Storypath to Success- Inquiry based Social Studies WAREA 2013

Storypath to Success- Inquiry based Social Studies WAREA 2013

7/20/13 The  Storypath  to  Success:     Inquiry-­based  Social  Studies  for   Students  with  Signi;icant  Academic  &   Behavioral  Disabilities  ...

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7/20/13

The  Storypath  to  Success:     Inquiry-­based  Social  Studies  for   Students  with  Signi;icant  Academic  &   Behavioral  Disabilities  

Our  Storypath:  Introduction   and  Overview  

Bridget  Walker,  Sea/le  University   Adria  Wilson,  Paige  Richmond,  Carrie  Riggs,   Renton  School  District   &  Thomas  Grant,  University  of  Washington  

Bridget  Walker,  Sea/le  University     Masters  in  Teaching  and     Special  EducaFon  Programs   [email protected]/leu.edu    

Why  This  Matters   for  Special  Ed   Students!  

Action-­Based  Research:  Components  of  Success   for  Diverse  Learners  in  Inquiry  Learning  Context  

•  IDEA  2008  emphasizes  access  to  general  educaFon  curriculum    &   inclusion  in  least  restricFve  environment   •  General  educaFon  classrooms  &  curricula  tend  to  emphasize   group  or  cooperaFve  learning,  inquiry  or  project  based  based   learning,  and  increasingly,  common  core  standards   •  Yet  special  educaFon  conFnues  to  emphasize  direct  instrucFon,   individualized  skill  learning,  and  specialized  social  skills  training   •  Then  we  wonder  why  pur  students  STRUGGLE  with   •   inclusion  in  general  educaFon  classrooms/seUngs   •  generalizing  skills  they  learned  in  a  very  different,  isolated  contexts     •  fall  farther  behind  academically  &  socially!  

A Powerful Narrative Structure for Curriculum Integration: The Storypath Strategy The Storypath strategy uses the components of story-scene, character and plot--to organize curriculum into meaning and memorable learning experiences. It is more than reading a story, it is living the story guided by the teacher through an inquiry approach as learners create the scene, become the characters and solve the problems presented through the plot. Engaging learners is key and that is what Storypath offers…

What  is  the  effect  of  Storypath  and  inquiry  learning  on   student  engagement,  academic  learning  and  social  skills   development  for  students  with  significant  academic  and   social  disabiliFes?   •  Four  specialized  classrooms  for  students  with  significant   academic  and  social  disabiliFes  in  Renton  School  District  (K-­‐8)   •  Two  in  specialized  school  (Renton  Academy)   •  Two  in  comprehensive  schools  (Tiffany  Park  Elementary  and   Nelson  Middle  School)   •  CollecFng  data  on  student  engagement,  skill  development,   issues/challenges  and  other  trends  across  4  Storypath  units  (95   episodes)  implemented  during  the  2012-­‐2013  Academic  Year   •  Sharing  results,  ideas  and  lesson  learned  today!  

Principles  of  Storypath   Construc)ng  meaning  in  context   •  Universal  appeal  of  narraFve   •  Integrated  learning  across  content  &  experiences   •  Meaningful  &  frequent  student  to  student  interacFons   •  Engage  in  higher  order  thinking  skills     To  develop:   •  Social  skills   •  Empathy   •  CommunicaFon/Academic  Language  Skills   •  Problem  solving  skills     •  Literacy  skills   •  Content  knowledge   •  ImaginaFon  

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-Margit McGuire- Storypath author

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7/20/13

Current  Storypath  Curriculum  (www.teachstorypath.com)  

The Episodes of a Typical Storypath Creating the Setting

Students create the setting by completing a frieze (mural) or other visual representation of the place.

Creating Characters

Students create characters for the story whose roles they will play during subsequent episodes.

Context Building

Students are involved in activities that stimulate them to think more deeply about the people and place they have created.

Critical Incidents

Characters confront problems typical of those faced by people of that time and place. 8

Concluding Event

Students plan and participate in an activity that brings closure to the story.  

How  does  one  get  and  use  the   Storypath  curriculum?   •  Offers rich, well researched & developed content & activities •  Box set: Teacher’s manual, student portfolios, and content card sets •  Teacher's guide, CD with reproducible pages •  Downloadable version (contained in a zip file; 80 MB) For more information on author, resources & research go to: http://fac-staff.seattleu.edu/mmcguire/web/ •  Order at: http://www.teachstorypath.com/

During  group  academic  instruction  how  often   do  you  or  your  staff  have  to  prompt  students   to  focus  on  their  work?      During  Storypath  sessions  our  teachers   found  that  students  needed  to  following  level   of  support  to  engage  in  learning:  

Storypath Involves Meaningful and Frequent Student to Student Interactions Engage students in using social skills to accomplish meaningful academic tasks… Opportunities for… •  Cooperative learning activities •  Learning partners through character role •  Instructional conversations to solve problems presented through the plot •  Practice language in small groups before large groups •  Role play in character •  Using academic skills in meaningful context

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During  group  academic  instruction  how   well  do  your  students  function   behaviorally?   During  Storypath  sessions  our  teachers   found  that  students  demonstrated   behavior  that:    

Rating:          

 5

 

 4

 

 3

 

             2  

                 1  

Ra)ng:          5  

 

 4

 

 

 3

 

 

 2

 

           1  

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7/20/13

Insights  from  Our  Teachers  

Connections  Across     Content  Areas:  Not  Just  a   Social  Studies  Curriculum  

•  Opportunity  to  experience  play,  imaginaFon,  cause  &  effect   •  More  genuine  context  for  IEP  goals/objecFve  data  collecFon   •  Helps  prepare  for  inclusion.    "Lab  environment  with  adult   support-­‐  but  a  more  realisFc  learning  context"     •  Can  be  challenging  but  very  worth  it-­‐  offers  a  blend  of   applicaFon  of  social  skills  and  important  content/skills   development   •  Group  &  partner  skills  should  be  part  of  overall  social  skills   framework  and  integrated  throughout  program   •  WriFng  &  reading  can  be  challenging-­‐  need  graphic  organizers   and  other  accommodaFons/modificaFons   •  Don't  dummy  down  the  content,  instead  develop  and  use   accommodaFons/scaffolds  for  some  of  the  tasks  and  acFviFes  

Why  is  social  studies  imperative   for  today’s  schools  and  our  diverse   learners?

(The  Great  Barrier  Reef)   Adria  Wilson,  Renton  School  District   Primary  EBD  Program  at  Renton  Academy    

Protecting  an  Ecosystem:     The  Great  Barrier  Reef    

Setting

     Characters  

 Plot  

To prepare students for living in a democratic society, an interdependent world and to develop a sense of self-efficacy. •  To be informed and thoughtful •  To act politically and pursue social justice •  To have moral and civic virtues such as concern for others, social responsibility and the belief in the capacity to make a difference in the world.

Not  Just  a  Social  Studies   Curriculum!  

Underwater  Sea  Lab  

Example from Episode 3: Students discuss and develop a floor plan for an underwater sea lab.

Academic  language  development  

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7/20/13

Social  Skills   •  Many  Storypath  episodes  have   social  skills  objecFves  built  into   the  acFviFes.       •  Great  opportunity  to  pre-­‐teach   social  skills  and  work  in   collaboraFon  with  the  Mental   Health  Specialist.       Social  Skills  Integrated   •  ParFcipaFng  in  group  discussions   •  Working  with  a  partner  or  small  group   •  Problem  solving  with  a  partner  or   group   •  PresenFng  to  an  audience   •  ParFcipaFng  as  an  audience  member  

Literacy:  Writing   Sentence  wriFng  unit   •  Students  generated  a  word  bank  of  nouns  and  adjecFves  from   the  frieze  throughout  the  unit.     •  During  wriFng,  students  used  words  from  the  word  bank  to   write  complete  sentences.       •  Students  also  used  words  from  the  science  word  wall!    

Literacy:  Reading  and  Writing   •  Reader’s  Workshop  framework  used  for  comprehension   instrucFon.   •  Taught  a  non-­‐ficFon  unit  in  conjuncFon  with  the  Storypath  unit.     Example  from  Episode  5:   Students  research  a  specific  sea  animal,  write  a  report,  present   findings  to  the  group  and  create  a  model  of  their  sea  animal.      

Science   Example  from  Episode  6:  The  Oil  Spill   Students  carry  out  experimental  invesFgaFons  to  determine  the   effects  of  oil  spills.    

  Solids  and  Liquids  Foss  Science  Kit   •  Students  studied  properFes  of  solids  and  liquids  in  science.   •  During  the  criFcal  incident,  students  used  knowledge  of  properFes   of  liquids  when  exploring  the  effects  of  oil  spills.       Academic  vocabulary  being  used  across  content  areas!   •  Viscous     •  Opaque   •  Liquid  (oil  and  water)   •  Effect      

 

   

Learning  Through  Art   Art  built  into  the  unit:   •  CreaFng  the  frieze:  coral,  plants  and   sea  life.   •  CreaFng  the  characters.   •  Designing  floor  plans  for  the  sea  lab.     •  CreaFng  models.     •  Designing  a  poster  for  the   InternaFonal  Conference     Supplemental  Art  Lesson  on  Jelly  Fish!  

Field  Trips:  Communities  are  Important   Field  trip  to  The  Sea/le   Aquarium     Example  from  Episode  5:   •  Students  gathered  data  and   observaFons  on  their  sea   animal.   •  Students  used  informaFon   from  the  field  trip  to  write   about  and  present  their  sea   animal.    

 

4

7/20/13

Scaffolding  and  Building   Knowledge  for  Diverse  Learners   (The  Toy  Company)  

Student-­‐Led  Conferences   •  Student-­‐created  pornolios   with  best  work  samples  or   pictures  from  every  content   area.       •  Students  lead  a  conference   with  their  family  and   presented  their  pornolio.     •  Every  student  included   many  pieces  of  work  from   the  Storypath  unit!    

Paige  Richmond,  Renton  School  District   Intermediate  Elementary  EBD  (Renton  Academy)  

About  the  “Inventors”  at   Renton  Academy  

Understanding  the  Marketplace:   The  Toy  Company  (Grades  3-­‐5)   •  Found  and  work  at     a  toy  company   (Episodes  1-­‐2)   •  Invent,  design,  and     build  toys  (Episode  3)   •  Research  how  to     market  and  sell  toys     (Episode  4)   •  Problem-­‐solve  when     the  company  moves  overseas  (Episode  5)   •  Present  new  toys  at  a  Toy  Fair  (Episode  6)  

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28  

Storypath  can  accommodate   diverse  learners  

•  Self-­‐contained  classroom     in  a  K-­‐12,  therapeuFc  school     for  students  with  EBD   •  3  fourth-­‐grade  and   9  fiph-­‐grade  students   •  All  students  have  EBD,     most  also  have  LD   •  1  female  and     11  male  students     from  different  cultural  and     socio-­‐economic  backgrounds  

29  

What  background  knowledge   do  these  students  need?   •  Storypath  assumes  students  understand:   •  Economics  (The  Toy  Company)   •  Science  (Great  Barrier  Reef)   •  American  history  (A  NaFon  Divided)   •  Different  cultures  (A  Trip  to  Kenya)   •  How  to  work  in  groups  (all  curriculum)  

•  AccommodaFons  and  modificaFons  made     by  teachers  in  this  study:   •  Slowing  down  and  expanding  Episodes   •  Scaffolding  wriFng  acFviFes   •  Teaching  social  skills     •  Modifying  episodes   •  Crea%ng  and  ac%va%ng  background   knowledge   30  

31  

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7/20/13

What  background  knowledge   do  these  students  need?  

How  can  we  modify  Storypath?  

Teach  background  knowledge  

•  Storypath  assumes  students  understand:  

•  Episode  1  

•  Economics  (The  Toy  Company)   •  Science  (Great  Barrier  Reef)   •  American  history  (A  NaFon  Divided)   •  Different  cultures  (A  Trip  to  Kenya)   •  How  to  work  in  groups  (all  curriculum)  

• How  might  students  with  learning   differences,  EBD,  or  other  disabiliBes     lack  this  background  knowledge?  

32  

How  can  we  modify  Storypath?  

How  can  we  modify  Storypath?  

Teach  background  knowledge   WHAT IS A SLOGAN?

EXAMPLES OF FAMOUS SLOGANS

•  Slogans are used for advertising.

•  Taste the rainbow.

Pre-­‐teach  social  skills   LET’S VOTE ON OUR SLOGAN! •  Each employee thinks of one slogan for our company. •  Every idea is a good idea! •  Write down your idea for a slogan on your worksheet. •  Raise your hand to share with the group. •  Each employee gets 2 votes with heads down.

!  Commercials !  Newspaper or magazine advertisements !  Advertising on the Internet

•  A good slogan can change how your customers view your company. © Paige Richmond, RSD, 2013

© Paige Richmond, RSD, 2013

WHAT MAKES A GOOD SLOGAN?

EXAMPLES OF FAMOUS SLOGANS

•  Tells the customer about the company’s products •  Tells the customer about the company’s values •  Uses very few words (5 at the most) •  Easy to remember

•  I’m lovin’ it.

33  

• Where  might  students  struggle?  

34   (C) Paige Richmond, Renton Schools, 2013

© Paige Richmond, RSD, 2013

© Paige Richmond, RSD, 2013

How  can  we  modify  Storypath?    

How  can  we  modify  Storypath?    

Teach  and  re-­‐teach  concepts  

Teach  and  re-­‐teach  concepts   •  Watched  “How  It’s  Made”    for  background  knowledge   •  Watched  commercials  paired  with  worksheets    

•  Episode  3:  Crea)ng  Toys  

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WHAT MAKES A GOOD TOY?

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1. Think about a toy you like to play with.

Name of toy:

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2. List three qualities about the toy that makes it a toy you like to play with.

Toy Qualities:

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As a toy inventor, what should you think about when you are creating a new toy? Look at your list above. Circle any ideas that help you.

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3. Can you add new ideas? Write these ideas below.

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•  Extended  to  120  minutes   •  Re-­‐visited  and  re-­‐taught  concept  throughout  Episode  3    

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4. Share your ideas with the other toy inventors. Add other ideas from the

class discussion on the lines below.

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Assessment: Directions are followed and all the information requested is provided and complete.

©2005 Storypath

PORTFOLIO Understanding the Marketplace

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7/20/13

How  can  we  modify  Storypath?  

How  can  we  modify  Storypath?  

Modify  individual  episodes  

Modify  individual  episodes   •  Created  Market  Research  packet  for  each  group’s  toy  

•  Episode  4  

•  Bike with stereo and bass •  Estimated cost to make: •  Estimated selling price:

© Paige Richmond, RSD, 2013

MARKET RESEARCH $20.45 $26.59

SIMILAR TOYS •  How much do kids’ bikes cost? !  BMX freestyle bicycle !  Reinforced high-tensile steel !  Single speed !  Front and rear brakes !  20-inch tires !  Selling price: $110

•  Changed  to  “Market  Research”  so  students  could  be/er   understand  how  to  make  and  price  toys  

How  can  we  modify  Storypath?    

Even  with  all  these  modi8ications….  

Scaffold  writing  assignments  

be  sure  to  follow  the  “Story!”   •  TempFng  to   eliminate  acFviFes   because  we  fear   our  students  will   not  be  successful  

•  Episode  6:  Crea)ng  Toy  Fair  posters   EPISODE 6 PORTFOLIO

16 CONT.

SKETCH YOUR DISPLAY. On a sheet of paper, sketch where you will place the information on the display. Check off each of the following as you add it to your display:

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ASSESS YOUR ROUGH SKETCH. Answer these questions, making changes to your display sketch if necessary. N Does the display attract attention? N N

Is the layout simple and uncluttered? What is the message conveyed about the toy? Is the message clear?

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How will your display persuade people to buy your toy?

MAKE THE DISPLAY. Follow your sketch and your answers to the above assessment questions to make your display. Pencil in where you will place your information and your visuals before you glue them onto your display.

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What  makes  all  &these  extra   modiXications  worth  it?   :&;'#<%&=#,)/*.>[email protected]&

Balancing  Content  Knowledge   and  Social  Skills  Development   (Safari  to  Kenya:  The  Land  and   the  People)  

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Carrie  Riggs,  Renton  School  District,   Primary  Self-­‐Contained  Special  EducaFon   Classroom  at  Tiffany  Park  Elementary  

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Tiffany  Park  Elementary  Primary  ILC   •  Research  conducted  in  self-­‐contained  special  educaFon  classroom  in  a   comprehensive  elementary  school  (K-­‐5).   •  “InstrucFonal  Learning  Center”  serves  13  first,  second  and  third  graders.   •  Students  qualify  for  services  in  reading,  wriFng,  math,  adapFve  behavior,   OT,  speech  and  social/emoFonal/  behavior.   •  Most  instrucFon  conducted  in  highly  structured,  teacher-­‐led,  small  groups.     •  Students  spend  apernoon  in  general  educaFon  classroom  usually  during   science,  social  studies,  art  or  other  increased  hands  on/high  interest  Fme.  

Concepts  and  Skills  Utilized  and  Learned    

•  Content:  geography,  climate,  maps,  Africa,  Maasai  Mara  people  and   culture,  animals,  travel,  needs  and  wants,  preservaFon,   environmental  impact,  cultural  differences…   •  Social  Skills:  pair/group  work  to  common  goal,  using  peers  as  a  help   resource,  problem  idenFficaFon  and  solving,  compromise,   consensus,  conflict  resoluFon,  empathy,  respect,  turn  taking…   •  Academic  Skills:  reading,  wriFng,  speaking,  presenFng,  research,   deriving  informaFon  from  a  variety  of  formats…  

Storypath:  Safari  to  Kenya  

•  SeKng:  Maasai  Mara  Game  Reserve     •  Characters:  Photographers     •  Episode  1  The  Photographers:  IntroducFon  of   unit  and  “Research  Photographer”  persona  creaFon.   •  Episode  2  Preparing  for  the  Safari:  Planning  for  internaFonal  travel  and   developing  understanding  of  Kenya’s  geography  and  climate.   •  Episode  3  The  Maasai  Mara  Game  Reserve:  IntroducFon  of  Maasai  Mara   Game  Reserve,  creaFon  of  frieze,  animal  research,  report,  and  presentaFon.     •  Episode  4  The  Maasai  Village:  IntroducFon  of  Maasai  village  and  culture,   creaFon  of  village,  Maasai  daily  life  research,  report  and  presentaFon.   •  Episode  5  A  Misunderstanding:  IntroducFon,  discussion  and  response  to   the  criFcal  incident  of  photographers  making  fun  and  insulFng  the  Maasai.   •  Episode  6  The  Farewell:  Planning  and  parFcipaFon  in  farewell  party.  

Challenges  and  ModiXications   In  each  lesson  a  variety  of  social  and  academic  skills  are  u)lized     and  applied  to  engage  with  new  concepts  in  depth   Challenges   •  Prior  knowledge  and  exposure     •  Accessing  informaFon  (reading)   •  DemonstraFng  understanding  (speaking,  wriFng)   •  Social  skill  applicaFon   •  Academic  and  procedural  skill  use     Modifica)ons   •  Build  background  in  content,  social  and  academic  understandings   •  Use  lessons  as  an  applicaBon  Fme  for  social  and  academic  skills/goals   •  PrioriFze  and  frame  lesson  around  one  skill/content  target   •  Teach  and  use  reflecFon  of  both  self  and  by  peers   •  Release  control:  allow  students  to  struggle,  adapt,  and  generate  soluFons  

 

Structuring  Groups  and  Lesson  Formats   Student  driven  experiences  form  the  background  of  Storypath.   Modifying  group  set  up  and  lesson  format  increases  student  success.     Groups   •  Range  of  abiliFes     •  “Leaders”   •  QuanFty  and  dynamics   •  Individual  and  Group  requirements  

Lesson  Formats   •  Whole  group  Teacher  led  for  introducFons  and     specifically  difficult  skills/concepts   •  Provide  more  Fme  and  access  to  resources     in  order  to  build  content  and  background   •  Choose  the  format  most  conducive  to  the  focus  goal  

Skill  Instruction    

Storypath  provides  an  opportunity  to  apply  social  and  academic  skills   Actual  skill  instruc)on  can  be  taught  at  other  )mes  and  referenced  at  start  of   lesson.     •  Classroom  MeeFngs   •  Social  Skills  Lessons   •  Mini-­‐Lessons   •  WriFng     •  Reading  Unit     Lessons  Learned   •  PracFce/apply  social  skill  or  procedure  first.     Once  exposed  to  skill,  then  use  format  to  develop  content  understanding.   •  Start  basic  and  scaffold,  increase  complexity  and  decrease  support  as  the   unit  progresses.  Some  adapted  structure  may  be  necessary  throughout.   •  Opportunity  to  illustrate  and  reference  why  of  social  skills.   •  Allow  for  some  “down-­‐Fme”  in  scope  planning-­‐whatever  format  your   students  are  most  comfortable  with  or  prefer.    

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ReXlection  and  Peer  Input   Self-­‐Reflec)on  is  important  in  evalua)ng  performance  and     changing  future  behavior  to  increase  success   Peer  Input  connects  the  individual  to  the  group  and  helps   illustrate  the  impact  individual  choices  have  on  others                       Lessons  Learned   •  Takes  Fme  to  teach  and  implement   •  External  “rewards”  to  make  it  relevant   •  Spend  Fme  with  response  to  peer  input   •  Reinforce  it  is  process,  not  a  puniFve  tool   •  Must  be  systemaFc  

Social  Justice  and  Self-­Ef;icacy  Through   Storypath  (A  Nation  Divided)  

Let  Go!!!!   We  are  trained  to  structure  school  so  that  our  students  are  successful.    It   is  difficult  to  let  go  of  that  control  and  watch  students  struggle.     Storypath  is  an  opportunity  for  students  to  develop  meaningful     skills  and  knowledge  by  independently  struggling,  synthesizing     and  adapFng,  in  a  safe  and  familiar  environment.    

•  Conflict  ResoluFon   •  Result/Student  output   •  Structure   •  Time    

Nelsen  Middle  School   The research for this study was conducted in a comprehensive middle school program for students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. Nelsen Middle School has approximately 1100 students. The EBD program has an average of 8-10 students throughout the year. Program teaching staff consisted of 1 teacher and 3.5 support staff. Students are transitioned towards a more inclusive setting when the data supports overall improvements in academics and behavior.

Thomas  Grant,  Renton  School  District   Middle  School  EBD  Program  at  Nelsen   Middle  School  (now  at  UW)  

Specialized  Classroom  for  Students               with  EBD   4 African-American boys, 1 African-American girl, and 1 Hispanic boy participated in this unit. Unit was taught during a period known for low academic effort and frequent behavorial interventions. Most students of the students qualifed for special education services in all academic areas, as well as behavior.

Storypath   In “A Nation Divided”, students learn about life in Chattanooga, Tennessee in the 1860’s; events that led to the Civil War; and the ethical and moral dimensions of these historical events.

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Episodes  1-­4   Episode 1: Students create the natural environment and town of Chattanooga in the 1860s. Episode 2: Students create family characters who live and work in Chattanooga at that time. Episode 3: Students research historical events and people of the time period. Episode 4: Students discover that a slave catcher comes to town searching for members of the Underground Railroad.

Episodes  5-­8   Episode 5: Students learn about the presidential candidates and then vote for their candidate of choice - if their character is eligible to vote. Episode 6: Students learn of the onset of war and decide if they will support the North or South and the consequences of choosing sides. Episode 7: Students learn of the major battles and events that led to the siege of Chattanooga and then work together to survive the siege. Episode 8: Students decide on a monument and ceremony to commemorate the events and rebuild good will in their community.

Modi;ications   Understanding  individual   skill  gaps     Building  background   knowledge     Creating  worksheets     Organizing  curriculum   content     Group  vs.  Individual  work  

Conclusions   Teaching this unit resulted in many couragous conversations about race, class, and equity. Improved interactions with building staff. The students were excited to learn, frequently engaged, and eager to work in groups. Our most difficult period became one of our most productive periods. Curriculm was nicely sequenced, required more time than noted, and additional resources were required to build background knowledge.

Results   March  

April  

May  

June  

Average  

Boy (7th)  

3.0  

3.2  

3.8  

3.9  

3.5  

Girl (8th)  

4.1  

4.8  

4.9  

5.0  

4.7  

Academic Rubric 6: Completed all work and helped others 5: Completed all work 4: Completed most work

Most students showed a substantial increase in academic output.

3: Completed some work 2: Completed minimal work 1: No work completed

This in turn resulted in fewer behavioral interventions.

We  believe…   • All learners deserve a content rich learning environment. • They deserve instruction that supports their learning and the belief that they are capable. • The Storypath experience supports acceptance & involvement of all children in the classroom community, so essential for their future learning.

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Six  reasons   Storypath  is  a   useful  approach   for  diverse   learners…  

•  Imagination affirms that each student has something to contribute and share. •  Each student has an experience that connects to the story and develops over time. •  Students come together to work on a common problem. • 

See Project GLAD (Guided Language Acquisition Design), http://www.projectglad.com/. Cruz, Barbara C. and Stephen J. Thornton, The Process of English Language Learning and What to Expect, Teaching Social Studies to English Language Learners. (New York: Routledge, 2009), 9-16. Pransky, Ken . Beneath the Surface:The Hidden Realities of Teaching Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Young Learners K-6. (Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2008).

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•  The narrative structure of the Storypath—setting, character, and plot—provides scaffolding for learning in a way that is meaningful to students.

•  Story-making is compelling; it helps us remember and make sense of our world.

•  They (students) are the story in a concrete way. •  Their involvement taps into multiple ways of knowing & learning—social interaction, role-play, visualization, kinesthetic experiences, problem solving, imaginative play and development of the accompanying academic skills used in activities.

•  The story and the skills needed to engage in it have a purpose. What will happen next? What do I need to learn and do next to help the story unfold? 64

Storypath experiences include:

•  Students have to decide what to do and consider the consequences of their choices. They do this together.

•  sandwiching known expressions with new academic language and content;

•  Choices engage students dramatically in realworld dilemmas; they work together to solve the problems in a concrete way.

•  using word banks, labeling to develop vocabulary;

•  They come to school asking, What will happen in the Storypath today?

•  using visuals and manipulatives; •  using interactive activities to foster conceptual understandings; and

•  Outsiders become insiders when they offer ideas important to the community.

•  role-playing events to understand scenarios and use social skills & academic skills in context.

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•  Students learn and practice social skills in concrete contexts as part of larger content.

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Current  Storypath  Curriculum  (www.teachstorypath.com)  

•  The structural components of setting, character, and plot set the stage for developing all kinds of themes. •  Problem tackling as a cooperative endeavor promoting the values of trust and respect for differences. We see problems differently and through the problem solving discourse, we can learn to appreciate each other s contributions. •  Students learn to see issues and learning from more than one perspective.

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