Sixth Grade Social Studies - Social Studies Curriculum

Sixth Grade Social Studies - Social Studies Curriculum

6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms SS0602 Sixth Grade Social Studies: Global Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms Big...

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6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS0602

Sixth Grade Social Studies: Global Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms Big Picture Graphic Overarching Question:

How can a global perspective help me understand my world? Previous Unit:

Foundations of World Geography

This Unit:

The World in Spatial Terms

Questions To Focus Assessment and Instruction:

1. What factors should we consider when using maps and why? 2. How and why do people organize (categorize or regionalize) the world to study global issues or problems? 3. How do the physical (natural) features and physical processes of Earth present challenges and opportunities for human societies? 4. How and why does a natural hazard become a global natural disaster?

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

Next Unit:

The World in Human Terms

Types of Thinking Description Cause and Effect Compare and Contrast Classifying/Grouping Generalizing Evidentiary Argument Identifying Perspectives Problem Solving

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6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

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Graphic Organizer

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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High School Foundations (see High School World History and Geography) F1: World Historical and Geographical “Habits of Mind” and Central Concepts: Explain and use key conceptual devices world historians/geographers use to organize the past including periodization schemes (e.g., major turning points, different cultural and religious calendars), and different spatial frames (e.g., global, interregional, and regional).

Unit Abstract Geography uses a spatial perspective to study the arrangement and interaction of people and places over Earth’s space. By understanding and using a spatial perspective, students seek answers to the questions: What is where and why is it there? -- Geography Framework for the 2010 National Assessment of Educational Progress.1 This unit is designed to extend students’ spatial perspective of Earth. Framing the unit with a problem, students explore how a basketball from Japan appeared on a beach in Alaska. They investigate a series of maps that helps them solve the mystery as well as explore elements, purposes, scales, and types of maps. In developing a more sophisticated geographic perspective, students examine various ways geographers and cartographers represent the Earth. They explore how the global grid can be used to identify the absolute location of places on Earth. Students then consider the cartographic challenge of representing the round Earth on a flat map as they analyze different map projections to determine the advantages and disadvantages of each. In doing so, students grapple with perspective, centering, and distance distortion on map projections. Next, students examine significant physical features on Earth and explore global spatial patterns of those features. They work in collaborative teams to locate and organize information about significant physical features of Earth and consider what other natural features are likely or not likely to be nearby. Students then analyze the ways in which people organize their world through regions. They learn that hemispheres or continents are human constructs and further explore how physical and human characteristics can be used to create additional ways to regionalize the planet. Next, the connection between physical and human geography is explored. Students work from a conceptual level by exploring how different physical characteristics can present both challenges and opportunities for humans.2 Students apply this conceptual lens to physical features on Earth and apply it to natural hazards as they consider how natural physical processes can pose challenges or opportunities for humans. They explore several ways to categorize natural hazards, and learn how people in earlier times thought about their environment by separating processes into four elements of air, earth fire, and water and compare those categories to the ones present day scientists use (lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere). Students then explore the connection between natural hazards and natural disasters. They investigate the question: “what is a natural disaster?” as they read about the 2010 earthquake and tsunami in Japan and examine the effects of 1

Geography Framework for the 2010 National Assessment of Educational Progress. 15 January 2012 . pp. 5-6. 2

Students will be able to apply this conceptual lens to particular places at particular times throughout their study of world and U.S. history in future courses. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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natural disasters using specific reading strategies. The unit culminates with an examination of why the effects of natural disasters vary from place to place. Through case studies, students compare the effects of earthquakes in Japan and Haiti in terms of their risk factors of exposure, susceptibility, coping and adaptive capacities, and vulnerability. They then consider the question: when does a natural disaster become a global problem? Adolescent literacy practices are integrated throughout the unit. Students engage in a variety of scaffolded note-taking activities, starting with cloze text and gradually begin to summarize what they learn in their notes. Research opportunities, reading strategies, and writing exercises are deliberately placed to support students’ growing independence.

Focus Questions 1. What factors should we consider when using maps and why? 2. How and why do people organize (categorize or regionalize) the world to study global issues or problems? 3. How do the physical (natural) features and physical processes of Earth present challenges and opportunities for human societies? 4. How and why does a natural hazard become a global natural disaster?

Content Expectations 7 – H1.2.3: Identify the point of view (perspective of the author) and context when reading and discussing primary and secondary sources. 6 – G1.1.1

Describe how geographers use mapping to represent places and natural and human phenomena in the world.

7 – G1.1.1

Explain and use a variety of maps, globes, and web based geography technology to study the world, including global, interregional, regional, and local scales.

6 and 7 G1.2.1

Locate the major landforms, rivers3, and climate regions of the Earth4.

6 – G1.2.2: Explain why maps of the same place may vary, including cultural perspectives of the earth and new knowledge based on science and modern technology. 7 – G1.2.2: Explain why maps of the same place may vary as a result of the cultural or historical background of the cartographer. 6 – G1.2.4

Use observations from air photos, photographsor films as the basis for answering

3

Interesting to note that particular rivers are identified in the expectation for the Western Hemisphere (grade 6) (Amazon, Mississippi, Missouri, Colorado), but no particular rivers are mentioned for the Eastern Hemisphere (grade 7). Accordingly, we have removed the bias embedded in the expectations and placed the specifics in this footnote. The sixth grade expectation listed the “Western Hemisphere”, while the text of the seventh grade expectation listed the “Eastern Hemisphere. To promote a global perspective, we have substituted “Earth” in the text of the expectation. 4

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

7 – G.1.2.3 6 and 7– G1.2.5

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geographic questions about the human and physical characteristics of places and regions.5 Use information from modern technology such as Geographic Positioning System (GPS), Geographic Information System (GIS), and satellite remote sensing to locate information, and interpret maps and data6 to analyze spatial patterns of Earth7 to answer geographic questions.

6 and 7 – G1.2.6

Apply the skills of geographic inquiry (asking geographic questions, acquiring geographic information, organizing geographic information, analyzing geographic information, and answering geographic questions) to analyze a problem or issue of importance to a region of the world.8

6 and 7 G1.3.1

Use the fundamental themes of geography (location, place, human environment– interaction, movement, region) to describe regions or places on earth.

6 and 7 G1.3.2

Explain the locations and distributions of physical and human characteristics of Earth by using knowledge of spatial patterns.

6 and 7 G2.1.1

Describe the landform features and the climate of a region under study.9

6 – G2.1.2

Explain the extent to which topographic features related to tectonic plates such as volcanoes and earthquakes influence spatial patterns of human settlement by using information from GIS, remote sensing, and the Internet.10

6 and 7 G2.2.2

Explain that communities are affected positively and negatively by changes in technology.11

The parentheticals “(print and CD)” and “(VCR and DVD)” have been removed because they have no bearing on the substance of the expectation and only serve to date the expectation as a relic of the past. Besides, we don’t want to insult your intelligence. 5

The original expectation read “… to locate information and process maps and data to analyze spatial patterns…”. We have revised this expectation using proper English so that it would make sense when read. 6

The sixth grade expectation listed the “Western Hemisphere”, while the text of the seventh grade expectation listed the “Eastern Hemisphere. To promote a global perspective, we have substituted “Earth” in the text of the expectation. 7

8

The word “world” has been used instead of Eastern and Western Hemisphere.

The portion of the expectation “(within the Western or Eastern Hemispheres)” has been removed because it is assumed we are looking at the Earth. 9

The original language of the expectation was as follows: “Account for topographic and human spatial patterns (where people live) associated with tectonic plates such as volcanoes, earthquakes, settlements (Ring of Fire, recent volcanic and seismic events, settlements in proximity to natural hazards in the Western Hemisphere) by using information from GIS, remote sensing, and the World Wide Web.” It has been modified in this document for clarity. The revised expectation clarifies the word “account” and requires students to engage in higher ordered thinking. 10

The sixth grade expectations’ examples include “Canada with regard to mining, forestry, hydroelectric power generation, agriculture, snowmobiles, cell phones, air travel.” The seventh grade expectation examples include “increased manufacturing resulting in rural to urban migration in China, increased farming of fish, hydroelectric power generation at 11

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6 and 7 G3.2.2:

Identify ecosystems of a continent and explain why some provide greater opportunities (fertile soil, precipitation) for humans to use than do other ecosystems and how that changes with technology (e.g., China’s humid east and arid west and the effects of irrigation technology).12

6 and 7 G5.2.1:

Describe the effects that a change in the physical environment13 could have on human activities and the choices people would have to make in adjusting to the change.14

7 - C4.3.1:

Explain how governments address national issues and form policies, and how the policies may not be consistent with those of other countries (e.g., population pressures in China compared to Sweden; international immigration quotas, international aid, energy needs for natural gas and oil and military aid). 15

6 – C4.3.3:

Give examples of how countries work together for mutual benefits through international organizations (e.g. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Organization of American States (OAS), United Nations (UN)).16

Three Gorges, pollution resulting from increased manufacturing and automobiles).” They have been removed for the sake of clarity. 12 The text cited comes from the seventh grade, but is essentially the same as the sixth grade version, which reads: “Identify ecosystems and explain why some are more attractive for humans to use than are others (e.g., mid-latitude forests in North America, high latitude of Peru, tropical forests in Honduras, fish or marine vegetation in costal zones).” Although the expectation describes these as “changes to the physical environment,” the list includes both human and natural causes. It is important to distinguish natural disasters from man-made changes for students. 13

14

The emphasis in this expectation is on how humans respond to the changes in their immediate environment. Other expectations address the changes to the earth as a whole or the impact on other locations. Additionally, the Michigan Content Expectations document lists specific examples such as drought in northern Mexico or Africa, disappearance of forest vegetation in the Amazon, natural hazards and disasters from volcanic eruptions in Indonesia, Central America, and the Caribbean, earthquakes in Mexico City, Colombia or Turkey, and flooding in Bangladesh. These examples have been removed from the expectation above because while all were current events when the expectations document was written, most are now historic in nature. Droughts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions continue to occur, and it is important for students to investigate these physical changes to the earth’s surface and to consider how humans make choices in response to these changes. However, it is recommended that teachers use current examples in their classrooms so that students can use a decision making model in evaluating potential choices and teachers can take advantage of the multiple texts available for students through a variety of media outlets. 15

The last phrase of this expectation will not be addressed in this curriculum because it does not make sense and constitutes a mental exercise not worth pursuing. There is no reason why one county’s policies would be consistent with another country’s; rather, nations adopt policies that pursue their own interests. One would expect countries to have consistent policies with respect to the treaties they enter together; however, that is not the subject of this expectation. The examples provided merely demonstrate that the last phrase of the expectation is meaningless. 16

The examples in this expectation are unnecessarily limiting as they do not include non-governmental organizations such as the Red Cross. Moreover, NAFTA is a treaty, not an organization. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History and Social Studies RH.6-8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. RH.6-8.2:

Determine the main ideas or information of a primary or a secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

RH.6-8.4:

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.

RH.6-8.7:

Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.

RH.6-8.10:

By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

WHST.6-8.1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content, a. Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources. c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. d. Establish and maintain a formal style. e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. WHST.6-8.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. WHST.6-8.7: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. WHST.6-8.8: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. WHST.6-8.9: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. WHST.6-8.10: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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Key Concepts climate distortion geographic representations global global grid human/environment interaction human vs. physical geography/features map projection natural disasters natural hazards natural or physical processes perspective region spatial patterns spatial scales

Duration 6 weeks

Lesson Sequence Lesson 1: How Can Maps Help Us Better Understand the Earth? Lesson 2: How Can the Global Grid Help Us Better Understand the Earth? Lesson 3: How Do Perspective and Purpose Influence the Creation of Maps? Lesson 4: What Are the Significant Physical Features of Earth? Lesson 5: What Are Some Ways to Organize or Regionalize the Earth? Lesson 6: What Opportunities and Challenges Do the Physical Features of Earth Present to Humans? Lesson 7: Investigating Global Events: Natural Hazards Lesson 8: Investigating Global Events: Natural Disasters Lesson 9: Why Do the Effects of Natural Disasters Vary?

Resources Equipment/Manipulative A Basketball Blank paper Chart paper Computer and Projector, Overhead Projector or Document Camera/Projector or Smart Board Computers and Internet Access for Student Research for Lesson 9 Global Investigator’s Notebook Globe Highlighters Markers, colored pencils or crayons (3 different colors per student) One world map per student from a textbook, atlas or printed copy Overhead transparencies and transparency markers Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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Sample Travel Brochures Scissors Some wrapping paper and tape Student Resource 2010 Haiti Earthquake. Wikipedia. 14 August 2013 . A student geography textbook such as Wiggins, Grant, et al. My World Geography: Boston, MA: Pearson, 2011, pp. 2-43, 770,775-781, 835, 884-85. Borgna, Brunna. The Geography Guide. 14 August 2013 . The Degree Confluence Project. 2008. 14 August 2013 . Fast Facts: Haiti Earthquake. Fox News. 14 August 2013 . Forces of Nature. National Geographic. 14 August 2013 . Foreign Policy: The Shaky Inequality Of Earthquakes. National Public Radio. 14 August 2013 . Geography Hall of Fame. Pearson Education, Inc. 14 August 2013 . Google Maps. 14 August 2013 . Haiti: America’s Response to the Tragedy. 14 August 2013 . Haiti Earthquake 2010. Oxfam International. 14 August 2013 . Haiti Earthquake Facts and Figures. Disasters Emergency Committee. 14 August 2013 . Honsu, Japan Tsunami Global Propagation. YouTube. 14 August 2013 . How Far is it? InfoPlease.com. 14 August 2013 . Interactive Tsunami Map. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 14 August 2013 .

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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Japan Earthquake Facts and Figures. Disaster Recovery Journal. 14 August 2013 . Japan Earthquake Key Facts and Figures. Washington Post. 14 August 2013 . Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Factbox. Telegraph. World News. 14 August 2013 . Landforms. 14 August 2013 . Latitude and Longitude Finder. Info Please.com. 14 August 2013 . (optional) Maps Relating to the March 2011 Japan Earthquake. United States Geological Survey. 14 August 2013 . McArthur’s Universal Corrective Map of the World. YouTube. 14 August 2013 . National Geographic: Environment. 14 August 2013 . Shrivastava, Salabh. Highest, Longest, Biggest, Largest, Deepest, Smallest of the World. Geography for School. 14 August 2013 . Top 10 Lists: Geography. Top Ten 10. 14 August 2013 . Voices: From Haiti to Japan. A Tale of Two Disaster Recoveries. Earth Magazine. 14 August 2013 . What a Difference a Government Makes: Japan’s Earthquake. Relief Web. 14 August 2013 . World Geography Facts-Water. 14 August 2013 . Teacher Resource 2004 Tsunami. World Atlas. 14 August 2013 . 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Teaching Geoscience with Visualizations. Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College. 14 August 2013 .

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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2011 Japan Earthquake Epicenter. Free World Maps. 14 August 2013 . Afro-Eurasia Centered Map. 14 August 2013 . Airports Closed. The Guardian. 15 April 2010. 14 August 2013 . Alaska Resident Finds Basketball. Kyodo News. May, 2012. Alaska Returns Basketball Washed Away By Tsunami to Middle School in Japan. Huffington Post. 13 June 2012. 14 August 2013 . Antarctica With and Without Ice. 14 August 2013 . Cat Species World Regions. 14 August 2013 . Countries in Two Hemisphere. World Atlas. 14 August 2013 . Countries the Equator Passes Through. World Atlas. 14 August 2013 . Deserts Map. National Geographic. 14 August 2013 . Earthquakes Fact Sheet. 14 August 2013 http://ict.sopac.org/VirLib/EI0010.pdf Effects of Tornadoes. Miami University. 14 August 2013 . Egbo, Carol. Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lessons 1-9). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. - - - . PowerPoint (Unit 2, Lessons 1-5, 7-9). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. Elevation Map of Iceland. Global Warming Science. 14 August 2013 . Former Principal Gives Presentation. Daily Astorian. 10 May 2012. 14 August 2013 .

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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Furuti, Carlos. Map Projections Summary. 14 August 2013 . Global Incident Viewer. Economic and Social Research Institute. Ireland. 14 August 2013 . Grasslands Map. National Geographic. 14 August 2013 . Google Maps. 14 August 2013 . The Great Globe Gallery: Mountains of the World. 14 August 2013 . The Great Globe Gallery: Volcanoes of the World. 14 August 2013 . Heatwole, Charles. Geography for Dummies. New York NY: Hunger Minds Publishing, 2002. Iceland Volcano. Wall Street Journal. 14 August 2013 . Japan Basketball Washes Up in Alaska. MSNBC. 14 August 2013 . Japan Maps. Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection. 14 August 2013 . Japan: Physical Features. 14 August 2013 . Land Use in Japan. University of Texas Library. 14 August 2013 . Major River Basins of the World. 14 August 2013 . Map – Countries Most Threatened by Tsunamis. CNN. 14 August 2013 . Maps and Information on the Earthquake and Tsunami. World Press. 14 August 2013 . Maps and References. University of Iowa. 14 August 2013 .

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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Map of Europe. 14 August 2013 . Maps of Japan. Hoeckmann. 14 August 2013 . Map of Kiribati. 14 August 2013 . Map of Tsunami Threat Zones. 14 August 2013 . McArthur’s Universal Corrective Map of the World. 14 August 2013 . Miracle Basketball. Japan Daily Press. June 14, 2012. 14 August 2013 . Mississippi River Floods and Organic Farms. 14 August 2013 . Modern Distribution of World Religions. 14 August 2013 . Most Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western States. World Atlas. 14 August 2013 . National Assessment of Educational Progress: Geography. NEAP. 14 August 2013 . National and International Politics: Projecting Maps and Making Representations. Pacific Centered Map. University of Minnesota. 14 August 2013