Scientific mtti - Wikimedia Commons

Scientific mtti - Wikimedia Commons

Scientific �mtti," '!'HE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF. SCIENTIFIC, MECHANICAL AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS. bol. 3. New THE mork, february No. ...

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Scientific �mtti," '!'HE ADVOCATE OF INDUSTRY, AND JOURNAL OF. SCIENTIFIC, MECHANICAL AND OTHER IMPROVEMENTS.

bol.

3.

New THE

mork, february

No.

26, tarts.

RAIL ROAD NEWS.

BARNUM'S IMPROVEMENTS ON THE POWER LOOM.

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN: PUBLISHED WEEKLY

Western Atlantle Railroad·

The State of Georgia. has issue d proposals

Figure 1.

At 128 Fulton Street, New York (Sun Building,) and 13 Court street, Beston, Mass.

for contracts for the completion of the

West­

erR and Atlantic Railroad ,

viz; from Chatta­ nooga to Dalton , on the Tennessee r iver, 38

By Munn & Company. The Principal Olliee being at �ew York.

This IS the last link in the chdn be­

mdes.

tween the Atlantic at two points, viz: Savan­

'I'MlRMS--S� a ycar--$l In advanee, the remainder In 6 monthlil.

Il!rSee advertisement on last page.

23.

nah

and Charleston

. ·-1

and the Valley of the

From the poin

Tennessee .

t where the road t 100 miles

strikes the Tennessee ri ver , is abou

I

steamboat navigation to Knoxville, and about

500

miles

to the Ohio river.

The passage o­

ver the Muscle Shoals, however,

be effected w hen the ri v e r is high.

OUR O\VN FlRESlllK.

Our own fire-side's easy chair­

onJ.y

can

It is

a

sh ame that the canal around those shoals hWl

Is there any place beside

never been completed.

share!

Where su ch pleasant cheer we

Where the hours so �ently glide)

Though but humble be the fare

That W ant's daily toils provide,

Figure �,

Dainty'scup c a n ne'er compare

! I

Figure 3.

With the joy that sparkles there, By our own fire - side .

Mirth Where she comes a willing guest?

Champlain and ConDeetieut River Rail­

the

ro ad.

the directors of

the

and Burlington) Railroad, we learn that

the

From

report of

Champl ain and Connec ticut River (Ru t land

division of the road extending frem Burling­

(51 miles) is under contract

ton to Brandon, Vt.

Would you meet with genuine

and in process of construction, with the pros­

'Tis the quiet social hearth,

year.

p ect of being completed durlllg the present

I wot, she l o ve th best; Where the little ones at play, Well

This

Prattle by their mother's side ,

By t h eir

hours away

own fire-side.

While he tells his troubles o'er

Where his heart hath not to hide, He who falls from high estate No great grievance hath to bidp., If he calmly meet& his fate,

the shuttle acting against said spring,

They who love us !Ill we die,

upper end in a r igh t line.

ed on a rocker

Who through troubles haTe been

Who will watc h the c losing eye

tried,

s

s

!

Sculp tured roof and pictured wall­

LAST.

)l or leave the trusty helm ;

We cannot tell how fierce and near Are blasts to

overwhelm.

j

This extraordinary timber,.rows to a size that w ould appear incredible. It is perhaps

to

I'lca it is found gro win g

sturm in

idly spent ,

and watch," and to the last.

us

enr pray

but

of the high

largest horse, an ani mal sixteen hande

and very long backed.

The tide is not an even tide,

God help

old Jarra tree,

red in diameter three times the length

And fling them to the breeze,

Keep" wait

the hollow of an

their horses, alld the i'lterior actually measu-

rent,

With trusly hearts thro�h night a. n d day,

Lan-

which not only sh eltered themselve�,

While'sleep the threat'ning seas,

Belore the sweeping wmd.

feet in

der and his servant took refuge once from a

Bring tidings of the gale.

O'er w hich our venturous shallops glide

120 and 150

height before the first branc !! appears.

And clouds 'vhen morn in!!; lights the skies

Till rock and shoal are past,

and remunerative from 50 60 f eet .. hut in 80ma of the districts of Af-

I

I

found a

J arra tt·ee.

same parties

w h ic h had

fallen com-

pletely across a broad and deep river, (called

the Deep R iver) r \lnn ing between high and precipitous banks, thus formi

. bridge, along

I

The

have passed.

rfg

which a bullock

a .calural

cart might

The fiigh�st peak of the Rocky Mountains is 12,:)01). feet, and James' peak is 12,000,

I

\

The

cap ­

ital stock which is to be divided into shareli

T he nature of the�e improvements is th e of arranging and combining the appa-

ratus concerned in the arres ting

The Commissioners are

by some of $50 each, is to be $250,000.

mentum, and in the thro w ing of the sh ut tle

only manageable

Though smooth the track behind­

looms in use than the other and may

To arrest the

The .Jarra Tree.

The stars will never fail ;

Trim up the sails the storm has

s

tion is le s expensive in its application to

momentum of the shuttl es an additional spring

the guard and forces it out so as to act 0"\

s

the riche t men in AlbailY county.

This mo­

manner

the protec tion, the spring F is.at the same time

Though dark the night to watchful eyes

The calm should n e'er be

ing the same as above described .

at their upper ends which are brought direct-

of

tion of that body.

placed upon a stud, the other connection be­

be preferred.

shuttle cornes into contact with the swell G,

mantic, and thence to ProvidellcP, to intersect

through the heart of Eastern Connecticut.

but the heads of the picker staffs are capped

is attached

There's no comfort in them all

THE

s

to the inside of the protection guard, as sho w n at F, Fig. 2, and w hen the

Pomp and luxury and pride,

GOD HELP US TO

E E, are spi-

ly in contact lI·ith the shuttles.

t

of it will he Janll

first of

3, is intended to represent the shuttle Cohoes and Albany Railroad. A bill to i ncorp orate a company for the box fitted wi th the ordinary race r o d and pick. er H, with the picker staff behind it, as seen construction of the Albany and Cohoes rail· at Ii. Under this arrangement the rocker B is road, is now pend ing in the Senate, and will dispensed w ith and the bottom of tlie staff is und oubtedly receive the favorable considera..

with picker leather or other suitablesuustance

brown with sm.oke, Curl ing up for many a day. Wealth may boas his splendid hall,

'Neath the rafters

the cars by the

Ne .... Road In CormeeUeut"

F i g.

s

In my chimney's cozy nook Thus I ch ant my rustic lay,

ary 1819

tofore

treadles, lea v in g the huttle box free for the entran ce of the shuttle w ithout the obstruction of a picker ; the treadles to be depressed by means of a cam in the ordinary way. No pickers are em p loyed in the huttle boxes,

t of gro'md

Lag net the oar when skies a re clear.

C C, are the wag

back wh6n relieved from the action of the

Where, on all this weary round,

fident expectation that 90 miles

in readiness for

vnder other constructions, there is greater

ral prings by which the wag staffs are drawn

Search we earth and ocean wide

ors stat e, on favorable terms, and with a can

certainty of the action oC the shuttle and the with the contemplated railroad from New London to Springfield. This road will pass apparatus is rendered more duraille than here­

B, to cause the motIon ot its

connected to the picker staffs.

Where shall friend like these be found.

Like my own fire-side.

A,

staffs, D D, being the rods by which they are

When all grows cold beside-

Called our own fire · side

A

ce ption is nc w under comract-as the direct-

The citizens of Hartford Conn. ban' ,�lJb scribed the :mlll of $GIO,OOO, towardd the COll­ them with each other and with the treadles, struction of a railroad from that city to Willi­ the friction of the apparatus iii much less than

are the p icker staffs, which are each ·snstain-

By the rustic fire- side.

s

is

The

whole line, therefore, with some light ex­

s

t

arresting the momentum of the shuttle and

Where content and quiet wait

also under contract and in progress.

one ide and the swell of the protection on the other side of the fulcrum the shuttle is pressed ag ainst the ba�k of the box by the action (of the sp ring t;pon thf' protec ion guar
part

(and including) the su mmit of Mt. Holly,

of the box

with such force as would cause it to rebound;

s

;;

honest man, thougk poor, Yet may feel an honest pride.

An

Save that hallowed s po

I,revent its stri king against the end

partic1llarly of the Safety Guage, referred to in our last number, He now re ides in this Clty, where further ,ni'c'J.'IJl:lliOrt can Iw ob· tained by letter. front .. iew 01 D,m::RIPTwN -Fig. 1, IS a part of a loom showing the race beam, the shuttle boxes, the picker staffs and the wag staffs, Fig. 2, is a top �iew ot Olle of the shnttle boxes, showing a sprir.g which is attached to the protec tion guard for the p ur p ose of

and

And the elder, mildly gay, T.augh and sing the

t

forced inwards and arrests the shu tle 80 as t�

is the iIlvention of Daniel Barnum, the

inventor of �everal steam engine improvements

The grading and ma80nI'Y on the

uf the line extending from Bellows Falls to

The

of the mo-

s

one man and in c a e of ac.c 1de ? t they

also the particular manner of combi ning the

treadles, the wag staffs and the picker staffs

with each other to co-operate i.n producing

the required motion as set torth.

Newark Adv ertiser states that A. G.

Hecrote has patented a new mode of connect­ mg cars by which they are easily coupled by

I

re Ull­ � c upled themselves . . It IS said to be unpOlI­ � SIble lor <>ne car runn g off t le a� k to drag . other after It. The �oupling I S �o con-

s

s

� ;:

structed, that on the lightest deViatIon beyond the regular c u r v e 01 the track, the .

con n ec t ion between the ermtic cal' and

er s

Human Nature.

��

is instantly severed,

oth-

-.-.. -..---... --- --After the bat tle of Cu l loden , a reward of The Rail Road Bridge which fell a short thirty t housand �lOunds was offered to an yone who would deliver up the young P rete nder . time since at Athol, Vermont, was constructed He had then taken refu ge with the Kennedys, with cast iron nuts for a.n e x periment. It is 11'9'0 common thie ve , who had protected him a conclusive one.

s

with fidelity, and robbed for his support. A considerable time afterwards, one of these

\

---.---.... -.. ...-._-_._-

Contracts for the first t wenty - fi ve mile, of the C h i cago a nd Galena Railrol\d have been

men, who had resisted the temp tati on of thir· ty thousand pounds for a breach of fidelity , e ntered into. The whole distance is about i was hanged for oteaiiog a cow valued at thir - 160 m les _____.____._ .. ty shillings. Arkansas Lead Ore. Benefit of UleanllneS9.

A London

Gold,jmith

saves $'200

year, by the gold and silver

s

Mines of lead have been di co vered in Ar,·

dollars a

in the sediment of

kansas and the ore on being analyzed was found to be w orth

$70

per ton,

for the

sil v er alone

It may therefore be re­ the water tanks in which the workmen are garded as the Argentine ure of lead. T4e requi red to wash before leaving tlte premises. o re, then, instead of being smelted in the or­ The workmen have c lean hands and their em-

ployers make

a cle an penny.

which it contains.

ss of cu­

dinary way, should undergo the proce

eJttract first the silver, and the Fifteen hundred hOU{ies have been built in resl d um would be nearly as valuable as if i had undergone theproee'is of smeltin�, tbis city since Ma.y l�t.

© 1848 SCIENTIFIC AMERICIAN, INC

peltation to

5d£ntifir :\UltriCCtn.

1.78

" An Universal History of the most remark­

able even ts of all Nations," is the title of a new work published by

W. H.

bune Buildings, New York.

Graham, Tri­

Volutlle

An old lady down towards Seekonk, Long Monster Engines. British Great Western Company Rail- Island, once said her idea of a good man was road, a short time since, placed upon th e ir -" A man what is keerful of his clothes, dont The

Unlvenal History.

1 is

to

road, a monster

engine, called the

I ron

"

drink no s p irits, kin read the bible without

It was spellin' the wores, and kin eat a cold dinner found to work so well, that the Company on wash day, to save the wimmin folks from Duke," of thirty - six

I

tons weight.

ordered sixteen more locomotives of about cookin'." 4 h?ve th e s ame g igantic dimensions-a por tion of It is said that the peculiarities of the can· The plan on which numbers, 2:) cents each. them to be furnished WIth eight-foot driving na back ducks arise from their feeding Oil it is got up is different from any other work. These collossal iron" horses" will the wild celery; and if the experiment W�l wheel sugar. It is a history of maa as he came forth at the We are indebted to the Hon. J. A. Dix, U. plasfic call of his Creator, and man in all his draw a thousand tOllS over the ordinary grades tried of feeding tame ducks with that edible. of that road with perfect ease. They are of they woul d be j ust as good. The tame ducks S. Sena'or, for the Report of the Secretary of different conditions. It is a val u able work . about double the average size of the engines w ill not however, feed on celery. the Treasury, communicating the inv e stiga r ,'.------,-------.The A t oC Melnory. now employed upon the roads of this COUlltions rel at i ve to the chemical nature of saccha­ The Medical Colleges of Buffalo and GeneThe third edition of this valuable and able try. rine substances and the art of manufaeturing work, by Pl iney Miles, has just been pub l ish From the important improvements which va, in th is State, have made arrangements to Sugar, made under the directIOn of Protessors send Professor Coventry, of Gen ev a College, ed by Wiley & Putnam, No. 161 Br o ad w ay . continually made in the construction of are A. D. Bache and R. L. McCulloch. To those who wish to a cqu i re an arti fi c ial locomotives, it would almost seem as if there to Europe , !o c ol lect information regarding We have examined the Report with much memory, this work presents peculiar claims, were no li m it to tbe p ogre3s or capacity of th e best way to trea����I!()� e�a. interest. It shows to liS that our government not only on account of the abili ty which the railroad9; or, at least, if there is any such It is ex pected that the first of the Cunard amId many conflicting elements, has no t for­ author has di s played in the arrangement, but limlt,that it has not yet b een discovered. Ene of large st e am ers to pI} oetweell Liretcountry. the of resources gotten the natural because of the im portance of the subject. A pool a.nd thi � port, "ill be ou! next m�hth.-This investigation was well timed and just. A.tron;;mlc�l Phellomen�" good memory is ooe of the greatest of God'.,; The fine, fertile flat bottoms, Capta � n RYl"le, who command ed the Hlbern.a ly demanded. recent disco ver ies at the National Obser I By blessings. 1.0. t. ake charge as they are called, at our Southern States, can last tnp, has gone to c ? las go : atofY Wash ingto� CIty, and other . Holden'S DoUnr Magazine. raise sugar c ane unsurpassed by any oth er na­ tbe Amellca. . that the sun has de. of the filst,-·-----·G"'------l-It has been ascertaIned . ·· ' '-' . .· . No.3 of this ab le and cheap Magazine has tion. Yet the cultivation of Beet Root and . creased in volume n ear ly one-tenth, and this Th G overnor enera 0f Canad a rectll'e,! the manufacture of Sugar from it, have been b e en issued, and we cannot but speak well of slOgul�I" ph en ome no n has o cc u rred enllI" ely. dlspa,c ' t Iles b y th e 1 ast Ulal, '1 t· t'll1g that a possa . . The first of a se nes Sf) improved by scientific inquiry in Europe, jts matter and manner. . t wlthll1 the past month. The change took . II age arrangemen t h a d b een e ffiected WIt . . that much danger is to b e apprehended to of P ulpit Sketches is commenced. Dr. Potts, place suddenly, SInce, accuthe to wg acc cord tl1e U. S ., an d wou l� go In t0 opE rat"IOn III A PrJ.,< . . All the the able and eloquent pasto l' of University cane s lgar in competition with it. rate observatIOns on the morl1ltlg of th e 18th llext . lJght then that can be thrown u pon this sub­ Place Pr�sbyterian Churc h in this city, i. the ult , it presented its usual vol ume to the vis. I ject-this now important., necessary article of subject This M a gazine presents no o rdinary ion of th e spectator, yet, as it arose on the The Egyptians believe tbe world to he feot­ our eXIstence, for the improving its manufac­ attnctions to subSCribers. next day, the alter ation was easil y perc ep ti - ing on the horn of a bull, and when the buH ture, is particularly demand�d at the present The History of the Bottle. ble to the n aked eye! Its form, too, is alter·· tires of one horn, it pitches the world 011 the time. We ar e glad to learn that numbers of 01i ver and Brother, publishers of the Or­ ed. Its latitude has decreased while its lon- oiher, and thus causes an e ar th quake. -- .".-_.--- , .-,--,--- . . our Southern gentlemen have gone scientifi­ gan, have just issued a very excellent work gitude has been prolonged. Profane lan guage is to conversation whal cally into the b usiness and have adopted the with the above title, illustrated with eight The abo\"e we have noticed in a number of vacuum process of refining in preference to e ngravings, as originally pub lishe d in t heir exchanges and c onsid er it to be a most sin­ em i n ch spikes would be to veneering-split­ the old mode. The use and consumption of paper. \'\Te commend it to all, especially the gular phenomenon, but a more remal k a b le ting, shivering and defa"ing it. It is in bad augar is daily ;preading and increasing. In friends of temperance, Oflice 89 Nassau St., still, will be to find any person who believ es taste, offensive to a majority, and grati(yiug to none lact ita consumption is now a test of the com­ up stairsc it, at least, as it reads to the misunderstandparative comfort of the people �f almost eve­ ing Han, Washington Hunt, of Lockport, N. Y EXI.loSlons In Stealn Boilers. ry country and it is therefore a subject of in­ and George Bliss, Esq. of Springfield, Masa .• We are indebte d to J. Pickering, Esq., of ),um.bell' Buoiness In Gardiner. terest to e v ery man. were the purchasers of the Kalamazoo rail­ Cincillnati, author of the Workingman's In Gardiner and Pittstown Maine, the total ArtUielal Ston"s. Political Economy," for the Report of the Cin­ amount of log lum be r is 2082·1 m; Shingles, road, which was lately s old at Detroit und€"l" Havmg in a previous number of the Scien­ cirmati Committee appointed to examine into 16,303 m; Clapboards, 1,905 m; Laths, ·10'10 an order of the Chancellor. tific American alluded to this discovery, we the causes of the explosion of the steamhoat m. ThEl amount of money rec ived for sales In the reign of Queen Elizabetll, if bad have been favore d with a description of the A. N. Johnson. on the above lumber is $445,OGO. The logs fi.h was sold to th e poor, the knavish !ish­ process from the late proceedmgl of th e British monger was d e c or at ed with a necklace of hiB We are also ll1debted to E. C. Delevan, Esq. cost in Gardiner ab ou t three fifths of that Institution of Civil Engineers, as e xp lain ed !or Professor Stewart's able letters to Dr. Nott amount, leaving the a mo unt 0:' $178,000 ior unsavory commodity, and was then perclJed Oil It consists by Mr. F. Ransom, the inventer. Well a stand in the market. th W ine question. profits a nd expenses of manufacturing on the � in broken pieces of flint subjected for come done Gardiner. The following sentiment was given at tlJe time to the action of causti c alkali, boiling un­ We are also i n d el:Jted to Bishop Doane, of New England Festival, held a New York:New Plaut. der the pre s sure of a close vessel, when a New Jersey, for a copy of hie address before A plant indigcl:l()us to Cali/ofnia, ealled The l'Jaughtel"s of t he Pilgrims-no longer transparent silicated solution is formed, eva­ the NllW Jersey Historical Society. and an chancalagia, has been l ately introduced in- prac ti c ing witchcraft, but always irre.istablf porated to 1600 gravity. It is then mixed lVith eloquent address it is, to the Southern States. It is regarded by the bewitching. prop0rtions of well washed sand, broken gra�- _____�._.�,.___ ,,_._u___ .•� Gigantic Project.. lriexicans and CalIfornians as a panacea for all nite and other materials, as may be selected . . . e B·' l'l16 'ldclng Zl. ca· Til 't" h Governmen t are b Ul weat The h er i� said to be so cold in Fran· . , ThIS ,Puste IS then pressed lU- nal of great capacity, from the mountains in evils and diste,lIJpers to whICh they may be for hard n eas conia, N. H., that the natives lather their f,\­ ex p o s e d Its efficacy in curing disN. ' cs haB to Uloulds and subjected to a red heat HI.a whIch tbe Ganges rises, down ioto the coun­ ces and run out of d oors when the wind cut:'! been wel l tested. I stove .0: kiln by w hieb opera:! on the try seven bundred miles, at an expense of fifthe ir beard off. • ned SIlica of the raw m. atulala, unItmg WIth ty nl1'1"IlOUS o.fd Q 11 ars f.01' t'tiC purpose 0 t" Uri· Sabba.th Convention. , , the excess of alkali of the solution forms a se- gatmg the land. An Editor in Louisiatla, re ceiv ed for a A Covention of Delegates from the mi vitreous compound-an artIficial stoneFamines oftcn occur in India from the ex­ ties of Franklin, Perry, Adams and Dauphin, Clnistmas presents, a huge pound cake, a bal', Capitals, shafts, mould· cessive drought; no rain sometimes falling for Pa. to take into cOllsideration such measures reI of sugar, and a fine horse. A lucky f!lllo'S perfectly insoluble. , iugs and various othH articles of dccol"atiYl) six months while !here are hut winds which as might best promote the proper ob ser van c e that. art are made from i L of the Sabbath, met in the Borough of Cham, destroy all vegetation. A BIll making ten hours a day's work, has b erab urg on th e <)8th _, 0f J annary. This canal is to prevent such famines. F• re denck Loeomotion� passed the Maryland house of Delegates by A new treble-wheeld carriage expected to Wh"h,sal�J)�-;�;tlo;;'�£'Vlns and FaD>- C . S lil'tll of Ch amb ers b urg h preSl'd e d ,an d tl1e. I an almost Un a nl. m O lS vote. ConveMion was add resse d by Rev. O. S lUes. tl"avel on common roads at the rate of ten Powell. A long ser�es of Resolutions was Always answer the aged repectfully. No Recently, the Parochial allthoriti�s of st. miles an hour, by th€ light, SImple, llnd sant labor of a tread-wheel attached to ma- Luke's, Chelsea, and SL Leonard's, Shore­ ad apted, asserting that thp. law of God, and m att er how tallntingly they may address YOll, chinery in the interior, and capable of carry- ditch, London, issued descriptions and re­ the physical and moral well-being of man re­ treat them kindly. ing twelve persons at this rate, from thirty to wards for the apprehension of 54 men char­ quire the obsCj'\'ance of the Sabbath. The skull of the author of the immortal forty miles by one driver, without fatigue, is ged with deserting �heir wives a n d families, When to Speak and When 1110'. D ec larat ion of Inoepelldence, is said to be in lit present being exhibited in moael at Liver-, leaving no fewer than 217 individu3ls a bur­ " I have known," says Cicero, man y sins the Museum of the Patent Office. then to those parishes. The �nen are descn- by speaking few by keeping silence;" poot-Ex. it is e e riages w re us d bed as good mechanics, and able to earn from It is not new. Such car The Hereford Times describes a drake with therefore more difficult to knew how to be on some of the roads in Scotland in ]844, but 26 to 30�, pe r wetk. silent th n to speak And there is a Spanish three legs, to Olle of which tw" feet were at­ Ad';;'lt�-;�kd: Flour. all explosio ��t an�ndt��e _eIl�erprise" proverb to the same etlect; "Any fool may tached. l� l\Ulltary Execution. The Kingston Whig, Canada, states that babble, but It takes the wise man tn bold J' -;:""---f wa er --�-: W€lg h s glxty-two . and •• ell)1e lOOt 0 ';---'-t A soldier, a Scottsman, !:amed Victor Gal­ for some t i me past the Kingston Market has t ongue. . ! a half pOl'lnds. There are 230 c ubic inches braith, a bugler of Capt. Mier's Cavalry was been glutted with adulterated flour. The in a gallon of water. Pay and Overpay. lately shot at Buena Vista for threatening the auulteratioll chiefly consists iu mixing Rye A correepodent of the Oxford Chronicle The personal effects of the Founder of tpe life of his captain. An Bye witness says" he with Wheaten Flour. points out somewhat of a descrepancy in the Smithsrmian I nstitut e arll in the National Gal­ �almly sat down upon his collin and wou ld paym ent of Christian MinistHs-the curate of Temperance Railroads. lery. not allow them to b a n dage his eyes but told The stockholders of the Fall River, (Moss.) his parish for forty years exemplary labor, the men to take gOOQ aim., lIe was the n.o"t Franklin's Printing Press is for �ale at Railroad, resol H d with only one dissenting had received £2,800 the late Archbishop of resolute man I e v er saw." Washington. voice, that no 8pirituou� liquors be transport­ York, � ec e i ved £100,000,000. be a complete ancient history, comprised in

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Jiew Acid.

An English p"per st a tes that Dr. Sheridan Muspratt has succeeded in producing tw') VB fY remarliable acid, irom tbe sulphocyenides This discovery is al­ 0- ethy Ie and me thy Ie. ready. appreciated on this continent, where Dr. .M nspratt has for IlOme yeallJ ranked as one of the first !Jf British cheLllis\6.

Some Y ankee in M exico has opened a clo·· Oak 111ll !" ing shop, and dubbed it th come b ha bill e s manufactUrin g: The Police a law in this State. That IS right. There ly I,bout $500,000. A new plan is now under Over twenty case�-;;T��;;'ilPo x has OCCUf­ discussion in the Common Council, which should � ns spe.:ial charters, but ge n eral red at Bethany, N. Y. '-'- -- ..-�_ . , , -"" proposes to reduce the annual expenditure to laws to regnlate every department of A new Btyl,� of bracelets, with watches in$300,000, aud it prelien16 a.,yet mwe effi<;:ient merce,!"inan�6, Mallllfact1.lre and e.gricul�erted in them, 1I1e all the rage in Baltimore, ture. sYitem. ed over the road.

sJstem of tbis city costs annual­

lIIanuiCactu.l""r's Bill.

The generai

© 1848 SCIENTIFIC AMERICIAN, INC

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For th. SOientifio Am.ric�"

Dwinask Weaving. 'We com mence a se r ies of a b le , so und and tllegant artic l e s this week, from the p e n of M r . Gilroy . th e autho'r of t he best t r eat i se on weaving, ever p u b lished. Damask, is a variegated t extile fabric ri � hly ornamented with figures of flowers , frm ts , landscapes, ani m al s , lite ., and is a ri ch , elegant

and

Scientific 2lnttricllU.

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I plan, for th e sake of economy, i� often c arri \ ed still farther , particu larly where great ac-

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extra mail occas io n ally at r egu la r i n ter·

thre ad i n a

val s , i n

t h e s a m e w ay t h at weavers m iss their '

overp l u s headles when th e h eadles are finer

t h a r, t he reed . Da mask , h o wever, e d very fi ne , an d wh e n much

when w ant-

�cc u racy an d � e -

o t th e patt e m , ma y be

/

woven in a full har-

n e s s ; bu t as these req u ire a g reat q u an t i ty o f . c ord age, and c onse q u e ntly are ve ry e x p ens l �e

The name i s said to b e de r i ved from Damascus

where It was an cien tly mad e , with e n g i nes .invented by that celebrated i n d i v id u a l , E . K i f< m o u nting, e spe cial ly whe � t h e p atter n I S A.rphaxad . l arge , t h e full damask h a r ness IS not c o m m o n T h e twe�l of d a m ask is usually hal f t h a t ( To be con tinued. ) . . oi full satIn (a l u ll satll1 ] S wov e n ,n th 1 13 'l'el egra plt Punct u ation . l
:m-II

and g i v e n , P '' oy ment to man" 0 th .lUsand" of ll.dll stnous profitab l e branch of t r affic , . people.

. Damask table-cloth s, &c. , are manufactUl'ed . h tl O rh o � d ext ensi ..e l y i n the to w n and nelg of D u m ferli n e , in Fif)S h i r e , Scotland ; b u t III J point of texture, those m ad e i n I re l and excel them, a nd partiCUlarI y so, t I Ie goo ds , " prod uce d by Michael Andrews, Esq . , W h 0 IS,

greatly

I I

without exception , t h e best manufac. turer o f

this sp eci es offabnc in E u rop e .

Damask ta-

last

�f th e se COU Il -

hIe- cloths are als o man ufactured extensi vely . ' . . . . .. m BelgIUm , at SllesJa, ( Aust r Ia,) and III dIffer.

ent parts 01 Russi � . tries the texture IS

In t h e

coarse, and

IS

commonly

I

by the name of R u ssi an d i a p e r ; t h e patterus, h o we v e r , often d is p lay grea t t a ste ; the cloth has but fe w picks of w e ft to the inch , but it is passed b e t we e n t w o p ow er fn l iron cy l inders , w h ich flatten the thre a d s , and give t h e. te xture a finer appe ar an c e than it would otherwis e h ave ; th e goods nevertheknown

less we a r well, an d are much ' used in the

p Ub l i ca t i on , so

th at

purpose.

.-.- C omma, . . _ ._ S o on e m ic l . _

D

h

. . {jll �sl01.)' 1 _

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been introd u c e d wh olly composed of cotton,

in the form o f sha-.vls , and olher ornamental kinds of dresses ; and are m ostly ex p o rt e d for the use of t h e negro pop ulati on , both in Africa and America.

In table · cloth we av i ng the ground leaves of

headleil are gene rally pl aced seven or

e\i;ht

in front of th e m ounting wh i c h p r o duces the fi g u r e ; for if they wer e too n ear the mails of t h is m o u nt i n g, they would , i n worki ng, "train and b reak the w a rp t h reads prod uc ing i n the face o f the cloth little l oop s , or so m e th i ng Rot unlike the ears of birds (house sparrows . ) Damasks, for t able covers, are someti me. 11'0ve n with a five l eaf tweel , and often w i t h one oi e igh t or even more leaves. Whe n woven wi t h a fi ve leaf t w eel thp,y are u�ually deno_ minate d bastard damasks, and when m ore t h a n eight leaves are e mploy ed for the ground they are called s u perfi n e damasks. T h e eight lea f t w e e l , as b e fore observed, I S that w h i c h is inches

usually termed the damask tweel.

T h e nu mbe r o f th reads in each

these fabrics is like w ise vari able ,

mail of being three,

four, or more, accor d i ng to tile intendE d fin e -

Tak i ng ad v a n t age of t h i s the damask w e aver has se ldo m oecasion t o c h ange h is h arness, though he may require to chang'l the set o f hiS reed ; w h ic h is easi ly done by varying U: e number of thread s 5r. each intervill. in the S a ll\ 6 m an n e r , Thill Ill' SS of t h e web .

circu mstance ,

Scl"ntillie Mem.O'l"amla.

a

The mechanical ad va.ntage gai n ed by the inclined plane is as m u c h as the length o f pressure was re mo v ed the water rose to Its t h e plane exc e ed s in h e i g h t foriner le � e l , and th us not � nly p r o � E d t h e . , . The advanta g e g a m e d t>y th e mechanica l lso. ty a compressibilIty of water, b u t ���astJc l p o wer of the screw is i ll prop o r ti on as the cir­ Interesting Cave. cumference of the circle made by t h e l ever or Mr. Tuomey h a s la tely published a r ep or t th e wrench 'in turn in g it, is g r eater t ha n tlte of his G e ological survey of t h e S t ate of Ala­ c istance between the threads of the screw b a m a . It is full of i n t eresting and s c i e n ti fic In c onsidering the advantages gai n ed to ma­ He has visite d numerous caves infQrmation. ch i nes , it may be observed gener al ly , that and o n e he v i s i ted in B l o u n t county, in the wh at e ye r power is gai ned hy an increase of Red mountain is a wonderful phenomena. II. olion. The amou nt of p o wer ga i ned may " I n this ca,'e," he says, " is t h e d ep osi t ory i nd e ed be immensp, but it is gained e n tirely by worked n e e b had h c i h w silver of lead and by a proportional increase of velocity, as the !!he Sp a ni ard s a n d I ndia n � , Various imple. moving power or a p roportional sacri fi c e the out bring to rne n ts , such as wood e n travs • of t i m e i n performing the o p e ration ore and l arge sh ells to con vey food to the \Ve know tbe ex is t ence of iron in two states workme n w i t h i n ; E uropean mats, c op p er s o d i s s i m i l ar , that i n the one it is to th e al n i used tless l doub d i sh es a n d e v e n crosses, electric chain like plati n u m , and i n the other m e tallu rgic op erat io ns, had ,)een fo n nd in this cave, b esi d es a considerable quantity of lea d. it is like zinc : so that powerful galvanic On t h e w ay I was d e l i g h t e d to fi n d t h e a rch i - m ac h i nes have been c o n s tructed of this metal. medes of Leseur,

!liay

a fossil p e c u l iar to th e c al'­

b
This in -

stalacti tes which h u ng from t h e roof l i k e

th When the clarified j uice of nutri tious vege ­ I, richh c a r v ed p e n d e n t s . T h e p r e p a rat io n s for 0 t abl e s , s u c h as caulifl o wer, asp�.ragus, or tur­ I entering i nspi r ed my li t t le g u i d e with c o u r _ _ _ . Exclamation n i ps is made to boil, a coag u l u m I S formed _ I age, and he volu nteered his services to carry which it i.s absolutely i m p ossi bl e to disti n ­ . . _. Int errogation . t h e lig h t wood ; a l i t tle search e n abled us to . _ . . . Pare nthesis, to b e used before an d afg ui s h from t h e s ubstance W h IC h sep arates as fi n d the pa:"sage fro m t h e antechamber t o t h e . l l' zed .. ter wor d s to b e p aren tl a c o agul u m when the s e rum of blood or the or f We were obl i ged 10 he used before and afte r i n te r i o r of th e cave . __ . . . _ Italics . wh ite of an egg, diluted w i t h water, are b e at­ some distance to assum e a very h um b le poswords i talic ised . ed to the boil i ng point. receded roof e _ h t as u occasIOnally, t (0 b e use d b e fore t u r e , b _ Quotation , . _ ,,_ . Dr. Priestly, had a burning glass construc ted J from the floor, w e fo u n d re s ti n g places. At alld afrer words quote". i a /l e w par ag a p h . length a su d d e n de pression in the floo r b r o u g h t n e arly th r e e fee t in diameter and it prodll.ct!ii. _ _ _ _ I t n d ca es _ r a h eat th at mel t ed iron plates in a moment. . H ( w h er e we b egan to find indicaFo!' an ap ostrop IIe, t II e com m a IS o s e d w h e n 1]0", to a POI' ". I t m elted 20 grains of gold i n four seconds , t i o ns of t h e D l eculiar fe a tures of this cave ; a n e c essary, 20 gra i n s of s il ve r in three s e c o n ds, 10 grains e an h t f hum o h t r For a h •y p h e n the dash is used w h e n n e c e s - E ttle far e , and fragments frame, a nd bones of many a sto u t l i m b were of pl at i na in t hre e , ec o n d s , and a.� much flint sary ; b u t t h e 1,ast two ure se ld om use....� . in 39 seconds. scattered ab ou t i n e very direction ; the trays . . - -. .

wi

p e n. o d ,

()Ompl·�sslbUity.

.

I

. . That qual i ty by wh ich a bod y allow, Its \'0 - I houses of t h e middle c l asses. The t able-clo th manufacture i n B elgiu m ! u me to be dim i n i s h ed, without d i m i n i s h i n g is mostly c o n fi n ed to Courtray ; the princ ip al its m ass, is c alled c ompr � ss �bility. T h i � efm anufac turer there is, M. Alexandre In fect IS 'P ro� uced ?y brlllgmg t h e pa rtlC � e8 Fra n ce t he m ost e xtensive m an ufa c t u r er Of w h ich constItu te s a id bo d y cl oser t og e th er , mthis kind o f go o ds , is M . E. Fer.y, of Essonne creasi ng thereby th e de n s i t! and d i m i ni shi ng Seine I!t Oise ; this gentleman employs ab ou t t h e p ore s . All known b odies al'P c a p ab l e of. h a v i n g their d i m e ns i o ns r e d uced by p r e ssu re , , 1 0 0 damask looms . Table and piano · forte c ove rs are m a n u fac - or perc ussion , w i t h o u t d i m i nishi n g t h e i r mass. lured p ret ty extensively in t h e north of Eng- This is a s trong p roof that all b od i es are c o m hmd b u t i n regard to t h e finer k i nd s of l i n- p os ed of a to m s, t h e spaces between wh i ch nen damask, there is no great p rosp e c t o f m ay b e diminished. th eir e v e r d r i v i ng t h e I r i s h manufac t u r e o ut The substances with wh ic h w e � r e surroano f the m ark e t . d e d are c o nti n u ally c h angiog t h ei r m agn i tUd e . I Silk d am ask s are manufactured in gr eat Wate r expand s 700 t i m e s its b u l k by t h e a p 1 c;uanht ies in Lyons, Paris, and s e veral other p l i cati o n of heat and can b e again red uce d to p arts o f Fmn ce, for ladies shawls, & c . , t h ey rIg original bul k by conde nsati @ ll, and by cold lire als o made pretty e xte ns i vel y i n S p ital- it can become larger in 3ulk aga i n the form of del d s, a n-i Ma nche ste r, (E ngla n d , ) and at Pais - ICe. Le ad an d iron c a n b e co m p re s s e u d d n er iey, (Scotland . ) Dam asks h a v e of late years th e ham mer, b ut fluids al e difficult, y e a al-

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179

Ten , twe nty, or m orc p o u nds weight of mercury br o ugh t into contact with a mi xture of e ther and carbonic acid, become i ll a fe w letters for which the great M a mm o t h C a v e of Kentucky mi n u t e s fi r m an m a ll e able. A fter a few trials we s u cc e e ded i n ocems, I f a piece of potassium be p l a c e d on ice, fi n d i n g t h e e ntrance to ou r cave, which was i t inst a ntly t ake s fire w i th a b right flame, quite inviti ng, b e i n g spacious a n d ornamented alld melts a deep hole into the ice.

t h a t all Telegra p hers

h a ve t h e b e n e fit of the m i f d es i red , , . , . ve n t l o n IS.- m il c h s u p erIOr to usmg

found that t h e l evel in the lube fell in

very p erce p tible d e g ree , bu t w h p ne ver the

c u r acy i s not required , by drawing an

l ica cy are requ i red in t h e deSIgn a n d colormg

e x p ensive specie s of ornamental w e aving.

he

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were

A n i ron p illar s q u �l'e at the top and bottom, is there too, bu t e m p t i e d of their I) o nte n ts the co[fin� t h a t once e n [email protected] ab o u t th ree times as stro n g as if rou nd ed at th e

for t h e y were

t h e s e �emains.

Som e of t h e m w e r e hollo w

ends ; if th e pill ars are not pl ac ed pe rfectly pe r ­

at le ast two thirds 01 t h e i r s tre ngt h lost ; and they are one sen nth stronger w h e n swelled in the Ill iddle, l i k e the frus­ tr u m of a c o n e , w i t b the baHe i n the centre of e n era l ly t h e l e n gt h of a m a n . Pieces of th e g m a t t i n g also re m ai ned , which we r e c G m p osed the pillar of the s p l i t s o f t h e com mon cane, b u t very A a ilve : wire, the chirte e n th of an inch i n

lo gs s plit in two, others were excavated for

the purpose, and bore evident marks o f a nar­ r o w ax e , p r ob ab ly a tomah a wk. They w e re

pe ndlCular, is

made, and were doub tre�s t h e shro u ds di a me t er, w i l l sustai n une h u n dred and thir­ The ty - se ve n p o u nds. A wire o f l e a d , of 'the same nu mber of coffin� that re ma i n is very g re at , size, sustaills twenty- eight pou nds, and tin, 36 consid e ri n g the many that must have b e e n p o u n d s . destroyed or carried away. I found among the The E nglish Board of A d m i ralty i.s stated b>on e s th e sk ull ot a la rg e r ode n t , do ubt les s a to have in their p ossess i o n a chronometer b e aver. I saw n o e x cavations eAcept th ose w"tch w h i.ch has not vDned a second in 17 of a recent date-the wB r k of the w h i te m a n . nlOnths It was co mmon with the aborig ines [email protected] b ury Hy,traulie T e l e graph. w i t h the dead , trinkets, & c . , but i t does not a p p eal' t h at th e y ev er acc u m u l ated the p rec i­ A p ate n t has j ust b e e n takel1'out in E n gland, ous metals, much less buried t h e m with th e which the p atentee, Mr. Jowett, c l ai ms to b e m o st i m p ossible to 'compress by m e c b ani cal dead, at least I h a v e n e ver known any one to a most imp ortant advanc ement i n Telegr� p h i c p resS1Irc and at most y i eld only to a very , m a k e a fortune by digg i n g mto mou nds or In­ science. More e ffective re8ul ts are said to be sli ght degree. dian graves. I i m agine that far oth er c are s obtained by his new Hydraul ic Telegraph­ The question of the com press i b i l i ty oflluids oceu p ied the m i n ds o f those who laid the t h e first of which IS economy i n the construc ­ is all old one. About two ce nturies ago, at brave and the true hearted of their tribe s in tion of the hydraulic telegra p h , w h i c h will be on e of tbe Flore nce ACfld emies an ex p e r i m e n t at least a saving of two-thirds, c om p ared with this solemn and appro priate resting place. was made with it hollow ball of gold t o legt __ ______,________ t h e ou thy required by t h e Electric, indepen­ the com pressibility of water. The' hollow A Human Divin ing Rod. dent l y of the c o n s i d e r able increase of speed. ball of gold was filled with water and the Among the smaller lions of Paris at p r esent Secondly, n o e x p ense whatever (after the first I t was is an i nd i v id ual p ossessir.g great i r.terest-the a m o u n t of c o n s t r u c t i o n ) will be necessary to a p e r ture perfectly anj firmly closed submitted to a great degree of pressure by C u re Paramelle, the h u mble village priest­ p ro v i d e for the continuous worldng of the hr­ which its figure was cha nged. Now a s p here who h as been sent for by the Academie des dl aulic !elegrapr , it being beyond the P OSSI ­ has th e peculiar property that If any p orti o n Scie nces to enlighten that respectable corps b ility o f d o u b t that a n y atmos heric c h anges p o f its figure i s changed , its v o l u m e o r contents o f 3 a l) UnS concerning th e extraordinary gift c a ll interfere with or affect th e s u cce ss of its a re dim i nished, a nd h e nce th e students i n w h i c h he possesses of discove ring h i d de n operations. Th irdly, n o p hysical i m p ed iment Flor e nce reas oned that if the water d id lIo t s p ri ngs beneath the eartll. Th e Pans papers can c o m pe t e with the p e r petual use o f the hy­ co m e through the p ores of gold or b u rst th e say t h at h e h as a touching sim plicity of his draul i c telegraph-n e i t h e r heigh t , depth, si­ g l obe, its c om p ress ibility would be es tab li sh- manners, and utter unc onseiousn ess 0: tb e nuosity, nor d istance stopping i n the slightest e d , T h e result o f th e e x p eriment was , that i m po te u c e of th e gift w i t h w h i c h it b as p l e a­ degree its perfect ac tion , the water d id ooz e throu g h th e p o res o f th e sed heaven to b less h i m . I t a p p e ars that h i s These are t h e claims which. the patentee gol d a nd app ear e d h k e d e w ou i t s s u r fa ce . - powers a r e m o s t extraordinary, t h a t Ite has h as advanced , wh9 has been exhibiting mo. Th e Florent i nes therefore consid ered t hat wa - n ever o n c e been deceived, b ll t told on the del s and plans a t No. 17 Wel l i ngton S trand, ter was incompressibl e , but i n 1681 Mr. Can- instant, without hesitat ion, t h e exact s p o t Lon d o n . Its particular nature and construc­ S to n c o m mu nica:ed to the R oy a l oci e ty so me w h e r e wa t e r m ay b e fo u nd . He is singular tion we do not u nd e rstand full e n o ugh to experiments, w h ich at onc e. pr oved the c om- amo ng th ose who have h i t h erto p ossessed d e sc ribe it, but m 'l)' be able to d o s o i n some p ressi hili ty o f wat e r , by a m ore e ffe c t u a l e x- the art, in his u tt e r inde p endence of t h e d i ­ future n u m ber. A t present we h ave d o u b ts He pr o - v i n i ng rod, w b i c h h6 has never needed. H e r�sl'ecting its superior advantages . pe r i m e nt than by the g ol d e n gl ob e v i ded a gl as s t u b e w ith it bulb and filled the describes t h e sensation he e x p eriences w h e n b ulb an d part of th e tube wi th liqu id well p u - walking over a spring, to be that o f a ke en An exchange p olper says tb.t c u c u m b ers He then placed this tube and pricking p ai n :a the throat and noatrilA, can be made into pickles while growing, it rified {rom a i r. in an atmospheric condens er
i n which the b odies we r e e nvelop e d .

© 1848 SCIENTIFIC AMERICIAN, INC

180

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r.

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N. y , p has inl' ented a Ra i i r o ad C ar W heel , wh i c h open to t h e free p assage at th e a i r , has .w ith· p ro m i ses to b e of great u ti l i ty. It h as i n it, � t the t � p , a ye n ti l l a t o r Of h e u s � al con . c a st wg stru chon, whIch pr �v e n t s the I. m m e d I a te es­ heretofore been found necess ary, 111 c a r - wh eel s to d ivid e t h e h ub lo ng i t udinal ly , cap e of the moistu!'e, cre a t i n g a s l i g h t rare­ in to t hree "rts, in o rder to p r o v ide fo r t � e faction th erein , a n d de ta i n i n g t h e. d e p o s i t i o n s. An apparatus h a Ylll g tubes W I t h e nl a rged contraction of the me t al i n c ooli n g, a n d I D com p le t i n g the whee l , to fill the op e n i n g i n end s has b e e n used for the s a m e pUl'pose b e ­ fo re , but the curved form gi v e n to t h e e n d s th e hub wi t h z i nc , and secu ri ng e a c h T he p � a n for blowin� t ow a rd s . the cit cu .m fere n ce and wi t h h eavy wrought iron b ands . adop ted by MI'. J u d s o n consists i n s e p arat lll g the a il' fl u e for colle cting t h e m o s t u re are the � e a c h s p o k e 01' arm n e ar the rim, b y m aki ng a im prove ments cla i m e d by Mr. P i ll_� l . M

A lf

J

::�::;e r,

IIl1·prove m e n t In Fiddles.

Mr. J oh n Holmes, o f Hol m es' Ho l e, Mar ­ tha's V i n e y a rd , h a s m ade s o m e v alu a b l e IID­ pl'oYemen ts in t h e m o d e o f c o n s t r u c t i n g fid ­ dles, wh ereby t h e vol u m e of s o u n d is concen­ trated a n d made far mo re powerful t h an by the p r e s e n t m a n n e r i n which t h ey are made. The invention does not r elat e to ad d i ti on al

���';.: � == -:-

. ·- '�lt�-$:.E""'.�_:� -:�._--:-�.=-.-.:-= ._- _-�:.=:.�-..

.. ... . . �c� �-- -;;;> �. _ _

t:.=:..-' -



I



Nero .Jntlentloll6.

-

�-

end I I

i t

part of i t form a h ollow cylinder, of fo u r i n c h ­

Gnl Cott n E n g i n e . � � T h i s is a late illy e n h o n o f W . Fox Tal •n o t '

p

es i n d a m e e r, the l en g t h or wh ic h is e q u al to th e width of t he a r m , a n d of e q u al strength

lI 1

LIST OF PATENTS

ISSUED FROM THE UNITED STATES P A T ENT

of the con n ty of vVllltS, En gl a n d , for rod u OFFIC E , the arm being s e p arated at t h e point wh e r e ci n g m o t i v e p o w e r by t h e em p lo y me n t of [email protected]· For the week ending Feb . 1 5 , 18'1 1! . t he c y l i n d e r unites with it. · The c onsequ ent i d su b st a nc e s such as g u n cotton w h i c h i s th e To James P. Gage , of N e 'v York Cit) , far elasticitv of t he cyl in d rical p or t ions allows p e cul i a r feature of th e i nve n tion . T h is g e n - i m p r ov eme nt i n m achin ery for Sanding Pa­ t h e w h � el to c on trac t wi thout frac turi'lg in t le m a n is also a p a t e n t e e f o r an i n v e n t i o n o f p er . P at e n t e d Feb . 1 5 , I S,lS . l in g, wh ile t he simple insertion of a b olt, a string�-the ou t s id e is unal tere d-but by t h e c oo der i v i ng m otive o w er fr o m e x p lO SIv e g s e s , T o H e n der s on 'rV arner, of Hamilto n Co. , se p ar at i on i s made, gives to t h e the ere h w comb ination of s tee l wires brought to an ex­ b u t h e c onsid ers t h e gun cotton m o r e safe a n d O h i , for m p r ovem t III mach o i en i n e ry fer maTh e A u ­ and s e lid i ty . tr a ordin a ry degree of tension and fitted i n the wh e el full strength b etter. k i ng Brooms. P a te n ted Feb. 15, 1 848. and R o c hes t e r Ralroad are ab o ut i n tro ­ interior of the instrum ent, a poor and i n d i ffer­ burn , To Ral p h D. C urtiss, o f Erie, Pa. , for i m ­ ducing t h is i m po v em e n t , and fav orable opin ­ ent v i ol i n can be sudd enly m ade e q u al to t h e provement in stores, c o u n t i n g rooms, &c. for are entertained in regard t o it. finest, at l e a s t in t h e de;>th and ful l n e ss o f ions p r eservi n g pr op e r t y in case ot fi re . Pil.tellted We expect to b e ab le tn p r ese n t a c u t and to ne . We b el i e v e that measures have be en , Feb. 1 5 , 18'18. uable al v s ' on ds u MI'. f o J m ore full de script ion taken to se c u re a patent. To Abraham Randal , of Genoa, N. Y., for inventi on in a fu tu re n u mber. Measures have i m p r o v e m e nt in P ota to e Planters_ Patented Improved SaCety Lock . patent. a e ur c e s to n e been tak }'eb. 1 5 , 1848. Mr. W i lli a m Hall, of Dock Squ are, Boston, Impr.ovement I n Gr ind i n g G r a h• • To L e v i Gilbert, of N e w H ay e n , C o n n , for has i n ve n te d a new Lock, which is s ai d to T his a l ate i nve nti on o f J ac q u s F. Pind, iIllp.rovement in p la t e s for Ar tificial Teeth . ­ p ossess some a dv a n t ag e s , such as the sILall di, of Lyons, F ra n c e , for a p ec u l i a r manner of P a tented Feb. 1 5 , 18-1 S. of t h e key, and an i n ge ni o u s mode causing c urre n ts o f ai r to p ass b e t w e e n the To Ge E Roherts, o f B u ckley S p ringd, of closing and pro tecting the k ey- h o l e, whIch I Va. , for orge C u rrents of a i r are c o n ­ sto n e s _ i m p r o v eme n t ill W a shi ng Machines. are worthy o f a t te n t i on . There i s an arrange­ s u rfaces of

p

I

"

e

mensions

from be i ng blown

j

P atented Feb. 15, 1848. To Edwin S m i t h , of W h i tes to w n , N. Y. , up WIth p o wu e r , the re b e i r. g no op en ing to p er ends an d i n troduced b eyor.d the ey e in for i m p r ov e m e n t in C oo k i n g Stoves. P •.tentecl the i n te r i or of th e lo ck-and also s ecures it as the cen tre of the ru n lll n g stone in a di r ec ti on a F"h. 1 5, 1 8 48. effectually against picking, there being n o to cause the all' to flow to w rds the c i r c u m This e n gr a v i n g i s a re presen tation of a sec ­ ference 0/ the stones, pro p elli n g the gro u n d DESIGl'f. c h anc /01' p res su re on t h e b ol t s w h i l e t h e tional elevation of an o r di n a ry piston a n d cyl­ To J os e p h G . Lamb and C harles ZQi ne r , o.l' pistons a r e u n covered, nor o p p o r t u ni ty to p r o du c t in an outward d irection and ke ep i ng inder c o n n e c ti n g WIth t h e wOl'king part by the gri nd i ng sur fa ces c ool , a very i m p orta n t Ci nc inn a ti , Ohio, for Design for coal and air­ work on the pistons when press ur e is on other al'l'angements. crank tight Stove. Patented Feb. 1 5 , 1848. the bolt, except with a tr u e and perfectly fi t­ consideration, as t h e wheat is often s p o i l e d to At t he bottom of the cylinder, on each s i d e , m ake good flour by th e stones being too much ted key. .ment which secures t h e lock

d u c t e d d ownw.rd s by tubes w i t h enlarged u p ­

·

e

the

or

are

h eated.

Pattel son , a practical and ex­ p er ie n c ed Flax spi n ner , of New Hartford, One ­ Ida C o . , N. Y . , has made s o me very impOl·tant improv ements in th e method of m�nufac t u r ­ ing flax, w h i c h must be of great b e nefit t o this rising and v al u ab l e branch of Am eri c a n industry. Mr. Patterson by pro c ess e n ti r ely d i sp ose s uf all the hptche lling and s p ins his thread with out tbat o p er a t ion , have b e e n i n fo r m e d , makes a fa r superior article. No l i n e n cloth is m a d e in our coun­ t ry, but there are great q u a n t i t ies o f flax thread,

we

however, to m e e t

This i n v e n t i o n

explo .

INV EN TOR ' S CLAIM.S.

to t h e cylinder by

Burrin g Ma.,hlnes.

r

By Ziba Parkhust, of New York C Ity, i n d e r, is a p lati n a rod 01' w i l' e , fo r t h e p u r - Improyement i n B u r i ng Machines. Patent­ po� e of b e i n g exci ted by a galv a n i c bat t ery, ed 1 1 th S e p te mber, 1 74 7 , and dat.ed 1 1 th a n d explvd ing t h e gu n - co t t o n ; a, i s the w o rk- M arch , 1847. Claim , what I c l a im as my in­ i ng cy l i n d e r ; b, th� p is to n and conne ct i n g T e r. ti on , and d es i r e to s e c ure by l e t ters Patent r o d ; c , the t u b u l a r slid e co n ta i n i n g the e x - i s , 1 st. Th e comblllation o f the receiver, In p l o s i v e m at e r i al ; d d, t h e plati n a wire. s tr i p p er, middle c l e a r e r , m iddle stri p p er, top . pr e p a r i ng the cy li n d e r f or w or k i n g o r de r, I t str i p per, h o p p ers , and s h ell , whethu arrall­ will b e fi rst necessary to fi l l th e tubular g eu i n th e m a n n e r above d escribed, or i n any �lide with gun cotto n , or each d i vision t h e r e - other mode o r m a n n e r , w h i c h is s u b s t antially of formed �'ithin it, so as to allow a portion t h e same by whIc h res ul ts a n alogous to i 01 it to be ex p o se d to t h e im m edi ate a c ti on t hose abov e d escribed are pr o d u c ed . ::le!. I v i e w of the I o f h ea t w he n passing thr ou gh th e c y ! i n d e r , cl aim the zig zag, or angular p

I

and

the market de­ p n

l

This engI'aving is a sec tio n a then, l o r which mea­ a rr ange me nt , the p e culiar fe t u re of wh i ch sures h av e been taken to se cu r e a a t e t, me­ c onsi s ts i n t he foul' tubes e mploy ed b e i ng c u rrits the p rofo und attention of flax manufac­ ye d i n w ar ds at their lowe r end s, se e n a t d, t m ers . for th e purpose of blowing betwe e n t h e s u r face of the st o n e s , a b ; thl' m od e of s u pp l y-

not e n ough ,

mand.

w hic h the

t h e a p p l ic a t i o n of t h e tu b ula r sl i de con tain i n g the gun . c otton ; pa ssin g th r ou g h t h e cyl -

Improvenaeat In Flax Spinnin g .

Mr . Robert

his own

c i r c u lar holes, i n

sil'e material is supplied

a

b y b e i n g brou g ht i n c o n t a c t with t h e plati na WI re , exc i te d to

stri pers, as

v e described, and r e presen t e d , for t he pur­ a w h i t e h e at b y th e b a tt er y p os e set fo r t h , an d e n er al ly , whether used g a bo

in c o mbin a t i o n with a cyl i nder , co nstru c ted

a fo r e s a id , care ·b e i ng tak e n that one diuisio n sh all h ave d i sc h arged i t. conten t s before ano-

e

or a c y l i n d e r constru cted 3 d . I c l a i m the c o m bin a ­ e x p l os ions a m o t i v e p o wer for giving m oti o n tion o f the shell, with I h t r e c e iv i n g cylinde r Mr . Z. M. C r a ne , of Dalto n , Mass . , has i n the ce n tr e or eyf:, by me a n s of th e shute and to mac h i n e ry o f vari o u s k i nd s , s u c h power for pressillg t h e wool ag a n st t h e cylinder and vented a n e w p l a n for r eg u lat i n g t h e ballas t h o p er . sh ap ed case, e ; a, i s the u nd e r n e ath being regulated e n tirely by the q u ant i ty of ing 0/ our steamboats. It is w ell known th at p r otecti ng it from the d irt thrown off by the st on e , of o r d i nary constructi on ; 0, t h e ru n ni ng e x p lo s i v e m at e r i al e m p lo y ed , a nd th e s p eed strippers, whether made i ll t h e IDanner d e ­ huge boxes 01 gre a t we ight are fi t ted u p on stone , h a v i n g o n i ts u p p er su rface si x, or an y gi v en t o the s lides wh e n passing th ro u gh sc ribe d or in any o t h e r mode or manner, wh eels and rolled from s ide to s i rol e of o u r other s u i t abl e number of horn -shaped t ub e s , the cylmuer. The p a t e n t ee proposes to at- w h i c h is substantially the same. ste amboats as the cas e may req u ire . The pl a ced around the top s u r fac e of t h e s to ne ; a t tac h on e s l i d e to ano th e r , so t h at w h en one dragg ing of the se buxes is all d o n e by han d , Artificial T e eth. these outer e n d s ex t e n d i n g as far out as posh as discharged its e x p lo siv e m aterial , anomanu al labor, and a very c l u m sy method for By M or r i s Levett aIld He nry Davis of New sible, so as to des c rib e th e g r eat e st cir le , lor place the taken and entered � ther will h a v e the p ur {lQ s e it is. Mr. C r ane c an shi ft the York City, (the of more effectually c�llec tlll g the of the other w h i c h has been dl' a w n through necessary weights and re g ul at e them by h i s his righ t , title and i nterest to s a i d DaVIS.) . a ir as tbey rev o lv e , aod conducting It do w n i n re a d n ess to be r e §lled New Invention.

­

i o g th e machine

p

is, as

t h e r is i ll tr odu c e d , t h us c au si ng

h ere to fo re, throu gh

like the cy l i n d r ic ,

by r p eated in any ot h e r form.

i

!

the purpose

p l a n far m o r e easily and m o r e mechanically than by the present method.

H e uses a s h aft

and e.g whe els to be turned by

a crank by

()ne man , or connected with the e ng i ne .

p

Cas' Iron Chimney Top8.

various uses to which i r on is bein g ap ­ lie d , are i n crpasing d iily. Withi n a sho r t ti m e it has b e en u s e d for orname ntal c h i m ­ neY-i. They are considered to he far more durable than brick, they are at least far more beautiful in design. The

i

clai ms the e mp l o y m e n t of a t he n()velty ot solid substance to prod u c e m o ti ve p o we to s to n es ; C � wh ic h r � lates to the curved fo rm g l v n to t h e w or � m achinery by m a s of e at y a e n h � h vlll � . ends w h I c h p_ ass d o w n through the 1 U�lll lll g p ortI Ons o f t h e g un cot t on e n c l o s e d III tub ui al stone , and turn outward at d, p r e v e n t m g by s l i d e s e xpl oded by a g al Yall .l c b attery, c o m s uc h lll eans th e currents of ai r t b u s c oll ecte d m u n i cati ng i n te rnally . escaping b a c k th rough th e eye, or ce n t re . Th i s i n ven t i on , i s, w e t h i n k , m ore novel . th e gr a n d d esldera. The s p o u t , e, can b e ra i s ed 0 : lo w ere d at t h an us e ful Econ omy IS pl e a s u re by means !If a r o p e passlllg ove r the t um o f all i n ve n t i on s , and g u n cotton, e t � er , in the n grav i n g Th e p o w d e r, g a l vanis m , and all su.:h c h e m Ic al p ul le y a c ti on of the machine thus given rece i vi ng a p 0 w e r s are far more e x p ensive than coal and motion from any suitable means h it her to em- w a t er .

b e tween the

runlllng and u nd e r S U I faces of t h e

c , are th e air t u b es ,

wheels, seen



The p at e n te e

I

e

I

said Levett having assigned

I m provement fo r colol'lng the Plates for Ar­ t i ficial Teet h . "

1 8.17.

Patented 18th Se ptember,

Clai m . -What we c lai m as our inven­ ti o n and d esir e to se c u re. by L e t t � rs Paten t is

the j a pan n i n g 01' o th e rW I se c o verIn� the set­

ting o r foundations of artificial teeth in s u ch II

rep­ skin of the mou th

m a n n e r a s to disgU I se the setting so a s t o l esent the g u m , or n atu r al

as n ear l y

as p OSSIble, \" he th e r the same be ef­

[eeted in the m an ne r descri b e d 01' by equiva­

lents substantially the same.

We als o c:aim

the herein d escrib ed japan or varnish , and

the meth od of compounding and applying the h as ob· same to the s e t ti n gs of artificial t e e th . tai ned a patent from HIB H ol i n e s s the Pope, for HlInd Fastenen. delphia, has in vented a new and c u riou s moisture from th e groun d products, and a ll o w a n e w project for rail ways calculated to s u r John L B as se t of Bridgeport, Conn. 1mm usical instrument, which consists of a plain i o g t h e pressur e of uir to es c a p e ; for th is obm o u n t the greatest i n e qualities o f surface , p rov e m e n t in B li n d .Fasteners. Pafr ame ab out t h e len g th of the o rdi n ary p iano , j ect t h e p atentee e m ploys a s m all vert i ca l ail' w i th o u t tunnels or v i aducts. tented S ep t emb e r 25, 1 847. Claim-What I u p on wh ich are suspended solid b l o c k s of fl u e , f, m ou n t e d u p on t h e t o p of a sh u te , ----------.--��m y i m p rovement and desire to secure ston e , thirty - e i g h t i n number, cut in t h e used for d 'is c h a rgi ng the ground wh eat frOID A m a ch i ne worked by the steam of e t h er, claim .as . form of a sash- w eIght. These blocks a re the s urface of the stones ; t h e s h a ft, f,, receIves has b e e n in full operation for some t i m e past, by le t t ers patent is, connecting th e l a tch to tbp. p l a te by t h e notch a n d t h e projecting b eaten by wooden mallets, partially co­ a tube h, t h ro u g h It, · , w h I' Ch com mUllica . t WI' t lj in a glass- c utting manufactory , at Lyons, l'ered w i t h buckskin , and the music produced the s h u t e , for the pu rpose of catch ing the France. Its power IS equal to thai of twenty b r anc h , in combination wit h the prong and spring. is astonishingly sweet. moistnre as it is generate d during the gri nll- horse�. Novel lI1usi eal Innrnment.

p loy ed fo r s u c h purp ose s.

Mr. G e orge Lovatt, of South Street, Phila­ of this i n v e nt i on

upon

T h e second p a r t cons ists in collecting the

A

___ _

Roma� E�-ii��-r �-�amed

_

Sartor i,

Window

es

© 1848 SCIENTIFIC AMERICIAN, INC

9dtntifit ':lmerictln.

181

many oth er in vent ors in o ur own country,

but if the steam sh ould b e g en e r at ed at a n e l · ge n e rous voice of the evation of two mil e s , the boiling point of w a ­ public is, " let our i nventors be well reward­ t e r would only b e 1 94Q, o w i n g to the dIminish­ ed-they are our nation's gold and silv e r."­ ed pressure of the atmosphere at that height. Amen, is our reaponse. But w h i l e the pub­ This i s illustrated b y boi l i ng water in a F l or­ lic rejoices to see inventors well remuner ated ence fl a sk , and w h e n the ail' in th e flask is ex ­ for their disr.overies and desires to see them cluded , stopping the b ot tl e u p , a nd on c o n ­ havil b ecome rich.

pri vilege b� law t o those who have purcha­ sed patent rights and

Languag ...

who do so to monopo­

lise wealth for themselves through the inven­

immediate ebullition t akes place, thou � h t h e temperature o f the water is n o t more t h a n

T h i s experi ment w a s

performed

many who h a v e singular ideas r e ­ tions of others. Th ere i s much prej u d ice w e lecture. S c i e nce . They consider it something believe agai n s t p u rchasers o f State and Coun­ Sea water boils at 2 1 4 , which belongs and i s known on ly i n Collegi­ ty patent rights, but were it not tor the dal e water at 226°. There are

garding

ate Halls.

When.we look o n a Mech anics' InstitutiQIl ,

h owe"er humble, we ought to see sometbillg

mere obvi ous consequences of P r o p e r l y ct'nd ucted, they will g rad uall y but surely i l l u m i n ate with the ray s of knowledge, the d reary waste o f man aI'ound u,s ; and b e i n g exte nded every protected to the fullest extent In their rights, densing the s t e a m in th e fl � s k , b y the a p p l i ­ w hfr e , will be l ike so many beaco n s , each th e p ublic on the other h a n d , as j us tl y cIetests cation o f snow, the pressure is removed from with its l ittle circ le of light and i ntell igence and re p u d i a t e s protecting, r ath e r afford ing the surface of the water in the. flask. and an

NEW YORK, FEBRUARY 20, 1 848. Selene" a n d I ts

The

MI ••lon ..t: Mech"nl".' Institutes.

Something that cannot be explain­

an d p urchase of these rights,

the

invent.or

Latent

980

at the s e c o nd

and satu rated s alt

heat is a prin c i p le IS the heating

more than the

such institutions.

around i t, and' d aily widen ing

u ntil the de­

l i ghted i m agi n at i on leaps at last to t he

time

w h en the w h ol e o f our coun try at least will

be flooded with the a b u n d a n c e o f knowledge and happi n ess ,

which by t h e ti m ely wisd om

of man, aided by the Great B e i ng, w h o m ay, without disresp ..ct,

be

said to s m il e 'vith

in c o ro mon language but requ ires a peculi­ perhaps from pei'sonal circumstan ces, coul d sf water by &team discovered by Prof. Bla ck , pl e asu re on such e fforts, sh all have effected. The t hough t of happiness w h ich the diffusion ar jargon o f its own, to mystify, n ot ex p lai n not have been the least benefitted , from ina­ of Gl asgow, and in which consists the econo­ itself This has arisen from the custom of b ility to manufacture h is o w n i nven tion . We my of using steam for heat i ng baths, in pre­ of know ledge is li t led to proGuce, and the dan­ Professors :nystlfy i n g plain t r ll t h by soldering m ust s ay , however, that great caution and ho­ ferenCll to direct fire heat, inasmuch as one gers which it will hold s o p ow e r fnlly back mames ot " wondro\J6 length and th u nd e ri n g nor i n dealing ihould be exercised by p atent cub c inch of wat e r heated to 212 will raise trom us, is one of t h e most interesting and ed

i

sublime ideas which the heart of man can en­ lound" upon common plain facts, to give them right owners Pate nts are n ot granted for the 5 } cubic inches of water from 32 to 2120. T h e physician m us t tertain, and m our e y es g i ves a portion of its a learned a p p eara nc e . p urpose of making rich by p x clusive privile­ Mr. Copeland .explained the different kinds own dignity to the most sm all and apparently p r esc rib e in an u nknown t o n gue, and the n a ­ ges, any other person than t h e inventor. The of boilers now in use both for locomoti ves turalist a n d geologist mu s t s t i t c h u p the whole science with such names as megalosauri and

abuse of p urchased patent rights by a few,

and steamboat s.

has

rally considered in the West, that the life of a

raised

much

prej udice and ill

feeling

He stated that it was. gene­

i nSIgnificant Mech anics' I nstitute, as being

closely conn ected with the great work of im­

iguanodons and some others longer and more against the many, and it is no w ender if juries steamboat w as only fou r years, and they there­ proving so many millions of oUr cou n trym e n . Th erefore let no vile slander from the wither­ uncouth still. These names we th i nk , i nstea d make decisions ofte n adverse to p atent rights. fore did not provide either iuch geod boilers ed lips of faction dare to poll ilte their most of b eing science, or display i ng a simple and a s OUI' Eastern boats, aad used the high pres­ Every inventor should be aware of one

clear classification , oaly exhi b i ts the weakne s s -the pedantry of the scientific .

Science is a c le ar arrangement of facts de­ r i v ed from a cl os e and correct observation of na ture, and certamly the Ulore simple the lan­ g u age t h at is used to explain or d escrib e those observations , the more confidence do w e place in the author-he s a t i sfie s us that h is ,)b s e r -

thing, viz. that a patent is not always a cer­

sure non-condensing engines

tainty of success in a law su i t .

tha t

no! al w ays be sustained

A p atent can­

If it can

be

proven

that th e claimed invention cove red with a pa­

tent seal

is old

value whatever.

and well know n , it is of n o Many p aten ts no d o u b t are

granted for things t h at are not new inventions.

We often wonder there are not more of this

vations are not dreams

kind .

We have thrown out these few hints, ho p ­

One steamboat

he knew, never made a trip from Pitts­ b urg to Cinci nnati u nd e r a less p ress u r e than 200 poun ds . He believed that as the c ommon C) lindE'r boilers w er e used on the Westera boats, the fre qu e n t cause of explosions 'NU a

s udde n generation of

steam, s o

safety valve could stand it.

�udden that no

Thi� was caused

It is not possible that any Examiner by the water getting too low and part of the

can be acquai n fed with a l l the combinations

b oile rs being red hot.

The reason why the

they may be n o t inapproprIate at thi� of m lchinery or compositions of art, through­ ends of the boilers were always first blown, We know oursel ves how difficult it is t i lll e . o u t the w h ole world, or of all those that h av e was from the mode of their construction . t o ov e r co m e old p redilections, especially those been used since the day that our Father Noah The Eli op ole of Hero, he said , was a rotary th at have b een instilled into our minds by ed\]­ bu ilt h i s Ark ; tbey j udge so far as they are engin e , and he thought that the c onstruction cat i on , but we c onsider that mystic language able to j udge of usefulness and novelty, and of a good rotary was ver� remote. ill the most unscientific p art of scien c e , �nd they may often be m ist aken . I nventors them­ As ap plied to navigation the non-condensing that i t i'l l nj urious to II clear c o m p r e h e nsJ0n selves m u s t and should have a cle a r conce _ eng i n e was superior t o the condensing lor n a­ of it by those who are \:!1aC'1�ainted w i t h any i tion of w h a t their inventions are, what o d vi gating ahoal w at ers, as there was much less other l"ngll'\g�ha�t��� r,atlve tongue. difficul t i es they have o verc om e and n e w and weight of machi nery and water needed, and mg that

I

i

us e fu l r e s u lts t h e y h av e arrived at.

Unless

holy and virtuous path .

Let not b loated big­

otry stretch forth its weak b u t malignant hand to shadow their brightness.

Let no disputes

or j e alousies of their own members bring u n ­

mer ited d i sgrac e on their r i ghte o us and useful

cause ; and , finally, let no pains be s p ared to

bring within �he pale, thoie who are gropiDg

in ignoran.>,e " ithout.

In the

work of

king Mechani cs' I n stitutes usefu l ,

ma ­ no e xe rtioD.

is t o o great : and to it may be applied tr uly that remark

which a n oble lord once

rather

misapplied in the house of peers at t h e hench

revolution-" t hat we ol1ght to car ry on the war i n the same spirit as we are taught to

wo rship our C reat o r - t hat is, WIth all our hearts, and with all our s ouls, and with all

our

might, and with all stre n g t h . "

T r u ly

in

such a s p i rit o u g h t we to war a g a i ns t igno ­ rance. -Leigh

Hunt.

We can n o t too strongly recommend the a­

for loc o m otives it wvuld b e i m p ossible to use

bo ve to t h e attention of our young m e chanics . From a number of communi'�ati on8 wh i ch i n v e ntors th e m sel ves h ave a clear c on c epti on them i f th �y were cond e n s i n g engme s. The Every m e c h a n i c should be a m e mb e r of some t f s u p e r i o r i ty of the c o n d e nsing (lver the n o n ­ o e atent, to t h need h t b ey not p h e wis y wha informawe have lately received reque.tlng Mec h a n i c s ' I n stit ut e . d s u r pr condens i ng was in the pow e r gained by the i s e if t h e y should b e d isap pointed.­ tion u p o n this s u bj e c t , we consider it to be B efore a ppl y ing fo r a p :l teilt an inventor s hould vacuum formed by the conde nsat i on of the Alalla_ Coal. Ollf duty to give plain and candid ad v ice to inA bed of coal has been discovered at TI1.­ vento�s as to what can, and w hat cannot be o f make e v ery in q uiry about his inven tIon , whe­ steam, but a no n· condensing was j ust 8S sa fe any b e n e fi t tv them u n de r t h e seal of a p atent . th e r such t h i ng h as bee n known before or not. as a c ondensing, and for small fngines they are caloosa, Ala . , and t h e more it is used , the W e al w ays, so far as w e are able, give caadid thi most c on ven i e n t , being more simple and more highly it is e steem ed . For blacksmith. There are m a n y d i fferent o p i n i o ns respect P a t e n t s a n d Patent Laws.

i ch eaper. ing the na t u r e of patents and th e p ro p erty , as a d v ce regard i n g such things . I t i s n o evidence that an examination i n the it is called , of inventors. Some consider that

' use and th e m a n u facture of gas, it is consid­

others, and for fuel it is by many on account of the free­ A plant c all€d Bear Grass, which grows a­ the i n v en tor ought to be protec ted by law from tent being granted for something not to b e bundan tly in Alabama, and is prepared by dom with w h i c h it ign i tes and bu rns . Exact analyses shows that, with one exception , the there. d n e fou c ffi O Patent e h T su is pplied aqy person infringing upon his discovery, bOIling the b lades and afterwards was hi n g the using i t i n any m anner without his consent , w ith foreign p er i odicals of a scienti fi c n a ture , fibre free from p U lp , presents some featu r es Tuscaloosa coal contains more carb on than any other A merican bituminous coal. in the same manner that landlords a r e protec- and invention s described in them precludes as an article of manufacture which may yet T h i s the granting of a patent right for the s�me ted i n the right of pri v a t e property. The company of Sappe rs and M i n ers, now make it very i mpo r tant as an article of South­ they con SIder ought to be in ;Jerpetuity, pa- thi ngs h e re . ern culture . commerce .md manufacture. It in Mexico, co nsists of less t h an 30 men fit fo r Caveats should be clearly made out and t h e tellts to be recognised as heritable property. grows on the sandy lands of the South, is in­ duty, out of 71 that l eft West Point, a year No government, however, h a s a n y Paten t disc ov ery pl ai n ly described, so far as to de fi n e digenous and grows lu x uria nt. An acre will from last September. Specifications should be p lam , law6 b ased UpOB this t h eory . All govern - its nov f lty. contain 1 742 p la n ts at 5 feet each way, and a new invention i s a n aw creation ,

and that

ments h av e made patent laws, for the encour -

P aten � Office can fully be a guarantee of a p a­

brief and s i m ple , distinc1y claiming what i s

New

kind or Hemp.

each plant will produce one p o u nd per an­

ered s uperior to al l

pr e ferr ed

SclentUlc Am..dean--Bound Volu..... ..

The s econd volume ()f the Scientific A {De

of geni u s , for the protection of a disAlthoug h m any useful invefltions have b een coverer in receiving a p e r sonal benefit i n any rt u n at ely of no personal benefit to th e i n­ unfo ultimate the with but useful, and thing oe", object in view of n ation al b enefit. Hence we ventors, yet there is great reas o n to ho p e a n d perceive that patents are granted by all gov - believ e , th a t as a general thing patent righ ts

ved at the Patent O ffice, along with a descrip­ Office during the year. and ill ustrated with tion of the plant i tself, also the mode of pre­ over 300 beautiful dflscriptive engravings of

and th e n the public become j oint proprietors

than the fi nest hemp of Yucatan.

ag e m e n t

ernments only for a certain n umber of years, in t he i n vention .

The term for which a pa-

new.

lor n e w and n seful inventions are the me ans o f a dva nci ng b oth in wealth and worldly e l e­ We h a v e vatior. t he m ajority o f inventors.

always advocat ed their claims and we belie ve

te n t is granted by our government is fourteen years, b u t may be extended seven yearil longer that p ublic opi n IOn is u pon our si de i n a de ­ si r e to se e inventors reap the rewards j us tly if It can b e prov e d that the in v e n tor has taken

re as o n a ble mea sures to get his inve ntion in - du e to the il� me rits. trod uced , and h a s n ot been s u ffi cientl y remuStea .. anti tile St..am Engine. nerated: Some patents bve been e x te n ded C . M . C opeland , Esq . U. S. Engineer, has to t wenty - eight y ears duration by s pecial act delivered three lectu res on the Steam E ngi n e of Congress, such as Blanchard's for turning before t he Mechanics Institute of thI S city.­ duplicate patterns on a lathe, and Woo d - Mr. Copeland is not a practical l ect ur er, hut w orth's planeing machi n e and Wood'S cast we h ave listened with pleasure to his remarks. All are the result of his experience. The firs t iron plough . I t is w ell know n that many i n v entors who lectu re h ad rlliation principally t o {he nature have produced valoa ble m achines wh ich have of steam, a consi derati on of the diffe re n ce be beneiitted the w h ol e w'orl(' , have never recei- tween it an d other gases, from which it differ­ ved much pecuni ary benefit themselves - ed materially. If one c ubic i n ch of water is Fitch, Evan., Annesley, and a host o f other s put into a vessel , sufficiently large, aDd heat BlIght be me n t io ned . Other i n v en tors again a? plied , it. will form 1700 c ubic inchei of have been w ell p'lid for their discoveries.- steam at a teI\lperdure of 2 120, or at t h e level Arkwrighl died worth h und re ds of thousanda. of the sea, wllere .the p ressure of th6 atmOB. Watt W ii.I! rich, and Illanchard w e belie n, and ph ere is about equal to f51ba. per square incl!; _ _____

num , anG if worth all m uc h as hemp , will give

416 pages choice read ing matter, a l ist of aU has rece n t ly been recei­ the patents gnnted at the United States Patent

to the grower one hundred and four dollars per acre.

A sam pIe

paring it.

It is s aid to b e finer

in t h e fibre new and i mp r oved machines, for sale at this

I.SueDe .. or RaUroau upon tile weathe.-.

We have seen some paragraphs going the

r o unds attributing the present mild winter to our railroads, c on si dering them to be so many ele c t ric al

rican , bound in a superb manner , con tain ing

The vol ume may alio b e

office-P rice 1$2,7i1.

h a d in sheets, i n suitable form for mailin�­ at

$2. The back Nos. of the presen t volum e

conductors p artially equalising the

electrical litates of the earth and air, over and thr ough as broad a space as they pass, produ­

may

also b e had upon appl ica t i on at the office. THE

SCIENTIFIC AltIEmCAN.

Persons wishing to sub scribe for this

paper di

cing changes and those changes a superior

h av e only to enclose th e am ou n t in a letter

mildness of climate i n many parts of our

rected (post paid) to

country.

rai l roads can h ave to affect the weather, n e­ vertheless the subject is worthy of attention. CultivatIon we know, has been the m eans of rendering the climate of many countries more temperate.

But as it regards the effects of

railrows u p o n t em pe ratur e, a few years expe­

ri e n ce will settle the question, and if i t be

f ound that railroads do affect the weather,

then asa.uredly we tlhollid like p.rtjcularly to p0l8ess s ome ,tQck in the ...

© 1848 SCIENTIFIC AMERICIAN, INC

&. C OMPANY, Scienti fic American, Nn

MUNN

We caanot see what influence the

Publishers of th e

York City

TERHs.-$2 a year ; ONE DOLLAR I N ADVANCE-the remainder i n I} Illonth s Pfl8tmasters are rE'spectfully requested. to receive subscriptions for this Paper, t o whom a d iscount of 25 per cent will be allowed. Any person finding Ull 4 subscribera fot 6 months , 1I1� receiv e a copy of the paper for tbe lame length of tilll e

5rientitic 2lmtrican.

182 Reaction Water Wheels.

� Conclude d from our last, ) Had lhe Committee said, a w h eel propeHed by the p r e ssure o f the w a ter i n a d i r e c tion of the circul ar m o ll o n of the w h e el , caused ( n ot developed ) b y the d is c h a rge of t h e w a t e r i n a contrary d i r ec t io n , i s ' a reaction wheel, I

Sleeping.

C h ildren .hould never b e laid hard beds.

do wn

to slee p in

The bird feath e r s its lles t with

to soften the b ed s 01 its tender ofls p r i n g a nd those who t h i nk that by m is e r a ble beds the c h i ldr en of the pOQr are m a d e m o r e strong a nd hardy than those of the rich , have but to c o m p e lled t o show his passport to the alcade, immortal."

consult sana tory statist i cs an d they will at o n ce wo u l d have acce p t e d the definitio n . Perhaps b e undec eived regarding the m ortality and . more no th ey meant h e al th at the y oun g w h o sleep soft and are If their an3wer to the sec ond i n te rro gatory warmly clothed and nllurish in�ly fed. is i n t e n d e d to c o v e r no m ore gr ou n d than the Thos� w h o are t r o ub l ed with p al p ita t ion o f are questio n , I w o uld say with t h e m , " t h ey th e h eart should slee p with their heaes h i g h reaction wheels so f"r ( an d no fa r t h e r ) as they and never have the head within the bed ow e their p ro p Ul s i ve force to t h is ac ti on . " clothes. It is c u s toma ry for many people to But the fo urth answer seems to co;-er more cover thf'ir heads and slumber i n th is manthe of sion propUl e th f I " Thus, ground. nero This is i nj u r ious to the lungs as the air wheel b e i n whole, or in part, from th e pre"­ sure of the water developed by i t s discharge that is exhal e d IS at the next breat h i n haled. Some c h ildre n g e t i n to this bad h ab it, and pain a cuntrarJ d i re c t i o n to the circular motion rents should be car e fu l to w a t c h them and of the w h e el , no ch a n g e i n the form of the break it u p . T o w as h t h e face, hands and co n d uc ti n g the water to channels, or tubes,

th e ol i fi c es will take the wheel out of the d e finition ." I u nderstand them to m ea n this :

if the wh e el is pro pell ed partly by reacti on, and partly by some th i ng else, no

ch ange i n

the shape of t h e guides t o t h e issues will e n­ title it any other name.

Now

I appreh e nd,

the very c i r cu m st an ce of changing the to r m of the surfaces c on duct i n g the water to the wheel,

m ig ht so ada pt the wheel

to r ece i v e

Peopl e of" C entral America. J!lmlRtmt 1\Ien. not one in ten can read or write G eorg e Washington, Andrew Jackson, and and i n ma ny parts of the c ou ntry , not one William He nry Harrison were farmers. From i n a th ous a nd. I n m any villages cOl'ltaining the p u rsuit of agriculture they went forth to so me t h o u sand i nhab i tants, no p erso n is t o b e ' p ursue the enemies of their couniry, and found who can read . and when a tra v e l le r is from t he fields of death g at h e r e d the " Goldea Tile

In the towns

teeth before goi n � to bed c ontributes m u ch to sou nd a n d refr e s h m g sl umber, an d re fr esh i ng . sleep IS as necessary to t h e h ea l th 01 body

an d mind as our d a ily food . N:ght is th e best . p e r io d of r e p ose as i t is t h e most natural. . Those w h os e occ u p a t i o n s lead them to b e

� u c h awake a t n i � ht, Dilen f� ll i n t o consu m p . Ei ght h ours IS not too l on g a hve diseases. p eriod for sleep,

although many never sleep

A rk w ri g h t , who first co�eived idea of s p inn i ng cotto n by meatl.S of m a ­ at the lowest ebb a m ong all classes, e s p ec-iaI­ chinery, pas s e d th e earlier part o f h i s life il\ ly the w h i tes a n d c r e ol e s ; i ndee d , I c ould l1e · p ursu i ng the h u m bl e occ u p a t i o n of barb er. who is t he first civil and c r i m i nal j urlge , he

is generally re q uested to read it

M o ral i tv is

ver find that a m ong t h e m a n y d isg rac e was at­

trib uted to any sor t of crime except p e t ty lar­ ceny. M urder , perj ury , fo rge r y and swi nd­ l ing of a l l sorts are cons idered q u i :e veniel. The priests ar e, fo r t h e most part, b l i n d lead­ ers of the blind ; a n d the better educated

more

His genius p r ov e d to b e brighter than

zors, John

his ra­

Lealie, Profea.or of NatUl"al Phil08()­

phy in Edinburgh , was the s o n of a p o or far­

Largs , Scotland . He was employed of h erd s me n . His p e nci l was consid e r themselves a s actors, whos e b us i ness a s ti c k and the e a r t h h is slate. From being it is to extort mocey by a c ti ng the part w h i c h tht! c o m p an i o n of cattle, he b cc a m e the peer w ill please the p e ople . Fonus and re l i gi ou s of learned men. p ara d e a r e carefully k e p t u p , b u t n o o ne J am es Fe rg us o n was i n e arli e r years a shep ­ thinks

of

inculc a ti n g p ri v a t e

even de � e n cy .

The m a r riag e

morality, or

ceremony i.g al­ I so, a s might be ex p ected, co ns id e re d m e r e l y as a for m to k e e p up public d ec e nc y , and both man and wife act i n pr i v a t e as they please, r ne v e r saw any n a t i v e of C e n t r a l A m e r i c a that w o ul d ad mit t h a t t h e r e could b e any vi ce in lying : and when, o ll e has

succeeded i n

cheating a nother, h o w e v er gross and i n famous

than SIX. the fr a u d may be, the natives will o n ly rt' Bedrooms should not be low in the roof, mark , what a clever fello w ? All classes are d i rection of t he motion of the wheel," b e i ng sh oiIld be well vell till ted a d fr e q u e n t l y s u b - ad d icted to gambling, a n d far m ore money � � properly d i t' ec te d there, that so m u c h of its . mltted to curre nts of air passwg through them c hang e s hands i n t h is manner than in c o m ­ pewer wo u ld be derived from this source and bu t n e v e r w he n persons a r e aslee p . A d a m p m erce or a n y l egit i m a t e b usiness. Nearlv all so lit t l e from re'lc t i o n , tbat it would t ak e th e �tmosphere to .leep i n �� ould be a v o i ded , and the G uate mal a merchants, who are th e � nly wheel entirely out of the d e fi n i t i o n . I n e v ery case after \"ISing-, the face, neck, o nes p ossessed of any c ap i tal , have commen­ I would ask , it a b o d y , B , n n d e r m otio n , h a n ds a n d te e t h shuuld be well cleansed. For ced their career with rascality . One of t h e should i m p i nge or press a g ai n s t the b o d y C , all t ha� h a s b e e n sa i d reg ar di n g full m eal s be- r ic h e � t of t h e m w a s s o m e years ago, when in i n a direct l ine or obliquel y , a n d thu 9 com­ . . the i m p u lse or p ressure of the water, " i n the

S i r Rich ard

th e

mer in

in the capacity

herd,

w at c h e d

the s tars at mght like his p r e ­

of C h al d " a , a n d like t hem was led a way by his fa r o r ite pla ne t to t h e contempl a ­ de cessors

. hon of the go o d n ess and m a g n i ficence of t h e works of D e i ty

William Gifford Was oou nd out to a shoe­ maker , after having served for a n umb e r of years i n a small cru i s er as cab i n b oy. Being too p oor to p urc'h use s ta t i o n e r) , h e

u sed to hammer out as smo othly as possible, small b ltd of leather, o n w h i c h he traced p roble ms w i t h his awL In latter years his cri ti c al a w l pierced ihe sou l s of many luckless 3cl"i b b lers,

lI!l a gUsh

lUusie In Spain,

The Lanc ashire bell-ringers , who, v. hen in

two months ago , had the honor k i ng . and r oyal fam ­ ily a t St, Cloud, made their ap p e aranee last fore g lDg t o bed, If one hour IS al l o wed b e - bad circumstances, s ent tu �ook after a qnanti­ � m u nic at e its fIlomentum to C , would C owe w e e k at the Grand Theatre of B ar c e l ona , and fore ly � ng d o w n to r e pos e after eating a hea r ty I ty of very va l u a�l e goods w h ic h had been its motion to ac tion or rea c t i o n ? were received bJ a crowded aud ience w i th a I t Will p e r h a p s do more go o d to n o u r i s h ab and o n e d by the carriers in some revolu tion · rneal, The third i n terrogatory se e m s to e mbrace warmth e v e n e x c ee d i n g that w h ich they ex­ the sy s t e m tt,an if t ak e n at any o t h e r p e r i o d ar y p a n i c ; b u t , lDstead of r e s t o r in g the goods ano t h er p rinc i ple, thou !; h the answer is fo un­ p erie nc ed at H a v an a . The S pa ni a r ds ap ­ to their owner, h e alt e r e d the marks, and so ONE WHO KNOWS. of the day ded upon the I,y p oth esi s , that if a wheel d is · p e ar to be deligh ted with t h i s k i nd of music, m i xed them togethe)" that when they came tl;) Formation of" Hall. charges t h e w a t er i n a con trary direction t o but they were near being d isappointe d by a Guatemala they could not be id e n t i fi e d j there H ail is s u p posed to be formed i n the up p e r its m oti on , i t m ust be a reaction wheel. " If curious circu metance. When t he b ell - rin g er s h e managed to k e e p t h e greater part by s e ll ­ � wh e e l disch arge the water propelling i t , is ­ regions by a su dd e n and extensive vac u u m reached the Spanish fr o nt i e r fr o m Pari s , on ing which he a t once a ccu mu l a t ed a g ood cap­ waten' cloud oues i n w ardly, aud in a contrary direction to being formed along w i t h a t hei r way t o Barcelona, all their be l l s w ere i ta l for c o m m en cing b u s i n es s : and b ei ng a the motion of the wheel , is it a reaction whereuy a. quantity of caloric is e�traeted .eize l:! , o n the grou n d that the i m p ortation of shrewd dealer, an d above all, a s u cce s s ful wh e el I" and is answered i n the affirmative . ­ from the w at e r , and the drops faU u p o n the bell s is prohibi ted i n S p a in . I n vain did gambler, he has realized w ha t is in Cen tral Now I am n o t clear, that a wheel d is c harging e a r t h i n pi e ce s of ice . Am e ri c a a large fo r t u n e , and he is courte d they obser v e that these were th e musical ia ­ The C h e m nitz m i n e i n H u agary affords an the water to w a r d s the centre, could be made oy all the B e l ize merc h a nts . C oncub i nage is stru ments , and not b e�ls introduc ed to sell . to run with any degree of power Of m otion , experimenial exhibition of t h e formation o f common They were obliged to g o on without them, among all possessed of any wealth ' (if at all) by reaction al on e ; for the c entri­ hail OIl a m dg ni fic e n t scale. I n t h a t mine the a n d to await t h e decision of the ch i e f of the nor i s t h is , a s i n o t h er countnes, done secret : fugal force of the w ater i n the wheel w oul d drai nage of water is ra i s ed by an e n g i ne , i n ly , if at c u s toms at Gerona, to whom the bells w e r e all ; b ll t e v e n wives Nlll publicly so ?ress to the verge , and in p roportios to its which com m on air iii violen tly compressed speak of t h e i r husbands' mi str e sse s . -Dun­ stnt. This fu nctiona ry was for m an y days velocit y, i t wo u ld require a p o werfu l pressure in a l arg e c ast-iron vessel . W h i le the air is quite as op p osed to allow the b e l ls to pass all hip's Travels. of the water beh i nd to force it out, t h us com­ in a state of h igh com p r e ss i o n, a work lII a ll the c ustom-house o ffic e rs of tlte fro n ti e r ' and - --A Ph;�omenon. municating m o tion to the wheel by its pres­ desires a visitor to hold his hat before a cock it was not u ntil the British Cousul at B ar c e ­ A beautiful cel es ti al p h e no m e n o n is descriI k no w of which he turns : the compressed air, as i t sure u pon the angles or b uckets. lona had sent an e x p r e ss to Gerol)!, w i t h a out o v er t h e surface of the air w it h i n b ed by the St. Louis Unio n , h a v i n g occurred buch w h eels in u se yielding double the a m o un t r ushes s tr o ng remonstrance ag a i n s t the rigid inter­ i ngs out some w i thin it, which is fr o z e n in- i n t h at ci ty on the night of the 30th ult. , a ­ pretation of power to any reac tio n wheel in e x is t e nce . br of the law by the S p an i s h fu nction­ ice b alls by the cold g e n e r ated hy t he a i r b o u t e i gh t o'clo ck in the north- easter n p a rt aries, that the h ells w e re r e lease to n o ti e ques b third the to er w , m a above If the d. o correc t, all scroll or c e n tral d i sc h arge wheels as it expands ; and these shoot through the .f the fi r m a m e nt . Columns of a p ale yellow AnUque Strange Clotlk. lIght w e r e sh ooting of one party , u p fr o m the h o ri z on far would b e i n c l u l' ed In the category , as they h at to the no s inal! a n n oy an c e There is a d v C l· ti se d in the B alt i m or e p a p e rs aw y into t h e heavens. and after remaining but to the i n finite amusement of the other. � disch arge the w a ter in wardly i n a con t rary . an Astr o n o m i c a l clock, reputed to be the one stationary I n a verti cal position for a few mo· direction to th e ir motion , yet no o ne out of -;����;���-�;�al. s e n t out to C h i na one year preceding Lord me nts , w o uld m o v e sl owly to wards t h e wes t, was bUIlt, ver e and seen e \ a h I hundreds t he McCartnay's e mbassy to r eg u la te the clocks, The Ric h m ond Va. EnqUirer notices th e ill- grad ually changing their forms anti c o l ors, t o su p p ose d to be a ny t hi n g but a wheel of im­ teresting circumstance of the cOllversion of that of an irr e g ul ar de e p red cl ou d , alterna- &c. , sent out by the e m b assy as presents to . p u lse and pressure. t h e E m p eror ; a n d was subsequently purcha­ wood mto coal, it may be said u nder the eye ting occas i o n ally i n c olor fro m red to w h ite ' I h av e hastily thrown tog e ther these re­ o f a n oboer v e r . I n t h e excavations some time sed by Captain Will i am M c K ibb on , of the then back aga in to red, and gradllally disa p _ marks, as my profession c alls me to work out s i n c e , o n C o u nCil C h amber Hill, a large ship Phoenix, and brough t from Canton , in p e ar i ng . principles, rath er than 'Write them out. I p i e c e o f wood in a s t ate of decay, w as dug 1 82 1 , and whose w r it t e n testi m o n i als can be Cotton should not have n oticed t h e s e questions and u p . seen w i t h the cl,) c k , at William B . C . Rigg's, It was very s oft, y e t the bark and t e x ­ Paper was fi rst made from cotton rag� i n t h e answers, only believing that t h e r e is a pr e Y' ai l ­ tures aHd the p e r fo ra t ions of worms w ere en­ 126 S o u t h Fro n t Street, Balti m ore . y e a r 1 000. ing error e x i st i ng very e x t e nsively in re lation i r e l y d i s ti n c t. I t was p resen t e d t u the Medi­ The most ancient MS. , on cotton p a n er '1'0 CORRESP ONDENTS . to wheels of t h i s class, and also that these an­ c al C o:Jege, and while lying u pon the table with d ate, is in the library of the oi s w ers w e re ob tained to s u b s e rv e certain pur­ " R. J. of N . Y."-You had b e t te r make in the cau l n e t of t h e institute, it has been p oses, aM not to enlighten the ,)Ublic o n a converted by a n at u r a l process i llto c oal. It France , and was w ri t t e n in ten h u n d re d and t � e c alculations yoursel f, it will o n ly be exer­ s u bje c t upon which t h ey needed light. Th e grad ually be comes hard, u nyielding, and bri t ­ � fty. Paper was fi rs t made from l i n e n rags c i se for YOllr m i nd . It is not exa c tly gen erous The a r t of weaving was introduced to e x ac t labor from very high charac te r of the ge n t l e m an compo­ tle, having a " fra c t u re" and lustre like t hat 1 Il 1300. o t h e rs without re ward that sing th at committ e e , b o th as to sc ien t i fic at­ of coal, It cannot be eas ily distinguished from into Engbnd i n 1330 . Th e s p i n n i ng - w h ep.I we can d o ourselves. tai n m e nt s and respectability, forbids mv do ubt­ the ordinary coal of o u r mines, and b u rns was i n v e nted by S amu el Crompton i n 1775, " S. W. of Mass."-Y our m o d e l has been i n g t h e i r integrity, and leads me to b e slo w in w ith a brjlliant flame like th e famous cannel for sp i n n in g y a r n . The sp inning-frame, the forwarded to Was h i ngton. pri nc i p l e of w hic h is now i n use, was i n ­ ado p t i n g o p i nions d i ffering from theirs ; b u t " G. R. C. of Ohio. -No patent will be coal , ve n t e d by R i c ha r.l Arkwright, in 1 76 1 . ­ granterl for a mere ha vi ng been a practical mill-Wright for t w e n ­ cha nge of application .­ BeUer Stand Up. � o w er - Iooms w e r e invented by D r . Cartwright There m ust be II n e w c o mb illltio n , a new COUl­ ty five y ears , and hav i n g put i n op e r at i o n al­ Mountain Eagle say s th at a youth came The In 1783. most every kind of wheel in use be l i e vin g position, or an e n tire new principle of con­ stalk ing into our office on Tue.day m orning Cotton ",as filst planted i n t h e United s tructi o n . III cal l i n g th ings by t hei r right nam e s , I have IMt, after the manner of many oth ers , who States, i n 1769. Cotton yarn was fi rs t spun thus g i v en my reasons wby I b el ie v e nine­ " S. J. T. of Va."-Yo ur S tate is yet d esti ­ call w ithout any parti c u l a r business, and qui ­ i n · A m erica abou t 1 787, at Be verly , Mas sac h u ­ ned to ari s e , Phrenix like, tenths of t h e reaction wh e e ls (so cal l e d) are by an i n dustrious etly sea ted h i lIlself on the stove . The !:Jalset�s. not entitled to that ap peUatlOn. developem e n t of her natural resources. You ance of the s c e n e was indescrib able. The ELI.JAH BISHOP, &n E n d to 11 C i r c l e , have coal for manufac t u r ing and p l ai n s fer the stove was hot e n oug h to singe a feather, and Jam estown, X Y. Feu. 1st, 1848, A hard - u p m � le acquai ntance w as over­ S n est ot w h e at-these are beds of gold. To this " child of nature" had never see n one h eard soliloquizing thus : -" they ·say a sover­ find th e diameter of a s ol id cast iron cylin­ " It strikes m e "-began a n orator. " Then be fore. eign is round, and 80 it is ; but gile a w o m an der to sup port a given wejaht in the mid dle why don't you stl'ike it back ?" inquired a sail­ In Oregon, laborera get three dollars 1\ day, Olle to lake to a draper'o shop, and she'll :nultiply the weight i n po:nds by the le ngt . O f in the audience, soon make an end to i to" In feet aDd dlvid.e the prodllct by 500 , Ilnd the and OOI"1"Y a hod malle 0 1 Ros e wood. Parig, ab o\lt

o f perfo r ming b e lore the

Kin�

h

© 1848 SCIENTIFIC AMERICIAN, INC

Scientific 2\meriCQn. cube root of the quotient win be the diallle·· ter in inches. .. M. K. of La."-We have strong doubts as to the profitable application of Galvanism in the manu1acture of sugar. A natural perma· nent b�ttery of zinc and coke buried in the earth, does not satisfy us regar ding economy. EIperiment, however, is the granu settler of differe n ce of opinion. .. S. M. P. ofMass."-The subj ect of Wood's Plough, and the action of C ongress on the ex· tension of the patent right, is the all absorb· ing topic among our farm e rs and plough rna· Ilulacturers. We have received a number of communications on the subject. From what we have already said much liglit will be

I

G�NERAL AGENTS FOl'l. THE SCJENTIFJC A."URRrCA!'t. Boston,

New York Oity,

OEO. DEXTER. b!essre. IIOTCHKl88 k Ce.

Philadelphia,

STOKES &.BnOTHi:fi.

spread abroad.

-

PATENT

lIIOR-TIeING

MACHINE.

T �IS is the. only machine eve r � 1fered to tbe

puc-

hc that WIll do the wo rk requlred in so perfect a manne! in so s hort a �j m e. It is the only machine that wlll clear the chlps from the mortice, wh.ch is . I a great lmproveme nt over all other machines. It J will work on an kind of wood and can be operated J with a�y kind 0 power. It can be applied to framing large timber a. well as small, and is not liable to get out of ortie-I'. It took the first premium at seyeral }t'ai�s last autum!! and a medal from the American InstItute. ft c;:m he seen at 153 G-reenw.ich st., New Y�ork,Where aJlo:.t!erswiUbeexecuted wah dispatch THO�lAS TIIATCIH':R. N. B. _o\partncr wauted with a capItal ' to embark. . 111 the business. fI9 It"'·

I,

LOCAL AGENTS. Albany, Baltimore, Md., B e rmuda Island. �abotvil1e, Mass., Co ncord, N. H. Fall Ri ver, Mass. H artfo rd , Ct., lIollston, Texas, JamestowD,�. Y. Lynn, Mass, Middletown, Ct., Norwich , Ct., • New Haven, Ct ., New Bedford, Mas •. , Newburg , N. Y. Newark, N. J., Newark, N. J New Orleans, La. Prov id ence, R. I., Rochester, N. Y. Springfield, Mass., Salem, Mass., � Saco, �.'le., � -

CHANDLER'S

r

PI!TER Coon. - 8. SANDS. WASHINGTON &. Co. E. F. BROWN. Run;! MERliELL. rOPE &. CHA.CE F.. H. BOWER!. J. W. Co'; .. & Co. J.:. BuItor. J. E. F. MJ..RSH. - 'VM.·"rOODWA..RD S.H�FORD &. PARR!. E... Dow�n;!!. S.F.HoY"l' s. A. WHIU. J. L AOE"'. Robert Kashaw. J. C. MORG ..��. H. &J. S. Row". D. M. Dr.wEV. WM. B. BROCK.ET. L. CHANDLER. ISAAC CROOKER. JOHN CA1I.UTJIElt�. A. Sl\-IlTH. W. P. SEAVEtt. CANNIFF &. Co. J. C. GA:o'DEIL D. L. NGRR".

I

I

I THE CHEAPJ
W ORI,D II I

Sixty jour Pages in each .humber!

Notice to Silk Growers and Far­ mers. THE. .su�SCl'jber has a small Farm. 40 acre s of whIch IS good land, under good improvements, good house and barn and six thousand b eaut iful Bruce Mulberry Trees of nine Yf!ar9 growth, from the se ed, be� r� ng large and thick l�aves, and have never been lllJurcd by frost�, which he would let on reasonable te rm s by the year ot" on shares Said fa r m is ple a s antly situated at Birmingham, on the Ausable Hiver,in view of Lake C hamp lain, ;2 mile� distant. For fu th e r pal'ticulars enquire of JOSEPH GUULDING. ._____ Keeseville J':ssex Co .• N. Y. fl93t' ..c

768 Pages to tlte Volume! ! "J. McK. of Mass."-See Edinburgh En· FOR. ON E DOLL.'l.R PE R YEAR I II I cydopedia, article ,. Centre of Percussion," The Publisher of Ho lden' s Dollar lUagazlne . would call attention to his r and you will find that your plan is not new. Savannah, Geo NEW FI!lATURES, " H. B. of Indiana."-We have answered Troy, N. y" _\mong which are the following :Taunton, .Mass., 1st. Fa Dli lia l' Place� and Familiar Faces about Go� you by mail; also R P. of Oneida Co. N. Y., Utica, N. Y. tham Johnson's Improved Shingle WilJiamsburgb, 1d. Revolutionary Sk etche. , by an Octogen.rian, D. W. of VI , and C. L. of Clmn. Machine. Dover, N. Ii. edited by an Ame l ic an Author. .. H. B. A. of Va."-We will publish the HE S ub s crjber having receil'ed Loiters Patent 3d. Dorder Bullet" or Reports from th e Rifle of CITY CARRIERS. for an i m p r ov ? mcnt in the Shingle J\Tachine, is an old Frontier Man. T communication next week. We have no CLARlt SELLECK, SQUIRE SELI.r.CK. 4th. Pulpit Portraits, or Sketc hes of eminent living n ow ready to fur n i sh them at s hort :notice, and h e w ould "equest all tho s e who want a good mach ine drawing in our possession of Mr. }'arker's American C l e rg re. en of all denomi . n ations. y Persons residing in the city or Brooklyn, can have 5tb. Topic s ot the �!onth, cont.ming GossIp, A for sawing shi ngles , to cal! on him and e xamine the wheels, or we should be happy to comply with the paper left at their r.sidences regularly, by .end Chat with readers and Correspondents, Anecdotes improvements he has made, as one eigh th m('re "hin� ' gles can be saw e d in the same given time than by ing their address to the office , 128 Fulton st., �d 1Ioor. Face tia , &c. &c. your rl!quest. 6th. REVIE W S WHICH ARE REVIEWS! being a ny other machine now in use. . " J. P. K. of CabotvilJ�."-We are milch th orough Reviews, (no t putf.,) of all Dew publica. J. G. JOHNSON. Augusta, Maine, Oct. I, 1947. tions . obliged to you for your information. Premium for Back Numbers 7th. Translation. from the FRENCH and GER· Woodbury's Horse Power. wil} pay. 10 � ent s each for 100 copies. No. ;6, MAN by an American. "H. T. of ft!ass."-At present we eallnot W.:Vol. 2, SClentIfic Am erI. c an , delivered at this 8th. Poem s , Tales, l+�ssa.y£, Humurous and Serious THESE Machines have beon e xt e n s iye ly used the give you the desired information about the offi c e, free of expense and in g oo d ord er p �st season fo r d rivinl; the largest T h re shi ng Sketche., Fanciful Portraits, Traditionary Legends, MUN N & CO. f�6 3t Machmes ami Sep arators In New York M ic h igan kc.&c. Scaglioni, but if possible we shall get for you With these Elgbt DlsUnct Features, w h ich and 'Vis�cnsin, and have exceeded th � m ost san� Wanted. together tor a Bill oC Fare unequ all ed by any gUIne expectations of all concerned in stre ngth du­ soon. rab ilit y. ease of ope ration, efficiency and cheap�eJs. li'irst rate Coppersmith, imme diately . Good wa· Mag azi ne in the ,"Vorld, every feature being "J. C. of Geo."-We will comply with A ge,') and eonstant They received the h l ghe s t premium at the Onondaga Original and PerCect, employment, or an interest in Waslungton C o un t y �-airs, and the approbabon and the P ubh .ber is confi d en t of the patronage of the J. W. LE:CKIF your nquest, and in the meantime will be U,e busines.. of all who have seen them in use. It is, I think American Public. f263tf l\locks"illc, N:'C. perfectly obvious that no other arrangement with collecting material. The great qu a ntity of matter in his Magazine, two pinions can ever be produced of equal simpli SIXTY-FOUR PAGES, " W. &. P. of�. Y ."- We expect your mo· For Sale, cit y and co nvenienc e by being permanently mount� allow, him cvery fac ility for making and keeping ed and operating in any direction without unfasten­ del in a short time. New Steam Engme and Boder. one horse pow· a GOOD MAGAZINE, and he proudly points to the . ing from the ground and belting aboye the horses they A for the low pri c e of too Lnquire at incontestible proofs of his success to be found ID the " L. S. P. of Texas."-We cannot at pre. this Offi:e�d are rendered so perfect that forty cords of heavy unbou ght notice, with which the Newspaper Press nG been sawed twice in t w o in a day by four have wood of th e United State' bave favored him. sent give you the desired informatiou, but Holden'. Dollar Magazine is iosued mo nt hly, men and thr � e h or s e s . Rights of te r r i tory, patterns of wood or iron for (the volume com menci ng with the Jauunry num· will in some future nll1nber. ber ,) m Nos. of 64 page s each, pri nte d on fine ca sting . and horse powers, f or sale by the subscri­ " Z. G. W. of N. H."-Use the muriate b e r, or by Henry Old., of Syracuse, N. Y., my all­ T. J. WELLS, paper, manufactured expre ssly fOl· the work, and of extra quality , with new aud beautif ul type. Ter m s thoris e d Agent. tin instead of alum, and you will perceive DANIEL WOODBURY. -ONE DOLLAR per annum, pay able mva riably in Perkin,ville, Vermollt, Jan. 6, 1848. j22 ot" that your purples will be more brilliant and advance: SIX Copies Cor Five Dollars, or 25 MILLWRIGHT COf,ies for 20 dollars, when mailed to ODe addrese ' )nore permanent. Use it sparingly, AddlCSS, post paid, DAUGERRIAN GALLERY. AND CHARLES W. HOLDEN, " P. S. of N. Y."-The best thing you can I , i Publisher of Ho lde n ·, Dollar Magazine, 109 Nassau GURNEY'S do is to get an engraving of y,>ur apparatus , st., NY, MACHINIST, PR.ElIIIUlII DAUGIllRRIAN GALLERIt. N. B. Co untry pa!?ers copyin, this ad ..ertillement publisbed in the Scientific A m erica u . It will and notiCing us ed l torially , WIll be eilbtled to a co· No. 189 Broadway, N. Y. be a thousand dollars benefit to you py for one yeal', without an exc h ang e Those doing FOOT OF �tb 8'J'REET, O(f- Pic tu res taker. at this establishment warrante4 so w i l l .end oue marked copy to .. Holden's Dollar " W. &. T. vf Pa."-Sep. No.3, voL 2, Sci· te give satisfaction. Magazine" f 1:2 j'l4 entific American, for information on thp. Pa· L amps, Chandeliers, tent Laws. N. Y. CANDELABRA, GIRANDOLES, RICH CHI NA " Messrs. L &, G. of Troy, N. Y."-We AND BOHEMIAN GLASS' VASES, HALL It is a have received you model all safe. LANTERNS, &c. I complete machine. The engraving will ap· O(f-The above is prepared to execute all orders at Dietz, Brother & Co. the shortest notice and on tho most rea,onable terma. pear next week. Washin/olton Stores, No. 139 William street, "J. H. C. of S. C .. '-W� could not send New York, (one door south of William st.) ENGRAVING ON "VOOD, DESIGNUIG you vol. 2 bound, Jut have forwarded the manufacturing and have alwa':y15 on hand, a AND DRA WING I ARE . full assortment of article. in theIr hne, of the numbers in sheets. T HE Sul"criber would respectfully inform the following uescription. which they will sell at whole·

l

of\

\



InducemenlS (0 !p.ventors.

The publibhers of the Scientific American pnrpose to issue an edition of over 20,000 co· pies of thi,; paper on the 11th and 18th of March, and those p erson s who have new In· ventions they wish noticed, or engravmgs of such inserted, will find it to their interest to improve th� ���e _

opp���':l.�i_tX.�

_

_

Patent Agency.

Applications for Patents made at this office, on the most lea�onable terms. Neat·drawings, speCIfications, and engravings 01 the first chao racter, and cheaper thaR anywhere else. No· tices of new inventions, Agency for the sale of Patent Rights, and all business of that na· ture, promptly attended to. Those who have patent rights to dispoSo.l of will find a good op· portunity and field for their sale-sue II as Horse Power Machines and Waterw h ee l s of very (leseri ption. The largest circulation in lie vrcdd for advertisements 01 inventions, &c,

III every State in the

U�n, and is seen p rincipally by mechanics and

manufacturers.

Hence it may lie considered the best

medium of adverti si ng , for those who

Glass Bubbles for Spirit Levels. (j(J=a We have made such anangements with a ma­

nufacturer of the aboye a rticle , that we can furnish any size or qu ant i ty at n less price than t he y can be pro c ure d for at any other place in the cit y . fig MUNN & CO.

Machinists Tools. T HE Subscriber is now manufacturincr a superior article of Larg e Turning and Ser�w Cutti ng Lathes, Drilling M achines, &c. to which he would res· pectfully call the attention of Machi nis ts and others requiri ng the above article s. Also, Machinery of ev­ ery desc riptioll , manufactured to ora er, at 42 Gold street, New York. G. B.IL\RTSON. j1

Steam Boilers

Patelit Tubular and other Doile r BENTLEY'S any size, shape or power, made to order, by

import or man·

ufacture m ach inery, mechanics tools, or such wares

and mate rials as are generally u sed by those clas8e8.

pdnted dailies.

than tho s e in c lo se ly

Ad verti sem e nts are in s erted in this paper at the

following rates: One squ[J.re, 01: eight linea on e insertion, ..
ADVANCE.

of

AMERICAN HARDWARE.

TH� SUBSCRIBER havillg been engaged i.. sel· ling Am e rican Hardware on commission for 7 y�ars, solicit s consignments from manufacturers, and WIll refer to those who have employed him the above number of years. S.>l.MUEt. C. HILLS, n8 189 Water It

$

060 i5 I 00 l�

37. 760 \100

sale or retail at low prices, for cash: Solar Lamps-Gilt, Bronze_: and Silvered, in great variety. Su'pendmg Solar Lamps, gilt and bronzed. do do do Dracket do ,10 do Side do Solar Chandeliers, do :2, 3 4 and 6 lights. cam bronzed. ene gilt ]..

I: ���C;g���iDg ��p�,

do 6 ligh t s .

LEWIS'S PATENT REVERSIBLE FILTER. T HIS Filter i. su perior to anr now ex t ant. The small one is adapted to cul,i nary purposes, and tbe other for m anufactories and steamboats It win

be disposed of for the United States or for ·separa�. States. It is oll"red for sale to close an ectate. Any person desirous to make a profitable investment can purchase the same low. and on re Wl o nab le terms

Apply to the lub,eriber at No. DII Gold at., whe""

it can bo seen

in operation. of Robert Taylor.

porthe Y._ flllllD'

TUW.DOU

TA.YLOR.

Chandeliers

do

��d

do 2, 8, 4 anu

Girandoles-Gilt, silvered and bronzed, various pats. do Canuelabras do do ChiIl3. Yases and B ohe mian Olass Vases do Hall Lanterns, a large assortment, plain and cut. do with sta i n ed and Bohemian Glass Light•. Lamp Wicks, Chimneys and Shades of all kind s . Paper Shades, a large as s ortm ent of new patterns and styles. OILS-Sperm, ·Whale and Lard, of the best Quality . Superior Camphene and Burning �'Iuid. November �9. 1847. diS 6m

Lap welded WroughtIron Tubes FOR TUBULAR BOILERS,

From 1 1-4 to 6 inches diameter, and any length, not exceeding 17 felOt. HESE Tubes are o f the same qualit y and manu

. T

facture a s those extensively used in England Scotland, France and Germany, for Lo co m otiv e, \-Ia� rioe aDd other Steam Engine Boilers. THOMAS PROSSER, Patentee, 28 Platt -treel. New York

�_____

CHARLES ENGINEER

M. AND

KELLER,

ATTORNEY,

For procuring and deCending Patents.

Office-No. jl3m+

FOR SALE.

The few advertisement. in this paper are r egarde d

with much more attention

s

SAMUEL C. HILL&, 189 ·Wat."r .t.

1\iluerti.Gtment.a. (){r TH18 paper circu lates

Manufr,cluNr of all kiud. of Sa", Mill Mach i­ nery, such a,� Straight Saws with Carrja�e Veneer Scr
304 Broadway,

NEW YORK.

GENERAL PATENT AGENCY. REMOVED.

SUBSCRIBER has removed his Patent Agen T HE cy from 12 Pl att to 189 Water s tree t.

The object oHhis Agency is to en able Inventors to re alize something for their inventions, e ith er by the sale of Patent Goods or Patent Right•. Charges moderate, and no charge will be made un tilthe inve nto r rea1i7.es something frem his in'fention. Letters Patent will be ...cured upon moderate term.. Applications can be made to the Wlderslga ed, ponoll8J.ly or by letter post paid.

Di!

SAMUEL

© 1848 SCIENTIFIC AMERICIAN, INC

C_ lULLS .Non!

A,ent

public that he is prepared to furni s h Engrav· ings on \Vood, in every style of the art� -apon tb�

most reasonable terms .; also designs and'dI'awing6i of machinery I for specifications, at the shortest no.. tice and with the m o, t und evlOting punctuality. Views of Manufactories and Countey Store s engra.. ved on Wood from Daguerreotype plate with cor­

rectness.

All work exec u ted by the subseriber warranted to give. fiatiRfaction. Heferences can be givQR. to some 01 the. best mechanics in the country as regard., ability, &.c. A. R. HAIGHT, 123 Fulton street, N. Y. jlJ 3m' Room No. I, Sun Building... TIlEODORE F. ENG.ELRRECHT, INVENTOR OF

TUE IMPROVED

Patent Sockdologer

Fish

Hookl

01Hce-No. 79 Jehu St"eet, New York. T. F. E. devotes pa rticula attention to introducing and selling Patent Righ t s . or Manufactured Pate';! Articles throughout the United State" and E:uropo and Hatters himself that he is eminently succcfI,llfti J: Patentees and lnventors are i n vited to call. REFEREN"CEs.-Mnnn & Co. Scientific America n New York; Kingsley & P i rrson , Eure ka , New Yo)" W. H. Starr, Farmer & Mechanic, New York; S. J .li� chols, Editor Sunday �Iercury. New Yo rk · Wi lli­ amBon & Burn�. Sunday Dispatch. New Yo ;k ) �d.· mund Morris , Editor Gazette, Burli ngton, N. J. i J. B. � P. Ku�kle, cornel' of Garden and Willow ct•. , Phlladelphla; John Hancock, Editor Mirror of Pa· lVashington, D. C, d253.• I'

r

ki

:

tent ��:e,

ASHE,

lIlANUFACTURER OF

Spring Box, Tailor's, Surveyor',., and oth er ki nd 01 Measure Tapes,

o-t,

No. 133 Fulton Street, N. r. Factory at G ee" POint, Dushwick, L. I. d25

r

BRADY'S

Excelsior Daguerrian No. 205 Broadway.

O(f-Pictures taken by

to gi:-e !Ja!i.!:: faction.

lin'

Gall,

the above Artist Will

HENRY WATERMAN 239 Cherry st.

JlILLWRIGHT AND ENGINES

ry

!.ry, ·r.llHe
_!.!2 R.

CII1-Steam Engines, M,ll Work, Horse Mill 8 ,•• lag., and Machinery of all kindt, ex""u� �­ �I prolDptlU;lIU and at low rates.

eJ�:ltl!

Scietltific '1merictltl.

184

I

t w o ways, transparent and opaque e n am el co-

lors.

BROWN ENAMELS.-By m ixing any of the with brig h t yel low and a v e ry small p o r t i on of manganese and an p urp l es melltioned along

They must be leviwanted gated

e q u al p ar t of calci n e d tin, a fine brown ena·

mel is t h e r e s ult .

Acc o r d i n g

for u s e .

and for th e red shade

c

America�.

bla ki s � .b r own

E n amels.

YELLOW ENAMEL.-Take fou r par ts of a flux, made of glass of lead one pound , p e a rl ashes 6 o unces, and borax f o ur o u nces, and mix with one p ar t of an ti m o ny an d the same of s ulph u re t of silver, made by putt i n g p l a t es of silver into a crucible with flowers of sul ­ phur and sub m i tti n g t h e m to a r e d heat, and These afterwards re d ucing it to p owder. 8hculd be mixed and vit ;i fi ed toge ther a n d

more

red, for the dark

m angane s e , and for th e . clear ol l v e use ul tramarme and yellow and a

m ore

L igh t

and dark

s had e can be made by a d d i ng a gr e a t er or l e8s � quantIty 01 t h e calx of tin f,)r l i g h t ne s s , and of t h e d ark coloring matter for d ark ness .

BLACK ENAMEL.-Take of the flux first mix and f u s e them to.

half a part, and fl u x e d in a

li e



an t im o ny i n

th e result.

T h is

com-

India ·ink for water colors. lly u � i n g with



d

e namel grounds, as t hey will run '.v i t h but lit·

tle heat a nd show the fi n e s t shade wit ho u t any

d ange r o f fus ing a h a rd g r o un d t h a t h a s much t h e fo re goin g rec e ipt, a very firm fli nt or Venitian g l ass in i ts composition. of the

instead

and clear c o ol yelloVl' is t h e result, one fit for

truly

be.a � tifu l,

a r e all made o f the fo r eg o i ng

compOSItIOns. Great skill is used and much flux until perfectly vitri fied and a ft e r w ards practice re quired to do the m well and much levigate wi th one p a r t of t h e salts of tin, when sec recy o bser vp.d regard ing t h e bu s i ness it will be fit fo r use. I t is a very good and The source from whence the foregoing infor·

­

strong yellow, and very c h e ap . A yel l ow e n a m e l v e rgi ng t o w a rds o r ang e ,

M K.

matlon is derived is rarely opened.

can be m ad e with the above first me nti o n e d flux fused u ntil t ra nsp are nt w ith one p ar t "f

T h e sfiaft of t h i s apparatu! is hollow.-

It is revolved by th e wheel conn e cted on the o th e r s id e cog - w h ee l s a n d a cr oss s haft t o

e

TaibI..

o f' tbe CompOSition

Baths to T e mp e r

Edge

c ru m to a fl ex i ble lever. p u l l ey power i s ga in ed ,

o f' Metaille

Tou18.

The tool, o r t o ol s , that are to be te m pered

Paris, is an i m p ro v e d modi fication of the

wen Wh ile Dr u m m on d POUl'S a s tr e a m of o xy ge n gas,

k " Q w n i nvention of Lieut. D ru mm on d .

The lower

through the sp iri ts of wi n e upon u n slacked l i m e , C audin m akes u s e

I

The fine colors o n ch ina, so d azzl i n g and so

forming some ki nd of greens ; or for a dee p dull yellow o mi t the siher and add ant i m o ny ,

Gaudin's N ight Sun.

The newly inven te d light of M. G a u d i n , on w h i c h experiments were re ce n tly made in

. .------- ---- ----

manner of prin ts , or for lig h t or sh a d e ,

fi n e outward touches may be made o n har

ed.-Builder.

of a more etheri:.l kind of o xyg e n , w h i c h he conduc ts t h ro ug h �f the water at e ve ry revolution ahd c o n veYI burni ng essence of tur?entine. The Drum­ It to th e reservoir ab ove. m o n d light is 1 590 t i m e s stronger than that of burning gas ; the G au d i n light is, we are as­ Tile Pulley. su r ed by the in vent o r , as str o ng as the su n , or 30,000 tim e s stronger than gas , and of co urs e twenty times s t r o ng e r than the Drum­ mond . Th� method by w h ich M. Gaudin proposes to turn th e new invention to use is s ing u l arly s t rik i n g . He pro p o s e s to e rec t on the I sl a n d . of Pont N euf, in the m iddle of t h e Seine, and c e n tre of Paris, a l ighthouse five h u ndr ed fe e t hi g h , in whIC h is to be pl ac ed a l i g ht from a h u n d � ed thousand to a h und r ed millions of There are two kinds of p ulleys , fi�etl and gas p � p e s stron g ' th e power to be varied as moveable. No p o we r i s d e ri v e d from t h e fix. th mgh t s are lIght or dark. Paris WIll th us � ed p u l le y except the advantages of c h a n g i n g e nJ o y a s o r t of perpetual day, and as s'>on as th e dir ection of power, being th ereby the fu lthe lI u n of heave n h a s 3et, the sun of Point

thiS t h e g re t e r q ua n t i ty of borax a n d arsenic

timony can b e o m i t ted if greater t r a n s p a re ncy If c ro c us (�he su l pha t e of iron is wan ted . burnt i n a c r u cib l e ) be used

is

the fi c ulp t ured face of the slab, for example,

was tur ned to the 'wall, and t h e back re- work­

� xtr e lU ity of : h e h ollow c y li nd e r is i m mersed HI t h e water and the screw lap s up a portion

If bo r ax b e used i n a greater qu a n-

lIty, a softer enamel

the

all ar e trans parent and afterw ards lev igat ed , it makes a b right tr an s p are n t ye ll o w and the an­

.

Layard

b e en taken from other buil d i ngs and re-used ,

w h i r l round t h e s p i r a l , w h i c h is repr e sen t ed

gether until t hey become a black of the deep. e.s t cast.

r-

. lll g t h e Screw of Archimides for nis ing wa­

I te r

Mr.

s ay that in t h e midst of the ruins h e had discovered a main c h a mb er, fot­ med of b ri ck s regularly arc h e d The bas-re­ h efs sent over by him, were in m any cases found in p o s i t i o n s showing that t h ey bad



tl mony one p art, of scarlet och re a n d magneas b i ng i n the h ollow in terior. . each a fourth part,

sla

p o si t i.o n is good for p ai n t ing enamel dial p l a t es . or palll t lllg on c h i n a . or e n amel grounds, i�

with c alc ine d silver two parts, and a nti mon y ? r o p e r vessel till

I

.

then p r o c e e d e d to

ThIS cut r e pr esen t s an arrangement for work-

d.es c ri b ed six parts, of cob alt one p art, of a n -

afterw ards levlgated (grou n d fine) wi t h one part of th e salts of ti n I t is t h en ready for enamel painting and m ak e s a spl e n d i d opaque yellow. If six p arts o f t h e a b o v e flux be use d .

J �� V;::JJ1-'2.

ronnected wi th a main sewer.

\'>-'( ' .18U I� . J Tfflrr7;� , � iR � , r·H'1";-�r,..;�!: -

y ellow is a d d ed ,

small p o r t i o n of mangalJese.

ings, h e said, were providerl with a c om p l e te system of sewerage . Each room had a drain

Hydraulic Sere"".

as the browns ar e

on th e y ellolV shad e , more For tile SeieJltific

I

DlOVJlUIIENTS.

M E CHANICAL

o f t h e seco nd order.

:

Frem the moveable

Neuf will rise.

i t o p e ra t e s as a lever

------.---- -. -

Teltlng

T h u s , if one e n d of a

are laid on t h e surface of the metal of the tu

.

M uc h h a s r e c e nt ly

Gold.

been said in relation to er end to a moveable p ower, the rope doubled mixtures and shadIng di ffe ren t ye l l ows Ochre gol d c oi n b e i ng adulterated w i t h silv er, and sible bath and h e at is applied to melt the me· and t h e ends parallel, the p u ll ey tha t han gs used in flu x i n g is also a good and c heap sub­ d i ffi c ul ty of det ec t i n g the adulteratio n . It re ­ tal. When it m elts tbe tools should be sud­ b e t we e n is a leve r , the fixed end of the rop e stance for makIng yel lows. Or p i m e n t is also qu i r es only a very s i m p le method, one d isco­ d e nl y plunged into cold w at er and thus a c ­ being the fulcrum and. t b e other t h e m ove a b l e Il sed for making y e llo ws w ith th e a b o ve fl u x , ver ed by arch imedes, to d e tect base coi n . quire the d es it e d tem p e r end of the lever, hence the p o wer is double but it m u st not receive m u c h h e at by weigh ing it in air, and in wate r d i viding Thermometers to test the fol:owing degrees t h e d i s ta n c e from t h e fulcrum t h a n is t h e ­ a r t ul of --Take . O GREEN the weight in air by the l oss of weight in wa­ PAQUE BlUGHT o f heat can be purchased at a ny Philosophi · This enamel i. valuable for brown

c r oc us

rope be fixed to a stat i o nary stud and the oth-

,

.

.

marine , or cobalt, and the opaqlie ye l lo w mixture, first descr ibed in th i s article, each o ne part, and of t h e flux first mentioned two

c al

parts, and j us t m i x t h em w e l l t og e t he r, when If t h e same they will be ready for p a in t in g .

weight h u n g at the pulley, and t h erefor e the

I nstrument Maker's.

Lancets

Baths,

.Ilrtirles.

(parts. ) 7 lead

7! do

S urgical I nstruUlents ,

flux be used in six p ar t s , to one par t of the Razors, &c. 8 do preCI p i tat e of co p p er from a s ul p hate by a n Penk nives and Scalp el s, 8* do al kal i , and fluxed t o ge th e r u n til t h e y a r e trans­ L arge r Penknives , &c. 10 do p are n t, a com position for a fine deep green Sc i s s o rs, sh e ars , g ar den

1 ti n of, do 4 do 4 do 4 do

It ca ll b e m ade t o any

hoes,

.

is all the a d v a n tage

Fah .

cold c h isel s , &.c. 14 uo 4 do .hade of lightn e s s by 'Ising any q u a n ti ty ne ­ Axes, plane irons, firmer cessary of the tr anspar e nt y e l l o ws previously chisels, penknives, &.c . HI do 4 do If c o b al t and a yellow m ade fr0m Table kai v e ! , shears, &.c. 30 do 4 do des c ribed c r oc us mixed with their proper fluxes, b e le­ S w ords, w atch-springs., 48 do 4 do vigated tog e th e r tl:ey make a fine mix ture Daggers, augurs, small for a b r i gh t tr a nsp ar e n t en a mel g r e e n . 50 do 2 do fine s aw s , &c. If t h e first m e nt i o n ed flux six parts, of ocbre Pit saws, h a n dsaws, &c. Boiling lins. o il one part, and cop p er calcined to a p u r pl e co­ A r t ic l e s w h ich r e qu ire to enan:.el is t h e resul t .

420' 430

.

445 450 470

-

.

490

prinCIpl e of It p ro b le rc .

509 530 550

RULE : Divide t h e w eight to be

part, b e well fluxed tog � t h er and af ­ te rwar d s ground fine with o n e part of the calx of t i n, it m ak e s a g o o d co m p o si ti o n for a c h e a p gre e n . By the gr e at e r quan ti ty of c o b a l t used 110 are these greens m ad e dark, and l ig h t I>y ad ­ d i n g the salts ot tin or antimony in greater proportions to the lightness req ui r e d If the precipitate of gold and calc i n ed sil­

b e s till somewhat Rofter __�� _

Melted lead

_ ��._.__

r ai se d

by

t w i c e t h e number of moveable p ul l eys , and the q u o tien t is t h e

,

lor one

the w e i g h t .

558 600

power r e qui r e d

to raise

A U 12

. .

A t t h e or d in ary meeting of the Royal

mystery,

::



!



The SCIENTIFIC AMERI CAN is

v o c ate

�he

·

gures was the ma r k

wi th the water, it may be left in it fo r an h ou r

chloride of

The prin cipal office b e ing a t New York.

b u t t h e r e c o u l d be no !'I e w o u l d

these try i n g them on b u tter so ranc id as to be past 700 yeus before C hr i s t. Probably t h e b ui ld· usp. :; and he has r e sto re to butler whose odor red ans yellow col o r i ng substances in d i ffer­ ing s dated from 1 ,'200 y e ars befor e C hr is t. and t a s t e were ins u pportable, all the sweet. ent proportions, w i ll make all the d iffe r ent The r o om s were lined with sl a b s o f m arble ness of fres h . This op eration is extr e mely s h ades of orange. covered with bas-reliefs, such as t h o s e now s i m pl e and practicable to all ; i t consists in C o pp e r calcined to r e d n e ss and r�d tarta r or i n the B r itis h Museum. which were j o i n e d beating the b u t ter in a s u ffi ci e n t quantit y of arg il, one part each , w i t h any of the fluxes Th e toge t h e r by double dove-tails of iron . water i ll w hi ch p u t 25 or 30 d rops of c h lo m en t i oned, if fused toget h er u n til t h ey are d oor w a ys we re fl an k e d by w in g e d figures of ride of lime to two pounds of b u tter. A ft e r transparen t and n o longer, and then levi g at e d greater he ig h t th a n t h e sl abs ; on all th ese fi w i th an equal 'Part of the glass of a n ti m ony , having m ixed it till all its parts are i n c o ntac t 01' two, aft e rwards withdrawn and wa sh e d an e w with fresh water. The lime having n ot h i n g mj urious in it, cau w i t h safety be augmented ; b ut after ha v i n g ver i fi ed the experime nt, it was fo und that 25 o r 3 0 a drops to a k illog ramm e of b u tt er (two and q u u rter pounds) were s u ffi c i en t . --�--.. . Th o u t ams of Sa tra , l � Arabia, p rod uce the b l 0 �ecc � , w h i c h III t h e early agel . s oId �o r. Its w e g h t III g ol d.

���V�-���'�'V-

BY Ml1NN &; COMPAN Y.

do u b t o f th ei r ex trem e a 'l t i qu i ty

Anti mony used along w i t h

­

Court Street, Boston,

the Ad· of Industry i n all i ts torms, an d as a cs an d Manufacturers is afford them one p r o o f o f it ; t he earlie s t b uild - I Jo u r n al fo r M e chan i on ()f y i n g s in NlIlevah, were b u r ie d, a n d t h e earth n ot eq ualled b any o th er pUblicati i nd i n the world , k e b as er late them u 0\ h n e m ad d h h h c accu w i E ac h number c ontains from FIVE to S E ­ us ed as a bu r i al place by a n a ti on who liv e d ed w as still a

ed t oge th e r , i t m akes a spl e n di d bright orange

very cheap ora n g e comp osition for e n a m el Transparent pur ple and ng is the resu lt. Ipaque purples are made by mixtures of the lreci pitate of gold al o n g with cobalt or ultra ­ narine and any of the fluxes mentioned. For be tran s p a re n t purples the colori ng matter is frst vitrified w i th the fluxes a nd afterwards l
l i ca t io n of the kind in the wuld, is published 1 28 Fulto n Street, New York, and 13

.Ilt

Researelles at N lnevah and Nlm.rood.

e s , stated t h a t the date o f th e r u i ns d iscov e r -

.

1

�"

This p a p er, t h e most p o p ul a r we ekly pult ­

Ins tl t u t e of A r ch it �c ts , London, on the 1 0 t h or J a n u ary , M r . Tite i n troduce d M r . L a ya r d , w h o, III some r e marks OR hi s recent research· .

To Sweet en Raneld B ut t e ' The Echo Mode Sevant says ;_" A n agriculturist i a the ne ighborhood of Bruss els, Belgi u m , h a v l !l g succeeded in r e mov i ng the iJ aa smell and d i sag r� eab l e taste from bntter by beating or mixing in fresh water with h o l or id e of lime, he Was encouraged by th i s c and ix­ m fluxes proper their th i ver be used w by h a p py r e sul t to continue h i8 e x p e r i m e n t s ,

enamel.

ter, a nd the p r ese n ce of bas e metal will ap p ear .

p o w er is to �he w eia-ht as t w o to one. T hi s Pure h a m m ered gold h as a s pe c i fic gravity of gained by one moveable 1 0 6 5 · 1 00, hammered s i l v e r 10 5 1 - 1 00, and pulley, fo r two, twice the advan tage , for three ham mered c o p per, 8 89 - 1 1)0. T h i s test is in th ri c e the adva ntage, and so on fo r every addifa l l i b l e , but not 90 e asy per fo r me d . tionlll moveable p u ll e y . An e xcel le n t work has been la t e l y p r od uce d by Mr. Brady, Saili n g Master , U. S. Navy, of Brookly n , on the subj e ct as a p p l i ed t o s h i p s , which is allowed t o be the b est ever pub l is h e d The above cut onl y rep r esen t s the rope and bloc k , not t h e

Temp

I

of bloo d, as if thro w n

aga i nst them , and a ll owed to tri ckl e d o w n . T h e walls were of sun· d r ied bricks, a nd where

the.e sh � wed above t h e s c ul p t u red sl abs, u p to t h e � elltng, t h e y were co v e red w i t h plast e r and p a l llte d . The b e a m s wh ere th e y re m a in ed were fOURd to b e of mulb e rr y -That t h e

slabs s h o uld h ave been p re s l'rv ed s o long, I n truth, howev e r , the bric ks puzzled many b e i ng sim ply drIed i n th e su n , in fall in g h ad returned to the earth , and had thus b ur ied . the tabl e t! and protected them The bu ild-

I

© 1848 SCIENTIFIC AMERICIAN, INC

V E N ORIG INAL MECHANI C A L ENGRA­ V INGS of the m os t impo r t a n t i n T e nt i o ns ; a

c atalogue of AM ERIC A N PATENTS, as is ·

I

I

s ued fr om t h e Patent Office each week ; no ti­ ces o f the progress of all new MEe HANI ­ C AL and SCIENT IFIC inventions ;

i nat r uc witlt .­

tion i n the v ar io us ARTS and TRA DES,

E N GR AV INGS ; curious PHILO S O PHI C AL ; the latt18t

an d C HEMICA L e xp e r i m e n t s

RA I L ROAD I NTELLIGEN CE in EURO PE

an d

AMERICA ; all the different MECHA . .

N I C AL MOVEMEN TS, p u bl i s h e d in a series and I LLUS TRATED w i t h m o r e th� A

&c. &c . has alre ady att a in· ed tke la rgest circ ulation of an y w e ekly me ch a nic a l journ al in the w o rld , and in Hii. couatry its circ u lat ion is IUlt surpassed b.y .11 the other mechani c al papers tembiued . ()l::r For t er m s fi e e inaicl� HUNDRED ENGRAVI NGS, T h e S c ioo tific AmeHcan