Sources of Air Pollution in India

Sources of Air Pollution in India

Sources of Air Pollution in India 2010 gbd_maps_2016.wifi 6tScYjoG1 Vehicle exhaust Road dust Power plants Industrial Diesel gensets Residential ...

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Sources of Air Pollution in India

2010

gbd_maps_2016.wifi 6tScYjoG1

Vehicle exhaust Road dust Power plants Industrial Diesel gensets Residential Waste burning Non-anthropogenic

Vehicle exhaust

National Transport Emissions

Delhi Transport Emissions

On-road Idling Pollution Ludhiana Delhi Vizag

20% Driving time is spent idling for passenger cars

In Delhi, 20 min of idling for cars = Rs. 1 crores in fuel losses (~$150,000) per day Goel & Guttikunda, 2014

“Pollution Under Check” (PUC) Data Analysis

Petrol Car

Motorcycle

Fuel Station Surveys

2-3 minutes per response age mix vehicle usage by age fuel efficiency

Goel et al., 2014

Delhi On-road Emissions

Atmospheric Environment (2015)

2030

2012

National Transport Emissions 2030

Planning Commissions NDTPC report; Guttikunda and Mohan, 2013 More @http://www.urbanemissions.info

Coal, Ore, Cement, Fertilizers, Salt, Sugar Road vs. Rail Freight Movement??

Sectoral Linkages – Freight

Rohtang pass, Himachal Pradesh

Future Scenarios for Transport Emissions

Power plants

2017

2020

2025

2030

Coal-fired thermal power plants

2013

2014

Coal-fired thermal power plants

100

30 old new

old new

100

0.03

old new

Draft standards proposed in April, 2015 Amended in December, 2015

Atmospheric Environment (2014)

HYSPLIT Animations of Forward Trajectories Mumbai Cluster (State: Maharashtra) April, 2010

July, 2010

October, 2010 The 24 lines are trajectory lines started at every hour of the day. These are trajectories for one day of each month and indicative of the flow of emissions from power plant clusters and do not represent the strength of the emissions or dispersed pollution. All the trajectories are started at 275m above ground level.

Atmospheric Environment (2014)

Coal-fired thermal power plants

Assuming a conservative INR 20L per premature life lost Health impacts using GBD methodology Average FGD cost = 0.15 cents per kWh generated India coal based generation average = 1.05 billion MWh Which translates to a required cost = 1.6 billion USD = 9,500 crores Average solar cost Rs.15 per kWh (over 25 year generation period) 2030 demand is expected to triple; if 1/3rd is replaced with solar Cost = INR 15,75,000 crores (or INR 63,000 crores per year)

Telecom towers TRAI Green report 40% power from grid 60% from diesel Estimates 2 billion litres of annual diesel consumption

Total number of mobile connections 950 million INR 1 per month cess per connection = INR 1140 crores per year

Brick kilns

Brick Kilns - still an Urban problem Moved but not cleaned

Advected pollution Guttikunda et al. (2013) “Emissions inventory and health impact analysis for Delhi, India” @ Atmospheric Environment

This is still an Urban problem Moved but not cleaned

Guttikunda et al. (2015) “Characterizing emissions in Chennai and Visakhapatnam, India” @ Air Quality Atmosphere & Health

What is burning at the kilns?

Workers pushing a mixture of agri-waste and powdered coal at a kiln outside Delhi, India

What else is burning at the kilns?

A worker soaks dry cow dung in a mixture of kerosene and gasoline at a kiln near Amritsar, India. Source: Charles W. Schmidt (2013), Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.121-A242

Quarries outside Pune city

Quarries outside Pune city

Quarries outside Pune city

Unofficial sectors??

Residential

National scale inventory gridded, with a district level base

Four sub-categories Cooking Water heating Space heating Lighting

Grid size is 0.25 degrees (~25km)

all the districts (640) are mapped to the census 2011 codes

Madhya Pradesh Gujarat

Maharashtra

Each grid is tagged with overlapping district and state code Intersecting grids are tagged multiple times, based on the overlapping district area

Madhya Pradesh Gujarat

Maharashtra

Each grid is tagged urban or rural, based on the identified built-up area (database downloaded from U.of.Wisconsin SAGE program)

Madhya Pradesh Gujarat

Maharashtra

Grid level population data is obtained from CEISEN GRUMP and Landscan 2013 and adjusted to the Census 2011 levels at the state level (district to grid area overlaps was used for intersections)

Madhya Pradesh Gujarat

Maharashtra

For each district, CENSUS 2011 provides share of HH’s using different fuels – segregated into urban/rural areas and inside/outside cooking

an example of the census file http://www.censusindia.gov.in/DigitalLibrary/Tables.aspx

cooking category – HH10 fuel classifications Firewood, crop residue, cow dung, coal or charcoal, kerosene, LPG, biogas, electricity, and others

cooking classifications cooking inside the house, cooking outside the house, and no cooking

regional classifications rural vs. urban areas within the district

an example of the census file http://www.censusindia.gov.in/DigitalLibrary/Tables.aspx

lighting category – HH7 fuel classifications kerosene, electricity, solar, others

regional classifications rural vs. urban areas within the district

an example of the census file http://www.censusindia.gov.in/DigitalLibrary/Tables.aspx

heating category – HH10 fuel classifications Firewood, crop residue, cow dung, coal or charcoal, kerosene, LPG, biogas, electricity, and others

regional classifications rural vs. urban areas within the district

an example of the census file http://www.censusindia.gov.in/DigitalLibrary/Tables.aspx

population clause – C-14 regional classifications rural vs. urban areas within the district age classifications 1yr and 5yr groups within the district

surface temperature – WRF 2012 Day and night time monthly averages (deg C)

Residential PM2.5 Emissions – India 2013

CK = cooking; LG = lighting; WH = water heating; SH = space heating

Residential BC Emissions – India 2013

CK = cooking; LG = lighting; WH = water heating; SH = space heating

gridded water heating emissions OCT

NOV

DEC

JAN

FEB

MAR

gridded water heating emissions APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

gridded space heating emissions JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

gridded space heating emissions JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

Share of HH fuel consumption to outdoor PM2.5 pollution

Waste burning

UCAR

UEinfo

Non-anthropogenic

regional dispersion modeling WRF and CAMx setup

simulations in hindcast and forecast mode

www.indiaairquality.info

www.delhiairquality.info