SAUDI ARABIA - Sharing History

SAUDI ARABIA - Sharing History

Timeline / Before 1800 to After 1930 / SAUDI ARABIA Date Country Theme 1765 - 1800 Saudi Arabia Political Context In 1765 Imam Muhammad bin Saud...

9KB Sizes 2 Downloads 10 Views

Recommend Documents

SAUDI ARABIA
Senor ARABIAN ARMY, NAVY AND AIR FORCE. GENERAL. 1. Introthwfion a.- The Joint United States Survey Group to Saudi Arab

history of food in saudi arabia - SACM.or
HISTORY OF FOOD IN SAUDI ARABIA audi culture today still practices many of the traditions of the past, including food. H

Saudi Arabia Profile - Marines.mil
Formal Name: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Al Mamlakah al Arabiyah .... In 1802 the Al Saud–Wahhabi armies sacked Karbala,

Saudi Arabia - Leadership Crossroads
Though the country's culture is quite homogeneous, Saudi businesspeople, especially those among younger generations, are

Saudi Arabia - WIPO
Aug 30, 2003 - traditional Saudi cultural and artistic heritage. Broadcasting: Transmission of a work, performance or an

Saudi Arabia - Freedom House
May 31, 2010 - 56 Ben Hubbard, “Saudi Arabia agrees to let women drive,” .... In February 2017, conservative preache

Saudi Arabia guide - Speak
Welcome to our guide to Saudi Arabia. This is useful for anyone researching Saudi Arab culture, customs, manners, etique

Advertising in Saudi Arabia
I. SAUDI ARABIA p.5. A. General points p.5. B. Government p.7. C. Human rights p.7. D. Culture p.8. E. Social classes di

Saudi Arabia - Multicultural SA
Saudi Arabia is the largest Arab state in Western Asia by land area. .... of Riyadh, is the venue for Saudi Arabia's nat

Saudi Arabia - Canada's International
Ministers: Crown Prince: Mohammad bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud. Foreign Affairs: Adel bin Ahmed Al-Jubeir. Finances:

Timeline / Before 1800 to After 1930 / SAUDI ARABIA Date

Country

Theme

1765 - 1800

Saudi Arabia

Political Context

In 1765 Imam Muhammad bin Saud establishes the First Saudi State in Arabia, starting with the Najd region, and making its capital the city of Dir‘iyya. 1800 - 1803

Saudi Arabia

Political Context

Most parts of Arabia become part of the new Saudi State. In 1803, The two holy cities of Mecca (Makkah) and Medina (Madinah), along with the rest of the Hijaz region, join the Saudi State. 1803 - 1818

Saudi Arabia

Political Context

The third Imam, Saud ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz, faces a hostile reaction from the Ottoman Empire through its powerful viceroy in Egypt Muhammad ‘Ali Pasha. After ‘Abd al-‘Aziz’s death in 1814, his son, Abdallah, battles with the Egyptian army in many regions of the state. Finally Dir‘iyya is surrendered, and Imam Abdallah is then taken to Turkey, where he is executed. 1824 - 1891

Saudi Arabia

Political Context

Following the events of 1818, the Hijaz returns to Ottoman rule. Then in 1824 the Second Saudi State emerges, led by Imam Turki bin Abdullah, and with its capital now in Riyad following the destruction of Dir‘iyya. Imam Turki is then succeeded by the sons Imam Abdallah and ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Faisal. In ‘Abd al-Rahman’s reign, in 1891, the Second Saudi State falls into the hands of his enemy al-Rashid. This prompts the king to leave Riyad for Kuwait with his family. 1901 - 1909

Saudi Arabia

Political Context

Under the Ottoman Sultan ‘Abd al-Hamid, the Hijaz Railway is built, running from Istanbul to the Medina (Madinah) province. 1902 - 1920

Saudi Arabia

Political Context

In 1902, age 19, King ‘Abd al-‘Aziz ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman, along with a small army, returns to Riyad to reclaim his family legacy. Managing to take Riyad, ‘Abd alRahman then begins to unify modern Saudi Arabia. 1916

Saudi Arabia

Political Context

By the end of July 1916, the seaports of Jeddah, Yanbu and Rabigh are in Arab hands. This allows the British to increase their supply of arms and equipment to the Arab forces fighting in the Hijaz. 1916 - 1917

Saudi Arabia

Political Context

Rebel clans allied to Sharif Husayn attack Jeddah (Jidda) and other seaports along the Arabian coast of the Red Sea. 1916 - 1917

Saudi Arabia

Political Context

Date

Country

Theme

The Arab Revolt begins on 10 June 1916 led by the Governor of Mecca (Makkah), Sharif Husayn ibn ‘Ali, and his sons, the amirs ‘Ali and Faisal. His forces seize the city of Riyad and force the small Ottoman garrison to seek refuge in the local fortress. Another of Husayn’s sons, Amir Abdallah, manages to surround and then take the town of Ta’if. 1917 - 1918

Saudi Arabia

Political Context

In June 1917 the coastal city of Aqaba in Jordan becomes the new base for Faisal’s army, renamed the “Arab Northern Army”. Attacks on the Hijaz Railway continue, extending now as far north as southern Jordan. T. E. Lawrence, “Lawrence of Arabia” himself led reconnaissance parties into Syria and made contact with Arab nationalists in Damascus. The spectacular victory of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) at the Third Battle of Gaza (Beersheba) in October 1917, and the subsequent British advance into the Jordan Valley, gave renewed impetus to Faisal’s “railway war” further east. Meanwhile, Amir Faisal, with Lawrence as his adviser, had captured the seaport of Wejh (al-Wagh) on the Red Sea, 150 km north of Yanbu. From there, Faisal’s men spent most of 1917 attacking the Hijaz Railway. Small raiding parties blew up sections of track, destroyed bridges, water towers and even some weakly defended railway stations. The British, planning to invade Palestine, were keen for the Arab rebels to keep the 12,000 Ottoman troops tied down in Medina (Madinah). 1918 - 1920

Saudi Arabia

Political Context

Squabbling among the allies (those that had betrayed the Arab Revolution) delays the signing of the Peace Treaty with the Ottomans, which is being negotiated at Sèvres in France up until 10 August 1920. The Treaty confirmed French and British possession of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan and Iraq in the guise of League of Nations mandates. Sharif Husayn ibn ‘Ali is rewarded for his leadership of the Arab Revolt with international recognition of the Hijaz as an independent kingdom.