Section IV: Historical Thinking Concepts - Manitoba Education

Section IV: Historical Thinking Concepts - Manitoba Education

History of Canada Section IV: Historical Thinking Concepts Grade 11 Section IV / Historical Thinking Concepts Grade 11 Guide to Writing a Hi...

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History of Canada

Section IV: Historical Thinking Concepts

Grade

11

Section IV

/

Historical Thinking Concepts

Grade

11

Guide to Writing a Historical Essay Writing a historical essay is a complex task that is based on all of the methods necessary in the study of history. The purpose of writing an essay is not simply to tell or repeat the facts about the past, but to understand or explain the past from the interpretation of evidence. The following six steps serve as a guide to historical inquiry, as well as a guide to writing a history essay. Step 1: Identify the research topic

Step 5: Develop a theme/thesis supported by evidence

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State a research question Identify key words of the research topic

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Outline a research plan

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Anticipate sources of information QQ

Step 2: Find and select primary and secondary sources QQ

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Develop a list of documents and images, including the sources Distinguish between primary and secondary sources Confirm sources with questions and comparisons

Extract information relevant to the research question

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Organize based on ideas and perspectives

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Order and record information

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Note the sources and references

Choose quotes and images to support the main ideas Develop a thesis statement Choose and find evidence to support your argument

Step 6: Share your ideas QQ

Develop an annotated list of relevant websites

Step 3: Collect and record information sources QQ

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Summarize the information collected

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Establish an outline (introduction, thesis statement, paragraphs with supporting evidence, conclusion) Write your essay Check if you have followed the guidelines established for the work (form and content)

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Revise the text (can be peer reviewed, as well)

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Select format for effective presentation

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Make the final proofreading and corrections

Step 4: Interpret information obtained QQ

Group information into primary and secondary ideas

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Distinguish fact from opinion

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Identify contradictions

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Compare the views collected

IV-3

How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

IV-4

Section IV

HS

/

Historical Thinking Concepts

Grade

11

Establish Historical Significance

T

he past is everything that has ever happened anywhere. The past is recorded as history, but there is too much history to remember it all. So how do we make choices about what is worth remembering? Significant events include those that resulted in great change over long periods of time for large numbers of people. In this sense, an event like the Second World War would pass the test for historical significance. But what could be significant about the life of a worker or a slave? What about my own ancestors, who are clearly significant to me but not necessarily significant to others? Significance depends upon one’s perspective and purpose. A historical person or event can acquire significance if we, the historians, can link it to larger trends and stories that reveal something important for us today. For example, the story of an individual worker in Winnipeg in 1918, which is seemingly insignificant compared to the story of the Second World War, may become significant if it is recounted in a way that makes it a part of a larger history of workers’ struggles, economic development, or post-war adjustment and discontent. In that case, the “insignificant” life reveals something important to us, and thus becomes significant. Both “It is significant because it is in the history book” and “It is significant because I am interested in it” are inadequate explanations of historical significance.

Aspects of Significance 1. An event, person, or development of the past that results in a change of deep consequence for many people over a long period of time.

2. The event, person, or development sheds light on enduring or emerging issues in history and contemporary life or was important at some stage in history within the collective memory of a group or groups.

Note: For either of these examples, students can establish the historical significance of an event or person by linking it to other events in a historical narrative or argument.

IV-5

How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Grade

11

History

of

Canada

Student Tasks

Inquiry Activity

1. Choose an event, person, or development in a given time period of Canadian history.

Students take on the role of historians to determine the 10 most significant historical events, people, or developments in the history of Canada. In small groups, students examine a series of annotated images (e.g., photographs, documents) representing a variety of historical events, try to reach a consensus on the 10 most important, and justify their selections.

2. Explain what made the event, person, or development significant. 3. Identify and explain differences in significance over time or from group to group (e.g., Why is women’s history more significant now than 50 years ago? Why do Canadians consider Louis Riel significant while Americans generally do not?). At the most sophisticated level, students will be able to QQ

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demonstrate how an event, person, or development is significant, either by showing how it is embedded in a larger, meaningful narrative OR by showing how it sheds light on an enduring or emerging issue explain how and why historical significance varies over time and from group to group

Learning Strategies 1. Teachers prepare sets of 25 to 30 annotated images (photographs, documents) representing a range of historical events, people, or developments throughout the history of Canada. Each image should have a short caption to provide contextual information about the image. 2. In small groups, students examine the set of 25 to 30 images. They discuss the collection and reach a consensus about the 10 most historically significant events. Students explain the reasons for their selection. 3. Groups reconsider their selection based on the following guiding questions and confirm or revise their list of the 10 most significant events. 4. Groups report to the class and explain their selection of the 10 most significant events. Comparisons are made. 5. Individual students choose one of the 10 most significant historical events selected by their group for detailed analysis using the guiding questions on the following page.

Poor, rural, and female: could this person’s life have any historical significance? In the past, most historians would have said no, but definitions of historical significance have recently changed.

IV-6

How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Section IV

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Historical Thinking Concepts

Guiding Questions: Establish Historical Significance 1. Is this event, person, or development historically significant? If so, why? 2. Who considers the event, person, or development significant and why? 3. What do historians say about the significance of this person/event/development? Do they agree or disagree? (cite sources) 4. What factors determine the historical significance of an event/person/development? 5. What is the role of the media in establishing the historical significance of an event? 6. Does an event need to be dramatic in order to be significant? Explain your response. 7. Did this event have long-term consequences? Are the effects of this event still evident in some ways today? 8. Does this event uncover or reveal something surprising or unique about the past?

11

11. It has been said that history is written by winners, and that all other voices are silenced (e.g., Indigenous people, women, ethnocultural minorities, gay/lesbian/transgender people). Find examples of this way of determining significance. Find examples of how historians have succeeded in changing this approach. 12. To what extent does the identification of events/ persons/developments as historically significant depend upon the story one is trying to relate? 13. What story and whose story is this historian/ account/group seeking to tell? 14. To what extent does the identification of events/ persons/developments as historically significant depend upon the story one is trying to relate?

Learning Resources QQ

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9. Has this event/person/development been officially recognized by groups, organizations, or government as being significant? Describe various forms of recognition of the historical importance of an event/person/development (e.g., statues, street names, plaques, special days, museums, etc.). Do you think these forms of recognition are valuable? Explain your response.

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BLM 1: Historical Significance Reid, Mark. 100 Photos that Changed Canada. Toronto, ON: HarperCollins, 2009. Library and Archives Canada This site includes databases, research aids, and virtual exhibitions containing thousands of historical photographs from Canada’s history. https://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/photography/ index-e.html

10. Do you think that this person/event/development should be officially recognized as having historical significance? Why or why not? How should this event/person/development be recognized?

IV-7

How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Grade

11

History

of

Canada

A Continuum for Mastering Historical Thinking Concepts: Historical Significance Component of Historical Thinking

HS

Descriptors

Historical significance

Describe accepted turning points in history by explaining the reason for their significance.

How should we decide what events of the past are significant?

Provide examples of criteria used to determine historical significance (e.g., scope or duration of impact).

List a series of historical events in order of priority and justify the choices made. Recognize that historical significance is determined by the availability of evidence. Recognize that historically significant judgments are influenced by the historian’s perspective.

Compare the historical significance of a variety of historical events and developments. Set out clear and explicit objective criteria for determining historical significance. Compare various perspectives on the historical significance of a development or event.

Evaluate various ways of determining historical significance or relevance. Develop a plausible argument to support reconsidering the historical significance of ideas, developments, or historical figures.

IV-8

How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Grade

History of Canada

11

BLM 1

HS Name:

Historical Significance

Date:

Name: Date: Primary or secondary source (page numbers, if relevant):

Event or person (or people) that is historically significant in this source:

Brief description:

Criteria: In what ways is this event or person historically significant? Resulting in Change Profundity: How were people affected by the event or person? Quantity: How many people’s lives were affected?

Does it apply? (Y/N)

In what way does this event or person meet the criteria?

Durability: How long-lasting were the changes? Revealing How does this event or person help us to understand the past? Resonant or Relevant How does this event or person shed light on issues or problems that concern us? Of what larger story or argument might this event or person be a part?

How might the historical significance of this event or person change over time?

IV-9

IV-10

Section IV

E

/

Historical Thinking Concepts

Grade

11

Use Primary Sources as Evidence

T

he litter of history—letters, documents, records, diaries, drawings, newspaper accounts, and other bits and pieces left behind by those who have passed on— are treasures to the historian. These are primary sources that can give up the secrets of life in the past. Historians learn to read these sources. But reading a source for evidence demands a different approach than reading a source for information. The contrast may be seen in the difference between reading a phone book—for information—and examining a boot print in the snow outside a murder scene—for evidence. When we look up a phone number, we don’t ask ourselves, “Who wrote this phonebook?” or “What impact did it have on its readers?” We read it at face value. The boot print, on the other hand, is a trace of the past that does not allow a comparable reading. Once we establish what it is, we examine it to see if it offers clues about the person who was wearing the boot, when the print was made, which direction the person was headed, and what else was going on at that time. A history textbook is generally used more like a phone book: it is a place to look up information. Primary sources must be read differently. To use them well, we set them in their historical contexts and make inferences from them to help us understand more about what was going on when they were created.

For more reference material on using primary and secondary sources, consult the Learning Centre of Library and Archives Canada at .

Aspects of Evidence 1. Good questions are necessary in order to turn a source into evidence. The first question would be “What is it?” 2. The position of the author(s) (i.e., who wrote, painted, photographed, or constructed the source) is a key consideration.

3. Primary sources may reveal information about the (conscious) purposes of the author as well as the (unconscious) values and world view of the author. 4. A source should be read in view of its historical background (contextualization). 5. Analysis of the source should also provide new evidence about its historical setting.

IV-11

How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Grade

11

History

of

Canada

Student Tasks

Learning Strategies

1. Find and select primary sources appropriate for responding to historical questions.

1. Create four groups. Each group will be given a different primary source: Lord Durham’s Report, 1839 (extract) Motion by Stephen Harper on Québec, Parliament of Canada, November 22, 2006 Speech by Pierre Trudeau on the eve of the 1980 Québec referendum Excerpt of essay by Marcel Chaput, “Why I am a Sovereigntist”

2. Formulate questions about a primary source. Answers to the question should help to shed light on the historical context. 3. Analyze a primary source for the purposes, values, and world view of the author. 4. Compare points of view and usefulness of several primary sources. 5. Assess what can and cannot be answered by particular primary sources. 6. Use primary sources to construct an argument or narrative. Note: At the most sophisticated level, students will be able to use several primary sources to construct an original account of a historical event.

Inquiry Activity Students consult, interpret, and compare four different primary sources from different times that address French-English duality and the question of the status of Québec in Canada.

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2. Each group will prepare a computer version of their text using words and images to summarize their primary source. (Note: Students can use the program Wordle [see ], which is a free site that creates “word clouds” to emphasize words that appear more frequently in the source text. This will allow students to find the main ideas of their document and students will be able to compare the different perspectives of each article at a glance.) 3. Each group will present a computer version of their primary source to the class. They will describe the source, introduce the author, and provide the social and political background of the primary source. 4. As a group, the class will analyze and compare each document. Students should compare their primary documents to their textbook as well as other secondary documents. Together, with guiding questions from their teacher, they should investigate the different points of view evident in both the primary and secondary documents.

The Head Tax certificate of Chong Do Dang.

IV-12

How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Section IV

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Historical Thinking Concepts

5. The class will hold a discussion of the value of primary sources when investigating history. 6. Note: Students may also examine the elements of continuity and change over time concerning the question of the status of Québec in Canada.

Guiding Questions: Use Primary Sources as Evidence 1. What are the sources of evidence that underpin this account or explanation? What types of sources are they (e.g., primary or secondary; artifacts, documents, images, audio-visual, painting, statistics)? 2. Is this an authentic source? How do you know? 3. What values seem to underpin this source? 4. Who created this source and for what purpose? In what context (e.g., time, place, and circumstances) was it created? 5. Why and by whom is this source preserved? 6. What factors make this source more or less reliable? Does this source reveal any bias or judgment?

Grade

11

Learning Resources QQ

BLM 2: Analyze Secondary Sources

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BLM 3: Use Primary Source Evidence: Document

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BLM 4: Use Primary Source Evidence: Object/ Artifact BLM 5: Use Primary Source Evidence: Photographs/Images

Suggested Primary Sources 1. Lord Durham’s Report, 1839 (extract) 2. Motion by Stephen Harper on Québec, Parliament of Canada, November 22, 2006 www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication. aspx?Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=39&Ses=1& DocId=2528725 3. Speech by Pierre Trudeau on the eve of the 1980 Québec referendum (see page IV-15) 4. Excerpt of essay by Marcel Chaput, “Why I am a Sovereigntist.” (see page IV-16)

7. What is missing or omitted from this source? Does this source conflict with evidence from other sources? 8. What does this source reveal about its intended message or purpose? 9. How reliable is this source of information? 10. How have historians interpreted this source? How have historians used this source? 11. Are there differing interpretations and explanations of this event, person, or development? If so, explain why. Which interpretation or explanation do you find most persuasive? Why?

IV-13

How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Grade

11

History

of

Canada

Suggested Secondary Sources and Websites QQ

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CBC Digital Archives: The 1980 Quebec Referendum “With the election of his Parti Québécois in 1976, René Lévesque sets Quebec on the path toward a referendum on the question of independence for Canada’s second largest province by population. Four years later, on Tuesday, May 20, 1980, the people of Quebec reply with a resounding No.” www.cbc.ca/archives/categories/politics/partiesleaders/rene-levesques-separatist-fight-1/levesqueaccepts-defeat-in-quebec-referendum.html René Lévesque’s Separatist Fight “In the 1960s, René Lévesque made the prospect of a separate Quebec a reality. A shrewd politician, he gathered enough support to start the first sovereignty party Canadians took seriously.” www.cbc.ca/archives/categories/politics/partiesleaders/rene-levesques-separatist-fight-1/topic-renelevesques-separatist-fight.html

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The Death of the Meech Lake Accord “Unfinished business brought the First Ministers back to the constitutional bargaining table in 1987. Many Canadians felt uneasy about Quebec’s exclusion from the 1982 Constitution and so the negotiations began again under the leadership of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney with the Meech Lake Accord. CBC Archives examines the backroom lockdowns, the “distinct society” debate and the ultimate undercurrent of constitutional discord.” www.cbc.ca/archives/categories/politics/theconstitution/constitutional-discord-meech-lake/ what-does-canada-want.html Charting the Future: Canada’s New Constitution “It was a hard-fought coming of age for Canada. From the 1960s through the early 1980s, Canadian politicians argued fiercely at the constitutional bargaining table over the balance of provincial and federal power. In the end, Canada gained a Charter of Rights and Freedoms and a homemade Constitution. But it would not be without its costs as the question of Quebec’s status in Canada loomed larger than ever.” www.cbc.ca/archives/categories/politics/theconstitution/charting-the-future-canadas-newconstitution/topic---charting-the-future-canadasnew-constitution.html

IV-14

How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Section IV

/

Historical Thinking Concepts

Grade

11

This excerpt is from a speech made by Prime Minister Trudeau in May 1980, on the eve of a Quebec referendum on sovereignty-association.*

I was told that no more than two days ago Mr. Lèvesque was saying that part of my name was Elliott and, since Elliott was an English name, it was perfectly understandable that I was for the NO side, because, really, you see, I was not as much of a Quebecer as those who are going to vote YES. That, my dear friends, is what contempt is. It means saying that there are different kinds of Quebecers. It means that saying that the Quebecers on the NO side are not as good Quebecers as the others and perhaps they have a drop or two of foreign blood, while the people on the YES side have pure blood in their veins. That is what contempt is and that is the kind of division which builds up within a people, and that is what we are saying NO to. Of course my name is Pierre Elliott Trudeau. Yes, Elliott was my mother’s name. It was the name borne by the Elliotts who came to Canada more than two hundred years ago. It is the name of the Elliotts who, more than one hundred years ago, settled in Saint-Gabriel de Brandon, where you can still see their graves in the cemetery. That is what the Elliotts are. My name is a Québec name, but my name is a Canadian name also...

LA SÉPARATION NON, MERCI

My dear friends, Laurier said something in 1889, nearly one hundred years ago now, and it’s worth taking the time to read these lines: “My Countrymen,” said Laurier, “are not only those in whose veins runs the blood of France. My countrymen are all those people—no matter what their race or language—whom the fortunes of war, the twists and turns of fate, or their own choice, have brought among us.”

... [The] world is looking at Canada...a country which is composed of the meeting of the two most outstanding cultures of the Western world: the French and the English, added to by all the other cultures coming from every corner of Europe and every corner of the world. And this is what the world is looking at with astonishment, saying: These people think they might split up today when the whole world is interdependent? When Europe is trying to seek some kind of political union? These people in Quebec and in Canada want to split it up? (From the floor: NO)

* Reproduced from Shaping Canada: Our History: From Our Beginnings to the Present by Linda Connor et al. IV-15

How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Grade

11

History

of

Canada

This excerpt is from a 1961 essay, “Why I am a Separatist,” by Marcel Chaput.*

Since I naturally owe my first allegiance to French Canada, before the Dominion, I must ask myself the question: which of two choices will permit French-Canadians to attain the fullest development---Confederation, in which they will forever be a shrinking minority, doomed to subjection?---or the independence of Quebec, their true native land, which will make them masters of their own destiny?...To affirm, as some do, that Confederation was freely accepted by the French-Canadians of the time is to play with words, to distort the meaning of liberty. First of all, the B.N.A. Act was never put to the vote. It was imposed by a decree of parliament at Westminster, and by a majority vote of twenty-six to twenty-two among the Canadian representatives. For Confederation to have been labeled the free choice of the French-Canadians, it would have been necessary to have given them the freedom of choice between Confederation or total sovereignty. And this freedom was not granted, either by the London parliament or by the English-speaking colonies of America.

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* Reproduced from Shaping Canada: Our History: From Our Beginnings to the Present by Linda Connor et al. IV-16

How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Section IV

/

Historical Thinking Concepts

Grade

11

A Continuum for Mastering Historical Thinking Concepts: Primary Sources as Evidence Component of Historical Thinking

Primary Sources as Evidence How can we learn about the past?

E

Descriptors

Describe a historical event, making reference to one or two reliable sources. Recognize that historical explanations and accounts are based on various sources from the past (e.g., artifacts, newspapers, illustrations, letters, official documents). Distinguish between primary and secondary sources.

Explain a historical event or development using a number of primary and secondary sources. Cite the sources of historical information consulted. Infer historical data from a variety of sources. Identify historical errors (anachronisms) in the sources consulted.

Do a critical interpretation of a variety of primary and secondary sources. Provide full citation for the sources consulted using a consistent bibliographical model. Identify and describe factual or interpretation problems in the sources consulted (e.g., prejudice, lack of information).

Compare and question different perspectives as expressed in the primary and secondary sources. Assess the comparative value of various sources of information about the past. Demonstrate an understanding of the interpretive nature of history as a discipline.

IV-17

How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

IV-18

Grade

History of Canada

11

BLM 2

E

Analyze Secondary Sources

Title:

Type of Document:

Purpose of Document: Author(s):

Date of Publication: Strengths

Weaknesses

Source is reliable.

Facts are accurate and complete.

Strong evidence is cited to support conclusions.

Is there conflicting evidence in the source? In other sources?

Conclusions about the value of this secondary source as a reliable account of an historical issue or event:

IV-19

IV-20

Grade

History of Canada

11

BLM 3

E

Use Primary Source Evidence: Document

Title: Type of document: Author: Source: Date: What was the purpose of the document, and who were the intended readers?

What was the historical context of the document? (What events were occurring at the time?)

What historical facts are given in the document?

What viewpoints or opinions do(es) the author(s) express?

Is the document biased? Give examples

Is the account credible? Why or why not?

In what ways does the information in this document contribute to your understanding of the past?

IV-21

IV-22

Grade

History of Canada

11

BLM 4

E

Use Primary Source Evidence: Object/Artifact

Describe the object/artifact. (What do you see/feel?)

Who might have made the object/artifact?

Does the object/artifact reveal information about the values and world views of the person who made it? Explain.

What is its function or purpose?

Who would use the object?

Where would it be used?

When would it be used?

In what ways does the analysis of this object or artifact contribute to your understanding of the past?

IV-23

IV-24

Grade

History of Canada

11

BLM 5

E

Use Primary Source Evidence: Photographs/Images

Image type: Date: Artist/Photographer: What is shown in the image? (Provide a detailed description.)

What was the purpose of the image?

What point of view or position does the artist illustrate or photographer represent?

What impressions does the image portray?

What are your responses to the image?

Does the image raise any questions, show apparent contradictions, or omit something obvious?

Is the image a credible source? Explain.

What is the historical context of the image? (What events were occurring at the time?)

In what ways does the analysis of this image contribute to your understanding of the past?

IV-25

IV-26

Section IV

C& C

/

Historical Thinking Concepts

Grade

11

Identify Continuity and Change

S

tudents sometimes misunderstand history as a list of events. Once they start to understand history as a complex mix of continuity and change, they reach a fundamentally different sense of the past.

There were lots of things going on at any one time in the past. Some changed rapidly while others remained relatively continuous. The decade of the 1910s in Canada, for instance, saw profound change in many aspects of life, but not much change in its forms of government. If students say “nothing happened in 1911,” they are thinking of the past as a list of events. One of the keys to continuity and change is looking for change where common sense suggests there has been none, and looking for continuities where we assumed there was change. Judgments of continuity and change can be made on the basis of comparisons between some point in the past and the present, or between two points in the past, such as before and after Confederation in Canada. We evaluate change over time using the ideas of progress and decline.

Aspects of Continuity and Change 1. Continuity and change are interrelated: processes of change are usually continuous, not isolated into a series of discrete events. 2. Some aspects of life change more quickly in some periods than others. Turning points, perhaps even tipping points, help to locate change. 3. Progress and decline are fundamental ways of evaluating change over time. Change does not always mean progress.

4. Chronology can help to organize our understanding of continuity and change (i.e., you cannot understand continuity and change without knowing the order in which things happened). 5. Periodization (regarding blocks of time and history as eras or periods) can help to organize our understanding of continuity and change.

“Thomas Moore as he appeared when admitted to the Regina Indian Industrial School” and “Thomas Moore after tuition at the Regina Industrial School.”

IV-27

How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Grade

11

History

of

Canada

Student Tasks

Learning Strategies

1. Place a series of pictures in chronological order, explaining why they are placed in that order.

1. In small groups, students identify one or two historical periods to study a particular site in their local community (e.g., they may choose a local park or a historic building) and compare what has changed and what has remained the same. Students should formulate and clarify questions to guide their research.

2. Compare two (or more) documents from different time periods, and explain what changed and what remained the same over time. 3. Assess progress and decline from the standpoint of various groups since a certain point in time. At the most sophisticated level, students will be able to QQ

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explain how some things continue and others change in any given period of history identify changes over time in aspects of life that we ordinarily assume to be continuous; identify continuities in aspects of life we ordinarily assume to have changed over time understand that periodization and judgments of progress and decline can vary depending upon purposes and perspective

2. Groups decide what aspect of their community they wish to research and the best format to present their findings. 3. Groups identify primary and secondary sources they will use to conduct their research. Encourage students to find evidence that shows a variety of ways in which life has changed in their community (e.g., include social, economic, or political aspects of life). Examples of sources include the following: Photographs from family albums, local museums, or local history books Artifacts from families or local museums Local/provincial/federal archives Articles from time-period magazines and newspapers Community/family history books Interview seniors/elders in the community Visit a local cemetery Examples of music, art QQ

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Inquiry Activity

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Students take on the role of historian to investigate the history of their communities with a focus on what has changed and what has stayed the same over a selected time period (e.g., any selected time period or two different time periods in the past). They collect and analyze evidence on various aspects of life in their communities, and create an illustrated report on their findings.

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Local street names, monuments, plaques

4. Guided by the following guiding questions, students conduct research to identify and analyze continuity and change. 5. Students organize and record findings and prepare a presentation. 6. Groups share learning with the class and provide opportunities for whole-class discussion and analysis. 7. Classmates record learning and respond to opinion questions posed.

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How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Section IV

/

Historical Thinking Concepts

Grade

11

12. Do you believe that some things have changed so radically that it is no longer possible to understand what happened in the past? Give an example and explain.

Guiding Questions: Identify Continuity and Change 1. Comparing this time period to an earlier time period, what changed and what stayed the same?

13. Think of an example of a historical change that you wish had never happened. Explain.

2. Why and for whom did conditions change?

14. It has been said that human beings tend to resist or oppose change. Do you think this is true? Explain with reference to events in Canadian history.

3. Are the changes examples of progress or decline? From whose point of view? How might others see and explain these changes? 4. What are the factors that ensure the continuity of certain elements or practices? Why were these elements preserved or transmitted over time? Were they preserved over a long period of time? By whom and why? How were they preserved?

15. If you could preserve or change one practice or feature of life in your community, what would it be? Explain.

5. What is the value of the preserving practices over time? Consider some practices and beliefs that have all but disappeared. Is this a negative or a positive thing? Explain.

Learning Resources QQ

6. It is sometimes said that it is advisable to return to “the good old days.” Why do you think people believe this?

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QQ

7. What were some specific “turning points” that represent major change?

QQ

Family and community resources as identified by the groups BLM 6: Identify Continuity and Change BLM 7: Identify Continuity and Change: Periodization Field trips to local cemeteries, museums, historic sites, etc.

8. Was this a dramatic and sudden change or did it happen slowly and by stages? 9. What human actions and decisions were instrumental in provoking or advancing this change? 10. Have you observed some changes that seem to repeat similar earlier changes? How might they be explained? 11. What are some ways in which individuals and/ or groups strive to preserve continuity over time? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?

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How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Grade

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History

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Canada

A Continuum for Mastering Historical Thinking Concepts: Continuity and Change

Component of Historical Thinking

Continuity and change How can we understand what changes and what remains constant over time?

C& C

Descriptors

Provide examples of lasting elements from the past. Identify and describe significant changes in the study of a historical period or theme. Identify elements of continuity and change between the past and the present.

Observe the pace and rate of change over a given period in history. Describe the similarities and differences between two periods in history. Identify turning points of historical change based on the topic studied.

Compare a variety of social and cultural elements over a number of periods in history. Analyze the varying rate and impact of change and continuity over time. Explain the importance of continuity in the history of a group or society.

Analyze and evaluate a variety of links between the past and the present. Consider possibilities for the future based on trends from the past. Describe, question, and explain specific characteristics from various periods in history. Analyze various perspectives on progress and decline related to historical changes.

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How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Grade

History of Canada

11

BLM 6

C& C

Identify Continuity and Change

Continuity and change may be identified QQ

at a given time in history (e.g., rural versus urban life in 1900)

QQ

in different time periods (e.g., rural life in 1800 and in 1900)

QQ

between the past and the present (e.g., rural life in 1930 and at present)

Identify aspects of daily life and record relevant facts for selected locations or time periods, and then determine whether the change is positive or negative or has aspects of both. Aspects of life (economic, political, social . . .)

Facts for most recent time period or first geographic location

Facts for earlier time period or second geographic location

QQ

when

QQ

when

QQ

where

QQ

where

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Describe changes (if any)

Is the change positive or negative, or aspects of both?

IV-32

Grade

History of Canada

11

BLM 7

C& C

Identify Continuity and Change: Periodization

The way a history course is organized into major time periods for ease of study is based on the concept of continuity and change. In this course, the dividing point between clusters represents an important historical event or major change that provides a convenient way to divide the course. Grade 11 History of Canada is based on major political events, as organized for this course: Use the curriculum poster and your textbook to record the titles and time periods for each cluster and the events/ changes that were used as dividing points. Grade 11 History of Canada Cluster Title Time Period Major event or change dividing clusters History of Canada as organized by alternate criteria: Select your own criteria for an alternate way of dividing the course into clusters (e.g., First Nations, Métis, and Inuit history; women’s rights; or other criteria of your choice), and record details as appropriate.

Cluster Title Time Period Major event or change dividing clusters

Periodization and Historical Significance: What is the connection between the way the course is divided into time periods and the concept of historical significance?

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Section IV

CC

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Historical Thinking Concepts

Grade

11

Analyze Cause and Consequence

I

n examining both tragedies and accomplishments in the past, we are usually interested in the questions of how and why. These questions start the search for causes: what were the actions, beliefs, and circumstances that led to these consequences? In history, as opposed to geology or astronomy, we need to consider human agency. People, as individuals and as groups, play a part in promoting, shaping, and resisting change. People have motivations and reasons for taking action (or for sitting it out), but causes go beyond these. For example, the Vancouver anti-Chinese riot of 1887 certainly involved the racial attitudes and motivations of the white workers who rampaged. Did the workers cause the riot? In some sense they did, but the causes must be set in the larger context of employers paying Chinese workers a fraction of the regular wage rate and the desperate situation of Chinese Canadian workers after the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railroad. Causes are thus multiple and layered, involving long-term ideologies, institutions, and conditions, and short-term motivations, actions, and events. Causes that are offered for any particular event (and the priority of various causes) may differ based on the scale of the history and the approaches of the historian.

Aspects of Cause and Consequence 1. Human beings cause historical change, but do so within contexts that impose limits on change. Constraints come from the natural environment, geography, and historical legacies, as well as other people who want other things. Human actors or agents are in a perpetual interplay with conditions, many of which (e.g., political and economic systems) are the legacies of earlier human actions. 2. Actions often have unintended consequences.

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How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

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History

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Canada

Student Tasks

Learning Strategies

1. Examine an everyday event, such as a car accident, for its potential causes (e.g., the skill and response time of the driver, the state of health or drowsiness of the driver, distraction of the driver, violation of driving rules, the condition of the cars, the technology of the cars, the weather, the road signage, the absence of traffic lights, etc.).

1. As a class, students discuss and describe as precisely as possible events related to the Red River Resistance.

2. Analyze a historical event and identify the “types of causes” (e.g., economic, political, cultural; conditions, individual actions) that it offers. 3. Examine the relationship between an individual actor’s motivations and intentions, and the consequences of her or his actions.

2. Working with a partner, students conduct an inquiry into the causes and consequences of the Red River Resistance. They use the guiding questions below, with a focus on a selected question. (Ensure that all questions are answered.) Students may explore cause and consequence from various perspectives (e.g., Métis; Country-born; non-Métis settlers at Red River such as francophone, anglophone, and American; government; residents of Québec and Ontario, etc.). 3. Student pairs present their findings to the class, using the sequence of the guiding questions. Students record information in the blackline master “Cause and Consequence.”

4. Create a chart of the causes of an event (e.g., the Japanese internment), and explain the association between the causes and the consequences of the event.

4. Students write a response journal reflecting on how long-term, indirect consequences of the Red River Resistance are still evident today.

5. How might people at the time have explained the causes of a particular event, and how might that differ from how we would explain it now? At the most sophisticated level, students will be able to QQ

QQ

QQ

identify the interplay of intentional human action and constraints on human actions in causing change identify various types of causes for a particular event, using one or more accounts of the event construct counterfactual or “What if...? Then....” scenarios (e.g., “What if Britain had not declared war on Germany in 1914? Then....”)

Inquiry Activity Students take the role of historians to analyze the causes and consequences of the Red River Resistance during the period of 1869 to 1870. Students describe aspects of the resistance and identify the immediate or short-term causes and consequences. Students then investigate the underlying or long-term causes and consequences, with specific emphasis on long-term indirect consequences that are still evident today.

The historian, like the insurance investigator, sifts through evidence to determine the causes of events — often from a multitude of possibilities. Unlike the investigator, though, the historian is also interested in the event’s consequences.

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How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Section IV

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Historical Thinking Concepts

Guiding Questions: Analyze Cause and Consequence

QQ

2. What long-term factors or conditions made this event possible? Which factors combined to make the event more likely? 3. What were the immediate consequences or results of this event? What groups or people were most affected by these immediate results?

QQ

4. Did the immediate results of this event lead to further consequences? Which people or groups were involved? 5. What were the long-term consequences of this event? Describe the nature of these consequences and assess whether they were negative or positive, and for whom. 6. Are the consequences still evident today? Whom do they affect? In what ways?

QQ

7. How did this event influence subsequent decisions and actions of the people or groups involved? 8. Do historians differ in their explanations of the causes of this event? Explain their differing accounts and perspectives.

QQ

9. Which explanations of cause and consequence do you find most persuasive, and why?

Learning Resources QQ

11

Primary and Secondary Sources and Websites

1. What specifically triggered this event (immediate causes or catalyst)?

QQ

Grade

QQ

BLM: Analyze Cause and Consequence Transcript of the primary source that provided the basis of negotiating the Manitoba Act. There are several versions of this list, which was revised during the negotiations for the entrance of Manitoba into Confederation. www.gov.mb.ca/fls-slf/report/ histbackgrd.html

QQ

The Métis in Alberta This URL automatically links to an archived copy of the Heritage Community Foundation’s Online Encyclopedia of Alberta, which includes a useful timeline of Métis history. www.albertasource.ca/metis/eng/index2.htm Canada in the Making: The Métis This site provides a history of the Métis in Canada with historical information and links to digitized primary sources. Topics include the Atlantic Métis, the Western Métis, the Selkirk Indenture of 1811, the Seven Oaks Incident of 1816, the Red River Resistance of 1869-1870, Métis Scrip, the Famous Five, and the Confederation Act, 1982. http://www1.canadiana.org/citm/specifique/ metis_e.html Manitobia: Birth of Manitoba This is the first of a seven-part resource depicting the history of Manitoba. http://manitobia.ca/cocoon/launch/en/themes/ bom St. Boniface Historical Society: Louis Riel and the Métis This page is part of a thorough overview of the life of Louis Riel that was created by the St. Boniface Historical Society. http://shsb.mb.ca/en/node/1370 Francophone Affairs Secretariat of Manitoba: Historical Background This historical background was published in May 1998 as part of the Report and Recommendations on French Language Services Within the Government of Manitoba, prepared by the Commissioner Honourable Judge Richard Chartier. www.gov.mb.ca/fls-slf/report/histbackgrd.html Begg, Alexander. The Creation of Manitoba; Or, A History of the Red River Troubles. Toronto, ON: A.H. Hovey, 1871. Available online at Google Books.

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History

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Canada

List of Terms and Conditions for Manitoba’s Entry into Confederation 1. That the Territories heretofore known as Rupert’s Land and North-West, shall not enter into the Confederation of the Dominion of Canada, except as a Province; to be styled and known as the Province of Assiniboia, and with all the rights and privileges common to the different Provinces of the Dominion. 2. That we have two Representatives in the Senate, and four in the House of Commons of Canada, until such time as an increase of population entitle the Province to a greater Representation. 3. That the Province of Assiniboia shall not be held liable at any time for any portion of the Public debt of the Dominion contracted before the date the said Province shall have entered the Confederation, unless the said Province shall have first received from the Dominion the full amount for which the said Province is to be held liable. 4. That the sum of Eighty Thousand ($80,000) dollars be paid annually by the Dominion Government to the local Legislature of this Province.

7. That a sum of money equal to eighty cents per head of the population of this Province, be paid annually by the Canadian Government to the local Legislature of the said Province; until such time as the said population shall have reached six hundred thousand. 8. That the local Legislature shall have the right to determine the qualification of members to represent this Province in the Parliament of Canada and in the local Legislature. 9. That in this Province, with the exception of uncivilized and unsettled Indians, every male native citizen who has attained the age of twenty-one years, and every foreigner, other than a British subject, who has resided here during the same period, being a householder and having taken the oath of allegiance, shall be entitled to vote at the election of members for the local Legislature and for the Canadian Parliament. It being understood that this article be subject to amendment exclusively by the local Legislature. 10. That the bargain of the Hudson’s Bay Company with respect to the transfer of the Government of this country to the Dominion of Canada, be annulled; so far as it interferes with the rights of the people of Assiniboia, and so far as it would affect our future relations with Canada.

5. That all properties, rights and privileges engaged [sic: enjoyed] by the people of this Province, up to the date of our entering into the Confederation, be respected; and that the arrangement and confirmation of all customs, usages and privileges be left exclusively to the local Legislature. 6. That during the term of five years, the Province of Assiniboia shall not be subjected to any direct taxation, except such as may be imposed by local Legislature, for municipal or local purposes.

11. That the local Legislature of the Province of Assiniboia shall have full control over all the public lands of the Province and the right to annul all acts or arrangements made, or entered into, with reference to the public lands of Rupert’s Land, and the North West now called the Province of Assiniboia.

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How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Section IV

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Historical Thinking Concepts

Grade

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and friendly as ever-therefore, as a means to strengthen this union and friendly feeling among all classes, we deem it expedient and advisablethat the Lieutenant-Governor, who may be appointed for the Province of Assiniboia, should be familiar with both the French and English languages.

12. That the Government of Canada appoint a Commission of Engineers to explore the various districts of the Province of Assiniboia, and to lay before the local Legislature a report of the mineral wealth of the Province, within five years from the date of our entering into Confederation. 13. That treaties be concluded between Canada and the different Indian tribes of the Province of Assiniboia, by and with the advice and cooperation of the local Legislature of this Province.

18. That the Judge of the Supreme Court speak the English and French languages.

14. That an uninterrupted steam communication from Lake Superior to Fort Garry be guaranteed, to be completed within the space of five years. 15. That all public buildings, bridges, roads and other public works, be at the cost of the Dominion Treasury. 16. That the English and French languages be common in the Legislature and in the Courts, and that all public documents, as well as acts of the Legislature be published in both languages. 17. That whereas the French and English speaking people of Assiniboia are so equally divided as to number, yet so united in their interests and so connected by commerce, family connections and other political and social relations, that it has, happily, been found impossible to bring them into hostile collision- although repeated attempts have been made by designing strangers, for reasons known to themselves, to bring about so ruinous and disastrous an event-and whereas after all the troubles and apparent dissensions of the past-the result of misunderstanding among themselves; they have as soon as the evil agencies referred to above were removed-become as united

19. That all debts contracted by the Provisional Government of the Territory of the Northwest, now called Assiniboia, in consequence of the illegal and inconsiderate measure adopted by Canadian officials to bring about a civil war in our midst, be paid out of the Dominion Treasury; and that none of the members of the Provisional Government, or any of those acting under them, be in any way held liable or responsible with regard to the movement, or any of the actions which led to the present negotiations. 20. That in view of the present exceptional position of Assiniboia, duties upon goods imported into the province, shall, except in the case of spirituous liquors, continue as at present for at least three years from the date of our entering the Confederation and for such further time as may elapse until there be uninterrupted railroad communication between Winnipeg and St. Paul and also steam communication between Winnipeg and Lake Superior. Reproduced from Begg, Alexander. The Creation of Manitoba; Or, A History of the Red River Troubles. Toronto, ON: A.H. Hovey, 1871. p. 325. Public domain.

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How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

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History

The List of Rights 1. That, in view of the present exceptional position of the North-West, duties upon goods imported into the country shall continue as at present (except in the case of spirituous liquors) for three years, and for such further time as may elapse, until there be uninterrupted railroad communication between Red River Settlement and St. Paul, and also steam communication between Red River Settlement and Lake Superior. 2. As long as this country remains a territory in the Dominion of Canada, there shall be no direct taxation, except such as may be imposed by the local legislature, for municipal or other local purposes. 3. That, during the time this country shall remain in the position of a territory, in the Dominion of Canada, all military, civil, and other public expenses, in connection with the general government of the country, or that have hitherto been borne by the public funds of the Settlement, beyond the receipt of the above-mentioned duties, shall be met by the Dominion of Canada. 4. That while the burden of public expense in this territory is borne by Canada, the country be governed by a Lieutenant-Governor from Canada, and a Legislature, three members of whom, being heads of departments of the Government, shall be nominated by the Governor-General of Canada. 5. That, after the expiration of this exceptional period, the country shall be governed, as regards its local affairs, as the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec are now governed, by a Legislature by the people, and a Ministry responsible to it under a Lieutenant-Governor, appointed by the GovernorGeneral of Canada.

of

Canada

6. That there shall be no interference by the Dominion Parliament in the local affairs of this territory, other than is allowed in the provinces, and that this territory shall have and enjoy, in all respects, the same privileges, advantages and aids in meeting the public expenses of this territory as the provinces have and enjoy. 7. That, while the North-West remains a territory, the Legislature have a right to pass all laws, local to the territory, over the veto of the LieutenantGovernor, by a two-thirds vote. 8. A homestead and pre-emption law. 9. That, while the North-West remains a territory, the sum of $25,000 a year be appropriated for schools, roads and bridges. 10. That all the public buildings be at the expense of the Dominion Treasury. 11. That there shall be guaranteed uninterrupted steam communication to Lake Superior, within five years; and also the establishment, by rail, of a connection with the American railway as soon as it reaches the international line. 12. That the military force required in this country be composed of natives of the country during four years. [Lost by a vote of 16 yeas to 23 nays, and consequently struck out of the list.] 13. That the English and French languages be common in the Legislature and Courts, and that all public documents and acts of the Legislature be published in both languages. 14. That the Judge of the Supreme Court speak the French and English languages. 15. That treaties be concluded between the Dominion and the several Indian tribes of the country, as soon as possible.

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How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

Section IV

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Historical Thinking Concepts

16. That, until the population of the country entitles us to more, we have three representatives in the Canadian Parliament; one in the Senate, and two in the Legislative Assembly. 17. That all the properties, rights and privileges, as hitherto enjoyed by us, be respected, and that the recognition and arrangement of local customs, usages and privileges be made under the control of the Local Legislature. 18. That the Local Legislature of this territory have full control of all the lands inside a circumference having Upper Fort Garry as a centre, and that the radius of this circumference be the number of miles that the American line is distant from Fort Garry. 19. That every man in the country (except uncivilized and unsettled Indians) who has attained the age of 21 years, and every British subject, a stranger to this country who has resided three years in this country, and is a householder, shall have a right to vote at the election of a member to serve in

Grade

11

the Legislature of the country, and in the Dominion Parliament; and every foreign subject, other than a British subject, who has resided the same length of time in the country, and is a householder, shall have the same right to vote on condition of his taking the oath of allegiance, it being understood that this article be subject to amendment exclusively by the Local Legislature. 20. That the North-West Territory shall never be held liable for any portion of the £300,000 paid to the Hudson’s Bay Company, or for any portion of the public debt of Canada, as it stands at the time of our entering the Confederation; and if, thereafter, we be called upon to assume our share of said public debt, we consent only, on condition that we first be allowed the amount for which we shall be held liable. Reproduced from Begg, Alexander. The Creation of Manitoba; Or, A History of the Red River Troubles. Toronto, ON: A.H. Hovey, 1871. pp. 255-259. Public domain.

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How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

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History

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Canada

A Continuum for Mastering Historical Thinking Concepts: Cause and Consequence Component of Historical Thinking

Cause and consequence What are the causal links that explain events of the past?

CC

Descriptors

Distinguish cause and effect in relation to a historic event. Identify major turning points and their major consequences in relation to a historical theme.

Describe multiple causes and consequences in relation to a historical development or theme. Distinguish the origins and causes of the historical events or developments studied. Describe the short-term results and long-term consequences of the historical developments studied.

Analyze the impact of the multiple causes and consequences of the historical development studied. Provide examples of the role that human decisions play in historical developments. Evaluate the consequences of developments in the past on the present.

Develop a reasonable argument to explain the multiple causes and consequences of a historical development. Assess the results of individual and collective decisions on events in the past. Identify historical turning points based on analysis of cause and consequence.

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How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

11 CC

Analyze Cause and Consequence

Grade

History of Canada

11

Historic event: __________________________________________________________________________ BLM 8 Who was involved? ______________________________________________________________________ Rating:

CC

1–minimal effect

2–moderate effect

3–major effect

Analyze Cause and Consequence

Consequence or effect Rating Role played by cause of cause/factor or factor (indicate whether underlying/ Historic event: __________________________________________________________________________ 1 2 3 long-term contributing Who was involved? ______________________________________________________________________ factor or short-term/ was the Rating: impending 1–minimal effect 2–moderate effect 3–major effect cause of event) Causes/factors

Causes/factors

Role played by cause or factor (indicate whether underlying/ long-term contributing factor or short-term/ impending was the cause of event)

Consequence or effect of cause/factor

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Rating

1

2

3

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Section IV

HP

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Historical Thinking Concepts

Grade

11

Take Historical Perspectives

T

he past is foreign and, therefore, difficult to understand. What could it have been like to travel as a young fille du roi to Nouvelle-France in the 17th century? Can we imagine it from our vantage point in the consumer society of the 21st century? What are the limits to our imagination? Understanding the foreignness of the past is a huge challenge for students. But rising to the challenge illuminates the range of human behaviour, belief, and social organization. It offers surprising alternatives to the taken-for-granted, conventional wisdom, and opens a wider perspective from which to evaluate our present preoccupations. Taking historical perspectives means understanding the social, cultural, intellectual, and emotional settings that shaped people’s lives and actions in the past. At any one point, different historical figures may have acted on the basis of conflicting beliefs and ideologies, so understanding diverse perspectives is also a key to taking historical perspectives. Although it is sometimes called “historical empathy,” historical perspectivetaking is very different from the common-sense notion of identification with another person. Indeed, taking historical perspectives demands comprehension of the vast differences between us in the present and those in the past.

Aspects to Consider 1. Taking the perspectives of historical figures requires evidence in order to be able to make inferences about how people felt and thought— all the while avoiding presentism, which is the unwarranted imposition of present ideas on actors in the past. Empathetic leaps that are not based in evidence are historically worthless.

2. Any particular historical event or situation involves people who may have diverse perspectives about that event or situation. Understanding multiple perspectives of historical actors is key to understanding the event. 3. Taking the perspectives of historical figures does not mean identifying with those persons or approving of their behaviours and actions.

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How has Canada’s history shaped the Canada of today?

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History

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Student Tasks

Learning Strategies

1. Write a letter, diary entry, poster, etc. from the perspective of someone from the past, based upon primary or secondary source evidence.

Note: You might want to begin this activity by having the following discussion:

2. Compare primary sources written (or drawn, painted, etc.) from two opposing or differing perspectives about a given event. Explain their differences. At the most sophisticated level, students will be able to QQ

QQ

recognize presentism in historical accounts use evidence and understanding of historical context to answer questions of why people acted the way they did (or thought the things they thought), even when the actions of people in the past may at first seem to be irrational, inexplicable, or different than what we would have done or thought

Inquiry Activity Students consult extracts of Samuel de Champlain’s journals to comprehend the lifestyle of the First Peoples and arrival of the French.

“It is difficult to understand language because it changes over time. Imagine trying to communicate with a person who does not speak English. What would you do to try to communicate with this person?” Historical Context: In the 18th century (1700s), French was spoken throughout certain regions of what we now know as Canada, in the future provinces of the Atlantic region, Québec, Ontario, and Manitoba. During the time of Nouvelle-France, French was the language used in government, law, and commerce. Show students a sample of the English translation of Samuel de Champlain’s journal to describe his voyage to Canada in 1603. “What would you do to try to understand the language written?” “What information do you get from the text pertaining to the customs of the time?” “What differences are there between the lives of First Peoples and those of the Europeans?”

Living in the era of body piercing and tattoos, we need to adopt a historical perspective to understand why women of the past endured corsets and sported bustles.

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Historical Thinking Concepts

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Memoir Of Samuel De Champlain Volume II 1604-1610 DESCRIPTION OF SABLE ISLAND; CAPE BRETON; LA HÈVE; PORT AU MOUTON; PORT CAPE NEGRE; SABLE BAY AND CAPE; CORMORANT ISLAND; CAPE FOURCHU; LONG ISLAND; BAY OF SAINT MARY; PORT SAINT MARGARET; AND OF ALL NOTEWORTHY OBJECTS ALONG THIS COAST.

Sieur de Monts, by virtue of his commission [14] having published in all the ports and harbors of this kingdom the prohibition against the violation of the monopoly of the fur-trade accorded him by his Majesty, gathered together about one hundred and twenty artisans, whom he embarked in two vessels: one of a hundred and twenty tons, commanded by Sieur de Pont Gravé; [15] another, of a hundred and fifty tons, in which he embarked himself, [16] together with several noblemen. We set out from Havre de Grâce April 7th, 1604, and Pont Gravé April 10th, to rendezvous at Canseau, [17] twenty leagues from Cape Breton. [18] But after we were in mid-ocean, Sieur de Monts changed his plan, and directed his course towards Port Mouton, it being more southerly and also more favorable for landing than Canseau. On May 1st, we sighted Sable Island, where we ran a risk of being lost in consequence of the error of our pilots, who were deceived in their calculation, which they made forty leagues ahead of where we were. This island is thirty leagues distant north and South from Cape Breton, and in length is about fifteen leagues. It contains a small lake. The island is very sandy, and there are no trees at all of considerable size, only copse and herbage, which serve as pasturage for the bullocks and cows, which the Portuguese carried there more than sixty years ago, and which were very serviceable to the party of the Marquis de la Roche. The latter, during their sojourn of several years there, captured a large number of very fine black foxes, [19] whose skins they carefully preserved. There are many sea-wolves [20] there, with the skins of which they clothed themselves since they had exhausted their own stock of garments. By order of the Parliamentary Court of Rouen, a vessel was sent there to recover them. [21] The directors of the enterprise caught codfish near the island, the neighborhood of which abounds in shoals….

On the 8th of the same month, we sighted Cap de la Hève, [22] to the east of which is a bay, containing several islands covered with fir-trees. On the main land are oaks, elms, and birches. It joins the coast of La Cadie at the latitude of 44° 5’, and at 16° 15’ of the deflection of the magnetic needle, distant eastnorth-east eighty-five leagues from Cape Breton, of which we shall speak hereafter. As soon as we had disembarked, each one commenced making huts after his fashion, on a point at the entrance of the harbor near two fresh-water ponds. Sieur de Monts at the Same time despatched a shallop, in which he sent one of us, with some savages as guides as bearers of letters, along the coast of La Cadie, to search for Pont Gravé, who had a portion of the necessary supplies for our winter sojourn. The latter was found at the Bay of All-Isles, [25] very anxious about us (for he knew nothing of the change of plan); and the letters were handed to him. As soon as be had read them, he returned to his ship at Canseau, where he seized some Basque vessels [26] engaged in the fur-trade, notwithstanding the prohibition of his Majesty, and sent their masters to Sieur de Monts, who meanwhile charged me to reconnoitre the coast and the harbors suitable for the secure reception of our vessel. With the purpose of carrying out his wishes, I set out from Port Mouton on the 19th of May, in a barque of eight tons, accompanied by Sieur Ralleau, his secretary, and ten men. Advancing along the coast, we entered a harbor very convenient for vessels, at the end of which is a small river, extending very far into the main land. This I called the Port of Cape Negro, [27] from a rock whose distant view resembles a negro, which rises out of the water near a cape passed by us the same day, four leagues off and ten from Port Mouton. This cape is very dangerous, on account of the rocks running out into the sea. The shores which I saw, up to that point, are very low, and covered with such wood as that seen at the Cap de la Hève; and

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the islands are all filled with game. Going farther on, we passed the night at Sable Bay, [28] where vessels can anchor without any danger…. Two or three days after our arrival, one of our priests, named Mesire Aubry [50] from Paris, got lost so completely in the woods while going after his sword, which he had forgotten, that he could not find the vessel. And he was thus seventeen days without any thing to subsist upon except some sour and bitter plants like the sorrel, and some small fruit of little substance large as currants, which creep upon the ground. [51] Being at his wits’ end, without hope of ever seeing us again, weak and feeble, he found himself on the shore of Baye Françoise, thus named by Sieur de Monts, near Long Island, [52] where his strength gave out, when one of our shallops

Canada

out fishing discovered him. Not being able to shout to them, he made a sign with a pole, on the end of which he had put his hat, that they should go and get him. This they did at once, and brought him off. Sieur de Monts had caused a search to be made not only by his own men, but also by the savages of those parts, who scoured all the woods, but brought back no intelligence of him. Believing him to be dead, they all saw him coming back in the shallop to their great delight. A long time was needed to restore him to his usual strength. Reproduced from de Champlain, Samuel. Voyages of Samuel de Champlain. Charles Pomeroy Otis, Ph.D., translation. Boston, MA: The Prince Society, 1880. Public domain. Available online at Google Books

Suggested Steps Step 1: Prepare a modern translation of Champlain’s journal. What do we have to know? QQ

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Spelling changes over time. Printing played an important role in the standardization of punctuation and grammar.

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Step 2: Understanding the Text What do we have to know? league

The definition of a word can change over time. Some words are missing from modern vocabulary while others have acquired another meaning. The emotional dimension of a word can change according to the historical context (e.g., the word savage) Make a list of the words that are most used and not the words which have acquired a different emotional meaning. For example:

An area of land considered in its length, used to measure the path and distance from one place to another; more or less not geometric, according to the measurement of provinces and countries. Source: Dictionnaire de L’Académie française (1st edition) (1694)

Step 3: Historical Importance of the Document – People and Places

Old route measurement, the extent of which is four kilometres. A good, a great league. Make three leagues, four leagues on foot. Today most often expresses distance in kilometres. Source: Dictionnaire de L’ Académie française, (8th edition) (1932-35)

Discuss the idea that this document and the next document is evidence of the first treaty of peace and friendship between First Peoples and the West. Write a reflection on the event as told from the point of view of Champlain and the point of view of Chief Anadabijou.

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The Voyages of Champlain, May 27, 1603 – Modern translation of the text Good reception made in the French by the great Sagamo of Indians of Canada... The 27th day, we were finding the Indians at the edge of Saint-Mathieu, who is in a League of Tadoussac, with the two Indians led the Sieur de bridge, to the report of what they had seen in France, and the good reception that had made them the King. Having set foot on land, we were in the cabin of their great Sagamo, called Anadabijou, where the attic with some eighty percent of his companions who were smoking (which means feast), which received us very well according to the custom of the country, and we did sit down with him, all the wild and arranged with each other on both sides of the cabin. One of the Indians we had brought began to make his oration of the good reception that had the King, and the good treatment they received in France, and that they assurassent that his so-called Majesty wanted them of the property, and wanted to populate the land, and make peace with their enemies (who are the Iroquois), or send them forces to defeat: in their contant also beautiful castles, palaces, houses and peoples that they had seen, and our way of life. He was heard with a silence so great that do may say. However, after he had completed his oration, said large Sagamo Anadabijou, the having carefully ouï, he began to take of the petun and give to the said Sieur du Pont-Gravé de Saint-Malo and me, and a few other Sagamos who were with him. Well with pétunné,

he began to make its evident to all, speaking calmly, stopping sometimes a little, and then repeated his word by saying, that really they should be very happy to have his so-called Majesty the great friend. They said all of the voice: Ho, ho, ho, who is to say yes, Yes. Him, still continuing its so-called oration, said that it was very comfortable as his so-called Majesty peuplât their land, and made war on their enemies. that nation in the world who they voulussent more good than to the French: Finally, it made them hear to all good and useful they might receive of his said Majesty. After he had completed his oration, we sortîmes of his cabin, and they began to make their store or feast, they make with a flesh of moose, who is like beef, bears, wolves sailors and beavers, which are the meat of the ordinary that they, and in a quantity game. They had eight or ten full of meat, in the so-called cabin, boiler and were remote from each other some six not, and each has its fire. They are seated on both sides (as I said above), each with his bowl of tree bark: and when the meat is cooked, there is one who shares each in the so-called includes, where they eat very dirty; because, when they have fat hands, they rub their hair or the hair of their dogs, they amount to hunting. Reproduced from de Champlain, Samuel. Voyages of Samuel de Champlain. Charles Pomeroy Otis, Ph.D., translation. Boston, MA: The Prince Society, 1880. Public domain. Available online at Google Books

Guiding Questions: Take Historical Perspectives 1. Why did this person/these people act the way she/he/they did? What feelings could this person have felt?

4. Imagine yourself in that person’s place. How would you have responded to the historical situation?

2. What was the historical context in which this decision was taken? Can you imagine if you were in the same position?

5. Did this person or group have allies or supporters at the time of this event? Explain.

3. What were the prevailing beliefs/values of this society/people?

6. How did this person or group respond to this event? Explain why they responded as they did. What other opportunities existed at the time?

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of the French National Library. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k105065h.notice

7. What factors were considered to be the most important in making decisions at this time? 8. Did this person act as an individual or as a representative of a group? (Identify the group.) Was this group equal to other groups at the time? 9. Who were the leaders who had the most influence on this event or development? How did they exercise their leadership?

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10. If conflict was involved in this event, what were the factors that caused individuals or groups to respond to the conflict? Did these responses escalate or defuse the conflict? What influences led them to respond in the way they did? 11. Did this group or individual change its position with respect to this event? What led them to do so? What factors influenced their point of view? 12. What should we take into account when trying to explain/understand how people acted in the past?

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13. At this time and in this historical context, identify any elements, influences, and values that are no longer present today.

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BLM 9: Take Historical Perspectives.

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Canadian Museum of History: Journal of Jacques Cartier This web page summarizes Jacques Cartier’s explorations from 1534-1542. www.historymuseum.ca/virtual-museum-of-newfrance/the-explorers/jacques-cartier-1534-1542/ A French version of this site is also available. www.museedelhistoire.ca/musee-virtuel-dela-nouvelle-france/les-explorateurs/jacquescartier-1534-1542/

Historica: Champlain in Acadia This website was developed in 2004 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of the arrival of Samuel de Champlain in Acadia in 1604. www.histori.ca/champlain/index.do Canadian Museum of History: Samuel de Champlain This web page summarizes Samuel de Champlain’s explorations from 1604-1616. www.historymuseum.ca/virtual-museumof-new-france/the-explorers/samuel-dechamplain-1604-1616/ A French version of this site is also available. www.museedelhistoire.ca/musee-virtuel-dela-nouvelle-france/les-explorateurs/samuel-dechamplain-1604-1616/ New France, New Horizons This site was developed by the Direction des Archives de France, Library and Archives Canada, and the Canadian Embassy in Paris to provide access to a virtual exhibition and a database containing more than one million images. www.archivescanadafrance.org/english/accueil_ en.html Canadian Museum of History: Virtual Museum of New France “Discover what drew the French to North America and follow missionaries, cartographers, soldiers, coureurs des bois and Aboriginal allies as they explore and expand New France (Nouvelle-France). Join Canada’s first European inhabitants in their daily activities and learn about their culture and civilization.” www.historymuseum.ca/virtual-museum-of-newfrance/

Voyages of Samuel de Champlain (1603) Primary source of de Champlain’s depiction of the morals, ways of living, marriages, wars, and homes of the Aboriginals of Canada. Available online at Google Books. French version available at Gallica, the digital library IV-50

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A Continuum for Mastering Historical Thinking Concepts: Take Historical Perspectives Component of Historical Thinking

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Descriptors

Historical perspectives

Describe the experiences of historical figures based on evidence.

How can we understand the experiences of the past, given that they are different from those of the present?

Recognize that our understanding of the past can be influenced by present-day beliefs and perspectives.

Demonstrate a sensitivity to characteristics of the past in comparison to the present.

Explore and interpret writings and accounts from the past in an objective manner. Try to understand accounts of individual and collective experiences from the past. Analyze the beliefs and perspectives underpinning accounts from the past. Consider the historical context of events and experiences from the past.

Study the figures, ideas, and events of the past based on a range of historical evidence. Reflect on the motivation, beliefs, and experiences of historical figures. Analyze the role of historical context in individual and collective decisions. Provide examples of the “foreign” nature of the past.

Develop accounts or explanations of experiences from the past based on a detailed analysis of the historical context. Explain how our understanding of the past is subject to the influences of the present. Identify elements of the human experience that create links between the past and present. Consider the difficulty of placing oneself in a historical figure’s situation.

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Take Historical Perspectives

Person, group, or society in question: Time period and location: Decision or action to be analyzed: What was the historical context in which the decision or action was taken? QQ

Relevant beliefs, customs, values, and world views of the time:

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Relevant circumstances surrounding the person, group, or society:

Was there disagreement or controversy over the decision/action taken at the time? Who might have disagreed and why?

How do you think a person affected by the decision/action might have felt at the time?

Would the decision/action be different if it were to happen in another period or in the present? Why or why not? Explain.

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Understand the Ethical Dimensions of History

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re we obligated to remember the fallen soldiers of the First World War? Do we owe reparations to the First Nations victims of Aboriginal residential schools, or to the descendents of those who paid the Chinese Head Tax? In other words, what responsibilities do historical crimes and sacrifices impose upon us today? These questions are one part of the ethical dimensions of history. Another part has to do with the ethical judgments we make about historical actions. This creates a difficult paradox. Taking a historical perspective demands that we understand the differences between today’s society and previous ones regarding what is commonly accepted to be ethical behaviour. We do not want to impose our own current standards on the past. At the same time, meaningful history does not treat brutal slaveholders, enthusiastic Nazis, and marauding conquistadors in a “neutral” manner. Historians attempt to hold back on explicit ethical judgments about historical figures in the midst of their accounts, but, when all is said and done, and if the story is meaningful, then ethical judgment is involved. We should expect to learn something from the past that helps us to face the ethical issues of today.

Aspects of Ethical Dimensions 1. All meaningful historical accounts involve implicit or explicit ethical judgment. 2. Ethical judgment in history is made more complex by collective responsibility and profound change over time. In making ethical judgments of past actions, we always risk anachronistic impositions of our own standards upon the past.

3. Historians often deal with the conflict between 1) and 2) by framing questions that have an ethical dimension suspending judgments in order to understand the perspectives of the historical actors emerging from the study with observations about the ethical implications of their narratives and arguments for today QQ

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Student Tasks

Learning Strategies

1. Examine a historical issue involving conflict (e.g., attitudes for and against women getting the vote; why Canada admitted such a small number of refugee Jews during the period of 1933 to 1939; the outlawing of potlatch), identify the perspectives that were present at the time, and explain how these historical conflicts can educate us today.

1. Students formulate questions related to residential schools, based on research using primary sources. Students should include the testimony of former students of residential schools.

2. Students identify an ethical issue today (e.g., Canada’s role as peacekeepers, private versus public health care, protection of the environment), research aspects of its historical background, and explain the implications of the issue for today. At the most sophisticated level, students will be able to QQ

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make judgments about actions of people in the past, recognizing the historical context in which they are operating use historical narratives to inform judgment about ethical and policy questions in the present

2. In small groups, students share their research results. 3. Students watch the video of the apology delivered by the Prime Minister of the Canada and the response by the Premier of Manitoba to former students of residential schools (see ). 4. In groups, students discuss the civic responsibilities of Canadians regarding residential schools, and consider what groups, individuals, and governments can do to support reconciliation and healing following this policy of assimilation. Note: It is important to focus on the role of history as a discipline that seeks to preserve and objectively analyze the actions of the past based on non-sustainable ethical positions and mistaken assumptions. Historians have a duty to negate errors of the past.

Inquiry Activity Students take on the role of a historian to investigate the ethical dimensions of residential schools in Canada and their aftermath.

Japanese Canadians being relocated to internment camps during the Second World War. Today, we recognize that Canada’s actions are not morally defensible, and the government has officially apologized and made reparations.

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Guiding Questions: Understand the Learning Resources Ethical Dimensions of History BLM 10: Understand the Ethical Dimensions of QQ

1. What ethical or moral questions does this event, action, or development raise?

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2. How have historians evaluated this event or person? Do historians’ evaluations/judgments of this event or development differ? Explain how and why. 3. Which historical evaluation or judgment do you find the most persuasive, and why? 4. What are the underlying values or beliefs that influence this historical account?

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5. Should present-day citizens bear any ethical responsibility for the actions of the past? Why or why not? 6. What can or should citizens do to make amends for injustices of the past? 7. If this event were to take place today, how would citizens evaluate it? 8. What were the dominant influences and values that motivated this decision or event of the past? 9. How are the values and beliefs of today different from or similar to the values and beliefs of the past? Should we use current values to judge the actions of the past? 10. It is often said that we learn from mistakes of the past. Do you think this is true? Consider an example that contradicts this statement. Why do you think the same error would have been repeated?

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11. In what sense does the legacy of past mistakes or injustices leave a mark on the present? What can people, groups, or governments do to address these mistakes? 12. Some people believe that history should focus on national identity, pride, and solidarity. This means not focusing attention on sensitive, controversial, or harmful issues. Do you think it is advisable to avoid or simply deny controversial or sensitive issues of the past? Explain.

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Indian Residential Schools Statement of Apology, House of Commons (video) This site includes a full transcript and video of Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s apology to survivors of the residential school system in Canada. www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/ eng/1100100015677/1100100015680 From Apology to Reconciliation (DVD and Guide) “From Apology to Reconciliation: Residential School Survivors was developed in response to the Government of Canada’s formal apology to Aboriginal people who attended residential schools. The project was created to help Manitoba students in Grades 9 and 11 understand the history of the residential school experience, its influence on contemporary Canada, and our responsibilities as Canadian citizens.” www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/cur/socstud/far/doc/index. html The Canadian Encyclopedia: Residential Schools This entry in the Canadian Encyclopedia provides a useful historical overview of the residential school system in Canada. www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm =TCE&Params=A1ARTA0011547 Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada This is the official website of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, which was established as part of the Residential Schools Settlement Agreement. www.trc-cvr.ca/new.html Assembly of First Nations: Indian Residential Schools This page on the Assembly of First Nations (AFN) website provides information on the central role of the AFN in advocating for the full implementation of the Indian Residential Settlement Agreement. www.afn.ca/index.php/en/policy-areas/indianresidential-schools

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Canada in the Making: Aboriginal Residential Schools This site provides a useful history of the residential school system in Canada. www.canadiana.ca/citm/specifique/abresschools_e. html Where Are the Children? Developed in 2001, Where are the Children? Healing the Legacy of the Residential Schools is intended to acknowledge, record, and promote public awareness of the experiences, effects, and consequences of Canada’s residential school system. www.wherearethechildren.ca CBC Digital Archives: A Lost Heritage: Canada’s Residential Schools This site provides access to CBC archival material related to Canada’s residential school system. www.cbc.ca/archives/categories/society/education/alost-heritage-canadas-residential-schools/topic---a-lostheritage-canadas-residential-schools.html

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Historical Thinking Concepts

A Continuum for Mastering Historical Thinking Concepts: Ethical Dimensions of History Component of Historical Thinking

Ethical dimensions of history How do values and beliefs shape history? What is our duty with respect to actions and decisions of the past?

ED

Descriptors

Identify examples of prejudice or bias in historical accounts or explanations. Recognize that historical accounts can be used to influence the judgments and values of the present. Recognize that history includes the study of both the injustices and the successes of the past.

Recognize the role of values and beliefs in diverging accounts of past events. Recognize that explanations about the past can be influenced by the values, beliefs, and perspectives of the historians who provide them. Provide examples of how historical accounts have been used to influence moral decisions or value judgments. Ask questions about civic responsibility with respect to past actions.

Assess the role of values and beliefs in a variety of historical sources and explanations. Reflect on matters of civic responsibility in relation to events and decisions of the past. Analyze and assess how the errors and injustices of the past can shed light on moral decisions in the present.

Analyze diverging perspectives and arguments concerning historical interpretation. Assess the role of values, beliefs, and ideology in history and in decisions of the past. Make use of examples from history when considering current ethical questions. Assess our collective and individual responsibility for actions and decisions of the past. IV-59

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Understand the Ethical Dimensions of History

Historical action/issue to be analyzed: Relevant details (date, individuals/groups involved, rationale . . .):

What was the historical context in which the action/issue took place? What other events were taking place?

What did people think about the action/issue at that time (who supported/opposed it, why)?

Considering our current values and ideas of right and wrong, was the action appropriate?

Does the action/issue affect us today? Do we have a responsibility as citizens to make reparations for what are now perceived to be mistakes of the past? Explain.

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