Supply Chain - IBM

Supply Chain - IBM

2012 Corporate Responsibility Report Supply Chain Social and environmental responsibility is an important part of our...

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2012 Corporate Responsibility Report

Supply Chain Social and environmental responsibility is an important part of our business relationships with our suppliers. We work closely with them to encourage sustained improvement throughout our global supply chain and across various aspects of corporate responsibility. In this section you will find examples of how we set requirements for the companies we do business with, grow the global diversity of our supply base and collaborate with industry groups and stakeholders.

IBM 2012 Corporate Responsibility Report


Contents Supply Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Supplier Assessment and Improvement Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Industry Collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Conflict Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Supplier Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

IBM 2012 Corporate Responsibility Report / Supply Chain

Supply Chain With suppliers located in close to 100 countries, social and environmental responsibility is a major facet of our corporate responsibility efforts and we have incorporated this into our business relationships with our valued suppliers. IBM’s supply chain is a strategic asset that helps us deliver consistently high-quality goods and services to our customers on a local and global level. We are very aware of the importance that comes with having a supply chain of this magnitude and, as such, we have crafted our social responsibility efforts in unison with our providers to promote sustainable performance as a shared objective. And to this end, in light of the increased interest many stakeholders have in our global supply chain, we continue to enhance our initiatives described here.

Supplier spending: $35.3 billion total in 2012 2012 Supplier Spending by Category (dollars in billions)

64% Services and General Procurement ($22.8 billion) 33% Production Procurement ($11.5 billion) 3% Logistics Procurement ($1.0 billion)

2012 Supplier Spending by Supplier Location (dollars in billions)

35% North America ($12.4 billion) 35% Asia Pacific ($12.4 billion) 21% Europe, Middle East, Africa ($7.4 billion) 9% Latin America ($3.1 billion)


IBM 2012 Corporate Responsibility Report / Supply Chain

In 2012, approximately 90 percent of our global spend in Production and Logistics Procurement (in support of our hardware and logistics business operations) occurred with the following firms: Acbel Polytech

Altis Semiconductor

Amkor Technology

Applied Materials

ASML Avnet Benchmark Brocade Celestica

Cisco Systems

Compro Business Services

Dai Nippon Printing

Delta Electronics

Elpida Memory

Emerson Network Power


Endicott Interconnect


Fuji Electric





Jabil Circuit

Kingston Technology



Lam Research


Mellanox Technologies

Micron Technology



NuFlare Technology

Pegatron QLogic Samsung Seagate Shin-Etsu Handotai

SMART Modular Technologies

Tel-Ad Electronics

The Karrie Group

Tokyo Electronic Ltd.


Venture Volterra Wistron Xyratex


IBM 2012 Corporate Responsibility Report / Supply Chain

In Services and General Procurement (in support of our software, services and overall operations) approximately 45 percent of our global spend was with the following firms: Adecco Group

American Airlines

American Express

Artech Information Systems


BMC Software

CA Technologies

CBRE Group


Cisco Systems

Clarius Group



CVS Caremark

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu

Delta Air Lines

EMC Fluor Fujitsu

George P. Johnson

Hays Hewlett-Packard Hilton Hitachi HSG Zander

Infinite Computer Solutions

Infor Global Solutions

Internet Initiative Japan

IT Holdings

Johnson Controls

Jones Lang LaSalle

Juniper Networks

LeasePlan Lenovo Manpower Marriott Microsoft Mitsubishi Oracle Randstad Ricoh

Rocket Software


SDI International Corp.

SHI International

Sumitomo Corporation

TES Verizon WPP Group



IBM 2012 Corporate Responsibility Report / Supply Chain

Supplier Assessment and Improvement Plans In the globally connected world, much is expected from all parties in the extended supply chain. Companies with a brand presence are held to high expectations for their supply chain stewardship, which can reach many levels and cross numerous continents. As a result, IBM works diligently with its suppliers to promote best practices and encourage continuous improvement in order to meet these heightened expectations. Global Supply Social and Environmental Management System In 2010, IBM Global Supply introduced its Social and Environmental Management System (S&EMS) to its worldwide supply chain. The objectives of S&EMS are to: • Define,

deploy and sustain a management system that addresses corporate responsibility, including social and environmental stewardship

• Measure

performance and establish voluntary, quantifiable environmental goals

• Publicly

disclose results associated with these voluntary environmental goals and other environmental aspects of their management systems

• Encourage

first-tier suppliers to cascade these requirements to their own suppliers

In 2012, we followed up the introduction of S&EMS with a systematic review examining the evidence submitted by suppliers in order to satisfy the intent of each objective. In some cases, updated information or clarification was requested. To supplement this initiative we implemented a new checklist for our procurement teams to use during new supplier on-boarding to determine a supplier’s compliance to our Supply Chain Social Responsibility and S&EMS programs. If a new supplier is not compliant at the time of on-boarding, they are given 12 months to become so. During this time members of our procurement organization periodically assess the suppliers’ progress and offer guidance to assist them in reaching their objectives. IBM’s S&EMS received significant recognition during 2012, including ISO 14001 certification as well as the International Institute for Advanced Purchasing & Supply’s Asian Award and Chambers Ireland’s President’s Award for Excellence in Marketplace.


IBM 2012 Corporate Responsibility Report / Supply Chain


Supply Chain Social Responsibility IBM’s dedication to Supply Chain Social Responsibility (SCSR) has been clearly demonstrated over the past eight years. Year by year we have assessed a growing portion of our supply chain in the developing world, and we believe this has generated improvements in conditions for thousands of people working in the electronics sector supply chain. In 2012, we chartered 257 full audits and 120 re-audits for a total of 377 assessments of suppliers in 29 countries, our largest number of countries with audit activity in a single year. And we launched assessments for the first time in Bulgaria, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dubai, Peru and Slovenia, bringing our roster of countries with initial audits to 31. 2012 IBM SCSR Completed Audits by Country (377 audits conducted) 0




67 total




27 26

Malaysia Mexico

19 19 19 17 16 15 14 14

Brazil Korea Singapore Turkey Taiwan Philippines Romania Thailand

11 11

Bulgaria Slovenia

9 8 8

Dubai Argentina Russia South Africa Chile Czech Republic Costa Rica Hungary Colombia Hong Kong Peru Slovakia Kenya Nigeria Vietnam


5 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 Full Audits


1,350 initial audit assessments measuring supplier compliance from 2004 through 2012

IBM 2012 Corporate Responsibility Report / Supply Chain


In 2012, the total number of IBM’s initial supplier audits in an eight-year span reached 1,350, with cumulative results illustrated in the chart below. These assessments measured supplier compliance to the Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC) or the IBM Code of Conduct. IBM is the largest user of the EICC’s Validated Audit Process, directing all hardware supplier assessments through this collaboratively developed approach that provides a common process for sharing results and eliminating costly duplicate assessments. Supplier Initial Audit Results—Global Cumulative (2004–2012) (% non compliant to IBM/EICC code, base = +1,300 suppliers) 0




47% 39%

Working Hours Wages and Benefits

27% 25%

Respect & Dignity Communications Environmental Child Labor Nondescrimination Mgt Sys L&E Forced Labor Ethical Dealings Mgt Sys EHS Freedom of Association


69% total

Health and Safety

Record Keeping


15% 13% 13% 11% 8% 8% 7% 6% 4% Minor Noncompliance

Major Noncompliance

Audits performed in the following countries: Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Dubai, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey and Vietnam

Of the 257 full audits IBM conducted in 2012, 171 were on suppliers assessed for the first time. The audit performance of these suppliers is depicted in the chart below. This data shows that initial audit compliance has improved significantly in the areas of Health and Safety, Working Hours, Wages and Benefits, Communications, Environmental, Respect and Dignity, Nondiscrimination and Record Keeping. IBM’s efforts in communicating code compliance begin at the initial stages of supplier engagement and are part of regular business reviews at the functional and executive levels. Audit results demonstrate thirdparty assessments are a necessary resource to identify and help resolve issues. In some provisions (Management Systems (L&E and EHS), Child Labor, Ethical Dealings and Forced Labor), 2012 initial audits showed a higher degree of noncompliance than our historical data. This was the result of auditing to the current version of the EICC Code, which in early 2012 added additional compliance criteria in these important areas. The major noncompliance in the Child Labor provision was associated

IBM 2012 Corporate Responsibility Report / Supply Chain


with noncompliance to policies and practices to fully investigate preemployment age documentation. In no instances were underage workers found in these audits during 2012. Supplier Initial Audit Results (2012) (% non compliant to IBM/EICC code, base = 171 suppliers) 0




Wages and Benefits

Mgt Sys L&E Child Labor Ethical Dealings Forced Labor Respect & Dignity Mgt Sys EHS Nondescrimination Record Keeping Freedom of Association



Working Hours



56% total

Health and Safety



18% 17% 15% 14% 13% 13% 13% 8% 6% 6% 5% Minor Noncompliance

Major Noncompliance

IBM’s supplier assessment practice requires audited suppliers to create and submit a Supplier Improvement Plan (SIP) for all incidents of noncompliance discovered. The SIP links audit findings to root causes and improvements are tested by a re-audit. During 2012, 311 SIPs were reviewed and accepted within 90 days of the full audit by suppliers that had been audited within the prior 12-month time frame. The effectiveness of our audit-SIP-re-audit strategy is illustrated by comparing the “before and after” results of suppliers experiencing a complete cycle, as shown by the chart below. Re-audits conducted on 118 Production and Services and General Procurement suppliers are compared with their full audits (conducted in the 2009–2011 timeframe). For ease of reading and comparison, only major noncompliance results are depicted in the chart.

IBM 2012 Corporate Responsibility Report / Supply Chain


Comparison of 118 Full Audit vs. Re-audit Compliance (% non compliant, major noncompliance levels illustrated) 0



Working Hours


33% 25%

3% 18%







Record Keeping


43% 9%

Mgt Sys L&E




Wages and Benefits

Mgt Sys EHS



Health and Safety

Ethical Dealings





Forced Labor




11% 9% 8% 7%

3% 1%

Freedom of Association Child Labor


Respect and Dignity


3% 2% Full Audits


With regard to a number of code provisions, the re-audits indicated major noncompliance was completely addressed in: Ethical Dealings, Management Systems (EHS), Child Labor and Respect and Dignity. In all other areas, substantial reductions in noncompliance were achieved, including a 90 percent improvement in Health and Safety compliance, a 70 percent improvement in Wages and Benefits compliance and a 70 percent improvement in Working Hours compliance. Working Hours remained the largest area of noncompliance, and while this is unsatisfactory, it is consistent with our knowledge of the challenges associated with full resolution on a global basis, especially in developing markets. Overall, 74 percent of re-audited suppliers resolved all major noncompliance issues after completion of one cycle—a significant achievement and in line with our trend data. IBM Global Supply is working on contingencies with its suppliers remaining noncompliant. Our leadership team reviews and tracks supplier assessment results on an ongoing basis. These are compiled and reviewed on a monthly basis with executives and on a quarterly basis with IBM’s Chief Procurement Officer.

IBM 2012 Corporate Responsibility Report / Supply Chain

2012 Center of Excellence for Product Environmental Compliance IBM’s global Center of Excellence (CoE) for Product Environmental Compliance has end-to-end responsibility for meeting product-related government environmental requirements. The CoE’s mission includes the development of strategy, processes, deployment plans, research and development of alternate materials and technologies, and education and training materials. The CoE also is an active member in industry and regulatory bodies around the world. Year over year, environmental regulations continue to increase in number and complexity. The types of regulations we address include prohibited substances, product takeback programs, product energy usage, batteries and most recently nanotechnology regulations. In 2012, IBM successfully transitioned thousands of part numbers that were affected by the conclusion of the European Union’s RoHS Directive—designed to restrict the use of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment— exemptions 7c3 and 11b. As of January 1, 2013, IBM products shipped into the EU are fully compliant and lead-free.


IBM 2012 Corporate Responsibility Report / Supply Chain


Industry Collaboration We embrace the practice of working in unison with other parties who share the vision of making sustained improvements in the extended supply chain. In 2012, IBM’s involvement with the Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC) continued to expand in terms of support, participation and utilization of the organization’s numerous resources. Founded in 2004 and incorporated in 2007 as a nonprofit industry group, the EICC continues to make strides toward its ultimate goal of creating a sector that consistently operates in a socially and environmentally responsible fashion. As a founding member, IBM encourages its suppliers of products and services to join the group and participate in the development and deployment of resources aimed at driving improvements in social responsibility. At the end of 2012, the EICC had grown to 75 member companies across retail, electronics, software, logistics and communication industries, representing five distinct tiers of the extended supply chain. IBM completed its two terms of volunteer service as chair of the EICC board of directors, and expanded its representation in a number of working groups including Learning and Capability Building, Extractives/Conflict Minerals, Asia Program outreach, Governance Task Force and the Finance Committee. Through the collective efforts of its members and support partners, the EICC attained the following notable accomplishments in 2012: • Completed

its tri-annual stakeholder/membership open commentary and released Version 4.0 of its Code of Conduct

• Expanded

the geographic coverage of the Validated Audit Process to 19 countries and developed audit protocols for service suppliers and temporary labor agencies

• Launched

EICC-ON Resources for sector interchange of EICC Self-Assessment Questionnaires and Validated Audit Reports

• Published

updated rosters of Conflict-Free Smelters for Tantalum and Gold, with Tin and Tungsten in the works

• Hired

its first executive director and elected a new and expanded board of directors

In addition to working within the EICC, IBM is also active at the country level engaging with organizations that share a common interest in driving improvements in supply chain social responsibility. An example of this can be found in Mexico, where we work with three regional organizations in the Guadalajara/Jalisco region. Jalisco’s electronic cluster plays a key role in Mexico’s development and contributes significantly to Mexico’s GDP. IBM, along with other major electronic companies, has established collaboration mechanisms through industry chambers. One such group is CANIETI (Camara Nacional de la Industria Electronica y Tecnologias de Informacion, or National Chamber of Electronics Industry and Information Technologies) where firms are collaborating on common projects to increase the social responsibility of the sector in Mexico. IBM is also collaborating with ACTIVO Jalisco Sustentable to help small and medium enterprises develop socially responsible capabilities to drive economic, environmental and sustainable growth. During 2012 more than 800 guests from small and medium enterprises located in the Jalisco region attended workshops on Corporate Social Responsibility. IBM collaborates on this project with other leading companies and Tecnologico de Monterrey to help share our experiences and benefits of being a socially responsible enterprise. IBM also maintains a collaborative relationship with CEREAL, a key nongovernmental organization located in the region. Through frequent meetings and open communication, the parties involved in these efforts can address in a constructive manner areas of mutual concern regarding working conditions in our regional IBM supply chain.

IBM 2012 Corporate Responsibility Report / Supply Chain


Conflict Minerals We understand the importance of achieving a supply chain that uses only responsibly sourced minerals. And so at IBM we continuously work toward this goal in the extended supply chain, and we communicate our efforts publicly. Last year, IBM and other members of the Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC), in conjunction with the Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI) Supply Chain Work Group and companies from other sectors outside electronics continued working to achieve a supply chain free of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) conflict region-originated minerals. Four minerals (tin, tantalum, tungsten and gold) originating in the DRC are considered conflict minerals, although these materials are often found in other parts of the world and from legitimate sources within the DRC that are not conflict-related. IBM has published its conflict minerals standard outlining our recognition of the importance of this issue and our plans to take definitive steps to ensure only responsibly sourced materials are in our extended supply chain. This standard is posted to the Global Supply website and has been brought to the attention of our upstream suppliers. In 2012, EICC/GeSI updated its web-based list of Conflict Free Smelter (CFS) results for companies that successfully completed this rigorous assessment. The CFS assessment process was created for smelters and refiners that play a crucial role in the extended supply chain as they are the point at which concentrated ores are refined into the higher-level materials that cascade into technology products. This year saw the updated release of the EICC/GeSI Conflict Minerals Reporting Template and Dashboard. This survey and consolidation software was developed to provide companies with a common format for their upstream suppliers to identify the use of the four materials, the smelters used in the extended supply chain and—where possible—the country of origin of the four minerals. In the fourth quarter of 2012, IBM deployed this survey to 35 direct suppliers of subcomponents to our Microelectronics group. From this work, we learned the identities of 145 upstream tantalum, tin and tungsten smelters and gold refiners, located in 25 countries, currently used by our direct suppliers. We have shared a consolidated report of these survey results with more than 40 customers of the Microelectronics group in support of external interest in this topic. By comparing the smelters in the current EICC/GeSI CFS list we determined the vast majority of the upstream tantalum smelters in the IBM Microelectronics supply chain are indeed certified as conflict-free. In the fourth quarter we also deployed the conflict minerals survey with more than 300 direct suppliers to our Systems and Technology Group to gain similar insight to the smelters feeding into this portion of our extended supply chain, and we began compiling and analyzing this data during the second quarter of 2013. Our upstream survey work is part of our preparation for reporting required by May 31, 2014 for the US Security and Exchange Commission’s Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, section 1502.

IBM 2012 Corporate Responsibility Report / Supply Chain


Supplier Diversity IBM is committed to diversity in all parts of its business, and has been for more than 100 years. IBM’s history of maintaining a diverse supply chain is no exception. The company first established a global supply chain diversity program in 1968. This was four years before the creation of the National Minority Supplier Development Council (NMSDC) and 29 years before the Women’s Business Enterprise National Council (WBENC) was founded. We were the first IT company to conduct more than $1 billion of business with diverse suppliers in the United States. And we learned early on that fostering diversity is not only the right thing to do for society, but for business as well. A diverse supplier base not only provides talent, it also helps add stability and flexibility throughout our supply chain and promotes economic growth in local communities. In 2012, IBM conducted $3.3 billion of global business with first- and second-tier diverse suppliers. Of that, $2.6 billion was contracted with first-tier suppliers, up from $2.5 billion in 2011. And of that, we did $939 million in business with non-US first-tier diverse suppliers, representing a 7 percent increase from the previous year. The growth in diverse spend outside the United States is the result of our creation of full-time diversity positions in growth markets such as China. Amount of IBM Business Conducted with First-Tier Diverse Suppliers (dollars in billions) 2011 2012

2.5 2.6

For these and other accomplishments in 2012, IBM Program Director of Global Supplier Diversity Michael K. Robinson was named Supplier Diversity Ambassador by Minority Business News USA. Robinson also received the Executive Leadership Award at the 2011 Congressional Minority Business Awards Gala, and he was recognized by Asian Enterprise Magazine as their Advocate of the Year. In addition to the NMSDC, IBM is a founding member of the WBENC, WEConnect International, the National Gay and Lesbian Chamber of Commerce and US Business Leadership Network’s Disability Supplier Diversity Program. IBM also participates in international organizations focused on supplier diversity, such as the Australian Indigenous Minority Supplier Council, the Canadian Aboriginal and Minority Supplier Council, Minority Supplier Development United Kingdom, Minority Supplier Development China, South African Minority Supplier Development, WEConnect Canada, WEConnect Europe, WEConnect India and the International Gay and Lesbian Chamber of Commerce.

$3.3 billion of business with first- and second-tier diverse suppliers in 2012

939 million $ of purchasing with first-tier, non-US-based diverse suppliers in 2012

IBM 2012 Corporate Responsibility Report / Supply Chain

Since the inception of IBM’s Supplier Diversity Program, IBM has received much recognition for its efforts. In the past 12 years the company has received more than 100 corporate and individual awards from local, regional, national and federal entities. This past year was particularly noteworthy, as IBM’s efforts in maintaining a diverse supply chain were recognized by more than two dozen organizations. Among the top honors were: • Top

Corporation by the WBENC

• Corporation

of the Year by the Minority Supplier Development

Council-UK • A

Top Corporation by

• A

2012 Corporate One recipient by the Michigan MSDC

• Corporation

of the Year by the WBEC of PA-NJ-DE

• Corporation

of the Year by the MSDC of PA-NJ-DE


International Committee’s Global Link Award

• IBM/Supplier

Connection won the Best Collaboration Award from the Supply Chain Awards North America.

Looking forward, IBM will continue to foster the diversity of its global supply chain as our business needs evolve. IBM works with many potential diverse suppliers to clearly define its requirements in both direct and indirect supply areas. And we continue this work with diverse suppliers—especially our second- and third-tier suppliers—to help them grow their capacity.


For the full 2012 Corporate Responsibility Report, go to

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