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Yellowstone National Park's Maps & Orientation Page

Page 1 of 1

Use your mouse cursor to find links.

Last Updated: Monday, 28-Aug-2006 17:09:12 Eastern Daylight Time http://www.nps.gov Yellowstone Home | Plan Your Visit | List of Maps | Main Map

Page 2 of 243

http://www.nps.gov/archive/yell/interactivemap/index.htm

3/26/2007

Canyon Village

7365ft 2254m

7734ft 2357m

0

0.1

0

Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel To Gardiner

0.5 Km

0.1 Mi

To Madison Fir e

Post Amphitheater Office Ice

0.5

To North Entrance and Gardiner

Store

Self-guiding trail

Albright Visitor Center

Post Office

Visitor Center

Upper 308ft 94m Falls View

Showers

YELLOWSTONE LAKE

Ye

0 0.1 0

To Tower-Roosevelt

s ll o w

to

ne

Upper Falls To West Thumb and Grant Village

0.4 Mi

0

109ft 33m

Grant Village

To West Thumb

k

ee Cr h

k ee Buffalo

Alum

P e li c a

PELICAN

No

Cr

hard-sided camping units only

Indian Pond

Beach Lake

Stevenson Island

ee k

Steamboat Point Sedge Bay

Lake Butte 8348ft 2544m

Maximum Depth 430ft 131m

Sylvan Lake Grizzly Peak 9948ft 3032m

De Lacy

See detail map above

PL

Delusion Lake

Ri

EA

ve r

Mount Stevenson 10352ft 3155m

NT

H

NTA L

ARM

Fir eh ol

D

Cre

CA

LD

ek

ER

Lewis Lake A

Lewis Falls 29ft 9m

Mount Sheridan 10308ft 3142m

Cre T

LA

KE

E

FOREST

Mount Schurz 11139ft 3395m Eagle Pass 9628ft 2935m Eagle Peak 11358ft 3462m (highest point in the park)

Table Mountain 11063ft 3372m Turret Mountain 10995ft 3351m

Trail Lake

k

OC

ee

R iv e r

Cr

O

Overlook Mountain 9321ft 2841m

NATIONAL

TW

AD

PLATEAU

RED MOUNTAINS

R

ve r

RY

Chipmunk

NDA

A

SC

Ri

BOU

HE

CA

PITCHSTONE

Ye l lo

ek

E

M ou

C reek

in nta

EA

BRIDGER - TETON

N

Ranger Lake

r R iv e

w is Le

Thorofare

6886ft 2099m

Riv e r

Flagg Ranch Information Station

Lake of the Woods

Bridger Lake

River

T ho

re rofa

Cre e

k

BRIDGER - TETON NATIONAL FOREST

North

Snake River 0

Sn

ak

e

Clo s

ed

in

r nte wi

Grassy Lake Reservoir

r

E

L

Road

South Entrance

T

Ri v e Mount Hancock 10214ft 3113m

Moose Falls

NG RA

ak

EN

Hering Lake

ID

Sn

TR

Cave Falls 35ft 11m

E

Bechler

TH

Beula Lake

e ak

NATIONAL FOREST

e

Road closed from early November to mid-May

U

Union Falls 260ft 79m

EA

ER

AT

RN

PL

CO

East Entrance to Cody 53 mi 85 km

SHOSHONE

Colter Peak 10683ft 3256m

ne sto w

AT

G ro u s e

M

E

XI

22 mi 35 km

ID

O

LEWIS LAKE

IV

A

y ar

R

ARM

INE

ST

CO

HEA

7988ft 2435m

A rm

UT

Flat

Riddle Lake

NE

in

SOUT

HO

ta M o un

SO

U

S HO

KE

14 16

Reservation Peak 10629ft 3240m

Mount Langford 10774ft 3284m

A OK AR ABS

AT

West Thumb Geyser Basin

20

Expect road closures at night from Sylvan Pass to East Entrance.

Mount Doane 10656ft 3248m

Frank Island

6951ft 2119m

Road closed from early November to early May

Top Notch Peak 10238ft 3121m

West Thumb

LA

Sylvan Pass 8530ft 2600m

Eleanor Lake

WEST THUMB

Grant Village

e

er

East Entrance

Cody Peak 10267ft 3129m

Avalanche Peak 10566ft 3221m

27 mi 43 km

Dot Island 8391ft 2558m

Craig Pass 8262ft 2518m

Summit Lake

Lake Elevation 7733ft 2357m

17 mi 27 km

Isa Lake Scaup Lake

rk

Ri v

Turbid Lake

Mary Bay

THE P R O M O N T O RY

N

See detail map above

Fo

ne ho

n

YELLOWSTONE LAKE

IDE

21 mi 34 km

De Lacy Lakes

Old Faithful

DIV

Cr

ISO

CONTINENTAL

r th

os Sh

Fishing Bridge Lake Village Bridge Bay

Mallard Lake

ek

te

OF

CA

EY LL VA k ee

Fishing Bridge Recreational Vehicle Park

See detail map above

Ouzel Falls 235ft 72m Colonnade Falls 100ft 30m

Gr as

ut

T

HE

llo

NY

w

ON

sto

ne Gi

AU P L AT E

LeHardys Rapids

CENTRAL

ee k Cr

Fai ry

MAD Lit tl

Pyramid Peak 10497ft 3199m

MIDWAY GEYSER BASIN

UPPER GEYSER BASIN

PP

Be ch

Cre ek

O

E Rive r YELLOWSTO N

C

k

C re e Straight

WYOMING

Y

16 mi 26 km

Biscuit Basin

Bou nd

Castor Peak 10854ft 3308m

Pelican Cone 9643ft 2939m

Sulphur Caldron

Natural Bridge

S

sy

ar

VA LLE

Great Fountain Geyser

Grand Prismatic Spring

e

Road closed in winter

m La

Goose Lake

Mystic Falls hole R Fire iv er

IDAHO WYOMING

U

Fountain Paint Pot

FOREST

Falls

A

e

Firehole Lake Drive

NATIONAL

Bechler to Ashton 26 mi 42 km

Riv er

N

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK

ek Cre

Fountain Flat Drive

r le

TE

Per c

LOWER GEYSER BASIN

Dunanda Falls 110ft 36m

A

R

Lone Star Geyser

TARGHEE

PL

ol eh

e

Kepler Cascades

Buffalo Lake

DE

White Lake

Mary Lake

Black Sand Basin

CARIBOU-

AY

Pollux Peak 11067ft 3373m

River

Mud Volcano

Ne z

Fairy Falls

16 mi 26 km

Fir

Firehole Canyon Drive

MONT AN A IDA HO

ek Cre

Information Station Bookstore

R

National Park Mountain 7500ft 2286m Firehole Falls

Mount Haynes 8235ft 2510m

ek

Ott e r

H

Saddle Mountain 10670ft 3252m

Wapiti Lake

Y

n G ibbo R i v er

R iver

7484ft 2281m

14 mi 23 km

Parker Peak 10203ft 3110m

AR

M adison

6667ft 2032m

e Cr

Gibbon Falls 84ft 26m

LD

ne

West Entrance

6806ft 2091m

CA

D

Madison

14 mi 23 km

E

N

Road closed from early November to late April

AT

the canyon rims.

Norris

Creek

M i l l er

Artist Point Lower Falls Canyon and falls visible only from overlooks along Upper Falls

12 mi 19 km

Virginia Cascade

M

U

Monument Geyser Basin Beryl Spring

West Yellowstone

West Yellowstone to Ashton 60 mi 97 km

Artists Paintpots

EY

XI

st o Yellow

20

LL

Ye APPR O ND

BO

VA

Steamboat Geyser

Look for signs along the roads and updates in the park newspaper and at visitor centers.

See detail map above

Ice Lake

ON

FOREST

Expect daily and seasonal closures.

O

Information Station, Museum, and Bookstore

A GR

Canyon Village

on bb R iver

NATIONAL

R

Wolf Lake

NORRIS GEYSER BASIN

Cascade Lake

Grebe Lake

SHOSHONE

IR

Museum of the National Park Ranger

Dunraven Pass 8859ft 2700m

B

a

M

Observation Peak 9397ft 2864m

Roaring Mountain Twin Lakes

S od

v er

Cache Mountain 9596ft 2925m

• on Grand Loop Road between Tower and Canyon • on the East Entrance Road, from Sylvan Pass to East Entrance

A

IS

EA

AL g

ve r d ne r

Ga

r

Mount Washburn 10243ft 3122m

EY Ri

ER

AD

AT

PL

BU

FF

Creek in

De

ta i l Bl a ck

one-way

r

HOLE

S

Cr

te

Chittenden Road

LL

C Mount Norris 9936ft 3028m

Road reconstruction underway:

GE

er

Road closed from Chittenden Road to Canyon through 2005 at least.

A

E

19 mi 31 km

RID

M

V

The Thunderer 10554ft 3217m

Trout Lake

Druid Peak 9583ft 2921m

N

ek re

Northeast Entrance to Red Lodge 69 mi 111 km

G

Tower Fall

w To

Obsidian Cliff 7383ft 2250m

287 LAK E

R

ar

Tower Fall

E

21 mi 34 km

Nymph Lake EN

A

IM

191

HE B G

M

Pebble Creek

Yellowstone Association Institute

29 mi 47 km LA

Grizzly Lake

k

ss

7365ft 2245m Abiathar Peak 10928ft 3331m

Barronette Peak 10404ft 3171m

EC

W

Silver Gate

6270ft 1911m

Roosevelt Lodge

Prospect Peak 9525ft 2903m

212

Cooke City

Slough Creek

Tower-Roosevelt

Petrified Tree

Sheepeater Cliff

Beaver Lake

bl e

g

McBride Lake

m La

GARD NER

kta one-wa il P la t e a u Wraith Floating BLACKTAIL DEER Falls Island PLATEAU Lake

ou

SP

In

ver

Beartooth Highway closed from mid-October to late May

Road within the park between the North Entrance and Cooke City is open all year.

Cr

C reek

ee

U

k

ee

Cr ar

Be

ek

Fa

ar

A n t elo pe

ek

ro

18 mi 29 km

ac

Lava

Cr e

Ri

Phantom Lake

Cre ek in

A

Northeast Entrance Sl

Ri

k Cree

K

N

Swan Lake

LOW WIL RK PA

Cr

O

e

r

k ee

an di

MONTANA WYOMING

ll He

D riv

ve

ng

Cr er

Bl

Bunsen Peak 8564ft 2610m

Golden Gate

Indian Creek

Mount Holmes 10336ft 3150m

G ne i

R

A

Undine Falls

MONTANA WYOMING

lowstone Yel

y

Ri

Antler Peak 10023ft 3055m

Blacktail Ponds

Road closed from early November to late April

Dome Mountain 9894ft 3016m

287

A

R

r ne rd

FOREST

Mount Everts 7841ft 2390m

See detail map above

ek Cre

Pan the r

RANGE

NATIONAL

S

P eb

5 mi 8 km

Park Headquarters Mammoth Hot Springs Terraces Ga

GALLATIN

Gr ay li

Hellroaring Mountain

Mammoth Hot Springs

Quadrant Mountain 9944ft 3031m

191

0.5 Mi

R i v er

G A L L AT I N

k ee Cr

B

Road within the park between the North Entrance and Cooke City is open all year.

5314ft 1620m

Electric Peak 10967ft 3343m

Little Quadrant Mountain 9885ft 3013m

To Quake Lake

0.5 Km

0

er

North Entrance Sportsman Lake

n

0

at

e

31 mi 50 km

Gull Point

ll w

Gardiner Cr

LA KE

Post Office

To South Entrance

0.5 Mi

Y ELL OW STO NE

Bridge Bay

Lodge Registration

GALLATIN NATIONAL FOREST

Jardine

NATIONAL FOREST

Ga lla tin

en

Ice Marina

0.5 Km

A GALLATIN

im

Fishing Bridge Recreational Vehicle Park hard-sided camping units only

Sti

Get permits required for backcountry camping and trail maps at most ranger stations. Do not use this map for backcountry hiking. There are almost 1,000 miles of trails.

ec Sp

To East Entrance

Gardiner to Livingston 56 mi 90 km

Backcountry use

ve r

Showers Laundry

Lake Lodge

Lake Hotel

Visitor Center

89

Ri

Post Office

Ice

Amphitheater

Showers Laundry Ice

0

Lake Village

Amphitheater

Inspiration Point Artist Point R i v e r

Clear Lake

0.4 Km

0.1

Grand View

Uncle Tom’s Trail

No camping or overnight recreational vehicle parking

Boat launch

Lookout Point

Visitor Center

Information Station Bookstore

Lower Falls

Snow Lodge

Horse rental

Road construction is underway on park roadways. Check the park newspaper for delays or closures.

Old Faithful Geyser Old Faithful Lodge

Old Faithful Inn

To Old Faithful via Norris and Madison Road closed from early November to late April

Amphitheater

C re

Gas station (some have auto repair)

Chapel

one-way

Picnic area

To

Canyon Lodge Old Faithful

ch e

From mid-December to early March, oversnow vehicles may be used only on the unplowed, groomed park roads. Call park headquarters for regulations or check the park website, www.nps.gov/yell.

LOWER TERRACES AREA

UPPER TERRACES AREA

Food service

Fishing Bridge

West Thumb Geyser Basin

Ca

Lodging

To Canyon

0.5 Mi

ek

From early November to early May most park roads are closed. The exception is the road in the park between the North Entrance and Cooke City. It is open all year.

HISTORIC FORT YELLOWSTONE

0.5 Km

0

West Thumb

e-w

Winter road closures

Showers-Laundry

Rive

0

on

Campground

Visitor Center

Geyser Hill r

Medical clinic

Park Headquarters

Upper Terrace Drive: no buses, RVs, or trailers; closed in winter

Duck Lake

Fishing Bridge, Lake Village and Bridge Bay 7784ft 2373m

7733ft 2357m

To Lake Village

Amphitheater

To Norris

Castle Geyser

Ranger station

West Thumb and Grant Village

To Tower-Roosevelt

Grand Geyser

le ho

Check the park newspaper for seasonal dates of services and facilities.

For medical or other emergencies contact a ranger or call 307-344-7381 or 911.

Old Faithful

6239ft 1902m

re

Emergencies

Mammoth Hot Springs

ay

Services and Facilities

JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, JR.

0

10 Kilometers

1

10 Miles

1

MEMORIAL PARKWAY

IDAHO WYOMING

89 No trailers or large RVs on one-lane portion

Accessibility

191

GRAND TETON NATIONAL PARK

287 South Entrance, Yellowstone to Jackson 64 mi 103 km

Gravel or dirt road

Entrance stations and visitor centers offer a free Visitors Guide to Accessible Features in Yellowstone National Park describing wheelchair-negotiable facilities.

5 mi 8 km

Page 3 of 243

Approximate caldera boundary

Distance indicator

Geothermal feature

One-way road

Continental Divide

Day-use bicycling/ hiking trail (ask for more information)

Parking lot

Boating allowed 5 mph zone Hand-propelled craft only

Boating

Boating permits are required for all watercraft. Inquire at ranger stations. Areas closed to watercraft include all rivers except Lewis River between Lewis and Shoshone lakes.

Fishing

A Yellowstone National Park fishing permit is required. State permits are not valid in the park and state regulations do not apply.

Page 4 of 243

Services and Facilities Emergencies For medical or other emergencies contact a ranger or call 307-344-7381 or 911.

Old Faithful

6239ft 1902m

7365ft 2254m

0 0

0.1

Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel To Gardiner

0.5 Km

0.1 Mi

7734

To Madison

Grand Geyser Fir e

Post Amphitheater Office Ice

0.5

Winter road closures From early November to early May most park roads are closed. The exception is the road in the park between the North Entrance and Cooke City. It is open all year.

Lodging UPPER TERRACES AREA

Food service

LOWER TERRACES AREA

Chapel

Gas station (some have auto repair) Self-guiding trail

To North Entrance and Gardiner

Albright Visitor Center

To Old Faithful via Norris and Madison Road closed from early November to late April

Upp Falls View

Post Office Showers

Visitor Center Snow Lodge No camping or overnight recreational vehicle parking

Horse rental

0 0.1

Boat launch

To Tower-Roosevelt

0

0.4 Km

0.1

0.4 Mi

To West Thumb and Grant Village

Gardiner to Livingston 56 mi 90 km

Backcountry use

Road construction is underway on park roadways. Check the park newspaper for delays or closures.

Old Faithful Geyser Old Faithful Lodge

Old Faithful Inn

Store

From mid-December to early March, oversnow vehicles may be used only on the unplowed, groomed park roads. Call park headquarters for regulations or check the park website, www.nps.gov/yell.

Rive

HISTORIC FORT YELLOWSTONE

one-way

Picnic area

Geyser Hill

r

Campground

Park Headquarters

Upper Terrace Drive: no buses, RVs, or trailers; closed in winter

To N

Castle Geyser

Ranger station Medical clinic

Ca

le ho

Check the park newspaper for seasonal dates of services and facilities.

Mammoth Hot Springs

Get permits required for backcountry camping and trail maps at most ranger stations. Do not use this map for backcountry hiking. There are almost 1,000 miles of trails.

89

GALLATIN

Jardine

ar

Gardiner

North Entrance

Fa

n

Road within the park between the North Entrance and Cooke City is open all year.

5 mi 8 km

lowstone Yel

Mammoth Hot Springs

Mount Everts 7841ft 2390m

Park Headquarters Mammoth Hot Springs Terraces Ga

r ne rd

Road closed from early November to late April

Undine Falls

Bl

ac

kta

BLACKTAIL DEER PLATEAU

r

ver

18 mi 29 km

one-wa il P la t e a u

Floating Island Lake

Pan the r

Page 5 of 243

RANG

NATIONAL

Antler Peak 10023ft

ve

Swan Lake

ek Cre

Indian Creek

Ri

Petrified Tree

r d ne r

Quadrant Mountain 9944ft 3031m

Ga

GALLATIN

GARD NER

S

r

Wraith Falls

Ri

Phantom Lake

e

r

Golden Gate

ll He

D riv

ve

Bunsen Peak 8564ft 2610m

Cr er

y

Ri

Little Quadrant Mountain 9885ft 3013m

Blacktail Ponds

See detail map above

De

k ee Cr

G A L L AT I N

31 mi 50 km

5314ft 1620m

Electric Peak 10967ft 3343m

ta i l

Sportsman Lake

B l a ck

en

one-way

ci m

e Cr

HOLE

e Sp

Hellroaring Mountain

Be

ve r

ek

Ri

Creek

Cr

ee

k

NATIONAL FOREST

Ga lla tin

Sheepeater Cliff

Prospect Peak 9525ft 2903m

Roosevelt Lo

Canyon Village

West Thumb and Grant Village

7734ft 2357m To Tower-Roosevelt

d Geyser

Duck Lake

Visitor Center

Geyser Hill

Showers-Laundry

To

YELLOWSTONE LAKE

Showers

Ye

s ll o w

Grand View

to

ne

0

West Thumb Grant Village

Lake Lodge

Lake Hotel

Visitor Center Showers Laundry Ice

YELLO WSTO NE Ice Marina

Gull Point

Lodge Registration To South Entrance

0.5 Mi

LAKE

Bridge Bay

Post Office 0.5 Km

0

Post Office

Fishing Bridge Recreational Vehicle Park hard-sided camping units only

Grant Village

Clear Lake 109ft 33m

Lake Village

To East Entrance

Amphitheater

Uncle Tom’s Trail

Upper Falls

Showers Laundry

Amphitheater

Inspiration Point Artist Point R i v e r

Ice

Visitor Center

Information Station Bookstore

on

Lookout Point

Fishing Bridge Amphitheater

Lower Falls

Upper 308ft 94m Falls View

To Canyon

0.5 Mi

West Thumb Geyser Basin

e-w

ay

r

Old Faithful Geyser Old Faithful Lodge

0.5 Km

0

West Thumb

Canyon Lodge Old Faithful

Rive

0

To Lake Village

Amphitheater

To Norris

Fishing Bridge, Lake Village and Bridge Bay 7784ft 2373m

7733ft 2357m

0 0

To West Thumb

0.5 Km 0.5 Mi

Sti ll w at

er

O

EA

AL

O

K

AT

FF

BU

R

A

PL

Creek

Hellroaring Mountain

A

U

GALLATIN NATIONAL FOREST

S

R i v er

B

P eb k

ee

k

7365ft 2245m

g

ee

ou

Cr

ver

Barronette Peak 10404ft 3171m

McBride Lake

Abiathar Peak 10928ft 3331m

R

18 mi 29 km

Slough Creek

Tower-Roosevelt

A

y

D riv

6270ft 1911m

The Thunderer 10554ft 3217m ek

Trout Lake

E

L

B

Page 6 of 243 ek

C Mount Norris 9936ft 3028m

C re

ut

IM

te

EC VA

Pebble Creek

re

Druid Peak 9583ft 2921m

R

SP

Tower Fall

A

Yellowstone Association Institute

E

Tower Fall

M

ar m La

LA

G

e

29 mi 47 km

Petrified Tree

Roosevelt Lodge

Northeast Entrance to Red Lodge 69 mi 111 km

N

kta one-wa il P la t e a u Floating Island Lake

pect Peak 9525ft 2903m

ar

212

Northeast Entrance Sl

Buffalo

Ri

Phantom Lake

ro

Cooke City Silver Gate

h

g

in

ll He

bl e

Road within the park between the North Entrance and Cooke City is open all year.

Cr

MONTANA WYOMING

wston e

Beartooth Highway closed from mid-October to late May

Cre ek

A

Cache Mountain 9596ft 2925m

SHOSHONE

8564ft 2610m

PLATEAU

Lake

S

In

Cr e

Ga

C w To

er

Beaver Lake

r

W

in

Road closed from Chittenden Road to Canyon through 2005 at least.

Obsidian Cliff 7383ft 2250m

Grizzly Lake

Cr

ee

k

ss

Observation Peak 9397ft 2864m

Roaring Mountain

Straight

G ne i

Twin Lakes

Museum of the National Park Ranger

191 Nymph Lake

Wolf Lake

287

Information Station, Museum, and Bookstore

Artists Paintpots

EY

Norris

Cr

7484ft 2281m

ee

k

Ott e r

14 mi 23 km

National Park Mountain 7500ft 2286m Firehole Falls

Mount Haynes 8235ft 2510m

Information Station Bookstore

H

AY

DE

R

N VA LLE

ol eh

e

Mary Lake

R

e

ek Cre

YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PAR

Fountain Flat Drive

LOWER GEYSER BASIN

Fountain Paint Pot

Fai ry

Cr

Firehole Lake Drive

Goose Lake

MAD

Grand Prismatic Spring

ISO

Mystic Falls hole R Fire iv er e

N

Biscuit Basin Black Sand Basin

Y

Mud Volcan

Per c Ne z

Fairy Falls

16 mi 26 km

Fir

Firehole Canyon Drive

WYOMING

Gibbon Falls 84ft 26m

n G ibbo R i v er

R iver

AU

6806ft 2091m

P L AT E

M adison

Madison

ne

14 mi 23 km

West Entrance

MONT AN A I DA HO

Virginia Cascade

ek Cre

Road closed from early November to late April

6667ft 2032m

Artist Poin Lower Falls Upper Falls

12 mi 19 km

CENTRAL

LL

Monument Geyser Basin Beryl Spring

West Yellowstone

West Yellowstone to Ashton 60 mi 97 km

Steamboat Geyser

st o Yellow

20

Ice Lake

ON VA

See detail map above

S

Lake Beach Lake

Great Fountain Geyser Natural Bridge

MIDWAY GEYSER BASIN 16 mi 26 km

UPPER GEYSER BASIN

CONTINENTAL

De Lacy Lakes

See detail map above

Page 7 of 243 Lone Star Geyser

IDE

Mallard Lake

Old Faithful Kepler Cascades

DIV

21 mi 34 km ee k

IS

Cr

AD

NORRIS GEYSER BASIN

Isa Lake Scaup Lake

Craig Pass 8262ft 2518m

PL

e Lacy

M

Canyon Village

on bb R iver

Gi

LAK E

ee k

EN

Lit tl

HE B G

D 88 27

Cascade Lake

Grebe Lake

Alum

287

C re e

k

Mount Holmes 10336ft 3150m

re

Cre ek

Dome Mountain 9894ft 3016m te

ng

191

21 mi 34 km

k Cree

an di

MONTANA WYOMING

Gr ay li

To Quake Lake

Indian Creek

k ee

Roosevelt Lo

Prospect Peak 9525ft 2903m

Lava

ek

Cr

Antler Peak 10023ft 3055m

Petrified Tree

Sheepeater Cliff

LOW WIL RK PA

FOREST

ek Cre

Pan the r

RANGE

NATIONAL

Ri

r d ne r

GARD NER

Quadrant Mountain 9944ft 3031m

GALLATIN

ve

r

ve

er

Gate Swan Lake

17 mi 27 km 8391ft 2558m

WEST THUMB See detail map above

West Thumb West Thumb

NE

Rive r

YELLOWSTO

ek

O

R

llo

w sto ne ON E O F TH

Look for signs along the roads and updates in the park newspaper and at visitor centers.

CA

Ye APPR O ND

XI

Creek

M i l l er

M

AT

LD

Parker Peak 10203ft 3110m

A

CA

TE

E

A

llage

A

PL

GR

map above

U

ER

A

Artist Point Lower Falls Canyon and falls visible only from overlooks along Upper Falls

Saddle Mountain 10670ft 3252m

Wapiti Lake

BO U

D

m La

N

the canyon rims.

ar

AR

ek

Y

16 mi 26 km

st o Yellow

ek Cre

AY

DE

VA LLE

Castor Peak 10854ft 3308m

White Lake

Riv er

N

Pollux Peak 11067ft 3373m

River

ne

H

FOREST

Expect daily and seasonal closures.

R

ascade Lake

e Cr

NATIONAL

• on Grand Loop Road between Tower and Canyon • on the East Entrance Road, from Sylvan Pass to East Entrance

IR

Dunraven Pass 8859ft 2700m

SHOSHONE

a

M

ervation Peak ft 4m

S od

v er

NY

Mount Washburn 10243ft 3122m

B

EY Ri

Road reconstruction underway:

GE

C reek

Chittenden Road

from Chittenden Road hrough 2005 at least.

RID

er

LL

Cache Mountain 9596ft 2925m

ch e

N

C

E

19 mi 31 km

ut

IM

A n t elo pe

w To

ek re

te

EC VA

C Mount Norris 9936ft 3028m

C re

SP

Tower Fall

Trout Lake

Druid Peak 9583ft 2921m

R

Ca

Tower Fall

The Thunderer 10554ft 3217m ek

A

re

Roosevelt Lodge

pect Peak 9525ft 2903m

M

ar m La

LA

111 km

E

Petrified Tree

Pebble Creek

Yellowstone Association Institute

29 mi 47 km

G

ve

Lake

Pelican Cone 9643ft 2939m

Sulphur Caldron

Y

Mud Volcano

Pyramid Peak 10497ft 3199m os Sh

LeHardys Rapids

NAL PARK

EY LL VA k ee

hard-sided camping units only

See detail map above

PELICAN

No

Cr

Fishing Bridge Recreational Vehicle Park P e li c a

r th

Fo

ne ho

Ri v

er

rk

n

Fishing Bridge Lake Village

Indian Pond

Bridge Bay Natural Bridge

Stevenson Island

Mary Bay

Steamboat Point Sedge Bay

YELLOWSTONE LAKE 21 mi 34 km

Lake Elevation 7733ft 2357m

Maximum Depth 430ft 131m

Turbid Lake

Lake Butte 8348ft 2544m

Sylvan Lake

Sylvan Pass 8530ft 2600m Eleanor Lake

ST MB

humb

mb

Frank Island

Mount Doane 10656ft 3248m

Road closed from early November to early May

Expect road closures at night from Sylvan Pass to East Entrance.

Top Notch Peak 10238ft 3121m

above

6951ft 2119m

Avalanche Peak 10566ft 3221m

27 mi 43 km

Grizzly Peak 9948ft 3032m

Dot Island

East Entrance

Cody Peak 10267ft 3129m

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Mount Langford 10774ft

Reservation Peak 10629ft 3240m

20 14 16

East Entrance to Cody 53 mi 85 km

BASIN

Black Sand Basin

See detail map above

Scaup Lake

West Thumb West Thumb Geyser Basin

Delusion Lake

Ri

EA

ve r

AT

U

IDAHO WYOMING

See detail map above

De Lacy

PL

Summit Lake

Grant Village

Fir eh ol

e

K LA

S

S HO

HO

E Riddle Lake

NE

7988ft 2435m

Buffalo Lake Bou nd

A

PP

y ar

R

O

XI

M

NATIONAL

AT

LEWIS LAKE E

Cre

CA

LD

ek

ER

Lewis Lake A

NDA

RED MOUNTAINS

AD

Ri

SC

PITCHSTONE

PLATEAU

T

R

CA

Lewis Falls 29ft 9m

A

RY

ve r

BOU

HE

FOREST

Mount Sheridan 10308ft 3142m

LA

KE

r le

Ouzel Falls 235ft 72m Colonnade Falls 100ft 30m

Ranger Lake

CO

RN

ER r

Union Falls 260ft 79m

Road closed from early November to mid-May

Beula Lake

Le

Bechler

R iv e

Be ch

E

Dunanda Falls 110ft 36m

22 mi 35 km

w is

TARGHEE

Cave Falls 35ft 11m

Hering Lake

ed

in

Road

r nte wi

Grassy Lake Reservoir

6886ft 2099m

Flagg Ranch Information Station Riv e r

L

e ak

Moun

Moose Falls

South Entrance

Lake of the Woods

BRIDGER - TETON

Snake River

Sn

ak

e

sy

Clo s

Gr as

Road closed in winter

Falls

WEST THUMB

8391ft 2558m

Craig Pass 8262ft 2518m

Lone Star Geyser

Bechler to Ashton 26 mi 42 km

17 mi 27 km

Isa Lake

Kepler Cascades

CARIBOU-

34 km

De Lacy Lakes

Old Faithful

ee k

Biscuit Basin

O

Cr

AH

River

JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, JR. MEMORIAL PARKWAY

IDAHO WYOMING

89 No trailers or large RVs on one-lane portion

Accessibility

191

GRAND TETON NATIONAL PARK

Page 9 of 243

287 South Entrance, Yellowstone to Jackson 64 mi 103 km

Entrance stations and visitor centers offer a free Visitors Guide to Accessible Features in Yellowstone National Park describing wheelchair-negotiable facilities.

G 5 mi 8 km

D

O

2357m

34 km

131m

early November to early May

2600m Grizzly Peak 9948ft 3032m

Dot Island

Eleanor Lake

ST MB

Top Notch Peak 10238ft 3121m

above

Mount Doane 10656ft 3248m

Frank Island

humb

mb sin

Delusion Lake

THE P R O M O N T O RY

ARM

ARM

D

IV

ID

E

ek

Eagle Pass 9628ft 2935m Eagle Peak 11358ft 3462m (highest point in the park)

Turret Mountain 10995ft 3351m

Trail Lake

R iv e r

Cr

O

Overlook Mountain 9321ft 2841m

FOREST

Mount Schurz 11139ft 3395m

TW

KE

G ro u s e

R

LA

NATIONAL

Table Mountain 11063ft 3372m

ne sto w

A

n t m

Chipmunk

HE

Cre

SHOSHONE

Colter Peak 10683ft 3256m

Ye l lo

T

ee

k

OC

M ou

C reek

in nta

EA

BRIDGER - TETON

N PL

NATIONAL FOREST

TH

AT

E

TR

U

NG RA

EA

ID

Sn

T

e

EN

ak Ri v e

r

Thorofare

E

Mount Hancock 10214ft 3113m

Bridger Lake

T ho

re rofa

Cre e

k

RIDGER - TETON NATIONAL FOREST

s and fer a free Accessible owstone escribing otiable

North

0 0

Gravel or dirt road 5 mi 8 km

East Entrance to Cody 53 mi 85 km

Reservation Peak 10629ft 3240m

A OK AR ABS

ST

H

NTA L

HEA

INE

UT

NT

A rm

SOUT

CO

in

SO

Flat

e

ta M o un

14 16

Mount Langford 10774ft 3284m

Mount Stevenson 10352ft 3155m

nt Village

20

Expect road closures at night from Sylvan Pass to East Entrance.

Approximate caldera boundary

Distance indicator

Geothermal feature

One-way road

Continental Divide

Day-use bicycling/ hiking trail (ask for more information)

10 Kilometers

1

10 Miles

1

Boating allowed 5 mph zone

Parking lot

Hand-propelled craft only

Boating

Fishing

Boating permits are required for all watercraft. Inquire at ranger stations. Areas closed to watercraft include all rivers except Lewis River between Lewis and Shoshone lakes.

A Yellowstone National Park fishing permit is required. State permits are not valid in the park and state regulations do not apply.

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How to get to Yellowstone National Park

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HOW TO GET TO YELLOWSTONE MAP Use your mouse cursor to find links on this Interactive Map

How to get to Yellowstone North Entrance - Near the gateway community of Gardiner, MT, the North Entrance is the only park entrance open to wheeled vehicles all year. November through April, the North Entrance provides the only access to Cooke City, MT. US Highway 212 east of Cooke City is closed to wheeled vehicles November through April. The road from Mammoth to Norris is open to wheeled vehicles from the third Friday in April through the first Sunday in November, and to tracked oversnow vehicles from the third Monday in December 2001 to Monday of the first full week in March. Closest airline service is Bozeman, MT. Services are available year around. West Entrance - Adjacent to the town of West Yellowstone, MT, the West

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How to get to Yellowstone National Park

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Entrance is open to wheeled vehicles from the third Friday in April through the first Sunday in November, and to tracked oversnow vehicles from the third Monday in December 2001 to Monday of the second full week in March. Closest airline service is West Yellowstone, MT, Bozeman, MT, Idaho Falls, ID, and Salt Lake City, UT. South & East Entrances - Open to wheeled vehicles from the second Friday of May through the first Sunday in November, and to tracked oversnow vehicles from the third Monday in December 2001 to Monday of the second full week in March. Limited services are available near the South and East Entrances. Closest airline service to the South Entrance is Jackson, WY and Cody, WY to the East Entrance. Northeast Entrance - Near the gateway communities of Silver Gate and Cooke City, MT, this entrance is open year around for wheeled vehicle access to Cooke City through Gardiner, MT and the North Entrance. Opening dates for roads east of Cooke City vary from year to year, depending on the weather. The Beartooth Highway is open from Friday of Memorial Weekend to 8:00 am on the day following Columbus Day. Storms occasionally temporarily close the Beartooth Highway during this "open" period. Closest airline service is Billings, MT. Services are available year around.

Airline and Bus Transportation Commercial airlines serve the following airports near Yellowstone National Park all year: Cody and Jackson, WY; Bozeman and Billings, MT, and Idaho Falls, ID. The West Yellowstone, MT airport is serviced from June to early September from Salt Lake City, UT. Bus service from Bozeman, MT to West Yellowstone, MT via Highway 191 is available all year. Bus service directly from Idaho to West Yellowstone is limited to the summer months. Commercial transportation from Bozeman, MT to Gardiner, MT is available during the winter and summer seasons. Commercial transportation to the park from Cody and Jackson, WY is available during the summer season. Train service is not available to Yellowstone National Park. The nearest train depots are in southeast Idaho, Salt Lake City, Utah and northern Montana. Contact Amtrak for specific schedules.

Last Updated: Monday, 03-Jul-2006 17:12:50 Eastern Daylight Time http://www.nps.gov Yellowstone Home | Plan Your Visit | List of Maps | Main Map

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Canyon Area Interactive Map - Yellowstone National Park

Page 1 of 1

CANYON VILLAGE AREA MAP Use your mouse cursor to find links on this Interactive Map

Last Updated: Monday, 03-Jul-2006 17:12:53 Eastern Daylight Time http://www.nps.gov Yellowstone Home | Plan Your Visit | List of Maps | Main Map /archive/yell/interactivemap/canyon.htm

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http://www.nps.gov/archive/yell/interactivemap/canyon.htm

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Grant Village Vicinity Interactive Map - Yellowstone National Park

Page 1 of 1

GRANT VILLAGE AREA MAP Use your mouse cursor to find links on this Interactive Map

Last Updated: Monday, 03-Jul-2006 17:12:04 Eastern Daylight Time http://www.nps.gov Yellowstone Home | Plan Your Visit | List of Maps | Main Map

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http://www.nps.gov/archive/yell/interactivemap/grant.htm

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Lake Village Vicinity Interactive Map - Yellowstone National Park

Page 1 of 1

LAKE VILLAGE AREA MAP Use your mouse cursor to find links on this Interactive Map

Last Updated: Monday, 03-Jul-2006 17:11:57 Eastern Daylight Time http://www.nps.gov Yellowstone Home | Plan Your Visit | List of Maps | Main Map

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Madison Junction Interactive Map

Page 1 of 1

MADISON JUNCTION AREA MAP Use your mouse cursor to find links on this Interactive Map

Last Updated: Monday, 03-Jul-2006 17:11:56 Eastern Daylight Time http://www.nps.gov Yellowstone Home | Plan Your Visit | List of Maps | Main Map

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http://www.nps.gov/archive/yell/interactivemap/madison.htm

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Mammoth Area Interactive Map - Yellowstone National Park

Page 1 of 1

MAMMOTH HOT SPRINGS MAP Use your mouse cursor to find links on this Interactive Map

Last Updated: Monday, 03-Jul-2006 17:12:23 Eastern Daylight Time http://www.nps.gov Yellowstone Home | Plan Your Visit | List of Maps | Main Map

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http://www.nps.gov/archive/yell/interactivemap/mammoth.htm

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Norris Area Interactive Map - Yellowstone National Park

Page 1 of 1

NORRIS GEYSER BASIN AREA MAP Use your mouse cursor to find links on this Interactive Map

Last Updated: Monday, 03-Jul-2006 17:12:41 Eastern Daylight Time http://www.nps.gov Yellowstone Home | Plan Your Visit | List of Maps | Main Map

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Old Faithful Detail Map - Yellowstone National Park

Page 1 of 1

OLD FAITHFUL AREA MAP Use your mouse cursor to find links on this Interactive Map

Last Updated: Monday, 03-Jul-2006 17:12:37 Eastern Daylight Time http://www.nps.gov Yellowstone Home | Plan Your Visit | List of Maps | Main Map

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Tower-Roosevelt Area Interactive Map

Page 1 of 1

TOWER-ROOSEVELT AREA MAP Use your mouse cursor to find links on this Interactive Map

Last Updated: Monday, 03-Jul-2006 17:11:46 Eastern Daylight Time http://www.nps.gov Yellowstone Home | Plan Your Visit | List of Maps | Main Map

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http://www.nps.gov/archive/yell/interactivemap/toweroos.htm

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Yellowstone National Park - Directions (U.S. National Park Service)

Page 1 of 3

Yellowstone National Park

Directions

NPS MAP

North Entrance - Near the gateway community of Gardiner, MT, the North Entrance is the only park entrance open to wheeled vehicles all year. November through April, the North Entrance provides the only access to Cooke City, MT. US Highway 212 east of Cooke City is closed to wheeled vehicles November through April. The road from Mammoth to Norris is open to wheeled vehicles from the third Friday in April through the first Sunday in November, and to tracked oversnow vehicles from the third Monday in December 2001 to Monday of the first full week in March. Closest airline service is Bozeman, MT. See the Operating Hours and Seasons for more information. Services are available year around. West Entrance - Adjacent to the town of West Yellowstone, MT, the West Entrance is

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Yellowstone National Park - Directions (U.S. National Park Service)

Page 2 of 3

open to wheeled vehicles from the third Friday in April through the first Sunday in November, and to tracked oversnow vehicles from the third Monday in December 2001 to Monday of the second full week in March. Closest airline service is West Yellowstone, MT, Bozeman, MT, Idaho Falls, ID, and Salt Lake City, UT. See the Operating Hours and Seasons for more information. Services are available year around. South & East Entrances - Open to wheeled vehicles from the second Friday of May through the first Sunday in November, and to tracked oversnow vehicles from the third Monday in December 2001 to Monday of the second full week in March. Limited services are available near the South and East Entrances. Closest airline service to the South Entrance is Jackson, WY and Cody, WY to the East Entrance. See our Road Construction Page for information about possible delays. Northeast Entrance - Near the gateway communities of Silver Gate and Cooke City, MT, this entrance is open year around for wheeled vehicle access to Cooke City through Gardiner, MT and the North Entrance. Opening dates for roads east of Cooke City vary from year to year, depending on the weather. The Beartooth Highway is open from late May/early June (weather dependent) to mid October. Storms occasionally temporarily close the Beartooth Highway during this "open" period. See the Operating Hours and Seasons and Road Construction Schedule for more information. Closest airline service is Billings, MT. Services are available year around.

Airline and Bus Transportation Commercial airlines serve the following airports near Yellowstone National Park all year: Cody and Jackson, WY; Bozeman and Billings, MT, and Idaho Falls, ID. The West Yellowstone, MT airport is serviced from June to early September from Salt Lake City, UT. Bus service from Bozeman, MT to West Yellowstone, MT via Highway 191 is available all year. Bus service directly from Idaho to West Yellowstone is limited to the summer months. Commercial transportation from Bozeman, MT to Gardiner, MT is available during the winter and summer seasons. Commercial transportation to the park from Cody and Jackson, WY is available during the summer season. Contact local Chambers of Commerce for specific carriers and schedules. Train service is not available to Yellowstone National Park. The nearest train depots are in southeast Idaho, Salt Lake City, Utah and northern Montana. Contact Amtrak for specific schedules.

Did You Know? Lake trout are an invasive species of fish that is decimating the native cutthroat trout population in Yellowstone Lake.

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Yellowstone National Park - Plan Your Visit (U.S. National Park Service)

Page 1 of 2

Yellowstone National Park

Plan Your Visit The Yellowstone National Park Trip Planner (569kb pdf) is available online. The planner can be viewed and printed using Adobe Acrobat Reader, available free online.

The Facts about the Yellowstone Volcano Interactive Map When visiting these map pages be sure to use your mouse cursor to find links to more detailed maps. Things to Do Our Things to Do Page features links to pages that discuss the diversity of activities available to visitors in Yellowstone. If you want to learn more about natural or historical points of interest, or learn about fishing, hiking, or picnicking opportunities, visit this page. It will tell you of those opportunities along with many others. Lodging Lodging inside and outside the park is discussed here. Visitor Centers Learn about our eight visitor contact stations and museums. There is also a link to our new Online Old Faithful Visitor Education Center page. Services in the Park If you know the areas you are going to visit you can get your services information by area. If you want more general information about a specific type of service the information is also sorted by service type. Topics covered include bookstores, general stores, camping, lodging, dining, gas stations, and medical services. Rules and Regulations If you have questions about what you are and are not allowed to do while visiting Yellowstone this section will provide you with the answers to most of your questions. Operating Hours and Seasons This page lists Road Opening and Closing, as well as a Road Construction link. Yellowstone closes it's East, South and West Entrances during the winter. You will want to check here for

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Yellowstone National Park - Plan Your Visit (U.S. National Park Service)

Page 2 of 2

dates the park is open before planning your visit. The North Entrance (Gardiner, Montana) is open year round to wheeled vehicles, but snow tires and/or chains may be required in winter. The Northeast Entrance to Silver Gate / Cooke City, Montana is open year round, but travel east of Cooke City is Not Possible during the winter season. Weather Considerations The weather in Yellowstone is highly variable and any trip here should be planned with all weather possiblities in mind. Accessibility The pamphlet Visitor Guide to Accessible Features in Yellowstone National Park is available free of charge at all visitor centers in the park. For more information, write to: Park Accessibility Coordinator; P.O. Box 168, Yellowstone National Park, WY 82190-0168. Facilities Opening and Closing Dates Opening and Closing Dates for Lodges, Campgrounds, Service Stations, and other facilities in the park. Four-season Guide to Travel in Yellowstone Information regarding typical road opening and closing dates for wheeled-vehicles can be found here along with advice on how to travel in Yellowstone in each of the seasons. How to Support the Park If you are looking for a way to help support Yellowstone this link has several suggestions of ways to help support us including: organizations to join that really makes a difference in Yellowstone and volunteer programs. Nearby Communities Links to area Chambers of Commerce are included where they exist. For those communities without web sites, addresses and phone numbers are provided. This is a good way to find out about services in our neighboring communities. Nearby Parks Information regarding nearby parks, national forests, and wildlife refuges, is provided through this link. If you are looking for other things to see and do while in the area many of the possibilities are covered here. Nearby Museums It is impossible for our visitor center and wayside exhibits to tell the whole story of the Greater Yellowstone Area. We have nearby museums who help us tell that story. Be sure to visit at least one nearby museum each time you visit.

Did You Know? The Roosevelt Arch is located at the North Entrance to Yellowstone National Park. The cornerstone of the arch was laid by President Theodore Roosevelt.

Last Updated: December 19, 2006 at 12:56 EST

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Yellowstone Geology

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Yellowstone National Park covers 2,221,766 acres, which is roughly the size of the

state of Connecticut. Most of the park is located in the northwestern corner of Wyoming, but a small portion overlaps that state's boundaries with Montana and Idaho. The park is comprised primarily of high, forested, volcanic plateaus that have been eroded over — the millennia by glaciation and stream flow and that are flanked on the north, east, and south by mountains. The Continental Divide traverses the park from its southeastern corner to its «-western boundary. The elevation of the park averages 8,000 feet, ranging from 5,282 feet in the north, where the Gardner River drains from the park, to 11,358 feet in the east, at the summit of Eagle Peak in the Absaroka Range.

The Four Types of Thermal Features - Yellowstone Association Geyser: A geyser is a hot spring with the intriguing habit of tossing underground water into the air. Water falling as rain or snow seeps through porous layers of rock. Eventually that water comes into contact with extremely hot rocks that have been heated by a large body of molten material, called magma, underneath the park. This hot water then rises through a series of cracks and fissures underneath the surface of the Earth. In a sense, these fissures are the "plumbing system" of a thermal feature. A geyser is the equivalent of a giant pressure cooker; even though the temperature of water deep down may be well above boiling, the weight and pressure of the water above prevents that boiling from happening. Eventually, though, the pressure builds enough to push the water in the upper reaches up and out, causing an overflow. That overflow, in turn, relieves the pressure on the super-heated water below, causing it to flash into steam. That flash, that explosion through a narrow, constricted place in the rocks, is what sends water shooting into the air, Hot Spring: Hot springs let off enough heat by boiling or surface evaporation to avoid the kind of steam explosions common to geysers. Some of Yellowstone's hot springs take the form of quiet pools. Others are flowing. The waters of many of this latter type, such as those at Mammoth Hot Springs, become charged with carbon dioxide while underground, creating a mild carbonic acid. That acid dissolves underground limestone rocks and carries the mixture to the surface of the Earth. Once on the surface, the carbon dioxide gas escapes. Without carbon dioxide, the water is less able to carry the dissolved limestone. The dissolved limestone precipitates out, creating beautiful travertine terraces. In areas underlaid with volcanic rock, as opposed to more easily dissolved limestone, a modification of the plumbing system—perhaps through small earthquakes—can easily turn a hot spring into a geyser. Fumarole (also called steam vent): In simplest terms, a fumarole is a vent in the Earth's crust. The supply of water around fumaroles is not as plentiful as in hot springs and geysers. Modest amounts of groundwater come into contact with hot rocks underground and are turned to steam. This steam rushes up through a series of cracks and fissures and out the vent, sometimes with enough force to create a loud hiss or roar. Mudpot: In this feature, steam rises through groundwater that has dissolved surrounding rocks into clay; various minerals in the rocks make wide variations in the color of the mud. More often than not, such water is quite acidic, which help is the breaking down and dissolving process

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Yellowstone Geology

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breaking down and dissolving process,

Geology - Grand Teton Historical Society The Washburn Range in Yellowstone forms the skyline between canyon village and tower fall. From a parking area on Dunraven Pass, an altitude of 8,850' above sea level, an old road leads to the summit of Mt. Washburn at 10,243'. The 1,400' climb has much to recommend it, including geology. Seen along the road is a dark breccia consisting of anglular volcanic stones, embedded in a fine angular matrix. This breccia formed some 50 million years ago when watery mixtures of ash and rocks flowed down mountain slopes onto then tropical lowlands. There are countless volcanic mudflows that make up the Washburn Range and mountains to the east. All were deposited over a period of 10 million years. Bedding planes separating breccia layers are instructive. In Mount Washburn and surrounding peaks, all slope northward. Shouldn't some slope southward? Didn't debris also flow down the south slopes of ancient volcanoes? Well, where is the evidence? We search to the south for these flows in vain. Far below us is Washburn Hot Springs, the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, Hayden Valley, and Yellowstone Lake. The nearest recognizable peak is Mount Sheridan, in the Red Mountains, 37 miles south of Mount Washburn. The summits of Washburn and Sheridan are within 65 feet of each other in elevation. Volcanic breccias sloping only north combined with gently rolling plateaus extending south to the Red Mountains suggest that the Washburn Range is only a remnant; the northern remnant of a much larger and higher range that extended far to the south. This range is a part of the Absaroka volcanic field, which also forms the mountainous terrain east of Yellowstone Lake. But how to account for the missing southern part of the Washburn Range? The answer lies down on the plateaus forming the heart of Yellowstone. Road cuts between Dunraven Pass and Canyon Village glitter in the sun. The rock is rhyolite, the lava form of granite. It differs fundamentally in its composition, origin, and age from the volcanic rocks composing Mount Washburn. Shiny black volcanic glass (obsidian) causes the glitter. Tens of rhyolite lava flows were erupted one after another in central Yellowstone. Canyon Village is built on one. Elephant Back Mountain, west of Lake Hotel, is another. Several flows make up the plateau between Canyon Village and Norris, and several more bound the western margins of Yellowstone Lake. Flows enclose Lewis and Shoshone lakes; they form the wooded boundaries of the geyser basins. Many streams follow seams between flows of different ages. Lava flows can be readily dated. They contain various radioactive elements which decay to form daughter products. By measuring the relative amounts of parent material and daughter products and knowing the rate of change from parent to daughter, a geochronologist has a radioactive clock for dating the ages of flows. Analysis, though, is not simple and geologic dates are usually followed by a fudge factor such as +/- 6,000 years. Between the Washburn Range and the Red Mountains, lava flows range in age from about 500,000 years to 100,000 years. They are much younger than the 50 million-year-old Absaroka volcanics. To summarize, the Washburn Range is made of debris flows preserved in the north

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, g p flank of an old dissected volcano. This volcano and the Red Mountains, about 37 miles to the south, are joined by an arc of Absaroka volcanic mountains east of Yellowstone Lake. They form, in aggregate, a sort of geologic horseshoe open to the southwest. Rocks forming the horseshoe are at least 50 million years old. Cradled within the horseshoe are half a million years old or younger. Both the large difference in age and fundamental, chemical composition show older and younger volcanic rocks are unrelated, though they to occupy common ground. Early students of Yellowstone geology failed to recognize the age break between the Absaroka volcanic breccias and the much younger lava flows of the Yellowstone Plateau. They believed that a continuum of volcanic activity linked the Absaroka voicanics and the lava flows. This comfortable scenario was shattered by a Harvard graduate student, Francis R. Boyd, who chose Yellowstone for his thesis project. Boyd did his field work in the 1950s. During his studies he saw that some of the so-called lava flows were something quite different-they were welded tuffs. Welded tuffs are products of explosive volcanism. Siliceous lavas charged with dissolved gas literally explode out of volcanoes as mobile froths flowing rapidly across surrounding landscapes. When such ash flows settle, they quickly begin to compact and if the ash retains enough heat to re-fuse, the rock becomes a welded tuff. Even after compaction, the individual shards are visible under a microscope or even to the naked eye, although they may be severely contorted by flowage and compaction. Before Boy&s time geologists were only beginning to recognize welded tuffs and their distinctive qualities. The significance of his work, published in 1961, was that a previously unrecognized volcanic event in Yellowstone had produced violent explosions and staggering volumes of volcanic ash, later consolidated into welded tuffs. He demonstrated that these tuffs covered thousands of square miles of Grand Teton and Yellowstone and that they rimmed a large tectonic basin in Yellowstone that contain even younger lava flows. The explosive volcanic events that produced these tuffs were unbelievably large and violent—many times greater than the 1981 eruption of Mount St. Helens. They destroyed the southern half of the Washburn volcano and whatever mountains existed between Mt. Washburn and the Red Mountains. Geologists have identified streaks and thin layers of Yellowstone volcanic ash from as far away as California, Saskatchewan, Iowa, and the Gulf of Mexico. Volumes of ash blasted into the stratosphere circulated around the globe and must have altered the weather worldwide.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

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J

ust a few years after Boyd's paper appeared, the U.S. Geological Survey mounted an extensive investigation of Yellowstone's geology, assigning some of its brightest young scientists to the task. Among them was Bob Christiansen, who studied the young ash flow tuffs in great detail. What follows is based on his research and that of his co-workers, including geologists, chemists, and geophysicists, some of whom continue their studies of Yellowstone today. Christiansen and his team recognized that not one but two welded tuffs rimmed the plateaulava flows; one was 2.1 million years old (Huckleberry Ridge Tuff ) and the younger 0.65 million years (Lava Creek Tuff ). A third tuff, to the west in Idaho, was 1.3 million years old (Mesa Falls Tuff). Together they form the Yellowstone Group of tuffs. These tuffs demonstrated conclusively that the volcanic events forming Yellowstone were not the products of many million years of geologic change ending many millions of years ago. Rather, their time scale was compressed into only the last two million years. A long geologic history would have allowed a more leisurely progression of events—a lava flow here, then a million years later another flow there. A longer geologic history would also have called for intermittent periods of magma (molten rock) formation separated by periods of volcanic quiescence. Instead, this short time scale compressed the sequence of explosions and flows and required a heat source much larger and younger than ever before imagined. Caldera's are large basin-shaped volcanic depressions more or less circular in form. Caldera eruptions on the Yellowstone scale have a world wide frequency of perhaps once every hundred thousand years. Somewhat smaller eruptions, on the scale of Crater Lake-Mount Mazama in Oregon, are more frequent, perhaps every 1,000 years or less. Such explosive eruptions were not isolated events. Rather, they were climactic stages of magmatic processes that extended over hundreds of thousands of years. No one has ever seen a volcanic explosion on the scale of the Yellowstone eruptions, but smaller explosions have been observed and their activity described. Consider Mount Tambora, on the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia to grasp some idea of what's involved when a caldera forms during or just after an ash flow eruption. For about three years the volcano rumbled and fumed before a moderate eruption on April 5, 1815 produced thundering explosions heard 870 miles away. Next morning volcanic ash began to fall and continued to fall though the explosions became progressively weaker, On the evening of April 10 the mountain went wild. Eye witnesses 20 miles away described three columns of flame rising from the crater and combining into one at a great height. The whole mountain seemed to be covered with flowing liquid fire. Soon these distant viewers were pelted with 8-inch pumice stones hurled from the volcano. Clouds of ash, borne by violent gaseous currents, blasted through nearby towns blowing away houses and uprooting trees. The village of Tambora was destroyed by rolling masses of incandescent, hot ash. On April 16, booming explosions loud enough to be heard on Sumatra, 1600 miles to the west, continued into evening. Mount Tambora, still covered with clouds higher up, seemed to be flaming on its lower slopes For a day or two skies turned jet black and

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seemed to be flaming on its lower slopes. For a day or two, skies turned jet black and the air cold. When the eruption ended, the ash cloud drifted west and settled on all islands downwind. With the expulsion of so much magma, the mountain collapsed, unsupported from within, forming a great caldera. Lombok, 124 miles to the west, was covered by a blanket of ash two feet thick. Tidal waves crashed on islands hundreds of miles away. Waves and ashfalls killed more than 88,000 people. Ash blasted into the stratosphere circled the earth several times causing unusually beautiful sunsets in London early that summer. In 1816, mean temperatures in the northern hemisphere dropped by half to more than 1° E Farmers in Europe and America called this the year without a summer. Tambora's eruption was the largest and deadliest volcanic event in recorded history. How does it compare with the Yellowstone caldera eruptions? If we reduce all the ash from Tambora to dense rock equivalents and include all ash flow tuffs that formed at the same time, we come up with about 36 cubic miles of rock. Quite a bit compared with the destructive U.S. eruptions of Mount St. Helens in 1980 that produced about 1/4 cubic mile. Both of these shrink to insignificance when compared with Yellowstone. The volume of volcanic rock produced by the first Yellowstone caldera eruption was about 600 cubic miles—about 17 times more than Tambora, and 2,400 times as much as Mount St. Helen's, an almost incomprehensible figure. One more statistic: Ash from Tambora drifted downwind more than 800 miles; Yellowstone ash is found in Ventura, California to the west and the Iowa to the east. It is likely the earth has seldom in its long history experienced caldera explosions on the scale of those that created Yellowstone. Three gigantic caldera eruptions rocked the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The first and largest, Huckleberry Ridge caldera, blew up about 2.1 million years ago. Its center was in western Yellowstone National Park, but it extended into Island Park, Idaho. Welded tuff from this cycle is called the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff. The yellow rocks along the road in Golden Gate between Mammoth Hot Springs and Swan Lake Flats are Huckleberry Ridge Tuff. So are the tuffs that hold up much of Signal Mountain in Grand Teton National Park, and that crop out along the west side of the Teton Range, in Idaho. The second great explosion formed the Island Park caldera 1.3 million years ago. This caldera, the smallest of the three, lies just west of Yellowstone in Idaho, within the western part of the Huckleberry Ridge caldera. The youngest caldera, Lava Creek, erupted the Lava Creek Tuff, 0.65 million years old. It overlaps the Huckleberry Ridge caldera, but its eastern margin is about 10 miles farther east. Because it is the youngest, its tuffs and associated lava flows are best exposed and its history best known. Its eruption may have destroyed the south part of the Washburn Range. Although the Lava Creek Tuff is 0.65 million years old, its caldera began to evolve about 1.2 million years ago when rhyolite lavas flowed intermittently onto the surface of the Yellowstone Plateau from slowly forming, crescentic fractures. Over a period of 600,000 years these ring fractures grew and coalesced to form a system of fractures enclosing the part of the plateau that later collapsed into the Lava Creek caldera. The ring fractures were a surface expression of a huge body of magma or molten rock, forming in upper levels of the earth's crust. As the magma chamber grew in volume, it stretched and bulged the crust above it. The upper crust was rigid and brittle; it fractured more easily than it bent; thus fractures, or faults, developed around the bulge. As the bulge rose higher, the ring fractures propagated downward toward the magma chamber. In the magma chamber itself, the molten material was evolving chemically. Less dense materials were concentrating in the upper part of the chamber, including the more silica-rich magma, various gases, and water. Then, with maximum segregation i th h b l til t ti i it t d i f t

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in the magma chamber, volatiles concentrating in its upper part, and ring fractures propagating downward, the gun was loaded and cocked. What actually triggered the caldera-forming explosions is hard to say, but the pressures in the magma chamber must have exceeded the gravitational pressures of the overlying rocks. Imagine a bottle of carbonated water lying in the sun. Pick it up, shake it vigorously, maybe tap the cap...boom, it blows off. Instantly the pressure in the bottle drops, the dissolved carbon dioxide exsolves into bubbles and an expanding mass of bubbles and water jets into the sky. In a few seconds, the event is over. Wipe off your face and check the bottle; some of the water remains, but most of the gas is gone. This simple scenario is a scaled-down analogy of what happened 600,000 years ago in Yellowstone when the volatile-rich upper part of the magma chamber vented and erupted the Lava Creek Tuff. The exolv-ing gas expanded in the magma, making a much larger volume of frothy fluid. This expanding, low-density hot gas and magma mixture rose rapidly. It vented at the surface as a sustained explosion of white-hot froth. A scene from the depths of Dante's Inferno. Driven by hot vapors, giant fountains of incandescent ash at temperatures near 1,800° F burst from the ring fractures. Plumes of ash jetted into the stratosphere where planetary winds carried it around the world blanketing tens of thousands of square miles with thin coverlets of volcanic dust. Nearer the vents, fiery clouds of dense ash, fluidized by the expanding gas, boiled over crater rims and rushed across the countryside at speeds over one hundred miles per hour, vaporizing forests, animals, birds, and streams into varicolored puffs of steam. Gaping ring fractures extended downward into the magma chamber providing conduits for continuing foaming ash flows. More and more vapor-driven ash poured from the ring fractures, creating a crescendo of fury. As the magma chamber emptied, large sections of the foundering magma chamber roof collapsed along the ring fractures, triggering a chain reaction that produced a caldera 45 miles long and 28 miles wide. Hot ash flows are fascinating. Driven by expanding gas, they are really clouds of hot glass shards and pumice plus expanding gas whose turbulence keeps everything flowing like water. But as the gas escapes, the viscosity increases, motion ceases, and the ash settles into a layer more than one hundred feet thick. This deposit is still extremely hot, and as it compresses under its own weight, the sticky glass shards fuse into a welded tuff. The upper part of the ash cools too rapidly to weld and is either unconsolidated or weakly cemented by vapors of escaping gas. The engine of destruction didn't take long to run down, just a few hours or, at most, a few days. Hours? Days? Yes, incredible as it may seem. Evidence for the astonishing rapidity of this eruption is found in detailed study of the tuff. Eruptions that are separated by any significant period of time have discernible boundary effects that clearly separate one tuff from another. Runoff water, for example, would erode small channels in the surface of a flow or the chilled tops of separate flows would mark the emplacements of separate cooling units. No evidence exists to suggest such a cooling history in Yellowstone. Rather, the caldera venting appears to have developed in two separate parts of the magma chamber simultaneously and been continuous over a very short time. In a period of time reasonably inferred to be hours, more than 240 cubic miles of Lava Creek Tuff was emplaced around the caldera rim and within the caldera itself. The explosions died away. A complex ecosystem was snuffed out and replaced by a sterile, steaming moonscape where hardly a living thing survived. The Yellowstone Plateau, the Teton Range, and thousands of surrounding square miles of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho were barren and nearly lifeless for the third time in two million years. The caldera-forming magma chamber, however, like our fizzed-out soda bottle, was far from empty. In fact, it may have contained 90 percent of its original magma volume. No sooner did the magma chamber roof collapse, than it began to rise again owing to pressures from underlying magma. Two resurgent domes soon began to form near the center of the elliptical caldera one near Le Hardy Rapids on the

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form near the center of the elliptical caldera, one near Le Hardy Rapids on the Yellowstone River, and another east of Old Faithful. The rejuvenated magma chamber also sent rhyolite to the surface where its eruption formed lava flows that buried part of the western resurgent dome and completely buried the caldera's western rim. Three such eruptive pulses about 150,000, 110,000, and 70,000 years ago produced about 240 cubic miles of rhyolite. Because rhyolite lavas are rich in silica and poor in water, they tend to be quite viscous. Instead of flowing easily and rapidly as does Hawaiian basalt, rhyolite lava form piles of taffy-like incandescent rock whose margins will advance so slowly that observers will have to watch closely to see them moving. Young rhyolite flows provide much of central Yellowstone's beauty; its lakes, waterfalls, and stream courses. For example, Yellowstone Lake fills a basin in the southeast part of the 600,000 year-old caldera between the east rim of the caldera and rhyolite flows on the west. Shoshone and Lewis lakes fill basins formed between adjacent flows. The Upper and Lower falls of the Yellowstone River tumble over resistant layers in caldera-filling flows. Nez Perce Creek, from its headwaters to its junction with the Firehole River, flows along a seam between lava flows. So does the Firehole River itself to its junction with the Madison River. The Gibbon River is pinched between younger flows and the Lava Creek Tuff through much of its course. Driving west from Canyon Village you climb the steep eastern front of the Solfatara flow, drive miles across its rolling top, then descend its western slope to Gibbon River. Similarly, the drive from West Thumb to Old Faithful crosses several young rhyolite flows. Silica, the primary constituent of rhyolite, provides a relatively sterile soil environment that is unfriendly to most living things. But not lodgepole pine. These hardy trees, pine grass, and fire-weed love such inhospitable sites. Their adaptability is why you see so many miles of boring lodgepole forest along Yellowstone roads. In summary, three caldera eruptions and associated lava flows produced about 1,600 cubic miles of rhyolite in the last 2.1 million years. This staggering figure requires rates of magma production comparable to the most active volcanic regions on earth, such as Iceland and Hawaii. As we shall see, the processes that produced this enormous amount of magma also uplifted significant portions of northwestern Wyoming, southwestern Montana, and southern Idaho.

The Caldera Today Is Yellowstone's history of volcanic activity at an end? Has time tamed its explosive violence, leaving only a heritage of aging geysers and eroding lava flows? Has the magma chamber beneath Yellowstone exhausted its supply of molten rock? Is it now incapable of producing more lava flows or explosions? Well, let's consider these questions; questions that have intrigued scientists ever since Yellowstone was discovered. Anyone who has seen a geyser or hot spring immediately thinks of heat. Early geologists speculated that the heat in geyser waters came from the cooling of young lava flows beneath the geyser basins. They speculated that rain and snow meltwater percolated into gravels and sands of the basins and into the young lava flows where it was heated before rising to the surface via geysers and hot springs. The lava flows were thought to be young, but even the most daring geologist tucked them well back in time. As we learned in Chapter 4, however, U. S. Geological Survey studies that dated the lava flows found some of them to be rather young, indeed. Given that the youngest lava flows are only 70,000 years old, yesterday in geologic time, might not there still be molten magma beneath Yellowstone today? Direct methods such as deep drilling have not been employed to test this possibility but

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methods, such as deep drilling, have not been employed to test this possibility, but other methods suggest magma exists beneath Yellowstone. The earth's interior is warmer than its surface causing heat flow outward to the surface. The flow of heat in geyser basins is hundreds of times greater than normal heat flows. If the total conductive heat flow of major hydrothermal basins is averaged over the 965 sq. miles of the Yellowstone Caldera, we find flow levels that are 60 times greater than mean global rates. Geophysical studies monitor the caldera and its magma body indirectly. From seismic studies we learn that shock waves from earthquakes and man-caused explosions traveling through the earth's crust are slowed significantly as they pass beneath the caldera. Material with a seismic velocity that is slower than normal underlies the caldera at depths as shallow as I mile. This may indicate local zones of molten magma in the upper crust. Near the northeast part of the caldera, seismic velocities are even lower to within about 2 miles of the surface; this may indicate a more continuous magma body that extends from the northeastern part of the caldera to about 10 miles beyond it. Down below the crust and in the mantle at depths of 100 miles, lower than normal local seismic velocities may indicate thin rising columns of magma. Earthquake data also suggest that soft or molten rock is close to the surface of Yellowstone. Minor earthquakes jiggle Yellowstone hundreds of times each year, but above the caldera the foci of these quakes are extremely shallow, less than three miles below the surface. These clues suggest that the material underlying Yellowstone is still very hot and ductile, as would be expected if a magma chamber still exists. Gravity studies back up conclusions drawn from seismic data. We know that gravity values across the Yellowstone Plateau are much lower than normal, and low gravity values are associated with low rock densities. In Yellowstone the low densities imply molten, thermally expanded material. As you might expect, the lowest gravity anomalies are found in the same place where seismic velocities are slowest—under the northeast caldera rim and beyond. Local uplift and subsidence within Yellowstone are fast enough to be measured by surveying techniques. Benchmarks, points of precisely measured altitude, were established along the road systems of Yellowstone in 1923. One center of uplift on these surveys is at Le Hardys Rapids in the central part of the Yellowstone caldera and 3 miles down the Yellowstone River from its outlet from Yellowstone Lake. Until 1985, these surveys showed uplift at a rate of about V^ inch a year centered on Le Hardys Rapids, with total uplift since 1923 of about 3 feet. The profile of the Yellowstone River on both sides of Le Hardys Rapids suggests this uplift has been going on for a much longer time. Upstream from Le Hardys Rapids, the Yellowstone River is remarkably tranquil with a low gradient, whereas downstream it is many times steeper. Carbon dating of muds in the drowned channel of the Yellowstone River upstream from Le Hardys Rapids shows this overall uplift cycle had started by 3,000 years ago. Surveys in 1986 and later show this pattern of uplift has changed to subsidence, also at a rate of about 1/2 inch a year. We do not know if the change after 1985 represents the start of a major interval of subsidence or a minor reversal in a longer interval of uplift, but surveys as recent as 1993 show subsidence. These various investigations of hydrothermal features, heat flow, seis-micity, earthquakes, gravity, and historic altitude change give us an interesting picture of what underlies the Yellowstone Plateau. These conditions are consistent with a large, partly molten magma body at shallow depth that extends northeast of the caldera rim. Although rocks underlying the rest of the caldera have low densities and low seismic velocities, the variations are less extreme, so the rocks there may be very hot but not necessarily contain much molten magma. Thus we see that Yellowstone's fires are only banked, not out. Geologists don't expect another caldera explosion any time soon, but sometime new lava flows quite likely will once again consume lodgepole forests, and a new generation of geysers will burst forth, perhaps in Hot Springs Basin.

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Yellowstone Geology - Glaciations

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G

Iacial times never seem far away in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. If you were to walk the streets of Chicago on a hot August day, you would have a rough time believing that 150 centuries ago the land beneath the sidewalk was covered by ice thousands of feet thick. In Grand Teton National Park, on the same August day, you can view a glacier. From the valley floor, the Teton Glacier is only 4.5 miles to the west and 7,000 feet up the mountain. More glaciers grace the flanks of nearby Mt. Moran. On the Pitchstone Plateau of Yellow-stone, a hiker in August can find patches of last winter's snow in the shade of obsidian ledges, if they aren't already covered by the new snows of autumn. The mean annual temperature at Lake Ranger Station in Yellowstone is 33° F, just a tad above freezing. Possibly the most striking examples of Yellowstone's deep chill are Yellowstone and Lewis lakes that remain frozen most years from December to late May. Often Lewis Lake melts in early June. Winter weather in northwest Wyoming is brisk. Temperatures around -40° F routinely occur at Old Faithful, and those in the town of Jackson, Wyoming, are often below 30° E With these temperatures in mind, it is not difficult to imagine the effect colder, more cloudy summers and temperature drops of perhaps 15° F might have on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. In this chapter we will look in detail at Yellowstone's youngest glaciation, the Pinedale, and make some general observa tions about its predecessor, the Bull Lake Though there were eight or more earlier glaciations than Bull Lake in the Yellowstone region, we know little about them. We will follow the growth of the Pinedale glaciers in Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks and their immediate environs. We will look at land-forms and deposits the glaciers left behind, and try to explain how these landforms and deposits were formed. ! But before we look at the details, try to imagine what Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks looked like on a summer day 25,000 years ago at the height of Pinedale glaciation. The Yellowstone ice field at that time was near its maximum size. Imagine you are standing at the Snake River Overlook in Grand Teton, facing north. Immediately in front of you is a wall of ice that extends from the eastern valley wall nearly to the Tetons. Streams of muddy water pour down the glacier's blue face and flow from tunnels at its base. Occasional boulders tumble from the ice face amid a constant cascade of gravel. Muddy meltwater, gravel, and boulders enter a wide, shallow river heading two miles east near the present-day Lost Creek Ranch, between Shadow Mountain and the glacier before you. Braided channels of this river move constantly across a treeless plain, shifting from south to west and back again as they construct a huge alluvial fan of glacial debris. Although it is mid-summer, a cool breeze drifts down the glacier's face. To the west, the ice-sheathed peaks of the Teton Range tower above great rivers of ice filling the canyons and spilling out onto the plain. Sagebrush and tundra grasses hug the treeless slopes and foothills around you; dwarf willows border restless streams. Far to the south-west, you see clumps of trees in protected areas. If you stood here at the Snake River Overlook on a stormy September day, you might have trouble standing at all. The cool summer breeze is now a blustery chill blast. The muddy streams of summer have shrunk to trickles many in fact are empty

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The muddy streams of summer have shrunk to trickles—many, in fact, are empty, their dried-out channels caked with silt and mud. The fierce winds of autumn whip the dry sediments into rolling clouds which, carried south, fall as blankets of windblown dust called loess. Today, on high terraces south of Jackson, deposited during the last glaciation, loess is as much as 20 feet thick. Now back to summer and a major adventure: We decide to explore the huge ice field to the north. We pick a route up its sloping face and begin the difficult climb up the glacier's back. At first the slope is steep (more than 500 feet/mile), but soon it flattens to less than 100 feet/mile then becomes nearly horizontal. To the east a vast sea of featureless ice is punctuated by the isolated peaks of Whetstone and Gravel mountains. To the west stands the Teton Range high above the Snake River valley. The ice sheet beneath us extends westward nearly to the base of the Tetons. The Snake River valley to the north is ice-free for miles, but at its northern end is a lobe of Yellowstone ice filling it from wall to wall. Between the lobe of Yellowstone ice advancing down the Snake River Valley and the lobe we are standing on is an ancient Jackson Lake whose gray-green waters are dotted with icebergs calved from valley glaciers pouring out of the Tetons. As we continue our trek, and as the air chills, we notice that runoff on the glacier's surface is becoming less and less. At about 9,000 feet elevation, the bare ice gives way to slush, then old dry snow. We have reached snowline on the glacier. Up, up, day after day, we finally cross the southern boundary of Yellowstone. Behind us are the Teton peaks. Ahead on our left the summit of Mt. Sheridan lies a few hundred feet beneath the ice. On our right, a chain of dark knobs barely piercing an expanse of white marks the crest-line of the Absaroka Range. As we approach the vicinity of present-day Yellowstone Lake, the ice underfoot is about 4,000 feet thick. In every direction, to the very horizons, a boundless, unrelieved plain of snow-covered ice lies silent and lifeless under a glaring sun. We have reached the summit of the Yellowstone ice field. On the flat, nearly featureless icescape we follow a compass course north. We pause above the buried crest of the Washbum range reflected by broad, subtle mounds in the nearly horizontal surface of the ice. Far to the northeast, a mighty dome of snow and ice mantles the granite massif of the Beartooth Mountains. To the northwest are the nearby peaks of the Gallatins and the faraway peaks of the Madison Range. To the south bulks the broad summit dome of the ice field. We cross ice-buried hot springs, progenitors of the Mammoth Terraces, about three thousand feet beneath our boots. Just beyond to the north, the gentle slope of the Yellowstone valley glacier steepens and curves below Yankee Jim Canyon . Eventually we make our way through the crevasses down to the terminal ice face near Chico Hot Springs in Montana. Our traverse from the Snake River Overlook across the buried Washbum Range has taken us across an ice divide at an altitude of about 11,500 feet. We have covered a distance of about 120 miles in a 10-day journey on trackless ice. From Chico Hot Springs, could we have seen the southern margin of the great continental ice sheet to the north? No, we would have had to trudge another 150 miles north across windy, cold, sparsely vegetated plains to the vicinity of Great Falls, Montana, to reach the edge of that ice mass.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

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Yellowstone National Park Trip Planner

2007 1 Safety Tips

2 Highlights

Visitor Centers Museums

3 Activities 4 Map 5 Lodging & Services

6 Permits &

Regulations

7 Camping & Weather

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1 P lay I t S afe

Emergency—dial 911

High Altitude Most of the

park is above 7,500 feet (2,275 m). Allow time to acclimate and drink plenty of liquids. Visitors with cardiac or respiratory medical histories should contact a physician prior to their visit. Weather Yellowstone’s weather is unpredictable. Be prepared for changing temperatures, storms, and emergencies. Carry adequate clothing and gear. Traffic Most roads are busy, narrow, and rough; some are steep with sharp drop-offs. Watch out for pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, wildlife, and road damage. Pull into turnouts to let other cars pass. Always wear your seatbelt.

CAUTION: Scalding Water Beautiful but deadly: Yellowstone’s hydrothermal features can kill you. Their waters are frequently near or above boiling. The crust surrounding them is thin and breaks easily, and often overlies more scalding water. People have died in these pools. Be safe, be careful—enjoy the hydrothermal areas from a distance. • You must stay on boardwalks and des­ig­nat­ed trails. They exist to protect you and to preserve delicate formations. • Pets are prohibited in hydrothermal areas. • Swimming or bathing is prohibited in hydrothermal pools or streams where water flows entirely from a hydrothermal spring or pool. • Where swimming is allowed, swim at your own risk. Hydrothermal waters can harbor organisms that cause a fatal meningitis infection and Legionnaires’ disease. Obtain more in­for­ma­tion at any ranger station or visitor center. • Toxic gases exist at dangerous levels in some hydrothermal areas. If you feel sick, leave the location immediately.

Where

are your children?

Your hand and voice may be too far away if your child leaves your side. Keep your children next to you and make sure they understand the hazards of Yellowstone— especially hydrothermal areas, wildlife, and steep drop-offs.

including helmet and high visibility clothing. Park roads are narrow and winding with few shoulders. In spring, high snowbanks make travel dangerous. Road elevations range from 5,300–8,860 feet (1,615– 2,700 m); long distances exist between services and facilities. Falling Trees Avoid areas of dead trees (snags), which may suddenly fall— especially on windy days. Stream Crossing High water conditions persist well into summer. If your plans include fishing or crossing streams, check at local ranger stations for water conditions. Theft Lock your vehicle; keep valuables out of sight; label all valuable property with your name, address, or identification number. Report theft or vandalism to a ranger.

Watch Out! Wild Yellowstone is not a zoo and the animals are not tame, even though they may seem calm. Do not approach any animals. View them from the safety of your vehicle. If an animal reacts to your pres­ence, you are too close. Each year park visitors are injured when they approach animals too closely. You must stay at least 100 yards (91 m) away from bears and at least 25 yards (23 m) away from all other animals— including bison, elk, bighorn sheep, deer, moose, wolves, and coyotes. BISON are un­pre­dict­able and dan­ger­ ous, and every year visitors are injured. Bison weigh up to 2,000 pounds (900 kg) and sprint 30 miles per hour (48 kph)— three times faster than you can run. BEARS may be seen from March through November. Be alert for tracks and sign. Never approach animal carcasses. Report all bear sightings to a ranger. COYOTES quickly learn habits like roadside begging. This may lead to ag­gres­sive behavior toward humans and Page 36 of 243

animals all around you

NPS photo/Schmidt

Bicycling Wear safety gear,

Bull elk sparring. Keep your distance!

can increase the risk of the coyote being poached or hit by a vehicle. RAVENS have learned to unzip and unsnap packs. Do not allow them access to your food. Do not feed any animals. It’s harmful to them and it’s illegal.

to walk the self-guiding trail around Fort Yellowstone, which chronicles the U.S. Army’s role in protecting the park. Other historic sites include the Norris Geyser Basin Museum, Obsidian Cliff, and the Old Faithful Inn and Historic District.

Lake Area

Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone

Wildlife

This spectacular canyon, including the Upper and Lower Falls of the Yellowstone River, can be seen from the overlooks and trails of the Canyon Village area, and from the Tower Fall and Calcite Springs overlooks south of Tower Junction.

Lower Falls of the Yellowstone River

Geysers & Hot Springs

History

Geysers, hot springs, mudpots, and fumaroles are evidence of ongoing volcanic activity. To see them, visit Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris Geyser Basin, Fountain Paint Pot & Firehole Lake Drive, Midway Geyser Basin, the Old Faithful area, West Thumb Geyser Basin, and Mud Volcano.

People have been visiting and living in the Yellowstone area for thousands of years. In the mid 1800s, explorers and artists brought Yellowstone’s wonders to the attention of the federal government. The park was established in 1872. Visit Mammoth Hot Springs

In­for­ma­tion, bookstore, exhibits on wildlife and history and films on the national park idea, Yellowstone, and artist Thomas Moran.

Open April–November & Winter Old Faithful Visitor Center Mid April­–early November

Information, bookstore, gey­ser eruption predictions, and a film about hydrothermal features. Also open late December through early March. Access only via oversnow vehicle.

Wildflowers Magenta and blue—the colors used in this planner—hint at the vibrant wildflowers that brighten Yellowstone in summer.

Visitor Centers & Museums Open late May– late September Fishing Bridge Visitor Center

Information, bookstore, and exhibits on the park’s birds, wildlife, and lake geology.

Grant Visitor Center

Information, bookstore, exhibit and video on fire in Yellowstone.

Madison Information Station Information and bookstore.

Museum of the National Park Ranger, Norris

Exhibits at this historic soldier station on the history of the park ranger profession.

West Yellowstone Visitor Information Center

Norris Geyser Basin Museum

Information and publications. Also open mid December through early March.

West Thumb Information Station

Late April­–early November

You can see a variety and abundance of wildlife unparalleled in the lower 48 states. All the large mammals present when Yellowstone became a park are here today: grizzly and black bears, wolves, mountain lions, elk, bison, pronghorn, moose, and bighorn sheep. You’ll also see a large variety of birds, including bald eagles. Check at a visitor center for the best wildlife viewing locations.

Read more about park highlights at www.nps.gov/yell

Open All Year Albright Visitor Center, Mammoth

Yellowstone Lake is North America’s largest high-altitude lake. The area is prime habitat for a variety of birds and mammals. You can also enjoy boating, fishing, hiking, and viewing hydrothermal features.

Information, bookstore, and exhibits on the hydrothermal features of Yellowstone. Information and bookstore.

Page 37 of 243

New! Canyon Visitor Education Center

Enter the new Canyon Visitor Education Center (shown below) and the world of Yellowstone’s supervolcano—an idea that has captured the minds and imaginations of people around the world. For the first time, you can see, hear, and learn how the Yellowstone volcano, its geysers and hot springs, and geologic history influence all life found here.

Open May–early October NPS photo/Peaco

NPS photo/Keller

2 H ighlights

3 W hat

to

For current schedules of activities, consult the park website (www.nps.gov/yell) or the park newspaper when you arrive.

P rograms & T ours

O n Y our O wn Junior Rangers

Yellowstone’s Junior Ranger Program, for young people ages 5–12, promotes in­volve­ment in and un­der­stand­ing of Yellowstone; ask at vis­i­tor centers for more information.

NPS photo/Peaco

Yellowstone Association Institute

Interpretive Park Ranger Programs Rangers lead ac­tiv­i­ties and pro­grams— from short walks to evening campfire programs—during the summer and winter seasons. They also rove through major park feature areas to an­swer your questions and help you un­der­stand the many wonders of Yel­low­stone.

D riving

the

P ark

The Grand Loop Drive to major

features on this narrow, winding road. Allow plenty of time for driving.

Summer Park roads are generally open for travel, barring accidents, rock/mud slides, or road construction.

Autumn Storms may cause temporary re­stric­tions (chain or snow tire re­quire­ ments) or closures of roads. Park roads close on the first Monday of No­vem­ber, except the road from Gardiner to Cooke City, MT, which is open all year.

The park’s official educational partner offers affordable wildlife watching tours, backpacking trips, and short courses on the wonders of Yellowstone. Most programs are based at the Lamar Valley field campus or park hotels. Call 307-344-2294 or visit www.YellowstoneAssociation.org.

Other Activities

Xanterra Parks & Resorts offers motorcoach tours, boat rentals and tours, fishing trips, cookouts, horseback and stagecoach rides, and special excursions. Visit www. TravelYellowstone.com; call 307-344-7311 or toll-free 866-Geyserland (866-439-7375).

Road construction occurs each year; check at a visitor center upon arrival.

Winter All roads and ­­en­tranc­es, with one ex­cep­tion, are closed to motor vehicle travel; most are groomed for over-snow vehicles. The North Entrance road from ­Gardiner to Cooke City, MT, is open only to wheeled vehicles and may close at any time due to storms. Mud/Snow tires are recommended and often required. You must return to the North En­trance to leave the park. Spring Park roads open by sections

beginning the third Friday in April. Storms may cause re­stric­tions or closures.

A dditional I nformation

Bicycling is allowed on public roads, parking areas, and designated routes; it is prohibited on boardwalks and backcountry trails.

Boating is allowed on most

of Yellowstone Lake and on Lewis Lake. Only non-motorized boating is allowed on most other lakes and one river: the Lewis River between Lewis and Shoshone Lakes. All boats and float tubes require permits.

Climbing isn’t recommended due to loose, crumbly rock; it’s illegal in the Grand Canyon. Contact the backcountry office for information.

Fishing is allowed in certain

areas and with permits. See “Permits” for more information.

Hiking takes you far from roads and crowds. Check trail conditions at visitor centers or ranger stations.

Picnic areas exist throughout the park. They usually have pit toilets, but no drinking water. Fires are legal in areas with fire grates; inquire when you arrive.

Self-guiding trails explore

Mammoth Hot Springs, Fort Yellowstone, Norris Geyser Basin, Fountain Paint Pot, Upper Geyser Basin, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, West Thumb Geyser Basin, and Mud Volcano.

Stock use depends on trail

The Deluxe Trip Planner from the nonprofit Yellowstone Association includes everything you need to plan a fun and educational visit to Yellowstone: Yellowstone: The Official Guide to Touring America’s First National Park, Yellowstone Trails: A Hiking Guide, National Geographic Yellowstone Park Map, Yellowstone and Grand Teton Road Guide, and Large Mammals   of Yellowstone. Package Price—$29.95 ($41.30 if purchased separately). To order, call 877-967-0090 or visit www.YellowstoneAssociation.org. Page 38 of 243

conditions. Contact the backcountry office for information. Hay restrictions enforced; see “Regulations.”

Swimming, bathing, and wading are discouraged due to extremely cold water. They are illegal in hydrothermal features or streams flowing from hydrothermal features.

4 M ap

Road construction locations and schedules can change. Check at a visitor center upon arrival. To Livingston, MT 52 mi/84 km To Bozeman, MT 84 mi/134 km

To Bozeman, MT 90 mi/144 km

Gardiner, MT

Northeast Entrance

MONTANA

North Entrance

212

5 mi/8 km

Beartooth Highway

Mammoth Hot Springs ?

North

191

18 mi/29 km

Slough Creek

Pebble Creek

Tower Junction

Roosevelt ?

Indian Creek

21 mi/34 km

Tower Fall

Yellowstone Association ⁄ Institute

19 mi/31 km

Norris

Road Work Delays & closures: East Entrance Road. Expect other delays. Inquire at entrance stations or visitor centers for updates upon your arrival.

Canyon ? Village

12 mi/19 km

14 mi/23 km

West Yellowstone, MT

To Billings, MT 125 mi/200 km or To Cody, WY 68 mi/109 km

29 mi/47 km

Chittenden Road Dunraven Pass

?

Cooke City, MT

14 mi/23 km 16 mi/26 km

To Idaho Falls, ID 100 mi/160 km

West Entrance

?

Madison ?

? ?

Lake Village Bridge Bay

?

16 mi/26 km

21 mi/34 km

Old Faithful ?

Fishing Bridge

17 mi/27 km

27 mi 43 km

West Thumb ?

Road Openings & Closings 2007

22 mi/35 km

Lewis Lake

June 1–Nov. 1; 8–4:30

?

To Grand Teton National Park 8 mi/13 km

To Ashton, ID 17 mi/27 km

Full service (lodging, food service, general store, restroom) Visitor Center or information station

South Entrance

?

To Jackson, WY 57 mi/91 km

General store Food service

Clinic

Restrooms

Gasoline/fuel

Campground Campground: Hard-sided units only

Marina

East Entrance

Grant Village ?

IDAHO

Bechler Ranger Station

To Cody, WY 53 mi/85 km

Yellowstone Lake

Page 39 of 243

Spring Road Openings, weather permitting: April 20—Mammoth to Old Faithful; Madison Junction to West Entrance; Norris Junction to Canyon May 4—Canyon to Lake to East Entrance May 11—Old Faithful to South Entrance, Lake to West Thumb, & Tower Junction to Tower Fall May 25—Tower Fall to Canyon (Dunraven Pass), Beartooth Highway Fall Road Closures October 9—Beartooth Highway, Tower Fall to Canyon Junction (Dunraven Pass) November 5—All park roads close for the season at 8 am except the North Entrance to Cooke City road, which is open all year.

Road WORK occurs every year.

Locations and schedules on this map are tentative and can change. For updates, check at a visitor center upon arrival.

V /R o TM ut A A

i pa e R

r

s ie er c ro G / e or St

H or s H eba ot e ck Li l/Lo Rid gh d in g g t Lo M e G dg ea if t l M ing s/S Sh na o ar i ck p Pu na s bl i Pu c L bl au n i Ra c S dry ng ho w Re er e st Sta rs au t i Vi si ran on to t/ r C Ca en fe te ter r ia

Ba ck Bo cou at nt r Bu Cru y O s is ff T e i Fi ou s ce sh rs in Fu g el Pe rm its

5 S ervices l ra e en G

Bridge Bay

Early June–Sept.

Canyon

Late May–Sept.

Fishing Bridge

Late May–Sept.

Grant Village

Late May–Sept.

Lake Village

May–October

Mammoth Hot Springs

May–October

Old Faithful

May–October

Roosevelt

June–early Sept.

Tower Fall

May–September

Dates and hours of operation vary and are subject to change. For more information, see “Useful Phone Numbers and Websites” below.

Other Services Medical Services In summer, outpatient medical ser-

vices are offered at Lake, Mammoth, and Old Faithful. Ambulances, 24-hour emergency service, laboratory, pharmacy, and radiology services are available. Mammoth Clinic is open year-round. The park is on 911 service.

Nearby Parks, Forests, & Chambers of Commerce National Parks Grand Teton NP 307-739-3300 Glacier NP 406-888-7800

National Forests

Montana Chambers of Commerce Big Sky Billings Bozeman Gardiner Livingston West Yellowstone Cooke City–Silver Gate Red Lodge

406-995-3000 406-245-4111 406-586-5421 406-848-7971 406-222-0850 406-646-7701 406-838-2495 406-446-1718

Shoshone 307-527-6241 park and in communities adjacent to the park, and include Gallatin most major denominations and interdenominational 406-587-6701 Wyoming Chambers of Commerce services during the summer. Check at visitor centers for Cody 307-587-2297 Bridger­­–Teton information. 307-739-5500 Jackson 307-733-3316 Dubois 307-455-2556 Accessibility Visitors Guide to Accessible Features Caribou–Targhee 208-624-3151 E. Yellowstone/Wapiti Valley 307-587-9595 in Yellowstone National Park, available free at Custer entrance stations and visitor centers in the park, Idaho Chambers of Commerce 406-657-6200 describes facilities judged to be negotiable for wheelchair Idaho Falls 208-523-1010 users. Additional facilities are being made accessible as Eastern Idaho Visitor Info 800-634-3246 quickly as possible within funding limitations. For more information, write to: Useful Phone Numbers & Websites Park Accessibility Coordinator • Yellowstone National Park: P.O. Box 168, Yellowstone National Park, WY 82190 307-344-7381; TDD 307-344-2386; www.nps.gov/yell TDD only: 307-344-2017 • Lodging & activities: 307-344-7311 or toll-free 866-Geyserland (866-439-7375); TDD 307-344-5395; www.TravelYellowstone. Sign Language Interpreters com Sign language interpreters for Yellowstone National • Yellowstone Association (maps, books, classes): 307-344-2293; Park interpretive programs need to be arranged www.YellowstoneAssociation.org three weeks in advance. Call 307-344-2251.

Worship Services Worship services take place in the

Page 40 of 243

6 Y ou

should know about

R egulations Bicycling is allowed on established public

Fish hooks must be barbless. Fishing requires permits (see below). Fishing tackle must be non-toxic. Leaded

roads, parking areas, and designated routes; it is prohibited on boardwalks and backcountry trails.

split-shot sinkers, soft lead-weighted ribbon, and other toxic tackle are not allowed.

Boaters must have a Coast Guard approved “wearable” personal flotation device for each person boating.

in storage. Never leave food outside your vehicle or around your campsite—not even inside a cooler—when you are away or asleep.

Calling to attract wildlife—

Hay & stock feed are allowed only if

bugling to elk, howling to wolves, etc.—is illegal.

Disturbing park features—

possessing, collecting, removing, defacing, or destroying any natural or archeological objects or plants, animals, or minerals—is prohibited.

Food must be attended at all times while not

certified weed-free hay and processed feed; hay must be baled and covered. Trailers must be clean and empty of manure, loose hay, or feed.

Littering is illegal, unsightly, destroys hydrothermal features, and injures wildlife.

Driving while intoxicated

Motorcycles, motor scooters, and motor

Feeding animals is against the law. Fires are permitted only in designated camp-

Pets must be leashed. They are prohibited on

or under the influence is illegal.

grounds, in picnic areas with fire grates, and in some backcountry campsites.

P ermits Anglers 16 years or older require permits

to fish in Yellowstone National Park; no state license is required. Younger children can fish for free under certain conditions. For these and all other fishing regulations, refer to the park website (www.nps.gov/yell/planvisit/todo/fishing) or inquire upon your arrival at ranger stations, visitor centers, or general stores.

Fishing season generally begins on the

Saturday of Memorial Day weekend (usually the last weekend in May) and continues through the

bikes are not allowed off-road or on trails. Operators must carry a valid state driver’s license; vehicles must display valid state license plates. any trails, in the backcountry, and in hydrothermal basins. Pets are not allowed more than

first Sunday of November. Fishing season opens later around Yellowstone Lake and between the lake and the Grand Canyon. For additional information, check park fishing regulations or www.nps.gov/yell/planvisit/todo/fishing.

Motorized boats require permits: 

purchase at South Entrance, Lewis Lake Campground, Grant Village backcountry office, and Bridge Bay Ranger Station.

Non-motorized boats & float tubes require permits: purchase at Old Faithful, Mammoth, and Canyon backcountry offices, Bechler Ranger Station, West and

E ntrance F ees

. . .

100 feet (30.5 m) from a road or parking area. Leaving a pet un­at­tend­ed and/or tied to an object is prohibited.

Seat belts must be worn by all occupants when the vehicle is in motion.

Service animals are allowed on trails and boardwalks in major areas; they require permits in the backcountry (see below).

Slow-moving vehicles must pull

over to let others pass. Never stop or pause in the middle of the road—use pullouts.

Speed limit is 45 mph (73 kph) or less. Spotlighting—viewing animals with artificial light—is illegal.

Weapons and firearms, including

state-­permitted concealed weapons, are not allowed in Yellowstone. Unloaded firearms may be transported in a vehicle when the weapon is cased, broken down or rendered in­op­er­a­ble, and stored in a manner that prevents ready use. Am­mu­ni­tion must be placed in a separate com­part­ment of the vehicle.

Northeast entrances, and West Yellowstone Visitor Information Center.

Overnight backcountry camping requires a permit, free 48 hours

or less in advance or for a fee by mail beginning April 1. For more information, request a backcountry trip planner from the Backcountry Office, Box 168, Yellowstone National Park, WY 82190.

Service animals are allowed in the

backcountry, but must have permits. Contact the Backcountry Office (address above) for more information.

The new America the Beautiful Pass

Private, noncommercial automobile

$25 (7 days, both Yellowstone and Grand Teton)

Motorcycle

$20 (7 days, both parks)

Single entry (foot, bike, ski, etc.)

$12 (7 days, both parks)

Yellowstone–Grand Teton Pass

$50 (valid one year from date of purchase)

America the Beautiful Pass

Available January 1; cost unknown at press time. This pass will be valid for one year from month of purchase for entrance fees to federal fee areas.

All currently valid passes will be accepted until expired, including the National Parks Pass, Golden Eagle Pass, Golden Age Passport, and Golden Access Passport.

Page 41 of 243

Purchase this pass for one annual fee (cost unknown at press time) to receive discounted entrance fees to all national park areas and other federal areas. Seniors (62 and older) who are U.S. citizens or permanent residents may purchase the new Senior Pass for $10. Citizens or permanent residents of the U.S. who have been determined to be blind or permanently disabled may obtain a free Access Pass. Purchase your pass at one of Yellowstone’s entrance stations or http://store.usgs.gov/ pass. (The pass is not good for Expanded Amenity Fees such as camping.)

7C

amping

Fees & dates are tentative; updates at www.nps.gov/yell Dates Fees Sites

Elev (ft) Features

How Long Can You Camp?

Bridge Bay*

5/25–9/16

$18

431

7,800

A, F, DS, G

Canyon*

6/8–9/9

$18

272

7,900

A, F, S/L, G

Fishing Bridge RV* 5/18–9/30

$37

346

7,800

F, S/L, DS, G, hookups

Camping is limited to 14 days July 1–Labor Day (first Monday in September) and to 30 days the rest of the year; no limit at Fishing Bridge.

Grant Village*

6/21–9/23

$18

425

7,800

A, F, S/L, DS, G

Group Camping

Madison*

5/4–10/28

$18

277

6,800

A, F, G, DS

Indian Creek

6/8–9/17

$12

75

7,300

V

Lewis Lake

6/15–11/4

$12

85

7,800

V

Mammoth

All year

$14

85

6,200

A, F, G

Norris

5/18–9/24

$14

116

7,500

F, G

Pebble Creek

6/8–9/24

$12

36

6,900

V

Slough Creek

5/25–10/31 $12

29

6,250

V

Available at Madison, Grant, and Bridge Bay campgrounds for large ­organized groups with a designated leader such as youth groups or educational groups. $52–$84 per night, depending on group size. Reservations are required. Contact Xanterra Parks and Resorts: P.O. Box 165, Yellowstone National Park, WY 82190; 307-344-7311 or toll-free 866-439-7375.

Tower Fall

5/18–9/24

32

6,600

V

Attention RV Drivers

$12

* Reserve these sites by calling Xanterra Parks & Resorts: 307-3447311; toll-free 866-Geyserland (866-439-7375); TDD 307-344-5395. Holders of Golden Age, Senior, Golden Access, and Access passes receive approximately 50% discount on camping fees, except at Fishing Bridge RV Park where no discounts apply.

A F V S/L DS G

Accessible sites available Flush toilets Vault toilets Pay showers/laundry near Dump station Generators OK 8 am–8 pm

W eather

Few campsites exist in the park to accommodate RVs longer than 30 feet. Reservations recommended for these large sites at Fishing Bridge RV Park, and in campgrounds outside the park (map on center pages).

T rip C hecklist

Spring

Cold and snow linger into June, although temperatures gradually climb. Early in spring, daytime temperatures average in the 40s and 50s; by late May and June, they may reach the 60s and 70s. Nighttime lows fall below freezing.

Summer

Daytime temperatures are usually in the 70s, oc­ca­sion­ally the 80s in the lower el­e­va­tions. Nights are cool—temperatures may drop into the 40s and 30s, sometimes even the 20s. June can be cool and rainy; July and August tend to be some­what drier, although afternoon thun­der ­show­ers are common.

Autumn

Weather can be pleasant, although temperatures average 10–20 degrees lower than summer. Nighttime lows can fall into the teens and lower. Snow increases in frequency and intensity as the weeks go by.

Winter

Daytime temperatures range from near zero to above freezing; night temperatures may fall well below zero. Annual snowfall averages nearly 150 inches in most of the park. At higher elevations, 200–400 inches of snow have been recorded.

W inter I n Y ellowstone N ational P ark Yellowstone is open in the winter. For more information, go to www.nps.gov/ yell/planyourvisit/winteract.htm or call 307-344-2116 and ask for Yell 165, “Visit the Park in Winter.” It’s free. Page 42 of 243

Plan itinerary around road construction. Make lodging reservations early. Reserve campsites or plan to secure campsite early in the day. Review park safety, regulations, and permit information. Pack clothes you can layer; be prepared for rain or snow, cool conditions, heat. Prepare day packs with snacks, water bottles, maps, sunscreen, compass. Call ahead for up-to-date road and weather information. For more trip planning materials or to plan to take a class, visit www.YellowstoneAssociation. org. You might also want: camera, binoculars, notebook, field guides You can find in the park: Everything listed above, plus basic camping gear, books, groceries, souvenir clothing.

Yellowstone National Park - Minimizing the Dangers of a Bear Encounter (U.S. National ... Page 1 of 1

Yellowstone National Park

Minimizing the Dangers of a Bear Encounter Yellowstone is home to both grizzly and black bears. Although the risk of an encounter with a bear is low, there are no guarantees of your safety. Minimize your risks by following the guidelines below: Make bears aware of your presence on trails by making loud noises such as shouting or singing. This lessens the chance of sudden encounters, which are the cause of most bearcaused human injuries in the park. Hike in groups and use caution where vision is obstructed. Do not hike after dark. Avoid carcasses; bears often defend this source of food. If you encounter a bear, do not run. Bears can run over 30 miles per hour, or 44 feet per second, faster than Olympic sprinters. Running may elicit an attack from otherwise nonaggressive bears. If the bear is unaware of you, detour away from the bear. If the bear is aware of you and nearby, but has not acted aggressively, slowly back away. Tree climbing to avoid bears is popular advice but not very practical in many circumstances. All black bears, all grizzly cubs, and some adult grizzlies can climb trees. Running to a tree may provoke an otherwise uncertain bear to chase you. Some bears will bluff their way out of a threatening situation by charging, then veering off or stopping abruptly at the last second. Bear experts generally recommend standing still until the bear stops and then slowly backing away. If a bear makes physical contact, drop to the ground, lie face down, and clasp your hands behind your neck. It may take all the courage you have, but lie still and remain silent. Resistance will only provoke the bear. Before moving, listen and look around carefully to make sure the bear is no longer nearby. Our backpacking page also has valuable BEAR SAFETY INFORMATION

Did You Know? There were no wolves in Yellowstone in 1994. The wolves that were reintroduced in 1995 and 1996 thrived and there are now over 300 of their descendents living in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

Last Updated: June 26, 2006 at 19:01 EST

Page 43 of 243

http://www.nps.gov/yell/planyourvisit/bearenc.htm

3/26/2007

Yellowstone National Park - Dining in Yellowstone (U.S. National Park Service)

Page 1 of 2

Yellowstone National Park

Dining in Yellowstone Dining facilities are available throughout the park, ranging from fine dining to snack shops and cafeterias. Dinner reservations are required at the fine dining facilities. Inquire at any lodging front desk or dining room host stand when you arrive at the park. RESTAURANTS and CAFETERIAS z

Old Faithful Inn Dining Room

z

Old Faithful Snow Lodge Restaurant

z

Old Faithful Lodge Cafeteria

z

Lake Yellowstone Hotel Dining Room

z

Lake Lodge Cafeteria

z

Grant Village Restaurant

z

Grant Village Lakehouse Restaurant

z

Canyon Lodge Cafeteria

z

Canyon Lodge Dining Room

z

Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel Dining Room

z

Roosevelt Lodge Dining Room

LIGHT MEALS and FAST FOODS z

Mammoth Hot Springs: General Store and Terrace Grill

z

Canyon: Photo Shop, Snack Bar, and General Store

z

Tower Fall Store

z

Lake: Hotel Deli and General Store

z

Grant Village: General Store and Mini Store

Page 44 of 243

http://www.nps.gov/yell/planyourvisit/wheretoeat.htm

3/26/2007

Yellowstone National Park - Dining in Yellowstone (U.S. National Park Service)

z

Fishing Bridge General Store

z

Bridge Bay Marina Store

z

Old Faithful: Basin Store, Photo Shop, BAC Store, Four Seasons Snack Shop, Pony Express Snack Shop, Lodge Snack Shop

Page 2 of 2

Did You Know? Prior to the establishment of the National Park Service, the U.S. Army protected Yellowstone between 1886 and 1918. Fort Yellowstone was established at Mammoth Hot Springs for that purpose.

Last Updated: July 12, 2006 at 17:34 EST

Page 45 of 243

http://www.nps.gov/yell/planyourvisit/wheretoeat.htm

3/26/2007

Yellowstone National Park - Viewing Wildlife in Yellowstone (U.S. National Park Service) Page 1 of 1

Yellowstone National Park

Viewing Wildlife in Yellowstone

Visit our Wildlife Safety Video Page

Yellowstone's abundant and diverse wildlife are as famous as its geysers. Habitat preferences and seasonal cycles of movement determine, in a general sense, where a particular animal may be at a particular time. Early morning and evening hours are when animals tend to be feeding and thus are more easily seen. But remember that the numbers and variety of animals you see are largely a matter of luck and coincidence. Check at visitor centers for detailed information.

Wild animals, especially females with young, are unpredictable. Keep a safe distance from all wildlife. Each year a number of park visitors are injured by wildlife when approaching too closely. Approaching on foot within 100 yards (91 m) of bears or within 25 yards (23 m) of other wildlife is prohibited. Please use roadside pullouts when viewing wildlife. Use binoculars or telephoto lenses for safe viewing and to avoid disturbing them. By being sensitive to its needs, you will see more of an animal's natural behavior and activity. If you cause an animal to move, you are too close! If you have a fast connection visit our Wildlife Safety Video page to get an idea of the power of large wild animals. Yellowstone also has a wide variety of plant life. In the spring and early summer, wild flowers appear in abundance. They are well worth viewing, and it is usually safer to approach them. Several commercial businesses are permitted to offer services and activities which could enrich a Yellowstone visit. You will find a listing of these businesses on our 'Services' page. Also be sure to visit our page that provides advice about: HIKING IN BEAR COUNTRY

Did You Know? Lake trout are an invasive species of fish that is decimating the native cutthroat trout population in Yellowstone Lake.

Last Updated: July 10, 2006 at 15:22 EST

Page 46 of 243

http://www.nps.gov/yell/planyourvisit/viewanim.htm

3/26/2007

Yellowstone National Park - Permitted Boating Businesses (U.S. National Park Service)

Page 1 of 2

Yellowstone National Park

Permitted Boating Businesses A commercial business permit is required to guide trips in Yellowstone National Park. The tables below list all the guided boating businesses which have permits to operate in Yellowstone National Park. Canoeing Brigham Young University Idaho Mr. Jerald Jex Recreation & Ed. Dept. Mr. Allen Experience Montana Schallenberger Far and Away Adventures/Paddle Mr. Steve Lentz Yellowstone Snake River Kayak Mr. Donald Perkins and Canoe School Sun Valley Trekking Mr. Robert Jonas Co.

MC 150

Rexburg ID 83460

(208)4962226

53 Elser Lane

Sheridan MT 59749

(406)8425134

P.O. Box 54

Sun Valley ID 83353

(208)7268888

Jackson WY 83001 Sun Valley ID 83353 West Jordan UT 84088 Minneapolis MN 55414

(800)5292501 (208)7261002 (801)2802295 (800)-7280719

P.O. Box 4311 P.O. Box 2200 3495 West Whitewater Sports Mr. Gary Nichols 8245 South 808 14th Wilderness Inquiry Mr. Greg Lais Ave SE Dories P.O. Box Bud Lilly's Trout Shop Mr. Jim Criner 530 Fatboy Fishing P.O. Box Mr. A.J. DeRosa Company 121 John Henry Lee Outfitters, Inc.

Mr. John Henry Lee

Teton Troutfitters

Mr. Scott Hocking

Westbank Anglers

Far and Away Adventures/Paddle Yellowstone Jackson Hole Kayak

P.O. Box 990

P.O. Box 536 P.O. Box Mr. Baker Salsbury 523 Kayaking Mr. Steve Lentz

West Yellowstone (406)646MT 59758 7801 Wilson WY (307)73383014 3061 (307)455Dubois WY 3200 82513 (800)3522576 Wilson WY (307)73383014 5362 Teton Village (307)733WY 83025 6483

P.O. Box 54

Sun Valley ID (208)72683353 8888

P.O. Box

Jackson WY

(307)733-

Page 47 of 243

http://www.nps.gov/yell/planyourvisit/boatbusn.htm

3/26/2007

Yellowstone National Park - Permitted Boating Businesses (U.S. National Park Service)

School

Mr. Aaron Pruzan Mr. George OARS Wendt Snake River Kayak and Mr. Donald Canoe School Perkins Sun Valley Trekking Mr. Robert Jonas Co. Mr. Mike Wilderness Ventures Cottingham

9201

83001 Angels Camp P.O. Box 67 CA 95222 P.O. Box Jackson WY 4311 83001 P.O. Box Sun Valley ID 2200 83353 P.O. Box Jackson WY 2768 83001

Motorized Boating Wilson WY Mr. A.J. DeRosa P.O. Box 121 83014 Island Park ID 3340 Hwy 20 83429 Mr. John Henry Dubois WY P.O. Box 990 Lee 82513 West Sleepy Hollow Mr. Larry Miller P.O. Box 1080 Yellowstone Lodge 59758 Snake River Jackson WY Mr. Bruce James P.O. Box 3369 Fishing Trips 83001 Teton Mr. Scott Wilson WY P.O. Box 536 Troutfitters Hocking 83014 Mr. Harold Moose WY Triangle X Ranch Turner 83012 Mr. Baker Teton Village Westbank Anglers P.O. Box 523 Salsbury WY 83025 Fatboy Fishing Company Henry Fork Anglers Inc John Henry Lee Outfitters, Inc.

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2471 (209)7364677 (800)5292501 (208)7261002 (307)7332122

(307)733-3061 (208)558-7525 (307)455-3200 (800)352-2576 (406)646-7707 (307)733-3270 (307)733-5362 (307)733-2183 (307)733-6483

Did You Know? Prior to the establishment of the National Park Service, the U.S. Army protected Yellowstone between 1886 and 1918. Fort Yellowstone was established at Mammoth Hot Springs for that purpose.

Last Updated: August 07, 2006 at 18:27 EST

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Yellowstone National Park - Boating in Yellowstone National Park (U.S. National Park S... Page 1 of 2

Yellowstone National Park

Boating in Yellowstone National Park Private Boats A permit is required for all vessels (motorized and non-motorized including float tubes) and must be obtained in person at any of the following locations: South Entrance, Lewis Lake Campground, Grant Village Backcountry Office, and Bridge Bay Ranger Station. Non-motorized boating permits are available at West Entrance, Northeast Entrance, Mammoth Backcountry Office, Old Faithful Backcountry Office, Canyon Backcountry Office, Bechler Ranger Station, West Contact Station, West Yellowstone Chamber of Commerce and locations where motorized permits are sold. The fee is $20 (annual) or $10 (7 day) for motorized vessels and $10 (annual) or $5 (7 day) for non-motorized vessels. A Coast Guard approved wearable personal flotation device is required for each person boating. Boat permits issued in Grand Teton National Park are honored in Yellowstone, but owners must register their vessel in Yellowstone and obtain a no-charge Yellowstone validation sticker from a permit issuing station. Jet skis, personal watercraft, airboats, submersibles, and similar vessels are prohibited in Yellowstone National Park. All vessels are prohibited on park rivers and streams except the channel between Lewis and Shoshone Lakes, where only hand-propelled vessels are permitted.

Rentals and Guided Boat Trips Outboards and rowboats may be rented (first come, first served) from Xanterra Parks & Resorts at Bridge Bay Marina on Yellowstone Lake. Xanterra also provides guided fishing boats which may be reserved in advance by calling (307) 344-7311 or 1-866GEYSERLAND (439-7375). Other commercial businesses are permitted to offer guided services for canoeing, kayaking, and motorized boating.

Did You Know? At peak summer levels, 3,500 employees work for Yellowstone National Park concessioners and about 800 work for the park.

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Yellowstone National Park - Activites Led by Concessioners (U.S. National Park Service)

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Yellowstone National Park

Activites Led by Concessioners Xanterra Parks & Resorts® is the concessioner that operates the hotels and dining rooms in Yellowstone. They also offer a variety of activities for their guests and other park visitors. To reserve one of these activities call (307) 344-7311 or 1-866-GEYSERLAND (439-7375) or visit one of the front desks or activity desks at any hotel, lodge or campground. Xanterra Parks & Resorts® does not charge a booking fee for lodging or activity reservations.

Horseback Rides For a western-flavored Yellowstone experience, saddle up and join a congenial guide for a trail ride from one of our three corrals: Mammoth Hot Springs Roosevelt Lodge Canyon Village 1-hour ride $33.00 2-hour ride $52.50 Children must be at least 8 years old and 48 inches tall. Children 8-11 must be accompanied by a person(s) 16 years or older. Weight limit: 250 pounds. Only one rider per horse.

Old West Cookout Enjoy a delicious evening steak cookout dinner via horse-drawn wagon or horseback from Roosevelt Lodge. Reservations required. Wagon Adult $51.00 Child (5-11) $41.00 Horseback (one hour) Adult $61.00 Child (8-11) $51.00 Horseback (two hour) Adult $72.00 Child (8-11) $62.00

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Yellowstone National Park - Activites Led by Concessioners (U.S. National Park Service)

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Stagecoach Rides Relive the wild-West experience of a stagecoach ride at Roosevelt Lodge. Adult $9.10 Child (2-11) $7.50

Bridge Bay Guided Fishing Trips and Cruise Rides Experienced guides tailor a trip that suits your interests. Trips depart from the Bridge Bay Marina. 22 ft. Cabin Cruiser (1-6 people) $70.00/hour 34 ft. Cabin Cruiser (1-6 people) $90.00/hour Rental rowboats, outboards, and dock slips are also available at Bridge Bay.

Picture-perfect Photo Safari Join us for a trip from the Lake Yellowstone Hotel, Old Faithful area, or Mammoth Hotel to various areas of the park to photograph wildlife. A knowledgeable guide and experienced photographer will provide information about Park resources and help you find the best opportunities for wildlife photography. Although wildlife is the highlight of this trip, opportunities may exist for photographing wildflowers and scenic vistas. The tour price includes a cinnamon roll and juice. Since departure times will vary during the season depending on sunrise. Please check with hotel front desks for departure times. Old Faithful area - Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, and Sunday May 31 – October 1 Lake Hotel - Friday through Tuesday only June 2 – October 3 Mammoth Hotel - Monday through Friday only June 5 – September 15 Adults $55.00 Child (16 and under) $28.00

Firehole Basin Adventure

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Yellowstone National Park - Activites Led by Concessioners (U.S. National Park Service)

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Let us take you on a three-hour afternoon exploration to the geyser basin just north of Old Faithful. We will offer interpretive guided walks through these fascinating areas, where you will see all four types of geothermal features - geysers, hot springs, fumaroles and mud pots - and leave with a new appreciation and understanding of these unique features. Offered daily May 20 – September 17 Departs from Old Faithful area around 12:45 and returns around 4:00 PLEASE CHECK WITH HOTEL FRONT DESKS FOR DEPARTURE LOCATIONS AND TIMES Adults $25.00 Teens (12-16 years) $12.50. Under 12 years free.

Teton Vista Rendezvous Experience two parks in one day! See lakes like jewels set in a backdrop of hunter green forests, rivers snaking their way to different oceans and rugged mountains reaching upward, attempting to touch the sky. Join our guides for an educational and entertaining experience. You will stop at the Historic Menor's Ferry area and by the Snake River for lunch at Dornan's (not included in the price of the fare). If the weather is not conducive to sightseeing spots, there are plans to visit cultural sites or the Colter Bay Native Arts Museum. From Fishing Bridge RV Park, Lake Hotel, Bridge Bay, and Grant Village. Adults $54.00 12 - 16 $27.00 under 12 FREE

Circle of Fire Motorcoach Tour This tour travels along the lower portion of Yellowstone's figure eight road system. The major sights include the Upper and Lower Geyser Basins, Yellowstone Lake, the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, and Norris Geyser Basin. A lunch stop (location varies) is scheduled on this tour. Lunch is not included in tour price.Offered daily from Old Faithful Inn, Grant Village, Canyon Lodge, Lake Hotel, Bridge Bay Campground and Fishing Bridge RV Park z z z z

Available May 20 – September 23, (from Lake Hotel and Fishing Bridge). May 27 – September 23 (for Old Faithful Inn and Grant Village) May 27 – September 16 (for Bridge Bay) June 3 – September 16 (for Canyon Lodge)

Adults $50.00 Children (12 - 16 years) $25.00 Children under 12 years are free

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Yellowstone National Park - Activites Led by Concessioners (U.S. National Park Service)

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Yellowstone In A Day Full-day guided motorcoach tour, available June 5- September 25. This tour travels along the entire outer portion of Yellowstone's figure eight road system. The major sights include Mammoth Hot Springs, Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone Lake, the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River. A lunch stop is scheduled at Old Faithful. Lunch is not included in tour price. Departs Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel at 8:30 am and returns at 6:00pm Departs from Gardiner, Mt. 7:45am* returns at 6:15pm *pick-ups at hotels begin at 7:30am Adults $50.00 Children $25.00 From Gardiner: Adults $58.00 Children (age 2-11) $29.00 Under 2 years Free

Yellowstone Lake "Historic" Sunset Tour by 1937 Touring Bus Daily June 6 – September 23 This 2 ½ hour tour departs from Lake Hotel and Fishing Bridge RV Park. Please check with Hotel front desks for departure times since they vary throughout the summer due to sun set times. Please check with Hotel front desks for departure times since they vary throughout the summer due to sun set times. Adult $26.00 Child (16 and under) $13.00

Tour of the Historic Lake Hotel Duration: 45 minutes Meet under the portico at 5:30 pm on the side of the hotel facing the lake. FREE

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The time of this program is subject to change. Please verify the time when you arrive.

Tour of the Historic Old Faithful Inn Duration: 45 minutes Meet at the fireplace in the Old Faithful Inn Lobby. Tours begin at 9:30 am, 11:00 am, 2:00 pm, and 3:30 pm. FREE The times of this program are subject to change. Please verify the times when you arrive.

Bike Shop Information Located inside the Snow Lodge Gift Shop, the bike shop offers bikes for rent, and can do most repairs and light maintenance. They have 30 bikes for rent, two bike “trains” and a two-seater bike trailer/stroller. Bikes come in six adult sizes, in both men’s and women’s styles. They also have children's bikes. Equipment Adult Bike Child Bike Bike Train Trailer

1 hour $8 $6 $5 $5

1/2 Day (4 hrs) $25 $15 $12 $12

Full Day (24 hrs) $35 $22.50 $16 $16

Did You Know? At peak summer levels, 3,500 employees work for Yellowstone National Park concessioners and about 800 work for the park.

Last Updated: September 18, 2006 at 20:09 EST

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Yellowstone National Park - Yellowstone Fact Sheet (U.S. National Park Service)

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Yellowstone National Park

Yellowstone Fact Sheet GENERAL z z z z

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World’s First National Park A designated World Heritage Site A designated Biosphere Reserve Site 3,472 square miles or 8,987 square km 2,219,789 acres or 898,317 ectares 63 air miles north to south (102 km) 54 air miles east to west 87 km) 96 % in Wyoming 3 % in Montana 1 % in Idaho Highest Point: 11,358 ft / 3,462 m (Eagle Peak) Lowest Point: 5,282 ft / 1,610 m (Reese Creek) Larger than Rhode Island and Delaware combined Approximately 5% of park is covered by water; 15% is grassland; and 80% is forested Precipitation ranges from 10 inches (26 cm) at the north boundary to 80 inches (205 cm) in the southwest corner Temperatures (average) range from 9° F / -13 C in January to 80° F / 27 C in July at Mammoth Hot Springs Record High Temp: 98° F / 37 C (Lamar 1936) Record Low Temp: -66° F / -54 C (Madison 1933)

LATITUDE / LONGITUDE / UTM (NOTE: ALL UTMS ARE "Nad83") 1. Center of the park: 44 36 53.25 (Lat) -110 30 03.93 (Long) UTM Zone 12: 4940281 N, 539584 E 2. Old Faithful: 44 27 37.31 (Lat) -110 49 41.59 (Long) UTM Zone 12: 4923021 N, 513665 E 3. Mammoth: 44 58 34.79 (Lat) -110 42 03.37 (Long) UTM Zone 12: 4980364 N, 523580 E 4. Entrances: East Entrance: 44 29 18.42 (Lat) -110 00 13.80 (Long) UTM Zone 12: 4926609 N, 579209 E North Entrance: 45 01 46.39 (Lat) -110 42 31.32 (Long) UTM Zone 12: 4986275 N, 522949 E Northeast Entrance: 45 00 12.09 (Lat) -110 00 04.62 (Long) UTM Zone 12: 4983809 N, 578510 E

WILDLIFE z z

7 species of native ungulates 2 species of bears

South Entrance: 44 07 56.97 (Lat) -110 39 52.83 (Long) UTM Zone 12: 4886643 N, 526824 E

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Yellowstone National Park - Yellowstone Fact Sheet (U.S. National Park Service)

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Approximately 50 species of other mammals 311 recorded species of birds (148 nesting species) 18 species of fish (6 non-native) 6 species of reptiles 4 species of amphibians 5 species protected as "threatened or endangered" Threatened: bald eagle, grizzly bear, lynx Endangered: whooping crane, gray wolf

West Entrance: 44 39 30.27 (Lat) -111 05 49.87 (Long) UTM Zone 12: 4945010 N, 492295 E

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FLORA z z

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8 species of conifers Approximately 80% of forest is comprised of lodgepole pine More than 1,700 species of native vascular plants More than 170 species of exotic (non-native) plants 186 species of lichens

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An Active Volcano Approximately 2,000 earthquakes annually Approximately 10,000 thermal features More than 300 geysers One of the world’s largest calderas, measuring 45 by 30 miles (72 by 48 km) One of the world's largest petrified forests Approximately 290 waterfalls, 15 ft. or higher, flowing year-round Tallest waterfall: Lower Falls of the Yellowstone River at 308 ft. (94 m)

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5 park entrances 466 mi / 750 km of roads (310 mi/499 km paved miles) 950 mi / 1,529 km of backcountry trails 97 trailheads 287 backcountry campsites

VISITATION z z

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2000 - 2,838,233 visitors Record year: 1992 – 3,144,405 visitors Winter visitors: Approximately 140,000

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9 visitor centers and museums 9 hotels/lodges (2,238 hotel rooms/cabins) 7 NPS-operated campgrounds (454 sites) 5 concession-operated campgrounds (1,747 sites) 2,000+ buildings (NPS and concessions) 49 picnic areas 1 marina

EMPLOYEES z

YELLOWSTONE LAKE

During the summer: Approximately 800 National Park Service (about 380 year-round)

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Yellowstone National Park - Yellowstone Fact Sheet (U.S. National Park Service)

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136 sq. miles (35,400 hectares) of z Approximately 3,700 work for surface area concessions z 110 miles (177 km) of shoreline z 20 miles (32 km) north to south z 14 miles (23 km) east to west z Average depth: 140 feet (43 m) MAILING ADDRESS z Maximum depth: about 400 feet (122 m) National Park Service P.O. Box 168 Yellowstone National Park, WY 821900168 CULTURAL RESOURCES Internet Website: www.nps.gov/yell/ z

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1,000+ documented archeological sites 1,106 historic structures 6 National Historic Landmarks (Obsidian Cliff & 5 buildings) Nearly 200,000 museum objects 20,000 titles in Park Research Library 2,500 linear feet of historic documents About 90,000 photographic prints and negatives 21 Affiliated American Indian tribes

Did You Know? You cannot fish from Fishing Bridge. Until 1973 this was a very popular fishing location since the bridge crossed the Yellowstone River above a cutthroat trout spawning area. It is now a popular place to observe fish.

Last Updated: August 10, 2006 at 14:22 EST

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Yellowstone National Park - Natural Highlights of Yellowstone (U.S. National Park Servi... Page 1 of 1

Yellowstone National Park

Natural Highlights of Yellowstone For those with an interest in all things natural, these pages discuss some of the more spectacular natural highlights of the park. z z z z

Mammoth Norris Madison Old Faithful

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West Thumb & Grant Village Lake, Bridge Bay & Fishing Bridge Canyon Tower-Roosevelt

Did You Know? You cannot fish from Fishing Bridge. Until 1973 this was a very popular fishing location since the bridge crossed the Yellowstone River above a cutthroat trout spawning area. It is now a popular place to observe fish.

Last Updated: July 11, 2006 at 16:12 EST

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Yellowstone National Park - Canyon Area Natural Highlights (U.S. National Park Service)

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Yellowstone National Park

Canyon Area Natural Highlights The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone Be sure to take our online tour of the canyon. The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone is the primary geologic feature in the Canyon District. It is roughly 20 miles long, measured from the Upper Falls to the Tower Fall area. Depth is 800 to 1,200 ft.; width is 1,500 to 4,000 ft. The canyon as we know it today is a very recent geologic feature. The present canyon is no more than 10,000 to 14,000 years old, although there has probably been a canyon in this location for a much longer period. The exact sequence of events in the formation of the canyon is not well understood, as there has been little field work done in the area. The few studies that are available are thought to be inaccurate. We do know that the canyon was formed by erosion rather than by glaciation. A more complete explanation can be found in the Geological Overview section. The geologic story of the canyon, its historical significance as a barrier to travel, its significance as destination/attraction, and its appearance in Native American lore and in the accounts of early explorers are all important interpretive points. The "ooh-ahh" factor is also important: its beauty and grandeur, its significance as a feature to be preserved, and the development of the national park idea. The Upper and Lower Falls of the Yellowstone See these falls on the online tour of the canyon. The falls are erosional features formed by the Yellowstone River as it flows over progressively softer, less resistant rock. The Upper Falls is upstream of the Lower Falls and is 109 ft. high. It can be seen from the Brink of the Upper Falls Trail and from Uncle Tom's Trail. The Lower Falls is 308 ft. high and can be seen from Lookout Point, Red Rock Point, Artist Point, Brink of the Lower Falls Trail, and from various points on the South Rim Trail. The Lower Falls is often described as being more than twice the size of Niagara, although this only refers to its height and not the volume of water flowing over it. The volume of water flowing over the falls can vary from 63,500 gal/sec at peak runoff to 5,000 gal/sec in the fall. A third falls can be found in the canyon between the Upper and Lower falls. Crystal Falls is the outfall of Cascade Creek into the canyon. It can be seen from the South Rim Trail just east of the Uncle Tom's area.

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Yellowstone National Park - Canyon Area Natural Highlights (U.S. National Park Service)

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The Yellowstone River The Yellowstone River is the force that created the canyon and the falls. It begins on the slopes of Yount Peak, south of the park, and travels more than 600 miles to its terminus in North Dakota where it empties into the Missouri River. It is the longest undammed river in the continental United States. Hayden Valley Hayden Valley is one of the best places in the park to view a wide variety of wildlife. It is an excellent place to look for grizzly bears, particularly in the spring and early summer when they may be preying upon newborn bison and elk calves. Large herds of bison may be viewed in the spring, early summer, and during the fall rut, which usually begins late July to early August. Coyotes can almost always be seen in the valley. Bird life is abundant in and along the river. A variety of shore birds may be seen in the mud flats at Alum Creek. A pair of sandhill cranes usually nests at the south end of the valley. Ducks, geese, and American white pelicans cruise the river. The valley is also an excellent place to look for bald eagles and northern harriers. Mt. Washburn Mt. Washburn is the main peak in the Washburn Range, rising 10,243 ft. above the west side of the canyon. It is the remnant of volcanic activity that took place long before the formation of the present canyon. It is an excellent example of subalpine habitat and is very accessible to the average visitor. Bighorn sheep and an abundance of wildflowers can be found on its slopes in the summer. Mt. Washburn was named for Gen. Henry Dana Washburn, leader of the 1870 Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition.

Did You Know? At peak summer levels, 3,500 employees work for Yellowstone National Park concessioners and about 800 work for the park.

Last Updated: July 11, 2006 at 17:14 EST

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Yellowstone National Park - Grant Village Area Natural Highlights (U.S. National Park S... Page 1 of 10

Yellowstone National Park

Grant Village Area Natural Highlights Yellowstone Lake The park's largest lake is Yellowstone Lake. This "matchless mountain lake" was probably seen by John Colter on his famous winter trip of discovery in 1807-1808. Before that, Native Americans surely camped on its shores every summer. Although it is unlikely that Native Americans lived here, many arrowheads, spearheads, and other artifacts have been found near the lake. William Clark's map of 1806-1811 showed what was probably Yellowstone Lake as "Eustis Lake," the name of the Secretary of War under President Jefferson. An 1814 map maker changed Clark's "Lake Biddle" (probably Jackson Lake) to "Lake Riddle," and it may at times also have referred to Yellowstone Lake. The name "Bridger Lake" (now applied to a small lake southeast of the park) may also have applied at times to Yellowstone Lake. In 1826, a party of fur trappers that included Daniel Potts, Bill Sublette, and Jedidiah Smith called Yellowstone Lake "Sublette Lake," and some historians credit Sublette with discovering the lake. Daniel Potts, one of the chroniclers of that 1826 trip, wrote to his family on July 8, 1827, and said that near the headwaters of the Yellowstone River is "a large fresh water lake...on the very top of the mountain which is about one hundred by forty miles in diameter and as clear as crystal" (letter, Yellowstone Park Research Library). Trapper Warren Ferris knew the name "Yellow Stone Lake" by 1831, and he showed it on his map of 1836. By the 1860s, Yellowstone Lake was well-known among former fur trappers, army personnel, and other frequent western explorers. The 1871 Hayden Survey was the first to sail a boat, the Anna, on the waters of Yellowstone Lake, although some fur trappers or Indians may have floated rafts on the lake much earlier. Other early boats used to explore the lake were the Topping in 1874 (see Topping Point), a raft containing government surveyors in 1874, the Explorer in 1880 (see Explorer's Creek), a USGS boat destroyed by lightning in 1885, the Zillah in 1889, and the E.C. Waters (test runs only) in 1905. A boat piloted by Billy Hofer and William D. Pickett made at least one trip on the lake in 1880. Yellowstone Lake covers 136 square miles and is 20 miles long by 14 miles wide. It has 110 miles of shoreline. The lake is at least 320 feet deep in the West Thumb area and has an average depth of 140 feet. Situated at an elevation of 7,733 feet, the lake remains cold the yearround, with an average temperature of 41°F. Yellowstone Lake is the largest natural freshwater lake in the United States that is above 7,000 feet and is one of the largest such lakes in the world. Because of its size and depth and the area's prevailing winds, the lake can sometimes be whipped into a tempestuous inland ocean.

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Yellowstone National Park - Grant Village Area Natural Highlights (U.S. National Park S... Page 2 of 10

During late summer, Yellowstone Lake becomes thermally stratified with each of several water layers having a different temperature. The topmost layer rarely exceeds 66°F, and the lower layers are much colder. Because of the extremely cold water, swimming is not recommended. Survival time is estimated to be only 20 to 30 minutes in water of this temperature. The lake has the largest population of wild cutthroat trout in North America. Just how these Pacific Ocean cutthroat got trapped in a lake that drains to the Atlantic Ocean puzzled experts for years. There is now a theory that Yellowstone Lake once drained to the Pacific Ocean (via Outlet Canyon to Snake River) and that fish could pass across the Continental Divide at Two Ocean Pass. Lake trout, an illegally introduced, exotic species, is now found in Yellowstone Lake and threatens the existence of the native cutthroat trout. Yellowstone Lake freezes over completely in winter, with ice thicknesses varying from a few inches to more than two feet. The lake's basin has an estimated capacity of 12,095,264 acre-feet of water. Because its annual outflow is about 1,100,000 acre-feet, the lake's water is completely replaced only about every eight to ten years. Since 1952, the annual water level fluctuation has been less than six feet. West Thumb of Yellowstone Lake Members of the 1870 Washburn party noted that Yellowstone Lake was shaped like "a human hand with the fingers extended and spread apart as much as possible," with the large west bay representing the thumb. In 1878, however, the Hayden Survey used the name "West Arm" for the bay; "West Bay" was also used. Norris' maps of 1880 and 1881 used "West Bay or Thumb." During the 1930s, park personnel attempted to change the name back to "West Arm," but West Thumb remains the accepted name. West Thumb Geyser Basin While many of the park's features had been described by mountain men and other explorers, the West Thumb area was the first Yellowstone feature to be written about in a publication. Daniel T. Potts, a trapper in the Yellowstone region in the 1820s, wrote a letter to his brother in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, regarding his experiences in this area. The letter was later corrected for punctuation and spelling and printed in the Philadelphia Gazette on September 27, 1827. Part of the letter describing the northern part of the West Thumb Geyser Basin, which is currently known as "Potts Basin" follows: . . . on the south borders of this lake is a number of hot and boiling springs some of water and others of most beautiful fine clay and resembles that of a mush pot and throws its particles to the immense height of from twenty to thirty feet in height[.]

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Yellowstone National Park - Grant Village Area Natural Highlights (U.S. National Park S... Page 3 of 10

The clay is white and of a pink and water appears fathomless as it appears to be entirely hollow under neath. There is also a number of places where the pure sulfur is sent forth in abundance[.] One of our men visited one of those whilst taking his recreation[.] There at an instant the earth began a tremendous trembling and he with difficulty made his escape when an explosion took place resembling that of thunder. During our stay in that quarter I heard it every day[.] In 1869, the first scientific expedition to explore the Yellowstone area, the Folsom- Cook-Peterson Expedition, visited the West Thumb Geyser Basin. David Folsom described the area as follows: Among these were springs differing from any we had previously seen. They were situated along the shore for a distance of two miles, extending back from it about five hundred yards and into the lake perhaps as many feet. There were several hundred springs here, varying in size from miniature fountains to pools or wells seventy-five feet in diameter and of great depth. The water had a pale violet tinge, and was very clear, enabling us to discern small objects fifty or sixty feet below the surface. A small cluster of mud springs near by claimed our attention. These were filled with mud, resembling thick paint of the finest quality, differing in color from pure white to the various shades of yellow, pink, red and violet. During the afternoon they threw mud to the height of fifteen feet. . . . Historically, visitors travelling to Yellowstone would arrive at West Thumb via stagecoach from the Old Faithful area. At West Thumb, they had the choice of continuing on the dusty, bumpy stagecoach or boarding the steamship "Zillah" to continue the journey to the Lake Hotel. The boat dock was located near the south end of the basin near Lakeside Spring. The West Thumb area used to be the site of a large campground, cabins, a photo shop, a cafeteria, and a gas station. This development was located immediately next to the geyser basin with the park road passing between the two. In an effort to further protect the scenic quality and the very resource that visitors were coming to see, the National Park Service removed this development in the 1980s. Abyss Pool In 1935, Chief Park Naturalist C.M. Bauer named Abyss Pool, a hot spring of the West Thumb Geyser Basin, for its impressive deepness. Bauer may have taken the name from Lieutenant G.C. Doane's 1870 description of a spring in this area: "the distance to which objects are visible down in [its] deep abysses is truly wonderful" (Bonney and Bonney, Battle Drums, p. 330). Abyss Pool may also be the spring that visitors referred to during the 1880s as "Tapering Spring" because of its

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sloping walls. Nineteenth century observers were impressed with the pool's beauty. In 1871, F.V. Hayden reported that this spring's "ultramarine hue of the transparent depth in the bright sunlight was the most dazzlingly beautiful sight I have ever beheld" (Preliminary Reports, p. 101). And W.W. Wylie (see Wylie Hill) observed in 1882 that the spring's walls, "coral-like in formation and singular in shape, tinted by the water's color, are surely good representations of fairy palaces" (Yellowstone, p. 47). Fishing Cone Fishing Cone is a hot spring located in the West Thumb Geyser Basin. The Folsom party probably saw it in 1869, but the first recorded description of Fishing Cone comes from the 1870 Washburn Expedition. Party member Walter Trumball wrote about Cornelius Hedges's experience fishing: A gentleman was fishing from one of the narrow isthmuses or shelves of rock, which divided one of these hot springs from the [Yellowstone] lake, when, in swinging a trout ashore, it accidentally got off the hook and fell into the spring. For a moment it darted about with wonderful rapidity, as if seeking an outlet. Then it came to the top, dead, and literally boiled (Overland Monthly, June 1871, p. 492). From that time on, and perhaps even earlier, visitor after visitor performed this feat, catching fish from the cold lake and cooking them on the hook. Hayden Survey members did it in 1871, and the next year they named the spring "Fish Pot" or "Hot Spring Cone." Later names were "Fisherman's Kettle," "Fish Cone," "Fishpot Spring," "Crater Island," and "Chowder Pot." The name Fishing Cone came about gradually through the generic use of the term in guidebooks. The cooking-on-the-hook feat at Fishing Cone soon became famous. For years, park Superintendent P.W. Norris (1877-1882) demonstrated it to incredulous tourists, and in 1894 members of Congress hooted at their colleagues who described the process. A national magazine reported in 1903 that no visit to the park was complete without this experience, and tourists often dressed in a cook's hat and apron to have their pictures taken at Fishing Cone. The fishing and cooking practice, regarded today as unhealthy, is now prohibited. Fishing at the cone can be dangerous. A known geyser, Fishing Cone erupted frequently to the height of 40 feet in 1919 and to lesser heights in 1939. One fisherman was badly burned in Fishing Cone in 1921.

Lodgepole Pine Forests & Fire

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This area is in a lodgepole pine forest, and the fires of 1988 greatly affected this part of the park. Several trails including the Lake Overlook Trail, Duck Lake Trail, and Riddle Lake Trail provide excellent opportunities to examine the various stages of lodgepole pine forest succession and development as well as fire ecology. On July 12, 1988, a small fire started near the Falls River in the southeastern corner of the park. For several weeks, the fire grew slowly as crews attempted to contain it. On August 20, the winds picked up. This day would later become known as "Black Saturday" because more acres burned on this day alone than in the entire history of Yellowstone prior to this day. During that week, high winds drove the fire for miles until it approached the Lewis River. Defying all conventional understanding of fire behavior and driven by 60 mph winds that gusted to 80 mph, the fire blew all the way across the Lewis River Canyon on August 23. Firefighters were astounded. Even the most experienced Incident Commanders had never seen fire burn like it did in 1988. While the fires shocked the nation and the world, scientists had long known that a fire of this magnitude would burn through a lodgepole pine forest like Yellowstone's on an average of once every 300 years. In fact, lodgepole pine forests are adapted to fire. Some of the pine cones need the intense heat of fire to open the cones and drop the seeds for the next generation of forests. While fire is often difficult for people to understand, for the lodgepole pine forests it is as important and necessary as other natural processes like rain and sunshine, death and rebirth. Cutthroat Trout Spawning Streams Big Thumb Creek and Little Thumb Creek along with several other intermittent streams serve as cutthroat trout spawning streams, thus as major feeding areas for both grizzly and black bears during spawning season. Heart Lake Lying in the Snake River watershed west of Lewis Lake and south of Yellowstone Lake, Heart Lake was named sometime before 1871 for Hart Hunney, an early hunter. The name does not refer to the heart-like shape of the lake. During the 1890s, historian Hiram Chittenden learned from Richard "Beaver Dick" Leigh, one of Hunney's cronies, about the naming of the lake. Evidently, Capt. John W. Barlow (see Barlow Peak), who explored Yellowstone in 1871, made the incorrect connection between the lake's name and its shape. Chittenden wrote to Barlow, who could recall nothing about the naming, but Leigh "was so positive and gave so much detail" that Chittenden concluded that he was right. Chittenden petitioned Arnold Hague of the USGS to change the spelling back to "Hart Lake," but Hague refused, convinced the shape of the lake determined the name. As for Hart Hunney, Leigh said that Hunney operated in the vicinity of Heart Lake between 1840 and 1850 and died in a fight with Crow Indians in 1852. Chittenden thought it was possible that Hunney was one of Capt. Benjamin Bonneville's men.

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Isa Lake Hiram Chittenden of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers claimed to have discovered this lake on the Continental Divide at Craig Pass in 1891. Chittenden, who built many early roads in Yellowstone, was searching for a practicable route to locate his new road between Old Faithful and West Thumb. It was not until 1893 that Northern Pacific Railroad (NPRR) officials named the lake for Isabel Jelke of Cincinnati. Little is known about Jelke or about her relationship to Chittenden, the NPRR, and Yellowstone. Chittenden's 1916 poetic tribute to the lake and his discovery includes the puzzling line: "Thou hast no name; pray, wilt thou deign to bear/The name of her who first has sung of thee" (Verse, p. 53). Perhaps Isabel Jelke was already associated with the lake when Chittenden "discovered" it. Isa Lake is noteworthy as probably the only lake on earth that drains naturally to two oceans backwards, the east side draining to the Pacific and the west side to the Atlantic.

Craig Pass Craig Pass, at 8,262 feet on the Continental Divide, is about eight miles east of Old Faithful on the Grand Loop Road. In 1891, road engineer Captain Hiram Chittenden discovered Craig Pass while he was surveying for the first road between Old Faithful and West Thumb. It was probably Chittenden who named the pass for Ida M. Craig (Wilcox), "the first tourist to cross the pass" on Chittenden's new road, on about September 10, 1891. At the time that her name was given to the pass, Ida Wilcox (1847-1930) had been married 24 years. So why did Chittenden use her maiden name? Perhaps it was to honor her singularly for being the first tourist to cross the pass. It is also possible that through his connection with the military, Chittenden knew her father (Gen. James Craig) or her brother (Malin Craig, Sr.) and was really honoring the Craig family. DeLacy Creek DeLacy Creek flows south from DeLacy Lakes to Shoshone Lake. Park Superintendent P.W. Norris named the creek in 1881 for Walter Washington DeLacy (1819-1892), the leader of a prospecting expedition that passed through the Yellowstone region in 1863. DeLacy, a surveyor and engineer, compiled the first accurate map of the Yellowstone area in 1865. In 1863, DeLacy led a group of prospectors from Jackson Hole across the Pitchstone Plateau and discovered Shoshone Lake, which he named "DeLacy's Lake." He was the first to note the "strange" drainage of that lake south to the Snake River rather than west to the Page 66 of 243

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Madison River. But he did not publish his discoveries until 1876, which kept him from receiving credit for being the man who discovered Yellowstone and from leaving his name on present-day Shoshone Lake. DeLacy also recognized the importance of Yellowstone's thermal features. In a published letter in 1869, he wrote: "At the head of the South Snake, and also on the south fork of the Madison [present-day Shoshone Lake and Firehole River], there are hundreds of hot springs, many of which are 'geysers'" (Raymond, "Mineral Resources," p. 142). In 1871, Hayden changed the name of "DeLacy's Lake" to "Madison Lake." In 1872, Frank Bradley criticized DeLacy for the "numerous errors" on his map and named the lake Shoshone. Park Superintendent P.W. Norris felt sorry for DeLacy and named the present stream for him in 1881, stating: The . . . narrative, the high character of its writer [DeLacy], his mainly correct descriptions of the region visited, and the traces which I have found of this party [campsite remains, etc.], proves alike its entire truthfulness, and the injustice of changing the name of De Lacy's Lake [to Shoshone Lake]; and fearing it is now too late to restore the proper name to it, I have, as a small token of deserved justice, named the stream and Park crossed by our trail above the Shoshone Lake after their discoverer (Fifth Annual Report, p. 44). Factory Hill Factory Hill is a 9,607-foot-high peak in the Red Mountains. By 1876, the peak was called "Red Mountain," a name that had originally been given to present-day Mount Sheridan by members of the 1871 Hayden Survey. Eventually, the name "Red" was applied to the entire small mountain range. Members of the Hague parties named Factory Hill in about 1885 because N.P. Langford's description of steam vents near the mountain. In the June 1871 issue of Scribner's, Langford had written: "Through the hazy atmosphere we beheld, on the shore of the inlet opposite our camp, the steam ascending in jets from more than fifty craters, giving it much the appearance of a New England factory village" (p. 120). Lewis River This river drains Shoshone and Lewis lakes and is a tributary of the Snake River. In 1872, members of the second Hayden survey called the river "Lake Fork" because it was a fork of the Snake that began in those two lakes. An 1876 map showed the river marked "Lewis Fork" (of the Snake), named from Lewis Lake. Red Mountains This small range of mountains, located just west of Heart Lake, is completely contained within the boundaries of Yellowstone National Park. In 1871, F.V. Hayden named presentday Mount Sheridan "Red Mountain." In 1872, members of the second Hayden Survey transferred that name to the entire range. The name was "derived from the prevailing color

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of the volcanic rocks which compose them" (Hayden, Twelfth Annual Report, p. 470). In 1878, Henry Gannett reported that there were 12 peaks in the range, with 10,308-foot-high Mount Sheridan being the highest. Riddle Lake This small lake is located about three miles south of the West Thumb bay of Yellowstone Lake. Rudolph Hering (see Hering Lake) of the Hayden Survey named Riddle Lake in 1872. Frank Bradley of the Survey wrote: "Lake Riddle" is a fugitive name, which has been located at several places, but nowhere permanently. It is supposed to have been used originally to designate the mythical lake, among the mountains, whence, according to the hunters, water flowed to both oceans. I have agreed to Mr. Hering's proposal to attach the name to the lake, which is directly upon the [Continental] divide at a point where the waters of the two oceans start so nearly together, and thus to solve the insolvable "riddle" of the "two-ocean water" (in Hayden, Sixth Annual Report, p. 250). This "insolvable riddle" of the "mythical lake among the mountains" where water flowed to both oceans probably originated from (or at least was fueled by) "Lake Biddle," which appeared on the Lewis and Clark map of 1806 (named after their editor, Nicholas Biddle). The lake then appeared on the Samuel Lewis version of the map in 1814 as "Lake Riddle." Riddle Lake is not "directly on the divide"; it drains to the Atlantic Ocean by way of its outlet, Solution Creek, which flows to Yellowstone Lake. Thus, the name was the result of a mapping error combined with fur-trapper stories of two-ocean water.

Shoshone Lake Shoshone Lake, the park's second largest lake, is located at the head of the Lewis River southwest of West Thumb. It is possible that fur trapper Jim Bridger visited this lake in 1833, and fellow trapper Osborne Russell certainly reached the lake in 1839. According to James Gemmell, he and Bridger visited the lake in 1846 (in Wheeler, "The Late James Gemmell," pp. 131-136). Gemmell referred to it then as "Snake Lake," a name apparently used by the hunters. Fr. Pierre-Jean DeSmet's 1851 map showed a "DeSmet's L." in the approximate position of present-day Shoshone Lake. In 1863, prospector Walter DeLacy visited the lake and named it "DeLacy's Lake." The lake was also called "Madison Lake" because it was erroneously thought to be the head of the Madison River. Cornelius Hedges of the 1870 Washburn Expedition named the lake after the party's leader, Gen. H.D. Washburn. By 1872, Shoshone Lake had already borne four or five names when Frank Bradley of the second Hayden Survey added a sixth. Bradley wrote: "Upon crossing the divide to the larger lake, we found it to belong to the Snake River drainage, and therefore called it Shoshone Lake, adopting the Indian name of the Snake [River]" (American Journal of Science and Arts,

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September 1873, p. 201). Bradley's name thus returned in spirit to Gemmell's and the fur trappers' name "Snake Lake." Park Superintendent P.W. Norris thought that the name Shoshone Lake was "a fitting record of the name of the Indians who frequented it" (Fifth Annual Report, p. 44). The Shoshones lived mainly to the west and south of present-day Yellowstone National Park, but there is evidence that they occasionally entered the area and may have visited the lake each summer. Their arrowheads and other artifacts have been found in various places around the park. The meaning of "Shoshone" has long been debated. Some authorities believe that the word represented an uncomplimentary Sioux expression given to the tribe by their Crow neighbors. David Shaul, a University of Arizona linguist, believes that the word literally translates as "those who camp together in wickiups" or "grass house people." Shoshone Lake is 205 feet at its maximum depth, has an area of 8,050 acres, and contains lake trout, brown trout, and Utah chubs. Originally, Shoshone Lake was barren of fish owing to waterfalls on the Lewis River. The two types of trout were planted beginning in 1890, and the Utah chub was apparently introduced by bait fishermen. This large lake is the source of the Lewis River, which flows to the Pacific Ocean via the Snake River system. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service believes that Shoshone Lake may be the largest lake in the lower 48 states that cannot be reached by road. No motorboats are allowed on the lake. Shoshone Point This point on the Grand Loop Road is located halfway between West Thumb and Old Faithful. It was named in 1891 because Shoshone Lake could be seen from here. In that year, Hiram M. Chittenden began constructing the first road between Old Faithful and West Thumb, and he probably named the point himself. Shoshone Point was the scene of a stagecoach holdup in 1914. One bandit, armed and masked, stopped the first coaches of a long line of vehicles and robbed the 82 passengers in 15 coaches of $915.35 and about $130 in jewelry. Edward Trafton was convicted of the robbery and sentenced to five years in federal prison at Leavenworth, Kansas. Snake River The Snake River is a major tributary of the Columbia River and has its headwaters just inside Yellowstone on the Two Ocean Plateau. Various stretches of this important river have had at least 15 different names. The name, which comes from the Snake (Shoshone) Indians, was applied to the river as early as 1812, making it one of the oldest place names in the park. Shoshone Indians referred to some parts of the stream as "Yampa-pah," meaning "stream where the Yampa grows" (yampa is a food plant) and later as "Po-og-way" meaning "road river" (a reference to the Oregon Trail, which followed sections of the river) or, less often, "sagebrush river." In 1872, the second Hayden Survey to Yellowstone gave the name "Barlow's Fork" (of the Snake) to the part of the river above the mouth of Harebell Creek, honoring J.W. Barlow who had explored that area in 1871. The group thought that Harebell Creek was the Snake River's main channel, an interpretation of the stream that was changed by the Hague surveys Page 69 of 243

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during the 1880s. Frank Bradley of the 1872 survey gave the name "Lewis Fork" (of the Snake) to the present-day Lewis River. The Snake name comes from sign language--a serpentine movement of the hand with the index finger extended--that referred to the weaving of baskets or grass lodges of the Snake or Shoshone Indians. The source of the Snake River was debated for a long time. The problem was to find the longest branch in the Two Ocean Plateau, which is thoroughly crisscrossed with streams. Current maps show the head of the Snake to be about 3 miles north of Phelps Pass, at a point on the Continental Divide inside Yellowstone National Park. In 1926, John G. White showed a photo in his hand-typed book Souvenir of Wyoming of the "true source of the Snake," writing that "it is near the Continental Divide upon two ocean plateau. A number of springs gush forth upon the hillside. Uniting, they form a small stream, which, at an altitude of two miles above sea level, begins its arduous journey...to the Pacific" (p. 309). The Snake River is the nation's fourth largest river; 42 miles of it are in Yellowstone National Park.

Did You Know? Some groups of Shoshone Indians, who adapted to a mountain existence, chose not to acquire the horse. These included the Sheep Eaters, or Tukudika, who used dogs to transport food, hides, and other provisions. The Sheep Eaters lived in many locations in Yellowstone.

Last Updated: July 11, 2006 at 17:02 EST

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Yellowstone National Park - Lake Area Natural Highlights (U.S. National Park Service)

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Yellowstone National Park

Lake Area Natural Highlights Yellowstone Lake With a surface area of 132 square miles, Yellowstone Lake is the largest lake at high elevation (i.e., more than 7,000 ft.) in North America. It is a natural lake, situated at 7,733 ft. above sea level. It is roughly 20 miles long and 14 miles wide with 141 miles of shoreline. It is frozen nearly half the year. It freezes in late December or early January and thaws in late May or early June. Recent research by Dr. Val Klump of the Center for Great Lakes Research and the University of Wisconsin has revolutionized the way we look at Yellowstone Lake. Figuratively, if one could pour all the water out of Yellowstone Lake, what would be found on the bottom is similar to what is found on land in Yellowstone; geysers, hot springs, and deep canyons. With a small submersible robot submarine, the researchers found a canyon just east of Stevenson Island which was 390 ft. deep. Prior to this finding, the deepest spot in the lake was thought to be 320 ft. at West Thumb. Underwater geysers, hot springs, and fumaroles were found at West Thumb and Mary and Sedge bays. The hottest spot in the lake was found at Mary Bay where the temperature was recorded at 252° F (122° C). Hollow pipes, or chimneys of silica, several feet in height, were found rising up from the lake bottom at Mary Bay. It is thought that these are the old plumbing systems of now dormant geysers. Rock spires up to 20-feet tall were found underwater near Bridge Bay. Samples of this rock are being analyzed, though it is believed that these features are probably related to underwater thermal activity. This group of researchers also found that the conditions in Yellowstone Lake are similar to those that occur near the famous hydrothermal vents on the Pacific Ocean's mid- ocean ridge. Nutrient- and mineral-rich submarine fountains support incredible plant and animal communities, including bacterial mats, sponges, and earthworms. Yellowstone River The Yellowstone River is the last major undammed river in the lower 48 states, flowing 671 miles from its source southeast of Yellowstone into the Missouri River and then, eventually, into the Atlantic Ocean. It begins in the Absaroka Mountain Range on Yount Peak. The river enters the park and meanders through the Thorofare region into Yellowstone

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Lake. It leaves the lake at Fishing Bridge and flows north over LeHardy Rapids and through Hayden Valley. After this peaceful stretch, it crashes over the Upper and Lower falls of the Grand Canyon. It then flows generally northwest, meeting it's largest tributary, the Lamar River, at Tower Junction. It continues through the Black Canyon and leaves the park near Gardiner, Montana. The Yellowstone River continues north and east through the state of Montana and joins the Missouri River near the eastern boundary line of the state. The Missouri River eventually joins the Mississippi River, which flows into the Atlantic Ocean at the Gulf of Mexico. In addition to the Yellowstone River, many of the spawning streams in the Lake/Fishing Bridge/Bridge Bay area provide critical food sources for grizzly bears in the spring time. Therefore, ecologically speaking, these river and streams are a primary resource in the district. The LeHardy Rapids are a cascade on the Yellowstone River, three miles north of Fishing Bridge. Geomorphologically, it is thought that this is the actual spot where the lake ends and the river continues it's northward flow. In the spring, many cutthroat trout may be seen here, resting in the shallow pools before expending bursts of energy to leap up the rapids on the their way to spawn under Fishing Bridge. The rapids were named for Paul LeHardy, a civilian topographer with the Jones Expedition in 1873. Jones and a partner started off on a raft with the intent of surveying the river, planning to meet the rest of their party at the Lower Falls. Upon hitting the rapids, the raft capsized, and many of the supplies were lost, including guns, bedding, and food. LeHardy and his partner saved what they could and continued their journey to the falls on foot. The rapids became a popular visitor attraction when a boardwalk was built in 1984 providing access to the area. Due to increased visitation, a group of harlequin ducks, which once frequented this area in spring, have not been seen for several years. The boardwalk has consequently been closed in early spring to protect this sensitive habitat, but the harlequins have not returned. Mud Volcano/Sulphur Caldron When the Washburn Expedition explored the area in 1870, Nathaniel Langford described Mud Volcano as "greatest marvel we have yet met with." Although the Mud Volcano can no longer be heard from a mile away nor does it throw mud from it's massive crater, the area is still eerily intriguing. The short loop from the parking lot past the Dragon's Mouth and the Mud Volcano is handicapped accessible. The half-mile upper loop trail via Sour Lake and the Black Dragon's Caldron is relatively steep. Two of the most popular features in the Mud Volcano front country are the Dragon's Mouth and the Black Dragon's Caldron. The rhythmic belching of steam and the flashing tongue of water give the Dragon's Mouth Spring it's

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name, though its activity has decreased notably since December 1994. The Black Dragon's Caldron exploded onto the landscape in 1948, blowing trees out by their roots and covering the surrounding forest with mud. The large roil in one end of the Caldron gives one the sense that the Black Dragon itself might rear it's head at any time. In January 1995, a new feature on the south bank of Mud Geyser became extremely active. It covers an area of 20 by 8 feet and is comprised of fumaroles, small pools, and frying-pan type features. Much of the hillside to the south and southwest of Mud Geyser is steaming and hissing with a few mudpots intermixed. This increase in activity precipitated a great deal of visitor interest and subsequent illegal entry into the area. The most dramatic features of the Mud Volcano area however, are not open to the public. The huge seething mud pot known as the "Gumper" is located off-boardwalk behind Sour Lake. The more recent features just south of the Gumper are some of the hottest and most active in the area. Ranger-guided walks are offered to provide visitors an opportunity to view this interesting place. Farther in the backcountry behind Mud Volcano, several features are being tested for the existence of thermophilic microbes, which may offer insights into origin of life theories as well as having medical/environmental applications. The Sulphur Caldron area can be viewed from a staging area just north of Mud Volcano. The Sulphur Caldron is among the most acidic springs in the park with a pH of 1.3. Its yellow, turbulent splashing waters bring to mind images of Shakespeare's soothsayers. Other features which can be viewed from this overlook are Turbulent Pool (which is no longer "turbulent") and the crater of a large, active mudpot. For more specific information on the features of the Mud Volcano/Sulphur Caldron area, consult the annual reports that are available in the Ranger Naturalist Office adjacent to the Fishing Bridge Visitor Center. Hayden and Pelican Valleys The Hayden Valley is located six miles north of Fishing Bridge Junction. The Pelican Valley is situated three miles east of Fishing Bridge. These two vast valleys comprise some of the best habitat in the lower 48 states for grizzly bears, bison, elk, and other wildlife species. Natural Bridge Located just south of Bridge Bay Campground, it is an easy one-mile walk to the Natural

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Bridge. There is also a bicycle trail leading to the bridge. The Natural Bridge was formed by erosion of this rhyolite outcrop by Bridge Creek. The top of the bridge is approximately 51 ft. above the creek. A short switchback trail leads to the top, though travel across the bridge is now prohibited to protect this feature.

Did You Know? The 1988 fires affected 793,880 acres or 36 percent of the park. Five fires burned into the park that year from adjacent public lands. The largest, the North Fork Fire, started from a discarded cigarette. It burned more than 410,000 acres.

Last Updated: July 11, 2006 at 17:27 EST

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Yellowstone National Park - Madison Area Natural Highlights (U.S. National Park Service) Page 1 of 3

Yellowstone National Park

Madison Area Natural Highlights Artist Paint Pots Artist Paint Pots is a small but lovely thermal area just south of Norris Junction. A one-mile round trip trail takes visitors to colorful hot springs, two large mudpots, and through a section of forest burned in 1988. Adjacent to this area are three other off-trail, backcountry thermal areas: Sylvan Springs, Gibbon Hill Geyser Basin, and Geyser Creek Thermal area. These areas are fragile, dangerous, and difficult to get to; travel without knowledgeable personnel is discouraged.

Gibbon Falls This 84-foot (26-meter) waterfall tumbles over remnants of the Yellowstone Caldera rim. The rock wall on the opposite side of the road from the waterfall is the inner rim of the caldera. Monument Geyser Basin This small, nearly dormant basin lies at the top of a very steep one-mile trail. Thermos-bottle shaped geyser cones are remnants of a much more active time. Madison River The Madison River is formed at the junction of the Gibbon and Firehole rivers, hence Madison Junction. The Madison joins the Jefferson and the Gallatin rivers at Three Forks, Montana, to form the Missouri River. The Madison is a blue-ribbon fly fishing stream with healthy stocks of brown and rainbow trout and mountain whitefish. Terrace Springs The small thermal area just north of Madison Junction. This area provides the visitor with a short boardwalk tour of hot springs.

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Firehole River The Firehole River starts south of Old Faithful, runs through the thermal areas northward to join the Gibbon and form the Madison River. The Firehole is world famous among anglers for its pristine beauty and healthy brown, brook, and rainbow trout.

Firehole Canyon Drive and Firehole Falls Firehole Canyon Drive, a side road, follows the Firehole River upstream from Madison Junction to just above Firehole Falls. The drive takes sightseers past 800-foot thick lava flows. Firehole Falls is a 40-foot waterfall. An unstaffed swimming area here is very popular in the warmest of the summer season. Cliff diving is illegal.

National Park Mountain The mountain is actually part of the lava flows that encircle the Madison Junction area. Near this site, in 1870, the WashburnLangford-Doane Expedition is said to have camped and discussed the future of the region they were exploring. Legend has it that this was where the idea of the national park was discussed. It should be noted that there is no evidence of the campfire conversation ever

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taking place, and there is certainly no evidence to show that the idea of a national park was discussed.

Did You Know? There were no wolves in Yellowstone in 1994. The wolves that were reintroduced in 1995 and 1996 thrived and there are now over 300 of their descendents living in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

Last Updated: July 11, 2006 at 17:46 EST

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Yellowstone National Park - Mammoth Area Natural Highlights (U.S. National Park Serv... Page 1 of 3

Yellowstone National Park

Mammoth Area Natural Highlights Mammoth Hot Springs Be sure to take our online tour of the hot springs. Mammoth Hot Springs are the main attraction of the Mammoth District. These features are quite different from thermal areas elsewhere in the park. Travertine formations grow much more rapidly than sinter formations due to the softer nature of limestone. As hot water rises through limestone, large quantities of rock are dissolved by the hot water, and a white chalky mineral is deposited on the surface. Although visitors are sometimes confused by the rapidly shifting activity of the hot springs and disappointed when a favorite spring appears to have "died," it is important to realize that the location of springs and the rate of flow changes daily, that "on-again-off-again" is the rule, and that the overall volume of water discharged by all of the springs fluctuates little.

The Gardner River and Gardner River Canyon The North Entrance Road from Gardiner, Montana, to Mammoth Hot Springs, Wyoming, runs along the Gardner River. The road winds into the park, up the canyon, past crumbling walls of sandstone and ancient mudflows. The vegetation is much thicker in the canyon than on the open prairie down below, the common trees being Rocky Mountain juniper, cottonwood, and Douglas-fir. Low-growing willows also crowd the river's edge in the flatter, flood-prone sections of the canyon. Watch for wildlife in season: eagles, osprey, dippers, and kingfishers along the river and bighorn sheep in the steeper parts of the canyon.

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45th Parallel Bridge and Boiling River A sign near where the road crosses the Gardner River marks the 45th parallel of latitude. The 45th parallel is an imaginary line that circles the globe halfway between the equator and the North Pole. This same line passes through Minneapolis-St. Paul, Ottawa, Bordeaux, Venice, Belgrade, and the northern tip of the Japanese islands. It is, here in Yellowstone, roughly aligned with the Montana-Wyoming border. A parking area on the east side of the road is used by bathers in the "Boiling River." Bathers must walk upstream about a half mile from the parking area to the place where the footpath reaches the river. This spot is also marked by large clouds of steam, especially in cold weather. Here, a large hot spring, known as Boiling River, enters the Gardner River. The hot and the cold water mix in pools along the river's edge. Bathers are allowed in the river during daylight hours only. Bathing suits are required, and no alcoholic beverages are allowed. Boiling River is closed in the springtime due to hazardous high water and often does not reopen until mid-summer. The Yellowstone Park Foundation funded the Boiling River Trail Project. They are a non-profit organization whose mission is to fund projects and programs that protect, preserve and enhance Yellowstone National Park.

Mt. Everts Mt. Everts was named for explorer Truman Everts of the 1870 Washburn Expedition who became separated from his camping buddies, lost his glasses, lost his horse, and spent the next 37 days starving and freezing and hallucinating as he made his way through the untracked and inhospitable wilderness. Upon rescue, he was, according to his rescuers, within but a few hours of death. Everts never made it quite as far as Mt. Everts. He was found near the "Cut" on the Blacktail Plateau Drive and was mistaken for a black bear and nearly shot. His story, which he later published in Scribner's Monthly Magazine, remains one of Yellowstone's best known, lost-in-the-wilderness stories. It has also been published in book form, edited by Yellowstone's archivist Lee Whittlesey under the name Lost in the Yellowstone. Mt. Everts is made up of distinctly layered sandstones and shales--sedimentary rocks deposited when this area was covered by a shallow inland sea, 70 to 140 million years ago.

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both named for the German physicist, Robert Wilhelm Bunsen. Although most people are familiar with the "Bunsen burner," few people know why his students gave the burner that name. He was involved in pioneering research about geysers, and a "Bunsen burner" has a resemblance to a geyser. His theory on geysers was published in the 1800s, and it is still believed to be accurate. Bunsen Peak is 8,564 feet high (2,612 meters) and may be climbed via a trail that starts at the Golden Gate. Another trail, the old Bunsen Peak road, skirts around the flank of the peak from the YCC camp to the Golden Gate. This old road may be used by hikers, mountain-bikers, and skiers in winter. The peak is also interesting because it burned in the 1880s and then again in 1988. A series of old photos show the creep of trees up Bunsen following the 1880 fires, and the new patterns of open space created by the fires of 1988.

Did You Know? The 1988 fires affected 793,880 acres or 36 percent of the park. Five fires burned into the park that year from adjacent public lands. The largest, the North Fork Fire, started from a discarded cigarette. It burned more than 410,000 acres.

Last Updated: September 18, 2006 at 12:04 EST

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Yellowstone National Park - Norris Area Natural Highlights (U.S. National Park Service)

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Yellowstone National Park

Norris Area Natural Highlights Norris Geyser Basin Be sure to take our online tour of the basin. Norris Geyser Basin is the hottest, oldest, and most dynamic of Yellowstone's thermal areas. The highest temperature yet recorded in any geothermal area in Yellowstone was measured in a scientific drill hole at Norris: 459°F (237°C) just 1,087 feet (326 meters) below the surface! There are very few thermal features at Norris under the boiling point (199°F at this elevation). Norris shows evidence of having had thermal features for at least 115,000 years. The features in the basin change daily, with frequent disturbances from seismic activity and water fluctuations. The vast majority of the waters at Norris are acidic, including acid geysers which are very rare. Steamboat Geyser, the tallest geyser in the world (300 to 400 feet) and Echinus Geyser (pH 3.5 or so) are the most popular features. The basin consists of three areas: Porcelain Basin, Back Basin, and One Hundred Springs Plain. Porcelain Basin is barren of trees and provides a sensory experience in sound, color, and smell; a 3/4 mile dirt and boardwalk trail accesses this area. Back Basin is more heavily wooded with features scattered throughout the area; a 1.5 mile trail of boardwalk and dirt encircles this part of the basin. One Hundred Springs Plain is an off-trail section of the Norris Geyser Basin that is very acidic, hollow, and dangerous. Travel is discouraged without the guidance of knowledgeable staff members. The area was named after Philetus W. Norris, the second superintendent of Yellowstone, who provided the first detailed information about the thermal features. Roaring Mountain Located just north of Norris on the NorrisMammoth section of the Grand Loop Road, Roaring Mountain is a large, acidic thermal area (solfatara) that contains many steam vents (fumaroles). In the late 1800s and early 1900s, the number, size, and power of the fumaroles was much greater than today. Gibbon River

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The Gibbon River flows from Wolf Lake through the Norris area and meets the Firehole River at Madison Junction to form the Madison River. Both cold and hot springs are responsible for the majority of the Gibbon's flow. Brook trout, brown trout, grayling, and rainbow trout find the Gibbon to their liking. The Gibbon River is fly-fishing only below Gibbon Falls. Virginia Cascades A three-mile section of the old road takes visitors past 60-foot high Virginia Cascades. This cascading waterfall is formed by the very small (at that point) Gibbon River. Norris-Canyon Blowdown This is a 22-mile swath of lodgepole pine blown down by wind-shear action in 1984. It was then burned during the North Fork fire in 1988. This is the site where a famous news anchor said, "Tonight, this is all that's left of Yellowstone." A wayside exhibit there tells the story.

Did You Know? You cannot fish from Fishing Bridge. Until 1973 this was a very popular fishing location since the bridge crossed the Yellowstone River above a cutthroat trout spawning area. It is now a popular place to observe fish.

Last Updated: July 03, 2006 at 13:20 EST

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Yellowstone National Park

Old Faithful Area Natural Highlights The Upper Geyser Basin Be sure to take our online tour of the basin.

Yellowstone, as a whole, possesses close to 60 percent of the world's geysers. The Upper Geyser Basin is home to the largest numbers of this fragile feature found in the park. Within one square mile there are at least 150 of these hydrothermal wonders. Of this remarkable number, only five major geysers are predicted regularly by the naturalist staff. They are Castle, Grand, Daisy, Riverside, and Old Faithful. There are many frequent, smaller geysers to be seen and marveled at in this basin as well as numerous hot springs and one recently developed mudpot (if it lasts).

Lower Geyser Basin This large area of hydrothermal activity can be viewed by foot along the boardwalk trail at Fountain Paint Pots and by car along the three mile Firehole Lake Drive. The latter is a oneway drive where you will find the sixth geyser predicted by the Old Faithful staff: Great Fountain. Its splashy eruptions send jets of diamond droplets bursting 100-200 feet in the air, while waves of water cascade down the raised terraces. Patience is a virtue with this twice-a-day geyser, as the predictions allow a 2 hour +/- window of opportunity.

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Fountain Flats Drive departs the Grand Loop Road just south of the Nez Perce picnic area and follows along the Firehole River to a trailhead 1.5 miles distant. From there, the Fountain Freight Road hiking/biking trail continues along the old roadbed giving hikers access to the Sentinel Meadows Trail and the Fairy Falls Trail. Also along this path is the only handicapped-accessible backcountry site in the Old Faithful district at Goose Lake. Midway Geyser Basin This geyser basin, though small in size compared to its companions along the Firehole River, holds large wonders for the visitor. Excelsior Geyser reveals a gaping crater 200 x 300 feet with a constant discharge of more than 4,000 gallons of water per minute into the Firehole River. Also in this surprising basin is Yellowstone's largest hot springs, Grand Prismatic Spring. This feature is 370 feet in diameter and more than 121 feet in depth. Lone Star Geyser Basin This backcountry geyser basin is easily reached by a 5-mile roundtrip hike from the trailhead south of Old Faithful. Lone Star Geyser erupts about every three hours. There is a logbook, located in a cache near the geyser, for observations of geyser times and types of eruptions. Shoshone Geyser Basin Shoshone Geyser Basin is reached by a 17-mile roundtrip hike that crosses the Continental Divide at Grant's Pass. This basin has no boardwalks, and extreme caution should be exercised when travelling through it. Trails in the basin must be used. Remote thermal areas, such as this, should be approached with respect, knowledge, and care. Be sure to emphasize personal safety and resource protection when entering a backcountry basin.

Firehole River The river derives its name from the steam (which they thought was smoke from fires) witnessed by early trappers to the area. Their term for a mountain valley was "hole," and the designation was born. The Firehole River boasts a world-famous reputation for challenging fly-fishing. Brown, rainbow, and brook trout give the angler a wary target in this stream.

Craig Pass/Isa Lake Both names are used to describe the same location seven miles south of Old Faithful on the Grand Loop Road. At 8,262 feet along the

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Continental Divide, Isa Lake is a uniquely confusing feature. During spring runoff, it drains into both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans at the same time! (And backwards, too!) The west side of the lake flows into the Firehole drainage and, eventually, the Atlantic throughout the year. The east side, during spring, flows toward the Snake River drainage and the Pacific.

Continental Divide at Craig Pass

Waterfalls Kepler Cascades is the most easily reached waterfall in the district. A marked pullout just south of Old Faithful and a short walk from the car offers the visitor easy access to view this 125-foot cascade. Mystic Falls and Fairy Falls: (see Day Hiking Trails section for information on these features).

Did You Know? The 1988 fires affected 793,880 acres or 36 percent of the park. Five fires burned into the park that year from adjacent public lands. The largest, the North Fork Fire, started from a discarded cigarette. It burned more than 410,000 acres.

Last Updated: February 17, 2007 at 16:08 EST

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Yellowstone National Park

Tower-Roosevelt Area Natural Highlights Petrified Tree The Petrified Tree, located near the Lost Lake trailhead, is an excellent example of an ancient redwood, similar to many found on Specimen Ridge, that is easily accessible to park visitors. The interpretive message here also applies to those trees found on Specimen Ridge. Specimen Ridge Specimen Ridge, located along the Northeast Entrance Road east of Tower Junction, contains the largest concentration of petrified trees in the world. There are also excellent samples of petrified leaf impressions, conifer needles, and microscopic pollen from numerous species no longer growing in the park. Specimen Ridge provides a superb "window" into the distant past when plant communities and climatic conditions were much different than today.

Tower Fall Tower Fall is the most recognizable natural feature in the district. The 132-foot drop of Tower Creek, framed by eroded volcanic pinnacles has been documented by park visitors from the earliest trips of Europeans into the Yellowstone region. Its idyllic setting has inspired numerous artists, including Thomas Moran. His painting of Tower Fall played a crucial role in the establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872. The nearby Bannock Ford on the Yellowstone River was an important travel route for early Native Americans as well as for early European visitors and miners up to the late 19th century.

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Calcite Springs This grouping of thermal springs along the Yellowstone River signals the downstream end of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone. The geothermally altered rhyolite inspired the artist Moran; his paintings of this scene were among those presented to Congress in 1872, leading to the establishment of the park. The steep, columnar basalt cliffs on the opposite side of the river from the overlook are remnants of an ancient lava flow, providing a window into the past volcanic forces that shaped much of the Yellowstone landscape. The gorge and cliffs provide habitat for numerous wildlife species including bighorn sheep, red-tailed hawks, and osprey. Yellowstone River and its Tributaries The Yellowstone River and its tributaries provide habitat for numerous bird and fish species.

Did You Know? The 1988 fires affected 793,880 acres or 36 percent of the park. Five fires burned into the park that year from adjacent public lands. The largest, the North Fork Fire, started from a discarded cigarette. It burned more than 410,000 acres.

Last Updated: July 11, 2006 at 18:08 EST

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Yellowstone National Park - Ranger-Led Programs (U.S. National Park Service)

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Yellowstone National Park

Ranger-Led Programs OUR SUMMER RANGER-LED PROGRAMS HAVE ENDED FOR THE SEASON. THESE PAGES ARE BEING MAINTAINED AS A GENERAL GUIDE TO THE SORTS OF PROGRAMS WE OFFER IN THE SUMMER MONTHS. THE SCHEDULES WILL CHANGE FOR THE SUMMER OF 2007. THAT SCHEDULE IS NOT DETERMINED UNTIL MAY. AS SOON AS IT IS FINALIZED, THE NEW PROGRAM WILL BE POSTED HERE. z z z z

Canyon Village Grant Village & West Thumb Madison & West Yellowstone Norris Geyser Basin

z z z z

Lake Village & Fishing Bridge Old Faithful Mammoth Junior Ranger Program

Other Programs z

Stars Over Yellowstone

Files labeled pdf require Adobe Acrobat Reader (available free online) to be viewed or printed.

Did You Know? The Roosevelt Arch is located at the North Entrance to Yellowstone National Park. The cornerstone of the arch was laid by President Theodore Roosevelt.

Last Updated: March 21, 2007 at 20:54 EST

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Yellowstone National Park - Ranger Adventure Hikes: Hike Descriptions (U.S. National ...

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Yellowstone National Park

Ranger Adventure Hikes: Hike Descriptions Tickets should be purchased in advance, and will be available beginning May 27 at visitor centers at Old Faithful, Grant Village, Fishing Bridge, Canyon, or Mammoth. We do not accept reservations over the phone. Summer 2006

Shoshone Lake Discovery Wednesdays and Fridays (June 11 - August 26) The lush meadows along DeLacy Creek are alive with colorful seasonal wildflowers and signs of wildlife. Follow DeLacy Creek to the pebbly shore of Shoshone Lake, the largest backcountry lake in the United States and a beautiful destination for this backcountry hike. Area of Park: Between Old Faithful and West Thumb Difficulty: Moderate Duration: 4 ½ to 5 hours Round Trip Distance: 6 miles/ 9.6 km Elevation Gain: 200 feet/ 60 meters Terrain: Maintained trail Type of Trail: Out and back

Lone Star Stroll Saturdays (June 11 - August 26) Walk through cool forests along the scenic Firehole River and visit Lone Star Geyser, one of Yellowstone's hidden treasures. Lone Star is an active geyser with a massive geyser cone that erupts a sparkling jet of steaming water every few hours. Also view other rarely-visited backcountry hydrothermal features on an easy riverside stroll along an historic paved road. Area of Park: Old Faithful Difficulty: Easy Duration: 4 ½ to 5 hours Round Trip Distance: 4.8 miles/ 7.7 km Elevation Gain: 40 feet/ 12 meters Terrain: Paved road, open to bicycles, but not motor vehicles Type of Trail: Out and back

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Tuesdays and Thursdays (June 11 - August 26) Pocket Basin reveals a close-up view of colorful hot springs and bubbling mud pots. Experience the wonders of this dynamic geologic hot spot as we explore a backcountry thermal area along the famous Firehole River. Area of Park: Old Faithful Difficulty: Moderate Duration: 4 to 4 ½ hours Round Trip Distance: 3 miles/ 4.8 km Elevation Gain: 40 feet/ 12 meters Terrain: Maintained trail and off-trail travel Type of Trail: Out and back

Avalanche Peak Experience Saturdays (July 8 - Aug. 26) For a truly "breathtaking" encounter with the wild side of Yellowstone, make the steep ascent above timberline to the knife-edged summit of Avalanche Peak. Here, in the heart of the Absaroka Range, your efforts will be rewarded with one of the most stunning panoramic views of Yellowstone. Enjoy this peak experience! Area of Park: Fishing Bridge/East Entrance Difficulty: Strenuous Duration: 6 hours Round Trip Distance: 4 miles/ 6.4 km Elevation Gain: 2,100 feet/ 650 meters Terrain: Maintained, steep trail Type of Trail: Out and back

Scenic Snow Pass Wednesdays (June 11 - August 26) Hike among the strange, jumbled boulders of the Hoodoos and trek through shaded groves of aspen and Douglas-fir as we ascend Snow Pass. From there, we'll revel in the mountain scenery and seasonal wildflowers of the Gallatin Range as we explore this delightful and diverse corner of Yellowstone. Area of Park: Mammoth Difficulty: Moderate Duration: 5 ½ - 6 hours Round Trip Distance: 6.8 miles/ 10.9 km Elevation Gain: 550 feet/ 170 meters Terrain: Maintained trail. A brief portion of this trail has a sharp drop-off on one side. Hikers who are afraid of heights may be uncomfortable on a portion of this trail. Type of Trail: Loop

Gem of the Rockies Mondays and Thursdays (June 11 - August 26) Garnet Hill lies at the heart Yellowstone's famed Northern Range, home to vast

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herds of wildlife and beautiful Rocky Mountain meadows. Hike through Pleasant Valley into the forest glen of Elk Creek and along the roaring Yellowstone River as we circle Garnet Hill on this "gem" of a loop trail. Area of Park: Tower/Roosevelt Difficulty: Moderate, but fairly long Duration: 6 - 6 ½ hours Round Trip Distance: 7.5 miles/ 12 km Elevation Gain: 300 feet/ 90 meters Terrain: Stagecoach dirt road (1.5 miles) and maintained trail. Type of Trail: Loop

Beaver Ponds Ramble Sundays and Tuesdays (June 11 - August 26) Cool aspen groves, Douglas-fir woodlands and sunny meadows greet you as you walk the undulating terrain. Several tranquil ponds along the way hold the promise of some wildlife sightings, and the views of northern Yellowstone are spectacular. Area of Park: Mammoth Difficulty: Moderate Duration: 4.5 hours Round Trip Distance: 5 miles/ 8 km Elevation Gain: 600 feet/ 186 meters Terrain: Hilly maintained trail Type of Trail: Loop

Hayden Valley Venture Tuesdays (July 7 - Aug. 25) Hike this lesser-used trail through meadows filled with wildflowers to a spectacular view of Hayden Valley. This valley is known for abundant waterfowl and other wildlife such as bison, elk, coyotes, and bears. Area of Park: Canyon Difficulty: Easy to moderate Duration: 4 - 5 hours Round Trip Distance: 6 miles/ 9.6 km Elevation Gain: 200 feet/ 60 meters Terrain: Maintained trail. May include off-trail sections, muddy areas and shallow stream crossings. Type of Trail: Loop Tickets available at Old Faithful, Albright (Mammoth), Grant, Canyon and Fishing Bridge visitor centers $15 for adults, $5 for kids ages 7-15, free for kids ages six and under.

Not recommended for people with heart or breathing problems, or other serious medical conditions. Children 15 and under must be accompanied by an adult.

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Yellowstone National Park

Canyon Area Ranger-Led Programs OUR SUMMER RANGER-LED PROGRAMS HAVE ENDED FOR THE SEASON. THESE PAGES ARE BEING MAINTAINED AS A GENERAL GUIDE TO THE SORTS OF PROGRAMS WE OFFER IN THE SUMMER MONTHS. THE SCHEDULES WILL CHANGE FOR THE SUMMER OF 2007. THAT SCHEDULE IS NOT DETERMINED UNTIL MAY. AS SOON AS IT IS FINALIZED, THE NEW PROGRAM WILL BE POSTED HERE.

Ranger Adventure Hikes - learn more

Hayden Valley Venture Dates: July 7 - Aug. 26 Time: 8 a.m. Fridays

Explore Yellowstone's backcountry on a half-day interpretive hike with a park ranger. Visit lesserknown hydrothermal areas, explore wildlife habitats, and experience a slice of Yellowstone's wilderness. Program locations vary daily. Hikes rated from easy to strenuous. Some hikes not recommended for people with heart, breathing, or serious medical conditions. Information and tickets are available at these visitor centers: Old Faithful, Albright (Mammoth), Grant, Canyon, and Fishing Bridge.

Area of Park: Canyon Difficulty: Easy to moderate Duration: 4 - 5 hours Round Trip Distance: 6 miles/ 9.6 km Elevation Gain: 200 feet/ 60 meters Terrain: Maintained trail. May include off-trail sections, muddy areas and shallow stream crossings. Type of Trail: Loop

This is a fee program: $15 for adults, $5 for kids ages 7-15, free for kids six and under. All children 15 and under must be accompanied by an adult.

Walking the Canyon Rim Su Words can hardly convey the startling beauty of the Yellowstone River, its Grand Canyon and

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Time: 1) 9 a.m.; 2) 3 p.m. Dates: 1) June 5-26;

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spectacular waterfalls. Explore the geology and natural history behind the scenery. Approximately 1.5 hours.

2) June 4 - Sept. 2 Where: Meet a park ranger at Uncle Tom's Parking Lot on the South Rim Drive (road to Artist Point).

The Canyon Loop Walk Su Walk along the upper Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, then along an established trail through meadows and forest, finally looping back to the parking area. Explore the geology and natural history of the canyon area, while enjoying a bit of its backcountry. Approximately 2.5 hours.

The Yellowstone Canyon Talk

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Time: 9 a.m. Dates: July 2 - Sept. 4 Where: Meet a park ranger at Uncle Tom's Parking Lot on the South Rim Drive (road to Artist Point).

When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa

From a classic viewpoint, enjoy the Lower Falls, the Yellowstone River, and the spectacular colors of the canyon while learning about the area's geology and history. Discover why artists and photographers have been drawn to this special place. Join the park ranger on the lower platform at Artist Point on the South Rim Drive for this short talk.

Time: *10 a.m.; 10:40 and 11 a.m.; 2:00, 2:20, 2:40, 4:00, 4:20 and 4:40 p.m. Dates: May 28 - Sept. 4 Where: Meet at the lower platform at Artist Point on the South Rim Drive.

Approximately 10-15 minutes (excpet 10 a.m. Junior Ranger talks, which are 20-30 minutes).

*10 a.m. talk geared for families with children of Junior Ranger age. Approximately 20-30 minutes.

Canyon Evening Program Su Join a park ranger for the evening to learn more about some aspect of Yellowstone's natural or cultural history. Inquire locally on bulletin boards and at visitor centers for program titles and descriptions. Approximately 45 minutes.

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Time: 1) 9:30 p.m.; 2) 9 p.m. Dates: 1) June 11 - July 23 2) July 30 - Sept. 4 Where: Meet at the Canyon Campground Amphitheater, weather and snow levels permitting.

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Yellowstone National Park - Grant Village Area Ranger-Led Program (U.S. National Par...

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Yellowstone National Park

Grant Village Area Ranger-Led Program OUR SUMMER RANGER-LED PROGRAMS HAVE ENDED FOR THE SEASON. THESE PAGES ARE BEING MAINTAINED AS A GENERAL GUIDE TO THE SORTS OF PROGRAMS WE OFFER IN THE SUMMER MONTHS. THE SCHEDULES WILL CHANGE FOR THE SUMMER OF 2007. THAT SCHEDULE IS NOT DETERMINED UNTIL MAY. AS SOON AS IT IS FINALIZED, THE NEW PROGRAM WILL BE POSTED HERE.

Walking the Fire Line Su The fires of 1988 were the greatest natural event to occur in the Yellowstone region since the massive volcanic eruption some 640,000 years ago. Join a ranger to learn how fire shapes this land, altering the lives of wildflowers, wildlife, and humans alike. End your walk with a spectacular view that will change the very way you look at Yellowstone. Round-trip distance is 2 miles. Moderately strenuous. RESERVATIONS REQUIRED. Call the Grant Visitor Center: 307-242-2650

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Time: 1) 8:00 a.m. Dates: 1) June 25 - Sept. 4 Where: Meet at Lake Overlook Trailhead in the West Thumb Geyser Basin Parking Lot.

Approximately 1-1/2 hours.

Discover Yellowstone Su

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Want to know how to make the most of your time Time: 10:15 a.m.; here in Yellowstone? Let a ranger reveal the 5:15 p.m. hgihlights and hotspots of this 2.2 million acre Dates: June 4 - Sept. 4 wonderland. Discover answers to important Where: Meet the park ranger on questions such as "Where can I see wildlife? the back porch of the When will the geysers erupt? Or What are some Grant Visitor Center. good hiking trails in the park?" Accessible. Approximately 10 minutes.

Hidden Stories Talk

When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa

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Yellowstone National Park - Grant Village Area Ranger-Led Program (U.S. National Par...

Discover behind-the-scene stories of Yellowstone's fascinating wildlife, geologic curiosities, and natural processes. Explore the complex challenges of preserving and protecting these dynamic features for future generations. Topics may include bison, wolves, lake trout, geysers, thermophiles, and fire ecology.

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Time: 11:30 a.m., 2:30 p.m. Dates: June 4 - Sept. 4 Where: Meet the park ranger on the back porch of Grant Visitor Center.

Approximately 20 minutes.

Explosive Encounter Su Come to the West Thumb Geyser Basin and explore the origins of glittering geysers, belching mudpots, and emerald hot springs. Stroll along the shores of Yellowstone Lake to uncover West Thumb's explosive past and dynamic future. Accessible with assistance.

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Time: 10 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. Dates: June 11 - Sept. 4 Where: Meet the park ranger near the West Thumb Geyser Basin Information Station.

Approximately 1-1/2 hours.

Tracking Yellowstone's Wildlife

When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa

Having trouble finding wildlife? This familyTime: 1:00 p.m. friendly walk will give you an introduction to understanding animal sign. Scat, tracks, and other Dates: June 18 - Aug. 19 mysterious clues will help you read the forest and Where: Meet the West Thumb Visitor Information discover the secret lives of its residents. Meet at Station. the West Thumb Visitor Information Station. This easy walk is geared to families with children of Junior Ranger age. Round trip distance is 1 mile. Approximately 1 hour.

Ranger Rendezvous Su Meet with a park ranger for this early evening program designed for young and the young at heart. Learn more about Yellowstone's diverse geology, history, or wildlife riches as you ease into evening. Check locally for program topics. Accessible - ask ranger for assistance after Visitor Center closes at 7 p.m.

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Time: 7:30 p.m. Dates: June 18 - Aug. 19 Where: Meet on the back porch of Grant Visitor Center.

Approximately 30 minutes.

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Grant Evening Program Su Join a park ranger for this illustrated presentation focusing on the natural, cultural, or historic resources and issues of Yellowstone National Park. Check locally for program topics. Dress warmly and bring a flashlight. Approximately 45 minutes.

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When and Where M T W Th F Sa

1) 9:30 p.m. 2) 9:00 p.m. 1) June 21- July 29 Dates: 2) July 30 - Sept. 3 Where: Meet at the Grant Amphitheater. Time:

Outdoor programs are subject to cancellation due to dangerous weather conditions! Files labeled pdf require Adobe Acrobat Reader (available free online) to be viewed or printed.

Did You Know? The 1988 fires affected 793,880 acres or 36 percent of the park. Five fires burned into the park that year from adjacent public lands. The largest, the North Fork Fire, started from a discarded cigarette. It burned more than 410,000 acres.

Last Updated: March 21, 2007 at 20:46 EST

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Yellowstone National Park

Lake Area Ranger-Led Programs OUR SUMMER RANGERLED PROGRAMS HAVE ENDED FOR THE SEASON. THESE PAGES ARE BEING MAINTAINED AS A GENERAL GUIDE T THE SORTS OF PROGRAMS WE OFFER IN THE SUMMER MONTHS. THE SCHEDULES WILL CHANGE FOR THE SUMMER OF 2007. THAT SCHEDULE IS NOT DETERMINED UNTIL MAY. AS SOON AS IT IS FINALIZED, THE NEW PROGRAM WILL BE POSTED HERE.

Ranger Adventure Hikes learn more

Avalanche Peak Experience Dates: July 8 - Aug. 26 Time: 8:15 a.m. Mondays

Explore Yellowstone's backcountry on a halfday interpretive hike with a park ranger. Visit lesser-known hydrothermal areas, explore wildlife habitats, and experience a slice of Yellowstone's wilderness. Program locations change daily. Hikes rated from easy to strenuous. Some hikes not recommended for people with heart, breathing, or serious medical conditions. Information and tickets are available at these visitor centers: Old Faithful, Albright (Mammoth), Grant, Canyon, and Fishing Bridge.

Area of Park: Fishing Bridge/East Entrance Difficulty: Strenuous Duration: 6 hours Round Trip Distance: 4 miles/ 6.4 km Elevation Gain: 2,100 feet/ 650 meters Terrain: Maintained, steep trail Type of Trail: Out and back

This is a fee program: $15 for adults, $5 for kids ages 7-15, free for kids six and under. All children 15 and under must be accompanied by an adult.

Wildlife Watching in Hayden Valley Take a leisurely morning stroll to observe the birds and mammals of Hayden Valley. Approximately 2 hours.

Su

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Time: 7:00 a.m. Dates: June 18 - Aug.17 Where: Meet at the park ranger at the large pullout in Hayden Valley, 9-1/2 miles north of the Fishing Bridge Junction and 6

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miles south of Canyon Junction.

Fly Fishing for Families

When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa

One way to learn about Yellowstone's world class trout and aquatic ecosystems is through the art of fly-fishing. Join a ranger for a talk on the importance of catch and release for the reservation of wild trout and an introduction to the sport. Bring fly rods if you have them.

Time: 8:00 a.m. Dates: June 17 - Aug. 19 Where: Meet at the Nez Perce Ford Picnic Area, 5 miles north of Fishing Bridge Junction.

Approximately 1 1/2 hours.

Yellowstone Lake Reflections Walk

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Yellowstone Lake offers evidence of the powerful forces that continue to shape the face of Yellowstone. Walk through meadow, forest, and along the lakeshore to learn more about the largest lake at high elevation in North America.

Time: 10:30 a.m. Dates: May 28 - Aug. 26 Where: Meet at Indian Pond, 3 miles east of Fishing Bridge.

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Approximately 2 hours.

Mud Volcano Exploration Walk

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Early explorers described the Mud Volcano area as "the greatest marvel we have yet met with." Find out what these intriguing mudpots have to tell us about Yellowstone's explosive past and future. Moderately strenuous.

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Time: 1:00 p.m. Dates: May 28 - Sept. 5 Where: Meet at Mud Volcano parking area.

Approximately 2 hours.

A Cutthroat Encounter: Fisheries Management in Yellowstone

When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa

People often wonder why no fishing is allowed from the "Fishing Bridge." The answer to this question tells of some of the greatest disasters

Time: 3:00 p.m. Dates: May 28 - Sept. 4 Where: Meet the park ranger on the west side of Fishing

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and the greatest triumphs of fisheries management in Yellowstone. Observe cutthroat trout from this famous bridge and learn about the current challenges they face.

Bridge for this short talk.

Approximately 20 minutes.

Featured Creature Su Yellowstone has been called the wildlife wonder of the continent, the American Serengeti. Join a park ranger to learn about a different bird or other wildlife species daily. Inquire at Fishing Bridge Visitor Center about what the "featured creature" is today.

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Time: 5:00 p.m. Dates: June 18 - Aug. 19 Where: Meet at the Fishing Bridge Visitor Center.

Approximately 1-1/2 hours.

Family Campfire Program Su Join a park ranger around the campfire for this entertaining program designed especially for families with young children for whom the nightly slide program is too late.

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Time: 6:00 p.m. Dates: June 12 - Aug. 18 Where: Meet at Bridge Bay Campground Amphitheater.

Approximately 45 minutes.

Fishing Bridge Evening Program

When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa

Learn more about Yellowstone at this evening illustrated program and campfire. Inquire at Fishing Bridge Visitor Center or look on local bulletin boards for daily program titles and descriptions.

Time: 1) 9:30 p.m.; 2) 9 p.m. Dates: 1) June 11 - July 29; 2) July 30 - Sept. 4 Where: Meet at Fishing Bridge Visitor Center Amphitheater.

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Approximately 45 minutes.

Bridge Bay Evening Program Su Gather around the campfire for an illustrated program on an interesting aspect of Yellowstone. Inquire at Fishing Bridge Visitor Center or look on local bulletin boards for daily program titles and descriptions. Approximately 45 minutes.

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

1) 9:30 p.m.; 2) 9 p.m. Dates: 1) June 11 - July 29; 2) July 30 - Sept. 4 Where: Meet at Bridge Bay Campground Amphitheater. Time:

Outdoor programs are subject to cancellation due to dangerous weather conditions! Files labeled pdf require Adobe Acrobat Reader (available free online) to be viewed or printed.

Did You Know? Some groups of Shoshone Indians, who adapted to a mountain existence, chose not to acquire the horse. These included the Sheep Eaters, or Tukudika, who used dogs to transport food, hides, and other provisions. The Sheep Eaters lived in many locations in Yellowstone.

Last Updated: March 21, 2007 at 20:59 EST

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Yellowstone National Park

Madison Area Ranger-Led Programs OUR SUMMER RANGER-LED PROGRAMS HAVE ENDED FOR THE SEASON. THESE PAGES ARE BEING MAINTAINED AS A GENERAL GUIDE TO THE SORTS OF PROGRAMS WE OFFER IN THE SUMMER MONTHS. THE SCHEDULES WILL CHANGE FOR THE SUMMER OF 2007. THAT SCHEDULE IS NOT DETERMINED UNTIL MAY. AS SOON AS IT IS FINALIZED, THE NEW PROGRAM WILL BE POSTED HERE.

Explore Yellowstone! Su Would you like ideas on how to spend your time in Yellowstone? Meet a park ranger at the West Yellowstone Visitor Information Center, corner of Yellowstone Avenue and Canyon Street, for a talk about what to see and do in the park. Approximately 20-30 minutes.

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Time: 9:30 a.m. Dates: May 27 - Sept. 30 Where: Meet a ranger at the West Yellowstone Visitor Information Center, corner of Yellowstone Avenue and Canyon Street.

Junior Ranger Station Activities

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Hey kids! Join a park ranger to learn about Yellowstone's wonderful wildlife, geysers, history, and much more! This is a great opportunity to complete the ranger-led activity required to earn your Junior Ranger patch. These family programs are geared towards kids of Junior Ranger age (5-12).

Time: 10:00, 10:30, 11:00 and 11:30 a.m.; 2:00, 2:30, 3:00, 3:30, 4:00, 4:30 Dates: June 3 - Sept. 4 Where: Meet at the Junior Ranger Station at Madison Junction.

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Approximately 30 minutes.

Afternoon Talk in West Su Each afternoon, a ranger will present a talk in West Yellowstone, Mont., on a captivating aspect of Yellowstone's natural or cultural history. Talks are free and open to the public. There is a fee if you want to visit the rest of the Museum of the Yellowstone or the Grizzly and Wolf Discovery Center.

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Time: 2:00 p.m. Dates: June 4 - Sept. 4 Where: Locations: The Museum of the Yellowstone, corner of Yellowstone Avenue

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Approximately 30 minutes.

and Canyon Street; The Grizzly and Wolf Discovery Center, 201 South Canyon Street.

West Yellowstone Evening Program

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Join a park ranger for an illustrated program highlighting a fascinating aspect of Yellowstone's wonders. Everyone is welcome. The slide program is free. There is a fee if you choose to visit the rest of the center (an educational nonprofit bear and wolf preserve). Approximately 45 minutes.

Time: 1) 7:30; 2) 7:00 p.m. 1) June 13 - July 29 Dates: 2) Aug. 1 - Aug. 26 Where: Location: Grizzly and Wolf Discovery Center theater, 201 South Canyon Street in West Yellowstone, Mont.

Madison Evening Program Su Each night a park ranger will present an illustrated program highlighting a different aspect of Yellowstone's wonders. Inquire locally on bulletin boards and at the Madison Information Station for program titles and descriptions.

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Time: 1) 9:30 p.m.; 2) 9 p.m. Dates: 1) May 28 - July 23; 2) July 30 - Sept. 4 Where: Meet at the Madison amphitheater.

Approximately 45 minutes. Outdoor programs are subject to cancellation due to dangerous weather conditions! Files labeled pdf require Adobe Acrobat Reader (available free online) to be viewed or printed.

Did You Know? Some groups of Shoshone Indians, who adapted to a mountain existence, chose not to acquire the horse. These included the Sheep Eaters, or Tukudika, who used dogs to transport food, hides, and other provisions. The Sheep Eaters lived in many locations in Yellowstone.

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Yellowstone National Park

Mammoth Area Ranger-Led Programs OUR SUMMER RANGER-LED PROGRAMS HAVE ENDED FOR THE SEASON. THESE PAGES ARE BEING MAINTAINED AS A GENERAL GUIDE TO THE SORTS OF PROGRAMS WE OFFER IN THE SUMMER MONTHS. THE SCHEDULES WILL CHANGE FOR THE SUMMER OF 2007. THAT SCHEDULE IS NOT DETERMINED UNTIL MAY. AS SOON AS IT IS FINALIZED, THE NEW PROGRAM WILL BE POSTED HERE.

Ranger Adventure Hikes - learn more Gem of the Rockies Dates: June 11 - Aug. 26 Time: 8 a.m. Monday and Thursday Beaver Ponds Ramble Dates: June 11 - Aug 26 Time: 8 a.m. Sundays and Tuesdays Scenic Snow Pass Dates: June 11 - Aug 26 Time: 8 a.m. Wednesdays

Explore Yellowstone's backcountry on a half-day interpretive hike with a park ranger. Visit lesserknown hydrothermal areas, explore wildlife habitats, and experience a slice of Yellowstone's wilderness. Program locations change daily. Hikes rated from easy to strenuous. Some hikes not recommended for people with heart, breathing, or serious medical conditions. Information and tickets are available at these visitor centers: Old Faithful, Albright (Mammoth), Grant, Canyon, and Fishing Bridge. This is a fee program: $15 for adults, $5 for kids ages 7-15, free for kids six and under. All children 15 and under must be accompanied by an adult.

Touring Historic Fort Yellowstone—Walk

When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa

In its early days, Yellowstone National Park was protected by the U.S. Cavalry. Join a ranger on this short, relaxed walk around Fort Yellowstone to learn about important historic park events and to discover

Time: 6:00 p.m. Dates: June 9 - Sept. 4 Where: Meet in front of Albright Visitor

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the role the Army played in protecting Yellowstone.

Center.

Approximately 1-1/4 hours.

Mammoth Daily Special—Talk Sample some of Yellowstone's wonders at this 20minute ranger talk. A different topic is srved up daily, featuring wildlife, geology or history. Approximately 20-30 minutes.

The Mammoth Hot Springs Terraces—Walk

When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa Time: 3:00 p.m. Dates: June 4 - Aug. 19 Where: Meet in front of Albright Visitor Center.

When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa

Discover Yellowstone's colorful geologic past and present through the rainbow hues of Mammoth Hot Springs. Learn how these dynamic terraces of travertine are unique amoung the park's hydrothrmal features. Route climbs stairs; may be strenous for some.

Time: 9:00 a.m. Dates: May 29 - Aug. 19 Where: Meet at the Liberty Cap rock formation at the base of the hot springs.

Approximately 1-1/2hours.

Mammoth Evening Program Enjoy an illustrated program about Yellowstone's natural or cultural history. Inquire locally on bulletin boards and at visitor centers for program titles and descriptions. Approximately 1 hour.

When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa 1) 9:30 p.m.; 2) 9 p.m. Dates: 1) June 11 - July 29; 2) July 30 - Sept. 4 Where: Meet at the Mammoth Campground Amphitheater. Time:

Outdoor programs are subject to cancellation due to dangerous weather conditions!

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Files labeled pdf require Adobe Acrobat Reader (available free online) to be viewed or printed.

Did You Know? Some groups of Shoshone Indians, who adapted to a mountain existence, chose not to acquire the horse. These included the Sheep Eaters, or Tukudika, who used dogs to transport food, hides, and other provisions. The Sheep Eaters lived in many locations in Yellowstone.

Last Updated: March 22, 2007 at 09:52 EST

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Yellowstone National Park

Norris Area Ranger-Led Programs OUR SUMMER RANGER-LED PROGRAMS HAVE ENDED FOR THE SEASON. THESE PAGES ARE BEING MAINTAINED AS A GENERAL GUIDE TO THE SORTS OF PROGRAMS WE OFFER IN THE SUMMER MONTHS. THE SCHEDULES WILL CHANGE FOR THE SUMMER OF 2007. THAT SCHEDULE IS NOT DETERMINED UNTIL MAY. AS SOON AS IT IS FINALIZED, THE NEW PROGRAM WILL BE POSTED HERE.

Windows into Yellowstone Walk

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Experience the muddy caldrons, acid geysers and clear pools of Norris Geyser Basin! Join a park ranger for a walk through this magical land and learn about the park's geologic past, present, and future. Bring water, sunglasses and sunscreen.

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Time: 10 a.m. Dates: June 7 - Sept. 4 Where: Meet at the Norris Geyser Basin Museum.

Approximately 1-1/2 hours.

Volcano Country Talk Su The heart of Yellowstone is its geologic past. Join a park ranger to learn about the park's fascinating landscapes, plants, hydrothermal features, or wildlife, and the powerful earth forces that make them possible.

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Time: 2:30 p.m. Dates: June 3 - Sept. 4 Where: Meet at the Norris Geyser Basin Museum.

Approximately 20 minutes.

Norris Campfire Program Su Bring the whole family and join a park ranger for an old-fashioned, cozy campfire talk. Inquire locally on bulletin boards for program titles and descriptions. Approximately 45 minutes.

When and Where M T W Th F Sa

Time: 7:30 p.m. Dates: June 11 - Sept. 4 Where: Meet at the Norris Campground Campfire Circle.

Outdoor programs are subject to cancellation due to dangerous weather conditions!

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Yellowstone National Park

Old Faithful Area Ranger-Led Programs OUR SUMMER RANGER-LED PROGRAMS HAVE ENDED FOR THE SEASON. THESE PAGES ARE BEING MAINTAINED AS A GENERAL GUIDE TO THE SORTS OF PROGRAMS WE OFFER IN THE SUMMER MONTHS. THE SCHEDULES WILL CHANGE FOR THE SUMMER OF 2007. THAT SCHEDULE IS NOT DETERMINED UNTIL MAY. AS SOON AS IT IS FINALIZED, THE NEW PROGRAM WILL BE POSTED HERE.

Ranger Adventure Hikes -learn more Explore Yellowstone's backcountry on a half-day interpretive hike with a park ranger. Visit lesser-known hydrothermal areas, explore wildlife habitats, and experience a slice of Yellowstone's wilderness. Program locations change daily. Hikes rated from easy to strenuous. Some hikes not recommended for people with heart, breathing, or serious medical conditions. Information and tickets are available at these visitor centers: Old Faithful, Albright (Mammoth), Grant, Canyon, and Fishing Bridge.

Mudpot Special Dates: June 13 - Aug 26 Time: 8 a.m. Tuesdays and Thursdays Shoshone Lake Discovery Dates: June 13 - Aug 26 Time: 8 a.m. Wednesdays and Fridays Lone Star Stroll* Dates: June 13 - Aug 26 Time: 7:30 a.m. Saturdays *Accessible with assistance.

This is a fee program: $15 for adults, $5 for kids ages 7-15, free for kids six and under. All children 15 and under must be accompanied by an adult.

Mystic Falls Walk

When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa

Experience the Yellowstone Ecosystem and enjoy this 2-mile walk through Biscuit Basin to Mystic Falls.

Time: 9 a.m.

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Not recommended for people with heart, breathing, or walking difficulties and may include walking along muddy trails. Approximately 1.5 hours.

Geyser Discovery Stroll

Dates: June 4 - Aug. 26 Where:Meet at the Firehole River Bridge adjacent to the Biscuit Basin parking lot, 2 miles north of Old Faithful.

When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa

Learn the ins and outs of one of the rarest geological features on earth - geysers! Accompany a park ranger through the Upper Geyser Basin exploring the world of geysers. Approximately 1.5 hours.

Yellowstone for Kids!

Time: 5:30 p.m. Dates: May 28 - Sept. 4 Where:Meet at Castle Geyser, half mile west of Old Faithful (15-minute walk from the visitor center). When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa

Discover some of the wonders of Yellowstone during this short presentation for kids. Approximately 20 minutes.

Geysers Galore!

Time: 10 a.m. Dates: June 4 - Aug. 26 Where:Meet in front of the Old Faithful Visitor Center.

When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa

Take a quick look at Yellowstone's fascinating and visible geologic story. Offered daily every half hour from 12:15 to 2:45 p.m. Approximately 10 minutes.

Black Sand Walk

Starting at 12:15 p.m. Dates: May 27 - Sept. 4 Where:Meet in front of the temporary Old Faithful Visitor Center. Time:

When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa

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Visit a lesser-known geyser basin with ample evidence of Yellowstone's volcanic geology on this half-mile walk. Approximately 1 hour.

Geyser Hill Walk

Time: 1 p.m. Dates: June 4 - Aug. 26 Where:Meet at Black Sand Basin parking lot, one mile north of Old Faithful. When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa

Yellowstone has more hydrothermal features than anywhere else in the world. Learn about Yellowstone's volcanic history and explore the world of hydrothermal features on this 1-1/4 mile walk. Approximately 1-1/2 hours.

Old Faithful Evening Program Enjoy an illustrated program about Yellowstone's cultural or natural history. Check the bulletin board in the Old Faithful Visitor Center for titles and descriptions of nightly programs or call 545-2750. Approximately 45 minutes.

Time: 8 a.m. Dates: May 28 - Sept. 4 Where:Meet at the temporary Old Faithful Visitor Center. When and Where Su M T W Th F Sa Time: 7:30 p.m. Dates: May 28 - Sept. 4 Where:Meet the ranger at the benches in front of the Old Faithful Visitor Center.

Outdoor programs are subject to cancellation due to dangerous weather conditions! Files labeled pdf require Adobe Acrobat Reader (available free online) to be viewed or printed.

Did You Know? The Roosevelt Arch is located at the North Entrance to Yellowstone National Park. The cornerstone of the arch was laid by President Theodore Roosevelt.

Last Updated: March 22, 2007 at 07:43 EST

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Yellowstone National Park - Stars Over Yellowstone (U.S. National Park Service)

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Yellowstone National Park

Stars Over Yellowstone Get the 'Star Treatment' Enjoy Yellowstone's unpolluted night sky. Find constellations, hear star stories and view celestial objects through telescopes (weather permitting). Learn how to safely view the sun through telescopes; watch astronomy slide presentations; examine the current sky over Yellowstone and hear about hot topics in astronomy; get an update on the planets.

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured this photo of two galaxies colliding.

Dress warmly, and bring a flashlight. Presented by The Museum of the Rockies (Bozeman, Mont.), Southwest Montana Astronomical Society, and regional amateur astronomers. These programs have ended for the season. These pages are being maintained as a general guide to the sorts of programs we offer in the summer months. The schedules will change for the summer of 2007. That schedule is not determined until May. As soon as it is finalized, the new program schedule will be posted here. Safe Solar Viewing Dates: June 24, July 22, Aug. 26 Time: 2-5 p.m. Location: Old Faithful Temporay Visitor Center Friday Evening Program Dates: June 23, 9:30 p.m. Location: Madison Campground Amphitheater. Saturday Evening Program Dates: June 24, 9:30 p.m. Location: Madison Campground Amphitheater. Night Sky Observing Dates: June 23-24 and July 21-22 at 10:30 p.m.; Aug. 25-26 at 10 p.m. Location: West of Madison Campground Amphitheater

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Yellowstone National Park - Hiking in the Park (U.S. National Park Service)

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Yellowstone National Park

Hiking in the Park Yellowstone National Park, encompassing 2.2 million acres, is one of America's premier wilderness areas. Most of the park is backcountry and managed as wilderness. Over 1,100 miles (1770 km) of trails are available for hiking. However, there are dangers inherent in wilderness: unpredictable wildlife, changing weather conditions, remote thermal areas, cold water lakes, turbulent streams, and rugged mountains with loose, "rotten" rock. Visiting wilderness means experiencing the land on its terms. If you choose to explore and enjoy the natural wonders of Yellowstone, there is no guarantee of your safety. Be prepared for any situation. Carefully read all backcountry guidelines and regulations. Spring Hiking in Yellowstone is a great way to both see and enjoy the park. This time period allows the unique opportunity for non-motorized use of certain park roads. Hiking, bicycling, jogging, roller blades, roller skis, and similar means of non-motorized travel are permitted between the West Entrance and Mammoth Hot Springs ONLY from about mid March through the third Thursday in April. The opening day in March is weather dependant. The East and South Entrances and roads are Not Open for these early spring activities. The road from Madison Junction to Old Faithful will Not Open for spring activities during this time. Please Note, there will be some administrative vehicles traveling the roads at this time. See the Spring Biking Page for a map and more information. You may verify what specific roads are open to such activities by calling: 307-344-2109. There are numerous trails suitable for day hiking. Begin your hike by stopping at a ranger station or visitor center for information. Trail conditions may change suddenly and unexpectedly. Bear activity, rain or snow storms, high water, and fires may temporarily close trails. At a minimum, carry water, a raincoat or poncho, a warm hat, insect repellent, sunscreen, and a first aid kit. It is recommended that you hike with another person. No permit is required for day hiking.

Some Day Hikes Listed by Area z z z z

Bridge Bay, Fishing Bridge & Lake Canyon Madison Mammoth

z z z z

Norris Old Faithful Tower-Roosevelt West Thumb & Grant Village

Hiker / Biker Campsites Camping for front country hikers or bicyclists is limited to the developed campgrounds located throughout the park. Campsites are available by reservation (through Xanterra Parks and Resorts) and on a first come, first served basis.

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The distances separating campgrounds and the fact that the campgrounds typically fill early each day during the peak visitation season will pose logistical problems for the front country hiker or bicycle camper in Yellowstone. A limited number of campsites are reserved for hikers and bicyclists at all campgrounds with the exception of Slough Creek. Camping is not available at Old Faithful. If you are traveling with a group of hikers or bicyclists, call Xanterra Parks and Resorts prior to your arrival to check on group campsite availability; not all campgrounds can accommodate groups. If you have access to a vehicle, use it to find a campsite in your destination campground early each day. Hikers or bicyclists camping without a vehicle can use designated hiker/biker sites for $ 4.00 per individual per night. All other vehicle campsites range from $ 10 to $ 16 per night depending on the campground. Opening and closing dates vary considerably for each campground. Check the Calendar Page or Camping Page to make sure that a campground is open if you are planning a spring or fall visit to Yellowstone. Water Should you drink the water? Intestinal infections from drinking untreated water are increasingly common. Waters may be polluted by animal and/or human wastes. When possible, carry a supply of water from a domestic source. If you drink water from lakes and streams, bring it to a boil or use a water filter to reduce the chance of infection. Yellowstone's weather is unpredictable. A sunny warm day may become fiercely stormy with wind, rain, sleet, and sometimes snow. Lightning storms are common; get off water or beaches and stay away from ridges, exposed places, and isolated trees. How to minimize the dangers associated with a bear encounter. Several commercial businesses are permitted to offer guided day hikes in Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone Park Foundation funded the Pelican Valley Trail Reroute Project. They are a non-profit organization whose mission is to fund projects and programs that protect, preserve and enhance Yellowstone National Park.

Did You Know? At peak summer levels, 3,500 employees work for Yellowstone National Park concessioners and about 800 work for the park.

Last Updated: August 17, 2006 at 17:04 EST

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Yellowstone Park Hiking

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Ranger Adventure Hiking Series Begins! The summer of 2001 marks the return of half-day hikes led by interpretive park rangers into Yellowstone's backcountry. Morning hikes will be offered daily from June 17 through August 11, in the Old Faithful area. Join a park ranger for an in-depth, half-day hike into Yellowstone's backcountry! Visit remote thermal areas, explore wildlife habitats, or experience Yellowstone's wilderness. The Ranger Adventure Hiking Series will be offered as a fee activity. The price of this program is $15 for adults, $7 for children aged 7 to 15, and free for children six and under. These high-quality experiences are limited to 15 people per hike. Hikes are rated from easy to difficult; and some hikes are not recommended for people with heart, breathing, or serious medical conditions. Program locations change daily. Information and tickets are only available in person at the following park visitor centers: Old Faithful, Albright (Mammoth), Grant, Canyon, and Fishing Bridge. Tickets must be purchased prior to the day of the hike. Cash or checks only. Tickets go on sale starting Saturday, May 26. The park has identified fee programs as those activities that go beyond the scope of the basic interpretive program, focus on programs which serve a small segment of park visitors, or tend to be relatively expensive to offer. These programs are beyond the park's ability to fund without recovering some of the costs. Fees charged go back into the program's budget and help offset staff and supply costs. Yellowstone originally offered hikes as part of the interpretive program until the early 1990s. They were discontinued when the federal budget could no longer keep pace with operational needs. Yellowstone has received many comments since then from visitors about the lasting memories of these hikes. Ranger-led talks, walks, and campfire programs remain available to the public at no fee. Information on these programs and other park activities is available in the park newspaper Yellowstone Today, at visitor centers throughout the park, and on the park's website: www.nps.gov/yell/planvisit/todo/ranger/index.htm -NPS-

Yellowstone National Park, encompassing 2.2 million acres, is one of America's premier wilderness areas. Most of the park is backcountry and managed as wilderness. Over 1,100 miles (1770 km) of trails are available for hiking. However, there are dangers inherent in wilderness: unpredictable wildlife, changing weather conditions, remote thermal areas, cold water lakes, turbulent streams, and rugged mountains with loose, "rotten" rock. Visiting wilderness means experiencing the land on its terms. If you choose to explore and enjoy the natural wonders of Yellowstone, there is no guarantee of your safety. Be prepared for any situation. Carefully read all backcountry guidelines and regulations. There are numerous trails suitable for day hiking. Begin your hike by stopping at a ranger station or visitor center for information. Trail conditions may change suddenly and unexpectedly. Bear activity, rain or snow storms, high water, and fires may t il l t il At i i t i t h

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Yellowstone Park Hiking

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temporarily close trails. At a minimum, carry water, a raincoat or poncho, a warm hat, insect repellent, sunscreen, and a first aid kit. It is recommended that you hike with another person. No permit is required for day hiking.

Backpacking & Backcountry Camping in Yellowstone

Yellowstone has a designated backcountry campsite system, and a Backcountry Use Permit is required for all overnight stays. Each designated campsite has a maximum limit for the number of people and stock allowed per night. The maximum stay per campsite varies from 1 to 3 nights per trip. Campfires are permitted only in established fire pits. Wood fires are not allowed in some backcountry campsites. A food storage pole is provided at most designated campsites so that food and attractants may be secured from bears. Neither hunting nor firearms are allowed in Yellowstone's backcountry. Permits may be obtained only in person and no more than 48 hours in advance of your trip. Permits are available from most ranger stations and visitor centers. In order to obtain the best information on trail conditions, permits should be obtained from the ranger station or visitor center nearest to the area where your trip is to begin. The Backcountry Use Permit is valid only for the itinerary and dates specified. Backcountry travelers must have their permits in possession while in the backcountry. Advance Reservations for Backcountry Campsites Although permits must be obtained in person no more than 48 hours in advance, backcountry campsites may be reserved in advance. Requests for reservations must be submitted by mail or in person. They cannot be made over the phone or by fax. Reservations are booked on a first come, first served basis. A confirmation notice, not a permit, is given or mailed to the camper. This confirmation notice must then be converted to the actual permit not more than 48 hours in advance of the first camping date. Details are provided on the confirmation notice. The reservation fee is $15 regardless of the number of nights out or the number of people involved. The fee is not refundable. To receive the forms to make an advance reservation, write: National Park Service, Attention: Backcountry Office, P.O. Box 168, Yellowstone National Park, WY 82190. Or you may call (307) 344-2160 or (307) 344-2163 to request forms. Permits and Reservations Made Less Than 48 Hours in Advance Because only a portion of the approximately 300 backcountry campsites are available for advance reservations, you may choose to wait until you arrive in the park to reserve your site(s) and obtain your permit. The $15 fee applies only to reservations made more than 48 hours in advance of the start of your trip. Where to Get Your Permit During the summer season (June - August), permits are available 7 days a week between 8 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. at the following locations: z z z z z z z z z

Bechler Ranger Station Canyon Ranger Station/Visitor Center Grant Village Visitor Center Lake Ranger Station Mammoth Ranger Station/Visitor Center Old Faithful Ranger Station South Entrance Ranger Station Tower Ranger Station West Entrance Ranger Station

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In addition, permits may sometimes be obtained from rangers on duty at the East Entrance and Bridge Bay Ranger Station. However, these rangers have other duties and may not be available to provide assistance at all times. During the spring, fall, and winter seasons, ranger stations and visitor centers do not have set hours. To obtain a Backcountry Use Permit during these seasons, check the office hours posted at the nearest ranger station or visitor center. Several commercial businesses are permitted to offer guided overnight (Backpacking) trips into Yellowstone's backcountry. These businesses would obtain the Backcountry Use Permits for trips that they provide.

Safety in Bear Country Hiking and camping restrictions are occasionally in effect as a result of bear activity. Never camp in an area that has obvious evidence of bear activity such as digging, tracks, or scat. Odors attract bears, so avoid carrying or cooking odorous foods. Keep a clean camp; do not cook or store food in your tent. All food, garbage, or other odorous items used for preparing or cooking food must be secured from bears. Most backcountry campsites have food poles from which all food, cooking gear, and scented articles must be suspended when not being used. Treat all odorous products such as soap, deodorant, or other toiletries in the same manner as food. Do not leave packs containing food unattended, even for a few minutes. Allowing a bear to obtain human food even once often results in the bear becoming aggressive about obtaining such food in the future. Aggressive bears present a threat to human safety and eventually must be destroyed or removed from the park. Please obey the law and do not allow bears or other wildlife to obtain human food. Sleep a minimum of 100 yards (91 meters) from where you hang, cook, and eat your food. Keep your sleeping gear clean and free of food odor. Don't sleep in the same clothes worn while cooking and eating; hang clothing worn while cooking and eating in plastic bags. Considering bears' highly developed sense of smell, it may seem logical that they could be attracted to odors associated with menstruation. Studies on this subject are few and inconclusive. If a woman chooses to hike or camp in bear country during menstruation, a basic precaution should be to wear internal tampons, not external pads. Used tampons should be double-bagged in a zip-lock type bag and stored the same as garbage. If you are involved in a conflict with a bear, regardless of how minor, report it to a park ranger as soon as possible. Another's safety may depend on it. Exceptional combinations of food, shelter, and space draw grizzlies to some parts of Yellowstone more than others. In these Bear Management Areas, human access is restricted to reduce impacts on the bears and their habitat. Ask at ranger stations or visitor centers for more information. Handling Refuse All refuse must be carried out of the backcountry. Human waste must be buried 6 to 8 inches ( 15 - 20 centimeters) below the ground and a minimum of 100 feet (30 meters) from a watercourse. Waste water should be disposed of at least 100 feet (30 meters) from a watercourse or campsite. Do not pollute lakes, ponds, rivers, or streams by washing yourself, clothing, or dishes in them. General Safety Concerns Should you drink the water? Intestinal infections from drinking untreated water are increasingly common. Waters may be polluted by animal and/or human wastes. When possible, carry a supply of water from a domestic source. If you drink water from lakes and streams, bring it to a boil to reduce the chance of infection.

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Don't take chances in backcountry thermal areas. Scalding water underlies thin, breakable crusts; pools are near or above boiling temperatures. Each year, visitors traveling off trail have been seriously burned, and people have died from the scalding water. No swimming or bathing is allowed in thermal pools. Removing, defacing or destroying any plant, animal, or mineral is prohibited. Leave historical and archeological items in place.

Bear Encounters Yellowstone is home to both grizzly and black bears. Although the risk of an encounter with a bear is low, there are no guarantees of your safety. Minimize your risks by following the guidelines below: Make bears aware of your presence on trails by making loud noises such as shouting or singing. This lessens the chance of sudden encounters, which are the cause of most bear-caused human injuries in the park. Hike in groups and use caution where vision is obstructed. Do not hike after dark. Avoid carcasses; bears often defend this source of food. If you encounter a bear, do not run. Bears can run over 30 miles per hour, or 44 feet per second, faster than Olympic sprinters. Running may elicit an attack from otherwise non-aggressive bears. If the bear is unaware of you, detour away from the bear. If the bear is aware of you and nearby, but has not acted aggressively, slowly back away. Tree climbing to avoid bears is popular advice but not very practical in many circumstances. All black bears, all grizzly cubs, and some adult grizzlies can climb trees. Running to a tree may provoke an otherwise uncertain bear to chase you. Some bears will bluff their way out of a threatening situation by charging, then veering off or stopping abruptly at the last second. Bear experts generally recommend standing still until the bear stops and then slowly backing away. If you are attacked, play dead. Drop to the ground, lift your legs up to your chest, and clasp your hands over the back of your neck. This technique has been especially successful with female bears that have cubs.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

Copyright @1999-2003 Yellowstone Media Group, Inc

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Hiking Yellowstone Park - Canyon

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The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone is the focal feature for this region, and

numerous trails prowl its rim, descend its walls or lead to the brinks of its waterfalls. Other trails in the Canyon area provide access to backcountry lakes or connect with adjoining regions. The yellow-hued rocks lining the canyon walls may seem appropriate for the name "Yellowstone," but the canyon did not bear its name. Instead, the name was derived from the yellow-banded bluffs along the river several hundred miles north, near the confluence with the Missouri River. During their wanderings, the early French Canadian trappers learned from the Indians the name Mi tse a-da-afor the Yellowstone River. And this, in French, became Roche Jaune of Pierra Jaune-, meaning Yellow Rock or Yellow Stone. The river has carved a canyon 800 to 1,300 feet deep, 1,500 to 4,000 feet wide and 20 miles long. Rhyolite, which forms the canyon walls, underwent alteration when thermal water worked its way up. This weakened the rhyolite and made it susceptible to erosion. During the past 150,000 years, the river has been at work eroding the soft, altered rock. Harder, more resistant, unaltered rhyolite forms the brink of the falls. If only one hike can be made in Yellowstone, the Mount Washburn Trail should be the one. This trail passes through different zones of wildflowers and, during July, it is possible to count more than 50 species of wildflowers in bloom. Bighorn sheep use the summer pastures on the slopes, and this is the best location in the park to observe them. From the summit, it also is possible to scan the entire park. The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, Yellowstone Lake, the Grand Tetons, Mount Holmes and even an eruption of Old Faithful can be viewed on a clear day.

Mt. Washburn Trail Length to Washburn Lockout Tower from: Dunraven Pass picnic area 3.0 miles, one way. Chittenden parking area 2.25 miles, one way. Elevation change: Dunraven Pass at 8,850 feet (1,393-foot gain, but a 1,491-foot gain from Chittenden parking area.) Trailheads: The first of two trailheads is at Dunraven Pass, 4.75 miles north of Canyon Junction on the Canyon-Tower Road. The second trailhead is at Chittenden parking area, via the turn-off 9.5 miles north of Canyon Junction, and including an additional 1.2-mile spur road. If you can accomplish only one hike in Yellowstone, this is the hike. No other single trail provides as much in the way of scenery, wildflowers and wildlife as the Mount Washburn Trail. This also is one of the best evening or sunset hikes, but the drawback is that the return is in the dark. Two trails access the summit of Mount Washburn, the primary fire lockout of the three lockouts in the park. (The other two lockouts are located on mounts Holmes and Sheridan.) The two trails approach from opposite directions and provide entirely different views on the way up. Both were stagecoach and wagon roads originally and, later, the Chittenden Road was paved for motor vehicles and was open to the public on a part-time basis until the late 1960s. Now both are wide trails, with the Chittenden Trail also providing bicycle access

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Chittenden Trail also providing bicycle access. The Dunraven Pass approach is on the southern exposure of Mount Washburn and, for this reason, becomes snow-free earlier than the other side. Even so, the trail usually has snow patches throughout most of the summer. You usually can hike the trail by the end of June, by crossing over snow patches. This trail provides the best panoramic views of the park and of wildflowers. From the switchbacks, views of the Grand Canyon, a section of Yellowstone Lake, the Tetons and even an eruption of Old Faithful is possible. In July and August, it offers remarkable—possibly the best—displays of mountain wildflowers in the park. Pink monkey flowers, yellow violets, blue lupines, yellow balsamroots, red paintbrush and violet shooting stars line the trail and fill the meadows.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

Copyright @1999-2003 Yellowstone Media Group, Inc

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Hiking Yellowstone Park - Lake

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Yellowstone Lake is Yellowstone National Parks largest lake, covering 136 square

miles and boasting 110 miles of shore-line. For its elevation, it is the second largest freshwater lake in the world, the first being 3,200-square-mile Lake Titicaca on the Bolivia-Peru border. The region south of Yellowstone Lake constitutes one of the largest roadless wilderness areas outside of Alaska and Canada. This region is accessible only by foot. The primary hiking destination in the Lake area is Pelican Creek drainage. Pelican Creek played an important roll in the 1877 flight of Chief Joseph and his Nez Perce (pronounced Nay Per-say) people from the U.S. Army commanded by Maj. Gen. 0.0. Howard. The Nez Perce split into two groups just before reaching Pelican Creek, where they eluded Howard's men. Most of the group, including women and children, proceeded up Pelican Creek and out the northeast corner via the dark's Fork, while a band of braves diverted Howards men north through Hayden and Lamar valleys. The braves then made their escape through the northeast entrance as well, and regrouped, leaving Gen. Howard behind. But as Chief Joseph struck north, heading for Canada, he slowed his group near the Milk River in present day Montana, believing that he was across the Canada border. Meanwhile, Gen. Miles and his Fifth Infantry, coming from the east, intersected Chief Joseph. Gen. Howard caught up with the fleeing Indians and Gen. Miles. Outnumbered, Chief Joseph was forced to surrender in Montana on October 5, 1877—between the Bear Paw Mountains and the Milk River—after three months of pursuit. Pelican Valley also is known for its open, tranquil valley and abundant wildlife especially grizzly bears, bison, coyotes and birds of prey. Other hikes lead to mountaintops offering unparalleled views of Yellowstone, or to natural bridges, lakeshores or backcountry lakes.

Natural Bridge Length: 1.15 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,737 feet (103-foot gain). Trailhead: Located 2 miles south of Lake Hotel Junction on the Lake-West Thumb Road. The trailhead is just south of Bridge Bay bridge, near the Bridge Bay Campground. Until the early 1990s, the Natural Bridge was accessible by car. It since has been barricaded and is approachable only by foot or bicycle for visitors, making it one of the few, but extremely short, bicycling routes in the park. Two approaches are possible. The first is from the highway just south of the Bridge Bay bridge, at the barricade. From there, it is a good bicycle trip or a foot walk down the straight lodgepole-lined, paved road to Natural Bridge. The other route is from the campground. The trail starts from campsite A50 and skirts the western edge of Bridge Bay before merging with the paved road. The Natural Bridge was discovered during the 1871 Hayden Survey and aptly named for this natural feature. The bridge has a span of about 30 feet and rises about 10 feet above the creek. The top of the arch is b t 40 f t b th k

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about 40 feet above the creek. Early Corps of Engineers Superintendent Hiram Chittenden, responsible for the construction of the Grand Loop Road, proposed to build a highway over the arch. Because of revenue restrictions, though, this was never accomplished.

Elephant Back Mountain Trail Length: 3-mile loop. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,800 feet (800-foot gain). Trailhead: Elephant Back Mountain Trailhead is on the west side of the Grand Loop Road, about a mile south of Fishing Bridge junction. The trailhead for Elephant Back Mountain is about a mile south of Fishing Bridge junction or a mile north of Lake hotel. It also is easily accessed by foot from Lake Lodge. From the lodge cut northwest through the trees and across the Grand Loop Road to the trailhead. This is a great hike for those staying in the Lake area and wanting an overview of Yellowstone Lake. The trail begins in the trees, then splits—take the trail to the right—and ascends a fairly steep climb of 800 feet, whereupon the view opens up to a spectacular vista of the Lake development, Yellowstone Lake and the Absaroka Range. The trail then continues down and merges near the trailhead to form a loop. The Hayden Expedition named Elephant Back Mountain in 1871 for its resemblance to the creature, as formed by "the almost vertical sides of this mountain, and the rounded form of the summit."

Pelican Creek Nature Trail Length: 0.5 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,750 feet (No substantial elevation change). Trailhead: Located about 1.5 miles east of Lake Junction on the East Entrance Road at Pelican Creek bridge. The Pelican Creek Nature Trail—outside of the Mt. Wash-burn Trail—is one of the most rewarding hikes for its length in Yellowstone. It is especially rewarding as a dawn or evening hike. The trailhead is located at a turn out just southwest of the Pelican Creek bridge. The trail actually follows Pelican Creek to the inlet of Yellowstone Lake. From the trailhead, the trail crosses a marshy area via a wooden boardwalk, then crosses a lodge pole forest and ends at the obsidian-sand beach of Yellowstone Lake. While walking along Pelican ;;l§i Creek, keep an eye out for otters If II that frequent this section of the river. Ducks, too, can be found dipping or diving along this stretch. At the inlet are several sand spits, which can either be slightly submerged or above water, depending on the level of the lake. This area is a favorite for pelicans—the namesake given to the Creek by the 1864 James Stuart prospecting party—cormorants, and common mergansers. From this point, evening light and sunsets are especially enchanting, and photographic opportunities are unmatched.

Storm Point Trail Length: 1.6 miles, loop. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,760 feet (21-foot gain). Trailhead: The trailhead is located 2.8 miles east of Lake Junction on the East Entrance Road at the Indian Pond (formerly Squaw Lake) parking area. Storm Point is a good, short, early or late day stroll to a vantage point overlooking Yellowstone Lake and shore. Mornings and evenings generally are calmer, as midafternoon winds from the southwest race across the lake unabated, producing choppy water with frothy white caps. The wind then funnels through Mary Bay, to the east,

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water with frothy white caps. The wind then funnels through Mary Bay, to the east, and becomes even more violent. During the mid-1980s, the University of Michigan explored the bottom of Mary Bay using a tethered submersible camera mounted in a small vacuum-cleaner-sized submarine. What they discovered at the bottom of the bay were hot springs bubbling through the sandy bottom and aquatic creatures nearly twice their normal size for a mountain lake. Deeper in the lake, they discovered geysers that erupt just as their land counterparts do. The flat meadow just before the lake is renowned for its wildlife. Several dusty or muddy, dish-shaped, barren patches in the meadow are used by bison, or buffalo, as wallows. Grizzly bears also frequent this meadow, especially in early spring. Elk and occasionally moose utilize the meadow in the fall. On this site on July 28, the 1871 Hayden survey arrived at Yellowstone Lake. "The entire party were filled with enthusiasm," wrote Ferdinand Hayden, the expedition leader, in his journal. The party set up camp on the quiet waters of Mary Bay and proclaimed it "one of the most beautiful scenes I have ever beheld.... The great object of all our labors had been reached, and we were amply paid for all our toils."

Turbid Lake Trail Length: 3.0 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,800 feet (37-foot gain). Trailhead: Located at the Pelican Creek Trailhead at the end of a short service road. The turn off for this road, 3.2 miles west of Lake Junction, is across from Indian Pond (formerly known as Squaw Lake). Turbid Lake is a relatively shallow, 143-acre lake. It was named by members of the 1878 Hayden Survey for its murky, frothy, tan waters. Springs under the lake bubble constantly, producing the turbidity. The lake water also is very acidic and, for this reason, is void offish and other aquatic life. The shoreline also is barren of green vegetation. The trailhead for this unusual lake begins across from Indian Pond. A dirt road angles off the north side of the East Entrance Road and dead-ends at a barricade after about 0.2 miles. The trail begins behind the barricade and follows the old service road due east to Turbid Lake. The trail is an easy hike, skirting the edge of a large meadow in the beginning, then entering a dense forest. The trail eventually emerges at the southwestern shore. This area is well-known for its wildlife, as bison usually inhabit the small meadow openings. Grizzlies, too, occasionally are seen wandering through this region; in fact, one even mauled a hiker here in 1986, so be alert.

Avalanche Peak Trail

Length: 2.5 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 8,466 feet (2100-foot gain). Trailhead: The trailhead is located about 0.75 miles east of Sylvan Lake, or just west of Eleanor Lake, on the East Entrance Road. Coming from Cody, the trailhead is 0.4 miles west of Sylvan Pass. An unmarked trail climbs steeply from the road. There is no designated parking, but the trail begins across the road from the picnic area at the west end of Eleanor Lake. The Avalanche Peak Trail is one of the best summer hikes, but because of its elevation and its heavy snow accumulation in winter, it usually is not accessible until after mid-July. By then, the snowfields have receded and subalpine flowers are in full bloom. The trail to Avalanche Peak historically has been a very popular trail, providing a f f h l d f h k h lh b Page 121 of 243

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magnificent view of the western landscape of the park. But the trail has never been an official Park Service trail and today remains an unmarked—but well-worn—path that winds its way to the summit. Through the years, the Sierra Club, has maintained the trail, and it is perhaps one of the cleanest trails in the park. From the highway, the trail begins a steep 2100-foot ascent through a dense spruce and fir forest, and a series of switchbacks to the 10,566-foot summit. Near the summit, the trail becomes faint in the scree slope, and route-finding becomes necessary. Avalanche Peak straddles the western boundary of the Park and the terrain to the east is in the Shoshone National Forest.

Thorofare Trail Length from Thorofare Trailhead to: Clear Creek - 2.6 miles, one way. Elk Point - 3.1 miles, one way. Park Point - 6 miles, one way. Signal Point - 7.1 miles, one way. Columbine Creek - 9.8 miles, one way. Terrace Point - 14.5 miles, one way. Cabin Creek/Trail Creek junction - 19.6 miles, one way. Mountain Creek - 24.5 miles, one way. Thorofare Ranger Station - 31.0 miles, one way. South park boundary - 32.0 miles, one way. Bridger Lake - 33.0 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 8,085 feet (227-foot loss). Trailhead: Located ten miles east of Lake Junction on the East Entrance Road and a half mile east of the entrance to Lake Butte Road. The small trailhead is nothing more than a turnout just south of Lake Butte. The Thorofare Trail probably is the most extensive trail in Yellowstone and reaches into the remote center of the largest wilderness in the lower 48 states. But because of the distance and remoteness, few venture into this pristine region. Those who do access it primarily from the south, through the Teton Wilderness and Two Ocean Plateau, and usually by horseback. Extensive planning is needed to arrange for trailhead transportation, food (or food caches) and appropriate gear for extended trips. Nonetheless, the Thorofare Trail is not a strenuous trail. It mainly follows the east shoreline of Yellowstone Lake and the slow, meandering inlet of the Yellowstone River. With a few minor ups and downs, the trail is relatively flat. In spring and early summer, the greatest hazards are the streams and creeks near their inlets to the lake. They generally are swollen with snowmelt and usually have breached their banks. Only a few makeshift fallen-log bridges cross these streams, and crossing or fording these streams otherwise is extremely dangerous. The eastern shore of Yellowstone Lake also is known for some of the best fishing in Yellowstone. Several of the points— Elk, Park, Signal or Terrace—are legendary for being some of the best. The Thorofare Trail is an old and well-established trail, probably originating as a game trail, later used by Native Americans, trappers and even later by early expeditions, including the historic 1871 Hayden Survey. Artist Thomas Moran and photographer William H. Jackson accompanied that expedition, capturing some of the first images of this region of the park. Many of the peaks and monuments to the east echo the names of many of those early expedition leaders, including Mt. Doane (10,656 feet), Mt. Stevenson (10,352 feet), and Langford Cairn (8,842 feet). The upper Yellowstone River is a remote wilderness in itself. The meandering river, with its broad, willow, sedge- and rush-filled, marshy valley provides ideal habitat for moose, waterfowl and grizzly bears.

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In the upper Yellowstone basin are several access trails. One is the Trail Creek Trail, which originates at Heart Lake Trail (see Heart lake Trail for description) and follows the bottom of the south and southeast arms of Yellowstone Lake before emerging with the Thorofare Trail at the Cabin Creek patrol cabin. Another trail from the west is the South Boundary Trail (see South Boundary Trail for description). This trail joins the system at the Thorofare Ranger Station. From the Thorofare Ranger Station, near the south boundary in the southeast corner of the park, are a number of trails leading in other directions. This is considered the crossroads of the Two Ocean Plateau and Thorofare regions, and trails merge and diverge south, west and east from here, leading to Bridger-Teton National Forest and Grand Teton National Park. Bridger Lake lies just south of the boundary and is a legendary landmark for early fur trappers. Another interesting feature south of Bridger Lake on the Continental Divide is Two Ocean Creek. It is one of two streams in North America—the other is in Canada—where a bizarre phenomena occurs: The stream flows downward and splits in half, one half flowing east to the Atlantic Ocean and the other half flowing to the Pacific Ocean.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

Copyright @1999-2003 Yellowstone Media Group, Inc

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Hiking Yellowstone Park - Madison

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M

adison Canyon is a tranquil valley where the Firehole and Gibbon rivers converge to form the Madison River, one of three primaries that form the headwaters of the Missouri River. But this peaceful valley narrowly escaped development during the mid 1960s. The National Park Service proposed that two large developments be built in Yellowstone for their "Mission 66" projects. One development, Grant Village, was carried through. It's sister project at Madison was to be be "grander than the valley of Yosemite." But Madison escaped development first because funds were being diverted to the building of Mammoth residences and then later because of a waning lack of interest by the Park Service. The campground at Madison is one of the few in the park that is centrally located, providing access to the thermal basins and some of the best fishing sites. A diverse system of trails also originate at the campground. Some of the trails lead along the river to bathing "hotpots", secret lakes or spectacular views from a mountain summit. Other trail areas reached from Madison include short and long hikes from West Yellowstone, as well as hikes originating from the Gallatin Parkway. This area witnesses less foot traffic but possess wonderful and scenic hiking terrain.

Purple Mountain

Length: 2.6 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,840 feet (1,590-foot gain). Trailhead: Located at Madison Junction, about 0.3 miles north of the junction on the Madison-Norris Road. The trailhead begins at the barricade on the west side of the road, where there is a small turnout for parking. Most hikers staying at Madison Campground can approach the trailhead on foot by hiking past the campground entrance station, crossing the road, and following a path to the Park Service employee-housing area. From there, roughly follow the road east, and route-find through the development to the trailhead. Following the highway also is possible, but heavy traffic and narrow shoulders make the highway hazardous for hikers. The trailhead starts at the western edge of a Gibbon River meadow, and the area generally is saturated by springs at the foot of the mountain and run off from nearby thermal Terrace Spring. Once into the trees, the trail begins a steep ascent of Purple Mountain (8,433 feet). From halfway up to the roundish summit are excellent views of the surrounding landscape, visible through thin stands of trees. Just to the south is National Park Mountain, which is part of the southern rim of Madison Canyon. Beyond the rim is the relatively level but undulating and extensive Madison Plateau. It was here during mid-August of 1988 that the man-caused Northfork Fire raced across the plateau and burned Purple Mountain. Campers staying in Madison Campground were not given adequate notice of the advancing threat. As the fire approached, most campers were out sight-seeing and, upon their return, were cut off and unable to claim their possessions for several days. Luckily, nobody was trapped or injured in the blaze. The extensive burn can be seen on the plateau. Purple Mountain, and Gibbon and Madison valleys. Purple Mountain was named in 1904 by geologist Arnold Hague, probably for weathered outcroppings of rhyolitic welded ash.

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Harlequin Lake Trail Length: 0.3 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,789 feet (120-foot gain). Trailhead: Located on the north side of the West Entrance Road, 1.9 miles west of Madison Junction. The trailhead is not well-marked, but on the opposite side of the road is a visitor turnout that overlooks the Madison River. This is a short, enjoyable hike for campers staying at Madison Campground. The trail wanders through lodgepole pine that burned in the 1988 fires to a IO-acre lake that is rimmed with cattails, rushes and yellow pond-lily pads. Harlequin Lake was known as "Secret Lake" during the late 1940s and 50s because of its secluded location near the road. At that time, trumpeter swans were frequent nesters at the lake but in 1958, the lake was named after the colorful duck. On the northern edge is a beaver lodge, and elk frequent this lake in the early summer and fall as well. But the lake itself is considered barren of fish. It is between 4 and 11 feet deep, and most of the lake freezes during winter.

Riverside Trail

Length: Up to 4.0 miles. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,640 feet (no substantial elevation change). Trailhead: The turnoff for the old service road is 0.5 miles east of the West Entrance. The turnoff is on the north side of the road and leads another 1.0 miles to the parking area. Or, a spur ski trail or bike path leads from the town of West Yellowstone, avoiding the necessity of driving to the trailhead. This is an excellent, easy, short hike that is accessible from West Yellowstone. It can be made as long or short as possible because it primarily follows game and fishermen trails along the bank of the Madison River. It is an especially interesting hike early in spring when wildflowers are emerging and blooming in the meadows. A fun spur trail accesses the Riverside trailhead from town and this trail is one of the few bike paths in Yellowstone. For residents of West Yellowstone it is a popular mountain bike ride or a short ski trip. The spur trailhead begins at the east end of Madison Avenue at the park boundary at a break in the pole fence. From there the trail follows a power line to the old service road and merges with it shortly before Riverside. The scraped gravel meadows at the end of the service road formerly were called "the Barns" in reference to their use as a staging area for livestock back to the Army days of the 1880s. It later became a dumping area and also serves as the trail exit for the Cougar Creek Trail (see Cougar Creek Trail for description). The Riverside Trail also is used as a fishermen's access. The south path leads to a turnout on the West Entrance Road, and the north path leads downriver, past the river ford, to wildlife meadows and willow thickets. It is possible to reach U.S. Highway 191, emerging at Bakers Hole Campground. But the last section requires bushwhacking through willow thickets and marshy seeps.

Sentinel Meadows and Queens Laundry Lengths: Fountain Flat Freight Road/Steel Bridge/Ojo Caliente Trailhead to: Sentinel Meadows I mile, one way. Queen's Laundry 1.7 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,200 feet (No substantial elevation change). Trailhead: Located at the steel bridge, about 1.3 miles from the start of the north entrance to the Fountain Flats Drive.

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Sentinel Meadows is located off the Fountain Flats Drive (which once was the old Freight Road) in the Lower Geyser Basin. The road is a spur road off the Madison-Old Faithful Road, and the trailhead is about 1.3 miles from the junction at the crossing of the Firehole River by means of the steel bridge. The trail begins across the river from Ojo Caliente Spring and heads west to the meadows and thermal springs. The flat, open, sedge- and rush-covered meadow is dotted with hot-spring mounds. Most of the cones are 20 feet high and nearly void of plant life. On the top of each is a boiling spring, usually encrusted with a sinter rim. During early summer, the sedge meadow is bright green, dotted with blue-eyed grass and, by fall, the sedges cure to a golden orange. Sentinel Creek meanders through this meadow, at the extreme western edge of which is Queen's Laundry. In 1880, Army Park Superintendent P.W. Norris, while constructing a road across Fountain Flats, noticed steam rising along Sentinel Creek. The construction crew discovered the large pool with a drainage channel cool enough for bathing. They strung up their bright clothing on stumps and branches and the camp cooks "dubbed it the Laundry, with a variety of prefixes, of which I deemed the most appropriate adheres, and hence the name." The following year, Norris built a two-room bath house with a sod roof. This curious log cabin still remains. Just east of Queen's Laundry, the trail junctions and leads into the forest; this trail also returns to the Fountain Flat Drive. Most of the trail is through lodgepole forest, small marshy meadows and circumvents a small knoll between the two trails. This trail connects to the Fairy Creek trail and emerges about a half mile south of the steel bridge.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

Copyright @1999-2003 Yellowstone Media Group, Inc

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Hiking Yellowstone Park - Mammoth

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The Mammoth-Gallatin region is a land of extremes. Elevations within the Mammoth area range from about 5,000 to 11,000 feet, with the lowest (in the park) near the Yellowstone River and the highest at Electric Peak, just miles away. The Gallatin Range, which sticks it thumb into Yellowstone for 20 miles from the north, includes about 19 peaks. Of these. Electric Peak (10,992 feet) dominates the northern end, and Mount Holmes (10,336 feet) marks the southern end.

The Gallatin Mountains are an uplifted range composed of stratified shales, limestones and sandstones dipping slightly northward. The composition of these limestones and the presence of oceanic fossils testifies that they once were part of large inland seas. Rugosa—or horn—corals, bryozoans and clam-shaped fossils are embedded on the slopes of these mountains. The influence of limestone in the Mammoth area also has changed the makeup of the hydrothermal features. Elsewhere in the park, the surrounding rock is composed of silica dioxide, an essential element in the formation of geysers. But, here, the presence of calcium carbonate produces the unusual travertine terraces of Mammoth.

Osprey Falls Trail Length: 1.0 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,000 feet (500-foot drop). Trailhead: Located about three miles down the one way Bunsen Peak Road. The trailhead for Osprey Falls is about three miles down the narrow, dirt Bunsen Peak Road. The turn off for this road is just above Rustic Falls and five miles south of Mammoth. The small parking area is on the right side of the road and is not welldefined, but should be marked. This area was burned extensively during the 1988 fires, and most of the Douglas firs—normally resistant to ground fires—burned. This indicates it was a hot, fast-moving fire. It will take several human lifetimes for this area to return to a mature Douglas fir forest. The trail follows along the rim and descends by way of switchbacks to the bottom of Sheepeater Canyon. This canyon is an impressive 800-foot-deep gorge and ranks second only to the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone. During the descent, the columnar basalt forming the Sheepeater Cliffs are visible across the canyon. These cliffs were named by P.W. Norris in honor of the Sheepeater Indians, a band of the Shoshone Indians, the only indigenous residents of the park who were known for their use of cliffs to herd and kill game animals.The trail ends at the base of Osprey Falls, which is hidden until then. Here, the Gardner River plunges 151 feet and the canyon walls rise more than 500 feet in view. But the spray created by this falls produces a cool, moist environment in contrast to the descent on a hot summer day. Nonetheless, spring or early summer is the best time to visit Osprey Falls—when the runoff is greatest.

Joffe Lake Trail Length: 0.6 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,400 feet (80-foot gain). lh d d h h d f h h l

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Trailhead: Located at the south end of the Mammoth trailer/ maintenance area. The turn off for this area is 1.3 miles south of the Mammoth Hotel, past the lower terraces at the first hairpin curve. The trail for this shallow lake begins behind the Mammoth maintenance yard, on the south edge of the storage and construction area. (The maintenance shed, built in the late 1980s, is one of the largest buildings in Yellowstone.) This lake is especially popular, providing an easy ski tour during the winter. From the maintenance area, the lake is only 0.6 miles, and a small rise hides the lake until a hiker or skier is upon it. This small one-and-a-half-acre lake was named in 1949 for Joseph Joffe (18961960). He was assistant superintendent for the National Park Service, but was known to catch fish illegally in the nearby Mammoth water-supply reservoir and claiming they were caught in the "CCC Lake" (renamed Joffe Lake). One of the lakes names came from the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), which had its camp established in the trailer yard. Other names for this lake include "Demonstration Pond," because fire equipment was demonstrated here, and "Hoodo Lake," for the limestone formation above the lake to the west. The mountain to the south is Bunsen Peak (8,564 feet), named in honor of Robert Wilhelm Eberhard von Bunsen (1811-1899). Bunsen originally pioneered the theory of geyser function and has his name attached to the Bunsen Burner.

Clematis Gulch Trail Length: 3.3 miles, loop. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6239 feet (1221-foot, gain). Trailhead: Clematis Gulch Trail is located near Liberty Cap and heads west up the gulch. Clematis Gulch Trail is a short hike that leads to trail access from Mammoth to Mammoth Beaver Ponds, Sepulcher Mountain, Snow Pass, and the Upper Mammoth Terraces. The first section of this trail is the steepest and ascends about 350 feet in elevation through Douglas fir in a shaded, cool, moist gulch. After about a quarter mile the trail junctions with a trail accessing the Upper Mammoth Terraces to the south. The Clematis Gulch loop trail returns to this point. After about half a mile, the trail junctions with the Beaver Ponds Trail (see Mammoth Beaver Ponds Trail for description). The trail continues to follow Clematis Creek for another half mile before junctioning again, this time with Sepulcher Mountain Loop Trail (see Sepulcher Mountain Trail for description). The north trail leads to Sepulcher Mountain and is the eastern half of the Sepulcher Mountain Loop Trail. Whereas the south trail begins a series of switchbacks and then junctions with the Snow Pass Trail. The downhill, or eastern, trail returns to Mammoth. The trail skirts the northern edge of the Upper Terraces and a side trip or a shortcut to the trailhead goes through the thermal basin.

Old Stagecoach Rd (formerly the Old Mammoth-Gardiner Road) Length: 3.6 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,239 feet (759-foot loss). Trailhead: Directly behind the Mammoth Hotel, is a dirt road cut into the hillside. This old alternate stagecoach road brought visitors to Mammoth from the railroad stop at Cinnabar, before the twisting road that follows the Gardner River. It still is used today for vehicle traffic, but seldom so. This old road is an excellent path for birding, wildflowering, walking, mountain biking or winter ski-touring. During summer, and especially in early spring, this is one of the best birding areas in the park You'll find migratory songbirds including Townsend's solitaire waterpipit

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the park. You ll find migratory songbirds, including Townsend s solitaire, waterpipit, finches, mountain bluebird, thrushes and sparrows, in the open terrain. While winter brings other wildlife, including bighorn sheep that have migrated from their higher summer pastures, mule deer, elk and antelope also are common along this road and trail. Most of this trail is open and exposed, and the wind during spring and fall can be fierce. Rocky Mountain junipers, Douglas firs and aspen are the primary trees found in the more protected slopes and gullies. To the east of the road, across the Gardner River valley, is Mount Everts (7,841 feet). It was erroneously named for Truman Everts, who became separated from his group and wandered in the wilderness without his spectacles, horse or gear for 37 days before being found in an emaciated state near Tower Creek, but F.V. Hayden mistakenly named the creek just on the other side of this peak Rescue Creek as the location of Truman's rescue. To the west lies Sepulcher Mountain (9,652 feet) named by geologist Arnold Hague "on account of its low black appearance." After a short descent, the remaining distance is a gentle slope. The trail emerges at the North Entrance! low the town of Gardiner

Beaver Ponds Trail Length from Mammoth to: Beaver Ponds 1.9 miles, one way. Beaver Pond Loop Trail 4.5 miles, loop. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,239 feet (560-foot gain). Trailhead: Clematis Gulch Trail between Liberty Cap and the stone house at Mammoth. The trail begins in Mammoth, between Liberty Cap and the stone house, and follows a small, shaded creek up Clematis Gulch. The first section of this hike is the steepest and ascends some 350 feet through Engelmann spruce and Douglas fir trees. The trail then splits, and the west trail heads toward Sepulcher Mountain. For the beaver ponds, continue north (right) and about two miles from the trailhead are a series of step-like beaver-created ponds along the stream. As beaver are mainly nocturnal animals, your best chances to see one are at dawn or dusk. After the beaver ponds and the return trip to Mammoth, the vegetation and views change. Quaking aspen trees are intermingled among sagebrush, and the vista of the Absaroka Range is to the north. The trail eventually parallels and joins the old Mammoth-Gardiner road, terminating behind the Mammoth hotel.

Lava Creek Trail Length to: Undine Falls 0.5 miles, one way Confluence with Gardner River 2.5 miles, one way Mammoth School/footbridge 3.5 miles, one way Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,560 feet (760-foot drop). Trailhead: The trailhead is just less than 5 miles east of Mammoth, on the Mammoth-Tower Road at the Lava Creek bridge and picnic area. The Lava Creek Trail is a one-way trail following Lava Creek and Gardner (note the different spelling from the town of Gardiner) River drainages. You can begin on the trail from either end; for a downhill hike, start at Lava Creek picnic area. The picnic area and parking is at the pull off near the Lava Creek bridge. But the trailhead is to the north, across the highway and on the east side of the bridge and creek. From the bridge, the trail follows Lava Creek among Douglas firs and then begins a steep descent into Lava Creek Canyon. At the start of the canyon. Lava Creek plunges over a double waterfall. The upper terrace is 60 feet high and the lower one is 50 feet high. The Hague party named Undine (pronounced Un-deen) Falls in 1885 for mythical water nymphs who, in folklore, live around waterfalls and acquire mortal men's souls by marrying them and bearing their children. The trail continues down the canyon along open, exposed slopes, following Lava Creek until it merges with the Gardner River. This section of the river is less tumultuous than it is upstream. Springs and seeps line the shore, and beaver have taken up residency here. Mount Everts is the steep. Rocky Mountain juniper sloped mountain rising from the river to the east. During winter and early spring bighorn

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sheep can often be spotted traversing the steep slope. The hike ends at the footbridge crossing the Gardner River, and the trail emerges behind the Mammoth Elementary School. There also is a service road leading to the bridge but it is easily accessed by foot from the Mammoth campground, which is across the highway from the school.

Rescue Creek Trail Length from Blacktail Trailhead to: Blacktail Deer Creek Trail junction North Entrance Trailhead (suspension bridge) 7.0 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,640 feet (1,280-foot loss, but 1,520-foot loss overall). Trailhead: Rescue Creek Trail can be approached from two directions: the North Entrance trailhead or the Blacktail Deer Creek Trailhead. The Blacktail Trailhead, located 6.6 miles east of the Mammoth Hotel on the Mammoth-Tower Road, provides a downhill direction. The North Entrance trailhead is located about a half mile south of the entrance station. Rescue Creek was erroneously named for the rescue site of Truman Everts, who became separated from his group and wandered in the wilderness without his spectacles, horse or gear and lived on the roots of elk thistle for 37 days before being rescued. His rescue location, however, was near Tower Creek, but F.V. Hayden mistakenly named this as the location and it has borne the name Rescue Creek ever since. The Rescue Creek Trail is a popular spring or early summer hike because it generally is snow-free before other park trails. Also in spring, pink bitterroots, the Montana state flower, cover the small, windswept ridges just beyond the parking area. The trail begins in open sagebrush country and soon junctions from Blacktail Deer Creek Trail (see Blacktail Deer Creek Trail for description) where Rescue Creek Trail heads west up Rescue Creek. From here, the trail climbs gradually through aspens and open meadows. Several small ponds or kettle lakes, left by retreating glaciers, provide habitat for migrating waterfowl. In spring, ruddy ducks frequently use these ponds on their northern migration. The trail then begins a steep descent of nearly 1500 feet to the Gardner River. Rattlesnake Butte, to the north, blocks the view of the Yellowstone River. At the river is the lowest elevation in the park, and occasionally western rattlesnakes and bull snakes are found along this region. The trail then skirts the northern base of Mount Everts before crossing the Gardner River via a well-built foot and horse bridge. The northern section of the Rescue Creek Trail, along the lower slope of Mount Everts, is one of the best hikes for viewing wildlife early in spring, or late in fall (OctoberNovember). Elk, mule deer, antelope and bighorn sheep winter in this region. As a result, wintering elk and deer shed their antlers on the open meadow. This trail, traditionally, has been used as a corridor for elk-antler poachers, locally called horn hunters.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

Copyright @1999-2003 Yellowstone Media Group, Inc

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Hiking Yellowstone Park - Norris

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T

he Norris area is another land of extremes. Norris Geyser Basin, named after an early superintendent, may be the hottest basin in Yellowstone. In 1929, the Carnegie Institute of Washington, D.C. made numerous test wells to determine subsurface temperatures. One test hole was abandoned at 265 feet when the temperature reached 401 degrees Fahrenheit and the steam pressure threatened to destroy the drilling rig. The terrain surrounding the basin is the result of an acidic environment. Because of this extreme condition, plants, algae and bacteria have difficulty establishing. Instead, the basin derives its colors from mineral oxides, in spectrums of pink, red, orange (iron oxides), and yellow (sulfur and iron sulfates). Near this hostile environment, in the meadows along the Gibbon River, elk graze contentedly. Amidst this setting, trails radiate into the surrounding area to explore small lakes, mountaintop lockouts, mud-pot collections, and geyser basins with bizarre and unusual features. Three trails start from Norris Campground. The first trail leads to Norris Geyser Basin. The second leads along Solfatara Creek and wanders through meadows spotted by sulphur thermal springs. And another leads to Ice Lake and farther along to Wolf Lake, both popular fishing destinations. But even though they have been heavily stocked with fish in the past, they now are relatively barren and provide poor fishing opportunities. The lakes are, however, the headwaters of the Gibbon River.

Ice Lake Trail Length from Ice Lake Trailhead to: Ice Lake - 0.3 miles, one way Wolf Lake - 4.0 miles, one way Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,800 feet (80-foot gain). Trailhead: The trailhead is 3.25 miles east of Norris Junction on the Norris Canyon Road, and the parking area is an unmarked turnout near the exit of the Virginia Cascades road. The trail is relatively flat and very short, only a 10- to 15-minute hike from the trailhead. The lake itself is lined with subalpine fir and lodgepole pine, but the 1988 fires have affected some areas. Another approach to Ice Lake is via the Norris Campground trail, which is about 4.3 miles. The trail-head is located in the east central edge of the campground. After about a half mile the trail junctions and the southern trail crosses Solfatara Creek, then continues through lodgepole pines, and a meadow before reaching the north side of Ice Lake. Ice Lake and nearby Wolf and Grebe lakes are the headwaters of the Gibbon River, which flows past Norris Geyser Basin and merges with the Madison River at Madison Junction. Ice Lake is fed by underground springs and seepage. Fish have been unable to establish in the lake, even though massive stocking efforts between 1905 and 1961 released nearly 4 million graying, brook trout, cutthroat trout and rainbow trout. Because there is not a constant flowing inlet and outlet, conditions are poor for spawning, leaving the lake barren offish. During winter the 224-acre lake freezes over but not solid Only the first one to two

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During winter, the 224 acre lake freezes over, but not solid. Only the first one to two feet of the 53-foot deep lake freezes; on top of that, four to six feet of snow can accumulate, making the lake appear as a large white field. It was named Ice Lake circa 1900 because nearby Norris Hotel cut its ice supply from this small lake. On the northwest side of the lake the trail joins the Howard Eaton Trail and continues east to Wolf and Grebe lakes. But the Gibbon River will need to be forded several times before reaching Wolf Lake. This lake is smaller—just a quarter of the size of Ice Lake—but maintains a good population of rainbow trout. They were introduced, along with graying and cutthroat, during the 1920s and 30s. The trout began to hybridize and, by 1969, only rainbow-trout characteristics were found. The large, open, marshy meadows bordering the northwest and southeast shores of Wolf Lake often are occupied by moose, sandhill cranes (in the spring), or great blue herons.

Norris Geyser Basin Trail Length from Norris parking area to: Porcelain Basin - 1.6-mile loop. Back Basin - 2.0-mile loop. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,520 feet (40-foot gain). Trailhead: Located at the Norris Geyser Basin parking area. This is an exciting and easy hike into an austere but colorful geyser basin. Two trails loop through the basin: The northern loop explores Porcelain Basin; and the southern, longer trail loops through the Back Basin. Norris Geyser Basin was named after an early Yellowstone superintendent, P.W. Norris, and this basin may be the hottest geyser basin in Yellowstone. The Carnegie Institute of Washington, D.C. made testwells in 1929 to determine subsurface temperatures. One test hole was abandoned at 265 feet, when the temperature reached 401 °F and the steam pressure threatened to destroy the drilling rig. The stark, barren landscape of Porcelain Basin is the result of an acidic environment. Because of this hostile condition, plants, algae and bacteria have difficulty establishing themselves. Instead, the basin derives its colors from mineral oxides, in spectrums of pink, red, orange (iron oxides) and yellow (sulfur and iron sulfates). The acidic water also has created changes in the formation of sinter deposited around vents. Silica deposits as tiny, sharp spines instead of thick, beaded deposits common in more alkaline basins. The Back Basin has the worlds largest geyser, but plays at irregular intervals. Steamboat Geyser has long periods of dormancy, but when it does erupt, it sends jets of water nearly 380 feet high in a spectacular display. Echinus Geyser is the largest predictable geyser at Norris. Before an eruption, water usually fills the basin to within two or three feet of the rim and begins boiling. Churning and splashing then trigger an eruption, throwing water and steam upward in a series of explosive bursts. After an eruption, the basin drains, producing a whirlpool and a gurgling that sounds as if a stopper from a bathtub had been pulled.

Mt Holmes Trail Length from Mt. Holmes Trailhead to: Winter Creek - 1.0 miles, one way. Junction with Grizzly Lake Trail - 2.3 miles, one way. Junction with Trilobite Lake - 5.1 miles, one way. Trilobite Lake (spur trail) - 7.3 miles, one way. White Peaks/Mount Holmes Saddle - 9.1 miles, one way Summit of Mount Holmes - 10.1 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,337 feet (2,999-foot gain). Trailhead: The trailhead is located near Apollinaris Spring, 1.2 miles north of Obsidian Cliff on the MammothNorris Road, and is a small, poorly marked pullout.

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This is a long and strenuous day hike and should be started early in the morning with intentions of returning near or after dark. The summit of Mount Holmes generally is snow-covered until late summer, and even then snow fields can still be found. The start of this trail is the exit of the Grizzly Lake Trail (see Grizzly Lake Trail for description). It begins by passing a Park Service horse corral and following a power line and old road for nearly a mile, at which point the trail treacherously crosses Winter Creek on fallen logs. The trail continues through a sparse lodgepole pine forest and junctions with the Grizzly Lake Trail after about 2.3 miles. The next landmark is a meadow, at about 6 miles, at the base of Mount Holmes. A side trail from here heads north along a small drainage to Trilobite Lake, perched between Mount Holmes and Dome Mountain, and it is an additional 2.2 miles, one way. From the meadow, the trail begins its steep ascent, gaining about 1800 feet in the last four miles to the summit of Mount Holmes. This last section climbs steadily to the saddle between White Peaks (9,806 feet) and Mount Holmes. The saddle is at treeline, and the remaining mile climbs steeply nearly 1,000 feet up loose rock to approach the 10,336-foot summit of Mount Holmes from the west. Mount Holmes is one of three primary fire lockout summits (the other two are mounts Washburn and Sheridan). A small stone and wood lockout is perched on the windy summit. From there, you can get an incredible view of the Gallatin Range to the north, Hebgen Lake area to the West, the Absaroka Range to the east, and, on a clear day, the Teton Range to the south. Morris Geyser Basin, to the southeast, is visible by its telltale rising steam. Mount Holmes was named in 1878 by members of the Hayden Survey in honor of their geologist, W.F. Holmes.

Grizzly Lake Trail Length from Grizzly Lake Trailhead to: Grizzly Lake 1.75 miles, one way. Junction with Mt. Holmes Trail 3.0 miles, one way. Mt. Holmes Trailhead 5.6 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,600 feet (320-foot gain, but overall a 92-foot drop to the lake). Trailhead: The southern trailhead, and shortest route, is about 6 miles north of Morris on the west side of the Mammoth-Morris Road, just north of Twin Lakes. The northern trailhead, or the Mount Holmes Trailhead, is 3 miles farther; its near Apollinaris Spring. Both parking areas are merely pullouts and are not well-marked. The trail begins in the aftermath of two fires. The barren hillside to the west first burned in 1976, then again in 1988, removing most of the evidence that a dense lodgepole forest once covered this ridge. Most of this trail and the surrounding country burned in 1988. After the marshy meadow, the trail ascends a steep ridge via a few switchbacks. Once on top, the undulating terrain of the plateau extends for about a mile. This plateau includes a number of small meadows, marshes and intermittent streams, which provide ideal conditions for summer wildflowers and habitat for elk and moose. Just as the trail begins its 300-foot descent. Grizzly Lake becomes visible through the burned trees. A wonderful view of Mount Holmes also is offered from this vantage point. Grizzly Lake lies in a narrow north-south valley, and the trail emerges at its north shore. Most of the shore is a heavily wooded, but burned, forest. Grizzly Lake covers about 140 acres and is about 40 feet deep. It originally was barren offish, but now contains brook trout. Two lower streams. Winter and Obsidian creeks, were heavily stocked during the 1920s, and brook trout may have traveled upstream and established themselves successfully

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established themselves successfully. To continue onward to the Mount Holmes Trailhead, the trail at this point haphazardly crosses the outlet of Grizzly Lake, called Straight Creek, over a jumbled log jam. The faint trail follows the west side of Straight Creek through marshy meadows ridden with mosquitoes during summer, as well as burned and unburned patches of forest, to Winter Creek near its confluence with Straight Creek. Several fallen logs span Winter Creek, and it can be crossed without difficulty, although they are slippery when wet. From Winter Creek, the trail junctions with the Mount Holmes trail after about a quarter mile. The Mount Holmes trail is a more heavily used trail and is well-defined for the remaining two and a half miles to the trailhead. At the last mile, the trail crosses Winter Creek near its confluence with Obsidian Creek. There is a series of treacherous fallen logs to cross, and the trail then follows the power line (a typical Yellowstone Trail) to the trailhead. located near apollinaris spring picnic area.

Artist Paint Pot Trail (Gibbon Geyser Basin) Length: 0.75 miles, loop. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,355 feet (55-foot gain). Trailhead: The parking area and trailhead is a wide spot on the road, located 4.1 miles south of Norris Junction. The Artist Paint Pots are the most popular feature of the Gibbon Geyser Basin. They are isolated in the lodgepole forest at the end of a three-quarter-mile-loop hike. The group was named after the pastel multicolored mud pots. Iron oxides have tinted white siliceous mud various colors of pastel beige, pink and slate. The thickness of the mud varies from season to season. In spring and fall, the mud pots are thin and soupy, and the mud bubbles and boils. By late summer, the mud pots thicken and may hurl hot mud 10 to 15 feet into the air. Mud cones also will form when the mud is thick, only to dissolve into mud pots when excess moisture is present. The trail then emerges into a desolate geyser basin. Several cylindrical cones dominate the basin. Most are dormant, except Monument Geyser, also called Thermos Bottle. It is a IO-foot-tall cone formed in a thermos bottle shape, with a narrow diameter vent. It is a steady geyser but ejects very little water. It does, however, emit a constant, low hissing sound. Because of its height and age. Monument Geyser is sealing its vent with internal deposits of sinter. Several nearby cones already have sealed their vents and thus have become extinct geysers. Army Park Superintendent P.W. Norris named these features in 1878.

Monument Geyser Basin Length: 1.0 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,320 feet (680-foot gain). Trailhead: Located 5 miles south of Norris Junction at the Gibbon River Bridge. The trailhead for Monument Basin is located at a small turnout west of the NorrisMadison Road, just south of Gibbon Meadows at the Gibbon River Bridge. The trail follows the base of the mountain upstream along the Gibbon River for about a half mile. This section has little elevation gain but then suddenly begins a steep climb for the next half mile, for a 680-foot elevation gain. The trail climbs through a lodgepolepine forest with little understory, except for a sparse covering of elk sedge.

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Hiking Yellowstone Park - Old Faithful

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The Upper Geyser Basin is the home of Old Faithful, the most famous and celebrated

geyser in the world. But the Upper Geyser Basin, about two square miles in area, also contains the largest concentration—nearly one-quarter— of all the geysers in the world. A wide variety of other thermal features also exist there, including colorful hot springs, thundering fumaroles and violent boiling springs.

The names of the thermal features echo an age-gone-by of exploration and discovery, when many of them earned their titles. Nathaniel Langford, a member of the 1870 Washburn Expedition, said: "We gave such names to those of the geysers which we saw in action as we think will best illustrate their peculiarities." Those names include Old Faithful—named for its nearly regular intervals between eruptions; Morning Glory with its flowerlike appearance; and Castle Geyser—for its "resemblance to the ruins of an old castle." Today, the boardwalks, paved paths and trails in the geyser basin provide an opportunity to explore on foot, bicycle or skis some interesting and unique thermal features along the Firehole River. Sprinkled along the river are Lone Star Geyser, Geyser Hill, Black Sand and Biscuit basins, spanning nearly seven miles in all. Other trails from Old Faithful crisscross the Continental Divide or wander among the thermals, along the Firehole or Bechler rivers, or through the lodgepoles, to backcountry lakes or smooth sedge-carpeted meadows.

Fairy Falls - Imperial Geyser Trail Length to Fairy Falls from: Steel Bridge parking area 2.2 miles, one way. Barricade at Goose Lake 2.0 miles, one way. Old Freight Road via Fairy Creek Meadows 2.4 miles, one way. Imperial Geyser (spur trail) 1.0 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailheads at 7,257 feet (20-foot gain). Trailhead: Two trailheads access Fairy Falls: 1) The southern route starts from the southern entrance of the Fountain Flats Freight Road at the old steel bridge, 4.1 miles north of the Old Faithful overpass or 1.2 miles south of Midway Geyser Basin. This trail follows the old Fountain Flats Freight Road for about 0.7 miles, then junctions with the Fairy Falls Trail. 2) The northern trailhead is reached by driving south on the Fountain Flats Drive to the barricade, just past Goose Lake. This approach again follows the old Fountain Flats Freight Road, but from the north, for about 0.5 miles to the Fairy Falls Trail junction. Two approaches are available to access the Fairy Falls Trail. Either approach merges at the junction. (During winter, however, the Freight Road has been open to snowmobiles and the trail junction can be accessed by that means.) The old freight road can also be bicycled, but due to fine obsidian sand it is difficult with narrow tire bicycles. From the junction, it is a 1.5 mile hike to the Falls. This trail, prior to 1988, wandered through a dense, old-growth lodgepole and spruce forest. The 1988 fires, however, burned this area extensively and it now is open and exposed, except for the large, burned skeleton trees that once made up the forest. The 200-foot Fairy Falls is hidden in an alcove-like grotto and it is not fully visible until it is approached at its base The falls is a slender and graceful waterfall which

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until it is approached at its base. The falls is a slender and graceful waterfall, which plunges over the lip of a rhyolitic formation. The lower half of the falls strikes the rock wall and forms a lacy descent to a small pool at its base. During winter, the falls becomes encrusted in a large, Gothic-looking icicle. This trail is one of the Park's more popular winter destination ski trails. From Fairy Falls, the trail crosses Fairy Creek and continues north for about 0.4 miles to a junction in a small meadow. The trail heading west leads to Imperial and Spray geysers at the base of Twin Buttes (recently referred to as Marilyn Mon-roe Mountains). Spray is the first geyser and a thermal stream originating from Imperial has to be cautiously forded. The geyser is in near continuous splashing. This has resulted in a large algae and bacteria mound around its vent. A log fell across the vent, giving the whole formation an unusual appearance. Imperial Geyser became active in 1927 and, two years later, a contest among visiting newspaper men named this feature. The eruptions during that year were so violent— reaching 80 to 150 feet high—that its plumbing system probably was damaged. The geyser went into dormancy until 1966, when it began a near-constant eruption. In 1985, though, Imperial again went into dormancy, but it does continue to boil and churn. Even without its constant eruption, the 75-by-IOO-foot alkaline pool is known for its clear, blue-colored water. The discharge has been estimated at 500 gallons per minute. By continuing north from the junction at the small meadow, the trail follows Fairy Creek through Fairy Creek Meadows and back to Fountain Flat Drive, north of Goose Lake. This trail once was the road for Model-T traffic accessing Fairy Falls. It is now another alternate hike to Fairy Falls and is about 2.4 miles from the freight road. Mystic Falls and Biscuit Bason Overlook Lengths from Biscuit Basin Parking Area to: Mystic Falls 1.3 miles, one way. Biscuit Basin Overlook 2.6 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,285 feet (115-foot gain to Mystic Falls and a 315foot gain to the overlook). Trailhead: The trailhead is located at Biscuit Basin parking area, about two miles north of Old Faithful, on the Old Faithfuil-Madison Road. At the far end of Biscuit Basin boardwalk, opposite Avoca Spring, a dirt trail leads west into the trees. Just after entering the trees, a trail branches to the south. This trail returns to Old Faithful (see Upper Geyser Basin Trail for description). After 0.3 miles, the trail divides again. Trail to Biscuit Basin Overlook: The trail to the north leads to the view point, then beyond to the Little Firehole Meadows. Just after the junction, the trail begins a series of switchbacks up the rhyolitic cliff, about 0.5 miles to Biscuit Basin Overlook. From the overlook, it is possible to view Biscuit Basin— the blue spring is Sapphire Pool. Following the Firehole River upstream, it is possible to observe the eruptions of Riverside, Grotto, Grand, Castle and Old Faithful geysers. To the south lies Black Sand Basin, and an eruption of Cliff Geyser or even an occasional eruption of Sunset Lake can be observed. Immediately below Biscuit Basin Overlook is further evidence of the 1988 fires. On September 7 of that year, the Northfork Fire swept through and burned a large portion of the Old Faithful area. Only isolated islands of trees, especially along moist stream bottoms, were left relatively untouched. Look closely for large patches of downed trees lying and pointing in the same direction. This is the result of severe tornado-like winds blowing and uprooting the shallow-rooted lodgepole pines. This blowdown occurred before the 1988 fires. Also below the overlook is the confluence of the Little Firehole River (Mystic Falls), Iron Creek (Black Sand Basin), and the Firehole River (Old Faithful). Look just to the left of the overlook on the projecting rocks of the outcropping. The white edges on the rocks indicate frequent lightning strikes. Lightning does strike twice in the same location This is a good indicator that this point should be avoided

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twice in the same location. This is a good indicator that this point should be avoided during thunderstorms, which are frequent during summer mid-afternoons. From Biscuit Basin Overlook, the trail continues along the ridge and eventually to the Little Firehole Meadows and Fairy Falls. But after about a tenth of a mile, an unmarked trail descends to Mystic Falls, about 0.8 miles from the overlook. Trail to Mystic Falls: From the Biscuit Basin 0verlook/ Mystic Falls junction, the west trail leads to Mystic Falls along the Little Firehole River after about 0.4 miles from the junction. Just after the Biscuit Basin Overlook/Mystic Falls junction is another junction. This splitting crosses a creek over a small bridge and leads to Summit Lake (see Summit Lake Trail for description), 7.1 miles up a steep incline. The main trail follows the stream to the base of Mystic Falls. The cascade is an impressive 100-foot drop of the Little Firehole River, as it descends from the Madison Plateau. At this point, the trail rejoins the Biscuit Basin Overlook loop trail and begins a few switchbacks through the burned forest to the ridge. Summit Lake Trail Length from Biscuit Basin parking area to: Summit Lake junction 0.6 miles, one way. Summit Lake 7.2 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,285 feet (1,267-foot gain). Trailhead: The trailhead is located at Biscuit Basin parking area, about two miles north of Old Faithful, on the Old Faithful-Madison Road. At the far end of Biscuit Basin boardwalk, and opposite Avoca Spring, a dirt trail heads west into the lodgepole trees. Just after entering the trees, a trail branches to the south. This trail returns to Old Faithful (see Upper Geyser Basin Trail for description). After 0.3 miles, the trail divides. The north trail leads to Biscuit Basin Overlook (see Mystic Falls and Biscuit Basin Overlook Trail for description), while the west trail continues up the drainage to Mystic Falls. Just after the Biscuit Basin Overlook/Mystic Falls junction is another junction. The trail splits off for Summit Lake, crossing the Little Firehole River via a small bridge. From the junction, the trail begins a steep ascent of nearly 1,200 feet to the lake. The route is not interesting, as the trail wanders through a dry, sparse lodgepole forest. Even most of this burned during the 1988 fires. The trail follows the intermittent streambed of Summit Lake and this usually is dry by midsummer. Summit Lake (8,552 feet) is aptly named, as it rests next to the Continental Divide. It is a small lake, fewer than 30 acres in size and rimmed by lodgepoles and a small meadow on its southern edge. The trail continues on from Summit Lake and heads directly west to the west boundary for an additional 8.75 miles. But just after Summit Lake, the trail crosses the Continental Divide; on the other side are a series of small lakes. Little Summit Lake, to the north, is one of them, and nearby are a series of small thermal springs called Smoke Jumper Hot Springs. From here to the border, the trail crosses the Madison Plateau, a dry, high plateau with gentle, slightly undulating topography and open meadows with sparse trees. In one of the meadows, a large fire camp was set up during the 1988 fires. Twin otter airplanes dropped tons of supplies and food for several hundred firefighters that were encamped here. Trash, fire pits, cut stumps and hundreds of miles of scraped earth, resembling trails, cut for fireline still are visible in the vicinity. Upper Geyser Basin Trail Length from Old Faithful Inn to: Castle Geyser 0.2 miles, one way. Daisy/Grotto geysers 0.9 miles, one way. Morning Glory Pool 1.I miles, one way. Biscuit Geyser Basin 2.5 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,367 feet (122-foot loss). Trailhead: Trailhead

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located at Old Faithful Inn. The Upper Geyser Basin, about two square miles in area, contains the largest concentration and nearly one-quarter of all the geysers in the world. It also is the home of Old Faithful, the most famous and celebrated geyser in the world. But a variety of thermal features exist here: spouting geysers, colorful hot springs and steaming fumaroles. The paved trail begins at Old Faithful Inn and leads down the basin toward Morning Glory Pool and eventually to Biscuit Basin. This paved path is the remnant of the old road prior to 1972, when the highway was rerouted to the present-day overpass. The wide path is excellent for hiking or bicycling— one of the few bicycling paths in the park—during summer. In winter, the basin becomes shrouded in steam and ice and provides a great opportunity to view wildlife while ski touring. It is advisable to carry a guide (see selected bibliography) to the thermal features to enjoy the basin thoroughly and to achieve a better understanding of their nature and the geologic mechanism from which they operate. There are numerous side trips. Beginning at Castle Geyser, the boardwalk (no bicycles allowed on boardwalk) crosses the Firehole River and junctions at Sawmill Geyser. The north trail leads to Grand Geyser, Beauty Pool, Oblong and Giant geysers and the trail junctions again with the Upper Geyser Basin Trail at Grotto Geyser. The southern trail leads to Geyser Hill, one of the most concentrated geyser collections in the world. From Geyser Hill, it crosses the Firehole River near Old Faithful and returns to Old Faithful Inn. Another side trip from the Upper Geyser Basin Trail starts just before the trees near Grotto Geyser. This trail leads to Daisy, Comet and Splendid geysers. Punch Bowl Spring, and over the hill to Black Sand Basin, 0.8 miles from the main trail. Just north of Daisy Geyser the return of the loop trail from Biscuit Basin rejoins here. The Upper Geyser Basin Trail continues past Grotto and Riverside geysers, Morning Glory Pool (where the pavement ends), Artemisia Geyser, over a hill, and through a lodgepole stand before emerging into Biscuit Basin. The first feature there is a gemlike, encrusted, blue pool called Cauliflower Geyser. The trail then crosses the road to the main features of Biscuit Basin, of which the blue color of Sapphire Pool and the gem-like formations of Jewel Geyser are main features. To return to Old Faithful via the loop, follow the Mystic Falls Trail, which starts opposite Avoca Spring. After a few yards, the trail junctions; the southern trail leads down to a foot bridge across the Little Firehole River, „and the dirt trail wanders through the trees to rejoin the paved Upper Geyser Basin Trail at Daisy and Grotto geysers. Observation Point Trail Length: 1.5 miles, partial loop. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,355 feet (200-foot gain). Trailhead: Located across the Firehole River from Old Faithful Geyser, at the beginning of Geyser Hill. Just across the Firehole River bridge and into the trees, a large prominent wooden sign marks the beginning of the trail, as it veers sharply off the paved Geyser Hill trail. The lower portion of the trail is relatively gentle, but then begins a series of switchbacks to Observation Point, nestled on an outcropping of rhyolitic rock. From the point is a superb view of the Upper Geyser Basin; especially prominent is Old Faithful Geyser, Old Faithful Inn and to the east. Old Faithful Lodge. It is well worth the effort and time to plan a hike to Observation Point to coincide with an eruption of Old Faithful Geyser. From this vantage point, it is possible to take in the size and scale of the geyser in relation to its surroundings. From Observation Point, continue down at a gentler slope to Solitary Geyser. This is a small geyser, but it erupts approximately every 4 to 8 minutes by splashing in a

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small geyser, but it erupts approximately every 4 to 8 minutes by splashing in a series of heavy heaves which last about one minute. The trail returns to the Geyser Hill boardwalk near Ear Spring. Mallard Lake Lengths from: Mallard Lake Trailhead at Old Faithful Lodge to: Pipeline Hotspring Area 0.4 miles, one way. Mallard Lake 3 miles, one way. Grand Loop Road via Mallard Lake 6.5 miles, one way. Old Faithful Loop via Mallard Creek II miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,360 feet. (666-foot gain). Trailhead: The trailhead is behind Old Faithful Lodge and cabins and begins at the eastern edge of the cabin loop road. A small sign marks the trailhead but there is no adequate parking at the sign. The trail starts at the sign, drops down to the Firehole River and crosses the river by way of a small foot bridge. Before 1972, the highway crossed just north of this foot bridge and continued past Old Faithful Lodge, Old Faithful Geyser, Old Faithful Inn and exited past Morning Glory Pool. The trail then enters a relatively dense lodgepole-pine forest for the entire route. For a Yellowstone forest floor, though, it is usually brilliantly colored with wildflowers during June and July. After about a half mile, on the left, is an eclectic cluster of small hot springs and mud pots called Pipeline Hot springs. The collection includes a large hot pool, several sunken cauldrons, and numerous scattered, gray mud pots. The trail continues up Mallard Lake Dome, a welling caused by a magma chamber that surfaced in some areas to form twisted, ancient lava flows. At about two miles, the narrow canyon was formed by these rhyolitic flows. From the plateau, the trail splits to the left along what formerly was the Ridge Trail, which leads west to the Grand Loop Road, following Mallard Creek another 3.5 miles. This faint trail is not maintained and, during winter, route finding is very difficult. A ski trail usually is not broken, and it is a laborious trail. After emerging at the Grand Loop Road, the trail parallels the road ' under a power line for two miles until it connects with the Upper Geyser Basin at Cauliflower Geyser, across the highway from Biscuit Basin. From the junction, the Mallard Lake Trail drops down a steep timbered slope but the lake is not visible until the last tenth of a mile. Mallard Lake is a 32-acre lake with a maximum depth of 30 feet. Because of its size and its poor spawning habitat—due to seasonal fluctuating water supply—the lake is barren of fish. But it is a popular resting spot for waterfowl, hence the name. Because it is a popular destination point from Old Faithful, there are several campsites and even a restroom, which seem out of place. Fern Cascades Length: 3.0 miles, one way loop. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,360 feet (240-foot gain). Trailhead: During the summer, the trailhead is accessible at the water-tank service road (also known as the barricade parking area), located about 0.8 mile east of the overpass. Another access, and a shorter one-way route, starts at the southern end of the Park Service housing area. This trail is recommended only if all other trails in Yellowstone have been hiked and this is the last on the list. The trail begins with a steep ascent through burned forest to a trickle of a stream called Iron Spring Creek. Most hikers and skiers will look desperately for the cascade. If a ripple is discovered in the stream, this is it. Do not be too disappointed. From the "cascade," the trail drops steeply down a hill and follows a power line back to the trailhead. During the winter, this loop is a popular ski route. Because of the two steep slopes and the narrowness of the track through the trees, it becomes a one-way trail. Winter access also changes, but the trailhead generally starts at Old Faithful Snow Lodge. This area burned severely on September 7 1988 The intense fire moved over the

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This area burned severely on September 7, 1988. The intense fire moved over the ridge south of the Park Service employee housing area on its way to Old Faithful. Flames and gases leaped 400 or more feet into the air, and 100-mph winds dispersed embers a mile north. In an effort to slow the fire, an aerial bomber dropped pink fire retardant into the flames along the ridge, but it had no effect and the fire leaped the open maintenance compound, luckily avoiding the National Park Service gasoline pumps and the spilled fuels that saturated the surrounding area. Other nearby buildings did burn, however, as the fire hopscotched through the area. Lone Star Geyser Trail Length: 2.2 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,600 feet (35-foot gain). Trailhead: Located about 2.1 miles east of the Old Faithful overpass, just beyond Kepler Cascade at the Lone Star trailhead. The developed parking area is off the main highway and is a circular driveway. Because this parking area is screened by trees, it has been a target for car break-ins. Take extreme caution in securing your vehicle. Do not leave valuables in the car. Many hikers leave their car at nearby Kepler Cascade parking area, where it is visible and near much more activity. Until the early 1970s, this was a paved spur road, so visitors could drive up and park at Lone Star Geyser. Since its closure to vehicles, it now provides one of the few bicycles paths in the park. But don't expect a smooth path. Trail maintenance is poor and downed logs and trees often block the trail. The Lone Star Trail probably is the most popular ski trip from Old Faithful. The distance between Old Faithful Geyser and Lone Star trailhead is an additional 1.4 miles. The trail follows the old pre-1972 road into Old Faithful, through the old campground. You can ski this distance during winter or hike it in summer. Just a short distance from the trailhead, to the west, is an irrigation-type gate on the Firehole River. This is the municipal water supply for the Old Faithful complex. On an average summer day, more than 25,000 people will use water from this source. But before it is used, the water is heavily treated with chlorine. After about 1.7 miles, the trail junctions with Spring Creek Trail (see Spring Creek Trail for description), an old stagecoach road to Norris Pass. This trail is a popular ski route from Divide Lockout. The 1872 Hayden expedition originally called Lone Star Geyser "Solitary" because of its remoteness. How and who changed the name of the feature to "Lone Star" is not known, but it is not associated with Texas. This isolated feature on the upper Firehole River has an 11.5-foot-high cone. The interval between eruptions is about 3 hours, and the length of each eruption is about 30 minutes, with bursts reaching 35-40 feet. There usually is a register at the site, and visitors usually record the time of eruptions that they witness. By checking the register, it is possible to make a prediction about when the next eruption is likely to occur. The trail from Lone Star offers a choice: You can continue south up to Grants Pass and down to Shoshone Geyser Basin (see Shoshone Geyser Basin Trail description) and the Bechler River Trail (see Bechler Trail description); or you can cut back along the Howard Trail through dense lodgepole pine to Old Faithful. The trail is about 2.8 miles long and it is steep and not very scenic. It emerges at the barricade service road at the Cascades trailhead. Shoshone Geyser Basin Trail Length from Lone Star Geyser trailhead to: Lone Star Geyser 2.2 miles, one way. Bechler River/Shoshone Geyser Trail junction 6.0 miles, one way. Shoshone Geyser Basin 8.4 miles, one way. El ti h T ilh d t 7 600 f t (191 f t i )

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Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,600 feet (191-foot gain). Trailhead: Located about 2.1 miles east of the Old Faithful overpass, just beyond Kepler Cascade. Take extreme caution in securing your vehicle, as vandalism is common at this trailhead. The access to Shoshone Geyser Basin is via the Lone Star Geyser Trail (see Lone Star Geyser Trail for description). It is an easy 2.2-mile hike on an old paved road. Shoshone Geyser Basin usually is considered an overnight trip, but for an easier day hike, you can bicycle to Lone Star Geyser and lock your bike to a lodgepole pine. This will reduce the time and distance, making for a good, long day hike. Just a short distance beyond the geyser is a trail junction that splits to the Howard Eaton trail and returns to Old Faithful, or the Bechler River Trail and Shoshone Geyser Basin. The trail is primarily through lodgepole pines dotted with small clearings and meadows. Good bridges cross all of the streams and marshy areas. Most of the hiking terrain is very gentle and easy. The only climb, and it is a minor climb, is over Grants Pass on the Continental Divide. The Upper Geyser Basin to the north and the Bechler Meadows to the south are two major wildlife basins. Bison, elk and bears often move freely between these two areas, and Grants Pass is the funnel. So it is not uncommon to come upon moving animals in this area. After descending from Grants Pass, the trail junctions again. The southern trail leads to the Bechler River Trail (see Bechler River Trail for description), and the eastern route leads to Shoshone Geyser Basin. The trail to Shoshone loosely follows Shoshone Creek. There is a spur trail that crosses the creek via a bridge and also leads to the geyser basin. This trail is not as scenic, but it is a better horse trail. By continuing down the creek, and just before Shoshone Lake, the trail junctions south again to the geyser basin. The trail does continue east to Delacy Creek through the Cement Hills (see Delacy Creek Trail for description). Shoshone lake and geyser basin were named in 1872 by chief geologist, Frank Bradley, a member of the 1872 Hayden expedition. But others explored this area previously, including Osborne Russell, an early explorer and trapper, in 1839, and Walter Delacy, a prospector, in 1863. This geyser basin truly is pristine. Because of its remote location, there is less evidence of man. The pools and geysers still retain most of their original formations of intricate sinter. No boardwalks exist in the basin, but the bridge near Minute Man Geyser, accessing the western half of the basin, was removed during the early 1980s. Exercise caution while exploring, as one pool already claimed the life of a man in 1988. This small basin contains an estimated 110 thermal features. Union Geyser is the famous feature in the basin. It was active during the early 1900s, but it has had long periods of dormancy and has been dormant since the mid-1970s. The three small mounds, standing three feet tall, show little activity. Minute Man now is the main attraction at Shoshone. It is a regular spouter, with intervals of only one to three minutes. A trail does head south out of the basin and continue on to the outlet of Shoshone Lake on the eastern side after about 9 miles. This is the Shoshone Lake Trail, but it does not follow the shoreline. It is primarily in the forest, crosses a ridge, then follows the Moose Creek drainage and junctions at the outlet of the Lewis River Channel. Bechler River Trail Length from Lone Star Geyser trailhead to: Lone Star Geyser 2.2 miles, one way. Bechler River/Shoshone Geyser Trail junction 6.0 miles, oneway. Douglas Knob 8.4 miles, one way. Three River Junction 14.1 miles, one way.

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Iris Falls 18.7 miles, one way. Colonnade Falls 19.0 miles, oneway. Bechler Meadows 22.0 miles, one way. Bechler Ranger Station 27.1 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,600 feet (1,197-foot loss). Trailhead: About 2.1 miles east of the Old Faithful overpass, just beyond Kepler Cascade. Take extreme caution in securing your vehicle, as vandalism is common at this trailhead. (The trail is used in conjunction with Lone Star Geyser and Shoshone Geyser Basin trails.) The Bechler region is perhaps one of the most cherished regions for hikers and packers in Yellowstone. It contains the greatest concentration of waterfalls and cascades in the park— with 21 of the estimated 46 total. Most of these features are located along the Bechler River, with the remainder on Boundary and Mountain Ash creeks, tributaries of the Bechler. The Bechler River is the major river for the southwest corner of Yellowstone and was named by Frank Bradley, a member of the 1872 Hayden Survey, in honor of the Survey's chief topographer, Gustavus R. Bechler. After crossing the Continental Divide three times, the Bechler River Trail joins the headwaters of the Bechler and follows the river through Bechler Canyon and Bechler Meadows, where the trail ends at the old Bechler Soldier Station, now know as the Bechler Ranger Station. It is a long trail, traversing an entire quadrant of Yellowstone. Most hikers accomplish this trail as a two- or even three-day backpack trip, with Three River Junction as the midpoint campsite. The Bechler River Trail is a continuation of the Lone Star Geyser (see Lone Star Geyser Trail for description) and the Shoshone Geyser Basin trails (see Shoshone Geyser Basin Trail for description). After using these approaches, the trail begins 6.0 miles from the Lone Star Geyser trailhead at the Bechler River/Shoshone Geyser Trail junction, just beyond Grants Pass. From the junction, the trail climbs again to cross the Continental Divide two more times—Grants Pass was the first crossing—for a total of three crossings in less than 3 miles. After the last crossing, the trail heads primarily downhill as it joins the headwaters of the Bechler. At first, the trail enters a large meadow and passes Douglas Knob, a prominent landmark, before entering Bechler Canyon. As the trail enters the canyon, the first waterfall of the Bechler is Twister Falls, followed by Tempo Cascade and Ragged Falls, all before reaching Three River Junction. Three River Junction is the confluence of the Phillips Fork (named for William Hallet Phillips, a special agent of the Department of the Interior, sent in 1885 to investigate conditions in Yellowstone), the Gregg Fork (named for William C. Gregg, an early 20th-century explorer of "Cascade Corner"), and Ferns Fork (named for Warren Angus Ferris, a clerk and trapper with the American Fur Company who visited this region in 1834). Most hikers camp at Three River Junction because of its midway location, but most use this area primarily for its good campsites and the famous Three River hot pot. Just a short distance upstream on the Ferris Fork are numerous hot springs, pools and waterfalls. In one protected spot of the river, hot water from a thermal spring merges with cold river water between a small island and the bank. This is one of the three legal hot-potting areas in Yellowstone—the other two are Boiling River near Mammoth and the Madison hot pot near Madison Campground. This is an excellent spot to relax and soak tired feet after a long days hike. A little farther upstream are a series of waterfalls beginning with Tendoy (33 feet), followed by Gwinna (20 feet). Sluiceway (35 feet) and Wahhi (36 feet). Campsites are situated at the river junctions and a half mile downstream along a meadow where the Park Service patrol cabins are located. Prior to the late 1980s, a conscientious backcountry ranger, Dunbar Susong, kept the Bechler region pristine, with only a small A-frame cabin to store emergency provisions. The cabin was so small that no one could sleep in it, and Susong believed that if rangers needed to perform overnight patrol on the Bechler, they could sleep out under the stars like other hikers to the region But after Susong retired the chief ranger decided to build

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other hikers to the region. But after Susong retired, the chief ranger decided to build an additional large cabin as a retreat for Park Service law-enforcement personnel. The cabins and meadows are used mostly in the fall for long weekend retreats. During this time, booze often is brought in by helicopter or pack horse and the meadow area usually is closed off to the public. Do not be surprised to hear gunfire emanating from the camp. The Three River Meadow also is bordered by a series of hot springs, usually lined with thick, colorful, leather-like algal mats. The trail continues south through the canyon into a dense Engelmann spruce forest. Prior to the mid-1970s, the trail crisscrossed and forded the Bechler River numerous times. The trail has since been rerouted to the east side of the river, but expect at least one major ford and numerous muddy, boggy areas. The lower section of the canyon also has a large collection of waterfalls. Beginning with Iris Falls, a 45-foot falls that usually—on sunny days—has a rainbow in its mist. Colonnade Falls is unusual because it is made up of two similar falls stacked together. The top fall is 35 feet high and the bottom is 67 feet high. Near the outlet of the canyon, across the Bechler River and on Ouzel Creek—a tributary—is the tallest waterfall. Ouzel Falls plunges as a delicate ribbon an impressive 230 feet off the plateau into the Bechler. The Bechler Meadows is one of the wonders of Yellowstone. It is lush and green during summer, but by fall the rushes and sedges turn golden brown. Mosquitoes, .flies and wet bogs abound in summer. Drier trails, fewer flies and mosquitoes and hot days and frosty nights mark autumn travel. After entering the Bechler Meadows, the trail crosses the river via a wood-and-cable suspension footbridge. Several trails—including numerous horse trails and wetweather trails—lead through the meadow. Again, a sense of direction and the time of year will dictate the best route. But the trail in the center of the meadow is the most direct. Horse and deer flies can be a severe hindrance in the center of the meadow, but the dragon and smaller damsel flies often put on spectacular displays. Directly in the center of the meadow is the trail's last ford, via a horse crossing. Just before leaving the meadow, the trail then crosses Boundary Creek via another woodand-cable suspension footbridge. Along the remaining 3.5 miles to Bechler Ranger Station, the trail winds through dense lodgepole pines. About halfway along this section, on the west side, is the small, secluded Lilypad Lake. The trail emerges at the Old Soldier Station, now the Bechler Ranger Station. Make arrangements to have transportation left here or a ride waiting, because this is a remote area. Bechler Meadow - Boundary Creek Trail Length from Bechler Ranger Station to: Bechler Meadow 3.75 miles, one way. Silver Scarf Falls 8.3 miles, one way. Dunanda Falls 8.75 miles, one way. Buffalo Lake 15.64 miles, one way. Park Boundary 16.5 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,420 feet (1,280-foot gain). Trailhead: Begins at Bechler Ranger Station in the southwest corner of Yellowstone. This trailhead can be approached either via the Grassy Lake Reservoir from Flagg Ranch or from the west via Ashton, Idaho. The Bechler is a popular but remote region of Yellowstone. It was named for Gustavus R. Bechler, chief topographer of the 1872 Hayden expedition. This area has a rich history that began with Osborne Russel's visit during fur-trade days, followed with visits by the Hayden Survey and the eventual establishment of the remote soldier's station—now called the Bechler Ranger Station. The trail begins at the historic station and leads north. After about a mile and a half— near a small pond on the west side of the trail—is a trail junction. The west trail leads to the Boundary Creek environs. The trail then skirts the western edge of Bechler Meadow, where it joins Boundary Creek. As the trail begins to climb, two fascinating waterfalls plunge off the plateau. Th fi t i Sil

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The first is Silver Scarf Falls. It is on an unnamed branch of Boundary Creek and is heated upstream by thermal springs. It plunges 250 feet as a narrow, sloping cascade. About a mile beyond on Boundary Creek is Dunanda Falls. It is a ISO-foothigh waterfall; the name is derived from a Shoshone name meaning "straight down." The name is fitting, as the falls do plunge straight down, into a small chasm rimmed by basaltic flows. The falls can be viewed from the rim, but a short trail leads to the base, where the force and impact of the falls can really be felt. Most hikes end at Dunanda Falls because the trail is relatively dry and uninteresting to the forest boundary and beyond. But from Dunanda, the trail does continue north up a steep-walled canyon that skirts the southern edge of the Madison Plateau before arriving at Buffalo Lake. Buffalo Lake is a small, 20-acre, fishless lake, about 16 feet deep at its deepest. It is just 1.1 miles from the park boundary, and from there the trail follows the boundary north to West Yellowstone. This side of the park boundary is easy to keep track of because the forest is clear-cut up to the edge of the park. From outer space, this is the second most visible man-made feature on Earth. The most visible is the Great Wall of China. Divide Lookout Length: 1.2 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 8,044 feet (735-foot gain). Trailhead: Located about 6.7 miles east of the Old Faithful overpass on the Old Faithful-West Thumb road. The parking area is to the south and is not well-marked. This short trail is a fun and easy hike to the best observation point of Yellowstone's southwest region, and by standing on top of the summit, a hiker sits precisely on the Continental Divide. The trail runs mostly through a dense, moist, north-facing forest primarily composed of lodgepole pine and subalpine fir. At the trail register, an old faint trail bearing east once crossed over Norris Pass and connected with Delacy Creek Trail. This once was an early popular horseback trail, but it no longer is maintained. To the west, down the Spring Creek drainage, is the Spring Creek Trail (see Spring Creek Trail for description). Near the top of Divide Lockout, through the trees, Shoshone Lake becomes visible. Until 1991, the metal-structured, 70-foot Divide Lockout tower stood at the top of this knoll (el. 8,779 feet). It provided an unobstructed view of the region. Until the 1980s, the National Park Service had forgotten about its existence. It was not even marked on topographic maps. But it suddenly was discovered by visitors and became a popular hiking destination. The Park Service dismantled the structure to prevent its popular use. This also has been a destination for skiers. The shuttle coach from Old Faithful provides transportation to the trailhead, but you need ski power to return to Old Faithful. Most of the return, however, is downhill along Spring Creek (see Spring Creek Trail for description). Spring Creek Trail Lengths from Divide Lockout Trailhead to: Junction with Lone Star Trail 3.5 miles, one way. Lone Star Trailhead 5.2 miles, one way. Old Faithful Geyser 6.6 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 8,044 feet (677-foot loss to Old Faithful). Trailhead: Located about 6.7 miles east of the Old Faithful overpass on the Old Faithful-West Thumb road. This is the same trailhead as is used for the Divide Lockout Trail. Spring Creek Trail is a very popular ski trail from the Old Faithful area but seldom is hiked during summer. It is a moist, cool canyon during summer and a narrow twisted ski course during winter. The trail begins at the Divide Lockout trailhead. But instead of continuing uphill at the junction, follow the drainage to the west. This is Spring Creek. It was named in 1885 by USGS geologist Arnold Hague, who observed that "Spring Creek is well named as there is a large amount of water coming out from b th th h lit " Th ld t i f d th t l it It

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beneath the rhyolite." These cold-water springs feed the stream along its course. It later was used briefly as a stagecoach road. Some stretches are clearly and visibly graded, but other narrow points in the canyon make one wonder how stagecoaches could have maneuvered the tight corners. During winter, this trail is a gentle downhill run. But a few steep sections cross back and forth over a series of logs and bridges. The trail emerges at the Lone Star Trail just after crossing the Firehole River Bridge. From that junction, it is possible to venture on to Lone Star Geyser (see Lone Star Geyser Trail for description), or return to Old Faithful via the Lone Star trailhead. Delacy Creek Trail Length from Delacy Creek Trailhead to: Shoshone Lake 2.8 miles, one way. Shoshone Lake Outlet 7.1 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,880 feet (90-foot drop). Trailhead: The parking area is a wide spot on the Old Faithful-West Thumb road adjacent to Delacy Creek bridge, about 9 miles east of the Old Faithful overpass. Delacy Creek was named after Walter Delacy (1819-1892) who explored this region in 1863 for the prospect of precious minerals. He compiled the first map of Yellowstone country in 1865. He discovered Shoshone Lake, which he named "Delacy Lake," but Hayden changed the name to "Madison Lake" in 1871, and a year later the Hayden expeditions geologist, Frank Bradley, changed the name to Shoshone Lake. In 1881, Yellowstone Superintendent P.W. Norris, named the creek after the early explorer. This is a very popular hike in the Old Faithful area, and for good reason. It is an easygoing, short hike to one of Yellowstones major lakes and is landlocked—no roads approach it. The trail wanders through lodgepole pines, scenic meadows, often occupied by feeding moose, and, during summer, patches of wildflowers. Most hikers use this trail during midday, and the parking area usually is packed with cars. The best choice, however, is to wait until evening for a sunset hike. The view from Shoshone Lake during sunset is unforgettable. Pastel peach and rose colors often highlight the sky and reflect off the tranquil lake. The drawbacks to an evening hike are the high concentration of mosquitoes and the fact that you must hike back to the trailhead in the dark. But there are a few campsites on the lake for those who wish to stay overnight. At the lake, the trail divides in opposite directions around the lake. The western trail, or North Shoshone trail, does not follow the shoreline but runs through and along the base of the Cement Hills. The trail mostly is among lodgepole pines, but you'll catch a few vistas of the lake. After about 7.5 miles, the trail connects with Shoshone Geyser Basin and eventually goes on to Lone Star Geyser and Old Faithful. It is not a wellmaintained trail to the geyser basin, and is not highly recommended. The eastern trail, or Delacy Creek trail, continues along the forested shore of Shoshone Lake. The shore itself is composed of fine black obsidian sand and resembles Hawaiian beaches. During midday and especially during afternoon, high winds usually create rough water and whitecaps on the lake. But during early mornings and late evenings, the lake usually is placid. About halfway along the trail, it ascends about 100 feet above the lake and provides a great view of Shoshone Lake and the Lewis River Channel (Shoshone Lake's outlet) before descending to the patrol cabin and outlet.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

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The Tower, Lamar, Yellowstone River and Northeast Entrance area provides a

diverse terrain for hikers. This area possesses sheer mountain slopes with banded cliffs, broad, open valleys and deeply etched river canyons.

The lower elevations along the Yellowstone River provide hikers with snow-free, early spring access, but mountain passes along the Absaroka Range area remain snowcovered until mid to late July. Wildlife use the extremes of this region too. The valleys, like Lamar and the lower Yellowstone Valley, provide mild winter grounds for big-game animals, including elk, mule deer, bighorn sheep and mountain lions. Then, in summer, the high pastures, meadows and mountain summits provide haven and sanctuary from summer heat and insects. Most of the Tower-Northeast Entrance trails will show signs of the 1988 fires. This region burned extensively that summer, and the rejuvenation is visible in varying degrees along most trails. The trees within the burned forests remained.

Yellowstone River Trail Length to Gardiner, Montana from: Hellroaring Gravel Pit Trailhead 16.75 miles, one way. Hellroaring Ford 14.75 miles, one way. Cottonwood Creek 11.1 miles, one way. Blacktail Bridge 7.75 miles, one way. Crevice Creek Bridge 6.7 miles, one way. Bear Creek Bridge 1.75 miles, one way. Elevation change: Blacktail/Gravel Pit Trailhead at 6,520 feet (1,252-foot loss). Trailhead: The trailhead begins at the Hellroaring/Gravel Pit parking area, 3.4 miles west of Tower Junction on the Mammoth-Tower Road, just beyond Floating Island Lake. The Yellowstone River Trail is one of the longest trails in the northern section of the park, and most hikers who take on this trail do so as a two-day trip. It also has the distinction of having the lowest elevation of any trail in the park. For this reason, it can be hiked early in the season when most trails are still buried under snow. The only drawback of an early spring hike is the spring runoff. Many of the Yellowstone River's tributaries, including the river itself, usually are swollen and treacherous to cross or ford. Several creeks along this stretch, including Hellroaring, Little Cottonwood, Cotton-wood, Crevice (footbridge) and Bear (footbridge), can be very dangerous. At Hellroaring, the beginning of the Yellowstone River Trail, a crossing is provided 0.8 miles upstream. The bridge adds a few extra miles, but safety is a factor. The Yellowstone River Trail is accessed by the Hellroaring/ Gravel Pit Trailhead. The Hellroaring Creek Trail (see Hellroaring Creek Trail for description) leads to Hellroaring Ford and the beginning of this trail. After either fording the stream (only late in the season when the water level is down and it is safe to cross) or by using the bridge upstream, the Yellowstone River Trail begins its descent along the river to Gardiner, Montana. Th fl

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The flora and fauna is entirely different along this trail than it is along the higher trails in the interior of the park. A few large Douglas fir trees are common, but most are Rocky Mountain junipers. In late July or August, check the trunks of these trees for shells or skins of cicadas. These large insects spent most of their lives as grubs underground, feeding on the roots of the tree. They then emerge and begin their metamorphosis into membranous winged adults. During the summer, you will hear their shrill droning sound, which is produced by specialized organs. This area also is a refuge for wintering big-game animals, including mule deer, elk, bighorn sheep and predators such as the mountain lion and coyote. Even during the summer, there are telltale signs of their presence. Droppings, patches of shed winter coat, dropped antlers and overgrazed vegetation all are signs of their stay. Most of the valley forms a tight gorge with fairly steep walls beginning at Cottonwood Creek. This is known as the Black Canyon because of the darkness produced by the close canyon walls. Cottonwood Creek is a popular campsite and a good first-day hike. Little Cottonwood Creek also is a good campsite, with a spring nearby. But use a water filter before drinking any water, and make sure you have plenty of good drinking water for this journey. The Blacktail Deer Creek Trail (see Blacktail Deer Creek River Trail,for description) joins the Yellowstone River Trail at the suspension bridge and at the 9.0-mile marker. The river can be exited from this point, but it is a 1,078-foot, 3.4-mile climb to the Blacktail Trailhead. The next landmarks are Crevice Creek and just beyond Knowles Falls, at the 10.75mile mark. Do not expect another Lower Falls. The river is constricted through rock formations and only produces a 15-foot plunge. Even so, the force and power is impressive. From Knowles Falls, the landscape becomes even more desert-like, and the possibility of seeing snakes increases. Bull and garter snakes are common, and it is possible—though not highly probable—to find a rattlesnake, so take precaution when hiking this trail. The trail emerges at Gardiner, just north of the Yellow-stone Bridge in the downtown area.

Lost Lake-Petrified Tree Trail Length: 3.1 miles, loop via Lost Lake and Petrified Tree. Length from Roosevelt Lodge to: Lost Creek Falls (spur trail) 0.25 miles Lost Lake 0.8 miles Petrified Tree 1.8 miles Tower Ranger Station (via Petrified Tree) 2.7 miles Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,340 (460-foot gain). Trailhead: The trail starts behind Roosevelt Lodge. Or, as an alternate route, start at the Petrified Tree, about a quarter mile east of the Blacktail Plateau Drive exit or about 1.4 miles west of Tower Junction. The trail begins directly behind Roosevelt Lodge. It crosses a footbridge and over a wet seep shrouded with ferns. From there a short spur trail leads to Lost Creek Falls, a 40-foot plunge into a steep, dark, timber-covered canyon. From the junction to Lost Creek Falls, the trail climbs south up a steep 350-foot rocky rim. On the bench above the rim, the trail then joins the horse trail and continues west to Lost Lake and Petrified Tree. The trail east heads to Roosevelt Corral and approximately 2.5 miles to Tower Campground (see Roosevelt-Tower Trail for description). In 1975, an earthquake with an epicenter near Norris Geyser Basin shook the Yellowstone region. It brought down delicate spires in the Grand Canyon, and along this rim, large rockfalls tumbled down the canyon, nearly striking passing hikers. The trail continues along the shore of Lost Lake, where beaver activity usually can be spotted. In late June through early July, the edges of this lake are covered with the arrow-shaped, leather-like leaves and yellow, baseball-sized flowers of yellow pond ll h l f ll h d f k h h l f d d Page 147 of 243

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lilies. The trail follows the drainage of Lost Lake through Douglas fir and aspen, and emerges at the Petrified Tree parking area. The Petrified Tree has a substantial iron fence that was installed in 1907 for its protection. At one time, there were several trees in the vicinity, with broken remnants scattered on the hillside, but collection and souvenir hunters removed these piece by piece, including a whole fossilized tree. The remaining tree is a siliceous replica—a fossil—of an ancient redwood. To continue back to Roosevelt Lodge, the trail climbs the hill at the northeast end of the parking area. (For winter skiing, the short spur road to Petrified Tree is unplowed, and access to this trail and parking is at the turnout on the Mammoth-Tower Road.) From the parking area, this trail leads over the saddle between two hills and behind the Tower Ranger Station and through the Park Service employee-housing area to the cabins at Roosevelt Lodge. The trail emerges at Hamilton General Store.

Roosevelt-Tower Trail Length from Roosevelt Lodge to: Lost Creek Falls (spur trail) 0.25 miles Tower Fall Campground 2.6 miles Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,340 (350-foot gain, but overall, a 258-foot gain). Trailhead: The trail begins behind Roosevelt Lodge. The trail starts directly behind Roosevelt Lodge, and it is a good half-day hike for residents staying at the lodge or at Tower Campground. The trail crosses a footbridge over a wet seep that is covered in ferns. From there, a short spur trail leads to Lost Creek Falls, a 40-foot plunge over a basalt cliff into a steep, dark, timber-covered canyon. From the junction to the top of the cliffs is a steep 350-foot climb. On the bench above the rim, the trail then junctions with the horse trail. The area east of Roosevelt is crisscrossed with horse trails; be careful not to return to the Roosevelt corral via one of these shortcut horse trails. The west trail leads to Lost Lake (see Lost Lake Trail for description) and farther beyond to Petrified Tree. The east trail leads to Tower Campground. The trail continues east through Douglas firs, small open meadows and undulating terrain. During summer, this is a very dry trail. About halfway, the trail parallels the road, but the trail is on the cliff above it before eventually emerging at Tower Campground.

Calcite Springs Overlook Trail Length: .1 miles, loop Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,400 feet. ^No substantial elevation change.) Trailhead: Located 0.7 miles northwest of Tower Falls, or 1.7 miles southeast of Tower Junction. This is a short, easy, loop walk that leads to a platform overlooking the Yellowstone River, which also views remarkable—almost man-made-looking—layers of basalt columns, and thermal springs along the rivers edge. The area was named by USGS geologist Arnold Hague in 1885, but this name was based on previous usage. The constriction in the river also is called "The Narrows." Early explorers discovered the "sulphur" to be "pure enough to burn readily when ignited." Research conducted during the 1930s found the springs to have the highest percentage of hydrogen sulfide gas—that rotten-egg smell associated with sulphur springs— as well as deposits of calcite and gypsum. Calcite Springs is the lowest elevation of any hot area in the park. The east wall of the Grand Canyon, facing the overlook, is a cross-section of layers of glacial drift resting on lake deposits and columnar basalt. The pentagonal columns of basalt are caused by cooling, shrinking and cracking of several basaltic flows.

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Tower Falls Trail Length: 0.4 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,440 feet (240-foot loss). Trailhead: The trailhead is located at the parking area for Tower Falls and the Tower Store. This popular waterfall on Tower Creek was named by members of the 1870 Washburn expedition. It first was called "Minaret Creek," but one member objected, stating that the name violated their agreement to naming objects for their friends. He claimed the name was in reference to "Minnie Rhett," a sweetheart of one of the other members. By unanimous vote, the name was reconsidered and the names "Tower Creek" and "Tower Falls" were applied. The trail begins at the falls overlook and starts a steep descent into the river gorge. It is a narrow trail, and a series of switchbacks descends 200 feet to the bottom. Once at the bottom, the Yellowstone River is accessible by leaving the trail and walking out onto a gravel bar. But by continuing along the trail up Tower Creek, especially on a hot summer day, the humidity rises and the temperature drops as you reach the base of Tower Falls. The falls produces its own microclimate, a relief on hot summer days. The 132-foot falls plunges as a near-perfect water column until it crashes onto the rocks at its base. Until 1986, a precarious boulder was perched on the lip of the falls, and in the spring of that year, without witnesses, it, too, plunged to the bottom. Tower Creek has cut through the basalt formation, making up the walls of the gorge. At the brink of the falls are eerie-shaped minarets or towers sculpted from rhyolitic basalt. Tower Falls also is a popular destination for cross-country skiing. The road from Tower Junction to Tower Falls is, however, closed to car travel. But the 2.3-mile road from Tower Junction can be skied to the overlook if it is an ample snow year. It is not recommended to ski or hike to the base. Because it is a north-facing slope, ice builds up on the trails, and with its steep slope, the trail becomes treacherous. Tower Creek Trail Length: 4 miles, one way, to Carnelian Creek. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,598 feet (402-foot gain). Trailhead: Located at the entrance to Tower Campground. This trail is an excellent short hike for guests staying at the Tower Campground. The trail provides access for fishermen and a pleasant evening stroll. Tower Creek tumbles among boulders through a lush canyon during its descent, before reaching the towers of Tower Falls. The trail stretches about 4 miles, to where Tower and Carnelian creeks merge. This region did, however, burn during the 1988 fires.

Yellowstone River Picnic Area Trail Length from Yellowstone River picnic area to: Calcite Springs View 1.0 miles, one way. Four-way junction 2.0 miles, one way. Bannock Ford (spur trail) 2.4 miles, one way. Return to picnic area 4.0-mile loop. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,200 feet (414-foot gain to The Narrows viewing area). Trailhead: Located at the Yellowstone River picnic area, a mile north of Tower Junction on the Northeast Entrance Road. This trail is a short easy hike and provides wonderful views of Calcite Springs, the narrows of the Yellowstone, the Overhanging Cliff, the towers of Tower Falls, the basalt columns and the historic Bannock Indian Ford. It also offers views of the Tower General Store and the Tower-Canyon Road, and provides access to the Specimen Ridge Trail (see Specimen Ridge Trail for description) above the Bannock Ford. From the picnic area, the trail heads south and parallels the Yellowstone River. The trail runs very close along the river canyon, and drop offs are common near the trail. Take precautions while hiking this stretch of the trail

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precautions while hiking this stretch of the trail. Bighorn sheep occasionally are spotted in this area during early spring and fall, as they migrate to and from the high country in the Washburn area. The primary trees along the rim are Douglas fir, limber pine and Rocky Mountain juniper. The trail meets a four-way junction, the southern trail leads to the Bannock Indian Ford. The eastern trail leads to Specimen Ridge, a long, hot and grueling hike to the petrified forest. The northern trail leads directly to the Northeast Entrance Road and emerges at the glacier exhibit turnout. This is the continuing trail for the loop hike, but it is not highly recommended because the return route follows the road for the last mile. The recommended route is to return on the same trail from the four-way junction. The Bannock Indian Trail, branching south at the four-way junction, descends steeply to the bottom of the Grand Canyon at Tower Falls. The Great Bannock Trail crosses the Yellowstone at the point of a small island. Indians used this ford during their migrations until the 1870s, at which time early trappers and explorers began to use it. John Colter also is credited with using the ford during his historic 1807-1808 winter trip through Yellowstone, even though his exact route has never been known. The trail meets a four-way junction, the southern trail leads to the Bannock Indian Ford. The eastern trail leads to Specimen Ridge, a long, hot and grueling hike to the petrified forest. The northern trail leads directly to the Northeast Entrance Road and emerges at the glacier exhibit turnout. This is the continuing trail for the loop hike, but it is not highly recommended because the return route follows the road for the last mile. The recommended route is to return on the same trail from the four-way junction. The Bannock Indian Trail, branching south at the four-way junction, descends steeply to the bottom of the Grand Canyon at Tower Falls. The Great Bannock Trail crosses the Yellowstone at the point of a small island. Indians used this ford during their migrations until the 1870s, at which time early trappers and explorers began to use it. John Colter also is credited with using the ford during his historic 1807-1808 winter trip through Yellowstone, even though his exact route has never been known.

Specimen Ridge Trail Length from Specimen Trailhead to: Four-way junction 1.0 miles one way. Bannock Ford (spur trail) 1.4 miles, one way. Specimen Ridge (fossil forest) 3.2 miles, one way. Amethyst Mountain 10.0 miles, one way. Lamar Valley Trail junction 14.7 miles, one way. Soda Butte Trailhead 17.1 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,250 feet (350-foot gain, but overall, a 3,364-foot gain to Amethyst Mountain). Trailhead: The trailhead is 2.2 miles north, then east, of Tower Junction on the Northeast Entrance Road, at the glacier exhibit. The Specimen Ridge Trail is a long, hot and grueling trail during summer. But it does provide access to unusual features, terrain and valley vistas. A good portion of this trail, however, shows signs of the 1988 fires. Winds pushed the fire here and it burned the ridge extensively on most sides. From the trailhead, the trail heads south toward the Yellowstone River, where it arrives at the four-way junction. The west trail leads to the Yellowstone River picnic area (see Yellowstone River picnic area trail for description), and the south trail leads to the old Bannock Indian Ford. The east trail continues on the Specimen Ridge Trail and begins a steep ascent of the ridge. Atop Specimen Ridge is a spur trail to the Specimen Fossil Forest. This trail th S i F il F t T il ( S i F il F t T il f

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accesses the Specimen Fossil Forest Trail (see Specimen Fossil Forest Trail for description) and the petrified fossil trees on the north aspect of Specimen Ridge. From the summit of Specimen Ridge, the trail continues east through high, rolling hills. It is not an interesting trail, but there are good views of Yellowstone—especially of the Grand Canyon—from the high points. Amethyst Mountain (9,614 feet) is the highest point along the trail; from there is a good view of Mount Washburn to the west and the Mirror Plateau to the southeast. From Amethyst Mountain, the trail begins its 2,854-foot descent over 4.2 miles into the Lamar Valley and the junction with the Lamar Valley Trail (see Lamar Valley Trail for description). From the Lamar Valley Trail, choose from two directions to approach the Northeast Entrance Road. The longest route heads northwest down valley and ends at the Lamar picnic area near the Lamar Ranger Station, but the Lamar River must be forded just before the picnic area. The other route, the shortest and most direct one, fords the Lamar River just after the Lamar Valley Trail junction and continues northeast. The trail then crosses Soda Butte Creek via a footbridge before exiting at Soda Butte Trailhead.

Specimen Fossil Forest Trail Length: 1.4 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,210 feet (1,751-foot gain). Trailhead: Located 4.75 miles east on the Northeast Entrance Road. A pulloff is located to the south of the Lamar River Bridge, next to a flat grassy area. Two locations access the fossil forest. The first access is 0.2 miles from the Lamar River Bridge. At that point is an old road, faintly visible to the Crystal Creek elk trap, a V-shaped trap used by the Park Service until the 1970s. Helicopters would force the animals from the Lamar Valley, where they would be herded into the V-trap and corralled. Some of the elk were loaded into stock trucks and hauled to other locations outside of the park. Others were shot and butchered, but most of them were shot and bulldozed into trenches. When the public discovered this atrocity, the operations ceased, and the corrals later were disassembled, the road rehabilitated, and any knowledge of its existence disavowed. On the flat plain near Crystal Creek are a series of stone alignments, or tepee rings, that probably are several hundred years old. Several of the rings, however, were destroyed by bulldozers during the elk-trapping operations. These constitute some of the few stone alignments found in the park. The trail from the elk trap follows the ridge that parallels Crystal Creek to the fossil forest near the top of the ridge. Mormon, or fossil, crickets line the trail in late July or early August. The other trail begins a mile before the bridge on the south side of the road. This trail goes through a few boulders, then straight up the hill to a small fossil tree. From there, the trail continues along the ridge, merging with the Crystal Creek access, entering Douglas fir stands and emerging at a rhyolitic outcropping and three large fossil trees, plus a few stumps and downed trees. A large fossilized redwood tree has an exposed root system that has been weathered and undercut on the downhill side. The summit of Specimen Ridge (7,961 feet) is easily reached by returning to the ridge trail. Bitterroots bloom here in late May or early June. The view from the top includes vistas of the lower Grand Canyon and the Tower Falls area to the south; Tower Junction to the west; and the Lamar River, Slough Creek and their confluence to the north. The 1988 fires swept across the ridge and burned trees, shrubs and grassland on the south-facing slope of Specimen Ridge, but it spared patches of vegetation on the north face. For a longer hike, access the east-west Specimen Ridge Trail (see Specimen Ridge Trail for description) from the summit.

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Lamar Valley Trail Length: 5.3 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,600 feet (80-foot drop). Trailhead: The Soda Butte Trailhead is on the Northeast Entrance Road, between Tower and Cooke City, about 10.75 miles east of Tower Junction, or 4.0 miles east of the Lamar Ranger Station. Two trailheads exist for this valley hike. Both are within a quarter mile of each other, but the first is 2.8 miles from Lamar Ranger Station. This trailhead is not recommended for hikers because it generally is used by horse packers accessing the upper Lamar region and the Absaroka (pronounced Ab-sore-ka) Range. Horses crossing Soda Butte Creek have no difficulty but hikers will get their feet wet. About a mile and a quarter east is the hikers' access. This trail crosses a wooden bridge and continues south along the eastern edge of the Lamar Valley, at the base of Mount Norris. The trail is relatively flat, exposed, and cuts through sagebrush and bunchgrasses. Just before the trail climbs a steep bench or terrace, the horse trail joins the hikers' trail. Then, at the base of the bench, the trail junction for Upper Lamar—including Cache, Calfee and Miller creeks—splits to the east, and heads upvalley. The Lamar Valley Trail fords the Lamar River toward the base of Amethyst Mountain (9,614 feet) and the start of the Specimen Ridge Trail (see Specimen Ridge Trail for description). This is a major river ford, so spring or early summer crossing, when the river is in full force, is not recommended. By late summer and fall, the river is down, but it still can be treacherous to cross. The cobble river bottom is uneven and slippery— old sneakers are the best footwear for fording here. After climbing the river bank, the trail is well-marked for the Specimen Ridge Trail, but the Lamar Valley Trail is very faint. Game trails crisscross the Lamar Valley, and the best plan is to follow worn trails and maintain a sense of direction by paralleling the Lamar river and valley. The Lamar Valley Trail provides one of the best opportunities to walk among and view wildlife in the park. The steep, forested slope on the southern edge of the valley harbors elk and bison during the day. They move in and out of the forest, spending most of their nights in the open, unprotected valley. Visible along the forest edge are veins and arteries of game trails leading to and from the forest and valley. Coyotes also wander along the trails looking for an opportunistic meal. In the winter of 1995, Canada gray wolves, primarily black in color, were introduced into Yellowstone and were released into the Lamar Valley. Several holding pens were built along the valley, out of the public's view, and the wolves were released that spring. Some wolves immediately left the park, while others discovered the advantage of being in the Lamar Valley during elk calving season. Many visitors were able to view the drama of wolves bringing down and disemboweling one or two elk calves a day. If the wolves remain, it will take several years to determine what effect this experiment will have on elk and bison populations. Coyotes have been a major character of the Lamar, but their status certainly will change and they will be displaced. The openness of the Lamar Valley is its uniqueness. To look up and down the valley while hiking and to realize the vast distance to cover by foot is humbling. Near the trails' end, you can see a clump of cottonwoods at a distance. The cottonwood clump shelters the Lamar picnic area. Just before the picnic area is another river ford. This ford is, however, twice as treacherous, since both the Lamar River and Soda Butte Creek merge up-river. Scout for a shallow area to cross, and make sure your pack straps and buckles are unsnapped.

Slough Creek Trail

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Slough Creek Trail Length from Slough Creek Campground to: Buffalo Plateau Trail junction 1.6 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,251 feet (399-foot gain). Trailhead: Located at the entrance to Slough Creek Camp-ground, 1.6 miles down the gravel road north of the Northeast Entrance Road. Slough Creek is a Shangri-la-like valley, where life seems to slow down to match the rhythm of the river. Early trappers, including Osborne Russell and Jim Bridger, trapped at this stream as early as the 1830s. But it was not until the 1860s that a prospecting party venturing up the Yellowstone River named the stream. One member, Ansel Hubble, while on reconnaissance, discovered the creek. When his fellow members asked what type of stream was up ahead, he replied, "Twas but a slough." Slough Creek is a popular fishing destination, even though all fishing in the drainage is catch-and-release. The stream is well-known for its cutthroat trout, and heavy stocking was accomplished between the 1920s and 1950s. Longnose dace and longnose suckers also inhabit the creek. Other than fish, the valley is not well-known for its wildlife. Grizzly bear do, however, frequent the area, especially in early spring and late fall. The only other critters of which to be wary are mosquitoes. Clouds of mosquitoes are very common during moist summers, and this valley ranks as one of the worst for the pesky insects. For the first couple of miles, the trail climbs gradually through a Douglas fir forest until the trail descends into a wide, grassy meadow and to the banks of Slough Creek. At this point. Slough Creek is constricted by the damlike rocky escarpment. Also at this point are the Slough Creek patrol cabins, and just beyond them, the trail junctions. The Buffalo Plateau Trail (see Buffalo Plateau Trail for description) intersects here in a north-south direction. To reach McBride Lake, the north Buffalo Plateau Trail fords the creek and heads about a mile east, via route-finding and bushwhacking, to the lake. Slough Creek can be a dangerous stream to ford early before mid-July. Use wise judgment before deciding to ford. From the junction, the Slough Creek Trail continues east. The trail actually is a twotrack road. At the upper end of Slough Creek, outside the park boundary, is the Silver Tip Ranch. Summer residents of the old ranch haul supplies by horsedrawn wagons, which form the ruts. Just after the junction, the trail diverges from the creek and climbs a ridge. After descending the ridge, the trail enters another open meadow and rejoins the creek at the Bliss Pass Trail junction. Bliss Pass Trail climbs a steep continuous uphill—gaming 2,573 feet—to Bliss Pass and descends into Pebble Creek (see Pebble Creek Trail for description). The Slough Creek Trail continues north for about three more miles to the park boundary, and another tenth of a mile beyond that to Silver Tip Ranch.

Trout Lake Length: 0.5 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 6,800 feet (ISO-foot gain). Trailhead: The trailhead is located on the west side of the Northeast Entrance highway, about 1.3 miles south of Pebble Creek Campground or 17.5 miles northeast of Tower Junction, The trailhead is unmarked, but there is a vehicle turnout. Trout Lake is known for its excellent fishing, but also is a great short hike. The trail begins from the turnout and immediately begins a steep climb, with switchbacks, over a small ridge covered with Douglas fir and lodgepole pine. At the top of the ridge is a large Douglas fir and the first view of Trout Lake. At the outlet is an eight- to nine-foot dam constructed between 1919 and 1950 when Trout Lake, then known as Fish Lake, operated as a fish hatchery. Originally, cutthroat trout were spawned here but, by 1934, rainbow trout were planted to provide eggs for other park lakes. By the early 1940s, rainbow-cutthroat hybrids were discovered, and the lake was opened for fishing in 1994. The lake water is clear and only 17 feet at its deepest, but dense aquatic vegetation grows around the edge making it difficult to catch the large trout

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aquatic vegetation grows around the edge, making it difficult to catch the large trout that abound here. Ducks also prefer this shallow lake, rich in aquatic food. A perimeter trail crosses the outlet and also leads to Buck and Shrimp lakes which contain few, if any, fish. From Trout Lake are great views of The Thunderer (10,554 feet) to the east, past open meadows to Mt. Hornaday (10,036 feet) to the north and Druid Peak (9,583 feet) to the west, just beyond the immediate rocky cliff.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

Copyright @1999-2003 Yellowstone Media Group, Inc

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Hiking Yellowstone Park - West Thumb

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W

est Thumb is rich in history. It dates back to a romantic period at the turn of the nineteenth century when dudes traveled in luxury. After spending several nights at Old Faithful, they would don canvas dusters for their stagecoach ride to West Thumb, where they stopped for lunch and toured the basin before boarding the steamer, Zillah. The launch then would carry them across Yellowstone Lake to the comforts of Lake Hotel. Until recently. West Thumb was the hub of activity with an original Haynes photo shop and a Hamilton general store. They were destroyed in the early 1980s and replaced with 1980s-style, landscape-designer berms. Grant Village is a relatively new development, cut from pristine forest and built on three primary cutthroat spawning streams in prime grizzly-bear habitat. It is the result of the National Park Service's "Mission 66" projects. The first installation at Grant Village was the very expensive marina, the pride of the National Park Service. Within two years after installation, however, the marina was unusable because of complete structural failure. Today, the marina lays in ruins and still is unusable but no attempt has been made to reclaim this site. Because Grant Village is a relatively new development and no thought was given to its location and layout, this site lacks trails from the immediate area, except for the short lakeshore walk. But outside of Grant Village are some of Yellowstones more challenging and unusual trails. Some wander along the Continental Divide or to large remote backcountry lakes and others cross barren, rippled lava flows or lead to geyser basins and waterfalls.

West Thumb Geyser Basin Trail Length: 1.0 mile, loop. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,760 feet (20-foot loss). Trailhead: Begins at the West Thumb Geyser Basin parking area. West Thumb Geyser Basin is one of the smallest, yet concentrated, geyser basins in Yellowstone, but its location along the shore of Yellowstone Lake ranks it as the most scenic. The 1870 Washburn Expedition gave West Thumb its name because of the thumb-like projection of Yellow-stone Lake. The trail begins from the parking area and is a short figure-eight-shaped boardwalk looping through the basin and along the shore of the lake. Fishing Cone is one of the basin's most popular features; its location on the shoreline and its symmetrical cone were popularized by early stories of "boiled trout." Abyss Pool—the deepest in Yellowstone— is noted for its color and depth.

Observation Hill Trail Length: 0.4 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,810 feet (290-foot gain). Trailhead: Located several hundred feet south of the West Thumb Junction on the

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South Entrance Road. The location is marked only by a small turnout on the west side of the road; there are no signs. The trail heads west, uphill from the road. This trail was a popular short hike for guests staying at the West Thumb cabins, which were located in what is now a reclaimed field directly across the road from the trailhead. In this area at the West Thumb junction were a handful of cabins, a Hamilton General Store and one of the original, historic Haynes photo shops. They were all torn down in the early 1980s as an effort by the National Park Service to channel visitor interest to their new facilities at Grant Village. The Park Service response to the outcry about removal of West Thumb was that it was removing structures to protect the groundwater and fragile features of the thermal basin. But the demolition and new construction of the paved surface of the parking area and the creation of berms, trenches and other landscaping construction altered the dynamics of the thermal basin drastically, enough that it has never recovered. Since the removal of the West Thumb cabins, this trail has seen very little traffic and has become faint and somewhat in disrepair. But for those staying in nearby Grant Village, this hike and the Riddle Lake Trail (see Riddle Lake Trail for description) provide the only hikes in the immediate area. From the road, the trail leads uphill to the west and enters a sparse lodgepole forest. After a short, steep hike, the trail emerges at a small opening on a knoll that provides a panoramic view of West Thumb Geyser Basin, Yellowstone Lake, Grant Village development and, on the distant skyline, the Absaroka Range.

Grant Village Lakeshore Stroll Length: 1.0 mile, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,735 feet (no substantial elevation change). Trailhead: Located at the Grant Village Campground. This short stroll is the only walk from the Grant Village area. The east-shore stroll is accessible from the amphitheater, and the trail crosses the metal swinging bridge— over an important cutthroat spawning stream—before it descends to the lake. From there, the trail follows the lakeshore to the abandoned marina. The black-sand shore is composed of ground black obsidian sand. The shore has hosted explorers, trappers and Native Americans, whose projectile points (arrowheads) still are found occasionally along the beach. Another haphazard trail partially follows the old shore-line road, removed shortly after development of Grant Village in the early 1970s. It is a short stroll, unless the outlet to Big Thumb Creek can be forded, or circumnavigated via the highway bridge. In the spring water can be more than waist-deep. This creek also is a major spawning area for cutthroat trout, which can be seen moving upstream during spring to the small, rippled tributaries, where they will construct redds—fish nests—in the sandy, gravel bottoms.

Riddle Lake Trail Length: 1.75 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,980 feet (60-foot loss). Trailhead: Riddle Lake Trailhead, located about 2.5 miles south of Grant Village junction, on the Continental Divide. A classic Yellowstone hike. This trail wanders among lodgepole pines along the Continental Divide. It is unusual terrain—hummocky, yet relatively level. In this indecisive terrain, water stands in sedge-filled bogs before parting either to the Pacific or Atlantic drainages. Riddle Lake is a small lake, partially covered with pond lilies and rushes and, as a result, provides habitat for moose, elk, bears, loons, sandhill cranes swans great blue herons and a variety of ducks From the lake are

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sandhill cranes, swans, great blue herons, and a variety of ducks. From the lake are beautiful vistas of the Red Mountains and Mount Sheridan. Riddle Lake once was stocked with fish from the Yellowstone Lake fish hatchery, and the lake was a popular fishing destination. Surprisingly, fish wintered in this small, relatively shallow (27 feet deep) lake and survived long after fish-planting efforts were abandoned. Because it no longer is stocked and because of heavy fishing pressure, however, the lake no longer supports a large fish population. Since the early 1990s, the lake has been closed to fishing. The first known description of Riddle Lake was written by Frank Bradley of the 1872 Hayden Survey. This "mythical lake among the mountains" was believed by early explorers and hunters to flow to both oceans. It was a riddle to them as to which direction this lake actually flowed. Did it flow to the south into the Snake River or north into the Yellowstone River? The actual outlet is not clearly defined because water percolates and seeps through a marshy area along the northeast shore. The drainage eventually collects and flows to Yellow-stone Lake. This creek was discovered in 1885 by the geological Hague parties. It solved the riddle to Riddle Lake and thus was named Solution Creek.

Lewis Channel - Shoshone Lake Trail

Length: 6.0 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,785 feet (6-foot gain). Trailhead: Located on the western side of the South Entrance Road, just north of Lewis Lake and 14.5 miles north of the South Entrance. It is across from and slightly north of the Heart Lake Trailhead in dense lodgepole pine and also is known as the Dogshead Trailhead. This trail marks the scenic route to Shoshone Lake. It follows the channel between Shoshone and Lewis lakes and provides access for hikers who are following canoers up the channel. The trail begins at the Doghshead Trailhead but splits from that trail (see Dogshead Trail for description), shortly afterward. At this point, the trail maneuvers around the northern swampy section of Lewis Lake, then skirts along the shore before cutting northwest to the river channel. Most of the trail is up and down as it traverses ancient lava flows, but even with the irregular terrain, only 6 feet is gained overall. About halfway along the trail is a popular diving rock at a sharp bend in the channel. The pool at the base of the rhyolitic cliff provides a great swimming hole on hot summer days. But the water is cold, and the cliff itself—with its telltale whitened points—acts as a lightning rod during thunderstorms, so avoid it on stormy afternoons. Canoers, hikers and swimmers also should take extreme caution on the channel and lakes in general, as lightning strikes are very common in this area. Some areas of the trail are faint, and there may be several parallel trails in others. This was never a properly placed trail but was derived from repeated use. Common route finding and directional sense are necessary when the trail becomes misleading. The trail merges at the outlet of Shoshone Lake with the Shoshone Lake Trail (see Shoshone Geyser Basin Trail for description) and the Delacy Creek Trail (see Delacy Creek Trail for description).

Dogshead Trail to Shoshone Lake Length: 4.25 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,785 feet (6-foot gain). Trailhead: Same trailhead as Lewis Channel access, 14.5 miles north of the South Entrance, in a dense stand of lodgepole pine on the west side of the South Entrance Road. It also is known as the Dogshead Trailhead.

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This trail is the preferred access to Shoshone Lake. It is the shortest and most direct route to the lake, though it is not as interesting as the Channel Trail. Most of the trail is through a dense and monocultural lodge-pole pine forest with occasional patches of burned forest from the 1988 fires. Near the trailhead, the trail splits in three directions. The northern trail is the Dogshead Creek Trail, or part of the South Entrance Trail. It followed an old road and eventually terminated at West Thumb, but it has not been maintained for decades and now is in a state of disrepair. The old trail is still marked with the presence of a power line. The southern trail leads to the Lewis Channel Trail and the middle trail is the Shoshone Lake Trail. It reaches the lake at the patrol cabin near the lakes outlet, where the trail connects with Delacy Creek Trail (see Delacy Creek Trail for description) of Yellowstone and constitute the largest roadless wilderness area in the 48 contiguous states. Exploring this region properly by backpacking or horsepacking generally requires a week or more. The northern trail to Heart Lake requires several river and stream fords. The first across the Snake River is treacherous because of swift and deep water during spring and early summer, but it becomes more manageable in late summer and fall. The trail passes two small lakes. Basin Creek and Sheridan, before reaching Heart Lake after about 7 miles. An additional 3 miles around the western shore of the lake reaches Heart Lake Geyser Basin and the trail junction, which leads to the Lewis/ Heart Lake Trailhead.

Beula Lake Trail Length: 2.4 miles, one way. Elevation change: Trailhead at 7,225 feet (152-foot gain). Trailhead: Located near the inlet of Grassy Lake Reservoir on the north side of Grassy Lake Road, which begins at Flagg Ranch. The trailhead is marked by a small but steep parking area amid the lodgepole pines. The trail begins with a short, steep ascent through lodgepole pines and subalpine fir to an undulating plateau. In early summer, the forest floor is dotted with wildflowers, including heartleaf arnica and serviceberry. Shortly after reaching the top of the plateau, and after about a half mile from the trailhead, is the southern park boundary. It is marked by bright orange tree flashings and a swath cut through the trees, which also marks the South Boundary Trail. From that juction, most of the hike is across the plateau through lodgepole pine. A prescribed burn (artificial burning) was conducted by the National Park Service during the early 1990s beginning at the boundary north. It was an unsuccessful burn and most of the down trees were charred only on the outside. These black tree trunks now are impervious to decay and will remain this way for centuries to come. Beula Lake is a small forest lake, a little more than 100 acres in surface size and about 36 feet deep. The shoreline is sedge- or tree-lined, with the southern end forming a swampy edge covered in pond lilies. A large beaver lodge also is located at the southern edge. The lake is a popular destination for local Idahoans who make the one-hour hike to take advantage of the great catch-and-release fishing. The lake was believed to have been barren offish at the turn of the twentieth century. But between 1935 and 1944, an estimated 50,000 cutthroat fry and more than a million eyed-eggs from the Yellowstone Lake hatchery were planted in Beula Lake. The lake offers excellent spawning grounds, and the fish have been very successful in establishing and propagating themselves.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

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Yellowstone Park - Tower Tour

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Natural Highlights of the Tower-Roosevelt Area - National Park Service Specimen Ridge Specimen Ridge, located along the Northeast Entrance Road east of Tower Junction, contains the largest concentration of petrified trees in the world. There are also excellent samples of petrified leaf impressions, conifer needles, and microscopic pollen from numerous species no longer growing in the park. Specimen Ridge provides a superb "window" into the distant past when plant communities and climatic conditions were much different than today. Petrified Tree The Petrified Tree, located near the Lost Lake trailhead, is an excellent example of an ancient redwood, similar to many found on Specimen Ridge, that is easily accessible to park visitors. The interpretive message here also applies to those trees found on Specimen Ridge. Tower Fall Tower Fall is the most recognizable natural feature in the district. The 132-foot drop of Tower Creek, framed by eroded volcanic pinnacles has been documented by park visitors from the earliest trips of Europeans into the Yellowstone region. Its idyllic setting has inspired numerous artists, including Thomas Moran. His painting of Tower Fall played a crucial role in the establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872. The nearby Bannock Ford on the Yellowstone River was an important travel route for early Native Americans as well as for early European visitors and miners up to the late 19th century. Calcite Springs This grouping of thermal springs along the Yellowstone River signals the downstream end of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone. The geothermally altered rhyolite inspired the artist Moran; his paintings of this scene were among those presented to Congress in 1872, leading to the establishment of the park. The steep, columnar basalt cliffs on the opposite side of the river from the overlook are remnants of an ancient lava flow, providing a window into the past volcanic forces that shaped much of the Yellowstone landscape. The gorge and cliffs provide habitat for numerous wildlife species including bighorn sheep, red-tailed hawks, and osprey.

Historic Highlights of the Tower-Roosevelt Area - National Park Service The Buffalo Ranch The Lamar Buffalo Ranch was built in the early part of the century in an effort to increase the herd size of the few remaining bison in Yellowstone, preventing the feared extinction of the species. Buffalo ranching operations continued at Lamar until the 1950s. The valley was irrigated for hay pastures, and corrals and fencing were scattered throughout the area. Remnants of irrigation ditches, fencing, and water troughs can still be found. Four remaining buildings from the original ranch compound

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g g g g p are contained within the Lamar Buffalo Ranch Historic District (two residences, the bunkhouse, and the barn) and are on the National Register of Historic Places. In the early 1980s, old tourist cabins from Fishing Bridge were brought to Lamar to be used for Yellowstone Institute classes. In 1993, a cabin replacement project, funded by the Yellowstone Association, was begun. At this time all of the old cabins have been replaced with new insulated and heated structures. The facility is also used in the spring and fall for the Park Service's residential environmental education program, Expedition: Yellowstone! You are welcome to drive by to view the historic buffalo ranch, however, there are no facilities open to the general public at this location. The Tower Ranger Station & Roosevelt National Historic District The Tower Ranger Station, though not on the National Register of Historic Places, is a remodeled reconstruction of the second Tower Soldier Station, which was built in 1907. The Roosevelt Lodge was constructed in 1920 and has been determined eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. The Roosevelt National Historic District also includes the Roosevelt cabins. Interestingly, one of the reasons Roosevelt Lodge was nominated for the National Register was due to its important role in early park interpretation. Pleasant Valley Pleasant Valley was the sight of "Uncle John" Yancey's Pleasant Valley Hotel, one of the earliest lodging facilities in Yellowstone. The hotel and outbuildings were built between 1884 and 1893 and served early park visitors as well as miners passing through en route to the mining district near Cooke City. Currently, the site is used by the park's main concessioner, Amfac, for their "Old West" cookouts. None of the original buildings remain. The Northeast Entrance Ranger Station The Northeast Entrance Ranger Station was constructed in 1934-35 and is a National Historic Landmark. It's rustic log construction is characteristic of "parkitecture" common in the national parks of the west during that period. The Bannock Trail The Bannock Trail, once used by Native Americans to access the buffalo plains east of the park from the Snake River plains in Idaho, was extensively used from approximately 1840 to 1876. A lengthy portion of the trail extends through the Tower District from the Blacktail Plateau (closely paralleling or actually covered by the existing road) to where it crosses the Yellowstone River at the Bannock Ford upstream from Tower Creek. From the river, the trail's main fork ascends the Lamar River splitting at Soda Butte Creek. From there, one fork ascends the creek before leaving the park. Traces of the trail can still be plainly seen in various locations, particularly on the Blacktail Plateau and at the Lamar-Soda Butte confluence. Archeological Resources There are many archaeological sites in the Tower District. In fact, sites are found in a greater density here than in most other areas of the park. Unfortunately, most have yet to be extensively catalogued or studied.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

Copyright @1999-2003 Yellowstone Media Group, Inc

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HIKING IN YELLOWSTONE It is often said that most tourists who visit the park don't even get fifty yards from the edge of the park road. If you want to do justice to Yellowstone's wonderful beauty, this would be a travesty. Even getting a mile off the road, the people start to disappear and Yellowstone takes on a whole different meaning. Very few people take the time to realize and enjoy this part. Hiking in Yellowstone is definitely worth the effort! The hikes I describe here are some of the ones we have taken in our two summers in the park. For some of the hikes that I have described, there are a lot of different ways to take them. Sometimes we started a hike and turned around before reaching the end. The mileages I have written are not exact. To get a more complete description of how long the hikes are, where they start and other information, I would strongly recommend that you pick up a copy of Mark C. Marschall's book "Yellowstone Trails: A Hiking Guide". For about $6.00 at any visitor center this book is a very good resource. I didn't go anywhere without it. Aside from giving trail descriptions, it gives you information on bears, water treatment, river fords and the like. What I have put together here are my impressions of the hikes that we took, what I liked and didn't like about each. Before doing any of these hikes I suggest buying the Marschall book and checking with the nearest visitor center. They will be able to tell you about recent bear activity, river fords, trail conditions and any other information you may need before setting out. I want to reiterate the fact that what I have described here are just my opinions of the hikes that I have taken. I by no means want to discourage anyone from taking any of these hikes but rather I would like to encourage people to find out more. It is the total experience that makes Yellowstone so special and I wouldn't want anyone to miss a thing. Yellowstone's backcountry is a world full of treasures just waiting to be explored. Have fun!

Yellowstone Hikes To see a picture of many of our hikes, click on the camera icon. Artists Paint Pots (1mi) This short and popular hike, through a burn area from the fires of 1988, provides a nice close-up view of one of Yellowstone's thermal features. The unique mud pots are quite a sight.

Fairy Falls (5mi) We started the Fairy Falls hike off of Fountain Flats drive north of Biscuit Basin. It travels through burned forest with very little variation in scenery. Like so many hikes in Yellowstone, this trail was not very well marked. To make matters worse, we did this hike in early summer and the ground was very wet, even marshy in areas. When we finally got to the falls, a small patch of snow could be seen near the top. Although the fall is very high, the actual water flow was very thin. From the trail you can get to the bottom of the falls where you can feel its mist. The hike was fair but not recommended until midsummer when the trail dries out.

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Grebe Lake (6mi) The Grebe lake hike starts off the Canyon-Norris road. A hike through burned forest, the scenery was not very impressive and the lake was not incredibly beautiful or big. It is a nice hike to get off the road and away from people but there was nothing spectacular about it.

Shoshone Lake (6mi) This hike is much more beautiful than Grebe lake. Starting from the Delacy Creek trailhead on the West Thumb-Old Faithful road, we wound through lodgepole pines and meadows following a meandering stream. On the way to the lake we saw a porcupine along the trail. The trail is relatively flat and is definitely worth the view of the beautiful lake.

Lone Star Geyser (5mi) If you are a geyser fan, this is a must see. The hike starts off the West Thumb-Old Faithful road just east of the pull off for Kepler Cascades. It is an old service road and one of the few bike trails in the park. If you don't do it in mid-May with three feet of snow on the ground (which we have done twice), this hike is flat and easy. The hike follows a stream almost the whole way. We have been either lucky or misfortunate, depending on your interpretation, to have seen numerous moose on this trail. The geyser is composed of a tall cone and stands prominently away from the rest of the scenery. In front of the geyser you will find a wooden stand with a book in it. This is a log to keep track of when the geyser goes off. It also gives some general information about the geyser. It erupts pretty regularly about every three hours. When it does, it is quite a show. One of the most impressive geysers that I have seen, the hike is definitely worth it.

Mystic Falls (2mi) This hike starts beyond the boardwalks on the far end of Biscuit Basin. A mile to the falls, the trail skirts burned forest but is pretty none the less. The falls is a beautiful sight. If you are up to more, you can continue on past the falls up a series of switch backs to Mystic Falls overlook. This is not supose to be that long but it feels like it. It is a climb and the trail gets kind of confusing but if you make it, the view is spectacular. On top you can see Biscuit Basin, as well as the Upper Geyser Basin across the road. From here we saw the eruption of Artemesia geyser in the Upper Geyser Basin. Elephant Back (4mi) The two mile hike to the top of the Elephant back is quite a hike. You pretty much go straight up for two miles. Once on the top, the view is breathtaking in more ways than one. When you rest, catch your breath and take in the view, it is amazing. You can see out over Yellowstone Lake, Pelican Valley and the Absaroka Mountain Range. You almost feel like you are on top of the world. The hike starts near Lake Village, and is known for bear activity. Because of this, the trail is often closed due to bears. Check at the Fishing Bridge Visitor center for details. The view is worth the strenuous hike.

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Tower Falls (1mi) This one mile round-trip hike to the bottom of Tower Falls is not as easy as the mileage would lead you to believe. The trail is heavily used and is quite steep in some parts. The view is spectacular from beneath. From there you get a sense of how powerful and immense the falls really is. Feeling the mist is an aspect of the falls that you cannot get from the viewpoint at the top. This is a worthwhile, short hike.

Hellroaring Creek (10mi) There are a number of different starting points for this trail. We did parts of this hike both summers. The first summer we started at Roosevelt junction. This made it a 10 mile round-trip hike. The scenery on this hike is great. It is very different than the type you will find in the southern part of the park but it is beautiful none the less. Most of it is through open sagebrush country. If the sun is glaring, it is an unbelievably hot hike. This we found out the second summer when we started at the regular trailhead and spent three days and two nights in the backcountry before reaching Gardiner, MT. There were many nice, sandy beach backcountry campsites that we were able to take advantage of on our long trip. No matter where you start, you will cross the mighty Yellowstone river via a sturdy suspension bridge. Once coming to Hellroaring Creek, you can go further by fording the river. There is also a bridge over the creek, but that will take you about three miles out of the way. We stopped at the creek the first time. The trail to that point gave us a good taste of the area and made the hike a manageable ten miles. Although neither time did we see much wildlife, other than fresh bear tracks and scat as well as many skeletons, it was a very pretty hike. Take bug spray though. The biting flies were ruthless!!

Pebble Creek (12mi one way) The Pebble Creek hike, located in the Northeast corner of the park was so beautiful we did this 12 mile hike both summers in Yellowstone. To complete the whole hike, you will need two cars, one at the trailhead and one at Pebble Creek campground. Starting from the picnic area, the first mile of the hike climbs over 1,000 feet. A seemingly endless and breathless mile, once you reach the plateau, it is relatively smooth sailing from there. The view from this vantage point is spectacular. This point in the hike is a good time to rest, get something to eat and take in the view. From there you veer away from the road and into an open valley. Surrounded on both sides by high ground, this area is beautiful, especially when the flowers are in bloom. This hike gave us our first experience at stream crossings in Yellowstone. My brother showed us the proper technique and, although some fords were high, we got through them no problem. From the open meadows you finish the hike in lodgepole pine forests until you reach the camp ground. The scenery is great and the solitude you find on this scarcely used trail is unimaginable.

Pelican Valley (16mi) The Pelican Valley hike, a 16 mile loop trail, showed us a lot about our hiking abilities. This hike starts off the Fishing Bridge-east entrance road, a few miles east of Fishing Bridge. A notorious bear frequenting area, this hike has many restrictions. You can only do the hike between 9 am and 7 pm and this restriction is heavily enforced. It is also recommended that you hike in groups of four or more. Although the hike has no big ascents or descents, it is not totally flat. Hiking through sparse forest in the

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beginning, most of the hike is a circle around a huge open valley. The scenery is very pretty. About the half way point on the loop you come to a ranger cabin. Although there wasn't a lot of wildlife along the trail, we were warned by rangers that a sow grizzly and two cubs were in the area. We also encountered a couple buffalo, and an agressive elk. Sixteen miles in one day for us proved to be a struggle but the hike is pretty no matter how far you take it.

Union Falls (15mi) This hike is located on the edge of the southern border of Yellowstone. To reach the trailhead, you have to take a very narrow dirt road starting at Flagg Ranch just south of the park for ten miles. From experience, I want to warn people to be very careful driving this road. On the far end of Grassy Lake Resevoir, you will find the trailhead for Union Falls. For the first mile the trail travels through a densely forested area until you reach the Falls river. This river ford is often high and dangerous, most of the time impassible before August. With sandals on and walking stick in hand, we crossed the river cautiously. From here, the trail travels up and down, crossing more streams over fallen logs. The last stretch of the hike before the falls is a climb but it is worth it. Union Falls is the most impressive waterfall I have ever seen. Although you have to hike 15 miles round-trip to see it, it is definitely worth the effort. Two rivers join at this single spot and plunge to the earth below. The sight is almost indescribable. Seeing the falls is well worth the miles you have hiked but there is also a side attraction. About a half a mile before you reach the falls, there is a well worn trail off to your left that goes about 3/4 of a mile and ends up at a swimming hole. This hole, containing a small waterfall, is heated by thermal runoff. Not too hot and not too cold, a dip in the water is a refreshing and relaxing way to work up energy for the long hike back. This is another hike we did both summers in Yellowstone and it is my favorite hike in the park.

Mount Washburn (6mi) This six mile round-trip hike is very popular. There are two ways to take this hike. You can either start from the Chittenden Road which is shorter and steeper or from the Dunraven picnic area, which we did, that is longer but not as steep. Although we have never seen them, they say there is a chance to see bighorn sheep on the hike. When the flowers are in bloom this hike is spectacular. Even without these two things, this hike is worth it. Hiking along an old road, the trail is nice but steep. When you reach the top, there is a tower in which you can go into. There, they have a sign-in book and a map of the major attractions of Yellowstone. You can see pretty much everything from there. It is a spectacular view. Often quite windy on top, take a jacket along even in the warmest of weather. The hike down is pleasant, especially after the rewarding view.

Lava Creek (8.5mi) This trail starts near Mammoth campground and leads to Undine Falls. The hike parallels the Gardiner river for a ways and is surrounded by massive hills. Through sage brush flats, this area is very different from most of Yellowstone's landscapes. We stopped at Undine Falls which is beautiful. Walking to it makes it even better, but if you don't want to hike, you can see the falls from a pull-out off the road.

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Knowles Falls (12mi) Knowles Falls is another hike similar to that of Lava Creek. Through sagebrush area and forest, this hike eventually joins up with the Hellroaring Creek trail which was discussed earlier. We crossed the Yellowstone river by bridge and made it to the falls. Because the river was so high, the falls actually looked more like a rapid. Despite this disappointment, it was a pretty hike.

Solfatara Creek (12mi) This hike starts from the Norris campground and is not well maintained. When I asked at the visitor center about it, they weren't real sure what it was like. All they could tell me was that it hadn't been cleared in two years. This meant we would have to deal with a lot of downed trees. Even though a challenge, we thought it would be worth it. The hike goes through burned forest area most of the way. It comes to a small thermal spring area which was unsightly and had a very bad smell. About a mile from the end of the trail, we came to Lake of the Woods. At that point we could no longer see where the trail went. There were downed trees all over the place and we saw no more markers to guide us. Worried that we would get lost, we turned around. Out of curiousity when we got back to the car, we drove to the other trailhead and tried to see where the trail was. We came to Amphitheater Springs which was a pretty thermal feature but we still could not find the trail. In total, we probably missed a half of a mile of the trail. Most of the trail is barren and at points hard to follow. The thermal features were interesting but this is not a trail I would recommend. Osprey Falls (8mi???) Osprey falls was one of my favorite trails of the summer. It starts at the Bunsen Peak trailhead just south of Mammoth. The trail itself is not all that interesting but the end result is. The trail gets very steep for about a mile. Here you drop over 800 feet into the canyon below on a series of switchbacks. Taken slowly these are okay, but the trail is often slippery and with very loose rock, it can be very dangerous. You can't see the falls until you are right there and what an awesome sight it is. At the bottom, take a rest, enjoy the falls, and relax before thinking about climbing back up the canyon. This tough hike is definitely worth seeing the beautiful and powerful falls. The question marks on the milage means that there are numerous discrepancies about the actual miles of the hike.

Slough Creek (4mi) This trail starts from the Slough Creek Campground in the Lamar Valley. Not a flat hike, it can be difficult at times, especially in the beginning. In about two miles you reach a flat area called the "first meadows" and it is absolutely beautiful. There are tall cliffs and open meadows as far as you can see. A stream meanders through the area, making it picture perfect. We took in the view for a while and then turned around. This short hike was very rewarding.

Natural Bridge (2mi) This is a two mile round trip hike starting just south of Bridge Bay campground. It is a very flat and easy hike which leads you to a natural bridge carved out of the land. It is nothing like you would find in

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Arches National Park but it is a neat geological structure.

Washburn Hot Springs (9.5mi) This hike starts just before you reach Inspiration point on the canyon rim road. From the glacial boulder trailhead, you travel along the canyon rim for a ways. A nice view of a thin stream of water called Silver Cord Cascade can be seen across the canyon. A little ways further, the trail forks, one trail going down the canyon called seven mile hole and the other leading towards Mt. Washburn. Here you veer away from the canyon and into forests and open meadows. The flowers here were very pretty. The hot springs were quite a sight. Not wanting to get too close, we stayed on the trail but you can get a close up view of the springs even from there. The smoke and the bubbling mud are neat.

Lake Overlook (2mi) This short trail starts at West Thumb. It climbs away from the lake and up a hill, passing some small thermal features along the way. The view from the top is very nice. Here you can see the lake, Grant Village and West Thumb below. Although you do climb to the vantage point, it is a very nice, moderately easy trail.

Monument Geyser Basin (1.8mi) This trail starts at the Gibbon River Bridge. This short hike is not an easy one. It goes straight up for 500 feet after leaving the Gibbon River. Very steep, this hike takes awhile. Once on top, you get a nice view of the meandering Gibbon river. The prominent cones of the now dormant geysers are very neat to see. Reminded that the cone of a geyser grows only one inch every 100 years, these tall cones are impressively old. This hike is a very tough climb and, if not interested in the geyser cones, it is probably not worth it.

Lost Falls (0.5mi) This very short hike is unmarked by a trailhead but it is easy to find. It starts right behind the Roosevelt lodge. A short walk will get you to this falls, which is not spectacular but is a nice sight. In August, we found rasberries very plentiful along the trail.

Lost Lake (1.7mi one way) This short trail can be started either behind Roosevelt Lodge or in the parking area for Petrified tree. We started at one end and ended at the other. It is a nice out of the way trail which takes you by an enlongated lake covered with lily pads. Jenny Lake (Grand Teton National Park) (4mi)

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Starting from the Jenny Lake visitor center, you travel along the lake until you reach Hidden Falls. This is a very nice waterfall not far from the lake. Beyond Hidden Falls is Inspiration Point which takes you up to a vantage point overlooking the lake. The view is pretty. The Jenny Lake trail is not entirely flat, but it is relatively easy. A heavily used trail, expect to see lots of people.

Cascade Canyon (Grand Teton National Park) (11. 5mi) This trail also starts from the Jenny Lake area. It is beyond Hidden Falls and Inspiration Point, leading away from the lake and into the mountains. The scenery is awesome. With the towering mountains on either side, you hike in an open valley. On both sides you can see large cascades coming down the mountains from the snowmelt. It is picturesque. Hoping to make it to Lake Solitude, we fell short but will definitely try again. This hike is one of the best in the area!

(Sometimes you wish there would be a neon sign at the end of the trail to reasure you that you were almost there!)

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Enter Yellowstone N. P. via the entrances described in the text below:

FIREHOLE [FIRE]: Firehole River Canyon in Yellowstone N.P. is a great place to spend a few hours and get a respite fr It includes rapids emptying into a deep pool as well as shallow sections outside the current (all should be careful to ke current - A GIRL DIED HERE IN 2003 JUMPING INTO THE CURRRENT AND GETTING TRAPPED UNDER AN OVERHAN DON'T DO IT.) PHOTO 1 , PHOTO 2. The water is warm for this elevation because the river contains the runoff from ma features, including Old Faithful. Portable toilets are available (as of summer 2001). Camp at Madison campground nea near the West Yellowstone entrance in order to be near the swimming.

To get here: (Distances are rough approximations) From Madison Junction near the West entrance to Yellowstone N.P Old Faithful. After about a mile, go right onto the scenic side road at the sign "Firehole River Canyon" (a one-way road hole is about 1.5 miles ahead on the right. There is parking further on past (south of) the swimming place. LAT, LON [N lon=-110.8675(source: DeLorme) (accuracy: approximate) LINK TO TOPOZONE MAP , LINK TO MAPQUEST MAP. Very

BOILING RIVER [BOIL]: A short walk (.5 miles each way) along the Gardner River to a wonderfully fun place where a st degree water called Boiling River comes mysteriously out of the ground (thought to be the outflow of Mammoth Hot S over ledges into the very cold Gardiner River. Numerous visitors take the short walk to a section of the Gardner River heated streams feed into the Gardner River. The combination of the boiling water with the cold river create a warm sw area is closed early in the season when the Gardner River is above a safe level for swimming. BE CAREFUL- DO NOT OTHERWISE GET INTO THE BOILING RIVER STREAM- IT IS SCALDING HOT! PHOTO 1 , PHOTO 2.

To get here: A short distance north of Mammouth Hot Springs on RT 89 (near the Yellowstone North entrance at Gardi sign indicating the 45th parallel of latitude. The entrance to the large Boiling River parking area is immediately north o no Boiling River sign on the road.) Park here and walk along the well-worn path about .5 miles to the place in the river rock pools all along the bank. Try out the various pools until you find one that not too hot nor too cool but just right fo fun place. LAT, LON [NAD27] lat=44.98503, lon=-110.68922 (source: DeLorme) (accuracy: approximate) LINK TO TOPO TO MAPQUEST MAP.Very confident. Verified.

KELLY WARM SPRINGS [KELL]: OK, these are not the greatest hot springs in the west (the temp is only "warm" and it shoreline) BUT the view is fantastic (the Grand Tetons in all their glory - SEE PHOTO ), they are big enough to actually access and shallow enough for the kids. It is south of Yellowstone and east of the Grand Tetons in the Jackson Hole a LAT, LON [NAD27] lat=43.63950, lon=-110.61631(source: DeLorme) (accuracy: exact) LINK TO TOPOZONE MAP , LINK MAP. Very confident. Verified.

To get here from Yellowstone, take RT 89/287 south out of the park. At Moran Junction, take RT 191/26/89 south. Go ab turn east (left) on Antelope Flats Rd. (before you get to Moose Junction). Proceed approximately 3.25 miles to the seco (also Antelope Flats Road). Make the right turn and proceed approximately 2.4 miles and turn left onto Gros Ventre Ro than .5 mile. Pond is located on the south side of the road. Parking area is located on the North side of the road. Park s rest room located in the parking area.

To get here from Jackson: Take RT 191/26/89 north about 7 miles then turn east onto Gros Ventre Rd.. Proceed approx the little town of Kelly and follow Gros Ventre Road to the north approximately 1 mile from the turn in town. Turn Righ Gros Ventre Road) and proceed less that .5 mile. Pond is located on the south side of the road. Parking area is located of the road. Park service maintained rest room located in the parking area.

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Yellowstone Waterfalls - Roadside Waterfalls

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Considering the majesty of Tower, Upper and Lower Yellowstone Falls, it is hard tobelieve that among the most underrated features of the park is the waterfalls of Yellowstone. Quite possibly the most waterfalls in the world for such a condensed (if you want to call 2.2 million acres condensed) area. It's no wonder when you consider that the Yellowstone area has the world's most famous fly fishing rivers. The water is coming from somewhere and the backcountry of Yellowstone is filled with spectacular seldom-seen waterfalls and cascades. A lot of these waterfalls are just minutes away from an easy access point.

The following descriptions and photos of 36 previously known Yellowstone waterfalls are just the tip of the iceberg. For a true Yellowstone adventure, and a veritable treasure trove of new Yellowstone information, get a hold of a copy of The Guide To Yellowstone Waterfalls And Their Discovery - by Paul Rubinstein, Lee Whittlesey and Mike Stevens. Facts about "The Guide To Yellowstone Waterfalls And Their Discovery." z

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Contains information on 292 individual Yellowstone waterfalls and cascades. Over 275 of these features are greater than 15 feet in height. Includes over 200 color photographs of Yellowstone waterfalls.. Descriptions of over 220, and photographs of over 130 "new" waterfalls that have not appeared in any previous Yellowstone publications. Describes in detail over 25 falls of 100 feet or higher. Describes 12 "new" spectacular falls in the Old Faithful area alone. Provides details on a remote, unexplored section of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone that is littered with huge first class waterfalls. Gives new and exciting perspectives to remote, uncharted sections of the Yellowstone backcountry. 11 Full-Color maps Factboxes (with statistical information) accompanying each waterfall entry for quick reference. Fully footnoted and a lengthy bibliography for researchers and historians.

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Roadside Waterfalls KEPLER CASCADES This set of multiple cascades and waterfalls, 100-150 feet high, is located on the Firehole River above Old Faithful. It was named in 1881 by park superintendent P.W. Norris for Kepler Hoyt, a twelveyear-old boy who toured Yellowstone that year with his father, Governor John Hoyt of Wyoming Territory. These cascades are easily viewed. There is a parking area and overlook alongside the highway.

CASCADES OF THE FIREHOLE A popular series of cascades is located at the head of Firehole Canyon just below an island which was used by Yellowstone's earliest visitors as a camping spot. These cascades can be viewed at the end of the one-way Firehole Canyon Drive.

FIREHOLE FALLS It is not known who actually named Firehole Falls, but members of the 1872 Hayden Survey took note of it. The falls is located in the spectacular Firehole Canyon, a place characterized by jumbled cliffs of rhyolite breccia. Motorists can see its forty-foot drop from a turnout and parking area on the Firehole Canyon Drive. (Parking Available) Numerous unnamed cascades are also visible downstream.

The Wonders of Yellowstone The latest release from Yellowstone Media Group. A comprehensive DVD on all the wonders of Yellowstone brought to you as a video travel guide. A must have when visiting the park or just as a great gift/souvenir to remember your visit. 98 minutes Price.... $24.95 (plus $4.00 shipping - no sales tax) Available Online Now

GIBBON FALLS William Henry Jackson and John Merle Coulter of the second Hayden survey discovered this waterfall of the Gibbon River, h i h 84 f i 1872 Th f i h l Page 171 of 243

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height 84 feet, in 1872. The name for it seems to have early come into general usage from the river. In addition, several early park maps used the name "First Cañon Falls." A viewpoint of Gibbon Falls and a small parking area is located alongside the highway between Madison and Norris Junctions.

VIRGINIA CASCADE Virginia Cascade can be found between Norris and Canyon on the Gibbon River. Ed Lamartine gave the name in 1886. Lamartine was the foreman in charge of building the first road through the area. The feature entranced early visitors who passed Virginia Cascade on the dusty stage road. These visitors saw the falls from its bottom, and that is probably still the best viewpoint.

LOWER FALLS OF THE YELLOWSTONE RIVER This cataract, long believed to be the park's tallest at 308 feet, is also one of the great waterfalls of the North American continent. It has probably had more words written about it than any other park waterfall. Nearly half of the historic visitor reactions to Yellowstone waterfalls that have been collected were written about this cataract and its upstream companion, Upper Falls. Traveling prospectors of the 1860s brought stories back to Montana Territory of a huge waterfall on the Yellowstone River that appeared in frontier newspapers. One such article claimed the falls was "thousands of feet" high while another averred fifteen hundred and called it "the most sublime spot on earth." The 1869 Folsom expedition gave the name to both of the great Yellowstone waterfalls from their positions on the river, and attempted to measure their heights. Their map carried the notation "Lower Falls 350 ft." However early visitors also referred to it as the "Great Fall" or "Grand Fall" of the Yellowstone, Today the park has constructed numerous, accessible viewpoints in which to photograph Lower Falls.

UPPER FALLS OF THE YELLOWSTONE RIVER Upper Falls is the upstream of the two most famous Yellowstone waterfalls. It is 109 feet high. Jim Bridger himself was familiar with this falls, as old-timer James Gemmell has stated that in 1846, he and Bridger visited it. Viewpoints of Upper Falls are accessible on both sides of the canyon, and are a favorite of Yellowstone visitors.

CRYSTAL FALLS A striking, three-step waterfall of Cascade Creek, height 129 feet,

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may be seen from Uncle Tom's Point if one looks to the right (north) of Upper Falls. It was named Crystal Falls in 1870 by Cornelius Hedges of the Washburn expedition. A pool above the falls was noticed early and given the name Grotto Pool by park superintendent P.W. Norris. Crystal Falls is one of the most pleasant surprises in the Canyon area as it is generally overlooked. Walking to Crystal Falls along the North Rim Trail is an enjoyable escape for folks of all ages.

LEWIS FALLS Lewis Falls is a thirty-foot-high drop of the Lewis River about a mile downstream from Lewis Lake. The area was explored in 1872 by the Hayden survey. Due to its location above a highway bridge crossing of the Lewis River, Lewis Falls is one of the park's most photographed waterfalls. It is easily seen from one's car window when driving the south entrance road, and there is a pullout and parking area nearby.

MOOSE FALLS Moose Falls on Crawfish Creek is thirty feet high and was named in 1885 by the Arnold Hague survey in accordance with the philosophy of naming natural features after local fauna. A pullout on the south entrance road just a few hundred yards inside the park's south entrance offers easy access for visitors. The falls can be viewed from either side of the stream if one uses the very short trails provided.

RUSTIC FALLS Named in 1879 by park superintendent P.W. Norris, Rustic Falls on Glen Creek is 47 feet high. Members of the Hayden survey saw it in 1871, and Joshua Crissman photographed it in 1872. The nearby Golden Gate Canyon and Golden Gate Bridge are closely connected to Rustic Falls. The bridge has been rebuilt three times since the original wooden one was erected in 1885, and the canyon received its name from the golden lichens which color its walls.

UNDINE FALLS This three-step waterfall of Lava Creek, height sixty feet, appeared on the cover of National Geographic Magazine for July 1977. It is a multistep falls that consists of three plunges which can be seen from an overlook on the main road.

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Originally called "East Gardner Falls," "Cascade Falls of the East Gardiner," or "Gardiner River Falls," Undine received its present name in 1885 from geologist Arnold Hague. Undine (Webster says it is pronounced UN deen) was named for wise, usually female water spirits from German mythology who lived around waterfalls and who could gain souls by marrying mortal men.

WRAITH FALLS Wraith Falls, a 100-foot gently sloping cascade on Lupine Creek was named in 1885 by members of the Hague parties of the U.S. Geological Survey. Although there is no documentation of the reason for this name, the survey members were apparently reminded of a ghost or spectre in the gossamer rivulets of white water here. There is an easy, half-mile-long trail to this falls, which takes hikers to an overlook that was moved and revamped in the early 1990s. Signs mark the trailhead on the Mammoth-Tower Road about a mile east of the Lava Creek Picnic Area. Keen eyed visitors can even spot this falls in the distance from the upper terraces at Mammoth.

TOWER FALL This "chastely-beautiful" waterfall of Tower Creek, height 132 feet, was called "Little Falls" by fur trappers. Fur trapper Jim Bridger himself gave that information to Father Jean DeSmet who showed it on an 1851 map. Tower Fall was named in 1870 by members of the Washburn party, probably Samuel Hauser, who wrote in his diary: "Campt near the most beautiful falls--I ever saw--I named them 'Tower falls'--from the towers and pinnacles that surround them." Today the Tower Fall area is one of the most congested areas of the park. There is a parking area on the road between Roosevelt and Canyon, but it gets quite crowded in mid-summer. The walk to the overlook is roughly 100 yards, while a more strenuous hike will take the visitor to the base of the falls.

LOST CREEK FALLS Located on Lost Creek just one-quarter mile above Roosevelt Lodge, Lost Creek Falls is forty feet high and an easy walk for Roosevelt visitors. The tranquility of this plunge-type falls is probably its most attractive feature. This falls is especially affected by its loss of water in the autumn. It offers an inviting treat for those willing to take the short walk to view the sheer, dark-colored wall over which the water drops. The easy, well maintained trail ends about 100 yards short of the falls but provides a fine view. Travel beyond the trail is unsteady due to loose footing and steep slopes.

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Yellowstone Waterfalls - Backcountry Waterfalls

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he Backcountry of Yellowstone National Park is filled with unique and seldom seen features. Many day hikers and backpackers in-the-know will seek out their favorite waterfalls or explore new ones. The new book, "The Guide To Yellowstone Waterfalls And Their Discovery", will encourage hikers and seasoned waterfall seekers to check out waterfalls that just recently, were never even known. These "hidden jewels" of Yellowstone have remained in tact as they were since the birth of this great ecosystem. The following are just the tip of what you may find by just parking your vehicle and go exploring.

The Wonders of Yellowstone The latest release from Yellowstone Media Group. A comprehensive DVD on all the wonders of Yellowstone brought to you as a video travel guide. A must have when visiting the park or just as a great gift/souvenir to remember your visit. 98 minutes Price.... $24.95 (plus $4.00 shipping - no sales tax) Available Online Now

CAVE FALLS (On-trail, w/ road access) This waterfall of the Falls River in the southwest corner of the park is only twenty feet high, but its spectacularity rests in the fact that it is 250 feet wide. It is probably the park's widest waterfall. It has an immediate upper step that is about three feet high and a lower step about 100 yards downstream that is around five feet high. Cave Falls is accessible by road from Ashton, Idaho and is quite popular with local Idaho residents. It is the starting point for many hikes in the Bechler Region as

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TERRACED FALLS (on-trail) Terraced Falls is perhaps the most striking waterfall of the entire Falls River. It is composed of six falls, which all together total about 140 feet. Members of the 1872 Hayden survey wrote of five falls here but geologist Walter Weed noted six in 1886 with heights of 35, 25, 50, 5, 10, and 5 feet respectively. Terraced Falls is easily accessible via the Terraced Falls Trail from the Reclamation (Ashton-Flagg Ranch) Road along the park's south boundary. In two miles the trail passes six other small falls and cascades and we recommend it highly for anyone who wants an introductory taste of the Yellowstone backcountry.

UNION FALLS (on-trail) This breathtakingly beautiful falls is one of Yellowstone's tallest at 250 feet and is one of the most frequently named candidates for "most beautiful" of Yellowstone's waterfalls. Formed by the union of Mountain Ash Creek and an unnamed branch, it was named during the period 1884-86 by members of the Hague parties of the U.S. Geological Survey. It is a massive, imposing, and gorgeous waterfall. It is geologically unique in appearance with its twin streams falling mightily over its sheer face of rock. It ranks as one of the most popular employee day hikes in the entire park. Trailheads at Grassy Lake, Fish Lake, and Cave Falls will all lead to the falls. The shortest is the Grassy Lake trailhead with a round-trip of nearly 15 miles. It should be noted that this route is also the most strenuous with at least one large ridge to climb on the return trip. Consult any park trail guide for more information on this extremely worthwhile and memorable hike.

MORNING FALLS (off-trail) One of the more recent waterfall discoveries of the Yellowstone backcountry is a stunning, sixty-foot falls located on the unnamed north fork of Mountain Ash Creek about two miles northwest of Union Falls. In addition its stature is further enhanced by its one hundred-foot width. The name was suggested in 1976 by guidebook writer Tom Carter from the fact that the falls faces southeast, while the rest of the stream faces southwest, and hence catches the rays of the morning sun.

OUZEL FALLS (off-trail – to view up close) Often touted as one of Yellowstone's tallest waterfalls, this elegant waterfall is 230 feet high and is located on the lower stretch of Ouzel Creek. It was named in 1885 by the Hague Survey for the water ouzel

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y g y or American dipper, a small slate-gray bird which feeds underwater by diving and walking along the bottoms of streams. Ouzel Falls is best observed in the early season as it loses a great deal of its water towards the latter part of August.

COLONNADE FALLS (on-trail) This double-plunge of the Bechler River was named in 1885 by members of the Hague Survey. A colonnade is a series or row of columns placed at regular intervals, or a double row or avenue (as of trees). The reason for the name is undocumented, but it probably referred either to the nearby columnar basalt layers which resemble columns or to the fact that there were two waterfalls, or perhaps to both. The upper falls is 35 feet tall while the lower is 67 feet.

IRIS FALLS (on-trail) A 45-foot-high falls of the Bechler River, Iris Falls was named either for its irised spray which often creates a rainbow here or for Iris, a Greek and Roman female goddess of the rainbow. Regardless, rainbows seem to have been forefront in the thinking of Hague Survey members who named it in 1885.

ALBRIGHT FALLS (on-trail) Albright Falls, a 260-foot sloping cascade on an unnamed southerly tributary of the Bechler River, was named in 1986 by park superintendent Bob Barbee following the death of Horace Marden Albright. Albright helped to found the National Park Service in 1916, served as Yellowstone's superintendent for the decade 1919-1929, and was an advisor and mentor to the Park Service for the rest of his life. Albright Falls can be readily seen from the Bechler River Trail. Unfortunately, trees today obscure some parts of its whitewater cascade from nearly every angle.

RAGGED FALLS (on-trail) Ragged Falls is located on the Ferris Fork of the Bechler River about 200 yards above Three River Junction. Characteristically named because of its ragged appearance, this 45-foot waterfall was named in 1921 by park photographer Jack Haynes. This falls is easily seen from the Bechler River trail, which passes next to its brink. However the superior viewpoint is from the opposite (eastern) side of the stream.

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TENDOY FALLS (off-trail) Tendoy Falls, located on Ferris Fork of the Bechler River, is thirtythree feet high. W. C. Gregg and Jack Haynes named it in 1921 for Tendoy, a chief of the Lemhi Shoshones, who lived near Yellowstone National Park in eastern Idaho. This waterfall is quite pleasing. It is set between gray, 40-foot cliffs that line both sides of the creek for some distance downstream.

WAHHI FALLS (off-trail) This two-step waterfall on the Ferris Fork of the Bechler River has heights of 28 feet (upper) and 18 feet (lower). The name Wahhi Falls comes from a Shoshone Indian term (wahat hwa) meaning "two step" or "double." The falls themselves are both plunges.

TWISTER FALLS (on-trail) There has long been confusion between this falls on the Gregg Fork of the Bechler River and another one a short distance upstream. Many recent maps show the name Twister on the wrong feature. The true Twister Falls as mapped in 1921 and named by explorer W.C. Gregg that year is three-quarters of a mile downstream from the other, and closer to the mouth of Littles Fork. This original Twister Falls makes a characteristic twist as the water drops and has a height of 55 feet.

DUNANDA FALLS (on-trail) This exquisite falls, located on Boundary Creek, is 150 feet high. A plunge-type falls, it has always been credited with discovery in 1920 by explorer W.C. Gregg. It is a nine mile hike from the Bechler Ranger Station and and is a very popular backcountry hike. It also has the distinction of gracing the cover of this book.

SILVER SCARF FALLS (on-trail) Located only one-quarter mile east of Dunanda Falls, Silver Scarf Falls is on an unnamed branch of Boundary Creek which hikers must cross three times on the trail from Bechler Ranger Station before reaching the falls itself. This falls is only two hundred yards southeast of Dunanda Falls. The unnamed stream on which Silver Scarf Falls is located originates many miles north in a large, open valley containing massive number of unmapped, unnamed thermal springs there which contribute to the water of this warm stream.

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warm stream.

FERN CASCADES (on-trail) A series of cascades on Iron Spring Creek can be viewed only a few short miles southwest of Old Faithful Geyser. Its name, Fern Cascades, is characteristic of the luxuriant ferns which grow in this moist area. The feature is a three-step cascade with drops of 10 feet, 20 feet, and 70 feet. Portions of this lengthy stretch of whitewater can be seen from the Fern Cascades Loop Trail. Unfortunately good views are only available of the 10 and 20-foot sections.

MYSTIC FALLS (on-trail) Located on the Little Firehole River, Mystic Falls has a height of about seventy feet. Originally called "Little Firehole Falls" by the 1872 Hayden survey, its present name, given in 1885, is probably merely fanciful and imaginative. It has long been a favorite short hike of Old Faithful area visitors and employees, and 1930s visitors often swam at its base. The short trip to Mystic Falls is one of the most popular hikes in Yellowstone. An easy well-maintained trail leaves the boardwalk at the far end of Biscuit Basin and winds through lodgepole pines for a short mile before reaching the falls.

FAIRY FALLS (on-trail) Located on Fairy Creek south of Twin Buttes, Fairy Falls plunges 197feet from the Madison Plateau. Captain J.W. Barlow named it in 1871. The two-mile hike to Fairy Falls is another of the park's more popular. An inviting plunge-pool at its bottom seems to beckon to bathers, although the water is usually quite cold.

SILVER CORD CASCADE (on-trail) Perhaps Yellowstone's tallest waterfall, this extremely high waterfall (or series of steep cascades) plummets some 1200 feet. It is located on Surface Creek at the point that stream enters the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone from the south. Hikers can view it from the Glacial Boulder Trail near Inspiration Point, roughly one mile east of Glacial Boulder. If one is so inclined, the Ribbon Lake Trail leads to the brink of this falls, but here much caution must be used.

OSPREY FALLS (on trail)

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OSPREY FALLS (on-trail) This 150-foot waterfall of the Gardner River was named in 1885 by members of the Hague parties of the U.S.G.S. for the osprey or fishhawk which frequents Yellowstone Park. Although it is on a major park stream, hikers only occasionally visit it. It can be reached via the Osprey Falls trail, which is accessed by the Bunsen Peak loop drive (no longer open to motor vehicles but available for bicycles and foot travel). Hikers should be aware that this is a steep trail with many switchbacks as it descends over 700 feet into the heart of Sheepeater Canyon.

HIDDEN FALLS (on-trail) Nameless for many years and appearing on maps only as "falls," this twenty-foot falls was first documented by Captain John Barlow in 1871. Over 100 years later the falls reappeared under the name "Hidden Falls" in the 1984 publication Ribbons of Water. It is easy to miss this falls even though it is only a short distance from the Blacktail-Yellowstone River trail.

PLATEAU FALLS (off-trail) This extremely remote, 80-foot waterfall of Plateau Creek was named around 1896 by members of the Hague parties of the U.S.G.S. It can be found high on the Two Ocean Plateau in the park's Thorofare region, making it Yellowstone's most distant, officially named waterfall. It takes a minimum of three days just to hike to this distant and rarely visited locale.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

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Yellowstone Wildflowers - Buttercup

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MONKSHOOD The white to purple, hoodlike flowers make this an unusual and easily recognizable plant. The flowers are arranged in loose racemes on tall, stout stems, two to five feet tall. The five sepals, resembling petals—the petals actually are hidden within the flower or they are mere vestiges—are colorful, and the upper sepal forms a monk's hood, as worn by medieval monks. The leaves are large, two to eight inches wide, and palmately threeto five-lobed with lance-shaped teeth. HABITAT/RANGE: Monkshood is a dweller of moist woods and stream banks to subalpine meadows. Widely distributed from Alaska to Alberta, south to New Mexico and California, it blooms from early June until late July. FACTS/USES: This plant is considered poisonous to wildlife but it seldom is consumed in enough quantity to cause serious harm. The poisonous toxin is aconite.

BANEBERRY Actaea rubra This erect, leafy, perennial herb arises one to three feet from a thick, branching rootstock. The large leaves are pinnately divided, mostly into threes, with each leaflet sharply toothed. Tiny whitish or cream-colored flowers are arranged in a terminal raceme. The petallike sepals (petals are smaller and inconspicuous) are short-lived and drop off soon after flowering. The ovary matures to a berry that contains several large seeds. When ripe, the berries vary in colorfrom white to red— or the two colors swirled together. HABITAT/RANGE: Baneberry prefers moist sites along streams, especially in shaded woods. It is distributed widely from Alaska across Canada and the northern United States, south to New Mexico and California. Blooms from May to July. FACTS/USES: The specific name means sharp-toothed. The moderately poisonous berries can cause cardiac arrest.

CLIFF ANEMONE Anemone multifida Cliff anemone is a herbaceous perennial ascending from thick, woody taproots year after year. The five to nine sepals are colorful, ranging from cream to deep rose-pink or red to purple. One to three flowers usually are borne at the end of an eight- to 20-inch silky-hairy stem. The leaves generally are basal on long petioles or they form a dense involucre on the flowering stem. Each leaf is divided into three or more long, linear, lanceolate lobes. The seed heads are conspicuous globe-shaped cotton balls, composed of acenes that form dense white-woolly cotton. HABITAT/RANGE: Found on a wide range of habitats from foothills to alpine, it prefers dry to moist soils and sunny sites. It can be abundant locally when it flowers during midsummer and is well-distributed from Alaska across southern Canada and south to New Mexico, California and even into South America. FACTS/USES: The specific name means parted many times.

PASQUEFLOWER Anemone nuttalliana Pasqueflower is a short—up to one foot tall—and hairy plant with several stout, thick stems growing from perennial taproots. The leaves are mainly basal, with three leaves in a whorl just below the flower. Each silky leaf is deeply dissected into narrow fingertike lobes. Each stem terminates in a cup-shaped, silky, lavenderblue flower with numerous yellow stamens. As the flower matures, the sepals turn

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brown and a long, plumose, feather-like fruit develops. HABITAT/RANGE: One of the earliest spring bloomers, it pushes through old, weathered grass in well-drained soils of prairies or mountain meadows. Found from Washington to Alaska, along the northern plains to Illinois, and the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains to Texas. FACTS/USES: Pasqueflower is derived from the old form of the word pasch and refers to the feast of the Passover at Easter. Native Americans had many medicinal uses for this plant.

YELLOW COLUMBINE Aquilegia flavescens This flower is similar in appearance to Colorado columbine, except the sepals are reddish and the hollow spurs of the petals are yellow. The fruit is a hairy pod, containing many seeds. HABITAT/RANGE: This common wildflower prefers moist, acidic soils of rocky ledges and screes, mountain meadows and alpine slopes. It is distributed from British Columbia to Alberta, south to Colorado, Utah and Eastern Oregon. Blooms from June to August. FACTS/USES: The generic name is derived from the Latin word, aquila, meaning eagle, and refers to the eagle-like spurs or claws of the flower. Columbine has a number of medicinal uses. Tea made from the roots and leaves is good for diarrhea, or most any kind of stomach and bowel troubles. To cure a headache, a tea can be brewed by gathering the tiny black seeds and crushing them in hot water. The dried roots can be used to cause perspiration on the skin.

MARSHMARIGOLD Caltha Leptosepala The white buttercuplike flowers arise from a basal cluster of heart-shaped, green, fleshy leaves on a pinkish, naked stalk one to eight inches high. The flowers are one to two inches wide and lack petals, butthe five to 12 sepals are showy white. HABITAT/RANGE: A common wildflower growing in dense mats along stream banks in wet alpine and subalpine meadows; it's found from Alaska to Alberta and south to New Mexico, Arizona and Oregon. Flowers from late May until early August, depending upon latitude. FACTS/USES: The generic name, caltha, is from an early Greek name tor a yellow-flowered species, and the specific name means thin-sepaled. The eastern species of marshmarigold (C. palustris) was cooked and eaten by Native Americans and early settlers. Our Western species is, however, more bitter and possibly toxic, due to poisonous glucosides, and so is not widely known as a food plant for people.

COLUMBIA CLEMATIS Clematis Columbians This perennial, woody, creeping vine may grow to 10 feet in length. The large, two-inch-diameter, pale purple flowers are borne singly on a peduncle that stems from leaf axils. Each flower is comprised of four showy, long, lanceolate sepals (there are no petals), which flare outward to reveal a cluster of numerous yellow stamens. The ovary styles elongate into a feathery plume. The opposite leaves are compound, with three broad lanceolate leaflets. HABITAT/RANGE: Clematis is a climbing vine and usually drapes over stumps and fallen trees. It prefers dry to moist soils of shrubby or wooded sites of foothills to the montane zone. It's a common flower from British Columbia to Montana and south to Colorado, Utah and Oregon. Blooms May to July. FACTS/USES: The specific name, columbiana, refers to the Columbia River drainage or the region west of the Continental Divide.

SUGARBOWLS Clematis hirsutissima Sugarbowls are a low, bush-like, herbaceous perennial. The one- to two-foot-tall leafy stems terminate with a single, nodding, leathery flower. Each flower is two-toned. The outside of the four sepals have a grayish pubescence (this genera lacks petals), while the inside is dark purple or maroon. The sepals flare outward and give the flower a "sugarbowl" appearance. The leaves are finely dissected into fingerlike j i ih il h i i h l l i f h l Page 182 of 243

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projections with a silver, hairy covering. The styles elongate into feathery plumes nearly two inches long, with each plume bearing a single achene. HABITAT/RANGE: It is found on dry grasslands and sagebrush deserts to montane forests. Distributed from Oregon and British Columbia to Montana, south to northern New Mexico and Arizona. A spring and early summer bloomer. FACTS/USES: The specific name, hirsutissima, means very hairy.

VIRGIN'S BOWER Clematis ligusticifolia Virgin's bower is a clambering woody vine that grows to a length of 10 to 20 feet. At times, the plant can cover or engulf its support shrub, tree, or fence and, when in full bloom, is covered with a profusion of cream-colored flowers. The flowers have four or five showy sepals, with no petals, and staminate and pistillate flowers on separate plants. As the flower matures, the style of the pistil elongates into a tan one-to two-inch plume. The leaves are opposite and pinnately compound into five to seven toothed leaflets. HABITAT/ RANGE: This species is found along creek bottoms, sagebrush deserts to ponderosa pine forests. It is well-distributed from British Columbia to the Dakotas, south to New Mexico and California. Flowers May to August. FACTS/USES: This plant was used medicinally by Native Americans for sore throats, colds, and as a tonic brew.

LITTLE LARKSPUR Delphinium bicolor This flower is verysimilarto upland larkspur (D. nuttallianum). The main difference is that the two small lower petals, which overlap the two large lower sepals, are deep blue and have a shallow notch. The sepals, too, are unequal, the lower pair being the longest. HABITAT/RANGE: Adwellerof grasslands and ponderosa pine forests to subalpine meadows and scree. It has a small range, from Alberta to Saskatchewan, South Dakota to Wyoming and central Idaho. Flowers in May and June. FACTS/USES: There is an old Greek legend behind the genus name: The Greeks believed that a fisherman lost his life while saving a dolphin from being captured. In return, the dolphin carried the man's body on its back to the god, Neptune, and begged that he be restored to life in some manner. Neptune thus turned him into a flowerthat is the color of the sea and whose bud is shaped like a dolphin with a load on its back.

UPLAND LARKSPUR Delphinium nuttallianum Upland larkspur is a rather showy flower with large dark blue or purplish, irregular flowers and an upper sepal projecting backward as a spur. The common name refers to this prolonged sepal, comparing it to the spur on the foot of a lark. The stems are seven to 16 inches tall, with finely hairy, fingerlike lobed leaves that originate from the base or along the stem. HABITAT/RANGE: Its habitat is varied from dry to moist sagebrush deserts to mountain valleys and slopes. It is found from British Columbia to Alberta, south to Wyoming, Nebraska, Arizona and California. Blooms from early spring to early summer. FACTS/USES: All parts of this plant contain poisonous alkaloids, mainly delphinine, and it Is considered highly toxic to cattle in the spring, but not poisonous to domestic sheep. Early settlers used the seeds as poison baits in exterminating lice.

DUNCECAP LARKSPUR Delphinium occidentale Duncecap larkspur is a very tall, stout perennial herb that reaches a height of three to six feet. The whitish-streaked or pale-blue flowers have five petallike sepals, with the upper sepal projecting backward into a hollow spur. The leaves are palmately divided into five to seven lobes, which usually are lance or diamond-shaped and finely hairy. HABITAT/RANGE: This plant prefers rich loam soils of moist mountain meadows or stream banks and flourishes in open or shaded sites. It often is associated with aspen stands. Distributed throughout the western United States except for the southern states Blooms during June and July

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western United States, except for the southern states. Blooms during June and July. FACTS/USES: The Latin specific name means western, referring to the plant's range. This species is considered highly poisonous to livestock, especially when they graze mountain meadows in the early spring, as new shoots are emerging.

SUBALPINE BUTTERCUP Ranunculus eschscholtzii This perennial plant has brilliant, shiny yellow flowers that fade to white as they mature. The leaves help distinguish this species from the other numerous buttercups. The leaves are threelobed; the middle lobe may be divided again into three segments or undivided; and the side lobes are divided into three to seven segments, making the leaves appear as numerous narrowfingers. HABITAT/RANGE: A plantof moist mountain meadows, ridges, and talus slopes. Varying in height from two to 12 inches due to environmental extremes, this widely dispersed mountain flower grows from Alaska to Alberta, south to New Mexico and southern California. Blooms late June to early August. FACTS/USES: Buttercups are considered poisonous, though the toxicity depends on the species and the part of the plant, with the flowers being the most toxic. The toxin, protoanemonin, dissipates when the plant is boiled or dried.

WATER BUTTERCUP Ranunculus aquatilis Easily identified by its aquatic habitat, this plant is mainly submersed, with the brownish stems and finely divided leaves floating on the surface of the water. The small, delicate, five-petaled, white flowers are held above the water by stalks. The plant grows in dense patches and can bear a profuse number of white blossoms that gently wave in the current. HABITAT/ RANGE: A native of sluggish streams and ponds from lowlands to higher elevations throughout much of North America and Europe, it blooms from May until August, depending upon elevation. FACTS/USES: The genus Fianunculuswas named by the first-century Roman scholar, Pliny. The Latin specific name is derived from rana, meaning frog, in reference to most of the species' aquatic habits. This plant provides excellent breeding beds for aquatic insects, which, in turn, provide food for trout and waterfowl.

SAGEBRUSH BUTTERCUP Fianunculus glabemmus This shiny, bright yellow, five-petaled and many-stamened flower is one of the first plants to appear in the spring, following the receding snow. The long, fleshy basal leaves are elliptic to roundish in shape, and the stem leaves are three-lobed. The two- to eightinch plant ascends from thick, fleshy roots and, in the fall, new shoots, or buds, form and remain dormant under the snow until spring. HABITAT/RANGE: This flower is one of the earliest spring bloomers of sagebrush and grasslands and blooms during summer in mountain meadows. It is distributed widely from British Columbia to the Dakotas, Nebraska, New Mexico and California. FACTS/USES: The specific name, glabberimus, means very smooth, referring to the waxy-shiny appearance of the flowers and leaves. The common name of buttercup comes from the resemblance of the shiny yellow flowers to a cup of butter.

GLOBEFLOWER Trollius laxus Globeflower is a perennial herb that grows in clumps with five to nine whitish or yellowish petallike sepals, which often become dingy when they begin to fade. The leaves are palmately cleft into five lobes, which again are deeply toothed. Both leaves and stems are glabrous with the clustered stems each bearing a single terminal flower. HABITAT/RANGE: This inhabitant of swamps and streams to above timberline in wet alpine meadows is distributed from Oregon, Washington, British Columbia and east to Connecticut and south along the Rocky Mountains to Colorado. Blossoms in the early spring near snowline. FACTS/USES: The specific name mans lax, open or loose, referring to the open flowers. The common globeflower, however, comes from other garden species which have a round or globe-like shape Globeflower easily can be

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WYOMING PAINTBRUSH Castilleja linariaetolia Wyoming paintbrush is a bright red, showy plant, but the red portion is not the flower. The flower itself is tubular and yellowgreen in color, and not particularly attractive. Surrounding the flower is a brightly colored leaflike bract. The leaves are long, linear and cut into slender segments near the top. The botanical differences between the numerous paintbrush species often are minute and distinguishing them may be difficult. HABITAT/RANGE: Inhabits dry to moist sagebrush slopes and juniper woodlands. Distributed from Oregon to Montana, south to New Mexico and southern California. Blooms June through July. FACTS/USES: The specific name, linariaefolia, means linaria-leaved, referring to the toadflax-like leaf. In 1917, the Wyoming Legislature selected this species as the state flower

SULFUR PAINTBRUSH Castilleja sulphurea The stems arise singly or in small clumps from a short ascending rootstock. The inflorescence is a dense spike with pale to bright yellow ovate bracts, which are mistaken for the flowers. But the flowers appear above the bracts as a long tubular corolla projecting from an outer tubelike sheath called a calyx. HABITAT/RANGE: Prefers moist to diy soils of meadows, plains, foothills and rocky slopes into the higher mountains. A strictly Rocky Mountain species, from southern Alberta to New Mexico. Blooms late MaythroughJuly. FACTS/ USES: A special delight for young Indian children was to pull the tubular flowers and suck out their sweet nectar. Most paintbrush species have a wide variation in color. Sulfur paintbrush, however, is one of the few species that is yellow with little variation.

DALMATIAN TOADFLAX Unaria da/mate This large robust perennial herb grows two to four feet high. The stem— woody at the base—and leaves are grayish-green and glaucous. The opposite leaves are stiff, broad, ovate and clasp the stem. Flowers are arranged in terminal elongate racemes. They are bright yellow, but often purplish tinged at the apex. Corollas are one to two inches, two-lipped and lobed. The lower lip has formed an orange palate at the entrance of the throat. HABITAT/RANGE: A native of the Mediterranean region, Dalmatian toadflax has established itself in scattered regions throughout North America and is spreading. It prefers disturbed areas along roads, near dwellings and sagebrush flats. Blooms July through September. FACTS/USES: Toadflax is very similar to its close relation, butter and eggs. The difference is that toadflax is larger with broader leaves that clasp the stem.

BUTTER AND EGGS Unaria vulgaris This showy perennial herb ascends one to three feet from creeping rhizomes and often grows in patches displaying brilliant yellow flowers. Each flower, tipped upward and arranged in a dense raceme, has a yellow corolla with an upper two-lobed lip and a lower lip raised into an orange palate. An awl-shaped spur projects below the corolla. The stems bear simple, sessile, linear, pale-green leaves. HABITAT/RANGE: An introduced weedy species from Eurasia, butter and eggs has become established in disturbed pastures and roadsides throughout temperate North

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become established in disturbed pastures and roadsides throughout temperate North America. A summer bloomer. FACTS/USES: The common name is taken from the flowers' color combination, and the Latin genus name is derived from linum, the genus of flax, because the leaves resemble this species. It is believed that a tea made from this plant is good for skin eruptions, jaundice and as a laxative.

YELLOW MONKEY-FLOWER Mimulus guttatus This showy perennial has bright yellow, tubular corollas, which are twolipped and five-lobed, with two ridges extending back from the lower lip into the throat. The throat is spotted with red, and the flowers are one to two inches long. The hollow, square stems bear opposite, lance-shaped leaves and flowers, usually in pairs from the axils of the upper leaves. This species is quite variable in form and size, ranging from a few inches to several feet inheight. HABITAT/RANGE: This cordilleran species of North America prefers moist to wet seeps of mountain habitats. An early spring to late fall bloomer, though it can bloom during winter if it is near hot springs. FACTS/USES: The specific name means spotted or speckled. This plant can be eaten raw as a salad additive, though it has a slightly bitter flavor.

LEWIS' MONKEY-FLOWER Mimulus lewisii Lewis' monkeyflower is a showy, herbaceous perennial with erect stems ascending from rhizomes. The leaves are glabrous to slightly hairy, lance-shaped, and unevenly toothed. The pink-purple, irregular corollas are two-lipped with two lobes above and three lobes below, while the throat has two brightyellowpatches.HABITAT/RANGE:Thiscommonmoun-tain wildflower grows in dense clumps along moist, wet streams, ravines and seepage areas. Ranges from Alaska south to Utah and California. Blooms late June through August. FACTS/USES: Both the common and specific names pay tribute to Captain Meriwether Lewis, the explorerwho first described this plant. The bright rose-pink flowers are attrac-tants for pollination by insects and hummingbirds. As nectary guides entice them into the funnel-shaped throat, anthers, projecting from the roof, dust their backs with pollen.

DWARF PURPLE MONKEY-FLOWER Mimulus nanus This very small annual grows only a few inches high. The reddish-purple flowers, less than an inch long, appear almost stalkless. The corollas are two-lipped and five-lobed, with yellow and purple marking in the throat. The opposite, lanceolate leaves are covered with glandular hairs, and the flowers are borne in leaf axils near the top of the plant. It can become well-branched and developed on good sites. HABITAT/RANGE: This plant prefers bare, open areas with sliding or loose sandy soil. It also is associated with sagebrush and dry pine forests. Its range is limited to central Washington, south to northern California and as far east as Yellowstone National Park. Blooms early spring and summer, while moisture is available. FACTS/USES: The Latin generic name is derived from mimus, meaning mimic, and refers to the grin-ning pattern of the flower that resembles the masks worn by mimes.

ELEPHANT'S HEAD Pedicularis groenlandica This unusual and distinctive purplish flower resembles the head of an elephant. The broad upper lip (galea) of the irregular corolla suggests an elephant's cranium, the prolonged and upward curving beak representing the trunk and the lower corolla lip resembling the ears and lower jaw. The "elephants' heads" are arranged on dense racemes. The long leaves are mostly basal, narrow and pinnately divided, then lobed and toothed, giving them a fernlike appearance. HABITAT/RANGE: This showy, colorful flower usually grows in dense patches of wet or boggy meadows, producing a field of purple. It is distributed widely from Alaska to Labrador and south in the Western states to New Mexico and California Flowers

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to Labrador and south in the Western states to New Mexico and California. Flowers June to August. FACTS/USES: The specific name, groenlandica, means of Greenland, where it first was discovered.

BLUE PENSTEMON Penstemon cyaneus Blue penstemon is an erect, robust plant (up to three feettall), with conspicuous blue-violet, bilaterally symmetrical flowers up to two inches long, clustered along the stem. The leathery-like, smooth leaves are narrowly lanceolate or ovate, stalkless and opposite. HABITAT/RANGE: This tall, blue-flowered penstemon is a common species of foothills and typically is found in sandy sagebrush plains and along roadsides, but it has a limited range to eastern Idaho, Montana, Wyoming and northern Colorado and northern Utah. Flowers sometime between May and July. FACTS/USES: Cyaneus means blue. The penstemons are some of the Rocky Mountains' most beautiful flowers. Blue penstemon adapts easily to disturbed sites and is a roadside flower frequently found in patches.

SMALL-FLOWERED PENSTEMON Penstemon procerus This wildflower also is called clustered penstemon because the corollas are densely clustered in a whorl with open breaks between the whorls. The dark blue or purplish, tubular corollas are small, less than a half-inch long, and slightly two-lipped. The erect stems are four to 20 inches tall with basal, opposite, lanceolate, cauline leaves. HABITAT/RANGE: This plant prefers moist meadows of montane or higher elevations. At alpine levels, the plant becomes dwarfed. It is distributed widely from Alaska to Colorado, but mostly on the eastern mountain ranges. Flowers mostly from early to midsummer. FACTS/USES: The specific name, procerus, means tall. This colorful wildflower often is found growing along mountain trails in moist meadows. There are nearly 200 species of penstemons throughout the West and differentiation is difficult.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

Copyright @1999-2003 Yellowstone Media Group, Inc

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KINNIKINNICK Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Kinnikinnick is a low-trailing or matted, evergreen shrub, rarely more than two feet high, with long, flattened branches. The woody stems are brownish-red with flaky bark. The ovate leaves are leathery, shiny and dark green. Clustered in racemes at the ends of branches are small, waxy, pale pink, urn-shaped flowers, which later develop into bright red, pea-sized berries. HABITAT/RANGE: Kinnikinnick typically occurs on gravel or sand terraces, in coniferous woods, on dry banks and alpine slopes. It is a circumpolar species found in North America, from Alaska to Labrador, south to coastal California, New Mexico and the central and eastern United States. Flowers April to June. FACTS/USES: The common name, kinnikinnick, is a word used by Native Americans for tobacco mixtures. The specific name means bear's grape, referring to the fruits eaten by bears. The leaves have been used as a direuretic, for bronchitis, gonorrhea, and diarrhea.

PRINCE'S-PINE Chimaphlia umbellata The most distinctive characteristics of this plant are its five-petaled, pinkish, saucer-shaped, nodding flowers. Ten stamens surrounda prominent green ovary. The evergreen plant rises four to 12 inches from a branching rootstock. Arranged in whorls along the stem are leathery, waxy, elliptic leaves with saw-toothed margins. As the flowers mature into roundish capsules, bearing numerous small seeds, the pedicels become erect and the fruite are held upright. HABITAT/ RANGE: It commonly is found in coniferous woods and on alpine slopes where it is moist in the spring and dry in the summer. This circumboreal species is found in the Rocky Mountains, from Alaska to Alberta, south to New Mexico and California. Flowers from early to midsummer. FACTS/USES: The specific name means with umbels. The Greek generic name is derived from the words cheima, for winter, and philos, tor loving, because of its evergreen habit.

ALPINE LAUREL Kalmia microphylla A small, low evergreen shrub that seldom grows to more than two feet in height. The leaves are leathery, lanceolate, smooth, dark green on the upper surface and whitish green on the lower surface, with rolled-under margins. The stems terminate in a corymb inflorescence with each flower on a long, slender, red pedicel. Each deep-pink-colored flower has five fused petals that form a bowl-shaped corolla. HABITAT/ RANGE: Alpine laurel is primarily a subalpine or alpine plant, preferring wet mountain meadows and boggy sites. A mountain species distributed from Alaska to Alberta, south to Colorado and California. Flowers between June and September, depending on elevation. FACTS/USES: The specific name is in honor of Peter Kalm, an 18th century student of Linnaeus who collected plants in America. Alpine laurel is poisonous to grazing livestock.

SMOOTH LABRADOR-TEA Ledum glandulosum This moderately tall, stout, evergreen shrub obtains a height of two to five feet. Clustered at the tips of branches are bright white flowers with five petals and 10 protruding stamens. The

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oblong or oval leathery evergreen leaves are dark green on the upper surface and light-colored and dotted with tiny golden glands beneath. Flowers form a seed capsule on a recurving stalk with five cells, which split outward to disperse seeds. HABITAT/RANGE: Smooth labrador-tea is distributed from Alaska to British Columbia south to northwestern Wyoming and Sierra California, but it is mainly a Pacific Coast species. It typically occurs just below subalpine zones in acidic bogs or wet areas in the mountains. Blooms during July. FACTS/USES: The generic name means glandular, referring to the glands on the stems and leaves. Even though considered poisonous, a related species, L. groenlandicum, was used as a substitute for tea in the far North.

POOL'S HUCKLEBERRY Menziesia ferruginea Fool's huckleberry may form dense thickets three to six feet tall. The erect shrub has deciduous, pale green, ovate leaves with waxy margins that form rosettes at the end of slender branches. Small pinkish urn-shaped flowers with four lobes hang by short stalks in clusters beneath the leaves. The fruit is a dry, inedible, four-parted capsule. Autumn foliage turns a brilliant crimsonorange. HABITAT/RANGE: Prefers shaded, moist coniferous forests and stream banks from Alaska to the Rocky Mountain states, south to California. Flowers during June and July. FACTS/USES: The generic name is in honor of Archibald Menzies, surgeon and naturalist with the Vancouver Expedition of 1790-95 and one of the first botanists to collect plants from the Pacific Northwest. The specific name means rusty and refers to the rusty-colored glands that cover the plant.

PINK MOUNTAIN-HEATHER Phyiiodoce empetriformis A dwarf evergreen shrub with short, numerous, linear, needlelike leaves. The shrub seldom exceeds 20 inches tall. The conspicuous flowers are deep pink or rose, urn-shaped and clustered in umbels. HABITAT/RANGE: An inhabitant of moist to wet soils or open rocky slopes, forests, and higher alpine elevations. It is widely distributed from Alaska to Alberta, south to Colorado and Central California. Blooms from late June to early August. FACTS/USES: The Greek generic name, Phyiiodoce, is that of a sea nymph. The specific name means empetrum-leaved. Heathers and heaths are attractive ornamental shrubs. Scottish heaths are a close relative to our native species. But our native species is difficult to transplant, and it is nearly impossible to produce flowers on a transplanted shrub.

WOODLAND PINEDROPS Pterospora andromedea This plant is a saprophyte. Lacking chlorophyll, it derives its food from dead and decaying plant material. The tall, reddish-brown, hairy-glandularstems, uptothreefeettall, lackleaves and green color. The yellow, bell-like pendulous flowers are arranged in a widely spaced raceme. The whole plant turns rusty-brown at maturity and persists as a dried stalk through the winter. HABITAT/RANGE: It is very dependent upon the deep humus of coniferous forests, often found under lodge-pole or ponderosa pines. Distributed from Alaska to Alberta and south to Mexico and California. Blooms from late June into August. FACTS/USES: The generic name is derived from the Greek pteron, meaning wing, and sporos, meaning seed. The seeds of this species have a netlike wing on one end.

PINK PYROLA Pyrola asarifolia Pink pyrola is a small, perennial, woodland herb with slender, creeping rhizomes. A stem eight to 16 inches high arises form a basal rosette of shiny green, round or kidney-shaped leaves. The pink to purplish five-petaled flowers are waxy in appearance and hang down in racemes. The style extends beyond the open petals and curves outward, giving the appearance of an elephant's trunk. HABITAT/RANGE: Pink pyrola inhabits moist soils, especially in shaded woods near springs. Widely di t ib t d N th A i f Al k t N f dl d d th t N

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distributed across North America from Alaska to Newfoundland and south to New York, Minnesota, New Mexico and California. Blooms from late June to early August. FACTS/USES: The Latin generic name, pyrola, means pear, because the leaves of some species are somewhat pear-shaped. The specific name, asarifolia, means asarum-leaved.

ONE-SIDED WINTERGREEN Pyrola secunda These small, coniferous forest-dwelling flowers ascend two to eight inches from branching, slender rootstocks and commonly form dense colonies. The small, bell-shaped, greenish-white flowers are borne in a short, one-sided raceme, which usually bends gracefully downward. Each flower has a long style with a knob-like stigma that projects beyond the corolla. The leaves are a half inch to two and a half inches long, and are ovate, with minutely scalloped edges. HABITAT/RANGE: One-sided wintergreen is a dweller of moist, coniferous woods from Alaska to Newfoundland and the Atlantic Coast, south to Mexico and southern California. Flowering period: June-August. FACTS/USES: One-sided Wintergreen's leaves are olive-green and retain their color throughout winter, as suggested by their common name.

BIG HUCKLEBERRY Vaccinium membranaceum Big huckleberry is a fairly large shrub ranging from two to four feet in height. The woody stems are erect and greatly branched with younger, somewhat angled greenish twigs bearing the elliptic, finely serrated leaves. The small, inconspicuous, greenish to pink, translucent, pendulous, urnshaped flowers are hidden below the leaves. The fruit is a flattened-globe-shaped berry, which ranges from wine-colored to nearly black. HABITAT/RANGE: This species prefers northern exposures of dry or moist sites, sandy or gravelly loams and often can be the dominant understory of coniferous montane forests. It typically occurs from Alaska to Michigan and south to Wyoming, Idaho and northern California. Flowers mid-May to July, with fruits usually appearing in early August. FACTS/ USES: The berries are an important food for wildlife, especially bears, and for humans.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

Copyright @1999-2003 Yellowstone Media Group, Inc

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NODDING ONION Allium cernuum Nodding onion is a perennial herb with a characteristic onion or garlic odor and taste. It grows six to 18 inches tall on slender, erect stalks from elongated, layered bulbs. The small, white or pinkish flowers are clustered in an umbel that droops or nods at the end of the stalk. The leaves, mostly basal, are long and somewhat grasslike. HABITAT/RANGE: This species is one of the most common wild onions found in North America. It prefers moist sites of valleys, open hillsides to mountain meadows. It is distributed across southern Canada from British Columbia to New York, south to Georgia, Wisconsin, Texas, Mexico and southern Oregon. Flowers during June to August. FACTS/USES: Allium is the ancient Latin name for garlic. The specific name, cernuum, means drooping or nodding. In the spring, wildlife feed upon the bulbs and foliage, and when dairy cows graze on onion, it flavors the milk they produce.

TEXTILE ONION Allium textile Textile onion is a slender perennial that ascends and reproduces by bulbs, aerial bulblets or seed. The three- to 15-inch unbranched, leafless, round stalk terminates in an open umbel of 15 or more flowers. Each flower is comprised of six white or pinkish tepals and six stamens, attached by a long pedicel. Each stalk, rising from a clump, has two long, roundish, basal leaves. The stalks and leaves have an onion or garlic odor. HABITAT/RANGE: A plant of plains and foothills of Idaho to Alberta, Manitoba, Minnesota and south to New Mexico and Utah. Flowers in early summer. FACTS/ USES: The Latin specific name, textile, refers to the net-like coat of fibers covering the bulb. All the onions are edible and can be prepared a number of ways. The bulbs can be eaten raw, cooked or boiled. The leaves, too, can be used as seasoning. Consuming large quantities of onion, like many native foods, can cause poisoning.

DOUGLAS' BRODIAEA Brodiaea ciouglasii This flower has an onion-like appearance. Five to 15 blue tubular flowers are clustered in a terminal umbel. Each one-inch, tubularflower is comprised of six fused tepals with flared lobes, and each flower is attached by a short pedicel. The one- to three-foot, erect, leafless stalks ascend from bulb-like corms. The narrow, grasslike leaves are basal and seldom exceed the height of the flowering stalk. HABITAT/RANGE: Douglas' brodiaea inhabits well-drained slopes of grasslands and sagebrush plains to pine and montane forests. It is distributed from British Columbia to Montana, south to Utah and northern California. Flowers from late April to midJuly. FACTS/USES: The generic name honors the Scottish botanist, James Brodie, and the specific name honors the Northwest explorer-botanist, David Douglas. The edible corms were used by Native Americans and early pioneers, who ate them raw or cooked.

SEGO LILY Calochortus gunnisonii The sego lily is a goblet-like

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perennial flower with three narrow, greenish sepals and three broad, cream-colored petals with an elongated, often fringemargined gland near the base. The long, narrow basal leaves are channeled and V-shaped in cross section. Each tall, slender stem, six to 18 inches high, terminates in a single flower. HABITAT/RANGE: An inhabitant of meadows to light woods, this Rocky Mountain species is common east of the Continental Divide, from central Montana to South Dakota, south to New Mexico, eastern Arizona and Utah. Blooms from May to midJuly. FACTS/USES: Another common name for sego lily is mariposa illy, a Spanish word meaning butterfly. The Greek generic name, Calochortus, is a derivative of kato, meaning beautiful, and chortos, meaning grass. Although most sego lilies reproduce from seeds, it takes three to five years for seedlings to establish bulbs and flower.

NUTTALL'S SEGO LILY Calochortus nuttallii This erect, slender-stemmed perennial herb has a terminal, white, wineglass-shaped flower. Each flower has three lanceolate, greenish sepals and three triangular-shaped petals. At the base of each petal is a roundish gland, fringed with hairs, and an arched brownish-purple spot above the gland. The pale green leaves are slender and grasslike. HABITAT/ RANGE: Prefers dry, grassy or open sagebrush foothills of the Rocky Mountains, from Oregon, Montana and North Dakota to New Mexico and California. An early summer bloomer. FACTS/USES: This is Utah's state flower and commemorates the 1847 arrival of Brigham Young and his followers into the Salt Lake valley. The first few years, they faced famine caused by drought, cricket infestations, and heavy frosts. The sweet, starchy bulb-like roots of the sego lily helped sustain the pioneers through those harsh times.

COMMON CAMAS Camassia quamash Common camas is a perennial, bulbous herb that grows one to two feet high. The bright blue to purplish flowers are arranged in loose racemes. The six tepals (sepals and petals are similar) spread outward in a star pattern with six yellow stamens. Most of the long, linear leaves are basal, with a few leaflike bracts in the inflorescence. HABITAT/RANGE: Camas prefers moist or wet meadows that often dry by late spring. It is found from British Columbia to Alberta, south to Colorado and California. When it flowers in early spring, camas produces large fields of blue that, from a distance, resemble pools of water. FACTS/USES: Camas has been one of the most significant staples and monetary plants of Western Indians. The bulbs are dug in spring but care must be taken not to collect death camas (Zigadenus venenosus). Camas bulbs are either cooked, producing a sweet gummy taste, or dried for later use.

BEADLILY Clintonia uniflora This low-growing perennial herb usually has one distinct white flower terminating on a three- to eight-inch slender stalk. Six tepals flare back into a star shape, revealing six yellow stamens. The two to three leaves are mostly basal, broad and bright green. After the flower matures, it develops into a blue berry. The extensive rhizomatous root system produces a number of paired leaves surrounding the flowering plant. HABITAT/RANGE: This dweller of moist or wet soils in shaded coniferous forests is found from foothills to montane forests. It is distributed from Alaska to California, but mainly west of the Rocky Mountains. A late spring and early summer bloomer. FACTS/USES: The specific name, uniflora, means one-flowered. The root has known medicinal values, including use in a poultice for dog-bite wounds, and a tea also can be made to help expectant mothers during childbirth.

WARTBERRY FAIRY-BELL Disporum trachycarpum This is an unusual perennial herb. The one- to two-foot stems ascend from thick underground rhizomes. The stems branch angularly i t h i t l iti d th d f hb hb Page 192 of 243

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into horizontal positions, and the end of each branch bears one or two small, white or cream-colored, bell-shaped flowers. The pendulous, six-tepaled flowers are in-conspicuously hidden below the leaves on slender stems. Long, ovate or oblong, prominently veined leaves branch from the stem. A round, velvety berry containing six to 15 seeds develops from the flower. The berries are yellow at first, then turn red. HABITAT/RANGE: Fairy-bells often grow along stream banks or slopes of moist, shaded woods. Found from British Columbia to Alberta, the Dakotas, south to Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona. Blooms from late spring into early summer. FACTS/USES: The generic name is derived from the Greek word, cfe, meaning double, and spora, for seed, referring to the two seeds per ovary cell.

GLACIER LILY Erythronium grandiflorum Glacier lilies are colorful and showy wildflowers. Six bright yellow tepals form a nodding flower at the end of a six- to 15-inch stalk. The tepals curl back and display six yellowish to purplish anthers. There usually are two basal leaves, which are shiny, long and broadly lanceolate. HABITAT/RANGE: This lily inhabits a wide variety of environments, from sagebrush to montane forests to subalpine meadows. It is a Western species, existing from British Columbia to Montana, south to Colorado and Oregon. Flowers from April to August, depending upon elevation. FACTS/USES: The Greek generic name is derived from erythro, meaning red, in reference to the pink or reddish color of some species. The starchy, elongated corms are a favorite food source, especially for grizzly bears, which rake their long claws through a patch to collect the bulbs. Indians used to cook or dry the corms for later consumption.

LEOPARD LILY Fritillaria atropurpurea Leopard lily is an unusual camouflaged flower. One to four brown, pendulous, bell-shaped flowers with purple, greenish and yellow mottled tepals help hide this flower. The one- to three-foot, erect stems have several very narrow, long, linear leaves. Stems ascend from bulb-like corms, usually surrounded by smaller bulblets. HABITAT/RANGE: Found on grassy slopes, coniferous forests and montane ridges to near timberline, it is distributed, but locally rare, from Washington to the Dakotas, south to Wyoming, New Mexico and central California. Flowers from late spring until early summer. FACTS/ USES: The generic name, Fritillaria, is Latin for dice box, for its resemblance to the shape of the bell-like flowers. The specific name, atropurpurea, means dark purple. The corms of this species are surrounded by small seedlike bulblets. The starchy corms are edible but the plant is too rare to dig up.

YELLOW BELL Fritillaria pudica This small perennial arises three to eight inches from a starchy corm. The stem usually is unbranched and terminates in a pendulous or nodding bellshaped flower. The six bright yellow tepals fade to reddish or purplish at maturity. The leaves are long, linear and thickened and usually are basal or midway along the stem. HABITAT/RANGE: An inhabitant of grassland, sagebrush plains, dry hillsides and coniferous forests. Distributed from British Columbia to Alberta, the Dakotas, Wyoming, Utah and northern California. One of the earliest spring bloomers, the yellow bell follows the snowline and usually is found with springbeauty (Claytonia lanceolata). FACTS/USES: The specific name means bashful or retiring. The starchy bulbs or corms are edible and were known by Native Americans. The corms also are a favorite food for grizzly bears and pocket gophers.

RED LILY Ulium philadelphicum Red lily is one of the most colorful and rare species of the Rocky Mountains. The one- to two-foot, unbranched stems arise from fleshy-scaled bulbs. Long, narrow, lanceolate leaves are arranged alternately on the lower portion of the plant and in whorls near the top. Usually one or sometimes several large orange red funnel

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Usually one, or sometimes several, large, orange-red, funnelshaped blossoms with purple spots and large anthers terminate on the stem. HABITAT/RANGE: Occurs on moist grassland prairies, woods to mountain meadows. It is a rare plant, mainly because it has been reduced by grazing and picking. It now is found only locally along the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, from Alberta to New Mexico, east to Saskatchewan, Ohio and Arkansas. Blooms from June to August. FACTS/USES: This plant may be in danger of extinction and should not be picked or transplanted because it usually does not survive transplanting.

WESTERN SOLOMON-PLUME Smilacina racemosa This species is very similar to S. stellata. The main difference is in the inflorescence and leaves. Numerous, tiny flowers are arranged in a dense panicle with each cream-colored flower having six minute tepals that are smaller than the filaments, or stalk, of the six stamens. Small quarter-inch, round, juicy, redspotted berries develop from the flowers. The leaves are long, ovate, and clasp the stem. HABITAT/RANGE: This species prefers moist woods, stream banks and open forests from sea level to mid-mountain elevations. It is distributed from Alaska to Nova Scotia, south to Georgia, Missouri, Colorado and southern California. Flowers from April to July. FACTS/USES: The specific name, racemosa, means flowers in racemes. The young shoots, berries and roots are edible, if prepared properly.

STARRY SOLOMON-PLUME Smilacina stellata This plant has simple, terminal racemes with three to 15 small, whitish or cream-colored flowers arranged alternately along the peduncles. Each flower is comprised of three sepals and three petals that look alike; collectively, they are called tepals. A globose, greenish to red berry develops from the flower. The long, lance-shaped leaves are alternately arranged on a slender, unbranched, erect stem. The plants are rhizomatous perennial herbs. HABITAT/RANGE: An inhabitant of shaded, moist woods and stream banks to exposed hillsides of valleys and mountains. Found in cooler, moist climates throughout North America. Flowers from late spring to midsummer. FACTS/USES: The specific name means stellate or starry. The berries and roots are edible. Berries are best eaten cooked to reduce laxative effect, and Native Americans used to cook the bitter roots.

TWISTED-STALK Streptopus amplexifolius This is an unusual perennial wildflower of deep, shaded woods. The plant is characterized by a slender, zigzagging stern. At each bend of the stem branches a clasping, broad, ovate leaf with distinct parallel veins. Beneath the leaf axils are white, six-tepaled flowers on slender stalks that have a distinct twist or kink— hence the name twisted-stalk. The flower matures into a bright red berry. HABITAT/RANGE: It is a dweller of shady mountain thickets, most forests and the edges of stream banks. Twisted-stalk is distributed widely in North America, from Alaska to California. Flowers from late spring into midsummer. FACTS/USES: The Greek generic name is derived from streptos, meaning twisted, and pous, for foot, and refers to the bent flower stalks or peduncles; the specific name means leafclasping. The berries are browsed by grouse and other birds.

TRILLIUM Trillium ovatum Easily recognizable by its habitat and three broad, ovate leaves just below a white, threepetaled flower, the plant arises from short, thick rhizomes and reaches four to 15 inches high. The stems are erect, unbranched and terminate with a single white flower, which turns pinkish or red with age. The three leaves below the flower are whorled and stalkless. HABITAT/RANGE: This plant prefers moist, thick montane woods, especially along stream banks and boggy areas. Mostly found in the Central Rocky Mountains, from British Columbia to southern Alberta, south to Colorado and central California. A very early spring to early summer bloomer.

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Colorado and central California. A very early spring to early summer bloomer. FACTS/USES: The Latin generic name is derived from tres, meaning three. The specific name means ovate. The root of this plant is known for its medicinal qualities, such as a treatment for cramps or to reduce a swollen eye.

FALSE HELLEBORE Veratrum viride False hellebore is a large, cornstalk-like perennial herb that grows in dense patches and reaches three to six feet high. The conspicuous, large, broad leaves have deep, parallel veins that give the appearance of pleats. The small, six-tepaled, white or greenish flowers are densely clustered on a branchedpanicle. HABITAT/RANGE: Falsehelleboreisfound in wet thickets to swamps and lowlands to mountain meadows, and it ranges from Alaska to Maine, south to North Carolina, Colorado and Oregon. Asimilar and related species, V. califomicum, is found in the southern range of the Rockies. Blooms from April to early August. FACTS/USES: This plant is extremely poisonous. Alkaloids concentrated in the root and young shoots often poison livestock in the early spring, when the plant is just emerging. False hellebore has been used medicinally as a heart depressant and spinal paralyzant. The chief reactant is veratrum, an alkaloid chemical.

BEARGRASS Xerophyllum tenax This plant supports a dense, conical raceme of small, white or cream-colored flowers. A stout two- to four-foot stem ascends from a large basal tussock of grasslike leaves that are one to two feet long, strong and sharp-edged. The erect stems often persist through the next season. HABITAT/RANGE: This mountain plant grows best on well-drained slopes and ridges. It ranges from British Columbia, Montana and Nevada to central California. Beargrass begins to bloom at lower elevations, about 3,000 feet, in June and continues into August at elevations of 8,000 feet. FACTS/USES: The name beargrass refers to bears digging the starchy rhizomes in spring and to the grasslike leaves. The generic name, Xerophyllum, refers to the leaves being dry and tough. Native Americans used this plant by roasting the roots for food and by drying and bleach-ing the leaves for weaving and padding.

MEADOW DEATH-CAMAS Zigadenus venenosus This plant is a perennial herb with a dense raceme of small whitish or cream-colored flowers. The six- to 20-inch, unbranched, erect stems arise from small, onion-like bulbs. The leaves are narrow, linear, grasslike blades that grow from the base with smaller leaves along the stem. HABITAT/RANGE: Death camas has a wide variation of habitats—from plains, grassy foothills, sagebrush slopes to montane forests and alpine meadows. It is distributed widely throughout the West, from British Columbia to Saskatchewan, south to Nebraska, Colorado and Baja, California. Flowers from early spring to midsummer. FACTS/USES: The specific name means poisonous. Next to hemlock, this is the most poisonous plant in the West. The active agent is an alkaloid called zygadenine, which causes a quickening and irregularity of the heartbeat, slow respiration and convulsions.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

Copyright @1999-2003 Yellowstone Media Group, Inc

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TWO-GROOVE MILK-VETCH Astragalus bisulcatus This tall, erect, many-stemmed perennial herb ascends one to two feet from woody taproots. The white to violet pealike flowers bend downward and are arranged in long, showy clusters or racemes. The leaves are pinnately divided into nine to 25 linear to elliptic leaflets, the upper surface of which are covered with fine, white hairs. The pendulous pods are nearly a half-inch long, with two grooves along the upper surface. HABITAT/RANGE: Typically occurs on alkaline soils of sagebrush deserts and grasslands. It is found mostly along the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, from Alberta to Montana, Nebraska and New Mexico. Blooms during May to August. FACTS/USES: The specific name means two-grooved. This species is one of the worst stock-poisoning plants in the West. It often grows on alkali soils where selenium is present and absorbs this poisonous element into the foliage. If selenium is absent, the plant is palatable.

THISTLE MILK-VETCH Astragalus kentrophyta Thistle milkvetch forms a very low cushion or mat of spiny, stiff leaves. Small pealike flowers with purptish banners are partly hidden among the foliage, and each flower stem supports one to three flowers in a raceme. The leaves are pinnately divided into five to 11 linear to elliptic, silvery-strigose leaflets with sharppointed to spinose apexes. The smalt half-inch-long seed pod has one to four seeds. HABITAT/RANGE: This species inhabits a variety of habitats, from sandy deserts and badlands to alpine ridges and talus slopes. It is distributed from southern Alberta to the Dakotas, south to Nebraska, Colorado and central California. Flowers early to late summer. FACTS/USES: The Astragalus genus is a large group of diverse plants with some members having nearly identical appearance, making identification dependent upon technical features—usually the developed pods.

PURSH'S MILK-VETCH Astragalus purshii Pursh's milk-vetch is a low, tufted, grayish-green plant. The compound leaves are nearly the same length as the flowering stalks, giving the flowers, and later the pods, a nestled appearance among the leaves. The leaves are pinnately divided into seven to 10 round to acute leaflets, which are covered with dense gray hairs. The flower stalks bearthree to lOflowerson a raceme. Each pealike flower is white or yellow, with a reddish tinge on the inner petals. The pods are short, thick, curved and densely tomentose. HABITAT/RANGE: An inhabitant of clay and gravelly soils of sagebrush deserts to lower-mountain foothills, it is distributed from British Columbia to Alberta, south to the Dakotas, New Mexico and California. Flowers mid-April to July. FACTS/USES: The generic name is derived from the Greek word, astragalos, and means ankle bone, referring to the shape of the leaves or pod. It is a selenium accumulator.

AMERICAN LICORICE Glycyrrhiza lepidota American licorice is an erect, branching, perennial herb that ascends one to

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is an erect, branching, perennial herb that ascends one to three feet from thickened rhizomes. The pinnate leaves are comprised of seven to 15 lanceolate leaflets. The yellowishwhite flowers occur in dense racemes, which rise from the leaf axils. Later, the flowers will develop into burlike seed pods dotted with hooked spines. HABITAT/ RANGE: Licorice usually is found in waste places, silly river bottoms and other moist, low ground. It is distributed widely throughout the West, from British Columbia to Ontario, south to Texas, New Mexico and California. Flowers June to early August. FACTS/USES: The generic name is derived from the Greek words, glykys, for sweet, and rhiza, for root. The specific name means with small scurfy scales and refers to the stalked glands covering parts of the plant. The sweet, pleasant-tasting roots can be eaten raw.

SWEETVETCH Hedysarum boreale Sweetvetch is a "bushy," highly branched perennial herb, one to two feet tall, with thin, brownish papery bracts or stipules at the base of each leaf. The leaves are pinnately divided into nine to 15 elliptic or oblong leaflets. Each leaflet is hairless, with minute brown dots or glands on the upper surface. The red to purplish-red pealike flowers are arranged in long, showy racemes. The fruit is a flattened pod, containing two to five seeds, with obvious constrictions between each seed. HABITAT/RANGE: This species grows on dry, clay soils of open or lightly shaded areas in sagebrush plains to aspen belts. It is distributed from the Yukon Territory to Newfoundland and south in our region to the Dakotas, New Mexico and Arizona. Blooms in late spring or early summer. FACTS/ USES: The specific name means northern. Sweetvetch, unlike locoweed, is not poisonous, and the edible licorice-tasting roots have been used by Native Americans.

SILVERY LUPINE Lupinus argenteus Sky-blue flowers and somewhat gray, hairy foliage distinguish this lupine. Several varieties have been split from this species, and there is a wide variation in leaf size and shape, with leaflets ranging from oblanceolate to acuminate, and glabrous to densely grayishhairy. The leaves are palmately divided into five to 11 leaflets and generally are bright green. Flowers are arranged in long spikes of small oneeighth- to one-inch pealike flowers. HABITAT/RANGE: This mountain flower of pine forests to subalpine ridges prefers moist soils. It is distributed from central Oregon to Alberta, to the Dakotas, south to New Mexico and northeast California. Flowers late June to early August. FACTS/USES: The specific name means silvery. Lupines are poisonous, especially the seeds, which contain alkaloids, but poisoning mostly is limited to domestic livestock.

SILKY LUPINE Lupinus sericeus Silky lupine is a perennial herb that grows in large clumps one to two feet high. It is distinguished by its pealike, light blue flowers, arranged in a dense terminal raceme, and its hairy or silky palmate leaves. HABITAT/RANGE: Silky lupine prefers dry soils of sagebrush deserts to lower montane forests. It is distributed widely from British Columbia to Alberta, south to New Mexico and California. Blooms June to early August. FACTS/USES: The specific name means silky. The name "lupine" is derived from the Latin name lupinus, meaning wolf. It was believed that lupines robbed the soil of its fertility, which is not true. On the roots are nodules with bacteria that fix nitrogen that otherwise would be lost. Nitrogen is an important element in the growth of all plants, and lupine actually provides extra nitrogen, thereby making the soil more fertile for other plants.

YELLOW SWEET-CLOVER Melilotus officinalis This is atall, robust, highly branched biennial herb that grows up to 10 feet tall. The small, yellow, pealike flowers are arranged along a slender raceme. The leaves are divided into three lanceolate,

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finely toothed leaflets. A closely related species, white sweetclover (M. alba), is more widespread and important in the West but is not as noticeable as the bright yellow species. HABITAT/RANGE: Prefers waste and disturbed sites along roads and pastures. A native to Europe, it first found its way west with early missionaries and now is found over most of temperate North America. Flowers May to October. FACTS/USES: The generic name is derived from the Latinized form of an old Greek plant used by Aristotle around Sparta and Troy. The Greek word, meli, means honey, and lotus is a kind of wild clover. This species is a favorite of honeybees.

RABBIT-FOOT CRAZYWEED Oxytropis lagopus This small, tufted plant usually is covered with fine silky hairs. Lambert's crazyweed (0. lambertii), a Great Plains species, is very similar in appearance. The distinguishing characteristic, however, is in the attachment of the silky hairs. Lambert's has hairs attached by their middle to a short stalk, while rabbit-foot has basally attached hairs. The bright rose-purple, pealike flowers form dense racemes borne at the ends of leafless stalks. The leaves are pinnately divided into paired lanceolate leaflets. HABITAT/RANGE: This species typically occurs on well-drained sandy or gravelly soils of sagebrush plains to lower-mountain elevations. It is distributed from Idaho to Montana and south to Wyoming. Blooms mid-April to August. FACTS/USES: The generic name is derived from the Greek words, oxus, meaning sharp, and tropis, for keel, and refers to the sharp beak at the tip of the lowest two united petals, or keel, of the flower.

SILKY CRAZYWEED Oxytropis sericea Crazyweeds resemble many species of locoweeds (Astragalus). They usually can be distinguished by their lack of stem leaves. This species is a perennial forb that arises three to 16 inches from a deep, woody taproot. White to yellowish pealike flowers are clustered in spikes at the ends of leafless, flowering stalks. The grayishhairy leaves are basal, usually ascending from the rooterown, and are pinnately divided into paired lanceolate leaflets. The fruit is a fleshy pod, which becomes hardened and bonyasitmatures. HABITAT/RANGE: It has a wide variety of habitats, from prairies to subalpine meadows and ridges. Silky crazyweed is distributed from British Columbia to central Idaho, northern Wyoming, south to Texas, New Mexico and Nevada. Blooms May to September. FACTS/USES: The specific name means silky. Extensive grazing of this species induces a chronic poisoning called locoism.

MOUNTAIN GOLDEN-PEA Thermopsis montana Mountain golden-pea is a perennial herb that ascends one to three feet from woody, creeping, underground rootstocks. The brilliant yellow, pealike flowers are borne in a dense, clustered raceme. The leaves are stalked and divided into three leaflets. A large, leaflike bract, or stipule, is at the base of each leafstalk. After the flowers mature, a one- to three-inch, dark-colored and densely hairy seed pod develops. A closely related species, (T. rhombifolia), is very similar but does not grow as large and the seed pods generally curve into a ring. HABITAT/RANGE: Golden-pea grows in relatively dry soils but does best in moist bottomlands with rich loam soils of the montane zone. Ranges from Washington to Montana and south to New Mexico and northern California. Flowers late spring and early summer. FACTS/USES: The specific name means pertaining to the mountains.

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LONGSTALK CLOVER Trifolium longipes This perennial herb ascends four to 12 inches and often is rhizomatous. Dense flower heads are borne on long stalks, which droop as the flowers age. The purple, pink or yellowish flower heads are composed of small pealike flowers about half an inch long. The leaves are palmately divided into three narrow leaflets one-half l HABITAT/ RANGE L t lk l t i ll i i t Page 198 of 243

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inch to three inches long. HABITAT/ RANGE: Longstalk clover typically occurs in moist soils of wet meadows and along streams of lower montane valleys and meadows to subalpine slopes. It is distributed from Washington to Montana, south to New Mexico and California. Blooms late spring to midsummer. FACTS/USES: The specific name means long-stalked. Steeping the dried flower heads in hot water for a few minutes makes a flavorful and tonic tea. Other uses include medicinal use of the dried flowers for whooping cough and ulcers and use of the seeds for bread.

BIG-HEAD CLOVER Trifolium macrocephalum Big-head clover is a very low-growing clover with distinctive, large, round heads of deep pink and yellowish two-toned flowers. The flowers are one to two inches in diameter and are borne on the ends of slender, stout, three- to 10-inch stems. The leaves are palmately compound, with three to nine leaflets, which are oval-shaped, thick and have toothed margins. HABITAT/RANGE: Big-head clover prefers rocky soils of sagebrush deserts to ponderosa-pine woodlands. Distributed from central Washington to western Idaho and south to Nevada and east-central California, it flowers late April to June. FACTS/USES: The specific name means bearing large heads. The clovers can be eaten raw but are difficult to digest and can cause bloat. When cooked or soaked in saltwater for several hours, they can be eaten in quantity and are very nutritious and high in protein.

RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense Red clover is a perennial herb that lacks rootstocks and grows one to three feet tall. It has trifoliate leaves with broad, oval leaflets. The flowers are in heads or spikes and are composed of 50 to 200 small, pealike flowers varying from pink to purple. Bees are attracted to the red color and the fragrant blossoms, and clovers have an economic importance in the honey industry. The seed pods are small and usually contain a single, small, kidney-shaped seed. HABITAT/RANGE: Red clover often is found along roadsides, fields, fences and other disturbed sites of lowland to midmontane elevations. Introduced from Europe, it has established itself throughout North America. Blooms throughout summer. FACTS/USES: The generic name means three-leaved. The specific name means of the meadows, referring to its preferred habitat. This species is the state flower of Vermont.

AMERICAN VETCH Vicia americana A smooth, trailing, or climbing perennial herb with three to nine pealike, bluishpurple flowers in a one-sided, loose raceme that originates from the axils of the leaves. The leaves are pinnately divided into eight to 14 hairless, oval or elliptic leaflets with the terminal leaflet developed into a tendril. The fruit is a hairless, two- to several-seeded, up to two-inch-long pod. HABITAT/RANGE: American vetch prefers rich, moist, clayey soils of plains and foothills to aspen belts, especially open, timbered areas with grassy meadows. This is a widespread native plant distributed from Alaska to Ontario, south to West Virginia, Missouri, Mexico and California. Flowers June to early August. FACTS/USES: The specific name means American and refers both to its wide distribution and the fact that it is the best-known of the native vetches. Like other legumes, this species possesses nodules containing nitrogenfixing bacteria on the roots.

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WHITE DRYAS Dryas octopetala White dryas is a dwarf, mat-forming shrub. The prostrate, trailing branches rootfreely, and the stems are leafy with dried persistent leaves. The dark green leaves are leathery, wrinkled, lanceolate, coarsely serrated on the margins and whitishhairy on the underside, giving the leaf a two-tone appearance. Each erect, two- to 10-inch stem bears a single, large, white flower with eight to 10 petals and numerous stamens. The persistent styles elongate into long plumes and are featherlike in appearance. HABITAT/RANGE: Prefers wet, gravelly, or stony soils of high montane or above timberline. Well-distributed from Alaska to Labrador, and in the Rocky Mountains, south to Colorado and northeast Oregon. Flowers July through August. FACTS/USES: The specific name means eight-petaled. This shrub has many adaptations for its high, cold environment.

WOODS STRAWBERRY Fragaria vesca Woods strawberry is a low, perennial herb that spreads by stolons or runners. The plant ascends from a scaly rootstock, producing a small, basal clump of compound leaves. The leaves have three coarsely toothed leaflets that generally are bright yellow-green and prominently veined. The flowers are borne in small clusters and have five white petals and 20-25 stamens. The aggregate fruit is red, fleshy and juicy. Another related species (F. virginiana) is differentiated by glaucous, bluishgreen, thick and not prominently veined leaves. HABITAT/RANGE: An inhabitant of moist meadows, stream banks and open woods. Widely distributed throughout temperate North America, Europe, Asia and South America. Blooms in spring and early summer. FACTS/USES: Vesca means weak or feeble. The berries are sweet and delicious raw or cooked into jams, jellies or syrups

LARGE-LEAVED AVENS Geum macrophyllum Large-leaved avens is a delicate-looking plant that grows up to three feet tall with several stems and a few small half-inch, bright yellow flowers on delicate branches at the top. The flowers become rounded seed heads. Geums, or avens, are very similar to cinquefoils (Potentilla). But Geum's style is jointed and bent near the center, and its pinnately compound leaves have a few large, one-inch leaflets that are narrow at the base and broad at the tip. HABITAT/RANGE: This moist, mountain meadow and woodland flower is found from Alaska to the Dakotas, south to northern New Mexico and Baja California. Flowers late May through July. FACTS/USES: The specific name means large-leaved. Other members of the Geum, specifically rivaie, a northeast species, are known for their chocolate-like beverage brewed from the rootstocks.

ALPINE AVENS Geum rossii Alpine avens is a bright yellowflower reminiscent of cinquefoil or mountain buttercups, but the grayish, hairy leaves are pinnately divided into many narrow, irregular segments, helping to differentiate this

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species. The stems, ascending from rhizomes, rarely exceed one foot in height and bear one to four flowers. Like most alpine plants, this species often forms a dense cluster. HABITAT/RANGE: This plant is a dweller of moist soils in alpine meadows and rocky crevices. It is a cordilleran species, found from Alaska to New Mexico and Arizona, and also inhabits Asia. Because it is an alpine species, it blooms late in the season, from mid to late summer. FACTS/USES: As an adaptation to its alpine environment— which includes desiccating winds and intense solar radiation—this plant has a cover of fine gray hairs that acts both as an insulator and a filter.

PRAIRIE SMOKE Geum triflorum This plant is a tufted perennial ascending six to 20 inches from a stout rootstock. The leaves are mainly basal, covered with hairs and pinnately compound into fernlike segments. The pink or reddish bellshaped flowers usually are borne three in a cyme and nod while in blossom. As the flowers mature, the stems become erect and the styles elongate into feather-like plumes. HABITAT/RANGE: This plant prefers dry to moist grasslands, sagebrush plains to subalpine meadows. It is distributed widely across southern Canada and the northern United States, south to New Mexico and central California. Flowers from spring to midsummer. FACTS/USES: The specific name means three-flowered. The common name, prairie smoke, refers to the cluster of reddish, plumose styles, which have the appearance of a puff of smoke. The boiled roots produce a tonic tea.

OCEAN-SPRAY Hotodiscus discolor Ocean-spray is a bushy shrub with somewhat spreading branches; it grows from two to 15 feet in height. The stems are erect and the young twigs are finely hairy, while the older bark is grayish-brown. The alternate leaves are somewhat egg-shaped, with doubletoothed margins. The upper surface is dark green and slightly hairy, while the lower surface is grayish or white-woolly. The small, numerous, cream-colored flowers form a dense terminal cluster or panicle. This plant easily can be confused with spireas. HABITAT/RANGE: It occupies a variety of sites—from moist, shady forests of coastal plains to low mountains and arid coniferous forests. It grows from British Columbia to western Montana, south to southern California. Flowers June to July. FACTS/USES: The specific name means two-colored or of different colors.

TALL CINQUEFOIL Potentilla arguta This is a tall—usually more than 16 inches high—rather weedy-looking perennial herb with somewhat sticky glandular hairs on the stem and inflorescence. The leaves are pinnately divided into five to 11 leaflets, which are lobed, toothed and hairy. The pale yellow, cream or white flowers usually are crowded on a narrow cyme. While in bloom, the petals equal or slightly exceed the length of the sepals but, in fruit, the sepals enlarge and enclose the cluster of achenes. HABITAT/RANGE: It grows in rich, deep loams of moist meadows, along irrigation ditches and open hillsides, but not in alpine areas. It occurs from Alaska to Alberta, south along the mountain ranges to Utah and Arizona. Flowers May to July. FACTS/USES: The specific name means sharp-toothed. Many species of cinquefoil have been used medicinally, mainly as an astringent

SHRUBBY CINQUEFOIL Potentilla fruticosa This is a diffusely branched shrub, which generally grows one to two feet tall but occasionally reaches five feet, under good growing conditions. The stem is woody, twisted and tough, with silky-hairy young stems maturing to shreddy, brown bark with age. Its leaves are grayish-green and pinnately divided into three to seven linear, leathery leaflets that are silky-hairy underneath. In blossom, the shrub produces a profusion of bright yellow, saucer-shaped, half-inch- to one-inch-diameter fl Th d h ll dd l h i Page 201 of 243

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flowers. The seeds, or achenes, are small, numerous and densely hairy. HABITAT/RANGE: It has a wide altitudinal range, from foothills to subalpine slopes, but it prefers moist, cool climates. It is distributed from Alaska to Labrador, south to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, New Mexico and California, and Eurasia. Blooms through the summer. FACTS/ USES: The specific name means shrubby or bushy.

SLENDER CINQUEFOIL Potentilla gracilis Slender cinquefoil is an erect, bushy perennial herb ascending one to two feetfrom deep, woody taproots. The flowers are arranged in a loose, many-flowered cyme with small, leafy bracts at the base. Each saucer-shaped flower usually is a deep yellow, about onequarter to one-half inch in diameter, with 20 stamens in three rows. The leaves are mostly basal and digitately compound usually into seven green, toothed leaflets. There are numerous Potentilla species and differentiation can be difficult. HABITAT/RANGE: It is common on dry, sandy, gravelly, or clay loams of grasslands, sagebrush deserts to moist mountain slopes at subalpine. Distributed widely from Alaska to Saskatchewan, south to New Mexico and Baja, California, it blooms in June and July. FACTS/ USES: The Latin generic name is derived from potens, meaning powerful, in reference to its medicinal properties.

COMMON CHOKECHERRY Prunus virginiana Chokecherry is a leafy shrub or small tree that can grow up to 25 feet tall. The shiny, green leaves are elliptic, with a fine, ^ toothed margin. Small, numerous, whitish or cream-colored flowers are clustered in a raceme at the ends of leafy branches. The flowers later develop into a dark purple or black, juicy, berrylike drupe. HABITAT/RANGE: It prefers sunny, moist sites, especially along stream or river courses, seeps, and canyons, in addition to well-drained sandy soils of hillsides and talus slopes. It is widespread throughout southern California and the United States. Flowers usually in May or June and fruits in August or September. FACTS/USES: Chokecherry is edible, but it does pucker the mouth. When ample sugar is added, it makes delicious jellies, syrup or wine. This species is in the cherry genus and, though the seeds are nutritious, they, like peach pits, contain cyanogenetic poison.

ANTELOPE BITTERBRUSH Purshia tridenfata This is a widely branched, semierect, grayish-green shrub with small, bright yellow flowers. This long-living, drought-resistant species usually is two to six feet tall. The leaves and flowers are two identifying characteristics: The leaves are clustered, wedgeshaped, three-toothed, and green on the upper surface, with a grayish woolly under surface; the flowers are solitary on short branchlets but clustered on the outer branches. HABITAT/RANGE: This plant prefers well-drained, sandy, gravelly soils and southern exposures of arid plains, foothills, and mountain slopes. It is distributed widely from British Columbia to Montana, south to New Mexico and California. Blooms May to July. FACTS/USES: The specific name means three-toothed. The common name is appropriate because the foliage has a very bitter taste. It is one of the most important Western browse plants for game animals.

WOOD'S ROSE Rosa woodsii Wood's rose is an erect, trailing or climbing shrub one to six feettall. The stems usually have prickles and alternate leaves with flat-winged stipules. Each leaf is pinnately compound into five or seven leaflets that are elliptic and sawtooth-margined. The flowers—comprised of five heart-shaped petals and numerous yellow stamens—are showy, fragrant and red or pink in color. The fruit, or hip, is orange-red, with long tapering sepals. HABITAT/RANGE: It is abundant in moist sites of dry habitats, especially along riverbanks, canyons and open woods of lowlands and foothills. It occurs from British Columbia to Montana south to Texas and southern California and

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occurs from British Columbia to Montana, south to Texas and southern California and in areas of Wisconsin and Kansas. Flowers May into July. FACTS/USES: The rose hips are edible and known for their concentration of vitamin C. The hips can be eaten raw, stewed or cooked into jams and jellies, with sugar.

RED RASPBERRY Pubus idaeus Wild red raspberry is similar to our cultivated garden variety, but smaller. This perennial shrub is strongly armed with prickles, especially near the base of the stem. The compound leaves have three to five sharply toothed leaflets. The white five-petaled flowers are in terminal or axillary clusters and mature into dark red, aggregate berries. HABITAT/RANGE: Inhabits wet or dry woods along mountain trails and rocky slopes. A native shrub overmuch of temperate North America and Eurasia. Blooms May through June, and produces fruit mid-July to September. FACTS/USES: Raspberries are excellent eaten raw or cooked into jams or syrup. Boiling the leaves for 20 minutes can produce a tea. The simmered roots have a number of medicinal uses—an eyewash, a treatment for weak lungs, a general tonic, and a relief for summer diarrhea.

THIMBLEBERRY Fiubusparviflorus A plant very similar to red raspberry (R. idaeus) but more robust, with large, deep-green leaves up to 10 inches wide and three- to five-lobed. The stems are unarmed, lacking prickles. The white flowers are cup-shaped and mature to red aggregate berries, which taste rather dry and insipid. HABITAT/RANGE: Thimbleberry grows in moist to dry wooded to open sites, from sea level to the subalpine zone. It is welldistributed throughout the West, from Alaska to the Great Lakes and south to Montana, New Mexico and southern California. Blooms late May to July, with berries ripening July to September. FACTS/USES: The generic name means small-flowered. The berries are a special favorite of wildlife. The telltale red-stained droppings left on rocks and limbs by birds and other small animals indicate that ripe thimbleberries are not far away.

MOUNTAIN ASH Sorbus scopulina This shrub or small tree reaches three to 15 feet in height. The leaves are large, alternate and pinnately divided into 11 to 17 elliptic, finely serrated leaflets. The small, cream-colored flowers are borne in terminal, flat-topped clusters. The flowers mature by late summer or early fall into a cluster of glossy, bright orange or scarlet berrylike fruits, which usually persist into the winter. HABITAT/RANGE: Mountain ash often is found in moist soils of canyons and mountain hillsides. It is distributed from Alaska to western Alberta, south to the Dakotas, Wyoming, New Mexico and northern California. Flowers from May until early July. FACTS/USES: The specific name means of the rocks, referring to its habit of establishing in rocky canyons and hillsides. The bitter berries are edible raw, cooked or dried, but are a bigger attractant for birds— especially cedar waxwings—than for humans.

SHINY-LEAF SPIREA Spires betulifolia Shinyleafspireaisadeciduous, erectshrut), onetothreefeet tall, arising from creeping rootstocks. It has rather oblong, birch-like leaves. The flowers are very small, less than one-eighth-inch long, with five sepals and five petals, and numerous protruding stamens. The white or pinkish-tinged flowers are densely arranged on a showy, flat-topped corymb. HABITAT/RANGE: This plant prefers deep, fertile and moist soils of open hillsides to dry woods. It occurs from British Columbia to Saskatchewan, South Dakota, Wyoming to Oregon, and also is found in Asia. Blooms early summer to midsummer. FACTS/USES: The generic name is derived from the Greek word speira, meaning spiral or coil, which may refer to the spirally twisted seed pods. The specific name means birch-leaved.

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SUBALPINE SPIREA Spirea dens/flora This is a low plant that grows up to three feet tall and is branched with dark, redbrown bark. It is distinguished easily by its dense cluster of tiny, red or pinkish flowers arranged in a flat-topped corymb. The leaves are elliptic, toothed, bright green on the upper surface and slightly puberulent on the lower surface. The fruit is a cluster of five seed pods (follicles) containing several small seeds. HABITAT/RANGE: As the common name implies, this species is a dweller of subalpine zones. It prefers rocky sites and often can be found growing in the soil-filled cracks of rocks. It is found from southern British Columbia to Montana, Wyoming and central California. Flowers early to midsummer. FACTS/USES: The specific name means densely flowered. Spireas have a reputed medicinal use as a general tonic made by brewing a tea from the stem, leaves or flowers.

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YARROW Achillea millefolium This flower, a perennial herb, can easily be distinguished by its flat top, small white flowers and aromatic fernlike leaves. HABITAT/RANGE: Yarrow is found throughout the Northern Hemisphere and can flourish and prosper in a variety of environments and habitats, including alleys, sagebrush plains, and alpine tundra. Blooms from April to September. FACTS/ USES: The generic name, Achillea, is in honor of Achilles, the greatest warrior among the Greeks at Troy and the slayer of Hector. He is credited with first using yarrow as a poultice to cure the wounds of soldiers injured in battle. The odor of its crushed leaves is one of the most outstanding characteristics of yarrow. The leaves when dried and crushed have a strong, aromatic minty smell and are frequently used as a flavoring for tea.

COMMON BURDOCK Arctium minus This biennial herb produces a rosette of large, wavy, thick, petioled, cordate leaves its first year. During the second year, a robust, highly branched, hairy stalk ascends two to six feet from a large, fleshy taproot. The inflorescence is a raceme with clusters of flower heads that are composed of small red-violet disk flowers surrounded by numerous hooked bracts, which later mature to a round bur. This species is very similar to common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), except it is an annual, a native, the leaves are rough and sharp, not as velvety and smooth, and the burs are longer and not as round. HABITAT/RANGE: As a European introduction, it has spread throughout North America and is found on moist pastures, roadsides and ditch banks. It grows from sea level to low mountain elevations. Flowers July to September. FACTS/ USES: The specific name means smaller.

HEARTLEAF ARNICA Arnica cordifolia A sunflower-like plant comprised of 10-15 yellow ray and numerous tiny disk flowers in a head often more than two inches wide. The plants have characteristic heart-shaped, toothed, and opposite leaves on a stem eight to 20 inches high. HABITAT/RANGE: A common wildflower growing in patches in moist shaded woods and ascending to timberline, there are 14 species of arnica throughout the West. Heartleaf amica blooms from May to late July. FACTS/USES: The Latin name, cordifolia, is derived from cordis— of the heart, and folia —leaves. It is descriptive of the leaf shape and not, as once believed, a medicine for the heart. It is, however, an important medicinal plant. Drugs are prepared from plant extracts and administered to produce a rise in body temperature or cause a mild fever.

BIG SAGEBRUSH Artemisia tridentata Big sagebrush is the most familiar and widespread shrub in the West. This plant is distinguished easily by its large, straplike, silver-green, threetoothed leaves. It can attain a height of one to seven feet, with the tops projecting spikelike, yellowish, flowering heads. The flowers are small, numerous and inconspicuous.

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The flowers are small, numerous and inconspicuous. HABITAT/RANGE: It grows on a variety of soils but is intolerant of alkali and inhabits dry plains and hills to timberline. It is distributed widely from British Columbia to North Dakota, New Mexico and California. Flowers late summer and early fall. FACTS/USES: The specific name means three-toothed. This species is not the cooking herb, which is common garden sage (Salvia officinalis), a member of the mint family. Wildlife relish this shrub, but if it is consumed by livestock, the volatile oils can kill digesting microorganisms within their rumen.

ALPINE ASTER Aster alpigenus Alpine aster is a small, graceful flower arising from a simple or slightly branched taproot, and the previous year's vegetation often can be found around its base. Slender, entire margined leaves and several unbranched stems supporting solitary flowering heads arise from this base. The flower heads are comprised of violet or lavender ray flowers with yellow disk flowers in the center. HABITAT/RANGE: Inhabits open, moist meadows at subalpine and alpine habitats and often is found among short, cropped grasses and sedges. Limited in distribution to the central region of the Rocky Mountains, from eastern Oregon to Montana and Wyoming. FACTS/USES: The genus name, Aster, is derived from the Greek word for star. The species name means alpine.

SHOWY ASTER Aster conspicuus Showy aster is an erect, leafy, perennial herb ascending from creeping rootstocks and growing up to three feet tall. The stem leaves somewhat clasp the stem and are large and elliptic, with sharply toothed margins. Leaves at the middle of the stem usually are the largest. The flower heads are comprised of 12 to 35 violet or purple ray flowers and yellow disk flowers. The flower heads are individually borne on long stalks and form a flat-topped inflorescence. HABITAT/RANGE: It inhabits moist, rich soils of open woods and often is associated with aspen, conifer stands and old burn areas. It is distributed from the Yukon Territory, British Columbia to Saskatchewan, south to South Dakota, Wyoming and Oregon. Flowers from mid-July to early fall. FACTS/USES: The specific name means conspicuous or showy.

THICKSTEM ASTER Aster integrifolius Thickstem aster is a leafy, perennial forb ascending eight to 20 inches from a stout rootstock. The reddish stems are somewhat glabrous at the base and glandular-hairy at the top into the inflorescence. Basal leaves are large, narrow, lance-shaped, entire, wavy and taper to a winged stalk, while the upper leaves are oblong, stalkless and somewhat clasp the stem. The flower heads clustered at the end of the stem have a ragged appearance. Each flower head has 10 to 27 deep bluish-purple ray flowers with a small center of yellow disk flowers. HABITAT/RANGE: This species prefers dry meadows, hillsides and open woods of mid-elevations and often is associated with goldenrod and lupine. It is well-distributed from Washington to Montana, south to Colorado and California. Flowers mid-July through fall. FACTS/USES: The specific name means entire-leaved.

ARROWLEAF BALSAMROOT Balsamorhiza sagittata Arrowleaf balsamroot is a robust, perennial herb that attains a height of eight to 36 inches. It is recognized easily by its large, showy, yellow flower heads and silvery-green, arrowshaped leaves. HABITAT/RANGE: It prefers well-drained soils, southern exposures and open ridges of foothills to midmountain elevations. This species is well-distributed from British Columbia to Saskatchewan, south to Colorado and central California, but east of the Cascade Mountains. Blooms May to early July. FACTS/USES: The specific name means arrowlike, referring to the leaf shape. The common and generic name is derived from its thick, resinous (balsam) roots (rhiza). The roasted seeds can be ground into a flour,

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called pinole. The Nez Perce Indians were known to roast and grind the seeds, which they then formed into little balls by adding grease.

NODDING BEGGARS-TICK Bidens cemua Nodding beggarstick has bright yellow flower heads one to two inches in diameter with as many as 12 ray flowers. There are two distinct rows of green involucral bracts. One main distinguishing characteristic is the leaves, which are opposite, lanceolate, sharply toothed and may clasp or join around the stem. Another characteristic is the seeds, which are small and flattened with two projecting spines covered with backward-pointing barbs. HABITAT/RANGE: This species often is found along the edges of ponds or other wet, boggy soils of low to mid-mountain elevations. It is distributed widely throughout North America from British Columbia to New Brunswick, south to North Carolina, Missouri, New Mexico and California. Flowers July to September. FACTS/USES: The Latin generic name means two teeth and refers to the spines. The specific name means drooping or nodding.

MUSK THISTLE Carduus nutans This large, branching biennial reaches a height of one to nine feet. The leaves are deeply lobed and jagged, with sharp spines. The leaf stems are winged (decurrent) and generally run down the stalk. The large, two- to three-inch-wide, deep lavender, rayless heads nod on the stem. The involucral bracts are conspicuous, sharp and stiff, with the lower ones bent back. HABITAT/RANGE: Introduced from Eurasia, it is found sparingly throughout the United States and into Canada. It establishes easily on disturbed sites, especially along roads. A summer and fall bloomer. FACTS/USES: The generic name, Carduus, is the Latin word for thistle. The specific name, nutans, means nodding, and refers to the nodding or drooping heads. The large and colorful heads are attractants for pollinating insects and small animals.

SPOTTED KNAPWEED Centaurea maculosa Knapweed is a biennial herb or short-lived perennial that produces a rosette of long, deeply pinnate leaves. In its second year, the taproot sends up a branching leafy stem one to three feet tall. The numerous pinkish or purple flower heads are arranged at the ends of terminal and branching stems. The ray flowers are finely and narrowly segmented, and the involucral bracts have dark, finely fringed tips. HABITAT/ RANGE: This plant prefers dry, gravelly or sandy soils of disturbed sites, especially along roadsides and overgrazed pastures. Introduced and naturalized from Europe, it has established throughout western North America. Flowers through the summer into fall. FACTS/USES: The specific name means spotted. Knapweed is an aggressive, competitive plant, establishing quickly on disturbed sites and producing a chemical to inhibit surrounding plants.

DUSTY MAIDEN Chaenactis alpina Dusty maiden is a perennial, taprooted herb. The white or pinkish flower heads lack ray flowers; instead, they are comprised of showy, tubular disk flowers, giving the appearance of ray flowers. The four- to 18-inch stem is openly branched, with a flower head terminating at the end of each branch. The stem also is very leafy and bears deeply dissected, fernlike leaves that are lightly woolly with a dusty look. Larger leaves form a rosette at the base. This species could be confused with yarrow (Achillea millefolium), which does have ray flowers. HABITAT/RANGE: Commonly grows on dry, gravelly or sandy soils of mountain ridges, hillsides and disturbed sites of mid-mountain to alpine elevations. Distributed from British Columbia to Montana, south to New Mexico and California, it flowers through the summer. FACTS/USES: The specific name honors botanist David Douglas.

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ELK THISTLE Cirsium scariosum Elk thistle has large, spiny, grayish-green leaves attached to a thick stalk, which may stand anywhere from four inches to four feet tall. The light lavender flowers are hidden and clumped among the foliage near the top. HABITAT/RANGE: Prefers meadows and other moist soils from foothills to mountain and subalpine zones. It is a common plant from British Columbia to Saskatchewan south to New Mexico and California. Blooms June to early August. FACTS/USES: Elk thistle, also know as Everts' thistle, saved the life of Truman Everts in Yellowstone National Park in 1870. Everts, an explorer, became separated from his group and his horse for 37 days. Because a botanist had remarked that the root of this plant was edible and nutritious, it was the only plant he knew was safe to eat, and he subsisted on the raw root.

BULL THISTLE Cirsium vuigare This biennial herb reproduces by seeds. The first year, a rosette of coarsely toothed, lanceolate leaves appears. By the second year, a stout oneto six-foot stalk arises from the taproot. The leaves are deeply cut with long, needle-pointed spines, and the upper surface of the leaf is covered with short, stiff hairs. The flower heads, deep-purple to rose-colored, are one to two inches wide. HABITAT/RANGE: Bull thistle is an introduced and naturalized plant from Eurasia, now found throughout the United States and north into Canada, from British Columbia to Newfoundland. An invader of pastures and other disturbed sites, it is a late summer and early fall bloomer. FACTS/USES: The generic name, Cirsium, is derived from the Greek word kirsos, which means a swollen vein for which thistles were used as a remedy.

SHOWY FLEABANE Erigeron spec/osus As its common name implies, this is one of the showiest, most colorful and widespread fleabanes of the West. One to several flower heads are borne on short stalks arising from leaf axils and forming a somewhat flat-topped arrangement. Each flower head is one to two inches in diameter and composed of yellow, tubular disk flowers and narrow, linear, lilac to bluish-purple ray flowers. The involucral bracts are in two rows, narrow and finely granular. The leafy stems are erect and usually one to three feet tall. Leaves are alternate, entire with conspicuous hairs along the margin, and the upper leaves somewhat clasp the stem. HABITAT/RANGE: Showy fleabane inhabits moist, open meadows, woods and burned sites of coniferous forests. Distributed from British Columbia to Alberta, south to New Mexico and California. Blooms June to August. FACTS/USES: The specific name means showy or good-looking.

WOOLLY SUNFLOWER Eriophyllum lanatum This species is a small, usually clumped, perennial herb with golden-yellow flower heads. The erect stems, four to 24 inches tall, are leafy and covered with dense, white, woolly hairs, giving the plant a gray appearance. Each stem is branched and bears a flower head of eight to 12 broad, yellow ray flowers and yellow disk flowers. The fruit is a slender, four-angled achene. HABITAT/RANGE: Woolly sunflower prefers dry, open, often sandy or gravelly soils of ridges or roadsides of foothills to mountain slopes. It typically occurs from British Columbia to Western Montana, south to Utah and southern California. Flowers May through July. FACTS/USES: The generic name is derived from the Greek words erion, forwool, and phyllon, for foliage, and refers to the dense, gray, woolly stems and leaves. The specific name also means woolly.

MISSOURI GOLDENROD Solidago missouriensis Missouri goldenrod is an erect, perennial herb ascending eight to 36 inches from a well-developed creeping rhizome. The small,

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yellow flower heads are arranged on one side of the spreading branches in a densely clustered inflorescence. Each flower head contains ray and disk flowers, usually with eight—or occasionally up to 13—ray flowers. The lanceolate, smooth and entire leaves are arranged alternately along the stem. HABITAT/RANGE: It prefers dry, often gravelly, open sites of plains, valley and high-mountain elevations. It is a Great Plains dweller distributed from southern British Columbia to Wisconsin, south to Missouri, Oklahoma, and Arizona. Flowers July to September. FACTS/USES: The generic name is derived from the Latin names solidusand ago, meaning to make whole, and refers to its medicinal healing properties.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

Copyright @1999-2003 Yellowstone Media Group, Inc

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Do not use this map for backcountry hiking. Buy USGS topographic maps at visitor centers.

Park News

National Park Ser vice U.S. Depar tment of the Interior

Summer 2006

Teewinot

The offi ficcial newspaper of Grand Teton National Park & John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway

Welcome to Grand Teton National Park Few landscapes in the world are as striking and memorable as that

Caring for the American Legacy

of Grand Teton National Park. The Teton Range, the central feature and focus of the park, draws the eyes for miles, captivating park visitors and local residents alike. For generations, the Tetons have touched all who have witnessed their beauty.

Rising abruptly from the valley floor, the Tetons offer a testament to the power and complexity of nature. The mountains, valleys, lakes, rivers, and skies are home to diverse and abundant plants and animals. People have been living in the shadow of the Teton Range for almost 11,000 years. The human history of this area is extensive, beginning with American Indian prehistoric life, to the early Euro-

Many high elevation lakes and trails may be snow-covered until mid-summer this year due to above average snowfall.

On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed the act creating the National Park Service, a new federal bureau in the Department of the Interior responsible for protecting the 40 national parks and monuments then in existence, as well as those yet to be established.

American explorers, and the more relatively recent frontier settlement, which left more than 300 historic structures.

This spectacular mountain range and the desire to protect it resulted in the establishment of Grand Teton National Park in 1929. Over time, through the vision and generous philanthropy of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., additional lands were added, creating the presentday park. This area continues to be protected through the combined efforts of the National Park Service, the local community, and Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem partners. Grand Teton National Park is a dynamic example of people from all walks of life

Ar rowleaf balsalmroot

Mountain bluebird

working together to protect a mountain range and its surrounding landscape of natural and human communities.

Grand Teton National Park is truly a special and unique place. With thoughtful use and careful management, it can remain so for

Grand Teton preserves a piece of the natural and cultural heritage of America for the benefit and enjoyment of future generations.

While you are here, take a moment to put your cares aside, stroll

Please join us in protecting Grand Teton National Park by following park regulations and watching out for your own safety and the safety of others. Enjoy your visit.

through a grassy meadow, hike a park trail, sit on a quiet lakeshore, and lose yourself to the power of this place. We hope you will be refreshed and restored during your visit, and stay connected to this

International Visitors

The Organic Act of August 25, 1916, states that: “The Service thus established shall promote and regulate the use of Federal areas known as national parks, monuments and reservations – by such means and measures as conform to the fundamental purpose of the said parks, monuments and reservations, which purpose is to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” The National Park Service strives to meet those original goals, while filling many other roles as well: guardian of diverse cultural and recreational resources; environmental advocate; world leader in the parks and preservation community; and pioneer in the drive to protect America’s open space.

generations to come. As with other sites in the National Park System,

magnificent landscape long after you have returned home.

Grand Teton National Park is one of nearly 400 park sites administered by the National Park Service (NPS). The NPS preserves the natural and cultural resources and values of the National Park System for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this and future generations. The NPS also cooperates with partners to extend the benefits of natural and cultural resource conservation and outdoor recreation throughout this country and the world.

The Cunningham cabin is one of 318 historic str uctures in Grand Teton National Park.

Contact Information

Index Visitor Ser vices ..................................... 2

Des renseignements en Français sont disponibles aux centres des visiteurs dans le parc. Sie konnen Informationen auf Deutsch in den Besucherzentren bekommen. Se puede conseguir información en Español en el Centro del Visitante.

Accessibilty information available at visitor centers and on www.nps.gov/grte

Grand Teton National Park’s website ........................... www.nps.gov/gr te/

Geology ................................................ 3

EMERGENCY ......................................................................................................................911

Wildlife ................................................. 4

Park Dispatch ...................................................................................................(307) 739-3301

Natural History .................................... 5

Visitor Information ...........................................................................................(307) 739-3300

Hiking ................................................... 6

Weather ...........................................................................................................(307) 739-3611

Safety ................................................... 7

Road Conditions...............................................................................................(307) 739-3682

Camping ............................................... 8

Backcountry & River Information ......................................................................(307) 739-3602

Park Par tners ........................................ 9

Climbing Information .......................................................................................(307) 739-3604

Fire Management .............................. 10

Camping Information .......................................................................................(307) 739-3603

Yellowstone ....................................... 11

TDD (Telecommunication Device for the Hearing Impaired)...............................(307) 739-3400

Park Map ............................................ 12 TEEWINOT [SUMMER 2006]

Page 215 of 243

1

Ser vices and Facilities

www.nps.gov/gr te/

Open/close dates and hours of operation subject to change at any time. Facilities listed south to north. Gros Ventre

Camping

Gros Ventre Campground

May 1-Oct 15

(307) 543-3100 (800) 628-9988

360 sites, dump station. First-come, first-served.

Moose

Visitor Center

Moose Visitor Center

Year-round

(307) 739-3399

Lodging Food Service

Dornan’s Spur Ranch Dornan’s Chuck Wagon Dornan’s Pizza & Pasta Co. Dornan’s Trading Post Dornan’s Wine Shoppe Dornan’s Gift Shop Moosely Seconds Dornan’s Snake River Anglers Adventure Sports

Year-round June 10-Sept 17 Year-round Year-round Year-round Year-round May-Sept Year-round May-Oct May-Sept

(307) (307) (307) (307) (307) (307) (307)

NPS visitor center, open 8 a.m.-7 p.m. in summer, 8 a.m.-5 p.m. other seasons. Information, audiovisual programs, exhibits. One- and two- bedroom cabins with kitchens, located on the Snake River. Traditional western fare. Open daily for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. May 11:30 a.m.-7 p.m., June-Sept 11:30 a.m.-9 p.m., Oct-April 11:30 a.m.-3p.m. Gourmet items, groceries, cheeses, and deli. Deli open May-September. May 10 a.m.- 8 p.m., June-Sept 10 a.m.- 10 p.m., Oct-April 10 a.m.-6 p.m. May 8 a.m.-5 p.m June-Sept 8 a.m.-8 p.m., Oct-April 10 a.m.-5 p.m. Located at Dornan’s. Mountaineering and camping equipment. 9 a.m.-8 p.m. Automotive fuel, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Located at Dornan’s. Spin and fly fishing, float trips, Wyoming fishing licenses. Located at Dornan’s. Bike, kayak, and canoe rentals and sales. 8 a.m.-8 p.m.

Visitor Center Ranger Station Lodging Camping

Jenny Lake Visitor Center Jenny Lake Ranger Station AAC Climber’s Ranch Jenny Lake Campground

May 14-Sept 30 May 20 -Sept 24 June 1-Sept 30 May 12-Sept 24

(307) 739-3392 (307) 739-3343 (307) 733-7271 (307) 543-3100 (800) 628-9988

Camp Store/Gift Shops Boat Tours

General Store Jenny Lake Boating

May 12-Sept 17 May 13-Sept 30

Lodging

Jenny Lake Lodge

June 3-Oct 8

Food Service

Lodge Dining Room

June 3-Oct 8

Gift Shops

Jenny Lake Lodge

June 3-Oct 8

Lodging Food Service

Signal Mountain Lodge Peaks Dining Room Trapper Grill

May 13-Oct 15 May 13-Oct 1 May 13-Oct 15

Camp Store/Gift Shops

Needles Gift Store Timbers Gift Store

Camp Store/Gift Shops Service Station Other South Jenny Lake

North Jenny Lake

Signal Mountain

Jackson Lake Lodge

Service Stations Marina Camping

Signal Marina Signal Mountain CG

May May May May May

Lodging

Jackson Lake Lodge

May 22-Oct 1

Food Service

Mural Room

May 22-Oct 1

Pioneer Grill Blue Heron Jackson Lake Lodge

May May May May May

Gift Shops Service Station Horseback Riding

Jackson Lake Lodge Corral

14-Oct 15 14-Oct 15 13-Oct 15 20-Sept 17 13-Oct 15

22-Oct 1 22-Sept 30 22-Oct 1 22-Oct 1 23-Oct 1

733-2522 733-2415 733-2415 733-2415 733-2415 733-2415 739-1801

x203 x204 x201 x202 x301

(307) 733-3699 (307) 733-2415 x302

NPS visitor center open 8 a.m.-4:30 p.m. June 5-Sept 4, open 8 a.m.-7 p.m. NPS ranger station offering backcountry permits, and climbing information. Located south of Jenny Lake, very rustic accommodations. 51 sites, tents only. First-come, first-served. Camping and hiking supplies, groceries, film, and gifts. Shuttle and tours across Jenny Lake. Kayak and canoe rentals available.

(307) 734-9227 (307) 733-4647 (800) 628-9988

Modified American Plan. Breakfast 7:30-9 a.m., lunch 12-1:30 p.m., dinner 6-8:45 p.m. Reservations required for dinner. Gifts, books, and apparel.

(307) 543-2831

Lakefront suites, motel units, and log cabins. Open daily for dinner, 5:30-10 p.m. Hours vary during shoulder seasons. Open daily. Breakfast 7-11 a.m., lunch 11 a.m-5:30 p.m., dinner 5:30-10 p.m. Hours vary during shoulder seasons. Open daily 8 a.m.-10 p.m. Hours vary during shoulder seasons. Open daily 7 a.m.-10 p.m. Hours vary during shoulder seasons. Open daily 7 a.m.-10 p.m. Hours vary during shoulder seasons. Rentals, guest buoys, lake fishing trips, gas and courtesy docks. Hours vary. 86 sites, 30-foot vehicle max, dump station. First-come, first-served.

(307) 543-2831 (800) 672-6012 (307) 543-3100 (800) 628-9988

Breakfast 7-9:30 am, lunch 11:30 a.m.-1:30 p.m., dinner 5:30-9 p.m. Dinner reservations recommended. Open daily 6 a.m.-10:30 p.m. Open daily 11 a.m.-midnight. Sundries, magazines, books, gifts, souvenirs, and apparel. Gas and diesel. Breakfast and dinner rides, wagon seats available. Trail rides.

(307) 543-2811

Triangle X

Lodging

Triangle X Ranch

May 26-Oct 30 Dec-March

(307) 733-2183

Full service guest ranch with horseback riding, and other ranch activities. Winter activities include skiing, snowmobiling, snowshoeing, and sightseeing.

Colter Bay

Visitor Center & Indian Arts Museum

Colter Bay Visitor Center

May 13-Oct 8

(307) 739-3594

NPS visitor center and museum, open 8 a.m.-5 p.m. May 13-May 27, 8 a.m.-7 p.m. May 28-Sept 4, 8 a.m.-5 p.m. Sept 5-Oct 8.

Lodging

Colter Bay Cabins Tent Village RV Park

May 26-Oct 1 June 2-Sept 4 May 26-Oct 1

Colter Bay Campground

May 26-Sept 24

(307) (800) (307) (800) (307) (800)

Horseback Riding Marina

Chuck Wagon Café Court General Store Marina Store Highway Station Village Station Colter Bay Corral Colter Bay

May 26-Oct 1 June 2-Sept 4 May 26-Oct 1 May 26-Aug (depending on water levels) Apr 30-Oct 15 May 26-Sept 10 June 2-Sept 4 (307) 543-2811 May 27-Aug (depending on water levels)

Breakfast 6:30-11 a.m., lunch 11:30 a.m. - 1:30 p.m., dinner 5:30-9 p.m. Open daily 11 a.m.–10 p.m. ATM, groceries, gifts, and firewood. Fishing tackle, film, outdoor apparel, beverages, and snacks. Gas, diesel, beverages, snacks, souvenirs, and firewood. Propane, gas, diesel, beverages, snacks, souvenirs, and firewood. Breakfast and dinner rides, wagon seats available. Trail rides. Scenic cruises, boat rentals, guided fishing, gas.

Leek’s Marina

Food Service Marina

Leek’s Pizzeria Leek’s Marina

May 25-Sept 4 May 20-Sept 10

(307) 543-2494 (307) 543-2546

Pizza and sandwiches. Open daily 11 a.m.-10 p.m. Dependent on water levels.

Lizard Creek

Camping

Lizard Creek Campground

June 2-Sept 5

(307) 543-2831 (800) 672-6012

60 sites, 30-foot vehicle max. First-come, first-served.

Flagg Ranch

Visitor Center Lodging Food Service Camp Store/Gift Shop Camping Horseback riding Snowmobiling/Snowcoach

Flagg Ranch Information Station Flagg Ranch Resort Flagg Ranch Resort Flagg Ranch Resort Flagg Ranch Campground Flagg Ranch Resort Flagg Ranch Resort

June 6-Sept 4 May 15-Oct 9 May 15-Oct 9 May 15-Oct 9 May 27-Sept 30 June-August Dec-March

(307) 543-2372 (307) 543-2861 (800) 443-2311

NPS visitor center, open 8 a.m.-5 p.m. Log style units. Home-style menu, breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Essentials for camping and fishing, diesel, and snowmobile rentals. Full hook-ups, tent sites, laundry, showers. One-hour trail rides. Guided snowmobile and snowcoach trips into Yellowstone.

Camping

Food Service Camp Store/Gift Shops Service Stations

Other Services Jackson Information

543-3100 628-9988 543-3100 628-9988 543-3100 628-9988

(307) 733-3316

Environmental Education Horseback Riding Lost and Found

Teton Science School Jackson Hole Trail Rides Property Office

(307) 733-4765 (307) 733-6992 (307) 739-3450

Mountaineering

Exum Mountain Guides Year-round (307) 733-2297 JH Mountain Guides Year-round (307) 733-4979 Barker-Ewing Float Trips Mid-May-Sept (307) 733-1800 Flagg Ranch Resort May-Sept (307) 543-2861 Snake River Angler May-Oct (307) 733-2853 Grand Teton Lodge Co. May 26-Sept 29 (307) 543-2811 Jack Dennis Fishing Trips May-Sept (307) 733-3270 Heart 6 Float Trips May-Sept (307) 543-2477 National Park Float Trips May-Sept (307) 733-6445 O.A.R.S. June-Sept (800) 346-6277 Signal Mountain Lodge May 20-Sept 24 (307) 543-2831 Solitude Float Trips May-Sept (307) 733-2871 Triangle X Float May-Sept (307) 733-5500 Recycling stations are located throughout the park. Please check at any

Snake River Float Trips

Recycling Medical Ser vices

350 sites, dump station, propane, laundry and showers nearby.

(307) 543-2861 (307) 543-2861 (307) 543-2861

Jackson Hole Chamber of Commerce May-August May-Sept

Hook-ups available.

Located in Jackson. All services available, visitor center located at 532 N. Cache. Field natural history seminars. One- to four-day field trips. Two- and four-hour trail rides from Teton Village. Contact the nearest visitor center, ranger station or concession facility or call the property office. Daily basic and intermediate schools. AMGA accredited. Guide service for individuals or small groups. AMGA accredited. 10-mile scenic trips. Departures throughout the day. Whitewater and scenic trips. Only trips north of Jackson Lake. Scenic rafting trips depart daily. Guided fishing trips. 10-mile scenic float trips; guided fishing trips. Guided fishing float trips; fly or spin. 10-mile scenic trips and sunrise wildlife trips. 10-mile scenic wildlife trips, group arrangements available. Sea kayak and float trips. 10-mile scenic float trips. 10-mile scenic float trips. 5- and 10-mile scenic trips. visitor center or convenience store for more information.

Medical Emergencies St. John’s Medical Center Grand Teton Medical Clinic

Late May-Early Oct.

Various Park Campgrounds

May-Sept

Episcopal L.D.S.

Chapel of Transfiguration Jackson Lake Lodge

May 28-Sept 24 June-Sept

(307) 733-2603 x102 (307) 733-6337

Roman Catholic

Chapel of the Sacred Heart

June 1-Sept 30

(307) 733-2516

Worship Services Interdenominational

Call 911 (307) 733-3636 (307) 543-2514

2 TEEWINOT [SUMMER 2006] Page 216 of 243

Located in Jackson. Located at Jackson Lake Lodge. Open daily 10 a.m.-6 p.m. Sundays, check at visitor centers for more information. Provided by A Christian Ministry in the National Parks. Sunday, Eucharist 8 a.m. and 10 a.m. Sunday, Sacrament 5:45 p.m., Sunday School 6:45 p.m., Priesthood/Relief Society 7:45 p.m. Call for times and dates.

Grand Teton National Park

www.nps.gov/gr te/

Reading the Landscape The Teton Range dominates the skyline of Grand Teton National Park, drawing the attention of all who pass through Jackson Hole. The geologic events that created this dramatic scenery influence the distribution and abundance of the plants and animals found here. Herbivores—plant-eating animals like moose, mule deer, and elk— inhabit areas where their food exists.

dropped 15-25,000 feet. Therefore, the total offset on the fault is up to 30,000 feet—or five to six miles. The climate cooled nearly two million years ago, and Ice Age glaciers began to sculpt the landscape. Periodically ice sheets up to 3,500 feet thick covered most of what is now Yellowstone National Park. The last glacial

Peak Names cirques, U-shaped canyons, and polished bedrock. These glaciers spilled from the canyons onto the valley floor, gouging out basins and depositing moraines. Terminal moraines mark the furthest extent of the glaciers’ flow and create natural dams for lakes such as Leigh, Jenny, Bradley, Taggart, and Phelps.

Static Peak In the Teton Range north of Death Canyon. Named because it is often hit by lightning. Buck Mountain Named for George A. Buck, recorder for T.M. Bannon’s 1898 mapping party. Bannon gave the name "Buck Station" to

Poorly developed, rocky soils cover most of Jackson Hole. As the climate warmed, glacial ice melted and flowed south through the valley. Floodwaters washed away topsoil and left behind glacial outwash plains of sand, gravel, and cobbles. Sagebrush, grasses, and wildflowers have adapted to thrive in this rocky, semi-arid landscape. Some mammals and birds favor the sagebrush flats. Bison graze on grasses; pronghorn eat sagebrush; and sage grouse, large chicken-like birds, eat sagebrush leaves.

the triangulation station he and George Buck established on the summit in 1898. Grand Teton Highest mountain in the Teton Range. Named by French trappers. Upon viewing the Teton Range from the west, the trappers dubbed the South, Middle, and Grand, Les Trois Tetons, meaning ”the three breasts.” Wilson Price Hunt called them ”Pilot Knobs” in 1811 because he had used them for orientation while crossing Union Pass. In his Journal of a

The Cathedral Group left to right: Teewinot, Grand Teton, and Mt. Owen.

Carnivores—meat-eating animals like bears, coyotes, and weasels—follow the herbivores they prey upon. The Teton Range exists due to movement on the Teton fault located along the eastern range front. Starting 10 to 13 million years ago, a series of massive earthquakes— signaling movement on the fault—caused the mountain block to tilt skyward and the valley block to drop. Every few thousand years, regional stretching breaks the bedrock generating earthquakes up to magnitude 7.5. Each of these jolts offsets the Earth’s surface by up to ten feet. Today, the mountains rise 7,000 feet above Jackson Hole and the ancient valley floor has

period began about 50,000 years ago as lobes of ice flowed south driven by gravity. The power of the ice scraped out the depression now filled by Jackson Lake, and carried glacial debris as far south as the Snake River Overlook (eight miles north of Moose on Highway 26/89/191). Today, ridges of glacial debris called moraines support forests of lodgepole pine and other conifers. Elk and black bears seek refuge and shade in morainal forests and forage in nearby meadows during cooler parts of the day. While large ice sheets flowed from the north, alpine glaciers carved the high peaks. Alpine glaciers retreated around 14,000 years ago, leaving behind high elevation

The Snake River continues to cut through glacial moraines and outwash plains leaving behind older river terraces that step down to the present channel. Cottonwood and spruce trees, home to bald eagles, grow along the Snake River. Beavers occasionally dam side channels of the Snake River, establishing ponds that Canada geese and ducks use for nesting and feeding. Moose and beavers eat willows that flourish in wetlands along the river. Willows and other wetland plants provide cover and nest sites for a multitude of songbirds.

Trapper, Osborne Russel said that the Shoshone Indians named the peaks ”Hoary Headed Fathers.” Mount Owen Northeast of the Grand Teton. Named for W.O. Owen, who climbed the Grand Teton in 1898 with Bishop Spalding, John Shive, and Frank Petersen. Teewinot Towers above Cascade Canyon and Jenny Lake. Its name comes from the Shoshone word meaning ”many pinnacles.”

As you explore Grand Teton National Park, read its landscape. Note the handiwork of glaciers on the mountains and canyons, and the old river terraces carved by the Snake River. Watch for the wildlife habitat that provides clues to the ancient processes that formed and shaped this area.

Teewinot probably once applied to the entire Teton Range, rather than just this one peak. Fritiof Fryxell and Phil Smith named the peak when they successfully completed the first ascent of the mountain in 1929. Mount Saint John Between Cascade and Paintbrush

John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway Located at the heart of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the Rockefeller Parkway connects Grand Teton and Yellowstone national parks. The late conservationist and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, Jr. made significant contributions to several national parks including Grand Teton, Acadia, Great Smoky Mountains, and Virgin Islands. In 1972, Congress dedicated a 24,000-acre parcel of land as the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway to recognize his generosity and foresight. Congress also named the highway from the south boundary of Grand Teton to West Thumb in Yellowstone in honor of Rockefeller. The Rockefeller Parkway provides a natural link between the two national parks and

canyons. A series of peaks of nearly equal height. Named for Orestes St. John, geologist of Hayden’s 1877 survey, whose monographs of the Teton and Wind River ranges are now classics. Mount Moran Most prominent peak in the northern end of the Teton Range. Named by Ferdinand V. Hayden for the landscape artist Thomas Moran, who traveled with the 1872 Hayden expedition into Yellowstone and into Pierre’s Hole on the western side of the Teton Range. He produced many sketches and watercolors from these travels.

contains features characteristic of both areas. In the parkway, the northern Teton Range tapers to a gentle slope, while rocks

born of volcanic flows from the north line the Snake River and form outcroppings scattered atop hills and ridges.

From the book Origins by Hayden and Nielsen.

TEEWINOT [SUMMER 2006] Page 217 of 243

3

Wildlife

Birds serve as colorful, sweet-sounding indicators of biodiversity. The return of migratory birds each spring seems as certain as spring itself. National parks like Grand Teton provide sanctuary for many species. Unfortunately, many of our birds spend only a part of their lives within national park protection. When birds fly south each fall, they face numerous perils. Human-caused habitat changes have fragmented forests, removing safe feeding and roosting areas along migration corridors. Birds that migrate as far as the tropics may lose their winter ranges due to deforestation. Birdwatchers and scientists alike have become concerned about the future of migratory birds. Become involved by enjoying birds in your backyard and during your travels. At home, plant native vegetation to provide food, shelter and nest sites for migratory birds. Protect birds by keeping your cats indoors. Assist scientists measuring bird population changes by participating in bird counts and surveys, such as the annual Christmas Bird Count and the North American Migration Count. Find out about the Partners in Flight program in your home state. Use your interest and knowledge of birds to help assure their future!

Where to Look For Wildlife Alwa ys Keep a S a fe Dista nce When Viewi ng Wildl ife Antelope Flats Road, bison and pronghorn can be seen grazing in spring, summer, and fall. Also watch for coyotes, Northern harriers, and American kestrels hunting mice, Uinta ground squirrels, and grasshoppers in open fields. Sage grouse, sage thrashers, and sparrows also frequent the area.

All animals require food, water, and shelter. Each species also has particular living space, or habitat, requirements. To learn more about wildlife habitats and animal behavior, attend ranger-led activities. OXBOW BEND

One mile east of Jackson Lake Junction. Slow-moving water provides habitat for fish such as suckers and trout, which become food for river otters, ospreys, bald eagles, American white pelicans, and common mergansers. Look for swimming beavers and muskrats. Moose browse on abundant willows at the water’s edge. Elk occasionally graze in open aspen groves to the east.

SNAKE RIVER

Jackson Lake Dam south to Moose. Elk and bison graze in grassy meadows along the river. Bison also eat grasses in the sagebrush flats on the benches above the river. Bald eagles, ospreys, and great blue herons build large stick nests within sight of the river. Beavers and moose eat willows that line the waterway.

TIMBERED ISLAND

A forested ridge southeast of Jenny Lake. Small bands of pronghorn antelope, the fastest North American land mammal, forage on nearby sagebrush throughout the day. Elk leave the shade of Timbered Island at dawn and dusk to eat the grasses growing among the surrounding sagebrush. View wildlife from your vehicle.

CASCADE CANYON

West of Jenny Lake. Look for, but do not feed, golden-mantled ground squirrels at Inspiration Point. Pikas and yellow-bellied marmots live in scattered boulder fields. Mule deer and moose occasionally browse on shrubs growing at the mouth of the canyon. Listen for the numerous songbirds that nest in the canyon.

MORMON ROW

East of Highway 26/89/191, one mile north of Moose Junction. Along Mormon Row and

B L A C K TA I L P O N D S

Half-mile north of Moose on Highway

®

Moose, bison, elk, mule deer, pronghorn, black and grizzly bears – a host of large animals inhabit Grand Teton National Park, the

Rockefeller Parkway, Yellowstone National Park, and surrounding areas. Animals are on roads and highways at any time of the day or

night. For your own safety and for the protection of wildlife, please drive carefully and stay alert.

What Kind of Bear Is That? Grand Teton National Park and the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway provide habitat for black and grizzly bears. To distinguish between the two bear species, see below.

Grizzly Bear Color

Ranges from blond to nearly black, sometimes have silvertipped hairs that give them a grizzled appearance.

Physical Features

Grizzly bears have a dished, or concave, facial profile and a large hump of heavy muscle above the shoulders. Their claws are long and relatively straight, extending two or more inches (5 cm) beyond their toes.

including increased levels of stress and the avoidance of essential feeding areas. Please remember, nesting birds are easily disturbed. For wildlife, raising young is a private affair. If an adult bird on a nest flies off at your approach, circles you, or screams in alarm – you are too close to the nest. Unattended nestlings readily succumb to predation and exposure to heat, cold, and wet weather. Allow other visitors a chance to enjoy wildlife. If your actions cause an animal to flee, you have deprived other visitors of a viewing opportunity. Use an animal’s behavior as a guide to your actions, and limit the time you spend with wildlife, just as you would when visiting a friend’s home. Follow all park regulations and policies.

Black Bear Color

Color is not a reliable indicator of the species. Contrary to their name, black bears are often brown, cinnamon, and/or blond in color.

Physical Features

Black bears have a straight facial profile and lack a large hump above the shoulders. Their claws are short and curved, usually not extending more than 1.5 inches (4 cm) beyond their toes.

JESS LEE

Do not harass wildlife. Harassment is any human action that causes unusual behavior, or a change of behavior, in an animal. Repeated encounters with people can have negative, long-term impacts on wildlife,

26/89/191. Old beaver ponds have filled in and now support grassy meadows where elk graze during the cooler parts of the day. Several kinds of ducks feed in the side channels of the Snake River. Moose browse on willows growing along the river.

® CWI 2001

It is illegal to feed wildlife, including ground squirrels and birds. Feeding wild animals makes them dependent on people, and animals often bite the hand that feeds them.

Golden-mantled ground squir rel

Give Wildlife a Brake

For Wildlife Observers and Photographers Be a responsible wildlife observer. Remember that patience is rewarded. Use binoculars, spotting scopes or long lenses for close views and photographs. Always m a i n t a i n a s a fe d i s t a n c e o f a t l e a s t 3 0 0 feet from la rge a n i m a ls such as bea r s , b i son, m oos e, and el k . Never position yourself between an adult and its offspring. Females with young are especially defensive.

Moose

Grizzly Bears

4 TEEWINOT [SUMMER 2006] Page 218 of 243

® CWI 2001

The Migration Dilemma

www.nps.gov/gr te/

Ecology

www.nps.gov/gr te/

LAWRENCE ORMSBY

Natural Communities in the Park The natural systems of Grand Teton National Park and Jackson Hole create a magnificent environment showcasing an incredible diversity of vegetation and wildlife. Many natural communities in the park are defined by the plants and animals that live within them.

ALPINE COMMUNITIES

Plants and animals in the alpine community survive in the harshest of Grand Teton’s environments. High elevation, long winters, and short summers present special challenges to the inhabitants above tree line. Summer is short and intense, with long, bright days and cold nights. Lichens cling to rocks and miniature, low-growing matforming plants, such as phlox and pussytoes, guard themselves from wind and cold by growing only inches above the soil. Since bees are infrequent, many alpine flowers have unpleasant odors to attract pollinating flies and other insects. The insects in turn attract horned larks and white-crowned sparrows. The alpine forget-me-not rewards hikers with its vibrant blue color. Yellowbellied marmots often sun themselves on rocky hillsides as Clark’s nutcrackers fly overhead. Tiny rabbit-like pikas spend the warm months collecting and storing food for the long winter. Golden eagles sometimes soar on warm air currents searching for prey. By the time snow falls, most alpine residents have moved to lower elevations or begun a long winter hibernation.

FOREST COMMUNITIES

There are a number of forest communities in Grand Teton National Park. Because of the variations in the height of trees, shrubs, and grasses, forests support a wide variety of animal species. The most extensive of the forest communities is the lodgepole pine forest community, which extends from the southern portion of Yellowstone National Park and along the lower elevations of the Tetons to the south end of the range. Elk and mule deer find shade here during sunny, summer days. Red squirrels inhabit the trees, gathering seeds and storing them for the long winter. Snowshoe hares, deer mice, and red-backed voles are among the small mammals found on the forest floor. Black and grizzly bears, short-tailed weasels (ermine) and pine martens prey upon smaller animals. Colorful western tanagers fly through the less dense parts of the forest canopy. Other forest communities include Douglas fir and spruce-fir forest communities. Stands of Douglas fir are found on either dry, southfacing slopes up to about 8,000 feet or on dry north-facing slopes at lower elevations. Voles, mice, and gophers also live here; they are hunted by great horned owls. Other birds found amongst the Douglas fir include chickadees, nuthatches, pine siskins, Cassin’s finches, and dark-eyed juncos. Spruce-fir forests are dominated by Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir and are often located at higher elevations. Moose feed extensively on subalpine fir in the winter months and elk and deer use these forests at other times during the year. Other mammals can be found here, including

long-tailed weasels, pine martens, mountain lions, and the rare wolverine. Williamson’s sapsuckers, hairy woodpeckers, Steller’s and gray jays, olive-sided flycatchers, and mountain chickadees are among the birds occupying this forest type. SAGEBRUSH COMMUNITIES

The sagebrush community is the most visible community in Grand Teton, covering most of the valley floor. Rocky, well-drained soils make it difficult for most plants to survive, but hardy big sage, low sage, antelope bitterbrush, and more than 20 species of grasses thrive here. Though it appears barren and sparse, this is a surprisingly diverse community. Sage grouse use sage for food, shelter, and nesting sites. Arrowleaf balsamroot and spring beauty add spring color to the silvery green of the flats. Small mammals such as Uinta ground squirrels, deer mice and least chipmunks make their homes here. Badgers can sometimes be seen digging burrows while coyotes and wolves may lope across the cobbly plains. Pronghorn are summer residents on the sagebrush flats; they must migrate south to avoid deep winter snows. Large herds of elk feed on the grasses during the morning and evening hours of spring, summer, and fall. Areas where bitterbrush is abundant are good foraging places for moose, especially in fall and winter. Birders can find western meadowlarks, sage thrashers, green-tailed towhees, vesper and Brewer’s sparrows, and raptors of many kinds among the sage. WETLAND COMMUNITIES

Wetland and aquatic communities in and around rivers, lakes, and marshes are those

that are dominated by water. The Snake River and its tributaries drain the mountains surrounding Jackson Hole, providing a rich habitat for a variety of wildlife. Trout and other fish are a valuable food source for bald eagles, ospreys, and river otters. The slower-moving braided channels of the river are home to beavers, otters, muskrats, and several reptiles and amphibians. The Oxbow Bend is an excellent area to find white pelicans, great blue herons, and a variety of waterfowl. Moose feed on aquatic plants and browse on streamside vegetation.

WET MEADOW COMMUNITIES

Wet meadows and willow flats are covered by water for at least part of the year. A high water table and good soil make an abundance of grasses, sedges, and forbs possible. Small mammals and birds that rely on this type of vegetation are common here. Willows also provide critical habitat for moose, which feed heavily on them, especially in late winter. Whatever the community, it is important to remember that the wildlife, plants, and habitats within Grand Teton National Park are protected. While birding or watching animals, please keep a respectful distance. Please do not pick or disturb the vegetation. In order to continue to enjoy this national park, we must all work to preserve it. TEEWINOT [SUMMER 2006]

Page 219 of 243

5

Visiting the Park

www.nps.gov/gr te/

Self-Guiding Trails around the Park Sample the cultural history, natural history, and mystery of Jackson Hole. Obtain trail guides at trailheads. Expanded versions of the trail guides for Cascade Canyon, Taggart Lake and the Colter Bay area are also sold at park visitor centers.

String Lake

CASCADE CANYON TRAIL

Follow part or all of the Cascade Canyon Trail. From the east shore boat dock to Inspiration Point the distance is 5.8 miles roundtrip (2.2 miles via shuttle boat). CUNNINGHAM CABIN TRAIL

Cunningham Cabin is located 6 miles south of Moran. Take a 3/4-mile walk to learn about the early ranching history of Jackson Hole. FLAGG RANCH AREA

The Polecat Creek Loop Trail (2.3 miles) and nearby Flagg Canyon Trail (5.0 miles roundtrip) offer scenic hiking opportunities. Leaflets available at visitor centers. MENOR’S FERRY TRAIL

A 1/2-mile loop begins at the Chapel of the Transfiguration parking lot in Moose, and passes Bill Menor’s cabin and ferry, and an exhibit of historic photographs at the Maud Noble cabin.

TAGGART LAKE TRAIL

the formation of glacial lakes.

The 3.2-mile Taggart Lake Trail traverses a major portion of the 1,028-acre Beaver Creek fire of 1985. The trail begins at the Taggart Lake parking area, 3 miles northwest of Moose.

COLTER BAY AREA

A variety of trails lead from the vicinity of the Colter Bay Visitor Center, including the Lakeshore Trail, paved for 1/3-mile.

ACCESS TRAIL AT STRING LAKE

A paved trail follows the shore of String Lake for 1/4-mile. Wayside exhibits explain

FIRE WAYSIDES

Interpretive signs at Cottonwood Creek

picnic area, String Lake, and Jackson Lake overlook explain various aspects of fire ecology and local fire history. SCENIC TURNOUTS

Consult interpretive signs at scenic turnouts to learn about the natural history and geology of the Teton Range and Jackson Hole.

Menor ’s Cabin

Young Naturalists! ■ ■ ■

Earn a patch or badge For kids of all ages $1 donation

Pick up the Grand Adventure newspaper at any visitor center. Attend a ranger-led Young Naturalist program (for kids age 8-12). Programs are provided at Colter Bay and Moose.

This is Bear Country A FED BEAR IS A DEAD BEAR

same manner as food, or placed in bearresistant trash cans or dumpsters. ■ Treat odorous products such as soap, deodorant, toothpaste, suntan lotion, and perfumes in the same manner as food. ■ For your safety, absolutely no food, foodstuffs, garbage, or odorous products may be stored in tents or sleeping bags. ■ Ice chests, thermoses, water containers, barbecue grills, stoves, dishes, and pans must be stored in the same way as food – hidden inside a locked auto or bear box.

Bears become aggressive after even one encounter with human food. Unfortunately, people often feed bears without realizing it. Bears often get food from backpacks and coolers that are left unattended in campgrounds or along trails. Remember, bears can be anywhere in the park at any time, even if you can’t see them. Help keep park bears wild and safe. Keep your food items safe from bears by locking them in your car or a bear box. Failure to follow regulations is a violation of federal law and may result in citations and fines.

BEAR ETIQUETTE

After eating and before leaving camp or sleeping, assure that you have a clean, bearproof campsite: ■ All food, containers, and utensils must be stored in a bear box or hidden in a closed, locked vehicle with windows rolled up. The only exceptions are during the transport, preparation, and eating of food. ■ Trash and garbage must be stored in the

JESS LEE

KEEP A CLEAN CAMP

■ If you encounter a bear, do not run. If the bear is unaware of you, detour quickly and quietly. If the bear is aware but has not acted aggressively, back slowly away while talking in an even tone. ■ Never approach a bear for any reason. ■ Never allow a bear to get human food. If approached while eating, put food away and retreat to a safe distance (100 yards/91 meters). ■ Never abandon food because of an approaching bear. Always take it with you.

6 TEEWINOT [SUMMER 2006] Page 220 of 243

Help Save Our Bears! Help us keep our bears wild and healthy. Don’t leave backpacks, coolers, or bags containing food unattended for ANY amount of time. Take them with you or put them in a car or bear box. Even food that is left out accidentally can mean removal or death for a bear. Report all bear sightings and incidents to a visitor center or ranger station.

■ Never throw your pack or food at a bear in an attempt to distract it. ■ Never bury food scraps, containers, or fish entrails. Put them in garbage cans. ■ Never leave food, containers, or garbage unattended in camp. Bears are active day and night.

Ranger Activities

w w w. n p s . g o v / g r t e /

Walks & Hikes A re a Moose/ Jenny Lake A re a

Colter Bay A re a

For talks and evening programs see page D.

Event

Description

Meeting Place

D a t e / Ti m e

Inspiration Point Hike

Learn about the creation of this magnificent landscape on a hike to Hidden Falls and a viewpoint above Jenny Lake. We will take the boat across Jenny Lake. This activity is first-come, first-served and is limited to 25. Please obtain a token for each member of your group at the Jenny Lake Visitor Center prior to meeting the ranger. Boat Fare (Roundtrip/One-way): adult $9/$5, child (5-12) $5/$4, 4 and under free. ROUNDTRIP HIKE DISTANCE: 2 miles. DIFFICULTY: Moderate uphill. TIME: 21⁄2 hours.

Jenny Lake Visitor Center Flagpole

June 5-Sept 4 8:30 a.m









A Wa l k I n t o The Past

Discover the story of Menor’s Ferry Historic District and find out how early settlers crossed the Snake River on a cable ferry. Wheelchair accessible trail. DIFFICULTY: Easy. TIME: 45 minutes.

Menor’s Ferry Dock

June 5-Sept 4 11 a.m. 2 p.m.







flo w e r W i l d flo Wa l k

Learn about the flowers that add color to the valley. ROUNDTRIP DISTANCE: 2 miles. DIFFICULTY: Easy. TIME: 2 hours.

Taggart Lake Trailhead

June 5-July 31 9:30 a.m.







Yo u n g Naturalists

Children 8-12 years old are invited to explore the natural world of Grand Teton with a ranger. Make reservations at the Moose, Jenny Lake, or Colter Bay visitor centers. Wear old clothes and bring water, rain gear, insect repellent, and curiosity. Parents, please pick up your children promptly at 3 p.m. at the same location. Group size 12. ROUNDTRIP DISTANCE: 2 miles. DIFFICULTY: Easy, level. TIME: 11⁄2 hours.

Jenny Lake Visitor Center Flagpole

June 11-Aug 19 1:30 p.m.

N a t u r a l i s t ’s Choice

Activity will vary depending on the naturalist. Reservations may be required. Please check with the Moose Visitor Center for specifics.

Moose Visitor Center

June 5-Sept 4 Dates/times vary.

Murie Ranch To u r

Murie Ranch Explore the historic Murie Ranch with Murie Center staff. Tours are 40 minutes in duration and include about 1.2-mile of walking. (1 Mile from Moose Visitor Center) The Murie Ranch is a National Historic Landmark, honoring the contributions of Adolph, Olaus, and Margaret (Mardy) Murie to wildlife science and conservation. Free, advance reservation required. Phone the Murie Center at 739-2246 to sign up and for directions. ROUND-TRIP DISTANCE: 1⁄2 mile. TIME: 40 minutes. DIFFICULTY: Easy.

May 2-Oct 31 3 p.m.

Swan Lake Hike

Unravel mysteries and sharpen your senses as you hike with a ranger through forest, meadows and along ponds east of Colter Bay. Bring water, binoculars, camera, rain gear and insect repellent. ROUNDTRIP DISTANCE: 3 miles. TIME: 3 hours.

Colter Bay Visitor Center Flagpole

June 5-Sept 4 8:00 a.m.

Yo u n g Naturalists

See Young Naturalists description above.

Colter Bay Visitor Center

June 12-Aug 18 1:30 p.m.

L a k e s h o re S t ro l l

Join the ranger for a leisurely one-hour stroll to enjoy panoramic views of the Teton Range and learn about the creation of the landscape.

Colter Bay Visitor Center Flagpole

June 5-Sept 4 1:30 p.m.



N a t u r a l i s t ’s Choice

Activity will vary depending on the naturalist. Reservations may be required. Please check with the Colter Bay Visitor Center for specifics.

Colter Bay Visitor Center

June 5-Sept 4 Dates/times vary.

Dates, times, and topics will vary. Please check with the Colter Bay Visitor Center.

V isitor Centers M o o s e V is it or C ent er ( 307) 739-3399 Located at Moose, 1/2-mile west of Moose Junction on the Teton Park Road. Open daily. Through June 4 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. June 5-Sept 4 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. After Sept 4 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. J e n n y L a k e Visitor Center Located 8 miles north of Moose Junction on the Teton Park Road. May 14-June 4 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. June 5-Sept 4 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Sept 5-Sept 30 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. C o l t e r B a y V i s i t o r C e n t e r & I n d i a n A r ts M u se um ( 3 07 ) 7 3 9 -3 5 94 Located 1/2-mile west of Colter Bay Junction on Highway 89/191/287. May 13-May 27 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. May 28-Sept 5 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Sept 6-Oct 9 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. F l a g g R a n c h I n f o rmati on Statio n (3 0 7) 54 3 -2 37 2 Located at Flagg Ranch, 16 miles north of Colter Bay on Highway 89/191/287. June 5-Sept 4 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.

SUN MON TUE WED THU

FRI

S AT































Ends 8/14

Ends 8/15

Ends 8/17

Ends 8/19

Dates, times, and topics will vary. Please check with the Moose Visitor Center.























Ends 8/14

Ends 8/16

Ends 8/18















Indian Arts Museum Located in the Colter Bay Visitor Center, the Indian Arts Museum houses the David T. Vernon Collection, a spectacular assemblage of American Indian artifacts. American Indian art has spiritual significance in addition to beauty and function. The artifacts in the museum are vivid examples of the diverse art forms of American Indians. From June to September, interpretive activities such as craft demonstrations by tribal members and ranger-led museum tours enhance appreciation of American Indian culture.

Menor’s Ferry Historic District Located just north of the Moose Visitor Center. Includes a self-guiding path and the historic Menor’s General Store, which is open daily 9:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. from May 23 through September 26. The ferry operates when water levels and staffing allow. Inquire at the Moose Visitor Center.

Artists in the Environment Jackson Hole attracts artists from all over the world. This summer you can observe professional artists demonstrating their techniques and capturing the essence of Grand Teton National Park. Check at visitor centers for demonstration times and locations. Sponsored by Grand Teton Natural History Association. Program dates: June 10, July 8, August 12, September 9.

Writers in the Environment Local writers will share their talents by offering writing exercises for park visitors in various areas of the park. All workshop leaders are inspiring writers and teachers who draw on the natural and cultural values of the park in their published works. Check at visitor centers for times and locations. Sponsored by Grand Teton Natural History Association. Program dates: June 10, July 8, August 12, September 9. TEEWINOT [Summer 2006] Page 221 of 243

A

Grand Events

w w w. n p s . g o v / g r t e /

I n d i a n P a i n t b ru s h

flo w e r L i t t l e S u n flo

Lupine

Dave Smaldone

Wildflowers During late spring and summer, colorful wildflowers provide breathtaking displays throughout the park. Blooming follows snowmelt, so the show moves upslope as the season progresses. June brings flowers to the southern half of Jackson Hole. Clumps of arrowleaf balsamroot–a yellow, daisy-like flower with arrow-shaped leaves–add vivid splashes of color to the sagebrush flats. Spikes of bluepurple lupines, a member of the pea family, flower along streams. During July, the meadows along Highway 89/191/287 north of Colter Bay, and those near Two Ocean Lake, reach peak flowering. Look for yellow mountain sunflowers, pink mountain hollyhock,

purple lupines, pink sticky geraniums, and purple upland larkspur. As snow melts in the canyons between the Teton peaks, hikers are treated to meadows with an exquisite mix of colors: yellow columbine, bluebells, red paintbrush, pink daisies, and lavender asters. Along canyon streams, the vegetation is lush and includes deep purple monkshood and tall cow parsnip, with its immense, flat-topped white flower clusters. Canyons with especially magnificent wildflower displays include upper Open, Cascade, and aptly named Paintbrush. In high alpine areas above tree line, the flowers are diminutive, but worth stooping for. Alpine flowers grow in ground-hugging

cushions to avoid wind and to cope with cold temperatures and the short growing season. Look for pink moss campion and blue alpine forget-me-not, the official flower of Grand Teton National Park. Alpine plants are well adapted to their environment, but they are extremely vulnerable to human disturbance. Be sure to stay on established trails. Recently burned areas offer spectacular displays of wildflowers due to increased access to sunlight and the fertilizing effect of nitrogen-rich ash. At the Taggart Lake area, three miles north of Moose, a fire burned in 1985 and today wildflowers bloom amid stands of aspen saplings and numerous young lodgepole pines. Look for magenta fireweed, yellow heartleaf arnica,

and flowering shrubs, especially pink spreading dogbane and snowbrush ceanothus, with its sweet-scented blossoms. Sections of the Rockefeller Parkway burned in 1988 when a number of fires ignited throughout the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Today look for fireweed, purple asters, yellow groundsel, and sticky geranium in a lush carpet of green grasses. To help you enjoy the flowering plants of Grand Teton National Park, you may attend ranger-led hikes starting in June, or consult field guides and other books on display at visitor centers. Please leave wildflowers for others to appreciate. Do not pick any vegetation in the park and parkway.

Noxious Weeds Threaten Native Plants Noxious weeds present a serious threat to the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem by replacing native plant communities, degrading wildlife habitat and, in the case of saltcedar,

Wa n t e d !

Wa n t e d !

Wa n t e d !

C o m m o n S t . J o h n ’s Wo r t

Saltcedar (tamarisk)

L e a f y S p u rg e

using large amounts of a limited supply of water. This is why we need your help identifying noxious weeds throughout Grand Teton National Park. The three species described here currently occur in low populations; early identification of any new infestations will be crucial to our eradication efforts.

If you spot the following weeds, especially o u t s i d e o f t h e a re a s l i s t e d , p l e a s e re p o r t t h e i r e x a c t l o c a t i o n a t a v i s i t o r c e n t e r. P le as e d o n ot attem pt to re m o v e t h e s e w e e d s Small shrubs or trees with small leaves

y o u r s e l f . A l l o f t h e s e s p e c i e s a re c a p a b l e o f

that are alternate, overlap each other and

r e p ro d u c i n g f ro m t h e i r ro o t s a n d p u l l i n g t h e m c a n b re a k t h e ro o t s , a i d i n g i n t h e i r s p re a d . L e a f y S p u rg e

B

S t . J o h n ’s Wo r t

Grows to three feet tall usually in dense

appear scale-like (similar to a cedar tree

Grows to three feet tall. Paired, heart-

stands. Yellow flowers with five petals

or juniper). Flowers are borne in finger-

shaped, yellow-green bracts support

and many stamens appear in early

like clusters and are small, pink to white

yellow-green flowers. Leaves are narrow

summer. The leaves of St. John’s Wort

and have five petals. Saltcedar has

and arranged alternately along thickly

provide a very handy identification tool –

replaced native riparian vegetation in

clustered stems. One key to

if held up to a light source, tiny

areas throughout the West, especially

identification is to break the plant along

transparent dots are visible (see picture).

along the Colorado River system. Small

the stem. It will contain a milky juice

Most infestations are located in the

infestations have been found along the

(latex) similar to a dandelion. The only

southern area of the park along the

Snake River and any sightings should be

known infestation in the park is near the

Moose-Wilson Road.

reported immediately.

Granite Entrance Station.

TEEWINOT [Summer 2006] Page 222 of 243

Grand Events

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An Outdoor Laboratory: Current Research in Grand Teton Along with protecting significant natural and cultural features and providing for their enjoyment, Congress recognized the value of national parks as some of the world’s most important outdoor laboratories. Grand Teton National Park is no exception in providing an unparalleled research setting. As part of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Grand Teton is an integral component of the world’s largest intact temperate ecosystem. Below are just a few of the park’s dozens of on-going research projects that are conducted by park staff, universities, and private research institutions. The results of these studies and many others like them furnish park managers with critical information needed for long-term conservation planning.

P O P U L AT I O N S T R U C T U R E , H A B I TA T U S E , A N D D I S T R I B U T I O N O F G R I Z Z LY B E A R S

Ten years ago, grizzly bears, a threatened species, were rarely seen in Grand Teton. Today, however, they are common, especially in the northern half of the park. As part of an ecosystem effort, this project aims to determine the health of the grizzly population, their distribution in the park, and which habitats are most important. Information from this study will help managers protect important habitats and plan for visitor use patterns that minimize disturbance to grizzlies. BRUCELLOSIS IN BISON

Since at least 1935, some bison and elk in the Yellowstone ecosystem have had brucellosis, a disease brought to the U.S. by cattle imported from Europe. While the disease is relatively unimportant in wildlife, it can devastate domestic cattle herds. Because a small potential exists for bison or elk to transmit the disease to uninfected cattle, researchers are interested in several aspects of how the disease exists and is transmitted among wild bison. The results of this project will help managers avoid conflicts with cattle that graze on public lands. W O LV E S A R E H E R E !

Wolves were restored to Yellowstone National Park in 1995 after being eliminated in the early 1900s. The reintroduction of wolves is part of the larger goal of the recovery and conservation of endangered species in the U.S. The Yellowstone-Grand Teton population now consists of over 200 wolves. In the winter of 1998-99 three groups of wolves frequented Grand Teton National Park. Two of these groups stayed in the area and produced pups–the first wolves to den in Jackson Hole in 50 years! W O LV E R I N E E C O L O G Y

This elusive predator is believed to occur in low densities in the park. Researchers will attempt to determine the status and distribution of the wolverine in this part of the Yellowstone ecosystem, and how it responds to visitor use patterns. Park managers will use information obtained by this study to develop plans and take necessary steps for long-term wolverine conservation.

Path of the Pronghorn Migration is considered by many to be one of

deployed on ten adult female pronghorn.

the most interesting ecological adaptations

The radio collars were programmed to fall

in the animal kingdom. The pronghorn that

off after one year. A total of 11,480

summer in Jackson Hole have the second

positions were collected and a fascinating

largest terrestrial mammal migration

migration story unfolded. The data

remaining in the Western Hemisphere.

illustrated the use of an ancient, invariant and narrow corridor through the upper

Researchers at Grand Teton National Park, in

Green and Gros Ventre River drainages.

collaboration with the Wildlife Conservation Society, have recently completed a study to

As human development expands, the

investigate the movements of pronghorn

migrations of many animals will continue to

and the exact route they traveled.

be threatened. Researchers hope that data collected from this project will lead to the

In October 2003, radio collars were

protection of the “path of the pronghorn.”

Using Global Positioning Systems to Track Bear Movements Grand Teton National Park biologists are

human food reward, she quickly became

2002, all three bears were dead. One cub

using global positioning system (GPS)

more aggressive in her raids, ripping into

died of natural causes soon after emerging

technology to track the movements of

tents that contained food, breaking into

from the family’s den–possibly because of

bears. The study, which has been made

coolers left in canoes, and stealing

poor nutrition the previous year. The other

possible by financial assistance from the

unattended daypacks. During the summer

cub and its mother were both destroyed

National Park Foundation, will provide park

of 2000, she taught her two cubs these

after their aggressive actions became a

managers with a better understanding of

same behaviors.

threat to human safety.

how human activities affect bears, and provide them with the tools necessary to

In an effort to break this pattern, the entire

Monitoring this bear family reaffirmed that

assure long-term conservation of their

family was trapped and moved to a remote

moving problem bears seldom resolves a

populations.

area of the park in August of that year.

bad situation, and highlighted the need

Unfortunately, the bears quickly returned to

for visitors to keep food secure at all

The red dots on the map show locations of

their home range near Jenny Lake, and

times. It also provided insights into habitat

an adult female black bear fitted with a

resumed their unnatural way of life.

characteristics that are important for

GPS radio collar from August 2000 to June

Disturbingly, it was the continued

bears. Using this and similar information

2001. This bear lived in the Jenny Lake

availability of unsecured human foods, in

from other bears, park managers will

area and became a nuisance bear after

spite of an escalated ranger patrol and

employ measures to minimize bear-human

learning to seek human foods that were

education program, that made this

conflicts and help assure bear populations

stored improperly. After her first small

possible. By the end of the summer of

remain wild and healthy. TEEWINOT [Summer 2006]

Page 223 of 243

C

Ranger Activities

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Talks & Evening Programs A re a Moose/ Jenny Lake A re a

Colter Bay A re a

D

Event

Description

See page A for visitor center information and a list of walks and talks offered throughout the park. Additional ranger activities will be offered during the summer. Check at a visitor center for special hikes and programs not listed here.

Meeting Place

D a t e / Ti m e

SUN MON TUE WED THU

FRI

S AT

fil e s Te t o n P ro fil

A 20-minute talk on a variety of topics. From the park’s geologic story to learning about the variety of wildlife that call this park home, this program will give you insight to the stories behind the scenery. Wheelchair accessible.

Moose Visitor Center

June 5-Sept 4 9 a.m., 11 a.m., 1 p.m., 3 p.m.















Gro s Ve n t re fir e C a m p fir P ro g r a m

A 45-minute, illustrated ranger talk. Topics are posted on visitor center, amphitheater, and campground bulletin boards. Wheelchair accessible.

Gros Ventre Campground Amphitheater

June 5-July 9, 9:30 p.m. Aug-Sept 4, 9 p.m.















Jenny Lake Tw i l i g h t Ta l k

Gather for a traditional ranger talk. Topics posted on visitor center, amphitheater, and campground bulletin boards. 45 minutes.

Jenny Lake Camp Circle

June 14-Sept 3 7:30 p.m.





South Jenny Lake Boat Dock

June 13-Aug 31 6:30 p.m.











Jenny Lake Cru i s e

Join a ranger for a relaxing one-hour, scenic boat cruise on Jenny Lake. For reservations call Teton Boating at (307) 7349227. The cruise costs $14 for adults and $7 for ages 5-12.

Signal Mountain fir e C a m p fir P ro g r a m

A 45-minute, illustrated ranger talk. Topics are posted on visitor center, amphitheater, and campground bulletin boards. Wheelchair accessible.

Signal Campground Amphitheater

June 5-July, 9:30 p.m. Aug-Sept 4, 9 p.m















Museum G r a n d To u r

Tour a spectacular collection of American Indian art and artifacts while learning about the native people who made them. 45 minutes.

Colter Bay Visitor Center Lobby

June 5-Sept 4 4 p.m.















Te t o n Highlights

Wondering what to do and see in the park? Join a ranger for some great ideas. 30 minutes. Wheelchair accessible.

Colter Bay Visitor Center Auditorium

June 5-Sept 4 11 a.m. & 3 p.m.















I n d i a n A rt s & C u l t u re

Join the ranger for an in-depth look at a facet of American Indian art and culture. 45 minutes. Wheelchair accessible.

Colter Bay Visitor Center Auditorium

June 6-Sept 1 1:30 p.m.

Evening on the Back Deck

Join the ranger on the back deck of Jackson Lake Lodge for answers to your questions about Grand Teton National Park. Look through the spotting scope at some of the best bird and moose habitat in the park. ALL VISITORS ARE INVITED. Wheelchair accessible.

Jackson Lake Lodge Back Deck

June 5-Sept 4 Anytime from 6:30-8 p.m.















F e a t u re d Cre a t u re

A look into the habits and habitats of a featured creature in the park. 45 minutes. Wheelchair accessible.

Colter Bay Amphitheater

June-July, 7:30 p.m. Aug-Sept, 7 p.m.















L i z a r d C re e k fir e C a m p fir P ro g r a m

Gather around the campfire circle for a traditional ranger talk. Topics posted at various locations. Wheelchair accessible. Starts June 9.

Lizard Creek Campfire Circle

June-July, 8 p.m., Aug-Sept, 7:30 p.m.







Jackson Lake Lodge

Join the ranger for a 45-minute, illustrated talk. Topics are posted on the lodge bulletin board. ALL VISITORS ARE INVITED. Wheelchair accessible.

Jackson Lake Lodge Wapiti Room

June 26-Aug 12 8:30 p.m.











Colter Bay fir e C a m p fir P ro g r a m

Join the ranger for a 45-minute, illustrated ranger talk. Topics are posted at amphitheater, campground, and visitor center bulletin boards. Wheelchair accessible.

Colter Bay Amphitheater

June-July, 9:30 p.m. Aug-Sept, 9 p.m.













Flagg Ranch fir e C a m p fir P ro g r a m

Gather around the campfire for a traditional ranger talk. Topics and location of campfire program are posted at Flagg Ranch Information Station, Lodge, and campground.

Flagg Ranch Cabin Area

June-July, 8 p.m. Aug-Sept, 7:30 p.m.



F i re & I c e Cru i s e

Join the ranger for this 11⁄2-hour boat cruise on Jackson Lake. Learn how forest fires and glaciers have shaped the landscape. Contact the Colter Bay Marina (543-2811) for fare information. Advance ticket purchase required to assure seating. The cruise may be cancelled due to low water level or weather.

Colter Bay Area

June 5-Aug (water level permitting), 1:30 p.m.







TEEWINOT [Summer 2006] Page 224 of 243





















Visiting the Park

www.nps.gov/gr te/

For Your Safety

HIKING

Hikers are reminded to stay on trails; shortcutting is prohibited because it damages fragile vegetation and causes erosion. Visitor centers and the Jenny Lake Ranger Station sell topographic maps and inexpensive trail guides. Sturdy footwear is essential. Know your limitations when traveling in the backcountry. If you are traveling alone, letting a friend or relative know your planned destination, route, and expected time of return will greatly increase your chance of survival in an emergency. Permits are not required for day hiking. Trailhead parking areas fill early during the day in July and August, so start your hike early to avoid parking problems. In spring, many trails are snow-covered and you may need an ice axe. FISHING

Whitefish and cutthroat, lake, and brown trout inhabit lakes and rivers of the park and parkway. Obtain fishing regulations at the Moose, Jenny Lake, or Colter Bay visitor centers. A Wyoming fishing license is required for fishing in the park and parkway and may be purchased at Signal Mountain Lodge,

JACKSON LAKE

Continued drought conditions are causing low water levels in Jackson Lake. Contact visitor centers for information on the availability of services at Leek's Marina and Colter Bay Marina. Low water levels will increase the risk of boats striking submerged objects and landforms that are normally well beneath the surface. Use caution when boating. B O AT I N G

Motorboats are permitted on Jenny (10 horsepower maximum), Jackson, and Phelps lakes. Human-powered vessels are permitted on Jackson, Jenny, Phelps, Emma Matilda, Two Ocean, Taggart, Bradley, Bearpaw, Leigh, and String lakes. Sailboats, water skiing, and windsurfers are allowed only on Jackson Lake. For motorized craft, the fee is $20 for a 7-day permit and $40 for an annual permit; for nonmotorized craft, the fee is $10 for a 7-day permit and $20 for an annual permit. Jet skis are prohibited on all waters within the park. Permits may be purchased at the Moose or Colter Bay visitor centers.

Avg. Max. Temp. (F) Avg. Min. Temp. (F)

F L O AT I N G T H E S N A K E R I V E R

AL AN NU

DE C

V NO

O CT

P SE

AU G

L JU

JU N

25.7 31.1 39.0 49.0 60.9 70.6 79.8 78.8 68.9 55.9 38.0 26.0 52.0 1.2

3.6 11.9 22.1 30.9 37.2 41.2 39.6 32.2 23.2 13.7

1.5 21.5

Avg. Total Precip. (in.) 2.61 2.00 1.60 1.45 1.96 1.80 1.22 1.37 1.44 1.24 2.14 2.47 21.3 Avg. Total Snow (in.) 44.4 30.0 20.6

9.3

2.8

0.1

0

0

0.5

Avg. Snow Depth (in.) 28.0 34.0 32.0 13.0

0

0

0

0

0

B A C K PA C K I N G

Grand Teton National Park has more than 230 miles of trails of varying difficulty. Obtain the required, free backcountry permit for overnight trips at the Moose or Colter Bay visitor centers or the Jenny Lake Ranger Station. One-third of backcountry campsites in high use areas may be reserved in advance from January 1 - May 15 by writing the park; there is a fee of $15 per reservation. Pets are not allowed on park trails or in the backcountry.

4.4 25.2 39.2 176.5 0

4.0 16.0 11.0

infection. Obtain more information at any ranger station or visitor center. PETS

Pets must be restrained on a leash at all times. Pets are not allowed on park trails or in the backcountry (which begins 50 feet from roadways), in boats on the Snake River, in boats on lakes other than Jackson Lake, or in visitor centers. Pets are not allowed on rangerled activities. Kennels are available in Jackson.

CAMPFIRES

CLIMBING

Campfires are allowed without a permit at designated campgrounds and picnic areas within installed or designated fire rings, unless fire restrictions are in effect. A permit may be obtained for campfires below the high water line of Jackson Lake at the Colter Bay Visitor Center. Campfires are prohibited in all other areas of the park and parkway.

There are many risks and hazards associated with climbing and mountain travel. Experience and good judgment are essential. The Jenny Lake Ranger Station, the center for climbing in Grand Teton National Park, is staffed from late May to mid-September by climbing rangers who can provide up-to-date weather and route conditions. Registration is not required for day climbs and cross-country hiking. Backcountry permits are required for all overnight climbs. The park DOES NOT check to see that you get safely out of the backcountry. Leave an agenda with friends or family. Solo climbing and backcountry travel is not advised.

SWIMMING

Only human-powered rafts, canoes, dories and kayaks are allowed on the Snake River within the park and parkway. Registration ($20 for a 7-day permit; $40 for an annual permit) of non-motorized vessels is required and may be completed at the Moose Visitor Center or Colter Bay Visitor Center. Read the launch site bulletin boards for current river conditions. On the surface, the Snake does not seem very powerful, but only experienced floaters should attempt this swift, cold river that has many braided channels and debris jams.

M AY

AP R

AR M

FE B

Colter Bay Marina, Colter Bay Village Store, and Flagg Ranch Lodge. Fishing in Yellowstone National Park requires a separate permit (fee charged); purchase permits at Yellowstone visitor centers and ranger stations. The use of non-native baitfish is prohibited in all parks.

JA N

PLANTS & ANIMALS

All plants and animals are part of the natural processes and are protected within the park and parkway. Leave plants and animals in their natural setting for others to enjoy. Even picking wildflowers is prohibited. Keep a respectful distance from all animals to avoid disturbing their natural routines. Larger animals are quick, powerful, and unpredictable. Getting too close can result in serious injury. Take special care to avoid encounters with bears and to help maintain their natural fear of humans. Many small animals can carry diseases and should never be touched or handled. Allow them to find all their own food. Their natural diet assures their health and survival. No matter how convincingly the animals beg, feeding is prohibited.

Teton Weather

Swimming is permitted in all lakes. There is a designated swimming beach at Colter Bay with picnic facilities; however, there are no lifeguards. The Snake River is a swift and cold river presenting numerous dangers; swimming is not recommended. HOT SPRINGS

Thermal water can harbor organisms that cause a fatal meningitis infection and Legionnaires’ disease. Exposing your head to thermal water by immersion, splashing, touching your face, or inhaling steam increases your risk of

BIKING

Bicycles are permitted on public paved and unpaved roadways with automobiles and on the Colter Bay Marina breakwater. Ride on the right side of the road in single file and wear a helmet at all times. Riding bicycles or other wheeled vehicles in the backcountry,

on- or off-trail, is prohibited.

Make the Most of Your Park Visit Short on time? Wondering how to make the most of your time in Grand Teton National Park? Take a look at a few of the suggestions below to help plan your visit. Use the map on page 12. The distance from the south entrance of Yellowstone National Park to the south boundary of Grand Teton National Park is 56 miles; approximate driving time with no stops is 11/2 hours. Please follow posted speed limits, watch for wildlife on roads, and be prepared for occasional delays due to road construction.

limited. Trailers or large motor homes are not permitted. Jackson Lake Dam Overlook Jackson Lake Dam, one mile west of Jackson Lake Junction on the Teton Park Road, raises the level of Jackson Lake a maximum of 39 feet. In addition to being a reservoir, Jackson Lake is also a natural lake formed by an immense glacier that once flowed from the Yellowstone plateau. Park on the southwest side of the dam and take a short walk for a peaceful view of Jackson Lake and Mt. Moran.

fi guration Menor’s Ferry/Chapel of the Transfig Turn off the Teton Park Road 1/2-mile north of Moose. The Menor’s Ferry Trail, less than 1/2-mile long, affords a look at homesteading and pioneer life in Jackson Hole. Visit Bill Menor’s cabin and country store. View a replica of the ferry that crossed the Snake River at the turn of the century. The altar window of the Chapel of the Transfiguration frames the tallest Teton peaks. Antelope Flats/Kelly Loop At Gros Ventre Junction, 5 miles south of Moose Junction on Highway 26/89/191, turn east. Follow the road to the small town of Kelly. To see the Gros Ventre Slide, turn at the sign marked ”National Forest Access.” The Gros Ventre Slide occurred in 1925 when earthquakes and rain caused the north end of Sheep Mountain to slide and dam the Gros Ventre River, forming Lower Slide Lake. Follow the Antelope Flats Road along

Oxbow Bend Located one mile east of Jackson Lake Junction, this cut-off meander of the Snake River attracts a wide variety of wildlife. Mt. Moran, the most massive peak in the Teton Range, dominates the background.

abandoned hayfields and ranches to rejoin Highway 26/89/191. Signal Mountain Summit Road This 5-mile drive starts one mile south of Signal Mountain Lodge and Campground. The road winds to the top of Signal Mountain, 800 feet above the valley. Summit overlooks provide a panoramic view of the entire Teton Range, Jackson Lake, and most of Jackson Hole. The road is narrow and parking at overlooks is

Willow Flats Stop at the Willow Flats Turnout, six miles south of Colter Bay for a view of an extensive wetlands that provides excellent habitat for birds, beavers, and moose. Jackson Lake and the Teton Range form the backdrop. Colter Bay Visitor Center/ Indian Arts Museum Visit the museum to view art created by native people and get a glimpse of nineteenth-century Native American life. Native American and wildlife videotapes are shown throughout the day.

Ranger-Led Activities During summer, join a ranger for a visitor center talk, museum tour, stroll, hike, or evening program. Attend these activities to learn more about the natural and human history of the park and parkway. Take a Hike Over 250 miles of hiking trails in the park and parkway range from level and easy trails on the valley floor to steep, arduous trails into the mountains. At visitor centers, ask a ranger for recommended hikes and look at, or purchase, maps and trail guides. Raft Trips on the Snake River Park and parkway concessioners operate trips on the Snake River daily in summer. Watch for moose along the banks and bald eagles and American white pelicans soaring above. Ride a Bike The Jenny Lake Scenic Drive has wide shoulders and superb views of the Tetons. The Antelope Flats-Kelly Loop provides riding opportunities on secondary roads. Wear helmets and use caution. Ride bicycles only where cars can legally go; bicycles are not allowed on trails or in the backcountry. Horseback Riding Park concessioners offer horseback rides at Colter Bay, Jackson Lake Lodge, and Flagg Ranch. TEEWINOT [SUMMER 2006]

Page 225 of 243

7

Camping

www.nps.gov/gr te/

Camping in the Park

Campgrounds

There are two trailer villages and five

in campsites is not permitted, and there are

campgrounds in Grand Teton National Park

no overflow facilities.

Parkway. All are operated by park

GROUP CAMPING

concessioners. There are eight campsites on

Reservations are available for group

Grassy Lake Road that have no potable

camping at Colter Bay and Gros Ventre

water and are free of charge.

campgrounds. The sites range in capacity

and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial

from 10 to 100 people. The nightly use fee is CAMPGROUNDS

$3 per person plus a $15 nonrefundable

The campground fee is $15 per night per site

reservation fee. Organized groups such as

and $7.50 for Golden Age/Golden Access

youth, religious, and educational groups

cardholders. Jenny Lake and Colter Bay

may use the group campsites. Advance

have hiker/biker sites available for $5 per

reservations are required and may be made

night. Jenny Lake Campground is open only

through the Grand Teton Lodge Company

for tent camping. All campgrounds have

at (800) 628-9988 or (307) 543-3100.

Open

Filling Time

Gros Ventre 361 Sites, trailer dumping station.

May 1 – Oct. 15

Evening or may not fill

Jenny Lake 51 sites, restricted to tents.

May 12 – Sept. 24

8:00 a.m.

Signal Mountain 80 sites, 30-foot vehicle max, trailer dumping station

May 13 – Oct. 15

10:00 a.m.

Colter Bay 350 sites, trailer dumping station, propane available, laundry and showers nearby

May 26 – Sept. 24

Mid-afternoon

Lizard Creek 63 sites, 30-foot vehicle max

June 2 – Sept. 5

Late afternoon

modern comfort stations, but do not have utility hookups.

TRAILER VILLAGES

concessioners. Grand Teton Lodge

Colter Bay and Flagg Ranch trailer

Company operates the campgrounds at

The maximum length of stay is seven days

villages have full hook-ups, showers, and

Colter Bay, Jenny Lake and Gros Ventre,

per person at Jenny Lake and 14 days at all

laundry. Colter Bay has 112 sites. Flagg

while Signal Mountain Lodge operates

other campgrounds – no more than 30 days

Ranch has 100 trailer and 75 tent sites.

Lizard Creek and Signal Mountain

in the park per year. These campgrounds

Advance reservations are advisable. See

campgrounds.

operate on a first-come, first-served basis

page 2 for details. These concessioners fund campground

and advance reservations are not accepted. Campgrounds often fill during July and

Check at park visitor centers for

improvements as a part of their contracts.

August. Approximate filling times are listed.

information concerning additional trailer

Improvements for 2006 include the

For status of campgrounds, contact

parks or campgrounds located outside

placement of recycling containers in park

entrance stations or visitor centers.

the park.

campgrounds. Collectively, these two concessioners recycle more than 170 tons of

Additional camping facilities are available in nearby national forests and other areas

RECYCLING CENTERS

material annually. When you stay in any

outside the park. Camping is not permitted

All campgrounds in Grand Teton National

park campground, please use the recycling

within the park along roadsides, in

Park and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial

containers to help keep Grand Teton clean

overlooks, or in parking areas. Doubling up

Parkway are managed by authorized

and pleasant for other campers.

Water Warning

Backcountry Comfort

Cool, crystal clear stream water looks tempting to drink. As more and more people camp and hike in the backcountry, the incidence of intestinal infection from

Pit toilets are provided at many

drinking untreated water has increased throughout the

trailheads, but there are no toilets in

West. Giardia, campylobacter, and other harmful

the backcountry. Be sure to urinate at

bacteria may be transmitted through untreated water.

least 200 feet from streams and lakes.

Drinking untreated water can make you ill. Carry

To prevent contamination of waterways, bury feces in a hole 6-8

sufficient water from approved sources, such as water

inches deep at least 200 feet from

spigots and drinking fountains in the park and parkway,

streams and lakes. Pack out used toilet

when hiking or enjoying any outdoor activity. If you

paper, tampons, sanitary napkins, and

must use water from lakes or streams, boil water 3-5

diapers in sealed plastic bags. Do not bury or burn them.

minutes to kill harmful microorganisms or filter with an approved device. 8 TEEWINOT [SUMMER 2006] Page 226 of 243

Park Partners

www.nps.gov/gr te/

Entrance Fees 2006 All Americans support national parks through tax dollars. Congress allocates some of those tax dollars to each park area. However, costs for achieving National Park Service goals in Grand Teton and other national parks have greatly increased in recent years. Operational funding has not kept pace with escalating needs. Unfortunately, funding available through the appropriation process is sufficient only to conduct the yearly operation of the park. Money is not available for major maintenance projects involving roads, trails, facilities, and infrastructure. In 1997, Congress authorized the Recreational Fee Demonstration Program, which allowed selected national parks – including Grand Teton and Yellowstone national parks – and other

Fee Schedule for Grand Teton National Park

federal sites to increase entrance and other fees. The parks were authorized to keep 80 percent of the fees collected in the park to address the backlog of projects. In 2006, money generated through the program in Grand Teton National Park will be used for: On-going trail rehabilitation projects. Rehabilitation and improvements to wastewater treatment facilities in Colter Bay, Beaver Creek, and Flagg Ranch. ■ Resurfacing roads in the north district of the park, including roads between Colter Bay and the south entrance of Yellowstone, and the Pacific Creek Road. ■ Replacement panels for interpretive exhibits. ■ ■

Thank you for supporting the protection of America’s national parks.

Entrance Fee $25 per vehicle • $12 per person (single hiker or bicyclist) • $20 per motorcycle Allows entrance to Grand Teton and Yellowstone national parks for 7 days. Golden Eagle Passpor t $65 Allows entrance to most national park areas and some other federal fee areas for 12 months from purchase; non-transferable. National Parks Pass $50 Allows entrance to most national park areas for 12 months from purchase; non-transferable. fi c Pass $40 Parks Specific Allows entrance to Grand Teton and Yellowstone national parks for 12 months from purchase; non-transferable. Golden Age Passport $10 (one-time fee) Allows lifetime entrance to all National Park System areas to American citizens 62 years old or older; non-transferable. Golden Access Passport - Free Allows lifetime entrance to all National Park System areas to American citizens who can provide proof of permanent disability; non-transferable.

Park Partners G R A N D T E T O N N AT U R A L H I S T O R Y A S S O C I AT I O N

G R A N D T E T O N N AT I O N A L PA R K F O U N D A T I O N

P.O. Box 170 Moose, WY 83012 (307) 739-3403 www.grandtetonpark.org

P.O. Box 249 Moose, WY 83012 (307) 732-0629 www.gtnpf.org

Grand Teton Natural History Association was established in 1937 as the park’s primary partner to increase public understanding, appreciation, and enjoyment of Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone area. Since that time, the Association has been aiding the interpretive, educational, and research programs of Grand Teton National Park. The Association has grown to operate interpretive and educational bookstores in five outlets in Grand Teton National Park and the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway, and several outlets in Bridger-Teton National Forest, Caribou-Targhee National Forest, and National Elk Refuge information facilities. When you make a purchase at an Association bookstore, profits are returned to the park in the form of donations to support park programs. Your purchase also supports the publication of this newspaper, books, and the free educational handouts available at visitor centers and entrance stations. Be sure to check out the on-line bookstore at www.grandtetonpark.org for all your tripplanning needs and complete the coupon below to become a member.

The Grand Teton National Park Foundation was established in 1997 as the only private, nonprofit organization dedicated exclusively to raising money for projects that protect, preserve, and enhance Grand Teton National Park. The foundation receives no government support and relies solely on the generous contributions of private individuals, foundations, and corporations. Philanthropy in the cause of national parks is not new. The John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway reminds us that we have the Rockefeller family to thank for a generous 32,000-acre land donation that led to today’s Grand Teton National Park. A major fundraising effort is underway to build the new Grand Teton Discovery and Visitor Center at Moose that will replace the woefully small visitor center in use since 1961. Schematic design for the new facility has been completed and planning for construction is underway. The Grand Teton Discovery and Visitor Center will offer unparalleled opportunities for information, orientation, and education about Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. If you would like to become a member of the Grand Teton National Park Foundation, or join us in the fundraising effort for the new visitor center, please fill out the coupon below and return it with your donation.

We invite you to become an annual member-at-large entitled to a 15% discount on purchases at all GTNHA

TETON SCIENCE SCHOOLS

THE MURIE CENTER

P.O. Box 68 Kelly, WY 83011 (307) 733-4765 www.tetonscience.org

P.O. Box 399 Moose, WY 83012 (307) 739-2246 www.muriecenter.org

The Teton Science Schools, founded in 1967, provide and encourage experiential education in natural sciences and ecology while fostering an appreciation for conservation ethics and practices. The secluded campus, operated in cooperation with Grand Teton National Park, is located on a historic dude ranch in the park. The Greater Yellowstone region serves as the school’s outdoor classroom and model for year-round programs that offer academic, professional, and personal benefits to students of all ages. Summer programs include two- to fiveweek residential field ecology and field natural history courses for high school and junior high students, and weeklong, nonresidential programs for third through eighth grades. A one-year, masters-level graduate program in environmental education and natural science is also available. This summer the Teton Science Schools are offering 37 field seminars for adults and seven seminars for families. Workshops and seminars for teachers and other professionals are also offered.

The Murie Center is a nonprofit organization located on the historic Murie Ranch, home of famed conservationist Mardy Murie. The Murie Center’s mission is to develop new constituencies for wilderness, emphasizing the importance of human connections with nature. The center is funded entirely through the generosity of individuals and the commitment of foundations. Please call if you are interested in visiting the center or attending a seminar.

U N I V E R S I T Y O F W Y O M I N G N AT I O N A L P A R K SER V I C E R E S E A R C H C E N T E R

P.O. Box 3166 • Laramie, WY 82071-3166 www.uwyo.edu

The AMK Research Station is a field operation of the University of Wyoming based at the historic AMK Ranch in Grand Teton National Park. The research station facilitates research in the diverse aquatic and terrestrial environments of Grand Teton and Yellowstone national parks and the BridgerTeton and Caribou-Targhee national forests.

Yes! I would like to be a part of the future of Grand Teton National Park. Name _______________________________________________________________________

visitor center outlets, as well as on catalog and website orders. Many cooperating association stores nationwide offer reciprocal discounts. I would like to become a:

Address _____________________________________________________________________ City, State, Zip _______________________________________________________________

■ $25 Individual Annual Member with discount privileges ■ $50 Associate Annual Member with discount privileges and commemorative

Phone _________________________________ Email ______________________________

Grand Teton canvas bookbag

Name _______________________________________________________________________ Address _____________________________________________________________________

Please include your check made out to the Grand Teton National Park Foundation, or supply the following credit card information.

City ________________________________________________________________________

Credit Card Type ■ Visa

State ___________________ Zip Code ___________________ Phone _______________ Date of Application___________________________________

Paid By ■ Cash ■ Check

■ Mastercard

Card Number __________________________________________ Exp.: ___________________

■ Credit Card __________________________________________ Exp.: __________________

Cardholder’s Signature ___________________________________________________________

Grand Teton National History Association • P.O. Box 170 • Moose, WY 83012 (307) 739-3403 • www.grandtetonpark.org

Grand Teton National Park Foundation • P.O. Box 249 • Moose, WY 83012 (307) 732-0629 • www.gtnpf.org

TEEWINOT [SUMMER 2006] Page 227 of 243

9

Fire Management

www.nps.gov/grte/

Managing Fire in Grand Teton National Park Today, federal fire management policy reflects both a commitment to public safety and an understanding that fire – a dynamic and natural process – is important to the health of the ecosystem. Grand Teton National Park's comprehensive fire management program balances the preservation of natural and cultural resources with concerns for public health and safety by using the latest science, technology, and a highly trained workforce to evaluate conditions and consider management options. Through fire effects monitoring, vegetation mapping, and GIS data collection, fire managers have a range of modern tools to assist them in making decisions. Some lightning-ignited fires, when they meet agency criteria, can be managed for resource benefits. These fires are carefully managed to ensure they stay within predetermined geographic areas and weather and fire effects guidelines. This action, referred to as wildland fire use, is critical to fire-adapted plants that rely on natural fire cycles to resprout from roots or open cones for seed dispersal. Fire can be applied to the landscape to promote natural conditions and reduce

buildup of dead wood and brush. A prescribed fire targets specific objectives like restoring early successional vegetation, creating diverse habitats for plants and animals, while minimizing risks to developments and cultural resources. Grand Teton National Park manages fire to protect human lives, personal property, and irreplaceable natural and cultural resources. Fire suppression is a key component of the fire management plan. Specific park areas are identified where fire suppression is critical to visitor and resource protection. Park fire crews mechanically reduce vegetation in developed areas. Fuels around buildings are reduced by thinning trees and removing dead wood and brush from the forest floor. This debris, called slash, is piled and dried for at least a year, then burned during wet weather in spring or late fall. Piles of brush and logs waiting to be burned should be left undisturbed. These piles contain mostly green branches that do not make good firewood. For more information about fire management in Grand Teton National Park, visit www.nps.gov/grte/fire/fire.htm.

Take A Look Around

firre can be confusing. While the public is asked to prevent wildfi firres, fi firre managers sometimes The story of fi firres and manage lightning-caused fi firres for resource benefi fitts. Fire specialists carefully plan conduct prescribed fi firres, allowing for a natural restoration of the ecosystem while providing for the size and timing of these fi firrefi fig ghter safety. public and fi

firres: Please do your par t to prevent human-caused fi

Fire has been an essential and natural part of

forbs in the area and provides important

the Grand Teton National Park ecosystem for

habitat and forage for a number of species.



Build campfires only in designated areas, monitor them, and make sure they are properly extinguished.



Smoke safely. Grind out cigarettes, cigars, or pipe tobacco, then properly dispose of them. Ashtrays should be used while smokers are in a vehicle and should never be emptied on the ground.



Do not use fireworks or other pyrotechnic devices. They are prohibited at all times within the park.



Obey posted restrictions. Restrictions may change during dry summer conditions.

thousands of years. The presence of fire within the park is one of the significant

Nor th Jenny Lake

factors contributing to the diversity of flora

The lightning-caused Alder Fire was managed

and fauna and overall health of

for resource benefits for several weeks in

the park ecosystems. As we

September 1999 before strong winds

understand fire's

caused it to grow rapidly, and the fire was

necessary role in the

suppressed. Four years later, the area is

ecosystem, we must also

now rich in grasses, and many lodgepole

accept occasional hazy

pine seedlings are established in the open

skies and patches of

spaces.

blackened landscape. These short-term

Blacktail Butte

consequences bring

In 1998, Grand Teton National Park

with them healthy

conducted a prescribed fire on the

ten years later, bison, pronghorn, and elk are

through stands of young lodgepole pine.

changes that sustain

south end of

still drawn to this part of the valley floor. Near

the area's natural

Blacktail Butte in

the fire's northeast end, a large area of aspen

Waterfalls Canyon

ecological balance.

order to benefit

trees has vigorously resprouted.

This fire, along the west shore of Jackson Lake, burned in 1974. Only a few burned

vegetation and Beaver Creek

trees remain standing. Thirty years later,

exist in the park to

habitat.

Stimulated by a 1985 fire in mixed conifers, the

many shrubs and trees are well established.

view changes over

The

area near Taggart Lake is now rich in young

In 2000, two separate wildland fires naturally

change in

lodgepole pines, aspen trees, and snowbrush

burned into the 1974 fire area and fire

park staff invites you to

height and

ceanothus. The Taggart Lake Trail winds

behavior moderated, aiding control efforts.

view the different stages

density of

of revegetation and

the

explore the diverse fire-

sagebrush

adapted vegetation

can be noted

unique to this

from the

wildlife

Many opportunities

time after a fire. The

landscape.

highway.

Though

Elk, moose, and sage

charred trees or shrubs

grouse are

may no

frequently seen feeding

longer be visible in areas that have burned, a noticeable

in the area. Further south of the prescribed fire

change in the height, density, or type

site is the area that burned by a lightning-

of vegetation can be a clue that fire

ignited fire in 2003. Here, grasses and forbs are

was present.

returning to the area.

Teton Science Schools

Antelope Flats

A prescribed fire was completed west of the

A lightning strike on the sagebrush flats near

Teton Science Schools in 2001. The fire has

Mormon Row in 1994 has allowed grasses and

increased the amount of native grasses and

wildflowers to again populate the area. Even

Fire can be an effective disturbance that rejuvenates vegetation and is critical in maintaining the natural firre, competing trees are removed, allowing sequence of plant communities known as succession. During a fi new seedlings to thrive.

10 TEEWINOT [SUMMER 2006] Page 228 of 243

Yellowstone

www.nps.gov/gr te/

Yellowstone National Park All opening and closing dates and hours of operation are subject to change due to weather and other variables. Check at park entrance stations and visitor centers for updated information. C O N TA C T I N F O R M AT I O N

Emergency ....................................................911 Visitor Information......................(307) 344-7381 Visitor Information TDD only ..(307) 344-5395 Xanterra Parks & Resorts ..... (307) 344-5437

Xanterra Parks & Resorts TDD only.............................. (307) 344-5395 Road Updates............................(307) 344-2117 Website................................www.nps.gov/yell

More information is in Yellowstone Today, the park newspaper, available at Yellowstone National Park entrance stations and visitor centers.

Yellowstone Roads SPRING 2006 OPENING SCHEDULE

CONSTRUCTION

Spring weather is unpredictable; roads may be closed temporarily by snow or other weather conditions. Snow tires or chains may be required. Weather and snow conditions permitting, tentative road opening dates for automobiles are:

Eleanor Lake to the East Entrance will be open 8 a.m.-8 p.m. with half hour delays; closed nightly 8 p.m.-8 a.m. daily. ■ Beartooth Highway (US 212): Half hour delays but no closures

April 21 Mammoth to Old Faithful; Madison Junction to West Entrance April 21 Norris Junction to Canyon May 5 Canyon to Lake; Lake to East Entrance May 12 Lake to South Entrance; West Thumb to Old Faithful; Tower Junction to Tower Fall May 26 Beartooth Highway; Tower Fall to Chittenden Road Canyon Junction

The only park road that remains open to wheeled vehicles all winter is the road from Gardiner, MT at the North Park Entrance to Silver Gate and Cooke City near the Northeast Park Entrance. All other park roads close at 8 a.m. on November 6. All opening and closing dates and hours of operation listed are subject to change due to weather and other variables. Check at park entrance stations and visitor centers for updated information.



AUTUMN 2006 CLOSING SCHEDULE

For cur rent road infor mation call (307) 344-2117

Visitor Services All dates are subject to change at any time. A C C O M O D AT I O N S

Old Faithful Inn (undergoing renovation) ........June 26–Oct 10 Old Faithful Snow Lodge ...........May 6 – Oct 23 Old Faithful Lodge ....................May 5 –Sept 17 Grant Village ...............................May 6 – Oct 1 Lake Yellowstone Hotel ...........May 19 – Oct 10 Lake Lodge............................June 10 – Sept 24 Canyon Lodge .........................June 2 – Sept 17 Roosevelt Lodge ........................June 9 – Sept 4 Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel.......May 12 – Oct 9 R E S TA U R A N T S , G E N E R A L S T O R E S A N D S E R V I C E S T AT I O N S

The following locations have restaurants or cafeterias, general stores and service stations: Old Faithful, Canyon, Grant Village, Lake, Tower-Roosevelt, Mammoth Hot Springs, and Fishing Bridge. PUBLIC SHOWERS

Showers are available to the public (fee charged) at Old Faithful Lodge, Grant Village Campground, Fishing Bridge RV Park, Canyon Campground and Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel during the summer season.

Yellowstone Campgrounds First-come, fi firrst-served

VISITOR CENTERS AND MUSEUMS

NPS Campground

Dates

Sites

Fee

Indian Creek

June 9 - Sept. 18

75

$12

Lewis Lake

June 16 - Nov. 5

85

$12

Mammoth

Year-round

85

$14

Norris

May 19 - Sept. 25

116

$14

Pebble Creek

June 9 - Sept. 25

36

$12

Slough Creek

May 26 - Oct. 31

29

$12

Tower Fall

May 19 - Sept. 25

32

$12

Xanterra Parks & Resorts Campgrounds Call (307) 344-5437 for reser vations Campground

Bridge Bay

Dates

Sites

Fee*

May 26 - Sept. 17

432

$17

Canyon

June 9 - Sept. 10

272

$17

Fishing Bridge RV

May 19 - Oct. 1

346

$34

Grant

June 21 - Sept. 24

425

$17

Madison

May 5 - Oct. 29

277

$17 *plus tax

Information, publications, exhibits, movies/videos, and ranger programs are available. For details visit www.nps.gov/yell or www.travelyellowstone.com.

Albright V isitor Center, Mammoth Hot Springs Open year-round, 8 a.m.-7 p.m. in summer. (307) 344-2263 Canyon V isitor Center Opens May 27, 8 a.m.-7 p.m. (307) 242-2550 Fishing Bridge V isitor Center Opens May 27, 8 a.m.-7 p.m. (307) 242-2450 Grant V illage V isitor Center Opens May 27, 8 a.m.-7 p.m. (307) 242-2650 Madison Information Station Opens June 3, 9 a.m.-5 p.m. (307) 344-2821 Museum of the National Park Ranger, Nor ris Opens May 27, 9 a.m.-5 p.m. Norris Geyser Basin Museum Opens May 27, 10 a.m.-5 p.m. (307) 344-2812 Old Faithful V isitor Center Opens April 21, 8 a.m.-7 p.m. in summer. (307) 545-2750 West Thumb Information Station Opens May 27, 9 a.m.-5 p.m. (307) 242-2652 West Yellowstone V isitor Information Center Chamber of Commerce Staff Available year-round, Monday-Friday, 8 a.m.-5 p.m. NPS Rangers Available daily beginning April 21, 8 a.m.4 p.m.; May 29 and thereafter, 8 a.m.–8 p.m. (406) 646-4403.

Camping in Yellowstone FIRST-COME, FIRST-SERVED CAMPSITES

There are eleven campgrounds and one RV park in Yellowstone National Park. The National Park Service operates seven campgrounds: Mammoth, Tower Fall, Indian Creek, Pebble Creek, Lewis Lake, Norris, and Slough Creek Campgrounds. Sites at these seven campgrounds are available on a firstcome, first-served basis.

day, especially during July and August. Camping or overnight vehicle parking in pullouts, parking areas, picnic areas or any place other than a designated campground is prohibited; there are no overflow camping facilities. All camping is limited to 14 days between July 1 and September 4 and to 30 days during the rest of the year, except at Fishing Bridge RV Park (no limit). Check out time for all campgrounds is 10 a.m.

RESERVABLE CAMPSITES

Reservations for campgrounds at Canyon, Grant Village, Bridge Bay and Madison campgrounds and Fishing Bridge RV Park may be made by contacting (307) 344-7311. Fishing Bridge RV Park is the only campground with water, sewer, and electrical hookups, and is for hardsided vehicles only, no tents or tent trailers. Please make your reservations early and/or plan on securing your campsite as early in the day as possible. Campgrounds may fill early in the

GROUP CAMPING

Group camping areas are available for large organized groups with a designated leader such as youth groups, etc. Fees range from $49-$79 per night depending on the size of the group. Advance reservations are required and can be made year-round by writing to Xanterra Parks & Resorts, P.O. Box 165, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming 82190 or by calling (307) 344-5437. TEEWINOT [SUMMER 2006]

Page 229 of 243

11

Park Map

www.nps.gov/gr te/

Colter Bay To Yellowstone NP 18 mi

Campground

Service Station

Store & Gas Station

Trailer Village

JACKSON LAKE

Activities Stores Amphitheater

Cabin Office

Picnic Area

VISITOR CENTER

Cabins Laundry & Showers

Tent Village

Corral

To Jackson 40 mi

Restaurants Marina

Boat launch

Moose

South Jenny Lake

JENNY LAKE Guide Service

Boat Dock

Visitor Center

Te to n

Ranger Station

Campground Pa

rk

Ro

ad

Road Infor mation Road Work Delays Road improvements will take place in Grand Teton and Yellowstone national parks throughout the 2006 season. For the most up-to-date information about road conditions in Grand Teton National Park call (307) 7393614 or visit www.nps.gov/grte. For information about Yellowstone roads call (307) 344-2117 or visit www.nps.gov/yell.

Move Over and Slow Down State law requires motorists in Wyoming to move over and slow down when passing stopped emergency vehicles with flashing lights. The law aims to reduce the danger of these vehicles getting hit by passing vehicles. In the last five years, stopped Wyoming Highway Patrol cars were struck on 27 different occasions.

Under the law, motorists on Wyoming interstates must move over to the travel lane farthest away from a stopped emergency vehicle before they pass. On two-lane highways, passing motorists must slow to 20 mph below the speed limit. These actions are required unless a law enforcement officer otherwise directs motorists. Violations can result in fines of up to $200, jail terms of up to 20 days, or both.

12 TEEWINOT [SUMMER 2006] Page 230 of 243

Recycling Recycling containers are located at visitor centers, stores, lodges, and in campgrounds. Items collected include aluminum and tin cans, glass and plastic bottles as well as small propane fuel cylinders. Batteries can also be recycled at many stores. Additional items may be recycled in select areas, check at park visitor centers for more information.

Yellowstone Photography - Composition

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G

ood photographs don't come from fancy camera equipment, dramatic lighting equipment, or special effects. Photographs that stand out in terms of their ability to engage an audience's interest and imagination have one source: the vision of you, the photographer. It is your eye that makes decisions on what you want to share with viewers of your work. Success is measured by what you decide to include in your photograph and what you eliminate, as well as by your choice of angles and lighting. The most important thing you can do to improve your photography is to take the time to train your eye. We all see images every day that attract our attention. But have you ever stopped to ask yourself why a particular scene causes you to pause? What is it about the scene that makes it so special? To help train your eye, try to go by the same scene every day and take a close look at it. Is it special every day? Probably not. Find out why. We find our blood starting to stir every fall. We itch to get out with our cameras, well before the colors of the trees start to change. Why? Because the angle of the light in autumn captures our imagination, and makes ordinary, everyday scenes glow in a way they don't the rest of the year. The low angle of the light brings out patterns and textures we don't see the rest of the year. For you it may be another season—some photographers love the crisp intensity that only winter brings, for instance. Find out what kind of light inspires you, then determine what subjects most often draw your attention and concentrate on them. When you're able to articulate your preferences and the reasons behind them, it's time to pick up your camera. Remember, while your eye and the camera's lens have a lot in common, the camera has certain powers that you don't. It can zoom in on details that your naked eye can't. It can home in on the frame of the image that interests you and block out everything else. Learn to use these powers to your advantage. Of course, your camera also has certain limitations. While you have two eyes to take in a scene, the camera is limited to one. While your eye and mind can balance the details in highlight and shadow, you may find your camera and film unable to record these details as you perceive them with your eye. Understanding the limitations and strengths of your camera equipment and film are the first steps toward taking consistently better photographs. IDENTIFYING YOUR SUBJECT Every photographic situation provides you with an array of choices. Imagine that you're photographing Little League baseball players. Take in the whole scene first. What is capturing your attention—what is most important here? Is it a close-up of a child in rapt attention on the ball field, or the juxtaposition of team members against the backdrop of green grass? Or the intensity of the sideline parents? Look carefully. What do you see? If you're doing a story on the team, all these scenes are important. You'll have to prepare a whole album to create a complete record of what went on that day. But 'll h t d it h t t ti Page 231 of 243

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you'll have to do it one shot at a time. It's likewise out in the field. Autumn is always a real trap for the avid nature photographer—the colors are so spectacular that it's easy to just point into the forest and shoot. We have pages and pages of pretty-leaf pictures. Some of these shots have served a purpose as eye-catching background graphics. But many of them wouldn't be hung on the wall on their own. Why not? Because we forgot to ask ourselves what we were trying to accomplish. Sit down in front of a wild forest of bright autumn colors and just look. What do you see? If you're patient, some specific subjects will start making themselves evident. Look at how the river scene glows with the reflection of autumn leaves and blue sky. Move closer to capture the birch trees reflected in the water. Crop in closer still to create an impressionistic painting of water and light. Now you're making progress; your eye is sorting out the details. Again, choosing what not to include in your picture is as important as choosing what to include. After you've chosen your subject, the next step is to place it to its best advantage and turn it into a cohesive picture. FORM AND LIGHT Shapes alone do not make your subject: the form of your subject is governed by the light in which it is viewed. Shadows and highlights will bring out the visual attributes of an object that turn it from a mere flat form to an object with weight and depth. It's the light's variations in intensity, angle, and direction that give your subject impact. Front lighting illuminates only the parts of the subject that are facing the camera, and is usually considered normal lighting. Because it imparts few shadows, it tends to create a fairly flat effect. Side lighting comes at the subject at a right angle to the camera. This lighting tends to bring out the full effects of texture and form. Morning and evening sunlight usually provide this kind of light. Back lighting is certainly the trickiest to use. The camera is unable to capture the image exactly the way your eye sees it, because it cannot register the range of contrasts the same way your eye and mind can when working together. But it also has great potential for high impact, as with dramatic silhouettes. The quality of the light will also have an effect on your subject. Bright, direct light will create hard shadows and reflections. Soft, diffused light will soften those edges and help bring out colors and patterns. Dappled light can be a benefit or a curse, depending on the subject. Watch how the light affects your subject, especially outdoors. Light is ever changing, and the alternating shadows and variations of tone will have an effect on your composition. Light has direction. Determine whether front lighting, side lighting, or back lighting is most appropriate for your subject. PERSPECTIVE: CHOOSING YOUR VANTAGE POINT Your eye perceives a subject based on its spatial relationship with its surroundings. From a distant vantage point, a mountain may look small and relatively near other objects in the scene. But when you drive down the valley and closer to the mountain, suddenly it becomes enormous, dwarfing everything else in its vicinity. The other mountains that seemed so near are now completely out of view. This is perspective—the interrelationship between a subject and its surroundings as it pertains to your vantage point. When you choose your perspective, you're choosing the angle that you consider most effective for capturing this particular subject. Many photographers automatically take pictures from the vantage point that seems

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Many photographers automatically take pictures from the vantage point that seems most natural to them, eye level. But consider the impact of shooting the same subject from a higher or lower perspective. Shooting up at the mountain will emphasize its majesty and may isolate it from its surroundings against a background of brilliant blue sky. On the other hand, climbing higher and shooting down on it reduces its significance, showing it as just one of many peaks in a range. This is your perspective. After you've chosen your vantage point, select the lens that will allow you to include only as much of the scene as you want. Use a wide-angle lens to take in much of the area; use a telephoto lens to home in on one aspect of the scene. Remember: you haven't changed your perspective, you've only changed how much of the scene you wish to share. Perspective is the interrelationship between a subject and its surroundings as seen from your vantage point. THE RULE OF THIRDS: SUBJECT PLACEMENT Changing your lens does not change your perspective, it only changes how much ofthe scene you wish to capture. There are no hard-and-fast rules regarding composition, but there are a few guidelines that may help you decide where your subject should be placed in relationship to the rest of the scene. One of these guidelines is called The Rule of Thirds: divide the image into thirds vertically, and then again into thirds horizontally. The intersections of these lines are all strong areas in the frame. If there's more than one element in the image, placing your main subject off center where the lines intersect can make the composition more balanced and pleasing to the eye. If, on the other hand, you're dealing with a single element of interest. placement of the object will be closer to center. Faces are a good example. the head should be in the upper third of the box. The Rule of Thirds helps you avoid the amateur photographer's curse: the bull's-eye shot, in which the head is placed dead center. f There are occasions, of course, when absolute symmetry is called for. These subjects are best placed in the center position. If you're shooting animals or people, always make certain they're looking into the frame—give them some space in the direction they are looking, to give the image a logical framework. If the most effective The upper third of your subject is looking out of the frame, you'll lose any sense of the subject's involvement with its environment. THE POWER OF LINES, TEXTURE, AND REPETITION Another important way to create images with impact is to use lines to lead the eye to the subject: hard lines can be used to suggest motion, aggression, restlessness; soft, rounded lines might suggest a gentle, calming atmosphere. Lines can be absolute, such as horizons, trees, or fence posts, or they can be suggested, as a series of rocks, flowers, or even shadows that draw the eye to the main subject. Converging lines create very strong intersection points and can be a powerful way to lead the eye. Be aware that strong lines can also inadvertently draw the eye away—for example, a horizon line to which you paid no attention when you composed your shot might cut the image in half and destroy the composition for which you were striving. The best way to test your image for proper line definition is the squint test: look at the scene with your eyes slightly squinted. What stands out? You'll notice the strong lines that are the backbone of the image. The myriad patterns in nature can also make very strong visual images. If you're looking for harmonious repetition, avoid anything that might interrupt the flow of the pattern. When you locate a theme or repetitive pattern that interests you, try to isolate it from the rest of its environment.

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Eliminate any distracting elements and find the angle of light that maximizes the effect. A low angle of light will often bring out shapes and details that full sun would eliminate. Repetitive patterns in nature can create images with a lot of impact. FORMAT Horizontal or vertical? Since most of us photographers shoot at least a proportion of photographs with a 35mm camera, we're generally working with a rectangular format. And because of the way most cameras are built, we find it very easy to shoot most of our images horizontally. Horizontal photographs are perfectly suited to the nature photographer, and are often referred to as landscape format, which tends to have a peaceful, harmonizing effect on the subject. On the other hand, vertical formats, often referred to as portrait format, tend to connote a greater sense of energy. A mountain scene in a horizontal format may seem almost pastoral. Turn it to a vertical, and suddenly the sense of energy and majesty increases considerably. A horizontal portrait, on the other hand, may seem more casual and relaxed. So experiment! Shoot images both ways to see which gets you the most impact. Also consider the ultimate use of your images. Professional photographers often make certain they end up with images that go both ways: horizontals are great for wall calendars, while most magazine covers are vertical.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

Copyright @1999-2003 Yellowstone Media Group, Inc

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Yellowstone Photography - Landscape

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The Landscape There are few things more joyful to us than the thrill of photographing the landscape, and because it's so accessible and so abundant, we're never in short supply of subject matter. The best part, of course, is that the light is never the same twice: we can visit the same area at the same time every day and never get exactly the same picture—even subtle shifts can produce dramatically different results. But good landscape photography is not as simple as it seems. The trick is learning how to find the key elements of a scene that will make your pictures sing. You must teach your eye to evaluate an enormous set of possibilities, then translate the scene into a photographic image that will convey all the depth, scope, and drama of the image. There are a number of techniques that can help you avoid many of the mistakes that are made by the average point-and-shoot photographer. BASIC LANDSCAPE DESIGN Simplify, Simplify, Simplify If there's one thing that we try to get across to students in our photographic classes, it's this: simplify! In nature it's so easy to get lost in the clutter. The landscape as the eye sees it is dramatic, pleasing, harmonious. But the camera is more discriminating. It will capture for eternity the exact moment of the place, and along with this come all the quirks, wrinkles, and clutter. This is why you need to be very clear about what you intend to photograph. Know your subject before you begin. If you have to sit and stare awhile before picking up your camera, then do it. Make a frame with your fingers like the old-time movie directors did, and pan the scene. For example, let's look at a mountain scene: the mountain is there, of course. There are some trees in the foreground; the sky is spectacular. There's a cabin off to the side. There's a fence, a couple of horses. Oh, and if you look a little closer, there are some low bushes, a dip in the landscape where a stream cuts through... Sure, it all looks great together: the epitome of the American West. But shoot it exactly as you see it, and what happens? The horses look like ants, the dip of the stream becomes a strong horizontal line across the bottom that doesn't make sense to the eye, the trees are close and out of focus... there are so many ways to get this shot wrong that we can't enumerate them all. So think about this scene some more. What's the point you're trying to make? Do you want to capture the spirit of the American West? Then maybe place that cabin in the foreground as the main subject, with a backdrop of the mountain. Are you trying to suggest the majesty of the wilderness? Then maybe isolate the mountain and sky. Tackle the scene any way you wish, but know what your goals are first. In landscape photography less is always more. Illustrating Scope

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Traditionally, the sheer magnitude of a scene has been captured with a wide-angle lens. But panoramic images have become increasingly popular in recent years. While this new format can be very appealing, it would be a mistake to think that it solves all the problems of capturing the drama of the landscape. Whether you're using a normal lens, a wide-angle lens, or a camera with panoramic capabilities, the problems of composing a panorama of the landscape remain the same. To evoke the openness of the landscape, compose your photo with an emphasis on the distant horizon. Using the Rule of Thirds, place the transition from earth to.sky on one of the two horizontal planes. If there's a mountain peak or lone tree, try placing it off center one way or the other. A billow of clouds can also be placed in this manner. To emphasize a sense of space, keep the amount of foreground in the shot to a minimum. Try various vantage points. Shooting down on the scene may emphasize the harmony of the environment. Shooting up at it may intensify its impact. To illustrate scope, try to maximize the impact of the expanse of land across the cameras plane. To illustrate depth, your goal is to display the expanse of land that stretches away from the camera. You do this by choosing a foreground feature as your primary subject. The foreground adds tension to the image and helps connect viewers to the photograph immediately, by drawing them into the scene and beyond to experience the complete environment. To best illustrate depth, you should shoot a scene for maximum depth of field: your aim is sharp focus from foreground to background. This can be difficult to achieve, and often means shooting with a very small aperture, fl6 or ill. If there's even a gust of wind, the recommended shutter speed may be lower than you can reasonably use with this small aperture setting. If this is the case, open up to the required f-stop and let the far background go into soft focus. But don't let the foreground image lose its sharpness; if you can't get the foreground sharp, try another lens or change the camera's position. Sharpness is everything in this type of shot. If you can't get it, don't shoot. And don't forget to experiment with the differences between the vertical and the horizontal format. Often the solution to your design problem becomes obvious with the turn of the camera. THE EVER-CHANGING LIGHT Natural light is an amazing thing—it changes hour to hour, day to day, and month to month. The light's color changes throughout the day, starting warm in the morning, turning blue as the afternoon progresses, and turning back to warm before darkness creeps in. The angle of light changes too: daily changes are obvious, of course, but seasonal effects give us some of our most spectacular moments. The intensity of light also has a great impact: pictures recorded at noon on a brilliant day will have a very different mood from those shot in the same place on a cloudy day. Light tends to bounce off other things, too, and this reflected light can cause glare and harsh hot spots on film, or it can be harnessed to fill in shadows. Pick a scene you like, maybe one you travel by often on your way to work. Every day, look at what the light is doing. When it sparkles, note the month. When it glows, note the time of day. If you have a minute, stop and look closer. Ask yourself what it is about the quality of the light that draws your attention. Do you love its mellow mood? Or are you drawn to its vivid intensity? Light can change any scene into something completely different. We're always surprised when someone says to us, "Oh yes, I've already shot that. I was there two years ago." Wow! That scene has been through thousands of variations since then. Nature shows us its many moods every day. What you do with these moods is up to you.

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The Edge of Light Early morning and late evening are the witching hours of landscape photography. Scenes that you walked by all day suddenly begin to glow; clouds shimmer in warm tones of yellow and red; silhouettes spring to life. You have to be ready when the light begins to change and shift— colors come and go quickly. When we're traveling, we scope out a new area during the day so we're ready when these magic light shows begin: we determine where the sun is likely to rise and set; we note likely subjects and backgrounds. Then, about half an hour before we think the light is going to change, we set up our tripods and wait. If we're spending a few days in the field, we note the successes and trials of that first day so we can alter our plans for the next day. When you expect spectacular light, plan ahead: know where you're going to shoot so that you're ready when the light starts to change. Weather Along with the time of day, weather can play a huge role in creating memorable, moody images. A foggy morning or a rainy afternoon turn the landscape into a distinctly intimate environment. When the sun peeks through and reflects off these damp surfaces, a riot of possibilities occur. And we couldn't live without storms. We're always on the lockout for a buildup of cloud banks for creating moody images or adding some intensity to a special scene. See chapter 8 for further discussion of wild sky conditions. SPECIAL PLACES Over the years we've traveled quite a bit, and we've encountered lots of situations where we said, "If only we knew such-and-such about this place, we could have come another time or stopped at another vantage point or brought a different piece of equipment." Before taking a trip, plan ahead to avoid disappointment: know what kinds of conditions you might encounter, and be prepared. We usually call the National Park Service in the state to which we're traveling for information on things such as peak foliage and wildflower blooms. Travel guides give us ideas about our routes and the best time to travel in certain areas. Mountains Mountains love the light of early morning and late afternoon, when the sun kisses the tops of ridges and brings out the best they have to offer. Mountains create a dramatic silhouette when they're backlit by a rising or setting sun. Add some foreground to give your picture depth, and use the Rule of Thirds when you place your horizon. Remember that the snow flies earlier in the mountains, so any trip to high elevations should be planned with the knowledge that passes can close suddenly and storms can appear out of nowhere. We have actually been prevented from crossing a pass in mid-July! Call ahead to find out conditions of any major passes you intend to cross on your travels. Canyons We have sometimes found ourselves in canyons too early in the morning: light that's playing havoc with the surrounding ridges often doesn't make its way onto the canyon walls until later. Before that moment the canyon is dark and flat, and after the sun rises enough to stream directly in, the light is hot and shadowless. But oh, that moment between! It's definitely worth getting up and waiting for. The sun reaches over the walls and angles into the canyon and suddenly brown cliffs shimmer with a reddish glow. Shoot up at the walls and accentuate their colors with a slice of brilliant blue sky at the top of the frame.

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Canyons seem to have their own weather: very chilly mornings are often followed by scorching afternoons. Be prepared for all sorts of weather. Moving Water Overcast days are a great time to shoot around streams and waterfalls. The soft light brings out the intensity of the colors and keeps the reflections softer and more subdued. You'll need your polarizing filter to control glare. Experiment with different shutter speeds when you shoot around moving water: make a stream smooth and silky by shooting at Yi second, or catch every bump and ripple by shooting at 1/2. Try running a whole series of shutter speeds at one location. You'll be pleasantly surprised at the variety of interesting effects. If you're going to hike in to a special waterfall, ask a ranger when to expect the best light. Many waterfalls are in deep forests, where they get a lot of shade. Sometimes midday is the only time they're properly illuminated. Again, play with shutter speeds to create different effects. Deep Forests Because the treetops create a heavy canopy, the deep forest has an environment distinctly its own. It's a world of green, and for us, the more intense and mistier, the better. Textures and colors are intense at midday, when the light is strongest. When you're hiking through deep forest, look for moments of high contrast: the rich brown of a tree trunk against a wall of green; the intense yellow of a mushroom emerging from a rotted stump. Look up to see slivers of brilliant blue behind clouds of green leaves. Take along a small reflector to help bounce light onto shadowed subjects. Fall Foliage A swirl of vivid autumn colors is often so intense that it's tempting to just point and shoot. Avoid this impulse, and instead study the forest for subjects that can anchor your image. Look for simplicity of line and form amid the sea of color to achieve a shot that's really memorable. A dark branch against yellow leaves, brilliant white birch bark in a sea of red and orange, or a sliver of blue sky framing a solitary maple tree all offer tantalizing possibilities. You can find spectacular autumn foliage in many places across the country. Though we are partial to our New England leaf season, we have often traveled to Colorado to catch those intense yellow aspens against the brilliant mountain skies. You can call the National Park Service or your state's forest service to get recreational information. Some state governments even have 800-number hotlines to keep you up to date on foliage changes.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

Copyright @1999-2003 Yellowstone Media Group, Inc

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Yellowstone Photography - Wildlife

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Photographing Wildlife

Everybody we know who has gotten hooked on photographing wildlife started out

the same way: they simply found wild animals fascinating, wanted to know more about them, and most importantly wanted to experience them in their natural environment. But if ever there was a hobby that requires patience, this is it. Diehard wildlife photographers will sit for hours in cold, lonely blinds, enduring bug bites and miserable weather conditions for the chance to photograph a deer coming out to graze or a moose feeding along the edge of a lake. Even when you have a subject that seems to be cooperative, there are many other issues. Is he doing something interesting? Is he in the right light? Can you capture him going that fast? What about the background? All inexperienced wildlife enthusiasts can point to boxes of film that were wasted because, even though they caught the animal, the composition, lighting, or pose just wasn't worthwhile. Learning to take good wildlife photos is one of the most rewarding aspects of outdoor photography, but it requires skill, patience, and a good degree of luck. At the end of the day, though, we think you'll find that the rewards are not just in the pictures you take, but in the incredible sense of wonder you get from sharing a wild animal's world for just a little while. EQUIPMENT Pursuing wild animals in their natural habitat is rarely performed under ideal conditions. We find our best opportunities in the early morning or late in the day, when lighting conditions are difficult. The subjects are shy and skittish and often require a lot of distance between themselves and humans. Most move very quickly. And it's often necessary to travel into remote places to pursue them. Fortunately, the photographer who is interested in specializing in these elusive subjects has a wide array of equipment options to help. An outfit for wildlife photography, using a 35mm single-lens-reflex camera, can get expensive. Before you get started, make sure that you'll do enough of this type of photography to warrant the expenditure. The choice of lenses on the market is truly impressive, and this makes it difficult to know where to start. Our first suggestion is to begin with your camera manufacturer—see what lenses it offers in its line. You'll have a good idea what quality to expect, and the telephoto you choose may be more compatible with the other lenses in your outfit. Lenses from the same manufacturer often take the same filters, resulting in a considerable savings. You may also find that the similarities in terms of focus and metering make them easier to use. A lens with a long focal length is an absolute must for pursuing wildlife, but you may immediately find yourself with a case of sticker shock. Long lenses can be expensive, so it's important to know what features are most important.

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Because of the distances involved, a good choice for starting your outfit is a 300mm lens, the smallest of the long-focal-length lenses, which range from 300mm to 1000mm or more. We recommend buying the highest-quality lens you can; it's disappointing to go through all the effort of stalking and capturing your subjects only to find that your images aren't sharp because you have a poor lens. Many wildlife photographers consider 300mm too short and prefer to work with a 400mm lens. There are some good zooms on the market also, but keep in mind that high-quality zooms are often very expensive. They also tend to be much heavier than prime lenses, which makes them harder to hand-hold and lug around in the field. Hand-holding any lens over 300mm isn't practical anyway, because your inability to stabilize a lens of this size will probably produce less-than-sharp pictures. There are products that help anchor these long lenses while also assisting in tracking your subject. A tripod is useful, of course, for mounting your camera when you won't be moving around a lot. Invest in one that's as heavy and sturdy as you can afford to carry. It's a good idea to paint the legs and upper post in a flat black, green, or brown color to camouflage the device and prevent its shiny surface from capturing the attention of your subjects. You can also use camouflage tape—the same kind that bow hunters use. We also wrap hard-cell foam insulating material on our tripod legs; it's flat gray, and provides a little cushioning to protect our shoulders when we haul the supports around. A monopod is a good choice if you're going to be working in good lighting conditions. It's a simple one-legged stand that helps stabilize your camera, but makes it a little easier to stalk. We only use a monopod when we're shooting fast shutter speeds, usually 1/125 second or more, because absolute stability is not guaranteed the way it is with a tripod. For photographing birds in flight or stalking moving animals, the shoulder stock is very helpful. This device ranges from a lightweight aluminum support that balances on your chest to a heavier wooden gun-stock style. Your stock should be comfortable, provide good stability, and allow you to move quickly. After trying a number of styles, we still haven't found the perfect stock. This seems to be a common complaint— many photographers buy stocks and then adapt them to their particular preferences. A motor drive seems to be an obvious choice for photographing moving wildlife. It's true that these devices are convenient: they're faster and less distracting than having to thumb-crank after every shot, and you don't run the risk of missing a shot because you forgot to advance the film. We would hate to be without ours. But don't expect to use it to fire in rapid sequence, assuming that you'll be able to capture the full movement of the animal. Even at full speed, you'll still only catch a fraction of the animal's motion. And with moving animals, it's almost impossible to keep a sharp focus that long anyway. You can waste a lot of film shooting this way. We find that we rarely shoot more than two or three exposures at one time. Some photographers feel that the motor drive's noise can scare the animals. While this may be true to some extent, it hasn't been our experience. In some cases, though, such as when we're photographing songbirds up close, even the snap of the mirror is too much noise. While shooting birds nesting near our home, we have actually tried insulating the camera with foam and rubber bands to muffle the sound. But the best thing to do when your camera distracts the subject is to take a break and give your subject a chance to settle before beginning again. If your camera gives you the choice of interchangeable focusing screens, you may want to invest in a clear matte focusing screen for shooting wildlife. Most camera outfits come with a split-image focusing screen. These may be fine for general photography, but we don't find them nearly as easy to use on photographs that require small aperture settings or long lenses.

ANIMAL NATURE

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ANIMAL NATURE The most important factor in getting good photos of wild animals is knowing as much as possible about them. Wild animals inhabit a world that has little to do with ours, and they can be dangerous, particularly if you don't know what to expect. Advance study can help you make sense of the animal's habitat. Local field guides can let you know what species can be found in certain regions and give you an idea of your subject's favorite territories. Find out the species' nocturnal feeding habits. Learn what individuals like to eat and where. Do they move in groups or are they solitary? How do they react in various types of weather? Take careful note of their mating seasons as well as when females will be giving birth, because emotions often run high during these times. One of the real pleasures of photographing animals is simply observing them in their natural habitat. You'll learn more from one animal himself than you will from any number of books. Watch his actions and try to figure out what he's doing and why. Animals rarely act randomly; almost everything they do has a purpose. A male elk pawing the ground and bugling during mating season is acting out a ritual for attracting the attention of a local female. Chances are good that he'll return to the spot often; tomorrow you can be waiting for him. Don't let the docile nature of a grazing moose fool you into complacency. While most animals are happy to ignore you or even avoid your presence, few will stand for a rapid approach and none will willingly allow you near their offspring. Watch for signs of displeasure on the animal's part: a twitch of his tail, stamping a foot, or pinning his ears back are all signs that he's not happy with your presence. Not long ago we had the rare pleasure of running into triplet black bear cubs. They were adorable and we couldn't wait to get them on film. Though Morn was not in sight, we soon heard her complaints from the brush and realized we were between her and the cubs. We hightailed it out of there—singing songs, walking slowly backward, and doing everything we could to show her how uninterested we were in her and the cubs. She followed us until she was satisfied that we were leaving, then turned back to her family. Unfortunately, all we have from that encounter are our memories! Birds make fascinating subjects for the wildlife photographer. Because they can be found almost anywhere, they may not require the strenuous effort that's needed when you shoot large mammals. But they do require patience. For people who feed birds, there are lots of opportunities for pictures. It's unlikely you'll get great shots at the feeder, but there are a couple of tricks that can help put the birds into a more natural setting. We mount branches near the feeders so birds can hop off the perches and pose for us at a spot where we can control backgrounds and the birds are used to our presence. We sometimes use a flash for close-ups at the feeder. If the background isn't too close, the light falls off quickly, illuminating only the subject. Try a fast shutter speed and a relatively small f-stop to get a nice, even background: 1/250 second at fl6 should produce good results. Birds with youngsters also make great subjects, because you'll be able to easily predict their daily habits. You may even be able to install a small blind in your backyard for recording their routines: set up a good distance away, then move a little closer each day as they get comfortable with your presence. But make certain to stay away from the nest during and right after egg laying—if you frighten a bird then, it may abandon the nest. The bottom line when photographing animals is respect. If they're moving away from you or doing other things that make it clear that they feel threatened, it's time to back off. A 300mm lens should provide enough distance to get good shots while maintaining the animal's privacy. As a wildlife photographer, you can help guard the delicate balance between our world and theirs. STALKING AND CONCEALMENT

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Yellowstone Photography - Wildlife

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STALKING AND CONCEALMENT Many of the wildlife photographers we know who specialize in large rnammals used to be hunters. They have traded their guns for cameras, but many of the skills they learned in years of stalking prey serve them in good stead. Camouflaging your gear will help you to keep your profile low. Wear dull clothes and try to dull your shiniest gear. But don't fool yourself into thinking that this will prevent you from being noticed by your subject. Chances are very good he picked up your scent long before you knew he was there. Staying downwind from your subject can help alleviate this problem. We know some photographers who even keep a piece of yarn on their tripods to help them track wind direction. Moving slowly when you're near your subject is very important. Practice being aware of every move you make. In some cases it's not enough to walk slowly. Watch your hands: they could be moving very quickly to adjust focus and exposure settings. Set a pace with which the animal can be comfortable. There are ways to get a little closer to an animal in the wild that can be nonthreatening enough to give you a few moments to shoot. Approach him from an angle and don't pay any attention to him. The moment he shows signs of tension, stop what you're doing and direct your attention elsewhere. Stay still and let the tension pass. Pretty soon, he'll get over his concern, and if you're lucky he'll go back to doing what he was doing. Approaching him straight on, sneaking up from behind, or staring directly at him are all acts that he may associate with aggression, so be subtle. Blinds can be very helpful if you know where your subject is going to be, or if you expect to remain in one position for a long time. Marsh birds, for example, often live in exposed areas where you simply can't conceal yourself any other way. Some photographers like to build blinds out of materials handy in the field. But in our opinion this requires too much reliance on luck, as well as a whole bag of tools for assembly. It can also be disruptive to the environment. If you're going to do much of this kind of photography, it may be worthwhile to invest in a portable blind. A good blind is lightweight and easy to transport; it should also assemble quickly and allow you to shoot from a number of heights. Don't forget that you're setting up this blind because you plan to stay awhile. Comfort is important, so make certain the blind is big enough for you to sit without crouching—a blind is rendered ineffective if you bump against the fabric and cause the whole thing to ripple. Bring along a good seat, too; folding stools can work, but on soft ground they may sink. Try to find something with a good wide base. GETTING THE GREAT SHOT There are a few things to keep in mind when you're out in the field, a few tricks that can help turn ordinary shots into extraordinary ones. Whenever possible, get your camera at the animal's level or lower, which tends to enhance the animal's appearance and create a more impressive image. Obviously, this isn't always practical, but if you have a cooperative subject, give it a try. Pay particular attention to your subject's eyes when you're focusing: if the eyes are out of focus, the photo will never look right, and the entire composition will seem out of focus. Likewise, if you have a choice of compositions with or without the face and eye showing, you'll find that the shot with the eye will almost always be better. As always, keep the background and foreground clean. It's very easy to forget your

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Yellowstone Photography - Wildlife

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y , p g g y y g y surroundings when you have an animal in your viewfinder. If you can, look around the area and preplan your shot. Patience is required. We once sat for hours waiting for a moose to cross a stream that he seemed certain to eventually cross. The rocks and grass made the perfect foreground. We had already surveyed the area and determined that no other shot was really worth getting. When he finally crossed, we were ready. There are a lot of good wild-animal shots that capture the animal standing still or grazing. It takes patience to capture your subject at just the right moment, but it's well worth the wait. You'll be rewarded with trophies that you will definitely want to hang on your walls.

For more information on Yellowstone National Park, the surrounding communities and activites visit these sites: YellowstoneFlyFishing.com - YellowstoneLodging.com YellowstoneNationalPark.com

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