September 25 - Kellogg School of Management

September 25 - Kellogg School of Management

MORS453-61 & 62, Fall 2007 Professor Klaus Weber Leverone 392 847-491-2201, [email protected] Office hours: Mon, Thu, 2-5pm, and by appoint...

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MORS453-61 & 62, Fall 2007

Professor Klaus Weber Leverone 392 847-491-2201, [email protected] Office hours: Mon, Thu, 2-5pm, and by appointment

MORS453 Power in Organizations: Sources, Strategies, Skills Fall 2007 http://courses.northwestern.edu/

Course focus Power is a basic ingredient of organizational life. Leaders, middle managers, and everyone else use power all the time, to get things done. Personal experience with power in organizations can be exhilarating or painful, or both. Influence can be a force that you feel passively exposed to, or something that you initiate and shape as a leader. Effective leaders and managers are skilled in developing and harnessing power to attain their goals. MORS 453 develops your ability to diagnose power dynamics, and your practical skills for navigating them. Diagnosis and skills are part of the same equation to make you more effective in your work and career. The course is designed to, on the one hand, hone your ability to analyze, understand, and evaluate the power dynamics of an organization. When managers fail, it is often not for lack of technical expertise but because they do not understand the rules of the game and the sources of power available to them. The second focus of the course is on practical skills, about how you as an individual can turn this knowledge into action. You learn to apply a tool kit of concepts, tactics and strategies for developing and utilizing power effectively and ethically. Design of the course MORS 453 is an intermediate to advanced level course, designed for fostering general management skills. Real world organizations are messy settings and the skills you develop need to reflect that character. Moreover, you need to find sources of power and influence strategies that fit your character, goals and environment. Hence, this class may provide fewer cook-book recipes, and may challenge you to work with greater complexity than more introductory courses you find elsewhere. The payback is that you should acquire not just a set of tools but also some skill in using them competently in practice. Thematically, the course is structured around three blocks that build on each other cumulatively: The first part is about understanding political context, how to diagnose and compare the “rules of the game” in organizations, and how to distinguish players from by-standers. Understanding the rules and the players of the game is essential to use power effectively. A second part of the class focuses on how individuals can build and deploy different “currencies” of political capital. Think of political capital as a generalpurpose resource that you can leverage when it comes to politics. Obviously, the value of your reservoir of political capital depends on the rules of the game you are trying to play. The final block of sessions turns to politics proper, to interpersonal influence tactics and skills for playing the game. This part is all about how you use your political capital in concrete situations.

© 2007 Klaus Weber, Kellogg School of Management

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Teaching approach The learning goal is to develop your competence in using diagnostic and action tools for complex environments. This objective is reflected in the way the course is taught. The course alternates between simplifying concepts for the sake of clarity, and complexifying applications for the sake of realism. It also alternates between thinking in methods and concepts, applying them to concrete situations, and reflecting on personal experience. Three qualities are especially rewarded in assignments and discussions: Concreteness. If action is key for having influence, then the devil is in the detail of execution. Thus, general statements are fine and easier to learn, but they may not correlate highly with effective action. I will therefore occasionally push you hard on the specifics of your recommendations, call improvised role plays, and volunteer examples from your personal experience. Evidence. If you are a relative novice to power analysis, you are easily fooled by well-known cognitive biases to jump to premature conclusions. Thus, digging into the details of cases, taking the perspective of different players, and getting to know one’s blindspots are critical. Once you are experts, you can see the forest from the trees. As a learner, you want to examine many trees with great care. Logic. Experienced managers have developed an intuition about power and influence that allows them to navigate difficult situations without thinking much about them. They often can’t articulate why they act in a particular way. Prior to having such intuition, it is a good idea to rely on logical reasoning. Hence, I am looking for arguments and insights that put together the different pieces of analysis in a logic fashion. The course draws on three reservoirs of knowledge: • Research from organization studies, sociology, psychology, and political science • Business cases, videos, and media accounts • Your own experiences. I have selected the core readings to be accessible and practice oriented, but also academically sound. Mini lectures during class will expand and clarify important ideas from the readings. The goal of lectures is to simplify and sum up concepts as far as possible, and to link them back to the bigger picture of the course. The cases offer a context to apply the concepts learned and to complexify your thinking. The selected case studies are thus thematic, but more than a straightforward illustrations of one or two basic concepts. I expect you to think them through thoroughly. It is your job to sift through the case to find course concepts, to take the perspective of different protagonists, and to question information presented at face value. Finally, tapping into your personal experience will help you get the most out of the course and allow others in the class to benefit from your insights. I will therefore encourage you to share relevant storied from your work life in class, and will occasionally create experience in simulated role plays. Course objectives Through this course, •

• •

You will able to understand and evaluate the bases, sources, and uses of power in organizations, and develop a toolkit of concepts for thinking about power dynamics. This includes: o Diagnostic tools to understand the political landscape and the rules of the game o Identifying forms of political capital and strategies for developing them o Interpersonal and collective influence strategies o Agenda management techniques You will develop confidence and skills in managing conflict, and in using political strategies in pragmatic and ethical ways to get things done in the workplace and other organizations. You will reflect on your own experience with power, develop awareness of your strengths and deficits, and learn to leverage your experience for continued learning beyond this class.

© 2007 Klaus Weber, Kellogg School of Management

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Readings Cialdini, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (1998 or 2007 edition) A classic, highly-readable guide to the power of social influence techniques, of broad applicability to both marketing and organization studies. Illustrated with vivid examples and supported by research findings, the author, a prominent social psychologist, provides readers with an understanding of the science that underlies six categories of influence techniques. Course Packet (CP). A list of further readings and resources is provided for each topic via the course website. Assignments and Grades There are three elements that compose your grade: personal learning logs, case analyses, and class contribution. The ratio of individual to group assignments is 80:20. In addition, peer evaluations form part of the grade for the group assignments. Please submit all written assignments electronically, via the digital drop box on blackboard (Course Management System). Grade composition

Personal analysis - Influence episode - Self assessment and development plan Case analyses - Martha McCaskey (group*) - Erik Peterson (individual) - Donna Dubinsky (group*) Peer evaluation adjustment* Class contribution Total

--- Weight (%) --35 5 30 45 10 25 10 +/- 3 20 100

Due October 2 December 7 October 9 October 30 November 16

* Groups size should be 5 or 6. Self-formed groups are fine and I will assign the remaining students to groups by week 2. At the end of the quarter, everyone will perform a peer evaluation of their group members, which will be translated into the overall adjustment. Requirements Personal Analysis The purpose of these essays is to train your reflection and planning skills, and to apply issues and ideas from the class to your personal experience. The context in question may be the workplace or other formal organizations you are involved with. I cannot and will not evaluate your personal experience. Hence, the grades are based on three factors: insightful use of course material, depth of description of your experience / lessons, and completeness and organization of the answers. All write-ups should be doublespaced, 12 pt font and with a 1 inch margin all around.

© 2007 Klaus Weber, Kellogg School of Management

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a) Influence episode Answer the following questions (3 pg. maximum): 1. Select and describe a recent work episode in which you needed to influence the behavior of a specific person or group, but failed. What was your goal and what was the outcome? 2. Describe specific influence tactics and sources of power you used. How effective were you? 3. In trying to influence others, it is often difficult to see ourselves from their perspective. Describe the situation from the perspective of the person or group you tried to influence. How did your behavior come across from this perspective, and why? What political counter-strategies did the person or group deploy? 4. What could you have done differently, knowing the perspective of the other person or group? b) Self assessment and development plan This final assignment is designed to assess your progress since the start of the quarter as much as to help you transfer what you learned out of the classroom. It consists of two components: 1. List ten general lessons about power and influence from this quarter and that you want to remember in the future. Be concrete. Do not simply repeat takeaways from handouts. For each one, provide a very brief rationale how it will help you. (2 pg. maximum, 5 points) 2. Write a self-assessment and personalized development plan using frameworks and concepts from class. This involves three analysis steps: a) A critical assessment of your personal power and influence profile: What have been recurrent habits, strengths and weaknesses throughout your previous career? This can be within a single job and company or across contexts. But you want to look for systematic patterns and provide some evidence for your conclusions. b) An assessment of your development needs in light of your professional goals and the requirements implied by these goals: What changes do you need to make to reach your goals, what sources, skills and strategies do you need to develop or perfect, which contexts to seek and which to avoid? Make sure to clearly identify your goal(s) and the time frame, and explain how this future setting makes for different or similar challenges from the past experience that you analyzed in part a). You may choose a short term goal, such as those to do with the initial time on a new job, or more medium term goals, such as succeeding in a particular career or industry. c) A concrete tactical plan for how to implement your development strategy: When and how will you learn and practice new skills, when and how to apply them, and how will you build in feedback into the process to stay on track. Habits are hard to change and it is helpful to identify specific situations and realistic short and medium term steps. Your grade will be based on the insightfulness of the rationales for the key lessons learned, your skill in applying class concepts, and the logical consistency of your analysis and plan. (15 pg. maximum, 25 points) Case Analyses All case analyses as well as the group project will be evaluated based on the following criteria: • Content: Did you answer the questions? • Theory: How well do you apply appropriate materials from readings and lectures? • Data: How do you utilize evidence to analyze, to make inferences, and to support arguments? • Analysis: How logical, coherent, and complete is your analysis and assessment? • Action plan: Does your action plan build on your analysis? Is it concrete and practical? • Writing: How clear and organized is your presentation of the material?

© 2007 Klaus Weber, Kellogg School of Management

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a) Group case analysis Two written group case analyses is required, for the Martha McCaskey and Donna Dubinsky cases. The case questions are listed under the corresponding class session. The write-ups are due at the beginning of the class. The page limit is 5 pages double-spaced, 12 inch font, 1 inch margin, plus no more than 1 page of exhibits. Please apply course frameworks in answering the case study questions and do not forget to include a plan of action. b) Individual Case Analysis Individually prepare an analysis for the Erik Peterson case. The case questions are listed under the corresponding class session. The write-up is due at the beginning of that class. The page limit is 7 pages double-spaced, 12 inch font, 1 inch margin, plus no more than 3 pages of exhibits. Please apply course frameworks in answering the questions and do not forget to include a plan of action. Class Contribution It is rather difficult to get an A in this class without consistent and high quality class participation. Obviously, absence is not a contribution. I understand your time pressures and also that sometimes events just interfere. But in general, regular attendance is a must and excessive absence without good reason hurts your grade. If you must miss a class, please let me know beforehand by phone or e-mail. When you miss a class, please get the class notes and find out any information about assignments discussed that day. You are expected to read all the materials, and be able to talk in class about the theory and/or principles of this material, the facts of the case, and its implications for you as a leader and manager. Think of examples from your own job. I will undertake “supportive cold calling” to encourage balanced involvement, to ensure appropriate preparation and attention, and to raise the quality of class discussions. Occasionally, I also ask individuals to role play scenarios in class. I do not allow laptop use during class. I strongly encourage discussions in which students engage each other as well as the instructor. Pulling this off in a large section some discipline. I particularly value three types of contributions: taking a previous comment a step further (e.g. applying it to a different context, drawing attention to logical consequences not originally mentioned), pointing out related concepts and experiences (e.g. personal experience, confirming and disconfirming case evidence), and proposing a counter-idea (but if you oppose, you have to propose a constructive alternative). Comments that are vague, unrelated, or disrespectful of others are show-stoppers and will be evaluated negatively. Getting things wrong or asking basic questions of understanding, however, is fine. Grading will be based on the quality of your contribution, but a minimum amount and consistency of quantity may be necessary to deliver on quality. Contribution grades will reflect the following elements: 1) attendance and preparation; 2) your willingness to contribute; 3) your comprehension of cases and readings; 4) the quality and insight of your contributions; 5) your ability to listen to and constructively engage with other participants in case discussions. Grading policy I do not hesitate to use the full grading scale, top to bottom, to reflect the quality of your work. You will receive detailed feedback with each assignment, and I will make every effort to keep a quick turnaround time. Late assignments will carry an automatic penalty equivalent to 20% of the maximum score. Assignments that are more than a week late will receive a zero score. If you are unhappy with a grade, you have one week to submit an explanation via email of why specifically you think I should reconsider your grade. If I do not receive a written explanation within a week of you receiving the grade, I will not

© 2007 Klaus Weber, Kellogg School of Management

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entertain complaints. If I do receive a plausible written explanation, I will ask a knowledgeable third party to re-grade the assignment without giving any information about you or the nature of the disagreement. Your grade may go up or down as a result of the re-grade. You can only ask for a re-grade of individual components; final grades for the course are simply the sum of the components. Important notes on submitting assignments via blackboard (CMS): Sometimes, assignments do not arrive on my end of the digital drop box. It is generally your responsibility to get assignments to me, but I realize that technical difficulties can get in the way. You can do your share to minimize penalties by doing the following: - Make sure to hit “send”. You first need to upload the document to the digital drop box, but that is only the first step. Unless you hit “send”, I have not received the assignment. - Do not use the # character in the file name (e.g., assignment #3.doc). For some reason, the system rejects files that contain it. - When you have hit “send”, wait until you get a confirmation message on the screen. If you do not see one or the session times out, send the document again. You may also save a screenshot of the confirmation as evidence that you correctly submitted the assignment. I also usually check immediately after class if anything is missing. Please email assignments only in exceptional circumstances. Kellogg Honor Code and Code of Classroom Etiquette The 453 course, as all Kellogg courses, is subject to both the Kellogg Honor Code and the Code of Classroom Etiquette. For the individual written assignments, assistance from other students or any other individuals is not allowed, subject to the Honor Code. You must also provide an individual evaluation of group project participants (forms to be handed out in class), without discussing the evaluation with other students. You are encouraged to discuss, prior to class, case and readings with other current 453 students. Exceptions are the case preparation for Martha McCaskey, Erik Peterson, and Donna Dubinsky, which involve group or individual written assignments. Please do not share or consult on cases with any former or prospective 453 students. The printouts of PowerPoint slides handed out in class are copyrighted material, which reflects the collective effort of several MORS faculty members over the years. These copies are for your personal use. You cannot share them widely in your company or with faculty at other universities without my permission. Subject to the honor code, you should not consult any materials or sources other than those provided in preparing cases or in completing individual assignments. I am well aware that commentaries and case analyses are available on the internet from former students for some cases. In your own interest, you should not be tempted to use those shortcuts! Be aware that I use cases in non-traditional ways and the standard answers may be highly misleading for the context of this class. I will also be merciless in reporting any apparent plagiarism.

© 2007 Klaus Weber, Kellogg School of Management

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MORS453-61 & 62, Fall 2007

Class Schedule

I. Introduction: Power and organizations

Session #1, September 25: Introduction, dealing with difficult relationships This session gives you a general introduction to the class. I will introduce some key concepts and the framework of the class, which we will then try out on the case. I will also explain the logic behind the design of the class, and discuss organizational and logistic issues. Readings:

Kanter, Power Failure in Management Circuits, HBR (CP) Watkins, The first 90 days, p.1-17 (CP)

Case:

Lisa Benton (A) (CP) Preparation: • Evaluate the situation Benton faces in the short term and long run. • What are her sources of power? • What could she have done differently? • What should she do now? What factors should she consider? Think carefully about the evidence you have for your assessments, and how reliable it is. Be as concrete as possible in your action recommendations.

Assignments:

-

Session #2, September 28: Robust and efficient strategies of political action This session gives a first introduction to political capital concepts, and its role in management and leadership. Why do we need power in management? And how is it best deployed? Eccles & Nohria describe the challenge of effective management quite well. You should have already read the Cialdini chapter in MORS430. Skim it as a refresher if you need to. Readings:

Eccles & Nohria, Beyond the Hype, ch.2: Action (CP) Cialdini, chapter 1

Case:

Video case in class

Assignments:

-

© 2007 Klaus Weber, Kellogg School of Management

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MORS453-61 & 62, Fall 2007

II. Macropolitics: The rules of the game

Session #3, October 2: Organizations as political systems and the rules of the game This session focuses on organizations as political systems, and on the written and unwritten rules of the game they sustain. Think of power as a figure-ground relationship: Politics are the figure, the organizational context in which they play out is the ground. You can only make sense of the figure against the ground. The class session revolves around tools for diagnosing the political landscape. Read Scott-Morgan and Morgan carefully. You can skim Goffee and Jones for the main points. Readings:

Morgan, Organizations as political systems, p. 141-158 (CP) Scott-Morgan, The Unwritten Rules of the Game: p.21-27 (CP)

Case:

Kesner and Fowler, When consultants and clients clash (CP) Preparation: • What are written and unwritten rules of the game in this company and the consulting engagement? • How well did Barlow and Kellogg understand the politics of the situation? • What could they have done better? • How should Barlow proceed at this point?

Assignments:

Personal analysis #1 due at beginning of class

Session #4, October 5: The rules of the game as context for power The session focuses on the role of organizational context and the rules of the game for Peter Browning’s effectiveness at Continental White Cap. Readings:

Goffee and Jones, What Holds the Modern Company Together? (CP)

Case:

Peter Browning and Continental White Cap (CP) Preparation: • What are the rules of the game at Continental White Cap? Evidence? • What do these rules imply for Browning’s position of power? • How should Browning go about implementing his change objectives? • Would the same approach work at your former employer?

Assignments:

-

© 2007 Klaus Weber, Kellogg School of Management

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MORS453-61 & 62, Fall 2007

III. Micropolitics: Sources and uses of power

Session #5, October 9: Informal hierarchies; Reputational capital While the previous sessions focused on the organizational context, we now turn to analyzing power from the perspective of the players. The session uses the McCaskey case as a springboard to discuss the dynamics of informal hierarchies and of reputational capital. Both readings are short, to give you time to do a thorough case analysis. We go into greater depth about reputational capital in class. Readings:

Kleiner, Are you with the in crowd? (CP) Peters, Hierarchies and pecking orders, p. 144-5 (CP)

Case:

Martha MacCaskey (CP) Preparation: • What are the rules of the game at Seleris and the Industry Analysis Division? • What are McCaskey’s sources of political capital? What are her deficits? • What decision does McCaskey face? Why did this quandary develop? • Do you agree with her assessment of the options she considers? What courses of action can she pursue? Consider the benefits and risks of the main alternatives and identify which is best.

Assignments:

Group case analysis due at the beginning of class

Session #6, October 12: Ethics of building and using power This session builds on these insights about informal hierarchies and reputational capital from the McCaskey case, but we shift focus to examine the ethics of building and using power. The Alinsky and Meyerson articles are well structured and can be skimmed for the main points. The FastCompany article about Enron serves as the basis of class discussion. Think about similar (less drastic) dangers in your prior job, and come prepared to give examples. Readings:

Alinsky, Of Means and Ends (CP) Meyerson, Radical Change, the Quiet Way (CP)

Case:

What if you’d worked at Enron? (CP) Preparation: • How did the political system at Enron contribute to misconduct? • What options does an individual employee have to maintain his/her integrity? What does power have to do with all that? • What options do individual employees have to affect the rules of game? • Identify real or potential ethical situations in your own work experience.

Assignments:

-

© 2007 Klaus Weber, Kellogg School of Management

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Session #7, October 16: Social capital, power and entrepreneurship We will revisit but also extend concepts social capital concepts from MORS430 in the light of political capital at the organizational and personal level. Networking is fine, but when does it actually amount to political capital? Burt’s article goes nicely with the Jerry Sanders case, while Gladwell is optional. The chapter from Cialdini helps you think about how to build social capital. Readings:

Burt, The Social Capital of Entrepreneurial Managers (CP) Cialdini, ch 2: Reciprocation Gladwell, Six Degrees of Lois Weisberg (CP) – optional reading

Case:

Jerry Sanders (CP) Preparation • What are the rules of the game facing Sanders? • How does Sanders, build, use, and maintain social capital? • What are the benefits and costs of his political strategies? • How does Sanders’ use of power compare to other leaders you have studied in class?

Assignments:

Session #8, October 19: Social capital design and development The class is built around applying lessons about “social capital by design” to your own professional situation. The self-assessment provides you with a diagnostic of your social capital strengths and deficits, which then tie into the social capital development exercise. Readings:

Ocasio & Weber, Network Assessment Exercise (via blackboard) Uzzi & Weber, Network Development Exercise (via blackboard)

Case:

Social capital development exercise

Assignments:

-

© 2007 Klaus Weber, Kellogg School of Management

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Session #9, October 23: Economic and organizational capital The class examines what is often associated with power first: money and formal authority. The goal is to raise your understanding of both forms of political capital to the next level. Control over information is one aspect of organizational capital that is central in the case. Cialdini and the Morgan excerpts are easy reads and key to understanding the case. The Davenport et al article can be skimmed, but you should know the main points. Readings:

Cialdini, ch 3, 6: Authority, Commitment Davenport, Eccles & Prusak: Information Politics Morgan, Control of Knowledge and Information, p. 167-169 (CP)

Case:

Rudi Gassner and the Executive Committee of BMG International (CP) Preparation: • What is Gassner’s situation as a new leader? What are his goals? • Identify the interests and sources of power of different players. What are potential coalitions and sources of conflict? • How does the creation of the executive committee address the power issues Gassner faces? Is it a good solution? • How should Gassner proceed with regard to the MD’s Bertriebsergebnis? What political strategy and influence tactics should he use? Why?

Assignments:

-

Session #10, October 26: Symbolic capital We move from “hard” power of controlling resources and information to “soft” power that is based on perceptions and interpreted – symbolic capital. The Morgan excerpt is short and can also be skimmed. Much of the action is in class. Readings:

Morgan, Symbolism, gender and management, p.176- 183 (CP)

Case:

-

Assignments:

-

© 2007 Klaus Weber, Kellogg School of Management

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MORS453-61 & 62, Fall 2007

Session #11, October 30: Political capital and managing (inter)dependencies This Peterson case serves as a first capstone that consolidates and extends the political capital part of the course. If you have different forms of political capital, where and how do you best use them to maximum efficiency? The Kotter reading helps you think about this question in structural terms (the where), the Gabarro and Morgan piece deals with the more interactive aspects (the how), and the McClelland and Burnham article is about motivation (the why). Skim Gabarro if needed. The case is designed to test your ability to apply course concepts in appropriate ways and to train your ability to distinguish important from unimportant aspects of a complex environment. Readings:

Kotter, “Power, Dependency, and Effectiveness” (CP) Gabarro and Kotter, Managing Your Boss (CP) McClelland & Burnham, Power is the Great Motivator (CP)

Case:

Erik Peterson (A) (CP) Preparation: • What are the rules of the game at CelluComm and GMCT? • What critical dependencies does Erik Peterson face? • What are his sources of political capital and what are his power deficits? • How effectively does he use the capital he has? Consider Eric’s implicit theory of what his dependencies are and where he puts his energy. • Develop a detailed plan of action for Erik. In your analysis, consider critical events he faces, as well as likely consequences of his actions.

Assignments:

Individual case analysis (Erik Peterson) due at beginning of class.

Session #12, November 2: Political capital and managing (inter)dependencies Continuation of the Peterson case. The story continues – this case has parts (B), (C), (D) and (E)! And we will close with some take-aways. Readings:

-

Case:

Erik Peterson (B) – (E) (handed out in class)

Assignments:

-

© 2007 Klaus Weber, Kellogg School of Management

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MORS453-61 & 62, Fall 2007

IV. Tactics for gaining and using power

Session #13, November 6: Leveraging political capital and individual influence strategies This last block of the classes shifts focus from assessing people’s political capital towards tactics though which capital is “cashed in” to influence others in pivotal episodes. The reading on Lyndon B Johnson serves as illustrations for spending political capital to gain more and for interpersonal influence tactics. Readings:

-

Case:

Caro, The Path to Power, ch 15, 16

Assignments:

-

Session #14, November 9: Collective influence strategies: Coalition building Forging effective coalitions is a critical political skill. The Xerox case serves as an illustration for building alliances and mobilizing grass-roots support. Skim the chapter by Cialdini. Readings:

Cialdini, ch 4: Social Proof Ibarra and Suesse: Building coalitions (CP)

Case:

Black Caucus Group at Xerox Corporation (A) (CP) Preparation: • What kinds of issues / grievances motivated the Caucus initiatives? • What organizing strategies did Caucus participants use? How did Caucus participants translate their wants into “issues”? • What factors in the rules of the game and political context at Xerox work in favor of the Caucus’ efforts, what factors work against them? • Evaluate Kearns handling of the Black Caucus group so far. • What are Kearns options? What should he do? Why?

Assignments:

-

© 2007 Klaus Weber, Kellogg School of Management

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Session #15, November 13: Agenda management: Selling solutions, framing problems Managing agendas of groups and the entire organization is a key leadership task, an subtle but effective influence strategy. The session uses insight from March’s “garbage can” model of organizations, to identify and practice tactics pertaining to managing agendas and decisions. Don’t get confused by the name and the difficult read – it’s worth digging through it. In class, I will recapitulate key concepts and implications. The simulation focuses on agenda management in a small scale setting: a single meeting. Readings:

March, A Primer on Decision Making, p. 129-206 (CP) Role instructions for agenda management simulation (handout)

Case:

Agenda management simulation.

Assignments:

-

Session #16, November 16: Agenda management: organizational agendas The Donna Dubinsky case combines themes around coalitions and agenda management. The session uses insight from March’s “garbage can” model of organizations to understand organizational processes and select appropriate tactics. Readings:

-

Case:

Donna Dubinsky Preparation: • What is this conflict about and what are the root causes for its escalation over time? Identify and discuss relevant elements of the organizational context, of Donna’s and others political capital and of situational dynamics. • Assess Donna’s handling of the conflict, especially her interpersonal, coalition building and agenda management tactics. • What should she do now and why?

Assignments:

Donna Dubinsky group case analysis due at the beginning of class.

© 2007 Klaus Weber, Kellogg School of Management

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MORS453-61 & 62, Fall 2007

Session #17, November 27: Political energy The Dubinsky case continues. Readings:

Cialdini, ch 7: Scarcity

Case:

Donna Dubinsky (B) – handed out in class

Assignments:

-

Session #18, November 30: Leadership, language and charisma This class looks at the use of language and emotional identification as an influence tactic. While all effective managers need to be able to use power effectively, skillful leaders distinguish themselves by evoking the right images in their followers, and gain charisma. However, what counts as charismatic depends on the rules of the game. All readings are equally relevant. Readings:

Cialdini, ch 5: Liking Tannen, Power of Talk (CP) Pfeffer, Fit between situational requirements and personal traits, p. 77-81 (CP)

Case:

Orit Gadish: Pride at Bain & Co. (CP) Preparation: • What are the rules of the game at Bain & Co? • What are Gadiesh’s sources of political capital? How does she exercise interpersonal influence? • Identify and evaluate Gadiesh’s career-building strategy. • What speech should she give? Why? • What are the lessons about priorities for managing your career?

Assignments:

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MORS453-61 & 62, Fall 2007

V: Conclusion Session #19, December 4: Career strategies, job selection and transitions This session expands on the theme of personal development strategies from the very beginning of the quarter: Picking the right job and company where you can perform and develop? How to work on yourself to develop the necessary skills that get you there? How to adjust once you have the job? How to rebound from set-backs? Considerations of power and influence are one factor in all these situations. The case revolves around role transitions. The class discussion also touches on job selection. Readings:

Drucker: Managing oneself (CP)

Case:

Peter Isenberg at Fischer Stevens (A) (CP) Preparation: • Evaluate the situation that Peter Isenberg faces. • What are his sources of political capital as Executive Director? • How have his political capital, agenda and situation changed after the promotion to Managing Director? Have you been in a similar situation? What advice do you have for him?

Assignments:

-

Session #20, December 7: Cross-cultural management of power, Take-aways We’ll revisit rules of the game and apply it to navigating power in international contexts. I will also tie up any loose ends and give a brief wrap-up of the course. Readings:

Distributed in class.

Case:

-

Assignments:

Personal takeaways and action plan due at the beginning of class

© 2007 Klaus Weber, Kellogg School of Management

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