploratory study of Japanese-United States cultural relations, with particular reference to the development of a cultural center and student international houses in Japan Columbia University, New

York; $500 toward the cost of a

history of the National Science Foundation, sponsored by the university's seminar on "The Theory and Practice of Organization and Management" University of Buffalo, New

York; $2,150 for a conference on

general education of college grade, under the direction of Earl J. McGrath, United States Commissioner of Education, at the Princeton Inn, December 1951 University of Illinois, Urbana; $3,000 toward the expenses of a meeting called by the president of the university, George D. Stoddard, at Princeton in December 1951, to consider the possibility of a broad restatement of American political philosophy

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

FELLOWSHIPS

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

FELLOWSHIPS

THE

Foundation's fellowship

appointments

are closely integrated with the work of its several divisional programs. Qualified applicants are persons who

have completed

training in

their fields of specialization, have had several years of experience in research or teaching, and give promise of assuming positions of leadership in their specialties in their native countries. The

fellow is proposed by

his superior in the institution in which he works and is usually assured of a position in that institution on his return from his period of fellowship. The purpose of the fellowship is not primarily to benefit a particular individual, but rather to stimulate and

ad-

vance

and

research

and

teaching

in the

medical

natural sciences, the social sciences and the humanities in the institution and

country from which the

fellow is appointed. In

most

instances

a

Foundation

fellowship is

granted for a period of one year, but in some special cases it may

be extended

for a longer period or re-

newed for a second year.

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

444

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

During 1951, 375 persons from 49 different countries held Foundation fellowships at some time during the year. The

following table indicates their distribu-

tion by divisions: Number of fellows 1951

Awards made in 1951

Awards made previously and continued into 1951

Medicine and Public Health

193

97

96

Natural Sciences

82

51

31

Social Sciences

51

33

18

Humanities

49

33

16

375

214

161

The

193 fellowships in medicine and public health

included

about 100 in public health subjects.

fellowships

in the natural

The

sciences were predomi-

nantly in the general field of experimental

biology,

but about 12 per cent were in the developing field of agriculture. Fellowships in the social sciences were in the fields of economics, including economic history and

economic

geography, international

relations,

sociology, social psychology, cultural anthropology and

political science. Fellowships in the

humanities

were chiefly in philosophy, history, drama, linguistics and

area studies, including such aspects as the his-

tory, culture, philosophy

and

language of specific

world areas. Of the fellows in medicine and public health, 126 came from other countries to study in the United States, and 8 studied in both the United States and elsewhere. Other foreign fellows in thesefieldsstudied in Canada (17), England (5), France (4), Scotland (i),

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

FELLOWSHIPS Sweden (4), South

both Switzerland

American

fellows

445

and

studied

Peruvians studied in their own

England in Chile

(i); 3 and

2

country. Twenty-one

United States fellows remained here for their studies, and one went to Canada. Of the fellows in the natural sciences, 66 came to the United States from other countries, one Brazilian went to Italy and

another

studied animal breeding in the United States, Mexico and Costa Rica; a Chilean went to England and a Colombian studied plant pathology in Mexico; one Italian went to the Nobel Institute in Sweden and another to the University of Brussels in Belgium; a Norwegian

studied

in

Denmark;

a

Yugoslavian

studied in England and another in France; and of 7 fellows from the United States, 2 studied in Sweden, i worked in both England and

Denmark, i carried

out a survey in several European countries, i studied in France, and

2 remained in the United States for

their studies. Of

fellows in the social sciences, 41

studied in the United

States, 7

in England, i in

France, and 2 in both the United States and other countries. In the humanities, 25 the United States and

States; 5 studied

fellows studied in

in both

the

United

in one or more other countries; 2 con-

ducted area studies in three different South American countries; i conducted such studies in Lebanon, Iraq and

Syria and

i in Iran and Lebanon; 5 studied in

France, 2 in Canada, 2 in Mexico, and 6 others in England, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, Siam and Hawaii, respectively. Funds made available for the year 1951 for fellowships

administered

by

the

Foundation

were

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

446

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

$1,010,000 for all divisions, and amounted

to $813,450. Grants

total expenditures made

in 1951 for

fellowships for the year 1952 totaled $1,110,000 for the four divisions. Besides awards which the Foundation administered itself, six national councils or agencies administered 242 fellowships awarded

from

funds given

Foundation in 1951 or previous years. The

by the agencies

and number of fellows were as follows: National Research Council

52

Medical Sciences

20

Welch Fellows

4

Natural Sciences

28

British Medical Research Council

14

Social Science Research Council

65

Canadian Social Science Research Council

26

American Council of Learned Societies

61

National Theatre Conference

24

242

The Welch fellowships administered by the National Research Council were established by the Foundation in 1941 to provide an

adequate stipend and laboratory expenses for periods of

three to six years for mature investigators intending to devote themselves to an academic career in medicine. Grants made in 1951 to other agencies for fellowships

were: to the National Research

Council for

fellowships in the medical sciences, $125,000, and for fellowships in the natural sciences, $ 150,000; to the Social

Science

Research

Council

for

fellowships,

$220,000; and to the Australian-New Zealand Social Science

Fellowship

Committee, for administrative

expenses, $1,000,

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

FELLOWSHIPS A

447

directory giving the names of the fellows ap-

pointed by the Foundation since the beginning of the fellowship program through the year 1950 was

pub-

lished in 1951. This directory gives the country

and

name of the institution from which

was

the fellow

appointed, the majorfield,place of fellowship study and latest address of some 5,000 individuals. The total number of fellowship appointments administered by the Foundation was 6,342, The amount expended for this purpose from

1917 through

1950 was

roughly

$19,000,000.

© 2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

REPORT OF THE

TREASURER

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

TREASURER'S IN

REPORT

the following pages is submitted the financial transactions Foundation

of The

for the year ended

a report of Rockefeller

December 31,

1951. PAGES Balance Sheet

452-453

Principal Fund

454

Appropriations and Payments

454-455

Equipment Fund

455

Funds Available for Commitment

456

Appropriations and Unappropriated Authorizations. .

457

Appropriations during 1951, Unpaid Balances of" Prior Year Appropriations

and

Payments

thereon

in

I9S1 ;•; Refunds on Prior Year Closed Appropriations

45H12 513-514

Transactions Relating to Invested Funds

5I5~521

Schedule of Securities on Decemberji, 1951

522-526

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION BALANCE SHEET — DECEMBER 31, 1951 ASSETS SECURITIES (Ledger value)

3163,654,758.11

(Market value $347,245,448.62)

CURRENT ASSETS Cash on deposit

6,534,488.35

Advances and deferred charges Sundry accounts receivable

£377,688.18 140,696.67

518,384.85

EQUIPMENT In New York

72,982.08 3170,780,613.39

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

TREASURER S REPORT

453

BALANCE SHEET — DECEMBER 31, 1951 FUNDS AND OBLIGATIONS PRINCIPAL FUND

$131,491,910.86

COMMITMENTS Unpaid appropriations

329,429,228.78

Unappropriated authorizations FUNDS AVAILABLE FOR COMMITMENT Appropriations Account No. 1 Appropriations Account No. 2

1,489,106.00

30,918,334.78

$2,031,970.73 5,971,524.14

8,003,494.87

CURRENT LIABILITIES Accounts payable EQUIPMENT FUND

293,890.80 72,982.08 $170,780,613.39

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

PRINCIPAL FUND £ Balance, December 31,19SO 2118,735,747.26 Add Amount by which the proceeds of securities sold during the year exceeded their ledger value. . . 310,209,255.93 Excess of quoted market value over cost of securities donated to the General Education Board. 2,534,907.67 Anonymous gift received 12,000.00 12,756,163.60 g W Balance, December 31, 1951 3131,491,910.86 *> ^^_^_^^^^^ O O APPROPRIATIONS AND PAYMENTS g W Unpaid appropriations, December 31,1950 326,385,556.48 Jjjjj Appropriations during the year 1951 (For detail see pages 458 to 512) t-. Medicine and Public Health 33,796,270.00 £ Natural Sciences and Agriculture 3,680,208.00 *a Social Sciences 4,586,895.00 *j Humanities 1,658,072.00 § General Education Board 5,001,625.00 5; Miscellaneous 680,526.00 O Administration: H Scientific Services 1,108,290.54 O General 646,993.46 55

Unused balances of appropriations allowed to lapse

321,158,880.00 1,236,739.24

19,922,340.76 346,307,697.24

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Payments on 1951 and prior years' appropriations (For details see pages 458 to 512): Medicine and Public Health Natural Sciences and Agriculture Social Sciences Humanities General Education Hoard Miscellaneous Administration: Scientific Services General

33,416,81479 1,987,808.42 3,567,243.01 1,206,485.70 4,501,625.00 687,14084 1,023,34583 488,004.87

Unpaid appropriations, December 31,1951

Library Equipment

EQUIPMENT FUND BALANCE DEC. 31,1950 38,959.00 62,337.78 371,29678

CHANGES DURING 1951 ADDITIONS DEPRECIATION 31,106.13 333013 5,091.10 4,181.80 26,197,23

24,511.93

£ W £ #16,878,468.46 G W 329,429,228 78 *.

BALANCE DEC. 31,1951 29,735.00 63,247.08

Pi g g

?72,982.08

fc

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

FUNDS AVAILABLE FOR COMMITMENT APPROPRIATIONS ACCOUNT No. 1 Funds available for commitment, December 31, 1950 .................................................. 24,801,980. 58 Add Income and refunds received during 1951 Income from securities .......................................................... £16,972,414. 47 Refunds.......................................................................72,113.74 Gift received for general purposes .................................................. 500.00 Lapsed Appropriations...................................................21,106,848.94 Unappropriated authorizations ..................................... 236,993 .00 1,343,841 .94 18,388,870. 15 223,190,850.73 Deduct Appropriations from this account during 1951

.......................................................

221,158,880.00

<*

^ SB W Q g £ *J g 50 uj

Funds available for commitment, December 31, 1951..................................................22,031,970.73 3 APPROPRIATIONS ACCOUNT No. 2 1-3 Funds available for commitment, December 31, 1950 .................................................. 25,841,633 . 84 Q Add 3 Unused balances of appropriations allowed to lapse .................................................. 129,890. 30 Funds available for commitment, December 31,1951

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

25,971,524.14

O

APPROPRIATIONS AND UNAPPROPRIATED AUTHORIZATIONS Commitments, December 31,19SO Unpaid appropriations .. . . . . . #26,385,556 48 Unappropriated authorizations.. . 1,726,099.00 328,111,65548 Add Amount appropriated during 1951 Less Appropriations lapsed during 1951

Authorizations lapsed during 1951.. .

...................

.........

.............................

.

.......................

321,158,880.00 1,236,739.24 ?19,922,140 76 236,99300

19,685,14776 247,796,803 24

Deduct Payments on 1951 and prior j ears' appropriations

.........................................

Commitments, December 31, 19S1 Unpaid appropriations ................................................. Unappropriated authoriEations ..........................

#16,878,468 46

329,429,228.78 1,489,10600 #30,918,334. 78

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

APPROPRIATIONS DURING 1951, UNPAID BALANCES OF PRIOR YEAR APPROPRIATIONS AND PAYMENTS THEREON IN 19S1 APPROPRIATIONS 19SI PRIOR YEARS 1951 PAYMENTS MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH Investigation and Control of Specific Diseases and Deficiencies Malaria Caribbean Area Tobago. 1949-1952 (IH 49023, GA 5011, 51117) 314,279.18 $ 34,893.79 Europe Italy Field laboratory for study of insecticides in Latina. 1951 (GA 5022). 6,680.00 2,522.37 Sardinia Anopheles Eradication Program. 1949-1952 (IH 48038, 50002,50126) 59,264.89 37,188.33 Sardinia Public Health Program. 1951-1952 (GA 5167, 5198) 5,170.00 3,837.84 University of Pa via Research on cytogenetics of anopheline mosquitoes. 1949-1951 (IH 49003, GA 5010) 7,649.36 5,092.20 Far East India Mysore studies and control demonstration. 1949-1952 (IH 49027, 50130, GA 51118) 27,364.51 15,439.47 Pakistan Malaria institute and laboratory. 1949-1950 (IH 49004) ' 119.49 Cr. 101.91 Mexico Investigations in Veracruz. 1949-1950 (IH 48022,49018) 712.52 347.25 Studies on control of insect vectors with DDT. 1948-1952 (IH 49019,50169, GA 5005, 5189,51131) 19,341.17 13,386.70

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

^ ^

^ K R g O gj % W tr g ^ O g O j^ g %

South America Brazil. Equipment for research. 19SO-19S1 (GA 5009) Colombia. 1948 (IH 4703S) Peru. 1948-1950 (IH 47036) Venezuela. 1948-1950 (IH 47060, GA 5002, 5018) Nutrition Far East India Mysore anemia studies. 1949-1952 (IH 49009,51114, GA 5016).... United States Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee School of Medicine. 1949-1952 (IH 49016) Tuberculosis United States Tennessee. 1948-1953 (IH 49014, 50168, RF 51185) Typhus Fever United States Florida. 1949-1950 (IH 49012) Virus Diseases Central Laboratory in New York Maintenance. 1950-1952 (IH 49028, 50124, RF 51043, 51199) Field Laboratories India, Poona. 1951-1952 (GA 5151, S1106, RF S1199) Africa, South America, elsewhere. 1952 (RF 51199) Yellow Fever Africa Central and Hast Africa. 1948-1949 (IH 48016)

32,00000 3,692.26 5,246.97 2,967,68

5?

343.19 62S.02 2,228,99 2,224.22

14,037.81

6,408.83

15,735.26

17,160.00

4,630.27

7,492.46 ^ M u> 6,000.00 *„ 14,721.07 v> jjjj nj CV.2,112.39 O H

166,011.13

155,088.00

149,071.98

20,000.00

75,000.00 125,000.00

7,898.48

1,711.30

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

^, J

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951 MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH — Continued Investigation and Control of Specific Diseases and Deficiencies — Continued Yellow Fever — Continued Africa — Continued West Africa. 1947-1949 (IH 46048,47042,48017) South America Colombia Control and investigation. 1947-1948 (IH 47039) Laboratory construction and equipment. 1945-1948 (IH 44058)... United States Book: Yellow Fever. 1950-1954 (GA 5001, RF 51098) Other Studies Investigation of disease closely resembling poliomyelitis Europe Iceland. 1949-19SO (IH 49040,49041) Rodent ecology and control United States Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland School of Hygiene and Public Health. 1950-1951 (IH 49013)... Taxonomic center and insectary United States Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Department of Parasitology. 1948-52 (IH 47044) Development of the Health Sciences United States American Psychiatric Association, New York Work of Committee on Psychiatric Nursing (RF 47107)

324,851 92

$ ...

9,778 00

3,000 00

9,00000

M o ^ W 6,737.69 j* tH ^ g 3 2 r 8,969.25 g O ^ 1,898 01

462 44

444 78

1,25000

1,250.00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

K CTs

315,919.75

2,449 01 462 95

3,976.00

1951 PAVMEHTS

Child Research Council of Denver, Colorado Studies in child growth and development (RF 48057, 49116, 50068, S1154) Columbia University, New York City Research in brain chemistry (RF 50010) Study of the effects of fetal and neonatal injury on growth and functional development (RF 470S1) Duke University, Durham, North Carolina Work in parapsychology (RF 50052) Georgia State College for Women, Milledgeville Research in medical genetics (RF 47055) Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Research on physiological aspects of the development of behavior patterns at the Laboratory of Social Relations (RF 51179) Investigation of the dynamics of personality development (RF 48016) Research in epilepsy at Harvard Medical School and Boston City Hospital (RF 49035) Teaching and research in psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School (RF480S5) Study of adult development by Department of Hygiene (RF 50097).. Institute of the Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia Research in neurophysiology (RF 48044) Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston Research in endocrinology and metabolism (RF 49107) Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Project in mathematical biology conducted jointly with the National Institute of Cardiology, Mexico, D.F. (RF 47009) Menm'nger Foundation, Topeka, Kansas Establishment of a school for psychiatric aides in conjunction with the Topeka State Hospital (RF 49093)

3112,500.00

325,000.00

324,952.18

8,000.00

4,000.00

16,864.15

8,067,05

25,000.00

10,000.00

1,354.97

_, »' £. 52 £ 17,718.78 W •* 15,000.00 tfl 6,240.00 g 6,250.00 jd "* 1,000.00

8,000.00

2,948.26

4,127.43

1,372.73

2,000.00

2,000.00

75,000.00 27,000.00 15,000.00 37,746.62 11,250.00

-fe w 35,174.S6

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

35,174,56

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951 MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH — Continued Development of the Health Sciences — Continued United States — Continued National Association for Mental Health, New York General support (RF 51113) National Health Council, Inc., New York Program in the coordination of voluntary health agencies (RF 48009). National Research Council, Washington, D. C. Committee for Research in Problems of Sex (RF 49074,51063) New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts Research in endocrinology (RF S0076) New York City Department of Health Statistical Service. 1945-1950 (IH 44014) New York University, New York Interdepartmental project on the rehabilitation of neurological patients (RF 4907S, 51169) Princeton University, New Jersey Work of the Department of Psychology (RF 51022) Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laborntory, Bar Harbor, Maine Studies of genetic factors of intelligence and emotional variation in mammals (RF 50005, 51019) Stanford University, Palo Alto, California Follow-up study on a group of gifted individuals (RF 50025) Tufts College Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Research in brain chemistry (RF 44098) University of California, Berkeley Establishment of an Institute for Personality Assessment and Research (RF 49048)

$

2100,000.00 52,769.41 120,500.00

160,000.00

1,352.19

85,32000 25,000.00

100,000.00 5,500.00

$50,000.00 ^ W /d 77,629.71 g 7^ £j W 1,200.00 £ £j

52,769.41

30,000.00

18,600.00

1951 PAYMENTS •£> &

50,000.00

17,429.93

o ^ 25,000.00 § Jjj « 50,000.00 § 5,500.00

485.03

46,492.64

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

20,000.00

University of Chicago, Illinois Teaching and research in psychiatry (RF 470SO) . . .. Investigation of nondirective psychotherapy (RF 49090, ^1081) .. . University of Cincinnati, Ohio Teaching and research in psychiatry (RF 47121) .. University of Illinois, Urbana Research in brain chemistry (RF 51090) University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Research in human genetics at the Dight Institute for Human Genetics (RF S1016) . . University of Oregon, Eugene Work in neurophysiology (RF 4S071) . University of Oregon Medical School, Portland Clinicalandphysiologicalinvestigationofpam (RF49051) . . . . For work in constitutional medicine (RF 51004) . . . . . . Washington University, St, Louis, Missouri. School of Medicine Support of Department of Neuropsychiatry (RF 47041). Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio Research in psychiatry, especially in biochemistry related to mental disease (RF 480S6) , . . Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology, Orange Park, Florida Building and general budget (RF 47019,50073, SI 121) Canada BtitUh Columbia. Local hcjltli work. 1936 12(11136021,38024) . . Dalhousic University, Halifax, Nov.i Scotia Development of teaching in psychiatry (RF 47069).. .... Joint study by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology ,md by the Department of Psychiatry of psychological factors in pregnancy and childbirth (RFS1007)

$20,00000 13

}5

. 127,00000

122,500 00

33,636 30 24,000 00

27,30000 6,000 00 5,31752 . .

210,00000 23,00000

.. 100,000.00

20,24991

4,00000

4,55000 ^ M 3,000 00 £ d 5,31752 ^ 11,00000 ^ & 10,000.00 g ^ ® 13,751 15 H

35,00000

....

157,500 00

40,000 00

57,493 96

.

2,82177

14,943.80 4,55481

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

.

^ G*22,'iOO 00

1,750.00

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951 MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH — Continued Development of the Health Sciences — Continued Canada — Continued McGill University, Montreal Maintenance of Department of Psychiatry (RF 49033} Research in brain chemistry (RF 46069) Research in endocrinology (RF 46070} Research on the physiological basis of behavior (RF 51172) New Brunswick, Division of Sanitary Engineering. 1947-48 to 1950-51 (IH46033) Prince Edward Island. Provincial Laboratory. 1946-47 to 1950-51 (IH 38035) University of Toronto Development of a laboratory of experimental clinical neurology (RF 49049) Mexico Local health work. 1944-1950 (IH 43052) National Institute of Cardiology, Mexico, D.F. Research in neurophysiology and pharmacology (RF 49036) Office of Special Sanitary Service (Cooperative Central Office). 19481951 (IH 48028,49017, GA 5013) Training center and demonstration health unit. 1948-1950 (IH 48011, 49020) Caribbean Area Dominican Republic Endemic Disease Control Service. 1949-52 (IH 48019, 49022, GA 5023,51100) South America Argentina Institute of Biology and Experimental Medicine, Buenos Aires. Support of research (RF 47067)

1951 PAYMENTS ^ OS

263,015.85 9,208.58 3,711.50

$

30,000.00

$17,625.00 4,731.25 906.30 H 3,840.00 g

1,583.45 2,618.85

906.30

21,123.44

4,819.97

10,697.27

1,012.76

23,041.68

4,717.19

6,813.36

4,013.80

521.94

183.32

15,334.80

7,197.51

4,085.17

3,749.03

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

O £ g 3 f g <° g ^ 2| £ H O ^

liolivia Divisionoi Rural 1 ndcmicDiseases. 1948-1952 (1H47049,GAS197). Chile Local health work. 1948-1952 (IH48015,49024,RF51217,GA 5111). National Department of Sanitary Engineering. 1950-1953 (IH 49030, 50128, RF 51184).. . . Tuberculosis.Sur\e>. 1945-19SO(1H 45009). . . Peru Division of Development of Program of Ministry of Health. 1945-1953 (1H 44015,45056,47024,47025, 47026,47027,48036,50170) . Institute of Andean Biology, University of San Marcos, Lima Equipment for a high altitude laboratory at Morococha (RF 49061) Furope Belgium University of Brussels Research in neurophysiology (RF 46015,50088) University of Liege Development of the Laboratory of Neuroanatomy (RF 50143). .. Denmark National Health Department. 1950-1952 (IH 49031) University of Aarhus Development of research and teaching in ps)chiatry(RF 49004)... University of Copenhagen Establishment of a Child Guidance Clinic (RF 50009) Work in the genetics of mental dcfectiveness (RF 48112) 1 inland Local health work. 1950-51 through 1953 (IH 49025) France College de France, Paris Equipment for un experimental monkey station in Algeria (RK 49001) Survey of Soissons Area. Wil 1952 (GA 5017) ...

g29,'20 ^

$

$12,394 49

24,58882

20,25000

15,16072

27,27010 26,124 ^3

22,50000

19,32695 16722

..

;0,4H $3

154,20017 2,79972

.

27,47076 20,800.00 11,58750 15,876.01 44,58872 12,91491 29,370 00

. .

. .

.

.

~j .',64247 ^ •& £ !» 3,^1540 g >/3" 8,961 67 ^ M 7,265.00 ^ £j 3,99107 15,68701 2,79101 7,675 29 "^ lji

13,69983 7,200 00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

7,75471 3,735.63

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 19S1 MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH ~ Continued Development of the Health Sciences — Continued Europe — Continued Germany University of Heidelberg EstablishmentofanlnstituteofPsychosomaticMedicine(RFSOOOl) Great Britain Burden Neurological Institute, Bristol, England Research in neurophysiology and neurosurgery (RF 47088} Cardiff City Mental Hospital, Wales Research in normal and pathological biochemistry of brain tissue (RF48014) Medical Research Council, London, England Purchase of scientific equipment (RF 51182) Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, London, England Research and teaching in thefieldof psychiatry (RF 49003) University of Cambridge, England Research in neurophysiology (RF 46014,50024) Psychological Laboratory. Training and research (RF 46084).. .. University College, London, England Research in physiology (RF 45085) University of Edinburgh, Scotland Research in psychiatry, neurology and neurosurgery (RF 47007). .. University of London, England Galton Laboratory. Research in problems of human heredity (RF 46085,50085) University of Oxford, England Neurohistological research in the Department of Human Anatomy (RF480S8)

339,445.94

$

1951 PAYMENTS ^. §^

3

19,955.46

7,003.12

16,979.67

5,036.63 38,000.00

32,698.42

14,007.82

19,945.06 12,175.56

2,621.73 3,054.06

13,534.86

6,042.92

4,956.81

32,154.67

4,588.39

46,37188

8,113.24

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

H & •# O ^ W g ^ w ** g cj g •£ HJ O

Italy University of P'sa Support of teaching and research in the Department of Physiology (RF 51100) Netherlands National Health Department. 1950-1952 (IH 49032) University of Amsterdam Support of the Psychosomatic Unit at the Wilhelmina-Gasthuis (RF 51153) Wilhelmina Hospital, Amsterdam Research in psychosomatic medicine (RF 47105) Norway Norwegian Ministry of Social Welfare Salary increases in Health Department. 1946-52 (HC 46014) State Department of Health Statistical Division. 1947-1949 (IH 46027) University of Oslo Establishment of a research laboratory of respiratory physiology at the Ulleval Hospital (RF 51011) Investigation of the incidence of mental disease (RF 51026) Sweden Karolinska Institute, Stockholm Research in neurophysiology (RF 49120) University of Lund Research in endocrinology (RK 50165) Switzerland Institute of Water and Sewage Research, Zurich. 1950 (GA 5004) University of Geneva Support of an Institute of Human Genetics (RF 50164) University of Zurich Psychiatric research (RF 50144)

$

310,900.00

£2,564.20

58,500.00

5,062.75

8,000.00

3,804.00

7,500.00 2,142.43

19,500.00 9,000.00

H M ^ 5,000.00 C ^ 50 w" 7* 7,418.40 " 1,405.00 ° ^

8,400.00

4,400.00

11,200.00

7,558.20

1,743.60

1,743.60

12,000.00

5,000,00

16,800.00

3,244.50

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

_. O-\ ^

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1931 MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH — Continued Development of the Health Sciences — Continued Africa and Asia Minor Egypt Local health work. 1949-19S2(1H 49033,50129, GA 5003) Iran Local health work. 1950-52 (IH 49034, RF 51025) Australia Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Victoria Purchase of equipment to be used in researches on virus diseases (RF 51064) Medical Care United States American Public Health Association, Washington, D. C. Support of Subcommittee on Medical Care. 1950-1953 (IH 49010).. Educational Trust of the American Hospital Association, Chicago, Illinois Nationalstudyofthefinancingofhospitalcare.l9SO-1952(IH49011) Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York Study of the recorded experience of the Plan (RF 51070) Study to determine the type of worker, or workers, required to provide certain basic health and social welfare services within the family (IH 50001, RF 51152) Great Britain University of Manchester, England Development of an experimental health center (RF 50101)... . Prt/ffssionat Education United States Association of American Medical Colleges, N'ew York

S24.092.49 15,043.08

3

1951 PAYMENTS ^ 2? CO

317,384.07 15,000.00

9,956.51

8,300.00

5,744.37

30,000.00

15,000.00

50,00000

20,000.00

16,700.00

87,500 00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

155,000.00

80,639.00

30,35800

7,660.22

H g ^ O ^ pi £ £ M ^ £ G * > H O

Medical Film Institute. Production of a critical catalogue of medical motion picturefilms(RF 50067).. .. . Bingham Associates Fund of Maine, Boston, Massachusetts Program of postgraduate medical education in certain rural areas and towns in Massachusetts (RF 4S073) .. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Statistical consultant in the Department of Preventive Medicine at the Medical College (RF 51119) Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts General budget. 1946-56 (RF 45109) . . . . Development of legal medicine (RF 44001) . . . Development of the Department of Dermatology of Harvard Medical School (RF 48039) Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Institute of History of Medicine (RF 49050, S0035, 51074) School of Hygiene and Public Health. For developmental purposes. 1948-58 (RF 48037) National League of Nursing Education, New York National Committee for the Improvement of Nursing Service, Program of the National Nursing Accrediting Service (RF 51057) .. New England Center Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Postgraduate medical education in certain rural areas and towns in Massachusetts (RF S0100) . . Postwar appointments for medical graduates from armed services (RK 4413S) Tulane University, New Orlenns, Louisiana Salary of u research associate in its l.iw-science program (RF 51188) University of California, Berkeley Department of Public Health and Medical Administration. 1950-52 (1H 49015, GA 5020)

J510,675 00

2->,797 SI

%

29,81206

..

.

Cr. 11,440 0^

30,00000

6,500 00

500,00000 31,24432 82,54914

.

75,000 00

30,000 00

530,000 00

.

65,00000

100,00000 1,000 00 .

100,00000 H 19,01368 g >. 12,41386 g fs 30,000 00 g y? 75,000 00 ^ n Q 32,50000 *c ^ 40,00000

... 10,000 00

Cr. 276 86 2,500 00 "^ 'O

15,00000

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

10,000.00

MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH — Continued Professional Education — Continued United States — Continued University of Colorado, Boulder School of Medicine. Conference on the teaching of public health and preventive medicine (RF 51066) Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri School of Medicine, Teaching of preventive medicine (RF 47042) Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Work in the history of medicine (RF 51065) Canada University of Toronto School of Hygiene and Public Health Additional teaching personnel. 1946-47 to 1949-SO (IH 4600S) Field training facilities. 1948-49 to 19SO-51 (IH 47052) Instruction and studies in medical care. 1949-50 to 1951-52 (IH 48021, GA 5019) School of Nursing Construction of new building. Period ending December 31, 1953 (RF45037) Mexico Training of health personnel in the United States. 1951 (GA 5012).... Caribbean Area British West Indies Training Station, Jamaica. 1945-46 to 1950-51 (IH 49021) South America Brazil Araraquara Health Training Center. 1948-1952 (IH 47061, GA 5014, GA 51124)

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951

1951 PAYMENTS ^ "•£

$

31,000.00 H ^ 1,000.00 ^ O 3,000.00 g W ^ t* 2,486.07 £ * g 8,008.60 § % •£ H O 489.88 ^

£15,000.00 2,421.85 15,000.00

2,486.07 1,405.95 13,943.64

300,000.00 1,200.00

9,034,27

5,102.01

19,333.15

4,081.55

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Chile Catholic University of Chile, Santiago Apparatus and research expenses of the Departments of Physiology, Pharmacology, and Biochemistry of the Medical School (RF S1131) School of Public Health, University of Chile, Santiago Courses for Sanitary Engineers (GA 51121) ... Colombia National School of Hygiene, Bogota General expenses. 1948-1952 (IH 48007) National Superior School of Nursing, Bogotd Teaching unit for psychiatric nursing. 1950-1951 (IH 48013) Ecuador School of Nursing, Quito General expenses. 1943-1951 (IH 47023) Uruguay University Nursing School) Montevideo General budget. 1948-1953 (IH 47054) Venezuela National School of Nursing, Caracas General budget. 1947-1950 (IH 46022) Europe Belgium University of Brussels Teaching and research in preventive medicine (RF 47122) Denmark Danish Technical University, Copenhagen Developing teaching and experimental facilities. 1950-1951 (IH 49042)

2

$7,500.00

$956.24

4,000 00

30,00000

13,97824

jj M 2,100.41 £ d £j 6,112 11 ^ w g 1,301.18 ? O H 2,366.76

13,116.10

1,995.00

9,000.00

7,009.97

22,774,65

15,318.34

^ "j^ 1,00748

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

552.44

APPROPRIATIONS PRJOR YE*RS 1951 MEDICINE AND PLBLIC HEALTH — Continued Profesiional Education — Continued Europe — Continued Finland Helsinki College of Nursing General budget, 1948-1952 (IH 47062) .. Helsinki Institute of Industrial Hygiene Scientific equipment. 1949-19S1 (IH 49026) Great Britain London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, England Public health engineering. 1949-1952 (IH 49001) Public health practice experiments. 1951-1952 (GA 5024) Rehabilitation of teaching and public health personnel, 1945-51 (HC 45002) University College, London, England Study of medical student selection (RF 48008) Italy University of Rome Engineering School. Development of teaching facilities. 1948-1951 (IH48008) Netherlands Institute of Preventive Medicine, Leiden Development of institute. 1948-1952 (IH 47064,49035) University of Utrecht Teaching and research at the Institute of Clinical and Industrial Psychology (RF 51132) Norway Ministry of Health

214,665 00

3

211,050.00

8,892.50

23,588.01 10,000 00

1951 ^ PAYMENTS w

5,40376

...

27,62154

9,976.82 5,000 00 13,81096

12,003.70

2,65283

4,458.51

2,80000

51,825 28

19,147 38

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

12,750.00

1,67479

. JU & £> Q jj* «TJ W r^ ^ O g O jj £? g

Postgraduate course of study in public health and development of practicefields.1946-S1 (HC 4601S) Sweden State Institute of Public Health, Stockholm Equipment. 1951 (GA 5021) Switzerland l.e Bon Secouri School of Nursing, Geneva General budget. 1948-1952 (IH 47033) Yugoslavia Development of School of Public Health Engineering at Institute of Hvgume and School of Engineering. 1951-1953 (IH 50127) Institute of Hygiene, Zagreb Equipment and maintenance. 1946-51 (HC 46016, Miscellaneous Microfilms forschools and institutes of hygiene in Furope (C-ll).. .. Far East Ceylon National School of Nursing Developmental aid. 1948-53 (III 48005) China National Institute of Health General budget. 1949 (IH 48031) Japan Institute of Public Health, Tokyo Bocks, periodicals and teaching nids. 1948-1949(0-11) Teaching materials. 1950-19S1 (IH 49036, GA 5008) Purchase of medical books and periodicals to be distributed to various medical schools in Japan upon recommendation of the Japanese Council on Medical Kducation (RF 51099)

S4.SOO 00

£

4,300.00

...

.

10,491.93

..

...

.

25,00000 24677 10.94

34,500 00

51111

1,79102 H g > .. . ^ 7> jg w" 50 W 5,18820 o ^

12,64404 .

... . ...

10,655.52 162

Cr. .63

22308 .1,81227

21,51 3,50105

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

10,000.00

-M 19500 °°

•> 1951 -xj PAYMENTS "^

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 19S1 MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH — Continued Professional Education — Continued Australia University of Melbourne Equipment and supplies for the Department of Physiology (RF 51162) Miscellaneous Journals, periodicals and books for public health institutions and schools in need of assistance as a result of the war. 1945-50 (HC 4S012, GA 501S) , Fellowships and Grants in Aid Fellowships Administered by The Rockefeller Foundation (RF 47134,48101,48138, 49144,50153,51220,1H 46055,47055,48032,49037, 50152) Health Commission. 1945-1948 (HC 47030) Medical Library Association, Detroit, Michigan Fellowships in medical librarianship (RF 51075) Medical Research Council, London, England (RF 50016) National Research Council, Washington, D. C. Medical sciences (RF 46133,50084,51151) Welch Fellowships in internal medicine (RF 41028) Grants in Aid Administered by The Rockefeller Foundation (RF 45123, 46120, 46139, 47089, 47138, 48142, 49148, 50090, 50157, 50158, 51159, 51224)

3

36,000.00

5,946.77

803,925.72 1,290,19

$

2,178.05

400,000.00

409,619.61

30,000.00

4,000.00 24,876.93

55,680.33 51,458.01

125,000.00

25,000.00 19,498.79

376,353.98

600,000.00

185,296.35

48,488.24

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

t-j jjj * O ^ frj g f H *> ** § % g H O *

Special Emergency Grant in Aid Fund Scientific equipment for medical science laboratories of universities and technical schools in the Netherlands (RF45089) Field Service Field Staff Salary, travel and other expenses 1950-1951 (1H 49038,50122, RF 51042) 1952 (RF 51198) Miscellaneous Director's Fund for Miscellaneous Expenses (IH 48004) Director's Fund for Supplementing Approved Projects (IH 44006, C-ll).. Exchange Fund (IH 33077) Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Washington, D. C, Toward headquarters'purchase fund. 1951 (IH 50131) Population Studies. 1949-1950 (IH 48039) Revolving Fund to provide working capital (RF 29093) . Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York General expense of administration and operation. 1951, 1952 (RF 50125,51200) University of Ceylon Department of Physiology and Pharmacology of the Medical College Field studies in social medicine. 1950-1951 (GA 5007) Department of Sociology. Sociological studies. 1950-1951 (GA 5006) ... TOTAL — MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH

32,173.33

928,642,37

%

21,432.12

16,044.00 720,300.00

3,420.37 4,302.89 21,365.22 400,000.00 2,807.13 200,000.00

50,000.00

3,960.00 3,960.00

50,000.00

687,987.49 , *"3 jjj 2S1.54 > J2 ya S 125,000.00 w" 62.13 js W O 3 50,000.00

3,810.00 3,810,00

£7,646,301.11 #3,796,270.00 33,416,814.79 ^ , , . -j <~f\

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951 NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE Experimental Biology Amherst College, Massachusetts Research in biology (RF 4609S, 51110) Auckland University College, University of New Zealand Equipment for investigations on the plant products of New Zealand (RF49124) California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Research programs in biology and chemistry (RF 48030) Carlsberg Foundation, Copenhagen, Denmark Research in biochemistry (RF46107, 51157) Centre National de la Recherche Scientinque, Paris, France Scientific equipment for the Institute of Genetics at Gif(RF 50034) ... Columbia University, New York Research on enzymes in the Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons (RF 48043,50043) Research in immunochemistry (RF 48066, 51018) Research in genetics and experimental zoology (RF 48076,51069) Research in the Department of Biochemistry at the College of Physicians and Surgeons (RF 50078,51006) Research in biochemistry (RF 51186) Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven Research in genetics (RF 48018) Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Research :n enzyme chemistry (RF 49082) To assist in establishing an electron microscope laboratory (RF 49069).. Support of the Maize Genetics Cooperation Project (RF 51133) Duke University, Durham, North Carolina Research on physical biochemistry of proteins (RF 46096, 49070) ....

$3,500.00

£47,700.00

2,49706

42,50000

54,00000

7,489.49 10,000.00 29,607 61 7,20000

42,000.00 90,000.00 50,000.00 20,00000

7,216.46 21,055.83 18,750.00 3,800 00 105,000 00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

33,500 00

2,10063

405,853.64 3,54279

1951 PAYMENTS . rv •
,-3 g

27,298 81 Q Q 7,125.13 £ £J t^ ja 2,637.52 *i 10,000 00 § 13,583 71 Z P 23,60000 H 5,00000 O ^ 1,78000 651 83 4,249.38 1,900 00 7,004 02

Federal Technical Institute, Zurich, Switzerland Laboratory of Organic Chemistry. Research on constitution and synthesis of ph>siologica]]y active compounds (RF 46099) Research on chemistry of physiologically important compounds (RF 51058) '. Harvard Universal), Cambridge, Massachusetts Bane studies in chemotherapy (RF 48020, S1134) Research in the Medical School on problems of tissue structure (RF 46019, S10S2) Research in enzyme chemistry (RF 50020) Research in biophysical chemistry in the Department of Chemistry (RF 51013) ' '. Research on biological and medical importance of trace elements (RF 51214)

#40,496 63

%

#5,725 00 54,00000

6,00000

17,100 76

15,000 00

17,100.76

7,054 76 13,500 00

64,000.00

7,500.00 1,282 40

....

15,00000

6,80000

100,00000

Hasking Laboratories, New York Research in protozoological chemistry (RF 50110)

8,00000

. .

Indiana University, Bloomington Research in genetics (RF 51051)

..

200,000.00

Iowa State College, Ames Research in physiological genetics (RF 49028) Research in protein chemistry (RF 51028)...

12,00000 .

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Biochemical research (RF 50105)

20,000.00

Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden Anatomical Institute. Research equipment (RF 50113) Initttuteof Chemistry. Research in biochemistry (RF -17100) 1 nstitute for Cell Research. Resenrch (RF 49030) Research in the Department of Biochemistry of the Medical Nobel Institute (RF 50017) ....

.

. 12,000.00

5,50000

^ M c« C y> W ^» 73 Eg

6,000.00 4,000.00

jo **

5,375.00

1,40000 24,71464 10,000.00

495.89 11,720.95 ^, 4,936.81 ^

34,99286

17,40884

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951 NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE — Continued Experimental Biology — Continued Long Island Biological Association, Cojd Spring Harbor, New York Modernizing physical plant of biological laboratory (RF 50064)... Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts Modernization oflaboratory building and general support (RF 48131, 51056) Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston Research in enzyme chemistry (RF 48135,50039) Equipment for the Spectroscopic Laboratory (RF 51023) Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Joint project in mathematical biology with the National Institute of Cardiology, Mexico, D.F. (RF 47009) Research in biology (RF 47039) Research in the physical chemistry of protein solutions (RF 45107).. Research in X-ray crystallography (RF 51030) Montreal General Hospital, Quebec, Canada Biochemical research (RF 50046) National Research Council, Washington, D. C. United States National Committee of the International Union of Crystallography. Publication program (RF 50166) Support of American Instituteof Biological Sciences (RF 51117) Support of program of Committee on Development of Biology (RF 51123) Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois Research in the physical chemistry of proteins (RF 49058) Pennsylvania State College, State College Biophysical research (RF 51124)

322,00000

55,00000

%..

1951 PAYMENTS ^ °°

.

75,00000

34,30000 ... .

. . 21,31000

4,12744 100,00000 36,724.20

.

24,465.32

. .

. . 11,00000

10,000 00 40,000.00

$12,000 00 ,_3 ffi 70,00000 w Q 34,300.00 O 19,73156 ^ *J t-. 1,37273 £ 50,35473 jS 12,855.80 ^ 4,10000 O 2; 5,29053 O .-3 O 3,000 00 3 8,75000

25,00000 13,500 00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

8,267.20 20,000.00

3,504.00

Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, New York Research on protein structure (RF 50069,51180) Princeton University, New Jersey Research in genetics (RF 51136) Research in organic chemistry (RF 40058) .. Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana Research in genetics (RF 49104) ... Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts Work in genetics (RF 50044,51032) Stanford University, Palo Alto, California Biochemical resenrch (RF 51076) Research in biochemistry of nucleic acids (RF 4 8109,51077) Research in biochemical genetics (RF 49057) Research in physical biochemistry (RF 51102) Research on protein chemistry (RF 48064) Research in microbiology (RF48065) Tufts College, Medford, Massachusetts Program on nucleic acid chemistry (RF 51021) University College, Dublin, Ireland Research in biochemistry in the Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology (RF 51029) University of Alabama, University Programonglycorroteins(RF51012) , University of Amsterdam, Netherlands Research on tissues in the Laboratory of Histology (RF 50095) University of Hern, Switzerland Theodor Kocher Institute. Equipment and assistance to foreign guests (RF 50074) Equipment for Institute of Botany (RFS0080)

3102,64500

£32,500 00 15,00000

$

4,866.72

2,500.00 Cr. 200.00

7,500.00

5,00000

4,000.00

4,995.05 15,300.00

9000.00

12,000.00

_j 5,000.00 £( 10,081.00 > 3,379.22 £ 6,500.00 !» 1,712.00 ^
10,70000

3,955.00

30,000.00 36,000.00 13,00000

2,094.90 2,223.84 30,000.00

4,500.00

20,00000 5,000,00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

8,500.00

3,000.00

7,850.40^ 5,000.00 ^

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951 NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE — Continued Experimental Biology — Continued University of Birmingham, England Research in biochemistry (RF 51137) University of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro Research at the Institute of Biophysics (RF 49020) University of Brussels, Belgium Equipment for research in biochemical era bryology (RFS0096). .. University of California, Berkeley Construction and installation of cyclotron (RF 42001) Basic equipment for research in biochemistry with special emphasis on virus studies (RF 48132) Research in biochemistry (RF49059,51078) Research in the comparative biochemistry of marine organisms (RF 49009) University of Cambridge, England Cavendish Laboratory. X-ray crystallography research equipment (RF 50114) Molteno Institute of Biology and Parasitology Research in cell physiology (RF 47101) Equipment to be used in the University Chemical Laboratory (RF 49041) Equipment for research in biochemistry (RF 51138) Research on biologically important materials (RF 51112) University Chemical Laboratory. Research equipment and supplies (RF 50112) University of Chicago, Illinois Research in animal ecology (RF 50026) .. Research in experimental ecology (RF 50094)

1951 PAYMENTS ^ Q5

f>

..

.

7,358 66

813,iOO 00 .

..

15,000.00 37,237.04 35,000.00 13.73

25,20000

14,04399

5,000.00

... .

14,87286 1,98192 . .

15,00000 82,50000

6,536.40 6,000 00 6,935 00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

55 5,785 01 £: 11,85669 w Xf £* ^ 35,000.00 « 3,020.00 n P 3,600.00 M C C § 4,69061 > KH § 2,860.78 4,289.51

3,048.39

. . .

1,565 00

University of Copenhagen, Denmark Research on the biological uses of isotopes (RF 49094 5 J158) Research in biochemistry, physiology, cmbryolog) and genetics (RF 49029) ' ' .' . .. Confidences of Huropcan scientists interested in problems of microbial genetics (RF 50115) University of Edinburgh, Scotland Department of Animal Genetics. Establishment of several studentships for young scientists (RF 50116) Department of Chemistry. Equipment (RK 50106,51033). . .. University of Geneva, Switzerland Research in organic chemistry (RF 50081). .. .... University of Glasgow, Scotland Equipment for research in the natural sciences (RF 49125). . ... University of Graz, Austria Research in zoology (RF 49095) University of Illinois, Urbana Research in insect biochemistry (RF 50093) University of London, England Birkbeck College. Equipment for X-ray analysis (RF 48078)... . King's College Research in molecular biology (RF 47082) Research in biophysics (RF 5006S) Imperial College of Science and Technology, Research on vitamins, sterols and related compounds (RF 38070) University of Lund, Sweden Research in genetics (RF 51189) University of Manchester, England Equipment for Department of Organic Chemistry (RF 50058).. .. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Research in mathematical und experimental genetics (RF 49079). ...

34,32575

?32,000 00

1.1,701 90

8,771 44

5,00000

. ..

5,70000 17,00000

2,50000

12,70500 7,000.00

.. ....

10,000 00 9,000 00 12,50190 588.19 33,500.00

24,325 7^

. .

2,TOO 00 2,80094 17,40046 _j f* 4,61100 > ^ 7,00000 50 ^ 6,406 18 w» ^ 3,000 00 M Q 716.61 g 1006 6,129.92

11,978.48 15,00000

7,500.00

15,000.00

12,380.58

7,500.00

7,50000

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

"^o •-<

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951

1951 PAYMENTS

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE — Continued

QQ *°

Experimental Biology — Continued University of Nottingham, England Equipment for research in biochemistry (RF 49129) University of Oslo, Norway Research in plant physiology and X-ray crystallography (RF 51190} University of Oxford, England Dyson Perrins Laboratory of Organic Chemistry Research in organic chemistry (RF 47084,51155) . . Equipment for research (RF 49122).... . . Sir William Dunn School of Pathology Research on antibiotics (RF 46021,47003).. . . Research in crystallography (RF 49123) . University of Paris, France Research in biochemistry in the Laboratory of Biological Chemistry (RF 51187) University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Research on the chemistry of proteins (RF 49019).. . . University of Rochester, New York Microphotometric studies of biological tissues (RF 49114) . University of Sao Paulo, Brazil Faculty of Medicine Research in Laboratory of Histology and Embryology (RF 51103) University Radiochemistry Laboratory. Work with radioactive isotopes in experimental biology and medicine (RF 50146) . ... Faculty of Philosophy Equipment for research in the Department of Physics (RF 45061)

348543

$

. 15,000 00

4,717.12 1,477 40 1,55308 3,95843

.

30,000.00

..

25,000.00 8,00000

.

18,762 21

.. .

14,00000

31 22 ^ SJ w ^ O 5,181.13 jjj 1,081.18 ^ $ £ 1,400.00 ja ^ O ... | D 5,50000 ^ Q ^

612.40

13,600 00

5,985.75

5,767 69

Cr 28 66

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

University of Sheffield, England Research in biochemistry (RF SI 114) University of Stockholm, Sweden Research m biochemistry (RF 50011) Research in radiobiology (RF 50027). ... . . University of Tennessee, Knoxville Research in biochemistry (RF 50012) . .... University of Texas, Austin Research in genetics (RF 49042,51089).. . . Research in genetics of drosophila (RF 49027) University of Uppsala, Sweden Researches in Institute of Physiology (RF 49126) Equipment for research on proteins and polvsaccharides (RF 49142).... University of Utrecht, Netherlands Research in biophysics and biochemistry (RF 49113) University of Virginia, Chariottesville Research in thermodynamics of enzyme action in the Department of Medicine (RF 50008) University of Washington, Seattle Purchase and installation of electron microscope for use in research in microanatomy (RF50004) Research in physical biochemistry of proteins (RF 51091) University of Wisconsin, Madison Research in biochemistry of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (RF 46118, SIM) Research in genetics (RF 51191) Research in metabolism of plant tissues (RF 51009) Research in physical chemistry of the proteins (RF 50059) Research in cytogenerics(RFS0048) Research program on enzyme chemistry (RF 50047) Scientific equipment for the Enzyme Iiiiiituie (RF 48031)

$.

235,00000 7,00466 2,844.10

..

3,500 00 3,000 00 14,500 00 4,90000 80,251 93

..

4,558.70 1,50989

.

3,476 92

50,000 00 ... . . ...

$1,740.56

.

8,000 00 9,962 44 1,20000 49,468.24

16,00000

5,99943

20,000.00

12,000.00

25S.02

5,718.32 .. .. 12,50000 25,000.00 17,500.00 25,00000

..

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

24000.00

6,000.00

28,75000 8,00000 45,00000

5,000.00

53 W w £j M W p} g p "*

3,750.00 5,000.00 10,000.00 -^ 2,500.00
NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE — Continued Experimental Biology — Continued Uruguay, Ministry of Public Health, Montevideo Equipment and expenses for the Research Institute of Biological Sciences (RF 49008) Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri Research in experimental embryology (RF 50037) Biochemical research (RF 49117) Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, Massachusetts Research on the physiology of mammalian eggs and sperm (RFS0082).. Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Research on proteolytic enzymes (RF 48133) Research in the Department of Botany (RF 48032).. .... Biochemical research (RF 51168) .... Zoological Station of Naples, Italy General expenses and equipment (RF 51059) Agriculture Brazil University of Sao Paulo Equipment and supplies for work in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (RF 51163) Institute of Agronomy, Campinas, State of Sao Paulo Research on plant viruses (RF 49156) Work in microbiology and irrigation (RF 50148) Biological Institute, Sao Paulo (RF 50149) School of Agriculture, Piracicaba (RF ^O^ . .

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951

1951 •£• PAYMENTS 4*

£10,007,70

24,515 10 J W 5,200.00 !» g 7* 7,500.00 ^ M 7,800 00 £ 9,522.17 g 7,00000 ^ O 5,733.13 ^ O > >? %

3

20,800.00 34,128.38 22,30000 7,818.15 25,000.00 80,00000 25,00000

.

. . 15,000.00 20,000.00 20,000.00 20,000.00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

14,50000

.... . ..

10,358.10 11,415.95 5,851.15 504.71

Chile Ministry of Agriculture, Santiago Cooperative project to establish on full-time salaries Chilean agricultural scientists engaged in food production programs (RF 49155) Colombia Collaborative Operating Program in Agriculture in Colombia (RF49127, 50138,51027,51045,51206) .... Ministry of Agriculture Experimental greenhouse (RF 51101) . National University of Colombia Faculties of Agronomy at Medellfn and Palmira Toward cost of student dormitory at each of these agricultural colleges (RF 50102) ' Faculty of Agronomy, Medellfn Equipment (RF 47117) To send outstanding graduating class btudents for specialized training with The Rockefeller Foundation's agricultural staff in Mexico (RF 48072,50079) Teaching and research facilities, study trips of staff members, and to assist in bringing foreign visiting professors to the faculty (RF 49031) ." Faculty of Agronomy, Pulmira Equipment (RI* 47118) ... Equipment for a second scientific laboratory building (RF 51084)., Teaching and research fitcilitiesi study trips of staff members, and to assist in bringing foreign professors to the faculty (RK 51085). .

$12.000 00

j?

S

6'.703 13

135,60000

. . .

15,00000

50.00000

. .

17,90082

.

15,608.93

.. .

1«,814.24

9,12662 ^ S? in £ m 'a. 4,40341 w ^ 2> 5,365 79 p "^ 12,15654

33777

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

57,22654

27030 40,00000

15,000.00

4* 1,188.80 <5?

00 1951 ^ PAYMENTS

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951 NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE — Continued Agriculture — Continued Costa Rica Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Tumalba Development of a tropical dairy cattle project (RF 50057) Strengthening the library resources and making possible the development of a scientific communication program (RF 49077) Honduras Pan American Agricultural School, Tegucigalpa Scholarships for practical experience with the Foundation's agricultural program in Mexico, or study in the United States (RF 49157) Mexico Inter-American Symposium on Plant Breeding, Mexico, D. F. Expenses (RF 49100) Inter-American Symposium on Plant Pests and Diseases, Mexico, D. F. Expenses (RF 50028) Inter-American Symposium on Plant Breeding, Pests and Diseases, Mexico, D. F. To be held under the joint auspices of Brazilian agencies and the Office of Special Studies, Secretariat of Agriculture and Animal Industry of Mexico, and for expenses of the continuing joint committee (RF 51135)

£ 5,600.00

3

?

35,989.79

10,506.73

9,000.00

5,000.00

4,769.41

4,654.98

3,435.87

1,568.06

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

15,000.00

,-j W W Q O H jjg f-> E p ^ 2 g O H O 2

Latin American scholarships (RF 50151, 51120). . . Mexican Agricultural Program. General expenses (RF 49109, 49136, 50137,51040,51044,51148,51193,51205). . .. Expansion of staffin Mexico for training purposes (RFS1207) .... Research, demonstration and extension program, State of Mexico (RF 51210) Secretariat of Agriculture and Animal Industry National College of Agriculture at Chapingo Teaching and research facilities, materials for the college library, and travel of visiting professors (RF 49018) Technological Institute, Monterrey Equipment and supplies for the Department of Agronomy (RF 49101) Mexico and Colombia Scientific aides Temporary (RF S1208) Special Temporary (RFS1209). . Peru University of San Marcos, Lima Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Equipment and supplies (RF 49103,50150) United States University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Resenrch in mathematical and experimental genetics under the auspices of the Institute of Statistics (RF 51125)

350,000.00

353,00000

37,10062

443,923.82

324,148.00 60,000.00

306,10509

100,00000

2,314.07 17294

.

.

. ..

40,000 00 30,00000

67,27732

. ...

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

. . .

. jtj P w S W ^ « pj g g

19,475.40

25,00000

12,50000 ^ QO

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951

19SI PAYMENTS

K Oo

NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE — Continued Ftttowships and Grants in Aid Fellowships Administered by The Rockefeller Foundation (RV 45080, 47135, 48139,49145,50154,51221) . Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island Support of scholarships, assistantships and fellowships in advanced applied mathematics (RF 46063) National Research Council, Washington, D. C. (RF 49084, 50054, 51150) New York University, New York Development of graduate work in applied mathematics (RF 46009) Grants in Aid Administered by The Rockefeller Foundation (RF 46106, 47058, 47139,48143,49149,50159,51225). .. . Emergency scientific reconstruction, Ital) Equipment, consumable supplies and other matenals for Italian scientists (RF 48067) . Special Emergency Grant in Aid Fund Scientific equipment for natural science laboratories of universities and technical schools in the Netherlands (RF 45089) Other Subjects American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston, Massachusetts Support of activities aimed at making more sound and effective the interrelationships between the various branches of the natural sciences, the social sciences and the humanities (RF 49085)

?37=;,901 05

1,628 75 101,13396

2300,00000

.

...

150,000.00

12,584 59

484,92532

40407

7,40260

4,500 00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

.

450,00000

.

.

..

...

3181,01000 £ W & 280 00 £ & 55,88810 £ W 12,584 59 p g 239,37829 o ^ Q > « <% 1,43212

3,000 00

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Pans, France Special equipment for natural science research laboratories of France (RF 46048) Travel of non-French delegates to conferences of scientists (RI- 46049) China Medical Board, Inc., New York Peiping Union Medical College, China Human paleontological research in Asia (RF 45024) . Conservation Foundation, The, New York Operating and administrative expenses, and support of projects (RF 49056) Soil erosion sum-) of NorthandSouth America (RF51229) Toward administrative budget, for Spanish and Portuguese sound tracks for educational films on conservation, for a preliminary survey of possibilities of research in marine resources, and for research in water resources (RF 51001). . . . . .. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 1'or research, and publication of research in the history of science (RF 47013). .. ' . . . . Institute for the Unity of Science, Cambridge, Massachusetts Support of activities (RF 47131) National Research Council, Washington, D. C. Expenses of its Office of Scientific Personnel (Rl- 5103]) ... Princeton University, New Jersey Research in social phvsics (RF S0167)... .... Roval Institution of Gre.U Britain, London Dav) Faraday Research Laboratory Equipment and supplies for the modernization and expansion of workshop and instrumcnt-making facilities (RF SOI 11) .. University of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro Full-time professoisliips in the Faculty of Plulosoph) (RF 49154)

31,82543 21,472 55

$

31,82543 7,83925

17,14402

703

20,000 00 10,00000

. . . .

2,504 63

117,000.00

....

9,00000 ... 15,000 00

11,00000 7,169 00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

9,00000

20,000 00 _j . . » j> ;£ 73 41,93989 « ^ ^ rfl 3 . ^ "' 9,000.00 5,000.00

8,000.00^ ° 2,277 00

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951 NATURAL SCIENCES AND AGRICULTURE — Continued Other Subjects — Continued University of Chicago, Illinois International aspects of a program of meteorite studies (RF 49078).. . Support of advanced training in applied statistics (RF 51087) (Joint project with Social Sciences) University of Iceland, Reykjavik Building and equipping an Institute of Experimental Pathology (RF 45048,48110) University of Oslo, Norway Postwar reconstruction of research facilities in natural sciences (RF 46117) University of Sao Paulo, Brazil Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters (RF 50145) To strengthen the Departments of Genetics, General Physiology, Biochemistry, Botany, Zoology, Chemistry, Mineralogy, and PhysicalChemistry Marine Biological Laboratory. Equipment and supplies University Research Fund Equipment and consumable supplies (RF 47059) Research, equipment and supplies for certain of the basic science departments of the Faculty of Philosophy, Science and Letters and for the Department of Biochemistry of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (RF 49099) '. TOTAL —NATURAL SCIENCES

£24,560.12

$ 75,000.00

29,941.72

1,204.20

30,000.00 10,000.00 2,613.87

19S1 K PAYMENTS XO

38,750.00 5,000.00 -3 2 O 1,569.12 g P3 £* f pj W g q 1,625.93 3 ......... ^ jj 571.88 O ^

1,897.36 £4,137,906.59

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

23,680,208.00 £1,987,808.42

SOCIAL SCIENCES American Bar Association Endowment, New York For use by the Commission on Organized Crime for drafting model statutes designed to deal with organized crime in the United States (RF 50136, S1212) American Economic Association, New York Study of graduate training in economics (RF 51092) American Institute of Pacific Relations, Inc., New York General expenses (RF 50091) American Law Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Study of development and application of ethical concepts of the Lord Chancellors and the Courts of Equity (RF 49140) Preliminary study of needed changes in the criminal law and its administration in the United States (RF 5013S) Preparation of model criminal code with commentaries (RF 51213) American Psychological Association, New York Research connected with the development of a code of ethical practice for psychologists (RF49012) Bennington College, Vermont Study of interest-group interaction in the political process (RFS1083).... Brookings Institution, The, Washington, D. C. Research and education in thefieldof international relations (RF 50036, 50083) Canadian Institute of International AfFairsj Toronto, Canada General budget (RF 4(5036) Canadian Social Science Research Council, Montreal, Canada Toward expenses of its program (RF 49098, 51079) Toward the costs of fellowships and professorial leaves (RF 48089, 50070, 51080)

$2S,000 00

325,000.00

225,000.00

16,000.00

5,333.33

45,000.00

30,000.00

7,125.00 20,000.00 222,500.00

2,262.26 27jlOO.OO

H pj > d 20,000.00 g >a v>~ ys 1,333.49 £ O 4,516.50 2j

180,000.00

90,000.00

6,240.37

2,274.81

9,606.45 17,338.89

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

22,000.00 28,000.00

17,219.44 ^ VO 20,323.19 M

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951 SOCIAL SCIENCES —• Continued Carnegie Foundation at The Hague, Netherlands Purchase of books, periodicals, and pamphlets and for cataloguing (RF 47028) .* Columbia University, New York Development of a program of Far Eastern studies through the various social science departments (RF 48041) Program of the Institute for Urban Land Use and Housing Studies (RF 51003) Programoftraininginthesocialsciences(RF51170) School of International Affairs. General support of the Russian Institute (RF 45034,50133) Committee on Research in Economic History, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts Research and training in economic history (RF 50103) . . . . Community Service Society of New York, New York Institute of Welfare Research. Studies of the results of social case work (RF49130) Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Pilot study of social adjustment in old age (RF 50118) Program of research on community action and intergroup relations (RF 50104) Research in thefieldof group hostility and prejudice (RF 48004). . . . Study of data collected in the Manzanar and Poston war relocation communities (RF 48136) Study of the relation of civil rights to the control of subversive activities in the United States (RF 50066,51142)

34,482.85

$

1951 . PAYMENTS
$3,750.00 H 3

73,85000

8,302.05 66,00000 60,000.00

. 481,85987

47,iOO 00

2,50000 5,00000 95,00000 9,345 00 75055 17,39040

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

. .

. . .

. 6,000.00

o 33,000.00 g fq J^ 121,17614 r H & 22,500.00 g c X 2,50000 g H 5,000 00 C ^ 33,47000 9,345 00 74804 20,387.15

Council on Foreign Relations, New York General research program (RF 51002) History of the foreign relations of the United States during World War II (RF46002) Studies of British-American relations, in cooperation with the Royal Institute of International Affairs (RFS1093) ' Study of the political implications of the economic development ot industrialized areas (RF 51149) Crete Survey Expenses of a survey in Crete as a means of exploring ways of raising the standard of living in underdeveloped countries (RF481Q2) . Duke University, Durham, North Carolina Studies of differences in state per capita incomes (RFS1072) Economic Commission for Europe, United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland Study of long-nan tendencies in the European economy (RF 49067,51128) Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America, New York Program of study of its Department of the Church and Economic Life (RF 48130) Fellowships Administered by The Rockefeller Foundation (RF 48090, 48140, 49146, 50155,51160,51222) Australian-New Zealand Social Science Fellowship Committee, Melbourne, Australia Administrative expenses (RFS 1067) Columbia University, New York School of International Affairs. Special fellowships in the Russian Institute (RF 4704S) Economic Commission for Europe, United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland In-service training scholarships (RF 50041, 51139)

f? ...

.

,S4\000 00

#45,000 00

16,00000

16,00000

1,17522 .... ..

25,000.00

1648'

.. 45,00000

19,10000

23,72500

35,000.00

261,24010

225,000.00

1,00000

56,71637 6,00000

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

.

..

9,00000

*jj pi •£ 9,44600 c pj 19,10000 jo_ w W 35,00000 £g O 3 99,406 54 12336

1,00000

40,32172 ^ ^ 6,00000

APPROPRIATION PRIOR YEARS 19S1 SOCIAL SCIENCES — Continued Fellowships — Continued Institut de Science liconomique Appliquee, Paris, France In-service training scholarships (RF S1035) Social Science Research Council,New York (RF46053,48006,51054} Foreign Policy Association, New York Research and general program (RF 50072) ~ Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Poona, India Economic and demographic research program (RF 51094) Grants in Aid Administered by The Rockefeller Foundation (RF 46113, 46141, 48144, 49150,50109,50160,51183,51226) Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Laboratory of Human Development Study of social and cultural factors in child development (RF 50051, 51173) Laboratory of Social Relations Study of comparative values infivecultures (RF 49032, 51175). . Studies of motivated perception (RF 49073) Program of economic research (RF 47126,51071) Research Center in Entrepreneurial History For research (RF49092,51126) Special grant in-aid-fund for salaries and/or expenses of visiting scholars (RF 51127) Research in social sciences (RF 35086) Studies of state election statistics (RF 51082)

J5 141,356.55

29,000.00 220,000.00

10,000.00 ..

..

23,100.00

1951 -J*> PAYMENTS ^

2862.07 120,000.00 ^ M 10,000.00 $0 2 1,578.00 !* £j W 224,415.40 £ W

408,226.98

290,000.00

20,550.00

64,500.00

30,000.00 8,466 67 22,820.08

100,00000 140,000.00

O g Q 30,00000 > d 10,00000 §

10,50000

10,00000

10,314.55

11,37265

10,00000 .. . 47,500.00

4,500.00 11,37265 6,01250

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Studies of labor movements and collective bargnining in certain Western European countries (RFSI 141) Haverford College, Pennsylvania Handbook of selected case studies of programs of social and technical assistance to underdeveloped countries (RF 51095) Institut de Science Economique Appliqu6e, Paris, France Research program (RF 49068) Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey For assistance and compensation in a program of study and writing (RF 49064) Institute of Economic and Social Research, Paris, France General expenses,equipment and printing accumulated studies (RF 47005) International African Institute, London, England Field studies of the Fulani-speaking peoples of West Africa (RF51034) Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Salaries and travel expenses of European visiting professors in the Departmem of Political Economy (RF 51111) Study to measure and interpret trends and forces affecting the United States in its international relations (RF 47103) Library of Congress, Washington, D. C, Preparation and publication of an Eastern European accessions list and expansion of monthly Hat of Russian accessions (RF 51164) (Joint project with Humanities) London School of Economics and Political Sciences, England Purchase of land for expansion of school plant (RF 31028) Dcpartmen t of Sociological and Demographic Research. General expenses (RF49115)

$

.

85,00000

£5,000.00

20,550.00

15,005.00

14,727.24

10,474.37

17,975.70 49,852.13 9,000,00

37,500.00 850.95

8,700.00 8,509,95 39,130.81

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

^ 5,000.00 « c/3 ^ w 2,100.00 ^ w £J 6,250.00 *o ^ "3

4,350.00 356.63 4^ 7,446.72 £

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951 SOCIAL SCIENCES — Continued Mayor's Advisory Committee for the Aged, New York Exploration of the problems of adjustment of the aged in New York City (RFS1010) Miami University, Oxford, Ohio Studies of population redistribution (RF 46080) .. National Bureau of Economic Research, New York General programs and special programs of research in finance and fiscal policy (RF 47120,49141,50134) National Foundation of Political Science, Paris, France Program in international relations (RF 51036) . . . National Institute of Economic and Social Research of Great Britain, London General budget (RF 44108, 50075, 51181) Expenses of the International Association for Research in Income and Wealth (RF 50006). . .. National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, Illinois Study of the isolation, measuiement and control of interviewer effect in attitude and opinion studies (RF 51068) Office National des Universit6s, Paris, France Expenses of a section for the social sciences in the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (RF 47125) Ohio State University, Columbus Study of executive positions in educational institutions in its program of leadership studies (RF 48002) Pacific Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations, Honolulu, Hawaii Toward general expenses and research (RF 50092)..

$ .

.

325,00000

23,31864

1,500,00000 .

.

61,39945

1,00000 41,250.00

17,50000

.

3,81439

12,885.00

19S1 ^ PAYMENTS CT%

825,000 00 ^ X 16,20242 w g O 180,00000 g *) 917 SI W r1 16,81125 £j ^ 3,50000 O £ O 12,88500 ^ Q Z 3,81439

3,286 78

3,286 78

40,000 00

10,000 00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

Princeton University, New Jersey Office of Population Research of the School of Public and International Affairs (RF 44109, 48105) Institute of International Studies. General support (RF 51017) . . Public Administration Clearing House, Chicago, Illinois To assist the Japan Public Administration Clearing House in developing a public administration service appropriate to needs and conditions of Japanese local government (RF 51140) Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, England (Chatham House) History of the war and of the peace settlement (RF 47071) Research on the Middle East, the Soviet Union and underdeveloped territorics (RF 51062) Studies in international economic policy (RF 50013) Royal Statistical Society, London, hngland Library facilities and additional secretarial and editorial assistance (RF 50087) Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey Study of the influence of group orientation on receptivity to communicated values (RF 51104) Social Science Research Council, New York Administrative budget (KF 48022,51053) Capital fund (RF 51203) Conferences nnd planning (RF 49046, 51204) Grants in aid of research (RF 49047, 51055) Special stuff in international relations (RF 49118) Support of the Current Digest of the Soviet Press (RF S0018, 51218) (JoiiH project with Humanities)

2130,00000

%. 200,00000

10,740.00 26,12273 45,00000 1,30416

20,000 00

.

. 20,00000 75,00000 25,00000 18,97054

14,00000 120,000.00 1,500,000.00 150,00000 75,00000

23,50000

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

50,00000

339,50386 ..

10,74000 ^ /o 7,00469 ™ '•*> 14,007.82 ~ 1,26084 m

4,859 08 % ^ ft 7,00000 * 40,00000 1,500,00000 62,50000 23,46358 11,46614 £ 21,77640 Cj

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 19S1 SOCIAL SCIENCES — Continued Stanford University, Palo Alto, California Food Research Institute International history of food and agriculture during World War II (RF 46041) Study of Soviet economic development (RF 48042,50098) Program of predoctoral training in agricultural economics research (RF S0086) . Research program (RF S1060) Tufts College, Medford, Massachusetts Experimental program in the psychiatric approach to training and research in sociology (RF 48087) University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada t- Research in local government problems (RF 51105) University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Development of a program in Slavic studies (RF 49080) . University of California, Berkeley '. Institute of Industrial Relations &•< k Studies of the impact of an aging population on American society f-" (RF 49139) University of Cambridge, England Toward completion of a history of English criminal law (RF 5 J096) . Department of Applied Economics General budget (RF 46001)... . .... . StudyofthesocialaccountsofCambridgeshire(RF51177) ...

230,000.85 9,857.01

2

36,000.00 70,00000 594.62 .

..

. 2,00000

29,62500

117,50000 .

.

18,75000

16,62868

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

1951 ^ PAYMENTS oo

,_, 230,000.00 ffi 9,857.01 w £? 6,000.00 o 10,567.99 gj ij ^2 Cr. 715 22 r ^ 1,000.00 ^ O 8,685.63 §j O ^ Q 14,26565 2; 3,50234 6,99056

78,00000

University of ChicagOj Illinois Committee on Study of Later Maturity. Studies of the occupational and retirement adjustments of older people (RF 50107) Program of the Cowks Commission for Research in Economics (RF 48047) Program incducation, training and research in race relations (RF47031). . Research in agricultural economics (RF48085) . . Research on low productivity in American agriculture (RF 51088) University of Delaware, Newark Study of individual income tax returns in Delaware for years 1925 through 1936 (RF 51178) University of Florida, Gainesville Study of land tenure systems and land use patterns in certain countries in the Middle East (RF 51192) University of Manchester, England Faculty of Economic and Social Studies. Research in economics and government (RF 46112, 51097) University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Program of methodological research in the field of human relations by its Research CenterforGroup Dynamics (RF 50019) University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Industrial Relations Center. General expenses (RF 47021) University of Missouri, Columbia Study of the rural church as a social institution in Missouri (RFS1216). .. University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana Research in international relations (RF 49091) University of Oslo, Norway of Economic!,. Ren-arch program (RF 49097)

£20,500 00 40,00000 35,257.77 6,366.29

$

.

... . . .

... . 48,000.00

35,00000 11,450.00 15,745.31

22,500.00

41,825.00 41.71

$20,500 00 10,00000 15,469.39 6,366.29 8,00000 ya 9,40000 « v> S 6,904.50 W 'a5,603.75 ^ ^ ;# 17,483.68 ^ Cr. 4.93

51,245.00 30jOOO.OO

30,000.00

10,000.00

-^ 10,000.00 vo

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 195 1

1951 ^ PAYMENTS O

SOCIAL SCIENCES — Continued University of Oxford, England Nuffield College Additional research faculty in the social sciences (RF 46132) ....... 2136,782.50 % .. 315,408.38 University of Toronto, Canada Development of Slavic studies (RF 49054) .............. 31,500.00 ...... 8,99761 University of Wisconsin, Madison Research in housing (RF 46081) .................... 6,201 30 ....... Cr. 3,967.05 Study of the law and the lumber industry in Wisconsin (RF 48051) ... 21,77500 ...... 8,75000 World Peace Foundation, Boston, Massachusetts Preparation of volumes in the Documents on American Foreign Relations (RF 49043) ....... . ........................ 4,000.00 ........ 4,000.00 Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Institute of International Studies. Research program (RF 49062) .. 25,000.00 ...... 14,050.00 Studiesofcommunicationandattitudechange(RF48003,51l74) ..... 21,11102 147,90000 41,51002 - - TOTAL — SOCIAL SCIENCES ............. . .. 24,899,52262 $4,586,895.00 33,567,243.01 HUMANITIES Studies in Language and Foreign Cultures American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, Boston, Massachusetts Studies in intellectual and cultural movements in Turkey (RF 49138)... American Council of Learned Societies, Washington, D. C. Committee on Near Eastern Studies (RF 47094) . . .

$22,253.70 4,000 00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

$

......... .....

37,855.19 4,000 00

H K M ^ o g *i ^ f ja ^ O •••-'" O

Fellowships and administrative expenses in connection with summer program of Korean studies at University of California (RK S1039). Preparing materials for Slavic studies in the United States (RF 49053). Procurement and reproduction of materials on Slavic subjects (RF 47127) Program of translations into English of modern materials in Near Eastern languages (RF 48125) American University of Beirut, Lebanon Interpretative studies of the modern Arab Middle East (RF 49071) . Colegio de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. Programs for advanced study and for training of personnel (RF 48033) Columbia University, New York Department of Slavic Languages. Development of teaching materials and methods of research (RF 47047) Conference on interpretation of Arab tradition, thought and outlook, to be held in Near East (RF 51005) Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Southeast Asian studies (RF 50139) Grants in Aid Special fund for temporary addition of representative Chinese scholars to teaching staffs and projects in the United States (RF 44044). .. Harvard University) Cambridge, Massachusetts Preparation of a descriptive analysis of the contemporary Russian language (RF 50040) . . .. Indiana University, Bloomington Development of F.ast European studies, (RF 470021 ..

$?

57,000 00 .

20, =100 00

#5,652 62 12,688.10

38,00000

28,00000

64,30801 43,65000 16,640 00

.

14,000 00 ..

. . .

..

325,000 00

H g > 16,640 00 g 7> y$ 7,495 87 M~ 73 ... Pi C 53,900 00 % 19,24162

20,000 00 .

.

7,819 12

Cr. 1,878 71

50,000.00

10,029.39

5,600 00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

..

.

o

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 19S1 HUMANITIES — Continued Studies in Language and Foreign Cultures — Continued Korean Language Society, Seoul, Korea To provide essential materials to publish 20,000 copies each of the five unpublished volumes of its new dictionary of the Korean language (RF 48082) . McGill University, Montreal, Canada Expenses of an Institute of Islamic Studies (RF 51108) . ... National Institute of Anthropology and History, Mexico, D. F. Development of teaching and research program, and reorganization of library resources (RF 48034) National Tsing Hua University, Kunming, China Support of work in humanities (RF 47099) Occidental College, Los Angeles, California Developing humanistic studies in the southwest area of the United States and in northern Mexico (RF 49024) Pomona College, CJaremont, California Development of Far Eastern and Slavic studies (RF 44131). Princeton University, New Jersey Development of Near Eastern studies (RF 46066) St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary and Academy, New York Support of research and writing by members of its faculty (RF 50031) Stanford University, Palo Alto, California Development of Far Eastern and Slavic studies (RF 44130) University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Development of a program in Slavic studies (RF 49080)

32,12860

1951 PAYMENTS ^ to

$

% 214,80000

8,681 12 15,00000

17,15000 8,50000

. .

. ..

9,000 00 10,500 00

.

^ W 50 g pi £j 4,100.00 W t-* . W ....

O 4,40000 g Q 6,10000 > M 4,250 00 § 5,250 00

11,80000

..

5,89104

29,62500

.

8,68563

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

University of California, Berkeley Development of Slavic and Far Eastern studies (RF44129) DevelopmentofpersonnelinSlavicstudies(RF47128) Summer program of Korean studies (RF 51038) University of Durham, England Study of materials available for an understanding of modern Near Eastern cultures (RF 51176) University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Cross-disciplinary studies in the theory of language and symbolism (RF 50140) University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Work in modern Indian languages and literatures (RF 47129) University of the Philippines, Manila Library development and research in Philippine history (RF 48111). ... University of Toronto, Canada Development of Slavic studies (RF 49054) ••••? Jr. .*.•.'•.•. "V-i' .'i ,'u'iunjjiujl, OCUllle Development of Far Eastern and Slavic studies (RF 44128) For Eastern Institute. Research on the Far East (RF 47035) Wayne University, Detroit, Michigan Preparation of a frequency list of Russian words (RF 49137) American Studies Abraham Lincoln Association, Springfield, Illinois Preparing annotated edition of writings of Abraham Lincoln (RF 51143) Columbia University, New York Preparation of a biography of Booker T. Washington (RF 51230)

#11,100.00 19,908.33

? 6,325.00

28,763.16 8,330.00 6,325.00

29,700.00 js W w 13,975.84 ^ PI 5,587,01 ^

69,600.00

40,000.00

26,423.65 9,012.00 31,500,00

8,997.62

12,505.76 37,254.13

12,505.76 15,000.00

31,842.45

21,532.38

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

12,000.00 15,000.00

£ p3 p H

6,00000
HUMANITIES — Continued American Studies — Continued Commission on History of Pan American Institute of Geography and History, Mexico, D. F. Work on history of the Americas (RF SI 118) , .. Program of research in history of ideas (RF 51165) Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, California Program of regional studies (RF $0002) Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. American studies (RF 43095) McGill University, Montreal, Canada Studies in the public and private life of W. L. Mackenzie King (RF 49060) Michigan State College, East Lansing Studies in midwestern life and history (RF 49025) National Archives, Washington, D. C. Special fund for producing basic microfilm stocks of research materials and for copying files of the National Archives, in the service of scholars (RF 48061) Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois Studies in midwestern culture (RF 47034) Stanford University, Palo Alto, California Seminars in American studies to be held in Japan (RF 50141) Tokyo University, Japan Seminars in American studies sponsored jointly by Tokyo University and Stanford University (RF 50142,51211) (Joint project with Social Sciences)

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951 '

#

£30,000.00 15,000.00 20,00000 19,000 00

...

80,000.00 8,642.00

4560

...

10,76063 20,00000

3,000.00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

1951 >J"| PAYMENTS O

$9,440,00 H . * 5,00000 o ^ W ^ r1 25,00000 £ 7* 6,395.30 g ~ 3 ^ .. H O 6,100.00 ^ 20,000.00

160,00000

3,00000

University of Cologne, Germany Development of a program ot American studies (RF 51037) University of Munich, German) Visiting professors Irom the United States or Canada, and library materials for its Amerika Institut (RF 49096) .. . University of Oklahoma, Norman Development of archival resources on the history and contemporary life of Oklahoma (RF 48062) University of Wisconsin, Madison Research and teaching in the materials of American civilization (RF 49081) . Libraries Association of Special Libraries and Information Bureaux, London, England Preparation of a catalogue of periodicals in British libraries (RF 44004) British Museum, London, England To enable the museum to offer to American libraries, at a discount, subscriptions to the new edition of its Catalogue of Printed Books (Kl30076) University Research Fund, University of Sao Paulo, Br.v.il Bibliographical information service (RF 45035) Drama, Film and Radio National Theatre Conference, Cleveland, Ohio Support of activities, projects and fellowships (RF 4910<>) . , New Dramatists Committee, Inc., New York General support of its program (RF SI 156^ . University of Bristol) Englnnd Development of university program in drama (RF 49119) .

$

?1S,000 00

29,45513

16,91633

9,72711

.

.

9,13054 £3 £ Sj W 5,603,13 ^ w ~ T3 321.09 £ J 6,49026

19,12748

13,22500

17,36445

45,90494 13,14069

10,00000

10,00000

. 15,09672

3476 68

47,^0000 .

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

.

5,75000 <-»t 7,73569
APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951 HUMANITIES — Continued Other Subjects American Council of Learned Societies, Washington, D. C. General support, planning, development and fellowships (RFS0033).... Pacific Coast Committee for Humanities. General support (RF 46093, 51144) Study of personnel problems in the humanities (RF 49052,51008) American School of Classical Studies, Athens, Greece Museum to house objects excavated in the Agora (RF 37089) Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio Research and planning in relation to its general education program (RF 51129) Colegio de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. Research and a training seminar on contemporary Mexican history (RF 50030,51219) Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Development of methods, materials and personnel for the teaching of the history of modern science (RF 48124) Humanities Research Council of Canada, Toronto Supportofactivitiesinplanninganddevelopment(RF48017,51130)... Institute of International Education, New York Expenses of an international arts program in 1952 (RF 51116) Italian Institute of Historical Studies, Naples Library materials,scholarships and general support (RF 49007)

2393,750.00 7,000.00 2,440.00

3

1951 PAYMENTS

$87,500.00

6,000.00 34,000.00

6,655.00 2,299.06

15,900,00

6,130.00

138,354,94

11,022.50

18,192.00

23,500.00 4,268.58

10,422.48

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

11,022.50

8,250.00 19,200.00

7,066.44

25,905.00

12,952.50 5,674.33

§

£jj pi p O ps; W tn jp M ^ Q C ^ > |j 2

Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio Toward payment of writers whose work is published In the Kenyan Rtww(RF 47037) '.. .. National Institute of Economic and Social Research, London, England Editorial work on edition of complete works of Alexis de Tocqueville (RF51167) Princeton University, New Jersey Development of anewcoursein military history (RF 51215) ... . Expenses of an experimental group in literary criticism (RF 49023). University of Bordeaux, France Development of work in the humanities (RF 47061) . University of Cambridge, England Downing College Salary of an assistant for director of English studies (RF 49016, 51166) University of Chicago, Illinois Special faculty seminar in the college, connected with role of history and philosophy in its general education program (RF 51124) University of Lyon, France Development of work in the humum ties (RF 47060) University of Oslo, Norway Development of work in the humanities (RF 46047)... . University of the South, Sewanee, Tennessee Payment of writers whose work is published in the Sewanet Rtosttv (RK 48011) University of Toulouse, France Development of work in the humanities (RF 47062)

36,125.35

$

$4,170 19

9,50000

100.00

20,00000 10,503.33 6,18206

4,347.48

...

6,90000

.

15,150.00

1,97215 2,261.87

...

5,00000 ^ W 5,880.79 Jw ^ tn ^ 1,870,40 w ^ ^ 6,283.34 ^ H 1,972.15 ...

12,498.00

5,308.25

16,83738

^ 9,082.37 ^

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 19S1 HUMANITIES — Continued Fellowships and Grants in Aid Fellowships Administered by The Rockefeller Foundation (RF 47337, 48141, 49147, 50156,51161,51223) .................................. 3244,97648 American Council of Learned Societies, Washington, D. C. Fellowships in the humanities (RF 48059, 51048, 51049) ..... 50,000.00 Grants in Aid Administered by The Rockefeller Foundation (RF 44146, 46121, 47109, 48084, 4814S, 49151, 50089, 50161, 51227) ..................... 504,298.69 Special Grant-in-Aid Fund To enable non-Muslem students of Islam, through visits to Islam, to gain a direct acquaintance with contemporary thought and movements within Islam (RF 51086) ....................... ....... Surveys, studies and conferences (RF 48083) ........... 2,578.52 TOTAL — HUMANITIES

...........................

MISCELLANEOUS American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Oneonta, New York Visits and study in this country by group of German leaders in teacher education (RF 4911 1) ................................... American Council on Education, Washington, D. C. Committee on Religion and Education Study of relation of religion to general education (RF 51061) .

32,747,90665

317,50000

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

1951 ^ PAYMENTS oo

. 3123,41474 ffi ^ 400,000.00 125,00000 g O j* 300,000.00 264,071 33 " & f ^ 30,000.00 5,67787 ^ ....... 1,200.90 O ____________ c^

3185,00000

^

$1, 65 8,072 00

3.

31,206,48570 o

...

317,47965

31,616.00

15,80800

General purposes (RF S0022) American Library Association, Chicago, Illinois Support of International Youth Library, Munich, Germany (RF 51020)... Association of American Universities, New York Study of thefinancingof higher education and research (RF 49065) Carnegie Endowment for International Pence, New York (Subsequentlyrescinded)(RF501I7) European Rehabilitation (RF 48120,49038) Exchange Fund (RF 46123) Field Offices of The Rockefeller Foundation Africa and Asia Minor Egypt (Cairo). 1950-1952 (1H49039,50123,RF51197) Iran (Tehran). 1949-1951 (IH 48034,49039,50123) Canada (Toronto). 1949-1952 (1H 48034,49039,50123, RF 51197) Caribbean Area Central Office (Miami). 1949-1952 (1H48034,49039,50123,RFS1197). Dominican Republic (Ciudad Trujilto). 1950-1952 (IH 49039, 50123, RF 51197) Europe England (London). 1950-1952 (1H49039,50!23,RFS1I97) France (Paris). 1952 (RF 51197) Italy (Rome). 1951-1952 (IH 50123,RF 51197) Far East Central Office (Bangalore). 1949-1952 (IH 48034, 49039, 50123, RF 51197) Japan (Tokyo). 1949-1952 (IH 48034,49039,50123^1'51197)

£150,000 00

$

3150,000 00 35,000.00

123,207.04

12,900 00 61,60352

15,000 00 100,80327 13,004.16

12,891.11 10,422.96 5,900.55

10,00000

7,629.60

5,200.00

4,473.94

3,840.00

4,245.01 8,900.00

10,975.00 78,000,00 10,000.00

11,227.00 2,919.56

9,000.00 2,000.00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

3,500.00

33,935.93 ^ « v> £j 8,25654 pj 5,306.45 *. 2,32034 <" ^ 4,023.00 % $ 3,842.60 -3 1,829.87 4,487.01

8,820.24 ^ 60S 16 v§

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951 MISCELLANEOUS — Continued Field Offices of The Rockefeller Foundation — Continued South America Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz). 1949-1952 (IH 48034, 49039, 50123, RF51197) Brazil (Riode Janeiro). 1950-1952 (IH 49039,50123,RF 51197) Chile (Santiago). 1949-1952 (IH 48034,49039,50123, RF 51197) Colombia (Bogotl). 1948-1952 (IH 47057, 48034, 49039, 50123, RF 51197) Peru (Lima). 1949-1952 (IH 48034,49039,50123,RF51197) Mexico (Mexico,D.F.). 1952 (RF51197) Miscellaneous. 1951-1952 (IH 50123, RF 51197) Free University of Berlin, Germany Work in the social sciences and the humanities (RF 50063) General Education Board, New York Support of program for advancement of education in the southern states (RF 46125,47119,48122,51201,51202) Grants in Aid administered by The Rockefeller Foundation China (RF 42041) For allocation by the officers within categories described by Trustee action and within specified limitations of amount and duration (RF 49152, 50056,50162,51122,51228) ... History of the International Health Division. Expenses (RF 50045) History of the Rockefeller Boards. Expenses (RF 48029) Institute of International Education, New York International student exchange (RF 51115)... .

35,301.25 11,442.04 7,934.76

34,000.00 9,00000 5,000.00

12,670.81 6,397.66

3,91500 5,880.00 1,600.00 2,000.00

1,53000 20,000.00

4,500,000.00

5,001,625.00

6,923.41

60,01390 9,967 08 13,48299

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

80,00000 ... . . . 50,00000

1951 LT» PAYMENTS g

33,20558 ^ 6,512,43 J4 5,398.60 w O 6,188.74 £ 4,249.13 W W £ W 10,55891 ^ £3 <3 4,501,62500 g >. £ O 47,70865 8,889 90 11,31083

International Press Institute, Zurich, Switzerland Maintenance and development (RF S]OSO) McGili University, Montreal, Canada I'or use of the Executive Council of the Universities of the British Commonwealth in connection with its meeting in 1949 (RF49039). ... Midwest Inter-Library Corporation, Chicago, Illinois Genera) expense of a central depository library (RF 49045). . National Research Council, Washington, D. C, Conference Board of the Associated Research Councils Study of human resources and thefieldsof higher learning (RF 49088).. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva, Switzerland Survey of refugee problem and most appropriate methods for its solution (RF 51047) Pacific Science Association, Washington, D. C. Establishment of permanent secretariat (RF 49153) Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship Directory Preparation and distribution (RF 49143, S0163) Salzburg Seminar in American Studies, Inc., Austria General budget (RF 51073) United States Bool; Exchange, Inc., Washington, D. C. Program of international exchange by institutions of books, periodicals and similar materials (RF 48127) Ynle University, New Haven, Connecticut Kstablishmcnt and general support of a carbon M dating laboratory (RF 50132) TorAL—MISCELLANEOUS

55

$ 120,000 00

540,00000

..

14,33306

6,738.54 40,000.00

.

90,00000

.

...

100,00000

6,00000 30,741.42 100,000.00

30,000.00 H pi •*• VJ e; 60,00000 * ja 6,000,00 en* & 26,466.70 ^ O 40,000.00 ^

15,000.00

15,00000

42,500.00

20,100.00

#5,374,768.06 tfj6&2,\Sl 00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

?S, 188,765 84 «

APPROPRIATIONS PRIOR YEARS 1951 ADMINISTRATION AND SCIENTIFIC SERVICES Scientific Services Prior Years ........................................ 364,262.23 1951 ............................................. 998,939.57 1952 .......................................... ..... General Administration Prior Years ..................................... 24,60522 1951 ............ .. ......... 491,344 43 1952 ............................. ......... TOTAL— ADMINISTRATION

$

....... 74,085.02 1,034,205 52 ........ 36,722 98 610,270.48

195 1 PAYMENTS ^ W $15,30120 fa 1,008,044.63 g ..... F £j 4,588.31 w 483,416 56 £ ...... %

$1,579,151.45 $1,755,284.00 $1,511,35070 o _ __ __ G TOTALS ................... .... $26,385,556.48 $21,158,88000 $16,878,46846 § LESS > Unused balances of appropriations allowed to lapse. ... 1,236,739.24 j^

GRAND TOTALS

...................

......................

$25,148,81724 $21,158,880.00 $16,878,468.46

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

REFUNDS ON PRIOR YEAR CLOSED APPROPRIATIONS College of Agriculture, "Antonio Narro," Saltillo, Mexico Columbia University, New York Kncyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, New York Fellowships. Social Sciences. 1947 Grants in Aid. Natural Sciences. 1936 Grants in Aid. Natural Sciences. 1945 Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey . Institute oflnternational Education, New York International Meteorological Organiz.uion, Lausanne, Switzerland Kenyon College, Gambler, Ohio Malaria China. 1948 Medical Library Association, Nashville, Tennessee. Fellowships . National Institute of Public Aftairs. Washington, D.C National Research Council, Washington, D. C Pfinccton University, New Jersey ... Social Science Research Council, New York . . Social Science Research Council, New York . Syphilis North Carolina. 1949-1950 North Carolina. 1948-1949 .

(Kl- 49102) (RF 47068) (RF 32114) (RF 47108) ... (RF 36079) . (RF 45081) . (RF 42109) (RK 46131) .. (RF 45046) . (RF ^OO^O) (RV 47132) (RF 47098)

. . . . .. ...

.. .

. . ... ... . . . . .

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

(IH 47037) (RF 49044) (RF 47029) (RF 46134) (RF 48040) (RF 47020) (RF 48128) (IH 48010) (IH 47038)

$1 07 620 1,83861 1055 2 40 114.16 £ 1,651.40 w 45,500.00 £ 15.21 g 2,339.43 w 1,992.14 ^ 36283 ^ 2 27000 ? 1,29331 £5 4b7 91 H 2000 20.2^ 650 45 1,941.21 130.08 52.93 u, h-4 Co

REFUNDS ON PRIOR YEAR CLOSED APPROPRIATIONS — Continued Tuberculosis Tennessee. 1947-1949 ..... ................................ University of Birmingham, England . ... ........................ University of California, Berkeley ........... .......... University of California, Berkeley ............................... University of Chicago, Illinois ...... .......................... University of Minnesota, Minneapolis ........ ............... University of Missouri, Columbia ..................................... University of Stockholm, Sweden . . ................................... University of Wisconsin, Madison . . . . . . ........... University of Zagreb, Yugoslavia .................... .

(IH 47012) (RF 48099) (RF46111) (IH 48030) (RF 41101) (RF 48080) (RF S0038) (RF 4803S) (RF 45015) (RF 46088)

K w ^ 329.40 O 2,439.29 $ 647.33 W 68247 $ 81.23 £ 44.19 W 4,322 83 ** 13.89 g 1,26668 C 3,905.29 $72,113 74 d -- O 2!

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

TRANSACTIONS RELATING TO INVESTED FUNDS FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1951 PURCHASED £100,000 125,000 100,000 125,000 225,000 175,000 200,000 200,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 350,000 1,000,000 100,000 5,000 Sham 10,000 " 14,336 " 1,558 " 9,400 " 8,800 "

Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. Co. Second Equipment Trust 2%s S/1S/S2 © 100.587 3100,586.98 Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. Co. Second Equipment Trust 2%s 11/15/52 @ 100.746 125,932.89 Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. Co. Second Equipment Trust 2%s 5/15/53 @ 100.806 100,806.05 Chicago, Milwaukee, Si. Paul & Pacific R.R. Co. Trustee Equipment Series "EE" 2s ^ 7/1/53 © 99.175 123,968.81 M Chicago&NorthWesternRy.Co.Equipment2ndissueofl9482^sll/l/[email protected] 223,799.51 £ Illinois Central R.R. Co. Equipment Series "EE" 2%s 4/1/52 @ 100.452 175,790.96 G Illinois Central R.R. Co. Equipment Series "EE"2%s 10/1/52 ©100.57 201,141.56 £ Illinois Central R.R. Co, Equipment Series "EE" 2%s 4/1/53®. 100.59 201,181.19 *>„ Illinois Central R.R. Co. Equipment Series "U" 3s 5/1/52® 100.566 100,566.12 ^ Illinois Central R.R. Co. Equipment Series "U" 3s 11/1/52 @> 100,712 100,712.39 g St. Louis, San Francisco Ry. Co. Equipment Series "B" 2%s 8/15/52 (Hi 100.334 100,334.16 *B Southern Pacific Co. Equipment Series "EE"2%s 4/1/53 ©100.957 353,350,89 g USA Treasury Certificates oflndebtedness lj^s 10/1/52 © 100.097 1,000,967.63 H Wheeling & Lake Erie Ry. Co. Equipment Scric: "0" !J£: 12/1/5? £" ?S.S21 90,334.32 Aluminium Limited Cap. (No par) @ g99.77 per share 498,859.53 Canadian Pacific Ry. Co. Ord. (Par $25) © ?33.S79 per share 335,790.70 Continental Oil Co. (Delaware) Cap. (Par $5) © £104.064 per share 1,491,858.82 Fireman's Fund Insurance Co. Cap. (Par 25) @ 358.76 per share 91,548.67 General Electric Co. Com. (No par) @ JS58.434 per share 549,277.85 InternationalPapcrCo.Com. (Par #7.50) ® 3S3.S89 per share 471,581.91 u-,

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

TRANSACTIONS RELATING TO INVESTED FUNDS - Continued 300,000 Sham 500 " 5,000 " 16,030

Socony Vacuum Oil Co. Cap. (Par 315) @ 233.307 per share ..................... 39,992,003 . 35 Texas Gulf Sulphur Co. Cap. (No par) @ 295.238 per share ....................... 47,618.94 Union Pacific R.R. Co. Com. (Par 250) @ 2103.94 per share .................... 5 19,705 . 54 Weyerhaeuser Timber Co. Cap. (Par 225) ©264.529 per share ................. 1,034,40459 ffi 318,040,623.36

DIVIDENDS IN STOCK 750 Shares 100

"

1,000

"

15,000

"

O American Gas & Electric Co. Com. (Par 210) received on account of ownership of 15,000 ^ shares of said stock of record Aug. 103 1951. Taken into the books at no value thereby PI reducing the per share price of the stock owned .......................... 8—0 — pi Dow Chemical Co. Com. (Par 215), received as a dividend of 2J^% on 4,000 shares £ owned of record Jan. 2, 1951. Taken into the books at no value thereby reducing the pJ per share price of stock owned ........................... ..... — 0— ^ First National Bank of Chicago Com. (Par 3100), received as a stock dividend on account 2 of ownership of 5,000 shares of said stock on the basis of one-fifth of a share for each cj one share owned of record Dec. 7, 1951. Taken into the books at no value thereby re^ ducing the per share price of stock owned ......... ..... ....... — 0 — ;> Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey) Cap. (Par 31 5) received as a dividend on 600,000 shares ^ Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) Cap. (Par 325). Taken into the books at 368,15 per share g in accordance with notice received from Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) dated Sept. 21, 1951, and the value credited to income ................................... 1,022,250.00 21,022,250 00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

RECEIVED IN EXCHANGE AND BY STOCK SPLIT 33,000,000 USA Treasury Certificates of Indebtedness I^s 4/1/52 for £3,000,000 USA Treasury Notes "D"lJ£s7/I/5I ....... . . $2,998,894 8? 75,000 Sharti Continental Oil Co, (Delaware) Cap, (Par 35) received on a ccouni of ownei ship of 75,000 shares of said stock on a share for share basis. Taken into the books at no value thereby reducing the per share price of stock owned ........................ •— 0 -10,000 " Houston Lighting & Power Co. Com. (No par) received on account of ownership of 5,000 shares of said stock of record April 18, 1951. Taken into the books at no value thereby reducing the per share price of stock owned .................................. —0— 67,300 " Standard Oil Co. of California Cap. (No par) representing additional shares received on account of ownership of 67,300 shares of said stock which was split on a two for one basis. Taken into the books at no value thereby reducing the per share price of stock owned ................................................... — •'> 2,066,000 " Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey) Cap. (Par 315) received upon surrender of 1,033,000 shares Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey) Cap, (Par 325). Taken into the books at no value thereby reducing the per share price of stock owned ......................... -0— 32,998,8'M 8J OTHERWISE ACQUIRED 15,000 Rights

30,000

"

American (ins & Klectric Co. received on account of the ownership of 15,000 shares American Gas & Electric Co. Com. Stock (Par $10), Taken into the books nt J5S.717 per 100 and the vnlue used to reduce the ledger value of stock owned ............. American Telephone & Telegraph Co. received on account of the ownership of 30,000 shares American Telephone & Telegraph Co. Cup. Stock (Par 2100). Taken into the books at 31.84375 each and the value used to reduce the ledger value of stock owned. .

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

_j 9* •£ j* fa W w» „ pi "9 o H

8857 48

55,312. 50 ^

TRANSACTIONS RELATING TO INVESTED FUNDS — Continued 20,000 Right!

4,000

"

Central Illinois Public Service Co., received on account of the ownership of 20,000 shares Central Illinois Public Service Co. Com. Stock (Par £10). Taken into the books at 24.45 per 1,000 and the value used to reduce the ledger value of stock owned ...... Dow Chemical Co. received on account of the ownership of 4,000 shares Dow Chemical Co. Com. Stock (Par 315). Taken into the books at £38.609 per 100 and the value used to reduce the ledger value of stock owned ............ . ........................

*-*t n °° 389 . 00

1,544. 36 H 1,043-478/1000 « Shares Monsanto Chemical Co. Com. (Par 35), received through the conversion of 600 shares Monsanto Chemical Co. £4.00 Cum. Pfc. Series "B" (No par), having a value of § 3101.00 per share or 360,600.00 and resulting in a price of 358.75 per share for the g common stock ............................................................. 60,600.00 £j 10,000 Rights Wisconsin Power & Light Co. received on account of ownership of 1 0,000 shares Wiscongj sin Power & Light Co. Com. Stock (Par 310). Taken into the books at 34.65 per 1,000 tand the value used to reduce the ledger value of stock owned .................... 46. 50 £J - J3 3118,449.84 ^ _ O cj ADDITIONS TO LEDGER VALUE Interest increment on USA Savings Bonds, Series F (12 year appreciation bonds) 367,500 (Maturity value) due May 1, 1953 ........................................................ 67,500 (Maturity value) due Jan. 1, 1954 ........................................................ 67,500 (Maturity value) due July 1, 1954 ........................................................ 135,000 (Maturity value) due Jan. 1, 1955 ........................................................

32,092.50 1,822.50 1,755.00 3,510.00 39,180.00 322,189,398.03

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

TOTAL PROCEEDS

SOLD £153,500

Imperial Chinese Government HuKuang Ry. S.F. Loan of 1911 5s/75 ® 314.375 per £100 15,000 Rights American Gas & Electric Co. ® $5.7165 per 100 30,000 " American Telephone & Telegraph Co. ©31-84375 each 12,500 Shares American Telephone & Telegraph Co. Cap. (Par 3100) © 3156.25.. 20,000 " Central Illinois Public Service Co. Com. (Par 310) @ 316.4069 per share 20,000 Rights Central Illinois Public Service Co. @ 34.45 per 1,000 49,300 Shares Central & South West Corporation Com. (Par 35) © 313.878 per share 4,000 Rights Dow Chemical Co. @ 338.609 per 100 500 Shares El Paso Natural Gas Co. Com. (Par 33) ©323.613 per share 15,000 " Houston Lighting 85 Power Co. Com. (No par) ©318.401 per share.. 7,000 " Illinois Power Co. Com. (No par) © 336.023 per share 4,000 " International Harvester Co. Cum. Pfd. (Par 3100) @ 3164.279 per share 1,500 " Internationa] Nickel Co. of Canada, Ltd. Com. (No pnr) {? S^P ^R7 per share 20,000 " Kentucky Utilities Co. Com. (Par 310) @ 314.665 per share 478/lOOOths of one share Monsanto Chemical Co. Com. (Par fc) in* {ii/.sO per share.. 12JXQ Shares The North American Co. Com. (Par 310) ® 317.846 per share 306,000 " Standard Oil Co. (Ohio) Com. (Par 310) @ 339.0005 per share 5,000 " Texas Gulf Sulphur Co. Cap. (No par) @ 3101.056 per share 10,000 " Wisconsin Power & Light Co. Com. (Par 310) @ 316.215 IQfm Rights Wisconsin Power & Light Co. S4.6S per 1000

322,065.62 857.48 55,312.50 1,953,125.82 328,138 00 8900 677,092.04 1,544.36 11,806.66 276,017.13 252,158.14 657,117.62 58,030.67 293,300.00 27.*9 214,153.73 11,934,164.58 505,282.06 162,150.00 46,50 317,402,479.40

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

LEDGER VALUE 3... 857.48 55,312.50 1,777,477.43 239,837.01 89.00 H # 462,575.77 £ 1,544.36 g 6,320.56 p 239,362,74 « 264,198,59 w„ 460,000.00 w Q 61,226.75 is 205,410.00 H 27.76 230,453.24 2,644,944.35 409,420.12 134,119.31 46.50 37,193,223.47
TRANSACTIONS RELATING TO INVESTED FUNDS — Continued TOTAL PROCEEDS SURRENDERED IN EXCHANGE AND FOR CONVERSION 33,000,000 USA Treasury Notes Series "D" l%s 7/1/51 for USA Treasury Certificates of Indebtedness 1J&4/1/52 .................................. 22,998,89483 600 Shares — Monsanto Chemical Co. 34.00 Cum. Pfc. Series "B" (No par) surrendered for conversion into 1,043-478/1000 shares Monsanto Chemical Co. Com. (Par 25) ............................................ 60,600.00 1,033,000 Shares — Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey) Cap. (Par 325) exchanged for 2,066,000 shares Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey) Cap. (Par 215) .................... $3,059,494 83 LEDGER VALUE REDUCED Ledger value of 15,000 shares American Gas & Electric Co. Com. (Par 310) reduced by the value of 15,000rightswhich were received on account of the ownership thereof ......... Ledger value of 30,000 shares American Telephone & Telegraph Co. Cap. (Par 2100) reduced by the value of 30,000rightswhich were received on account of the ownership thereof. . .. Ledger value of 20,000 shares Central Illinois Public Service Co. Com. (Par 210) reduced by the value of 20,000rightswhich were received on account of the ownership thereof. ... Ledger value of 4,000 shares Dow Chemical Co. Com. (Par 315) reduced by the value of 4,000 rights which were received on account of the ownership thereof ...................... Ledger value of 10,000 shares Wisconsin Power & Light Co. Com. (Par 210) reduced by the value of 10,000 rights which were received on account of the ownership thereof .....

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

#857.48 55,31250 89.00 1 ,544 . 36

LEDGER VALUE

^ £ °

22,998,894.83

H E W 60,60000 § O .. . £

$3,059,494 83 50 ^ KTJ 2857.48 2 % 55,31250 O H 89.00 o 3 1 ,544 36

46 50

46 50

257,849.84

357,849 84

MARKET VALUE PAYMENT OF APPROPRIATION TO GENERAL EDUCATION BOARD Transfer of 59,000 shares of Standard Oil Co. of California Cap. (No par) (a 250.875

553,001,625 00 5523,521,449 07

AMORTIZATION OF PREMIUM PAID ON PURCHASES OF SECURITIES $6,200,000 USA Treasury Bonds 2Ms, 1959-62 ........ 6,500,000 t'S 4 Treasury Bonds 2^8,1967-72 , .

LEDGER VALUE 2462,587 33 210,776,497 27

. . . . . . .

552,688 68 653 12 H #3,341 80 £

RECONCILIATION Ledger value of securities, December 31, 1950 .. ............. £152,241,857.35 Purchased ........................... ......... 818,040,62336 Dividends in stock ................... ..... 1,022,25000 Received in exchange and by stock split ................ 2,998,894.83 Otherwise acquired ..... ... ........ 118,44984 Additions to ledger value .................. 9,180.00 22,189,39803 8174,43 1,255 38 Sold .......................................... Surrendered in exchange and for conversion ............. Ledger value reduced ................................ Payment of Appropriation ........................ Amortization ................................ Ledger value of securities, December 31, 1951

87,193,223.47 3,059,494 83 57,849. 84 462,587.33 3,341.80

.................................

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

10,776,497.27 55163,654,758.11

2^ *>„ w j* ^ g

SCHEDULE OF SECURITIES ON DECEMBER 31, 1951 BONDS LEDGER VALUE NAME

MARKET VALUE

PAR

PRICE Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. 2nd Equipment Trust 2%s, May IS, 1952 2100,000 2>|s, Nov. IS, 19S2 125,000 2%s,May IS, 1953 100,000 Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific R.R., Trustees Equipment, Series EE 2s, July 1, 1953 125,000 Chicago & North Western Ry. Equipment, 2nd issue 1948, 2%s, Nov. 1, 1953 225,000 Illinois Central R.R. Equipment, Series EE 2%s, Apr. 1, 1952 175,000 2%s,Oct. 1,1952 200,000 200,000 2Jis, Apr. 1, 1953 Illinois Central R.R, Equipment, Series U 3s, May 1, 1952 100,000 3s, Nov. 1, 1952 100,000 St. Louis, San Francisco Ry. Equipment, Series B, 2%s, 100,000 Aug. 15, 1952 Southern Pacific Co. Equipment, Series EE, 2%s, Apr. 1, 1953 . . . 350,000

TOTAL

PRICE

TOTAL

H ffi M

100.587 100.746 100.806

3100,586.98 125,932.89 100,806.05

100. 100.125 100.125

99.175

123,968.81

98.75

99.466

223,799.51

99.00

3100,000.00 0 125,156.25 % 100,125 00 W W 123,437.50 p W 222,750 00 *

100.452 300 57 100.59

175,790.96 201,141 56 201,181.19

100. 100.125 100.

3 175,000 00 a 200,250 00 g 200,000 00 °

100 566 100.712

100,566.12 100,712.39

100. 100. 2S

100,000 00 100,250.00

100.334

100,334.16

100.

100,000.00

100 957

353,350 89

100 125

350,437.50

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

|

Standard Oil Co, (New Jersey) 25 year Deb. 2%}, May IS, 1971 38,500,000 United States of America Treasury Bonds Int. Dated Due 2% _ Sept. 15, 1943 — Sept. IS, 1952-53 5,000,000 2% — june 26, 1944 — June IS, 19S2-S4 4,500,000 2% — Dec. 1, 1944 — Dec. 15, 1952-54 6,600,000 7,000,000 2M% — June 1, 1945 — June IS, 1959-62 2i^% _ Nov. 15, 1945 — Dec. 15, 1959-62 6,200,000 2J^% — May 5, 1942 — June 15, 1962-67 6,000,000 2J^% — June 1, 1945 — June IS, 1967-72 6,500,000 2j£% — Nov. 15, 1945 — Dec. 15, 1967-72 6,000,000 United States of America Treasury Certificates of Indebtedness 1%% Dated June 15, 1951, due Apr. 1, 1952 Dated Oct. IS, 1951, due Oct. 1, 1952 United States of America Savings Bonds Defense Series F (12 year appreciation bonds) Due May 1, 1953 —• Maturity value Jan. 1, 1954 — Maturity value July 1, 1954 — Maturity value Jan, 1, 1955 — Maturity value

98

100. 100. 100. 100. 100.34 100. 100.156 100.

$8,329,995 00

90.625

37,703,125.00

5,000,000.00 4,500,000.00 6,600,000,00 7,000,000.00 6,221,509.38 6,000,000.00 6,510,122.63 6,000,000.00

99.875 99.S625 99.4375 96.8125 96.6875 98. 96.125 96.125

4,993,750.00 4,480,312.50 6,562,875.00 6,776,875.00 5,994,625.00 5,880,000.00 6,248,125.00 5,767,500.00

w 3,000,000 1,000,000

67,500 67,500 67,500 135,000

99.963 100.096

94.50 91.4 90. 88.7

2,998,894.83 1,000,967.63

63,787.50 61,695.00 60,750.00 119,745.00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

100.001 99.998

94.50 91.4 90. 88.7

3,000,030.00 999,980.00

63,787.50 61,695.00 60,750.00 119,745.00

13 O

SCHEDULE OF SECURITIES— Continued BONDS — Continued LEDGER VALUE NAME

MARKET VALUE

PAR

PRICE United States of America Savings Bonds 2j
<-rt 4x

100. 98.834

..

TOTAL

PRICE

TOTAL

31,000,000.00

97.80

98,834 32

98 50

3978,000 00 " 0 98,500 00 £

363,474,472 80

361,687,081 25 $ i-1 t" W

PREFERRED STOCKS LEDGER VALUE NAME

Chicago City & Connecting Rys. Participation Certificates (No par) (C/D) Tennessee Gas Transmission Co. 4.25% Cum. (Par 3100) United States Rubber Co. 8% Non-Cum. 1st (Par 3100) . TOTAL PREFERRED STOCKS

MARKET VALUE

SHARES

17,530 5,000 1,500

PRICE

TOTAL

PRICE

TOTAL

3-096.675 ISO 892

31 00 483,372.50 226,337 SO

3-08400 136 25

3-0420,000.00 204,375.00

3709,711.00

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

3624,375 00

2 O >

COMMON STOCKS LEUGLR VALUE NAME

MARKET VALUE

SHARES PRICE

Miscellaneous 8,000 Aluminum Company of America (No par) 5,000 Aluminum Limited, Cap. (No par) 15,750 American Gas & Electric Co. (Par 310) . American Telephone & Telegraph Co. Cap. (Par 3100) . . 20,000 107,76? The Buckeje Pipe Line Co. Cap. (No par) 10,000 Canadian Pacific Ry. Co. Ord. (Par 825) Chicago City & Connecting Rys. Participation Certifi10,518 cates (No par) 133,174 Consolidated Natural Gas Co. Cap. (Par 315) 10,000 Continental Insurance Co. Cap. (Par 310) . .. 150,000 Continental Oil Co. (Delasvare) Cap. (Par 85) . 4,100 Dow Chemical Co. (Par 815) 4,000 Du Pont, (E. I.) de Nemours & Co. (Par 85) . 10,000 6,000 First National Bank of Chicago (Par 8100) . . 9,400 4,000 General Mills, Inc. (No par) 15,000 Hartford Fire Insurance Co. Cap. (Par #10) 52,500 International Nicke! Co. of Canada, Ltd. (No par) .. . 50,000 International Paper Co. (Par 37.50) Interstate Natural Gas Co. Inc. Cap. (No par) . ... 33,7o5 35,100 Kcnnccott Copper Corporation Cap. (No par)

TOTAL

PRICE

219 77 433 829 791 579

8417,757 05 498,859 53 810,074 11 2,836,588 88 1,270,627 60 335,790 70

379 75 106.00 60 125 156.25 13.875 35.375

-029.132 65.597 14.46 S3 296 61.612 57 67 193 229 58.433 55 SIS 130 075 40.818 41 685 14.959 58,539

1 00 3,879,682 67 655,965.37 2,169,117.65 218,514 48 246,447.68 576,708.97 1,159,379 35 549,277.85 222,060 92 1,951,131.15 2,142,936.29 2>084,257. 31 505,106.25 2,054,731 03

-058.00 72.00 56 25 116 00 92.00 55 00 212.00 59.50 57 50 130.50 42 25 49.00 34.25 fil 7S

852 99 51 141 11 33

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

TOTAL

8638,000.00 530,000.00 946,968 75 -) 3,125,000 00 gj 1,495,211 62 > 353,750 00 -07,724,092 00 v>~ 720,000 00 8,437,500 00 475,600 00 0 368,000 00 550,000 00 1,272,000.00 559,300.00 230,000 00 1,957,500.00 2,218,125.00 2,450,000.00 1,156,451.25 to 3,009,825.00

SCHEDULE OF SECURITIES — Concluded COMMON STOCKS - Concluded LEDGER VALUE

MARKET VALUE

ON

C A ne PRICE Monsanto Chemical Co. (Par 2S) .... Montgomery Ward & Co. Inc. (No par) National Fuel Gas Co. Cap. (No par) The Ohio Oil Co. (No par) . Peoples Gas Light & Coke Co. (Par 2100) Phelps Dodge Corporation Cap. (Par 225) Socony Vacuum Oil Co. (Par £15) Standard Oil Co. of California Cap. (No par) Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) Cap. (Par 225) . . Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey) Cap. (Par 315) Texas Gulf Sulphur Co. Cap. (No par) . Union Pacific R.R. Co. Com. (Par £50) Union Tank Car Co. Cap. (No par) .... United Fruit Co. Cap. (No par) Weyerhaeuser Timber Co. Cap. (Par $23)

6,043 4,000 381,018 94,684 6,000 37,600 300,000 75,600 600,000 2,081,000 20,000 5,000 240,000 15,000 30,000

269 947 55 834 7 75 32 735 125 076 52 717 33 306 7 84 28 901 15 029 81 884 103 94 6 692 57.965 54 036

TOTAL COMMON STOCKS

PRICE

2422,687 85 2105 75 223,337 11 67.50 2,952,889 50 13 75 3,099,446.50 54.75 750,453 34 130 1,982,151 40 77.75 9,992,003 35 35.125 592,739 03 50 875 74 75 17,340,411 26 31,275,399 51 75.75 1,637,680 51 100 125 100. 519,705 54 1,606,087 97 38.25 869,477 29 63.625 1,621,088 31 72 SO 299,470,574 31

SUMMARY Bonds Preferred Stocks ... Common Stocks.

TOTAL

. . . .

LEDOER VALUE MARKET VALUE 363,474,472,80 261,687,081.25 709,711.00 624,375.00 99,470,574.31 284,933,99237 2163,654,758 11 2347,245,448.62

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

TOTAL 2639,047 25 270,000 00 5,238,997 SO 5,183,949 00 780,000 00 2,923,400 00 10,537,500 00 3,846,150 00 44,850,000 00 157,635,750 00 2,002,500 00 500,000 00 9,180,000 00 954,375 00 2,175,000 00 3284,933,992 37

V o o 7* w V w tf m

H t~t O

HASKINS & SELLS CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS 250 PARK AVENUE, NEW YORK 1J ACCOUNTANTS' CERTIFICATE To THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION: We

have examined the balance sheet of The

Rockefeller

Foundation as of December 31, 1951 and the related statements of Principal Fund and Funds Available for Commitment for the year then ended. Our examination was made in accordance with generally

accepted

auditing standards, and

accordingly

included such tests of the accounting records and such other auditing procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. In accordance with the policy of the Foundation, no effect has

been given in the accompanying statements to accrued

income not received, nor to expenditures made from advance accounts not reported in time to be recorded when the books were closed, as of December 31, 1951. In our opinion, with the foregoing explanation the accompanying balance sheet and statements of Principal Fund and Funds Available for Commitment present fairly the financial position of the Foundation

at December 31, 1951

and

the

results of its operations for the year then ended, in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles. HASKINS & SELLS New

York, March 17, 1952

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX AARHUS, University of, Denmark research and teaching in psychiatry, 465 Abercrombie, Dr. Johnson, 207 Abraham Lincoln Association, Springfield, Illinois, 408, 503 Abu-Hadid Bey, Mohammed Farid, 418 Accountant's Certificate, 527 Aconcagua health service, Chile, 195197, 205 Administration and Scientific Services appropriations and payments, 512 Africa yellow fever, 22, 31, 129, 459 Aging, studies of Cornell University, 71-72, 492 Mayor's Advisory Committee for the Aged, New York, 71, 370, _ 373»496 _ ^ University of California, 71 University of Chicago, 71, 387, 499 Agricultural development, 41-47 Agricultural economics, 368-369, 499 Aitken, Thomas H. G., 106 Alabama, University of Biochemistry Department, 264 glycoproteins, 479 Alajouanine, Dr. Th., 206 Alberta, University of, Canada local government problems, 375,498 Aldrich, Winthrop W., xii, 95, 101 Alessandri, Dr. Hernan, 206 Allais, Maurice, 382 Allee, W. C.,3i4 Allessandrini, Maria E., 214 Alvik, Gunnar, 280 Amador, Dr. Luis, 216 Amberg, George, 422 American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston, Massachusetts unification of science, 488 American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Oneonta, New York, 508 American Bar Association Conference of Chief Justices, 384

American Bar Association Endowmem, New York Commission on Organized Crime, 74, 363-364, 491 American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, Boston, Massachusetts, 500 American Council of learned Societies, Washington, D. C, 428 Current Digest of the Soviet Press, 69 fellowships, 412-414, 446, 508 general support, planning, developmen t, 506 Korean studies at University of California, 401-402 Near Eastern studies, 500 Pacific Coast Committee for the Humanities, 414, 417, 506 study of personnel in humanities, 412,506 American Council on Education Committee on Religion and Education, 436-437, 508 general program, 509 American Economic Association graduate training, 378, 491 American Friends Service Committee, 350 American Historical Association, Washington, D. C., 384 American Institute of Pacific Relations, Inc., New York, 491 American Law Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania model criminal code, 74-75, 361363, 491 study of Jaw and ethics, 491 study of needed changes in criminal law, 491 American Library Association, Chicago, Illinois International Youth Library, Munich, Germany, 435-436, 509 American Press Institute, Columbia University, New York, 83 American Psychiatric Association, New York, 460

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

530

INDEX

American Psychological Association, New York development of ethical code, 491 American Public Health Association, Washington, D. C., 468 American School of Classical Studies, Athens, Greece, 506 American University of Beirut, Lebanon studies of modern Arab Middle East, 501 Amerika Institut, University of Munich, Germany, 420, 505 Ames, Adelbert, Jr., 185-186 Amherst College, Massachusetts research in biology, 271-272, 476 Amma, Mrs. A. Rukmini, 214 A m pri no, Rodol fo, 312 Amsterdam, University of, Netherlands Laboratory of Histology, 479 psychosomatic medicine, 173 174, 467 Anand, Dr. B. K., 208 Anderson, Charles R., M.D., 106 Anderson, Ray C., M.D., 177 Anderson, Richmond K., M.D., 106 Andes, University of, Bogota, Colombia, 320 Ankara, University of, Turkey, 426 Anscombe, G. E. M., 419 Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio general education program, 411412, 506 Application of social sciences to social problems, 345-375 Applications declined, 92-94 Appropriations, 103 account, 103 and payments, 454-455, 458-512 and unappropriated authorizations, 456 Araraquara Health Training Center, Brazil, 205, 470 Arberry, A. J., 395 Area studies Far East, 80,423, 503 Latin America, 80

Middle East, 3$3r3S4> 499 Near East, 80,81,396-398, 502-503 Slavic, 423, 498, 501, 502, 503 Southeast Asia, 80, 501 Argentina Institute of Biology and Experimental Medicine, Buenos Aires, 464 Arimitsu, Kyoichi, 401 Artecona, G. L., 318 Association of American Medical Colleges, New York Medical Film Institute, 468 Association of American Universities Commission on Financing Higher Education, 509 Association of Special Libraries and Information Bureaux, London, England, 505 Auckland University College, Universify of New Zealand research on plant products of New Zealand, 476 Australia Australian-New Zealand Social Science Fellowship Committee, Melbourne, 446,493 University of Melbourne, 199,474 Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, 200, 468 Austria Austrian College Society, 380, 419 Austro-American Institute of Education, Vienna, 439 Salzburg Seminar, 434-435, 511 University of Graz, 481 University of Vienna, 419 Awwa, Adil, 422 Aziz el-Duri, Abdul, 421 BAIN, James A., M.D., 188-189 Baird, Dr. Dugald, 213 Bnird, Dr. May D., 213 Bakker, C. J., 312 Balance sheets, 452-453 Balenovic, Kresimir, 313 Balfour, Marshall C., M.D., 96,106 Banks, Leslie, 123

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX Barcroft, Henry, 207 Barnard, Chester I., xii, xiii, 95,101 Barnes, Douglas, 220 Barrett, Edward L., Jr., 373 Basadre, Jorge, 89 Bates, Marston, 107 Bauer, Johannes H., M.D., 107 Bayles, B. B., 297 Beal, George J., xii, xiii, 101 Belgium University of Brussels, 465, 471, 480 University of Lie'ge, 465 Belknap, Chauncey, xii, xiii, 102 Bennington College, Vermont interest-group interaction in political process, 337~33 8 > 49] Berger, Michel, 206 Bergmann, Max, 269 Bern, University of, Switzerland Institute of Botany, 479 Theodor Kocher Institute, 479 Bernardes, Bonifacio C., 316 Bevier, George, M.D., 107 Bianco, Dr. I., 208 Bible College of Missouri, 369 Bingham Associates Fund of Maine, Boston, Massachusetts postgraduate medical education, 469 Biochemistry, research in, 52-53, 238-253, 261 280, 476, 478, 479, 4^°> 4^! > 4^2) 4^3> 484 Birkbeck College, University of London, England X-ray analysis of proteins, 481 Birmingham, University of, England, 425 biochemistry, 280, 480 Blakeslee, Albert F., 233 Bloch, Dr. Hubert, 216 Blum, Harold F., 318 Bohr, Niels, 245 Bohstedt, Gustav, xiii Bolivia Division of Rural Endemic Diseases, Ministry of Health, 205, 465 Bontecou, Eleanor, 373

531

Bordeaux, University of, France humanities, 507 Borei, Hans, 318 Borlaug, Norman E., 220 Borton, Hugh, 346,384 Bowen, Howard R., 378 Boyden, Alan A., 314 Brackett, Elizabeth W., 96,106 Bradfield, Richard, xii, xiii, 16, 102, 22O Bramao, Luis, 317 Brandao, Dr. Helvecio, 211 Brazil Araraquara Health Training Center, 205, 470 Institute of Agronomy, Campinas,

4^4 Institute of Agronomy, Pelotas, 316 Institute of Biology, Bahia, 309 malaria, 158, 459 University of Brazil, 480, 489 University of Sao Paulo, 247, 300, 482, 484,490 Brazil, University of, Rio de Janeiro Faculty of Philosophy, 489 Institute of Biophysics, 480 Brennhovd, Mr. and Mrs. Olav, 440 Brew, John 0., 343 Brtckell, Herschel, 428 Briggs, Asa, 423 Bristol, University of, England drama program, 505 British Columbia, Canada health services, 463 British Columbia, University of, Canada Slavic studies, 498, 502 British Museum, London, England Catalogue of Printed Books, 505 Brockington, Dr. Colin Fraser, 213 Brom, A. G., 215 Brookings Institution, Washington, D. C. international relations, 69, 491 Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island fellowships, 488 Brownell, Baker, 425

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

532

INDEX

Brunner, Karl, 383 Brussels, University of, Belgium biochemical embryology, 480 neurophysiology, 465 preventive medicine, 471 Brusset, H., 311 Buerger, Martin, 254-255 Buffalo, University of, New York conference on general education of college grade, 440 Bugher, John C., M.D., 107 Burden, Robert P., D.Sc., 107 Burden Neurological Institute, Bristol, England, 466 Burla, Hans, 318 Burris, Robert H., 240 Buss, Claude, 82 Buzzati-Traverso, Adriano, 312 CALIFORNIA, University of, Berke-

Downing College, 410, 507 history of English criminal law, 364-365, 498 Molteno Institute of Biology and Parasitology, 480 neurophysiology, 466 Psychological Laboratory, 466 University Chemical Laboratory, 268, 480 Canada Canadian Institute of International Affairs, 491 Canadian Social Science Research Council, 376, 446, 491 Dalhousie University, Halifax, 174175, 463 Humanities Research Council, 417418, 506 McGill University, Montreal, 56, 81, 183-185, 396-397, 464, 502,

ley biochemistry, 249,480 construction and installation of cyclotron, 480 Department of Public Health and Medical Administration, 469 Institute for Personality Assessment and Research, 462 Institute of Industrial Relations, 498 Korean studies summer program, 401-402, 501, $03 marine biochemistry, 480 personnel in Slavic .studies, 503 Slavic and Far Eastern studies, 503 studies of aging, 71 California Institute of Technology, Pasadena biology and chemistry, 476 Cambridge, University of, England biologically important materials, 480 Cavendish Laboratory, 480 Department of Applied Economics,

5°4>5U Montreal Neurological Institute, 57 Prince Edward Island, 464 Province of New Brunswick, 464 University of Alberta, Edmonton, 375, 498 University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 498, 502 University of Montreal, 420 University of Toronto, 380, 464, 470, 500, 503 Canadian Social Science Research Council fellowship*, professorial leaves, 446, 491 Cardiff City Mental Hospital, \Valcs brain chemistry, 466 Carlsberg Foundation, Copenhagen, Denmark biochemistry, 258, 261, 476 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, New York, 509 Carnegie Foundation, The Hague, Netherlands, 492

331-332. 498 Department of Biochemistry, 267268 Department of Human Ecology, 123

Carr> H^ry P-J M'D-> I07 Carr, Robert K., 373 Carter, Joseph C., 107 Case, Everett, 346

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX

533

Catholic University of Chile, SantiChild Research Council of Denver, ago Colorado Medical School, 471 child development, 178-179, 461 Causey, Otfis R., Sc.D., 107 Chile Cavalcanti, A. G. Lagdcn, 309 Aconcagua health service, 19^-197 Cell research, 238-253 Catholic University of Chile, SanCentre National de la Recherche Scitiago, 199-200, 205, 471 entifique, Paris, France health services, 465 Institute of Genetics, Gif, 476 Ministry of Agriculture, 484 special equipment for natural sciNational Department of Sanitary ence research, 489 Engineering, 197 -199, 465 travel of non-French delegates to Rural Health Service, Aconcagua, conferences, 489 205 Ceylon School of Public Health, 198, 206, National School of Nursing, Co471 lombo, 473 tuberculosis survey, 465 University of Ceylon University of Chile, 205, 410 Department of Phy.siology and China Pharmacology of the Medical National Institute of Health, 473 College, 475 National Tsing Hua University, Department of Sociology, 475 Kunming, 502 Chamberlain, Lawrence K, 373 China Medical Board, Inc., New York, Change and the Entrepreneur, 333-334 489 Chargaff, Erwin, 235 Chouteau, Jacques, 310 Chatterji, Suniti Kumnr, 420 Chri,stcnsen, J. J., 297 Cheldelin, Vernon H., 3)4 Cincinnati, University of, Ohio Chevallier, Andrt?, 311 psychiatry, teaching, research, 463 Chevallier, Jean-Jacques, 385 Civil rights study, 373 374, 492 Chewon, Kim, 427 Claflin, William H., Jr., xii, xiii, 101 Chicago, University of, Illinois Clark, Dean A., M.D., xii, xiii, 17,102, agricultural economics, 368 369,499 106 American agriculture, 499 Clark, S. D., 380 animal ecology, 480 Clark I'niverMty, Worcester, Mav,aCommittee on Study of Later MJIchiisctts, 419 furity, 71, .587, 499 Clarke, Delphine H., M.D., 107 Cowles Commission, 499 Clay, Sir Henry, 335 experimental ecology, 480 Cleland, Ralph E., 51, 228 meteorite studies, 490 Coggeshall, Lowell T., 17 nondirective psychotherapy, 170Cohen, Benjamin V,, 34(1 173, 463 Colegio de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. psychiatry, teaching and research, advanced study and training of per463 sound, 501 race relations, 499 history of modern Mexico, 89, 406role of history and philosophy, 410 407, 506 411, 507 College de France, Paris statistics, 302 305, 344, 490 experimental monkey station, 465 Child development, research in, 178Cologne, University of, Germany 179 American studies, 402, 505

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

534

INDEX

Colombia National Science Foundation, 440 agricultural development, 41-45, School of International Affairs, 493 47-50, 289-290, 293-296, 485 Far Eastern studies, 492 Faculties of Agronomy, MedelHn Russian Institute, 68, 492 and Palmira, 42-43, 289-290, seminar on religion and health, 424 298-299 social science training, 378-380,492 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 320 urban land use and housing faciligeneral expenses, 471 ties, 367-368, 492 malaria, 459 Commission on History of the Pan Ministry of Agriculture, 42, 297American Institute of Geog298,485 raphy and History, 421 National School of Hygiene, Bohistory of ideas, 406, 504 gota, 471 history of the Americas, 405-406, National Superior School of Nurs504 ing, Bogota, 471 Commission on Review of the InterNational University of Colombia, national Health Division, 16, Bogota, 42-43, 289-290, 29827 299, 320, 485 Committee on Research in Economic University of the Andes, Bogota1, History, Inc., Cambridge, 320 Massachusetts yellow fever, 460 research and training program, 492 Colombian Agricultural Program, 41Commoner, Barry, 315 45, 47-50, 293-296, 298-299 Community Service Society of New scholarships, 289-290 York scientific aides, 296 -297 Institute of Welfare Research, 492 Colorado, University of, Boulder Compton, Karl T., xii, xiii, 101 conference on preventive medicine, Conference on interpretation of Arab 115-116,470 tradition, 393-394, 501 Columbia University, New York Connecticut Agricultural Experiment American Press Institute, 83 Station, New Haven biography of Booker T. Washinggenetics research, 476 ton, 408-409, 503 Conservation Foundation, New York brain chemistry, 461 administrative expenses, 489 College of Physicians and Surgeons soil erosion survey, 54, 307, 487 biochemistry, 246, 476 water resources, 305-306 enzyme chemistry, 476 Conservation of Ground Water, 54, 306 fetal and neonatal injuries, 461 Conway, E. J., 242 genetics and experimental zoolCopenhagen, University of, Denmark, ogy,476 420 immunochemistry, 278-279, 476 biochemistry, physiology, embryolnucleic acid chemistry, 235 ogy, genetics, 481 Department of General and Combiological uses of isotopes, 245, 481 parative Linguistics, 321 Child Guidance Clinic, 465 Department of Slavic Languages, conferences on microbial genetics, 501 481 Institute for Study of Biological genetics of mental defectiveness, Basis of Human Evolution, 465 226-228 purchase of sociology books, 381

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX Cornell University, Ithaca, New York civil liberties and control of subversive activities, 373-374, 492 community action, 492 Department of Preventive Medicine, 469 electron microscope laboratory, 476 enzyme chemistry, 476 group hostility and prejudice, 492 history of modern science, 506 Maize Genetics Cooperation, 234, 476 social adjustment in old age, 71, 72, 492 Southeast Asian studies, 80, 501 statistical service, 117-118 study of Manzanar and Poston war relocation communities, 492 Cortes I., A., 287 Cosslett, V. E., 316 Costa Rica Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Turrialba, 486 National Museum of Costa Rica, San Jose, 426 Council of Academies of Yugoslavia, Belgrade, 320 Council on Foreign Relations, Inc., New York British-American relations, joint study, Royal Institute of International Affairs, 349-350, 493 general support, 346, 349~35°j 493 history of United States foreign relauons during World \Var II, 493 political implications of economic development, 349, 493 Countryman, Vern, 373 County of Cambridgeshire, England study of social accounts, 331-332 Covian, Dr. Miguel, 205 Cowie, Alfred Tennant, 316 Cox, E. G., 311 Crete, Greece survey of, 493 Crime, studies of American Law Institute, 74-75, 361-363,491

535

Commission on Organized Crime, 74, 363,364, 491 Crist, Raymond E., 353-354 Critopoulos, P., 317 Croxatto, Dr. Hector, 200, 205 Cruickshank, Robert, 212 Curjel, Hans, 421 Current Digest of the Soviet Press, 69 Cushman, Robert E., 373 DA CUNHA, A. B., 309 Dagher, Joseph A., 4-12 Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia joint study by Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Psychiatry, 174-175, 463 psychiatry, 463 Dallas Civic Theatre, Texas, 424 D'Ancona, Umberto, 312 Darnells, J. Roy, 417 Danish Technical University, Copenhagen, Denmark teaching and experimental facilities, 471 Darley, Ward, M.D., xiii D'Arms, Edward F., 390 Darrell, Robert, 427 Dass, Dr. Ramji, 207 Davidson, J. W., 380 Davis, Bernard D., 313 Davis, Kingsley, 384 DDT use in malaria eradication programs, 146, 147, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156- J 58, 458 Deakin, F. W. D., 385 de Camargo, Felisberto C., 315 de Duve, Christian, 316 de la Garza, Melendez, 287 de los Angeles, M., 287 del Pozo, Dr. Efren C., 209 Denmark Carlsberg Foundation, 258, 261,476 Danish Technical University, 471 National Health Department, 465 University of Aarhus, 465

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

536

INDEX

Denmark — Continued University of Copenhagen, 245,381, 420, 465, 481 Delaware, University of, Newark individual income tax returns, 366367, 499 Denker, David A., 425 De Robertis, Eduardo, 318 Desnuelle, Pierre, 310 de Souza, Ruth, 424 Deulofeu, Venancio, 309 Development of health sciences, 33 35,169-199 DeVinney, Leland C., 324 Devons, Ely, 332 Dickey, John S., xii, xiii, 101 Dingle, John H., M.D., xiii Dische, Zacharias, 246 Dobzhansky, Theodosius, 227 Dodds, Harold W., xii, xiii, 101, 102 Dominican Republic Endemic Disease Control Service, 206, 464 Doty, Paul M., 263 Douglas, I^ewis W., xii, xiii, 101 Downing College, University of Cambridge, England, 410, 507 Downs, Wilbur G., M.D., 107 Dublin, Louis I., 373 Duke University, Durham, North Carolina parapsychology, 461 physical chemistry, 476 state per capita incomes, 365-366, 493 Dulles, John Foster, xii, xiii, 101, 102 Dunlop, John, 374 Dunn, Frederick S., 345 -346 Dunn, Leslie C., 227 Durham, University of, England modern Near Eastern cultures, 397398, 503 Dutch Coordinating Committee for Cultural Relations with Germany, Netherlands, 383 EAST EUROPEAN ACCESSIONS LIST,, 403

Eastin, Charles £.,315 Eaton, Allen, 423 Eccles, J. C, 215 Ecole Poly technique, Paris, France, 382 Ecology, studies in, 15, 16, J 8, 45 -47, 54, 59, 475, 480, 496 Economic Commission for Europe, United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland in-service training scholarships, 493 study of European economy, 493 Economic studies, 67-68, 330-335, 492, 493, 496 Ecuador School of Nursing, Quito, 471 Eddy, Junius, 424 Edinburgh, University of, Scotland Department of Animal Genetics, 481 Department of Chemistry, 274-275, 481 neurosurgery, neurology, psychiatry, 466 Educational Trust of the American Hospital Association, Chicago, Illinois, 468 Edwards, George A., 319 Ehrenstein, Maximilian R., 314 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 346 Elinor Morgenthau New Dramatists Workshop, 404 Elmendorf, John E., Jr., M.D., 107 Elmira, New York, 71 Engedal, Dr. Knut, 215 Engelhard, Dr. Hermanus Mariu.s.^i < England, see Great Britain Ente Regionnle per la Lotta anti-Anofelica in Sardcgna (ERLAAS), 146-151 Equipment Fund, 457 Ernst, Earle, 423 Europe health services, 465, 471-473 malaria control, 458 public health education, 471-473 European rehabilitation, 509 Evans, Roger F., 324 Everett, Charles W., 384

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX

537

Exchange Fund, 509 Experimental biology, 36-38, 47-49, 51, 216-281, 308, 476 -484 Explorations in Entrepreneurial Hisiory-> 334

medical sciences, 444 National Research Council, 35, 48, 186 187, 210, 226, 265-266, 301-302,446,474,478,488,489 National Theatre Conference, 446 natural sciences, w^ FAHS, Charles B., xii, xiii, 101, 390 New York University, 488 Fair, Gordon M., xii, 17,102,106, 208 Rockefeller Foundation, 474, 488, Falardeau, Jean-Charles, 376 493, 508 Family health care Social Science Research Council, 446 personnel requirements, 122-124, social sciences, 444 468 Kestinger, Leon, 387 Far East, 358 Fieser, Louis F., 279 malaria, 151-153, 458 Financial Statement, 103 population problems, 15 Finkelstein, Rabbi Louis, 437 seminars, 82- 83 Finland Fasnacht, G. E., 381 health services, 465 Federal Council of Churches of Christ Helsinki College of Nursing, 472 in America, New York Helsinki Institute of Industrial Department of the Church and Hygiene, 472 Economic Life, 493 Fisher, Ernest H., 367 Federal Technical Institute, Zurich, Fisher, Lloyd, 71 Switzerland Fishwick, Marshall W., 425 chemistry of physiologically imporFitzgerald, Robert, 426 tant compounds, 275-276, 477 Fleming, Dr. Charles Mann, 213 Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Florida 477 typhus fever, 459 Fell, Honor B., 311 Florida, University of, Gainesville Fellowships, 441-446 land tenure systems in Middle Ea.st, American Council of Learned So353"354> 499 cieties, Washington, D. C, 446, Florio, Lloyd, M.D., 115 508 Foerster, Otfried, 56 Australian-New Zealand Social SciForeign Policy Association, New York ence Fellowship Committee, research and general program, 494 Melbourne, 446, 491 Foreman, Clark, 426 Brown University, 488 Fosdick, Raymond B., 91 92 Canadian Social Science Research Foundation for Integrated Education, Council, Ottawa, 446 Inc., New York, 4:7 Columbia University, School of In- Fox, Sidney W., 264 ternational Affairs, 493 France Economic Commission for Europe Centre National de la Recherche of the United Nations,, 493 Scientifique, Paris, 476, 489 Health Commission, 474 College de France, Paris, 465 humanities, 444 hcole Polytechnique, Paris, 382 Institut de Science Lconomique Institut de Science Lconomique ApAppliqufe, Paris, 377, 494 pliquee, Paris, 377, 382, 494 Medical Library Association, 474 National Foundation for Political Medical Research Council, 446,474 Science, 361, 496

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

538

INDEX

France — Continued Free University of Berlin, 510 Office National des Universes, German Society for Foreign Studies, Paris, 496 Munich, 382 survey of Soissons area, 465 Institute for Research in Economics, University of Bordeaux, 507 Munich, 382 University of Lyon, 507 School for Political Sciences, MuUniversity of Paris, 470, 482 nich, 382 University of Toulouse, 507 Soziographisches Institut, FrankFrankel, S. Herbert, 381 fart, 383 Free Trade Union Committee, AmerUniversity of Frankfurt, 382 ican Federation of Labor, 385 University of Heidelberg, 466 Free University of Berlin, Germany University of Munich, 420, 505 social sciences and humanities, 510 Gerschenkron, Alexander, 385 Freeman, Douglas S., xii, 95, 101 Gibb, H. A. R., 420 Freeman, Ruth, 217 Gibler, John W., 97, 220 Freire-Maia, Newton, 309 Gifford, Walter S., 16 Friberg, Dr. Lars Torsten, 216 Gilpatric, Chadbourne, 390 Fromageot, Claude, 270 Giotti, Dr. Alberto, 208 Fruton, Joseph S., 53, 269-270 Gipson, Lawrence H., 425 Funds available for commitment, 456Glasgow, University of, Scotland 457 equipment for natural science reFyzee, Asaf A. A., 421 search, 481 Glass, Mrs. Ruth, 381 GABALD6N, Dr. Arnoldo, 159 Goedhart, D. J. van Heuven, 438 Gabor, Dennis, 316 Gokhale Institute of Politics and EcoGadgil, D. R., 360 nomics, Poona, India Galenson, Walter, 374 demographic studies, 360, 494 Garceau, Oliver, 337 Goldberg, Elsa M., 213 Gasser, Herbert S., M.D., xii, xiii, 101, Goldsmith, Selma, 367 102 Goodrich, Herbert F., 362 Geber, Marcelle, 206 Goodrich, Leland M., 346 Geddes, Arthur, 387 Gordon Research Conferences of the Geiger, Theodor, 381 American Association for the Gellhorn, Walter, 373 Advancement of Science, 319 General appropriations, 6 Grabar, Pierre, 310 General Education Board, 19, 21, 510 Grabbe, Paul, 422 appropriations and payments, 6, Granit, Ragnar, 216 438~439 Grant, John B., M.D., 96,106 Genetics, research in, 51-52, 179-180, Grant, Ulysses J., 97, 220 226-234, 300-301, 308, 462, Grants in aid, 474-475 476, 477, 479, 48 J» 483, 487 Chinese scholars, 501 Geneva, University of, Switzerland emergency scientific equipment, Institute of Human Genetics, 467 Italy, 488 organic chemistry, 481 emergency scientific equipment, Georgia State College for Women, Netherlands, 475, 488 Milledgeville, 461 humanities, 418-428, 501, 508 Germany medical sciences, 114, 203-217, 474 Frankfurt seminar, 439 natural sciences, 307-321, 488

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX

539

non-Muslem student visits to Islam, University of Glasgow, 481 508 University of London, 466, 472,481 Rockefeller Foundation, 474, 488, University of Manchester, 332-333, 494,508,510 420, 468, 481, 499 social sciences, 380-388, 494 University of Nottingham, 482 Graz, University of, Austria, 481 University of Oxford, 271, 466, 482, Greany, Dr. Willoughby Hugh, 210 500 Great Britain Greece Association of Special Libraries and American School of Classical StudInformation Bureaux, London, ies, 506 505 see also Crete British Museum, 505 Green, Mr. and Mrs. Paul, 83 Burden Neurological Institute, BrisGregg, Alan, M.D., xii, xiii, 16,94,101 tol, 466 Groen, Dr. Juda, 173-174 Cardiff City Mental Hospital, 466 Guerva C., J., 287 Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, 481 HAGAN, W. A., 319 International African Institute, Hahn, Richard G., M.D., 107 354-355, 495 Halverson, Wilton L., M.D., xii, 17, London School of Economics and 102, 106 Political Science, 495 Hammarsten, Einar, 318 London School of Hygiene and Hamner, Karl C., 314 Tropical Medicine, 472 Hanna, Frank A., 365-366 Medical Research Council, London, Harington, Sir Charles, 191-192 191-192, 446, 466, 474 Harker, David, 52-53, 256 National Institute of Economic and Harrar, J. G., xii, xiii, 51, 97, 220 Social Research of Great Brit- Harrison, Wallace K., xii, xiii, 95,101, ain, London, 334~335> 4°7-4°8, 102 496, 507 Hart, Clyde, 345 Royal Institute of International AfHarvard University, Cambridge, fairs, London, 349-350, 351Massachusetts 353, 497 chemotherapy, 279-280, 477 Royal Institution of Great Britain, Department of Chemistry, 263-264, London, 489 477 Royal Statistical Society, London, Department of Hygiene, 461 497 description of contemporary RusTavistock Institute of Human Rehisian language, 501 dons, London, 466 economic research, 330 -331, 494 University of Birmingham, 280, epilepsy research, 461 425, 480 European labor movements, 374University of Bristol, 505 375, 385 University of Cambridge, 123,267expedition to Mendoza, Argentina, 268, 331-332, 364-365, 410, 217 466, 480, 507 general budget, 469 University of Durham, 397-398, Laboratory of Human ^Develop503 ment, 341-342, 3^5. 494 University of Edinburgh, 274-275, Laboratory of Social Relations, 181466,481

183,342-343,461*494

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

54°

INDEX

Harvard University — Continued legal medicine, 469 Medical School, Boston, 247 Department of Dermatology, 469 psychiatry, 461 tissue structure, 477 personality development, 461 Research Center in Entrepreneurial History, 333-334, 494 research in the history of science, 489 social sciences, 494 state election statistics, 336, 494 trace elements, 276, 477 Harvey, A. McGehee, M.D., xiii Haskins Laboratories, New York protozoological chemistry, 477 Hassel, Odd, 280 Haverford College, Pennsylvania case studies of technical assistance, 35° 3SJ> 495 Hayes, Guy S., M.D., 107 Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York, 29, 468 study of experience, 124-125 Health sciences, 114, 460-468 Health services, state and local, 462, 468 Hebb, Donald 0., 183-185 Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 421 Heidelberg, University of, Germany Institute of Psychosomatic Medicine, 466 Heidelberger, Michael, 278 279 Helsinki College of Nursing, Finland, 472 Helsinki Institute of Industrial Hygiene, Finland, 472 Henle, Paul, 78 Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, California, 504 Hepncr, F., 419 Hercus, Sir Charles E., 215 Herndndez X., E., 286 Herschberger, Ruth, 424, 425 Hevesy, George, 245 Hightower, James R., 422

Hill, Rolla B., M.D., 107 Hilliard, Raymond, 370 Hinton, Taylor, 272 Hirst, Edmund Langley, 274-275 Hirst, Esther M., 107 Hjaltested, Dr. OH P., 214 Hochwalt, Rev. Frederick G., 437 Hoffman, Dr. Francisco, 205 Hoffmann, Walther, 382 Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, 82 Holland, see Netherlands Holmes, Dr. Eric G., 209 Holter, Heinz, 261 Honduras Pan American Agricultural School, Tegucigalpa, 486 Hookworm, 19 Hopkin, W. A. B., 335 Horowicz, Joachim Henry, 211 Horowitz, Daniel, 374 Hovland, Carl I., 338-339 Hughes, David Morgan, 380 Human behavior, 60-67 Humane values, 84-90, 403-417 Humanities, Division of, 15, 76-91 appropriations and payments, 6, 500-508 fellowships, 444-445, 501, 508 grants in aid, 418-428, 501, 508 joint Humanities-Social Sciences grants, 357, 358-359, 398, 401, 402 program, 389-428 staff, 390 Humanities Research Council of Canada, Toronto, 417-418, 506 Hunold, Albert, 383 Hunter, Kermit, 425 Huskey, Harry D., 313 Hydrick, John L., M.D., 107 ICELAND investigation of disease closely resembling poliomyelitis, 460 Iceland, University of, Reykjavik Institute of Experimental Pathology, 490

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX Illinois, University of, Urbana brain chemistry, 188-189, 463 insect biochemistry, 481 restatement of American philosophy, 440 Illinois Neuropsychiatric Institute, 189 Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, 481 India Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Poona, 360, 494 Indian Medical Research Council, 130 Ministry of Health, 33 Mysore State anemia studies, 166167 Mysore State malaria control studies, 151-153,458 Pakistan Malaria Institute, 458 Indiana University, Bloomington East European studies, 501 genetics, 228-229, 477 Institute for Sex Research, 187 Institut de Science Economique Applique'e, Paris, France research program, 495 social accounting studies, 382 training fellowships, 377,494 Institute for Unity of Science, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 489 Institute of Agronomy, Campinas Brazil, 484 Institute of Agronomy of the South, Pelotas, Brazil, 316 Instittite of Economic and Social Research, Paris, France, 495 Institute of History of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Univer.->ity, 120 121, 469 I institute of Human Genetics, Geneva, Switzerland, 467 Institute of Hygiene, Zagreb, Yugoslavia, 473 Institute of In tern at ton til Education, New York arts program, 506 student exchange, 437 438, 510

54!

visits of foreign artists to United States, 84,404-405 Institute of the Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia neurophysiology, 461 Instituto Agron6mico, Campinas, Bra01,484 Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 484 Inter-American Institute of Agriculrural Sciences, Turrialba, Costa Rica Scientific Communication Service, 486 tropical dairy cattle, 486 Inter-American Symposium on Plant Breeding, Pests and Diseases, Mexico, D. R, 290-291, 486 Inter-American Symposium on Plant Pests and Diseases, Mexico, D. F., 486 Intercultural understanding, 79-84, 393 -403 International African Institute, London, England study of Fulani-speaking people, 3S4-J5S. 495 International Health Board, 20 International Health Division, 15, ao history of, 510 New York laboratories, 129 International Press Institute, Zurich, Switzerland, 90-91, 432-433, 511 International relations and understanding, 345 361 International studies Brookingb Institution, 69, 491 Council on Foreign Relations, Inc., 346, 349 35°. 49J National Foundation of Political Sciences, Paris, 361, 496 Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, 349-350, 351353, 493, 497 Russian Institute, Columbia Universify, 68 University of Notre Dame, 499

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

542.

INDEX

Interpersonal and intergroup relations, 338-343 Invested funds, transactions relating to, 515-521 Investigation and control of specific diseases and deficiencies, 114, 125-166 Iowa State College, Ames genetics, 477 protein chemistry, 264, 477 Iran health services, 192, 195, 468 Ministry of Health, 192 Islam, 394-398 Italy, 458 field laboratory for insecticide study, Latina, 458 High Commission for Hygiene and Public Health, 146 Institute of Historical Studies, Napies, 506 malaria, 458 University of Pavia, 458 University of Rome, 472 Ivekovic, Hrvoje, 216 Ives, Philip T., 272 JAKOBSON, Roman, 77 James, F. Cyril, 397 James, Marquis, 409 Janney, John H., M.D., 107 Jansen, Marius B., 423 Japan Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 82 Institute of Public Health, Tokyo, 208, 473 Japanese Council on Medical Education, 473 Japanese-United States cultural relations, 440 medical books, 201, 473 Tokyo University seminars in American studies, 81-82,358-359,398,504 University of Nagoya, 423 Jasny, Naum, 357 Jenks, Leland M., 334 Jewkes, John, 332

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore Maryland biochemical research, 477 Department of Political Economy 121,335,495 Institute of the History of Medi cine, 120-121,469 international relations, 495 School of Hygiene and Public Health, 469 rodent ecology and control, 460 taxonomic research center, 460 Johnson, D. Gale, 368 Johnson, Edgar A, J., 401 Johnson, F. Ernest, 437 Johnson, Harald N., M.D., 107 Johnson, Joseph E., 346 Jones, Mrs. Dorothy B., 426 Jones, E. R. H., 311 Jones, Margo, 90 Jorgensen, C. Barker, 316 Julius, Henri William, 21J Jung, Dr. Richard, 212 Junqueira, Luiz Carlos, 247 KAILA, Dr. Martti, 212 Kalakshetra, 427 Kallmann, Dr. Franz J., 210 Karamu House, Cleveland, Ohio, 90 Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden Anatomical Institute, 477 Institute for Cell Research, 477 Institute of Chemistry, 477 Medical Nobel Institute, 477 research in neurophysiology, 467 Karper, R. E., 297 Kendrick, John F., M.D., 107 Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio Kenyon Rtview, 507 Kerr, Clark, 71, 374 Kerr, J. Austin, M.D., 107 Kerr, Warwick, 52, 310 Key, V.O., 336-337 Kimball, Lindsley F., xii, xiii, 101 King's College, London, England biophysics, 481 molecular biology, 481

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX Interpersonal and intergroup relations, 338-343 Invested funds, transactions relating to, 515-521 Investigation and control of specific diseases and deficiencies, 114, 125-166 Iowa State College, Ames genetics, 477 protein chemistry, 264, 477 Iran health services, 192, 195, 468 Ministry of Health, 192 Islam, 394-398 Italy, 458 field laboratory for insecticide study, Latina, 458 High Commission for Hygiene and Public Health, 146 Institute of Historical Studies, Napies, 506 malaria, 458 University of Pavia, 458 University of Rome, 472 Ivekovic, Hrvoje, 216 Ives, Philip T., 272 JAKOBSON, Roman, 77 James, F. Cyril, 397 James, Marquis, 409 Janney, John H., M.D., 107 Jansen, Marhis B., 423 Japan Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 82 Institute of Public Health, Tokyo, 208, 473 Japanese Council on Medical Education, 473 Japanese-United States cultural relations, 440 medical books, 201, 473 Tokyo University seminars in American studies, 81-82, 358-359, 398, 504 University of Nagoya, 423 Jasny, Naum, 357 Jenks, Leland M., 334 Jewkes, John, 332

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland biochemical research, 477 Department of Political Economy, 121, 335*495 Institute of the History of Medicine, 120-121,469 international relations, 495 School of Hygiene and Public Health, 469 rodent ecology and control, 460 taxonomic research center, 460 Johnson, D. Gale, 368 Johnson, Edgar A. J., 401 Johnson, F. Ernest, 437 Johnson, Harald N., M.D., 107 Johnson, Joseph E., 346 Jones, Mrs. Dorothy B., 426 Jones, E. R. H., 311 Jones, Margo, 90 Jorgensen, C. Barker, 316 Julius, Henri William, 21 y Jung, Dr. Richard, 212 Junqueira, Luiz Carlos, 247 KA1LA, Dr. Martti, 212 Kalakshetra, 427 Kallmann, Dr. Franz J., 210 Karamu House, Cleveland, Ohio, 90 Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden Anatomical Institute, 477 Institute for Cell Research, 477 Institute of Chemistry, 477 Medical Nobel Institute, 477 research in neurophysiology, 467 Knrper, R. E., 297 Kendrick, John R, M.D., 107 Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio Kenyon Rtvitiv, 507 Kerr, Clark, 71, 374 Kerr, J. Austin, M.D., 107 Kerr, Warwick, 52, 310 Key, V. O., 336-337 Kimball, Lindsley F., xii, xiii, 101 King's College, London, England biophysics, 481 molecular biology, 481

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX Kinsey, Alfred C., 187 Kirk wood, S., 3 ] o Kitchen, Stuart R, M.D., 107 Kluckhohn, Clyde, 343 Knight, Frank H., 386 Knipe, Frederick W., 107 Knoellinger, Carl E., 374 Koffier, Heinrich, 314 Korea, 401-402, 501, 502, 503 Kratky, Otto, 309 Krebs, Hans Adolf, 53, 241 Kuhn, Hans, 312 Kumm, Henry W,, M.D., 96, 107 Kuznets, Simon, 367 LABORATORY of Human Development, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 341-342, 385, 494 Laboratory of Social Relations, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts behavior patterns, 181-183, 461 cultural values study, 342-343, 494 motivated perception, 494 Laboratory studies, Division of Medicine and Public Health copper, 162-164 in vitro, 165-166 parasite growth, 164-165 plasmodium, 160-162 Laguna, Dr. Jose", 209 Landau, Julius, 425 Lane, Frederic C., 97, 324 Language, logic, symbolism, 77-79 Language studies, 503 comparative linguistics, 321 description of Russian language, 77, 503 language and symbolism, 78, 503 Laport, Dr. Yves, 207 La Salle College, Vedado-Havana, Cuba, 320 Lashley, KarlS., 181 Latin America agricultural scholarships, 289-290, 486 area studies, 80

543

Natural Sciences program, 48-50, 281-300 Lavaill, Henri, 382 Law and morals, 74-76 Lawson, Mabel Gordon, 213 Lazarsfeld, Paul, 379 Leavell, Hugh R., M.D., xiii Leavis, F. R., 410 Lebanon American University of Beirut, 209, 501 Lebel, Maurice, 418 Le Bon Secours School of Nursing, Geneva, Switzerland, 473 Lee, Mrs. Dorothy, 419 Legal medicine, 201-202, 469 Leloir, Luis F., 308 Leon, Alberto, 317 Leonard, Irving A., 422 Leontief, Wassily, 67, 331 Lepman, Mrs. Jella, 436 Lesser, Simon O., 426 Letort, Maurice, 311 Letort, Robert, 98 Letter of Transmission, xv Levine, P. P., 319 Levitan, Max, 315 Levy. Roger, 382 Lewis, Howard P., M.D., 176, 177 Li, Choh Hao, 250 Libraries American Library Association, 435436, 509 Association of Special Libraries and Information Bureaux, London, 505 Library of Congress, Washington, D. C., 358, 402, 495, 504 Medical Library Association, 116117, 474 Midwest Inter-Library Corporadon, 511 Newberry Library, Chicago, 504 Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. American studies, 504 East European and Russian accessions lists, 358,402,495

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

544

INDEX

Lie"ge, University of, Belgium Laboratory of Neuroanatomy, 465 Linderstrjfan-Lang, K. U., 261 Linton, Clarence, 436 Lipmann, Fritz, 53 Lipset, Seymour M., 384 Little, Ian, M.D., 381 Lively, Charles E., 370 Locke, Alain, 424 Loeb, Robert F.,M.D., xii, xiii, 16,101, ioa Loewenthal, Rudolf, 385 Logan, John A., D.Sc., 107 London, University of, England Birkbeck College, 481 Galton Laboratory, 466 King's College, 481 University College, 472 London School of Economics and PoHtical Science, England Department of Social and Demographic Research, 495 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, England public health work, 472 Long Island Biological Association, Cold Spring Harbor, New York equipment, 478 LSnnrorh, Erik, 427 Loomis, William F., 97, 220 Loring, Hubert S., 136 Lorwin, Val, 374 Lovett, Robert A., xii, xiii, 101 Luck, J. Murray, 258 Luco, Dr. Joaquin V., 200 Lund, Hakon, 316 Lund, University of, Sweden endocrinology, 467 genetics, 232, 481 Lush, J. L,, 319 Lutz, Friedrich A., 386 Luyet, B. J., 319 Lyon, University of, France humanities, 507 McCOLLUM, E. V., 313 McCoy, Oliver R., M.D., 107 McFadden, E. S., 297

McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 56 brain chemistry, 464 Department of Psychiatry, 464 endocrinology, 464 Institute of Islamic Studies, 81, 396~397> S°2 physiological basis of behavior, 183185,464 studies in life of W. L. Mackenzie King, 504 universities of the British Commonwealth, 511 Mclnnis, Edgar, 381 Mclntosh, Wiiliam A., M.D., 107 McKelvey, J. J., Jr., 220, 287 Mackie, Thomas Laws, 213 Madeod, Dr. Wendell, 205 McNetll, William H., 381 Magoon, Estus H., 107 Maier, John, M.D., 107 Mainx, Felix, 309 Major Problems of United States Foreign Policy) 69-70 Makerere College Medical School, Kampala, Uganda, 209 Malaria, 20, 146-166, 458-459 Brazil, 158,459 Europe, 458 Italy, 458 Mexico, 153-156, 458 Mysore State, India, 151-153, 458 Pakistan, 458 Sardinia, 146-151,458 Tobago, 158-159, 209, 458 Venezuela, 159-160, 459 Manchester, University of, England Department of American Studies, 420 Department of Organic Chemistry, 481 experimental health center, 468 Faculty of Economic and Social Studies, 332-333, 499 Mangclsdorf, P. C, xii, xiii, 17, 102, 220, 286 Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, 272, 478

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX

545

Markel, Lester, 434 Medicine and Public Health, Division Marsan, Dr. Cosimo A., 208 of, 17, 34 Marshall, John, 390 appropriations and payments, 458Maryland State Planning Commission 475 surveys on medical care problems in fellowships, 114, 440 Maryland, 210 grants in aid, 114, 203-217, 474 Marzana, Dr. Roberto, 211 history, 18-23 Mason, H. A., 410 program, 105-217 Massachusetts General Hospital, Bosstaff, 34, 106-107, U4 ton Mejfa V£lez, Eduardo, 316 endocrinology and metabolism, 461 Melbourne, University of, Australia enzyme chemistry, 53, 478 Department of Physiology, 199, Spectroscopic Laboratory, 252-253, 474 478 Men in Business, 333 Massachusetts Institute of TechnolMenjivar, Dr. Alirio, 212 ogy, Cambridge Menninger Foundation, Topeka, analysis of Russian language, 77 Kansas biology, 478 school for psychiatric aides, 461 mathematical biology, 461 Mental health, 169-170, 200-201, 462, mathematical biology project with 467 National Institute of CardiolMethven, Dr. Margaret M., 213 ogy, Mexico, 478 Metz, Dr. Bernard G. M. C., 207 physical chemistry of protein MJ!UMexican Agricultural Program, 41 51, tions, 478 281-289,487 X-ray crystallography, 254, 478 scholarships, 289 290 Matsuda, Takeo, 383 scientific aides, 296-297 Maxcy, Kenneth F., M.D., xii, 17, Mexico 102, 106 agricultural program, 41-51, 281May, Stacy, 349 Mayer, Peter, 407 Mayor's Advisory Committee for the Aged, New York, 71, 370, 373, 496 Medical care, 2731, 114, 122-125, 210,468 Medical Film Institute, 469 Medical Library Association, Detroit, Michigan fellowships, 116-117, 474 Medical microfilms for Europe, 47.5 Medical Research Council, London, England fellowships, 446, 474 National Institute for Medical Research, 191-192 .scientific equipment, 466 Medical Sciences, 15 appropriations and grants, 6

**9> 4^7 and Colombia, 487 Colegiodc Mexico, 89, 406-407, 501, 506 control of insect vectors, 209 health services, 464 inter-American 'Symposium on Plant Breeding, Pests and Diseases, 486 investigations in Veracruz, 458 malaria, 153-156, 458 Mexico City College, 424 National College of Agriculture, Chapingo, 42, 487 National Institute of Anthropology and History, 502 National Institute of Cardiology, 461, 464 Office of Special Sanitary Service, 464

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX Mexico — Continued Mitchell, George, 317 Secretariat of Agriculture and AniMitscherlich, Dr. Alexander, 212 mal Industry, 41, 42,46, 487 Modigliani, Franco, 386 Secretariat of the Marine, 320 Moe, Henry Allen, xii, xiii, 16,101,102 State of Mexico, 45-47, 291-293 Montalenti, Giuseppi, 208, 311 Technological Institute, Monterrey, Monthly Last of Russian Accessions, 487 403 training center, 464 Montreal General Hospital, Canada training health personnel in United biochemical research, 478 States, 470 Moore, Admiral Sir Henry, 350 Meyer, Karl, 217 Morgan, Hugh J., M. D., xii, xiii, 17, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 102,106 population redistribution, 496 Morin, Dr. Georges, 206 Michigan, University of, Ann Arbor, Morison, Robert S., M.D., 106 423 Moruzzi, Dr. Giuseppe, 202-203 Research Center for Group DynamMosely, Philip E., 97-98, 324, 349 ics, 387, 499 Mount Palomar, 48 School of Public Health, 210 Mousseron, Max, 310 theory of language and symbolism, Mousset, Paul, 420 78, 503 Mucciolo, Paschoal, 300 Michigan State College, East Lansing Muench, Hugo, M.D., 17 midwestern life and history, 504 Muller, H. J., 51, 228, 229 Mickey, George H., 314 Munich, University of, Germany Mickey, Janice E., 217 Amerika Institut, 420, 505 Microfilm readers for institutes of Muntzmg, Arne, 232-233 hygiene in Europe, 473 Muramatsu, Dr. Tsuneo, 208 Midwest Inter-Library Corporation, Museum of Modern Art, New York, Chicago, Illinois 422 central depository library, 511 Myers, Edward D., 89, 425 Millar, Dr. William Malcolm, 213 Myers, William I., xii, xiii, 16, 101 Miller, Harry M., Jr., 220 Mysore State, India Ministry of Agriculture, Bogod, Coanemia studies, 166-167, 207, 459 lornbia, 42, 485 malaria studies, 151-153, 207, 458 experimental greenhouse, 297-298 studies, control demonstration, 458 Ministry of Agriculture, Santiago, virus investigations, 207 Chile, 484 Ministry of Health, Bolivia, 205, 465 NAKAMURA, Hajime, 79 Ministry of Health, Norway Nason, John W., 437 public health study, 472 Natal, University of, Durban, South Minnesota, University of, Minneapolis Africa, 210 Dight Institute for Human GenetNational Archives, Washington, D. C. ics, 177-178, 463 microfilm stocks, 504 Industrial Relations Center, 499 National Association for Mental Mirkovic, Mijo, 384 Health, New York, 169-170, Missouri, University of, Columbia 462 rural church studies, 369-370, 387, National Bureau of Economic Re499 search, New York School of Journalism, 84 aid to activities, 67

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX research in finance and fiscal polides, 496 National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, 74 National Department of Sanitary Engineering, Chile, 197-199, 465 National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, 38 National Foundation for Political Science, Paris, France international relations, 361, 496 National Fund for Medical Education administrative expenses, 210 National Health Council, Inc., New York coordination of voluntary health agencies, 462 National Institute of Anthropology and History, Mexico, D. F. developmental aid, 502 National Institute of Cardiology, Mexico, D. F. mathematical biology, 461 neurophysiology, 464 National Institute of Economic and Social Research of Great Britain, London editing works of Alexis de Tocqueville, 407-408, 507 general budget, 334-335. 496 Internation.nl Association for Research in Income and Wealth, 496 National League of Nursing Education accrediting program, 118-120, 469 National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, Illinois, 344-345, 496 National Research Council, Washington, D. C., 35 American Institute of Biologic.it Sciences, 265-266, 478 Committee for Research in Problems of Sex, 186-187, 462 Committee on Developmental Biology, 249, 478 Conference Board of the Associated Research Councils, 511

547

fellowships, 48, 210, 226, 446, 474, 488 medical sciences, 446, 474 natural sciences, 446 Office of Scientific Personnel, 226, 301-302,489 United States National Committee of the International Union of Crystallography, 478 Welch fellows, 446, 474 National School of Nursing, Caracas Venezuela, 471 National School of Nursing, Ceylon, 473 National Science Foundation, Washington, D. C, 38 National Superior School of Nursing, Bogota, Colombia, 471 National Theatre Conference, Cleveland, Ohio support of activities, 446, 505 National Travelers Aid Association, New York, 440 National Tsing Hua University, Kunming, China humanities, 502 National University of Colombia, Bogotd Faculties of Agronomy, Medellin and Palmira, 42-43, 289-290, 298-299, 320, 485 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 320 Natural Sciences and Agriculture, Division of, 15, 18, 35-38, 41 appropriations and payments, 6, 476 -490 fellowships, 444-445, 488 grants in aid, 307-321, 488 joint Natural Sciences and Agriculture-Social Sciences grant, 226, 302,305,344 program, 47-60, 219-321 staff, 220 Neisser, Hans, 386 Netherlands Carnegie Foundation, The Hague, 492 grants in aid, 475

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

548

INDEX

Netherlands — Continued Institute of Preventive Medicine, Leiden, 472 National Health Department, 467 Netherlands Economic Institute, Rotterdam, 383 University of Amsterdam, 467 University of Utrecht, 203, 472, 483 Wilhelmina Hospital, 467 Netherlands Economic Institute, Rotterdam input-output technique analysis, 383 Neurath, Hans, 261-262 Neurophysiology, research in, 461, 463, 465, 466, 467 New Brunswick, Province of, Canada Division of Sanitary Engineering, 464 New Dramatists Committee, Inc., New York, 89, 403-404, 505 New England Center Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts appointments for medical graduates from armed services, 469 postgraduate medical education, 469 New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts endocrinology, 462 New School for Social Re.search, New York, 386 New York City Department of Health statistical service, 462 New York State Psychiatric Institute investigation of visual critical flickerfusion threshold, 210 New York University, New York fellowships, 488 rehabilitation of neurological patients, 189- 191,462 New Zealand Auckland University College, University of New Zealand, 476 Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois midwestern culture, 504 Niederhauser, John S., 220 Niemeyer, Dr. Herman, 205

Nik am, N. A., 424 Nikolic, Stevan, 313 Noll, Anna Mary, 96, 107 Norden, Dr. Ake, 209 North Carolina, University of, Chapel Hill, 423 mathematical and experimental genetics, 300-301,481, 487 School of Medicine, 2g Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts analysis of Russian language, 77 Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois protein chemistry, 478 Norway mental disease, 467 Ministry of Health, 472 Ministry of Social Welfare, Health Department, 467 statistical division, 467 University of Oslo, 187-188, 200201, 280-281, 467, 482, 490 507 Nossal, Peter M., 315 Notre Dame, University of, South Bend, Indiana international relations, 499 Nottingham, University of, England biochemistry, 482 Novotny, Jan M., 380 Nowacki, Werner, 313 Nucleic acids, 234-238 Nursing schools, 118-120, 469, 470, 471, 472, 473 Nutrition, 459 OBERLING, Dr. Charles, 206 Occidental College, Los Angeles, California area studies of the Southwest, 502 Odegard, Dr. £)rnulv, 201, 215 Office of Air Research, 38 Office of Naval Research, 38, 266 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva, Switzerland survey of refugee problem, 438, 511

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX Office National des Universites, Paris, France, 496 Ohio State University, Columbus, 496 Oklahoma, University of, Norman, 426, 505 Oliver, Wade W., M.D., 106 Opler, Morris £., 422 Oregon, University of, Eugene Medical School, Portland, 34 constitutional medicine, 175-177, 463 investigation of pain, 463 neurophysiology, 463 Orjuela Navarrete, Juan, 297-298 Osborn, Fail-field, 17, 54 Oslo, University of, Norway construction of natural sciences research facilities, 490 humanities, 507 Institute of Economics, 499 mental illness, 200-201, 467 plant physiology and X-ray crystallography,280-281,482 respiratory physiology, 187-188 Ulleval Hospital, 467 Oster, Gerald, 314 Other appropriations, 429-440 Oxford, University of, England Dyson Perrins Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, 271, 482 neurohistology, 466 Nuffield College, 500 Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, 482 PACIFIC Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations, Honolulu, Hawaii, 496 Pacific Science Association, 511 Pacific Spectator, 414 Packer, Dr. A. D., 2io Paik, L, George, 401 Paintal, Dr. Autar S., 207 Pakistan malaria institute and laboratory, 458 Pan American Agricultural School, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 486

549

Pan American Institute of Geography and History, 89 Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Washington, D. C, 475 Papajewski, Helmut, 420 Paris, University of, France Laboratory of Biological Chemistry, 270, 482 Parker, Dorothy, 220 Parran, Thomas, M.D., xii, xiii, 16, 101, 102, 106 Pasquini, Pasquale, 311,317 Pasvolsky, Leo, 69 Patterson, Robert P., 363 Paukovic, Nikola, 216 Pavia, University of, Italy cytogenetics of anopheline most]uitoes, 458 Payne, George C., M.D., 106 Penfield, Wilder, M.D., 56 Pennsylvania, University of, Philadelphia, 387 Indian languages and literatures, 503 Pennsylvania State College, State College biophysical research, 478 X-ray crystallography, 255 Pepinsky, Raymond, 255 Perry, Jesse P., Jr., 220 Peru Institute of Andean Biology, Universify of San Marcos, 465 malaria, 458 Ministry of Health, 465 University of San Marcos, 487 Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, 277 Peterson, Osier L., M.D., 107 Philippines, University of the, Maniln, 424 history of the Philippines, 503 Philips, Dr. Gilbert Edward, 211 Phillips, Elizabeth Cogswell, 217 Pigman, Ward, 264-265 Pisa, University of, Italy physiology, 202 203, 467 Pitner, John B., 220

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

550

INDEX

Pittsburgh, University of, Pennsylvania protein chemistry, 482 Plasmodium studies, 160-162 Ploscowe, Judge Morris, 364 Plough, Harold H., 272 Political behavior, 335-338 Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, New York protein structure, 52,256, 478 Pomerat, Gerard R., no Pomona College, Claremont, Califor-

Psychiatry, 174-175, 189, 461, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467,498 Psychotherapy, 170-173,463 Public Administration Clearing House, Chicago, Illinois assistance to Japan Public Administration Clearing House, 35936o>497 Public health appropriations and grants, 6 schools of hygiene and public health, 198, 206, 469, 470, 471, 472,

nia Far Eastern and Slavic studies, 502 Ponce, Dr. Victor Lora, 2ii Poppe, Dr. Erik, 215 Posada, Luis Eduardo, 316 Postan, Michael, 385 Posternak, Theodore, 312 Posrigo, Rosendo, 319 Prelog, Vlado, 276 President's Review, 1-98 Preventive medicine, 115-116, 469, 470,471,472 Prince Edward Island, Canada provincial laboratory, 464 Princeton University, New Jersey, 425 Department of Psychology, 462 genetics, 232, 479 Instirute for Advanced Study, 385, 495 Institute of International Studies, 345-346, 497 literary criticism, 507 military history, 409, 507 Near Eastern studies, 502 Office of Population Research, 497 organic chemistry, 479 psychology of perception, 185 186 social physics, 489 Woodrow Wilson School of Publie and International Affairs, 440 Principal Fund, 5, 103, 454 Professional education (medical), 2122, 24, 27, 114, 115-122, 468474 Protein research, 256-265

473> 474 training, 472 Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana genetics, 479 QUAGLIARELLO, Gaetano, 311 RADZINOWICZ, Leon, 364-365 Randall, J. T., 318 Rashba, Evsey S., 386 Reed, Lowell J., M.D., 17 Reed, Sheldon C., M.D., 177-178 Refunds on prior year closed appropriations, 513-514 Rehberg, P. Brandt, 245 Research and training agencies in social science, 375-380 Research Center in Entrepreneurial History, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts grants in aid, 494 research, 333-334, 494 Research tools and methods, 343-34$ Rhind, Flora M., xii, xiii, 101 Richardson, Ralph W., Jr., 97, 220 Rickard, Elsmere R., M.D., 107 Riker, A. J., 251 Riley, John W., Jr., 340 Rizk, Hanna, 386 Robbins, John £.,417 Roberts, John M., 343 Roberts, L. M., 220, 286 Robertson, J. Monteith, 317 Robinson, Edward, xii, xiii, 101 Robinson, Sir Robert, 271

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX

551

Rochester, University of, New York SADRON, C. L., 311 microphotometric studies of biologiSt. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological cal tissues, 482 Seminary and Academy, New Rockefeller, John D., 8, 20 York Rockefeller, John D,, 3rd, xii, xiii, faculty research and writing, 502 16,101, 102 Salzburg Seminar in American Studies, Rockefeller Boards, history of, 510 Inc., Austria, 434~435> 5*' Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship San Marcos, University of, Lima, Directory, 447, 511 Peru Rockefeller Institute for Medical ReFaculty of Veterinary Medicine, 487 search, New York, 19, 32, 475 Sanchez ColJn, Salvador, 46, 47, 292 Rockefeller Sanitary Commission, 19, Sand, Ren£, M.D., 123 20 Sanford, Dr. Nevitt, 217 Roe, Edna M. F., 317 Sanitary engineering, 197-199, 471 Rogers, Carl R,, M.D., 171-172 Sao Paulo, University of, Brazil Rogers, Lindsay, 346 Department of Histology and EmRoine, Paavo, 310 bryology, 247, 482 Rome, University of, Italy Department of Physics, 482 public health engineering, 472 Faculty of Philosophy, 490 Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial LaboraFaculty of Veterinary Medicine, tory, Bar Harbor, Maine 30x3, 484, 490 genetics research, 179-180, 462 Institute Agronomico, Campinas, Rose, E. J. B., 433 484 Rosenfeld, Dr. Leonard S., 217 Institute Biol6gico, Sao Paulo, 484 Rossi, Ferdinando, 214 Marine Biological Laboratory, 490 Royal Institute of International AfSchool of Agriculture, Piracicaba, fairs, London, England, 493 484 history of war and peace settlement, University Research Fund, 49°) 5°5 497 Sardinia international economic policy, 497 anopheles eradication program, joint study with Council on Foreign 146-151, 458 Relations, Inc., 349-350 public health program, 209, 458 Middle East studies, 351-353, 497 Sasse, Bruce E., 107 research program, 351-353 Schaefer, Dr. Hans, 207 Soviet studies, 351-353 Schedule of Securities, 522-526 Royal Institution of Great Britain, Scheibel, Mrs. Inga, 212 London, England Scherrer, Dr. Jean, 206 Davy Faraday Research LaboraSchmidt, Gerhard, 237 tory, 489 Schneider, Friedricfi, 426 Royal Statistical Society, London, Schoendoerffer, Anne-Marie, 206 England, 497 School of Agriculture, Piracicaba, Rupert, Joseph A., 220, 286 Brazil, 484 Rusk, Dean, xii, xiii, 95, 101 School of Nursing, Quito, Ecuador, 471 Rusk, Howard A., M.D., 189 School of Public Health, Santiago, Russell, Paul F., M.D., 107 Chile Rutgers University, New Brunswick, courses for sanitary engineers, 471 New Jersey Schools of public health communications study, 339~340j 497 «* Public health

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

552

INDEX

Schottd, Oscar, 272 Schramm, Wilbur, 428 Schultz, T. W., 368 Scientific knowledge of social behavior, 330-345 Scotland, see Great Britain Scott, Jesse, 253 Scott, Dr. Richard, 213 Sears, Robert R., 341 Secretary's Report, 99-103 Sem-Jacobsen, Dr. Carl Wilhelm, 215 Semb, Carl, M.D., 188 Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, 187 Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, 187 Shannon, Claude E., 78 Sharp, Lauri&ton, 81 Sheffield, University of, England biochemistry, 53, 241, 482 Sheldon, William H., M.D., 176 Shepardson, Whitney H., 349 Shimizu, Dr. Kentaro, 208 Siepmann, Charles, 426 Sigerist, Henry E., M.D., 121 Silberschmidt, Max, 383 Singh, Jaswant, 214 Sinsheimer, Robert L., 313 Slavic studies, 498, 501, 502, 503 Slichter, Sumner H., 374 Smith, A. C, 287 Smith, Geoffrey S., xii, xiii, 95, 101, 102 Smith, Hubert Winston, M.D., 202 Smith, Hugh H., M.D,, 96, 106 Smith, Dr. Lyman B., 217 Smith, Wilfred Cantwell, 81, 395-396 Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts genetics, 233, 479 Smithburn, Kenneth C., M.D., 107 Social Science Research Council, New York, 58, 329-330, 494 administrative budget, 330, 497 capital fund, 73,330, 497 expenses of Current Digest of the Soviet Press, 357-358, 497 fellowships, 446

grants in aid of research, 330, 497 international program, 497 Social Sciences, Division of, 15, 58-76 appropriations and payments, 6, 491-500 fellowships, 444-445 grants in aid, 380-388, 494 joint Social Sciences - Humanities grants, 357, 358-359, 398, 4oi, 402-403, 495, 496 joint Social Sciences-Natural Sciences and Agriculture grant, 226, 302,305, 344 program, 323-388 staff, 324 Society for Experimental Biology, Great Britain, 317 Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis International Executive Committee, 428 Solomon, Richard L., 181-183 Sonneborn, Tracy M., 51, 229 Soriano, Alberto, 318 Sosa-Orellana, Dr. Jose1 Domingo, 212 South, University of the, Sewanee, Tennessee Sewanee Review, 507 Special funds, see Grants in aid Sproul, Robert G., xii, xiii, 101 Stacey, Maurice, 280 Stakman, E. C., xii, xiii, 17, 95, 102, 220 Stalcy, Eugene, 349 Stalker, Harrison D., 319 Stanford University, Palo Alto, Callfornia American studies in Japan, 81-82, J58"359. S°4 biochemical genetics, 479 biochemistry, 238, 479 chemistry of nucleic acids, 236, ^479 Far Eastern and Slavic studies, 502 Food Research Institute agricultural economics, 498 food and agriculture during World War II, 67, 356, 498

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX Soviet economy, 498 sugar island study, 357 gifted individuals study, 462 microbiology, 479 physical biochemistry, 479 protein chemistry, 258, 479 research program, 498 State Institute of Public Health, Stockholm, Sweden, 473 State of Mexico agricultural project, 45-47, 291-293 Statistics, 302-305, 344, 490 Stefanelli, Alberto, 311 Stegner, Mr. and Mrs. W., 83,423 Stenhagen, Einar, 312 Stephenson, William, 387 Sternberg, Hilgard O'Reilly, 309 Stevens, Robert T., xiii Stevenson, Charles L,, 78 Stewart, Walter W., 16 Stockholm, University of, Sweden biochemistry, 483 radiobiology, 483 Stone, J. R. N.,332 Stone, Wilson S., 230 Storing, James A., 383 Story of The Rockefeller Foundation, 92 Strode, George K,, M.D., xii, 23, 94, 101, 106, 126 Struetureof the American Economy, 331 Struthers, Robert R., M.D., 106 Studies in the Structure of the American Economy, 331 Study of History, 89 Suchman, Edward, 71 Sulzberger, Arthur Hays, xii, xiii, 101 Sutherland, G. B. B. M., 314 Suzuki, Daisetz T., 424 Svennilson, Ingvar, 355 -356 Sweden Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, 467, 477 State Institute of Public Health, Stockholm, 473 University of Lund, 232, 467, 481 University of Stockholm, 483 University of Uppsala, 483

553

Sweet, Waldo E., 419 Switzerland Economic Commission for Europe, United Nations, Geneva, 493 Federal Technical Institute, Zurich, 275-276, 477 Institute of Water and Sewage Research, 467 International Press Institute, 90-91, 432~43J. 511 Le Bon Secours School of Nursing, Geneva, 473 symposium on medical education, 216 University of Bern, 479 University of Geneva, 467, 481 University of Zurich, 467 Syrian University, Damascus, 384, 421 -422 Szilard, Leo, 314 TAVCAR, Alois, 313 Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, London, England research and teaching in psychiatry, 466 Taylor, Richard M., M.D., 107 Technological Institute, Monterrey, Mexico, 487 Tcnnant, Mary Elizabeth, 106 Tennessee Universi ty of Tennessee, 483 Vanderbilt University, 459 Williamson County Tuberculosis Study, 167-169 Tennessee, University of, Memphis biochemistry, 483 Texas, University of, Austin genetics, 229-231, 483 Thacker, T. W., 397 Thannhauser, S. J., 237 Theiler, Max, M.D., 23, 107, 126 Thomas, H, E., 54 Thomas, Lewis V,, 395 Thompson, Laura, 423 Thomson, D. L., 397 Thomson, J. S., 397

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

554

INDEX

Thrupp, Sylvia, 334 UGANDA, 209 Timoshenko, Vladimir, 357 Ulich, Robert, 428 Tobago, British West Indies, 458 Union of South Africa malaria and anopheline control, University of Natal, 210 158-159, 209 United Kingdom, see Great Britain Tobin, James, 367 United Nations Todd, Alexander R., 268-269 Economic Commission for Europe, Tokyo University, Japan, 419 35$-356> 376-377. 3^3 seminars in American studies, 81World Health Organization, 122 82, 358-359, 398, 401, 504 United States Book Exchange, Inc., Tolman, Edward C, 387 Washington, D. C Tomasevich, Jozo, 386 international exchange program, 511 Tomcsik, Joseph, 209 United States Naval medical research Toronto, University of, Canada unit, 32,130 clinical neurology, 464 United States Public Health Service, School of Hygiene and Public 38 Health, 470 University College, Dublin, Ireland field training facilities, 470 biochemistry, 242, 479 medical care, 470 University College, London, England teaching personnel, 470 medical student selection, 472 School of Nursing, 470 research in physiology, 466 Slavic studies, 500, 503 University Nursing School, Montesod al science research, 380 video, Uruguay, 471 Torres-Munoz, Dr. Nemesio, 211 Uppsala, University of, Sweden Toulouse, Universi ty of, France Jnsti tute of Physiology, 483 humanities, 507 proteins and polysaccharides, 483 Toynbee, Arnold, 89, 423 Uri, Norbert, 319 Transactions Relating to Invested Uruguay Funds, 515-521 Research Institute of Biological Treasurer's Report, 449-527 Sciences, 484 Tuberculosis, 167-169, 459 University Nursing School, MonteTufts College,Mcdford,Massachusetts video, 471 Medical School, Boston Ussing, Hans, 245 brain chemistry, 462 Utrecht, University of, Netherlands nucleic acid chemistry, 237, 479 biochemistry and biophysics, 483 sociology and psychiatry, 498 Institute of Clinical and Industrial Tulane University, New Orleans, Psychology, 203,472 Louisiana law-science program, 201-202, 469 VALLEE, Bert L., 276-277 Tulio Ospina Experimental Station, Van den Brink, T., 383 Medellm, Colombia, 294 Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TenTurkey nessee University of Ankara, 426 School of Medicine Turner, Gordon, 409 nutrition, 459 Turner, Ralph E., 89, 425 Van Dusen, Henry P., xii, xiii, 101, Turnier, Luce, 428 102 Tweed, Harrison, 362 Van Dyke, Dr. Harry Benjamin, 217 Typhus, 459 van Herk, A. W. H., 312

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX

555

van Neil, C. B., 238 Vargas, Dr. Luis, 200 Varicak, Teodor D., 313 Vdga, Joao Scares, 300 Venezuela malaria, 459 National School of Nursing, Caracas, 471 Vernant, Jacques, 381, 438 Viborel, Dr. Lucien, 212 Vickery, William, 367 Viegas, Ahmes Pinto, 315 VUlal6n, Alberto, 206, 211 Villegas, Daniel Cosio, 89, 406 Virginia, University of, Charlottesville Department of Medicine, 483 Virus investigations, 31-33, 126-145, 459 biophysical studies, 142-144 chick embryos, use of, 137-141, 142 Egypt,fieldinvestigations, 145 epidemiology of new viruses, 130-

Mengo, 132, 134,135,136,139,141 MM, 132 mouse encephalomyelitis, 141 Ntaya, 134, 136,137, 138, 139, 140 Rift Valley, 136,137 Russian spring-summer encephalitis, 135,136,137 Sabethes, 135,136,139, 140 St. Louts encephalitis, 136, 137 Semliki Forest, 32, 133, 134, 135, 136,139,140,141 Uganda S, 134,136,138,139, 140 Venezuelan equine encephalomyelids, 136 West Nile, 132, 133, 134, 136, 139, 140,145 western equine encephalitis, 136 Wyeomyia, 136,138, 140 Zika, 132, 134, 136, 139, 140 Viswanathan, Dr. Dharmavadani Krlshnier, 214 Vogt, Even Z., 343

134 immunological relationships, 134137 laboratories in Cairo, Egypt, 32, 33,130 New York, 33,130,459 Poona, India, 33,130,459 pathology in mice and hamsters, 141 Viruses, 131 Anopheles A, 136, 138 Anopheles B, 136,138, 139 Bwamba, 132, 134, 136, 138, 139, 140 Bunyamwera, 134, 136, 138, 139,

WALES, see Great Britain Wallace, Schuyler, 385 Wallin, Paul, 386 Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia, 200, 468 Warp, George A., 360 Warren, Andrew J., M.D., xii, xiii, 35, 94, 101, 106 Washburn, Dr. Alfred H., 179 Washington, University of, Seattle biochemistry of proteins, 483 Far Eastern and Slavic studies, 423,

140, 141 Columbta-SK, 132 dengue fever, 137 eastern equine encephalitis, 136 EMC, 132,135 Haemagogus A, 135, 136, 139 Haemagogus B, 135, 136,139 llheus, 133,136,138,139,140 Japanese B encephalitis, 137 Kumba, 135,136 Leucocelaenus, 135,136, 140 louping ill, 136, 137

5°3 Far Eastern Institute, 503 installation of electron microscope, 483 Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri biochemistry, 261 262, 484 embryology, 484 School of Medicine Department of Neuropsychiatry, 463 preventive medicine, 470

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

556

INDEX

Watson, Robert B., M.D., 107 Wayne University, Detroit, Michigan Russian word count, 503 Weaver, Warren, xii, xiii, 16, 50, 78, 101, 220 Webb, Vanderbilt, xii, xiii, 102 Wechsler, Herbert, 362 Weeks, H, Ashley, 386 Weir, John M., M.D., 107 Weiss, Paul, 249 Wellhausen, E, J., 97, 220, 286 Wen-tsao, Wu, 388 Wessells, Mrs. Helen, 428 Wessely, Friedrich, 309 Western Reserve University, Cieveland, Ohio School of Medicine psychiatry, 463 Whiting, John M., 182 Whitman, Loring, M.D., 107 Wilhelmina Hospital, Amsterdam, Netherlands psychosomatic medicine, 467 Williams, Simon, 427 Willirs, Joseph H,, xii, xiii, 16, 101, 324 Wilson, Charles H,, 381 Wilson, D. Bruce, M.D., 107 Wilson, I. D,, 319 Wilson, Dr. John Greenwood, 214 Wilson, Perry W., 240 Wisconsin, University of, Madison American civilization, 505 biochemistry, 239, 483 Enzyme Institute, 483 genetics, 483 housing, 500 law and lumber industry, 500 metabolism of plant tissues, 251, 483 protein chemistry, 483 Wisconsin Idea Theatre, Madison, 90 Wislocki, George B., 247 Worcester Foundation for Experirnental Biology, Massachusetts physiology of mammalian eggs and sperm, 484 World Health Organization, 122

World Peace Foundation* Boston, Massachusetts Canadian-American conference, 387 Documents on American Foreign Relations, 500 World Politics, 346 World Student Service Fund Frankfurt seminar, 439 Wormann, Curt, 421 Worth, C. Brooke, M.D., 107 Wortis, S. Bernard, M.D., 190 Wortman, L. Sterling, Jr., 220 Woytinski, W. S., 386 Wride, Dr. Gordon Edward, 211 Wriston, Henry, 350 Wurzburg, University of, Germany, 207 Wylie, Dr. John, 211 Wynne, Lyman C., M.D., 182 X-RAY crystallography, research in, 253-257, 280 281, 308, 478, 480, 482 YALE University, New Haven, Connecticut biochemistry, 53, 269 270, 484 carbon 14 dating laboratory, 5n communications and a t t i t u d e change, 338, 500 Department of Botany, 484 history of medicine-, 121 122, 470 Institute of Internationa! Studies, 500 proreolytic enzymes 484 Yamada, Tuneo, 320 YoMida, Dr. Morio, 214 Yafes, Frank, 315 Yellow fever, 20, 22-23, 459 460 Africa, 22,31, 129,459 Asia, 129 Kurope, 129 North America, 129 South America, 22, 31, 129, 460 Yellow fVtvr, 23, \ 26, 460 Yerkcs Laboratories of Primate Biology, Orange Park, Florida, 180 181, 463

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation

INDEX Yorukoglu, Kadri, 427 Yoshikawa, Kojiro, 426 Young, Ernest C, xiii Young, F. G., 267 Yugoslavia Council of the Academies of Yugoslavia, 320 Institute of Hygiene, Zagreb, 473 School of Public Health Engineering, 473

557

ZAGOROFF, Slave, 357 Zea, Leopoldo, 406 Zellweger, Hans, 216 Zeuthen, Erik, 310 Ziadeh, Nicolas A., 421 Zoological Station of Naples, Italy, 484 marine biology, 273-274 Zurich, University of, Switzerland psychiatric research, 467

2003 The Rockefeller Foundation