Sixth Grade Social Studies - Social Studies Curriculum

Sixth Grade Social Studies - Social Studies Curriculum

6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms SS0602 Sixth Grade Social Studies: Global Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms Big...

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6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS0602

Sixth Grade Social Studies: Global Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms Big Picture Graphic Overarching Question:

How can a global perspective help me understand my world? Previous Unit:

Foundations of World Geography

This Unit:

The World in Spatial Terms

Questions To Focus Assessment and Instruction:

1. What factors should we consider when using maps and why? 2. How and why do people organize (categorize or regionalize) the world to study global issues or problems? 3. How do the physical (natural) features and physical processes of Earth present challenges and opportunities for human societies? 4. How and why does a natural hazard become a global natural disaster?

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

Next Unit:

The World in Human Terms

Types of Thinking Description Cause and Effect Compare and Contrast Classifying/Grouping Generalizing Evidentiary Argument Identifying Perspectives Problem Solving

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6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS0602

Graphic Organizer

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High School Foundations (see High School World History and Geography) F1: World Historical and Geographical “Habits of Mind” and Central Concepts: Explain and use key conceptual devices world historians/geographers use to organize the past including periodization schemes (e.g., major turning points, different cultural and religious calendars), and different spatial frames (e.g., global, interregional, and regional).

Unit Abstract Geography uses a spatial perspective to study the arrangement and interaction of people and places over Earth’s space. By understanding and using a spatial perspective, students seek answers to the questions: What is where and why is it there? -- Geography Framework for the 2010 National Assessment of Educational Progress.1 This unit is designed to extend students’ spatial perspective of Earth. Framing the unit with a problem, students explore how a basketball from Japan appeared on a beach in Alaska. They investigate a series of maps that helps them solve the mystery as well as explore elements, purposes, scales, and types of maps. In developing a more sophisticated geographic perspective, students examine various ways geographers and cartographers represent the Earth. They explore how the global grid can be used to identify the absolute location of places on Earth. Students then consider the cartographic challenge of representing the round Earth on a flat map as they analyze different map projections to determine the advantages and disadvantages of each. In doing so, students grapple with perspective, centering, and distance distortion on map projections. Next, students examine significant physical features on Earth and explore global spatial patterns of those features. They work in collaborative teams to locate and organize information about significant physical features of Earth and consider what other natural features are likely or not likely to be nearby. Students then analyze the ways in which people organize their world through regions. They learn that hemispheres or continents are human constructs and further explore how physical and human characteristics can be used to create additional ways to regionalize the planet. Next, the connection between physical and human geography is explored. Students work from a conceptual level by exploring how different physical characteristics can present both challenges and opportunities for humans.2 Students apply this conceptual lens to physical features on Earth and apply it to natural hazards as they consider how natural physical processes can pose challenges or opportunities for humans. They explore several ways to categorize natural hazards, and learn how people in earlier times thought about their environment by separating processes into four elements of air, earth fire, and water and compare those categories to the ones present day scientists use (lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere). Students then explore the connection between natural hazards and natural disasters. They investigate the question: “what is a natural disaster?” as they read about the 2010 earthquake and tsunami in Japan and examine the effects of 1

Geography Framework for the 2010 National Assessment of Educational Progress. 15 January 2012 . pp. 5-6. 2

Students will be able to apply this conceptual lens to particular places at particular times throughout their study of world and U.S. history in future courses. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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natural disasters using specific reading strategies. The unit culminates with an examination of why the effects of natural disasters vary from place to place. Through case studies, students compare the effects of earthquakes in Japan and Haiti in terms of their risk factors of exposure, susceptibility, coping and adaptive capacities, and vulnerability. They then consider the question: when does a natural disaster become a global problem? Adolescent literacy practices are integrated throughout the unit. Students engage in a variety of scaffolded note-taking activities, starting with cloze text and gradually begin to summarize what they learn in their notes. Research opportunities, reading strategies, and writing exercises are deliberately placed to support students’ growing independence.

Focus Questions 1. What factors should we consider when using maps and why? 2. How and why do people organize (categorize or regionalize) the world to study global issues or problems? 3. How do the physical (natural) features and physical processes of Earth present challenges and opportunities for human societies? 4. How and why does a natural hazard become a global natural disaster?

Content Expectations 7 – H1.2.3: Identify the point of view (perspective of the author) and context when reading and discussing primary and secondary sources. 6 – G1.1.1

Describe how geographers use mapping to represent places and natural and human phenomena in the world.

7 – G1.1.1

Explain and use a variety of maps, globes, and web based geography technology to study the world, including global, interregional, regional, and local scales.

6 and 7 G1.2.1

Locate the major landforms, rivers3, and climate regions of the Earth4.

6 – G1.2.2: Explain why maps of the same place may vary, including cultural perspectives of the earth and new knowledge based on science and modern technology. 7 – G1.2.2: Explain why maps of the same place may vary as a result of the cultural or historical background of the cartographer. 6 – G1.2.4

Use observations from air photos, photographsor films as the basis for answering

3

Interesting to note that particular rivers are identified in the expectation for the Western Hemisphere (grade 6) (Amazon, Mississippi, Missouri, Colorado), but no particular rivers are mentioned for the Eastern Hemisphere (grade 7). Accordingly, we have removed the bias embedded in the expectations and placed the specifics in this footnote. The sixth grade expectation listed the “Western Hemisphere”, while the text of the seventh grade expectation listed the “Eastern Hemisphere. To promote a global perspective, we have substituted “Earth” in the text of the expectation. 4

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

7 – G.1.2.3 6 and 7– G1.2.5

SS0602

geographic questions about the human and physical characteristics of places and regions.5 Use information from modern technology such as Geographic Positioning System (GPS), Geographic Information System (GIS), and satellite remote sensing to locate information, and interpret maps and data6 to analyze spatial patterns of Earth7 to answer geographic questions.

6 and 7 – G1.2.6

Apply the skills of geographic inquiry (asking geographic questions, acquiring geographic information, organizing geographic information, analyzing geographic information, and answering geographic questions) to analyze a problem or issue of importance to a region of the world.8

6 and 7 G1.3.1

Use the fundamental themes of geography (location, place, human environment– interaction, movement, region) to describe regions or places on earth.

6 and 7 G1.3.2

Explain the locations and distributions of physical and human characteristics of Earth by using knowledge of spatial patterns.

6 and 7 G2.1.1

Describe the landform features and the climate of a region under study.9

6 – G2.1.2

Explain the extent to which topographic features related to tectonic plates such as volcanoes and earthquakes influence spatial patterns of human settlement by using information from GIS, remote sensing, and the Internet.10

6 and 7 G2.2.2

Explain that communities are affected positively and negatively by changes in technology.11

The parentheticals “(print and CD)” and “(VCR and DVD)” have been removed because they have no bearing on the substance of the expectation and only serve to date the expectation as a relic of the past. Besides, we don’t want to insult your intelligence. 5

The original expectation read “… to locate information and process maps and data to analyze spatial patterns…”. We have revised this expectation using proper English so that it would make sense when read. 6

The sixth grade expectation listed the “Western Hemisphere”, while the text of the seventh grade expectation listed the “Eastern Hemisphere. To promote a global perspective, we have substituted “Earth” in the text of the expectation. 7

8

The word “world” has been used instead of Eastern and Western Hemisphere.

The portion of the expectation “(within the Western or Eastern Hemispheres)” has been removed because it is assumed we are looking at the Earth. 9

The original language of the expectation was as follows: “Account for topographic and human spatial patterns (where people live) associated with tectonic plates such as volcanoes, earthquakes, settlements (Ring of Fire, recent volcanic and seismic events, settlements in proximity to natural hazards in the Western Hemisphere) by using information from GIS, remote sensing, and the World Wide Web.” It has been modified in this document for clarity. The revised expectation clarifies the word “account” and requires students to engage in higher ordered thinking. 10

The sixth grade expectations’ examples include “Canada with regard to mining, forestry, hydroelectric power generation, agriculture, snowmobiles, cell phones, air travel.” The seventh grade expectation examples include “increased manufacturing resulting in rural to urban migration in China, increased farming of fish, hydroelectric power generation at 11

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6 and 7 G3.2.2:

Identify ecosystems of a continent and explain why some provide greater opportunities (fertile soil, precipitation) for humans to use than do other ecosystems and how that changes with technology (e.g., China’s humid east and arid west and the effects of irrigation technology).12

6 and 7 G5.2.1:

Describe the effects that a change in the physical environment13 could have on human activities and the choices people would have to make in adjusting to the change.14

7 - C4.3.1:

Explain how governments address national issues and form policies, and how the policies may not be consistent with those of other countries (e.g., population pressures in China compared to Sweden; international immigration quotas, international aid, energy needs for natural gas and oil and military aid). 15

6 – C4.3.3:

Give examples of how countries work together for mutual benefits through international organizations (e.g. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Organization of American States (OAS), United Nations (UN)).16

Three Gorges, pollution resulting from increased manufacturing and automobiles).” They have been removed for the sake of clarity. 12 The text cited comes from the seventh grade, but is essentially the same as the sixth grade version, which reads: “Identify ecosystems and explain why some are more attractive for humans to use than are others (e.g., mid-latitude forests in North America, high latitude of Peru, tropical forests in Honduras, fish or marine vegetation in costal zones).” Although the expectation describes these as “changes to the physical environment,” the list includes both human and natural causes. It is important to distinguish natural disasters from man-made changes for students. 13

14

The emphasis in this expectation is on how humans respond to the changes in their immediate environment. Other expectations address the changes to the earth as a whole or the impact on other locations. Additionally, the Michigan Content Expectations document lists specific examples such as drought in northern Mexico or Africa, disappearance of forest vegetation in the Amazon, natural hazards and disasters from volcanic eruptions in Indonesia, Central America, and the Caribbean, earthquakes in Mexico City, Colombia or Turkey, and flooding in Bangladesh. These examples have been removed from the expectation above because while all were current events when the expectations document was written, most are now historic in nature. Droughts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions continue to occur, and it is important for students to investigate these physical changes to the earth’s surface and to consider how humans make choices in response to these changes. However, it is recommended that teachers use current examples in their classrooms so that students can use a decision making model in evaluating potential choices and teachers can take advantage of the multiple texts available for students through a variety of media outlets. 15

The last phrase of this expectation will not be addressed in this curriculum because it does not make sense and constitutes a mental exercise not worth pursuing. There is no reason why one county’s policies would be consistent with another country’s; rather, nations adopt policies that pursue their own interests. One would expect countries to have consistent policies with respect to the treaties they enter together; however, that is not the subject of this expectation. The examples provided merely demonstrate that the last phrase of the expectation is meaningless. 16

The examples in this expectation are unnecessarily limiting as they do not include non-governmental organizations such as the Red Cross. Moreover, NAFTA is a treaty, not an organization. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History and Social Studies RH.6-8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. RH.6-8.2:

Determine the main ideas or information of a primary or a secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

RH.6-8.4:

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.

RH.6-8.7:

Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.

RH.6-8.10:

By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

WHST.6-8.1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content, a. Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources. c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. d. Establish and maintain a formal style. e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. WHST.6-8.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. WHST.6-8.7: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. WHST.6-8.8: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. WHST.6-8.9: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. WHST.6-8.10: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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Key Concepts climate distortion geographic representations global global grid human/environment interaction human vs. physical geography/features map projection natural disasters natural hazards natural or physical processes perspective region spatial patterns spatial scales

Duration 6 weeks

Lesson Sequence Lesson 1: How Can Maps Help Us Better Understand the Earth? Lesson 2: How Can the Global Grid Help Us Better Understand the Earth? Lesson 3: How Do Perspective and Purpose Influence the Creation of Maps? Lesson 4: What Are the Significant Physical Features of Earth? Lesson 5: What Are Some Ways to Organize or Regionalize the Earth? Lesson 6: What Opportunities and Challenges Do the Physical Features of Earth Present to Humans? Lesson 7: Investigating Global Events: Natural Hazards Lesson 8: Investigating Global Events: Natural Disasters Lesson 9: Why Do the Effects of Natural Disasters Vary?

Resources Equipment/Manipulative A Basketball Blank paper Chart paper Computer and Projector, Overhead Projector or Document Camera/Projector or Smart Board Computers and Internet Access for Student Research for Lesson 9 Global Investigator’s Notebook Globe Highlighters Markers, colored pencils or crayons (3 different colors per student) One world map per student from a textbook, atlas or printed copy Overhead transparencies and transparency markers Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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Sample Travel Brochures Scissors Some wrapping paper and tape Student Resource 2010 Haiti Earthquake. Wikipedia. 14 August 2013 . A student geography textbook such as Wiggins, Grant, et al. My World Geography: Boston, MA: Pearson, 2011, pp. 2-43, 770,775-781, 835, 884-85. Borgna, Brunna. The Geography Guide. 14 August 2013 . The Degree Confluence Project. 2008. 14 August 2013 . Fast Facts: Haiti Earthquake. Fox News. 14 August 2013 . Forces of Nature. National Geographic. 14 August 2013 . Foreign Policy: The Shaky Inequality Of Earthquakes. National Public Radio. 14 August 2013 . Geography Hall of Fame. Pearson Education, Inc. 14 August 2013 . Google Maps. 14 August 2013 . Haiti: America’s Response to the Tragedy. 14 August 2013 . Haiti Earthquake 2010. Oxfam International. 14 August 2013 . Haiti Earthquake Facts and Figures. Disasters Emergency Committee. 14 August 2013 . Honsu, Japan Tsunami Global Propagation. YouTube. 14 August 2013 . How Far is it? InfoPlease.com. 14 August 2013 . Interactive Tsunami Map. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 14 August 2013 .

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6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

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Japan Earthquake Facts and Figures. Disaster Recovery Journal. 14 August 2013 . Japan Earthquake Key Facts and Figures. Washington Post. 14 August 2013 . Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Factbox. Telegraph. World News. 14 August 2013 . Landforms. 14 August 2013 . Latitude and Longitude Finder. Info Please.com. 14 August 2013 . (optional) Maps Relating to the March 2011 Japan Earthquake. United States Geological Survey. 14 August 2013 . McArthur’s Universal Corrective Map of the World. YouTube. 14 August 2013 . National Geographic: Environment. 14 August 2013 . Shrivastava, Salabh. Highest, Longest, Biggest, Largest, Deepest, Smallest of the World. Geography for School. 14 August 2013 . Top 10 Lists: Geography. Top Ten 10. 14 August 2013 . Voices: From Haiti to Japan. A Tale of Two Disaster Recoveries. Earth Magazine. 14 August 2013 . What a Difference a Government Makes: Japan’s Earthquake. Relief Web. 14 August 2013 . World Geography Facts-Water. 14 August 2013 . Teacher Resource 2004 Tsunami. World Atlas. 14 August 2013 . 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Teaching Geoscience with Visualizations. Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College. 14 August 2013 .

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2011 Japan Earthquake Epicenter. Free World Maps. 14 August 2013 . Afro-Eurasia Centered Map. 14 August 2013 . Airports Closed. The Guardian. 15 April 2010. 14 August 2013 . Alaska Resident Finds Basketball. Kyodo News. May, 2012. Alaska Returns Basketball Washed Away By Tsunami to Middle School in Japan. Huffington Post. 13 June 2012. 14 August 2013 . Antarctica With and Without Ice. 14 August 2013 . Cat Species World Regions. 14 August 2013 . Countries in Two Hemisphere. World Atlas. 14 August 2013 . Countries the Equator Passes Through. World Atlas. 14 August 2013 . Deserts Map. National Geographic. 14 August 2013 . Earthquakes Fact Sheet. 14 August 2013 http://ict.sopac.org/VirLib/EI0010.pdf Effects of Tornadoes. Miami University. 14 August 2013 . Egbo, Carol. Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lessons 1-9). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. - - - . PowerPoint (Unit 2, Lessons 1-5, 7-9). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. Elevation Map of Iceland. Global Warming Science. 14 August 2013 . Former Principal Gives Presentation. Daily Astorian. 10 May 2012. 14 August 2013 .

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Furuti, Carlos. Map Projections Summary. 14 August 2013 . Global Incident Viewer. Economic and Social Research Institute. Ireland. 14 August 2013 . Grasslands Map. National Geographic. 14 August 2013 . Google Maps. 14 August 2013 . The Great Globe Gallery: Mountains of the World. 14 August 2013 . The Great Globe Gallery: Volcanoes of the World. 14 August 2013 . Heatwole, Charles. Geography for Dummies. New York NY: Hunger Minds Publishing, 2002. Iceland Volcano. Wall Street Journal. 14 August 2013 . Japan Basketball Washes Up in Alaska. MSNBC. 14 August 2013 . Japan Maps. Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection. 14 August 2013 . Japan: Physical Features. 14 August 2013 . Land Use in Japan. University of Texas Library. 14 August 2013 . Major River Basins of the World. 14 August 2013 . Map – Countries Most Threatened by Tsunamis. CNN. 14 August 2013 . Maps and Information on the Earthquake and Tsunami. World Press. 14 August 2013 . Maps and References. University of Iowa. 14 August 2013 .

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Map of Europe. 14 August 2013 . Maps of Japan. Hoeckmann. 14 August 2013 . Map of Kiribati. 14 August 2013 . Map of Tsunami Threat Zones. 14 August 2013 . McArthur’s Universal Corrective Map of the World. 14 August 2013 . Miracle Basketball. Japan Daily Press. June 14, 2012. 14 August 2013 . Mississippi River Floods and Organic Farms. 14 August 2013 . Modern Distribution of World Religions. 14 August 2013 . Most Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western States. World Atlas. 14 August 2013 . National Assessment of Educational Progress: Geography. NEAP. 14 August 2013 . National and International Politics: Projecting Maps and Making Representations. Pacific Centered Map. University of Minnesota. 14 August 2013 . National Atlas Time Zones Map. 14 August 2013 . Natural Hazards: Causes and Effects. University of Wisconsin. 14 August 2013 . North and South America. 14 August 2013 . The North Compared to the South. The Peters Projection: An Area Accurate Map. 14 August 2013 .

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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Northern Hemisphere. 14 August 2013 . North-South Divide. 14 August 2013 . Occurrence of Tsunami Worldwide. Tsunami Alarm System. 14 August 2013 . Ocean Currents Map. Science Education through Earth Observation for High Schools. 14 August 2013 . Parts of a Map. Slide Share. 14 August 2013 . Peters Projection Map. 14 August 2013 . Physical Map of Japan. Free World Maps. 14 August 2013 Regions of the United States. 14 August 2013 . Regions of the World Most Prone to Tornadoes. Lacey’s Geography Blog. 14 August 2013 . Rosenburg, Matt. Peters Projection vs. Mercator Projection. About.com. 14 August 2013 . Snyder, John P. Chapter 6: Enlarging the Heart of a Map. Figure 6.5. 14 August 2013 . Southern Hemisphere of the Earth: Lambert Azimuthal Projection. 14 August 2013 . Tectonic Plates of Iceland. Wikimedia. 14 August 2013 . The Great Globe Gallery: World time Zones. 14 August 2013 . Tornado Damage. Wikimedia. 14 August 2013 . Tornado Photo. 14 August 2013 .

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Tornado Photo. Consumer Media Network. 14 August 2013 . Tornado Risk Areas. Federal Emergency Management Relief Agency. 14 August 2013 . Tornado Warning System. Fox News. 14 August 2013 . Tropical Cyclone Fact Sheet. Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 14 August 2013 . Tsunami Fact Sheet. Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 14 August 2013 . Tsunamis. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. United States Department of Commerce. 14 August 2013 . Tsunami Basketball Lands in Alaska, Returned. YouTube. 14 August 2013 . Tsunami Height. Word Press. 14 August 2013 . Tsunami Travel Times. Huffington Post. March 11, 2011. 14 August 2013 . U.S. Centered Map. 14 August 2013 . U.S. Climate Regions. 14 August 2013 . U.S. Regions Map. 14 August 2013 . Units World History. 14 August 2013 . Volcano Fact Sheet. Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 14 August 2013 . Where are the Rainforests. California Institute of Technology. 14 August 2013 . World Climate Averages. 14 August 2013 .

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World Mercator Projection Power Point Map, Europe Centered. Maps for Design. 14 August 2013 . World Risk Report 2011. United Nations University. 14 August 2013 . World South Pole Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Map. 14 August 2013 . For Further Professional Knowledge De Blij, Harm. Why Geography Matters. New York: Oxford Press, 2007. - - -. The Power of Place. New York: Oxford Press, 2009. Fisher, Chris and Binns, Tony, editors. Issues in Geography Teaching. New York: Routledge, 2000. Gersmehl, Phil. Teaching Geography. New York: Guilford Press, 2008. Geography Framework for the 2010 National Assessment of Educational Progress. 14 August 2013 . Rischard, J.F. High Noon: 20 Global Problems, 20 Years to Solve Them. New York: Basic Books, 2002.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060201 Lesson 1

Lesson 1: How Can Maps Help Us Better Understand the Earth? Big Ideas of the Lesson    

Maps are geographic representations of the Earth. They are an essential tool in geographic inquiry. Maps show a variety of spatial scales from small areas like a neighborhood to the Earth itself. There are many different kinds of maps including political and physical maps and a wide variety of other thematic or special purpose maps. Maps are used in many different ways including to locate places, to understand spatial patterns, to determine distance and to understand relationships between geographic features.

Lesson Abstract: In this lesson students explore the use of maps as a geographic tool. The lesson begins with a photograph showing a geographic mystery: a basketball from Japan that appears on a beach in Alaska. Students then investigate a series of maps that helps them solve the mystery as well as explore elements, purposes, scales and types of maps. Instruction is focused around a PowerPoint presentation and student note-taking activity. Content Expectations:

6 – G1.1.1 7 – G1.1.1 6 and 7 – G1.2.5; G1.3.1; and G1.3.2

Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies: RH.6-8.2 and 7 Key Concepts geographic representations natural disasters spatial scales Teacher Note:  This unit begins with a Map Test featuring items from the NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) geography assessments from 2001 and 2010. This test can be found in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 1). It is suggested you give the test as a pretest before you begin the unit and again as a post-test when you complete the unit. Items have been placed on separate pages in the event you choose to use the assessment items in an alternative way. For example, they could be spread throughout the unit and used as “bell work.” An answer key has also been included in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 1).  Step 6 requires the use of student sketch maps from Unit 1, Lesson 1. Prior to this lesson make copies of the students’ sketch maps for use in this lesson. Note that it is important to retain the original drawings in their original forms to serve as a benchmark for demonstrating student growth. Lesson Sequence Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060201 Lesson 1

1. After giving students the pre-test located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 1), begin the unit and this lesson by asking students the following question: “What are the five themes of geography and what do they mean?” Have students “turn and talk” with a partner about their ideas and have them record their thoughts in their Global Investigator’s Notebook. Then, briefly review the five themes of geography which were introduced in elementary social studies and reviewed in Unit 1 by eliciting students’ responses and correcting any inaccuracies. Explain that this lesson focuses on the theme of location and the questions: what is where and why is it there? 2. Give each student a copy of the “PowerPoint Notes – Page 1” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 1) and explain that students will be viewing a PowerPoint slide presentation for this lesson and taking notes. 3. Using Slide 1 of the PowerPoint (Unit 2, Lesson 1) briefly review the map content from Unit 1 which includes the following:  Maps are one of the most useful tools in geography. Maps are representations of places on a variety of spatial scales.  Every map serves a purpose and every map has a story to tell.  Maps have common elements including a title, a map key or legend, something like a compass rose that shows direction and a scale. 4. Guide students in examining the photograph and text on Slide 2. Make sure to point out ‘text’ on the basketball. Then, click to reveal the question on the slide and have students write an answer on their PowerPoint Notes sheet. 5. Display Slide 3. Use the text to guide students in determining where the basketball came from (Japan). Then, click to reveal the question on the slide and have students write an answer on their PowerPoint Notes sheet. Briefly discuss students’ answers to the question on Slide 3. 6. Have students draw a sketch map of the world from memory. Then, display Slide 4 and ask students to label Japan and Alaska on their maps. If students do not have these regions on their maps, allow them time to add them. Then, instruct students to draw the route the basketball probably took on their sketch maps. Encourage them to add in as much detail and as many labels as they can. Give students time to draw and then have them share and compare their maps in small groups of three or four students. Encourage students to politely challenge the maps of other students if they think parts of the map are inaccurate. 7. Display Slide 5 and have students compare their maps to the map showing Japan and Alaska on the slide. Use the following questions for discussion:  How accurate were your maps?  What details did you include? What details did you miss?  What direction is Alaska from Japan?  Geographically, what do Alaska and Japan have in common?  About how many miles does Alaska appear to be from Japan?  Do you have any different ideas now about how the basketball got to Alaska? If so, what are they? 8. Give each student a copy of the “PowerPoint Notes – Page 2” located in the Supplemental Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060201 Lesson 1

Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 1). Display Slide 6 and have students read the text. Then, click and reveal the question on the slide. Have students answer the question on the notes page. Explain that as the text implies, the basketball traveled from Japan to Alaska as the result of a tsunami. 9. Have students re-read the text on Slide 6 again and then use the text to answer questions 5 and 6 on their PowerPoint Notes sheet. 10. Display Slide 7 and discuss students’ answers to the question on the slide: What kind of maps could help us better understand the earthquake and resultant Tsunami? 11. Display Slide 8 and explain to the class that in order to understand these events it might be helpful to begin by using a map to locate the middle school in Japan where the basketball originated. Click to circle Kesen Junior High School (Middle School) and ask students to describe its location. Make sure to draw student’s attention to the scale on the map. 12. Then, using Slides 9 – 13, demonstrate how a series of maps can show increasingly large spatial scales as you move from the map of the school to a map of the Pacific Rim region. Make sure to discuss how the scale on the series of map changes. 13. Display Slide 14 and have students describe the location of the epicenter of the 2011 earthquake using the map. Note that this is Number 7 on the PowerPoint Notes handout. Guide students in understanding that the epicenter was very close to the area of Japan where the middle school was located. 14. Use Slide 15 to remind students that every map has a purpose and that every map tells a story. At this point, distribute the word cards 1-6 to students. (Teacher Note: Word Cards 1-3 should be review for students.) Use Word Card #4 “thematic or special purpose maps” to explain to students that there are different kinds of maps. Then, using Slide 16, explain that all maps have a purpose, and some have more than one purpose. Then, display Slide 17 to explain that exploring a variety of maps of Japan may help us to better understand the earthquake, resultant tsunami, and to figure out how the basketball might have traveled. 15. Show students Slide 18. Ask students to think about what kind of information is being displayed on the map and allow time for them to explore the political map of Japan. Encourage students to look at their word cards for a description of the type of map this is (Word Card #5). Guide students to recognize that this map shows political boundaries – it shows countries and prefecture capitals. When discussing the map key, make sure to explain that a ‘prefecture’ in Japan is the equivalent of a state in the United States. Ask students to identify the other countries shown on the map in Slide 18. Explain to students that political maps are a very common type of thematic or special purpose map. 16. Using Word Card #6 and Slide 19, discuss the term ‘physical map’ with students. Be sure to point out to students that a map of the physical geography of a place is also a very common special purpose or thematic map. Then, have students describe the physical geography of Japan by completing Number 8 on their PowerPoint Notes. 17. Next, broaden students’ understanding of thematic or special purpose maps by asking them to view Slide 20. Ask students to explain what the purpose of this map is. After allowing students a minute to turn and talk, elicit several answers. Explain that population maps are a Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060201 Lesson 1

type of thematic map. This kind of map shows the distribution of people in a place. 18. Explain that one map of a place, such as a physical map, can help explain another map of the same place, such as a population map. Display Slide 21 and ask students to complete Number 9 on their PowerPoint Notes by describing a connection between the physical geography of Japan and the distribution of its population. When students have finished, discuss their answers and guide students in understanding that most of the people of Japan live in the coastal areas because much of the center parts are mountainous. 19. Use Slides 22 – 26 to explore other examples of thematic maps. Guide students in identifying those maps that would be most important in understanding the possible impact of the earthquake and tsunami on Japan. For example, the map showing Railroads and Airports could be used to explore potential transportation problems in northeast Japan following the earthquake. The Average Yearly Precipitation Map would have little connection to an investigation of the earthquake. Explain that an important geographic skill is the ability to choose the right maps when trying to answer a geographic question. 20. At this time you may wish to have students search the index of their textbook and locate any maps of Japan. Note that if you are using the textbook cited in the Student Resource section, maps of Japan are located on pages 770 and 775-778. 21. Explain that the maps students have been exploring help us understand more about the country of Japan and the probable impact of the earthquake and tsunami. Display Slide 27 and explain that maps can also be used to specifically investigate the earthquake and tsunami of 2011. Using the map on Slide 28 guide students in describing where the tsunami’s impact was greatest on Japan. 22. Give each student a copy of the “PowerPoint Notes – Page 3” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 1). Display Slide 29 and ask students to describe what the map shows by completing Number 10 on their PowerPoint Notes. Give students time to examine the map and write and then have them share their responses in the large group. Use the following questions to guide your discussion:  What is the relationship between the map on Slide 28 and this map?  How is this map connected to our original investigation of how the basketball got from Japan to Alaska?  What evidence does this map provide to help us answer the question of how the basketball got from Japan to Alaska?  How could this map be used to explain how people and places are connected? (Guide students to see how an event in one place on Earth can impact other places.). 23. Display Slide 30 and ask students to describe what this map shows by completing Number 11 on their PowerPoint Notes. Then, ask them to describe how this map could be used to explain how the basketball got to Japan by completing Number 12 on the handout.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060201 Lesson 1

24. Display Slide 31 and have students complete Question 13. Then show Slide 32 and have students complete question 14. Discuss their responses with the whole class. Be sure to point out the following:  The direction of the tsunami differs in each case. In the 2011 tsunami the waves headed east, while in the 2004 tsunami the waves headed west.  The 2011 tsunami appears to have threatened more places.  The map for the 2011 tsunami is a predictive map – made to project the wave size in meters and the time the waves will reach certain locations. This map does not tell us what actually happened.  The map of the 2004 tsunami shows the countries that were most affected by the tsunami. 25. Display Slide 33 and pose the question listed on the slide. Have students share answers to the question with a partner and then discuss answers in the large group. 26. Display Slide 34 and ask students to carefully analyze the slide and then complete question 15 on their PowerPoint Notes. Then, use the following questions to guide students in further analyzing the map:  What parts of the United States are at the highest risk to be affected by a tsunami? Why do you think this is true?  What parts of the world are at the highest risk to be affected by a tsunami? Why do you think this is true? 27. Display Slide 35 and ask students if they have ever heard evidence that there has been a tsunami on the Great Lakes. Discuss student responses. 28. Display Slide 36 and ask students to carefully analyze the slide and then complete questions 16 and 17 on their PowerPoint Notes. Discuss the ideas they came up with regarding investigating the accuracy of the map. 29. Display Slide 37 and give each student a copy of the “Newspaper Article: Miracle Basketball” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 1). Have students read the article and write a short summary of it in the Global Investigator’s Notebook. 30. As a culminating discussion pose and discuss answers to the following question: Were the earthquake and resulting tsunami a global or a regional problem? Push students to use the criteria for determining whether something is “global” that they developed in Unit 1, Lesson 6. Teacher Note: If time permits, you may wish to have students access the websites listed in the Student Resource section which feature interactive maps relating to this lesson. This would provide an opportunity to use interactive maps.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060201 Lesson 1

Reference Section Content Expectations 6 – G1.1.1 Describe how geographers use mapping to represent places and natural and human phenomena in the world. 7 – G1.1.1

Explain and use a variety of maps, globes, and web based geography technology to study the world, including global, interregional, regional, and local scales.

6 and 7– G1.2.5

Use information from modern technology such as Geographic Positioning System (GPS), Geographic Information System (GIS), and satellite remote sensing to locate information, and interpret maps and data1 to analyze spatial patterns of Earth2 to answer geographic questions.

6 and 7 G1.3.1:

Use the fundamental themes of geography (location, place, human environment interaction, movement, region) to describe regions or places on earth.

6 and 7 G1.3.2:

Explain the locations and distributions of physical and human characteristics of Earth by using knowledge of spatial patterns.

Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies: RH.6-8.2 and 7 RH.6-8.2: Determine the main ideas or information of a primary or a secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. RH.6-8.7:

Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.

Instructional Resources Equipment/ Manipulative Computer and Projector, Overhead Projector or Document Camera/Projector Global Investigator’s Notebook Globe Student Resource A student geography textbook such as Wiggins, Grant, et al. My World Geography: Boston, MA: Pearson, 2011, pp. 10-13, 770,775-758. Google Maps. 14 August 2013 . Honsu, Japan Tsunami Global Propagation. YouTube. 14 August 2013 . The original expectation read “… to locate information and process maps and data to analyze spatial patterns…”. We have revised this expectation using proper English so that it would make sense when read. 1

The sixth grade expectation listed the “Western Hemisphere”, while the text of the seventh grade expectation listed the “Eastern Hemisphere. To promote a global perspective, we have substituted “Earth” in the text of the expectation. 2

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060201 Lesson 1

Interactive Tsunami Map. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 14 August 2013 . Maps Relating to the March 2011 Japan Earthquake. United States Geological Survey. 14 August 2013 . Teacher Resource 2004 Tsunami. World Atlas. 14 August 2013 . 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Teaching Geoscience with Visualizations. Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College. 14 August 2013 . 2011 Japan Earthquake Epicenter. Free World Maps. 14 August 2013 . Alaska Resident Finds Basketball. Kyodo News. May, 2012. Alaska Returns Basketball Washed Away By Tsunami to Middle School in Japan. Huffington Post. 13 June 2012. 14 August 2013 . Egbo, Carol. Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 1). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. - - - . PowerPoint (Unit 2, Lesson 1). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. Japan Basketball Washes Up in Alaska. MSNBC. 14 August 2013 . Japan Maps. Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection. 14 August 2013 . Land Use in Japan. University of Texas Library. 14 August 2013 . Map – Countries Most Threatened by Tsunamis. CNN. 14 August 2013 . Maps and Information on the Earthquake and Tsunami. World Press. 14 August 2013 . Maps and References. University of Iowa. 14 August 2013 .

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060201 Lesson 1

Maps of Japan. Hoeckmann. 14 August 2013 . Map of Tsunami Threat Zones. 14 August 2013 . Miracle Basketball. Japan Daily Press. June 14, 2012. 14 August 2013 . National Assessment of Educational Progress: Geography. NEAP. 14 August 2013 . Occurrence of Tsunami Worldwide. Tsunami Alarm System. 14 August 2013 . Ocean Currents Map. Science Education through Earth Observation for High Schools. 14 August 2013 . Parts of a Map. Slide Share. 14 August 2013 . Physical Map of Japan. Free World Maps. 14 August 2013 Tsunamis. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. United States Department of Commerce. 14 August 2013 . Tsunami Basketball Lands in Alaska, Returned. YouTube. 14 August 2013 . Tsunami Height. Word Press. 14 August 2013 . Tsunami Travel Times. Huffington Post. 14 August 2013 .

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

Graphic Organizer

Common Elements

Different Purposes

MAPS

Different Types

Different Scales

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

Big Idea Card Big Ideas of the Lesson 1, Unit 1  Maps are geographic representations of the Earth. They are an essential tool in geographic inquiry.  Maps show a variety of spatial scales from small areas like a neighborhood to the Earth itself.  There are many different kinds of maps including political and physical maps and a wide variety of thematic maps.  Maps are used in many different ways including to locate places, to understand spatial patterns, to determine distance and to understand relationships between geographic features.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

Word Cards 1 geographic representation

2 map

a description or portrayal of the Earth or parts of the Earth

a visual representation of an area

Example: A map is a representation of an actual location or place. .

Example: Maps are representations of places, but not the actual places themselves. (SS060201)

(SS060201)

3 tsunami

4 thematic or special purpose maps

a large sea wave caused by an earthquake, landslide or other disturbance under the ocean

a map made to reflect particular information about a geographic area

Example: In 2011 an earthquake off the coast of Japan caused a large tsunami that did much damage.

Example: Thematic maps can portray physical, social, political, cultural, economic, sociological, agricultural or other aspects of a place. (SS060201)

(SS060201)

5 political map

6 physical map

a thematic (special purpose) map that shows political boundaries

a thematic (special purpose) map that shows the major physical features of a place

Example: A physical map often shows the cities and towns in a region.

Example: A physical map shows landforms and bodies of water.

(SS060201)

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(SS060201)

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

Map Test Use the map to answer question 1

1. At the Rockfield town meeting, the mayor tells the people that there is money in the town budget to put up one more traffic light. There is the same amount of traffic on all streets in town. Where is the traffic light needed most? A. B. C. D.

The intersection of South Street and West Avenue The intersection of Oak Street, Green Street, and West Avenue The intersection of Mill Street and Green Street The intersection of South Street and Maple Avenue

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

Use the map below to answer questions 2 and 3

2.

Letter A on the map is close to A. Newfoundland B. Japan C. Hawaii D. The Aleutian Islands

3. Letter C is in A. the Gulf of Mexico B. Hudson Bay C. the Pacific Ocean D. Lake Superior

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

Use the map below to answer questions 4, 5 and 6.

4. About how far is Lake Hood from Lake Major? A. 5 miles B. 60 miles C. 80 miles D. 140 miles 5. Find the airport on the map and draw a circle around it. Give one reason why the airport was probably built in this location. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. Suppose a second airport were going to be built in this area. Draw an airport symbol on the map in the place where you think the new airport should go. Then, in the space below, explain why you put the second airport where you did. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

Use the map below to answer questions 7 and 8

7. About how much of South America has a growing season of over 240 days? A. 10% B. 25% C. 75% D. 100%

8. The information on the map shows that A. Brazil has a shorter growing season than Argentina has B. New York has a longer growing season than Chicago has C. Alaska can grow a greater variety of crops than Florida can D. Colombia can grow a greater variety of crops than Canada can

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

Use the Map below to answer questions 9, 10 and 11

9. Where would a large city be most likely to develop? A. In the northeast corner of Nation B B. Where the Charles River meets the sea C. the eastern part of Nation D D. Near the source of the Red River 10. Which two nations are most likely to have a conflict over mineral resources? A. Nation A and Nation B B. Nation A and Nation C C. Nation A and Nation D D. Nation C and Nation D

11. Which nation is likely to have a steel industry? Explain why. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

Use the Map below to answer questions 12 and 13

12. Which letter indicates Antarctica? A. A B. B C. C D. D

13. The letter E is at approximately which location? A. 30°N and 30°W B. 60°N and 15°E C. 60°S and 30°E D. 15°S and 15°W

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

Use the Map below to answer question 14.

14. Different scales were used to draw the maps above. Which map shows the largest area? A. Map 1 B. Map 2 C. Map 3 D. Map 4

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

Use the Map below to answer questions 15 and 16

15. On the map above draw an X on the spot of the earthquake's epicenter.

16. Which city probably suffered the most damage in the earthquake? A. Lappington B. San Miguel C. Sun City D. Biddleburg

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

Use the Map below to answer question 17

17. The shaded areas on the map represent A. grasslands B. deserts C. rain forests D. mountains

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

18. Which of the following map projections provides the most accurate representation of the shape and area of major landmasses?

A.

B.

C.

D.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

19. Look at the outline maps of the four imaginary countries below. Which country’s shape was probably most heavily influenced by physical or natural boundaries? A. B. C. D.

A B C D

A.

B.

C.

D.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

Map Test Answer Key Note: Questions 1 – 11 are from the Grade 4 NAEP Geography test, questions 12 – 16 are from the 8th grade test and questions 17 – 19 are from the Grade 12 test.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

B C A D Scoring Guide: Score and Description Complete Response correctly locates the airport and explains its location. Partial Response locates the airport correctly, but does not explain its location. OR Response explains the location but does not locate the airport on the map. Unacceptable Response does not locate the airport on the map or explain its location. Examples of possible credited responses: 1. Close to city/cities 2. Close to other forms of transportation 3. References to having lots of space or appropriate space suitable for an airport

6. Scoring Guide: Score and Description Complete Response places the airport in a geographically appropriate place and explains the choice in a logical manner. Partial Response places the airport in a geographically appropriate place but the explanation is unacceptable or missing. OR Response places the airport inappropriately but provides acceptable explanation. Unacceptable The response does not place the airport in a geographically appropriate place or provide an acceptable explanation. Examples of possible credited responses: Geographically Appropriate Places: 1. Any location except the Blue Sea, the mountains, or cases where the intersection of the body and wings of the plane is on top of a railroad, oil rig, river, or lake. 2. The airport MAY overlap a city. Explanations: 1. To access towns 2. To access recreational areas such as the coast, mountains, lakes, or rivers

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

SS60201 Lesson 1

C D B C Scoring Guide Score & Description Complete The response identifies Nation A and explains that it has both the coal and iron needed to make steel. Partial The response identifies Nation A with an incorrect, incomplete (it contains iron or coal), or no explanation; for example, it explains that Nation A is probable because it is the biggest country, or has access to the ocean. Inappropriate The response does not identify Nation A. (Response may or may not explain that both iron and coal are needed to make steel.) Notes: Complete • As long as response lists both coal and iron, ignore references to oil, or the relationship of iron to steel. • Accept "all the mineral resources" as indicating both iron and coal. • Accept A if it stands alone without the word country or nation, and it clearly is not part of a sentence. Inappropriate • If student identifies Country A and another country, response is inappropriate. Must have Country A alone to receive credit. • Do not accept "many resources," "a couple of resources" or "it has all the materials."

12. 13. 14. 15.

D C A Scoring Guide Score & Description Complete The response shows an X close to the center of the 20-mile circle. Partial The response shows the intersection of X on or inside the 20-mile circle but not on or in the central template as described for level 3. Inappropriate The response shows the intersection of X outside the 20-mile circle or the response includes multiple X's.

16. 17. 18. 19.

B B C C

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

PowerPoint Notes – Page 1 1. Where do you think the basketball came from?

2. How do you think the basketball got to Alaska?

3. Draw a map showing the route the basketball probably took. Add in as much detail and as many labels as you can:

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

PowerPoint Notes – Page 2

4. How did the basketball actually get to Alaska?

5. What is a tsunami?

6. What four things can cause a tsunami? 1 2 3 4

7. Describe the location of the epicenter of the 2011 Japanese earthquake.

8. Describe the physical geography of Japan.

9. How does the physical geography of Japan appear to impact the population of Japan?

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

PowerPoint Notes – Page 3

10. What does the map on Slide 29 show?

11. What does the map on Slide 30 show?

12. How might this map be used to explain how the basketball got to Alaska?

13. What does the map on Slide 31 show?

14. According to the maps on Slide 32, what is a major difference between the tsunamis illustrated on the maps?

15. According to the map on Slide 34 what is the tsunami threat in the Great Lakes region?

16. According to the map on Slide 36, has there ever been a tsunami in the Great Lakes?

17. What are three things you could do to investigate the accuracy of the map regarding tsunami in the Great Lakes? 1 2 3

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60201 Lesson 1

Newspaper Article: Miracle Basketball School in Iwate gets back its basketball after tsunami washed it ashore Alaska! By Radhika Seth / June 14, 2012

Miracles happen! The school officials of Kesennuma Middle School in Rikuzentakata were in for a surprise when a strange cardboard box landed up their doorstep. The parcel came in all the way from Alaska with words of encouragement and a lost basketball! Although the ball was found in March, it was shipped over recently. Interestingly in the recent past a dock, a motorcycle and a soccer ball have washed ashore in the US and Canada. Out while beachcombing an area near Craig, Alaska, a student found the basketball with words “Kesen chu,” short for Kesennuma Chugakko or Kesennuma Middle School in Rikuzentakata, printed on it. The decision to mail back the basketball was unanimous and the students from Alaska mailed this ‘miracle’ parcel with loads of love and encouragement to their counterparts, many of who still live in temporary housings. As soon as they opened the package, school officials joyously dribbled the ball and termed it a miracle. However it did bring back some painful memories for all.

Miracle Basketball. Japan Daily Press. 14 June 2012. 15 August 2013 . Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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th 6

Grade Social Studies Unit 2, Lesson 1:

How Can Maps Help Us Better Understand the Earth?

1

Alaska resident Aleasha Hohorst, 18, holds a basketball with ''Kesen Junior High'' printed on it on May 14, 2012. Hohorst found the ball on an island near her home in Craig, Alaska. Where do you think the basketball came from?

2

According to the school in Rikuzentakata, Japan, the ball belongs to its basketball team. Hohorst has said she wishes to visit the school and return the ball. How do you think the basketball got from Japan to Alaska?

3

Using your sketch maps from Unit 1: 1. Find Japan and Alaska on your map. If they are not there, add them.

2. Draw the route of the basketball’s route from Japan to Alaska. 3. Add as much detail and as many labels as you can. 4

5

Tsunamis A tsunami (pronounced “soo-nah-mee”) is a series of ocean waves caused by any large, abrupt disturbance of the sea-surface. Earthquakes cause most tsunamis, but a tsunami can also be generated by landslides, volcanic activity, or rarely by meteor impact. If the disturbance is close to the coastline, a local tsunami can cause death and destruction among coastal communities within minutes. A very large disturbance, such as the magnitude 9.0 earthquake off the Japanese coast in 2011, can generate waves that cause local devastation and destruction thousands of miles away.

. How did the basketball get from Japan to Alaska?

6

What kind of maps could help us better understand the earthquake and resulting tsunami?

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

Remember…. • Every map serves a purpose. • Every map advances an interest.

• Every map has a story to tell.

(Kaiser & Wood, 2001, Seeing Through Maps, p.4)

Thematic or Special Purpose Maps All maps have a purpose….. All maps tell a story. Since all maps are created for a purpose, they show particular information about a geographic area.

Examples: • Political Information • Physical Geography • Economic /Agricultural Information • Social/Cultural Information 16

What types of maps could help us learn more about Japan and the story of the basketball?

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

Railroads and Airports

26

Maps to help us learn more about the 2011 earthquake and tsunami

27

28

29

30

31

Tsunami 2011

32

Could there be a tsunami on the Great Lakes?

33

34

Has there ever been a tsunami on the Great Lakes?

35

36

What ever happened to the basketball? 37

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060202 Lesson 2

Lesson 2: How Can the Global Grid Help Us Better Understand the Earth? Big Ideas of the Lesson       

People use absolute and relative location to find particular places on earth. Relative location is where a place is in relation to another place. Absolute location uses a grid system to navigate the earth’s surface. The grid lines that run east-west are called lines of latitude. The equator is the line of latitude that circles Earth halfway between the North and South Poles. The grid lines that run north-south are called lines of longitude. The Prime Meridian is the line of longitude that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole through Greenwich, England. A place’s latitude affects the climate of that area. Lines of latitude divide the earth into three large regions; polar, tropical, and temperate.

Lesson Abstract: In this lesson students explore how the global grid can be used to identify the absolute location of places on Earth. Instruction focuses on a PowerPoint presentation which involves several activities including the drawing and labeling of the global grid, the identification of points on the grid, and an investigation of the effect of latitude on climate. Content Expectations:

6 – G1.1.1 7 – G1.1.1 6 and 7 – G1.2.5 and G1.3.1

Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies: RH.6-8.7 Key Concepts climate global grid Lesson Sequence 1. Remind students that one of the five themes of geography is location. Ask students to write the location of their school in their Global Investigator’s Notebook (GLIN). After a minute, allow students to compare their work with a partner and then elicit several students’ responses. Help students characterize how they described their school’s location as either an absolute (an address) or relative location. Take time to review the idea of relative location, using Word Card #7. 2. Pose the following problem to the class: How would you explain the location of the highest peak on Mount Kilimanjaro? Or the Mediterranean Sea? Allow students time to think and respond. Teacher Note: Odds are that students will not be able to give a very good description using relative location without a map or having a mental map of the world in their Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

Page 1 of 6 August 14, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060202 Lesson 2

minds. Ask students why this is so difficult? What do they need to know to be able to give a description of where something is? Guide them to recognize that you need to know something about a place and its surroundings in order to provide a description of its relative location. If students bring up the idea that they need an “address,” ask them what kind of information that is. Guide students to recognize that an address is actually an absolute location because it identifies a specific location of a place. Use Word Card #8 to help students distinguish between relative and absolute location. 3. Pose the following problem to students: Buildings and homes in each town, city, state and country have different addresses. And there are places on Earth that have no addresses at all, such as Mount Kilimanjaro, the Mediterranean Sea, or even Michigan. How could we devise a system to pinpoint specific places on Earth – even places where people do not live? Could we make a system for the entire planet? Place students in small groups of three or four students each and display a globe in the front of the classroom. Ask the groups to create a way or a system for determining the location of places on the planet. Allow a few minutes for students to discuss how they might create this. Then elicit students’ ideas. 4. Explain that geographers solved this problem. Give each student a copy of the “PowerPoint Notes – Page 1” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 2) and display Slide 1 of the PowerPoint (Unit 2, Lesson 2) as you explain to students that they will be viewing a PowerPoint slide presentation for this lesson and taking notes. Display Slide 2 of the PowerPoint (Unit 2, Lesson 1) and ask students where they have seen this map before. Discuss student responses. Note that students should recognize this map as the Ocean Currents map they investigated in the previous lesson. Click to highlight the numbers on the left side and the bottom of the slide and ask students what they think these numbers stand for. Discuss student responses and guide them in understanding these are lines of latitude and longitude. Teacher Note: Latitude and longitude are only briefly discussed in grades 4 and 5 social studies. 5. Display Slide 3 and remind students that the intersections of the lines of latitude and longitude create a global grid which will be the focus of this lesson. Then, display Slide 4 and have students locate the latitude circle on their “PowerPoint Notes – Page 1” handout. Then, using Slides 5 and 6 guide students in labeling the North Pole (NP) and South (SP). Then, ask students where the equator should be drawn on the circle. Discuss student responses. 6. Display Slide 7 and have students add the equator to the latitude circle they are creating. Then, Display Slide 8 and have students correctly label the equator. 7. Use Slides 9 to 16 to guide students in completing their latitude circle. Then, discuss latitude using the following questions:  What mathematical term describes the lines of latitude on the Earth? (parallel)  What important line of latitude runs through Michigan? (45 degrees N)  Where would you draw this line of latitude on your circle?  In 5th grade you studied how the astrolabe helped explorers’ navigate. What were sailors able to figure out with the astrolabe? (the latitude of their position at sea)

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Page 2 of 6 August 14, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060202 Lesson 2

8. Display Slide 17 and have students locate the longitude circle on their PowerPoint Notes handout. Then, use Slides 18 and 19 to draw and label the Prime Meridian. 9. Use Slides 19 – 27 to guide students in completing their longitude circle. Then, discuss longitude using the following questions:  Are the lines of longitude parallel? Why or why not?  What two points do all lines of longitude go through? ( North Pole and South Pole) 10. Display Slide 28 and have students use this as a model for completing the global grid at the bottom of their PowerPoint Notes (#3). Note that at this point in the lesson you may wish to display a globe so students can see the global grid in three dimensions. 11. Give each student a copy of the “PowerPoint Notes – Page 2” handout located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 2). Display Slide 29 and explain that this is a more detailed diagram of the global grid. Using Slides 30 – 37 review how degrees of latitude and longitude are labeled on the global grid. 12. Display Slide 38 and have students determine the latitude and longitude of the star and write the coordinates on Number 4 on their “PowerPoint Notes – Page 2” handout. Discuss student answers. Then, display Slide 39 to show the correct coordinates and have students compare these to their answers. Using Slides 40 – 45 repeat the process. Make sure to correct common errors such as confusing North and South or East and West. 13. Display Slide 46 and ask students where they have seen this map before. Discuss student responses. Note that students should recognize this map as the one used to explore the issue of the tsunami basketball in Lesson 1. 14. Display Slide 47 and 48 to label Kessennuma, Japan and Craig, Alaska. Display Slide 49 and have students guess the latitude and longitude of these two places and write their guesses at Number 9 on the “Powerpoint Notes – Page 2”. List various student guesses on the board. Use the following questions to discuss this activity:  What knowledge did you use to make your guesses?  Are most of our guesses similar or is there a great deal of difference? Why do you think this is true?  How can an understanding of latitude and longitude help us understand our world? 15. Display Slides 50 and 51 and have students write the correct coordinates for the two places on Number 9 of their “PowerPoint Notes – Page 2” handout. Then, ask students to describe the locations of the two places using the equator and Prime Meridian. Note possible answers include:  Both places are north of the equator.  Craig, Alaska is further north of the equator than Kesennuma, Japan.  Craig, Alaska is west of the Prime Meridian and Kesennuma is east of the Prime Meridian. 16. Give each student a copy of the “PowerPoint Notes – Page 3,” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 2). Note that students will need three different colors of markers, Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

Page 3 of 6 August 14, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060202 Lesson 2

pencils or crayons for this third part of the lesson. Display Slide 52 and explain that besides helping you locate places on Earth, knowing about latitude can help you understand something about climate. 17. Using Slides 53 – 57, guide students in labeling the following on the circle next to Number 10 on their “PowerPoint Notes – Page 3”: Arctic Circle, Antarctic Circle, Tropic of Cancer, and Tropic of Capricorn. 18. Display Slide 58 and explain that the lines they have drawn create three special climate zones on the Earth. 19. Display Slides 59 and 60 which show the Polar Zone and have students color in the appropriate area on the diagram they are creating at Number 10. 20. Display Slides 61 and 62 which show the Tropical Zone and have students color in the appropriate area on the diagram with a second color. 21. Display Slides 63 and 64 which shows the Temperate Zone and have students color in the appropriate area on the diagram with a third color. Use the following questions to discuss the three zones:  In which zone do you think most of the world’s people live? Why?  What challenges would the Polar Zone present to people?  Do you think any people live in the Polar Zone? Why or why not? How could you find out?  What challenges would the Tropical Zone present to people?  Do you think any people live in the Tropical Zone? Why or why not? How could you find out? 22. Display Slide 65 and have students answer the question at Number 11 on their “PowerPoint Notes – Page 3” handout. Discuss student responses. 23. Display Slide 66 and briefly discuss how being near large bodies of water can affect climate. Note that students should have studied lake effect in grade 3 when they explored Michigan geography. 24. Display Slide 67 and briefly discuss how elevation can affect climate. Note that students should have explored this idea when they studied United States geography in grade 4. 25. Use Slides 68 - 75, which animate the Lesson Graphic Organizer, to summarize the lesson. 26. If time permits, you may wish to have students visit the Degree Confluence Project website cited in the Student Resource section. The goal of this project is to visit each of the latitude and longitude intersections in the world and to take pictures at each location. Additional information about the project includes the following:  The project was started in 1996.  There is a confluence within 49 miles of every point on Earth.  All of the 64,442 possible confluences have been assigned to one of three categories – Land (21,543), Water (38,409) or Ice Cap (4,490). Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

Page 4 of 6 August 14, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

 

SS060202 Lesson 2

The project has discounted confluences in the oceans and some near the poles, but there are still 10,216 to be found. Michigan has 23 intersection points and 22 have been visited and photographed.

Reference Section Content Expectations 6 – G1.1.1 Describe how geographers use mapping to represent places and natural and human phenomena in the world. 7 – G1.1.1

Explain and use a variety of maps, globes, and web based geography technology to study the world, including global, interregional, regional, and local scales.

6 and 7– G1.2.5

Use information from modern technology such as Geographic Positioning System (GPS), Geographic Information System (GIS), and satellite remote sensing to locate information, and interpret maps and data1 to analyze spatial patterns of Earth2 to answer geographic questions.

6 and 7 G1.3.1:

Use the fundamental themes of geography (location, place, human environment interaction, movement, region) to describe regions or places on earth.

Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies RH.6-8.7: Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts. Instructional Resources The original expectation read “… to locate information and process maps and data to analyze spatial patterns…”. We have revised this expectation using proper English so that it would make sense when read. 1

The sixth grade expectation listed the “Western Hemisphere”, while the text of the seventh grade expectation listed the “Eastern Hemisphere. To promote a global perspective, we have substituted “Earth” in the text of the expectation. 2

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Page 5 of 6 August 14, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060202 Lesson 2

Equipment/Manipulative Computer and Projector, Overhead projector or Document Camera/Projector Global Investigator’s Notebook Globe Markers, colored pencils or crayons (3 different colors per student) Student Resource A student geography textbook such as Wiggins, Grant, et al. My World Geography: Boston, MA: Pearson, 2011, pp. 4-5, 34. The Degree Confluence Project. 2008. 14 August 2013 . Latitude and Longitude Finder. Info Please.com. 14 August 2013 . (optional) Teacher Resource Egbo, Carol, Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 2). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. - - - , PowerPoint (Unit 2, Lesson 2). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. Google Maps. 14 August 2013 . Ocean Currents Map. Science Education Through Earth Observations for High Schools. 14 August 2013.

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Page 6 of 6 August 14, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60202 Lesson 2

Graphic Organizer

Where is it? Determining Absolute Location

+ Lines of Latitude

Affect on climate

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

= Lines of Longitude

Global Grid

Used to identify the absolute location of a place.

Page 1 of 7 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60202 Lesson 2

Big Idea Card Big Ideas of the Lesson 2, Unit 2  Maps are geographic representations of the Earth. They are an essential tool in geographic inquiry.  The equator is the line of latitude that circles Earth halfway between the North and South Poles.  The Prime Meridian is the line of longitude that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole through Greenwich, England  Lines of latitude and lines of longitude create a grid system on Earth.  We can use this grid system to find the absolute, or exact, location of a place on Earth.  Latitude affects the climate of an area.  Lines of latitude divide the earth into three large regions; polar, tropical, and temperate.

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Page 2 of 7 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60202 Lesson 2

Word Cards 7 relative location

8 absolute location

where a place is located in relation to other places

specific location of a place

Example: The United States is located north of the country of Mexico.

Example: We can find the absolute location of a place by using latitude and longitude lines on a globe. (SS060202)

(SS060202)

9 equator

10 lines of latitude

the line of latitude that circles Earth halfway between the North and South Poles

imaginary lines that show distances north or south of the equator

Example: The Equator marks 0 degrees latitude.

Example: Lines of latitude are also called parallels because they run east and west and are parallel to one another.

(SS060202)

(SS060202)

11 Prime Meridian

12 lines of longitude

the line of longitude that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole through Greenwich, England

imaginary lines that show distances east or west of the prime meridian

Example: The Prime Meridian marks 0 degrees longitude. (SS060202)

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

Example: Lines of longitude are called meridians and run from the North Pole to the South Pole. (SS060202)

Page 3 of 7 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60202 Lesson 2

13 global grid an imaginary grid on the world created by the intersection of lines of latitude and lines of longitude Example: The global grid allows us to find the exact location of any point on Earth (SS060202)

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

Page 4 of 7 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60202 Lesson 2

PowerPoint Notes – Page 1 1. Latitude

2. Longitude

3. The Global Grid

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

Page 5 of 7 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60202 Lesson 2

PowerPoint Notes – Page 2

4. Slide 38

Latitude of the star _____ _____ Longitude of the star _____ _____

5. Slide 40

Latitude of the star _____ _____ Longitude of the star _____ _____

6. Slide 42

Latitude of the star _____ _____ Longitude of the star _____ _____

7. Slide 44

Latitude of the star _____ _____ Longitude of the star _____ _____

8. Slide 49 - Guesses Kesennuma, Japan

Latitude_____ _____ Longitude _____ _____

Craig, Alaska

Latitude_____ _____ Longitude _____ _____

9. Slide 51 – Actual Kesennuma, Japan

Latitude_____ _____ Longitude _____ _____

Craig, Alaska

Latitude_____ _____ Longitude _____ _____

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

Page 6 of 7 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60202 Lesson 2

PowerPoint Notes – Page 3

10. Slides 54-64

____________ Circle

_________ of Cancer

approx. ___________

approx. ___________

Equator = 0o _________ of Capricorn

____________ Circle

approx. ___________

approx. ___________

11. What are two other factors besides latitude that affect climate?

1. ____________________________________________________________________

2. ____________________________________________________________________

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Page 7 of 7 August 15, 2013

th 6

Grade Social Studies Unit 2, Lesson 2:

How Can the Global Grid Help Us Better Understand the Earth?

1

?

?

2

The Global Grid

3

4

NP

5

NP

SP

6

Latitude NP

SP

7

Latitude NP

Equator = 0o

SP

8

Latitude NP

Equator = 0o

SP

9

Latitude NP

30o N

Equator = 0o

SP

10

Latitude NP

30o N

Equator = 0o

SP

11

Latitude NP

30o N

Equator = 0o

30o S

SP

12

Latitude NP

30o N

Equator = 0o

30o S

SP

13

Latitude NP

60o N 30o N

Equator = 0o

30o S

SP

14

Latitude NP

60o N 30o N

Equator = 0o

30o S

SP

15

Latitude NP

60o N 30o N

Equator = 0o

30o S 60o S SP

16

Longitude NP

SP

17

Longitude NP

SP

18

Longitude NP

SP

Prime Meridian = 0o

19

Longitude NP

SP

Prime Meridian = 0o

20

Longitude NP

30oW

SP

Prime Meridian = 0o

21

Longitude NP

30oW

SP

Prime Meridian = 0o

22

Longitude NP

30oW

30oE

SP

Prime Meridian = 0o

23

Longitude NP

30oW

30oE

SP

Prime Meridian = 0o

24

Longitude NP

60oW

30oW

30oE

SP

Prime Meridian = 0o

25

Longitude NP

60oW

30oW

30oE

SP

Prime Meridian = 0o

26

Longitude NP

60oW

30oW

30oE

60oE

SP

Prime Meridian = 0o

27

The Global Grid NP

SP

28

29

15oN

30

30oN

15oN

31

45oN

30oN

15oN

32

60oN 45oN

30oN

15oN

33

60oN 45oN

30oN

15oW

15oN

34

60oN 45oN

30oN

15oW

30oW

15oN

35

60oN 45oN

30oN

15oW

30oW

45oW

15oN

36

60oN 45oN

30oN

15oW

30oW

45oW

60oW

15oN

37

60oN 45oN

30oN

15oW

30oW

45oW

60oW

15oN

38

45 N 45 W 60oN 45oN

30oN

15oW

30oW

45oW

60oW

15oN

39

60oN 45oN

30oN

15oW

30oW

45oW

60oW

15oN

40

30 N 30 E 60oN 45oN

30oN

15oW

30oW

45oW

60oW

15oN

41

60oN 45oN

30oN

15oW

30oW

45oW

60oW

15oN

42

30 S 30 W 60oN 45oN

30oN

15oW

30oW

45oW

60oW

15oN

43

60oN 45oN

30oN

15oW

30oW

45oW

60oW

15oN

44

15 S 45E 60oN 45oN

30oN

15oW

30oW

45oW

60oW

15oN

45

46

Kessenuma, Japan

47

Kesennuma, Japan

Craig, Alaska

48

Guess the latitude and longitude of these two places.

49

Kesennuma Japan

38N 141E

50

Kesennuma Japan

38N 141E

Craig, Alaska

55N 133W

51

Latitude and Climate NP

60o N 30o N

Equator = 0o

30o S 60o S SP

52

NP

Equator = 0o

SP

53

NP Arctic Circle

approx. 66o N

Equator = 0o

SP

54

NP Arctic Circle

approx. 66o N

Equator = 0o

Antarctic Circle

approx. 66o S

SP

55

NP Arctic Circle

Tropic of Cancer

approx. 66o N

approx. 23o N

Equator = 0o

Antarctic Circle

approx. 66o S

SP

56

NP Arctic Circle

Tropic of Cancer

approx. 66o N

approx. 23o N

Equator = 0o approx. 23o S Tropic of Capricorn

Antarctic Circle

approx. 66o S

SP

57

NP Arctic Circle

Tropic of Cancer

Equator = 0o Tropic of Capricorn

Antarctic Circle SP

58

NP Arctic Circle

Tropic of Cancer

Equator = 0o Tropic of Capricorn

Antarctic Circle SP

59

Cool to bitterly cold NP Polar Arctic Circle

Tropic of Cancer

Equator = 0o Tropic of Capricorn

Antarctic Circle Polar SP

60

NP Polar Arctic Circle

Tropic of Cancer

Equator = 0o Tropic of Capricorn

Antarctic Circle Polar SP

61

Hot NP Polar Arctic Circle

Tropic of Cancer

Equator = 0o

Tropical

Tropic of Capricorn

Antarctic Circle Polar SP

62

NP Polar Arctic Circle

Tropic of Cancer

Equator = 0o

Tropical

Tropic of Capricorn

Antarctic Circle Polar SP

63

Hot summers, cold winters, moderate spring and fall

NP Polar

Arctic Circle Temperate

Tropic of Cancer

Equator = 0o

Tropical

Tropic of Capricorn Temperate Antarctic Circle Polar SP

64

What are two other factors besides latitude that affect climate?

65

Being near large bodies of water.

66

Being near large bodies of water.

Elevation

67

Where is it? Determining Absolute Location

68

Where is it? Determining Absolute Location

Lines of Latitude

69

Where is it? Determining Absolute Location

+ Lines of Latitude

70

Where is it? Determining Absolute Location

+ Lines of Latitude

Lines of Longitude

71

Where is it? Determining Absolute Location

+ Lines of Latitude

= Lines of Longitude

72

Where is it? Determining Absolute Location

+ Lines of Latitude

= Lines of Longitude

Global Grid

73

Where is it? Determining Absolute Location

+ Lines of Latitude

= Lines of Longitude

Global Grid

Used to identify the absolute location of a place.

74

Where is it? Determining Absolute Location

+ Lines of Latitude

Affect on climate

= Lines of Longitude

Global Grid

Used to identify the absolute location of a place.

75

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060203 Lesson 3

Lesson 3: How Do Perspective and Purpose Influence the Creation of Maps? Big Ideas of the Lesson

    

Globes provide a three-dimensional view of the Earth. They provide the most accurate view of the world, but have limitations in their use. Some of the limitations of globes are that they do not show much detail, are difficult to transport, and make it hard to see two far apart places at the same time. Cartographers (map makers) use a technique called map projection to create a twodimensional view of the world. All map projections create distorted images of the Earth to some degree. These distortions relate to size, shape, direction, and distance. The cartographer’s purpose and the projection used to create a map influence what information is accurate and what is distorted.

Lesson Abstract: In this lesson students investigate the cartographic challenge of representing the round Earth on a flat map. The lesson begins with the teacher demonstrating the difficulty of trying to gift-wrap a basketball. This leads to a discussion of the problems encountered when cartographers attempt to represent a round Earth on a flat map. Then, working in small groups students analyze three different map projections and try to determine the advantages and disadvantages of each. Next, with the aid of a PowerPoint presentation, students learn more about the three projections and then examine a wide variety of additional projections. This leads to a discussion of perspective and the issue of what is placed in the center of a map. Finally, students grapple with the problem of distance distortion on map projections as they compare the distance calculated using a map scale with the actual distance. Content Expectations:

6 – G1.1.1 and G1.2.2 7 – H1.2.3; G1.1.1 and G1.2.2

Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies: RH.6-8.2 and 4 Key Concepts distortion map projection perspective Lesson Sequence 1. Begin the lesson by displaying a basketball and guiding students in remembering the story of the Japanese basketball that ended up in Alaska as a result of the tsunami discussed in Lesson 1 of this unit. Remind students that the basketball was returned to the students in Japan. Hand the basketball and some wrapping paper, scissors, and tape to a student and say: “Suppose the students in Alaska had wanted to wrap the basketball before putting it in shipping box. How hard would that have been?” Give the student a few minutes to try and wrap the basketball and Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

Page 1 of 8 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060203 Lesson 3

select one or two more students to help. Then, pose the following question: Why is it so hard to wrap a basketball? Discuss the difficulty of trying to wrap a round object with flat paper. 2. Hold up the ‘wrapped’ basketball and pose the following question: What does this have to do with maps and map making? Have students write a response in their Global Investigator’s Notebooks. Give students time to think and write and then have them share their responses with a partner and then with the large group. Guide students in understanding that because the Earth is round it is very difficult to represent it on a flat map in the same way that it is hard to wrap a round object with flat paper. 3. Display a globe and review the idea that a globe is the most accurate representation of the Earth. Explain that the relative size and shape of the landmasses of Earth are accurate. Using a scale you can also accurately determine direction or distance. Pose the following question: If globes are the best representation and maps have distortions why do we even need maps? Discuss student responses. Note that possible answers include:  Globes are bulky and hard to carry around. (You can demonstrate this by trying to put the globe in your briefcase or a student’s book bag.)  Globes can be expensive.  Globes are good for showing the whole world but not good for detail. (Note that you may wish to share the following analogy from Geography for Dummies: If you wanted to see details of your home area, you’d need a globe as big as the Empire State Building.) 4. Explain that the challenge for cartographers is to try and create maps that most accurately represent the Earth. However, because the Earth is round and cartographers try to represent it on a flat two-dimensional surface; one or more things will be distorted on the map. Demonstrate this using a beach ball. Ask a student to draw a picture on the beach ball that covers its entire surface. Give students a moment to look at the picture, and then have them write a brief description in their Global Investigator’s Notebooks. 5. Then, cut the beach ball apart in order to lay it flat. Display the flattened beach ball for the class and have students write in their Global Investigator’s Notebook a new description of the picture on the ball. Have students turn and talk with a partner about their responses, comparing their two descriptions (round and flat) and then discuss the following information with students:  All maps contain certain levels of inaccuracy because it is impossible to represent the spherical nature of the Earth other than on a globe.  Cartographers (map-makers) overcome the problem of representing a three-dimensional landscape on a two-dimensional surface by using map projections.  However, every type of map projection has distortions, resulting in advantages and disadvantages for the user. Teacher Note: This is a good time to introduce Word Cards #14 and #15 (cartographer and distortion, respectively) to students. 6. Place students in groups of three and give each group a copy of the three maps on the “Map Projections” handout, and each student a copy of the “Map Analysis” sheet, both of which are located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 3). Explain that groups should Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060203 Lesson 3

carefully analyze the three maps using the chart and then answer the two questions below it. Give groups time to work and then lead a discussion based on the two questions on the bottom of the Map Analysis sheet. Be sure to push students to support their answers with evidence from the maps. 7. Give each student a copy of the “PowerPoint Notes – Page 1” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 3). Explain to the class that they will be viewing a PowerPoint slide presentation that will give them more information about the three maps they have explored as well as other map projections. 8. Display Slide 1 – 5 of the PowerPoint (Unit 2, Lesson 3) and explain that map projections are influenced by both the perspective of the cartographer, or map maker, and the purpose of the map. 9. Display Slides 6 - 9 and discuss the four main things that can be distorted on a map of the Earth: size, shape, direction, and distance. Then, display Slide 10 and explain that these different map projections reflect different distortions as students should have discovered in the activity in Step 6. 10. Display a globe and remind students that a globe is a fairly accurate representation of the Earth in terms of size, shape, direction, and distance. Instruct students that as they analyze map projections in the PowerPoint, they should continue to compare the projection to the globe. 11. Distribute the “Class Discussion Notes” sheet located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 3). Display Slide 11 and have students write the term “Mercator” in the blank after “Map 1” on the top of the sheet. Discuss the question on the slide with the class, encouraging students to refer to their Map Analysis sheet. Use Slide 12 to guide students in finding that both shape and direction are accurate on the Mercator projection. Use Slides 13 and 14 to discuss what is not accurate on the Mercator projection (size). Be sure to use an inquiry approach before showing students the answer. Push students to identify evidence on the map that shows that size is distorted. If students do not recognize it, point out Antarctica on the map and have students compare it to the globe. Discuss the Mercator projection using the following questions:  What problems might the distortions cause? (answers will vary but should include relative size of continents to each other)  Why would a map maker distort the sizes of land and water masses on the Earth? (answers may vary, but may include to emphasize certain things as important or that the purpose of the map was not to show relative sizes of land and water masses on Earth)  Why would a map maker include lines of latitude and longitude? 12. Display Slide 15 and briefly discuss the history of the Mercator projection. Note that you may wish to share this additional information:  As students should remember from 5th grade, the 1500s was a time of extensive European exploration.  Point out to students that the purpose of the map affects the perspective of the map and its distortions. In this case, Mercator developed his map to help with navigation. As a result, accurate direction was very important on the map, more important than the accurate size. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms



SS060203 Lesson 3

As you move, north and south from the equator, the Mercator projection map becomes more and more distorted. That is why it has limited use today.

13. Display Slide 16 and ask students to compare Africa and Greenland on the Mercator projection. Guide them in understanding that they seem almost the same size. Point out the second map on the slide (the one with latitude and longitude lines). Ask students what they notice about latitude (horizontal) lines. Guide students to see that the further from the equator they look (either north or south), the further apart the latitude lines become. Ask students, “What do you think that tells us?” Have students turn and talk with a partner and then elicit several student responses. Guide students to see that the further apart the lines are shows that the scale has changed. The land and water masses further north or south from the equator appear larger because the scale of latitude has gotten larger. Refer students to the globe you are using and have them compare these two landmasses on the globe. Then, display Slide 17 to reveal the actual area of the two places. Point out the two red lines on the slide that show the different distances between the latitude lines. Remind students that these lines on the globe are supposed to be the same distance apart. Use Slides 18 and 19 to show another example. These slides compare Europe and South America on the Mercator map. Discuss problems that might result from distorting the size of land masses on a map. 14. Display Slide 20 and have students write the term “Gall-Peters” in the blank for Map 2 at the top of the column on their Class Discussion Notes sheet. Discuss the question on the slide with the class, encouraging students to refer to their Map Analysis sheet. Use Slide 21 to guide students in finding that size is accurate on the Gall-Peters” projection. Use Slides 22 and 23 to discuss what is not accurate on the Gall-Peters projection (shape). Be sure to use an inquiry approach before showing students the answer. Push students to identify evidence on the globe that shows that shape is distorted. Discuss the Gall-Peters projection using the following questions:  What problems might the shape distortions cause? (answers will vary but one problem is that they create an inaccurate view of the earth, that it may make it harder for people to create a mental map of the world if the continents are shaped differently, etc.)  Why would a map maker distort the shape of land and water masses on the Earth? (answers may vary, but may include to emphasize certain things as important such as size, or that the purpose of the map was not to show relative shapes of land and water masses on Earth) 15. Display Slide 24 and briefly discuss the history of the Gall-Peters projection. Note that you may wish to share this additional information:  This map was originally called the Peters Projection but because a cartographer name James Gall had created a similar projection in the 1800s it is now more commonly referred to as the Gall-Peters projection.  Arno Peters was a strong critic of the Mercator projection and felt the map made the developing countries of the world, many of which were in South America and Africa, seem less significant by making them smaller than they were. 16. Display Slide 25 and have students read the quotation on the slide. Ask them whether they agree or disagree with the quotation. Be sure students explain their reasoning. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060203 Lesson 3

17. Display Slide 26 and have students write the term “Robinson” in the blank for Map 3 at the top of the column on their Class Discussion Notes sheet. Discuss the question on the slide with the class, encouraging students to refer to their Map Analysis sheet. Explain that the cartographer who created this map was the author of the quotation on Slide 25. Use Slide 27 to guide students in recording the appropriate answer on their Class Discussion Notes sheet. Remind them to compare the projection to the globe itself. Use Slides 28 and 29 to discuss what is not accurate on the Robinson projection (direction and land and water areas near the poles). Be sure to use an inquiry approach before showing students the answer. Push students to identify evidence on the globe that shows that shape is distorted. Discuss the Robinson projection by explaining that sometimes this projection is called a ‘compromise map.’ Ask students “What do you think this term means?” and discuss their answers. 18. Display Slide 30 and briefly discuss the history of the Robinson projection. Note that you may wish to share this additional information:  The Rand McNally map company commissioned Arthur Robinson to develop a ‘new world map projection that would have limited distortion’ and be ‘pleasing to the eye.’ It took him two years to create the map.  The map is commonly used today in reference books and textbooks. 19. Display Slide 31 and have students examine how Antarctica is represented on all three projections. Note that it is greatly distorted on all three. Display Slide 32 and have students work with a partner or in groups of three to create a sketch map that would more accurately show Antarctica on a blank sheet of paper. Have students share their sketches with another group. If you have access to a document camera you may also wish to project a few student examples. 20. Display Slide 33 which shows a map projection that fairly accurately represents Antarctica. Ask students to compare this projection with their own sketches. 21. Using Slides 34 – 48 show and discuss a wide variety of other map projections. For each one guide students in identifying what appears accurate and what appears distorted. Note that maps on Slides 43-48 are called “Interrupted Maps” which means they are ‘compromise’ maps created by cutting the Earth’s surface along some arbitrarily chosen lines and projecting each section separately. 22. Display Slide 49 and ask students to identify what is in the center of each of the three projections they analyzed in this lesson. Then, pose the following question: Does it matter what is in the center of a map? Discuss student responses. Guide them in understanding that some people may perceive what is put in the center as being the most important place shown on the map. 23. Give each student copies of the “PowerPoint Notes – Pages 1 and 2” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 3). Display Slides 50 – 55 and have students identify what is in the center of each map by completing numbers 1-6 on their PowerPoint Notes. 24. Ask students what is unique about the map on Slide 55 besides it having Australia in the Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060203 Lesson 3

center. Ask students who they think may have created the map. Then, show them a short YouTube video which explains how this map was created: McArthur’s Universal Corrective Map of the World. YouTube. 8 Sept. 2012 . 25. Display Slide 56 and explain that although students have traced the route of the basketball shown on the slide they have not yet calculated the distance it traveled. Display Slide 57and draw student’s attention to the map at number 7 on their PowerPoint Notes. Have students use the scale on the map to calculate the distance between Kesennuma, Japan and Craig, Alaska and write it on their notes sheet. Note that the correct answer is just a little over 4000 miles. 26. Display Slide 58 and ask how this map is different. Guide students in understanding that this map shows a much larger region of the world than the map on Slide 57. Have students now calculate the distance between the two places using this map and scale and record their answer to number 8 on the PowerPoint Notes. Note that the correct answer is close to 5000 miles. 27. Display Slide 59 to reveal the actual distance between the two places. Note that as an alternative you may wish to have students visit the website listed in the Student Resources where distances can be calculated for any two places on Earth. Discuss the difference in distances using the following questions:  Why was the distance inaccurate on both maps?  Why was the distance more accurate on the first map?  Are world maps useful for calculating the distance between two places? Why or why not? 28. Use Slides 60-64 to summarize the lesson. 29. Conclude the lesson by having students write an exit slip in which they answer the question: Why should people be careful when using maps?

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6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060203 Lesson 3

Reference Section Content Expectations 6 – G1.1.1 Describe how geographers use mapping to represent places and natural and human phenomena in the world. 6 – G1.2.2

Explain why maps of the same place may vary, including cultural perspectives of the earth and new knowledge based on science and new technology.

7 – H1.2.3:

Identify the point of view (perspective of the author) and context when reading and discussing primary and secondary sources.

7 – G1.1.1

Explain and use a variety of maps, globes, and web based geography technology to study the world, including global, interregional, regional, and local scales.

7 – G1.2.2

Explain why maps of the same place may vary as a result of cultural or historical background of the cartographer.

Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies RH.6-8.2: Determine the main ideas or information of a primary or a secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. RH.6-8.4:

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.

Instructional Resources Equipment/Manipulative A Basketball Blank paper Computer and Projector, Overhead Projector or Document Camera/Projector Global Investigator’s Notebooks Globe Scissors Some wrapping paper and tape Student Resource A student geography textbook such as Wiggins, Grant, et al. My World Geography: Boston, MA: Pearson, 2011. Page 9. How Far is it? InfoPlease.com. 15 August 2013 . McArthur’s Universal Corrective Map of the World. YouTube. 15 August 2013 . Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060203 Lesson 3

Teacher Resource Afro-Eurasia Centered Map. 15 August 2013 . Egbo, Carol. Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 3). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. - - - . PowerPoint (Unit 2, Lesson 3). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. Furuti, Carlos. Map Projections Summary. 15 August 2013 . Google Maps. 15 August 2013 . Heatwole, Charles. Geography for Dummies. New York NY: Hunger Minds Publishing, 2002. McArthur’s Universal Corrective Map of the World. 15 August 2013 . National and International Politics: Projecting Maps and Making Representations. Pacific Centered Map. University of Minnesota. 15 August 2013 . The North Compared to the South. The Peters Projection: An Area Accurate Map. 15 August 2013 . Peters Projection Map. 15 August 2013 . Rosenburg, Matt. Peters Projection vs. Mercator Projection. About.com. 15 August 2013 . Snyder, John P. Chapter 6: Enlarging the Heart of a Map. Figure 6.5. 15 August 2013 . U.S. Centered Map. 15 August 2013 . World Mercator Projection Power Point Map, Europe Centered. Maps for Design. 15 August 2013 . World South Pole Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Map. 15 August 2013 . Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60203 Lesson 3

Graphic Organizer

The Cartographer’s Challenge

Projections

Distortions

 Mercator

 Size

 Gall-Peters

 Shape

 Robinson

 Direction  Distance

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60203 Lesson 3

Big Idea Card Big Ideas of the Lesson 3, Unit 2  Globes provide a three-dimensional view of the Earth. They provide the most accurate view of the world, but have limitations in their use.  Some of the limitations of globes are that they do not show much detail, are difficult to transport, and make it hard to see two far apart places at the same time.  Cartographers (map makers) use a technique called map projection to create a two-dimensional view of the world.  All map projections create distorted images of the Earth to some degree. These distortions relate to size, shape, direction, and distance.  The cartographer’s purpose and the projection used to create a map influence what information is accurate and what is distorted.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60203 Lesson 3

Word Cards 14 cartographer

15 distortion

a geographer who makes maps

loss of accuracy

Example: Cartographers use today’s technology to help them make maps.

Example: It is impossible to show the round Earth on a flat surface without some distortion. .

(SS060203)

(SS060203)

(SS060202)

16 projection a way to map our round Earth on a flat surface Example: The purpose of the Mercator projection was navigation. (SS060203)

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60203 Lesson 3

Map Projections Map 1

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60203 Lesson 3

Map Projections Map 2

Map 3

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60203 Lesson 3

Map Analysis MAP 1

MAP 2

MAP 3

First Impressions

What appears to be accurate?

What appears to be distorted?

1. Why do you think the maps look so different?

2. Which map do you think is most accurate? Why?

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60203 Lesson 3

Class Discussion Notes Map 1: Map 2 Map 3 ______________ ______________ ______________

Advantages

What is accurate?

Disadvantages What is not accurate?

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60203 Lesson 3

PowerPoint Notes – Page 1 1. Slide 50: What is in the center of the map? _______________________________

2. Slide 51: What is in the center of the map? _______________________________

3. Slide 52: What is in the center of the map? _______________________________

4. Slide 53: What is in the center of the map? _______________________________

5. Slide 54: What is in the center of the map? _______________________________

6. Slide 55: What is in the center of the map? _______________________________

7. Use the map below to calculate the distance from Kesennuma, Japan (A) to Craig, Alaska (B): _______________________________

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60203 Lesson 3

PowerPoint Notes – Page 2

8. Use the map below to calculate the distance from Kesennuma, Japan to Craig, Alaska:

B A

9. Actual Distance: _________________________________

10. Why do you think the distances differ?

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How Does Perspective and Purpose Influence the Creation of Maps?

Exploring Map Projections

1

The Cartographer’s Challenge

2

The Cartographer’s Challenge

3

The Cartographer’s Challenge

4

The Cartographer’s Challenge

5

What gets distorted on maps? • the shapes of land and water areas

6

What gets distorted on maps? • the shapes of land and water areas

• the relative sizes of land and water areas

7

What gets distorted on maps? • the shapes of land and water areas

• the relative sizes of land and water areas • distances between places

8

What gets distorted on maps? • the shapes of land and water areas

• the relative sizes of land and water areas • distances between places • angles of direction between places

9

Different projections reflect different distortions.

10

Mercator Projection What appears accurate?

11

Mercator Projection What appears accurate?

• Shape • Direction

12

Mercator Projection What appears distorted?

13

Mercator Projection What appears distorted?

• Size

14

Mercator Projection The purpose of this map: Developed in 1569 by Gerardus Mercator as a navigation tool.

15

Mercator Projection: Problems Africa Compared to Greenland

16

Mercator Projection: Problems Africa Compared to Greenland

Greenland: 800,000 sq. miles Africa: 11.6 million sq. miles

17

Mercator Projection: Problems Europe Compared to South America

18

Mercator Projection: Problems Europe Compared to South America

Europe: 3.8 million sq. miles South America: 9.9 million sq. miles 19

Gall-Peters Projection What appears accurate?

20

Gall-Peters Projection What appears accurate? • Size

21

Gall-Peters Projection What appears distorted?

22

Gall-Peters Projection What appears distorted? • Shape

23

Gall-Peters Projection The purpose of this map:

Developed in 1974 by Arno Peters to portray the size of the continents more accurately.

24

Gall-Peters: Problems “The Peters map is somewhat reminiscent of wet, ragged long winter underwear hung out to dry on the Arctic Circle." - cartographer Arthur Robinson

25

Robinson Projection What appears accurate?

26

Robinson Projection What appears accurate? • Shape • Size

27

Robinson Projection What appears distorted?

28

Robinson Projection What appears distorted? • Direction • Land and water areas near the poles

29

Robinson Projection The purpose of this map:

Developed in 1963 by Arthur Robinson to provide a balance between size and shape.

30

The Problem of Antarctica

31

The Problem of Antarctica

Draw a sketch of a map that would show Antarctica more accurately.

32

The Problem of Antarctica

33

Other Map Projections

34

Other Map Projections

35

Other Map Projections

36

Other Map Projections

37

Other Map Projections

38

Other Map Projections

39

Other Map Projections

40

Other Map Projections

41

Other Map Projections

42

Other Map Projections

43

Other Map Projections

44

Other Map Projections

45

Other Map Projections

46

Other Map Projections

47

Other Map Projections

48

What is in the center?

49

What is in the center?

50

What is in the center?

51

What is in the center?

52

What is in the center?

53

What is in the center?

54

What is in the center?

55

The Issue of Distance

How far did the basketball travel?

56

The Issue of Distance

57

The Issue of Distance

B

A

58

How Far Did the Basketball Travel?

3905.3 miles

59

The Cartographer’s Challenge

60

The Cartographer’s Challenge

61

The Cartographer’s Challenge

Projections  Mercator

 Gall-Peters  Robinson

62

The Cartographer’s Challenge

Projections

Distortions  Size

 Mercator

 Shape

 Gall-Peters

 Direction

 Robinson

 Distance

63

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060204 Lesson 4

Lesson 4: What are the Significant Physical Features of Earth? Big Ideas of the Lesson

   



The Earth has a wide variety of physical, or natural, features. These include mountains, islands, glaciers, deserts, rainforests, oceans, rivers, grasslands, volcanoes and lakes. The location and characteristics of these natural features vary. Natural features are likely to be connected to and/or nearby other natural features. Mountains and volcanoes; islands and oceans; and rivers and river basins are examples of natural features that may be connected to each other. Knowing the location and characteristics of natural features helps us better understand our world.

Lesson Abstract: This serves as foundational knowledge for later lessons on human/environmental interaction. The lesson begins with a short PowerPoint-based inquiry activity in which students try to guess the physical features displayed on a set of world maps that have no map keys. Students then work in collaborative teams to locate and organize information about significant physical features of Earth including mountains, glaciers, deserts, rainforests, grasslands and volcanoes. They explore latitude and longitude of their assigned natural feature and consider what other natural features are likely or not likely to be nearby. Students share information on their assigned physical feature to the class in a brief presentation accompanied with a one-quarter page fact sheet and a visual. The lesson concludes with a class discussion of the different physical features of the Earth, including their relative location to other natural features. Content Expectations: 6 and 7 – G1.2.1; G1.2.5; G1.2.6; G1.3.1 G1.3.2; G2.1.1 Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies: WHST.6-8.7 and 9 Key Concepts human vs. physical geography/features region spatial patterns Lesson Sequence 1. Remind students that in Lesson 4 of Unit 1 they used the five themes of geography to describe the Earth. Explain that in this lesson they will continue to explore the Earth as one large region as they gather information about its significant physical features. 2. Using a textbook or other resource, have students review major landforms and bodies of water on earth. If you are using the textbook listed in the Student Resource section pages 884-885 would be useful. To review, have students skim the reading and then turn and talk with a Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060204 Lesson 4

partner about different physical features of the Earth. 3. Explain to students that they will be viewing a variety of maps to consider different physical features of the planet. Using the PowerPoint (Unit 2, Lesson 4), display Slide 1 to students. 4. As you display Slide 2 to the class, tell students that before they begin thinking about physical features, they should consider the map projection. Ask them, “What map projection do you think this is?” Follow this question with “How do you know?” Guide students to recognize that this not a Peters projection as evidenced by the shape of the continents (most notably Africa). Accept students’ answers if they identify either the Mercator or Robinson projection so long as they can support it with evidence. Tell students that the projection has certain similarities with both of those projections, but is actually a different kind of projection. Emphasize that the point that they need to be aware of the perspective of the map. Teacher Note: While this map does have some similarities to both the Mercator and Robinson projections, it is still another type of projection students haven’t learned about yet. This is called an equirectangular projection. The point is not to introduce a new projection, but rather to give students time to become familiar with the map. 5. Now, refocus students on considering physical features of the earth. Have students examine Slide 2 to determine what physical feature is shown on Map 1. Instruct students to use their GLIN (Global Investigator’s Notebook) to identify what they think the feature is and describe what evidence they might have for thinking so. Allow students time to turn and talk with a partner if necessary. 6. Display Slide 3 to reveal that this map shows major mountains of the world. Tally how many students identified it correctly and ask them to share their supporting evidence. For incorrect answers, discuss possible misconceptions that led to wrong guesses. Have students correct their guesses in their notebooks. 7. Using Slide 3, ask students to identify any spatial patterns they see on Map 1. Ask them how they would describe where the mountains are on Earth. Have them turn and talk with a partner about their description of the location of mountains on Earth for two minutes. Reconvene the class and ask for some examples. The teacher may want to share some patterns as well. For example, a band of mountains runs from north to south along the west side of both North and South America. Some islands appear to be very mountainous. 8. Display Slide 4 to the class. Ask students to study the map and describe what they notice. Have students compare this map to the previous map by showing them Slide 5. Ask students how the new map is different from the previous map. Guide students to notice that the centers of the maps differ. 9. Show students Slide 6 and ask them to hypothesize what physical feature is shown on Map 2 and describe it in their GLINs. Have students write evidence for their hypothesis in their notebooks as well. 10. Display Slide 7 to reveal that this map shows major volcanoes of the world. Tally how many students identified it correctly and ask them to share their supporting evidence. For incorrect Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060204 Lesson 4

answers discuss possible misconceptions that led to wrong guesses. Have students correct their guesses in their notebooks. 11. Next, ask students to identify any spatial patterns they see on Map 2. Ask them how they would describe where the volcanoes are on Earth. Have them turn and talk with a partner about their description of the location of volcanoes on Earth for two minutes. 12. Engage the class in a whole group discussion about the connections between mountains and volcanoes. Use the following questions in your discussion:  Are mountains and volcanoes always found together? Why do you think this is so?  Can there be a mountain without a volcano?  Can there be a volcano without a mountain?  Why are these two physical features connected? 13. Use Slides 8 – 15 to repeat the process for the other 5 maps. Make sure to have students look for spatial patterns on each map. Guide students to look at the United States first to help them think about what they know of the physical geography of the country before looking at the other places around the world. 14. Explain that students will now be working in small groups to find out more about significant physical features on Earth. Divide students into eleven different groups and assign each group to one of the following topics:  Deserts  Rainforests  Rivers and River Systems  Lakes  Oceans and Seas  Islands  Grasslands  Glaciers  River Basins  Mountains  Volcanoes Distribute the handout “Investigation: Physical Features on Earth” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 4) to each student. Students should work as a group to answer the questions on the handout in preparation for a short (2-3 minute) presentation on their assigned feature. Encourage them to use their textbook or other reference materials such as atlases and websites listed in the Student Resource section. If necessary, provide access to the Internet for students. 15. Give groups time to gather and organize information. 16. After they have had time to work and answer questions 1-3 on the handout, display a copy of the “Fact Sheet” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 4) to the class. Explain to students that this paper will be circulated to each group so that each group can fill out a box Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060204 Lesson 4

for their physical feature. Instruct students to select from the information they have gathered for questions 1-5 for their fact sheet entries. Allow the groups to continue to work on the “Investigation: Physical Features on Earth” handout while the teacher circulates a couple of copies of the “Fact Sheet” to the groups. Provide time for students to complete both. 17. Distribute the map handout “My World” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 4) to students and display a copy. Instruct students that they are going to identify locations on the Earth where there are significant examples of their physical feature by highlighting them on the map. Be sure to caution students that they should only identify the most significant examples of their assigned physical feature. Caution students not to color the entire map, but rather to find some points at which their feature dominates the Earth’s surface. Teacher Note: This may be done using overhead transparencies for students to color in their location. If doing so, be sure each group uses a different color or symbol to denote their physical feature. 18. Give each student a copy of the “Presentation Rubric” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 4). Explain the rubric to the class. Then give students time to organize themselves to give a 2-3 minute presentation about their assigned physical feature. 19. Have the student groups present. Students should share their fact sheet information as well as other information gathered in their presentation. As part of the presentation, each group should show where their assigned physical feature significantly dominates on the Earth’s surface using the “My World” map they prepared in Step 16. Teacher Note: There are several ways to do this:  If using overhead transparencies, overlay the maps as each group presents them.  If using a Smart Board, project the map and have students identify their locations on the board with different colors or different symbols.  Have students redraw their physical feature on an overhead transparency of the “My World” map so that each group adds to the class map. Be sure to create a key as you add different physical features to the map. The goal is to show how some of these features are connected to others in a visual manner. As each group presents, students should score the group using the rubric. Teacher Note: Save the class composite for use at the beginning of Lesson 5. 19. Discuss questions 3 -7 from the handout with each student group as they present. Alternatively, wait until all groups have presented to engage students in a whole class discussion using the following questions to summarize their findings:  Is there a connection between some physical features and their location to the Equator? Why or why not? Are other instances of this feature found at a similar longitude? (Question 4)  What physical features seem to be connected? What physical features tend to be found near each other? Where you have a river, you are likely to find a _____________? Why do you think this is so?(Questions 5 - 7)  What physical features are not connected to each other? Where you have an ocean, you probably do not have a ____________. Why might this be so? (Question 8)

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060204 Lesson 4

Reference Section Content Expectations 6 and 7 Locate the major landforms, rivers, climate regions of the Earth. G1.2.1 6 and 7– G1.2.5

Use information from modern technology such as Geographic Positioning System (GPS), Geographic Information System (GIS), and satellite remote sensing to locate information, and interpret maps and data1 to analyze spatial patterns of Earth2 to answer geographic questions.

6 and 7 G1.2.6:

Apply the skills of geographic inquiry (asking geographic questions, acquiring geographic information, organizing geographic information, analyzing geographic information, and answering geographic questions) to analyze a problem or issue of importance to a region of the world.

6 and 7 G1.3.1:

Use the fundamental themes of geography (location, place, human environment interaction, movement, region) to describe regions or places on earth.

6 and 7 G1.3.2:

Explain the locations and distributions of physical and human characteristics of Earth by using knowledge of spatial patterns.

6 and 7 G2.1.1

Describe the landform features and the climate of a region under study.

Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies WHST.6-8.7: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. WHST.6-8.9: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Instructional Resources Equipment/ Manipulative Global Investigator’s Notebooks Overhead projector or Document Camera/Projector/Smart Board Overhead transparencies and transparency markers

The original expectation read “… to locate information and process maps and data to analyze spatial patterns…”. We have revised this expectation using proper English so that it would make sense when read. 1

The sixth grade expectation listed the “Western Hemisphere”, while the text of the seventh grade expectation listed the “Eastern Hemisphere. To promote a global perspective, we have substituted “Earth” in the text of the expectation. 2

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060204 Lesson 4

Student Resource A student geography textbook such as Wiggins, Grant, et al. My World Geography: Boston, MA: Pearson, 2011. pp. 884-85. Borgna, Brunna. The Geography Guide. 15 August 2013 . Geography Hall of Fame. Pearson Education, Inc. 15 August 2013 . Landforms. 15 August 2013 . National Geographic: Environment. 15 August 2013 . Shrivastava, Salabh. Highest, Longest, Biggest, Largest, Deepest, Smallest of the World. Geography for School. 15 August 2013 . Top 10 Lists: Geography. Top Ten 10. 15 August 2013 . World Geography Facts-Water. 15 August 2013 . Teacher Resource Deserts Map. National Geographic. 15 August 2013 . Egbo, Carol. Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 4). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. - - -. PowerPoint (Unit 2, Lesson 4). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. Grasslands Map. National Geographic. 15 August 2013 . The Great Globe Gallery: Mountains of the World. 15 August 2013 . The Great Globe Gallery: Volcanoes of the World. 15 August 2013 . Major River Basins of the World. 15 August 2013 .

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060204 Lesson 4

Where are the Rainforests. California Institute of Technology. 15 August 2013 .

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60204 Lesson 4

Graphic Organizer

Mountains Deserts

Rivers and River Systems

Rainforests

Oceans and Seas

Significant Physical Features of Earth

Lakes

Glaciers

Islands

Volcanoes Grasslands

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60204 Lesson 4

Big Idea Card Big Ideas of the Lesson 4, Unit 2



The Earth has a wide variety of physical, or natural, features.



These include mountains, islands, glaciers, deserts, rainforests, oceans, rivers, grasslands, volcanoes and lakes.



The location and characteristics of these natural features vary.



Natural features are likely to be connected to and/or nearby other natural features. Mountains and volcanoes; islands and oceans; and rivers and river basins are examples of natural features that may be connected to each other.



Knowing the location and characteristics of natural features helps us better understand our world.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60204 Lesson 4

Word Cards Teacher Note: No new Word Cards are needed for this lesson.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60204 Lesson 4

Investigation: Physical Features of Earth My group is investigating: _____________________________________ My group members are: _________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 1. Describe the physical feature. Use enough details to explain what this physical feature would look like to someone who has never seen it.

2. Look at some photographs of your physical feature in your textbook. What are some interesting differences about your physical feature? List the differences below.

3. Locate this physical feature on a map of the world. Where is it most likely to be found on Earth?

4. Is there any pattern to where your physical feature is found? Why do you think this is so?

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60204 Lesson 4

5. Look at one of the world regions in which this physical feature is found. What types of vegetation is common nearby?

6. Look at a world region from another hemisphere in which your physical feature is found. What types of vegetation are commonly found near it?

7. Compare the types of vegetation commonly found near your physical feature from 5 and 6 above. What conclusion can you draw from this information?

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60204 Lesson 4

My World

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60204 Lesson 4

Fact Sheet

Significant Locations on Earth of _____________________

Significant Locations on Earth of _____________________





















Significant Locations on Earth of _____________________

Significant Locations on Earth of _____________________





















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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60204 Lesson 4

Rubric for Presentations Scoring Guide 3 – Good 2 – Fair 1 – Needs Work

Group

Content (What they said)

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Delivery (How they said it)

Visual Aids (How they illustrated it)

Page 8 of 8 August 15, 2013

1

Map 1

2

Mountains of the World

Map 1

3

Map 2

4

5

Map 2

6

Volcanoes of the World

Map 2

7

Map 3

8

Deserts of the World

Map 3

9

Map 4

10

Rainforests of the World

Map 4

11

Map 5

12

Major River Basins of the World

Map 5

13

Map 6

14

Grasslands of the World

Map 6

15

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16

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060205 Lesson 5

Lesson 5: What are Some Ways to Organize or Regionalize the Earth? Big Ideas of the Lesson

    

A region is an area with at least one characteristic or feature that sets it apart from other areas. These common characteristics or features help “bind a region together.” Regions make it easier to study large areas of space such as the Earth by dividing it into smaller chunks. There are multiple ways to divide the world into regions. Regions can be based on natural or human characteristics. Regional divisions based on human characteristics often reflect factors relating to history, economics, culture or politics.

Lesson Abstract: In this lesson students investigate the concept of region and various ways to regionalize the world. The lesson begins with a review of Michigan and United States regions. Students then revisit Lesson 2 as they explore the concept of hemispheric regions. Next, students grapple with the concept of continent and multiple ways this term can be applied to the Earth by examining four different ‘reports’ from extraterrestrial visitors. Finally, students examine how physical and human characteristics can be used to create additional ways to regionalize the planet. Content Expectations:

6 – G1.1.1 7 – G1.1.1 6 and 7 - G1.3.1; G1.3.2

Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies: RH.6-8.4 Key Concepts human vs. physical geography/features region spatial patterns Lesson Sequence 1. Begin the lesson by briefly reviewing the world map created in Lesson 4 where students worked to create a composite of Earth’s significant physical characteristics. Discuss how challenging it can be to try and describe something as large as the Earth. 2. Give each student a copy of the “PowerPoint Notes – Page 1” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 5). Then, using the PowerPoint Presentation (Unit 2, Lesson 5), display Slides 1 and 2 to review the geographic theme of “region” and discuss how geographers organize places into smaller places to make them easier to study. 3. Display Slide 3 and have students answer Question 1 on their PowerPoint Notes. Discuss students’ responses and then use Slides 4 and 5 to review the idea that a common way to Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060205 Lesson 5

divide Michigan into regions is the Upper Peninsula and Lower Peninsula. Using Slide 6, ask students why some geographers might divide the Lower Peninsula into two regions. Discuss responses and guide students in remembering that the northern part of the Lower Peninsula is quite different from the southern half so some geographers consider these to be two different regions. 4. Using Slides 7-9, ask students what characteristic has been used to divide Michigan into regions on these slides. Discuss responses and guide students in identifying elevation as a common characteristic. 5. Display Slide 10 and have students answer Question 2 on their PowerPoint Notes handout. Discuss students’ responses and then use Slides 11 - 14 to review various ways to regionalize the United States. Discuss what common characteristics have been used to determine each of the regions. 6. Display Slide 15 and have students answer Question 3 on their PowerPoint Notes. Discuss students’ responses. Guide students in understanding that there is no ‘best way’ to regionalize the United States. It all depends on your purpose for regionalizing. Explain that in this lesson students will see that the same thing applies to regionalizing the Earth. 7. Display Slide 16 and use Word Card 18 to review the term ‘hemisphere’ which should have been introduced in grade 4. Then, use Slides 17 – 22 to discuss how the equator is used to divide the Earth into the northern and southern hemispheres. Have students complete the diagram of the hemispheres at Number 4 on their PowerPoint Notes. 8. Display Slide 23 and have students answer Question 5 on their PowerPoint Notes. Discuss students’ responses and then use Slide 24 to show the countries that are located in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Review the definition of ‘region’ and ask why being in both hemispheres could cause confusion. Discuss the idea that with a place as large as the Earth there is no perfect way to divide it into regions. 9. Use Slides 25-28 to discuss how the Eastern and Western Hemispheres are created. Then, have students complete the diagram of the hemispheres at Number 6 on their PowerPoint Notes. 10. Display Slide 29 and have students answer Question 7 on their PowerPoint Notes. Then, display Slide 30 and discuss how the U.S. is actually in both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres because the Aleutian Islands (part of Alaska) stretch so far to the west. Display Slide 31 to show other countries that also are located in both these hemispheres. 11. Display Slide 32 and have students answer Question 8 on their PowerPoint Notes. Discuss students’ responses and guide them in understanding that the country of Kiribati is unique in that it is located in all four hemispheres. 12. Give each student a copy of the “PowerPoint Notes – Page 2” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 5). Using Slide 33 review the term ‘continent.’ Note that you may also wish to have students look up the definition of the term in their textbooks. Then, display Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060205 Lesson 5

Slide 34 and have students answer Question 9 on their PowerPoint Notes. Then, display Slide 35 and have students list the names of the continents at Number 10 on their PowerPoint Notes. Display Slide 36 and have students check their continent list using the map. 13. Display Slide 37 and ask students to examine the continent of Europe. Then, display Slide 38 and ask them if Europe fits the criteria established by the definition of a continent. Have them answer Question 11 on their PowerPoint Notes. Discuss students’ answers and guide them in understanding that Europe is connected to Asia so it doesn’t fit the definition of continent. Explain that this is why some geographers and historians refer to the continent of Eurasia or Afroeurasia, respectively. Teacher Note: Background information on the history of the seven continental schemes can be found in the seventh grade materials in Unit 1, Lesson 9. The point here is to raise the issue with students and emphasize that “continents” are a human construct used to organize and regionalize our world. 14. Use Slides 39 - 41 to repeat the process used in Step 14 to explore whether North and South America should be separate continents. Note that you may wish to explain that technically the Americas are not connected because of the narrow Panama Canal. Some geographers argue that because this is a man-made characteristic, the Americas should still be considered one continent. 15. Using Slides 42 - 45 discuss whether or not Antarctica should be considered a continent. Have students take a position on the issue by completing Number 12 on their PowerPoint Notes and then discuss their positions. 16. Give each student a copy of the “Extraterrestrial Visitor Reports” and the “Extraterrestrial Visitor Reports Chart” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 5). Display Slide 46 and explain that students should read the four “Visitor Reports” and figure out how each visitor to Earth has described Earth’s land masses by completing the chart. Note that this could be given as a homework assignment. 17. Have students share their charts with a partner or in a small group. Guide students to discuss their answers to see where they agreed and disagreed. 18. Display Slide 47 and explain that besides using hemispheres and continents, people have developed many other ways to regionalize the Earth. Divide students into pairs or groups of three and give each group a set of the four “World Regions Maps” and “Analysis Chart” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 5). Explain that group members should work together to compare the four maps and complete the Analysis Chart. Allow time for students to work. 19. Using Slides 48 – 51, discuss the different ways the world has been regionalized on the maps used in the Activity for Step 19. Then, have students complete Number 13 on their PowerPoint Notes by drawing a conclusion about World Regions based on the four maps. 20. Use Slides 52 – 56 to guide students in analyzing five additional World Regions Maps. For each map, make sure to guide students in identifying the physical or human characteristic that was used to determine the regions. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060205 Lesson 5

21. Use Slide 57 to summarize the lesson and then have students complete Number 14 on their PowerPoint Notes. Assessment Students’ answers to Question 14 on the PowerPoint Notes sheet may serve as an assessment of student learning from this lesson.

Reference Section Content Expectations 6 – G1.1.1 Describe how geographers use mapping to represent places and natural and human phenomena in the world. 7 – G1.1.1

Explain and use a variety of maps, globes, and web based geography technology to study the world, including global, interregional, regional, and local scales.

6 and 7 G1.3.1:

Use the fundamental themes of geography (location, place, human environment interaction, movement, region) to describe regions or places on earth.

6 and 7 G1.3.2:

Explain the locations and distributions of physical and human characteristics of Earth by using knowledge of spatial patterns.

Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies RH.6-8.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies. Instructional Resources Equipment/Manipulative Global Investigator’s Notebooks Overhead projector or Document Camera/Projector Computer with projection capability Student Resource A student geography textbook such as Wiggins, Grant, et al. My World Geography: Boston, MA: Pearson, 2011. P. 5, 7, 835. Teacher Resource Antarctica With and Without Ice. 15 August 2013 . Cat Species World Regions. 15 August 2013 .

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060205 Lesson 5

Countries in Two Hemisphere. World Atlas. 15 August 2013 . Countries the Equator Passes Through. World Atlas. 15 August 2013 . Egbo, Carol. Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 5). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. - - -. Powerpoint (Unit 2, Lesson 5). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. Map of Europe. 15 August 2013 . Map of Kiribati. 15 August 2013 . Modern Distribution of World Religions. 15 August 2013 . Most Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western States. World Atlas. 15 August 2013 . National Atlas Time Zones Map. 15 August 2013 . North and South America. 15 August 2013 . Northern Hemisphere. 15 August 2013 . North-South Divide. 15 August 2013 . Regions of the United States. 15 August 2013 . Southern Hemisphere of the Earth: Lambert Azimuthal Projection. 15 August 2013 . The Great Globe Gallery: World time Zones. 15 August 2013 . U.S. Climate Regions. 15 August 2013 . U.S. Regions Map. 15 August 2013 . Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060205 Lesson 5

Units World History. 15 August 2013 . World Climate Averages. 15 August 2013 .

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DIVIDING THE EARTH INTO REGIONS

Unit 2, Lesson 5: What Are Some Ways to Organize or Regionalize the Earth?

1

2

REGION: an area with at least one characteristic or feature that sets it apart from other areas

3

What is one way to divide Michigan into regions?

Review

4

Review

5

Review

6

Review

7

Review

8

Superior Upland

Review

9

Superior Upland Central Lowland

Central Lowland

Review

10

What is one way to divide the United States into regions?

Review

11

Review

12

Review

13

Review

14

Review

15

What map shows the best way to divide the Earth into regions?

Review

16 NP

SP

Hemispheres

17 NP

Equator = 0o

SP

Hemispheres

18 NP

Northern Hemisphere Equator = 0o

SP

Hemispheres

19

Northern Hemisphere

Hemispheres

20 NP

Northern Hemisphere Equator = 0o

SP

Hemispheres

21 NP

Northern Hemisphere Equator = 0o

Southern Hemisphere SP

Hemispheres

22

Southern Hemisphere

Hemispheres

23

Could a country be in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres? Why or why not?

Hemispheres

24

Hemispheres

25 NP

SP

Hemispheres

Prime Meridian = 0o

26

NP

SP

Hemispheres

27

Hemispheres

28

Hemispheres

29

Is the United States in the Western or Eastern Hemisphere?

Hemispheres

30

Hemispheres

31

Other countries in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres

Hemispheres

32

What is special about the country of Kiribati?

Hemispheres

33

CONTINENT: a large unbroken land mass surrounded by water

Continents

34

How many continents are there?

Continents

35

Write the names of the continents.

Continents

36

Continents

37

Continents

38

a large unbroken land mass surrounded by water??

Continents

39

Continents

40

Continents

41

a large unbroken land mass surrounded by water??

Continents

42

Continents

43

Continents

44

What would Antarctica look like without the ice?

Continents

45

a large unbroken land mass OR an ice-capped group of islands???? Continents

46

How might visitors to Earth describe it? Continents

47

Other Ways to Regionalize Earth

48

Other Ways to Regionalize Earth

49

Other Ways to Regionalize Earth

50

Other Ways to Regionalize Earth

51

Other Ways to Regionalize Earth

52

Less Economically Developed Countries

Other Ways to Regionalize Earth

53

Less Economically Developed Countries More Economically Developed Countries

Other Ways to Regionalize Earth

54

Other Ways to Regionalize Earth

55

Other Ways to Regionalize Earth

56

Other Ways to Regionalize Earth

57

By hemisphere

By continent

By time zone

Ways to divide the World into Regions By natural characteristics

By human characteristics

By ??????

58

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60205 Lesson 5

Lesson Graphic Organizer

By hemisphere

By time zone

By continent

Ways to Ways to the Divide divide the Earth into World into Regions Regions By human characteristics

By natural characteristics

By ??????

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Page 1 of 12 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60205 Lesson 5

Big Idea Card Big Ideas of the Lesson 5, Unit 2 

A region is an area with at least one characteristic or feature that sets it apart from other areas. These common characteristics or features help “bind a region together.”

 Regions make it easier to study large areas of space such as the Earth by dividing it into smaller chunks.  There are multiple ways to divide the world into regions.  Regions can be based on natural or human characteristics.  Regional divisions based on human characters often reflect factors relating to history, economics, culture, or politics.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60205 Lesson 5

Word Cards 17 region

18 hemisphere

an area with at least one characteristic or feature that sets it apart from other areas

a region created when the Earth is divided in half

Example: Dividing the Earth into regions often makes it easier to study the Earth. (SS060205)

Example: The Earth can be divided into the Western Hemisphere and the Eastern Hemisphere. It can also be divided into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. (SS060205)

19 continent a large unbroken land mass surrounded by water Example: Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America are commonly considered to be the seven continents of the world. (SS060205)

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60205 Lesson 5

PowerPoint Notes – Page 1 1. What is one way to divide Michigan into regions?

2. What is one way to divide the United States into regions?

3. Which map shows the best way to divide the U.S. into regions? Why is it the best?

4. Complete the diagram: ______________ Hemisphere

______________ Hemisphere

5. Could a country be in both the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres? Why or why not?

6. Complete the diagram: __________

__________

Hemisphere

Hemisphere

7. Is the United States in the Western or Eastern Hemisphere?

8. What is special about the country of Kiribati?

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60205 Lesson 5

PowerPoint Notes – Page 2 9. How many continents are there? _____________

10. Write the names of the continents:

11. By this definition is Europe a continent? Why or why not?

12. Should Antarctica be labeled a continent? Why or why not?

13. What conclusion about World Regions can you draw from the four maps?

14. Suppose a fourth grader who had just studied U.S. regions asked you how to divide the world into regions. What would you tell him or her?

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60205 Lesson 5

Extraterrestrial Visitor Reports

Visitor #1: Earth has 3 continents, 2 large islands and a large ice mass.

Visitor #2: Earth has 2 continents, many islands including two large ones and a large ice field.

Visitor #3: Earth has 4 continents, two large islands and an ice-covered region.

Visitor #4 Earth has 3 continents and two large islands.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60205 Lesson 5

Extraterrestrial Visitor Reports Chart Visitor

How might they be viewing Earth’s land masses?

#1

#2

#3

#4

Describe how a 5th visitor might view Earth:

#5

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60205 Lesson 5

Extraterrestrial Visitor Reports – Sample Answers How might they be viewing Earth’s land masses?

Visitor

#1

    

North and South America as one continent Africa as a continent Europe and Asia as a continent. Greenland and Australia as large islands. Antarctica as a large ice mass.

#2

   

North and South America as one continent. Africa, Europe and Asia as one continent. Greenland and Australia as large islands. Antarctica as an ice field.

#3

     

North America as a continent. South America as a continent. Africa as a continent. Europe and Asia as a continent. Greenland and Australia as large islands. Antarctica as an ice-covered region.

#4

  

North and South America as a continent. Africa, Europe, and Asia as a continent. Antarctica as a continent.

Describe how a 5th visitor might view Earth: Answers will vary

#5

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Page 8 of 12 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60205 Lesson 5

World Regions Map Analysis

Map #1

Source: World Regions Map. 5 August 2012 .

Map #2

World Weather Regions. 1 August 2012 .

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60205 Lesson 5

Map #3

United Nations Classification of Regions. 1 August 2012 .

Map #4

World Health Organization Regions. 1 August 2012 . Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

Page 10 of 12 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60205 Lesson 5

World Regions Map Analysis Map # 1

How many regions?

What are the regions?

2

3

4

Map Comparisons Map # _____ and Map # _____ are similar because

Map # _____ and Map # ______ are similar because

Map # _____ and Map # _______ are different because

Map # _____ and Map # _____ are different because

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Page 11 of 12 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60205 Lesson 5

World Regions Map Analysis – Sample Answers Map #

How many regions?

What are the regions? Anglo America Latin America Africa South of the Sahara Western Europe North Africa and SW Asia Eastern Asia Eastern Europe, Balkans and Former Soviet Union Southern Asia South Pacific

1

9

2

10

3

5

America Europe Asia Oceania

4

6

African Region South-East Asia Region Eastern Mediterranean Region Region of the Americas European Region Western Pacific Region

Africa Arctic Region Asia Central America Europe Middle East North America Oceania/Australia South America Southeast Asia

Africa

Map Comparisons Map # __3___ and Map # __4___ are similar because they both label North and South America as one region.

Map # __2___ and Map # ___3___ are similar because they both label Europe as a separate region.

Map # __2___ and Map # ___3____ are different because Map 2 has 10 regions of the world and Map 3 has only half as many.

Map # __1___ and Map # __2___ are different because Map 1 divides Asia into 3 different regions and Map 2 keeps Asia as just one region.

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Page 12 of 12 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060206 Lesson 6

Lesson 6: What Opportunities and Challenges Do the Physical Features of Earth Present to Humans? Big Ideas of the Lesson

  

The natural features of a place present people with both opportunities and challenges for human survival. Different types of natural features affect how people meet basic needs such as obtaining food, clothing, and shelter. Humans’ ability to adapt and respond to different environmental conditions has resulted in a variety of ways in which people live.

Lesson Abstract: In this lesson students build on what they have been learning about the physical features of the Earth as they investigate opportunities and challenges those features present to humans. The lesson begins with a short activity using the example of a floodplain. Students then read an informational article on Japan and identify the natural features described in the article as well as the opportunities and challenges connected to those features. Finally, students work in small groups to identify potential opportunities and challenges provided by the natural features they investigated in Lesson 4. The lesson culminates with a discussion of how humans find ways to overcome the challenges and obstacles presented by physical features. Content Expectations: 6 and 7 - G1.3.1; G1.3.2; G.3.2.2 Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies: RH.6-8.1 and 2 Key Concepts human/environment interaction human vs. physical geography/features natural or physical processes region spatial patterns Lesson Sequence 1. Display the photograph of the “Mississippi River Floodplain” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 6) but cover the bottom photo. Have students describe the area displayed in their Global Investigator’s Notebook. 2. Using Word Card #20, explain that a “floodplain” is flat land along a river that is prone to flooding. Display the bottom photo now and ask students to describe this photograph in their Notebook. Be sure to point out that the word “floodplain” is also spelled as two words in some dictionaries. It is important that students recognize both ways refer to the same thing.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060206 Lesson 6

3. Explain to the class that for thousands of years people have settled in floodplain areas. Pose the following question: Why would people settle in an area that was likely to flood? Have students stop and jot an answer in their Global Investigator’s Notebook. Discuss students’ responses and guide students to the idea that, as can be seen in the top photo, floodplains tend to have flat, fertile land for farming. Therefore, despite the flooding, people have populated these areas. 4. Write the terms ‘challenge’ and ‘opportunity’ on the board and ask students to distinguish between the two terms. Guide students to think in terms of something familiar to them, such as school. For instance, “How might where you live (location) affect the ease of getting to school?” Guide students to see that living a long distance from school would present a challenge because they might have to rely on others to help them get there. If they live close to school, it would provide an advantage in that they could walk and not have to rely on others. Some students might argue that living close has its disadvantages as well – since they may have to walk to school in the rain or snow. This is a good time to point out that climate may pose opportunities and challenges for humans as well as location. Explain that physical features like a floodplain present both opportunities and obstacles to humans as well. Ask students to identify one obstacle and one opportunity provided by a floodplain in their notebooks. 5. Remind students of the tsunami basketball story they investigated in the early lessons of this unit. Explain that the ocean has offered Japan many opportunities such as food and transportation, but also challenges or obstacles like tsunamis. 6. Give each student a copy of the “Geography of Japan” informational article and accompanying chart located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 6.) Explain that students should read the text and highlight the natural features described in it. Then, they should list the features on the chart and describe challenges and opportunities these features have presented to the people of Japan. Note that this could be given as a homework assignment. 7. Give students time to read and complete the activity. Note that a sample answer sheet has been included in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 6) for reference. Discuss the natural features students have identified and their impact on Japan, allowing students to correct their charts as you discuss them. 8. Place students in pairs and give each pair a copy of the “Pair Activity” chart located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 6). Remind students that the natural features listed on the chart were the ones they investigated in Lesson 4. Explain that partners should work together to identify the potential challenges and opportunities presented by each of the natural features. 9. Give pairs time to complete the activity and then form groups of four by combining two pairs. Have pairs share their charts and ideas. Then, lead a discussion using the following questions:  Which of the natural features seem to present the most opportunities to humans?  Which of the natural features seem to present the most challenges to humans?  Are there any natural features that present no obstacles or challenges to humans? If so, what are they? Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

  

SS060206 Lesson 6

Are there any natural features that present no opportunities to humans? If so, what are they? What natural features present challenges for people in our own community? What natural features present opportunities for people in our own community?

9. Explain that people are very creative in finding ways to overcome challenges or obstacles that natural features present. Ask students to return to the “Geography of Japan” article and locate two ways the people of Japan have overcome an obstacle presented by a natural feature. Students should describe these ways in their Global Investigator’s Notebook. Give students time to complete the activity. Then, share their responses. Guide students in identifying tunnels and terrace farms as ways to overcome the obstacle of mountains. 10. Conclude the lesson by having students locate a news article that shows humans responding to challenges or opportunities presented by the natural environment. Students should summarize the article by describing the event, including the evidence of how the natural environment affected humans (as a challenge or an opportunity). Assessment Students could create a travel brochure of the Earth for an extraterrestrial. To do so, it is recommended that you follow the steps below: 1. Prior to the assessment, collect 6-8 travel brochures from your local travel agent. 2. Place students in small groups and give each group a travel brochure. Ask students to examine the brochures and make a list of components, e.g. a map, a list of travel tips, etc. Have the groups of students trade brochures with another group and repeat the process. 3. Give each student a copy of the “Task Sheet” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 6). Explain that as a way of demonstrating what they have learned so far in this unit, students will be creating a Travel Guide for extraterrestrial visitors to Earth. Review the required components on the Task Sheet and answer any questions. 4. Review the suggested resources for the project and add or delete resources of your own as necessary. Then, review the rubric criteria listed on the Task Sheet and the Travel Guide Project Rubric so students know by what criteria their projects will be evaluated. 5. Give students time to complete the projects. Then, have them peer review the projects using the “Travel Guide Review Sheet” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 6). Allow additional time for students to modify their projects based on the suggestions made by their peer reviewers. 6. Evaluate the projects using the “Travel Guide Project Rubric” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 6) or a similar rubric. Note that a blank space has been left on the rubric in case you wish to add an additional criterion. 7. Display the final projects where students can view each other’s work.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060206 Lesson 6

Reference Section Content Expectations 6 and 7 G1.3.1

Use the fundamental themes of geography (location, place, human environment interaction, movement, region) to describe regions or places on earth.

6 and 7 G1.3.2

Explain the locations and distributions of physical and human characteristics of Earth by using knowledge of spatial patterns.

6 and 7 G3.2.2

Identify ecosystems and explain why some are more attractive for humans to use than are others.

Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies RH.6-8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. RH.6-8.2:

Determine the main ideas or information of a primary or a secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

Instructional Resources Equipment/Manipulative Global Investigator’s Notebooks Highlighters Overhead projector or Document Camera/Projector Sample Travel Brochures Student Resource A student geography textbook such as Wiggins, Grant, et al. My World Geography: Boston, MA: Pearson, 2011. Pages 42-43, 775-781 Teacher Resource Cross, Al. The Rural Blog. Record Flood, Levee Breach. 15 August 2013 . Egbo, Carol. Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 6). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. Japan: Physical Features. 15 August 2013 . Mississippi River Floods and Organic Farms. 15 August 2013 .

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60206 Lesson 6

Lesson Graphic Organizer

Challenges

Natural Features

Opportunities Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

Page 1 of 14 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60206 Lesson 6

Big Idea Card Big Ideas of the Lesson 6, Unit 2



The natural features of a place present people with both opportunities and challenges for human survival.



Different types of natural features affect how people meet basic needs such as food, clothing, and shelter.



Humans’ ability to adapt and respond to different environmental conditions has resulted in a variety of ways in which people live.

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Page 2 of 14 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60206 Lesson 6

Word Cards 20 floodplain

21 typhoon

flat land along a river that is prone to flooding

a tropical cyclone that occurs in the western Pacific region and Indian Ocean

Example: Floodplains often have flat, fertile land for farming. (SS060206)

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Example: Typhoons can cause wind and water damage. (SS060206)

Page 3 of 14 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60206 Lesson 6

Mississippi River Floodplain

Source: http://irjci.blogspot.com/2011/05/record-flood-levee-breach-lead-to-talk.html

Source: http://www.infozine.com/news/stories/op/storiesView/sid/47621/

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Page 4 of 14 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60206 Lesson 6

The Geography of Japan Land Japan consists of a 1500 mile archipelago, or chain of islands. It is made up of four large islands and about 4000 smaller islands. Most of Japan’s people live on the four main islands. Japan has solved the problem of connecting the islands together by creating a system of tunnels and bridges for roads and railways. About four-fifths of Japan is either hilly or mountainous. Several hundred peaks rise more than 6,500 feet above sea level. The mountain areas are popular sites for recreation such as hiking but offer many challenges. Terrace farming, which allows for farming in hilly areas, is often used to overcome one of these challenges. The mountain areas of Japan also include volcanoes. Japan has about 190 volcanoes, of which about 50 are active. Plains and relatively flat areas account for about a fifth of Japan's total area and occur mainly along the coast. Except for the Kanto Plain, on which Tokyo is situated, all are comparatively small. They are, however, of great importance as centers of farming, manufacturing, and population. Japan lies in the earthquake-prone belt called the Ring of Fire, which fringes most of the Pacific basin. Earthquakes are frequent; most, however, are only minor tremors that do little or no damage. The last major earthquake was in 2011.

Water The rivers of Japan are generally short and swift. The longest is the Shinano, some 230 miles (370 km) in length. Many of the rivers are used for hydroelectric power and to irrigate lowland rice fields. Floods, especially those caused by torrential typhoon rains, sometimes cause widespread damage and many deaths. Virtually all the lakes of Japan are small. The largest is Biwa Lake, covering some 265 square miles (686 km 2) on Honshu (This is much smaller than Lake St. Clair, which is 430 square miles). Lakes are popular for marine sports like fishing, boating and wind surfing. Hot springs, associated with underground volcanic activity, are numerous. Many resorts have been built near these natural hot springs which are believed to have health benefits. The ocean is an important resource for Japan. It provides fish for food and export, as well as a way to connect Japan to the rest of the world. The ocean offers challenges, however. Japan experiences about 10 typhoons each year, which are tropical cyclones that begin over the ocean. These can cause flooding, high winds and other problems.

Vegetation Forests cover nearly 70 percent of Japan so forestry is an important industry. In general, coniferous forests predominate in the higher mountainous areas and in the far north. Fir, spruce, pine, and cedar are among the chief types of trees. Elsewhere in northern Japan and throughout the central part of the country broadleaved deciduous trees, such as oak, maple, poplar, beech, ash, and elm, prevail. In many areas conifers are mixed among the stands. Most prevalent in the south are subtropical species, mainly broad-leaved evergreens such as camphor and laurel. Adapted from: The Geography of Japan. 8 August 2012 .

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60206 Lesson 6

The Geography of Japan Natural Feature

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Challenges

Opportunities

Page 6 of 14 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60206 Lesson 6

The Geography of Japan – Possible Answers Natural Feature

Challenges

Opportunities

archipelago (chain of the islands of the access to the ocean islands) country separate people

mountains

volcanoes

farming, manufacturing, places for people to live

plains

rivers

recreation

flooding

lakes

hydroelectric power, irrigation

marine sports

ocean

typhoons

fish for food and export, transportation

forests

hard to farm in the area

forestry and wood products

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60206 Lesson 6

Pair Activity Natural Feature

Challenges

Opportunities

Mountains

Deserts

Rain Forests

Rivers and River Systems

Lakes

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

Natural Feature

Challenges

SS60206 Lesson 6

Opportunities

Oceans and Sea

Islands

Volcanoes

Grasslands

Glaciers

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60206 Lesson 6

Pair Activity – Possible Answers Natural Feature

Challenges

Opportunities

Mountains

  

Transportation problems Can’t be used for farming Barriers between people

  

Recreation Beauty minerals

Deserts

  

Difficult to farm Lack of water Extreme temperatures



Areas along the edges can be farmed

Rainforests

  

Difficult area to live in Dense vegetation Transportation problems

  

Many valuable plants for medicine, etc. Trees for lumber Oxygen for the Earth Food Transportation Hydroelectr5ic power Drinking water Recreation

Rivers and River System



Flooding

    

Lakes



Possible flooding

  

Food Transportation Recreation

Oceans and Seas

  

Typhoons Tsunami Possible flooding

  

Food Transportation recreation

Islands

  

Transportation problems Barriers between people isolation

 

tourism recreation



Violent eruptions that can cause lots of damage



Scientific study

 

Can lack water and trees Prone to fire

 

Areas can be farmed Flat for living space



Chunks falling off them can endanger shipping People can’t live on them

 

Scientific study Tourism

Volcanoes

Grasslands

Glaciers



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Page 10 of 14 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60206 Lesson 6

Assessment Materials Sample of Parts to the Travel Guide

Major Natural Features

A Travel Guide For Planet Earth

Opportunities of the Natural Features

Obstacles of the Natural Features

Ways Humans Divide Earth into Regions

Places to Visit

Travel tips

A Packing List

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60206 Lesson 6

Task Sheet Your Task: Create a Travel Guide to Planet Earth for extraterrestrial visitors.

Your guide should include:        

Significant natural features of the Planet Opportunities those features present to humans Obstacles those features present to humans Three different ways humans regionalize the Earth Suggestions for places to visit Travel tips A packing list Some visuals such as photos, maps or diagrams

A Travel Guide For Planet Earth

You should use some of the following resources:       

Your Global Investigator’s Notebook Fact sheets from Lesson 4 Opportunities and Obstacle charts From Lesson 6 Maps from various lessons Textbook An atlas or other reference book Websites

Your project will be rated on the following criteria:      

Content Demonstration of Knowledge Organization and Structure Mechanics of Writing Visuals Creativity

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60206 Lesson 6

Travel Guide Review Sheet

Check all the components that are included in the Travel Guide _____Significant Natural features of the Planet _____Opportunities those features present to humans _____Obstacles those features present to humans _____Three different ways humans regionalize the Earth _____Suggestions for places to visit _____Travel tips _____A packing list What visuals have been included?

Should it have more visuals? If so, what do you suggest?

What are two positive features of the Travel Guide?

What are some suggestions for improvement?

Reviewed by ____________________________________________________________ Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

Page 13 of 14 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60206 Lesson 6

Travel Guide Project Rubric 1

2

3

4

Content

Demonstration of Knowledge

Organization and Structure

Mechanics of Writing

Visuals

Creativity

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Page 14 of 14 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060207 Lesson 7

Lesson 7: Investigating Global Events: Natural Hazards Big Ideas of the Lesson

   



The Earth is a dynamic place. The natural physical processes that created the Earth’s physical features continue to affect Earth and its people. Natural physical processes are events that happen in nature and can be explained scientifically. Natural processes can be related to air, water, earth, or fire. Societies throughout time have referred to these as the four elements to explain the natural world. When natural physical processes are unpredictable and result in extreme events, they are considered natural hazards. Some examples of natural hazards are tornadoes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, droughts, landslides, and wildfires. The questions of geographic inquiry can help us better understand natural hazards and the challenges they present to humans.

Lesson Abstract: In this lesson students explore the causes and effects of a variety of natural hazards. They engage in a list-sort-label activity to access prior knowledge about natural hazards. Students explore how natural processes can result in natural hazards. Through a PowerPoint presentation on tornadoes, students further develop their note taking skills. Students then work in pairs to research one of the following natural hazards: tsunamis, tropical cyclones, volcanoes, or earthquakes. Using a jigsaw method, student form expert groups to share and summarize information on the four topics. They then revisit their grouping and compare them to how people in earlier times thought about their environment by separating processes into four elements: air, earth fire, and water. This lesson effectively integrates with science by categorizing natural hazards into lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere. Content Expectations: 6 – G1.2.4; G1.2.6; G2.1.2; and G5.2.1 7 – G.1.2.3 Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies: RH.6-8.2; WHST.6-8.7 and 9 Key Concepts global natural hazards human/environment interaction human vs. physical geography/features natural or physical processes Teacher Note: A “Glossary” of terms has been created to use for lessons 7-9. This is located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 7). Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

Page 1 of 7 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060207 Lesson 7

Lesson Sequence 1. Begin the lesson by connecting back to Lesson 6. Ask students to turn and talk with a partner about some challenges or obstacles presented to humans by natural features. 2. Explain to students that the Earth is a dynamic place. The natural physical processes that created the Earth’s physical features such as mountains continue to affect Earth and its people. Display Word Cards # 22 and 23 on physical processes and natural hazards and explain both to students. Guide students to recognize that physical processes cause events to happen naturally and can be explained scientifically. These physical processes also present challenges to humans. As a result, humans often refer to them as natural hazards. This is because they are relatively unpredictable and can result in extreme events. Write the term “natural hazards” on the board and ask students what they think this means. If students are having difficulty getting started, prompt them with an example or two (e.g., tornado, mudslide, flood, drought, etc.). Teacher Note: This lesson aligns with the Michigan GLCEs for Grade 61 and provides a nice opportunity to coordinate with science teachers. 3. Explain to students that they will brainstorm a list of ideas and facts they know about natural hazards. Divide students into small groups of three or four and distribute blank paper to them. Once in their groups, instruct students to list everything that they know about natural hazards in three minutes. Teacher Note: This activity, including Steps 4-6, is called a list-group-label activity. It serves to not only elicit students’ prior knowledge, but to also alert you to some misconceptions students may have. 4. After three minutes, stop students and distribute chart paper and markers to each group. Instruct students that now they should work in their groups to put all of their ideas into categories or groupings that make sense to them. Allow students several minutes to organize their ideas. 5. Once students have grouped their ideas, ask them to give each group a name or a label, and be ready to share the group labels with the class. Allow students several minutes to label their groups. 6. Ask a few groups to share their ideas about groups and labels with the class. Tell the students they already know a fair amount about natural hazards, but that they will now learn even more. 7. Then, give each student a copy of the “What are Natural Hazards?” text selection and the “Questions Chart” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 7). Ask students to read the four questions on the chart. Then, write the phrase “text-based answers” on the 1

E.SE.06.11 Explain how physical and chemical weathering lead to erosion and the formation of soils and sediments. E.SE.06.12 Explain how waves, wind, water, and glacier movement, shape and reshape the land surface of the Earth by eroding rock in some areas and depositing sediments in other areas. E.SE.06.51 Explain plate tectonic movement and how the lithosphere plates move centimeters each year. E.SE.06.52 Demonstrate how major geological events (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, mountain building) result from these plate motions.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060207 Lesson 7

board. Explain that this phrase refers to questions that need to be answered directly by reading a text, not by using prior knowledge or an opinion. Explain that students should read the text and then refer to it in answering the questions on the chart. Encourage students to highlight information relating to the questions as they read the text. 8. Give students time to complete the assignment and then discuss the text in the large group. Note that a chart with sample answers has been included in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 7) for reference. 9. Refer students to paragraph 3 in the text used in the previous step and ask them which of the natural hazards listed in this paragraph occur in Michigan. Discuss their responses and any personal connections they can make to these hazards. 10. Give each student a copy of the “Natural Hazards PowerPoint Notes,” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 7) and explain that students will be using a PowerPoint presentation on Tornadoes to gather information and take notes on this chart. 11. Using Slides 1 and 2 from the PowerPoint Presentation (Unit 2, Lesson 7), discuss what a tornado is and have students describe a tornado in the appropriate place on the PowerPoint Notes. Use Slide 3 to discuss the wind velocity of tornadoes, but caution students that this information is not needed on their notes. Explain that they need to pay careful attention during the rest of the PowerPoint presentation and write notes as needed. 12. Use Slides 4 -7 to discuss how tornadoes form. Note that they will need to summarize this information on their PowerPoint Notes. Be sure to provide students with sufficient time to process the information and summarize it. Teacher Note: This note-taking activity is different than the ones in previous lessons in that it does not use a cloze technique but rather requires the student to process and write information independently. 13. Use Slides 8-10 to discuss different strengths of tornadoes and the potential damage tornadoes can cause. 14. Display Slide 11 and have students describe areas of the United States most at risk for tornadoes in the appropriate place on the PowerPoint Notes chart. Then, use Slide 12 to repeat the process using the world map. Allow students a few minutes to study the map and then pose the following question “Should tornadoes be considered a global problem?” Have students stop and jot their answer in their Global Investigator’s Notebook. Discuss their answers in the large group. 15. Display Slides 13-15 and have students describe the effects of tornadoes on their notes chart using only the photographs. Then, discuss the effects. Pose the following question: “Who is most at risk in tornadoes?” Have students write an answer in their Global Investigator’s Notebook. Teacher Note: The use of both the PowerPoint Notes chart and the GLIN during the PowerPoint is intentional and designed to help build organizational skills in students. 16. Display Slide 16 which lists people most at risk in tornadoes and have students compare the information to what they wrote in their GLIN. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060207 Lesson 7

17. Use Slides 17-19 to discuss systems used to warn people of impending tornadoes. Make sure to include information regarding your own school’s warning system and that of your local community. 18. Explain that like many natural/physical processes, there are myths that accompany natural hazards like tornadoes. Discuss the term ‘myth’ and be sure to distinguish it from how this term is used in literature using the definitions below and found on Slide 20.  A traditional, typically ancient story dealing with supernatural beings or phenomena or explaining aspects of the natural world or delineating the psychology, customs, or ideals of society.  A fiction or half-truth Then, use Slides 21-26 to discuss three myths relating to tornadoes. 19. Explain that in the next activity students will be doing research with a partner on one of four natural hazards: tsunamis, tropical cyclones, earthquakes and volcanoes. Use the “Steps in Geographic Inquiry” graphic organizer located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 7), which was introduced in Unit 1, to review the process students will use in their research. Then, give each student a copy of the “Natural Hazards Research” chart located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 7). Teacher Note: Teachers are encouraged to substitute natural hazards that students investigate in response to current events. You may want to check the “Global Incident Viewer” listed in the Teacher Resource section during the lesson since this website shows current natural hazards occurring on the Earth. 20. Assign three pairs to each of the four natural hazards. Note that depending on the size of your class you may need to have a few students work independently on the research. Provide students with the appropriate “Fact Sheet” relating to their assigned natural hazard located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 7). In addition, have students use their textbook as a resource and if time permits include a computer lab session for Internet research. Caution students that even though they are doing research with a partner, they need to complete their own research chart since each student will be sharing what they have learned in a small group. 21. Give students time to complete their research. Then, create “expert groups” of four students with one member representing each of the four natural hazards. Give each student a copy of the “Summary Charts” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 7). Have students share their research and complete the charts. 22. If time permits, have students visit the “Forces of Nature” website at and listed in the Student Resource section where they can create their own volcano, hurricane or earthquake. 23. Once students have completed their investigations, return to the categories created in Steps 35. Review the categories students created to group what they knew about natural hazards. Then, display “The Four Elements” to students, located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 7). Explain that throughout time and across the world in different places, people tried to Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060207 Lesson 7

explain their natural world and the natural hazards they encountered. Explain that humans a long time ago – about 2,500 years ago – categorized nature as being composed of the “four elements” – earth, water, air, and fire.2 These ideas deeply influenced thought and culture in several regions of the world, especially European thought. Have students compare their categories to those used in the past by people in Europe and India. Then, have them identify at least two natural hazards that would suggest that the four elements were at work. 24. Compare the “four elements” to the way scientists think about our world. Display “Scientific Categories” located in the Supplemental Materials (SS060207) for students. Tell students that this is the way scientists think about our physical world. Discuss similarities and differences between contemporary science and the four elements, and students’ own groupings for natural hazards. 25. Conclude the lesson by foreshadowing where the next lesson will lead. Write the term “natural disaster” on the board and ask students to define the term. Then, pose this question: “Is a natural hazard the same as a natural disaster?” Ask students to write an answer in their Global Investigator’s Notebook. Explain that they will learn the answer to this question in the next lesson.

Reference Section Content Expectations 6 – G1.2.4 Use observations from air photos, photographs, films as the basis for answering 7 – G.1.2.3 geographic questions about the human and physical characteristics of places and regions.3 6 and 7 G1.2.6:

Apply the skills of geographic inquiry (asking geographic questions, acquiring geographic information, organizing geographic information, analyzing geographic information, and answering geographic questions) to analyze a problem or issue of importance to a region of the world.

6 – G2.1.2

Account for topographic and human spatial patterns associated with tectonic plates such as volcanoes, earthquakes, settlements by using information from GIS, remote sensing, and the World Wide Web.

2

A fifth element is also identified - aether. According to ancient and medieval science aether, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere. Today, modern science divides natural phenomena into four categories based on where they occur: the atmosphere (such as climate); lithosphere or the Earth’s crust and upper mantle (such as plate tectonics and erosion); hydrosphere (oceans and the hydrologic cycle), and biosphere (animal and plant communities and ecosystems). Because social studies focus on human interactions with the physical world and the four elements have much to do with belief systems and cultures, they are introduced here.

The parentheticals “(print and CD)” and “(VCR and DVD)” have been removed because they have no bearing on the substance of the expectation and only serve to date the expectation as a relic of the past. Besides, we don’t want to insult your intelligence. 3

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

6 and 7 G5.2.1

SS060207 Lesson 7

Describe the effects that a change in the physical environment4 could have on human activities and the choices people would have to make in adjusting to the change.

Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies RH.6-8.2: Determine the main ideas or information of a primary or a secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. WHST.6-8.7: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. WHST.6-8.9: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Instructional Resources Equipment/Manipulative Chart Paper Global Investigator’s Notebooks Markers Overhead projector or Document Camera/Projector Student Resource A student geography textbook such as Wiggins, Grant, et al. My World Geography: Boston, MA: Pearson, 2011. Forces of Nature. National Geographic. 15 August 2013 . Teacher Resource Earthquakes Fact Sheet. 15 August 2013 . Effects of Tornadoes. Miami University. 15 August 2013 . Egbo, Carol. Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 7). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. - - - . PowerPoint (Unit 2, Lesson 7). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. Global Incident Viewer. Economic and Social Research Institute. Ireland. 15 August 2013
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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060207 Lesson 7

|WF|VE|TC&xmin=47840424.244247936&ymin=8605685.463007476&xmax=84628037.21732803&ymax=14875769.626192585>. Natural Hazards: Causes and Effects. University of Wisconsin. 15 August 2013 . Regions of the World Most Prone to Tornadoes. Lacey’s Geography Blog. 15 August 2013 . Tornado Damage. Wikimedia. 15 August 2013 . Tornado Photo. 15 August 2013 . Tornado Photo. Consumer Media Network. 15 August 2013 . Tornado Risk Areas. Federal Emergency Management Relief Agency. 15 August 2013 . Tornado Warning System. Fox News. 15 August 2013 . Tropical Cyclone Fact Sheet. Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 15 August 2013 . Tsunami Fact Sheet. Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 15 August 2013 . Volcano Fact Sheet. Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 15 August 2013 .

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

Lesson Graphic Organizer

Natural Hazards

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

Big Idea Card Big Ideas of the Lesson 7, Unit 2



The Earth is a dynamic place. The natural physical processes that created the Earth’s physical features continue to affect Earth and its people.



Natural physical processes are events that happen in nature and can be explained scientifically.



Natural processes can be related to air, water, earth, or fire. Societies throughout time have referred to these as the four elements to explain their natural world.



When natural physical processes are unpredictable and result in extreme events, they are considered natural hazards. Some examples of natural hazards are tornadoes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, droughts, landslides, and wildfires.



The questions of geographic inquiry can help us better understand natural hazards and the challenges they present to humans.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

Word Cards 22 physical processes

23

natural forces that can be explained scientifically and that produce change or development on Earth

when physical forces create an extreme event that is somewhat unpredictable and that may have a negative effect on people

Example: Shifting of tectonic plates can cause earthquakes.

Example: Tornadoes and Volcanoes are natural hazards that can destroy a community.

natural hazard

(SS060207) (SS060207)

24 the four elements fire, earth, air, and water Example: Greek philosophers divided the forces of nature into four elements. (SS060207)

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

GLOSSARY Aftershock — a tremor that follows the main shock of an earthquake and originates at or near the focus of the primary earthquake. Generally, major earthquakes are followed by a large number of aftershocks that decrease in frequency over time. Assessment — a survey of a disaster area to make estimates of damages and recommendations for necessary relief action. Beaufort scale — scale of wind and rain conditions and speed, measured from zero when the sea is calm like a mirror and winds are less than one mile per hour, to 12 for hurricanes, when the air is filled with foam and spray and wind speeds are greater than 72 miles per hour. Cyclone — a large-scale closed circulation system in the earth’s atmosphere with relatively low barometric pressure and winds that blow counter-clockwise around the center in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere. See also hurricane, typhoon, and tropical cyclone, Called “cyclone” in Indian Ocean and South Pacific; “hurricane” in Western Atlantic and Eastern Pacific; “typhoon” in Western Pacific. Damage classification — evaluation and recording of damages to structures, facilities, or objects according to three categories: 1) “severe damage,” which precludes further use of the structure, facility, or object for its intended purpose. 2) “moderate damage,” or the degree of damage to principal members, which precludes effective use of the structure, facility, or object for its intended purpose, unless major repairs are made short of complete reconstruction. 3) “light damage,” such as broken windows, slight damage to roofing and siding, interior partitions blown down, and cracked walls. The damage is not severe enough to preclude use of the installation for the purpose for which it was intended. Declaration of disaster — issuance of a state of emergency by designated authorities in the wake of a large-scale calamity. Disaster — an occurrence of widespread severe damage, injury, or loss of life or property, with which a community cannot cope and during which the affected society undergoes severe disruption. Disasters may be human-made or have natural causes and may include earthquakes, floods, fires, hurricanes, cyclones, major storms, volcanic eruptions, spills, air crashes, and creeping disasters such as droughts, epidemics or serious food shortages, as well as disasters of civil strife in which many victims may be left homeless as much property is seriously damaged or destroyed. Disaster plan— the basic principles, policies, responsibilities, preparations, and responses developed to enable a society to meet any kind of emergency or disaster. Earthquake — a sudden break in the rock of the earth’s crust below or at the surface, which results in the vibration of the ground, and the potential collapse of buildings and possible destruction of life and property if the quake is of sufficient magnitude. Epicenter — that point on the earth’s surface directly above the place of origin, focus, or center of an earthquake. Evacuation plan — procedure whereby persons can be removed from a threatened or impacted area. Eye (of the storm) — the calm center of a tropical cyclone. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

Fault — a planar or gently curved fracture in the earth’s crust across which displacement has occurred. Hazard — physical forces (hurricane, flood, volcano, etc.) that, when in proximity to populations, may cause disasters. Hurricane — in the Western Hemisphere, a major storm with a wind velocity of 75 miles per hour (120 kilometers per hour) or more. Also called typhoons in the Pacific Ocean, and cyclones in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific. Intensity — a subjective measurement of the force of an earthquake at a particular place as determined by its effects on persons, structures, and earth materials. Intensity is a measure of effects, while magnitude is a measure of energy. Lava flow — the residue of an eruption from a volcano, usually consisting of molten magma and ash, and usually moving at a moderate pace (in comparison to an ash flow) down a mountainside, often threatening life and property below. Life support — food, water, sanitation, shelter, and medical aid during the 60 to 90 days following a disaster. Magnitude — a measurement of the strength of an earthquake as recorded on a seismograph at a specified distance from the earthquake’s epicenter. Each magnitude step on the Richter scale represents an increase of 10 times the measured wave amplitude of the earthquake. Plate tectonics — the concept that the earth’s surface is made up of several large plates or crustal slabs that move and are continually altering the crust of the earth. Preparedness — may be described as action designed to minimize loss of life and damage, and to organize and facilitate timely and effective rescue, relief and rehabilitation in cases of disaster. Prevention — measures designed to preclude natural phenomena from causing or resulting in disaster or other emergency situations. Prevention concerns the formulation and implementation of long-range policies and programs to eliminate the occurrence of disasters. Prevention includes legislation and regulatory measures, principally in the fields of physical and urban planning, public works, and building. It also encompasses the manifestation of such plans. Reconstruction — actions taken to reestablish a community after a period of rehabilitation following a disaster. Actions would include construction of permanent housing, full restoration of all services, and complete resumption of the pre-disaster state. Rehabilitation — actions taken in the weeks or months immediately following a disaster to restore basic services, construct temporary housing, and allow a population to function at near pre-disaster level. Relief — the meeting of immediate needs for food, clothing, shelter and medical care for disaster victims. Richter scale — a scale, not limited at the top or the bottom, that measures the magnitude of an earthquake from 1 (least) to 10 (greatest), with each magnitude step on the scale representing an increase of 10 times in measured wave amplitude of the earthquake.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

Secondary hazards — those hazards that occur as a result of another hazard or disaster, i.e., fires or landslides following earthquakes, epidemics following famines, food shortages following drought or floods. Seismography — the study of earthquake measurement and analysis. Tornado — localized, violently destructive windstorm occurring over land. Characterized by a long funnelshaped cloud composed of condensation and debris extending to the ground and marking the path of greatest destruction (see cyclone). Tropical cyclone — a storm originating over tropical seas with winds of up to 200 miles per hour rotating around a low pressure area. Most commonly observed in the Northern Hemisphere from May to November and in the Southern Hemisphere from December to June. In the Northern Hemisphere, winds spin counterclockwise around a warm center core. In the Southern Hemisphere, the rotation is clockwise. Typhoon — in the Western Pacific, a violent wind and rain storm that results from the existence of certain conditions (see cyclone, hurricane). Volcanic eruption — the sudden discharge of heated matter, i.e., lava, cinders, ashes, gases, and dust, from a volcanic vent. Volcano — a vent in the earth’s crust through which molten lava, gases, etc., are discharged; the mountain formed by such discharges. Vulnerability — the extent to which a country, area, community or structure risks being damaged by a disaster. Warning system — communications capability designed to disseminate information on conditions that are likely to result in drought, flood, earthquake, or other similar disasters. Source: Natural Hazards: Causes and Effects. 20 September 2012 .

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

What are Natural Hazards?

The Earth is a dynamic place. Within nature nothing is constant. Indeed, nature is typified by continual changes, in some cases by predictable change or the normal sequence of cyclical events as in seasonal weather. Much of nature, though, is unpredictable. When unpredictable natural events become extreme in their occurrence, they may constitute a danger to humans and to the other members of an environment. Such an event, then, defines a natural hazard.

Another way of conceptualizing natural hazard is as the coexistence of people in a natural environment that may disrupt or threaten their safety, property, or livelihood at an unpredictable time. There are many such natural events that, when experienced in an extreme degree, may become a risk to the inhabitants of an environment. These include avalanche, coastal erosion, drought, earthquake, flood, fog, frost, hail, landslide, lightning, snow, tornado, tropical cyclone, volcano, and wind.

It is important to understand that there is a relationship between natural hazards and disasters. In fact, the hazard may be viewed as the triggering device for the disaster to occur. Often times the disaster is brought on by the mere presence of human settlement in an area that perhaps should not be occupied, as in flood plains. Or the impact of human intervention in natural processes may trigger a disaster, as in a flash flood in a deforested area.

Why are natural hazards such a universal concern? The disasters they cause kill and injure people worldwide. They cause emotional stress and trauma. They destroy homes and businesses, damage agriculture, and disrupt both local and national economies. Disasters are increasing, both in number and in people affected.

Adapted from: Natural Hazards: Causes and Effects. 20 September 2012 .

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

What are Natural Hazards?

What is a natural hazard?

What are some examples of natural hazards?

What is the relationship between a natural hazard and a disaster?

Why are natural hazards such a universal concern?

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

What are Natural Hazards? – Sample Answers

What is a natural hazard?

A natural hazard is a natural event that becomes extreme and may create a danger to humans and other members of an environment.

What are some examples of natural hazards?

Avalanches, coastal erosion, drought, earthquakes, floods, fog, frost, hail, landslides, lightning, snow, tornadoes, tropical cyclones, volcanoes and wind.

What is the relationship between a natural hazard and a disaster

A natural hazard is the triggering device that causes the disaster to happen.

Why are natural hazards such a universal concern?

They cause disasters which kill and injure people all over the world. They also destroy homes and businesses and disrupt economies.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

PowerPoint Notes

What is a tornado?

What causes a tornado?

Areas of the U.S. where tornadoes are most likely to occur

Areas of the world where tornadoes are most likely to occur

Possible effects of tornadoes

Warning systems

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

Steps in Geographic Inquiry

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

Natural Hazard Research Your Assigned Natural Hazard: ________________________________________________

What is it?

What causes it?

Where are people most concerned about it?

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

Possible effects

Warning systems

Other important information

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

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SS60207 Lesson 7

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

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SS60207 Lesson 7

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

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SS60207 Lesson 7

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

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SS60207 Lesson 7

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

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SS60207 Lesson 7

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

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SS60207 Lesson 7

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

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SS60207 Lesson 7

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

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SS60207 Lesson 7

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

Summary Chart Tropical Cyclone

Volcano

What is it?

What causes it?

Areas of the world where it occurs

Possible effects

Warning systems

Other important information

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

Summary Chart Earthquake

Tsunami

What is it?

What causes it?

Areas of the world where it occurs

Possible effects

Warning systems

Other important information

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

The Four Elements

Fire

Earth

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Wind

Water

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60207 Lesson 7

Scientific Categories

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Lesson 7: Natural Hazards

Tornadoes

1

A tornado is a violent rotating, funnel of air that extends from a thunderstorm to the ground.

2

Winds in most tornadoes blow at 100 mph or less. In the most violent and least frequent tornadoes, wind speeds can exceed 250 mph.

3

Tornadoes are caused by long-lasting, large thunderstorms.

4

Stronger west Winds aloft

Southeast wind Near ground

Before thunderstorms develop there is: • a change in wind direction and • an increase in wind speed with increasing height This creates an invisible, horizontal spinning effect in the lower atmosphere. 55

Rising air within the thunderstorm updraft tilts the rotating air from horizontal to vertical.

66

An area of rotation, 2-6 miles wide, now extends through much of the storm. Most strong and violent tornadoes form within this area of strong rotation.

77

Tornadoes: Shapes and Sizes Weak Tornadoes • 69% of all tornadoes • Less than 5% of tornado deaths • Lifetime 1-10+ minutes • Winds less than 110 mph

88

Tornadoes: Shapes and Sizes

Strong Tornadoes • 29% of all tornadoes • Nearly 30% of all tornado deaths • May last 20 minutes or longer • Winds 110-205 mph

99

Tornadoes: Shapes and Sizes

Violent Tornadoes • Only 2% of all tornadoes • 70% of all tornado deaths

• Lifetime can exceed 1 hour • Winds greater than 205 mph

10 10

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Effects of Tornadoes

13 13

Effects of Tornadoes

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Who is most at risk? • People in automobiles • The elderly, very young, and the physically or mentally impaired • People in mobile homes • People who may not understand the warning due to a language barrier

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Warning Systems Tornado Warning Systems are often run by county governments and use data from the National Weather Service.

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Warning Systems TORNADO WATCH: Tornadoes are possible in your area. Remain alert for approaching storms.

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Warning Systems TORNADO WATCH: Tornadoes are possible in your area. Remain alert for approaching storms. TORNADO WARNING: A tornado has been sighted or indicated by weather radar. If a tornado warning is issued for your area and the sky becomes threatening, move to your pre-designated place of safety.

19 19

Tornado Myths

MYTH: Areas near rivers, lakes, and mountains are safe from tornadoes.

20 20

What is a myth? Two Definitions • A traditional, typically ancient story dealing with supernatural beings or phenomena or explaining aspects of the natural world or outlining the customs or ideals of society. • A fiction or half-truth

21

Tornado Myths MYTH: Areas near rivers, lakes, and mountains are safe from tornadoes. FACT: No terrain is safe from tornadoes. In the late 1980's, a tornado swept through Yellowstone National Park leaving a path of destruction up and down a 10,000 ft. mountain.

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Tornado Myths MYTH: The low pressure with a tornado causes buildings to "explode" as the tornado passes overhead.

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Tornado Myths MYTH: The low pressure with a tornado causes buildings to "explode" as the tornado passes overhead. FACT: Violent winds and debris slamming into buildings cause most structural damage.

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Tornado Myths MYTH: Windows should be opened before a tornado approaches to equalize pressure and minimize damage.

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Tornado Myths MYTH: Windows should be opened before a tornado approaches to equalize pressure and minimize damage. FACT: Opening windows allows damaging winds to enter the structure. Leave the windows alone; instead, immediately go to a basement, interior room, or bathroom without windows.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060208 Lesson 8

Lesson 8: Investigating Global Events: Natural Disasters Big Ideas of the Lesson



 

Natural disasters occur when a natural hazard results in widespread severe damage, injury, or loss of life or property, with which a community or society cannot cope and during which the affected area undergoes severe disruption. Natural disasters have environmental, health, social, economic, and political effects. The effects of natural disasters can be lessened through disaster mitigation projects such as strict building codes and disaster preparedness projects such as earthquake training programs.

Lesson Abstract: In this lesson students explore the connection between natural hazards and natural disasters. It begins with a text selection in which students review and practice six active reading strategies to investigate the question: What is a natural disaster? Through a PowerPoint presentation and a reading selection on the 2010 earthquake and tsunami in Japan, students next examine effects of natural disasters. Finally, they explore the question: When does a natural disaster become a global problem? Content Expectations: 6 – G2.1.2 6 and 7 – G1.2.6; G2.2.2; G5.2.1 7 - C4.3.1 Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies: RH.6-8.1, 2, 7 and 10; WHST.6-8.4 Key Concepts human/environment Interaction human vs. physical geography/features global natural disasters natural hazards natural or physical processes Teacher Note: A “Glossary” of terms has been created to use in addition to Word Cards for Lessons 7-9. This is located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 8). Lesson Sequence 1. Refer back to Lesson 7 by asking students to list the four natural hazards they explored in that lesson in the Global Investigator’s Notebook. 2. Give each student a copy of the “PowerPoint Notes Pages 1 and 2” located in the Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060208 Lesson 8

Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 8) and using Slide 1 of the PowerPoint Presentation (Unit 2, Lesson 8) explain that in this lesson students will be exploring natural disasters. 3. Using Slides 2 and 3 remind students that reading requires active participation and active reading strategies. 4. Display Slide 4 and discuss the active reading strategy of “predicting” and its importance. Display Slide 5 and ask students to locate the text shown on the slide on their PowerPoint Notes. Read the text out loud with students. Then, display Slide 6 and have students write a prediction of what will come next in the text in the appropriate box on their PowerPoint Notes. Discuss students predictions and ask them on what they based their predictions. 5. Display Slide 7 and discuss the active reading strategy of “visualizing” and its importance. Display Slide 8 and ask students to locate the text shown on the slide on their PowerPoint Notes and read it carefully. Then, display Slide 9 and have students draw what they think Managua looked like after the earthquake. 6. Display Slide 10 and discuss the active reading strategy of “clarifying” and its importance. Display Slide 11 and ask students to locate the text shown on the slide on their PowerPoint Notes and read it carefully. Then, display Slide 12 and ask students to explain in their own words what constitutes a disaster. 7. Using Slides 13 – 21, repeat the process used in Steps 4-6 to review and apply the active reading strategies of connecting, evaluating, and questioning. 8. Give each student a copy of the “Active Reading Strategy” student reference sheet located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 8) and have them put it in their Global Investigator’s Notebook. 9. Give each student a copy of the “PowerPoint Notes Page 3” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 8). Display Slide 22 and explain that natural disasters have both short-term and long-term effects. 10. Display Slide 23 and ask students to turn and talk for a moment about what the phrase “health effects” means. Briefly discuss the term with students and guide them to the idea that “health effects” refers to physical or emotional problems that humans may encounter. Have students write a definition under the term. Then have students list a possible health effect of a natural disaster in the appropriate box on their PowerPoint Notes. Discuss student ideas and then display Slide 24 to show health effects. Have students list one of the effects shown on the slide in the appropriate box on the PowerPoint Notes. 11. Using Slides 25 – 32 repeat the process used in Step 10 to discuss social, economic, political and environmental effects of natural disasters. Be sure to define social, economic, political, and environmental with students.  Social - relating to interaction of people: relating to the way in which people in groups behave and interact  Economic - the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060208 Lesson 8

 Political – the power and authority of a government  Environmental - the air, water, minerals, organisms, and all other factors surrounding and affecting a given organism at any time; one’s surroundings 12. Display Slide 33 and review the different social scientists explored in Unit 1. Ask students to review the effects they have written on the PowerPoint Notes. Then, discuss the perspective of each of the different social scientists in studying these effects and the types of questions they might ask. 13. Display Slide 34 and review the mystery of the ‘tsunami basketball’ which has been developed throughout this unit. Give each student a copy of the “Former Principal Shares Experiences” newspaper article located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 8). Explain that one of the best ways to understand natural disasters is to read about the personal experiences of someone who lived through a disaster. Have students read the article used at the appropriate places and employ the active reading strategies included throughout the text. 14. Display Slide 35 and ask students to write an answer to the question in their Global Investigator’s Notebook. Discuss student responses and review the criteria for global problems explored in Unit 1. 15. Give each student a copy of the “PowerPoint Notes Page 4” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 8). Display Slide 36 and ask students to answer the question on the slide in the appropriate box on the PowerPoint Notes. Then, discuss student responses. 16. Point out Iceland on a world map or have students locate Iceland on a map from their textbook. Remind students that Iceland is a sparsely populated country covered mainly by ice and glaciers. Display the elevation map of Iceland on Slide 37 and ask students to answer the question on the slide in the appropriate box on their PowerPoint Notes. 17. Display Slide 38 and point out the small inset map in the right lower corner. Explain that Iceland has 20 active volcanoes. 18. Display Slide 39 and discuss the text on the slide. Review what was learned about volcanoes in the previous lesson. Then, pose the question on Slide 40 and have students write an answer to the question in the appropriate box on their PowerPoint Notes. 19. Display Slide 41 and have students read the short newspaper clip on the slide. Then, pose the question on Slide 42 and have students write an answer to the question in the appropriate box on their PowerPoint Notes 20. Display Slide 43 and have students write an answer the questions on the graphic in the GLIN or on an exit slip to assess student understanding of the lesson. Assessment The writing assignment in Step 20 serves as the assessment for this lesson.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060208 Lesson 8

Reference Section Content Expectations 6 and 7 Apply the skills of geographic inquiry (asking geographic questions, acquiring G1.2.6: geographic information, organizing geographic information, analyzing geographic information, and answering geographic questions) to analyze a problem or issue of importance to a region of the world. 6 – G2.1.2

Account for topographic and human spatial patterns associated with tectonic plates such as volcanoes, earthquakes, settlements by using information from GIS, remote sensing, and the World Wide Web.

6 and 7 G2.2.2

Explain that communities are affected positively and negatively by changes in technology.1

6 and 7 G5.2.1

Describe the effects that a change in the physical environment2 could have on human activities and the choices people would have to make in adjusting to the change.

7 - C4.3.1:

Explain how governments address national issues and form policies, and how the policies may not be consistent with those of other countries (e.g., population pressures in China compared to Sweden; international immigration quotas, international aid, energy needs for natural gas and oil and military aid).

Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies RH.6-8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. RH.6-8.2:

Determine the main ideas or information of a primary or a secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

RH.6-8.7:

Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.

RH.6-8.10:

By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

WHST.6-8.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

The sixth grade expectations’ examples include “Canada with regard to mining, forestry, hydroelectric power generation, agriculture, snowmobiles, cell phones, air travel.” The seventh grade expectation examples include “increased manufacturing resulting in rural to urban migration in China, increased farming of fish, hydroelectric power generation at Three Gorges, pollution resulting from increased manufacturing and automobiles).” They have been removed for the sake of clarity. 2 Although the expectation describes these as “changes to the physical environment,” the list includes both human and natural causes. It is important to distinguish natural disasters from man-made changes for students. 1

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060208 Lesson 8

Instructional Resources Equipment/Manipulative Global Investigator’s Notebooks Overhead projector or Document Camera/Projector Student Resource A student geography textbook such as Wiggins, Grant, et al. My World Geography: Boston, MA: Pearson, 2011. Forces of Nature. National Geographic. 15 august 2013 . Teacher Resource Airports Closed. The Guardian. 15 April 2010. 15 August 2013 . Egbo, Carol, PowerPoint (Unit 2, Lesson 8). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. - - -. Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 8). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. Elevation Map of Iceland. Global Warming Science. 15 August 2013 . Former Principal Gives Presentation. Daily Astorian. 10 May 2012. 15 August 2013 . Iceland Volcano. Wall Street Journal. 15 August 2013 . Natural Hazards: Causes and Effects. Disaster Management Center. University of Wisconsin. 15 August 2013 . Tectonic Plates of Iceland. Wikimedia. 15 August 2013 .

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60208 Lesson 8

Lesson Graphic Organizer

How are they different from natural hazards?

Natural Disasters

What are their effects?

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When are they global problems?

Page 1 of 11 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60208 Lesson 8

Big Idea Card Big Ideas of the Lesson 8, Unit 2

 Natural disasters occur when a natural hazard results in widespread severe damage, injury, or loss of life or property, with which a community or society cannot cope and during which the affected area undergoes severe disruption.  Natural disasters have environmental, health, social, economic, and political effects.  The effects of natural disasters can be lessened through disaster mitigation projects such as strict building codes and disaster preparedness projects such as earthquake training programs.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60208 Lesson 8

Word Cards Teacher Note: A glossary of terms has been included for Lessons 7-9, and can be found in the Supplemental Materials for Lesson 7.

25 mitigation

26 preparedness

to make something less harsh, severe, or violent

a state of full readiness, ready for action

Example: Since we cannot prevent natural hazards, the most sensible strategy appears to be mitigation of their eventual effects.

Example: There are a few concrete steps we can take together now to improve preparedness for an influenza pandemic. (SS060208)

(SS060208)

27 building codes a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed facilities

Example: Building codes in California include provisions for potential earthquakes. (SS060208)

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60208 Lesson 8

PowerPoint Notes Page 1

What Are Disasters? Natural hazards such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, and droughts spring to mind when the word “disaster” is mentioned. But a disaster should be defined on the basis of its human consequences, not on the phenomenon that caused it. An earthquake, for example, is simply an event in nature. Even a very strong one is not a disaster unless it causes injury or destroys property. Thus an earthquake occurring in an uninhabited area (as do scores of major tremors each month) is only of scientific interest and is not considered a disaster. PREDICT: What do you think the rest of the text will be about?

When a natural event does affect a human settlement, the result may still not be a major disaster. Consider the earthquake that struck San Fernando, California, in 1971. The quake registered 6.4 on the Richter scale, yet the region around San Fernando Valley (with a population of over seven million people) suffered only minor damage and 58 deaths. Two years later, though, an earthquake of a magnitude of 6.2 struck Managua, Nicaragua, and reduced the center of the city to rubble, killing an estimated 6,000 people. VISUALIZE: Draw what you think the center of Managua looked like.

A disaster can be more precisely defined as an occurrence of widespread severe damage, injury, or loss of life or property with which a community cannot cope and during which the society undergoes severe disruption. CLARIFY: In your own, words explain what a disaster is.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60208 Lesson 8

PowerPoint Notes Page 2 While some developed nations may be as prone to disasters as poor nations, the people of wealthier nations are not as vulnerable to disasters; not as many die as in poorer nations nor does the infrastructure collapse as easily. Tokyo, Japan, and Managua, Nicaragua, are both prone to earthquakes. But the people of Tokyo are far less vulnerable to injury by earthquake because Tokyo has strictly enforced building codes, zoning regulations, and earthquake training and communications systems. In Managua, there are still many people living in top-heavy mud houses on hillsides. They are vulnerable. CONNECT: What natural disaster is our community most vulnerable to? Why?

Landslides or flooding disasters are closely linked to rapid and unchecked urbanization that forces low-income families to settle on the slopes of steep hillsides or ravines, or along the banks of floodprone rivers. In other disasters, such as cyclones and tsunamis, humans can increase their vulnerability by removing bits of their natural environment that may act as buffers to these extreme natural forces. Such acts include destroying reefs, cutting natural wind breaks, and clearing inland forests. EVALUATE: In your opinion do humans cause some natural disasters to occur?

In conclusion, natural hazards are agents or trigger mechanisms that can come into contact with a vulnerable human condition to result in a disaster. QUESTION: What question do you have based on the text?

Source: Natural Hazards: Causes and Effects. 12 August 2012. http://epdfiles.engr.wisc.edu/dmcweb/BB02NaturalHazardsCausesandEffects.pdf

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60208 Lesson 8

Active Reading Strategies Student Reference Sheet

Predict Try to figure out what information will come next and how the selection might end.

Visualize Describe the images you see as the author describes them. Use the details from the text to create a visual image.

Clarify Summarize/explain what you have read.

Question Ask questions about the text.

Connect

Connect personally with what you are reading. Think of similarities between the descriptions in the text selection and what you have personally experienced, seen, heard or previously read.

Evaluate Form opinions about what you’ve read.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60208 Lesson 8

PowerPoint Notes Page 3 Health Effects

Your idea:

Example from the PowerPoint Presentation:

Social Effects

Your idea:

Example from the PowerPoint Presentation:

Economic Effects

Your idea:

Example from the PowerPoint Presentation:

Political Effects

Your idea:

Example from the PowerPoint Presentation:

Environmental Effects

Your idea:

Example from the PowerPoint Presentation:

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60208 Lesson 8

Former Principal Shares Experiences CANNON BEACH — As the tsunami approached Kesennuma City, Japan, people ran to one of the highest points in the area: Kesennuma Junior High School, 150 feet high. By the time the earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011 subsided, more than 800 people had crowded into the school, built for 345 students. There they stayed, for nearly six months, with 40 people to a classroom, sleeping on futons and crowding around kerosene stoves while it snowed outside. Meanwhile, students attended classes, helped to shovel snow, and – when it finally arrived three days later – distributed food. Hajime Saito, who recently retired as principal of the junior high school, told the story of how his school became an evacuation center in appearances in Portland and Cannon Beach this week as part of the Portland Earthquake Project. PREDICT: What do you think the rest of the text will be about?

When the magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck at 2:46 p.m. March 11, 2011, it felt like three earthquakes, each lasting three minutes each, Saito said. Because the school, built about 40 years ago, had been gradually brought up to seismic codes – the last upgrade was completed just a month prior to the earthquake — the only damage suffered was eight broken windows. Other schools and buildings also survived the earthquake, Saito said, because of strong national seismic regulations. But when the tsunami struck 15 minutes later, much of the city collapsed, and fires, caused by leaking oil tanks along the coast broke out. Waves reaching as high as 60 feet poured into the second floors of some buildings on the main street of Kesennuma City, a town of 60,000 people in the Tohoku region. VISUALIZE: Draw what you think the tsunami looked like.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60208 Lesson 8

It took 24 hours before the tsunami waves subsided, but at their strongest they were able to move several large ships 300 meters inland. People who tried to flee in their cars were caught in traffic jams. Those who left their cars and ran survived, Saito said, but many of those who stayed were washed away. Those who evacuated to the school were housed temporarily in the gymnasium and later in the classrooms. CLARIFY: How and why were the effects of the earthquake different from those of the tsunami?

Although the school had some supplies for 400 people, they weren’t enough, added Saito, who said he wished he had had more water, food, blankets, heaters and sanitary supplies. There were only 100 blankets to be shared by 800 people, and it was snowing outside. “Students had to sleep without blankets, and it was very cold,” he said. Finally, people wrapped themselves in the curtains they removed from the windows. Kerosene heaters eventually arrived and were placed in classrooms for people to get warm. There was no water nor food at first, Saito said. A few days after the earthquake, firefighters from Tokyo, about 150 miles away, brought a tanker to the school and hooked a hose to a fire hydrant for drinking water. Water from the local swimming pool was used to flush the toilets in the school. CONNECT: Describe a personal connection to what happened to these students and their school.

Three days later, city officials arrived with food – cold rice bowls. Long lines formed outside, but those in the lines were patient, Saito said. “In our culture, we take care of others first,” he added. Saito noted that the school was only a few blocks from the City Hall, but those in remote areas couldn’t get assistance for quite awhile until the U.S. Marines dropped supplies from helicopters. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60208 Lesson 8

Of the 345 students attending the school, 125 either lost their homes or their homes were damaged. Five students lost one parent; three students lost both parents; and one student, who left the school to find his mother, died. Because the gymnasium couldn’t be heated and, even with tents, there was little privacy; Saito opened 19 classrooms for the evacuees. Each classroom held 40 people, and leaders from each classroom were appointed. They met several times a day to discuss who would be in charge of cleaning the school, who would clean the bathrooms and fetch water to flush the toilets and who would distribute food. EVALUATE: In your opinion, how well was the disaster handled by school officials and students?

Two months later, temporary shelters occupied half of the school parking lot, and the rest of the space was filled with vehicles. In a country that has frequent disaster drills, Saito and others came away from the events on March 11 with some lessons learned. The disaster and communication plans in the community must be improved, he said. Rules must be established that students won’t be handed over to relatives until the “all-clear” signal is given. Evacuation routes before and after an earthquake must be determined and maintained, he added. Secondary routes also should be established, and drills for those routes should be conducted regularly. QUESTION: What questions do you have based on the text?

Source: Former Principal Gives Presentation. The Daily Astorian. 10 May 2012. 23 September 2012 .

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60208 Lesson 8

PowerPoint Notes Page 4 1. Do you think the earthquake and resulting tsunami in Japan was a global problem? Why or why not?

2. For what natural disasters do you think Iceland may be at risk?

3. Do you think the Iceland natural disaster was a global problem? Why or why not?

4. Have you changed your opinion about the Iceland natural disaster? Why or why not?

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Page 11 of 11 August 15, 2013

Lesson 8

Natural Disasters 1

Reading is NOT a spectator sport!

2

Reading requires active participation!

3

PREDICT

Try to figure out what information will come next and how the selection might end.

4

Natural hazards such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, and droughts spring to mind when the word “disaster” is mentioned. But a disaster should be defined on the basis of its human consequences, not on the phenomenon that caused it. An earthquake, for example, is simply an event in nature. Even a very strong one is not a disaster unless it causes injury or destroys property. Thus an earthquake occurring in an uninhabited area (as do scores of major tremors each month) is only of scientific interest and is not considered a disaster.

5

Natural hazards such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, and droughts spring to mind when the word “disaster” is mentioned. But a disaster should be defined on the basis of its human consequences, not on the phenomenon that caused it. An earthquake, for example, is simply an event in nature. Even a very strong one is not a disaster unless it causes injury or destroys property. Thus an earthquake occurring in an uninhabited area (as do scores of major tremors each month) is only of scientific interest and is not considered a disaster. PREDICT: What do you think the rest of the text will be about?

6

VISUALIZE

Describe the images you see as the author describes them. Use the details from the text to create a visual image. 7

When a natural event does affect a human settlement, the result may still not be a major disaster. Consider the earthquake that struck San Fernando, California, in 1971. The quake registered 6.4 on the Richter scale, yet the region around San Fernando Valley (with a population of over seven million people) suffered only minor damage and 58 deaths. Two years later, though, an earthquake of a magnitude of 6.2 struck Managua, Nicaragua, and reduced the center of the city to rubble, killing an estimated 6,000 people. 8

When a natural event does affect a human settlement, the result may still not be a major disaster. Consider the earthquake that struck San Fernando, California, in 1971. The quake registered 6.4 on the Richter scale, yet the region around San Fernando Valley (with a population of over seven million people) suffered only minor damage and 58 deaths. Two years later, though, an earthquake of a magnitude of 6.2 struck Managua, Nicaragua, and reduced the center of the city to rubble, killing an estimated 6,000 people. VISUALIZE: Draw what you think the center of Managua looked like.

9

CLARIFY

Summarize/explain what you have read.

10

A disaster can be more precisely defined as an occurrence of widespread severe damage, injury, or loss of life or property with which a community cannot cope and during which the society undergoes severe disruption.

11

A disaster can be more precisely defined as an occurrence of widespread severe damage, injury, or loss of life or property with which a community cannot cope and during which the society undergoes severe disruption.

CLARIFY: In your own, words explain what a disaster is.

12

CONNECT

Connect personally with what you are reading. Think of similarities between the descriptions in the selection and what you have personally experienced, seen, heard or previously read.

13

While some developed nations may be as prone to disasters as poor nations, the people of wealthier nations are not as vulnerable to disasters; they do not die in as large numbers nor does their environment collapse as easily. Both Tokyo, Japan, and Managua, Nicaragua, are prone to earthquakes. But the people of Tokyo are far less vulnerable to injury by earthquake because Tokyo has strictly enforced building codes, zoning regulations and earthquake training and communications systems. In Managua, there are still many people living in top-heavy mud houses on hillsides. They are vulnerable.

14

While some developed nations may be as prone to disasters as poor nations, the people of wealthier nations are not as vulnerable to disasters; they do not die in as large numbers nor does their environment collapse as easily. Both Tokyo, Japan, and Managua, Nicaragua, are prone to earthquakes. But the people of Tokyo are far less vulnerable to injury by earthquake because Tokyo has strictly enforced building codes, zoning regulations and earthquake training and communications systems. In Managua, there are still many people living in top-heavy mud houses on hillsides. They are vulnerable. CONNECT: What natural disaster is our community most vulnerable to? Why? 15

EVALUTATE

Form opinions about what you’ve read.

16

Landslides or flooding disasters are closely linked to rapid and unchecked urbanization that forces low-income families to settle on the slopes of steep hillsides or ravines, or along the banks of flood-prone rivers.

In other disasters, such as cyclones and tsunamis, humans can increase their vulnerability by removing bits of their natural environment that may act as buffers to these extreme natural forces. Such acts include destroying reefs, cutting natural wind breaks and clearing inland forests. 17

Landslides or flooding disasters are closely linked to rapid and unchecked urbanization that forces low-income families to settle on the slopes of steep hillsides or ravines, or along the banks of flood-prone rivers. In other disasters, such as cyclones and tsunamis, humans can increase their vulnerability by removing bits of their natural environment that may act as buffers to these extreme natural forces. Such acts include destroying reefs, cutting natural wind breaks and clearing inland forests. EVALUATE: In your opinion do humans cause some natural disasters to occur?

18

QUESTION

Ask questions about the text.

19

In conclusion, natural hazards are agents or trigger mechanisms that can come into contact with a vulnerable human condition to result in a disaster.

20

In conclusion, natural hazards are agents or trigger mechanisms that can come into contact with a vulnerable human condition to result in a disaster.

QUESTION: What question do you have based on the text?

21

Effects of Natural Disasters

22

Health Effects

23

Health Effects • Injuries • Spread of disease due to reduced standards of sanitation • Malnutrition due to food shortages • Lack of hospital space and medical supplies

24

Social Effects

25

Social Effects • Loss of family members • Disruption of transportation networks • Disruption of communication networks • Disruption of education

26

Economic Effects

27

Economic Effects • Disruption of the economy • Loss of jobs due to damage of buildings, etc. • Physical damage to businesses and industry • Loss of businesses • Disruptions in trade

28

Political Effects

29

Political Effects • Loss of leaders due to death or injury • Disruption of the government and its services • Damage to government buildings

30

Environmental Effects

31

Environmental Effects • Destruction and damage to houses and buildings • Destruction and damage of natural features of the environment • Decreased quantity and quality of water supplies • Destruction of crops

32

Geographer

Political Scientist

Historian

Social Scientists

Anthropologist

Economist

Sociologist

33

34

What makes a natural disaster a global problem?

35

Do you think the earthquake and resulting tsunami in Japan was a global problem? Why or why not?

36

For what natural disasters do you think Iceland may be at risk?

For what natural disasters do you think Iceland may be at risk?

37

For what natural disasters do you think Iceland may be at risk?

38

In 2010 one of Iceland’s largest volcanoes erupted. It sent clouds of ash into the air.

39

Do you think the Iceland natural disaster was a global problem? Why or why not?

40

Airports closed as volcanic ash drifts toward UK Plume of ash from erupting Iceland volcano grounds flights across Europe, affecting tens of thousands of passengers. By the afternoon of April 16, most of Europe's major airports - crucial hubs for international travelers - were closed. Thousands of flights were canceled, stranding or delaying millions of passengers across airports from North America to Asia. It was the worst peacetime air travel disruption in history, a nearly weeklong halt in flights that cost airlines hundreds of millions of dollars and raised questions about Europe's ability to respond coherently to a crisis.

41

Have you changed your opinion about the Iceland natural disaster? Why or why not?

42

How are they different from natural hazards?

Natural Disasters What are their effects?

When are they global problems?

43

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44

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060209 Lesson 9

Lesson 9: Why do the Effects of Natural Disasters Vary? Big Ideas of the Lesson

   

The effects of natural disasters vary from one country, or region, to another. This variance is due in part to risk factors that determine how serious the effects of natural disasters are in a certain place. These risk factors include susceptibility, lack of coping capabilities and lack of adaptive capacities. Developing countries are often very vulnerable to natural disasters because of these risk factors.

Lesson Abstract: In this lesson students explore why the effects of natural disasters vary from place to place. The lesson begins with a PowerPoint presentation in which students explore the risk factors of exposure, susceptibility, lack of coping capacities, lack of adaptive capacities and vulnerability. Students then analyze two ‘mystery’ countries and rate them on the risk factors. Finally, working in small groups students investigate and compare the effects of earthquakes in Japan and Haiti. Content Expectations: 6 – G2.1.2; C4.3.3 6 and 7 – G1.2.6; G2.2.2; G5.2.1 7 - C4.3.1 Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies: RH.6-8.1, 2 and 10; WHST.6-8.1, 7, 8, 9, and 10 Key Concepts global human vs. physical geography/features natural disasters natural hazards natural or physical processes region Teacher Notes:  A “Glossary” of terms has been created for lessons 7-9. This is located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 7).  Part of this lesson requires that students have access to the Internet for research (see Step 16). You may want to book a computer lab for this portion of the lesson. Lesson Sequence 1. Refer back to Lesson 8 by reviewing some of the effects of natural disasters. Display Slide 1 of the PowerPoint Presentation (Unit 2, Lesson 9) and pose the following question and ask students to answer it in their Global Investigator’s Notebook: Why might earthquakes of similar Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

Page 1 of 7 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060209 Lesson 9

strength have different results in two different countries? Give students time to think and write. Then, have them share ideas first in pairs and then in the large group. 2. Give each student a copy of the “PowerPoint Notes Pages 1 and 2” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 9) and display Slide 2. Ask students to read the quotation on the slide carefully and then summarize it in the appropriate box on their PowerPoint Notes (under #1). 3. Discuss the quotation with students using the following questions:  Why is the strength of a natural hazard not the only factor that determines the effects of the natural disaster it causes?  What is meant by the term ‘living conditions?’  Based on this quotation, what types of countries are likely to suffer more in natural disasters? Can you identify any countries specifically? Teacher Note: At this point, these questions are intended to reinforce students’ prior knowledge or identify any misconceptions they may have. Be sure to revisit these questions later on. 4. Display Slide 3 and explain that students will now investigate risk factors that impact the effects a natural disaster has on different countries and regions. Display Slide 4 and have students write the term “Exposure” in the correct box on their PowerPoint Notes (under #2). Discuss the question that relates to the risk indicator of exposure. Ask students what factors influence the degree to which a country is exposed to natural hazards. Discuss their responses. Then, display Slide 5 and discuss how exposure is mainly a function of the geography of a country or region. Have students describe this factor in the appropriate box on their PowerPoint Notes. 5. Provide students with a world map from a textbook, atlas or other source. Display Slide 6 and have students analyze the map and answer Question 3 on their PowerPoint Notes. Discuss the countries students have identified and point out other countries with a high degree of exposure to natural hazards such as Japan. Finally, guide students in identifying the exposure rating of the United States. 6. Ask students to take a careful look at the map again and answer Question 4 on their PowerPoint Notes. Teacher Note: This activity is designed to help develop the spatial perspective of students regarding the location of countries and regions. As such, you may find some students needing more assistance than others. Discuss the regions students have identified. Note that possible regions with a high exposure rating include: Central America and Southeast Asia. 7. Display Slide 7 and have students write the term “Susceptibility” in the correct box on their PowerPoint Notes (under #5). Give examples of the use of this term such as: Some people are more susceptible to colds than others. Some types of houses are more susceptible to fire than others. Discuss the question that relates to the risk indicator of susceptibility. 8. Ask students what factors impact the degree to which a country is susceptible to natural hazards. Discuss their responses. Then, display Slide 8 and discuss the factors relating to susceptibility. Explain that ‘public infrastructure’ relates to goods and services provided by Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060209 Lesson 9

government including hospitals, electricity, schools, roads, parks, a water supply, etc. Have students describe this factor in the appropriate box on their PowerPoint Notes. 9. Display Slide 9 and have students analyze the map and answer Question 6 on their PowerPoint Notes. Discuss the countries students have identified and point out other countries with a high degree of susceptibility to natural hazards such as Haiti. Finally, guide students in identifying the susceptibility rating of the United States. 10. Ask students to take a careful look at the map again and answer Question 7 on their PowerPoint Notes. Discuss the regions students have identified. Note that possible regions with a high exposure rating include: West Africa and East Africa. 11. Display Slides 10-17 using the same process applied in Steps 4-10 to investigate the risk factors of “coping capabilities,” “adaptive capacities,” and “vulnerability.” Teacher Note: Don’t let students get bogged down with the terminology of the PowerPoint. Help them concentrate on the concepts. For example, stress the idea of ‘coping’ with a natural disaster without getting bogged down by the term ‘coping capabilities.” 12. Use Slide 18 to summarize the risk indicators discussed in the PowerPoint presentation. 13. Place students in pairs and give each pair a copy of the “Comparing Two Countries” data sheets located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 9). Explain that partners should work together to analyze the data about each country and then make a list of significant differences between the two countries in their Global Investigator’s Notebooks. 14. Give students time to complete the activity and then give each pair a copy of the “Rating” sheet located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 9). Explain that students should rate the risk factors for Country A and B based on what they have discovered in their comparison of the two countries and support their rating with evidence. 15. Ask students to try and identify the two ‘mystery countries.’ Discuss student responses and then tell students that Country A is Japan and Country B is Haiti. Explain that there was a recent major earthquake in each of these countries and students will now work with a partner to investigate one of these earthquakes. 16. Create groups of four by putting together two pairs from the activity in Step 13. Assign one pair in each group to Haiti and the other to Japan. Give each pair a copy of the “Research Notes” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 9). Have students use the websites listed in the Student Resource section to investigate their assigned earthquake. 17. When the research is completed give each student a copy of the “Comparison Data” chart located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 9). Explain that pairs should share their research in their groups of four so that each student can fill out the Comparison Data chart. 18. As a culminating project have students plan and write an argument about the most significant reason why the earthquakes in Japan and Haiti had such different effects. Use the “Argument Writing Criteria and Guide” as well as the “Argument Map” located in the Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 9) to assist students in organizing their ideas. Students essays should Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060209 Lesson 9

include the following components:  Introduce a claim and distinguish it from alternative or opposing claims.  Organize the reasons and evidence logically.  Support the claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence using credible sources.  Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among the claims, reasons, and evidence.  Establish and maintain a formal style.  Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. Assessment The argument writing piece in Step 18 serves as the assessment for this lesson. If grading the writing for literacy standards, allow students time to peer-edit and revise their essays before grading.

Reference Section Content Expectations 6 and 7 Apply the skills of geographic inquiry (asking geographic questions, acquiring G1.2.6: geographic information, organizing geographic information, analyzing geographic information, and answering geographic questions) to analyze a problem or issue of importance to a region of the world. 6 – G2.1.2

Account for topographic and human spatial patterns associated with tectonic plates such as volcanoes, earthquakes, settlements by using information from GIS, remote sensing, and the World Wide Web.

6 and 7 G2.2.2

Explain that communities are affected positively and negatively by changes in technology.1

6 and 7 G5.2.1

Describe the effects that a change in the physical environment2 could have on human activities and the choices people would have to make in adjusting to the change.

6 – C4.3.3:

Give examples of how countries work together for mutual benefits through international organizations (e.g. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Organization of American States (OAS), United Nations (UN)).3

The sixth grade expectations’ examples include “Canada with regard to mining, forestry, hydroelectric power generation, agriculture, snowmobiles, cell phones, air travel.” The seventh grade expectation examples include “increased manufacturing resulting in rural to urban migration in China, increased farming of fish, hydroelectric power generation at Three Gorges, pollution resulting from increased manufacturing and automobiles).” They have been removed for the sake of clarity. 2 Although the expectation describes these as “changes to the physical environment,” the list includes both human and natural causes. It is important to distinguish natural disasters from man-made changes for students. 3 The examples in this expectation are unnecessarily limiting as they do not include non-governmental organizations such as the Red Cross. Moreover, NAFTA is a treaty, not an organization. 1

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

7 - C4.3.1:

SS060209 Lesson 9

Explain how governments address national issues and form policies, and how the policies may not be consistent with those of other countries (e.g., population pressures in China compared to Sweden; international immigration quotas, international aid, energy needs for natural gas and oil and military aid).

Common Core State Standards for Literacy for History/Social Studies RH.6-8.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. RH.6-8.2:

Determine the main ideas or information of a primary or a secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

RH.6-8.10:

By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

WHST.6-8.1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content, a. Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources. c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. d. Establish and maintain a formal style. e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. WHST.6-8.7: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. WHST.6-8.8: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. WHST.6-8.9: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. WHST.6-8.10: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. Instructional Resources Equipment/Manipulative Computers and Internet Access for Student Research Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060209 Lesson 9

Global Investigator’s Notebooks One world map per student from a textbook, atlas or printed copy Overhead projector or Document Camera/Projector Student Resource A student geography textbook such as Wiggins, Grant, et al. My World Geography: Boston, MA: Pearson, 2011. 2010 Haiti Earthquake. Wikipedia. 15 August 2013 . Fast Facts: Haiti Earthquake. Fox News. 15 August 2013 . Foreign Policy: The Shaky Inequality Of Earthquakes. National Public Radio. 23 September 2012 . Haiti: America’s Response to the Tragedy. 15 August 2013 . Haiti Earthquake 2010. Oxfam International. 15 August 2013 . Haiti Earthquake Facts and Figures. Disasters Emergency Committee. 15 August 2013 . Japan Earthquake Facts and Figures. Disaster Recovery Journal. 15 August 2013 . Japan Earthquake Key Facts and Figures. Washington Post. 15 August 2013 . Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Factbox. Telegraph. World News. 15 August 2013 . Voices: From Haiti to Japan. A Tale of Two Disaster Recoveries. Earth Magazine. 15 August 2013 . What a Difference a Government Makes: Japan’s Earthquake. Relief Web. 15 August 2013 . Teacher Resource Egbo, Carol. Supplemental Materials (Unit 2, Lesson 9). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012.

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS060209 Lesson 9

- - -. PowerPoint Presentation (Unit 2, Lesson 9). Teacher-made materials. Oakland Schools, 2012. World Risk Report 2011. United Nations University. 15 August 2013 .

Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

Page 7 of 7 August 15, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60209 Lesson 9

EXPOSURE

NATURAL DISASTER RISK FACTORS

LACK OF COPING CAPABILITIES

SUSCEPTIBILITY

LACK OF ADAPTIVE CAPACITIES

VULNERABILITY

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Page 1 of 14 August 20, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60209 Lesson 9

Big Idea Card Big Ideas of the Lesson 9, Unit 2



The effects of natural disasters vary from one country, or region, to another.



This variance is due in part to risk factors that influence how serious the effects of natural disasters are in a certain place.



These risk factors include susceptibility, lack of coping capabilities and lack of adaptive capacities.



Developing countries are often very vulnerable to natural disasters because of these risk factors.

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Page 2 of 14 August 20, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60209 Lesson 9

Word Cards Teacher Note: glossary of terms has been included for Lessons 7-9, and can be found in the Supplemental Materials for Lesson 7.

28 risk factors

29 exposure

a condition that influences the likelihood of an event

The condition of not being protected

Example: Living on a fault line is a risk factor for being involved in an earthquake.

Example: Exposure of more people to natural hazards makes it more likely that there will be natural disaster. (SS060209)

(SS060209)

30 coping

31 adapt

managing external and internal demands that tax or exceed the resources of the person

to change so as to fit a new situation

Example: People and communities have designed coping strategies in case of emergencies.

Example: People adapt to extreme weather by the types of clothes they wear and houses they construct. (SS060209)

(SS060209)

32 susceptibility

33 vulnerability

lack of ability to resist some outside force

the extent to which a country, area, community or structure risks being damaged by a disaster.

Examples: California’s strict building codes are designed to reduce the susceptibility to potential damage by earthquakes.

Example: The vulnerability of a place to a natural disaster depends on its risk factors, (SS060209) adaptive capacities and coping

(SS060209)

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60209 Lesson 9

34 developing country a non-modernized and poor country that has created an industrial base Example: People in developing countries like Haiti and Afghanistan have a lower standard of living than people in the United States. (SS060209)

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Page 4 of 14 August 20, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60209 Lesson 9

PowerPoint Notes – Page 1 1. Summarize the quotation:

2. Risk Factor

Question

A function of

How likely is it that an extreme natural hazard will occur?

3. What is one country at high risk for natural hazards?

4. What is one region at high risk for natural hazards?

5. Risk Factor

Question

A function of factors such as

What is the likelihood that a natural disaster will result in harm and damages?

6. What is one country that ranks very high in susceptibility?

7. What is one region that ranks very high in susceptibility?

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Page 5 of 14 August 20, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60209 Lesson 9

PowerPoint Notes, Page 2 8. Risk Factor

Question

A function of factors such as

To what extent are societies able to cope with severe and immediate disasters?

9. What is one country that ranks very high in lack of coping capacities?

10. What is one region that ranks very high in lack of coping capacities?

11. Risk Factor

Question

A function of factors such as

Does the society take precautionary measures against anticipated future natural hazards?

12. What is one country that ranks very high in lack of adaptive capacities?

13. What is one region that ranks very high in lack of adaptive capacities?

14. _____________________________ is the sum of susceptibility, lack of coping capacities and lack of adaptive capacities?

15. What are some countries and regions of the world that are most vulnerable to natural disasters?

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Page 6 of 14 August 20, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60209 Lesson 9

Comparing Two Countries Country A Area

377,915 sq km

27,750 sq km

slightly smaller than California

slightly smaller than Maryland

Climate

varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Terrain

mostly rugged and mountainous

mostly rough and mountainous

Natural Resources Land Use

negligible mineral resources, fish

bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower

GEOGRAPHY

Area: comparative

  

arable (able to be farmed) land: 11.64% permanent crops: 0.9% other: 87.46%

  

arable land: 28.11% permanent crops: 11.53% other: 60.36% (2005)

Natural Hazards

many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors but occasional severe earthquakes) every year; tsunamis; typhoons

lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment: Current Issues

air pollution from power plant emissions results in acid rain; acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and threatening aquatic life

extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water

127,368,000

9,801,664 (July 2012 est.)

0-14 years: 13.1% 15-64 years: 64% 65 years and over: 22.9%

0-14 years: 35.9% (male 1,748,677/female 1,742,199) 15-64 years: 60.1% (male

Birth Rate

8.39 births/1,000 population

23.87 births/1,000 population

Death Rate

9.15 deaths/1,000 population

8.1 deaths/1,000 population

Maternal Mortality Rate Infant Mortality Rate Life Expectancy

5 deaths/100,000 live births

350 deaths/100,000 live births

2.21 deaths/1,000 live births

52.44 deaths/1,000 live births

84 years

62.years

Physician Density Hospital Density

2.063 physicians/1,000 population

0.25 physicians/1,000 population

13.75 beds/1,000 population

1.3 beds/1,000 population

99%

52.9%

67%

52%

Population Age Structure

PEOPLE

Country B

Literacy (age 15 and over can read and write)

Urbanization

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Page 7 of 14 August 20, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60209 Lesson 9

ECONOMY

Country A $35,200

$1,300 (2011 est.)

4.6%

40.6% (2010 est.)

Population below poverty line

16%

revenues: $1.971 trillion expenditures: $2.495 trillion (2011 est.)

revenues: $1.485 billion expenditures: $1.658 billion (2011 est.)

Agriculture Products

rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; pork, poultry, dairy products, eggs;

coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood

Industries

among world's largest and technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, processed foods 937.6 billion kWh

textiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly based on imported parts

859.7 billion kWh

309 million kWh

$788 billion

$721.3 million

motor vehicles, semiconductors, iron and steel products, auto parts, plastic materials, power generating machinery $808.4 billion

apparel, manufactures, oils, cocoa, mangoes, coffee

Petroleum, liquid natural gas, clothing, semiconductors, coal, audio and visual apparatus

food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials

Reserves of Foreign Exchange and gold

$1.259 trillion

$1.341 billion

Debt

$2.719 trillion

$665.1 million

Telephones: Land lines

40.419 million

50,000 (2009)

Telephones: Mobile

121 million

4 million (2009)

Network Hosts

63.466 million

541 (2010)

Network Users

99.182 million

1 million (2009)

Airports

175

14 (2012)

Railways

27,182 km

---

1,210,251 km  paved: 973,234 km (includes 7,803 km of expressways)  unpaved: 237,017 km (2008)

total: 4,160 km  paved: 1,011 km  unpaved: 3,149 km

Electricity Production Electricity Consumption Value of Exports

Value of Imports Imports

COMMUNICATION

80% (2003 est.)

Budget

Exports

TRANSPORTATION

Country B

Per Capita Income Unemployment Rate

Roads

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650 million kWh

$3.352 billion

Page 8 of 14 August 20, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60209 Lesson 9

Rating Activity Very Low Low Medium High Very High COUNTRY A RATING

Why?

RATING

Why?

Exposure Susceptibility Lack of Coping Capabilities Lack of Adaptive Capacities Vulnerability

COUNTRY B Exposure Susceptibility Lack of Coping Capabilities Lack of Adaptive Capacities Vulnerability

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Page 9 of 14 August 20, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60209 Lesson 9

Research Notes Country Date Magnitude Epicenter

Aftershocks

Tsunami

# killed #injured # left homeless Damage

Early Response

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60209 Lesson 9

Rescue and Relief Efforts

Recovery

Status of the Recovery

Disaster Risk Reduction after the earthquake

Other important information

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Page 11 of 14 August 20, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60209 Lesson 9

Comparison Data Japan

Haiti

Date Magnitude Aftershocks

Tsunami # killed #injured # left homeless

Damage

Early Response

Rescue and Relief Efforts

Recovery

Status of the Recovery

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Page 12 of 14 August 20, 2013

6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60209 Lesson 9

Argument Writing Criteria and Guide

1. Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. My claim is:

2. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources. The best evidence that supports my claim includes:

3. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. The reasons why each piece of evidence supports my claim:   

4. Establish and maintain a formal style. 5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. Michigan Citizenship Collaborative Curriculum Copyright © 2010-2014 by Oakland Schools

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6th Grade Social Studies: World Geography and Global Issues Unit 2: The World in Spatial Terms

SS60209 Lesson 9

Argument Map

Claim: A position that a person advances and offers to maintain by argument. A statement taking a position on an issue with reasons.

Subclaim 1: An argument or claim, which supports the overall claim (e.g., coping capabilities).

Evidence 1

Subclaim 2: An argument or claim, which supports the overall thesis (e.g., susceptibility).

Subclaim 3: An argument or claim, which supports the overall thesis (e.g., adaptive capacities.

Evidence 3

Evidence 2

1a: Fact or reference used as evidence to support subclaim.

2a: Fact or reference used as evidence to support subclaim.

3a: Fact or reference used as evidence to support subclaim.

1b: Fact or reference used as evidence to support subclaim.

2b: Fact or reference used as evidence to support subclaim.

3b: Fact or reference used as evidence to support subclaim.

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Page 14 of 14 August 15, 2013

Why do the Effects of Natural Disasters Vary? Unit 2, Lesson 9

1

Whether an earthquake or a tsunami, a hurricane or a flood, the risk that a natural event will develop into a disaster depends only partially on the strength of the event itself. A substantial cause lies in the living conditions of people in the affected regions and the opportunities to quickly respond and help. Those who are prepared and who know what to do during an extreme natural event have higher survival chances. --World Risk Report 2011.

2

Natural Disasters:

Indicators of Risk

3

EXPOSURE How likely is it that an extreme natural hazard will occur?

4

EXPOSURE is a function of the geographic features of an area.

5

6

SUSCEPTIBILITY What is the likelihood that a natural disaster will result in harm and damages?

7

SUSCEPTIBILITY is a function of the public infrastructure, housing conditions, nutrition and the general economic framework of a country. 8

9

COPING CAPABILITIES To what extent are societies able to cope with severe and immediate disasters?

10

COPING CAPABILITIES are the function of governance, disaster preparedness and early warning, medical services, social and economic security.

11

12

ADAPTIVE CAPACITIES Does the society take precautionary measures against anticipated future natural hazards? 13

ADAPTIVE CAPACITIES are the function of factors such as education and research, environmental status, ecosystem protection, and investments. 14

15

VULNERABILITY the sum of susceptibility, lack of coping capacities, and lack of adaptive capacities.

16

17

EXPOSURE

NATURAL DISASTER RISK FACTORS

LACK OF COPING CAPABILITIES

SUSCEPTIBILITY

LACK OF ADAPTIVE CAPACITIES

VULNERABILITY

18

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19