Social Studies Review - California Council for the Social Studies

Social Studies Review - California Council for the Social Studies

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Non-Profit Organization U.S. Postage Paid Permit No. 1 Whittier, CA

Social Studies Review

Social Studies Review California Council for the Social Studies 2710 Alpine Blvd. Ste. O, Box 425 Alpine, CA 91901

Social Studies Review

Journal of the California Council for the Social Studies

Measuring Student Performance in Social Studies 2015-16 Volume 54

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How do we Measure Student Performance in Social Studies? Annual Issue 2015-16 Volume 54

2/11/16 10:10 AM

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Table of Contents

Accountability & Social Studies Annual Issue 2015-16

Theme Introduction: Rationale for Districts and Teachers to Use Social Studies Performances for Local Control Accountability Plans

pages 4-6

Getting Specific: Reporting History-Social Science Student Outcomes and In Specific Metrics

pages 7-9

Measurable Performance Activity Models

pages 10-18

LCAP and Student Outcomes for College, Career, and Civic Life

pages 19-26

Common Core ELA and Measurable Student Outcomes for LCAP Tried and True Models: National History Day

pages 27-30

Rubrics for Measurable Performances: Why and How to Use Them

pages 31-38

Social Studies Curriculum Units and Measurable Performance Activities for Elementary Grades

pages 39-47

From Goal to LCAP Report: An Elementary Model Unit

pages 48-57

Social Studies Curriculum Units and Measurable Performance Activities for Middle School

pages 58-73

Social Studies Curriculum Units and Measurable Performance Activities for High School

pages 74-91

Units That Illustrate Measurable Performance

pages 92-107

How to Make Social Stiudies Measurable Performance Activities LCAP Reportable

pages 108-109

Organizations and other Sources of Lessons, Units, and Resources

pages 110-126

Appendices

pages 127-131

Elementary Review by Priscilla H. Porter Living the Past

pages 132-138

Middle School Review by George Sabato Slavery: An Enduring Tragic Story

pages 139-145

High School Review by Gary Kroesch Content, Curiosity, and Relationships

pages 146-149

Social Studies Review 2015-16

1

California Council for the Social Studies Executive Committee and Staff

President

Martha Infante

President Elect First Vice President Denisha Connet

[email protected] [email protected]

Southern Area

Vice President

Vice President

Vice President

Avi Black

Mary Janzen

[email protected]

[email protected]

Region 1 Director

Region 5 Director

Whitney Olson

Maryann Haggerty

Region 9 Director Cheryl Rehome

[email protected]

Region 2 Director

Region 6 Director

Cricket Kidwell

Stella Estrada

Richard Pauly

[email protected]

[email protected]

Region 7 Director Brinkley Abercrombie

[email protected]

Justin Paredes

[email protected]

Region 10 Director Maureen Johnson

[email protected]

Katherine Rand

[email protected]

Region 11 Director Ruth Luevanos

[email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected]

Gina Nelson

Region 4 Director Ayisha Benham

Region 8 Director

Keldon Clegg

[email protected]

[email protected]

2

Tracy Middleton

[email protected]

Region 3 Director



[email protected]

Central Area

[email protected]



[email protected]

Amanda Roraback

Northern Area

[email protected]



Natalie Wojinski

Past President

Rebecca Valbuena

Kyle Wylie

[email protected]

Social Studies Review 2015-16

Legislative Analyst Fred Jones [email protected]

Journal of the California Council for the Social Studies Annual Issue 2015-16

Volume 54

Editorial Staff Social Studies Review Editor Guest Editor Publications & Technology Chair

Emily M. Schell, Ed.D. Jim Hill Blake Day

Column Editors Elementary Review Middle School Review High School Review

Priscilla H. Porter, Ed.D. George Sabato Gary Kroesch

Advertising

Laurie M. Mosier

Publications & Technology Committee Sunburst Co-Editors Occasional Papers Editor Tech Blogger Twitter Lead Members

Leslie Smith, Laurie M. Mosier Maggie Beddow, Ph.D. Elizabeth Ramos Martha Infante Whitney Olson, Keldon Clegg, Christopher Lewis

The Social Studies Review is published for members of the California Council for the Social Studies and is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of information and opinions on current theory, research, and classroom practices of interest to educators. The views expressed in the journal do not necessarily reflect or imply endorsement by CCSS, its officers, or its members. Articles published in the Social Studies Review become the copyright property of CCSS. Authors and other parties wishing to reprint articles must obtain permission from the editor. The Social Studies Review (ISSN 1056-6325) is the official journal of the California Council for the Social Studies and is published once a year. The current annual membership fee is $60 (regular membership) or $35 (student or retired membership). Address all communications about membership and subscriptions to: Laurie Mosier, Executive Director, 2710 Alpine Blvd. Ste. O, Box 425, Alpine, CA 91901; [email protected], (760) 4108325. Visit the CCSS website at ccss.org for more information. Editorial comments, articles, or copyright reprint requests should be sent to Emily Schell, Social Studies Review Editor, [email protected] The Social Studies Review is listed with Academic Publishing Journal, Current Index to Journals in Education, Pro-Quest Research Database, and Bower International Serial Database.

[email protected]

Executive Director Laurie M. Mosier

The Social Studies Review

Social Studies Review Editor Emily M. Schell [email protected]

Contact Laurie Mosier for advertising in the journal. Current rates: full page $300; 1/2 page $225; 1/4 page $125. Copyright 2016 The California Council for the Social Studies Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Theme Introduction

Rationale for Districts and Teachers to Use Social Studies Performance for Local Control Accountability Plans by Jim Hill, Guest Editor Mr. Hill served as a history teacher and administrator at several southern California high schools. He was the 1984 Los Angeles County Teacher of the Year. Jim has provided leadership in many areas of History-Social Science, including evaluative and analytical writing, and assessment and accountability. In 2001, he joined the educational administration faculty at CSU San Bernardino where he teacher prospective administrators. Jim served as the CCSS Governmental Relations Committee Chair for many years and continues his service as Chair Emeritus. The new Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) method of school finance has changed the way K-12 education is funded in California. Districts and schools will now have to report in specified ways how some of their funding is used to improve student achievement and engagement. This can impact all students as well as targeted English learners, socio-economically disadvantaged, educationally disadvantaged, foster youth, and homeless youth. The goals of LCFF are to enhance and improve the quality of teaching and learning locally, and to focus in particular on helping students become college and career ready. Student outcomes from measurable social studies performance activities can be used by districts as evidence that they are meeting their reporting requirements. The California Council for the Social Studies is providing here a number of social studies performance/active learning activities in history, geography, economics, and civics, or a mix of several of these disciplines, using content and skills from the: • California History-Social Science Standards, • California Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical 4

Social Studies Review 2015-16

Subjects, • 21st Century Skills for College and Career Readiness, • College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards, and • Next Generation Science Standards. Oriented around college and career readiness, these are learning activities that districts can use to meet their specific achievement goals as defined by the requirements of the Local Control Accountability Plan (LCAP). Districts would report achievement results as specified in this issue as part of their annual LCAP report. In many cases professional development can be supported with LCFF funding to help educators expand their knowledge and skills to effectively implement these activities. Various organizations, including non-profit and state funded, offer professional development opportunities to help teachers increase content knowledge and improve their practices to improve student learning in the classroom. The California Council for the Social Studies supports active, inquiry-driven, and performance based learning. When students do social studies performance

activities they practice skills and knowledge from various social studies disciplines. Students learn democracy and citizen roles by doing them and by engaging with significant issues. Doing social studies in this way provides for the practice and performance of English Language Arts Common Core Standards and in particular the College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards in Common Core. When students apply the design of the Inquiry Arc of the College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards in these activities they are also learning how to be engaged citizens. Teachers are encouraged to bring these measurable performance activities to the attention of their LCAP committees, and to show how in many cases one activity can meet a variety of goals. In addition students will be learning skills that are tested on the new state tests administered by Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC). Within this issue are • major performance activities that span several weeks or months and have a full range of materials for districts to use, • units of study that have performance activities added or suggested, • rubrics for different types of performance activities, with similar criteria and scaling, • formative assessment activities based on units of study, • organizational models of performance activities that could be created locally, • descriptions of organizations with websites that have additional units to which performance activities can be added, and • contact information about professional development opportunities offered by organizations. This is not a comprehensive collection of social studies activities, but rather a starting point from which districts and teachers may work. The essential idea is that districts can meet many of their LCAP requirements through measurable social studies performance activities. A quick review of this new funding and accountability system provides an overview. The next two articles explain and demonstrate the process in detail. The articles provide specific ways student outcomes in measurable social studies performance activities can be reported in various priority area metrics.

An example from a major (4-5 week) unit of study for Grade 5 on Native Americans is featured next in the issue. This elementary example lists relevant standards, describes several culminating measurable performance activity options, and explains how results can be reported. Several multi-month measurable social studies performance activities are in the article that follows. These activities have an abundance of materials. Created as contests, they can be adapted for use at grade level, school, or district. The next article includes several measurable performance activity models that can be added to social studies units as culminating activities in which students practice skills. For example, they could write persuasive essays, participate in formal debate, enact and reenact conferences and hearings, and make projects. This article includes directions on how to select, employ, and measure results in activities. Following that is a section containing rubrics for descriptive writing, persuasive writing in social studies, debate, conference, and display projects. These make the performance activities measureable and LCAP reportable. All rubrics are conceptually similar and have a 5-point scale, necessary for reporting consistency and comparability among activities as well as year-to-year comparisons. Then come five articles featuring Elementary, Middle, High School, and Middle and High School Curricular Units, each with illustrative units of study with measureable performance activities added. These units have activities from most of the social studies disciplines of civics, economics, geography, and history. Most activities include a list of standards addressed in History-Social Science, both content and skills, Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts, and the Career, College and Citizenship (C3) Framework disciplinary skills. Some activities include references to the Partnership for 21st Century Skills Framework. Each activity includes specific references to data that could be included in a district or school report on the appropriate State Priority Areas. Some of these units can be restructured into measureable performance activities. The next article describes a number of organizations that have additional major social studies curriculum units; many of these organizations offer professional development in both content and skills, and contact information is included. Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Additional articles and appendices include scaffolding help for students. Guides show how to analyze a document. An explanation is included on how to engage students in persuasive essay writing. There is a brief listing of additional resources for materials, especially documents, that could be used in activities. It is the hope of the California Council for the Social Studies that teachers and districts use these activities to enhance social studies education, meet Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts, and provide measurable evidence of achievement and engagement.

From the Editor

Change and Opportunity are Here by Emily M. Schell, Ed.D. There is nothing permanent except change. -- Heraclitus Change seems to be a constant in the field of education. We teach in a new world of curriculum and pedagogy guided by Common Core State Standards, Next Generation Science Standards, a new ELA/ELD Framework, P21 Framework, C3 Framework, and a pending new California History-Social Science Framework. We assess student learning through the California Assessment of Student Performance and Progress, which includes Smarter Balanced, CST for Science, some alternative assessments, and look forward to new state plans for assessments in History-Social Science. And we now manage school funding and accountability through Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) and Local Control Accountability Plans (LCAP). With change comes opportunity. As Social Studies educators, we should see these changes as golden opportunities to band together, educate ourselves, and promote our discipline as vital for every student -every young citizen -- in California. Longtime educator and History-Social Science leader Jim Hill has been following closely the changing policies and practices of LCFF and LCAP. With the heart of a Social Studies educator, he kept asking the question, “What does this mean for History-Social Science?” There were many answers, even more questions, and lots of moving parts as some policies remained in draft form for some time. Statewide committees discussed, reviewed, debated, edited, and decided. Some decisions were postponed, but that did not keep Jim from moving forward with plans to create this issue of 6

Social Studies Review 2015-16

the Social Studies Review with a focus on how LCAP can support Social Studies education. As Jim started to put together this issue together, we had no idea what this would “look like” because his vision was very different from the typical issue of this journal. Rather than solicit articles from scholars and practitioners with expertise in the issue’s theme, Jim reached out to educators who have been doing good work in curriculum development, professional development, and student assessment in our disciplinary field. He had lots of discussions and brought together many examples, samples, models, and resources for us to use in improving the way we meet the state’s eight LCAP priorities. Therefore, you will not see our usual line-up of articles written by various authors presenting different perspectives on a theme. You will see the names of contributors embedded in the readings, or articles. Some contributors are classroom teachers, some are curriculum specialists, and some are organizations. Jim’s ability to weave these ideas, models, programs, and resources together is commendable.

Getting Specific: Reporting History-Social Science Student Outcomes and In Specific Metrics Student outcomes from performance activities can be reported in a large number of the Eight State Priority Areas’ specific measures, or metrics. District Local Control Funding Formula plans can use History-Social Science activities in their planning to meet the goals of many of the metrics. In some cases, district plans would need, and are encouraged, to add definitions and criteria to metrics or make their own metrics. These are called local determination or specific to individual districts. Many social studies activities could be used as ways to meet local requirements. The state priorities for LCAP and LCAP reporting are grouped into three categories: conditions of learning, pupil outcomes, and engagement. Each district (or school in some cases) must at minimum report on each of the listed metrics for each priority. Districts and schools are encouraged to go beyond this minimum, and required updates to each LCAP along with the long term implementation schedule makes clear the legislative intent to have districts go much further than the minimum in their LCAP reports.

In fact, Jim’s commitment to developing this issue is praiseworthy. His patience with this editor as we confronted a variety of challenges in producing this issue is greatly appreciated.

Some priority areas (School Climate, Priority 6) require districts to add metrics. Others (Pupil Engagement, Priority 5) allow for additional metrics. Others (Pupil Achievement, Priority 4) have metrics that districts have to clarify in their plans. For example, “share of pupils that are college and career ready.” The College and Career Readiness Standards in Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Language are directly addressed in many social studies units and activities. Student outcomes from these activities can be submitted as evidence of progress in meeting those standards.

Now, it’s our turn. To come together, learn more about how we can lead our schools and districts in meeting LCAPs that embrace Social Studies education for all students, and get to work making a difference. We can embrace change and seize the opportunity to do so. Or we can continue to complain that nobody cares about Social Studies.

The LCAP plan could state that both the number and percentage of all students, and also of each specified subgroup of students, will improve their persuasive writing skills, one of the college and career readiness skills. This could be shown by both the number and percentage of all students and of each specified subgroup of students achieving proficient or above in a

judgment writing rubric used a number of times for projects during a school year. The rubric itself would be included in the LCAP report appendix. Other readiness skills are speaking and listening, and language. An LCAP plan could state that the number and percentage of students will improve both their speaking/listening and language skills, as defined in the anchor standards, and report scores on a debate/ discussion rubric. The legislation says that reports can be narrative and descriptive as well as numerical. In some cases a narrative could be added to a numerical report. For example, the average improvement over the course of a school year on a writing rubric used all year could be accompanied by the rubric itself and a brief description of prompts and assignments to which students responded. Such a report would fit in the achievement priority 4 as well as in the outcomes in priority 8. Brief and simple parent surveys asking about their sense of their children’s interest and enthusiasm for performance activities can be sent home and gathered in ways such surveys are normally communicated to parents. The results can be reported under the school connectedness metric in priority 6. Some social studies performance activities have many parts and sections as well as a final score or final report. National History Day is one of these. A secondary school in which a History Day Project was its first semester final exam in History Social Science classes, for example, could have its LCAP report include the score averages (means and standard deviations) on the final History Day judging rubric as well as the averages of scores on the various sections of the project. These could be reported as showing implementation of state academic content and English language development metrics of priority 2, pupil achievement in the college and career readiness metric for priority 4, and also the pupil outcomes in History-Social Science as well as Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Language Arts in priority 8.

Section B. Pupil Outcomes:

Districts can develop parent and student surveys asking about interest, enthusiasm, enjoyment of performance activities, and add a metric to that effect under Priority 5. Survey results could be included in the survey results for that required metric under priority 6.

Pupil Achievement: performance on standardized tests, score on Academic Performance Index, share of pupils that are college and career ready, share of English learners that become English proficient, English learner reclassification rate, share of pupils that pass Advanced Placement exams with 3 or higher, share of pupils determined prepared for college by the Early Assessment Program. (Priority 4) Other pupil outcomes: pupil outcomes in the subject areas described in Education Code section 51210 and subdivisions (a) to (i), inclusive, of Education Code section 51220, as applicable. (Priority 8)

In addition, some social studies units included here are comprised of a number of individual lessons and activities. The average of scores on rubrics judging writing, performances, discussions, projects, of each of the lessons comprising the unit could be used as the LCAP report, in each of the metrics mentioned above. All the performance activities included in this issue, if developed in California or for California specifically, list History-Social Science State Standards as well as California Common Core English Language Arts Standards addressed in the activity. Standards addressed are included in the activity description. Some go further and include College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework, released by the National Council for the Social Studies, listed as well; a few include the 21st Century Skills (Partnership for 21st Century Learning) criteria. An LCAP report could include these as part of the response to the standards aligned criteria in Priority 2 and Priority 7. Each performance activity included in this issue can report for specific LCAP metrics as described below. The Priority Areas are listed here in the order they are listed in the Education Code section above. I) Metrics listed under State Priority Areas that History-Social Science outcomes fit, as listed in the same order as in the Education Code section: Section A. Conditions of Learning: Implementation of State Standards: implementation of academic content and performance standards and English language development standards adopted by the state board for all pupils, including English learners. (Priority 2) Course access: pupil enrollment in a broad course of study that includes all subject areas described in Education Code section 51210 and subdivisions (a) to (i), inclusive, of Section 51220, as applicable. (Priority 7) 8

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Section C. Engagement: Parental involvement: efforts to seek parent input in decision making at the district and each school site, promotion of parent participation in programs for unduplicated pupils and special need subgroups. (Priority 3) Pupil engagement: school attendance rates, chronic absenteeism rates, middle school dropout rates, high school dropout rates, high school graduations rates. (Priority 5) School climate: pupil suspension rates, pupil expulsion rates, other local measures including surveys of pupils, parents and teachers on the sense of safety and school connectedness. (Priority 6) II) Specific data and evidence for the metrics; data collection is common to most activities and units included in this issue. Each category listed below would be included under the appropriate metric as evidence of working toward that metric’s goal. Noting that the state provided metrics are minimums, the evidence metrics listed below speak directly to performance, to analytical skills, and to real student engagement. Pupil Achievement (Priority 4): Evidence Averages (means, standard deviations) of student scores on writing rubrics, on a scale of 1-5. When the same rubric is used over the course of a year, comparison of means gives a picture of growth. Averages of student scores on debate or public speaking rubrics, in activities including those performances.

Student score averages (means and standard deviations) of History Social Science academic content knowledge from locally developed student tests, if such is included in the activity. Qualitative information: Description of student activity, of learning results on rubrics, explanations of rubrics. Pupil Engagement (Priority 5): Evidence Results from student surveys at the end of the activity asking about participation, interest in the activity. Attendance rates during the time the activity is being used; also compared to attendance rates prior to time period activity was used. Other Pupil Outcomes (Priority 8): Evidence Averages of progress grades during the course of a school year in the History-Social Science category, or specific class. Score averages on group performance (conference, debate, speech, or congressional hearing) activity rubrics. Qualitative information: Narrative about connection of activities to SBAC test scores in ELA; how doing the activities is test preparation for performance items on SBAC tests. Parental Involvement (Priority 3): Evidence Numbers of parents attending evening/afternoon activity explanations sessions. Summaries from parent surveys about their children’s reactions to the activity; summary would be included in appendix to the LCAP report. Implementation of State Standards (Priority 2) Reference writing, reading standards addressed in History-Social Science, CCSS-ELA standards for each activity used. Score averages on writing, reading rubrics, related to History-Social Science skills, CCSS-ELA and CCSSELA in social studies standards.

Qualitative narrative giving overview of the whole unit, and including the following section from Ed Code 51210: “The adopted course of study for grades 1 to 6, inclusive, shall include instruction, beginning in grade 1 and continuing through grade 6, in the following areas of study:…. (c): Social sciences, drawing upon the disciplines of anthropology, economics, geography, history, political science, psychology, and sociology, designed to fit the maturity of the pupils. Instruction shall provide a foundation for understanding the history, resources… of California and the United States of America…the relations of persons to their human and natural environment, eastern and western cultures and civilizations….” Evidence is listing of the History-Social Science, ELA standards or P21, C3 frameworks and definitions addressed in the specific activity. Pupil Engagement (Priority 5): Evidence Attendance and tardy rates during the period of the activity, in each classroom doing the activity; compared to the whole school during the same period; compared to classrooms not doing the activity; compared to schools in the district not doing the activity. Parent survey responses to questions about their children’s interest in the activity. Pupil survey responses to questions about the activity and about learning by doing the activity. School Climate (Priority 6): Evidence Evidence from same surveys in Priority 5, including questions about interest in activity. Pupil discipline rates in classrooms during the period of the activity; compared to discipline rates for the school as a whole; compared to classrooms not doing the activity; compared to schools not doing the activity.

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Measurable Performance Activity Models This article presents a number of measurable performance and simulation types of activities that can be added to social studies units of study that do not have them. Some units of study printed or referenced in this issue often do not have final measurable performance activities, in which students participate in a debate, create and make presentations, engage in simulated trials or conferences, or make a display presentation. In such cases, one or more of the activity models here can be added as a summative activity, as was done in the American Indian model unit article. The article about organizations contains some descriptions and website sources for more social studies units; some are performance activities and some are not. Whichever, extending a unit into a measurable performance activity has the students use content they just studied. In some cases, the units can be recast into measurable performance activities: different student groups can research a part of the activity and report in a conference or a Congressional hearing activity. Students can be assigned to make display projects on all or part of the unit. Almost always students can be given a persuasive essay prompt, and these can be formulated as regular essays, letters to a newspaper editor, a political speech, a radio talk show; many possibilities exist. Rubric score averages for all students and all specified subgroups can then be reported in LCAP metrics, as explained and illustrated in the ‘How to Report’ article. Rubrics for each model are in the ‘General Rubric’ article. Organizations that created these models are explained and referenced in the article listing History Social Science/Social Studies organizations that have units. The Congressional Hearing Model This model consists of a Committee Hearing Panel that listens to testimony from interested persons (groups of students) on a specific subject. Groups can be assigned to represent specific interest groups, lobbying groups, political parties, and so on. Each group does its research and then makes a presentation to the Con10

Social Studies Review 2015-16

gressional Hearing Committee. The Committee panel members then ask questions of the persons giving testimony. Each committee panel member is also assigned a particular role and perspective, so as to have a frame of reference for developing questions. The Committee panel members then vote on the issues of the specific subject. Each panel member writes an individual position paper describing why the member voted the way they did. Each person writes a position paper advancing and supporting their testimony. In a classroom: An issue/topic is determined. Groups are formed to support specific recommendations on the issue. A committee panel is selected, or is the teacher. Note that the teacher would need to present a decision paper to the class. In a school: Whole classes become the supporters of specific recommendations. Spokespersons for each class are selected to give testimony. In a school wide activity, the Hearing Panel is composed of all the teachers of participating classes; each teacher would present a decision paper to the classes. Applications: This model can be used for contemporary issues as well as historical ones, and can deal with any number of types of issues, from recommendations on dealing with the current California drought, to simulated recommendations for settling a past war, for recommending ways to increase energy efficiency, for ways to deal with fiscal crisis. If desired, a school wide class competition can be created with this model. The Model United Nations Conference Model This model is based on conferences and debates held in the General Assembly and Security Council of the United Nations. Designed as a contest among school teams, it can also be modified and used as a grade level conference or an inter-school grade level conference.

Groups of students (teams in a class, whole classes, whole grade levels) are assigned specific nations or recognized groups without a state (e.g., the Palestinian Authority). Each team then makes presentations and answers questions in the simulated General Assembly about current views and positions. Each team must defend its positions against sometimes hostile opponents and try to convince General Assembly members to support their viewpoint by voting for resolutions the team introduces. This model can be used to create an activity whenever a number of participants are to propose and debate ideas about a significant issue, and try to convince each other of their view. This conference model can be used for a number of activity applications: For example, each state delegation to the United States Congress in 1860 could present proposals aimed at preventing the looming secession crisis. Congress debates each proposal. Background for such an activity can be gained by having students first complete the Civil War unit posted by the California History-Social Science Project (see ‘Social Studies Curriculum Units for Middle School’ article) and doing additional background research in sources listed in that unit. Any number of international peace treaty simulations can use this model; reenacting the Versailles Conference of 1919 helps students understand the failure of that peace treaty. Simulations can also be created. For example, a conference among the major players in the Israeli-Palestinian controversy will bring out the perspectives and complexities of that situation as well. The Project Citizen (Center for Civic Education) and Civic Action Project (Constitutional Rights Foundation) Models Each of these models has students work as a class (or all the students in one grade level at a school) to determine a local issue of concern to the school or community. Students in groups research various aspects of the issue. They then determine what solution(s) they would like to pursue. They next research what governmental body is empowered to enact that solution. Finally, the students create a multimedia presentation, and make that presentation to the decision makers. In many cases, this is the city council, or the local school

board. It could be a water district, a local fire control district, etc. A persuasive essay requirement could be added to this model, having each student write about why they think their solution will positively impact the issue. The presentation and project rubrics, which are found in the ‘General Rubrics’ article, can be used for assessment. This can be especially useful for English learners who need oral language practice and development. See the Constitutional Rights Foundation and Center for Civic Education’s listings in the article on organizations that have units and activities for a detailed explanation of the Civic Action Project and Project Citizen activities, respectively. San Marino High School and California Council of the Social Studies High School Teacher of the Year Peter Paccone has added some modifications. He also includes how-to steps. Created for 12th grade students, this activity project could be easily moved into many grade levels. Rubrics to use would depend on the form of the final project. Paccone’s overview is: Project Description

Interest Group Interest Group is a project in which students start off the year by forming an “interest group” of 3-5 members and spend the rest of the semester working to: 1. Propose some way to improve their community (school, district, city, county, state, and/or nation) by calling for either: • The creation of new public policy • The modification of existing public policy • The elimination of existing public policy • The enforcement of existing public policy • The use of existing public policy to leverage change 2. Engage in as many “civic actions” as possible, with the goal of each civic action to get the students to take a step in the direction of the proposed improvement. Interest Group is primarily designed for 12th grade students enrolled in a semester long U.S. Government course and is modeled after the Constitutional Rights Foundation’s Civic Action Project (CAP). Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Interest Group has been created with the full knowledge and support of Constitutional Rights Foundation and its executive director Marshall Croddy. One might even say that Interest Group is CAP, except for a rewording of the title and five very significant adaptations. CAP, according to the CRF website, “Is a projectbased learning opportunity designed to provide students with a chance to apply what they have learned to the real world and impact an issue that matters to them.” The full project design and explanations are at:
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to the two sides will help students develop multiple perspectives. (In my classes, I allow two students of the same debate to switch with each other if both are in agreement). • Each person has a role on the team and each is responsible for a specific presentation. The presentations are timed. When time is called, the person may complete their sentence but must stop at that point. Classroom Procedures • All students will participate in one formal debate (on various topics). The debates may be scheduled for different days over the course of a semester or a unit or a teacher may decide to have all groups present in one day. • There are numerous formats but the following modified Lincoln-Douglas format is a good fit for classroom use. Each debate will have two groups of students representing the FOR (affirmative) and AGAINST (negative) teams and students are randomly assigned affirmative or negative. Each team is provided with appropriate preparation time to gather and organize their facts and argumentation. • Debating students will be individually scored 0-12 points on the Debate Rubric. Non-debating class members will score each debate and earn participation points for their score sheets (this reinforces student understanding of the use of evidence, logic, reasoning, and persuasive argumentation). • Students assigned the roles of cross-examination will need to anticipate the argument(s) of the opposing team and develop questions in advance but those may be modified as they hear the opening arguments. The rebuttal and conclusion should also be prepared in advance but may also be modified or adjusted as the debate is in progress. • Classroom set up: Students are seated at facing (or angled) tables by teams. Place placards in front of the students labeled: Affirmative A, Affirmative B, Affirmative C, Negative D, Negative E, Negative F; Designate one student (not on the teams) as a timekeeper who holds up a card for the 1 minute remaining and TIME for the end. The presenting student may complete his/her sentence and then stop. Lincoln-Douglas Debate and Variations for Teams The Lincoln-Douglas (or L-D) debate focused on discussion of diverse positions of ethical values or policies and were presented in a persuasive manner. The famed debates between senatorial candidates Abraham

Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas in the 1850s inspired the name and format for this style of debate. The typical L-D is a one-on-one debate but in this modified version, students in teams of 3 will argue for the Affirmative or the Negative. The constructive arguments set forth the premise, the reasoning, and the evidence. The cross-examination by the opposite team is based on a series of questions that are used to show weak reasoning, unsubstantiated evidence, or unsupported conclusions. The rebuttal is a response back to the opposing team to reaffirm the position with logic, evidence, and/or examples. The conclusion speeches are the final statement of the position and the reasoning. The following is an example of a format for three students but this format can be adjusted in multiple ways to accommodate 2-5 students per team. For teams of three, the speeches and time limits are as follows: For teams of three students: Affirmative Team: Students A, B, and C Negative Team: Students D, E, and F Order of Presentation: 1. Affirmative Constructive

Student: Affirmative Team Student A

Time Limit: 4 minutes

2. Negative Constructive

Negative Team Student D

4 minutes

3. Cross-Examination of Affirmative by Negative

Negative Team Student E to Affirmative Team Student A

3 minutes

4. Cross-Examination of Negative by Affirmative

Affirmative Team Student B to Negative Team Student D

3 minutes

5. Negative Rebuttal

Affirmative Team Student E

2 minutes

6. Affirmative Rebuttal

Negative Team Student B

2 minutes

7. Affirmative Conclusion

Affirmative Team Student C

4 minutes

8. Negative Conclusion

Negative Team Student F

4 minutes

Sample Debate Topics • Topic: Patriotism Statement: Teaching patriotism should be a school requirement. • Topic: Privacy Statement: The right to privacy outweighs the right of the federal government to collect personal information from cell phones and electronic devices. • Topic: Individual Gun Rights Statement: The 2nd Amendment allows for anyone in the United States to own a gun. • Topic: School Prayer Statement: Schools should allow for students or groups of students who request time for school prayer during regular school hours. • Topic: Teaching about War Statement: Children can benefit from learning about war, even in the early grades. For final summative evaluation and scoring that is LCAP reportable, see the Debate Rubric in the general rubrics article. Social Studies Review 2015-16

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1. Organization & Clarity: Main arguments and responses are outlined in a clear and orderly way. Information and evidence build upon previous statements. Presentation reflects group collaboration and team work.

Developing (1 point) Unclear and disorganized throughout;

Proficient (3 points) Completely clear and orderly presentation;

Organization and Content and Info Clarity (Score 1-3) (Score 1-3)

Argumentation/ Defense (Score 1-3)

Presentation Style (Score 1-3)

Total Score

1. 2.

4. 5.

2. Content and Information Content information is well researched, verified by multiple sources, and presented as evidence and justification.

Small amounts of content and information given throughout

Reasonable Excellent content content and and information information given given throughout throughout

3. Use of Argumentation and Defense: Reasons and evidence are given to support the resolution. Key arguments are effectively disputed against the opposing team’s arguments. Ability to defend with reasoning and logic;

Few real arguments, and key points are unsupported; Ineffective use of logic and reasoning

Some sound arguments given, with only minor problems; Good rebuttals

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Students:

3.

4. Presentation Style: Some style features Tone of voice, clarity of were used expression, voice control, convincingly speaking to the audience (not just reading), and eye contact contribute to an effective presentation keeping the attention of the audience and demonstrating persuasiveness. Responsiveness to opposing viewpoints is presented appropriately. 14

Adequate (2 points) Mostly clear and orderly in all parts;



Teacher Score Sheet

DEBATE RUBRIC CRITERIA:



Very strong and persuasive arguments given throughout; Excellent rebuttals and responses to opposing team

6. Other: Other:

Student Score Sheet (Students Scoring Students)

Scorer: ______________________ Date: __________ Topic:_______________________________________ Criteria (Score 1-3 in each):

Organization & Clarity

Content & Information

Use of Argumentation and Defense

Presentation Style

Affirmative Student A

Most style features All style features were used were used convincingly convincingly

Affirmative Student B Affirmative Student C Negative Student D Negative Student E Negative Student F

This model was developed by Frances L. Kidwell, Ed.D.

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Mock Trial/Moot Court Models

The Display Project Model

The Mock Trial and Moot Court models, created by Constitutional Rights Foundation, (also a specific program that can be used in a classroom or schoolwide setting) is a simulated trial of a case, with judge(s), jury, prosecution and defense attorneys and witnesses. The model includes a variety of roles, so that all students in large classes have parts to play.

Several organizations have designed display project models, in which individual students or groups of students create a project display board. Each has its own rules for number of frames; width, height, depth of the display, and so on. The central idea is that students create a museum type display, in which they tell a story that illustrates a central theme (as does History Day), or is a Project Citizen display board presented to a city council, school board, or other group.

This model can be used to have students grapple with complex legal issues. In the CRF Mock Trial contest, competing high school teams appear in real courtrooms with real sitting judges, which adds drama to the activity. The model can be used for real cases, or simulations of historical cases, or used in created cases, made up to have students better grapple with historical issues. See for example the created trial of a British sea captain in Virginia in 1658, who inadvertently landed a group of a dozen Quakers in Jamestown. Other situations can be created involving international relations; the Interact company posts many such, including a created trial of President Harry S Truman as a war criminal for deciding to drop two atomic bombs on Japanese cities to force an end to the second world war in Asia. Abolitionist John Brown could be tried as a murderer and terrorist in 1858. Martin Luther could be tried for religious heresy in 1521. Such trials can, if significant research is included, take several weeks to complete. Interact information is included in the ‘Organizations’ section. The Mock Trial model can be used as a schoolwide activity, competitions among and between classes in a specified grade level, or even district wide competitions between schools. In a trial setting, student roles have to be carefully designed to maintain equity. The teams have to be judged and scored as teams, using a rubric similar to the debate rubric; one such is in the ‘General Rubric’ article. Each student should also submit a position paper on the trial topic, arguing for a particular court decision. These would be scored on the persuasive essay rubric.

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Display projects can also be media presentations, such as PowerPoint, YouTube type videos, slide shows. In these cases the criteria for the Project or Performance rubric would need modification to fit the medium of communication. The scoring sheet developed by National History Day, included in the article ‘Tried and True Models: National History Day’, is a good formative assessment students and teachers could use as the project is developed. National History Day also has score sheets for several types of media presentations and also performance. Peter Paccone created a modification of the display project. A portion is included here. For the full project description and steps, go to: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1BSq5Jhqj6QSG 6CGg3asBD5LlgpS5kjlSPpbI6VKMK_s/edit The posting includes a list of museums that accept student projects for display. Museum Exhibit For this Common Core Project, students will work in groups of 3-5 to design an exhibit for a museum of their choosing and can be displayed off site, on site, or online. This project is primarily designed for 11th grade students enrolled in a yearlong U.S. History course. Timeframe The time frame for this entire project can vary according to each individual teacher’s specific needs and desires. Some teachers may in fact wish to provide their students with one day per week for an entire semester (or even a year) to work on the project, whereas other teachers (AP teachers, for example) may wish to provide their students with far less time to work on

the project (a few days at the beginning of the year to introduce the project and then more in-class time only after the AP test has been taken). The project lends itself well to either wish and to everything in between.

• Gaylord-Pickens Oklahoma Heritage Museum • Gennet Walk of Fame (Indiana) • Hall of Great Performers, National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City.

Examples The Legacy of Ronald Reagan Exhibit: This exhibit to be designed for the Ronald Reagan Presidential Museum and to reveal the extent to which Ronald Reagan’s name, words, image, and spirit live on in 2015. • Days of Recognition • His Family • On the internet • Ronald Reagan Day Celebrations • Ronald Reagan Park, Gdansk, Poland • State Capital in CA (portrait) • The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum • The Ronald Reagan Washington DC National Airport • The USS Ronald Reagan • With the teaching and learning that takes place in schools across America • Within the Hearts and Minds of Millions of Americans

Activities, Tasks, Steps The information below consists of the activities/ task/steps for those teachers wishing to provide their students with one eighteen-week semester to work on the project – with in-class work on the project to take place once a week for a class-period lasting no more than 55 minutes.

The Legacy of Henry Huntington Exhibit: An exhibit designed to reveal the extent to which Henry Huntington’s name, words, image, and spirit live on in 2015. • City of Huntington Beach • Huntington Art Museum • Huntington Beach • Huntington Botanical Gardens • Huntington Drive • Huntington Hospital • Huntington Lake • Huntington Library • Huntington Middle School The Legacy of Gene Autry Exhibit: An exhibit designed to reveal the extent to which Gene Autry’s name, words, image, and spirit live on in 2015. • The Museum of the American West • At Angel Stadium (of Anaheim) • With His Christmas Songs • With His Hollywood Walk of Fame Stars • On the internet • Gene Autry Memorial Interchange • Gene Autry, Oklahoma • Stars Encore Western Channel

For teachers wishing to provide their students with one eighteen-week semester to work on the project, they should begin the year by giving their entire class a chance to use the Internet to learn about the various museums out there today. Then, by the third or fourth week of school, the students should be called upon to form their groups and to select a museum that they hope will ultimately house their exhibit. Each group will then be required to put to paper their proposal – the proposal to include a description of the museum the group has selected, the reasons the group selected the museum that they have, and a description of the first three “executive actions” (steps) the group plans to take. Proposals are to be handed-in by the fifth or sixth week of school and graded. Each group will then be given the rest of the quarter to complete as many executive actions as possible. The write-up for each executive action is to be handed in and graded with each executive action write-up not only describing the step taken, but also describing the step that the group expects to take next. At the end of the first quarter, each group will be required to give a progress report presentation to the teacher and to the other students in the class. The presentation should essentially reveal what the group has learned about their museum and must include a slide show divided into the following five sections: 1. Overview (of the museum) 2. Permanent Exhibits 3. Temporary Exhibits 4. Controversial Issue 5. Miscellaneous

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The Performance Model

Talk Show

National History Day has several categories including student written plays, presentations using media including computer programs, and websites. NHD has score sheets for each of these that can be accessed from its home page. The explanations of each type in the National History Day materials are most helpful. Re enactments of historical periods of time or specific incidents fit in this category. Activities such as a re enacted archeological dig and the subsequent presentation fit this category. National History Day has its annual general theme all performances must address. Many other adaptations exist.

For this Common Core Project, students work in groups of 5-7 on the following tasks: 1. Produce a television talk show script (10 minute maximum) related to a topic of historical significance featuring a host and four guests 2. Present the script to an audience consisting of someone other than the teacher and students in the class.

3. The script will need to be produced in a talk show format and given a title that matches the current year’s National History Day theme, which allows this perFor LCAP reporting, combining those elements of the formance to enter History Day competitions. If longer ‘Display Project’ and ‘Conference/summation’ rubrics, and more detailed talk shows are desired for instrucand adding specific criteria for the type of performance tional purposes, they would not be eligible for History (such as: ‘authenticity of dress and manner consistent Day competition. However, a grade level at a school with the time period’ for a re enactment) would prosite could be the audience for each class’ talk show vide adequate information. For comparison in a year presentation. or over two or more years, a similar activity would need to be completed. By the end of week four, students, in groups of 5-7, are required to learn as much as they can about each of the Many kinds of performances can be created. One such four guests they have selected, creating a biographiis ‘Talk Show’, contributed by Peter Paccone of San Ma- cal sketch for each. The term biographical sketch is rino High School. This activity engages content, and defined as a written document and will address each of students address all the College and Career Readiness the following areas: Standards as listed in the Common Core ELA standards. Full directions and teacher guide are at https:// • The Guest’s Life Story docs.google.com/document/d/1BSq5Jhqj6QSG6CGg3 • Online Images Viewed asBD5LlgpS5kjlSPpbI6VKMK_s/edit • Videos Watched • Library Books/Newspapers/Magazines Read • Miscellaneous Research (Face-to-Face Interview, Email Interview) • Things We Hope the Guest Will Say See the above page for specific directions provided by Mr. Paccone. These can be modified to fit specific situations.

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LCAP and Student Outcomes for College, Career, and Civic Life by Margaret Hill, Ph.D. The goal of the last generation of school reform in the United States was to overcome the handicaps of poverty, special education classification, and a non English primary language to achieve academic success in the basic skills of reading and math for all children and youth. The idea was that when students mastered the “basic skills” they would be prepared to learn history-social studies, science, literature and the arts for success in college and career. Political leaders at every level enforced this with complex testing mandates with sometimes draconian outcomes for failure. Needless to say, schools threw all of their energy into improving basic skills, narrowing the curriculum to provide time for interventions involving “research-based” strategies in math or reading instruction. (http://www.ascd. org/publications/educational_leadership/mar11/vol68/ num06/High-Stakes_Testing_Narrows_the_Curriculum.aspx) Basic skills improved on state tests but dropout rates soared and college entrance achievement did not rise by any significant measure. The most discouraging result was that National Assessment of Education Progress did not show significant improvement in reading scores among middle and high school students, especially those for comprehension, even after they had experienced this intense focus on basic skills for most of their educational career http://www.nationsreportcard.gov/reading_ math_2013/#/). School leaders and much of the public began to demand change. This shift in educational focus became known as the Common Core State Standards in Reading and Mathematics. The emphasis of the ELA standards is placed on progressively building and applying analysis and interpretation of text to advanced levels in science and history-social science, especially at grades 6-12. The underlying goal of California’s Common Core State Standards as stated in their introduction is to build College and Career readiness. Now the Local Control Academic Progress (LCAP) is requiring schools and districts to come up with measures for these areas.

The need to address College and Career proficiencies in the Common Core State Standards is one of the most challenging aspects of extending Local Control Academic Progress beyond multiple choice testing, Though answers aren’t easy, one of the most dramatic learnings for many political and educational leaders is the breadth of the mandate many constituencies within the community are placing on public schools to prepare all students for an increasingly complex society. Major political constituencies (Does school reform perpetuate inequality? http://www.washingtonpost. com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2013/02/24/does-schoolreform-perpetuate-inequity/) are challenging the previous practice of narrowing the curriculum to laser focus on math and reading basic skills in low performing, largely lower socio-economic, and minority schools. Using the argument that the past decades of reform, though well intended, have not met the needs of students of poverty, especially in urban areas, a range of political and social leaders are pointing out the ongoing low achievement of those schools. They argue that the very students who bring less experience of the world outside their neighborhoods to school, are much less likely to be provided with the enriched educational experiences in history-social science, literature, and the arts to help level their social and economic playing field. As a result, these students come to school with fewer informal opportunities to learn how to influence the political and economic systems to improve their lives and communities are not taught the most basic things about how the system works and can be improved through effective peaceful civic action. The disempowerment resulting from this narrow skills focus is bombarding the nightly news with coverage of riots by minority populations protesting police and government practices that reinforce the idea that their lives don’t matter. Civic Mission of Schools Social and educational leaders across the country have Social Studies Review 2015-16

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made a persuasive argument that the very purpose of public education is to provide these civic tools and that the survival of the republic depends on their success. From Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor to the California Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson thousands of leaders from across the country have joined together to promote the Civic Mission of Schools - Educating for Democracy (http:// www.civicmissionofschools.org/the-campaign/educating-for-democracy). These educational, political, and social leaders have sponsored research to study the most effective and comprehensive approach to ensuring all students receive the civic knowledge and skills necessary for informed and engaged citizenship. These are known as the know as the Six Proven Practices for Civic Education, described below:

Six Proven Practices of Civic Education 1. Classroom instruction in civics & government, history, economics, geography, law, and democracy that is open ended, participatory, and problem-driven. 2. Discussion of Current Events and Controversial Issues in class that connects to content as well as student lives and interests. 3. Service Learning that links the students to the community and to the formal curriculum

can develop an understanding of the processes used in democratic societies or international tribunals to resolve problems and build commitment to the rule of law. Teachers suggest a variety of ways that these simulations demonstrate student learning.

Rationale for Classroom Simulations of Democratic Processes In simulations, students apply what they have learned in a low-risk but real-life situation, which allows teachers to assess whether students have internalized information so that they can actually use it in their role as citizens. Students are engaged by simulations and they learn more because they are so involved. Simulations require students to use higher order thinking skills. The culminating activity of a simulation often involves an audience, which motivates students to work hard and excel. Source: Barbara Miller and Laurel Singleton, Preparing Citizens, Boulder, CO: Social Science Education Consortium, 1997.

4. Extra Curricular Activities that offer opportunities for students to engage in their schools and communities outside the classroom.

In addition, teachers can involve students in an authentic application of their civic skills by making a presentation of research finding or policy plans to a policy making body such as a school board, city council, or police advisory board.

5. School Governance that offers many opportunities for students to engage and Participate in problem solving and planning.

College Career and Civic Life Framework

6. Simulations of Democratic Processes provide opportunities for students to learn through legislative deliberation, mock trials, moot courts, and practice political processes Adapted from: Guardians of Democracy: The Civic Mission of Schools Report (http://www.civicmissionofschools.org/ the-campaign/educating-for-democracy)

In the typical classroom, simulations of court procedures, legislative hearings, town meetings, treaty negotiations are the major manner in which students 20

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Motivated by the lack of political will to correct the issue of the narrowed curriculum during the recession (in 2009 the California legislature suspended the H-SS Framework revision process as a cost cutting measure), representatives of state school leaders, universities, history-social science profession organizations, businesses, and educators across the country came together to make a plan. They worked collaboratively across history-social science disciplines and political boundaries for three years in a state-led effort to develop a cutting edge document entitled College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards (http://www.socialstudies.org/system/files/c3/C3-

Framework-for-Social-Studies.pdf). The Framework serves two audiences: first, for states to upgrade their state social studies standards and second, for practitioners — local school districts, schools, teachers and curriculum writers — to strengthen their social studies programs. Its objectives are to: a) enhance the rigor of the social studies disciplines; b) build critical thinking, problem solving, and participatory skills to become engaged citizens; and c) align academic programs to the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies. The C3 Framework offers a key instructional methodology for teaching the Common Core State Standards in historysocial science… the Inquiry Arc.

Four Dimensions of an Inquiry Arc Dimension 1: Developing Questions and Planning Inquiries Dimension 2: Applying Disciplinary Concepts and Tools Dimension 3: Evaluating Sources and Using Evidence Dimension 4: Communicating Conclusions and Taking Informed Action Through a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Council for the Social Studies is currently working nationally to develop the resources and professional development to guide schools in using the C3 Framework. The need to address College, Career, and Civic Life proficiencies in the Common Core State Standards are one of the most challenging aspects of extending Local Control Academic Progress measures beyond the easy to collect statistical measures of test scores. School leaders know that to be valid, they need measures that apply Common Core State Standards to academic content that has a research base and involves the implementation of curriculum that integrates all of these disparate elements of student performance. There are many tested programs in Civic Education that were once used mostly as academic competitions but could easily be adapted to serve local performance assessment needs. Those with the richest set of materials and research results were developed well before the in the Six Proven Practices of Civic Education and the College, Career, and Civic Life Framework. The developers of these programs, in fact, helped to write those documents and authorized the independent research to

authentic their value. Model LCAP Civic Education Programs Project Citizen This Center for Civic Education program for grade 5-12 students was developed decades before the Civic Mission of Schools became a national movement. It has been implemented all over the U.S. and in over 70 countries, with special emphasis in the new democracies that developed after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The Center has posted videos of their key programs We the People (a hearing model for American history grades 5, 8, and 11-12), Project Citizen and Civitas International (the name for the international adaptation of the Project Citizen program) (http://www.civiced.org/ resources/multimedia/featured-videos). The Project Citizen (as well as We the People) program has been subjected to rigorous evaluation in compliance with the U.S. Department of Education funding specification. Middle school students who participated gained knowledge of public policy, increased knowledge of democratic processes, developed problemsolving skills, and increased in the ability to articulate, research, and advocate policy solutions in essays, all at a statistically higher level than non participating students. High school students improved in persuasive writing ability, knowledge of public policy, problemsolving skills, civic discourse skills, and the ability to articulate, research, and advocate policy solutions in essays addressing policy problems than the comparison students. (Evaluation reports online at http:// www.civiced.org/pdfs/PC/ProjectCitizen%20FullReport%202007.pdf) The success of the program’s outcomes both nationally and internationally was part of the thinking behind the Six Proven Practices for Civic Education described above. Aligned to Common Core State ELA Standards, Project Citizen focuses on a local problem that might have a public policy solution. The curriculum involves an entire class, a student club, or a group of adults broken into teams to work through a series of structured cooperative steps guided by the class or organization leader. The students identify a public policy related problem in their community and conduct research to determine all the issues related to the problem. Then they identify the possible alternatives for solving the problem (after considering relative costs, probable Social Studies Review 2015-16

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supporters and opponents) and select a solution in the form of a public policy. The last step is to develop an action plan to persuade community, regional or state leaders of the need to address the problem and the merits and feasibility of the plan.

boards. See this electronic portfolio entry from a sixth grade class in Franklin, Wisconsin for an example. (https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1blh9K0KfKEvAX_w8U21i8xVWDqAiOs4wUKXDST0ZS4/ edit?pli=1#slide=id.p) The culmination of the policy development process is ideally when the students present their work orally in a simulated public hearing to representatives of the government body to which the problem and selected policy is addressed. Many times, however, the program is implemented school or district-wide and presentations are made in a showcase/ hearing process. Evaluation of student work is done using page 2 of this specialized scoring rubric from the Center for Civic Education (http://www.civiced.org/ images/stories/Community/Evaluator_Docs_/Portfolio_Evaluation_Rating_Sheet.pdf).

Some examples come to mind: • Students could explore and present the policy options that President Truman had in 1945 that would have brought World War II in the Pacific to an end in a manner most morally defensible, with the least loss of life, the most economically manageable, with the best postwar outcomes. • Students would look at the options for dealing responding to German tribes moving into the empire in the 400s that would have maintained the cultural integrity of all parties, provided security for the Mediterranean cities, towns and populated rural area, created mutually beneficial economic development and trade, and been enforceable.

Source: Brochure about Project Citizen by Center for Civic Education

More detail in the elements of the program steps are available on the Center for Civic Education website (http://www.civiced.org/resources/curriculum/lessonplans/458-we-the-people-project-citizen). The section on class discussion to identify problems important in the local community, among young people, in the school, in the environment, and related to community standards particularly relate to LCAP priorities for student and parent engagement. Students display their work as a four-panel portfolio, with one panel dedicated to each of the four steps in developing a public policy solution to the problem they have chosen. Students also submit an accompanying binder with the details of their research, transcripts of interviews, notes from research and a reflection on the entire process. These processes may be completed and submitted electronically as well as on physical project 22

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etc. Each of these turning points in history could be used as a chance for students to look at the alternative courses of action or policy and the likely outcomes of each. The development of the problem from the period could be left to the students or provided by the teacher. The policy presentation could be done as a four-panel portfolio or as a website. The oral presentation could be a simulated meeting of the leaders in the time and the setting of the historical turning point. Evaluating the presentations could be based on persuasive writing or speaking scoring rubrics that would be used across classrooms and school years to measure not only participation in this type of civic and historical decision-making but identify changes over time in student abilities to engage in this type of thinking, writing, and decision-making.

What is not discussed on any of the Project Citizen websites is the potential for using the process in other history social science classes. The process of policy development that is provided is designed to be of a current problem. However, history is replete with examples of potential policy option decisions as society’s leaders of a particular time were confronted with natural disasters, challenges to authority, inventions or discoveries that resulted in economic changes,

world. The two major models are mock trial and moot court. A mock trial is a dramatization or an imitation of a trial generally at the lower-court level. Moot court activities usually simulate appellate court hearings. Both models are rich opportunities to apply Common Core State ELA Standards related to the critical analysis of multiple sources of information and to the creation of arguments to support or oppose a position. One of the most significant skills that can be honed by students is the ability to articulate arguments orally and in writing, The competitive Mock Trial model created by Constitutional Rights Foundation for high school competitions across California began in 1980. The program was created to help students acquire a working knowledge of the American judicial system, develop analytical abilities and communication skills, and gain an understanding of a citizen’s obligations and responsibilities to a just legal system as participating members of a free society. A simulated trial of a case includes judge(s), prosecution and defense attorneys and witnesses. The model includes a variety of roles, so that many students have parts to play. The Constitutional Rights Foundation writes a new case every year on a topic that is making news

Courtroom Simulations

In the competitive mock trial model a teacher sponsor and an attorney coach lead a student team. The program currently involves schools in over 35 counties in California and about 8000 students. (See also the Mock Trial section in ‘Programs Ready to Go’ for details and ordering information) The teams usually consist of up to 25 students broken into the defense side and the prosecution side in the following categories. 1 pre-trial attorney for each side; 3 trial attorneys for each side; 4 witnesses for each side, 1 clerk, 1 bailiff, and alternates for the above positions. Other optional positions include those of journalists and artists. Attorney Scorers (two or more), sit in the jury box while the student teams present their case to a judge or commissioner. They are given a set of criteria for rating the teams numerically. The criteria include the quality of the students’ presentations, their grasp of the law and court procedures, and their understanding of the case itself.

Mock Trial Courtroom simulations for instruction have been used by university law schools as a tool for training students in the legal professions for centuries all around the

This mock trial model can be used in classrooms to have students grapple with complex legal issues and to gain the same sense of civic understandings that the formal teams develop. The team size can be enhanced

All of the students in a class could be involved which could be a measure of equal access to the curriculum in the Conditions of Learning LCAP priority. The measures of pupil achievement relate directly to the thinking and analysis skills, writing and speaking that are measures of college and career readiness. In this case the added benefit is that it also meets the criteria for readiness for Civic Life, thus providing the antidote to the current rage among those in society who have been denied this knowledge of the social change process and feel powerless to improve their lives and communities.

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by having students serve as jurors and also as interested family and community members. The Constitutional Rights Foundation has an archive of Mock Trial Cases on their website for purchase (http://www. crf-usa.org/materials-catalog/mock-trials-cases.html). The model can also be used for real or simulations of historical cases. The Missouri-Kansas City School of Law has created a website with a rich set of historical trials for classroom use (http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/ projects/ftrials/ftrials.htm). The Interact Simulations publisher has two volumes of trials for the classroom, one on historical American trials and another on trials in world history. Teachers can also create cases themselves to have students grapple with historical issues and the gradual evolution of justice. CRITERIA FOR SCORING A MOCK TRIAL PRESENTATION Opening Statement • Provided a case overview • The theme/theory of the case was identified • Mentioned the key witnesses • Provided a clear and concise description of their team’s side of the case • Stated the relief requested • Discussed the burden of proof • Presentation was non argumentative • Points may be deducted for use of notes, at the Scoring Judge’s discretion Direct Examinations • Properly phrased questions • Used proper courtroom procedure • Handled objections appropriately and effectively and did not overuse objections • Did not ask questions that called for an unfair extrapolation from the witness • Demonstrated an understanding of the Modified Federal Rules of Evidence • Handled physical evidence appropriately and effectively (Rule 4.20) Cross Examinations • Properly phrased questions • Effective questioning • Properly impeached witnesses • Handled objections appropriately and effectively • Did not overuse objections 24

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• Used various techniques, as necessary, to handle a non-responsive witness • Demonstrated an understanding of the Modified Federal Rules of Evidence • Handled physical evidence appropriately and effectively (Rule 4.20)

(http://www.learner.org/workshops/civics/workshop8/ lessonplan/lessonmaterials.html) presents a clear appellate court lesson on the rights and responsibilities of students with a step-by-step procedure that could be used as a model for setting up a moot court appellate process on other topics.

Witness Performance • Did not use notes (as is required) • Credible portrayal of character • Showed understanding of the facts • Sounded spontaneous, not memorized • Demonstrated appropriate courtroom decorum • Avoided unnecessarily long and/or non-responsive answers on cross-examination • Use of unfair extrapolations, for which points should be deducted

Whether done in a classroom before teachers or other students playing the role of judges, or before real justices, appellate advocacy mandates the use of different techniques of persuasion than one would employ arguing to a jury. While a jury may be persuaded by passion and may in extreme cases ignore the law altogether, an appellate tribunal is primarily motivated by different factors such as strong legal precedent and policy considerations. In order to be successful, the student advocate must have a thorough understanding of the law as well as the ability to articulate the longterm ramifications of applying a particular ruling.

Closing Statement • Theme/theory continued in closing argument • Summarized the evidence • Emphasized the supporting points of their own case and damaged the opponent’s case • Concentrated on the important, not the trivial • Applied the applicable law • Discussed burden of proof • Responded to judge’s questions with poise • Overall, the closing statement was persuasive • There should be only a minimal reliance on notes during the closing statement • Points should be deducted if closing argument exceeds time limit Adapted from Dallas Bar Texas High School Mock Trial program http://www.dallasbar.org/sites/default/files/ scoresheet_and_explanation.pdf

Moot Court From a curriculum perspective moot court is much simpler and less time consuming than a mock trial but it can be one that creates deeper understanding of the types of conflict that often arises from differing interpretations of protected rights. Moot court is a simulated oral argument, similar to an argument made before an appellate court or the Supreme Court. In a formal moot court competition, it involves the presentation of arguments to a panel of judges comprising of attorneys, professors and judges. Annenberg Learner – Making Civics Real

The process begins when a lower court record on appeal is made up, called an “order” or a “briefing order.” These are the only sources of factual information provided to the moot court “attorneys.” In order to effectively research the case and draft an argument, student attorneys must acquire a clear and thorough understanding of the court record from the trial level. They prepare a chronology of events, outlining both the factual and procedural order of the case. They must also study the statutes and cases noted in the record so they are familiar with the details that influenced decisions and the lower court’s reasoning. Most importantly the students must understand the grounds for appeal and understand the arguments that were raised in the lower court or the appellate level below them. Street Law has an easy-to-follow procedure (http://www. streetlaw.org/en/landmark/teaching_strategies/moot_ court) for setting up a moot court activity in a middle or high school classroom using Landmark Supreme Court Cases such as those pertinent to American history and 12th grade government H-SS Standards. The arguments, usually constitutional, before the appellate “judges” last about fifteen minutes for each side. During that brief time the attorney presents an argument and answers questions posed by the panel of judges. The Mock Trial model can be used as a school-wide activity, competitions among and between classes in

a specified grade level, or even district wide competitions between schools. In a trial setting, student roles have to be carefully designed to maintain equity. The teams have to be judged and scored as teams, using a rubric similar to the debate rubric; one such is in the rubric article. Using Court Simulations to Meet LCAP In order to use any activities such as those mentioned in the article performance criteria must be determined and shared with students before the activities are implemented. Rubrics are best developed at the school or district level but need to be based on criteria that were developed at a broader level to avoid pitching the project too far above or too far below an appropriate norm. In addition to the Mock Trial Scoring Criteria listed above, an especially strong set of indicators was developed for mock trial performance by the Wyoming High School Mock Trial program (see http://www. wyomingmocktrial.com/_pdf/Scoring%20criteria.pdf) It includes 8-10 criteria for each of the subsets of the mock trial performance including: Opening Statement; Direct Examination; Cross Examination; Witness Performance; and Closing Argument. Educators could create separate rubrics for each subset and add them for a holistic score or create a holistic rubric from the criteria for the summative evaluation and use the subsets for formative evaluation and as focused teaching tools. For Moot Court assessment, there are several sets of criteria. The one below was developed by the Center for Education in Law and Democracy (http://www. lawanddemocracy.org/sim.assess.html) However, in order to match the range needs of LCAP, the three level scoring guide may have to be adapted to create a five level guide. Though the trial simulations might appear on the surface to address American history and government, they may also be applied in world history classes. For example, international tribunals have long existed and provide topics that could create compelling cases. These come immediately to mind: • The Bartolome de Las Casas versus Juan Gine de Sepulveda debate before Emperor Charles V over the correctness of taking land in the New World. Social Studies Review 2015-16

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• The Nuremburg Trials over Nazi war crimes • T  ruman’s Decision to Drop the Atomic Bombs in Japan

Moot Court Scoring Guide Exemplary Performance The student presents a persuasive and compelling argument that links the case facts with specific examples of relevant law, facts, precedent, and general legal principles. The student anticipates and convincingly addresses all relevant arguments of the opposing side. The student insightfully and accurately incorporates into the argument the potential impact on society of the court’s decision. Proficient Performance The student presents a persuasive argument that uses law, facts, precedent, and general legal principles that are generally linked to the case facts. The student addresses major arguments of the opposing side. The student accurately incorporates into the argument most of the potential impact of the court’s decision. Basic Performance The student presents an argument that is incomplete due to partial or inaccurate uses of law, facts, precedent, and general legal principles with only some linkages to the facts of the case. The student does not address all major arguments of the opposing side or addresses them inadequately. The student’s incorporation of the potential impact of the court’s decision is partly accurate or incomplete. Another more complex set of criteria that incorporates more than the argument for a Moot Court called Judging a Moot was developed by Mooting.net (see http:// www.mooting.net/judging.html) The criteria include: Clarity Of Speech; Rationality of Argument; Posture; Court Etiquette; and Time Keeping. Each of the subsets has a list of descriptors that apply to the criteria. The first two are obviously key criteria that are weighted heavily, but the descriptors convincingly persuade the reader that without the other criteria the advocate would lose the case and must be included. Since the performance part of the simulation has multiple student roles, it is valuable to have a consistent measure across all members of the simulation. For example all students might submit a position paper on 26

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Common Core ELA and Measurable Student Outcomes for LCAP

the trial topic, arguing for a particular court decision providing their interpretation of the evidence and the law. These would be scored on the persuasive essay rubric. Teachers and school districts developing their own rubrics could consult the section of this SSR on General Rubrics for debate and persuasive essay.

Tried and True Models: National History Day

Conclusion The evidence is there. Simulated civic activities build student skills not only in the Common Core State English Language Arts reading, writing, listening and speaking Standards but in readiness for College, Career and Civic Life. The LCAP standards require that schools and districts come up with measures in both and expect that students in all the API reporting categories are provided and opportunity to participate. The resources in this article provide the tools to do these things. There are many other options for programs that schools can implement to meet these reporting priorities as well. The three mentioned here were selected because they have a long history in many schools, scoring rubrics with wide application, and are programs that could apply to multiple grade levels and content areas. References College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards, Silver Spring, MD: NCSS, 2013 “What Student’s Need to Learn” ASCD Educational Leadership, March 11, 2011, Vol 68, No. 6, p. 78-80 Teaching Democracy to Strengthen Democracy: Center for Education in Law and Democracy http://www.lawanddemocracy.org/sim.html

by Margaret Hill, Ph.D. The most challenging part of extending Local Control Academic Progress measures beyond easy to collect statistical measures of Student Engagement such as attendance and drop out rates, is the daunting challenge of coming up with school wide or grade level measures of student academic performance. School leaders know that to be valid, they need measures that apply Common Core State Standards to academic content that demonstrates College and Career Readiness, or (as we in History-Social Science argue is optimum) College, Career and Civic Life. The introduction to the Common Core State Standards identify seven areas of performance that meet these criteria:

• Shows independence in learning • Demonstrates strong content knowledge • Responds effectively to the demands of varying audiences, tasks, purposes and disciplines • Able to both comprehend and critique ideas • Values and uses evidence in developing arguments • Uses technology and media strategically and capably • Understands multiple perspectives and cultures

This definition of academic application of standards may seem like an impossibly tall order for a schoolwide assessment of student engagement for LCAP. However, there are valuable tools available that are often overlooked by administrators who are not specialists in the subject area. Among the best such tools are the longstanding academic programs that have been developed to engage students in performance tasks for competition. By necessity they have developed and vetted scoring rubrics and that are adaptable to different specific history-social science content over a range of grade levels. They are tailor-made for measuring the demands of varying audiences, tasks, purposes, and

disciplines. Learning results in the seven areas can be reported in a number of LCAP metrics (explained in the article ‘How to Report Student Outcomes’). One of the reasons administrators have not picked up on academic competition tools is that they think of these as being the domain of Gifted and Talented or otherwise advanced students. However, if the tools and strategies of the competitions are used and taught to all students, not only does this raise the academic bar for everyone (LCAP Access measure), it moves the focus of history-social science from a lock step textbook driven curriculum to one that marries skills and content through the creation of student products with vetted measures of performance level. One of the most inclusive and applicable of these formerly only History-Social Science academic competitions is National History Day. Though the title of the activity is History Day, it involves all the social sciences in that, depending on the topic of historical research geographic, economic, and political data is accessed and the skills and methods of analysis unique to these fields are used in constructing arguments. Ideas for how this occurs is evident in the examples of student products that are online at http://www.nhd.org/ contest-affiliates/examples/ for teachers and students to study as they prepare their National History Day entries. That this adaptable student academic competition has value as an LCAP measure for all students is evident in the first National History Day (NHD) focused evaluation study in 2011 (see http://www.nhd.org/wpcontent/uploads/NHDReport_Final3.pdf) stated the following important findings: • NHD students outperform their non-NHD peers on state standardized tests, not only in social studies, but in reading, science and math as well. • NHD students are better writers, who write with a Social Studies Review 2015-16

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purpose and real voice, and marshal solid evidence to support their point of view. • NHD students are critical thinkers who can digest, analyze and synthesize information. • NHD students learn 21st century skills. They learn how to collaborate with team members, talk to experts, manage their time and persevere. • NHD has a positive impact among students whose interests in academic subjects may wane in high school.

All student products are scored according to the following criteria that is adapted to each type of entry:

(National History Day Works: National Program Evaluation http://www.nhd.org/classroom-connection/ nhd-in-the-classroom/nhd-works/)

Relation to Theme (20%) • Clearly relates to theme • Demonstrates significance of topic in history and draws conclusions

Yearly themes are broad and can be adapted into any grade fifth grade or beyond. Recent themes include: Leadership and Legacy, Taking a Stand, Turning Points, Conflict and Compromise, Triumph and Tragedy in History. One of the reasons that the History Day program is a useful tool is that it can be used with a very wide range of students within the history-social sciences grades 5-12. Students create a research question on a topic related to an annual theme, engage in original research, and develop a reasoned position based on the evidence that they have analyzed. Their evidence is documented in an annotated bibliography of primary, secondary and tertiary sources. Students demonstrate their learning in various ways, each with a step-by-step model of execution and a performance rubric. These models include research papers, museum-like exhibits, video documentaries, original theatrical style performances, and student produced websites. The methods for evaluating the student products in the competition can be adapted with LCAP in mind. For example in the competition, students are interviewed by knowledgeable adults so they can share their research process and the insights they have gained. This could become be an effective LCAP tool for broadening parent involvement or increasing school climate (connectedness) if older students served in this role for younger students. Schools that have implemented large History Day programs have anecdotally indicated this type of positive parental and cross-age student engagement has had a positive effect on school climate, another LCAP measure. This involvement is especially true when students study family history as an example of how an event or idea in history related to the theme affected the lives of people who matter to them. 28

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Historical Quality (60%) • Historical accuracy • Historical context • Analysis and interpretation • Use of available primary sources • Wide research • Balanced research

Clarity of Presentation (20%) • Presentation, written materials are original, clear, appropriate, organized and articulate • Entry is organized; visual impact is appropriate to topic Some schools have been using History Day as a summative measure of student performance at the classroom or department level for many years. For example, Upland High School in southern California has used history day student entries by all class members as a first semester measure of performance for U.S. history and world history classes. Teachers encouraged students to continue perfecting their work to submit them competitively in the academic competition voluntarily but the process of developing a product was a requirement for all students. One of the reasons for using National History Day scoring rubrics and measures is that they have been vetted and adapted over time to ensure reliability and validity. The best way to ensure this is to have a consistent norm setting process before scoring begins. If a measure is reliable there should not be wide variation among scorers. Examples of various levels of performance are used in setting the norms for rubric scoring. So even if History Day rubrics have been used for many years, it is necessary to re-norm every time there is a new use session of rubric based student work evaluation. This may seem like an onerous process but those who have participated in the process invariably talk about it as one of the best forms of professional development

they have ever experienced. The process results in the creation of distinctions between the levels of performance that are explicit and teachable. For example, the rubric asks students to analyze and interpret historical information. It doesn’t just retell information from a source but must argue a point of view or create an interpretation by drawing on multiple sources and supporting their perspective from information they have read and analyzed. This is the fundamental skill that is highlighted in the Common Core State ELA Standards. It is a critical skill for success in college, career and/or civic life. What better Locally Controlled measure of Academic Progress could one ask? Formative Assessment The other advantage of using National History Day measures as a summative evaluation of student learning of Common Core State Standards in the HistorySocial Science Content area and for the LCAP measures of Student Engagement is that in classroom formative assessment models are easy to create based on the step-by-step guides that National History Day has created to help students develop their entries. Since like its predecessor measures of school performance, the California Assessment of Student Performance and Progress (CASPP) and LCAP must show annual improvements on the Academic Performance Index (API) these guides can easily be used to develop formative measures at the classroom level that can be used by educators to help students at all levels to progress toward mastery of the skills and knowledge for College, Career, and Civic Life readiness. The National History Day in the Classroom http://www.nhd.org/ classroom-connection/nhd-in-the-classroom/ Teacher Resources, Middle School Level and High School Level provide activities and materials to create thesis statements, to evaluate the quality of sources, to create bibliographies, etc. The Minnesota National History Day program has gone as far as to provide resources and a guideline to the entire History Day project development process http://education.mnhs.org/historyday/teacher-framework-handouts . Using this Teacher Framework, an individual educator or a school could select any of the steps to serve as a formative or benchmark assessment.

Teacher Framework Handouts Introduction Lesson: Introduction to History Day Theme • Handout: National Theme Sheet • Handout: Minnesota Theme Sheet • Worksheet: From Leader to Leadership in History Choosing a Topic Lesson: Choosing a Topic Using Historical Eras • Worksheet: Choosing a Topic 1 • Worksheet: Choosing a Topic Using Historical Eras Lesson: Narrowing and Connecting Topics to Theme • Worksheet: Choosing a Topic 2 • Handout: Focusing History Day Topics • Worksheet: History Day Topic Narrowing Funnel Lesson: Guiding Questions/Contract • Worksheet: History Day Self-Reflection • Worksheet: History Day Crew Contract • Handout: Who do I work with – if anyone? • Worksheet: Research Questions Research Lesson: Note-Taking • Worksheet: Notes Lesson: Library Resources • Worksheet: Section Check List – Main Event Lesson: Verification of Information and Integrity of Research • Worksheet: Verification, Integrity Lesson: Primary Sources and Documents • Handout: Primary and Secondary Sources • Worksheet: Analyzing Primary Documents • Handout: Using the Library of Congress Website for Primary Source Research • Handout: Online Resources for National History Day Research Analysis Lesson: Historical Context • Handout: Exhibit Layout • Worksheet: Section Checklist – Background • Worksheet: Section Check List – Build-Up • Worksheet: Historical Context Lesson: Historical Significance • Worksheet: Section Check List – Impact • Worksheet: Section Check List – Legacy Lesson: Thesis Development Worksheet: Thesis Development Handout: Comparing Thesis Statements Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Presentation Lesson: Narrative Organizer • Worksheet: Narrative Organizer Lesson: Writing for Your Category Handout: Organizing Information for History Day Lesson: Build It! Category Rules and Sample Projects (resources for each provided) • Exhibit • Documentary • Performance • Website • Paper Lesson: Process Papers and Bibliography • Handout: Process Paper and Annotated Bibliography • Sample: “Jack the Ripper” Sample Process Paper • Handout: All About Annotations • Handout: Bibliographies Made Easy • Sample: Bibliography Citations in MLA Format • Sample: “Jack the Ripper” Sample Annotated Bibliography Resources developed by the Minnesota Historical Society and the University of Minnesota, Department of History were accessed at http://education.mnhs.org/historyday/ teacher-framework-handouts. The National Archives Document Analysis Worksheets for artifacts, cartoons, maps, posters, etc. http://www. archives.gov/education/special-topics.html and their online tutorials for teachers provide many tools for formative assessment. Because History Day can be either an individual or a group activity, schools may use the program to build the “Soft Skills” so often discussed in College and Career readiness. Social and cultural understanding that leads to better management of conflict can be the outcome of the collaboration involved in small group academic activities. New research is suggesting that academic achievement can also improve through collaborative scaffolded learning ( see: http://www.cisco. com/web/about/citizenship/socio-economic/docs/Metiri_Classroom_Collaboration_Research.pdf)

Reporting History Day Achievement in LCAP Priorities Below is a summary of ideas for imbedding History Day as an LCAP Reporting Measure. The article above suggest language for measures of College, Career, (and Civic) Readiness based on the Common Core State Standards introduction of goals. Course Access: Number of students/percentage of students (in each class, school, or district) who do the activity as part of History social science Education Code requirement to teacher history social science in all grades. Parental Involvement: Number of parents/percentage of parents who attend, from each participating class, school, or district, student display shows or student performances during the school day or evenings, at Open House sessions, or on weekends. Other Student Outcomes: a) Numbers of students achieving proficient or advanced categories on History Day performance rubrics. B) Numbers of students achieving proficient or advanced categories on persuasive writing rubric (p. ) . Student Engagement: a) Numbers of students/percentage of students participating in History Day activities. b) Comparison of student discipline, referral, attendance rates of students doing History Day to those students who do not do History Day. Student Achievement: a) Comparison of numbers/percentages of students scoring proficient or advanced on yearly SBAC tests who complete History Day projects with those who do not. b) Comparison of numbers/ percentages of students scoring proficient or advanced on writing rubrics (see p. ) before and after completing History Day writing projects. School Climate: In addition to engagement numbers above, narratives and survey results from both parents and students before, during, and after completing History Day. Surveys ask questions about connected to school, relevance of schoolwork, personal connection to schoolwork, involvement with teachers. Basic Services: Narrative and list of standards (HSS content, Common Core ELA, ‘C3’, 21st Century Skills) addressed per grade levels of participating students.

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Rubrics for Measurable Performances: Why and How to Use Them Overview of Summative Rubrics in this Issue Rubrics based on clear criteria are a necessary tool to measure performance activities of all kinds. There are many rubrics available from educational sources but many have flaws that make them inappropriate for reporting growth or progress.



When student performance work, in essays, debates, conferences, display projects, etc., is scored on a clear rubric: • Scoring criteria is clear to teacher and student in advance • Students can be shown what quality work needs to include • Teachers can be consistent in scoring and especially for persuasive writing or work, not ‘reward’ pieces of work with which the teacher agrees; also the reverse is true • Comparisons of performance quality can be made over time when the same rubric is used on differing prompts or assignments • Scoring of student work can be completed much more quickly by rubric scoring trained teachers • Schools and districts can report scores and score averages in LCAP metrics



The summative rubrics for all activities in this issue have five levels, 1 to 5, with five being the top or highest level. This is to maintain consistency across activities; a point score of 4 in one activity is essentially the same as a point score of 4 in another activity. This is because first, using the same basic criteria, or features of the student work to be scored, in all the rubrics. These criteria or features are: • a clear statement of introduction (if there is a specific topic or prompt, the introduction must directly address the prompt) with a direct statement of the topic or thesis, and major reasons for presenting that thesis; • a clear organization or sequence of content and ideas in body paragraphs or sections, meaning that one idea leads to the next, or is chronological;





• use of valid examples and/or evidence in each reason (sometimes evidence needs to be ‘sourced’ or validated in some way to account for bias and point of view); • use of English conventions, sentence structure and style; and • clear summation (conclusion) of the paper or presentation, reviewing and restating thesis.

The criteria (features of the work to be scored) within each rubric will vary somewhat according to the activity. A debate rubric looks at overall presentation skills and a writing rubric looks at uses of English conventions, for example. The language of the qualitative descriptors however are the same. The qualitative descriptor (how good is it; how well was the criteria addressed) for level 5 on all rubrics is all or almost all. The qualitative descriptor for level 4 is many; for level 3 is some; for level 2 is few; and for level 1 none or off topic or cannot discern meaning. The levels correspond in definition to the levels used in California on the previous state tests: Level 5 is Advanced, 4 is Proficient, 3 is Basic; 2 is Below Basic; 1 is Far Below Basic. This consistency allows for comparison among activities, and also comparison among schools and districts using these activities, and makes it more likely that the state can use these measures when determining educational quality if consistency (meaning different scorers come to the same score point on any given piece of work almost all the time) among scorers can be shown. This requires professional development for potential scorers. Advanced Placement teachers regularly take training of this sort when they sign up to do Advanced Placement scoring. The California Learning Assessment System in the 1990’s had such training programs as well. In both cases, scoring by different teachers was consistent about 96% of the time. This professional development is offered by The DBQ Project and other organizations; Advanced Placement teachers who have taken the training can also set up this professional Social Studies Review 2015-16

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development. Consistency in scoring is essential for reporting reliability and validates the use of measurable performance activities for LCAP reporting. Thus, when scores are averaged (the mean is calculated), a class average of 3.0 means the class on average is Basic. An average of 3.2 would be Basic but a bit closer to Proficient than the 3.0 mean. A standard deviation is calculated to show the range of scores. Roughly two thirds of all scores are within one standard deviation from the mean. If the deviation range is small, then two thirds of the students score close to the mean. If the deviation range is large, there is considerable variation in the group being measured. Both numbers should be included in all LCAP metric reports; for example large deviations would infer the need for different remediation responses from those needed from small deviations. The latter would indicate most students would profit from one remediation strategy as student scores were close together. If the deviation is large, a variety of remediation strategies would be indicated. Rubrics should be given to students before they begin any activity, so that they know how they will be judged. If possible, samples of previous student work in several score points would help students understand what better work needs to look like and provides a model. Still better would be for teachers to provide scoring comments with samples of student work, to clarify expectations. If students can see recorded presentations, actual display projects, essays and the scoring for each, students will have a much better idea of expectations. Looking at former work should be a major part of the scaffold preparation for any measurable performance activity. Summative rubrics can be used to score student work very quickly. In a scoring session of student persuasive essays, for example, a group of teachers examines and analyzes the prompt, then reviews the rubric and is led through a discussion of what a level 5, a level 4, a level 3 essay would look like. Then, an essay is given to all the teachers to score. Each teacher scores and reports out the score, and explains very briefly to the whole group the reasons for the score. Some discussion ensues, and at first there is considerable disagreement as to the score point among the teachers. The process is repeated, and after one or two more essays are scored individually, the scores awarded become more and 32

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more the same. This process is called calibration. Once the scores awarded are almost the same, teachers begin scoring real pieces of work. Because this is summative evaluation, written comments are not made on the work, only a single digit score point. Over time, short essays written in a one hour time period and that run no more than five pages handwritten will be scored in 30 seconds or less each. From time to time, usually every hour, a recalibration scoring is done, using again a piece of work given to all the teachers to score, to make sure everyone is still on the same page. In real scoring sessions, when recalibration is performed, teachers’ scores are the same on a given piece of work more than 96% of the time. Display project scoring can be almost as quick. Performance, hearing, conference scoring can be done by trained teacher teams as student engage in the performance. Formative Rubrics Many of the activities in this issue include formative, or midway types of rubrics to make sure students are successfully completing each step in the case of a complex activity. These are shorter and more limited in focus than are summative rubrics. Formative rubrics can be added to most units and activities at those stages when checking on student understanding is valuable. A source for a number of assessments, rubrics, with accompanying scoring instructions divided into elementary, middle, and high school, and grouped among economics, geography, history, and civics was created by the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction in Washington State. It can be found at http:// www.k12.wa.us/socialstudies/Assessments/default. aspx. Many of these are quite useful for doing midway checkups in complex units and activities. The rubrics included in this article fit different types of performance activities. Only one, the Five Level Rubric (Descriptive Expository), is for descriptive work, as opposed to persuasive or argumentative work. All the other rubrics are for activities in which students make a judgment, advance a viewpoint, argue for a point. The descriptive essay rubric could also be used for formative assessment in many of the units included in the sample units article. Each of the following rubrics can be modified for a specific measurable performance activity. For an example, see the sample unit articles.

Descriptive Expository Rubric 5 Points Opening statement clear with major ideas stated in introduction Each main idea explained in body Each main idea paragraph has examples Main ideas sequenced; each one leads to the next Complete summation paragraph at the end Proper and consistent use of conventions 4 Points Opening statement in introduction is clear and most major ideas summarized Most ideas explained in the body Most idea paragraphs have examples Most paragraphs are sequenced; one leads to the next Summation paragraph includes most of the ideas Most English conventions used properly throughout 3 Points Opening statement in intro is partly clear and some major ideas summarized Some ideas explained in the body Some idea paragraphs have examples Some idea paragraphs are sequenced; one leads to the next Summation paragraph includes some of the ideas Some English conventions used properly 2 Points Opening statement in intro is limited in clarity and few major ideas summarized Few ideas explained in the body Few idea paragraphs have examples Few idea paragraphs are sequenced; one leads to the next Summation paragraph includes few of the ideas Few English conventions used properly throughout 1 Point Opening statement not made Almost no ideas explained in the body Almost no idea paragraphs have examples Almost no idea paragraphs are sequenced; one leads to the next Summation includes no reasons or is missing Very few if any English conventions used properly throughout

Persuasive (or Argumentative) Essay Rubric 5 Points Thesis statement clear with major reasons stated in introduction Each main reason explained in body Each main reason paragraph has examples; evidence is validated and sourced All documents are evaluated, sourced, grouped, and used as evidence Main reasons sequenced so one leads to the next Clear statement and explanation of opposing view Complete summation paragraph at the end Proper and consistent use of conventions 4 Points Thesis statement in introduction is clear and many reasons summarized Many reasons explained in the body Many main reason paragraphs have examples; evidence is validated and sourced Many documents are evaluated, sourced, grouped, and used as evidence Many reason paragraphs have examples Many reason paragraphs are sequenced so one leads to the next Mostly clear and complete explanation of opposing view Summation paragraph includes many of the reasons Many English conventions used properly throughout 3 Points Thesis statement is briefly stated in introduction and/ or only some reasons stated Some reasons explained in the body Some main reason paragraphs have examples; evidence is validated and sourced Some documents are evaluated, sourced, grouped, and used as evidence Some reason paragraphs have examples Some reason paragraphs are sequenced so one leads to the next Moderately clear and complete explanation of opposing view Summation paragraph includes some of the reasons Some English conventions used properly throughout

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2 Points Thesis statement limited in introduction Few reasons explained in the body Few reason paragraphs have examples Few main reason paragraphs have examples; evidence is validated and sourced Few documents are evaluated, sourced, grouped, and used as evidence Few reason paragraphs are sequenced so one leads to the next Not very clear or complete explanation of opposing view Summation paragraph includes a few of the reasons Few English conventions used properly throughout

1 Point Thesis statement not made Almost no reasons explained in the body Almost no reason paragraphs have examples Almost no main reason paragraph has examples; evidence is validated and sourced Almost no documents are evaluated, sourced, grouped, and used as evidence Almost no reason paragraphs are sequenced so one leads to the next Almost no clear and complete explanation of opposing view Summation paragraph includes none of the reasons or is missing Very few if any English conventions used properly throughout

Debate Rubric

5 Points All/almost all arguments and responses are outlined in a clear and orderly way All/almost all information and evidence build upon previous statement All/almost all content information is well researched, verified by multiple sources, and presented as evidence All/almost all reasons and evidence are given to support the resolution. Key arguments are effectively disputed against the opposing team’s arguments All/almost all attributes of debate presentations style (tone of voice, clarity of expression, voice control, speaking to audience, eye contact; appropriate responsiveness to opposition) practiced consistently 4 Points Many arguments and responses are outlined in a clear and orderly way Much information and evidence build upon previous statement Much content information is well researched, verified by multiple sources, and presented as evidence Many reasons and much evidence given to support the resolution. Key arguments are often effectively disputed against the opposing team’s arguments Many attributes of debate presentations style (tone of voice, clarity of expression, voice control, speaking to audience, eye contact; appropriate responsiveness to opposition) are practiced much of the time 3 Points Some arguments and responses are outlined in a clear and orderly way Some information and evidence build upon previous statement Some content information is well researched, verified by multiple sources, and presented as evidence some reasons and some evidence given to support the resolution. Key arguments somewhat dispute against the opposing team’s arguments Some attributes of debate presentations style (tone of voice, clarity of expression, voice control, speaking to audience, eye contact; appropriate responsiveness to opposition) are practiced some of the time 2 Points Few arguments and responses are outlined in a clear and orderly way Little information and evidence build upon previous statement Little content information is well researched, verified by multiple sources, and presented as evidence Few reasons and much evidence given to support the resolution. Key arguments are occasionally disputed 34

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against the opposing team’s arguments Few attributes of debate presentations style (tone of voice, clarity of expression, voice control, speaking to audience, eye contact; appropriate responsiveness to opposition) are practiced little of the time 1 Point Almost no arguments and responses are outlined in a clear and orderly way, or arguments do not deal with topic Almost no information and evidence build upon previous statement Almost no content information is well researched, verified by multiple sources, and presented as evidence No reasons and no evidence given to support the resolution. Key arguments are not disputed against the opposing team’s arguments No attributes of debate presentations style (tone of voice, clarity of expression, voice control, speaking to audience, eye contact; appropriate responsiveness to opposition) are practiced

Display Project Rubric 5 Points Layout on display board has complete story of the topic Each major idea or point logically sequenced from one to the next Evidence is used for each major idea or point; facts are accurate Evidence is sourced and analyzed for point of view and bias Layout employs effective use of space, graphics, proper use of English conventions If project includes course of action to be taken: • What action is recommended? • What agency should take action? • What alternatives and opposition can be explored and expected? 4 Points Layout on display board is mostly complete story of the topic Many major ideas or points logically sequenced from one to the next Evidence is used for many major ideas or points; many facts fully accurate Many pieces of evidence sourced and analyzed for point of view and bias Layout largely employees effective use of space, graphics, proper use of English conventions If project includes course of action to be taken: • Recommendation for action largely clear • Agency to take action largely identified • Many alternatives and opposition ideas that can be explored and expected

3 Points Layout on display board is somewhat complete story of the topic Some major ideas or points logically sequenced from one to the next Evidence is used for some major ideas or points; some facts fully accurate Some pieces of evidence sourced and analyzed for point of view and bias Layout somewhat employees effective use of space, graphics, proper use of English conventions If project includes course of action to be taken: • Recommendation for action somewhat clear • Agency to take action is somewhat identified • Some alternatives and opposition ideas that can be explored and expected 2 Points Layout on display board is limited story of the topic Few major ideas or points logically sequenced from one to the next Evidence is used for few major ideas or points; few facts fully accurate Few pieces of evidence sourced and analyzed for point of view and bias Layout minimally employs effective use of space, graphics, proper use of English conventions If project includes course of action to be taken: • Recommendation for action vague • Agency to take action vaguely identified • Few alternatives and opposition ideas that can be explored and expected 1 Point

Topic not addressed No clear ideas or major points; or no clear sequence of Social Studies Review 2015-16

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vague ideas No evidence, missing facts or incorrect information Layout confusing If project includes course of action to be taken: • No recommendation for action • No identification of agency to take action • No alternatives or expected opposition



discussed

Note for All Projects: Must meet criteria for display according to specific rules. For example, History Day and Project Citizen have specific measurements for project boards.

(Modified from National History Day Project Rubric)

Congressional Hearing Rubric: Summation of All Presentations 5 Points The presenting team fully explains the key concepts, themes, issues Explains development and significance of the issue(s) Acknowledges and rebuts opposing viewpoints Uses sourced and validated examples consistently Speaks clearly, uses correct grammar, and is politely 4 Points The presenting team explains many of the key concepts, themes, issues Explains many aspects of the development and significance of the issue(s) Acknowledges and rebuts many aspects of opposing viewpoints Uses many sourced and validated examples in many parts of the presentation Speaking is clear, often uses correct grammar, and is largely polite 3 Points The presenting team explains some of the key concepts, themes, issues Explains some aspects of the development and significance of the issue(s) Acknowledges and rebuts some aspects of opposing viewpoints Uses some sourced and validated examples in some parts of the presentation Speaking is clear, sometimes uses correct grammar, and is sometimes polite 2 Points The presenting team explains few of the key concepts, themes, issues Explains few aspects of the development and significance of the issue(s) Acknowledges and rebuts few aspects of opposing viewpoints Uses few sourced and validated examples, or uses in few parts of the presentation Speaking is not clear, occasion use of correct grammar, and is not often polite 1 Point

The presentation is off topic, OR: The presenting team does not explain of the key concepts, themes, issues Does not explain aspects of the development and significance of the issue(s) Does not acknowledges and rebuts aspects of opposing viewpoints Does not use examples in many parts of the presentation Speaking is not clear and is rarely grammatically correct and is impolite

Conference Rubric: Summation of All Presentations 5 Points The delegation fully explains the key concepts, themes, issues The delegation represents the point of view of those represented accurately Explains development and significance of its concerns Acknowledges and rebuts opposing viewpoints Uses examples consistently Speaks clearly, in a grammatically correct manner, and politely 4 Points The delegation explains many of the key concepts, themes, issues The delegation represents many of the points of view of those represented accurately Explains many aspects of the development and significance of its concerns Acknowledges and rebuts many aspects of opposing viewpoints Uses examples in many parts of the presentation Speaking is clear and is often grammatically correct and is largely polite 3 Points The delegation explains some of the key concepts, themes, issues The delegation represents some of the points of view of those represented accurately Explains some aspects of the development and significance of its concerns Acknowledges and rebuts some aspects of opposing viewpoints Uses examples in some parts of the presentation Speaking is clear and is sometimes grammatically correct and is sometimes polite 2 Points The delegation explains few of the key concepts, themes, issues The delegation represents few of the points of view of those represented accurately Explains few aspects of the development and significance of its concerns Acknowledges and rebuts few aspects of opposing viewpoints Uses examples in few parts of the presentation Speaking is not clear and is occasionally grammatically correct and is not often polite 1 Point The presentation is off topic, OR: The delegation does not explain of the key concepts, themes, issues The delegation does not represent points of view of those represented accurately Does not explain aspects of the development and significance of the issue(s) Does not acknowledges and rebuts aspects of opposing viewpoints Does not use examples in many parts of the presentation Speaking is not clear and is rarely grammatically correct and is impolite

(Modified from criteria provided by Frances Kidwell)

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Project Citizen/Civic Action Project Rubric 5 Points

Explains fully the problem with evidence; its causes; possible disagreements about the problem Explains fully why government should be involved in the solution Explains fully with examples related existing or proposed public policies Explains alternative policy options; advantages-disadvantages of each; possible controversies of each Explains fully a public policy that addresses the problem; reasoning and evidence; advantages and disadvantages; constitutionality Action Plan for implementation includes supporters and opponents; appropriate government officials Portfolio clearly sequenced; appropriate use of English conventions; appearance/use of graphics appealing

4 Points

Problem explained; many causes, disagreements Many points about the need for government explained Many related existing public policies explained Many policy options; many advantages-disadvantages explained Explains a public policy that addresses the problem; many reasons and many pieces of evidence included Action Plan for implementation includes many supporters and opponents and many appropriate government officials Many of the ideas sequenced in the portfolio; many English conventions used correctly; appearance and use of graphics clear

3 Points

Some aspects of problem explained; some causes, disagreements
Some points about the need for government explained Some related existing public policies explained Some policy options; many advantages-disadvantages explained Suggests a public policy that addresses the problem; some reasons and some pieces of evidence included Action Plan for implementation includes some supporters and opponents and some appropriate government officials Some of the ideas sequenced in the portfolio; some English conventions used correctly; appearance and use of graphics moderate

2 Points

Problem vague; few causes, disagreements Few points about the need for government explained Few related existing public policies explained Few policy options; many advantages-disadvantages explained Vaguely suggests a public policy that addresses the problem; few reasons and few pieces of evidence included Action Plan for implementation vague; few supporters and opponents and few appropriate government officials Few of the ideas sequenced in the portfolio; few English conventions used correctly; appearance and use of graphics not clear

1 Point

Problem not clear OR portfolio not on topic Need for government not explained No existing policies explained No clear policy options Action Plan not clear or missing No clear sequencing of ideas; English conventions impede understanding; appearance/graphics sloppy or missing (Modified from the Center for Civic Education’s project rubric and the Constitutional Rights Foundation’s criteria for the Civic Action Project)

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Social Studies Curriculum Units and Measurable Performance Activities for Elementary Grades The units in this and other articles are grouped into elementary, middle, and high school. They all are units in which students study content based on California History-Social Science Content Standards and actively engage with the content as they move through the unit. Students might make maps, create displays, or make decisions about issues raised in the unit. These learning activities function as formative assessments, or check-ups along the way, as the students move through the unit and to make sure students are on track. For Local Control Accountability Plan (LCAP) reporting, summative assessments at the end of the unit show the big picture of student learning and answer such questions as “Were the key ideas of the unit mastered?” and “How well were they mastered?” A measurable performance activity is a substantial activity in which student work is measured with a clear rubric. The rubric designed to show the level of student mastery of all key elements established as learning goals for the unit. Specific directions for appropriate metrics are in the article titled How to Report History-Social Science Student Outcomes for LCAP. The units of study included here either contain measurable performance activities or have suggestions for activities that can be added as culminating performance measures at the end. The type of activity chosen will depend on the school and district goals for all students and the specified subgroups. If, for example, the school/district has a significant English learner population at Level 2 and/or students with developmentally lower language skills, a performance activity might be chosen so that students would practice oral language. If the school/district wanted students to improve persuasive writing skills, a document-based question, or DBQ, activity might best meet those learning goals and needs. For LCAP reporting, the same type of activity needs to be repeated with different units during a school year so that the same activity type is measured both early and late in the school year. Early Elementary Units with Added Measurable Performance Activity Ideas Students learn by ‘doing’ in each of the units included here. Students make maps, charts, and outlines. They write descriptions and create project boards. The units include scoring criteria for these activities, and should be considered formative, meaning midway progress check-ups that inform the teacher and learner, as students work through the unit. For LCAP reporting purposes, two similar types of units need to be selected – one for use early in the school year and the other for late in the year. Student work on similar types of performances in each unit could then be scored on the appropriate rubric. The changes in those scores, both averages (means) and standard deviations, could be reported in the appropriate LCAP metrics. Rubrics in the General Rubrics article would need to be adjusted for younger elementary students. The general rubric titled Five-Level Rubric (Descriptive/Expository) in the Rubric article is set for expository essays, not persuasive essays. This rubric can be adjusted for use with display projects and other types of performances that are descriptive and not persuasive or oriented to develop a thesis, and that are appropriate for younger elementary students. Social Studies Review 2015-16 39

Unit 1: Expanding Map Skills (Grade 2) http://porterroom.csusb.edu/modelLessons/documents/Unit2.2ExpandingMapSkills.pdf This unit was authored and edited by Dr. Priscilla Porter at the Palm Desert Campus of California State University San Bernardino. Copyright 2014, permission is granted by Dr. Porter to reproduce and distribute the unit for educational purposes. The unit presents a number of learning activities, including having students create a Migration Brochure. Outcomes from these activities could be reported in LCAP metrics, as described in the article titled How to Report History-Social Science Student Outcomes for LCAP.

number-letter grid to locate specific sites in their classroom, school, and neighborhood. In Lesson 3, students compare and contrast basic land use in urban, suburban, and rural environments of California. While studying the North American continent in Lesson 4, students label from memory physical features such as countries, bodies of water, and geographic landforms. The unit illustrates the five themes of geography: location, place (physical and human characteristics such as neighborhood landmarks; physical features of North America), human-environment interaction (land use), movement (from migrations to water flow in North American rivers), and regions (neighborhoods, environmental regions in California). Expanding Map Skills Table of Contents Description of the Unit Common Core State Standards

Direct inquiries to: Dr. Priscilla Porter [email protected] com, Palm Desert Campus, California State University San Bernardino 37-500 Cook Street Palm Desert, California 92211.

Lesson 1: Migration to California Activity #1 Migration Interview Activity #2 Our Ancestors’ World Migration Flow Map Activity #3 Moving from Place to Place (Close Reading of the Textbook)

Unit Description Most children have a natural love for maps and they enjoy reading and drawing them. In this unit students use maps of the classroom, the school neighborhood, and maps that show land use in California. The basic skill to be developed among students is spatial or map thinking: the ability to imagine and draw a map of what an area looks like from above – the “bird’s eye view.” Students create maps of the key geographic features of the North American continent.

Lesson 2: What is a Map? Activity #1 Essential Elements of a Map Activity #2 A Scavenger Hunt Activity #3 Using a Grid to Identify Locations on a Map Activity #4 Using a Grid to Identify Locations on a Map of Our School Activity #5 Floor Map of Our Classroom Activity #6 The Neighborhood Map

Students begin by interviewing a family member or friend to find out when, how and why their families migrated to California and, using a world map, they locate where their ancestors lived. By focusing on these patterns of migration, students become aware of the United States’ neighbors to the north and south (Canada, Mexico, and Central America). Students learn that these countries have been the source of considerable, recent immigration to the United States and to the state of California. In Lesson 2, students become familiar with the essential map elements of title, legend, grid, scale, directional indicator, and date. They learn to use a simple 40

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Lesson 3: Urban, Suburban, and Rural Activity #1 Land Use Activity #2 Living in California (Close Reading of the Textbook) Activity #3 A Model for Land Use Activity #4 California Land Use Maps Activity #5 Create a Banner Activity #6 Compare and Contrast Land Use Lesson 4: Countries and Landforms of North America Activity #1 Locate the North American Continent Activity #2 Read and Sort Activity #3 Labeling a Map of North America

Unit 2: Exploring Family History (Grade 2) http://porterroom.csusb.edu/modelLessons/ documents/ExploringFamilyHistory.pdf This unit was authored and edited by Dr. Priscilla Porter, at the Palm Desert Campus of California State University San Bernardino. Copyright 2014, permission is granted by Dr. Porter to reproduce and distribute the unit for educational purposes. The unit booklet is 40 pages. The unit presents a number of learning activities, including creating a timeline of family history, an interview, and a comparison of life today and long ago. These could be reported in LCAP metrics, as described in the article titled How to Report History-Social Science Student Outcomes for LCAP. Direct inquiries to: Dr. Priscilla Porter [email protected] com Palm Desert Campus, California State University San Bernardino 37-500 Cook Street Palm Desert, California 92211. Essential Questions 1. What are some important events in my life and in what order did they occur? 2. What is a family? Who is in my family? How do I learn about the history of a family? 3. How is my daily life the same and how is it different from the daily life of my parents and grandparents? 4. How is my daily life the same and how is it different from daily life long ago? Exploring Family History Table of Contents Description of the Unit Common Core State Standards Lesson 1: Constructing Time Lines Activity #1 Constructing a Time Line of the School Day Activity #2 Reading the Textbook Activity #3 Constructing a Time Line of My Life Activity #4 Tracing My History Lesson 2: Tracing the History of a Family Activity #1 Family Word Cards Activity #2 Who is in My Family? – A Graphing Activity

Activity #3 How Do We Learn About the Past? Activity #4 Learning about Our Ancestors – Photo Analysis Activity #5 Learning about Our Ancestors – Artifact Analysis Activity #6 Family Tree Activity #7 Family Traditions Lesson 3: Daily Life – Today and Yesterday Activity #1 Read Aloud Activity #2 Picture Sort – Today and Yesterday Activity #3 Special Person Interview Activity #4 Special Person TimeLine and Biography Lesson 4 Daily Life – Today and Long Ago Activity #1 Picture Sort – Today, Yesterday, and Long Ago Activity #2 Today and Long Ago: A Book of Comparisons Unit Overview: Exploring Family History History-Social Science, Standard 2.1 Students differentiate between those things that happened long ago and yesterday by: 1. Tracing the history of a family through the use of primary and secondary sources including artifacts, photographs, interviews, and documents 2. Comparing and contrasting their daily lives with those of parents and grandparents 3. Placing important events in their lives in the order in which they occurred (e.g., on a time line or story board) Common Core State Standards A variety of activities are included in this unit that support and develop the Common Core State Standards for reading informational text, language, writing, speaking and mathematics. Common Core English Language Arts Reading Standards for Informational Text Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understandings of key details in a text (Key Ideas and Details, 2.1) Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area (Craft and Structure, 2.4) Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes…) to locate key Social Studies Review 2015-16

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facts or information in the text efficiently (Craft and Structure 2.5) By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies...) in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range (Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity, 2.10). Language Standards Produce, expand, and rearrange complete and compound sentences (Conventions of Standard English, 2.1f). Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibility from an array of strategies. (Vocabulary Acquisition and Use, 2.2). Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase (Vocabulary 2.4a). Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (Vocabulary Acquisition and Use VAU 2.4d). Use glossaries … to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in all Content areas (Vocabulary Acquisition and Use, 2.4e). Writing Standards Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section (Text Types and Purposes, 2.2) With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose (Production and Distribution of Writing 2.4) Speaking and Listening Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences (Presentation of Knowledge and Idea, 2.4) Common Core Mathematics Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m. (Measurement and Data, Work with Time, 2.7). Draw a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories….compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (Measurement and Data, Represent and Interpret Data, 2.10). 42

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Significance of the Topic One of the best ways to engage children in history is by involving them in activities related to their own experiences. The unit begins with time lines as students place in chronological order the events in their school day and then of their own life. Next, students explore family history by examining primary sources such as artifacts and photographs and by conducting interviews. Finally, students study the daily lives of people who lived long ago and compare it to their lives and the lives of their parents and grandparents. Essential Questions 1. What are some important events in my life and in what order did they occur? 2. What is a family? Who is in my family? How do I learn about the history of a family? 3. How is my daily life the same and how is it different from the daily life of my parents and grandparents? 4. How is my daily life the same and how is it different from daily life long ago? Special note about the terms today, yesterday, and long ago: This unit uses the word today to refer to the present. The students’ daily lives are today. Yesterday refers to the recent past. The daily lives of parents’ and grandparents’ childhood are considered to be yesterday. Long ago is not defined by the standards, but it should be sufficiently removed from yesterday to minimize confusion. To represent long ago, we recommend selecting one time period such as the Colonial era, the mid-1800s, 100 years ago, or the World War II era. Content Vocabulary As new content vocabulary words are introduced, construct word cards and add them to a “word wall” in the classroom. Sample content vocabulary words include: ancestor, artifact, aunt, biography, brother, children, cousin, document, events, family tree, father, generation, grandfather, grandmother, grandparent, history, interview, long ago, mother primary sources, relative, research, sibling, sister, time, line, uncle, yesterday Assessment Students construct a time line of their school day (Handout #1.1) and a time line of their life (Handout # 1.2).

Next, students trace the history of a family through the use of primary and secondary sources, including artifacts, photographs, and interviews and then complete a family tree (Handout #2.2) and a page for the class Family Traditions book (Handout #2.3). During Lesson 3, students interview a “special person,” construct a time line of their life (Handout # 3.2), and write a simple biography (Handout #3.4). In the final lesson, students construct a book, Today and Long Ago: A Book of Comparisons (Handout #4.1 and #4.2).

Unit 3: California: A Changing State (Grade 4) http://porterroom.csusb.edu/modelLessons/grade4. html This unit was authored and edited by Dr. Priscilla Porter, at the Palm Desert Campus of California State University San Bernardino. Copyright 2009, permission is granted by Dr. Porter to reproduce and distribute the unit for educational purposes. Ideas for culminating measurable performance activities, along with listing of appropriate rubrics to use, are at the end of this unit. Direct inquiries to: Dr. Priscilla Porter [email protected] com Palm Desert Campus, California State University San Bernardino 37-500 Cook Street Palm Desert, California 92211. Grade 4 Model Lessons In Grade 4, students learn the story of their home state, unique in American history in terms of its vast and varied geography, its many waves of immigration beginning with pre-Columbian societies, its diversity, economic energy, and rapid growth. In addition to the specific treatment of milestones in California history, students examine the state in the context of the rest of the nation, with an emphasis on the U.S. Constitution and the relationship between state and federal government. Standard 1. Students demonstrate an understanding of the physical and human geographic features that define places and regions in California. Standard 2. Students describe the social, political, cul-

tural, and economic life and interactions among people of California from the pre-Columbian societies to the Spanish mission and Mexican rancho periods. Standard 3. Students explain the economic, social, and political life in California from the establishment of the Bear Flag Republic through the Mexican-American War, the Gold Rush, and the granting of statehood. Standard 4. Students explain how California became an agricultural and industrial power, tracing the transformation of the California economy and its political and cultural development since the 1850s. Standard 5. Students understand the structures, functions, and powers of the local, state, and federal governments as described in the U.S. Constitution. Geographic Features of California Table of Contents (Standard 1: Students demonstrate an understanding of the physical and human geographic features that define places and regions in California.) Lesson 1: Where in the World is California? Lesson 2: The Regions of California Standard 1 Extended Activities Resources for the Geography of California Standard 1 Teacher Evaluation Form Measurable performance activity possibilities: Students could hold a conference with all the varied groups in California in 1849 deciding how to apply to the United States for admission as a state. The main issues would be a) To be a slave state or not; b) Determine the status of Chinese immigrants: citizens or not; c) Determine the status of Native Americans: citizens or not. See the conference model and conference rubric for details of how to set this up and score it for LCAP. Students could create display project boards showing the vision for California of each interest group in California (former citizens of Mexico; gold miners, farmers, members of Latter Day Saint community in Southern California; Native Americans; business and commercial interests servicing the gold rush) as of 1849. Each board would display the future of California the particular group would like to see. See the project model and project rubric for details on how to Social Studies Review 2015-16

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set this up and score it for LCAP. Descriptive and persuasive essay prompts could be developed on these topics, such as: See the Descriptive and Persuasive/Argumentative essay rubrics. How did California Native American understanding of land ownership differ from the mostly European Americans who flooded into California in 1849? Write a Letter to the Editor of a Sacramento newspaper in 1850, arguing that the Constitutional rights of Chinese immigrants need to be respected and enforced.

Unit 4: From California Indians and Explorers to the Spanish Mission and Mexican Rancho Periods (Grade 4) This 88-page unit was produced by Dr. Priscilla Porter (see sample lesson for full information). Copyright 2014, with permission granted for teachers to use for educational purposes. It is available for a small fee from the Porter Center at the Palm Desert campus of California State University San Bernardino; see contact information below. This unit is not currently available online. The unit includes a variety of activities and teacher and student resources, including many original documents, rubrics, and additional references. Ideas for culminating measurable performance activities, along with listing of appropriate rubrics to use, are at the end of this unit. Direct inquiries to: Dr. Priscilla Porter [email protected] com Palm Desert Campus, California State University San Bernardino 37-500 Cook Street Palm Desert, California 92211. Essential Questions Lesson 1: How did the physical environment affect the lives and culture of the California Indians? Lesson 2: Why did the Spanish want to explore North America? What were the aims, accomplishments and obstacles of the early explorers of California? What were Spanish galleons? What routes did they follow? 44

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Lesson 3: What century is it? When did your family settle in California? Why did they settle in California? Who were the early settlers of California and why did they come? Lesson 4: What were the relationships among soldiers, missionaries, settlers and Indians? What was life like for the people, native and nonnative, who occupied the missions? How did the Franciscans change the economy of California from a hunter-gatherer economy to an agricultural economy? Lesson 5: What is a rancho? What did the ranchos contribute to the economic development of California? What was life like on a rancho? Measurable Performance Activity Ideas In addition to the activities listed in the unit titled California: A Changing State, Create a conference in 1850 of interested parties in either Monterey or Benicia to design an application for statehood to be sent to the Congress of the United States. Issues to decide are: Who will be empowered to vote in California? What will be the status of slavery in California? Will Spanish/Mexican land grants and deeds be recognized and upheld? What will be the status of land ownership of Native American tribes? Where should the new state capitol be located?

Unit 5: California Atlas Lesson Plans (Grade 4) www.calgeography.org The California Geographic Alliance (CGA) has a series of lessons and resources on its website. The following unit is for Grade 4, and has a number of lesson activities. Standards are listed (History-Social Science, Common Core ELA, NG Science) as appropriate. Open the home page, click on California Atlas, and go to Atlas Lesson Plans. Each lesson listed under Title/Link then opens a detailed step-by-step lesson. Below the lessons are categories of activities that can follow the lessons; many have formative types of assessments included. Lessons are copyrighted and permission is given to teachers to use them. Most lesson plans on this site use the California Atlas, but some StoryMaps present lessons with interactive online maps. These lesson plans were developed for professional development workshops conducted by the California Geographic Alliance. Lesson Plans include the target grade, topic, and California standards. CGA encourages feedback from educators using these lessons so that they may be improved, and invites educators to share their lessons for sharing on the site. California Atlas Lessons are in PDF format. Click on a lesson title to view in a new browser page; or right-click to download to your computer. Subject H-SS Geography, ELA, Fine Arts H-SS, ELA H-SS

Title/Link A Geographic History of California’s Water System: Part 1 - Watersheds Where are California’s Commodities Produced?

Standards H-SS 4.1, 4.4.6, 4.4.7

California Native Americans and their Physical Environment California Gold Rush

H-SS 4.1, 4.1.3, 4.2, 4.2.1

H-SS 4.4.6; ELA 1.0

H-SS 4.3.2; ELA L&S 1.1, 1.8

Groups to participate will include: Gold miners, San Francisco business leaders, representatives of Chinese laborers and gold miners, representative of Chumash, Gabrieleno, Miwok, Mono, Cahuilla, Native American tribes, Los Angeles property owners and business leaders, members of the Sepulveda, Yorba, Pico, Verdugo, and Dominguez families as representatives of the Mexican land grant property owners.

Measurable Performance Activity Ideas

The Conference Model activity in the activity model article explains the set up and procedure. The LCAP reportable assessment can be the Conference Rubric in the general rubric article.

2) Have the class determine a resource issue in their school or immediate community, and create a Project Citizen type project, researching the problem, discussing solutions, and doing a display board and or a presentation. This could be part of an evening program attended by parents. Project Citizen as a specific activity is explained in the article on activity models.

Persuasive/argumentative essay topics can be formulated from these activities. Scores on the Persuasive/ Argumentative Essay Rubric in the general rubric article can be reported in appropriate LCAP metrics as explained in the How to Report History-Social Science Student Outcomes for LCAP article.

3) Individual persuasive essays could be submitted by students; prompts could include each student’s idea for best use of a rare resource, or each student’s idea about the best way to deal with the problem identified in item 2 above. Persuasive/Argumentative Essay Rubrics would be used for these.

1) Have the class look at the various features of California geography they have studied and ask what happens to people when they use up their resources? The class could then look at the question of resource use at their school (water, for example) and discuss ways of better using the resource so as to preserve more of it for the future. Groups could do display projects. The project explanation is in the article on Activity Models. The display project rubric scores could be reported in appropriate LCAP metrics, as explained in the article titled How to Report History-Social Science Student Outcomes for LCAP.

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Unit 6: Early Exploration of the Americas (Grade 5)

Activity #2 Conquistadores in North America Activity #3 Routes of Early Explorers

http://porterroom.csusb.edu/modelLessons/grade5. html This unit was authored and edited by Dr. Priscilla Porter, at the Palm Desert Campus of California State University San Bernardino. Copyright 2014, permission is granted by Dr. Porter to reproduce and distribute the unit for educational purposes. The unit table of contents is presented below. At the same site Dr. Porter has posted a unit on the American Revolution. The unit provides a number of learning activities that could be reported in LCAP metrics, as described in the article titled How to Report History-Social Science Student Outcomes for LCAP. Direct inquiries to: Dr. Priscilla Porter [email protected] com Palm Desert Campus, California State University San Bernardino 37-500 Cook Street Palm Desert, California 92211. Early Explorations of the Americas Table of Contents Essentials Questions 1. Why did Europeans begin to look for a sea route to Asia? 2. What kinds of new technology enabled Europeans to explore the world? 3. What European explorers led key expeditions and what routes did they follow? 4. What were the aims, obstacles and accomplishments of the early explorers of the Americas? Lesson 1: Exploration and Technology Activity # 1 Where in the World? The Story of Marco Polo Activity # 2 When Did that Event Happen? Activity # 3 Close Reading of the Textbook Lesson 2: Technology and Navigational Tools Activity # 1 Early Maps used by Explorers Activity # 2 Navigational Tools Catalog Activity #3 Navigational Tools Today Lesson 3: Maps Galore Activity # 1 Voyages of Exploration 46

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Lesson 4: Explorer Research Report Activity # 1 Research Project on an Explorer of the Americas Activity # 2 Presenting Your Research Report Optional Projects History-Social Science Content Standards Standard 5.2: Students trace the routes of early explorers and describe the early exploration of the Americas. 1. Describe the entrepreneurial characteristics of early explorers (e.g., Christopher Columbus, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado) and the technological developments that made sea exploration by latitude and longitude possible (e.g., compass, sextant, astrolabe, seaworthy ships, chronometers, gunpowder). 2. Explain the aims, obstacles, and accomplishments of the explorers, sponsors, and leaders of key European expeditions and the reasons Europeans chose to explore and colonize the world (e.g., the Spanish Reconquista, the Protestant Reformation, the Counter Reformation). 3. Trace the routes of the major land explorers of the United States, the distances traveled by explorers, and the Atlantic trade routes that linked Africa, the West Indies, the British colonies, and Europe.

Common Core State Standards: Writing Standards (W) W 5.2 Write informative/explanatory text to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. W 5.7 Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. W 5.8 Gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources. Common Core State Standards: Speaking and Listening Standards (SL) SL 5.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. SL 5.4 Report on a topic, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant descriptive details to support main ideas; speak clearly at an understandable pace.” Measurable Performance Activity Ideas This unit can also be reframed as a combination of some of the following activities: 1) Students can be assigned in groups to write a travel/ descriptive journal of their discovery trip as a report back to their sponsoring monarch, describing each civilization they encounter. Within each group, one student researches one civilization. Students can complete

display projects on their civilization, so as to explain it to the Royal Court. Students could also be assigned to make brochures about their civilizations. This can be a project or a conference; see articles on Activity Models and General Rubrics. 2) Each group (above) is to make a project display board advocating to increased trade with civilizations encountered on their discovery trip, or advocating against increasing trade. 3) Students in groups can hold a conference of several European nations (England, France, Spain, Portugal, The Empire; the as of yet not independent United Provinces of the Dutch Republic) in a specified year (such as 1530) to discuss issues of competing trade, commercial, imperial interests among them, aimed at setting up exclusive areas for each European state to control/explore. The essential question: Can rivalries be settled? 4) The ‘De Las Casas-Sepulveda’ Debate of the early 1540’s argued about using Native Americans as laborers for Spanish mining and farming in their North American controlled regions. This debate could be expanded to include the Portuguese and Africans brought as slaves to Brazil. A conference activity can be held among these groups; the issue would be “Who will do the work in the New World?”

4. Locate on maps of North and South America land claimed by Spain, France, England, Portugal, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Russia.



Common Core State Standards Reading Standards for Information Text (RI) RI 5.1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RI 5.2 Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarizes the text. RI 5.7 Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly. RI 5.9 Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. Social Studies Review 2015-16

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From Goal to LCAP Report: An Elementary Model Unit This example shows how multiple standards are addressed and how student outcomes can be reported for specific LCAP priority metrics. Example District Goal: Students will progress toward College and Career Readiness with acquisition of reading, writing, speaking and listening skills as defined in Common Core State English Language Arts Standards, and in content/ process knowledge as delineated in History-Social Science as well as the 21st Century Skills and the College, Career, and Civic Life Framework, summarized also in the College and Career Readiness Standards. Activity for Grade 5: Students will complete the following unit learning about different groups of Native Americans. Students will read informational text, write comparative essays, perform group presentation activities, and complete art projects. The activity has multiple sections, and encompasses multiple content and process standards throughout the unit. Common Core ELA Standards for Grade 5: Reading Standards for Information Text Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Reading 5.1 Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarizes the text. Reading 5.2 Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more ideas in a historical text based on information in the text. Reading 5.3 Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area. Reading 5.4 Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., comparison) of information in two or more texts. Reading 5.5 Analyze multiple accounts of the same topic, noting important similarities and difference in the point of 48

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view they represent. Reading 5.6 Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly. Reading 5.7 Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. Reading 5.9 Common Core State Standards: Writing Standards Write informative/explanatory text to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. Writing 5.2 Produce clear and coherent writing, including multiple paragraph text, in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. Writing 5.4 Gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources. Writing 5.8 Common Core State Standards: Speaking and Listening Standards Report on a topic, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant descriptive details to support main ideas; speak clearly at an understandable pace. S History Social-Science Standards for Grade 5: The intellectual skills noted below are to be learned through, and applied to, the content standards for kindergarten through grade five. They are to be assessed only in conjunction with the content standards in kindergarten through grade five. In addition to the standards for kindergarten through grade five, students demonstrate the following intellectual, reasoning, reflection, and research skills: Chronological and Spatial Thinking 1. Students place key events and people of the historical era they are studying in a chronological sequence and within a spatial context; they interpret time lines. 2. Students correctly apply terms related to time, including past, present, future, decade, century, and generation.

3. Students explain how the present is connected to the past, identifying both similarities and differences between the two, and how some things change over time and some things stay the same. 4. Students use map and globe skills to determine the absolute locations of places and interpret information available through a map’s or globe’s legend, scale, and symbolic representations. 5. Students judge the significance of the relative location of a place (e.g., proximity to a harbor, on trade routes) and analyze how relative advantages or disadvantages can change over time. Research, Evidence, and Point of View 1. Students differentiate between primary and secondary sources. 2. Students pose relevant questions about events they encounter in historical documents, eyewitness accounts, oral histories, letters, diaries, artifacts, photographs, maps, artworks, and architecture. 3. Students distinguish fact from fiction by comparing documentary sources on historical figures and events with fictionalized characters and events. Historical Interpretation 1. Students summarize the key events of the era they are studying and explain the historical contexts of those events. 2. Students identify the human and physical characteristics of the places they are studying and explain how those features form the unique character of those places. 3. Students identify and interpret the multiple causes and effects of historical events. 4. Students conduct cost-benefit analyses of historical and current events. History-Social Science Content Standards, Grade 5 5.1 Students describe the major pre-Columbian settlements, including the cliff dwellers and pueblo people of the desert Southwest, the American Indians of the Pacific Northwest, the nomadic nations of the Great Plains, and the woodland peoples east of the Mississippi River. 5.2 Describe how geography and climate influenced the way various nations lived and adjusted to the natural environment, including locations of villages, the distinct structures that they built, and how they obtained food, tools, and utensils. Describe their varied customs.

College, Career, Civic Life Framework (National Council of the Social Studies): Overview of Disciplines and Major Concepts Within Each Civics: Civic and Political Institutions Participation and Deliberation: Applying Civic Virtues and Democratic Principles Processes, Rules, and Laws Economics: Economic Decision Making Exchange and Markets The National Economy The Global Economy Geography: Geographic Representations: Spatial Views of the World Human-Environmental Interaction: Place, Regions, and Culture Human Population: Spatial Patterns and Movements Global Interconnections: Changing Spatial Patterns History: Change, Continuity and Context Perspectives Historical Sources and Evidence Causation and Argumentation Framework for 21st Century Learning: Student Outcomes within Core Subjects, Learning and Innovation Skills Learning from…diverse cultures, religions and lifestyles in a spirit of…respect Understanding other nations and cultures… Understanding the role of the economy in (a) society Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the environment and the circumstances and conditions affecting it…. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of (a) society’s impact on the natural world…. Investigate and analyze environmental issues, and make accurate conclusions about effective solutions. Social Studies Review 2015-16

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This sample unit is titled The American Indians. This is a unit of connected lessons for Grade 5. Written and produced by Dr. Priscilla Porter, senior author of the Reflections K-6 social studies textbook series, and former director for the Center for History-Social Science Education at California State University, Dominguez Hills. This unit was written and produced at the Palm Desert Campus of California State University, San Bernardino. This unit was published in large part in the 2013 Social Studies Review, pp. 64-76, and is partly reproduced here with permission of Dr. Porter. The Table of Contents and Unit Overview and specific steps for Lesson 1 in the unit are below. Lesson 1 has 9 specific activities that together create context for students. The full 38 page unit, with specific lessons, listing of materials to use, description of student work and individual lessons, may be obtained for a small fee directly from Dr. Porter, 37-500 Cook Street, Palm Desert, California, 92211. The unit uses as reference points several State Board adopted grade 5 Social Science textbooks.

Unit Overview: The American Indians The many complexities of American Indian studies cannot be covered in eight lessons. This unit serves as an introduction to the topic and provides a baseline for further study. The unit begins with four introductory lessons each of which may last from two to five sessions. The focus of these lessons is on four major pre-Columbian settlements, including the cliff dwellers and pueblo people of the desert Southwest, the American Indians of the Pacific Northwest, the nomadic nations of the Great Plains, and the woodland peoples east of the Mississippi River. This part of the unit is based around the Retrieval Chart for American Indian Studies.

This unit is designed as a whole class activity. It could be a school wide activity in which different 5th grade classes looked at one region specifically, then came together, possibly in an American Indian Festival, to enact and display to each other and to parents and community at a special Open House evening that could include representative foods of different regions. Parent attendance at such an event could be reported in several LCAP metrics as evidence of parent engagement.

Using print and digital sources, students gather relevant information on the physical characteristics of the region; distinct types of homes and shelters; foods; tools and weapons; and, customs and traditions. Students then summarize or paraphrase the information in notes, and provide a list of their sources. A variety of optional activities are included with each lesson. At the end of the four introductory lessons, teachers have a variety of choices from which to pick and choose in the final 4 lessons. If time is limited, select only one or two of these lessons depending upon which Common Core State Standards you wish to target.

The American Indians: The Unit Plan Table of Contents: The American Indians Lesson 1: The Desert Southwest Indian (the lesson included below) Lesson 2: The Pacific Northwest Indians Lesson 3: The Plains Indians Lesson 4: The Eastern Woodlands Indians Lesson 5: Writing about American Indians Lesson 6: Speaking about American Indians Lesson 7: Indian Settlement (Artistic Expression) Lesson 8: Comparing and Contrasting (Written Analysis) Extended Activities Resources for American Indians Teacher Evaluation Form 50

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Lesson 1: The Desert Southwest Indians Lesson 2: The Pacific Northwest Indians Lesson 3: The Plains Indians Lesson 4: The Eastern Woodlands Indians

Lesson 5: Writing about American Indians (Written Expression). This lesson includes a variety of writing options, some to be used while reading the textbook and a major multiple paragraph text with an introductory paragraph describing the geography of one American Indian region; a paragraph each describing the types of shelter, food, tools and weapons and customs and traditions of the American Indian group; and, one concluding paragraph. Lesson 6: Speaking about American Indians (Oral Presentation). In this lesson, students are divided into groups of three or four and each group is assigned/selects a different American Indian group (e.g. Iroquois, Hopi, etc...). Using print and digital sources, students

complete a retrieval chart for their specific group of American Indians and then orally present the information learned as classmates take notes on a copy of the retrieval chart. A multimedia component (e.g., graphics, sound) and visual displays is incorporated in the oral presentations Lesson 7: Depict the Daily Life in a Village of an American Indian Settlement (Artistic Expression) Mural - Students work in groups of 3 or 4 to create a mural depicting the life and culture of one pre-Columbian type of settlement. OR Triorama - Students work individually to create a triorama depicting the life and culture of one pre-Columbian type of settlement. Lesson 8: Comparing and Contrasting (Written Analysis) - Students use their retrieval charts to compare and contrast two tribes on at least 3 topics. Detail for Lesson 1: American Indians of the Southwest Materials needed: For each student, a copy of Handout #1.1 Retrieval Chart for American Indian Studies; a spiral bound notebook or composition book (as an alternative, staple together 20 pages of ruled paper); Reflections Grade 5 textbook The United States: Making a New Nation, or any U.S. History textbook appropriate for Grade 5; variety of informational texts about American Indians of the Southwest. For examples of informational texts, refer to the Resources section. Optional materials: access to digital on-line sources; teacher-developed picture vocabulary cards or Power Point presentation with photographs or illustrations of key vocabulary words Activity #1 Vocabulary for American Indians of the Southwest Step 1: Introduce the notebook to students and explain that they will use it to keep track of information they learn about American Indians. On page 1, have students write Table of Contents. For the first item in the Table of Contents, have students write the following title: “Vocabulary for American Indians of the Pacific Southwest”. At the bottom of the page, write the page number (page 1). Step 2: Select 3 to 5 general academic or domainspecific vocabulary words that are pivotal to the lesson, words that can be illustrated. Suggestions include adobe, staple, and hogan. Limit the number of words so the activity does not become ponderous.

On next blank page of the notebook, have students write “Vocabulary for American Indians of the Southwest” at the top of the page. Write page 3 on the bottom of the page. (Note: Page 2 is on the backside of the Table of Contents. It is left blank to save space in case it is needed later to continue the Table of Contents.) Draw a chart with 3 columns. Label each column as shown below. Save at least 7 lines (rows) of notebook paper for each vocabulary word. Step 3: Introduce one vocabulary word at a time. If possible, create a picture vocabulary card or a visualpresentation with photos of each vocabulary word. You may also refer to the appropriate pages in the textbook if there are illustrations for the vocabulary words. Once you have introduced the first word, have students write the word and the definition in the first column, illustrate the word in the 2nd column, and, in the 3rd column, use the word in a sentence that shows the meaning of the word. Refer to the sample provided. Vocabulary/ Definition

Illustration

Sentence

Vocabulary/ Definition

Illustration

Sentence

adobe – a brick made of sundried clay and straw staple – main foods such as maize (corn) beans, and squash

student-drawn illustration

hogan – a coneshaped Navajo shelter built by covering a log frame with bark and mud

student-drawn illustration

Some Indians in the southwest built houses using adobe bricks. The Southwest Indians ate maize, corn and beans as their staple foods. A hogan looks like an upsidedown ice cream cone. It is covered with bark and mud. Navajo Indians lived in hogans.

Leave at least 7 lines (rows) of notebook paper for each word: For example:

student-drawn illustration

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Activity #2 Circle Map for American Indians of the Southwest (optional) If your school subscribes to United Streaming, or if you have access to other digital sources, show videos related to the American Indians of the Southwest. On page 4 in their notebook, have students create a circle map like the one shown below. In the center, write “American Indians of the Southwest”. Surrounding the inner circle, take notes on the information presented in the video. Notes can be written randomly in no particular order. It is helpful for the teacher to model this note-taking procedure. Add the “Circle Map” to the Table of Contents.

Step 3: Read each section of the lesson using the reading strategy best suited to your students. Determine two or more main ideas for each section of the text and explain how they are supported by key details. Note: If desired, duplicate the reading organizer from Reflections Reading Support and Intervention support material page 17 or use page 16 in Success for English Learners. Step 4: Using the format provided on the Retrieval Chart (Handout # 1.1, page 9), have students summarize the information in their notebook. Add “Retrieval Chart” to the Table of Contents.

Step 5: Color code each section of the retrieval chart (or the tree map) by circling each item in the same color. For example, circle all items related to the region in red; items related to housing in green, etc. If the circle map was completed in Activity #3, use the same color code to match each category. Add the items from the circle map to the retrieval chart and/or tree map.

Step 2: Preview the lesson with the students. Note the lesson title and the titles of each of the sub-headings (The Pueblo People, Pueblo Culture, The Navajo, and Navajo Beliefs.) Review the illustrations and read the Summary on page 58. 52

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Compare and contrast the overall structure of two or more texts, noting important similarities and differences in the information or point of view they represent. Keep track of the sources of information used so they can be properly documented.

Activity #4 Using Multiple Print or Digital Sources Provide students with access to additional informational texts and/or digital sources. Drawing on the information in these multiple print or digital sources, have students locate pertinent information and record it on the retrieval chart and/or tree

will comprise the first paragraph. Write the sentences together with the students. (Note: Later in the unit, students will write more independently, but at this time, it is strongly suggested that you and the students write the sentences together.) The second paragraph should relate to housing/shelter section of the retrieval chart, etc. until all sections of the retrieval chart have been covered. At the end of writing the multiple paragraph text, help students provide a list of sources used, both print and digital. Table of Contents As a review, the Table of Contents in the student’s notebook should contain the following topics:

Optional: Instead of the retrieval chart, turn the notebook horizontally and construct a tree map as shown at the right. Record all pertinent information under each category of the tree map. American Indians of the Southwest ________ region housing & food tools & customs/ structures weapons traditions

Activity #3 Retrieval Chart for American Indians of the Southwest Step 1: Have students use the Table of Contents in their Reflections textbook (or any American History textbook appropriate for Grade 5) to locate the lesson on “The Desert Southwest” (Reflections Grade 5, Unit 1, Chapter 2, Lesson 1, page 52).

map.

Activity #5 Writing about the American Indians of the Southwest (optional) Note to the Teacher: If you have time for your students to write a multiple paragraph text about each of the American Indian groups, then do this activity. If you only want your students to write about one of the American Indian groups, wait until you have covered all American Indians groups in Lessons 1-4 and then do Lesson 5: Writing about American Indians OR Lesson 8: Comparing and Contrasting American Indians. Prompt for Students: On a new page in your notebook, use the information you have recorded on your retrieval chart to write an informative/ explanatory multiple paragraph text about the American Indians of the Southwest. Properly document the sources you have used. (Reminder: Add this text to the Table of Contents for your notebook.)

Vocabulary for American Indians of the Southwest Circle Map for Northwest Indians (optional) Retrieval Chart for Northwest Indians (or construct a Tree Map, if desired) American Indians of the Southwest (optional multiple paragraph informative/explanatory text) (Note: The information in parentheses is for the teacher.) As the unit progresses, add the page numbers and topics for the other American Indian groups studies.

Teacher: In this lesson, model for students how to use relevant information from their retrieval chart to write an informative/explanatory text that examines the topic “American Indians of the Southwest.” Demonstrate how to summarize or paraphrase information from the students’ notes on their retrieval chart into sentences that convey ideas coherently and clearly. Begin with the “region” section of the retrieval chart (previously color-coded in red). This information Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Optional Activities Tepee: Draw a large circle of paper by tracing around the rim of a bowl or plate. Cut the circle out and cut it in half. Decorate half the circle with interesting designs. Roll it into a cone shape and tape or glue the ends together. Cut a slit and fold back the door flaps. New tepees were white, but darkened gradually at the top from smoke. Use brown crayon to darken the top part. Source: More than Moccasins Poster Reports: As an alternative to a written report, students can work individually or in groups to create a poster to show what they have learned about the Southwest Indians. The posters can be used to present oral reports. Refer to Lesson 6 for more about oral reports. Pueblo People Have students work in small groups to draw a pueblo. Copies of their informative/explanatory paragraphs can be display with their artwork. Or, construct a pueblo using different sizes of boxes. Use pointed scissors to cut roof openings and construct ladders using sticks or toothpicks. Paint all the boxes the same shade of light tan. Before the paint dries, sprinkle cornmeal, salt, or fine sand on it for an adobe effect. Source: More than Moccasins Bulletin Board Retrieval Chart Create a large bulletin board display with the topics from the retrieval chart across the top and the types of American Indian groups down the side. Have different students illustrate each of the topics from the retrieval chart.

Handout #1.1

Retrieval Chart for American Indian Studies Directions: Using print and digital sources, gather relevant information and record the information on this retrieval chart. Properly document the sources used. American Indian Group: ______________________________________________________ Tribes in the Region:_________________________________________________________ Physical characteristics of the region Influences of the geography and climate Housing and structures built Materials used and how they were obtained

Food and how it was obtained

Tools and weapons and how they were obtained

Customs and traditions Miscellaneous information

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The American Indian Unit continues region by region, and takes at least 20 days to complete. The ways that issues of environment shape human behavior become clear to students as they see how differences in environment lead to differences in adaptation, including social, economic, and political development.

tems; one focus could be on use of water resources. 3) Students can organize a Project Citizen or civic action project, described in the article on organizations, that examines use of a specific resource such as water in their community and propose a course of action to a school board or city council.

Students learn required History Social-Science course content in Geography, Economics, Civics, and History, and social studies skills as they practice Common Core ELA skills. Students explore and analyze informational text, and make judgments they defend orally and in writing.

Reporting Student Outcomes in LCAP Metrics from American Indian Unit

Several activity options can be added to the unit. Each would produce student work that would be reportable in specific LCAP metrics as noted below. One set of options could revolve around a Next Generation Science Standard: Grade 5-LS2, Ecosystems, A: Interdependent Relationships “…Organisms can survive only in environments in which their particular needs are met. A healthy ecosystem is one in which multiple species of different types are each able to meet their needs in a relatively stable web of life….” Students would need additional resources from science sources. The California Environmental Education Initiative website, described more in detail in the article on organizations that post units and activities’ section of this issue, would provide strong support for these extension activities. The California Geographic Alliance, also described in the article on organizations, also has grade level specific lessons that provide context. 1) Students can compare Native American communities and consider how well they maintained a healthy ecosystem and to what extent rivalries and wars among American Indians included environmental issues or were competitions for scarce resources in those environments. Students could complete display projects addressing this comparison. Students could make group presentations. Students could write individual essays. 2) Students can look at the Southwest region specifically and compare how well Southwest American Indians’ life styles maintained healthy ecosystems with how current Californian life styles maintain healthy ecosys56

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Examples of Data that could be used for reporting in the state priority areas for American Indians of the Southwest Activity Pupil Achievement (Priority 4): Evidence Student scores on writing rubrics, on a scale of 1-5. Averages and standard deviations of the various rubrics and the optional activity rubrics. Rubrics included in the article on general rubrics for both expository and persuasive essays; would need modifications appropriate to Grade 5. Note: If units given earlier in the school year have similar writing assignments and the same rubrics are used, averages and standard deviations can be compared as evidence of student progress in writing skill. Generally, the Indian units come first in the school year. In this case, using the same rubrics for other activities later in the year could be used to show improvement. Likewise, the following year when these students are in Grade 6, using the same rubrics for Grade 6 writing activities could be used to show progress year to year for these specific students. Student scores of HSS academic content knowledge test included in full unit. Student scores on reading rubric (reading 5.2) Summarization of informational text, included in full unit. Qualitative information: Description of student activities, of learning results on rubrics, explanations of rubrics. Pupil Engagement (Priority 5): Evidence Results from student surveys at the end of the activity asking about participation, interest in the activity

Attendance rates during activity; compared to attendance rates prior to activity Other Pupil Outcomes (Priority 8): Evidence Scores on group performance activity rubrics. Averages and standard deviations. Scores on activity and content specific tests developed at the school site. Averages and standard deviations. Qualitative information: Narrative about connection of activities to SBAC test scores in ELA; how doing the activities is test preparation for performance items on SBAC tests Parental Involvement (Priority 3): Evidence Numbers of parents attending evening/afternoon activity explanations sessions Reports from parent surveys about their children’s reactions to the activity Implementation of State Standards (Priority 2) CCSS, HSS, C3 (as option: NGS) standards Reference writing, reading standards addressed in HSS, CCSS-ELA standards (option: NG Science if optional activity is used) Scores on writing, reading rubrics Scores on content knowledge acquisition rubric included in the Native American unit; link to HSS and ELA standards described

“The adopted course of study for grades 1 to 6, inclusive, shall include instruction, beginning in grade 1 and continuing through grade 6, in the following areas of study:…. (c): Social sciences, drawing upon the disciplines of anthropology, economics, geography, history, political science, psychology, and sociology, designed to fit the maturity of the pupils. Instruction shall provide a foundation for understanding the history, resources… of California and the United States of America…the relations of persons to their human and natural environment, eastern and western cultures and civilizations….” Pupil Engagement (Priority 5): Evidence Attendance and tardy rates during the period of the activity, in each classroom doing the activity; compared to the whole school during the same period; compared to classrooms not doing the activity Parent survey responses to questions about their children’s interest in the activity Pupil survey responses to questions about the activity and about learning by doing the activity. School Climate (Priority 6): Evidence Pupil and parent survey answers to questions about enjoyment of the activity, about interest in the activity, feelings about school connected to doing the activity

Course Access (Priority 7): Evidence

Pupil discipline rates in classrooms during the period of the activity; compared to discipline rates for the school as a whole; compared to classrooms not doing the activity

Reference HSS, CCSS, NGS (if that option is used) standards addressed in this activity; reference sections of Ed Code 51210 that lists courses of study to be undertaken grades 1-6:

See the article on Social Studies Curriculum Units for performance activities, divided into three grade level groupings.

Qualitative narrative giving overview of the whole unit, and including the following section from Ed Code 51210:

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Social Studies Curriculum Units and Measurable Performance Activities for Middle School The units in this and other articles are grouped into elementary, middle, and high school. They all are units in which students study content based on California History-Social Science Content Standards and actively engage with the content as they move through the unit. Students might make maps, create displays, or make decisions about issues raised in the unit. These learning activities function as formative assessments, or check-ups along the way, as the students move through the unit and to make sure students are on track. For Local Control Accountability Plan (LCAP) reporting, summative assessments at the end of the unit show the big picture of student learning and answer such questions as “Were the key ideas of the unit mastered?” and “How well were they mastered?” A measurable performance activity is a substantial activity in which student work is measured with a clear rubric. The rubric designed to show the level of student mastery of all key elements established as learning goals for the unit. Specific directions for appropriate metrics are in the article titled How to Report History-Social Science Student Outcomes for LCAP. The units of study included here either contain measurable performance activities or have suggestions for activities that can be added as culminating performance measures at the end. The type of activity chosen will depend on the school and district goals for all students and the specified subgroups. If, for example, the school/district has a significant English learner population at Level 2 and/or students with developmentally lower language skills, a performance activity might be chosen so that students would practice oral language. If the school/district wanted students to improve persuasive writing skills, a document-based question, or DBQ, activity might best meet those learning goals and needs. For LCAP reporting, the same type of activity needs to be repeated with different units during a school year so 58

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that the same activity type is measured both early and late in the school year. Middle School (Grades 6-8) Units with Added Measurable Performance Activity Ideas Students learn by ‘doing’ in each of the units included here. Students make maps, charts, outlines, write descriptions, create project boards. The units include scoring criteria for these activities, and should be considered ‘formative’, meaning midway progress checkups, as students work through the unit. For LCAP reporting purposes, two similar types of units need to be selected – one for use early in the school year and the other for late in the year. Student work on similar types of performances in each unit could then be scored on the appropriate rubric. The changes in those scores, both averages (means) and standard deviations, could be reported in the appropriate LCAP metrics. Unit 1: What the Civil War a War for Freedom? (Grade 8) Unit 2: Sites of Encounter in the Medieval World (Grade 7) Unit 3: Indian Ocean Travelers in the Medieval Era: Networks of Exchange Across the Hemisphere (Grade 7) Unit 4: Spain Looks for a New Silk Road (Grade 7) Unit 5: The Travels of Ibn Battuta (Grade 7) Unit 6: Slavery is ended! Now What? (Grade 8) Unit 7: Manifest Destiny: Expanding Boundaries (Grade 8)

The California History Social Science Project The California History-Social Science Project (CHSSP) has created two extensive Blueprint units for middle school grades. CHSSP (http://chssp.ucdavis.edu) is a California Subject Matter Project that has developed and posted History Blueprint units aligned to the California History-Social Science Standards and the California Common Core English Language Arts Standards. These units, titled The Civil War and Sites of Encounter in the Medieval World, include formative and summative assessments. The summative assessments are LCAP reportable as measurable performance activities. These units can be accessed at http://chssp.ucdavis.edu/programs (click on History Blueprint and find the units listed under Common Core Programs and Common Core-Aligned Curriculum). They are free for teachers. Copyright is owned by the Regents of the University of California. More about CHSSP is included in the article on organizations.

Unit 1: Was the Civil War a War for Freedom? (Grade 8) From the Civil War Unit Introduction: The Civil War was a critical watershed in U.S. History, when the meaning of freedom for Americans and the meaning of union for the nation changed forever. This unit of study will focus on the events leading to the war, the perspectives of those who fought in or lived through the war, and the effects of the war on individual citizens and the nation. More specifically, this unit will address the causes of the Civil War, the perspectives of Northerners, Southerners, and abolitionists, and the critical battles of the war. This unit also provides detailed instructions to support student analysis of a number of relevant primary sources, including five of Abraham Lincoln’s speeches, the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the South Carolina Ordinance of Secession. The unit concludes as it begins with a focus on an engaging and historically significant question: Was the Civil War a War for Freedom?

Unit 2: Sites of Encounter in the Medieval World (Grade 7) From the Sites of Encounter Unit Introduction: The Sites of Encounter in the Medieval World unit introduces students to the connections between regions and peoples in Afro-Eurasia (the “world”) between 1000 and 1500 (the “medieval” period.) Following recent world historical scholarship about connections between cultures in and around the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, and South China Sea, the lessons immerse students in sites of encounter – Sicily, Quanzhou, Cairo, Mali, Majorca, and Calicut - where merchants, travelers, and scholars exchanged products, technologies, and ideas. These exchanges also sparked new ideas and cultural productions, which then diffused outward from the site of encounter. Without denying that cultural encounters were often marked by conflict, our approach focuses on the shared norms and practices that made exchanges possible. To make these abstract ideas more understandable to students, the lessons begin with the study of concrete objects – maps, ships, astrolabes, silks, and spices – exchanged or produced at the sites of encounter. In the first lesson, Norman Sicily, a major site of exchange between the Muslim and Christian worlds, students will examine the world map al-Idrisi and his team of Muslim, Jewish and Christian mapmakers drew for Christian king Roger II. For Quanzhou, students will analyze excerpts from the travel narratives of Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta and the technology of the sea-faring junk; for Cairo and Calicut, they will examine descriptions of the cities written by travelers from different cultures, along with local accounts, art and architecture. Between the major lessons, there are mini-lessons on the Mongol Empire, the voyages of Zheng He, and the Black Death…. Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Unit 3: Indian Ocean Travelers in the Medieval Era: Networks of Exchange Across the Hemisphere (Grade 7) This unit, written by Joan Brodsky Schur, provides background and a variety of activities that can be used as a total package or in parts. The website has detailed and readable interactive maps for students to better understand the relationship of issues of location to historical development. A number of measurable performance activities could be added, including conferences, debates, display projects, as well as persuasive essays, to various aspects of this unit. LCAP reporting is explained in the How to Report article. The unit is posted online and permission is granted for teachers to download and use it in full or in part. http://www.sqcc.org/Lesson-Plans/Indian-Ocean-Travelers-in-the-Medieval-Era003A-Networks-of-ExchangeAcross-the-Hemisphere.aspx (a site created and maintained by the Sultanate of Oman) Overview and Purpose of the Lesson Most students are acquainted with the importance of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans in world history, but know little of the world’s third largest ocean, the Indian Ocean, which for centuries provided a medium of exchange among the world’s great civilizations. In this lesson, students focus on famous travelers in the Indian Ocean during the Medieval Era (300-1450 CE). For much of this time China was a stable and technologically advanced society, eager to trade via land and sea with other places in the world. On the opposite side of the Indian Ocean, Muslim societies flourished in Southwest Asia under the Umayyad and Abbasid empires. Like their Chinese counterparts, Muslim mariners ventured forth on the Indian Ocean, eager to trade with and learn from other societies rimming the ocean’s coastlines. India was the hinge of this trading system, developing a system of trading ports that became cosmopolitan centers of commerce. This unit shows many relationships of history, geography, and economics as students complete a number of activities. The unit shows that globalization is not unique to the 20th and 21st centuries. A variety of measurable performance activities can be added. For example: • Students can be assigned various prominent travelers who made long journeys, such as Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta. A number of others wrote accounts. The Chinese expeditions to the east coast of Africa in the 15th century are well recorded. Any of these can be made into display projects, based around the theme of finding the best route for trade and commerce. Projects would be scored using the Display Project rubric in the General Rubric article. Reporting of scores for LCAP is explained in the How to Report article. • A particular time period can be determined, such as the mid 14th century, and a conference held among rulers at the time from Europe and including China, focused on determining the best solution to the outbreak of plague that has devastated whole populations and reduced trade and commerce to a trickle. Students would be divided in groups, each to represent a particular ruler. In the conference, each would explain the impact of the plague on each ruler’s domain. Each would also suggest a strategy to reduce the impact of the plague. The Europeans would be especially sensitive to the fact that a huge outbreak of the same kind of plague undermined and weakened the Roman Empire of Emperor Justinian in the late 500s, and led to the collapse of trade along the Silk Road and within the Mediterranean. Living standards in Europe declined, and in Europe, measures of quality life such as life expectancy did not return to that of the height of the Roman Empire (about 150 CE) until almost 1800 CE. • A display project about a trade trip from West Africa to China in almost any decade of the time period of the unit, comparing possible routes, civilizations encountered, or barriers to trade encountered. Several trips, such as the travels of Ibn Battuta, are featured in commercially available materials from UC Berkeley or Social Studies 60

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School Service. • A conference on the same topic, with student groups representing different civilizations, deciding whether trade will be allowed through their respective territories, and if so, at what cost. • A conference of political and religious leaders from Europe and the Middle East in the 1340s and early 1350s, meeting to determine the best courses of action to take to deal with the outbreak of the Bubonic Plague. One possibility would be to close trade ports and stop any commerce. • Persuasive/Argumentative essays could be required in addition to the above activities, using as prompts topics such as: o Did Western European movements into the Indian Ocean starting in the 1400s encourage or reduce trade and commerce?



o Did trade and commerce in the Indian Ocean and nearby areas help or hinder the spread of religious beliefs?

Essays would be scored using the Persuasive/Argumentative rubric in the General Rubric article. Results would be reported in LCAP metrics as explained in the How to Report article.

Unit 4: Spain Looks for A New Silk Road (Grade 7) This unit, composed for this issue of the Social Studies Review, can function as its own measurable performance activity. Specific connections to various LCAP State Priority Areas and required metrics are included at the end of this activity so as to provide more specific examples of how learning outcomes can be reported in LCAP metrics. This unit includes project presentations, a conference, and individual persuasive essays. This is an original unit developed for this Social Studies Review issue, and may be downloaded and used totally or in part. Essential Central Question: Can new trade routes be created between Spain and the Far East? What are the possibilities and barriers? Situation: Your team (the class, or all grade 7 classes at a school) works for the newly established Foreign Trade Office of the Spanish Royal Court, said court for the first time in over 700 years seeing a Spain united by the marriage of the royal monarchs Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile last year. Except for Portugal and a portion of the Caliphate of Grenada at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula, all of the regions south of the mountains are united. The new Court is most anxious to make Spain the center of restored trade with the east. Spices for food preservation and seasoning, silks and woven tapestries have been the main imports; wool goods and the main exports of this trade that has been largely cut off since the defeat of the Byzantine (or Eastern Roman) Empire at the hands of the Ottomans in 1453. The new Court wants these products to move through Spain, or Spanish territory, to boost Spanish income. Venice, on the north end of the Adriatic Sea, has monopolized much of this trade in the past, working most of the time in harmony with the Byzantines. The Ottomans have closed down the trade routes. The famous Silk Road trade route from western Cathay through the northern Asian deserts and high plains going back to Roman times has been closed. The Venetians still provide much of the shipping required by Ottomans who, as Muslims Social Studies Review 2015-16

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(called Mohammedans by Europeans in 1470), make a yearly pilgrimage to central Arabia. Venice has one of the largest navies in the known (European) world. Task: The Royal Court has tasked your office to recommend the best course of action to reopen this trade. Your team (class) will be divided into groups, each to research one of the following choices: 1) Go to war against the Ottoman Empire. This would be largely a campaign by ship, and Spain does not at present have much in the way of a navy. Your army is land based. The Ottoman Empire is much larger, more populated than Spain; however, has many conquered peoples who may be restive. While Spain has strong regional groups itself, this war would be something like the Reconquista, or wars against the Moors that go back to 711. The very southern part of Spain is still in Moorish hands. 2) Follow the neighboring Portuguese in their explorations down the coast of Africa to see if there might be a trade route to the east going that direction. Navigation below the equator would present a problem, as the North Star is not visible and ships at sea would have no way to determine their location. Because the Portuguese have coastal bases, our ships would most likely not be able to stay close to land. The Portuguese navy would resist Spanish ships encroaching on their territory. Spain would need to invent some kind of navigation system if ships get too far away from land in the south Atlantic. The magnetic compass, which has been useful in the Mediterranean for more than a century is not reliable, especially in the Atlantic. 3) Explore northern shipping routes through the Baltic through Lithuania into Muscovy. England, not a strong country, is experiencing civil wars between rival royal families, and will not be a hindrance, at least for a time, for shipping through the English Channel, or around the English islands. The Muscovite Grand Prince Ivan III, wed to a daughter of the executed Byzantine Emperor, is beginning to call himself ‘The Tsar of All Rus’ and has aspirations of conquering Ottoman and Mongolian held lands to the east. Are there trade possibilities working with Muscovy? How opposed might the kingdoms, whatever they are, along the old Silk Road, to restoring trade, 60 some years after the death of the conquering Timur (Tamerlane)? Have they broken away from control by his descendants? 4) Determine possibility to form an alliance with Venice, and then explore possible trade routes from the Eastern Mediterranean southward. This would require some kind of agreement with the Ottomans to allow Spanish shipping in that part of the Ottoman Empire, or Venetian shipping, and include possible routes through lands and kingdoms unknown to us; only Persia is known of, and a land sometimes called “Hind” or “Hindustan” is mentioned in some sources. Supposedly there is great wealth there. Information coming from Muslim and Jewish scholars working in Cordoba and Seville report that the Macedonian general Alexander (The Great) conquered Persia almost two thousand years ago, and got to the outskirts of Hind before turning back. What that is, and what lies beyond to the east, are unknown. Also, His and Her Majesties of the Most Catholic Spain do not trust fully information from Muslim and Jewish scholars. The monarchs hope to expel both groups from Spain, following in the footsteps of England and France. 5) Determine if there is a possible trade route that could be opened across Africa south of the great desert (if there is anything other than desert in Africa) that could connect to waters bordering Egypt. This would require a port on the west coast of Africa, as well as any east coast. The west coast port would have to be contested with Portugal, or an agreement reached with Portugal regarding a port. Process: Your team (the class) will subdivide into small groups that will explore the issues with each of these alternatives. Each group will report back to the Foreign Trade Office. All the groups will then decide together which seems to be the best alternative. Individuals in each group will submit their own judgments in written and oral presenta62

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tion form. Your office will submit a full report to the Royal Monarchs with your final recommendations. In each of the five cases above, every group will need to examine existing trade routes, issues of weather, possible shipping routes, trade winds; political issues regarding each kingdom or empire along the projected trade route, possible cultural and religious issues that could impact trade, and present some estimates of the overall costs of using each route for trade. Each group will need to determine the following and make a presentation:

1) I ssues of using this route (reactions of people along the route, weather, distances, location; cultural issues of people along the route) 2) Advantages of this route 3) Disadvantages of this route 4) Do advantages outweigh disadvantages? Why or why not? 5) Overall recommendation regarding this route



The whole class will decide which plan to follow. Each student will then write an essay agreeing or disagreeing with the class decision. Essays will be scored using the persuasive/argumentative rubric in the article on General Rubrics. Student Essays: Prompt: Based on information available to the Spanish monarchs in the year 1470, what was the best alternative to increasing trade with the East? Prompt: What geographic and historical knowledge of the time period available to us now would probably have changed the Monarch’s decisions about trade routes if they had known that? Student outcomes can be scored on the Project rubric, the Conference rubric, and the Persuasive/Argumentative rubric, all included in the General Rubric article. Any or all of the score averages can be reported in the LCAP metrics explained in the How to Report article and shown below as an illustration of how to report for LCAP. A similar activity toward the end of the school year would have scores reported in the same metrics for comparison and to show growth. Reporting for LCAP: Group report and individual essay scores can be used in the following LCAP state defined metrics. Additional district added metrics may also apply as well. Persuasive essay writing, for example, is one of the key skills listed under college and career readiness and the data from the activity scores could be used as evidence of student learning of that skill.





Priority 2: Implementation of state standards. CCSS in ELA and HSS state standards addresses in this activity are listed at the start of the CHSSP unit. In addition, 21st Century Skills of argumentative writing and speaking are practiced in this unit, as are inquiry questions of the College, Career and Citizenship (C3) framework.



Priority 7: Pupil enrollment in a broad course of study… Participation in these activities and completion of the various activities demonstrates enrollment in activities that practice skills using standards content.



Priority 4: Pupil achievement…Sshare of students that are college and career ready… Number and percentage of students achieving score of 4 or higher on each rubric used is an indicator of mastery of persuasive writing skills needed for college and career readiness.





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Priority 8: Pupil outcomes in the subject areas… Percentage of students achieving a score of 4 or higher, and also median score and standards deviation of scores at the end of school year compared to similar tasks administered at the end of the school year, show growth of achievement as well as achievement levels themselves. These percentages, medians, and standard deviations can also be compared from one year to the next, as students complete similar tasks in other grade levels, to show skill improvement. Priority 5 (pupil engagement) and Priority 6 (school climate) can both be addressed by: 1) Tracking and comparing attendance, absenteeism, tardiness rates of students in classes doing the activities with rates of students in classes that do not do the activities. 2) Compare results of student and their parent surveys administered immediately after completion of the activities asking about student interest, engagement, enthusiasm for the activity; compare to similar surveys done for students and their parents who do not do the activity.

A limited number of extensive and detailed medieval and early modern periods units are available that have original documents, maps, often interactive maps, that show trade, commerce, the flow of ideas and religions, between the years approximately 500 to 1500 CE or a portion of that time period. These units contain many lesson specific activities that can be used to build background and provide sources for students to use in measurable performance activities such as those listed above.

Unit 5: The Travels of Ibn Battuta (Grade 7) This unit, one of a number posted online about Ibn Battuta, is owned by the University of California Berkeley, which holds the copyright. The online unit has many pictures, maps, and specific activities for students based on Battuta’s travels between the years 1325 and 1353 CE. See the resources on the home page for extensive resources, student projects of various kinds, and maps. The introduction to the unit and some activities are cited below. Permission is given to use the site for educational purposes only. A variety of measureable performance activities can be developed from this unit. The unit is accessible at: http://ibnbattuta.berkeley.edu/sidetrips.html Background: Ibn Battuta started on his travels when he was 20 years old in 1325. His main reason to travel was to go on a Hajj, or a Pilgrimage to Mecca, as all good Muslims want to do. But his traveling went on for about 29 years and he covered about 75,000 miles visiting the equivalent of 44 modern countries which were then mostly under the governments of Muslim leaders of the World of Islam, or “Dar al-Islam”…. Near the end of Ibn Battuta’s own life, the Sultan of Morocco insisted that Ibn Battuta dictate the story of his travels to a scholar and today we can read translations of that story called “Rihla - My Travels…. Learning Activities: Specific lesson activities in this unit include having students pretend to be a traveling companion to Battuta and create post cards to send home to Tangier (Morocco) describing sights along the trip. Role play scenarios allow students to pose as Battuta and describe travels to an audience back in his home city of Tangier. Students can keep diaries of Battuta’s travels, they can be newspaper reporters and even editorial writers responding to specific events during the time of Battuta’s travels. Students can make board games, travel brochures, even cook their way across North Africa and the Middle East. The unit gives detailed directions for each of these lesson activities. For measurable performance scoring and LCAP reporting, the Display Project, Conference, and Persuasive/ Argumentative Essay rubrics in the General Rubrics article would apply. Outcomes would be reported to LCAP metrics as explained in the How to Report article and illustrated in the New Silk Road unit above. 64

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Special Resources: An extensive and detailed medieval and early modern periods unit is available that has original documents, maps, often interactive maps, that show trade, commerce, the flow of ideas and religions between the years of approximately 500 to 1500 CE or a portion of that time period. This unit contains many lesson specific activities that can be used to build background and provide sources for students to use in measurable performance activities such as those listed above. Titled The Indian Ocean in History and accessed at http://www.indianoceanhistory.org/, this is explained in more detail in the Other Organizations article and has additional interactive resources including detailed interactive maps showing trade routes, products, and weather information. Students can complete components of the unit, or the entire unit.

Unit 6: Slavery is ended! Now What? (Grade 8) An original unit created for this issue of the Social Studies Review. All or any part of the unit may be downloaded, copied, and used for educational purposes. This unit is a simulation measurable performance activity using the Congressional Hearing model to discover what future opportunities actually existed after the American Civil War for the newly freed. Persuasive/argumentative essays may be added as closure performance activities as well. With slight modification, this unit can be reconfigured as a Conference if so desired. Standards: California History-Social Science Standards 8.11 Students analyze the character and lasting consequences of Reconstruction. 1. List the original aims of Reconstruction and describe its effects on the political and social structures of different regions. 2. Identify the push-pull factors in the movement of former slaves to the cities in the North and to the West and their differing experiences in those regions (e.g., the experiences of Buffalo Soldiers). 3. Understand the effects of the Freedmen’s Bureau and the restrictions placed on the rights and opportunities of freedmen, including racial segregation and Jim Crow laws. 4. Trace the rise of the Ku Klux Klan and describe the Klan’s effects. Also reference the College and Career Readiness Standards and Reading, Writing Standards for History Social Science and Technical Subjects. Background and Setting of the Activity: The year is 1867. The Civil War ended 2 years ago, and the Union Army occupies and controls the governments of the states that had formed the Confederacy. Considerable destruction took place in those states, and about one fourth of all military aged men from those states died in the war; many more were permanently injured. Questions of the future of these states, the destruction, the need for rebuilding, are being widely debated. Whatever rebuilding is decided upon, it will take considerable time and money. At the same time, the immediate huge issue facing the United States is the question of what now happens to the newly freed. About 4 million enslaved people are now no longer enslaved. What will they do now to earn a living? A small proportion of enslaved worked as skilled laborers in Southern plantations and cities, but most of the men were farm workers who worked in ‘labor gangs’ on huge plantations. Most of those plantations are broke, as their savings (capital) were largely in the human property they no longer own. These former plantations have no income to hire laborers. Most of the enslaved lived in housing of some sort provided on those plantations. Those provisions no longer exist. What will the former enslaved do to earn a living? How will they learn new skills? Where will they live, and how will they pay for their housing? How will they get education or medical care? Are they simply to be kicked off the land and out of the housing they do not own and left to become homeless and jobless? Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Almost all the Confederate soldiers at the end of the war were released after taking an oath of loyalty to the United States. Another intensely debated question is about the treatment to be given to ex Confederate soldiers, especially the injured ones. Will the soldiers who fought for the cause of preserving slavery get better treatment than those who were enslaved? Strongly held opinions in the North disagree about how much punishment should be given to the South. Some favor simply taking the land and other property from former plantation owners and distributing it to the newly freed. Should Southerners in general pay for damage of property, including the deaths of Northern soldiers, as a kind of war reparation payment? Others wish to put the war behind them, and move forward, without particular punishment of the South. Farmers and those who want to move into Western lands do not want to see an influx of newly freed people moving into the West. Northern factory owners are interested in having some of the newly freed move north and work in the growing factories; but current factory workers do not want the labor competition from the newly freed. The Task: To hold a Congressional Hearing (or a Conference) where different groups in 1867 America answer the question of what should happen to the newly emancipated. Groups will either testify before the Congressional Committee, or will put forth their views in a Conference. The class (or each 8th grade class at a school, or portions of the 8th grade classes at a school) will be divided into the following groups:

• • • • •

Spokespersons for the newly freed Spokespersons for the Southern plantation/land owners Spokespersons for farmer organizations in Nebraska, Kansas, the Dakotas, western Illinois, Iowa Spokespersons for former abolitionists, including some religious leaders S pokespersons for concerned community members of Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, and New England • S pokespersons for Southerners who owned very little land and who had never owned slaves but served as Confederate soldiers

Each group will research its viewpoint. Using the Congressional Hearing model, each group will present its views to the whole class. At the end of the presentations, the Congressional Committee will vote on the issues before it: Will the U.S. government assist the newly freed in land acquisition in the West? Will the U.S. government help the newly freed move into Northern cities? Will the U.S. government take land away from Southern landowners and give it to the newly freed? If the Conference model is used, each group presents its views in the conference setting. Ultimately, the attendees at the Conference will vote on solutions. Between conference sessions (there must be at least two separate sessions) groups lobby each other behind the scenes, to work out agreements and deals with which each can live. At the final Conference session, solutions are decided by vote of the groups. The Congressional Committee will develop an answer to the representatives of the newly freed questions: What shall we do to earn a living? Where shall we do it? Where will we live? What will we do for housing? How will we learn new skills? Outcomes would be scored on the Conference or Congressional Hearing rubrics in the General Rubrics article. Persuasive/argumentative essay topics could be added to provide summation and closure to the activity. The rubric is in the General Rubric article. Prompts could include: 66

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Was the post Civil War policy of the United States in reconstructing the Southern states mostly harmful or helpful to the newly emancipated? Agree or disagree with President Lincoln’s idea of reconstruction, being ‘with malice toward none and charity for all’, as that policy impacted the newly emancipated? Outcomes would be reported on LCAP metrics as explained in the How to Report article. Additional Background and References: Teacher notes: The point of this activity is to have students grapple with the issues faced by the newly freed African Americans in the decades after the Civil War. The period 1865-1877, called Reconstruction, and the two decades after, witnessed both the exhilaration of freedom and the gradual establishment of discriminatory Jim Crow laws in many states, which in effect recreated many of the social norms African Americans experienced before Emancipation. The culmination could be seen as the Plessy vs. Ferguson U.S. Supreme Court case in 1896 that created the separate but equal principle, which legalized racial segregation in the United States, and that in reality was separate but hardly equal. In popular thinking, two decades later the widely popular major film “Birth of A Nation” in 1915 by D. W. Griffiths portrayed the post Civil War years as being ones in which the Ku Klux Klan emerged to save the nation and poor, victimized whites from vast criminal gangs of African Americans running amuck. The scholarly and widely used text in universities American Negro Slavery by Ulrich B Phillips in 1918 explained to generations of college students that the institution of slavery was a system of management of (superior) white people over (inferior) black people. This view of slavery and of African Americans supported segregation and the view of the post civil war years as shown in the Griffiths’ film. These understandings of slavery, the Civil War, and the decades after the war were those taught in school history and widely believed until the tide began to turn in the 1950s and especially with the emergence of the Black Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s. New historical research and understandings of those periods also emerged, and are summarized in the book review below. The historical understanding of these time periods has varied radically over the century and a half after the war itself. Students need to understand that the issues faced by the newly freed in 1865-6-7 and after were overwhelming. Slavery was over, but the issues of employment, where and how to live, where and how to improve themselves, had not been considered by most American leaders. Hence the question: Now what? Reconstruction and post-Reconstruction historian Kate Masur explains: “The pre-Foner narrative of Reconstruction historiography is, as editor Thomas Brown puts it in his introduction to the volume, “one of the most familiar chapters in the history of American historical literature” (p. 3). A generation of historians (including this one) first learned that story from Foner himself, in his preface to Reconstruction and other writings. From the Civil War era through the first half of the twentieth century, the mainstream history of Reconstruction was written by the victors in the struggle who looked back at Reconstruction as a “tragic era” in which Congress, out of vengeance against the Confederacy, trampled the Constitution and imposed “negro rule” on the South. Such historians represented African Americans as hapless pawns, unprepared for the responsibilities thrust on them by voting rights legislation. A revisionist school of Reconstruction historiography emerged gradually, beginning with African American scholars in the 1920s and 1930s – importantly W.E.B. DuBois in Black Reconstruction in America (1935) – and culminating in mainstream academic work in the 1950s and 1960s. The new work recast Radical Republicans as well-meaning progressives who sought to reconstruct the United States on the best possible basis, were fair to the white South, and believed in the promises of equality outlined in the Declaration of Independence. The next wave of scholarship, identified by some as “post-revisionism,” adopted a more critical tone, emphasizing “the conservative implications of reform” and taking a “jaundiced view of American institutions,” as Michael Fitzgerald puts it (p. 93). Influenced by the rise of social history, scholars of the 1970s and 1980s also placed increasing emphasis on African Americans’ agency, Social Studies Review 2015-16

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showing the effectiveness with which they pursued their own goals, first by helping shatter the bonds of slavery and then by seeking landownership, building institutions, accruing political power, and cultivating new familial relationships. Foner represented his book as the capstone of these two generations of scholarship. But unlike many of his predecessors, he made Reconstruction a national story, linking emancipation and experiments in free labor in the South with major industrial upheaval and a reconstruction of capitalism in the North. Still, his focus remained southern and, in a refutation of the “tragic era” historiography, he placed special emphasis on the effectiveness of black political and social organization. Harkening back to the revisionists, his tone was respectful toward those who advocated radical reform and toward the entire Reconstruction enterprise. “Perhaps the remarkable thing about Reconstruction,” he concluded, “was not that it failed, but that it was attempted at all and survived as long as it did.” Kate Masur. Review of Brown, Thomas J., ed., Reconstructions: New Perspectives on the Postbellum United States. H-CivWar, H-Net Reviews. October, 2007. http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev. php?id=13650 Accessed 10 July 2015. Additional reference materials for students: Eric Foner. Reconstruction Revisited. (1982). Also Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution. (1988) C. Vann Woodward. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. (1955) Thomas J. Brown (ed). Reconstruction: New Perspectives on the Post Bellum United States. (2008) Steven Hahn. A Nation Under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South….(2003)

Unit 7: Manifest Destiny: Expanding Boundaries (Grade 8) This unit was contributed by Tracy Middleton in 2014, and permission is given to teachers to use all or any part of it. The unit provides a number of activities for students to do as a way of engaging with content. The time period is pre Civil War. Many different peoples were involved and impacted by American western expansion, and in this unit students explore these. This unit requires use of text materials. Many individual activities can be viewed as formative or mid-point checkup assessments. Some, especially those in the Dimensions discussions are substantial and can be made LCAP reportable by using rubrics in the General Rubric article. Additional measurable performance activity ideas reportable for LCAP are added at the end. Note the student guide to evaluate the credibility of source in Dimension 3. Other document analysis guides are in the Appendix. Unit Theme: Expansion West (early to mid 19th Century) Standards English Language Arts Informational Text: 1. RI8.1 Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 2. RI8.2 Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text. 3. RI8.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings, analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts. Writing: 1. 8.W.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant contents. 2. 8.W.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others. 3. 8.W.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), 68

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drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. 4. 8.W.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. Speaking & Listening: 1. SL.8.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. 2. SL.8.4 Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation Language: 1. 8.L.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. 2. 8.L.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. 3. 8.L.6 Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. History-Social Science 8.8 Student analyze the divergent paths of the American people in the West from 1800 to the mid-1800s and the challenges they faced. 8.8.1 - Discuss Andrew Jackson’s policy of Indian Removal 8.8.2 - Describe the purpose, challenges, and economic incentives associated with westward expansion, including the concept of Manifest Destiny and the territorial acquisitions that spanned numerous decades. 8.8.5 - Discuss Mexican Settlements and their locations, cultural traditions, attitudes toward slavery, land-grant systems, and economies. 8.8.6 - Describe the Texas War for Independence and the Mexican-American War, including the territorial settlements, and the effects the wars had on the lives of Americans, including Mexican Americans today. 8.9 Students analyze the early and steady attempts to abolish slavery and to realize the ideals of the Declaration of Independence. 8.9.4 - Discuss the importance of the slavery issue as raised by the annexation of Texas and California’s admission to the union as a free state under the Compromise of 1850. History-Social Science Analysis Skills Chronological and Spatial Thinking Students explain how major events are related to one another in time. Research, Evidence and Point of View Students frame questions that can be answered by historical study and research. Students distinguish relevant from irrelevant information, essential from incidental information, and verifiable from unverifiable information in historical narrative and stories. Students assess the credibility of primary and secondary sources and draw sound conclusions from them. Students detect the different historical points of view on historical events and determine the context in which the historical statements were made (the questions asked, sources used, author’s perspectives). Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Assessment Summative: Vocabulary Quizzes Headline News! Summaries Inquiry Project Formative: Four Lenses Graphic Organizers Academic Summaries Tickets Out the Door Key Vocabulary for Social Studies Important People: Andrew Jackson Stephen Austin Tejanos Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Sam Houston William Travis Juan Sequin Davy Crockett Susanna Dickinson James K. Polk Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Ninos Heroes Key Events: Indian Removal Act Trail of Tears Texas War for Independence Battle at the Alamo Texas Annexation The War with Mexico The Mexican Cession Key Terms: destiny manifest removal cession settler annexation reservation transcontinental Vocabulary Work: Frayer Model in workbook - preteach key terms See it, Say it, Show it, Store it Concept Ladder - expansion Concept Circles TIC-TAC-TELL paragraph 70

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Dimension 1 - Developing Questions and Planning Inquiries Compelling Question: Is more, better? Students will research historical events connected with Manifest Destiny, and analyze the positive and negative impacts of expansion on the American landscape and the lives of people living in America. In a final project, students will focus on a series of events that occurred during America’s expansion, and communicate their findings and analysis of the expansion on the lives of people who were affected by the event. Examples of thinking students should have at the end of studying an historical event: Trail of Tears - Students should explain the injustices Native Americans experienced through relocation. War with Mexico - Students should explain whether or not the United States was justified in going to war with Mexico. Supporting Questions: Supporting questions are the kind of questions that help facilitate deeper learning by helping students uncover information to help them answer the compelling question. They should focus on descriptions, definitions, and processes to help students construct conclusions and take informed civic action. Challenge students to come up with their own questions. Some examples are listed below. Examples for the topic Trail of Tears: What was the Trail of Tears? Why did President Jackson sign the Indian Removal Act into law? How were the Native Americans relocated? How did relocation affect their lives and culture? What was the long-term effect of relocation? The most ideal differentiated learning experience, and one that is suggested in this unit, is a historical investigation in which students work at various learning centers where they utilize their history/social science analysis skills while working with primary and secondary sources. The centers will have primary and second-

ary sources for each historical event at different learning levels. Historical Events/Ideas in Manifest Destiny that address expansion:







Indian Removal (Jackson) Texas War for Independence and Annexation by the U.S. War with Mexico (Polk) Land Acquisitions

Planning the Inquiry Project: While conducting their historical investigations of the above events, students will think about which topic they wish to research for their inquiry project. After studying the events, students will choose one event in which they will dig deeper to answer the question, Is more, better? After researching their events, they will communicate their findings through a final project Their final inquiry projects must contain the following:









- claim and counterclaim - evidence to support the claim and counterclaim - at least one thought provoking quote that is relevant to their claim - information from relevant primary sources - relevant historical images and maps - multiple perspectives of the event - some kind of a data chart that shows the impact of expansion (on the country, economy, people. etc.) Dimension 2 – Applying Disciplinary Concepts and Tools

Students will view the historical events from 4 lenses – economist, geographer, citizen/government, and historian. Teach students how to think like an economist, geographer, historian and citizen/government lawmaker. You will need to give them questions from each point of view. Examples:

economic choices affect their decisions? How did economic choices affect the outcome? How did economic choices affect other people? What were the unintended consequences (unforeseen costs and benefits)? How did the event/incident affect different markets? 2. Geographer: What are the environmental characteristics? What natural resources does the land offer? How does this change the landscape of human activity? What kind of economy will the resources support? Who was affected? How were they affected? How did the population shift? How did (or could) people adapt to and modify the spaces they occupy? What were some geographic regions that affected? How were they affected? How were different ideas moved from one place to another? What are some patterns of movement that you have noticed? What distinguishes the region from other regions? 3. Historian: What is the historical context? What was the historical time period? What was happening globally that might have affected the outcome of the event/incident? Is there a precedent that was set in the past? If so, what was it? How is the event related to a previous event in history? Is there anything in the past that is similar to this incident/event? If so, how did people react to it? How did those in charge respond? What are the different points of view in the event/incident? Is there evidence to support the different points of view? What were the causes of the event/incident? What were the effects of the event/incident? What was the triggering event? What were the historic developments? 4. Citizen/Lawmaker: How does it affect the nation? How does it affect the citizen? What is government’s responsibility? What is the citizen’s responsibility? What principle of the Constitution is supported or violated? What were the limits of government in the event/incident? What choices were evident in the event/incident? How did choice affect the outcome? Who has the authority to take action? What civic virtues were demonstrated throughout the event/incident?

1. Economist: What was the benefit? What was the cost? Was the benefit worth the cost? Who gained? What was gained? Who lost? What was lost/given up? What economic choices did people make? How did Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Dimension 3 – Evaluating Sources and Using Evidence Students need to have a variety of resources available to them that give them relevant information representing multiple perspectives and experiences. - textbooks - academic websites (universities, museums, primary source repositories (i.e Library of Congress) - library books and encyclopedias - centers with primary sources and related books and articles - iPads and computers so students can access primary source archives such as archives.gov and loc.gov, and other repositories Student will evaluate the credibility of sources through: 1. corroboration of sources a. What do other sources say? b. How do the sources support each other? c. How do they contradict each other? 2. detecting and analyzing bias a. Whose perspective is this? How do we know? b. What are the other perspectives? c. What is the author’s bias? 3. determining reliability a. How reliable is this source? b. Was it a first hand account? c. How long after the event was it recorded? Dimension 4 – Communicating Conclusions and Taking Informed Action After researching the different events, students will develop claims and counterclaims and provide evidence from sources that support claims. Students will communicate their findings through: 1. 2. 3.

Academic Conversations The Four Lenses Socratic Circles Is war justified? Does expansion lead to injustice? Written Academic Summaries

For the final project after researching the individual events, students will present their conclusions to the compelling question through one of the following 72

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products:

Powerpoint/Keynote Presentation Mini-Documentary/iMovie Museum Exhibit Children’s Book

Students’ projects will be based on one of the theses: more is better or more is not better. They will need to develop claims, and their projects will provide evidence to support those claims. Because students need to develop the 21st century skills of collaboration and communication, students must either work in pairs, triads, or groups of four. In this inquiry, they may not work alone, and it is advisable that groups contain no more than four students. Students must also present their projects to an audience. Taking Action: After participating in the Socratic seminar on justification of war, students will research current events and find a current event that involves military action by the U.S. government. Students will evaluate the necessity of military action, and write a letter to their U.S. Representative or Senator either supporting the action or opposing it. They must provide relevant evidence to support their position.” John Gast’s American Progress In John Gast’s American Progress (1872), a diaphanously and precarious clad America floats westward through the air with the Star of Empire on her forehead. She has left the cities of the east behind, and the wide Mississippi, and still her course is westward. In her right hand she carries a school book – testimonial of the national enlightenment, while with her left she trails the slender wires of the telegraph that will bind the nation. Fleeing her approach are Indians, buffalo, wild horses, bears, and other game, disappearing into the storm and waves of the Pacific Coast. They flee the wonderous vision – the star is too much for them – précis of a contemporary description of this painting by George Crofutt who distributed his engraving of it widely. The painting below, created in 1872, reflects the views of Americans about the West at that time.

John Gast’s painting, American Progress Additional possibilities for measurable performance activities: A conference with representatives of several Native American groups, fur trappers and traders, leaders of the Latter Day Saint community, citizens of Mexico from Santa Fe and Monterey, held in 1847 determining the most fair way to deal with the hopes of each group, in the lands to the west of the United States. A debate between any two of the above groups on the same topic. Persuasive essay topic: How might newly freed African Americans in 1872 react to the Gast painting about American expansion into the West? Would they tend to agree with the view of the painter or disagree with it? Rubrics for scoring and reporting student outcomes include, depending on the activity, include Persuasive/Argumentative Writing, Conference, Debate, and Display Project. All are in the General Rubric article. Explanations of how to report outcomes for LCAP metrics are in the How to Report article. Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Social Studies Curriculum Units and Measurable Performance Activities for High School The units in this and other articles are grouped into elementary, middle, and high school. They all are units in which students study content based on California History-Social Science Content Standards and actively engage with the content as they move through the unit. Students might make maps, create displays, or make decisions about issues raised in the unit. These learning activities function as formative assessments, or check-ups along the way, as the students move through the unit and to make sure students are on track. For Local Control Accountability Plan (LCAP) reporting, summative assessments at the end of the unit show the big picture of student learning and answer such questions as “Were the key ideas of the unit mastered?” and “How well were they mastered?” A measurable performance activity is a substantial activity in which student work is measured with a clear rubric. The rubric designed to show the level of student mastery of all key elements established as learning goals for the unit. Specific directions for appropriate metrics are in the article titled How to Report History-Social Science Student Outcomes for LCAP. The units of study included here either contain measurable performance activities or have suggestions for activities that can be added as culminating performance measures at the end. The type of activity chosen will depend on the school and district goals for all students and the specified subgroups. If, for example, the school/district has a significant English learner population at Level 2 and/or students with developmentally lower language skills, a performance activity might be chosen so that students would practice oral language. If the school/district wanted students to improve persuasive writing skills, a document-based question, or DBQ, activity might best meet those learning goals and needs. For LCAP reporting, the same type of activity needs to be repeated with different units during a school year so 74

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that the same activity type is measured both early and late in the school year. High School Units with Added Measurable Performance Activity Ideas Students learn by ‘doing’ in each of the units included here. Students make maps, charts, and outlines. They write descriptions and create project boards. The units include scoring criteria for these activities, and should be considered formative, meaning midway progress check-ups that inform the teacher and learner, as students work through the unit. For LCAP reporting purposes, two similar types of units need to be selected – one for use early in the school year and the other for late in the year. Student work on similar types of performances in each unit could then be scored on the appropriate rubric. The changes in those scores, both averages (means) and standard deviations, could be reported in the appropriate LCAP metrics. Many measurable performance activities focused primarily or totally on high school already exist. See the articles that include information about History Day, Model United Nations, Civic Action Projects, and the We the People program. This article includes two units that can be made into measurable performance activities. Unit 1: The Cold War Unit 2: American Justice on Trial: The Internment of Japanese Americans in World War II Unit 3: White Man’s Burden: The Expansionist/AntiImperialist Debate at the Turn of the 20th Century Unit 4: A World Made New: Human Rights After the Holocaust Unit 5: My Future after High School: What is the most effective way to increase my value to employers or investors?

Unit 1: The Cold War (Grades 10 & 11) The California History-Social Science Project (CHSSP) has created and posted an extensive unit on the Cold War. CHSSP (http://chssp.ucdavis.edu) is a California Subject Matter Project that has developed and posted History Blueprint units for high school grades in two strands (U.S. and World), aligned to the California History-Social Science Standards and the California Common Core English Language Arts Standards. Titled The Cold War, the 350-page unit includes formative and summative assessments; the latter are LCAP reportable as measurable performance activities. They can be accessed at http://chssp.ucdavis.edu/programs (click on History Blueprint and find the units listed under Common Core Programs and Common Core-Aligned Curriculum). They are free for teachers. Copyright is owned by the Regents of the University of California. More about CHSSP is included in the article on organizations. CHSSP explains: …The Blueprint curriculum uses research-based strategies to develop critical thinking, reading, and writing to engage students, improve their learning, and address the achievement gap. Blueprint includes tools for teachers and parents to measure their students’ progress and adapt instruction accordingly. These tools also provide discipline-specific and Standards aligned support for English learners and native speakers with low literacy. In sum, the History Blueprint provides an effective method to improve student understanding of history, reading comprehension, and writing ability….

Blueprint curriculum provides comprehensive units of instruction, including background materials, primary sources, detailed lesson plans, and visual resources. All curriculum is aligned with both the California Content Standards for History-Social Science and the Literacy in History/Social Studies section of the Common Core State Standards for English / Language Arts. Each unit combines:



• historical investigation - a discipline-specific form of inquiry-based learning • relevant and carefully selected primary sources • activities to improve students’ reading comprehension and writing ability • methods to teach students how to discern and evaluate arguments based upon evidence….

Blueprint units feature assessments to measure student content knowledge, Common Core skills, and critical thinking…. Formative and summative assessments evaluate students’ abilities to:



• read documents critically • judge claims logically • draw connections • compose reasoned arguments • master content knowledge.”

Unit Introduction The Cold War that spanned more than four decades touched nearly every country on earth. The ideological, diplomatic, military, and cultural struggle that started between the Soviet Union and United States went through a number of phases as people and countries in the post-World War II era struggled to define what freedom would mean for them. This unit of study contains two strands – one for world history students and one for U.S. history students. The first path through the Cold War focuses on the origins of the world-wide conflict; the newly emerging nations that had been colonies before World War II, and then after the war had to choose whether to align themselves with the United States or Soviets; the international conflicts that arose as a result of those alliances; and finally the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union. The second path through the Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Cold War teaches students about the roots of the conflict; the ways in which the American government imagined and implemented anti-communist policies abroad and at home; the effects of the Cold War on individual Americans; the war as it came to Vietnam; and finally the end of the Cold War.

Unit 2: American Justice on Trial: The Internment of Japanese Americans in World War II (Grades 11 & 12)

This unit also provides detailed instructions to support student analysis of a number of relevant primary sources, including addresses made by Churchill, Stalin, Truman, Gandhi, Castro, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Reagan, Gorbachev, and dozens of ordinary citizens that experienced the turmoil and daily life of the Cold War. The unit concludes as it begins with a focus on an engaging and historically significant question: Why and how was the Cold War fought?

This measurable performance activity research unit was written by Geoff Lillich of the Oxnard Union High School District for the SCORE (Schools of California Online Resources for Education) History-Social Science website, one of four sites sponsored by the California Department of Education at the time this unit was posted. The San Bernardino County Superintendent of Schools office, which hosted the SCORE History-Social Science site, no longer maintains the site. Any part or all of this lesson may be used by teachers.

In addition to teaching students about the Cold War, this unit teaches students how to read, write, and think historically, analyze historical evidence from primary and secondary sources, and make interpretations. Students will practice Common Core reading and writing skills, especially identifying the perspective and point of view of a source, integrating information from visual and written sources, identifying evidence from sources, using that evidence to support an argument or interpretation, and communicating that argument in well-conceived sentence, paragraph, essay, or explanation.

Originally designed as a problem-based learning activity, the unit has been modified so as to be a measureable performance activity that is LCAP reportable. This activity can follow the Moot Court or Mock Trial models as described in the Activity Models article. The specific roles can be assigned within a class or to classes at a school.

A description of CHSSP is in the article on Organizations with Units. The posted material is free for teachers to use. Copyright is held by the Regents of the University of California.

In a triple handshake, President Harry S. Truman (center) holds the hands of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (left) and Soviet leader Josef Stalin (right) at Cecilienhof Palace during the Potsdam Conference. 7/25/1945. Source: Harry S. Truman Presidential Library, National Archives Identifier: 198959, http://arcweb.archives.gov/arc/action/ExternalIdSearch?id=198959

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The rubrics for trials are in the General Rubrics article. Persuasive and/or argumentative essays can be assigned for closure with prompts that could include having students decide on the constitutionality of the internment or determine the major reasons why the American public supported the internment. In a broader setting, students could be asked to determine similarities and differences between the internment and policies and treatment of suspected foreign sourced nationals in wartime.

“How could such a tragedy have occurred in a democratic society that prides itself on individual rights and free doms?” (Milton Eisenhower, Director of the War Relocation Board)

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Historical Background On February 19, 1942, at the height of U.S. involvement in World War II, President Roosevelt authorized military leaders within the War Department to place all Japanese Americans residing on the West Coast in detention camps. The following months witnessed the relocation of some 120,000 Japanese Americans, of whom 77,000 were official American citizens. Although the order was employed only against Japanese Americans, it actually empowered the War Department to evacuate and imprison any American citizen without the time-honored right to a fair trial. These two factors – the harsh treatment of Japanese Americans (many of whom were fourth-generation citizens) and the power of the Army to imprison without trial any American citizen – constituted a fundamental challenge to the tradition of civil liberties long viewed as fundamental to America’s democratic system. For this reason, the story of Japanese American internment is well worth our attention. The decision to relocate Japanese Americans raises many compelling questions about the workings of American justice during crisis periods such as World War II. The matter becomes particularly intriguing when considered in light of the fact that, through the entire war, no Japanese American citizen was ever convicted of spying for Japan. Nobody can deny the hardships and humiliations suffered by Japanese Americans as a result of the government’s extreme actions. However, a complete explanation of events surrounding this controversial episode must also account for the wartime context in which they occurred. America’s war against Japan began with the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and was still being waged in full force when Roosevelt made his fateful decision regarding Japanese Americans in February of 1942. Roosevelt’s top priority was winning the war, a view that was shared by an overwhelming majority of Americans. We must remember that the U.S. citizenry, along with those of other allied countries, had every reason to be fearful of Japan because of its military successes against us and its alliance with Germany and the other axis powers. This concern prompted Roosevelt to defer to military leaders on an issue that normally would have been decided within the Justice Department. Indeed, the issue of Japanese American internment gave rise to an intense debate that pitted top military men against leaders of the Justice Department who voiced their opposition to the relocation plan in strong terms. Imagine this: What if, after the war, an international tribunal had put the United States government on trial for violating the human rights of Japanese American citizens? Could the American government have successfully defended itself against such an accusation? What specific charges might such an international body bring against the U.S., and on what basis might the government defend its actions as being justifiable? The Task You will enact such a trial by means of research done with documents, photos, and materials available on the Internet. During the initial research phase, the class will be divided into the groups listed below. Each of these groups will receive specific instructions describing their research tasks and role in the trial. • Five judges (Japanese American, American, British, French, and Russian) • Five historians • Three prosecutors • Three defense lawyers • Twelve witnesses • Four media representatives • Four protesters The following questions should be carefully considered during the trial process. Each student will turn in written answers to these questions at the trial’s conclusion. 78

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1. What specific sources of military intelligence both before and after the Pearl Harbor attack led American decision makers to believe that Japanese Americans represented a threat to the U.S. war effort? 2. Did any high-level government officials ever attempt to justify relocation as a protective measure for Japanese Americans that was necessary because of the heightened racial friction induced by wartime tensions? If so, do you feel there was any validity to this claim? Explain your answer. 3. Japanese Americans of the World War II era are often described by the terms “Issei,” “Nisei,” and “Kibei.” Explain these terms. How loyal were each of these groups toward the American government during the war against Japan? 4. Where were the internment camps located? What sort of living conditions did the internees experience within the camps, and what was the length of their confinement? 5. What happened to the businesses, land, homes, and personal possessions of the relocated Japanese Americans? 6. How can you describe some specific incidents or conflicts that took place between Japanese Americans and government officials during the war? 7. What constitutional rights, if any, were violated by the federal government? Did the federal government ever formally acknowledge that the rights of Japanese Americans had been violated? Did the government ever attempt to compensate Japanese Americans for wrongs suffered during the war? 8. Do you feel that the decision to relocate Japanese Americans was justified because it occurred during a time of war? Procedures 1. First meet with the other members of your group and read through the directions that appear on the Group Instructions page shown below. Then, based on those instructions, your group can begin the research that will produce information needed for the trial. During this initial research stage, feel free to convene with other groups whose research might in some way overlap with yours. 2. Once the research phase is well under way, a general meeting including all class members should be held to set guidelines for the trial. Items discussed at this meeting should include: a witness list (for both prosecution and defense); time limits (for opening statements, witness interrogations, rebuttals, conferences, etc.); and final judgement criteria. 3. On the day of the trial, each student will carry out his or her role in the proceedings, and then judges will render their final verdict. Group Instructions Judges: Each judge should research the legal system of the country he represents. Then judges will decide together the trial format and judgement criteria. Historians: This group has a unique responsibility because they must stay completely neutral during the trial. All groups can call upon them for assistance in researching material needed for their role in the trial. In their role as “specialists,” historians can be granted access to sources that are unavailable to other groups. The teacher should work closely with the historians to insure that their responsibilities are properly carried out. Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Prosecutors: One of the major goals of this group will be to decide on the charges against the United States government. In so doing, they will have to examine the Constitution itself, as well as any specific laws that might be relevant to this case. They also will need to compile a list of key witnesses and determine the best order in which to call them to the witness stand. To build a convincing case, this group will need to acquire a strong knowledge of relevant events occurring both before and after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Defense: The government will provide its defense lawyers with ample resources and assistance. However, in order to maintain credibility the defense team must take care not to utilize evidence that will show an obvious bias in favor of the accused. They must also avoid using evidence to which the prosecution does not have access. Knowledge of the Constitution is a basic cornerstone to the defense, especially the section(s) pertaining to wartime circumstances. Witnesses: Witnesses are responsible for researching biographical information on the individual characters they will play. Both the prosecution and defense teams may call on witnesses more than once if necessary. It is suggested that friendly witnesses work closely with lawyers so that their presentations will be well informed, and so that opposing lawyers will be challenged to perform well during cross-examinations. In establishing their characters, witnesses should pay attention to details such as accents, cultural customs, political biases, etc. Their strong acting performances will add much color to the trial proceedings. Media: These individuals will act as reporters submitting daily articles or holding video interviews with key people in the trial. The task is to acquire “scoops” from reliable sources, and build them into headline feature articles. At the outset of the trial, media representatives will be allowed to observe the court proceedings. However, judges can exclude them later if it becomes necessary for any reason.

Roger Daniels, Sandra Taylor, and Harry Kitano, eds., Japanese Americans, from Relocation to Redress (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1986). Audrie Girdner and Anne Loftis, The Great Betrayal (London: The MacMillan Company, 1969). See especially p. 243. Leslie T. Hatamiya, Righting a Wrong: Japanese Americans and the Passage of the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993). Frank and Joanne Iritani, Ten Visits: Brief Accounts of Visits to All Ten Japanese American Relocation Centers of World War II (San Mateo, CA: Asian American Curriculum Project, Inc., 1995) Tetsuden Kashima, “American Mistreatment of Internees During World War II: Enemy Alien Japanese,” in Roger Daniels, et. al., Japanese Americans: From Relocation to Redress. Geoffrey S. Smith, “Racial Nativism and the Origins of Japanese American Relocation,” in Roger Daniels, et. al., From Relocation to Redress, pp. 79-85. Edward Spicer, Asael Hansen, Katherine Luomala, Marvin Opler, Impounded People: Japanese-Americans in the Relocation Centers (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1969), p. 137. Dorothy Swaine Thomas, The Salvage (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1952), pp. 84, 88. Dorothy S. Thomas & R. S. Nishimoto, The Spoilage (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1946), p. 56.

Protestors: This group shall assume the roles of individuals from other underrepresented or disadvantaged groups who feel that their rights were also violated by the government. They can engage in various kinds of disruptive protest, and should be aware that their actions can have tremendous influence on the trial’s outcome.

Yoshiko Uchida, Desert Exile (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1982)

Resources

Michi Weglyn, Years of Infamy: The Untold Story of America’s Concentration Camps (New York: Morrow Quill Paperbacks, 1976), p. 84.

Assembly, Relocation and Internment Centers in the U.S. (Map) at http://score.rims.k12.ca.us/activity/internment/image3.gif Original documents, photographs, videos, articles, newspaper articles at the time, are posted on the National Archives site. Go to http://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/military/japanese-internment.html The most famous internment camp is Manzanar, in the Owens Valley, and is now a museum with reconstructed buildings, a permanent display, and allows people to drive around the former camp boundaries. http://www.nps. gov/manz/learn/historyculture/index.htm is the website maintained by the National Park Service. A number of docents were themselves internees, and have many personal stories. War Relocation Authority Camps in Arizona, 1942-1946 Japanese Americans in World War II at http://www.sfmuseum.org/war/issei.html Bibliographic Resources Stetson Conn, The Decision to Evacuate the Japanese from the Pacific Coast (1994). See especially p. 128. Roger Daniels, “Relocation, Redress, and the Report An Historical Appraisal,” in Roger Daniels, et. al., Japanese Americans: From Relocation to Redress 80

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University of Arizona Library, WRA Exhibit Building the Relocation Camps, ©1995

Learning Advice As you begin preparations for the trial, keep in mind that the issue of Japanese American internment during World War II persists as a source of controversy and debate even to this day. The issue is kept alive in part by Japanese American citizens who have sought financial and political compensation for the wrongs committed against their families during the war. But the matter remains relevant for all other U.S. citizens as well because it is so heavily weighted with unresolved questions about the workings of American justice. The justice system exists to protect established rights of all citizens, and also to check the power that we bestow upon our government. How can these mechanisms of justice be maintained during periods of political crisis? This burning question clearly concerns the welfare of all Americans. The trial process is intended to assist you in addressing such questions with the confidence that you understand the political and philosophical issues involved. The success of the trial depends very much on the essential contributions of all groups involved. During initial group discussions, individual research tasks to be carried out by each student should be established and agreed upon. It is vital that you, as participants in this project, carry out your research assignments thoroughly, and that you listen carefully to the presentations and arguments offered by members of the other groups. Though you might not agree with the final verdict of the tribunal, it is through your efforts that you will acquire insight into the larger issues of justice that this activity addresses. Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Conclusion The American political system provides considerable personal rights and freedoms for U.S. citizens. However, as the story of Japanese American internment reminds us, we should not simply assume that our rights will always be secure. Instances of crisis can produce unexpected circumstances in which the government might seek to curtail our legal rights. We might willingly consent to such a measure if we are convinced that it is necessary for our greater protection; but it is also conceivable that the government might take such a step against our wishes. For this reason, we must be prepared to defend these established rights should the need arise, and the best way to prepare is to educate ourselves on the workings of government. Some specific questions that you might wish to consider at this point are: What have we learned from this activity about the way the trial system works? Are our individual rights adequately protected by the Constitution in its present form? Are there any circumstances, such as times of war, when the government should be entitled to limit personal freedoms of American citizens? Is it desirable, or even possible, to establish an international authority such as the tribunal organized for this activity where citizen groups can turn for redress when they feel their rights have been violated? Does such an international body presently exist? These kinds of questions help us link important historical issues to our present circumstances in meaningful ways. The trial exercise will hopefully encourage you to give them careful consideration.

Unit 3: White Man’s Burden: The Expansionist/Anti-Imperialist Debate at the Turn of the 20th Century (Grade 10 & 11) This measurable performance activity research unit was written by Robert Kohen of Chico High School for the SCORE (Schools of California Online Resources for Education) History-Social Science website, one of four sites sponsored by the California Department of Education at the time this unit was posted. San Bernardino County Superintendent of Schools, which hosted the SCORE History-Social Science site, no longer maintains the site. Any part or all of this lesson may be used by teachers. Originally designed as a problem-based learning activity, the unit has been modified so as to be a measureable performance activity that is LCAP reportable.

History-Social Science Content Standards 11.7 Students analyze the American participation in World War II, in terms of: 5. the constitutional issues and impact of events on the U.S. home front, including the internment of Japanese Americans (e.g., Fred Korematsu v. United State of America) and the restrictions on German and Italian resident aliens; the response of the administration to Hitler’s atrocities against Jews and other groups; the role of women in military production; the role and growing political demands of African Americans 12.3 Students evaluate, take and defend positions on what the fundamental values and principles of civil society are (i.e., the autonomous sphere of voluntary personal, social, and economic relations not part of government), their interdependence, and meaning and importance for a free society, in terms of: 4. comparisons between the relationship of government and civil society in constitutional democracies and the relationship of government and civil society in authoritarian and totalitarian regimes Historical and Social Science Analysis Skills Grades 9-12 Chronological and Spatial Thinking 1. Students compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons that were learned.

Artist’s rendering of the USS Olympia in the Battle of Manila, 1898

“Let us not be misled by names. Imperialism is not a question of crowns and scepters, of names and titles. It is a system of government. Where a man or body of men, an Emperor, a President, a Congress, or a Nation, claims the absolute right to rule a people, to compel the submission of that people by brute force, to decide what rights they shall have, what taxes they shall pay, what judges shall administer their laws, what men shall govern them, – all without responsibility to the people thus governed – this is imperialism, the antithesis of free government.” (Anti-Imperialist League, 1901) “The Opposition tells us that we ought not to govern a people without their consent. I answer, the rule of liberty that all just government derives its authority from, the consent of the governed, applies only to those who are capable of self- government. I answer, We govern the Indians without their consent, we govern our territories without their consent, we govern our children without their consent. I answer, how do you assume that our government would be without their consent? Would not the people of the Philippines prefer the just, humane, civilizing government of this republic to the savage, bloody rule of pillage and extortion from which we have rescued them?” (Albert J. Beveridge, “March of the Flag,” 16 September 1898)

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Overview for Students

newspaper reporter, a Senator, or a futurist.

Each era of history has presented unique challenges relating to the United States’ role in the world. Since the late 19th century those challenges have involved its exercise of world power. At what point do the needs or desires of the United States supersede the autonomy of another country? These are not new questions. The end of the Cold War has required the United States to examine its role as a world police force. This unit asks you to step back in time to the turn of the century. A great debate is taking place between those who would have the United States follow an expansionist policy and those who are staunchly Anti-Imperialist. The Pro- and Anti-Imperialist camps in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were different from those that have emerged since the 1960s. There were some who took the high road and insisted that American expansion compromised American ideals and constitution, but more of them took their stance from racism, ethnocentricism, xenophobia, and self-interest. Organized labor was anti-Imperialist because it feared competition from cheap foreign labor. Many others, especially southerners (who were quite prominent in the movement) were worried about miscegenation, social intermingling with racial inferiors and non-Christians. These assumptions were often unstated and understood in the debate and not always evident as you read the documents. The Activity: A United States Senate Congressional Hearing

As the historical character you should accurately portray the views and opinion of that character. Be prepared to testify and answer questions at both the hearing and a news conference. List is below of characters. Most will have to be researched. As a newspaper reporter you will be assigned a specific newspaper of the time. Your task will be to represent the political position of that newspaper, to formulate questions for a news conference for both congressmen and witnesses, and to write an article or editorial for your newspaper. The newspapers are the Los Angeles Times, New York Times, and St. Louis Post Dispatch. The editorial opinions at the time period will have to be researched. As a Senator you become aware of the issues of the time and the feeling of your constituents. You should prepare questions for witnesses, participate in a news conference and write your recommendation to the committee at the conclusion of the hearings. The states are California, New York, Kansas, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.

Directive Letter

The Futurist must participate in the research and create a written hypothetical opinion of the historical character on the issue of Imperialism in post turn-of-the-century America (e.g., Panama, Granada, Haiti, Kuwait; Iraq, Iran, Syria).

The United States Senate

Procedures

You are hereby subpoenaed by the United States Senate to appear for the purpose of giving testimony on the topic of Imperialism.

Each group will be assigned an historical figure that played a role in the Expansionism/Anti-Imperialism debate at the turn of the century. Groups should then use the resources listed and those you develop to research the Expansionism/Anti-Imperialism question. After preliminary research, each member of the group should be assigned a specific role.

The United States Senate will conduct a hearing in October 1902. This hearing will allow individuals to address the Senate Committee on Pacific Expansion. Presently our country is involved in a war in the Philippines to bring that country under the supervision of the United States. We have freed Cuba and established stable governments in our other newly acquired colonies – Hawaii, Guam and Puerto Rico. A great debate has begun on the appropriateness of this policy, politically, economically, and morally. It is the intent of this committee to ascertain testimony related to the Expansionist/AntiImperialist policy of the United States. It is vitally important that we give voice to this debate as we enter the 20th Century. The course of action we select will determine our foreign policy in this next century and beyond. You are, therefore, required by authority of the United States Senate to appear before this committee to give testimony on this topic. Please be prepared to give a statement to the committee and to answer their questions. Your opening statement must conclude with in a five minute time period and may include any visual or audio materials you wish to present. You may have your attorney or advisor present with you when you testify. Signed: The Honorable George Hoar, Senate Majority Leader The Honorable P.T. Winger, Senate Minority Leader

Some things to consider: To what areas did the United States want to extend its influence? Why would the United States want to do so? Why would some people object? What is your historical figure’s political party affiliation, occupation, and position on Imperialism? What is the newspaper’s geographic location, political party affiliation, and position on Imperialism? What is the Congressperson’s geographic location, political party affiliation, and position on Imperialism? How might these same factors and concerns affect the extension of U.S. influence and power since the turn of the century? Beginning Resources Mark Twain http://www.historywiz.com/primarysources/marktwain-imperialism.htm William Jennings Bryan http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/1900/peopleevents/pande34.html

The Task

Sixto and Clemencia Lopez https://bostonsummerseminar.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/document-14.pdf

You have been subpoenaed to testify before a Senate committee in 1902. The committee is looking into the role of the United States in the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. You and your group will be given the identity of a notable Expansionist or Anti-Imperialist and your group will prepare that historical character’s testimony. One member of your group will play the role of the character during the hearing. Other group members will be a

Katharine Lee Bates http://www.biography.com/people/katharine-lee-bates-21181439 https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/art-music-and-film/resources/%E2%80%9Camericabeautiful%E2%80%9D-1893

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William McKinley http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/wm25.html http://www.americanpresident.org/history/williammckinley/ http://www.mckinley.lib.oh.us/museum/biography.htm Teddy Roosevelt http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/inaug/troos.htm Rudyard Kipling: The White Man’s Burden http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~wldciv/world_civ_reader/world_civ_reader_2/kipling.html Alfred J Beveridge http://www.ashp.cuny.edu/video/beveridge.html http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1898beveridge.html Newspaper Reporter http://lcweb.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/1900/filmmore/reference/primary/imperialism.html Anti-Imperialist - David Starr Jordan https://alumni.stanford.edu/get/page/magazine/article/?article_id=29584

Unit 4: A World Made New: Human Rights After the Holocaust (Grades 10, 11, 12 Government) Facing History and Ourselves contracts for professional development for teachers. Most of the resources in this unit are available online and copies are available for purchase. See listing in Organizations article. This unit includes a Congressional Hearing, which can be reconfigured into a Conference if desired. See those models in the Activity Models article. Either could be used as the unit itself as students do the research. Overview of Facing History and Ourselves Lesson and Background This lesson encourages students to explore the historical basis for the modern human rights movement born in the aftermath of the Holocaust and deepens understanding of the Charter for the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Readings include selections from various ancient legal codes, the United Nations Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and Holocaust and Human Behavior (available online from Facing History and Ourselves). Learning Outcomes During this activity, students will:

Futurist http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1903panama.html “



The LCAP reportable outcomes will be scores from the Congressional Hearing rubric in the General Rubric article. This unit can easily be reconfigured as a conference. In that case, the Conference rubric would apply and those scores reported in LCAP metrics as explained in the How to Report article.



• D  evelop a deeper understanding of the development of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). • Explore how various cultural values have been blended into the UDHR. • Consider how contemporary states respond to violations of human rights and how closely they respect the articles in the UDHR. • Consider how their school and community deal with human rights.

Historical Context Toward the end of the second world war, the most severe war in recorded history with exterminations of entire populations in addition to the severity of total war on both military and civilian populations, a number of world leaders decided to take a stand to establish the idea of human rights as international agreements or treaties among nations. These leaders worked to make this a key part of the newly created United Nations, itself a reinvention from the League of Nations that had been created at the end of what was now being called the first world war. Leading this movement in the United States was the wife of President Franklin Roosevelt, Eleanor Roosevelt. The United States was a prime mover in establishing the United Nations organization, and in leading the movement to establish a declaration of Human Rights as part of the United Nations treaty system. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights included six specific treaties. The United States voted in favor of the Declaration at the United Nations General Assembly, but did not ratify three of the six treaties and is not therefore a party to them. These are: The International Covenant on Economic, Social And Cultural Rights, the Convention on Rights of the Child, and the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women.

Editorial cartoon by Leon Barritt, 1898. Newspaper publishers Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst dressed as the Yellow Kid (a popular cartoon character of the day) satirizing their newspapers’ role in seeking public support to go to war.

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In order to appreciate the concept of the UDHR, it is important to read the introductions to Chapters 9 and 10 in Holocaust and Human Behavior, as well as selections from the Charter to the United Nations and the Preamble to the UDHR. Additionally, students should read selected readings in Chapter 7 of Holocaust and Human Behavior in order to recognize how the Holocaust stripped individuals of their dignity as human beings. Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Materials to Build Background with Sources and Individual Lessons The following readings from Holocaust and Human Behavior can be used to introduce students to the UDHR and the historical context in which it was created: Chapter 7, The Holocaust: “Introduction” Chapter 9, Judgment: “Introduction,” “The United Nations and Genocide” Chapter 10, Historical Legacies: “Introduction,” “Education and the Future” Chapter 11, Choosing to Participate: “Breaking the Bonds of Hate,” “Pride and Prejudice,” “Students Organize” and “Taking a Stand” Facing History and Human Rights Guide A World Made New : Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, by Mary Ann Glendon, 2001

Provide students with some time to discuss these questions, and then transition them back to a full class discussion. 5. As a whole class, discuss what rights in the UDHR seem most controversial. Consider the discussions around the original Commission of Human Rights (1947-8) that drafted the UDHR. For part of the discussion, refer to the excerpt from Mary Ann Glendon’s A World Made New. 6. As a concluding activity, have students reflect on the following quote by Eleanor Roosevelt, made at the United Nations Commission on Human Rights on March 27, 1958:



Where, after all, do universal human rights begin? In small places close to home-so close and so small that they cannot be seen on any map of the world. Yet they are the world of the individual person: the neighborhood he lives in; the school or college he attends; the factory, farm or office where he works. Such are the places where every man, woman and child seeks equal justice, equal opportunity, equal dignity without discrimination. Unless these rights have meaning there, they have little meaning anywhere.

Websites UDHR: History and Resources



Multiple language versions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)

Either as a journal entry, or in small groups, have students respond to the following questions:

Human Rights Education Associates (HREA)



United Nations Charter (Preamble, Chapter 1, Appendix 1, Human Rights Documents)



• How do you recognize respect for human rights near your home or community? • W  hat challenges exist in your own community for recognizing and acting on fundamental human rights? • What opportunities also exist?

Videos For information about these videos and others, as well as how you can borrow audio-visual resources, visit the Facing History Lending Library.

Extensions 1. For a closer examination of the UDHR, refer to the Facing History and Ourselves lesson, Taking a Stand: Models of Civic Participation.

“Universal Declaration of Human Rights” Amnesty International

2. There are several ways to widen this lesson outline into examinations of other aspects of human rights. The following readings from Holocaust and Human Behavior can serve as useful starting points: Chapter 11, Choosing to Participate: “Breaking the Bonds of Hate,” “Pride and Prejudice,” “Students Organize” and “Taking a Stand.”

A Good Man in Hell, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Excerpt from You are Free showing the death camps at the end of WWII Activity Unit Procedures 1. Introduce the theme of human rights, examining codes of ancient societies from the East and the West. Appendix 1, Human Rights Documents 2. Organize students into six groups. Within each group, have students focus on one of the codes. Allow for time for them to review the codes. Note: depending on your students, you may want to excerpt the text for main ideas and themes. 3. Introduce the UDHR to students. It is advisable to provide students with time to carefully examine the Preamble, and then the 30 articles included in the UDHR. 4. Once students have had time to review the codes, form new groups in which each of the six ancient codes are represented. Within these new groups, have students consider the following questions: • Do you recognize any of the rights in the ancient codes in the UDHR? • How does the UDHR differ from earlier codes? • What values from these earlier Eastern and Western societies do you see reflected in the UDHR? 88

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3. As an extension activity, have students draft a Declaration of Human Rights that would reflect the values of their school and community culture. Display the Declaration in a mini exhibition in your school library, using photographs, artifacts etc. to introduce the school community to the concept of human rights. Contributor: Mary Johnson, Senior Program Associate, Facing History and Ourselves - North America Project

Measureable Performance Activities Simulation Conference topic: Should the United States in 1949 sign all six of the new United Nations Declaration of Human Rights treaties? The Universal Declaration of Human Rights included six specific treaties. The United States voted in favor of the Declaration at the United Nations General Assembly, but did not ratify three of the six treaties and is not therefore a party to them. These are: The International Covenant on Economic, Social And Cultural Rights, the Convention on Rights of the Child, and the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women. Divide the class into six groups, each representing a section of the United States (Deep South, Far West, NorthSocial Studies Review 2015-16

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ern Midwest, Southern Midwest, New England, Northeast Coast (New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware)), in 1949, and the class as a whole being the United States Senate in 1949; each student is a Senator.

Students will explore each option in detail and develop a cost benefit analysis report to be displayed on a project board.

Groups are to research the views of their Senators and assigned regions on the issue of universal human rights and especially reactions to the United Nations Declaration.

Each group will include projections of careers/jobs from the U.S. Department of Labor Statistics and include discussion of demand for specific careers along with issues of projected supply and how incomes can be expected to respond. Students will need to include analysis including global economic trends. The career projections will need to be linked to educational and training costs, so as to determine cost/benefit of each choice. Long-term development of the human capital needs to be discussed as a part of the presentation.

Measurable performance activity is a Conference or Congressional Hearing on the issue of ratification of the treaties, as mentioned earlier. Persuasive and/or argumentative essays could be added as closure activities. Essay prompt: Account for (state as a thesis the reasons) the fact that the United States, a sponsor of the Declaration, only signed three of the six /declaration of Human Rights treaties. Essay prompt: In your view, should the United States have signed the Declaration as a treaty? Why or why not?



Reporting for LCAP as described in the How to Report article.

Unit 5: My Future after High School: What is the most effective way to increase my value (called human capital) to employers or investors? (Grade 12 Economics) This measurable performance activity unit was created for this issue of the Social Studies Review. Inspired by the ideas of Professor Jim Charkins, former director of the California Council on Economic Education, the unit has students use three basic economic concepts as they apply to the student’s future plans. This is a Display Project activity, and the Display Project rubric is in the General Rubric article. A persuasive and/or argumentative essay could be added as a closure activity, in which after hearing from all the other presentations, students determine the option that best fits them and why it does. Twelfth grade students in Economic classes research various options for their own individual futures, using concepts of cost/benefit analysis and supply/demand in the labor market as they think about the best way to develop their own human capital. They then present a display project to their class on their conclusions. Students will work best in groups.

Resources: In addition to college, career, military, websites, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (www.bls.gov) provides a huge variety of information about career projections, salaries, trends in employment, relation of GDP to hourly wages, international comparisons, for a start. A student sections has quizzes and games. A teacher section has ideas for organizing information. There are also surveys by region, projections by career type, long-range projections, etc.

Some additional ideas for measurable performance activities that could be used in U.S. History & Geography or World History & Geography courses include:

• A  Model United Nations conference simulation held in 1992 in which various countries claim damages and reparations from both the United States and the Russian Federation (the Soviet Union no longer exists) for damages done to them during the Cold War.



• A  Conference simulation reenacting the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences of 1945, asking students to decide whether or not the United States ‘gave away’ Eastern Europe and China to various Communist movements.



• A  Mock Trial of President Harry Truman for war crimes stemming from his decision to drop atomic bombs on two Japanese cities in 1945 close to the end of World War II in Asia and hoping to end it (and maybe intimidate the Soviet Union). Several organizations have prepared materials for this simulation.



• Individual student essay prompts, or Debate activities, could be: Was any single country most responsible for causing the Cold War? What key event pushed the United States and the Soviet Union into confrontation that became the Cold War?

Option: Enroll in the military (determine branch)

Option: Go to college (several ways to do this) Two-year college followed by 2-3 years of private college, or 2-3 years of state supported higher education. Or, 4-6 year enrollment directly in a private or public college or university. Consider in
 each case graduate work, depending on specialty.

To what extent was the Cold War more about power politics than it was about competing and conflicting ideologies?

Option: Seek immediate employment that does not require post high school education Example: sales person at an automobile dealership; filing/word processing clerical worker; sales/food preparation position that can lead to a management position in the fast food industry

• A  simulated Versailles Conference 1919 conference ending the first world war. Several organizations have materials for this conference.



• S imulations of debates or conferences between and among independence leaders just before, during, and/or immediately after the second world war and those countries that had empires.

Option: Go to a school that provides a technical education of some kind. This can be a community college or a (usually) private technical school of some sort. Example: Automobile technician; heating/air conditioning installation and repair

Appropriate rubrics are in the Model Rubrics article. Many units are available that can provide background for these activities.

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Units That Illustrate Measurable Performance Activity Models The following units show two activities that have measurable outcomes and in which students practice College and Career Readiness as well as History-Social Science Thinking Skills using specific History-Social Science content. The first unit, which shows the steps for students in learning how to write a persuasive document-based essay comes from Avi Black, former President of the California Council for the Social Studies and also former HistorySocial Science Coordinator at the Alameda County Office of Education. Shelly Weintraub also contributed to this unit. The second is from Professor Wendy Rouse of the Social Science Teacher Preparation Program at San Jose State University. She shares a specific way to have students talk through an issue that includes document analysis and a summative persuasive writing task. She has also (not included here) a separate essay explaining a research base for this activity that may come later as a CCSS Occasional Paper.

Unit 1: The Use of Children in the Civil Rights Campaign in Birmingham, Alabama To illustrate the process, students are first given a background/context piece, and then the prompt. “Today we honor Dr. King and others in the Civil Rights Movement for helping to end segregation in America. But it’s hard to imagine now how difficult it was for them to make these changes, and what courage people in the Civil Rights Movement – “foot soldiers” as well as leaders – showed in the face of very violent opposition. For example, when African American and white students from colleges around the country rode buses into the South in order to desegregate the bus terminals, as ordered by the courts, many were beaten badly, and an angry crowd even set fire to one of the buses, nearly killing those inside. Those working for civil rights in the South at that time knew that they were making a decision that could possibly get them hurt and might even cost them their lives.

Demonstration at Woolworth’s lunch counter in Jackson, MS in 1963

Freedom Riders’ fire-bombed bus in Anniston, Alabama in 1961

Crowded conditions in jail, 1960

Birmingham, Alabama was an especially tough city for African-Americans. It was considered one of the most segregated and racially charged cities in America. “Bombingham” was its nickname because of the many bombings that had taken place there of homes, churches and other places owned by African-Americans and their allies. The police and fire chief, Bull Connor, was known for his brutal way of “keeping order” and his ties to the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). Segregation laws in the city were some of the most restrictive in the nation, keeping Black and white people apart in just about every area of life. For example, one Birmingham law read: “It shall be unlaw92

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ful for a negro and a white person to play together or in company with each other in any games of cards or dice, dominoes or checkers.” (In 1950, the City added to the list baseball, softball, basketball, or similar games.) The African-American community in Birmingham was anxious for the city to change, and, under the leadership of Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth, they invited Dr. Martin Luther King to hold demonstrations in their city in early 1963. Dr. King, the co-founder of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) with Rev. Shuttlesworth and Ralph Abernathy, wanted to help. A major strategy of the Civil Rights Movement was to get large numbers of people to be arrested and go to jail. Leaders calculated that this would inspire even bigger protests and ultimately gain a victory in places like Birmingham. Once Dr. King arrived in Birmingham, though, things didn’t go exactly as planned. It is at this time, in fact, that he was jailed and wrote his famous “Letter from a Birmingham Jail.” Despite several weeks of this and other actions, King faced another possible failure. He and the other leaders had to make some serious decisions about how to turn things around.” Writing Prompt It is April of 1963. You are an active participant in the civil rights movement in Birmingham. Dr. Martin Luther King is struggling with the question: should he encourage children to participate in the demonstrations? The city has passed an injunction making further demonstrations illegal, meaning that participants would be summarily jailed. There will be a mass meeting on the night of May 1st where Dr. King will have to make a strong statement either to endorse their participation or to discourage it. He has asked you to write a position paper that argues what he should do. As you read the documents below, you will get a sense of what was happening in those early months of 1963. One of the key decisions that Dr. King had to make was whether to use young children (under 18, and as young as 5) to participate in these demonstrations. The Civil Rights leaders themselves were divided about whether children should be part of the demonstrations. For example, James Bevel, an organizer for the SCLC, felt it was necessary to use children. Others did not. Malcolm X (who lived in New York but followed the story about Birmingham in the news) said, “Real men don’t put their children on the firing line.” Using your background knowledge about the Civil Rights Movement and what you know about Birmingham, along with evidence from the background paper above and the documents below, answer the following question in the form of a clear argument with effective reasoning:

Should Dr. King encourage school-age children to participate in the continuing demonstrations in Birmingham? All the documents below are given to the students. BIRMINGHAM, 1963

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DOCUMENT 1 Martin Luther King, Jr. made the following statement during a meeting of civil rights leaders in the early days of the Birmingham Campaign of 1963. They had to decide if they should try to challenge white authority in Birmingham. (From Clayborne Carson, A. McEvoy Spero and A. Mohnot (ed.), King and Global Liberation, p. 58.) “There are eleven people here assessing the type of enemy we’re going to face. I have to tell you, in my judgment, some of the people sitting here today will not come back alive from this campaign. And I want you to think about that.” DOCUMENT 2 Towanner Hinkle grew up about ninety miles from Birmingham in Selma, Alabama, where the struggle for civil rights was also taking place. (Interview in approx. 1992 by Ellen Levine, from Freedom’s Children: Young Civil Rights Activists Tell Their Own Stories, p. 134.) “I lived with my aunt. She said, ‘I don’t want you in jail because you’ll have a record the rest of your life.’ She was worried I’d get killed.” DOCUMENT 3 Taylor Branch’s “Parting the Waters” is part 1 of “America in the King Years,” widely considered to be one of the finest analyses of the Civil Rights Movement. Here, he writes about what was going on in Birmingham at the time of the Project C campaign. (From Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters, p. 710.) “Compared with King’s previous ventures, Birmingham was mired in a relative news vacuum. Even the local Negro biweekly treated King’s campaign as a disturbing rumor and provided no firsthand coverage of the demonstrators. In an editorial it attacked direct action as “wasted and worthless.”...almost proudly, the News ran a small story about how both Governor George Wallace and Fred Shuttlesworth were complaining of a “blackout of news” on the sit- ins.” DOCUMENT 4 John and Deenie Drew were close friends of Martin Luther King. A.G. Gaston was a prominent African-American Birmingham businessman. Reverend John Porter was a respected religious leader in Birmingham’s Black community. (From Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters, pp. 752-53.) “Every day younger and younger students popped up in the workshops, full of bravado, ready to march to jail, and every night King presided over debates about which ones they should permit to go. John and Deenie Drew, A.G. Gaston, and Reverend John Porter stoutly opposed allowing students younger than college age, as did nearly every Birmingham leader consulted. School records and lifetime hopes could be ruined, young lives scarred by exposure to rapes, beatings, and the unmentionable ugliness of the jailhouse.” DOCUMENT 5 Arnetta Streeter was a high school student in 1963. She spoke here about a series of nonviolence workshops she attended that were put on by ministers, community leaders, organizers and other professionals at the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham. (Interview circa 2012 by Cynthia Levinson, from We’ve Got a Job, pp. 33-34) “They prepared us… They knew that if we picketed, we would be arrested. They told us distinctly, if they ask you where your mother or father work, you were not to tell them because the repercussions could hurt your parents…” (She even submitted to simulated assaults.) “They told us we would be called names. They talked to us about (segregationists) spitting on us or hitting us.” (Then the trainers – pretending to be segregationists – yelled names, hit them, and spat at them. In some sessions, students had to stand passively without reacting while others chanted to their faces, “Catch me a n—by the toe.”) 94

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DOCUMENT 6 Here, Taylor Branch provides information about changes in the laws that were made by Birmingham’s political leaders in April of 1963. (From Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters, p. 726.) “Knowing that bail funds were already low, they (the white legislature) drafted a bill to raise the maximum appeal bond in misdemeanor cases from $300 to $2,500, applicable only to Birmingham.” DOCUMENT 7 The following is a Letter to the Editor from Thomas T. Coley, a white man from Ensley, Alabama, in the Birmingham Post-Herald of April 18, 1963 (p. 55). (From Cynthia Levinson, We’ve Got a Job, p. 55.) “Can’t the local Negroes understand that all they have to do is wait a little longer? Then certain white businessmen, politicians and clergymen… will hand them, on a silver platter, more than could ever be gained by marches, sit-ins and kneel-ins. And there would be no need for going to jail and paying fines.” DOCUMENT 8 In early 1963, Gwen Cook was a 14 years old African-American young woman living in Birmingham. (As quoted in about 1998 in “The Children’s March” video from the Southern Poverty Law Center.) “A lot of people thought the kids were going to get hurt, but the reality of it was we were born Black in Alabama and we were going to get hurt if we didn’t do something.” DOCUMENT 9 The goal of Project C was to have somewhere near 1000 people arrested in order to have a chance of successfully pressuring the city and the business establishment into action. Below is a record of actual actions and arrests. (From Cynthia Levinson, We’ve Got a Job, pp. 64-65.) DATE NUMBER ARRESTED NOTES

April 3

20

April 4 April 5 April 6 April 7

4 10 29 26

Launch date of Project C 300 possible protesters telephoned (same number as those arrested on first day of protests in Albany, GA) but only 65 showed up for sit-ins 75 sit-in protesters 50 sit-in protesters 35 protesters joined “orderly walk” Palm Sunday: several hundred marched

April 8

0

“Hit and run” sit-ins

April 9 April 10

3 39

Four sit-ins Sit-ins at stores and library; protesters at street corner

April 11 12 27 marchers TOTAL ARRESTED, APRIL 3-11 (9 DAYS): 143 Social Studies Review 2015-16

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DATE

NUMBER ARRESTED NOTES

April 12

46

April 13 April 14

6 32

April 15 April 16 April 17 April 18

9 7 7 7

April 19 April 20

11 15

April 21 April 22 April 23

0 0 5

Dozens marched Arrested: Martin Luther King, Fred Shuttlesworth, Ralph Abernathy Picketing Over 1000 marched to city jail to pray for King and Abernathy, who were in solitary confinement Sit-ins and picketing Demonstrations March to courthouse to register to vote Sit-ins All arrested were teenagers Sit-ins Picketing and sit-ins Dr. King release from jail Worshippers attempted to enter white churches Sit-ins 5 students picketed, all arrested White mailman William Moore, on one-man Freedom Walk from Chattanooga, TN to Jackson, MS killed outside Birmingham Sporadic demonstrations

April 24 6 April 25 5 April 26 4 April 27 9 April 28 0 April 29 0 TOTAL ARRESTED, APRIL 3-29 (27 days): 312

DOCUMENT 10 Here, the historian Taylor Branch describes a mass meeting on April 24, one day after white postman William Moore was killed as he was walking from Chattanooga, Tennessee to Mississippi in support of the Civil Rights Movement. (From Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters, pp. 748-51.) “(The mass meeting was) so jammed with people that a fire marshal entered the St. James Baptist Church to try to enforce occupancy regulations…Tributes to William Moore made tears flow, and the movement choir rocked the church with freedom songs. When the call came for the next day’s jail-going volunteers, however, the spirit all but evaporated. It took King more than half an hour to coax a score of volunteers from the huge crowd. Significantly, many of these came from the workshops – students from high schools and even elementary schools. King repeatedly explained that while he deeply appreciated their willingness to suffer, and while he hoped their noble example would inspire their parents, the Birmingham jail was no place for children. In spite of King, some of the third- and fourth-graders refused to sit down.” 96

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DOCUMENT 11 Gwen Cook, the young African-American woman from Birmingham, participated in several of the non-violence trainings put on by Reverend James Bevel and others. She is quoted here in connection with her attendance at a meeting on April 24, 1963. She was 14 at the time. (As quoted in about 1998 in “The Children’s March” video from the Southern Poverty Law Center.) “I remember Dr. King inviting any volunteers to go to jail the next day and nobody stood up but us kids.” DOCUMENT 12 John Lewis has served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (from Georgia) since 1987. In 1963, at the age of 23, he was the chairman of SNCC (the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee), the college student organization that had organized the sit-ins in the early 1960’s. He was also one of the key speakers at the March on Washington. This excerpt is from his own book, looking back at his experiences in the Civil Rights Movement. (From John Lewis, Walking With the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement, pp. 196-97 (1998).) “We considered it natural and necessary to involve children – adolescents – in the movement. We weren’t far from being teenagers ourselves, and we shared many of the same basic feelings of adolescence: unbounded idealism, courage unclouded by “practical” concerns, faith and optimism untrampled by the “realities” of the adult world. Young people identify more strongly than anyone else with the whole concept of freedom. They are free in the fullest sense of the word – free of major responsibilities that might hold them back. They have no mortgage, no marriage, no family, no children of their own, no job. They are, as we assumed ourselves to be, willing to risk everything for something noble and deserving, for the cause.” DOCUMENT 13 James Bevel was a young minister and a leader of the SCLC who led community teach-ins during the Birmingham campaign. Below is a summary of an argument he made about why young people should participate in the demonstrations. (As quoted in Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters, p. 755.) “Any child old enough to belong to a church should be eligible to march to jail… By common practice churches allowed the youngest school age children to become members. That settled it right there, Bevel insisted. How could he and King tell six year old church members that they were old enough to decide their eternal destiny but too young to march against segregation?” DOCUMENT 14 At 16 years old in 1963, Cardell Gay had watched his father get involved in the movement, guarding Rev. Shuttlesworth’s home at night. He began attending the Monday night meetings at the 16th Street Baptist Church. Here, he describes conversations in his high school about whether or not students should be involved in the demonstrations (From “Birmingham Recalls a Time...”, article in the New York Times, May 2, 2003.) ‘’In class, they’d say, ‘Don’t leave campus or you’ll be expelled,’ ‘’ Mr. Gay recalled. ‘’But in private, they’d say, ‘Go on. I can’t do it, I’d lose my job. But do it up. Keep it up.’ ‘’

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DOCUMENT 15 The Reverend James Bevel was a leader of the Civil Rights Movement. On April 12, spoke to a large gathering at the 16th Street Baptist Church. At 26 years of age, Bevel directly appealed to both adults and youth. (Quote 1: From Glenn T. Eskew, But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle, p. 242.) (Quotes 2-3: From Henry Hampton, Steve Fayer and Sarah Flynn, Voices of Freedom: An Oral History of the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950’s Through the 1980’s, pp. 131-32.) (TO ADULTS) “Some of these students say they have got to go to school, but they will get more education in five days in the City Jail than they will get in five months in a segregated school.” (TO YOUTH) “…(Y)ou are responsible for segregation, you and your parents because you have not stood up… (N)o one has the power to oppress you if you don’t cooperate.” (TO BOTH) “A boy in high school, he can get the same effect in terms of being in jail…as his father, yet, there is no economic threat on the family because the father is still on the job.” The next step in DBQ writing is to organize the documents into groups. This process includes determining who authored the document, when, for what purpose, the validity of information contained in the document (see the guides on document analysis in the Appendix). A process that helps students do this was developed by the DBQ Project is called “bucketing.” The Bucket Chart below is a whole class project, as the class analyzes each document. Bucketing Chart Argument BUCKET A FOR Bevel: It is in everyone’s interest, including children, to fight racism and segregation. BUCKET B FOR Bevel: The movement will fail without the support of young people; a “major news event” is needed to deal with the extreme nature of segregation in Birmingham, and this will expose the nation to just how entrenched and virulent white supremacy is. BUCKET C FOR Bevel: Young people are capable of participating in the movement; they have done so in the past, and they’ve been prepared here. BUCKET D FOR Malcolm X: Birmingham is too dangerous, and jail especially is no place for kids. BUCKET E FOR Malcolm X: Parents should (have a responsibility to) protect and nurture their children. BUCKET F FOR Malcolm X: Kids (and families) have a lot to lose.

CHART WITH EMBEDDED QUOTES Argument BUCKET A FOR Bevel: It is in everyone’s interest, including children, to fight racism and segregation.

Documents We Have James Bevel was a young minister who was a leader of the SCLC and led community teach-ins during the Birmingham campaign. Below is a summary of an argument he made about why young people should participate in the demonstrations. “Any child old enough to belong to a church should be eligible to march to jail… By common practice churches allowed the youngest school age children to become members. That settled it right there, Bevel insisted. How could he and King tell six year old church members that they were old enough to decide their eternal destiny but too young to march against segregation?” (From Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters, p. 755: SEE HIS REFERENCE.) On April 12, with Martin Luther King, Ralph Abernathy and Fred Shuttlesworth all in jail, James Bevel spoke to a large gathering at the 16th Street Baptist Church. At 26 years of age, Bevel directly appealed to both adults and youth. (TO ADULTS) “Some of these students say they have got to go to school, but they will get more education in five days in the City Jail than they will get in five months in a segregated school.”

Document We Have 8, 13, 15

(From Glenn T. Eskew, But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle, p. 242.)

3, 9, 10, 11

(TO YOUTH) “…(Y)ou are responsible for segregation, you and your parents because you have not stood up… (N)o one has the power to oppress you if you don’t cooperate.” (From Henry Hampton, Steve Fayer and Sarah Flynn, Voices of Freedom: An Oral History of the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s Through the 1980s, pp. 131-32.)

5, 12 1, 7 2, 4

In early 1963, Gwen Cook was 14 years old. Gwen Cook Webb later became a Birmingham police officer and the wife of Lt. Bill Webb, who in 1963 was 23 and a white patrolman in the Birmingham police department. “A lot of people thought the kids were going to get hurt, but the reality of it was we were born Black in Alabama and we were going to get hurt if we didn’t do something.” (As quoted in 19xx in “The Children’s March”: MORE CITATION BUT CAREFUL ABOUT MENTIONING CHILDREN’S MARCH!!)

6, 14

Next, citations from each document are entered into the chart. Only the first two buckets are reproduced here due to space limitations. 98

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BUCKET B FOR Bevel: The movement will fail without the support of young people; a “major news event” is needed to deal with the extreme nature of segregation in Birmingham, and this will expose the nation to just how entrenched and virulent white supremacy is.

ARREST CHART: SEE AFTER BUCKET F Taylor Branch is xxx and his book is considered… Here, he addresses…

might be chronological but does not have to be. Students now have the order of ideas in what will be the body of the essay.

“Compared with King’s previous ventures, Birmingham was mired in a relative news vacuum. Even the local Negro biweekly treated King’s campaign as a disturbing rumor and provided no firsthand coverage of the demonstrators. In an editorial it attacked direct action as “wasted and worthless.”...almost proudly, the News ran a small story about how both Governor George Wallace and Fred Shuttlesworth were complaining of a “blackout of news” on the sit- ins.” (From Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters, p. 710: SEE HIS REFERENCE.)

The final summation paragraph (using the term conclusion for this often confuses students into thinking this is where for the first time thy spring their thesis on the reader) will contain the thesis, main ideas explained in the body, and a statement or two about the significance of this issue.

On April 12, with Martin Luther King, Ralph Abernathy and Fred Shuttlesworth all in jail, James Bevel spoke to a large gathering at the 16th Street Baptist Church. At 26 years of age, Bevel directly appealed to both adults and youth that children be allowed to join in the demonstrations. “A boy in high school, he can get the same effect in terms of being in jail…as his father, yet, there is no economic threat on the family because the father is still on the job.” (From Henry Hampton, Steve Fayer and Sarah Flynn, Voices of Freedom: An Oral History of the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s Through the 1980s, pp. 131-32.) In early 1963, Gwen Cook was 14 years old. She xxx (something about her involvement, e.g. with Bevel’s or others’ trainings, and/or her attendance at one of the organizing meetings). “I remember Dr. King inviting any volunteers to go to jail the next day and nobody stood up but us kids.” (As quoted in 19xx in “The Children’s March”: MORE CITATION BUT CAREFUL ON CHILDREN’S MARCH!!) Taylor Branch is xxx and his book is considered… Here, he describes a mass meeting on April 24, one day after white postman William Moore was killed as he was walking from Chattanooga, Tennessee to Mississippi in support of the Civil Rights Movement. “(The mass meeting was) so jammed with people that a fire marshal entered the St. James Baptist Church to try to enforce occupancy regulations…Tributes to William Moore made tears flow, and the movement choir rocked the church with freedom songs. When the call came for the next day’s jail-going volunteers, however, the spirit all but evaporated. It took King more than half an hour to coax a score of volunteers from the huge crowd. Significantly, many of these came from the workshops – students from high schools and even elementary schools. King repeatedly explained that while he deeply appreciated their willingness to suffer, and while he hoped their noble example would inspire their parents, the Birmingham jail was no place for children. In spite of King, some of the third- and fourth-graders refused to sit down.” (From Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters, pp. 748-51: SEE HIS REFERENCE)

Once the sorting is done, students make their decisions (in this case, either Yes, use children, or No, do not use children. They need to settle on their decision, which will be the thesis of their essay. They need to list out which ‘buckets’ of documents they will use to support their thesis and how to explain the idea of this group of documents. Each idea becomes a major reason for their thesis, and will be stated in a sentence (at most) in the introduction paragraph of their essay. Next, they need to order their ‘buckets’ so that the there is a logical progression from one idea to the next. This 100

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Before students begin to actually write, they need to review the rubric on which their work will be scored. They also need to see sample essays, and in this case one arguing each position. To clarify the task even more, students can score the samples, in a class discussion, using the rubric. The sample essays used for this DBQ are not reproduced here, but one of each (Yes and No) were given to students, who then scored the essays and talked through the criteria and the qualitative indicators of the rubric. Students are now ready to write their essays. For LCAP reporting purposes they would be scored on the Persuasive Essay Rubric, with the DBQ criteria of using and sourcing and validating documents added to it.

Unit 2: Hetch Hetchy Talk-it-Out This activity from Dr. Wendy Rouse guides students through conversation about documents as they come to a final position. This activity itself could be scored on the presentation rubric, or with slight modification the conference rubric, both of which are in the article on general rubrics. The persuasive essay could also be a separate summative activity, and the persuasive essay rubric would be used. The Hetch Hetchy Valley, near Yosemite Valley and to the casual observer looking much the same, was made into a reservoir for San Francisco and much of the Bay Area almost a century ago. This activity has students examine the controversy over building the dam that made Hetch Hetchy into a lake, decide who had the best argument, and how that impacted California then and now. Documents referenced are included to reference student statements. History-Social Science Content Standards: 8.12.5 - Examine the location and effects of urbanization, renewed immigration, and industrialization (e.g., the effects on social fabric of cities, wealth and economic opportunity, the conservation movement). 11.2.9 - Understand the effect of political programs and activities of the Progressives (e.g., federal regulation of railroad transport, Children’s Bureau, the Sixteenth Amendment, Theodore Roosevelt, Hiram Johnson). 11.11. 5 - Trace the impact of, need for, and controversies associated with environmental conservation, expansion of the national park system, and the development of environmental protection laws, with particular attention to the interaction between environmental protection advocates and property rights advocates. Guiding Questions: How did the rapid settlement of cities, increased immigration and industrialization contribute to debates over conservation and preservation? How did the Hetch Hetchy issue come to symbolize this debate? In what ways did this issue reveal divisions among Progressive reformers? Historical and Social Science Analysis Skills: Grades 6-8: Chronological and Spatial Thinking 1. Students explain how major events are related to one another in time. Grades 6-8: Research, Evidence and Point of View 5. Students detect the different historical points of view on historical events and determine the context in which the historical statements were made (the questions asked, sources used, author’s perspectives). Grades 6-8: Historical Interpretation Social Studies Review 2015-16

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1. Students explain the central issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a matrix of time and place. Grades 9-12: Chronological and Spatial Thinking 1. Students compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons that were learned. Grades 9-12: Research, Evidence and Point of View 2. Students identify bias and prejudice in historical interpretations. Grades 9-12: Historical Interpretation 2. Students recognize the complexity of historical causes and effects, including the limitations on determining cause and effect. Grades 9-12: Historical Interpretation 3. Students interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded rather than solely in terms of present-day norms and values. Common Core Skills: Grade 8: Speaking and Listening Standard 1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-onone, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion. b. Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed. c. Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas. d. Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented. Grade 8: Speaking and Listening Standard 3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced. Grade 11: Speaking and Listening Standard 1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11–12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. a. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas. b. Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision- making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed. c. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives. d. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task. Grade 11: Speaking and Listening Standard 3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used. Primary or Secondary Source: Statements of John Muir, James Phelan and Gifford Pinchot, California Water System map, Instructional Strategy: Talk-it-Out

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Organization: Students work in pairs to complete a think aloud and, optionally, a paraphrasing activity for the two documents. Next, students rotate in rows to work in pairs with different partners for the talk-it-out. Finally, students work as individuals to complete the exit ticket. Time Duration: 50 – 60 minutes Required Materials: Muir handout (1 per student), Phelan handout (1 per student), Pinchot handout (1 per student), California Water System map Step-By-Step Procedures: Anticipatory Set: 1. Ask students to take one minute to respond to the following prompts: • What issues does California currently face with its water supply? • What issues do you think California has faced in the past with its water supply? 2. After a minute has passed, ask individual students to share their responses in a pair and share. Lead a brief class discussion to elicit student responses. Tie past to present by clarifying that there are differences and similarities between the water scarcity issue in the past and today. Building on Prior Knowledge and Providing Context: 3. Post the following populations statistics on the board. Ask students to take a few minutes to examine the statistics: 1880-422,128; 1890-547,618; 1900-658,111; 1910-925,708 Statistics based off of United States Census Bureau population data for nine Bay Area counties.

• How many new people arrived to the San Francisco Bay Area between 1880 and 1910? • What impact did the increased population place on resources in San Francisco? • What reforms were Progressives proposing to deal with existing issues created by immigration, urbanization and industrialization?

4. Ask for volunteers to share their responses with the class. You may at this point also ask students to examine a California political map that demonstrates the rapid growth of areas such as Los Angeles and San Francisco. An excellent resource for demonstrating population density and growth after 1860 is available from California, A Changing State: An Atlas for California Students, California Geographic Alliance atlas at http://mappingideas. sdsu.edu/CaliforniaAtlas/atlas/pages/45_county_pop_1860.pdf You may also wish to refer back to previous lessons to discuss why these areas of California were more populated than other areas. Then dis cuss the following questions: • What pressures would this population boom place on the demand for water? • Where would the water come from? At this point you will want to help prompt students to use evidence from the physical map to illustrate how geography and precipitation plays a role in the distribution of water in California. Physical geography and precipitation maps are also available from the California Geographic Alliance at http://mappingideas.sdsu.edu/ CaliforniaAtlas/atlas/pages/12_physical_geography.pdf and http://mappingideas.sdsu.edu/CaliforniaAtlas/atlas/ pages/19_annual_precipitation.pdf Social Studies Review 2015-16 103

5. Use the maps to help students identify the locations of major rivers flowing from the Sierra Nevada Mountains into the Central Valley. Explain how the winter snow pack and rainfall provides water for the year. Introduce the issues that large cities such as Los Angeles and San Francisco had in locating a proper water supply. Describe the system of canals and reservoirs that were built to help supply water to outlying towns and cities, using Los Angeles and the Owens River as an example. Explain that in the early 1900s some San Franciscans proposed that a new reservoir and dam be built in the Hetch Hetchy Valley to provide water for San Francisco’s growing population. The Tuolumne River flows into the valley with run-off water from the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The construction of the dam would provide drinking water and electricity for the people of the city of San Francisco. Politicians and government officials saw the construction of the dam as the solution to the peoples problems. Conservationists urged caution but recognized that the limited and proper use of natural resources is necessary. Preservationists however, disagreed and argued instead that the valley should be protected and preserved against the devastation that building a dam might cause to the ecosystem. 6. Ask students to move into side-by-side pairs. Explain that they will be reading through two documents. The first is a statement from John Muir, a noted environmentalist. The second is a statement by James Phelan, Mayor of San Francisco. Explain that both men had very strong opinions about whether or not to dam the Hetch Hetchy Valley. Through a think-aloud, students will identify each of the arguments that each man makes to support his point of view. 7. Introduce and model the process of a think aloud. Explain that students will work in pairs to take turns reading the documents out loud. The first student will read John Muir’s statement out loud while the second student will silently read along. In a think aloud, the student who is reading the document out loud pauses at certain points to note key arguments, paraphrase main ideas, and pose questions. Ask students to underline the major arguments that each author makes. Students should circle any words that they do not understand. Model an example think aloud: “The author’s point here seems to be . . .“ “I wonder what the author means by . . .” “I think the author’s argument here is . . .” 8. After the first student has read John Muir’s statement and completed the think-aloud, the second student will re- read John Muir. This time, however, the student thinking-aloud will pause at appropriate points and debate the author making counter-arguments. The teacher should model this process “I would have to disagree with Muir’s point here because . . .” “Muir’s argument may be weak here in that . . .” 9. Repeat the same process with the second student reading James Phelan’s document aloud and summarizing key arguments. The first student then re-reads Phelan’s document aloud and offers counterpoints. 10. Next, ask the pairs to work together to summarize Phelan and Muir’s key arguments in at the bottom of the page use direct evidence from the text. Engaging Students/Active Learning Strategy: 11. Ask students to move into side-by-side pairs by turning two rows of desks facing in toward each other. Student desks should form neat rows that run perpendicular to the front of the room and the screen. Ask students to be sure that there is enough distance between groups so that they can hear their partner speaking. 12. Explain that you will now work together to understand the arguments more in depth through a talk-it-out in which they will be talking out the documents with various individuals in the class. Explain that in order to do this activity, you will be asking them to rotate their seats from time-to-time. Demonstrate how each row will rotate in a snake-like fashion. Be sure that all backpacks and other materials are removed from underneath the desks and the surrounding floor at this time. Ask students to remove all material including course readings, pens, 104

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and textbooks from their desks. Ask students to practice rotating a few times in order to ensure proper flow. 13. Explain and model the process of a talk-it-out. The talk-it-out begins when you project a sentence starter on the screen. The first student then will have approximately one minute to complete the sentence starter and expand on the idea. Clarify that the second student should not speak while the first student is speaking but should practice active-listening skills. Demonstrate some non-verbal ways that a person shows that they are listening. Explain that after a minute has passed you will ring a bell and wait for their silence. Once all students are listening again you will project a prompt for the second student to discuss. This will happen a few times before you ask students to rotate. Begin talk-it-out after clarifying which student is Student A and which student is Student B. Talk-it-out Prompts: Student A: Muir’s main argument is... and he proves this by asserting... Student B: You have nicely summed up Muir’s main argument as... Muir made an especially convincing point when he wrote... Student B: However, the major weakness in Muir’s argument appears to be... Student A: You have suggested that Muir’s argument was weak in that... To elaborate on your idea, Muir’s argument was also flawed when he wrote... ROTATE Student B: Phelan’s central assertion is... and he supports this by... Student A: You have clearly summed up Phelan’s main argument as... Phelan made an excellent point when he... Student A: Yet, a flaw in Phelan’s argument is... Student B: You have identified a clear flaw in Phelan’s argument in that... Phelan’s argument is also a bit weak when he said... ROTATE Student A: Muir’s point of view differs substantially from Phelan’s because... Student B: Phelan and Muir’s perspectives most also possibly differ because... Student B: Muir’s experiences likely shaped his perspective in that... S tudent A: Likewise, Phelan’s opinion was also influenced by his experiences... At this point you may choose to ask students to pause to read a third source, a statement by Gifford Pinchot, reflecting the views of conservationists. Students may then be asked to consider how this view reflects larger divisions within the conservation movement and the Progressive movement as a whole. Additional prompts for a talk- it-out may include: Student B: The debate over Hetch Hetchy suggests larger historical changes in early 20th century California such as... Student A: You have mentioned changes such as... I would also add that additional historical events were also impacting California for example... Student A: The Hetch Hetchy issue is linked to the Progressive Era in that... Student B: In addition to the connections with the Progressive Era such as... the whole Hetch Hetchy debate also reveals a split among conservationists and Progressives in that... If you wish you discuss how the issue relates to present-day discussions over water you may prime students for a follow-up whole-class discussion by posing these prompts: Student A: The debate over Hetch Hetchy is still significant to us today in that... Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Debrief: Student B: It sounds like you are arguing that... I would also add that environmental conservation and preservation remains an important topic today because... Student B: However, the present environmental situation is very different than the situation faced by Muir and Phelan in that... Student A: What I hear you saying is that... I would add that the situation is also different today in that... 14. After students have returned to their original seating arrangements, debrief some of the key ideas students dis cussed especially with regard to the development of a conservation movement and the Progressive movement. Wrap up the activity by explaining to students that the debate over whether to build the dam or not continued until the dam was finally completed in 1923. A 167- mile long aqueduct was built to carry water from the reservoir to San Francisco. Water from the reservoir supplies 2.4 million Californians in the San Francisco Bay Area. It also pro vided electricity for San Francisco. Even today, preservationists from the Sierra Club argue that the dam should be destroyed and Hetch Hetchy Valley restored to its original location. Discuss pertinent key issues in the water short age and preservationist debates today. Be weary of presentism and be sure to point out both similarities and differences in issues related to conservation today. 15. You may follow-up this activity with an exit ticket writing exercise or extended essay. (See below for prompt) James D. Phelan Mayor, San Francisco I will only emphasize the fact that the needs of San Francisco are pressing and urgent. San Francisco is expanding with tremendous rapidity... and already, notwithstanding the threat of a water famine, the outlying district... is being cut up into suburban tracts... As Californians, we rather resent gentlemen from different parts of the country outside of California telling us that we are invading the beautiful natural resources of the State or in any way marring or detracting from them. We have a greater pride than they in the beau- ties of California, in the valleys, in the big trees, in the rivers, and in the high mountains... even for a water supply we would not injure the great resources which have made our State the playground of the world. By constructing a dam at this very narrow gorge in the Hetch Hetchy Valley, about 700 feet across, we create, not a reservoir, but a lake... coming upon it, it will look like an emerald gem in the mountains; and one of the few things in which California is deficient, especially in the Sierras, is lakes, and in this way we will con- tribute, in a large measure, to the scenic grandeur and beauty of California... ...To provide for the little children, men, and women of the 800,000 population who swarm the shores of San Francisco Bay is a matter of much greater importance than encouraging the few who, in solitary loneliness, will sit on the peak of the Sierras loafing around the throne of the God of nature and singing His praise. A benign father loves his children above all things. There is no comparison between the highest use of the water-- the domestic supply--and the mere scenic value of the mountains. When you decide that affirmatively, as you must, and then, on top of that, that we are not detracting from the scenic value of the mountains, but enhancing it...

John Muir President of the Sierra Club Hetch Hetchy Valley... is a grand landscape garden, one of Nature’s rarest and most precious mountain temples... Sad to say, this most precious and sublime feature of the Yosemite National Park, one of the greatest of all our natural resources for the uplifting joy and peace and health of the people, is in danger of being dammed and made into a reservoir to help supply San Francisco with water and light, thus flooding it from wall to wall and burying its gardens and groves one or two hundred feet deep... Everybody needs beauty as well as bread, places to play in and pray in, where Nature may heal and cheer and give strength to body and soul alike... That anyone would try to destroy [Hetch Hetchy Valley] seems; incredible; but sad experience shows that there are people good enough and bad enough for anything. The proponents [supporters] of the dam scheme bring forward a lot of bad arguments to prove that the only righteous thing to do with the people’s parks is to destroy them bit by bit as they are able. [They] seem to have a perfect contempt for Nature, and, instead of lifting their eyes to the God of the mountains, lift them to the Almighty Dollar. Source: John Muir, The Yosemite (New York: Century, 1912), 255–257, 260–262. Reprinted in Roderick Nash, The American Environment: Readings in The History of Conservation (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1968). Available online at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5720 16. You may choose to follow-up this activity with an exit ticket writing exercise or an extended essay to assess student learning. Students may be asked to construct a written response to these prompts: How did immigration, urbanization and industrialization contribute to debates over conservation and preservation in the early twentieth century? How did the Hetch Hetchy issue come to symbolize these debates? In what ways did this issue reveal divisions among Progressive reformers? Use a rubric similar to the example provided to assess students’ knowledge of the content standard, use of textual evidence to support analysis, and ability to contextualize and corroborate the evidence. For a LCAP reportable score on a summative rubric, use the Persuasive/Argumentative Rubric in the General Rubric article.

Source: House Committee on the Public Lands, Hetch Hetchy Dam Site, 63rd Cong., 1st sess. (25–28 June 1913; 7 July 1913), (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1913), 25–29, 165–66, 213–14, 235–38. Reprinted in Roderick Nash, The Call of the Wild, 1900–1916 (New York: George Brazilier, 1970), 86–95. Available online at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5721 http://gocalifornia.about.com/od/toppicturegallery/ig/Hetch-Hetchy-Pictures/Hetch-Hetchy-Valley-BeforeDam.htm Wikimedia Commons. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/fd/Hetch_Hetchy_Valley.jpg

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How to Make Social Studies Measurable Performance Activities LCAP Reportable This issue of the Social Studies Review was originally conceived to be a collection of measurable social studies performance activities that could have outcomes reported in LCAP metrics. However, after significant research of published lessons with teacher leaders, it became evident that most social studies educators had not included quantifiable measures of student performance in their thinking. The ones that did had a variety of scoring rubrics, some of which had vague quality statements, such as excellent and average. Others did not have clear descriptions of criteria for scorers to be able to discriminate performance levels.

furthest removed from this kind of educational experience, are the very same ones sitting day after day in basic skill remediation classrooms.

With the increased focus on basic skills over the past two decades, schools have reduced the time available for performance activities and increased classroom requirements in basic skill work – having students learn data and information, often as lists of terms with definitions, multiple choice test preparation with practice tests, and constant analysis of weaknesses to be remediated. Classroom instruction has focused on remembering particular bits and pieces of information usually without context. Teachers are for the most part out of practice or unfamiliar with using performance activities for instructional purposes.

____The District LCAP Committee needs to determine learning needs for all students and for targeted students relative to College and Career and Civic Life Readiness. What do students need to learn? What do they need to learn to do? What skills do they need to learn to move from where they are to readiness, as defined in the Common Core College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards?

At the same time, a select few students and teachers continue to experience performance and project- and problem-based learning. Activities that are contests, such as History Day, Mock Trial, Moot Court, Project Citizen, We the People, and Model United Nations, for example, take place regularly in the gifted classrooms. Substantial research shows that these activities increase engagement, increase interest in and enthusiasm for school, and increase civic involvement during and after a student’s school years. These students learn by doing; they practice the skills needed for college, career and civic life. They learn how the system works, and more importantly, how they can impact the system. Ironically, those disadvantaged students, the ones that are 108

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The opportunity provided by the LCFF and LCAP process opens the door to bring these activities to all students, and to have all students benefit from this kind of active learning experience. Putting this kind of learning in place requires that educational leaders put a number of elements in place, a process that this checklist can help organize.

____The District LCAP Committee needs to determine which of these needs can be addressed by using various content areas including social studies. For example, the Inquiry Arc design provided in the College, Career, and Civic Life Framework published by the National Council of Social Studies, can guide districts to those activities that directly address the College and Career Readiness Standards. ____Using History-Social Science Analysis Skills Standards and Common Core ELA Standards as guides, the LCAP Committee needs to target skills and content in social studies that should be measured. ____ The LCAP Committee needs determine the skills and knowledge students need to gain, and whether to implement district wide activities for one or several grade levels, or school wide for one or more specific

schools only. The District LCAP Committee needs to review with teachers performance activities, or create activities from units included here, or select tried and true performance activities, or search for units from sources that provide them and add measurable performance activities to those. These activities must have summative measurement included or added by the District LCAP Committee. The measurement system must be consistent (using the same measuring tools a number of times in a school year, and over several years). Measurable learning outcomes that are consistent can be reported in appropriate LCAP reporting metrics required by legislation.

how clearly the main ideas are explained on the board as a part of the whole project. Finally, the LCAP Committee has to plan implementation strategies, including purchase of necessary materials and possibly content based professional development for teachers and administrators.

____The District LCAP Committee has to design and put in place professional development in rubric scoring for the activity (ies) selected for implementation. Advanced Placement teachers regularly take training of this sort when they sign up to do Advanced Placement scoring. The now defunct California Learning Assessment System had such training programs as well. In both cases, scoring by different teachers was consistent about 96% of the time, meaning that different teachers came to the same score point when scoring a student essay 96% of the time. This professional development is offered by The DBQ Project and other organizations; Advanced Placement teachers who have taken the training can also set up this professional development. Consistency in scoring is essential for reporting reliability. ____If the District LCAP Planning Committee wants to create formative assessment rubrics for activities different from the ones included in the Rubrics article of this issue, the Committee needs to do the following: a)____Decide the criteria (what will be judged, such as proper use of English conventions, logical sequencing of ideas, use of evidence for each idea, including sourcing and analysis of the evidence) b)____Determine the quality indicators (how well the criteria is addressed at each scoring level, such as all or almost all for Level Five, Advanced, on the rubric; many for Level Four, Proficient) c) _____If desired for formative assessment, features of the activity can be added to the levels as additional criteria. For example, an activity in which students create a project display board could have an assessment of Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Organizations and Other Sources of Lessons, Units, and Resources Many universities, museums, libraries, and other organizations provide social studies resources that include performances, or that can have performances added. For LCAP reporting, measureable performance activities need to be added if missing and must be scored using consistent rubrics. Organizations identified below have a variety of social studies units, and the lists provided present just a sample of their offerings. Some provide units of study that can have measurable performance activities added to them. Some are performance activities in themselves. Many provide professional development. LCAP funding can pay for materials from organizations that are needed for activities designed to meet LCAP district goals as well as professional development programs. California History-Social Science Project chssp.ucdavis.edu The California History-Social Science Project (CHSSP) provides free materials, resources, and contacts for professional development for teachers. A quarterly newsletter, The Source, is posted, along with back issues. The website includes large (300 pages and more) units of study in its History Blueprint section. Available units include The Civil War, The Cold War (one for world history and one for American history), and Sites of Encounter in the Medieval World. Some unit outlines are included in the Model Unit chapters for middle school and for high school in this issue. Each unit addresses specific California History-Social Science Standards and specific California Common Core English Language Arts standards. Each unit includes a number of original documents, explanations for each document, and information for students on document and source analysis. Many of these documents are housed in the Library of Congress. Materials are free and teachers have permission to use them for instructional purposes. Copyright is held by the Regents of the University of California; a copyright statement is at the end of each unit. From the introduction to History Blueprints: …The Blueprint curriculum uses research-based 110

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strategies to develop critical thinking, reading, and writing to engage students, improve their learning, and address the achievement gap. Blueprint includes tools for teachers and parents to measure their students’ progress and adapt instruction accordingly. These tools also provide discipline-specific and Standards aligned support for English learners and native speakers with low literacy. In sum, the History Blueprint provides an effective method to improve student understanding of history, reading comprehension, and writing ability…. Blueprint curriculum provides comprehensive units of instruction, including background materials, primary sources, detailed lesson plans, and visual resources. All curriculum is aligned with both the California Content Standards for History-Social Science and the Literacy in History/Social Studies section of the Common Core State Standards for English/Language Arts. Each unit combines: • historical investigation - a discipline-specific form of inquiry-based learning • relevant and carefully selected primary sources • activities to improve students’ reading comprehension and writing ability • methods to teach students how to discern and evaluate arguments based upon evidence…. Blueprint units feature assessments to measure student content knowledge, Common Core skills, and critical thinking…. Formative and summative assessments evaluate students’ abilities to: • read documents critically • judge claims logically • draw connections • compose reasoned arguments • master content knowledge. Professional development opportunities, sessions of one day to a week, are offered at CHSSP locations around the state. From the CHSSP home page: “The California History-Social Science Project (CHSSP) is a statewide network of scholars and K-12

teachers, headquartered in the Department of History at the University of California, Davis. Each year, close to 4,000 K-12 teachers attend CHSSP programs in person and online; thousands more download free curriculum and teaching resources from our website. Our approach to instruction integrates content, disciplinary understanding, and explicit support for English language proficiency, framed in an inquiry model of historical investigation. All CHSSP programs and resources are aligned with the Common Core State Standards and both the English Language Development Standards and the History-Social Science Standards for the state of California. The California History-Social Science Project (CHSSP) belongs to a larger network of discipline-specific programs known as the California Subject Matter Projects (CSMP), administered by the University of California, Office of the President. Headquartered in the Department of History at University of California, Davis, the CHSSP and its six sites are housed in UC and CSU departments of history and schools of education throughout the state. At each site, teachers and scholars work together to improve classroom instruction, student learning, and literacy. The CHSSP is dedicated to providing the highest quality history instruction, with a special focus on meeting the needs of English learners, native speakers with low literacy, and students from economically disadvantaged communities. We are dedicated to increasing the achievement of all students through a researchbased approach which focuses on historical content and disciplinary understanding, critical thinking, and the development of student literacy, all aligned with the Common Core State Standards and the California Standards for History-Social Science. To learn more about us, visit our Statewide Office at UC Davis, our Teachers and Scholars, our Regional Sites, and our Advisory Board pages.” Teaching the Common Core Teaching the Common Core is a series of webinars for teachers and administrators seeking to align their instruction with the Common Core State Standards. In addition, each of the CHSSP’s regional sites offers

Common Core programs for local schools and districts. Teaching the Common Core Teaching with Primary Sources from the Library of Congress includes both introductory and advanced programs designed to promote the use of inquirybased lessons using primary sources, aligned with the Common Core State Standards. War Comes Home: In Schools War Comes Home: In Schools is a 2014-2015 teacher professional development program designed to encourage young people to explore U.S. history through the lens of veteran experiences. Teaching Democracy Teaching Democracy provides Standards-aligned and research-based curriculum and resources designed to promote an engaged citizenry. Developed in partnership with Cal Humanities in 2012, the series is archived here. In addition, the CHSSP site has a series of lessons dealing with current events in historical context. Current Events in Historical Context Teaching current events provides a particular challenge in the history classroom. The most readily available sources - news articles - are geared toward recent events and do not provide the long-term historical view necessary for students to understand why an event unfolds the way it does, and how it relates to their history class. Current Context helps students understand today by putting current events in their appropriate historical context. Each report includes a background, a timeline of significant events, a map, & links to useful resources. Click on the title in the left hand column below to download the latest edition and send us your feedback by writing to us at [email protected] In the right hand column, you’ll find links to our blog for suggestions on teaching this material. Current Context Issue & Related Teaching Tools (CHSSP Blog) Climate Change (12.17.15) & Taking Action on Climate Change Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Syria and the Refugee Crisis (10.6.15) & Examining European Responses to the Refugee Crisis Iran Nuclear Deal (9.4.15) & Iran and the U.S.

a new portal for geography educators to find lessons, interactive maps, learning tools, and other resources. From the homepage:

Ukraine & Crimea (05.09.14) & Teaching the Ukraine Crisis with Maps

The California Geographic Alliance (CGA) educates, empowers, and inspires Californians to appreciate their unique place in a diverse and increasingly interconnected world. We believe that geography education is critical to the success of our young people in order to foster global understanding and growth. Our goal is to help build geo-literate citizens who care about the planet’s people, places and environments, and who feel empowered to strive for a more sustainable and equitable world. Geo-Quest is Here! By using state-of-the-art geospatial information technology and web mapping services, the California Geographic Alliance (CGA) is developing an innovative web-based education platform, called “Geo-Quest: California’s Education Portal.” This new platform will provide active learning and collaborative education resources to encourage spatial thinking and spatial literacy for K-12 students and teachers in California. Our goal is to use Geo-Quest to transform Geography Education to encompass deeper understanding of diverse human experiences and active problem solving using hands-on skills and exercises. Students will be able to use Geo-Quest’s web and mobile tools to learn big ideas in geography with real world issues, such as climate change, resource extraction, disease outbreaks, migration, wildfire risk and management, population change, and more. The content design of Geo-Quest will adopt interdisciplinary approaches to enhance geographic concepts with new data and technologies, such as social media, the digital humanities, big data, citizen science, web GIS, and volunteered geographic information.

The California Geographic Alliance www.calgeography.org

California Environmental Education Initiative www.californiaeei.org

The California Geographic Alliance provides lesson plans and resources to support geography education across the grades on issues especially related to California, or that impact California. These focus on the significance of location, elements of location, such as resources, and impact of location on human behavior. Geography is presented not a list of places, rivers, or state capitols, but instead focuses on how issues of location impact people. The website presents Geo-Quest,

The California Environmental Education Initiative, or EEI, provides K-12 instructional units that align with grade-level state standards in History-Social Science and Science and integrate environmental principles. Some lessons also address Common Core English Language Arts standards as well. All materials are free and permission is given for school use. Some additional materials are distributed when teachers enroll in professional development activities. Free registration

Boko Haram Update (7.22.15) & Beyond the Violence: Nigeria from a Socio-economic Perspective California Drought Update (5.19.15) & California’s Watersheds Cuba & the U.S. (3.31.15) & U.S.-Cuban Relations during the Cold War and Today Ukraine Crisis (2.27.15) & Teaching the Ukraine Crisis with Maps Civil Protest (12.18.14) & From Watts to Ferguson: Persistent Structural Inequality Hong Kong Protests (10.29.14) & Roots of the Hong Kong Protest Islamic State (10.07.14) & Studying the Borders of Conflict in Iraq and Syria California Drought (08.20.14) & Engaging Students in Thinking about the Drought Islamic State (07.16.14) & Studying the Borders of Conflict in Iraq and Syria Boko Haram / Nigeria (06.04.14) & Beyond the Violence: Nigeria from a Socio-Economic Perspective

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generates a password for teachers, which is required to download the materials. Each grade level has a series of units that have a number of specific lessons; the units shown here are some posted for Grade 6 and support teaching of the History-Social Science as well as Next Generation Science standards. Each unit has student guides, workbooks, maps, a large teacher guide, lessons, assessments, and a precise correlation to Next Generation Science, Common Core English/Language Arts, and History-Social Science standards. Interactive maps are provided by National Geographic. A list of these materials is shown in detail below for the River Systems and Ancient Peoples unit; each unit has a similar list.

• Information Cards (PDF) • NGS Maps: View From Space (PDF) • NGS Maps: Natural Regions (PDF) • NGS Maps: Water For Life (PDF) 6.2.2. Agricultural Advances in Ancient Civilizations Description: Learn about the importance of nature and natural cycles as well as the development of political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Kush. 6.2.6., 6.2.8. Egypt and Kush: A Tale of Two Kingdoms Description: The unique geography of the Nile Valley region and its myriad of natural resources supported extensive cultures and a vast network of trade.

In all, EEI has 85 units spanning grades K-12. All units may be found at www.californiaeei.org/curriculum. The outline for some units for Grade 6 are shown below, and the full component list is included for Unit 6.2.1 to show how much is available in these instructional units.

6.5.1., 6.6.1. The Rivers and Ancient Empires of China and India Description: Geographic and climatic factors contributed to the rise of great dynasties in India and china; the people depended on the ecosystem goods and services provided.

6.1.1. Paleolithic People: Tools, Tasks, and Fire Description: Explore the essential characteristics of scavenger/ hunter-gatherer societies, including the development of tools and the use of fire.

Measurable performance activities can be added to any of the grade level units. For example, students could pick a local environmental issue in a Project Citizen activity with each class at a school at a specified grade level picking its own issue. Or, sixth grade classes at a school could represent a different civilization and use a Model United Nations model to simulate a conference of ancient civilizations in 1200 BCE trying to solve their common drought threat. Alternatively, a conference model could be used to have students represent several groups of Native American peoples who meet and confer with several groups of 19th century Americans engaged in westward expansion over issues of use of land and resources, and the impact of different cultural approaches to using land on those respective peoples.

6.1.2. Paleolithic People: Adapting to Change Description: Compare the lifestyles of different Paleolithic cultures and the ecosystem goods and services upon which they depended. 6.2.1. River Systems and Ancient Peoples Description: Learn to connect cycles, flow, and the role of rivers in ecosystems to the rise of the world’s oldest cities in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt. Unit Components/Guides include: • Common Core Correlation Guide (PDF) • Teacher’s Edition (PDF) • Teacher’s Masters (PDF) • Teacher’s Masters Form Fillable (PDF) • Student Edition (PDF) • Student Workbook (PDF) • Student Workbook Form Fillable (PDF) • Visual Aids (PDF) • Visual Aids Projectable Format (PDF) • Dictionary (PDF) • Word Wall Cards (PDF)

The California Council for Economic Education http://www.ccee.org/ http://econworks.org/teacher-resources/ The California Council for Economic Education provides a number of K-12 economics and financial literacy lessons. See in particular the Financial Fitness for Life program, and the GeniRevolution game of simulations dealing with financial crises. The Council also provides professional development opportunities. Social Studies Review 2015-16

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The Porter Room http://porterroom.csusb.edu/modelLessons/index.html The Porter Room at the Palm Desert campus of California State University San Bernardino provides curriculum units through Grade 5. Most of these are online; the others are available for small fees. Professional development programs are regularly offered in the region. Most of the curriculum units in the Elementary Curriculum Units article in this issue are from the Porter Room. For more information, contact Dr. Priscilla Porter at [email protected] (760) 200-5189 Facing History And Ourselves www.facinghistory.org This organization provides profound units and lessons that raise questions about how students today can use knowledge of specific historical situations to deal creatively and positively in an increasingly diverse world. Students are challenged to think about how decisions made by people, sometimes leaders but often not, determine events. The role of citizens, and the meaning of citizenship, is the central thread in each lesson. Units are designed to show the significance of certain historical events, and why those events are significant to today’s youth, placing the ‘so what’ of each situation at the center of each unit. Professional development is available for any of the units. A sample of Facing History units: - A Pivotal Moment in the Civil Rights Movement - Crimes Against Humanity and Civilization: The Genocide of the Armenians - Decision Making in Times of Injustice Unit - Eyes on the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Movement 1954-1985 - Hiding and Seeking: Faith and Tolerance After the Holocaust - I Promised I Would Tell Unit - Nuremberg Remembered Documentary: A Lesson on Guilt and Responsibility - Totally Unofficial: Raphael Lemkin and the Genocide - Convention: A Series of Three Lessons - Unit: Darfur Now and Not On Our Watch The Constitutional Fights Foundation http://www.crf-usa.org The Constitutional Rights Foundation (CRF) has a 114

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number of programs that are performance learning activities, and a number of units that could have measurable performance activities added to them. CRF’s contest activities can be made into whole class, or grade level whole school activities, with or without a contest. The Mock Trial and Moot Court were explained in detail in the article on Measureable Performance Activity Models. More information is included here. CRF provides professional development at scheduled sessions, and can also contract with individual districts.

mance-based education, the program furthers an understanding of both the content and processes of our legal system; increases basic skills, analytical ability, and self-confidence; and promotes cooperation among students of various cultures and interests. Based on responses to formal surveys, teacher-sponsors report significant improvement in students’ basic skills, critical thinking skills, presentations skills, participation skills, and self-esteem as well as increases in students’ content knowledge about the law.

One contest is the Mock Trial, described on the CRF webpage http://www.crf-usa.org/mock-trial-program/ what-is-mock-trial:

The mock trial model could be used for cases relevant to specific communities, and involve whole classes as prosecution, defense, and the other trial roles. More generally, a trial activity using the CRF model could be used in many situations, including simulations of trials historically. Many sources publish trial topics that follow actual cases (the trial of John Brown, anti-slavery leader, the Nuremburg War Crimes trials) or simulations of trials that did not take place (the trial for war crimes of President Harry Truman, the trial of Christopher Columbus for bringing a biological disaster to the Western Hemisphere and destroying most of the Native American population).

In 1980, Constitutional Rights Foundation (CRF) introduced the Mock Trial program, which already had a strong following in Los Angeles County, to all the counties in California. The program was created to help students acquire a working knowledge of our judicial system, develop analytical abilities and communication skills, and gain an understanding of their obligations and responsibilities as participating members of our society…. The Case Each year, CRF creates and produces a new set of Mock Trial materials based on an important issue facing America’s youth. The materials include a hypothetical criminal case (including summaries of case law, witness statements, official exhibits, and simplified rules of evidence); lesson plans on the central issues in the case; and competition rules and guidelines. Mock Trial materials from past years are available for purchase through our catalog…. . The Trials Cases are released to all California counties in the early fall. Typically, a county competition occurs in late fall or early spring, with anywhere from two to six rounds of trials. The winners of the county competitions go on to the State Finals in March. In May, the winner of the state competition represents California at the annual National High School Mock Trial Competition, involving teams from 54 states and territories. State Standards The Mock Trial program allows students to develop the skills necessary for the mastery of state content standards for history and social science. Through perfor-

A special posting at CRF is The History Experience. http://www.crf-usa.org/images/pdf/he/hestudentplanner.pdf for the Student Planner that contains the activity. It is an activity that uses the American Revolution as the content base for students to learn and practice the steps of historical investigation. Students learn document and how to analyze a source or document. This activity can stand by itself as a measurable performance activity. The approach can be applied to other situations, including current event issues. An activity created for grade 12 but that could be modified for other grades is the Civic Action Project. http://www.crfcap.org/mod/page/view.php?id=203 CAP is a free project-based learning program for civics and government. CAP provides a bundle of additional lessons for you to choose from, based on the needs and interests of your students. Students could select issues related to school, community, or even national or global issues. CAP students identify an issue or problem that matters to them, connect it to public policy, then take civic actions to try to impact their selected issue/problem. It is up to you, the teacher, if you want to limit the scale of the issues they choose.

The Center for Civic Education www.civiced.org The Center for Civic Education has several measurable performance activities. In addition, its website lists programs, curriculum, materials for purchase, and professional development opportunities. The activities that best fit LCAP metrics are We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution, and We the People: Project Citizen. These can be incorporated into many social studies classes. These programs are explained in detail in the articles on Tried and True Models and Measurable Performance Activity Models. Each of these can result in a combination of performances and have optional contest dimensions. The Citizen and the Constitution culminates in a mock Congressional hearing, in which teams of students make a presentation to a panel of judges on a specific aspect (for the contest, this is changed each year) of the Constitution. The students then answer questions generated by their presentation. This program includes the use of Center published very readable and studentfriendly and student-relevant textbooks, available for purchase in class sets, each of which includes a teacher’s guide with lessons and units of study. Generally this is a school year long program, used in grades 5, 8 or 11. This activity can be done inside a single classroom as an ongoing activity. It can be a class competition, an internal school competition, or a cross-town rivalry competition. The ideal is to involve all students in the activity. Project Citizen has students select a local problem or issue of some sort, learn about it, and determine a course of action to deal with or resolve the problem. Students then make real world presentations to school boards or city councils, for example. Sample local issues can be anything from re designing the drop off traffic lanes for an elementary school (which was an issue when children were being hit by cars) to re designing local use of water resources, or determining a policy regarding local oil drilling commonly known as fracking. Each of these can be one grade level in a school or district, or several grade levels. For LCAP reporting, the Project and Performance rubrics fit well for the summative assessments. If in addition students write a persuasive essay on their Project or their Hearing, Social Studies Review 2015-16

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that rubric can be used as well. Because the rubrics have consistent quality and performance level criteria, student performances can be measured several times in a school year as they complete their work, and compared. Averages of performances can also be measured across a school year, or year to year. From the Center’s website: The primary goal of We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution is to promote civic competence and responsibility among the nation’s elementary and secondary students. The design of the instructional program, including its innovative culminating activity, makes the program successful with both teachers and students….The foundation of the We the People program is the classroom curriculum. It complements the regular school curriculum by providing upper elementary, middle, and high school students with an innovative course of instruction on the history and principles of U.S. constitutional democracy. Critical thinking exercises, problem-solving activities, and cooperative-learning techniques help develop intellectual and participatory skills while increasing students’ understanding of the institutions of American constitutional democracy. The We the People curriculum fosters attitudes that students need in order to participate as effective, responsible citizens. Students may participate in a simulated congressional hearing as the culminating activity for the We the People program. The entire class, working in groups, presents prepared statements on constitutional questions before a panel of community representatives acting as congressional committee members. Each group of students then answers questions posed by the committee members. The format gives students an opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of constitutional principles while providing teachers with authentic means of assessing student performance. Teachers may engage their students in a noncompetitive simulated congressional hearing at the upper elementary, middle, and high schools levels, or a competitive hearing at some levels in certain states. High school competition begins at the congressional district level with classes from each school vying for the district championship. We the People: The Citizen & the Constitution is available at the upper elementary, middle school, and high 116

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school levels. Teacher’s editions for each level contain lesson plans and suggested activities to enrich classroom instruction. The high school text also features a companion website, http://wtpcompanion.civiced.org that provides a wealth of resources for students and teachers, including a glossary, biographies, Supreme Court cases, primary sources, and an annotated bibliography. Literacy guides designed to assist teachers of struggling readers are available for the middle school and high school levels. They can be downloaded for free at www.civiced.org. We the People: Project Citizen is a curricular program for middle, secondary, and post-secondary students and adult groups that promotes competent and responsible participation in local and state government. The program helps people learn how to monitor and influence public policy. In the process, they develop support for democratic values and principles, tolerance, and feelings of political efficacy. Entire classes of students or members of youth organizations work cooperatively to identify a public policy problem in their community. They then research the problem, evaluate alternative solutions, develop their own solution in the form of a public policy, and create a political action plan to enlist local or state authorities to adopt their proposed policy. Participants develop a portfolio of their work and present their project in a hearing showcase before a panel of civic-minded community members…. Working in four cooperative teams, the students learn to interact with their government through a five-step process that includes the following: • Identifying a problem in their community that requires a public policy solution • Gathering and evaluating information on the problem • Examining and evaluating alternative solutions • Developing a proposed public policy to address the problem • Creating an action plan to get their policy adopted by government Students’ work is displayed in a class portfolio containing a display section and a documentation section. We the People: A Portfolio-Based Civic Education Program: Participating teachers and organization leaders are encouraged to hold a showcase hearing as the culminating activity for Project Citizen. Each of the four working groups prepares and presents a statement on its section of the portfolio before a panel of community

representatives who act as legislative or administrative committee members. Each group then answers questions posed by the committee members. The format provides students an opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of how public policy is formulated while providing teachers with an excellent means of assessing performance.

Court of Justice (ICJ) or a historical Security Council body reconstructing an especially turbulent year of history….In this interdependent world, Model UN makes for informed global citizens who not only understand the decisions their nation makes but also how those changes effect politics nationally, regionally, and globally….

Model United Nations www.nmun.org

In simulating the actual workings of the UN, the Model UN provides an essential feature of the cooperative learning environment. In preparing to go to a Model The United Nations Association, and the United NaUN, each student becomes an “expert” in one aspect of tions itself, has created the Model United Nations set of an issue or policy for their delegation. At conference activities that can be a contest, a class activity, interall the “experts” from different delegations gather in class competitions, school activities, or inter school a subcommittee to discuss their issue. The “experts” competitions. There are middle, high school, and then return to their delegation in a plenary session and university conferences and competitions that can be teach the others what they have learned. This feature entered as well. The site is quite extensive with student is part of the cooperative learning environment where and teacher materials. In addition, the site www.unstudents working together to accomplish shared goals ausa.org explains how to start a Model United Nations are given two responsibilities: to learn the assigned contest. materials and make sure that all other members of the group do likewise. (Johnson and Johnson, 1988) The following is from students.jccc.edu/orgs/un/value- Model UN fulfills the objectives of multicultural eduMUN.html: cation as stated by James Banks, “the major theorists and researchers in multicultural education agree that The Model United Nations is a series of programs run the movement is designed to restructure educational throughout the country and the world with the goals institutions so that all students, including middle-class of furthering understanding about the United Nations, white males, will acquire the knowledge, skills, and educating participants about world issues and promot- attitudes needed to function effectively in a culturally ing peace and the work of the United Nations through and ethnically diverse nation and world.” (1993) cooperation and diplomacy. A history course could use MUN simulations to have Students gather in groups of 15 to over 1000 to simustudents explore many historical situations and events late member states representation in the bodies of the in depth, and to experience the complexity of many of United Nations. Smaller simulations usually are of the these. Model UN activities include General AssemSecurity Council and last several hours. Larger groups bly debates among and between member states, with are held in convention centers, simulate many bodies student teams representing the view of their state. The of the UN concurrently and last several days. More Security Council debates are organized along the same than 160 Model UN conferences are held globally inlines. The site includes judging criteria. The general devolving approximately 100,000 students each year. bate rubric can easily be adapted for scoring and LCAP Simulations at large conferences usually include several reporting. of the six committees of the General Assembly. These committees each have a different topic they specialize Students in groups can represent individual countries, in for debates. Conferences may also simulate councils meet, debate, and resolve issues. This process can be other than the Security Council, such as the Economic applied in a number of ways, and is the Conference and Social Council (ECOSOC.) They might also simu- Model. The process can be as formal or informal as delate any number of special committees the General sired. Issues can be from current events, from historiAssembly has mandated in the past years including cal situations, in which case the debates would be more the Economic and Finance Committee (ECOFIN) or of a simulation of the historical situation, such as a the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA.) peace conference. Issues can be around trade, environConferences sometimes simulate the International ment, resources, development; issues of war and peace. Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Process: • Determine the issue (which may have several subsets). • Each group will research and determine its view on the issue(s). • Each group presents to the whole assembly. • Intermission: Each group discuss and decide its reactions to all the other presentations. This may include looking for ‘allies’ who could be approached to figure out if there are areas of mutual support and agreement. Determine revised positions. • Second meeting: Each group, or coalitions of groups, presents. • Proposals as revised. • Second Intermission: Groups and coalitions discuss latest proposals. • Final meeting of whole assembly: Voting is held, by delegation, on each of the revised proposals from the Second meeting. Rubrics: Presentation and Conference rubrics can apply to a Model UN conference, or to a conference set up in the same way. Individual essays: Each student submits a persuasive essay accepting or rejecting the decisions of the whole group. The United Nations website has a guidebook, complete instructions for a General Assembly simulation or a Security Council simulation. The material is free and can be downloaded. The United Nations site is outreach.un.org/mun/. The site allows reading of the United Nations Guidebook for MUN. Indian Ocean in History http://www.indianoceanhistory.org/ This website includes interactive highly interactive maps across millennia that can be used in grades 6, 7, 10, 11, and 12 (meeting H-SS and Common core ELA standards for those grades) that show cities, trade, significant people, inventions, movement of ideas (such as religion), geographical features, weather issues. Students can explore changes over time and can use the sources for completing lesson activities posted on the site, or as source material for other lessons. The site can be used by itself for ancient, medieval, modern 118

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history. Lessons within units are very carefully scaffolded and show students how to think about sources. The site can be used as source material for a number of units dealing with trade and commerce, world history/ geography, issues of religion in history. Example: A popular unit follows the trip of West African King Masa Mussa in the 1300’s across North Africa. Another popular unit follows the journey of Ibn Battuta on his Hajj, or journey to Mecca. The lessons should be edited to make it a commercial trip and not a religious journey. A superior Student Guide for Document Analysis is included in the Appendix of this issue. The Big History Project https://school.bighistoryproject.com/bhplive This unique site contains many open-ended problem based units and activities that take the big picture of history, starting with the formation of the planet. Some of these could be developed and used for LCAP reporting with the addition of appropriate rubrics. Materials are free. The lessons referenced below show practice of the Inquiry Arc developed in the College, Career, and Civic Life Framework. From the site: 13.8 billion years of history told through engaging videos, animations, articles, and classroom activities targeting middle- and high-school students. • Flexible and adaptable — the course can be delivered over a full year or just a semester, depending on your school’s needs. • Everything is online — materials are up to date, always available, and easy to download and print. • Easy to customize — use teacher-generated lessons or explore and create your own using a comprehensive library of custom designed content. • Built to hit Common Core, C3 and state standards— built from the ground up to align with the expectations of the CCSS, starting with the learning outcomes and including the assessment and lesson activities. The Big History Project emphasizes inquiry, analysis, and argument over content knowledge. • Comprehensive professional development — online instructional guides, detailed lesson plans, training ses-

sions, and videos—available online, anytime anywhere. Plus monthly online sessions to go deeper on core topic Project-based learning Project-based learning (PBL) is an instruction method that has students explore a complex question, problem, or challenge in depth. Veteran Big History teachers have reported having great fun, and successful learning when using these projects. Each activity covers two weeks of instructional time. The Big History Project includes three PBL activities: • Unit 5: Invent a Species — This project challenges groups to invent a new species. They have to decide where their species came from, how it evolved, what skills and abilities it has, the trends that led to its survival, and so on. The development of their species must be grounded in scientific thought and reason. The deliverables for the project are a model of the species and a Wikipedia entry about that species. • Unit 7: Feeding the World — This PBL, asks pairs of students to determine how many people the Earth could support now and in 100 years, and what conditions would be necessary to support those numbers. The deliverables for this project are an infographic, a narrative of each condition, and a structured poster presentation. • Unit 10: What Is the Next Threshold? — In groups, students determine the next threshold. But rather than just imagining something, they have to use their knowledge of the prior threshold to rationally and scientifically predict what is next. They will create a threshold card and a podcast or newscast that explains the next threshold and the rationale behind why this prediction is logical and based in reason. In each, students work in groups for two weeks to research their questions, compose a written response, and share their results with their class and the community. Each of these projects is written to follow the PBL methodology of the Buck Institute for Education.” Colonial Williamsburg www.colonialwilliamsburg.org This is the massive and very artistic site for study of 17th and 18th century America. You can find information about everything from how a wheelwright made

wheels to political philosophy. Easy to find menus include explanations of religious beliefs of 17th Century Virginians, including a variety of Native American and African American belief systems. A history of the American Revolution is provided, including documents, pictures, maps, original letters. Pictures of clothing, artifacts, documents related to the 18th century British America abound. Under the tab Current Projects a page leads to a Colonial Williamsburg history of slavery and the slave trade from Africa to the Western Hemisphere. Also, and of great value, the page connects to museums all around the world dealing with the history of slavery at http://research.history. org/projects/slavery-and-remembrance/ The site includes professional development opportunities, materials for sale, materials for educators. Lesson plans are at http://www.history.org/history/teaching/ classroom_plans.cfm At the home page, the Discover Colonial Williamsburg menu includes Educate. A click on that link brings up www.History.org, a site maintained Colonial Williamsburg. A page for high school teachers and students is http://www.history.org/history/teaching/ideaofamerica/index.cfm Centering on the theme of continual debate, this page lists 65 lessons showing that debate and disagreement has always been a central theme of American history. Stanford History Education Group www.sheg.stanford.edu The Stanford History Education Group (SHEG) offers a number of lessons in American and world history tied to specific History-Social Science content standards. Each lesson has a focus question, and students read two to four documents, usually original ones, and then respond to the focus question, as a class activity. A judgment essay could be added to the lessons so that student responses include a persuasive essay. Use of a rubric for scoring essays would allow tracking of scores and comparison of scores, or averages of scores, from the first to the end of the school year, and show progress of student achievement. The site also includes a series of assessments, titled Beyond the Bubble. These each have a question to which students (usually) write a relatively short response. Each of these is based on a document. Many of Social Studies Review 2015-16

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these assessments walk students through the process of evaluating a document, and thus could be a scaffold for learning how to respond successfully to Document Based Questions in Advanced Placement exams, as well as learning how to thoughtfully evaluate any document, include current political speeches, newspaper articles, books, even textbooks. The site is free but requires registration. A class or school could require that students complete 10 lessons, including the written responses. The school could then track and report the percentage of students responding at each level of the persuasive writing rubric. Los Angeles Unified has posted a detailed analysis of the assessments, listing H-SS standards, H-SS skills, and Common Core ELA standards addressed by each assessment. Editor’s note: The following article that overviews some of the program and formative assessment activities was written by Mark Smith, Sam Wineburg, and Joel Breakstone, Directors of Beyond the Bubble, a project of the Stanford History Education Group. As noted below, it was also published in The Source, the publication of the California History-Social Science Project. A Poverty of Imagination An absence of creativity characterizes the testing industry. At one end of the spectrum are multiple-choice tests that rip facts out of context and penalize students for not knowing things they can instantly Google. At the other end is the “document-based question” (DBQ) of the Advanced Placement Program, often considered the gold standard of history testing. The DBQ is a useful assessment if your students can already handle the analysis of eight to ten primary documents and write a college-level essay. But what if your students can’t yet analyze one document? How can you tell if they are learning the skills they need to do college level work? Beyond the Bubble addresses this quandary. The new site contains dozens of innovative history assessments called “History Assessments of Thinking,” or HATs. Many HATs can be completed in just a few minutes. Others take a little longer but still less time than an hour-long DBQ. Unlike blackened circles on a 120

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Scantron, short written responses provide windows to what students think – the very information you need to make adjustments in your teaching. Beyond the Bubble assessments are intended to be formative. The goal of formative assessment is not to come up with a final grade for students, but to help teachers figure out where their students are having trouble and then to take appropriate instructional action. HATs align with the new Common Core State Standards. Each HAT is keyed to one or more standard and includes a link identifying the relevant standards. Some of the standards addressed include: #1 (Gr. 6-12): Evaluating the date and origin of evidence (sourcing); #6 (Gr. 6-12): Corroborating across multiple points of view; #8 (Gr: 6-12): Evaluating the trustworthiness of claims. Beyond the Bubble assessments are designed to measure historical understanding from multiple vantage points. An exercise on Thanksgiving asks students to assess the usefulness of a 1932 painting for understanding an event that supposedly occurred in 1621. Other exercises focus on whether students can use evidence to mount a historical argument. Still others require students to connect important historical events, such as the explosion of the U.S.S. Maine and the PhilippineAmerican War. Another exercise requires students to put events into context by considering how Dorothea Lange’s employment by the Resettlement Administration might affect their evaluation of Lange’s iconic Migrant Mother photo. Main exercises also include annotated sample student responses and intuitive threelevel rubrics. The Future of History Testing Bemoaning not only the state of history testing but assessment in general, the psychometrician Robert Mislevy noted, “It is only a slight exaggeration to describe the test theory that dominates educational measurement today as the application of twentieth century statistics to nineteenth century psychology.”1 To be sure, HATs don’t solve the many problems of modern testing. But our hope, at least with respect to social studies, is that HATs will give teachers new tools to nurture the development of historical understanding. With the adoption of the Common Core State Standards and efforts to create new tests, we hope that HATs might spur efforts to go beyond discrete multiple-choice tests, on one hand, and full-blown DBQs, on the other. Right now these options virtually exhaust the range of history testing, even though countless other options fall between these two poles. Only a resistance to change prevents us from finding them. “

The Source, Fall 2012, CHSSP, p. 17

Examples of Commercial Organizations and Businesses with Social Studies Materials and Units for Sale The DBQ Project www.dbqproject.com If it were necessary to select one source with materials, instructions, explanations, and professional development that focused on teaching students the College and Career Readiness Standards, skills, and how to apply them to the teaching of history, this is the commercial site to select. This site grew from a project of several high school Advanced Placement history teachers in Evanston, Illinois, aimed at creating a scaffold to show students how to meet the demands and expectations of a particular type of essay question asked each year on Advanced Placement American and European history examinations. This essay included a prompt and approximately 10 documents students had to read, interpret, analyze as to validity and perspective, and then use as evidence in their essay responding to the prompt. “How and in what ways did the military buildup among European countries contribute to the causes of the first world war?” or “Account for the passage of the English Gin Act in 1754” are typical. This task is both daunting and the ultimate practice of the historian’s craft. It also is the ultimate practice of Common Core English Language Arts standards and especially the College and Career Readiness Standards; the task incorporates close reading, document analysis as to purpose, validity, and usefulness, and persuasive essay writing. The authors of the DBQ Project have created a number of lessons for teachers and students breaking down the DBQ task into manageable steps. They have also created a series of mini DBQs, tasks for younger students that use 2 to 5 documents, and that have students master the concepts of document analysis using shorter, simpler, and less complex documents. As students learn these skills, they then can move up to more complex documents until they are ready for the full on Advanced Placement type of challenge. Many of these units can be used in 10th grade world history as well as 6th or 7th grade world history classes, as they teach all students the skills of document analysis, decision making based on evidence, and persuasive writing in content.

Materials (document collections, prompts, scaffold steps) are available for purchase, as is professional development for teachers in using the materials. Some districts have partnered or otherwise engaged with the DBQ Project. Units include: DBQs in American History Ten High-Interest Units of Study • What Caused the Salem Witch Trial Hysteria in 1692? • How Revolutionary Was the American Revolution? • How Democratic Was Andrew Jackson? • The California Gold Rush: A Personal Journal • What Caused the Civil War? • How Violent Was the Old West? • Was Andrew Carnegie a Hero? • What Caused the Great Depression? • Martin Luther King and Malcolm X: Whose Philosophy Made the Most Sense for America in the 1960s? • Why Was the Equal Rights Amendment Defeated? Mini Qs in American History • Cabeza de Vaca: How Did He Survive? • Early Jamestown: Why Did So Many Colonists Die? • What Caused the Salem Witch Trial Hystereia of 1692? • Valley Forge: Would You Have Quit? • How Did the Constitution Guard Against Tyranny? • How Free Were Free Blacks in the North? • Remembering the Alamo: A Personal Journal • Was the United States Justified in Going to War With Mexico? • The California Gold Rush: A Personal Journal • What Was Harriet Tubman’s Greatest Achievement? • The Battle of Gettysburg: Why Was It a Turning Point? • North or South: Who Killed Reconstruction? Mini-Qs in American History, Volume 2 Twelve High-Interest Units of Study • North or South: Who Killed Reconstruction? • The Long Drive: Will You Re-Up Next Year? • The Philanthropy of Andrew Carnegie: Did It Make Him a Hero? • Should the United States Have Annexed the PhilipSocial Studies Review 2015-16

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pines? • Progressivism: Where Will You Put Your Million Dollars? • Prohibition: Why Did America Change its Mind? • What Caused the Dust Bowl? • Why Did Japan Bomb Pearl Harbor? • Berlin, Korea, Cuba: How Did the US Contain Communism? • Politics or Principle: Why Did L.B.J. Sign the Civil Rights Act of 1964? • What Made Cesar Chavez an Effective Leader? • Should the US Drill for Oil in Alaska’s Wilderness? DBQs in World History Ten High-Interest Units of Study • Classical Greece and China: How Great Were the Differences? • The Mongols: How Barbaric Were the “Barbarians”? • The Black Death: How Different Were Christian and Muslim Responses? • The Aztecs: What Should History Say? • What Was the Most Important Consequence of the Printing Press? • What Drove the Sugar Trade? • How Did Colonialism Affect Kenya? • Female Mill Workers in England and Japan: How Similar Were Their Experiences? • What Were the Underlying Causes of World War I? • Gandhi, King and Mandela: What Made Non-Violence Work? Mini-Qs in World History, Volume 1 Eleven High-Interest Units of Study • Hammurabi’s Code: Was It Just? • How Did the Nile River Shape Ancient Egypt? • Citizenship in Athens and Rome: Which Was the Better System? • Education in Sparta: Did the Strengths Outweigh the Weaknesses? • The Great Wall of Ancient China: Did the Benefits Outweigh the Costs? • How Great Was Alexander the Great? • Asoka: Ruthless Conqueror or Enlightened Ruler? • Why Did Christianity Take Hold in the Ancient World? • The Silk Road: Recording the Journey • What Were the Primary Reasons for the “Fall” of Rome? 122

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• The Maya: What Was Their Most Remarkable Accomplishment? Mini-Qs in World History, Volume 2 Eleven High-Interest Units of Study • What Were the Primary Reasons for the “Fall” of Rome? • The Maya: What Was Their Most Remarkable Achievement? • Why Did Islam Spread So Quickly? • What Is the Primary Reason to Study the Byzantines? • Mansa Musa’s Hajj: A Personal Journal • Samurai and Knights: Were the Similarities Greater Than the Differences? • Should We Celebrate the Voyages of Zheng He? • The Aztecs: Should Historians Emphasize Agriculture or Human Sacrifice? • April 27, 1521: Was Magellan Worth Defending? • How Did the Renaissance Change Man’s View of The World? • Exploration or Reformation: Which Was the More Important Consequence of the Printing Press? Mini-Qs in World History, Volume 3 Eleven High-Interest Units of Study • The Enlightenment Philosophers: What Was Their Main Idea? • The Reign of Terror: Was It Justified? • How Should We Remember Toussaint Louvertoure? • Latin American Independence: Why Did the Creoles Lead the Fight? • Female Workers in Japanese Silk Factories: Did the Costs Outweigh the Benefits? • What Was the Driving Force Behind European Imperialism in Africa? • What Was the Underlying Cause of World War I? • How Did the Versailles Treaty Help Cause World War II? • The Soviet Union: What Should Textbooks Emphasize? • What Made Gandhi’s Nonviolent Movement Work? • China’s One Child Policy: Was It a Good Idea?”

The Choices Program www.choices.brown.edu The Choices Program offers measureable performance activity units that deal with questions and issues of public policy. Students learn and practice the skills required for College and Career Readiness by using the Inquiry Arc explained in the C3 Framework. The specific units can be adapted into a conference, presentation, or debate activity, following those formats as described in the chapter on Activity Models. While most Choices units are very current there are also historical units, where the unit can be the basis of a measurable activity dealing with a historical issue or situation. Original documents are used in all the units. Professional development is available. The following from the website provides an overview and some unit titles: About The Choices Program The Choices Program is non-profit organization based at Brown University. We develop curricula on current and historical international issues and offer professional development for educators. Choices materials incorporate the latest scholarship from Brown University and beyond to draw connections between historical events and contemporary international issues. In each unit, a central activity challenges students to consider multiple viewpoints on a contested issue. Students examine the historical, cultural, and political background of the issue to prepare a coherent presentation. Follow-up discussion demands analysis, and evaluation of conflicting values, interests, and priorities. Ultimately, students are expected to formulate persuasive arguments and express their own views. Mission The program seeks to empower young people with the skills, knowledge, and participatory habits to be engaged citizens who are capable of addressing international issues through thoughtful public discourse and informed decision making. Teaching Resources Are Grounded in Scholarship Choices curriculum units feature rich content, drawing

on the best scholarship available. You’ll find historical and contemporary primary source documents, including maps, images, and editorial cartoons. A growing library of Scholars Online videos, aligned with printed units and embedded in our iBook Textbooks, brings content experts directly into your classroom. Meeting Standards For more than 25 years, Choices curriculum units have helped students develop the competencies now required in the C3 Framework, Common Core, and state standards. The Structure of a Choices Curriculum Unit There are two kinds of units—those that are shaped around an unresolved current issue and those that are shaped around a historical turning point. All units involve students in a dynamic conversation connecting the past and the present. Units provide readings and student-centered lesson plans, including a deliberative activity in which students consider divergent views. What Research Says • Teachers using Choices curriculum resources report positive academic outcomes for students. • Choices materials and pedagogical approaches work well with students of varied academic ability levels. • Students in Choices classes appreciate the opportunity to engage in serious discussions in which the views of students take center stage. • Students in Choices classes form rich conceptions of what it means to be engaged citizens. • Research findings are drawn from a longitudinal study (Discussing Controversial Issues) house at the Wisconsin Center for Educational Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. A partial listing of curriculum units: The United States in Afghanistan Students use primary source documents, readings, and new media sources as they consider the future of U.S. policy in Afghanistan. A More Perfect Union: American Independence and the Constitution Using primary sources, role-play, and simulations, students examine the context in which the U.S. Constitution was framed. Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Brazil: From Colony to Democracy Students explore the choices Brazilians faced as their country transitioned to democracy in the mid-1980s and examine historical forces that informed debate.

Confronting Genocide: Never Again? Through case studies and primary sources, students trace the international community’s response to genocide and consider how to respond in the future.

China on the World Stage: Weighing the U.S. Response Using readings, documents, statistics, and simulations, students explore the history of U.S. relations with China and consider the global impact of China’s transformation.

The Haitian Revolution Readings, primary sources, maps, simulations, and a digital timeline enable students to explore the history of Haiti and consider the legacies of the revolution.

Freedom Now: The Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi Students trace the history of the black freedom struggle from Reconstruction through the 1960s. Climate Change and Questions of Justice Students explore the causes and effects of global warming and delve into questions of who is most responsible for and vulnerable to the changing climate. The Origins of the Cold War: U.S. Choices after World War II Drawing on primary sources, statistics, a timeline, and selected biographies, students engage in the national debate on the U.S. role in the world in 1946. Colonization and Independence in Africa Students explore Africa in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and consider the changes colonialism imposed on African governments, economies, and societies. History, Revolution, and Reform: New Directions for Cuba Readings, and simulations, and primary sources help students step into the shoes of ordinary Cubans to consider Cuba’s future. The Cuban Missile Crisis: Considering its Place in Cold War History Using primary sources, students explore the dynamics of the Cold War and step into the shoes of President Kennedy’s ExComm during the crisis. The French Revolution Using readings, primary sources, role-plays, and simulations, students consider the issues facing France at a time of social and political upheaval. 124

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Ending the War Against Japan: Science, Morality, and the Atomic Bomb Through readings and simulations, students explore the political, military, and ethical issues involved in the decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan. Competing Visions of Human Rights: Questions for U.S. Policy Students use readings, case studies, and primary sources to examine the role human rights has played in international politics. U.S. Immigration Policy in an Unsettled World Drawing on statistics, speeches, and commission reports, students examine the historical and current dimensions of immigration policy from multiple perspectives. Iran Through the Looking Glass: History, Reform, and Revolution Using readings and primary sources, students trace the history of Iran, explore the 1979 revolution, and consider the legacy today. A Global Controversy: The U.S. Invasion of Iraq Students recreate the debate surrounding the decision to go to war, assess the war’s impact in the United States, Iraq, and beyond. The Middle East in Transition: Questions for U.S. Policy Drawing on maps, cartoons, and primary sources, students examine the history of U.S. involvement in the Middle East from 1900 to the present.”

Social Studies School Service (SSSS) http://www.socialstudies.com/c/[email protected] Located in Culver City, Social Studies School Service (SSSS) is a storehouse of social studies materials available for purchase. Sometimes described as a Toys R Us for social studies teachers, SSSS has a searchable website with just about every kind of material social studies could use, including books, charts, maps, videos, projects, simulation activities…the list goes on. The website is searchable by topic as well as by type of activity. LCAP funds are expected to support learning activities by purchasing materials, professional development, anything the school/district needs to enact its plans. Examples of Museums that Post Lessons and Units Based on their Collections A growing number of museums have educational divisions that create lessons for K-12 educators in addition to posting some of their collections. The Smithsonian Museum complex, in addition to its amazing collection at 16 separate museums, provides a large list of lessons at http://smithsonianeducation.org/ educators/lesson_plans/history_culture.html The list is searchable by topic and grade level. The Smithsonian is one of the largest, if not the largest, museum complex in the world. Just a few of the many museums in California that post lessons and units for educators: The Getty museums provide lessons, primarily in uses of art in the classroom. A list is at http://www.getty.edu/education/teachers/classroom_ resources/ Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) provides lessons, primarily in visual art, at http://www.lacma.org/programs/education/resourceseducators The Oakland Museum of California features California history, in particular the different peoples and cultures who have come to California, and also the relation of California to the whole country especially in the 20th and 21st Centuries. Materials and resources

are at http://museumca.org/teacher-resources The Bowers Museum of Cultural Art (Santa Ana) displays permanent displays of different cultures. In particular, the museum makes available for classrooms Cultural Art Trunks of artifact reproductions. These have students become amateur archeologists and build perspective on a variety of cultures. These are described at http://www.bowers.org/index.php/ education/k-12-for-educators The Autry Museum of the American West https://theautry.org/education/lesson-plans Located in Griffith Park in Los Angeles, this museum posts a number of curriculum units related to issues of Western history of the United States. Teachers are invited to download and use lessons, subject to the site’s posted copyright rules. Some lessons are for K-3 and some for middle and high school. Perspectives of Native Americans and non European immigrants to California are contrasted with those of traditional Western American History. The National Archives www.nara.gov This is one of the best places to obtain original documents, often reproduced as they looked when created, often with handwritten notes of the recipient. The Archives has a huge collection of documents, original maps, pictures, letters, treaties, newspapers, organized by topics and periods. Many can be printed directly from the website and used in class as a reproduction of the real thing, which adds reality to units and activities. The National Archives has also created a variety of lessons and units are along with lessons on analyzing original documents and understanding points of view. Professional development is offered at various locations around the Unites States. The Archives works as a resource for the California History-Social Science Project, National History Day, National Council for the Social Studies, and also aligns lessons with the National History Standards. Searches for specific documents and information for students about how to analyze documents can be done at [email protected] The following are the major categories at the Archives: Social Studies Review 2015-16 125

Primary Sources • DocsTeach.org • OurDocuments.gov • Founders Online • Today’s Document • Our Main Online Catalog • How to Cite Documents • Document Analysis DocsTeach • DocsTeach.org • DocsTeach App for iPad • How-to Guides • Video Tutorials • Featured Topics • @DocsTeach on Twitter Visits & Workshops • Student Visits • Professional Development • Distance Learning • Events & Public Programs Other Resources • National History Day Resources • Online Exhibits • The Digital Vaults • eBooks • YouTube, Historypin, iTunes U • Contact the Education Staff

The Library of Congress www.loc.gov The Library of Congress has the distinction of having just about everything published, printed, recorded, taped, and even archived websites, worldwide since about the year 1800. Pictures, videos, newspapers, magazines, journals; just about everything printed are in its holdings. In addition, the Library has a massive set of lessons and lesson materials. From the page at: (www.loc.gov/ teachers/classroommaterials/lessons/) comes the following list just of lesson plan categories:

• African American History • American History • American Indian History • American Revolution • Arts & Culture • City & Regional History • Civil War • Culture & Folklife • Discovery and Exploration • Government, Law & Politics • Immigration & Ethnic Heritage • Maps & Geography

See also the Library of Congress’ Teacher and Student Guide for Document Analysis, in the Appendix of this issue.

Appendix 1

Document Analysis Guide for Teachers Finding Primary Sources | Teacher’s Guides and Analysis Tool from the Library of Congress www.loc.gov

Using Primary Sources Primary sources are the raw materials of history — original documents and objects which were created at the time under study. They are different from secondary sources, accounts or interpretations of events created by someone without firsthand experience. Examining primary sources gives students a powerful sense of history and the complexity of the past. Helping students analyze primary sources can also guide them toward higher-order thinking and better critical thinking and analysis skills. 1. Ask students to closely observe each primary source. • Who created this primary source? • When was it created? • Where does your eye go first? Help students see key details. • What do you see that you didn’t expect? • What powerful words and ideas are expressed? Encourage students to think about their personal response to the source. • What feelings and thoughts does the primary source trigger in you? • What questions does it raise? 2. Promote student inquiry. Encourage students to speculate about each source, its creator, and its context. • What was happening during this time period? • What was the creator’s purpose in making this primary source? • What does the creator do to get his or her point across? • What was this primary source’s audience? • What biases or stereotypes do you see? Ask if this source agrees with other primary sources, or with what the students already know. • Ask students to test their assumptions about the past. • Ask students to find other primary or secondary sources that offer support or contradiction. 3. Assess how students apply critical thinking and analysis skills to primary sources. Have students summarize what they’ve learned. • Ask for reasons and specific evidence to support their conclusions. • Help students identify questions for further investigation, and develop strategies for how they might answer them. Analysis tools and thematic primary source sets from the Library offer entry points to many topics.

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Appendix 2

Document Analysis: How to Judge the Accuracy/Validity/Usefulness of a Document by Susan Douglass, The Indian Ocean in History

DEFINITION: A document is a piece of writing that provides information or that acts as a record of events. It is also an object that contains information, something on which images or symbols are found. A document gives evidence about something in the past.. QUESTIONS TO ASK ABOUT DOCUMENTS: 1) What kind of document or map is it? Documents are created for a purpose that can be understood from the information or message it contains. Documents may be formal, such as a treaty between two rulers, a contract between two merchants, a certificate of marriage or birth, or an order from a military leader. Documents may also be informal, such as a grocery list, a note to a friend, or even a doodle. Either way, documents are records of past thoughts, ideas, and events. Determine what kind of document it is. Maps are also a type of document. 2) Who created the document or map? To understand the message of the document, we have to have a good idea who produced it. The author of a document may be known by name or completely unknown. It may be an anonymous, ordinary person or someone who is well known to historians or the general public. In some cases the writer of a document may wish to remain unknown (for example, if he or she is criticizing someone). In the case of an important order or proclamation, it is important to know that the person who issued it was an authority. Even if the exact person who produced the document is not known, it may be possible to figure out what type of person (male, female, rich, poor), or what the occupation of the person was (merchant, priest, officer, king, judge, scholar). 3) For what purpose was the document or map created? Every document has a purpose. A map is designed to describe a place or draw a picture of a region, to locate something in space, or to give directions. A law is written to let people know what they have to do or not to do. Business people or diplomats write contracts and treaties to make sure their agreement is not forgotten, and that one side of the agreement will not change it. Certificates give public information about a person or something they are permitted to do. A certificate tells that a couple is married, or a person got a diploma, or a doctor is allowed to practice medicine. Doodles and grocery lists are not very important, but they can tell a lot about how people live. What effect or impact do you think this document or map had in its time or afterwards? A document might start a war or end a war. A law can change the way people live and work. A document issued by an official of the government can cause people to flee their homes or grant certain people an advantage. For example, birth and marriage certificates allow people to have legal privileges. A map is a document that may lead to buried treasure, or help someone find an address in a city. Maps can also spark people’s imagination about parts of the world that are near or far. Maps from long ago can tell us whatpeople knew about the world at that time, or how a battle took place, or how large an empire was, or where an ancient city was located. It may require a lot of imagination to figure out why a document was important. Historians also look for other records to find out how the document affected people. They may have written complaints or praise about it in other sources. Similar documents may also be found that can be compared to a specific historical document. 128

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Appendix 3

How to Teach Writing of Content Based Persuasive Essays: Position Papers and Document Based Question (DBQ) Essays

1) The first step is to ascertain skill level with a quick write in class: A prompt based on making a judgment in social studies. In 10th grade world history prompt might be: Was the Protestant Reformation of the 16th Century trying to create new religious traditions, or was it trying more to return to the past and past practices of religion? An 11th grade American history prompt might be: Did the end of slavery lead to better living conditions for those formerly enslaved by the 1890s? 2) If the vast majority of students struggle with this, or do not understand, or simply throw up their hands in frustration, the situation is normal. They have most likely never done something like this, and will need to start from scratch. 3) The first step is to take the persuasive essay rubric and share it with the class. Take the rubric and elicit from the class what kinds of ideas need to be included in the essay for one of the topics above to answer the question. 4) For each idea, what kinds of examples or evidence would be needed to show the idea and demonstrate it? 5) Next, sequence the ideas in some way. Often, it is chronological, but can also be the building of an argument. 6) Looking over the ideas, develop a thesis statement that takes a position on the topic and that mentions in one sentence maximum each main idea. 7) Looking over the thesis statement, develop a summary of the thesis and main ideas of the essay. 8) Next, give the students two or three position essays of different topics and in groups, have the students score the essays using the rubric. 9) Next, give the students teacher comments on each of the essays in the previous step. 10) Now give the class its first real prompt. 11) Allow students to rewrite for a better score.

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Appendix 4

California Task Force on K-12 Civic Learning

January 14, 2014 Civic Learning: How It Benefits Local Control and Accountability Plan Priority Areas The Local Control Funding Formula provides a unique opportunity for school districts to use the Six Proven Practices of Civic Learning to provide high-quality educational programs for all students. As schools and districts develop Local Control and Accountability Plans they are encouraged to consider research that demonstrates that civic learning is a powerful tool for meeting several of the Local Control and Accountability Plan (LCAP) priority areas. What Is Civic Learning? Civic learning provides students with the knowledge, skills, and dispositions they need to be informed and engaged participants in our democracy. Research identifies six proven practices in civic learning: 1. Providing classroom instruction in Government, History, Law, Economics, and Democracy; 2. Combining community service and learning; 3. Discussing current events; 4. Giving students a voice in school governance; 5. Offering extracurricular clubs; and 6. Simulating democratic processes.1 Benefits of Civic Learning to LCAP Priority Areas • Student Achievement The American public and business community are keenly interested in youth developing the competencies necessary to thrive in a changing global economy. Civic learning not only enhances knowledge of economic and political processes, but supports college and career readiness through opportunities for youth to apply academic concepts in real-world settings, work collaboratively in teams, and engage with professional role models.2 130

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• School Climate Civic learning builds a positive school climate, which in turn has a positive impact on a wide range of outputs for students, ranging from academic achievement to personal character. Research shows that providing opportunities to engage in civic learning teaches the importance of community (both within the school and more broadly). Respectful dialogue about controversial issues is foundational to a positive school climate. The benefits of civic learning in one classroom can help shape the norms of other classrooms and the school more broadly. • Student Engagement and Reducing the Dropout Rate Civic learning provides compelling, motivating, and challenging experiences that can keep kids in school. Civic learning, beginning in elementary and middle school with a focus on civic responsibility, is directly tied to a student’s propensity to drop out of high school.3 More than 80% of students who drop out indicate that they would have been more likely to stay in school if they had more opportunities to participate in experiential learning.4

CCSS professional development can facilitate integration of civic learning and common core. Making Civic Learning Opportunities Available to All Students Currently in California, low-income students and students of color are significantly less likely to have access to the proven practices in civic learning, and are therefore denied the civic knowledge, skills, and dispositions that will enable them to access the power of our democracy. LCAP is an opportunity for local leaders to address this inequity and ensure that all students, including English Language Learners and Special Education students, are not just prepared for college and career, but to be informed and engaged citizens and residents of their communities. Prepared by the California Task Force on K–12 Civic Learning, established by Chief Justice Tani CantilSakauye and State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson: http://www.myboe.org/portal/default/Group/Viewer/ GroupView?action=2&ql=CivicLearningTaskforce

CCSS Conference

California Council for Social Studies 2016

In particular, taking courses that require community service and participating in student government have been found to predict high school graduation and college attendance and success.5 • Implementation of Common Core State Standards Civic learning naturally supports the college and career readiness skills and abilities called for by Common Core State Standards (CCSS), especially in English Language Arts. For example, CCSS prioritizes comprehension and use of complex texts, and our Constitution and Bill of Rights are excellent content for such skill development. CCSS calls for the capacity to analyze a problem and to communicate purposefully both orally and in writing, which can be achieved through simulations of democratic processes such as classroom mock trials. Including History-Social Science teachers in

1 Jonathan Gould, Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Peter Levine, Ted McConnell, and David B. Smith, eds. Guardian of Democracy: The Civic Mission of Schools. Philadelphia: Leonore Annenberg Institute for Civics of the Annenberg Public Policy Center at the University of Pennsylvania, 2011. Print. 2 Judith Torney-Purta and Britt S. Wilkenfeld. “Paths to 21st Century Competencies Through Civic Education Classrooms: An Analysis of Survey Results from Ninth-Graders.” Washington, D.C.: Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools and American Bar Association Division for Public Education, 2009. Accessed from CIRCLE via http://www.civicyouth.org/?p=360 3 Charlane Fay Starks. “Connecting Civic Education to Civil Right and Responsibility: A Strategy for Reducing High School Dropout Among African American Students.” 2010. Accessed via www.csus-dspace.calstate.edu/ xmlui/ handle/10211.9/512 4 The Silent Epidemic. Accessed via https://docs.gatesfoundation.org/Documents/TheSilentEpidemic3-06FINAL.pdf 5 Alberto Dávila and Marie Mora. “CIRCLE Working Paper 52: Civic Engagement and High School Academic Progress: An Analysis Using NELS Data.” 2007. Accessed via www.civicyouth.org/circleworking-paper52-civic engagementand-high-school-academic-progressananalysis-using-nels-data

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Elementary Review

Living the Past by Priscilla H. Porter, Ed.D. Priscilla H. Porter is Professor Emeritus from California State University, Dominguez Hills. She is a former elementary school teacher who has taught all grade levels from kindergarten to grade 6 and is the senior author of Reflections, the Harcourt School Publishers K-6 Social Studies textbook program used throughout California. Currently, Priscilla is the Director of the Porter History-Social Science Resource Room at the Palm Desert Campus of California State University San Bernardino. She volunteers at the Coachella Valley History Museum and is a member of the Riverside County Historical Commission. When adults look back on their school years, it is not the worksheets or tests that they fondly remember about learning history, it is the times when a creative teacher brought the “past to life.” Recreating the past can be manifested in many different ways. First, this article will focus on activities for the primary grades and secondly on 4th grade California history with activities, dress, and artifacts that seek to give students a sense of stepping back in time. The purpose is to convey a sense of the everyday life of a certain period in history by immersing students into topics such as clothing styles, pastimes, and handicrafts. The 4th grade activities include performance-based activities appropriate for use with a district’s LCAP (Local Control Accountability Plan). Doing these performance activities is good practice for the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium.

lives would be different today (Standard 6). “Long ago” and “earlier times” are not defined by the standards, but to minimize confusion it is recommended that the teacher select one time period. Examples include the Colonial era, the mid-1800s, 100 years ago, the World War II era, or the 1960’s (fifty years ago). Collect pictures and artifacts from the time period. For example, if you choose the mid-1800’s, locate pictures related to schools, transportation, communication, clothing, games, household items, etc.

This project may seem daunting at first, but begin slowly to build your collection. (Hint: Laura Ingalls Wilder’s Little House books and the long-running television show, available on DVD, have useful information for the mid-1800s. The American Girl Collection has book “Living the Past” helps to create historical empathy and series filled with historical information for different often involves demonstrating everyday activities such as eras: Felicity (1774), Kirsten (1854), Samantha (1904), cooking, cleaning, or particular skills and handicrafts. Kit (1934), Brave Emily (1944). Depending on the historical period portrayed, these might include recreating a school room from the mid- Early American School Day 1800s or to life on a mission or rancho with spinning, sewing, loom weaving, cloth dyeing, basket weaving, The California History-Social Science Standards for rope making, leather working, metal working, or other Grade One state that “students compare and contrast crafts. everyday life in different times and recognize that some aspects of people, places, and things change over time To introduce the past to primary-age children, the Cali- while others stay the same.” The subtopic continues fornia History-Social Science Standards use different with “examine the structure of schools and communiterms. In kindergarten, the term “long ago” is used as ties in the past.” children look at the work people did long ago (Standard 3) and how people lived in earlier times and how their For example, consider “An Early American School Day” 132

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in which the teacher and the students dress, behave and 2. Students must act like proper young ladies participate in lessons reflecting life in the 1850s class- and gentlemen. room. 3. Girls must always wear dresses. 4. Students will not whisper in the classroom. School Rules 5. Students will not pass notes to one another. 6. Students must sit up straight and tall at their desks. Let’s begin by building some academic background knowledge about life at school today and life in the School Rules, 1944 1850’s. What better way to start than with school rules, 1. Your job is to be a good student. It’s as important a familiar topic to students. There are many types of as being a good soldier. school rules: rules for the classroom, rules for the play- 2. Arrive at class on time and look neat and tidy. ground, and rules for riding the bus. Ask questions such 3. Do not talk in class unless your teacher calls on you. as, “What rules do we have in our classroom? What rules 4. Do not waste paper or other school supplies. do we have at school?” Discuss that there are reasons for 5. If an air-raid siren sounds, seek shelter immediately. specific rules: Why do we need this rule? Is this a good rule? Why? Is the rule fair? Why? What if we had no Source: American Girls Collection. America at School rules? What would happen if no one followed the rules? Teacher’s Guide, (out of print). School Rules from Long Ago

Using the skills of Research, Evidence and Point of View, have students conduct interviews with a parent, grandDiscuss the following school rules according to the time parent, older relative or a senior citizen in the commuperiod of your focus. As you look at the rules, ask ques- nity to ask them about schools they attended when they tions such as: What might be the reason for this rule? Is were young. this rule fair? Do we have the same rule today? Why do you think the rules are different during different time periods? School Rules, 1854 1. Respect and obey your teacher. 2. Be silent during class. 3. Boys and girls must sit on opposite sides of the classroom. 4. Boys should bow and girls should curtsy when entering or leaving the classroom or when a visitor enters the room. 5. Students must stand when they speak in class. 6. Boys and girls cannot play together. School Rules, 1864 1. Any student who is late for school must stay in during recess. 2. Whispering is prohibited. 3. Students who leave their seats without permission must stay after school for 25 minutes. 4. Anyone who causes untidiness in the classroom shall sweep the floor after school. 5. Anyone found fighting will be locked in the closet for one hour. School Rules, 1904 1. Start each school day by saluting the flag.

Figure 1. Responses to a student’s interview with her mother about life at school when she was young.

Through the use of Venn diagrams, have students identify similarities and differences between schools now and schools long ago. How have schools changed? How have they stayed the same? To recreate the Early American School Day, the teacher and children wear pioneer-style clothing. For example: Girls can wear a straw hat, sunbonnet or a “mop cap,” a long dress or skirt, an apron or pinafore, or a shawl (to wrap around a girl’s shoulders). Boys can wear a cap, shirt with buttons, a vest, knickers (rolled up pants) with knee socks, and leather shoes. Avoiding pre-packSocial Studies Review 2015-16

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aged foods, students bring a lunch in a tin pail, a large cloth or a straw basket,

(blueberries, cherries, blackberries, strawberries, elderberries, or raspberries are all fine), 1/2 teaspoon salt, 1/2 teaspoon vinegar. Fill a strainer (or colander) with berIn advance, send home a letter to the parents describing ries and hold it over a bowl. Using the rounded back of the Early American School Day. Recreate, as far as pos- a wooden spoon crush the berries against the strainer sible, a classroom from the 1850s. Use the procedures so that the berry juice strains into the bowl. below and note that in bold type are the materials required: Keep adding berries until most of their juice has been strained out and only pulp is left. Throw the pulp away. If it is not a safety hazard, leave the lights off during the Add the salt and vinegar to the berry juice and stir well. day. Bring a bucket of water and a dipper for students’ If the berry ink is too thick, add a tablespoon or two of drinking. Avoid the use of a drinking fountain or bot- water, but don’t add too much or the ink might get too tled liquids. (Schools in the 1850s had no electricity or pale. Make only a small amount and store the ink in a running water.) small jar with a tight-fitting lid. Arrange the classroom with only chairs (or desks) in rows facing a chalkboard. One side of the room is the “girls’ side” while the other side is the “boys’ side”. Before students enter the classroom, stand outside and ring a hand bell to signal the beginning of the school day. Upon entering, students need to “make manners” to show respect for the teacher: girls curtsy and boys bow.

Making a nib pen. Using a penknife and a pencil-sized twig, carve one end of the twig to a thin point. This will be the writing nib. Once you have a thin point, dip it into the ink and try writing. You will probably have to dip the pen into the ink quite often. When the nib becomes too-soft or flat, just carve the point sharp again with your penknife. Making a Quill Pen A quill is the hollow stalk of a bird’s feather. The finest quills for writing came from the wing feathers of geese. However, the large wing feather of a crow or turkey will also make a good pen. Find a large feather. During the spring and fall when birds molt their feathers you might be able to get several good quills from a local zoo. Or at the grocery store, ask the poultry butcher for feathers. Strip off some of the feathers if necessary from the fat end of the quill. This enables you to hold the pen comfortably in the standard writing position. Now form the point of the pen by cutting the fat end of the quill at a slant curving the cut slightly. Check to be sure the inside of the hollow quill point is open and smooth so the ink will flow to the point. If necessary, you can clean inside the quill point using the end of a paper clip. The pen will now write with ink. The width of the line it draws will be determined by how sharp or blunt the point is. Keep a paper towel ink blotter handy just in case.

Begin class by reading a Bible passage. (Note: You are not advocating the religion but are sharing an historic activity. In a typical 1850s classroom, everyone would then say the Lord’s Prayer. The communal saying of the Lord’s Prayer may be omitted, especially if school policy would be violated. You may tell the students that in the1850s that would have occurred.) Have the students recite and the upper and lowercase alphabet by using a replica of a hornbook. A hornbook was a primer for children consisting of a sheet containing the large and small letters of the alphabet, mounted on wood, bone, leather, or stone and protected by a thin sheet of transparent horn or mica. The wooden frame often had a handle. You can make a horn book using a sheet of dark construction paper for the frame and light paper for the writing area. Cooking Center: With parent or teacher help, students provide the ingredients to make biscuits to eat at Create Activity Centers lunchtime. Note: Access to a toaster oven is required. It is helpful to do this activity in a small group with adult Writing Center: Using berry ink and quill pens or nib supervision. pens, students take turns using the different writing in- Baking Powder Biscuits. Ingredients: 1/3 cup shortenstruments. ing (or butter), 1 3/4 cups all-purpose flour, 2 1/2 teaRecipe for Berry Ink. Ingredients:1/2 cup ripe berries spoons baking powder, 3/4 teaspoon salt, 3/4 cup milk. 134

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hoops) or jump ropes. Students may play games such as hop-scotch. The games should reflect the 1850s, i.e., “Ring around the Rosy” or “Red Rover” or “London Bridge” or “The Farmer in the Dell” to name only a few. The directions are readily available online. During the school day or at recess and only with the teacher’s permission (this would have been required in the 1850s), individual students may use dippers to get a drink of water from a bucket positioned at the entrance of the classroom. In the place of slates, have students use individual chalkboards (or a hornbook), to practice writing the upper and lowercase alphabet and a school rule. At lunchtime, students may eat their lunch with the teacher and parent helpers. Include the biscuits and butter made during the center activities. After lunch, read to the students a book or a poem Heat oven to 450 degrees. Cut shortening into flour, (written during the 1800s, if possible). If you read a baking powder, and salt with pastry blender until mix- poem, have students repeat the poem. Suggestion: Mary ture resembles fine crumbs. Stir in just enough milk Had a Little Lamb. so dough leaves side of bowl and rounds up into a ball. (Too much milk makes dough sticky; not enough milk makes biscuits dry.) Turn dough onto lightly floured surface. Kneed lightly 10 times. Roll to 1/2 inch thick. Cut with floured 2 inch biscuit cutter. Place on ungreased cookie sheet about 1 inch apart for crusty sides, touching for soft sides. Bake until golden brown, 10 to 12 minutes. Remove from cookie sheet immediately. Figure 2. Patsy Roth adds churned butter to freshly baked biscuits.

Butter-Making Center: Using jars filled with heavy whipping cream, students take turns shaking the jar until the cream turns into butter. Figure 4. Student created hornbook with the alphabet and a school rule.

Figure 3. Pick-up sticks, jacks and ball.

Play a classroom game called “Buzz Buzz” (similar to “Telephone”). The game is used to teach children to not believe in rumors. The game begins as the teacher whispers a sentence to one student. The student then whispers it to another with each student taking a turn until everyone has heard the sentence. The last student to hear the sentence repeats out loud the sentence he or she was told. The teacher then tells the class the original sentence.

Game Center: Include games for students to play, such Students write (using pencils or quill pens) one of the as jacks, marbles, pick-up sticks. following sentences on a piece of storybook paper: “I would like to be a student long ago because...” or “I At recess, students may use hula-hoops (as barrel Social Studies Review 2015-16 135

would not like to be a student long ago because....” Stu- nal to visitors when to move to a new demonstration dents write or dictate an ending for the sentence and location; easels or wooden stakes with labels for the difillustrate their work. Students’ papers are then compiled ferent locations of the mission. together into a class book titled, Schools of Long Ago. Designate where on the playground or in different classLiving in the Past - Life on a Mission rooms each “job” activity will be located, including the tannery for making leather; an area for making adobe To prepare for the recreation of a life on a mission, stu- bricks, soap and candles; pasture lands for cattle, sheep dents work in small groups to select and research one and horses; fields for growing crops; orchards for growtypical job of an Indian who worked at a mission. (Note: ing fruit trees and the quadrangle or central square. In California’s public schools, students are not to do a (Most missions were built in the shape of a 4-sided simulation or role-playing of religious ceremonies or quadrangle with a courtyard, church, living quarters for beliefs. Restrict the simulation to nonreligious activi- the padres, workrooms and storage rooms inside the ties.) quadrangle.) It is helpful to have parent volunteers to assist at each work location. Examples of Jobs Performed by Mission Indians • tanning leather (turning animal hides into leather by Invite classes from other grade levels to visit the demsoaking them in a special liquid to make saddles, shoes onstration sites. Like a Living History Museum, have and hats) students explain their jobs to the visitors, including the • herding, raising and managing livestock such as cattle, supplies they use and the steps necessary to perform sheep and goats; branding calves their jobs. Ring the “bells” at the change of each activity. • making roof tiles and adobe bricks (sun-dried bricks made of straw, mud and water placed into molds and Rancho Days Celebration dried outdoors in the sun) Depending on the activities selected, supplies include • working the forge (furnace) to shape metal (to make typical Spanish and Mexican heritage outfits for cowwagons called carretas, wheels, branding irons, locks boys and Rancho period families such as jeans, a shirt and keys) with buttons, a cowboy hat and a red scarf; a variety of • making soap and candles (using tallow or fat from foods (e.g., tortillas, chips, salsa and beef jerky); Spancattle) ish/ Mexican music and instruments; and, prizes. • weaving wool for cloth • grinding corn and making tortillas Divide students into small groups and have groups ro• working in the fields planting and harvesting wheat, tate from one activity to the next. Sample activities inbarley, corn and vegetables clude: • planting and tending to orchards of peaches, apricots, • lasso practice with a rope thrown around a desk chair walnuts, figs, red and green grapes (used to make wine), disguised as a cow oranges, pears, olives (used to make cooking oil and • playing horseshoes for prizes lamp oil) and date palms • a dance hall featuring fandango or jarabe dances (could consider square dancing) and singing songs of Students complete the following steps the period Select one type of job performed by mission Indians • a mock Spanish/Mexican government official registry and do research about the job online or using reference office where cattle brands are designed and then regisbooks. Describe in writing at least 3 steps required for tered completion of the job. Make a list of all of the necessary • a mock Spanish/Mexican government official registry supplies involved to complete the task. Come to school office where the rancho is named, a diseno (map) of the prepared to demonstrate how to do the job. For extra rancho is drawn and then the rancho and diseno are credit, provide or construct props that can be used in formally registered. your demonstration. Have adult volunteers help with the celebration. The Mission Job Demonstration Day volunteers can be assigned to each activity as organizers Materials needed: a large bell or musical triangle to sig- and facilitators. 136

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The Bear Flag Republic to California Statehood

Figure 5. Students ready to deliver their Bio-Sketch presentations.

In this activity, the students recreate the past by teaching their classmates about the era through the eyes of someone who lived at the time period. From the list of BioSketches (refer to the list below), each student selects an historical figure to portray. Students use reference materials to research the historic person and write an oral presentation to include the person’s name; important dates in his/her life; his/her contributions to California history; at least 5 academic content vocabulary words (from the list below), and any other historic information about the person’s life. Hint: Students speak in the first person as if they are the person. List of Bio-Sketches: James Beckworth, James Ohio Pattie, Jedediah Strong Smith, Joseph Reddeford Walker, Ewing Young, Governor Jose Maria Echeandia, Abel Sterns, John Augustus Sutter, John Marsh, John Bartleson, John Bidwell, John C. Fremont, George Donner, Virginia Reed, President James K. Polk, General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, John D. Sloat, Robert F. Stockton, Steven atts Kearny, Kit Carson, Pio Pico, Bernarda Ruiz, John Marshall, Louise Clappe, Levi Strauss, General Bennett Riley, Peter H. Burnett, Bridgit “Biddy” Mason, a fur trapper, a settler, a ranchero, Bear Flagger, miner, entrepreneur, California Indian, and a delegate to the Monterey Convention. To assess each student’s performance on their “living history” presentation, refer to the rubric listed at the end of this article.

Summary Chronological thinking is one of the Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills, and requires students to compare and contrast how the present is connected to the past, identifying similarities and differences between the two, and how some things change over time while other things stay the same. Students develop historical empathy as they imagine what it might have been like to live in another time. As districts and teachers work together to develop assessment and accountability plans, the performance-based activities described above provide both summative assessments for English Language Arts Common Core and History-Social Science standards. Districts are encouraged to use their LCFF (Local Control Funding Formula) funds to provide the professional development necessary to develop and implement these or similar formal and informal assessments. The study of history, in many respects, is the study of change. Some changes represent progress; others do not. Nevertheless, change is part of living and to be able to adapt to change is crucial. Rather than fearing change, children can be taught to accept the inevitability of change and learn ways to adapt to the changes they experience. When they are immersed into a period of history, the era comes to life and students begin to develop an historical empathy by “living the past.” List of Academic Content Vocabulary (Include at least 5 in your presentation) route retreat inflation demand supply frontier trailblazer pass beaver fur trade immigrant pioneer mountain man United States manifest destiny

squatter Bear Flag Republic treaty border troops wagon train settler overland expedition discrimination hydraulic mining

Battle of Californio San Pasqual

conflict attack Gold Rush isthmus claim soldiers forty-niner consumer mining camp entrepreneur

vigilante sluice box convention delegate constitution legislature ratify Congress compromise miner

MexicanAmerican War

trail

rebel

peace

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Rubric to Assess Bio-Sketch Presentations for

The Bear Flag Republic to California Statehood INDICATORS Uses Academic Language According to History Content

ADVANCED Student shows a deep understanding of historical language that is woven in an interesting way whether written or oral. Knowledge of Student demonstrates an in-depth Historically Accurate Content understanding of the historical content; all main ideas are supported by facts with no obvious inaccurate facts; contains substantial supportive evidence. Research, Evidence, Student has a clear and Point of View and knowledgeable thesis that supports the topic with research; shows an in-depth understanding of the point of view.

PROFICIENT Student shows an effective use of historical language that is woven in an interesting way whether written or oral.

BASIC Student shows a limited use of historical language whether written or oral.

BELOW BASIC Student shows little or no use of historical language whether written or oral.

Student demonstrates a clear understanding of the historical content; all main ideas are supported by facts; contains no obvious inaccurate facts; would be improved with more evidence. Student presents the thesis that supports the topic with research; shows a clear understanding of the point of view.

Student demonstrates a limited understanding of the historical content; most main ideas are supported by facts, no obvious inaccurate facts; would be improved with more evidence. Student uses limited research to present the topic; shows a limited understanding of the point of view.

Student demonstrates little understanding of the historical content; facts may be inaccurate; lacks supportive evidence.

Student uses little or no research to present the topic; shows little or no understanding of the point of view.

Figure 6. Students mingle together after delivering their Living History presentations.

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Middle School Review

Slavery: An Enduring Tragic Story with Emerging New Perspectives by George F. Sabato George Sabato is Past President of the California Council for the Social Studies. He was a seventh grade social studies teacher at Edwin Markham Middle School in Placerville, CA. He holds a BA and MA from Stanford University and was a Fulbright Scholar to Japan and China. Recently, he served as web editor for Oxford University Press’s textbook series, Medieval and Early Modern World and as a Master Teacher for Pearson’s My World.

The story of slavery is chronicled as it existed in numerous ancient civilizations, from Greece to Rome, from the Middle East to China, and even America. Slavery’s history is revealed in the ancient texts of the Bible, school textbooks, novels, movies, and the world wide web.

the Hammurabi Code. This heralded Babylonian code made fundamental law uniform and fair by the standards of its society. However, it can only be regarded as unjust by today’s global standards. Its laws tolerated and enforced slavery. These ancient laws addressed a multitude of issues associated with slavery as it existed in Babylonia nearly five thousand years ago: “If anyone take a male or female slave of the court, or a male or female slave of a freed man, outside the city gates, he shall be put to death.” From reading just this one law, one can conclude the Hammurabi Code protected the institution of slavery and “the property rights of slave owners.” Some of the earliest accounts of slavery may be found in the Bible. In the film “The Ten Commandments,” based on the Bible’s story of Exodus, viewers witness the Jews in servitude to the Pharaoh of Egypt. Audience members are thrilled as Moses parts the waters of the Red Sea and leads the tribes of Israel out of slavery and on to the Promised Land. The movies “Ben Hur” and “Spartacus” were produced in the late 1950s. They were spectacular films in the new wide screen Cinerama format. Ben Hur and Spartacus are the heroes, and both Roman slaves. Ben Hur is able to become free, while Spartacus dies fighting for freedom with his fellow slaves….a mission that fails in the end. Slavery remained an institution in the Roman Empire for hundreds of years. The recent film “Twelve Years a Slave” is an example of how the modern media brings home an uncomfortable experience of the brutality of slavery in America’s past.

Among the earliest known written laws are those of

The story of Native American slavery is a mixed story.

Abraham Lincoln ended slavery in the United States with the Emancipation Proclamation issued January 1, 1863. Actually, the proclamation only liberated slaves in rebel occupied territories. While slavery may have been ended legally in those lands, in practice it continued for years south of the Mason-Dixon Line. Slavery in the Confederate States of America went on until the end of the Civil War in 1865. “Economic slavery” continued to linger on for years in the South with insidious forms of forced labor such as share cropping and tenant farming that kept former slaves and their descendants in a new form of bondage, a neo-slavery. Today, slavery in its contemporary practice continues in our nation in the forms of child labor and human trafficking. The story of slavery on this planet stretches back thousands of years, across land and time. Sadly, it reaches right into our present in our country and abroad, and is likely to last long into the future somewhere on our Earth. In the period of time for which there is a written history, slavery is well documented worldwide. It would seem not a single culture or race was immune from it. Today, new chapters of the story are being revealed, some most surprising.

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permitted slavery. One example is the Cherokee Nation, which had sided with the Confederacy during the Civil War. One of the more famous Confederate military leaders was General Sam Wattie who commanded the Army of the Trans-Mississippi made up of CheroOne of the earliest accounts of an Indian being captured kee, Seminole and Muskogee troops. Subsequent to the and enslaved is that of Squanto. Squanto is traditionally South’s defeat, the Cherokee Constitution was amended introduced as the Indian who facilitated communica- to end slavery in the Cherokee Nation in 1886. tion between the Pilgrims and the Indians. The part of the story generally not told is that Squanto had been I was recently producing a series for Sierra Community captured and brought to England as a slave, later to be Access Television on El Dorado County history with brought back to America with Captain John Smith. historian and naturalist, Guy Nixon, author of the book While in England, Squanto learned English and be- Slavery in the West: The Untold Story. In one episode came a Christian. This is the “secret revealed” as to how we went on location to tell the story of the Battle of Rock Squanto was able to speak English to the Pilgrims and Creek. According to Nixon, it was at the current bridge serve as their translator, and was able to teach them to site on Rock Creek Road in Placerville, California, that the local Maidu and Washoe tribes ambushed the mafarm. rauding Valley Miwok warriors who had come to raid It has not been common to read in traditional history and capture the foothill tribesmen to be used in trade texts that Native American tribes such as the Seminole, with companies mining mercury just outside of San Creek and Cherokee possessed Negro slaves. In the Jose. (Hence the name of the newspaper, The San Jose 1700s the English and Spanish were providing African Mercury.) In Nixon’s book he reports that thousands of slaves to the tribes as tribute or in trade. It was common Native Americans from California were captured and for African slaves to flee the plantations in search of sold to work on farms and in factories across the border sanctuary on Native American tribal lands. Sometimes in Mexico. I wonder if some of those “illegals” crossing they were able to live freely on the tribal lands, and the border into California could be descendants of Calisometimes they would be taken into servitude. Captain fornia Native Americans. Video: “Battle of Rock Creek” John Ross is an example of a Cherokee plantation owner who purchased Negro slaves to work his land. Unfortu- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jnz5rwvl5uM&ind nately, the story of blacks becoming enslaved by many ex=1&list=PLEkD6DmQo2TwyF6P9784t0rA3oXlmO 6p0 tribes is a fact of history. There are accounts of white people capturing Indians and putting them into servitude, those of white people selling African slaves to those tribes, and even of tribes legalizing slavery on their lands.

http://www.vocativ.com/usa/race/five-things-probablydont-know-descendants-cherokees-black-slaves/

http://radio2hot.wordpress.com/2013/12/31/the-irishslaveswhat-they-will-never-ever-tell-you-in-historyclass-or-anywhere-else-white-and-black-slave/

The Emancipation Proclamation and 13th Amendment ended slavery within the United States, but within the My grandfather was Irish and there is Irish on my wife’s United States were numerous sovereign nations of the side of the family as well. In looking up Irish history I native tribes. Many of those tribes’ Constitutions legally stumbled upon the story of the “forgotten Irish slaves.” 140

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In the 1650s Cromwell and the English sold tens of thousands of the Irish Catholics as slaves into Africa, the English colonies in North America, and the Caribbean. Irish slaves were more affordable than Negroes. One reason the slaves from Africa were more expensive was they were “not the despised Catholics!” Learn more about this at “The Slaves That Time Forgot” in Daily Kos. The more commonly accepted explanation for blacks today discovering Irish in their ancestry is in concluding that a master of one of their slave ancestors was of Irish descent. It was reported that Mrs. Obama discovered she has Irish ancestors. Could she be descended from an Irish slave who was brought to America? Could it be that my children are descendants of Irish slaves or those escaped from Ireland to avoid being sold as slaves? http://www.dailykos.com/story/2013/12/27/1265498/The-slaves-that-time-forgot and “The Irish Slave Trade: Slaves That Time Forgot” at Global Research http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-irish-slave-tradethe-forgotten-white-slaves/31076

It is presumed that the goal for most of humanity is to end slavery forever in all of its forms. To continue that battle it is important that future generations be armed with the truth and passion to fight injustice. That mission begins in our classrooms by sharing the full story with our students and challenging them to dedicate themselves to work with fellow Americans and people around the world to end slavery in every insidious manifestation. Activities Slavery Legalized Thousands of Years Ago http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/P1050763_ Louvre_code_Hammurabi_face_ rwk.JPG

The Hammurabi Codes were to establish “justice.” Read the laws and determine what or whom the law is designed to protect or preserve. If a slave says to his master: Let nobody say that slavery “is history” in the United “You are not my master,” if they States. It may be illegal. It may not be out in the open. It convict him his master shall cut off his ear. may not even be called slavery. But it still exists. It may exist in your community. Child labor and sex trafficking If a man has harbored in his house a male or female exist in communities across California and America. slave from a patrician’s or plebeian’s house, and has not Those are forms of neo-slavery. caused the fugitive to leave on the demand of the officer over the slaves condemned to public forced labor, that The Placerville and Cameron Park Soroptimists of householder shall be put to death. El Dorado County recently held a symposium on the alarming status of human trafficking for the sex trade If a man has caught either a male or female runaway in our region. In neighboring Folsom there is an annual slave in the open field and has brought him back to his Run for Courage event that raises funds to fight traffick- owner, the owner of the slave shall give him two shekels ing in this affluent area of California. These organiza- of silver. tions and others are fundraising and working with local law enforcement to help fight this problem. It is a mod- If he give a male or female slave away for forced labor, ern day challenge to battle against this highly evolved, and the merchant sublease them, or sell them for monor should I say mutated, form of slavery in America. In ey, no objection can be raised. Placerville, the Cold Springs Community Church has a campaign to raise funds to support the International Have one student play the role of a Babylonian judge and Justice Mission. The funds raised will provide teams ev- other students role play Babylonian masters and slaves. erything needed to find, rescue, and provide aftercare to Divide students into teams of 3 to 4 students for this girls and women rescued from traffickers. Justice Mis- activity. Students read through the Code of Hammurabi sion works to free boys and girls all around the world. and find a law dealing with slavery. As a team they draft For more information go to up a scenario in which the Code of Hammurabi is brohttps://ijm.org/ or ken. They select one student to act as the judge. One is http://www.coldspringschurch.net/giving-project.html. the master, one the slave, one a defense attorney and Social Studies Review 2015-16

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one a district attorney. They write a script in which the case is brought before the judge, the charge presented. The attorneys bring forth their witnesses and state their cases. The Judge then renders a final judgment. He/she has the option to follow the Code, or rule against it. The judge must present his/her reasoning.

prising fact learned from studying this map?

To Help A Runaway Slave Given the unit of study (Ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Middle East, China, Pre-Columbian America, Viking, or the South in the United States Pre-Civil War) the students are given the situation in which they are from an upper class, slave holding family. They develop a close and friendly relationship with one of the slaves who, one day, comes to them and asks for help to run away. They must decide to “protect the family property” or help their “friend” find a way to freedom. They are to create a short story, cartoon strip, script of a short skit (which could be performed or videoed), or poem/rap about this challenging situation. What should they do? From whom should they seek advice? What would be the consequences of their action? …for the slave and for themselves? Would they use values of the time period, or their own of today?

“The Cherokee Nation has at length, in full council, adopted a Constitution which embraces a simple form of government. The legislative and judicial powers are vested in a General Council with less ones subordinate. In this Nation there are 12,395 Indians. The females exceed the males by 200. The whites are 341, and one third of these have Indian wives. Of negro slaves there are 583. The number of their cattle is 19,600; of horses 6,100; of sheep 1,037. They have now in actual use 13 grist mills, 3 saw mills, 3 saltpetre works and 1 powder-mill. They have also 30 wagons between 480 and 500 plows, 1600 spinning wheels, 467 looms and 49 silversmiths.”

Slavery In the Americas Map of Slave Trade 1650-1860

Slavery in the Cherokee Nation The Christian Observer of London for November 1811 contains the following review of the census of the Cherokee Nation:

Review this census of the Cherokee Nation taken in 1811. What does it reveal about slavery in The Cherokee Nation at that time? What other interesting facts do these statistics reveal about the Cherokee Nation at that time? Write a short story depicting what the daily life of a negro slave might have been like living in the Cherokee Nation in 1811 based on information found in this set of statistics. http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Chronicles/v011/ v011p1056.html

and their descendants, shall have all the rights of native Cherokees: Provided, That owners of slaves so emancipated in the Cherokee Nation shall never receive any compensation or pay for the slaves so emancipated.” http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Chronicles/v011/ v011p1056.html Imagine the time when this law was put before the council for a vote. Have a debate over this law. One group should develop their points of argument for its passage, and the other for voting against passage. How did the passage of this treaty change the character of the Cherokee Nation forever? An advanced study could follow the litigation between the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma and the Cherokee Freedmen. The Freedmen are seeking full recognition by the tribe. About 25,000 Freedmen are not recognized because they cannot trace descent to an ancestor “Cherokee by Blood” on the Dawes Rolls. The case is before the United States Supreme Court with the first hearing held in May of 2014.

Tell them that both are Seminole. Have the pairs discuss whether they think the image on the right depicts a slave or a slave who has been adopted into the tribe? What information would they need to know which case is true? Reveal the caption. Is that sufficient evidence? Have them read this passage from “Black Seminoles, Maroons and Freedom Seekers in Florida.” Porter (1996) states that during British rule, government officials had presented Creek and Seminole leaders with “King’s gifts” of slaves in return for service to the crown. Some Seminole chiefs also began to buy enslaved Africans at this time; noting the prestige that both the Spanish and English attached to slave ownership. They frequently paid in cattle for such purchases (Simmons 1822:75). By the 1790s, wealth was increasingly determined by slave ownership. By 1793, Alachua leader King Payne, nephew of the Alachua immigrant Cowkeeper, was reported to have owned twenty slaves (Weisman 2000:141).

The Seminoles’ concept of slavery was very different than that of the whites. While it is true that the Creeks and Seminoles had taken slaves before blacks came among them in appreciable numbers, these were frequently war captives, who were expected to fill the labor demands of warriors lost in battles. Some were eventuBlack Seminole Ask students to visualize and try to sketch how a Semi- ally adopted into the tribe, especially if they intermarnole Indian would appear if encountered in the 1700s ried with their new captors, which was often encouraged (Covington 1993). in Florida. http://www.africanaheritage.com/black_seminoles_1. Show the students this image. Cover the caption and asp ask, “Which one is a Seminole?” Slavery Existed In America: It Is A Matter of Black and White

A treaty was made July 19th, 1866. It contained the following article in regard to slavery:

http://www.nigerianmuse.com/cartoons/Slave_trade_ from_africa_to_americas_1650_1860.jpg Have students work in pairs and identify some of the important facts about slave trade between 1650 and 1860. From what parts of Africa were most slaves exported? Which places in the Americas imported the most slaves? The least? Based on the symbols on the map, what was the main use of the slaves? What are the main products produced with slave labor in the southern part of the United States? What was the most sur142

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“The Cherokee Nation having, voluntarily, in February, eighteen hundred and sixty-three, by an act of the National Council, forever abolished slavery, hereby covenant and agree that never hereafter shall either slavery or involuntary servitude exist in their Nation otherwise than in the punishment of crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, in accordance with laws applicable to all the members of said tribe alike. They further agree that all freedmen who have been liberated by voluntary act of their former owners, or by law, as well as all free colored persons who were in the country at the commencement of the rebellion, and are now residents therein, or who may return within six months,

http://radio2hot.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/irishslaves.jpg http://www.africanaheritage.com/uploads/1287/SeminoleBlackSeminoleDress1.jpg

Freed Colored and White Slaves Print a variety of the photographs depicting both colSocial Studies Review 2015-16 143

ored and white freed slaves. Pass them out to students in small groups. Ask the students to examine the photos and determine what they are viewing. Next, tell the students to identify which of the people in the photograph are freed slaves. If you haven’t discussed the topic of white slaves, they will likely identify the colored people in the photographs. Tell them that all the people are freed slaves. Have them discuss the possibility that there were white slaves. At this point you may then tell the students about white slaves in America. You may wish to have them read a selection about the white slaves. Links to two suggested articles are listed below. Discuss why this is a story that is rarely talked about nor found in most American history books. Articles: “Young White Faces of Slavery”, New York Times http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/01/30/theyoung-white-faces-of-slavery/?_r=0

Neo-Slavery In America and Around the World Goods Produced by Child or Forced Labor— NeoSlavery First, have a discussion as to whether or not child and forced labor could be considered neo-slavery after watching a video interview on a child laborer. Suggested viewing: “Child Labor: 11 Year Old Halima Sews Clothes for Hanes” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pTIfY9SmJdA or “Made in the USA: Child Labor and Tobacco” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0-8TBceaO5Q “Child Labor Around the World” https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=PdmiUb9_E94 “What Does Slavery Look Like Today” https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=h_uaymBakiY or other similar video. Goods Produced Forced Labor

Worldwide

by

Child

and

“The Shocking Story Behind the White Slave Photographs”, Open Salon http://open.salon.com/blog/joan- Have students go to the U.S. Department of Labor site pgage/2012/03/07/the_shocking_story_behind_the_ and review the list of countries in which child or forced white_slave_photographs_1 labor exists. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/childlabor/list-of-goods/ Have students review the list of A good collection of photos is available by Google Search- products produced. Divide students into small groups. ing “emancipated slaves+white and colored+photo” Each group is to pick a country and a product from that When the search results come up select “Images”. country. Explain that the mission is to keep individuhttps://www.google.com/search?q=emancipated+slave als and businesses from benefiting from child or forced s%2Bwhite+and+colored%2Bphoto&source=lnms&tb labor. They are to devise a method of keeping that prodm=isch&sa=X&ei=64CxVKqaDsa0ggT5z4PIDg&ved= uct from entering the United States. Issues they might 0CAgQ_AUoAQ&biw=1920&bih=943 address are what our government can do to assist the country to end the use of child and forced labor, and Cultural Impact of Cromwell’s Selling Slaves into the what can be done by our government and our consumCaribbean ers to be sure no products made by child or force labor are purchased and consumed in America. Show the video “Black Irish of Monsserat—Irish Accents in the Caribbean” https://www.youtube.com/ “Child Labor Today” Borgen Magazine http://www. watch?v=0QHYFXDGf4Y borgenmagazine.com/child-labor-today/ Before showing the video ask students why people living on the Caribbean Island of Monsserat might have what appears to be Irish accents? Show the movie. After showing the video ask students how Cromwell’s selling of Irish slaves to planters on Monsserat would create this unique culture? (For more information on the period in which the English were selling the Irish as slaves go to “The Irish Slave Trade” for text and video presentation. http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=508_14181813 70&comments=1) 144

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Explore the topic further at these websites: Primary Sources/Teacher Suggestions regarding Emancipation: http://library.mtsu.edu/tps/sets/Primary_Source_Set-Emancipation.pdf Treatment of emancipated slaves: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/jun/16/slavery-starvationcivil-war

Sharecropping and tenant farming--economic slavery: http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/lesson_37_notes. Emancipated “White” and Colored Slaves: htm http://radio2hot.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/irishslaves.jpg History of slavery world-wide: http://www.historyworld. http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/01/30/thenet/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?ParagraphID=cio young-white-faces-of-slavery/?_r=0 http://open.salon.com/blog/joanpgage/2012/03/07/ Cherokee Black Slaves: the_shocking_story_behind_the_white_slave_photohttp://www.vocativ.com/usa/race/five-things-probably- graphs_1 dont-know-descendants-cherokees-black-slaves/ https://www.google.com/search?q=emancipated+slave s%2Bwhite+and+colored%2Bphoto&source=lnms&tb “Battle of Rock Creek” video by historian and naturalist m=isch&sa=X&ei=64CxVKqaDsa0ggT5z4PIDg&ved= Guy Nixon: 0CAgQ_AUoAQ&biw=1920&bih=943 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jnz5rwvl5uM&ind ex=1&list=PLEkD6DmQo2TwyF6P9784t0rA3oXlmO Child Labor/Slavery Today: 6p0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pTIfY9SmJdA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PdmiUb9_E94 Irish Slaves Sent to Africa and America: http://radio- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_uaymBakiY 2hot.wordpress.com/2013/12/31/the-irish-slaveswhat- http://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/child-labor/list-ofthey-will-never-ever-tell-you-in-history-class-or-any- goods/ where-else-white-and-black-slave/ http://www.dailykos.com/story/2013/12/27/1265498/The-slaves-that-time-forgot http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-irish-slave-tradethe-forgotten-white-slaves/31076 http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=508_1418181370&co mments=1 Video: “Black Irish of Monsserat—Irish Accents in the Caribbean” https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=0QHYFXDGf4Y International Justice Mission: https://ijm.org/ or http:// www.coldspringschurch.net/giving-project.html. Slavery in the Hammurabi Code: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/P1050763_Louvre_code_Hammurabi_face_rwk.JPG Map of Slavery in Americas: http://www.nigerianmuse. com/cartoons/Slave_trade_from_africa_to_americas_1650_1860.jpg Slavery in the Cherokee Nation: http://digital.library. okstate.edu/Chronicles/v011/v011p1056.html Black Seminoles: http://www.africanaheritage.com/up- “Child Labor Today” Borgen Magazine http://www. loads/1287/SeminoleBlackSeminoleDress1.jpg borgenmagazine.com/child-labor-today/ http://www.africanaheritage.com/black_seminoles_1. asp Social Studies Review 2015-16

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High School Review

Content, Curiosity, and Relationships by Gary Kroesch Gary Kroesch is an enthusiastic and veteran teacher who continually learns from students and colleagues. A retired teacher from Poway Unified School District, he now serves as Social Studies Methods Instructor at San Diego State University School of Teacher Education. Gary continues to provide professional development through AVID and as the International Studies Teacher Education Project (ISTEP) Director at SDSU. The Socratic method can make you free – a free-thinking and independent individual instead of a follower of others’ less-considered opinions. In fact, my own career as a teacher didn’t really take off until I was reunited with the popular thinking discipline that I had first encountered as a student. Growing up in La Jolla, California, a beach town just outside of San Diego, I had originally dreamed of growing up to become a lawyer. I used to fantasize about being another Perry Mason, a popular TV hero of the time. His specialty was breaking down bad guys under clever questioning in court and I never missed an episode. But my career took a very different turn at age 15 when I was introduced to history and one of the best teachers I ever had. It was the first day back at La Jolla High after a too-short summer and I was stumbling through my new class schedule. My mind was still on happy days we had been spending on the beach. After lunch, I wandered into Ms. Gloria Moore’s world history class, expecting the same old mortifying lectures while I counted the minutes before I could grab my board and get back down to the beach for the glass-off. But there was something different about this class. Instead of rows of seats facing forward like every other classroom I had ever been in, this one had the seats arranged in a circle with Ms. Moore standing at the blackboard. We students sat facing each other across the circle – a strange and somewhat uncomfortable experi146

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ence at first as we waited for everyone to file in and sit down. Yet, form followed function: we were about to get a very different kind of lesson – one in critical thinking. Ms. Moore was a veteran teacher and very popular with her students. She was, perhaps, in the middle years of her teaching career, a consummate professional who had figured out how to get the attention and engagement of distracted adolescents like me. Her methods of teaching history were different than most. Instead of the usual monologue of facts, she sowed ideas in us through a series of open-ended questions that were left hanging in the air for us students to trouble over. She also surprised us all by asserting that our ideas mattered. She encouraged us to voice our own opinions and insights about class assignments, readings, and the primary sources and films we used. She gave us space and permission to ask questions and arrive at our own conclusions. Like any sport, there were rules of engagement – what she called discussion norms. Ms. Moore guided us in how to engage in the back-and-forth, give-and-take of conversation without throwing fists or insults. We were taught to acknowledge and entertain the ideas of others. Sure, we could disagree but we had to present logical alternatives based on evidence from our textbooks and other materials. We could not have parallel conversations where one student had a comment and another student talked over him. We had to stick to the topic and acknowledge what had been said before adding something.

What Ms. Moore was doing was almost as old as education itself – at least, the Western tradition of education that sprang up from early settlements that encircled the Aegean Sea. Ms. Moore’s methods date back to Greece of the 5th century B.C. when Socrates first introduced a new way of thought and learning.

We tripped through centuries of history in Ms. Moore’s class, hitting the high points from Hammurabi’s Code and the Old Testament of early civilizations to the English Magna Carta driven on by her penetrating questions. I remember one discussion in Ms. Moore’s class about some guiding documents from early civilizations. What is most interesting or surprising about these priBefore Socrates, education was dominated by itinerant mary sources? How were these documents alike and educators known as sophists – or sages. They lectured how were they different? What do you think if we lived to audiences and relied on the cleverness of their argu- by these ideas? What questions would you like to ask ments and their own rhetorical skills to persuade lis- ancient scribes to better understand these original teners to accept a point of view. Sophistry has its place; sources? plenty of examples of this method can still be found in lecture halls today. But Ms. Moore was clearly not a Ms. Moore would probe the class and cleverly lead the sophist. She used the Socratic method to get our atten- discussion by occasionally posing such questions. She tion and to get our young minds working. always found some way to stimulate our interests – in this case, by contrasting the documents we were studyInstead of top-down wisdom, Socrates’ approach em- ing with some of the ideas of Confucius. Ms. Moore alphasized audience participation and original thought ways made learning relevant to today; and, clearly, she – even democracy – from the bottom up. In a way, had a lasting impact on me. Socrates was letting audience members educate themselves through a series of questions and answers among During my first few years of teaching, I had struggled peers. The Socratic method is a search for truth arrived to find my way – to perfect techniques that would let at by questioning widely-held assumptions. Critical me cover curricula in an interesting way. It’s not easy holding the attention of a few dozen teenagers; and as I thinking and Socratic discussions go hand in hand. struggled, I began to lose my passion for teaching social The Socratic method is also widely used in U.S. court- studies. rooms and has become a foundation of contemporary legal education. As demonstrated in the 1973 movie, Then, one day an invitation to a series of workshops on “The Paper Chase,” the typical law professor poses open Socratic teaching methods appeared in my school mailquestions to the class and calls on a student who may or box. I immediately flashed back to my experience in Ms. may not have volunteered an answer. Most law schools Moore’s class and quickly signed up for the workshops. in the United States are less concerned that students learn the many volumes that constitute “the law,” than Our first seminar in the series of Socratic workshops that they learn a way of thinking. was an excerpt from Simone de Beauvoir’s The Second Sex. This document was dense and pretty obscure with Now that I think about it, maybe my early interest in the an analysis of the myths and realities of women throughlaw was really just a reflection of a natural affinity for out time. After we read and marked the text for ideas, this approach to education. I’ve never regretted my ca- the instructor asked the class, “What is a woman?” No reer choice. I’ve found a way to combine my love for his- volunteers. “Why is a woman in pain that never goes torical research with a way to influence young minds. away?” But I would have never discovered it had I not been introduced to it by one of my best teachers. The instructor facilitated and guided our conversation without participating himself. He masterfully paraphrased ideas, probed for higher-level thinking and Learning is about content, curiosity, and questioned our responses. There were times when he relationships. Content is what we bring to redirected the discussion, “Who has another perspecstudents. Curiosity is what students bring to tive to offer that will help us re-focus the conversation?” us. Relationships are what we bring to each Watching him was like marveling at an orchestra direcother. tor conducting a symphony of insights. Social Studies Review 2015-16

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Kroesch leads teachers in a Socratic discussion about food production and the affects on cultures during an ISTEP workshop at San Diego State University.

Socrates believed that enabling students to think for themselves was more important than filling their heads with “right answers.”

nar, give students a writing prompt that will allow them to summarize the main ideas or a personal reflection about new thoughts, ideas, or questions they have about the discussion. At the end of a successful Socratic seminar, students should leave with more questions than they brought with them.

Learning is about content, curiosity, and relationships. Content is what we bring to students. Curiosity is what students bring to us. Relationships are what we bring to each other. Socratic discussions allow students to see My first Socratic seminar made me appreciate Ms. Moore’s skill. Our class was studying slavery in Amerithings differently. ca, and I wanted to find a primary source that would be To start the Socratic seminar, students are seated in a interesting and evocative enough to touch the emotions circle facing each other to participate in the dialogue. of 16 year olds. I searched my local university library Open-ended prompts should be used to stimulate ex- and online resources from the National Archives and tended, thoughtful discussion. A good prompt raises Library of Congress to find the right source. I discovimportant questions in students’ minds – questions for ered an article from The New York Tribune in 1847 by which there are no right or wrong answers. The role of Horace Greely. He wrote a first-hand account of witthe teacher or facilitator is to keep the discussion fo- nessing a slave auction in Charleston, South Carolina. cused on the text and the topic. Participants respond The horrifying personal details were more compelling to the question and support their responses, citing spe- than any recitation of historical facts. It’s something the cific passages from the reading or film. Students do not kids will remember and think about. typically raise their hands and wait to be “called on.” The goal is to have an “organic” conversation that models I struggled through my first class Socratic seminar. Like authentic academic discourse rather than answering a my students, I was learning a new skill of facilitating a set of pre-determined questions. Students learn to listen discussion to keep the conversation going and challenge actively to their fellow participants, sharing ideas and students to give examples. questions while searching for evidence. After the semi148

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Socratic teaching is an art to learn. Vincent van Gogh developed his skill and style over time and I knew it would take time to develop my skill set. I was learning a new language of facilitating a dialogue with students. To percolate responses from students, you use appreciative comments to open the hearts and minds of teenagers. The art continues by inviting students into the conversation, asking someone to respond to what someone else said, clarifying an idea by summarizing or paraphrasing what was said, or asking a question to better understand what someone stated. For example, to clarify some comments, “If I hear you correctly…” or “In other words, you believe…” or “I’m confused about something said…” or “Let me see if I understand you…”

posts, and other short-burst media forms leave little room for the sharing of ideas or anything deeper than the superficial and trivial experiences of life. The Socratic method is the alternative. It challenges students to read, write, speak, and listen critically for understanding. This teaching method promotes critical thinking skills that develop into a group of intellectual best practices. The Socratic dialogue helps students develop the confidence needed to present their own original ideas for consideration by other individuals and in public groups. It encourages them to support their claims with reasoned thinking and evidence, and to be able to negotiate multiple meanings or ideas to find those most “true” or beneficial. The long-term success of a well-prepared and well-rounded student must, ultimately, be built upon a foundation of critical thinking and disciplined “habits of mind” for success in history and other social sciences – or life itself. Or else, you’ll always be held captive by the opinions of others. “I know that I know nothing,” Socrates said. To that we can add, “But I know how to go about finding just about anything.”

Conclusion Living in this information age, we are all constantly deluged by myriad unrelated facts and opinions disguised as facts that are really just someone else’s point of view. Students are often trained to absorb information, but not to parse it, evaluate it, or connect the dots for themselves. Teaching other people’s strongly held beliefs – top-down the way the ancient sophists did it – does not always leave room for young people to develop their own ideas and critical thinking habits. Instead, it seems to me that students today often get overwhelmed with social media and texting – headsdown in their smart phones at the expense of person-to-person conversation. They are buffeted by short YouTube-style media bursts that have lately blossomed on other media platforms. Texts, tweets, Snapchats, Vines, Instagrams, Facebook

High school students bring curiosity to the content presented and develop relationships through facilitated discussions.

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