Solar System Fact Sheet

Solar System Fact Sheet

SOLAR SYSTEM FACT SHEET (Revised 2017 JUN 06) DATA PROVIDED BY: NASA Solar System Ambassador program NASA Ames Research Center NASA Goddard Space Flig...

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SOLAR SYSTEM FACT SHEET (Revised 2017 JUN 06) DATA PROVIDED BY: NASA Solar System Ambassador program NASA Ames Research Center NASA Goddard Space Flight Center NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Hubble Space Telescope Science Institute Brian Marsden & Gareth Williams, International Astronomical Union Royal Astronomical Society of Canada Hansen Planetarium Education Department University of Hawaii MERCURY Average Distance From Sun

Kilometers 57.91 (in millions) Light 3m13s Travel Time Astronomical 0.3871 Units

VENUS

EARTH

108.21

149.60

MOON

MARS

JUPITER

SATURN

URANUS

NEPTUNE

SUN

.3844 227.94 778.30 1,429.39 2,875.04 4,504.55 39.95 trillion from to nearest Earth star 6m1s 8m19s 1.3s 12m40s 43m16s 1h19m28s 2h39m50s 4h10m25s 4.22y from to nearest Earth star 0.7233 1.0000 0.0026 1.5237 5.203 9.555 19.218 30.110 267,032 from to nearest Earth star ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Length Period 87.969d 224.701d 365.256d 27.32d 1.8808y 11.862y 29.457y 84.020y 164.770y 226 million y Of Of to orbit to orbit Year Orbit Earth galaxy ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Length of Period of 58d15h31m 243d0h26mR 23h56m04s 27d07h43m 24h37m23s 9h55m30s 10h39m22s 17h14m24sR 16h6m36s Stellar Day Rotation ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Avg. Length Period of 175d22h30m 116d18h01m 24h00m00s 29d12h44m 24h39m35s 9h55m33s 10h39m24s 17h14m00s 16h07m00s 25d equator Solar Day Rotation 35d poles ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Average Kilometers 47.87 35.02 29.79 1.023 24.13 13.06 9.66 6.81 5.44 217.35 around Orbital per second galaxy center Velocity Kilometers 172,339 126,074 107,225 3,683 86,865 47,029 34,781 24,527 19,595 782,460 around per hour galaxy center ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Equatorial Kilometers 4,879.4 12,103.6 12,756.28 3,474.8 6,792 142,984** 120,536** 51,118** 49,528** 1,392,000 Diameter Sun = 1 0.0035 0.0087 0.0092 0.0025 0.0049 0.1027** 0.0866** 0.0367** 0.0356** 1.0 Earth = 1 0.383 0.949 1.0 0.2724 0.532 11.209** 9.449** 4.007** 3.883** 109 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Mass Earth = 1 0.0553 0.8150 1.0 0.0123 0.1074 317.83 95.159 14.500 17.204 332,946 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Volume Earth = 1 0.0562 0.857 1.0 0.0203 0.151 1,321.35 763.59 63.09 57.72 1,300,000 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Mean Grams / cc 5.43 5.24 5.515 3.34 3.94 1.33 0.70 1.30 1.76 1.41

Density Water = 1 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Surface Earth = 1 0.378 0.905 1.0 0.166 0.379 2.53 1.07 0.903 1.14 27.96 Gravity ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Escape Kilometers 4.25 10.36 11.18 2.38 5.02 59.5 35.5 21.3 23.5 617.5 Velocity per second Kilometers 15,300 37,303 40,249 8,553 18,081 214,300 127,700 76,600 84,700 2,223,000 per hour ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Temperature High C 425 462 58 127 17 20,000* 12,000* 6,000* 6,000* 15,000,000* Extreme High K 698 735 331 400 290 20,000* 12,000* 6,000* 6,000* 15,000,000* Low C -173 462 -88 -173 -143 438** 407** 346** 347** 4,000** Low K 100 735 185 100 130 711** 680** 619** 620** 4,000** ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Atmosphere Principal O2 Na CO2 N2 None CO2 N2 H2 H2 H2 He H2 He H2 He Gases H2 He N2 O2 Known Ar He He CH4 CH4 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Eccentricity Circular 0.2056 0.0068 0.0167 0.0549 0.0934 0.0485 0.0555 0.0464 0.0095 of Orbit Orbit = 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Inclination To Planet's 0.01 177.36 23.44 6.68 25.19 3.13 26.73 97.77 28.32 7.25 of Orbit Plane Sun equator Equator (degrees) to ecliptic ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Inclination To 7.0 3.4 0.0 5.1 1.8 1.3 2.5 0.8 1.8 of Ecliptic To Earth's Orbit Orbit Plane ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Albedo 0.11 0.65 0.37 0.12 0.15 0.52 0.47 0.40 0.35 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Oblateness Spherical 0.0 0.0 0.003354 0.0 0.005889 0.06487 0.0980 0.02293 0.01708 0 of Planet Planet = 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Natural 0 0 1 0 2 69 plus 62 plus 27 plus 14 plus 8 planets Satellites rings rings rings rings (More satellite data below) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Pole Stars Mercury: In Draco, nearest bright star is omicron Draconis Venus: In Draco, close to the ecliptic pole, nearest bright star is delta Draconis (brightest star in the head of Draco) Earth: Polaris Mars: In Cygnus, nearest bright star is Deneb several degrees away Jupiter: In Draco, close to the ecliptic pole, nearest bright star is zeta Draconis Saturn: In Cepheus, nearest bright star is Polaris Uranus: In Ophiuchus, close to eta Oph, the left-side (our left) bright star at the base of Ophiuchus where Serpens Cauda peels off Neptune: In Cygnus, about midway between gamma and delta, the center and left stars of the cross-piece ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Natural satellite data Name

Earth (1): Moon Mars (2): Phobos Deimos Jupiter (67): Metis (XVI, S/1979 J3) Adrastea (XV, S/1979 J1) Amalthea (V) Thebe (XIV, S/1979 J2) Io (I) Europa (II) Ganymede (III) Callisto (IV) Themisto (XVIII, S/1975 J1) Leda (XIII) Himalia (VI) Lysithea (X) Elara (VII) S/2000 J11 Carpo (LVI, S/2003 J20) S/2003 J12 Euporie (XXXIV), S/2001 J7) S/2003 J3 S/2003 J18 S/2011 J1 S/2010 J2 Thelxinoe (LII, S/2003 J22) Euanthe (XXXIII, S/2001 J7) Helike (XLV, S/2003 J6) Orthosie (XXXV, S/2001 J9) S/2016 J1 Iocaste (XXIV, S/2000 J3) S/2003 J16 Praxidike (XXVII, S/2000 J7) Harpalyke (XXII, S/2000 J5) Mneme (XL, S/2003 J21) Hermippe (XXX, S/2001 J3) Thyone (XXIX, S/2001 J2) Ananke (XII) Herse (L, S/2003 J17) Aitne (XXXI, S/2001 J11) Kale (XXXVII, S/2001 J8)

Size

Distance From planet

3,476

384,400

22 13

9,377 23,460

60 20 250 116 3,660 3,122 5,262 4,821 8 16 170 36 86 4 3 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 3 4 2 2 5 2 7 4 2 4 4 28 2 3 2

127,700 128,700 181,200 221,700 421,700 671,000 1,070,400 1,882,700 7,393,200 11,187,800 11,452,000 11,740,600 11,778,000 12,570,400 17,144,900 17,739,500 19,088,400 19,621,800 19,812,600 20,155,300 20,307,200 20,453,800 20,464,900 20,540,300 20,568,000 20,595,483 20,722,600 20,743,800 20,824,000 21,063,800 21,129,800 21,182,100 21,405,600 21,455,000 22,134,300 22.285,200 22,409,200

Taygete (XX, S/2000 J9) S/2003 J19 Chaldene (XXI, S/2000 J10) S/2003 J15 S/2003 J10 S/2003 J23 Erinome (XXV, S/2000 J4) Aoede (XLI, S/2003 J7) Kallichore (XLIV, S/2003 J11) Kalyke (XXIII, S/2000 J2) Carme (XI) Callirrhoe (XVII, S/1999 J1) Eurydome (XXXII, S/2001 J4) S/2011 J2 Pasithee (XXXVIII, S/2001 J6) S/2010 J1 Kore (S/2003 J14) Cyllene (XLVIII, S/2003 J13) Eukelade (XLVII, S/2003 J1) S/2017 J 1 S/2003 J4 Pasiphae (VIII) Hegemone (XXXIX, S/2003 J8) Arche (XLIII, S/2002 J1) Isonoe (XXVI, S/2000 J6) S/2003 J9 S/2003 J5 Sinope (IX) Sponde (XXXVI, S/2001 J5) Autonoe (XXVIII, S/2001 J1) Megaclite (XIX, S/2000 J8) S/2003 J2

5 2 4 2 2 2 3 4 2 5 46 9 3 2 2 1 2 2 4 2 2 60 3 3 4 1 4 38 2 4 5 2

22,438,700 22,709,000 22,713,400 22,721,000 22,730,800 22,739,700 22,986,300 23,044,200 23,111,800 23,180,800 23,198,000 23,215,000 23,230,900 23,314,300 23,307,300 23,314,300 23,345,100 23,396,300 23,483,700 23,483,978 23,570,800 23,609,000 23,702,500 23,717,100 23,800,600 23,857,800 23,974,000 24,057,900 24,252,600 24,264,400 24,687,200 30,290,800

Saturn (62): S/2009 S1 Pan (XVIII, S/1981 S 13) Daphnis (XXXV S/2005 S 1) Atlas (XV, S/1980 S 28) Prometheus (XVI, S/1980 S 27) Pandora (XVII, S/1980 S 26) Epimetheus (XI, S/1980 S 3) Janus (X, S/1980 S 1) Aegaeon (S/2008S1) Mimas (I) Methone (XXXII, S/2004 S 1) Anthe (S/2007 S4) Pallene (XXXIII) Enceladus (II) Telesto (XIII, S/1980 S 13)

~.3 30 7 31 86 81 113 179 ~.5 397 3 ~2 4 504 24

117,000 133,600 136,500 137,700 139,400 141,700 151,400 151,500 167,500 185,400 194,400 197,700 212,300 238,000 294,600

Tethys (III) Calypso (XIV, S/1980 S 25) Dione (IV) Helene (XII, S/1980 S 6) Polydeuces (XXXIV, S/2004 S 5) Rhea (V) Titan (VI) Hyperion (VII) Iapetus (VIII) Kiviuq (XXIV, S/2000 S 5) Ijiraq (XXII, S/2000 S 6) Phoebe (IX) Paaliaq (XX, S/2000 S 2) Skathi (XXVII, S/2000 S 8) Albiorix (XXVI, S/2000 S 11) S/2007 S2 Bebhionn (S/2004 S 11) Erriapo (XXVIII, S/2000 S 10) Skoll (S/2006 S 8) Siarnaq (XXIX, S/2000 S 3) Tarqeq (LII, S/2007 S1) S/2004 S 13 Greip (LI, S/2006 S4) Hyrokkin (S/2004 S 19) Jarnsaxa (L, S/2006 S6) Tarvos (XXI, S/2000 S 4) Mundilfari (XXV, S/2000 S 9) S/2006 S 1 S/2004 S 17 Bergelmir (S/2004 S 15) Narvi (XXXI, S/2003 S 1) Suttungr (XXIII, S/2000 S 12) Hati (S/2004 S 14) S/2004 S 12 Farbauti (S/2004 S 9) Thrymr (XXX, S/2000 S 7) Aegir (S/2004 S 10) S/2007 3 Bestla (S/2004 S 18) S/2004 S 7 S/2006 S 3 Fenrir (S/2004 S 16) Surtur (S/2006 S 7) Kari (S/2006 S 2) Ymir (XIX, S/2000 S 1) Loge (S/2006 S 5) Fornjot (S/2004 S 8) Uranus (27):

1,066 21 1,123 33 3 1,529 5,151 266 1,472 ~16 ~12 214 ~22 ~8 ~32 ~6 ~6 ~10 ~6 ~40 ~7 ~6 ~6 ~8 ~6 ~15 ~7 ~6 ~4 ~6 ~7 ~7 ~6 ~5 ~5 ~7 ~6 ~5 ~7 ~6 ~6 ~4 ~6 ~7 ~18 ~6 ~6

294,600 294,600 377,400 377,400 377,400 527,100 1,222,000 1,481,000 3,560,800 11,294,800 11,355,300 12,869,700 15,103,400 15,672,500 16,266,700 16,560,000 17,153,500 17,236,900 17,473,800 17,776,600 17,910,600 18,056,300 18,065,700 18,168,300 18,556,900 18,562,800 18,725,800 18,930,200 19,099,200 19,104,000 19,395,200 19,579,000 19,709,300 19,905,900 19,984,800 20,278,100 20,482,900 20,518,500 20,570,000 20,576,700 21,076,300 21,930,600 22,288,900 22,321,200 22,429,700 22,984,300 22,504,900

Cordelia (VI, S/1986 U7) Ophelia (VII, S/1986 U8) Bianca (VIII, S/1986 U9) Cressida (IX, S/1986 U3) Desdemona (X, S/1986 U6) Juliet (XI, S/1986 U2) Portia (XII, S/1986 U1) Rosalind (XIII, S/1986 U4) Cupid (XXVII, S/2003 U2) Belinda (XIV, S/1986 U5) Perdita (XXV, S/1986 U10) Puck (XV, S/1985 U1) Mab (XXVI, S/2003 U1) Miranda (V) Ariel (I) Umbriel (II) Titania (III) Oberon (IV) Francisco (XXII, S/2001 U3) Caliban (XVI, S/1997 U1) Stephano (XX, S/1999 U2) Trinculo (XXI, S/2001 U1) Sycorax (XVII, S/1997 U2) Margaret (XXIII, S/2003 U3) Prospero (XVIII, S/1999 U3) Setebos (XIX, S/1999 U1) Ferdinand (XXIV, S/2001 U2)

40 42 51 80 64 93 135 72 ~18 90 30 162 ~25 471 1,158 1,169 1,578 1,522 ~22 ~72 ~32 ~18 ~150 ~20 ~50 ~48 ~20

49,800 53,800 59,200 61,800 62,700 64,400 66,100 69,900 74,800 75,300 76,400 86,000 97,700 129,400 191,000 266,300 435,900 583,500 4,276,000 7,231,000 8,004,000 8,504,000 12,179,000 14,345,000 16,256,000 17,418,000 20,901,000

Neptune (14): Naiad (III, 1989 N6) Thalassa (IV, S/1989 N5) Despina (V, S/1989 N3) Galatea (VI, S/1989 N4) Larissa (VII, S/1989 N2) S/2004 N1 Proteus (VIII, S/1989 N1) Triton (I) Nereid (II) Halimede (S/2002 N1) Sao (S/2002 N2) Laomedeia (S/2002 N3) Psamathe (X, S/2003 N1) Neso (S/2002 N4)

67 83 152 175 195 ~18 418 2,707 340 62 44 42 38 60

48,200 50,100 52,500 62,000 73,500 105,300 117,600 354,800 5,513,800 16,611,000 22,228,000 23,567,000 48,096,000 49,285,000

LEGEND y R * **

= = = =

years, d = days, h = hours, m = minutes, s = seconds Retrograde days Core At 1 atmosphere (altitude where barometric pressure equals Earth's sea level pressure)