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FLASHBACK 1796

Townsend Gore surveyed

1800

Townsend Gore becomes Burford Gore

1810

Perth (Oakland) is mapped

1814

Battle of Malcolm's Mills

1821

Burford Gore becomes Oakland Twp

1825

Oakland House opens

1828

Finlay Malcolm Jr. elected MPP

1830

Foster's Hotel opens

1834

Episcopalians organize

1835

Congregationalists organize

1837

Rebels assemble at Scotland

1840

Oakland post office opens

1847

Congregational church built

1850

Inaugural meeting of Township Council

1852

Scotland post office opens

1854

Town hall built

1856

Cockshutt Road construction begins

1857

S.S.#2 Oakland school built

1862

Civil War - Constant Eddy Jr. dies

1865

Malcolm's woollen mill opens

1866

Fenian raids cause concern

1867

Masonic Lodge #193 gets charter

1873

Maple Grove school built

1875

Good Templars band organized

1880

C.O.F. #44 gets charter

1882

Scotland J oumal begins circulation

1886

Oakland Methodist church built

1887

B.W.& L.E. Railway constructed

1892

Scotland Sun begins circulation

1893

B.W. & L.E. Railway becomes T.R. & B.

1894

Scotland Public Library opens

1895

Dr. John Anderson begins practice

1903

Baldwin's store gets toll phone

1904

Scotland gets telephone service

1905

Percy Button appointed Twp clerk

1906

Crown Bank opens

1907

Scotland declared a police village

1909

Lower Oakland post office opens

1910

Norfolk County Telephone Co. takes over

1911

Rural mail delivery commences

1913

L.E. & N. begins construction

1915

Leigh R. Smith killed World War I

1916

Sgt. N. Dunningham killed at the Somme

1917

World War I - Council pledges $28,750.00

1918

Royal Bank takes over Crown Bank

1919

Spanish influenza epidemic

1920

Army worm outbreak

1922

Hydro establishes service

1924

Oakland community grounds opened

1924

Scotland Continuation School built

1925

Scotland Baptists splinter

Methodists join United Church

1927

1930

Southern Onto Telephone takes over service

1932

Memorial cairn erected

1935

Flue-cured tobacco introduced

1936

Robbery and shoot-out at Royal Bank

1939

Martin's Mohawk museum opens

1942

Victory Loan objective $30,000.00 reached

1942

Franklin "Chub" Martin killed at Dieppe

1942

S.S.#2 school house burns

1947

Scotland Continuation school closes

1948

Scotland street lights turned on

1950

Township centennial celebrations

1952

Korean War - L/Cpl Bawden killed

1955

L.E. & N. abandons passenger service

1958

Historical plaque erected - Duncombe's Uprising

1958

T.H. & B. abandons passenger service

1959

Historical plaque unveiled - Malcolm's Mills encounter

1960

New fll"e station opened

1961

Maple Grove school closes

1965

East Oakland school closes

1969

Ginseng introduced

1972

Legion opens new clubhouse

1979

Tornado lashes Township's western border

1984

Memorial Hall burns

1986

Oakland United Church celebrates 100 years

1991

Vivian's mill demolished

1992

Township roads named - 911 dialing

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2010CO001

1802 As Town Warden of Burford Gore, Finlay Malcolm was obliged to attend the regular assembly of the Court of General Quarter Sessions at Charlotteville. Unfortunately, the Chamber was rampant with political intrigue, animosity and petty jealousy. Mr. Malcolm had unquestionably acquired his share of antagonists. After dismissing the Grand Jury, Magistrate Thomas Homer challenged outgoing Warden Malcolm to "give up the bond he held, his term having expired". Samuel Ryerse reinforced the demand. Malcolm replied: "make me sensible of it, I don't believe it, I am willing to abide by the law but I don't believe it". Magistrate John Backhouse crowned the rebuff with a further scolding: You are a scoundrel and deserve your ears cropped and to be put in the stocks.

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ABOUT THE WRITER-RESEARCHER Stu Rammage, a native of the Oakland Township, is closely tied to Canadianna historical roots. His great-great-grandfather, Henry Rammage, saw action with the British forces in the War of 1812, and when the Militia were defending their territory at Malcolm's Mills, he was locked up in an Ohio war prison camp. Later, the family pioneered south-west of the township, at Lynnville. Now living in semi-retirement in Penticton, British Columbia, he served thirty-five years with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at various postings throughout Canada. Having grown up on a farm overlooking Oakland Pond, which was the original Malcolm homestead and had been trampled by American troops as they plundered the region over a hundred years earlier, it follows that his interest in events of former years should emerge.

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CON'l'EN'l'S VOLUHE I Introduction

............................................

1

CHAPTER 1:

Before Settlement ......................... .

2 to

4

CHAPTER 2:

Surveying the Gore ........................ .

5 to

19 18

Lots and Concessions .•.•••••••••.••••• CHAPTER 3:

Colonization .............................. .

United Empire Loyalists •••.••••••••••• Other Settlers ....................... Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wildlife ............................. Agricul ture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

clearing the land ••••••••.••••••• crops ........................... livestock ....................... fann labour ..................... draft animals ................... implements ...................... auction sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pioneer Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER 4:

. . . . . . .

9 to 20 22 24 38 39 41 42 44 48 50 53

to 120 to 24 to 37 to 39 to 41 to 63 to 44 to 48 to 50 to 53 to 55 55 to 61 62 to 63 64 to 120

Harnessing Malcolm's Creek .•••••••••••••••• 121 to 163 Grist Mills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 to 126 Saw Mills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 to 128 Oakland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 to 148

Lower Oakland •••••..••••••••••••• 148 to 155 Scotland •••.••••••••••.•••••••••• 156 to 160 Victoria Mills .••••.••••••.•••••• 160 to 163 CHAPTER 5:

Arteries to Development ••.••..•••••••.••••• 164 to 211 Toll Roads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 to 174

Stage Coaches ••••.••••••.•••.•••••..•• 175 to 179 County and Township Roads •••.••••••••• 179 to 189 Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Railroads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 to 211

Brantford Waterloo and Lake Erie • 190 to 192 Toronto Hamilton and Buffalo ••••• 192 to 196 Lake Erie and Northern ••.•••••••• 197 to 204 Bylaws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 to 211

CHAPTER 6:

Nineteenth Century Enterprise .••••.•••••••• 212 to 245 Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 to 233 Oakland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 to 221

Scotland •.••••.••.••••••••••••••• 221 to 233 Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 to 245 Oakland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 to 236 Scotland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 to 245

CHAPTER 7:

Early Tradesmen •.••••••••••••.•.•.••••••••• 246 to 263 Blacksmithing •..•••••••....••••••••••• 246 to 253 Other Trades ..•••..•.•.•••.•••.••••••• 254 to 263

INDEX:

refer to Volume V

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INTRODUCTION

History abounds in Oakland Township, more so than its small population and land mass warrants. Today, it is difficult to perceive of this quiet, pastoral community being an encampment for hundreds of thundering mounted troops as they swept through the Grand River region plundering and pillaging everything in sight. Their tour of destruction under the command of General McArthur, in the late fall of 1814, left the populace bewildered and hard pressed to survive the upcoming winter. Twenty-three years later, the rattlesof pikes and muskets were heard again when strife and unrest tore families apart in their quest for more autonomy and local rule of government. Duncombe's Uprising of 1837 forced the community of Scotland into a veritable state of seige. But nearly two hundred years have passed since the first wave of settlers made their way to the Grand, across the dreaded Grand River marsh, and over the Old Indian Trail to that ridge of land overlooking the creek where towering oaks once stood and could be viewed for miles around. It was here they established roots and prospered. As Eliakim Malcolm said in his inaugural address at the first meeting of Brant County on January 24th, 1853 "its equal for natural advantages is not to be found in United Canada". While the autonomous Municipality of Oakland did not officially emerge until years later, it was the survey of December 1796 that brought about orderly settlement of the land to guarantee a steady influx of newcomers, many of United Empire Loyalist stock. These people, whose family names are still common to the area, were inspired by what they found. They had indeed found their valley of dreams. They took root only to find their lives were far from easy, their troubles many, and to our generation their task would have seemed Herculean. For the student or the history quester, the book offers detailed, voluminous and sometimes repetitious accounts of events and the people involved. Names, dates and biographical references pervade throughout, made possible because the community was small, compact and rich in kindred alliances. For the reader, intent on easy reading and finding a fast track to the highlights of the Township'S history, these several volumes of local history will require more than your casual attention. A research project takes a life of its own and can only be brought to a successful conclusion through the help of many people. Through their generous contribution this book's content is enhanced and its flaws are minimized. A special thank you to those who per.mitted quotes and extracts from other publications, especially the Brantford Expositor and other local papers.

Stuart A. Rammage 1993 Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

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CHAPTER 1 Before Settlelllent The Marburg Mastadon, a large pre-historic elephant which fed on the leaves and branches of trees, existed throughout the Lake Erie region ten thousand years ago. Their bones have been found in the surrounding counties. During the last ice age, sheets of ice changed and moulded the contour of the land which is now Oakland Township. The Indians found this land and made use of its strategic location for their encampments, as attested to by the fact arrowheads, scrapers, beads and other various tools made of stone have been found over the years. The region abounded in three conventional but fundamental resources: wood, good soil and water and the early explorers were quick to notice the flora and fauna in evidence throughout the Grand River valley. The earliest known peoples in Southern Ontario were wandering Paleo - Indian hunters who followed cariboo through the tundra and spruce forests left by the retreating glaciers. As the environment evolved into a deciduous forest, a wider variety of game and plant life permitted a more sedentary lifestyle and varied cultural pursuits. Trade developed as more implements and materials became available. From 800 Be to 1550 AD, this pre-historic forest brought about the woodland culture, later corn horticulture and agriculture which allowed the people to establish roots in larger palisaded villages, agriculture being supplemented by hunting and fishing. These early people who roamed the land used vegetation guide to the content of the soil and its suitability agriculture. Thus it was that Burford Gore, with its fertility loam mixed with tracts of fox sand, had potential grain growing area followed in the mid twentieth century by bonanza of crops, tobacco.

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The Neutrals, who lived in long-houses, laid claim to the whole area from the Niagara to the Detroit River. They were the first to establish an agricultural base, but their presence did not last and it would take another three hundred years before agriculture was practised again. The Neutrals even grew tobacco and they can truly be claimed to be the pioneers of the tobacco industry in this region of Ontario.

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In 1652, the Neutrals were driven from this land by the warlike Iroquois who established a wide sphere of influence. While the occasional missionary and trader ventured into the area during the Iroquois ascendency, which they used simply as a hunting ground, there was little effort to establish a White presence until late in the eighteenth century. The first white men to pass through the area were two intrepid French priests, Dollier de Casson and Rene de Galinee along with seven other Frenchmen, who spent the winter of 1669/70 near Black Creek just east of present day Port Dover. A historic cairn marks the exact location of their stay. These adventurers commenced their journey on July 6th, 1669 and travelled by way of the water route from Montreal along the St. Lawrence, to Lake Ontario, then down the Grand River. Over an extended period of three months they made their way from Montreal to the shores of Lake Erie passing close to present day Oakland Township in mid October of 1699, a land virtually uninhabited then. In an expedition made up of seven canoes twenty feet in length were twenty-one men, including a surgeon, an interpreter and two canoes of Senecas. Some of the party turned back near Burlington Bay and only the two priests and seven other Frenchmen with their guides travelled down the Grand to spend the winter along the shores of Lake Erie. Ultimately the Mohawk chief, Joseph Brant of the Six Nations, who had vigorously supported the imperial cause during the American War entered into negotiations wi th the Governor of the day to satisfy a standing commitment because of his people's support as an Indian ally. His preference was to accept, in recompense, a large tract of land in the valley of the Grand, arguing that a powerful Indian presence along the Grand would forge a link with the "Western Nations" who were the Indian Confederacies of the Upper Lakes. They revered the Iroquois as their protectors and had taken a prominent role in British diplomacy. Through Brant's tenacity and persistence, the Mohawks and others of the Six Nations were granted a tract six miles deep on each side of the river, beginning at Lake Erie and extending to its head. In 1784, the strong willed Brant devised a settlement plan. He invited his own people, along with white settlers, to the territory and actually provided them with titles. His strategy was that of an emergent businessman intent on developing the region without haste. He realized that progress would not be possible without the enterprise of White merchants. Thus it was that a scattering of newcomers arrived at the Grand about 1789 to construct saw and grist mills for processing whatever the Iroquois produced. Located about five miles south west of Brant's Ford, along the Old Indian Trail, the hamlet of Mohawk (Mount Pleasant) emerged in 1798 constituting one of the earliest planned settlements on Indian lands. It was not long

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before these early white people and others moved away from the Grand Valley to begin sporadic squatter settlement in the Malcolm (McKenzie) Creek valley.

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The southern part of the Six Nations Tract along the Grand - Oakland Township, as it was mapped later, is scored by the dotted lines. To this day the well established trail followed by the Indians, as they travelled from the lake near Turkey Point along the high ground to Brant's Ford, has essentially remained intact. Their well defined pathway from Turkey Point, to Simcoe, on to Bloomsburg, to Waterford, to Oakland and Mount Pleasant and northeast to Brantford became the future route of a paved highway used by hundreds in current times.

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CHAPTER 2 Surveying the Gore

"Remove not the ancient landmark which thy Fathers have set" Proverbs 22.28

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Ripe for development, there could be no orderly settlement of the rich farm land in Townsend Gore without precise mapping. While some early dwellers had arrived prior to 1796, their land holdings were tenuous and eviction could come at any time. The delicate situation of dealing with these tentative dwellers could not be resolved quickly by Government officials. Some had cleared land, built huts, and were firmly entrenched, however, it was inevitable that over a period of time they may be forced to abandon their sites once the survey took place and rightful title was established with deeds being issued to prove ownership. At the turn of the 19th century, hundreds of newcomers clamoured to be located on farm land without delay but surveying the virgin land was slow and difficult. To completely do so prior to their arrival was nearly impossible. Without some clearing away of thick brush, the required lines of sight for the surveyor were obscure and the established dwellers were often asked to help in clearing a path. There was a complete absence of a detailed map of Oakland prior to 1796 but, once surveyed, not all the land mapped became eligible for immediate settlement. The Constitutional Act provided that "lands equal in value to the Seventh part" of grants made since the beginning of British rule and, subsequently, of all future grants, should be reserved in both Upper and Lower Canada for the use of the Protestant clergy. These came to be known as Clergy Reserves. These were sold or otherwise secularized by 1854. On Colonial Office instructions another seventh was reserved for the Crown. At the time of the survey, Oakland Township did not exist, rather the tract was referred to as Townsend Gore. The title was changed by an Act which came into force in January 1800 and the triangular piece of land was transferred to Burford and became Burford Gore. The latter title held until 1821 when legislation bestowed it as Oakland Township, then a part of Oxford in the old London District, later the Brock District. In 1792, Townsend Gore was within Norfolk but was transferred to Oxford when the Districts were altered. When Brant County was created in 1852, Oakland became its smallest township. The Constitutional Act of 1791 divided Upper and Lower Canada along the Ottawa River. Various Districts were established within Upper Canada, now Ontario. Townsend Gore was firstly in the Western District, described by the Surveyor General in 1796 as:

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"bounded southerly by Lake Erie, easterly by a meridian passing through the easterly extremity of Long Point, and comprehends all the lands north westerly of these boundaries not included within the bounds of the Hudson Bay Company or the territory of the United States; the boundary which divides it from Louisiana is not well known after reaching the sources of the Mississippi." The initial four Districts were called Lunenburgh, Macklinburgh, Nassau and Hesse by an Act of the British Parliament dated July 24, 1788. They became Eastern, Midland, Home and Western Districts by an Act passed in 1792 and were later subdivided into eight Districts. The triangle which is now Oakland Township was appended to the new London District by an Act George III Chapter 5th, 1798, effective 1 January 1800.

CAlIAIIJ. BHOWUlG THE DISTRICTS

The system of dividing regions into Districts was discontinued in 1849. By then the Act of Union in 1841 had made Upper Canada a territory known as Canada West, part of the Province of Canada. In 1867, it became Ontario. In order to hurry the settlement process, land boards were established in each District early in 1789. These Boards directed surveyors as to what surveys should be performed, though not on detailed methods to be followed. The Boards were empowered to receive applications from settlers for land. When granted, the Board issued a certificate to the petitioner addressed to the Surveyor General, requesting assignment within two days to the certificate holder of a single lot of 200 acres, improvements on same land to be made within one year. These Boards served their purpose and on November 6, 1794, were abolished. From then on, surveys were made under the direct instructions from the Surveyor General or his Deputy. The first Canadian rules touching on survey activities, except those in French Canada, were proclaimed in 1785. In brief, this statute provided for the establishment of a meridian in the presence of the Surveyor General or his Deputy; the testing of survey

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instruments before use; examinations of a surveyor before his appointment as such; the obligation of a qualifying surveyor to take the oath of allegiance; the provision that surveys made prior to 1780 be not disturbed; all surveyors to keep field notes and upon the death of any surveyor, his notes to be filed in court and made available to the public. A second edict, later that year, ruled that surveyors were debarred from acting as notaries and notaries as surveyors. The 1785 law constituted a legal foundation upon which the edifice of all following Canadian enactments on surveying was built. The science of surveying and registration of land titles are closely interwoven. It should be noted that the first Land Registry Act, applicable to what is now Ontario, was passed in 1795. It provided for the registration of documents of title, not original deeds, by means of alphabetical indices, based on the names of property owners. The effectiveness of this system depended upon adequate maintenance of records. Major Samuel Holland was named the first Surveyor General of Canada and served in this capacity for a number of years. In 1792, after Canada was divided into Upper and Lower Canada, Governor Simcoe appointed David Wm. Smith, Captain of the Garrison Regiment at Niagara, to the acting post. His training as a surveyor was questionable but he apparently had the confidence of Governor Simcoe. One of the most prominent and well known Deputy Surveyors appointed by Surveyor General Smi th in the 1790' s was Augustus Jones (1763-1836), a Welshman. His surveys throughout Upper Canada are well documented and recorded in the Public Archives. Augustus studied in New York City and came to Canada some time before 1789. He was appointed Deputy Surveyor that same year. The following instructions were given him by the Surveyor General. "You are hereby directed to engage ten chain bearers and axemen on the most reasonable terms that can be had, not exceeding one shilling and six pence per day and three pence per day to yourself and party for provision. You are to keep journals and field books, and insert therein whatever is of value toward public utility, such as, waterfalls, minerals, quarries, quality of land, timber and likewise account for the time spent upon such service." Here is one example; "To surveying Indian land on Grand River from Jan. 1791 to March 29, 85 days at seven shillings per day, 31 pounds 17 shillings and 6 pence". In another instance, he states why his accounts ran over his allowance; "You must consider the hardship of service in the middle of winter where the men were obliged to carry a week or ten days provision on their backs. I trust that you will not be unreasonable". Augustus eventually settled at Stoney creek, and married an Indian Chief's daughter. He is buried in Greenwood Cemetery, Brantford. (One historical record states that Augustus Jones and his partner John Stegman (1754-1804) had a hand in surveying Townsend Gore. This has not been confirmed. It is known that they surveyed Burford - Stegman drowned in 1804.)

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Lots and Concessions While winter surveys were not uncommon, the charting of Townsend Gore, which contained 10,235 acres, commenced at a particularly inconvenient time, just before Christmas in 1796. Thomas Welch (1742-1816), a Deputy Surveyor was engaged to undertake the task. The 1919 Annual Report of the Association of Ontario Land Surveyors provides insight about the Welch family: Quote: Thomas, eldest son of Francis Welch a mercantile marine businessman in Philadelphia, was born on November 5th, 1742. He married Mary Mitchell, born April 8th, 1752 and died June 19th, 1817. During the Seven Year's War Thomas volunteered in the land forces and, when peace was restored, he became a surveyor of lands in Pennsylvania. Afterwards he removed to Maryland where he was engaged in surveying when the Revolutionary War broke out. He refused a Colonelcy in the American Army, and joined the Loyalist Army, receiving the appointment of Quartermaster of the Maryland Loyalists on Oct. 17th, 1778. This Commission bears the signature of General Sir Henry Clinton, "Commander-in-Chief of His Majesty's Forces within the colonies lying on the Atlantic Ocean, from Nova Scotia to West Florida." He acted as Engineer with General Durnford in Florida when he was captured by the Spaniards. At the close of the war he was employed to survey lands for the U. E. Loyalists in New Brunswick. He returned to Maryland for a short time, then came to Upper Canada with his second wife and two sons, Francis Leigh and Aquila Mitchell. On landing at Kingston on November 2nd, 1793, he remained only a short time, removing to what was known as the Sugar Loaf on Chippewa Creek, WeIland County. When residing there, he made the following surveys for the Provincial Government: In 1794 Townships of Wainfleet, Humberstone, Thorold, Pelham and front of Castor. In 1795 the rema~n~ng parts of Crowl and , Willoughby, Walsingham and Charlotteville. In 1796 he completed the boundary survey of Six Nation lands on Grand River. He made surveys in Walsingham, Charlotteville, Woodhouse, Walpole and Rainham. In 1796 he removed to Long Point settlement where he located on lot No.12 in the 5th concession of Charlotteville. In this year he was appointed Registrar of Deeds for Norfolk County, which then included the Townships of Walpole and Rainham in addition to its present territory. Subsequently, he filled other offices and in 1810 became Judge of the District and Surrogate Courts. In 1798 he surveyed land for a town plot of Turkey Point. Thomas Welch died on November 5th, 1816, and was buried in the family plot on the old homestead with his wife.

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His eldest son, Francis Leigh who was born March 12th, 1789, succeeded his father as Registrar at the age of 21 years. He held the office until his death on August 14th, 1884. Francis L. Welch was on active military service during the War of 1812 and took part in the Battle of Lundy's Lane and other engagements. When pensions were granted to the veterans of the war he declined, stating that it was honor enough for him to have served his country and to have had his service recognized, and preferred that his share should go to those not more entitled to it, but who might be more in need of it. It is reported that Francis built the first fire proof vault for records and introduced the system of keeping separate books for the Townships into Registry offices. When an octogenarian, he wrote the Lord's Prayer, the words, "God Save the Queen", his name and the date on a circular space covered by a five-cent piece, which feat he executed without the aid of magnifying glasses. From 1821 to 1828, and again from 1835 to 1836, he represented Norfolk in the Provincial Parliament. The family of Francis Welch lived, originally, on Lot 12, Con. 3, Charlotteville, then moved to Vittoria, about seven miles southwest of Simcoe. He married Elsie Fairchild, daughter of Noah Fairchild. They had five sons, Thomas William, Aquila, Walter, Lewis Francis, and Christopher Leigh, also six daughters. Aquila Mitchell Welch, the younger son of Thomas, was born in Maryland on April 21st, 1791. He married Margaret McCall, daughter of Duncan McCall and followed his father on the homestead. There were three sons, Duncan, Thomas and Francis, also two daughters. Aquila died on May 3rd, 1873 and is buried in the family plot. It might also be stated here that there was a Post Office called Walsh, near where Thomas Welch first settled, also, a station on the Simcoe and Port Rowan Branch of the G. T. R., ten miles from Simcoe called Walsh, the station being about two miles south of the old homestead of Thomas Welch. The name Welch became known in Norfolk as Walsh. Unquote In 1800, Thomas Welch was appointed Clerk of the Peace, Clerk of the District Court and Registrar of the Surrogate Court for the District of London. A further commission made him an official who could take recognizances of bails for the Court of King's Bench. A diary kept by Mr. Welch allows us to follow the survey party as they went about their task: 1796 Dec 5 (Monday) "Party met at Thorold" The party consisted of the surveyor in charge, Mr. Welch, plus Richard Stooks and Moses Johnson who were the chainmen and Finlay Malcolm, Alexander Thompson, Thomas Baxter, Isaac Everson, Thomas Neville and Thomas Aaron who were hired as axemen.

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Finlay Malcolm, an axeman, is believed to have been Finlay Jr. (1779-1862) son of Finlay Sr. and Tryphena Malcolm early settlers in Oakland together with their large family. The family arrived shortly before the survey. Finlay Malcolm Sr. was then nearly 50 years of age and it is unlikely he would have undertaken the rigors of toil, working with a survey crew. His namesake was a youthful 18 years of age and quite able to work as an axeman. Finlay Jr. married Fanny Tyler (1791-1823) daughter of Squire Tyler of Oakland. Finlay Jr. and his older brother John (1776-1846) built the grist mill at Oakland in 1806, later burned by the Americans following the Battle of Malcolm's Mills. Both brothers served in the Oxford Militia during the War of 1812. Finlay Jr. and Fanny were the parents of five sons, Finlay (3rd) Eliakim, Isaac Brock, Shubael Downs and Edward who were all well known residents of the Township and active in municipal affairs. A complete outline of the Malcolms will be found in another chapter of this book. Dec. 6 (Tuesday) "Heavy snow fell to-day" Dec. 7 (Wednesday) "Snow as yesterday" While at Thorold (near Niagara) organ~z~ng and making preparations for the task at hand, Welch's crew were given details of the proposed survey and instructions on their duties. Finlay Jr. had travelled from Oakland to join the party. Man-made conditions under which the surveyor and his crew worked were unduly harsh and only the fit were hired. Deputy Surveyors were permitted to hire up to 12 assistants for inland surveys. Rates of pay were established as follows; Deputy Surveyors - as established by the Surveyor General probably about 4 shillings a day, with one-quarter of a dollar a day allowed "to find your own ration" Axemen - 1/6 (one shilling six pence) of a (Halifax) shilling a day Chainbearers - 2 1/2 (Halifax) shillings a day The Deputy Surveyor, as a part of the daily quarter dollar allowance, was required to deliver to each person employed on his party, 1 1/2 pounds of flour, 12 ounces of pork, 1 1/2 pints of pease (peas). If he was furnished with a battoe, axes, tomahawks, camp kettles, oil cloths, tents, bags for the King's stores, the Deputy Surveyor received only 10 pence rations for his party. The Deputy Surveyor paid his workers on completion of a job with no advance pay. Some years later, salaries were increased to nearly 20 shillings a day for qualified surveyors. To establish their qualifications, it was necessary for the applicant to be examined by the Surveyor General or a Deputy and four other

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competent persons named by the Governor as to their "fitness and capacity, character and his efficiency with his instruments. The latter requirements were laid down in statute form by a 1785 law of the Parliament of Canada. Dec. 8 (Thursday) WeIland" •

"Departed Thorold, proceeded to Camp on River

The trail travelled by Welch and his crew from Thorold to the Grand River in the early winter of 1796 was likely by canoe up the Chippewa Creek (WeIland Canal) to the portage path which ended at Dockstaders on the Grand. Dec. 9 (Friday) "Up the Grand River, lodged at Capt. Dochsteader" Dec.

10 (Saturday) "Weather very cold up Grand River, Dochsteader Jr."

Dec.

11 (Sunday) Nellison"

"Weather very cold up Grand River,

lodged lodged Wm

Dec. 12 (Monday) "Up Grand River, lodged Senecas Nicholas home" Dec.

13 (Tuesday) Smith"

Dec.

14 (Wednesday) tomorrow"

"Up Grand River,

lodged at house of Kennedy

"Took grain to Kings Mill, not ground till

It will be noted on December 14th and 15th that Welch was engaged in gathering provisions for the trip to Oakland. The grist mills along Malcolms' Creek had not yet been built and there was no water-powered facility for grinding grain in the area of the survey. Grinding grain with the use of a water wheel for power could not be carried out in extremely cold weather as it would freeze up. The King's Mill referred to in Welch's diary is believed to have been located on a stream near the Old Mohawk church, one of the first to be built in Upper Canada through a Government grant. Dec. 15 (Thursday) Dec.

"To Capt. Aaron, a Delaware Chief for Pork"

16 (Friday) "Departed from Grand River through heavy snow. Arrived at Greens house in Townsend Gore". W. Green was one of the first settlers on unmapped land in the Gore. The exact location of his pioneer home has been established as being on lot 4, Concession III. He was a squatter but later leased this 200 acres from the Kings College. At the time of the survey, lot 4 of Concession III was allocated as Anglican reserve land thus W. Green lost temporary rights to the land he had "squatted on" until he was able to lease it back. This lot is west of Maple Grove, near the swamp. With a party of nine arriving at Mr. Green's log

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house for accommodation, space must have been at a premium. Finlay Malcolm undoubtedly quartered with his family who were already settlers in the area. Welch and his party travelled to Oakland along the old Indian Trail which passed through Mohawk, later named Mount Pleasant. The snow storm made the trip slow and laborious. Dec 17 (Saturday) "Caught cold" It appears this day was too stormy to commence the survey and the party was confined to Mr. Greens house to wait out the inclement weather. Dec. 18 (Sunday) There was no diary entry - apparently the party did not work on the Sabbath Day. No doubt Finlay Malcolm spent the day with his family. Dec. 19 (Monday) "Commenced survey of The Gore from western side, lot 1, Concession I. Found the principal of this tract to agree with my instructions. Surveyed all of two lots of lrst concession" • Mr. Welch commenced the actual survey on the morning of December 19th, 1796, just six days before Christmas. He started at the south west tip of the triangle, just a short distance south of the present village of Scotland, at the intersection of what is now the new #24 Highway and the Townsend-Oakland line road. His survey took the party east along the townline for two lots, just short of reaching Malcolms' Creek, leaving an allowance for the Townline road. Early settlers had already carved out their own rough trails long before Mr. Welch and his party arrived to officially map out the road allowances. The process of surveying a tract of land as to its form, extent, contour and other particulars was executed in such a way as to be able to describe it accurately and in detail and thereafter construct a map by linear and angular measurements. The instruments used in 1796 by Deputy Surveyor Welch were primitive, compared to those in use now. A circumferentor and a chain of up to 100 links were the surveyors main tools of the trade. The circumferentor was an updated version of the "theodelitus" instrument which had been invented in the mid 16th century. Essentially, the instrument was an alidade combined with a circle, square and a magnetic compass often referred to as a "geometrical square". The incorporation of the telescope into the mechanism occurred in the 17th century. Thus, the instrument used to survey Townsend Gore had the capability to accurately measure both horizontal and vertical angles by means of the telescope and graduated circles. The needle on the circumferentor and the compass glass were easily

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broken and required special care in the field. A broken needle could cause lengthy delays for the field party while the surveyor went for repair. The surveyor's findings were recorded to a scale of 20 chains to the inch or four inches to the mile. The chain had 100 links, each link being 7.92 inches long. Ten square chains or 100,000 square links made an acre, the length having originated from Gunters chain which was 66 feet long. During the period of 1783 to 1818, the initial pattern of survey followed the "single front system" and a typical lot contained 200 acres. A single front township involved surveying the boundaries and the fronts of concessions to establish lot corners on such front lines. There was no absolute standard on Township sizes and they varied but the tract which is now Oakland was in fact a triangle (a gore) thus its size was pre-determined by the other Townships surrounding it, which had already been surveyed. Dec. 20 (Tuesday) "Extended the 1st to lot 10 and encamped". The second day of the survey saw the party continue along the townline past the Indian Trail, which later would become the old #24 Highway passing through Oakland village. They continued to a point where the East Oakland pond forms at its western extremity. The practice at that time was for the surveyor to set up his circumferentor on a level stump or a flat rock and take a sight along the base line. Axemen moved out front to cut away the brush and trees in their way. The heavy growth of trees at that time was made up of oak, sugar maple, beech, white pine, elm, butternut, hickory, ash, basswood. As the party reached the marsh area they found an abundance of cedar with dense undergrowth, which slowed their progress. The marsh was, however, much easier to negotiate at this time of year which was one of the reasons for timing the project in early winter. To get the measurements, one chainman held the first link over the stake at the starting point. The second chainman carried and opened up the remaining 99 links of the chain its full length of sixty-six feet to the point established as being absolutely correct, then Mr. Welch signalled the picketman to drive in his stake. Each lot corner along the concession line was visibly staked so that the newcomers could determine where their property commenced and terminated along the front of the concession. At every fourth lot, a one chain measurement was left for a possible future side road. As a creek or swamp was encountered, it was mapped and recorded in the field book with special entries on soil content, the number of rock outcroppings and the timber growth.

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Dec. 21 (Wednesday) "Extended the 1st to the Indian line and then the side line between lots 11 and 12, to the front of the 2nd concession and encamped". On this day, the party surveyed to the eastern tip of the Gore. Peter Fairchild, an early settler, built a small church here known as the Old Boston church. The party returned west from the Indian line and moved north between lots 11 and 12 to the second concession which is now the main road running from the Cockshutt Road west to Oakland and on to Scotland. The line running north from the Townline, between lots eleven and twelve, is one lot west of the Cockshutt Road. Dec. 22 (Thursday) "Attempted to proceed but weather too cold". A survey crew was constantly exposed to weather extremes. Living under make-shift dwellings, they suffered from the cold in winter and the hordes of insects in summer. Swamp fever, a form of malaria, and grippe, contracted from fording cold streams, was a common health hazard. Early surveyors found water unfit for drinking, made putrid by water bugs. The lack of good drinking water resulted in excessive consumption of hard liquor served in dippers - whisky was cheap at 25 cents a gallon. The diary of one surveyor states "Sunday, the boys went out and bring three packs of biscuits in and all get drunk". Such was their limited social life. After a few days in the bush, the survey party became a tattered lot. It is recorded that early in the nineteenth century a settlers wife wrote a letter to her parents in England describing how, on a very wet day, she saw two men walk past her window; "one had a blanket about his shoulders, a pair of snow shoes in his hands and wearing a small fur cap, the other was dressed in ragged sailor's clothes. I took the foremost to be an Indian but was surprised to learn he was a surveyor of the Township with his assistant. They had been living in the woods for months which accounted for their weather-beaten appearance". The latter descriptive account of early tattered surveyors was taken from a book titled Men and Meridians by Don W. Thomson. Dec. 23 (Friday) "Weather still very cold. Surveyed the second and reversed to lot 4. Assistant has toe frozen, also my fingers". On this date, the party surveyed along what was later the Oakland-Scotland road and east to the Cockshutt Road. This day of mapping encompassed what would later become the villages of Oakland and Scotland. They left an allowance of forty feet for a road to be built later between each concession line.

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24 (Saturday) "Surveyed today lot 4 to lot 1 inclusive in second and westerly sideline to concession 3 from lot 1 to 2". With squatters scattered about, Thomas Welch and his party became unwelcome intruders as they systematically traversed back and forth along the concession lines, driving their stakes in the ground at every lot corner. There was a temptation for the unauthorized settlers to misplace the boundary marks. To do so was a violation of the law with severe penal ties. Removing or damaging a survey boundary mark in relation to private property was a matter of serious consequence. A statute enacted in Upper Canada in the year 1778 ruled that "anyone who wilfully pulled down, altered, defaced or removed a boundary monument was guilty of a felony and shall suffer death". Thankfully, there is no record of such harsh punishment occurring in Townsend Gore. A half century later the penalty was reduced to a term of imprisonment, thus removing the possibility of a public hanging for tampering with a boundary stake.

Dec. 25 (Sunday) "Christmas Day, extended 3rd to the Indian line, between lots 6 and 7 to front of the fourth". The party worked without interruption on this special Holy Day by surveying the next concession north of what was later to become Oakland and Scotland villages and finished the day at the fourth concession line in the area of the Township which is now Maple Grove. Dec. 26 (Monday) - No entry was made in Mr. Welch's diary Dec.

27 (Tuesday) "Extended the 4th concession reversely to NW angle of lot 1 in the beginning of the 5th, thence to the sideline, and also the western side line to the 5th, camped in the swamp". The swamp referred to by Thomas Welch is still in evidence today, located north-east of Scotland village. The new #24 Highway passes through the swamp area where the party camped. Later, many Oakland farmers purchased plots of land in the swamp as a source of timber. Perley Stratford (1886-1981) operated a sawmill there.

Dec. 28 (Wednesday) "Extended lot 4 to 5th to the Indian line, in swamp" • Thomas Welch's last day was spent surveying the north-west tip of the Gore, close to the Burford line which had already been surveyed and was being settled. At its north-west extremity, the Gore extends for a short distance east and west into six concessions. Welch failed to mention in his diary that he had mapped the sixth concession.

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Dec.

29 (Thursday) "Returned to Grand River, employed my time arranging my notes, to begin plans for the office, making out vouchers and pay lists. Finished the pay lists and got them signed - employed getting grain collected to make flour for the party and preparing my departure for the County of Norfolk. Signed Thomas Welch (Extra Deputy Surveyor)

It was mandatory that Mr. Welch send a written report of his survey, together with a copy of his field notes, to the Surveyor General. As explained earlier, he paid his axemen 1/6 (one shilling six pence a day) and his chain bearers were paid 2 1/2 shillings a day plus sustenance of flour, pork and pease. Translated to United States currency, axemen received about 20 cents a day and chainbearers about 30 cents a day, depending on the value of the pound at that time.

V1

v

1V

a

camped Dec. 19

b

camped Dec. 20

c

camped Dec. 21/22

d

camped Dec. 23

e

camped Dec. 24

f

camped Dec. 25/26

q

camped Dec. 27

111

11

5

6

NOlUl'OIK

7

B

9

0

11

(Townsend 'l'wp)

16

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The survey of Townsend Gore commenced on the morning of December 19, 1796 at lot 1, concession I, the south-west corner. Each concession line was surveyed in sequence, using the "single front system" to establish and mark the corners of each lot which contained 200 acres. Note that the Oakland and East Oakland mill ponds were purposely not plotted on the map. The dam which created the Oakland pond was not a part of the landscape until ten years later, nor was Malcolm's Creek dammed at East Oakland until 1813. The survey project took nine days to complete, of these, two days were down time because of inclement weather. Why was the Township a triangle? Simply because the tract was superfluity - a leftover. The surveys of Upper Canada began with no master plan. No thought was given as to how townships would abut against each other. In the case of Oakland Township, its shape can be traced to the grants of land given to the Six Nations which wound along the Grand. The Indians later disposed of much of their gants with no consideration being given to the layout of townships. During mapping, the surveyor faced difficulties in continuing his original "front line" back from Lake Erie, causing him to run a new line at an angle to the first. Lots which abutted another township were no longer a square and a triangle gap emerged - thus a gore. The survey of Townsend Gore was now complete and Mr. Welch was about to file his report with the Surveyor General. The land he had just mapped was ripe for settlers and they soon appeared in significant numbers, especially the United Empire Loyalists. The evolution of Oakland Township into an organized municipality many years later had its beginning. The land grant to the Six Nations was six miles along both sides of the Grand River from its mouth to its source. The Indians ceded back much of this land to the Crown in the early part of the nineteenth century. Survey chains were still very much in demand nearly a century later. The following notice appeared in the May 1885 edition of the Scotland Journal: "The party that borrowed Mr. VanDusen's surveying chain and forgot to return it, will please do so at once as he wants to use it." Mr. VanDusen was a well known merchant at Scotland at that time. Mr. Van Dusen's chain, sixty-six feet long, was a pliable solid spring steel tape, 1/8" thick, with measurement marker digits spaced along the whole length of the chain. This style of surveyor's chain had replaced the link style because of the latter's propensity to entangle and to get caught up in the undergrowth.

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Circa 1900 A surveyor's chain (steel tape) - 66 feet in length with the marker digits clearly visible. Oakland Township had its very own Deputy Public Land Surveyor twenty-five years after the completion of the survey. A native son, Eliakim Malcolm (1801-1874), received his appointment on July 21st 1821. In the year 1836 he is listed as one of 133 Deputy Surveyors in the Province of Upper Canada. Three of Eliakims' diaries, held at the Ontario Archives, show he surveyed part of Township of Enniskillen, 3 September to 4 December 1832 (R.G. 1/CB-1/Box 9); 2) for the survey of the II, III, and part of the IV Concessions in Township of East Oxford, under the direction of Lewis Burwell, Deputy Surveyor, 18 December 1832 to 5 January 1833 (R.G.1/CB-1/Box 29); 3) in the survey of the Township of Wallace, 25 April to 7 June and 19 September to 29 October 1853, and 3 to 29 May and 4 September to 20 October 1854, dated 10 April 1855 (R.G.1/CB-1/Box 39). Apart from his occupational pursuits, Mr. Malcolm became one of the Townships leading citizens, taking an active part in political affairs for the Reformers' cause, which cost him two years of exile following the Uprising of 1837.

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CHAPTER 3 Colonization The survey of Townsend Gore in December of 1796 quickly attracted land seekers and homesteaders. It was inevitable that settlement would occur close to mill sites or fords crossing the local creek. Such was the case at Oakland. The grist mill erected by the Malcolms' in 1806, and a sawmill built the following year resulted in the emergence of the hamlet of Perth, later Oakland, which was on the path of the old Indian trail leading from the Grand to Lake Erie. To entice settlement of the land inland and away from the preferred lakefront property, the "Township granting system" was devised by Governor Simcoe, similar to the system already applied in Lower Canada. Such was the scheme envisaged, and the first township at the head of the Thames to get government approval was Burford in November 1792 followed by Townsend in 1793. As the triangle (Gore) which later became Oakland Township was then attached to Townsend, it can be stated that the settlement of Oakland Township was officially declared in 1793. Because of abuses to the system, and to assure equitable opportunities for all, the Government demanded that most applicants to go before a District Land Board. If approved, the settler was required to work his lot for a stated period of time to show good faith and to demonstrate progress in land clearing as a prerequisite to getting his patent. One stipulation was that he clear five acres for every one hundred acres acquired and open a quarter of a mile of road in front of his property. Some parts of Upper Canada were settled largely through promoters such as colonization companies, the Canada Company incorporated in 1825 was one. These land developers promised assistance in transportation, land selection and financial help for seed and the purchase of basic farm implements and tools. While Norfolk was an area that saw developers like Col. Talbot secure access to large holdings for future settlement, it appears Oakland Township did not attract corporate speculators and those who

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arrived made it on their own. Land grabbing was, however, prevalent. The Hon. Robert Hamilton, member of the Legislative Council for Burford was given 3700 acres, the Rev. Robert Raddish from the same area got 1000 acres and then returned to the Old Country, a local surveyor got 2000 acres and, of course, the Anglican Church was favoured by the setting aside of "Clergy Reserves" which contributed not a cent toward taxes. Locals who received more than one lot of 200 acres were Finlay Malcolm who got six hundred acres, Mordecai and Deborah Sayles got eight hundred acres, Robert Pilkington got six hundred acres, Edwin Beebe got seven hundred acres and Charles Burtch got seven hundred and fifty acres. Some of the latter had sons or daughters coming of age and every such person was also eligible for land when they reached twenty-one. Finlay Malcolm Sr. was one in this category. Under English law, a man who secured title, by deed, to land was called a freeholder, that is, he held his land free from all payments, except the usual taxes. This system varied from that in Lower Canada where the Seigniors custom of land holding applied. Had it not been for this established system, there would have been only one Canada - not Lower and Upper Canada as set out in the Constitutional Act of 1791. By 1799, settlement was well under way in the Grand and Lake Erie Regions. The following letter dated October 20th 1799 written by a Norfolk resident to the seat of Government at Queenston affirms this:

"The number of Emigrants to this part of the Province this summer surpasses anything we have formerly known or could have expected - On the way to this place I yesterday passed Eleven Covered Waggons, mostly drawn by four stout horses & carrying families, who had Crossed the ferry at this place the day before - These people come determined to Remain." While a few early settlers had brought slaves to Upper Canada, this was forbidden by an Act of Parliament in 1793 and all slave children were made free at the age of twenty-five. There is no record of early emigrants coming to Oakland and bringing slave families with them. The first settlers to arrive in the area had a hard struggle to purchase provisions - prices were high and there was little competition. Tea sold in 1800 for $1.00 to $1.50 per pound, salt $4.50 a bushel, nails twenty-five cents a pound, candles thirty cents a pound, tobacco sixty-three cents a pound, rum $8.00 a gallon and Maderia wine was $3.00 a gallon. By the mid 19th century, the settlement of Oakland Township was nearly complete and immigrants stopped arriving. It was not until the 30' s of the next century that new-comers from other countries started to appear in significant numbers to again enrich

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the make-up of its people. The shift from mixed farming to the specialty crop, tobacco "green gold" had much to do with the arrival of the second wave of immigrants from Central Europe.

United Empire Loyalists The U. E. Loyalists, a independent and venturesome lot, came in great numbers after the War of Independence. In 1776, the Thirteen Colonies of America issued their Declaration of Independence from Great Britain, precipitating the Revolutionary War. Several causes brought about this momentous event, principally restraints of colonial trade imposed by Britain and burdensome taxation levied by the Mother Country. The majority of American colonists decided that they would no longer countenance levies of this kind without representation in the Parliament which imposed them. The American Revolutionary War continued for seven years, until 1783 but not all of the colonists sided with the revolutionary forces. Many of the leading citizens of America remained loyal to Great Britain. Fathers and sons shouldered muskets to fight by the side of the British forces in the war and many paid with their lives. It was these men and their families who were labelled U. E. Loyalists. Because of their loyalty to the British cause, they were alienated by their neighbours and blacklisted by the colonial authorities. Their properties were pillaged, their live-stock slaughtered and their lives endangered by marauding bands of colonists. Some were imprisoned, their property confiscated and they were sent into exile. In gratitude to these loyal Americans who had remained supporters of the Mother Country in the war, $15,000,000 was voted to help in a small way to compensate them for the great losses they had sustained. They were promised substantial grants of land. Also, they were to receive 200 acres of land and another 200 acres for each of the children coming of age with larger grants to those who had been Officers of the Kings Service. The Government provided free food rations, farming tools and equipment, as well as seed and clothing to those arriving from south of the border. In the Council Chambers at Quebec on November 9th 1789, with Lord Dorchester in the Chair, the following declaration was made:

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"His Lordship intimated to the .Council. that. it re.lT!ained "a que~tion. upon the late Regulation for the dISPOSltlO,! o( "the Waste Lands of the Crown. whether the Boards constltu"ted for that purpose were authorised to make Locations "to the Sons of Loyalists. on their coming to full age !l~d that "it was his whh to put a Mark of Honor upon the famlhes who .. had adhered to the Unity of the Empire. and joined the. ROY!l1 "Standard in America before the Treaty of Separation In "the vear 1783. "the Council concurring with his Lordship. it is accord. "inv:ly ordered: :. That the several L:md Boarr:ls take course for preservmg "a Regis[ry of the namt:! of all pt:rsons falling. under ~he "description afore-mentioned to the end that t?elr po:>ter!ty "may be discriminated. fro~. f.uture 5~ttlers. I~ the. Papsh "Registers and Rolls of the MlhtL:1 of their respcctlve Distracts, ".lnd other Public Remembrancers of the Province. as proper "objects. by their persevering in the F.id~lity. and Conduct "so honorable to their aace~tors. for dlstmgullihed Benefits "and Privilev:es.

"And it is also ordered that the said Land Boards may in "every such case provide not only for the Sons of those Loyal"ists. as they arrive at full age. but for their Daughters also "of that age. or on their Marriage. assiK.ning to each a Lot o( "Two Hundred Acres. more or less. provided neverthele:;s that "they respectively comply with the general Regulation:!. and "that it shall satisfactorily appear that there has been no De"fault in the due Cultivation and Improvement of the Lands "already assigned to the head of the family of which they are "members."

Emigration to Canada was, to the Loyalists, exile but they chose to migrate despite the hardships. As Canada was still undeveloped in most rural areas with much of it still covered with swamps and forests which was nothing more than a habitat for wild animals there was much to do. The Loyalists proved to be valuable settlers. They knew how to live in America. They had proved their loyalty to the British Crown, and their undying love of British institutions. They were as a class pre-eminently distinguished by industry and honor. Their example of thrift, honesty, and unwavering loyalty was a bonus for Canada. A large proportion of these settlers who came to Oakland belonged to the best families of this class. Some of the Loyalists had settled temporarily in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Most came to Oakland after 1793. The first wave of immigration came about because of the initiative of Lieutenant Governor John Graves who laid elaborate plans to better populate Upper Canada not only for development and growth but also with a hidden ulterior motive. In 1800, the area was most vulnerable to a take over by the new regime in Washington and the Canadian military officials saw an opportunity to strengthen their defenses by recruiting these loyal new-comers into the militia. The Loyalists' arduous trip overland, some 500 miles from the South, together with those who were enticed to come from the Mari times, was a test of their skill and courage. Many were obliged to find their way through the devious trail of the Indian. Their scanty luggage was carried on the backs of oxen, or on their own shoulders. It is related that it was a common thing to carry the younger children in baskets, slung over the backs of cows, the babies being so distributed as to maintain a proper balance. Despite their trials they had much to encourage them. They were

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entering on a land which was as fertile as that they had left and it was well stocked with game. Its brooks abounded in fish. Above all, it was land over which they would be able to raise the battlestained banner beneath whose folds their fathers and brothers had fallen in a disastrous war. The war years of 1812-1814 saw further hardships for the Loyalists as well as a second display of loyalty to the Crown. Many shouldered arms a second time, this time in the defence of Canada which was now their home.

Other Settlers Aside from the Loyalists, other settlers from the Old Country arrived in significant numbers and faced similar trials, with greater difficulties in adapting. They were strangers in a strange land. They had no practical knowledge of the modes of farming which would give the best return for their labor. To enter upon an unbroken forest, chip, hew and "log", and finally sow the seed amid the blackened stumps, is a herculean task for any man, but especially for those accustomed to the advanced systems of farming which prevailed in Britain. They all persevered, however, and cleared the land, built homes, erected mills, schools and churches which laid the foundation for present day Oakland Township.

u. E • L. emigrants and others from the Old Country who were early arrivals, among others, included the following families; Baldwin Brown Burtch Chapin Corlis(s) Cunningham Eddy Edy Fairchild Gates Hazen Hendershot(t)

Lefler Malcolm McIntyre McAlister Merritt Messecar Millard Sayles Secord Smith

Thompson Tyler Westbrook Winegarden Woodley

The get to Oakland these adventurers found one last challenge as they left the Grand River. The notorious swamp on the west side of the river had to be traversed, a particularly difficult route if travelling with animals pulling carts. But there was no option to

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

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this route which had been the Old Indian Trail leading from the Grand south west to Mohawk (Mount Pleasant) and on to Townsend Gore and Lake Erie. It is reported that John Yeigh, who settled near Burford in 1800, drove the first team of horses through the swamp and paved the way for others to follow, with their heavy loads being pulled by oxen or horses in various types of conveyances, some two wheel carts others four wheel wagons. The swamp trail was marginally upgraded to facilitate more rapid progress for the military travelling to and from the Western flank during the War of 1812. Despite this, it remained a difficult overland trail for many years to come. The experience of emigrants travelling from the Old Country in the year 1843 was graphically told by Caroline Roberts Kelly (18371913), a daughter of John Roberts (1803-1888) and Francis "Fanny" Vivian (1814-1905), settlers on the Townline south east of Oakland village. The trip across the Atlantic took six weeks, she said, and her mother had made six dresses and she wore one each week as washing facilities were not provided on the boat.

Isaac Kelly Family - 1883. o

Top: !-1innie Kelly (Wilson), Bessie Kelly (Malcolm), Ecclesia Kelly (Thbby).

MIddle: Fanme Kelly (Lawrence), Isaac Kelly, CarolineRoberts (Kelly), Edith Kelly (Phelps).

Front: Sarah Kelly (Riddle), Wesley Kelly, Roma Kelly (Porter).

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Two years after the Roberts family sailed for Canada, the following promotional notice appeared on billboards at Stromness, Orkney. NOTICE To

INTENDING EMIGRANTS for NORTH AMERICA. For Sydney, Cape Brit;on, Pict;ou, Nova Scot;ia, & Quebec,

For Fast-Sailing, First Class, Oak-built Ship, " S 0 V ERE I G N, •

510 Tons Register, nearly 800 Tons Burthen, Will be on the berth, at STROMNES, Orkney, on the 25th July, and will, on the embarkation of a few Passengers, proceed to LOCHMADDY, where she will remain for Two Days, so as to embark the Passengers already engaged. The "SOVEREIGN," is very capacious between decks, and will be fitted in a superior manner. Her main Cabin (being on deck) will be found very commodious and comfortable. Passengers from this and the surrounding Counties will be conveyed to Stromness in a Vessel engaged for the purpose, leaving Inverness on the 25th, calling at Cromarty. D. McLennan will, as he frequently has done, proceed with the Passengers, when he will pay every attention to their health and comfort at Sea, and forward their views on arrivals. Intending Passengers who have made no application, will please do so with as little delay as possible. - Apply to the Owner J. STANGER, Esq., Stromness: MR. DUNCAN McLENNAN, 103, Church Street, Inverness:

MR. ARCH. McLELLAN, North Uist: MR. A. MACPHERSON, Merchant Cromarty;

Licensed Passenger Brokers, Or to Messrs. W. Munro, Dornoch; R. Douglas, Bookseller, Tain; A. Mackenzie, Ullapool; T. MacKay, Innkeeper, Laing; R. Dunbar, Grantown; L. MacBain, Kingussie; R. Mitchell, Forres; D. Campbell, Fort William; W. Sutherland, Postmaster, Brora; J. Kinghorn, Innkeeper, ArdgaYi J. Watt, Merchant, Thurso; J. Bruce, Kirkwall. W. & A. Johnston, Printers, 78 Church Street INVERNESS, 15th July, 1845

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Land grants issued as early as 1797 and thereafter for what was now a surveyed, but virgin, land are recorded hereunder: Burford Gore.

(later Oakland Township) Concession No. 1 Lot No.

Name of Grantees

11

Finlay Malcolm Eliakim Malcolm Jane Corliss J. Fowler, King's College Mordecai Sayles Mordecai Sayles Bowman Slawson WIn. Slawson Daniel Secord David Secord Charles Burch N. Bodine

12 13 14 14 15 16

John Smith, Jr. John Smith, Jr. John Smith, Jr. WIn. Lotteridge Janet Stenhoff John Heaton

1 2 3 4

5 6

8 7 9 9

10

Descpt. Clergy Reserve Crown Reserve

Clergy Reserve King's Crown Reserve College W.1/2 E.1/2 Clergy Reserve Total

Acres

Date of Patent

200 200 200 200

17th 13th 17th 3rd

May, Apr. May, Jan.

1802 1860 1802 1828

200 200 200 200 100 100 200 200

2nd 2nd 17th 13th 16th 16th 17th 3rd

Aug. Aug. May, May, Nov. Nov. May, Jan.

1806 1806 1802 1802 1858 1858 1802 1828

21st 200 21st 200 100 21st 100 27th 25th 200 15th 119 3,119 acres

Dec. Dec. Dec. May, Nov. Dec.

1802 1802 1802 1809 1802 1856

May, May, Apr. Dec. Aug. Jan. May, May, May, May, May, Jan.

1802 1797 1840 1843 1806 1828 1802 1802 1802 1802 1845 1852

Concession No. 2 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 10 11

12 13 14

Finlay Malcolm Robert Pilkington Matthew Messecar Israel W. Powell Mordecai Sayles King's College Edwin Bebee Edwin Bebee Edwin Bebee John Secord Thos. Robinson WIn. Darby Charles Burtch Charles Burtch Charles Burtch Charles Burtch

E.1/2 W.1/2

E.1/2 W.1/2

Total

200 200 100 100 200 200 200 200 200 200 100 100

17th 22nd 30th 5th 2nd 3rd 17th 17th 17th 17th 1st 19th

550 17th May, 1802 2,550 acres

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Concession No. 3 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 12

R. Pilkington Adbeel Eddy Margaret Hurst King's College Leased to W. Green G. McMullen Moses Baldwin John Huff D. Haze, Jr. Edwin Beebe Finlay Malcolm Ar. McEwen Daniel Secord King's College Daniel Secord

200 200 200 200

Clergy Reserve

E.1/2 W.1/2 S.1/2 N.1/2 Crown Reserve Total

22nd 12th 12th 3rd

May, Jan. Aug. Jan.

1797 1844 1801 1833

100 24th 100 8th 200 28th 200 24th 100 17th 100 17th 200 10th 7th 154 84 3rd 7th 16 2,054 acres

Feb. Apr. Mar. Dec. May, May, Mar. Mar. Jan. May,

1843 1839 1807 1806 1802 1802 1869 1804 1828 1804

22nd May, 200 200 22nd May, 100 3rd June. 16th Dec. 100 200 22nd May, 200 3rd Jan. 20th June 200 26th Jan. 170 100 7th May, 14 7th May, 1,484 acres

1797 1797 1856 1864 1797 1828 1807 1802 1804 1804

Concession No. 4 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

R. Pilkington R. Pilkington Malcolm Brown Charles Chapin Bulah Millard King's College Deborah Sayles Mary Gates Finlay Malcolm Daniel Secord

Clergy Reserve

N.1/2 S.1/2

Crown Reserve

All Total

Concession No. 5 1 2 2 3 4 5 6

M. A. Myers Charles Perley Jacob Mott John Wray King's College Bulah Millard Ralph Clench

200

22nd May, 1797

Clergy Reserve Crown Reserve All Total

22nd 200 13th 188 22nd 100 23rd 12 700 acres

May, June May, Feb.

1797 1852 1797 1803

Concession No. 6 1 &2 3 &4

M. A. Myers Joseph Smith

All Total

22nd May, 1797 300 8th Jan. 1858 65 365 acres

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The first grants were made on May 22nd, 1797 to Robert Pilkington in Concessions 2, 3 and 4, in all 800 acres. Finlay Malcolm Sr. received grants on May 2, 1802 in Concessions 1, 2, 3, and 4, in all 600 acres. Jane Corliss, daughter of Chas. Burtch, got 200 acres in 1802. Edwin Beebe got land in 1802, he did not settle but his son did. Daniel Secord got land in Concession I in 1804 which remained in Secord hands for 150 years. Captain Robert Pilkington was an officer with the Royal Engineers and, as one of the patentees, did not settle in the township. Other Early Land Transactions in Burford Gore (Oakland) Date

Lot

31 May 1824 24 Aug 1824 14 Nov 1823 25 Dec 1824 3 Feb 1825 14 Mar 1825 15 Mar 1825

pt of 10 1/2 of 4 N1/4 13 one acre Mills on Mills on Mills on

13 Apr 1825 13 Apr 1825 30 Jan 1826 8 Feb 1826 2 Jul 1823 7 Apr 1826 10 Jan 1807 3 Aug 1824 26 Apr 1826 26 May 1826 14 Jun 1826 15 Jun 1826

Sl/2 on 15 N1/2 on 15 SE1/4 12 SE1/4 12 Sl/2 7 Sl/2 1. 2. Sl/2 1.2. one acre 6 SE1/4 12 Sl/2 6 part of 6 part of 1 S 1/2 and 1/2 of 1-2 SE1/2 of 8

2 4

pt of 6 pt of 6

1 1

15 Dec 1826 6 Feb 1827 16 Jul 1827 4 Apr 1828 11 Apr 1828

N1/2 - 3 Sl/2 - 3 pt of 14 10acres of 6 1/4 acre 12

1 1 2 4 1

16 Feb 1828 10 Aug 1828 13 Sep 1828 8 Oct 1828 20 Aug 1823 1 Aug 1828

pt of 1 pt of 13 Sl/2 13 Sl/2 13 E pt 9 W pt 9

1 2 2 1 2 2

19 Oct 1826 30 Apr 1818 11 Mar 1825 6 May 1827

Concession

4 2 4

8 6 6 6

3 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 4 4 1 2 4 1 1

Grantor

Grantee

Chas Burtch George Woodley H. Cunningham Jacob Keefer Finlay Malcolm Eliakim Malcolm F. Malcolm

Henry Gates John woodley Hiram Sewell David Bennett Eliakim Malcolm F. Malcolm John Hamilton (mortgage) F. Smith and wife Isobel Fairchild F. Smith and wife Matthias Woodley Henry Gates Wm F. Cornish Wm Cornish McCutcheon Coleman Adam H. Lester H. Massecar Wm Massecar H. Wesbrook J. Ellison John Malcolm Wm. Thompson McCutcheon Coleman Nicol McIntyre Deborah Sayles Isaac Fairchild Daniel Brown James Malcolm Finlay Malcolm James Malcolm and others Hiram Peeth D and T Secord Finlay Malcolm John Hamilton (mortgage) Richard Beasley Justus Smith Justus Smith Richard Beasley Solomon Matthews Marilla Cody Benjamin Fairchild Isaac Fairchild John Haviland (999 yr. Phillip Slaght lease & others) J.Malcolm & others Sam W. Jay Chas Chapin Charles Eddy John Eddy Chas Eddy (Jr.) John Eddy Chas Eddy (Jr) Asa Secord James Secord Asa Secord James Secord John Keefer Daniel Secord John Malcolm H. F. Malcolm

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3 Jul 1830 1 Aug 1807 28 Aug 1834 2 Sept 1830 24 Jul 1830 24 Jul 1830 10 Mar 1829 22 Sep 1830 22 Sep 1830

pt of 8 pt of 6 pt of 8 pt of 7 pt of 10 through 10 N pt of 7 1 acre of 7 1 acre of 6

1 3 1 1 1 1 3 1

30 -

John Tyler John Huff Peter Tyler Abraham Wesbrook Henry Gates & wife Henry Gates John Tyler Abm Wesbrook WIn Thompson

Peter Tyler Chas Anderson Mordecai Wesbrook Mordecai Wesbrook Job Lodor Job Lodor Isaac Reed Finlay Malcolm Finlay Malcolm

(the population of Oakland Twp in 1825 was 341) The following were landowners in the Township in the year 1858: Concession I Lot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

N1/2 Sl/2 N1/4(W) N1/4(E) Sl/2 W1/2 E1/2 Nl/2 Sl/2 N1/2 Sl/4 Sl/4 N1/2 Sl/2 N1/2 Sl/2 N1/2 Sl/2 N3/4 Sl/4

11

12 13

14 15 16 17

W1/2 N1/4(E) Sl/2(E) N1/2 Sl/2 Sl/4(W) 3/4 N1/2 Sl/4(W) Sl/4(E)

Eliakim Malcolm (1801-1874) son of Finlay Sr. (1750-1829) Duncan Malcolm (1798-1866) son of Finlay Sr. (1750-1829) W. A. Whitney E. Malcolm Johnathan Malcolm (1821-1904) son of Eliakim (1801-1874) Mathew Messecar (1826-1897) Edward Malcolm (1820-1913) son of Finlay Jr. (1779-1862) Hiram Massecar (1824-1873) Shubael D. Malcolm (1814-1878) son of Finlay Jr. (1779-1862) John Vivyan (Vivian) (1810-1870) Shubael D. Malcolm (1814-1878) Mrs. P. Jones T. N. Watkins Haggai Westbrook Jr. (1828-1889) son of Haggai Sr. (17751824) Mordecai Westbrook (1800-1883) Neal Lefler (1820-1889) Mordecai Westbrook (1800-1883) Hiram Secord (1830-1882) Geo Secord (1832-1875) David Lefler (1788-1865) David Secord (1809-1889) Newcomb Eddy (1810-1903) Silas Burtch (1808-1880) John Eddy (1804-1892) Wm Cunningham (1828-1902) Geo Cunningham (1798-18 ) John Eddy (1804-1892) John Eddy (1804-1892) Matthew Woodley (1790-1858) M. Woodley M. Lund W. Phelps John Stuttard Peter Fairchild

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Concession II Lot 1

N1/2 Sl/2

Robert Merritt (1829-1887) Eliakim Malcolm (1801-1874)PLS James Malcolm (1800-1858) son of Finlay Sr. (1750-1829)

N1/2 Sl/2

Caleb Merritt (1798-1874) Matthew Messecar (1792-18 John W. Downs Mrs. Susan Smith (1817-1888) wife of Lewis Smith (1814-1847) Hugh McDermid Charlotte Malcolm (1814-1892) wife of Isaac B. Malcolm (1812-1867) Shubael D. Malcolm (1814-1878) A. N. Smith John Heaton Robert Vanderlip (1796-1872) Silas Smith Smith Beebe (1825-1877) (same as lot 7) Asa Secord J. Bingham Mrs. French Haggai Westbrook Wellington McAllister (1814-1897) Wm Darby (1805-18 ) Abram (Abraham) Westbrook (1798-1874) Wellington McAllister (1814-1897) Abram Westbrook (1798-1874) Chas Sayles (1829-1879) Peter McIntyre (1830-1887) McIntyre Estate (Peter Sr. 1788-1866) S. Matthews

2

3 4 5

6

7

8 9 10 11

12

N1/4 N1/4 Sl/4(W) Sl/4(E) N1/4 N1/4 Sl/4 Sl/4 W1/2 E1/4(N) E1/4(S) W1/4(N) W1/4(S) E1/2 N1/2 Sl/2 N1/2 Sl/4(W) Sl/4(E)

13 14 Concession I I I Lot 1 2 3 4

5 6

N1/4 N1/4 Sl/2 N1/4 N1/4 Sl/2 N1/2 Sl/2 W1/2 E1/2 N1/2 S1/2

Constant Eddy (1817-1892) Caleb Merritt (1798-1874) Adbeel Eddy (1807-1869) Constant Eddy (1817-1892) Caleb Merritt (1798-1874) Adbeel Eddy (1807-1869) Charles Chapin (1808-1871) Chas Chapin Esq. (1808-1871) John W. Downs Moses Baldwin (1790-1881) Charlotte Malcolm (1814-1892) wife of Isaac B. Malcolm (1812-1867) Malcolm Brown Robert Eadie Jr. (1825-1879) son of Robert Sr. (1798-1882)

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

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7 8 9

10 11

12

32 -

Hiram Westbrook (1797-1881) Enock Kelly ( father of Isaac Kelly (1835-1912) Oakland's leading citizens and a local politician) WIn Thompson N1/2 I & N. Phillips Sl/2 W. H. Odell N1/4(W) I & N. Phillips S3/4 Jas Townsend N1/3 Centre1/3 WIn Secord Dr. Campbell Sl/3 Hiram Westbrook (1797-1881) A.W. N1/2 Sl/2

one

of

Concession IV Lot

1 2

3 4 5 6 7 8

N1/4 N1/4 Sl/2 N1/4 N1/4 S2/3(W) Sl/3(E) N1/4 N1/4 Sl/2 N1/4 S3/4 N1/2 Sl/2 N1/2 Sl/4 Sl/4 N1/2 Sl/2 W1/2 E1/2

9

Robert Ranshaw Chas Ranshaw Wm Messecar (1835-1909) Robert Ranshaw Chas Ranshaw WIn Messecar (1835-1909) C. Malcolm WIn Thompson Malcolm Brown Wm Eadie Hiram Westbrook (1797-1881) Robert Eadie Esq. (1798-1882) Chas Chapin Esq. Sr. (1808-1871) Mrs. C. Malcolm Chas Chapin Esq. (1808-1871) Isaac Fairchild (1770-1859) Sarah Fairchild (1831-1921) Jas Chatters on Isaac Smith A. Chatters on H. Chatterson Wm Thompson (1781-1839)

Concession V Lot

1 2 3 4 5

N1/2 Sl/2

Joseph Smith (1810-1861) Cyrus Smith Col Chas S. Perley (of Burford) Lee Tisdale, D. Elliott and others (this area of the Township is a swamp) Francis Fairchild, Chas Chapin and others Jas Knight and others

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

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Concession VI

Lot 1 2

N1/2 Sl/2 N1/2 Sl/2

3

Theron Averill Mrs. Elliott Aaron McWilliams Mrs. Elliott Joseph Smith (1810-1861)

Concession VII

Lot 1

Aaron McWilliams

The 1861 census of Oakland Township shows a total population of 1087 - Native 832 (not French origin), English 100, USA 70, Scottish 39, Irish 37, N.B. 8, German 1. By the year 1875 other names appear in the Township as landowners. In Concession I lot 1 R. Markle (1820-1914) is a landowner, J. Proper (1829-1909) and S. Proper (1850-1907) are landowners in Concession II as is Thomas McEwan (1810-1888) on lot 10. In Concession III Joseph Vivian (1811-1880) owns 100 acres on lot 7. G. Pepper has land on lot 1 Concession IV and R. Grantham has 100 acres on lot 6. R. S. Gage owns 200 acres on Concession VI. As the Malcolm family became established on the land, there were thirteen farms in total occupied by descendants of Finlay Malcolm Sr. (1750-1829), recognized as the founder and one of the first to arrive. One of the first conveyances written for a parcel of land in Burford Gore was that granted to John Secord, for 200 acres on lot nine Concession II. One half of the lot has remained in Secord hands for nearly two centuries.

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

2010CO001 34

PROVINCE OF UPPER-CANADA. G F'() R G E tll£ T H I R D by the grace

of GOD

oj Great - Britain,

FRmu, and

Ireland, Klizg, Defender of the Faith, tmd-19- j(}F/h .

hnc"lD ~r,

*

. To all to whom thefe Prefenta fuall come,-GREETING:

w, ofoUI fpccial gnce, CtmiD knowltdgt, and mere molion have Gi.en and Granced,and b, Ihefe prefenes DO GIVE and GRANTuDID ~~/~ ,~~m,..t)/~~tybl ~ )/k.l~..~ £, tJ,""hrf ty~; h~ ~,~H~J:f-.1n£'pz, .f~-,~ ~h

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I.,Clher wi~1I Ih. W-tl and Walen Ihereon lying, and being under Ihe refenalionl, Iimilllioni and condhion. herein afler crpreO'rd: which flid..q;., ,.#:,,~.v.J" ~zu J ~~ ~ bUlled, and bounded, 01 m.), be olhcnrife known "' folloi.: lbal il 10 fa,

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10 Ihe rlidvt;J.n~..nl ~ ~ ~...4-, hei .. anJ Iffignl for eV", ; f.. ln.{ n.. tnhelef. 10 us. our h.i" aM rucceO'ors, III mines of Gold .... Silv
TO H \ VE AIID TO HOLD Ihe f.id pa..:el or Ina orland hereb, given and lII',nfed

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Provided atwIJ",lh" no porI oflhe poree! or ltad ollind hereby gIven I~ gra.trd 10 the (.id ~ ~.J. Ind ;iu hein. be "'lIbln any rcfernlion hrrelofDre mad., Ind mark..1 for UI, our hei" ~nd fucceO'on, bJ our Surv.,or-Gcneral of Woods,or hillawful DePUt'l in which eire, tbil OUR Grant for ruch p"rl ollhel.nd hereby give. and cranled to ther.id_ }-k "-:;::",J• and

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heirs II for ever as aroreflid. and which rbln upon I furvey thereof being made, be found .. ilbin .n)' fuch refer.alion. 1h.1I be null.nd void, and of none elfeft, Iny thing herein con:ained fO the contrary nOlwilbftanding.

~ heirs or ar. Provided lifo. lbalthe faid fiRn" rb.ILIlld 110 wllhin three yan ered and build, or caufe 10 be ereaed.nd buill, in and upon fome parr of the f.id poreel or ltad ofland I good and luRidenl dwellir.g. "tv the 'lid v~ ~~ ./. or houre ( ~ Iffignl not ha.in!! buill,ornoc being in ~ or Iheir own rij!hl I.... fully poO'rO'rd of In houfe ill OUR r.id provincel.nd be therein, or caufe fome perfon 10 be tberein refidenl for and during the fpoce of one ycar, thence nUl enruins Ihe bUilding o( the IOmt.

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Provldedllfo, thai ifac anJ rime Of lim .. he .... rlcr.l~ lind fo hereb, given Ind gronlN ro the f.id.~h"" Ind .,;..; hml, (ball come inlo Ihe po/l"(ffion and lenure of:ny perCon or penonl ,,·honlfoc.er, mher by VIrNe o( an)' dee&l

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

2010CO001 - 35 -

A letter was written by Mr. James Hearne on his arrival in Canada in 1831. The letter was addressed to his parents who lived at Camden Town, London, England. His descendants settled in Burford Township. June 1, 1831, Simcoe, Long Point London, District Upper Canada, North America. Dear Father and Mother, I arrived at Mr. Gammage in 14 weeks. I was 9 weeks on the seas. Soon after we left England and got in the open sea, we fell in with a sudden gale of wind, that we lost most of the sales, broak the bullworks of the ship and lost one boat and washed part of the cooking house away. The ship was like a reck, the sailors would not goe up on the riggon to reaf the sales so that the sales burst in ribbons that they were like flags. It lasted 4 hours in that state, the ship laid on its side that the mast went in the sea. We expect that every minute would be our last, I shook hands with my wife expecting it would be for the last time and took two children, one under each arm, for to sink with them on deck or wither it was possible to save them or not, the sea was too ruff for a boat. I nelt down on my knees pleading to God to prepare souls for the awful change or stop the wind. I remember the word of the Scripture were St. Paul was in the same situation and said "Lord save or I perish". I have made a covenant with God at the time that if he would save our lives we would give our hearts to him. I am thankful to him who the sea and the land has at his command and for his preserving care. I have enjoyed since that time-peace and happiness of mind and soul. I see the need of being allways ready for sitch a time as ye think not the son of man cometh. Dear parents hear the word of a sinsear child for your souls good. Your getting on in years, I have praid to the Lord for you every day that the Lord would convince you of your state and cry to him for pardon before it is too late. Mother consider wat you said to me wen you had that gown that you would go to Chapel and change your life. Only think upon this if you should be last and I in the Happenings. Consider of these things, Lay them to your heart, I trust that God will bless you in saving you souls and I in circumstances. Tell my Dear Brothers and Sisters of the same things concerning their souls. I never forget them and you every day in my prayer. Mrs. Hearne and I live happy together. She is got a son - a Canadian. Mrs. H. had the best time she ever had. We are all well. She send her Love to you Mother and Father, brothers and sisters. We had a tejoius journey up the cuntry, the children were sick at sea and also the children send their love to you. We had not money enuf to take us up the cuntry to Prescott, we sold bed, 2 pictures, five irons, dishes, all my small boxes, desk -- well I had work their plenty.

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

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We came rong road the most expensive and long way. We ought to come by New York, the States side, and there took the canal boat and after that the toe boat to Buffeloe town, then take Brigg on sal up Lake Erey and land either at Mattir Crick or Kettlre CrickMatter Crick is at Long Point - is 10 miles from Mr. GammageTolbert Street. This way is the way if you intend to come-goe to New York-in the ship-if you pay more-best you go that way it is cheapest in the end and more comfortable but I do not wish them to come if you are not willing for them Father by no means. Weat is 6 and 7 shillings per bushell, that is 4 shilling English money, a Shilling hear is 7d - 1/2 dollar is 8 shilling. Bring with you your pocket pieces - they go hear for a piney. Hear is abundance of work for carpenter and farmers, taylors, cabiners and smiths. I have two or three houses to finish inside this spring at 12 shillings a day, lodging and board included in the days. Miles of as much as 10 or 20 so that I due not see my family once a fortni te. My pay part weat or other goods or cash. I due not wish to see my family this summer because I am not settled were I shall live - I think to live in Hamil ton Town, Simcoe village. Long Point that is 26 miles from Mr. Gammage, he intends also, Mr. Deverell has gone to live their. I do not wish to see John. I cannot make them comfortable wen they come - I wish to see John and his wife and family next summer, he will due well here. It is a fine cuntry fore to bring up a family in. Boys and girls is yousful even they are able to do anything. John and me can work together and I make properly. I have got that Great Care taken from my mind. I can live and bring up my family by working 3 days a week. Prices of things - butter 5d, fowl 7 1/2d, beef 2d, sugar 5d lb., teac of the best quality 5d lb and other things also. I intend to bye land at Hamilton. I can have cattle for work - I have been offered cow for work - the price 3 pounds 5 shillings. I got work as soon as I came in the cuntry. Wen I got at Mr. Gammage I had but 2 shillings in my pocket. The reason that I don't want John to come this summer is because I cannot make them comfortable. The cuntry is new, the roads is betwixt the wood. They are not like the roads in England, on the roads the houses is quarter of a mile apart. There is in the roads in general stumps of trees that is not rotted yet out of the ground, the houses is made of wood this shape. (see diagram in margin) You must not expect to see fine roads and streets. The towns is small at present. London is a growing place, the jale is their. Little York is the largest town were the seat of Government is held, the capital of Upper Canady. I travel hear 20 miles and have no occasion to take money with me, for the people will lidge me and board me because I am a stranger for nothink (the time that Mrs. H. was confine the nabors took 2 children to keep for one month). I have got lusty sae that my cloase due not fit me. Their is wild beast, deer, bares, woolvs, foxes, rackoons. Other beasts, wild turkeys and other birds. They were never none to hurt any peron or child. James goes in the woods and they run away from him. If John comes tell him to bring all his tools, cloase, along, new jares to pack up his things in. Small compas wat is not wanted in the ship for your use. What you want to use let it be in tin in the ship. Keep your trunks in your births, then they will be dry.

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

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If any of my friends come I hope they will not be disappointed - it is rural life from care very distant from London but I am satisfied because I can live for 1/2 their money - sterling grade. More than ever I can sell the things I brought over. I get more settled to the cuntry than ever and happy. Those that come bring provisions 100 potatoes, 2 bushel flower, 100 wt. brown biscuits, half d.wt suit bacon, 8 pounds butterfat, 5 shillings oatmeal, sugar, tea. Buy your liquer on Board of the Esciseman. Lock up your things from thieves on board ship. I intend to come to England as soon as I can come but due not intend to stop their because I can live comfortably here. A man must work hear hard but he will make properly. There is not enuf men to due the work. CalIon Joseph Deverell and Brindson. Mrs. H. sends love to Mrs. Farrer elder and all my friend. Father excuse my scrawl and spelling. Due not shoe the letter to any. We send our love to all, Mr. Excell, Bennets, Basby Church and all English friends. James my son is fond of farming and of using the axe - that is common in this cuntry for chopping down the trees in the woods. Tell them not to be afraid of the sea, I pray for them. I shall not be fraid when I come to England which I intend in short time as I shall have it in my power. I have plenty of English friends were I have settled. One is Mary Allen that lived at Mr. Oats whose name is Mrs. Smith. She is surprised to see me and is glad and wants me to live near them. They send their best respects and be glad to hear from you. They have farm and live independent. I have being introduced to all their familys. Be so good to send a letter to Mr. Smiths relations to inquire how they are. Mr. Bernard Lower, Watergate Deptford and wen you write to me let me know I have two friends from St. Ann, Parish. I shall never want in this cuntry for their is Peace and Plenty and for John and Family. Tell Mr. Milligan his trade is good. 5 dollars for only making a coat and trimmings extry. Taylors is so full they cannot close. I hear of Englands distress and I fear for all. I often think of you all and pray for you. Fruit is in abundance of all kinds. The winter is not more severe than in England, the summer is about the same. We have no Figes in this cuntry. 4th of June is the day and month the Methodist has camp meetings, they come 100 miles distant and Indians also. They are good kind people. Remember to those I have mentioned. (letter courtesy of Oakland Tweedsmuir History)

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Housing On arrival, the settlers quickly erected temporary log shanties as the first step to establishing a homestead. Government regulations demanded the settler build a log residence within 18 months of acquiring a grant of land or he was denied the deed and clear title was withheld. One wall was buil t higher than its opposite wall by several feet and a roof added to give one continuous slant. Floors were made of packed earth or split lumber. The roof was made of clapboards held in place by "weightpoles" which reached across the roof. Other roofing was made of shingles fastened to the rafters by green withes, with the spaces between the logs chinked with Two men cutting lumber with a gate clay to keep out the saw (whipsaw). The sawyer at the cold. Window openings bottom got a shower of sawdust as were covered with paper the log was cut on the down stroke. rendered more translucent by a generous coating of oil or lard. What lumber used was roughly fashioned from a gate saw powered by two men with strong arms. When a newcomer arrived, "bees" were organized to quickly erect a shanty for primitive habitation. For furniture, they used puncheons and the temporary cupboards were hand fashioned from rough lumber sawn by a whipsaw. Benches and tables were similarly hewn. Once permanent residency was established, a second more spacious and comfortable home replaced the temporary quarters. To comply with patent laws, its measurement must be at least 16 by 20 feet. This permanent hewed log house was often a double cabin, two

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houses set ten or twelve feet apart, with one common roof. space between served as a hall for various uses.

The

Other more elaborate houses made of frame, brick or stone could be seen on the landscape by the mid nineteenth century. The durable stone house is still a common sight in Oakland and Townsend. These have become an important part of the region's architectural tradition, built principally of the Georgian and Gothic Revival styles. The raw material was brought in from an area east of Norfolk County and split with a stone hammer or axe. Two well known stone masons who built such houses in the area were Alex Skinner and George Wallace. All Township residents are aware of the stone edifice built on the Townline, south of Oakland, by the Roberts family. It still stands in a state of good repair. This house features a "suicide door" on the second floor. Various explanations have been given for its practical use, with no balcony to protect you should you step outside. One suggested use is to provide easy access for furniture being moved in or out of the second floor. The background and history of these prize dwellings has been recorded in a book titled Stone Houses of Old Townsend, edited by Carol Barber.

Wildlife The settlers found wildlife to be abundant. The area was a paradise for game such as deer and wild turkeys. With Malcolm's Creek well stocked with edible fish such as bass and pike there was no shortage of ready meat or fish for the early arrivals. An early pioneer tells the following turkey story, perhaps an exaggeration:

"I had a field of oats lying next to the woods, consisting of five acres nearly ready to harvest that would yield 50 bushels to the acre. A friend who was residing with me at the time, fired into the flock and killed seven at one shot, one of which weighed twenty-two pounds. Saturday night the field was trampled as level as a floor and not a spear left standing. I am perfectly sure the flock numbered more than two thousand."

All the wild animals found in the region were not, however, viewed with favour. Wolves, bears and raccoons were everywhere the first howled and stole sheep; the second growled and stole pigs, and the third whistled and stole corn. A law passed by the

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Parliament of Upper Canada in 1793 had dealt with the issue of unwanted predators and nuisance animals, but with little success. With proof of kill, a bounty had been authorized in the statute for those eliminating wolves and bears. wolves were especially targeted because of their taste for the homesteader's sheep, goats and hogs kept on unprotected grazing lands. An obituary appearing in an Upper Canada newspaper in 1818 concerning the death of Peter Secord Sr. confirms the settlers' obsession with ridding the forests of this wild brute:

"Died last month, Peter Secord who had completed his 103rd year. He was one of the first settlers and perhaps one of the oldest inhabitants of the Province. He killed four wolves in the course of the last year and walked 20 miles to make the necessary affidavit to entitle him to the wolf scalp bounty. " (by taking the wolf's head (with ears) to the local municipal office, payment was made in cash or optionally the claimant was issued a certificate which could be used as legal tender) The area south west of Scotland, at Big Creek, was a celebrated preserve for wild animals. Bears in vast numbers had their homes in these pine forests and would forage the region, making incursions upon the settlement at Scotland. A local trapper and hunter, Edward Foster, related in his reminiscences that he had killed over 100 of these animals as well as many wild cats. There is a record of him killing a white "Albino" bear, a freak of nature, during one of his exploits. As a trapper, he caught up to 1700 muskrats in a season before over-trapping nearly eradicated this semi aquatic animal at Big Creek. Another historical clipping existence with the wild animals:

confirms

the

pioneer's

co-

"One Isaac Hull started from Burford to go to the settlement on Lake Erie, at Port Burwell. He lost his way in the woods, and for seventeen days wandered about until he finally reached his starting point, nearly famished. The faithful dog that accompanied him from home did not return, and it was always supposed that Hull survived by eating his dog and the wildlife he was able to kill." When reminiscing to an Expositor reporter about his childhood experiences on the Townline, Joseph Roberts (1847-1941) said:

"Wild animals, Oh yes, there were many of them. One day when I was a lad of perhaps ten or twelve, I went off to the Oakland ponds to fish. We caught fish then; real fish, and no fish stories, either. Well, I was coming home with my string of beauties, when I heard - for a

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farm boy's ears were keen then - a soft step behind me and saw shadows flicker among the trees. I looked round and there was a wolf. I did not wait to pass the time of day, I ran. So did the wolf. It was not till I had run what seemed to be miles that I found that Mr. Wolf had been as scared as I and we had been going in opposite directions right from the start." To greet the first settlers on their move to Upper Canada was a strange phenomenon, the flights of the passenger pigeons. Their seemingly endless flights that literally blotted out the sun of day, and by rough guess it was estimated that about thirty-five percent of all the birds then known to exist on the North American continent were passenger pigeons. It is beyond our modern day comprehension to imagine their numbers. Right from the beginning of white men settling on the continent of North America they were seen in such endless flocks. The first suggestion of their decline did not occur until 1670 along the eastern seaboard. The passenger pigeons along with the numerous groups of wild turkeys fed on the fruits from the deciduous trees. These great hordes of pigeons measuring some seventeen inches in length would follow the "crop" forest to endless forests across the continent wherever the hardwood trees stood tall. Slowly as the march of settlers advanced westward from the east sowing their seeds of grain the natural habitat of the pigeons was disturbed and forced inland. The pigeons were most obliging in their slaughter. During their flights a blind man just pointing his gun skyward could not miss a kill. Every early settler was on the watch for this added food supply for the larder. The Southern Ontario area knew the pigeons well and any means of catching the birds was considered sporting, whether by gun, club, or the use of nets. When settling to roost, their numbers would be so great that the very limbs of trees would break off under their weight. Passenger pigeons were regularly featured on the settler's menu of wild meat. With pigeons and wild turkeys in abundance, plus deer in the thousands and plenty of fish, the early settlers were well supplied with protein. In an emergency, they found porcupine palatable and tasty, somewhat like pork. The last passenger pigeon died in 1914 and they are now an extinct species.

Agriculture Oakland Township is, with the exception of the south-eastern part, of a light soil running from a light sand to clay loam with sand soils prevailing. The area was considered to be good dairy farming soil by those settling here, with Malcolm's Creek and its tiny tributaries watering this triangular section of Brant County.

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To the west, the Township is bounded by Burford whose eastern part, running north and south, is of heavy sand loam underlaid with gravel at varying depths. To the north, Brantford Township has a sandy soil. It has been referred to as "plains lands", except for the eastern area extending to Burtch where the terrain is more rolling and of clay texture. The tree growth in the region was sugar maple, beech, oak, white pine, basswood, elm, butternut, white ash, hickory and chestnut plus other varieties. Land sold in 1815 for 50 cents an acre, in 1817 for $2.50 an acre and in 1851 from $6.00 to $10.00 an acre. In 1837, Eliakim Malcolm (1801-1874) bought land on lot 2 Concession IV, Burford Township, for $4.00 an acre. Taxes were low, as little as 28 cents on 100 acres. Even by 1840, the tax on a 100 acre farm was no more than $2.00. In the diary "Smith's Journey Through Oxford", written about 1850, he writes - "The little Township of Oakland was originally called the Gore of Burford. The road from Brantford to Simcoe runs along the town line between Oakland and Townsend, till it reaches the south west corner of the township, when it turns off to the south. When within sight of the Village of Oakland (which is pleasantly situated in a valley and contains about 200 inhabitants, grist and saw mills, carding machine, and fulling mill) the road turns to the right; from a gravelly knoll, a short distance from the village, you have a fine view over the surrounding country. A short distance from Oakland, a pine ridge crosses the road, extending on either side as far as the eye can reach. From Oakland to Scotland, the road passes over oak plains; the land is rolling and the country studded with fine farms." Clergy Reserve lots were leased out according to the circumstances, ie: rent for the first seven years was 1 p 15 - or ten and a half bushels of good, sweet, clean wheat; for the next 7 years, 3 p 5 - or 21 bushels of wheat and for the third 7 year lease 5 p 5 or 31 bushels of wheat.

Clearing The Land The early settlers did not inherit a farm, they created one. Clearing the land was slow and laborious. The trees were huge, especially the pines and oak. Once they were cut down, the branches were cut off the trunk and, together with the surrounding undergrowth, burned. The trunks of the very large trees were divided and rolled into heaps and reduced to ashes as well. Without a helper, the settler could expect to clear and burn an acre of land in three weeks. It was usually several years before he could open a small farming operation complete with an improved

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house. "Bees" were very common, a system of neighbours helping each other. These organized work gatherings were a diversion and allowed for socializing. A "clearing bee" made the work of removing the trees easier, faster and more enjoyable. If hired help was required in the clearing operations, the settler paid about 10 shillings for chopping per acre and a logger could expect pay of about one pound per month. An accepted method of clearing, used extensively, was to cut down all the trees of a diameter of eighteen inches and less, clear away the undergrowth, then deaden the large trees by girding them with an axe. They were then left to rot. This delayed clearing of the land totally by several years. As decaying took hold the residue could be rolled to the side and a fence made of the logs, stumps and roots. Such fences were visible in the Township well into the twentieth century. Clearing away the trees and undergrowth continued well into the nineteenth century. Joseph Roberts (1847-1941), referred to previously, tells of using oxen to clear away the remaining bushland on his farm and to get the spars out. His sister, Eliza Roberts Dunnett (1842-1938) also recalls, in a story written by an Expositor reporter in 1936, their early pioneering life. As a child, she witnessed her father, John Roberts (1803-1888) busily engaged in cutting down the big trees, burning the brush and preparing the virgin land for its first seeding ever. She remembered driving the oxen to remove rotted stumps from the fields, the stumps being residue from the decaying trees which had been girded several years previously. With little imagination, it is possible to visualize John Roberts walking through his new field, amongst the stumps, with a bag of Indian corn seed, making a hole with an axe, then dropping the seed and closing the hole with his foot. With sufficient land cleared, he could seed by broadcasting. Wheat and potatoes were planted the first year to be rotated in later years with grass for pasture, thus giving the stumps a chance to rot. Once established, the average household could be supported on 20 to 30 acres of cleared land.

An axe,

the pioneer's most valuable tool, was used to clear the land and build his cabin. This early axe had a handle, long and straight, and was fashioned by local tradesmen without a "poll", the blade being thin at the butt end - curved handles were introduced about 1840.

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Oxen hauling lumber from the sawmill - pine logs were often measured at over five feet thick, some the height of a short man. By 1840, most farmers in the Township had cleared at least half of their land for cultivaton but they retained large acreages of wooded property for their fuel supply and for logging.

Crops Wheat was by far the most important cash crop prior to the mid nineteenth century and could always be exchanged for cash or goods. Average yield was 20 bushels to the acre. In the beginning, in some cases, the yield was much less because of space taken up by stumps yet to be cleared away. Hay crops sown were clover, timothy, herdsgrass, foul meadow and lucerne. By 1817, wheat, rye, Indian corn, oats, buckwheat, peas and potatoes were being grown. In the garden plot you would find flowers, sweet and Irish potatoes, corn, beans, squash, field pumpkins, cucumbers, sunflowers, tomatoes and peppers. Garden produce was "pitted" by digging a hole and lining it with straw to keep out the frost. Apples could be found growing at most homesteads. Fruit culture saw the hardier fruits, such as apples, quinces and pears, become a certain and abundant crop. Some hemp and flax was grown locally as raw material in home clothing making. In 1800, prices were high forcing the settler to provide for his own necessities as quickly as possible. Corn sold for $1.25 a bushel, wheat was the same price and flour sold at $7.50 per hundred weight.

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The following is an agricultural return of the Township for the 1861 census: occupiers of land occupiers of ten acres and under occupiers of ten to twenty acres occupiers of twenty to fifty acres occupiers of fifty to one hundred acres occupiers of one hundred to two hundred amount held in acres under cultivation under crops under pasture under gardens and orchards wood and wild lands cash value of farms cash value of farming implements produce of gardens and orchards quantity of land held by townspeople not being farmers under fall wheat bushels of fall wheat acres under spring wheat bushels of spring wheat acres under barley bushels of barley acres under rye bushels of rye acres under peas bushels of peas acres under oats bushels of oats acres under buckwheat bushels of buckwheat acres under Indian corn bushels of Indian corn acres under potatoes bushels of potatoes acres under turnips bushels of turnips bushels of carrots bushels of beans bushels of clover, timothy and other grass see tons of hay hops maple sugar cider wool fulled cloth flannel number of bulls, oxen and steers milch cows calves and heifers

117 5 2

31 56 5

10,401 7,533 6,533 819 159 2,868 402,978 10,915 2,119 88 acres 1,574 acres 30,893 618 10,548 191 4,303 39 275 444 82,947 532 16,606 120 2,315 247 7,418 194 18,375 69 37,577 2,586 40 147 1,212 6.385 7,186 4,054 453 1,324 40 382 303

lbs gallons lbs yds yds

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horses over three years old value of same colts and fillies sheep pigs total value of live stock butter cheese beef in barrels of 200 lbs pork, in barrels of 200 lbs carriages kept for pleasure value of same

337 $20,105 115 1,426 875 $46,177 26,291 lbs 4,312 lbs 59 378 103 $6,258

Of significance in the return is the productivity of the land for wheat crops. Over 1500 acres under cultivation produced nearly 31000 bushels of fall wheat and 618 acres of spring wheat produced 10,548 bushels, about 20 bushels to the acre. The following is a local news item appearing August 20, 1869: "Many farmers in this neighbourhood are threshing wheat which is turning out good in most every case, better than an average yield".

Maple products were produced in quantity - in 1850 about 5000 lbs of maple sugar. Cider was an important product, some 7000 gallons pressed in 1855. It was made as late as possible in the Fall, to prevent spoiling in the barrels. Aside from the cider produced from apples, dried apples were stored for winter use. The farmers around Scotland saw market gardening commence to flourish after the mid century. Onions, a labour intensive crop, were grown in great numbers for sale to consumers in the populated cities such as Toronto. Hundreds of bags were transported, firstly to Brantford by horse and wagon, later to larger markets via the T. H. and B. once the line opened late in the century.

When the first settlers arrived, they had only a hand cradle or sickle to cut the ripe grain. Essentially, it was a scythe with an added wooden frame to catch the grain as it was cut. This cumbersome implement required a worker with stamina and muscle to manoeuvre.

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An

Circa 1895 onion field - Scotland

The following advertisement appeared in the Scotland Journal, May 1885:

"Mr. Hugh stevenson has a lot of very fine tomato plants for sale, and will also have celery, cabbage and other plants in season - encourage home industry." In 1851, farm crop prices were stable. Rand (1791-1851) was appraised as follows: 300 bushel of wheat 400 bushel of corn 8 tons of hay at 1 pound 15 shilling per ton 250 bushel of oats 28 acres of wheat on the ground 100 bushels of potatoes 100 pounds of beef 100 pounds of pork 1 pound of butter

pounds 32 31

The estate of Abishai

shillings 16 5

14 12 33 6 $5.00 $4.00 1 shilling

pence 3 0

0 4

0 9 1/2

0 5

0 0

A market for agriculture products developed gradually. The first settlers were distant from a ready market and, indeed, were more concerned with growing only sufficient produce for their local

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sustenance. Their closest shopping area was Ancaster, thirty miles distant to the east. When Oakland was first settled after the survey of 1796, Newark (now Niagara) was the only important village west of the St. Lawrence. Toronto was still a hamlet, Hamilton did not exist and the first house in Brantford was built in 1806. Even by 1825, the 341 residents of the Township were quite isolated from a close shopping centre. In 1810, a farmer could expect to get $12.50 for a barrel of flour. In 1815 the price of flour was fixed by the Government at three pounds ten shillings per barrel while wheat was fixed at 12 shillings six pence per bushel. In 1831, wheat sold at three shillings six pence to five shillings a bushel, barley about three shillings, oats around two shillings, Indian corn about three shillings, pease around three shillings, potatoes two shillings a bushel and hay sold for two pounds per ton. As the production of wheat increased, coincidentally, a transportation avenue opened up along the Grand in 1849. Wheat was hauled by oxen or horses to Brantford, which became a Town on July 23, 1847, and by then was an important centre of commerce for township residents. Lines of teams loaded with wheat, extending from the centre of town west to the Mount Pleasant junction, attested to the increased traffic to and from Brantford to reach the wharf of the Grand River Navigation Company. It ran wheel steamers and barges loaded with produce and passengers to markets at Buffalo and beyond. Wheat was teamed to Brantford for outside markets from as far away as London. In the late fall of the year, one could see a stretch of teams, one mile long, lined up waiting their turn to unload. The freight operations of the Company in 1849 show 31,228 barrels of flour shipped and 175174 bushels of wheat moved downstream to outside markets.

Livestock The breeds of livestock available to the early pioneer in the Township were limited. Initially, the government provided one cow for every two families but these animals were not known for their exceptional milk production or the quality of their meat. They were an adapt ion of a breed brought over by the Danes. A milch cow could be bought in 1830 for three pounds, top price five pounds. An Oakland old timer, Joe Roberts (1847-1941) had first hand knowledge of the livestock available to the pioneer, as compared to the well bred, high producing herds of the present era. Mr. Roberts gives scant praise to the early breeds.

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"How different are the prize winning stock of today, he said - the scrub creatures of my childhood were no ma tch - I remember them now wi th a shrug - and the swine, too, were great course fellows weighing as high as 800 pounds and cutting up half a foot deep of fat - I took many such to Brantford, selling often to John Simmons." The Ayrshire dairy cow was introduced in 1821, the Jersey in 1868, the Gurnsey in 1876 and the Holstein, a Holland import, came to the area after 1881 and proved to have exceptional milk production. With the arrival of better milk producers cheese making took hold, firstly in Oxford County in 1864 and then in Brant. The Scotland Cheese factory located just south of Scotland village opened around 1870 and another at Oakland, Abraham Westbrook proprietor, opened in 1874. It was located in the hollow just east of the post office. The Hereford beef cow, regarded at that time as the best of English beef makers, was introduced by Messrs Messecar and Smith in 1882. They also raised grade cattle for the Western market. Because of a lack of good refrigeration, a beef was killed in the late fall or early winter so enough meat could be kept fresh during the freezing weather. The rest was canned and pork was cured and hung up in bags in the granary. In 1882, fresh beef sold at Brantford for 4 cents a pound and shanks 8 cents each. The following appeared in a local Scotland paper, May 1885:

"Mrs. J. Winegarden lost a very valuable cow the other night, being gored to death by some of the other cattle. " Sheep were seen, in limited numbers, in the mid nineteenth century. Malcolms Creek, directly behind the grist mill, was used as a convenient source of water for washing the sheep prior to shearing. As many as four flocks have been seen by old timers lined up on the mill road awaiting their turn for a washing. In 1820, sheep sold for 12 shillings 6 pence. The stump and rail fences were not always adequate for the confinement of pasturing animals. To deter an inquisitive or hungry animal from escaping, the farmer fashioned a poke which was placed over the neck of those animals with a history of escape. The poke served as a mobile restraint device from flight through a flimsy or gapping fence.

A cow in a poke.

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A home fashioned sheep yoke. In the mid nineteenth century, dairy farming and the sale of milk products to markets outside the Township had not yet reached its peak. It was still largely a local consumption market. Only one farmer, John Eddy, had as many as nine milch cows, the average was five. Most kept from two to four horses together with a team of oxen.

Farm Labour Ready and reliable farm labour has been a perpetual problem for farmers. Keeping his sons content on the land posed a challenge which the farmer often lost. Constant Eddy (1817-1892), a long time farmer on lot 1 Concession III north of Scotland, lost four of his sons in 1861 to the Civil War raging across the border. One son, Constant Jr. (1842-1862), did not return. Other young men from the area were lured south for the adventure of military service causing the farmer to seek hired help which was scarce. Following the cessation of hostilities there was another exodus of workers to the States where the opportunities for employment seemed unlimited, as America struggled through an era of re-construction. To hire a farm labourer in 1820 cost a farmer 3 pounds a month, 2 pounds in the winter, and in harvest 5 shillings per day. By 1835, farm work per month (with board) cost a local Township farmer two pounds ten shillings, a female for housework per month one pound ten shillings, sowing and harrowing per acre five shillings, reaper's wages per day five shillings and threshing per bushel six pence.

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It was not only to the States that Oakland Township men were attracted. By 1870, the West was ripe for immigrants and land grants were easily obtained. Many young men left the Township to make a new start in the Northwest. Charles Dunnett (1866-1936) and his family left in 1898 for Elgin, Manitoba, Joseph Roberts Jr. (1880-1961) left for the North Battleford area and Wes Vivian (1851-1928) a farmer in Concession I left for Wishart, Saskatchewan with his son Ernest and Franklin Malcolm (1858-1949), son of George (1832-1904) a Scotland contractor, went to Innisfail, Alberta and became one of its founders. These are a few, many others found the lure of the West too tempting to pass up. The settlement of the West progressed quickly and the emergence of wheat as a major agriculture crop followed. The demand for workers during the peak harvest season grew. Once again, Oakland Township farmers lost their sons to this attractive employment opportunity. On July 27, 1891, a harvest excursion advertisement appeared in one of the local newspapers, as shown: CARADIAR

PACIFIC RY. HARVEST EXCURSIONS

From all stations in Ontario Return Rates to METHVEN HARTNEY DELORAINE MOOSOMIN BINSCARTH REGINA MOOS EJAW YORKTON CALGARY PRINCE ALBERT

$ 2 8 . 0 0

$30.00

$35.00

To leave all points in the Province of Ontario on AUGUST 11TH, Return until September 20th, 1891 AUGUST 18TH, Return until September 27th, 1891 SEPTEMBER 1ST, Return until October 10th, 1891 Parties ticketing from other points should arrange to arrive at Toronto in time to connect with the 11p.m. train leaving August 11th, 18th and September 1st, 1891. For full information apply to any ticket agent of the Canadian Pacific Railway.

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Another option at that time was to travel by an "expresslighted" steamship of the Canadian Pacific Steamship Line leaving Toronto for Port Arthur and Fort William and making connections with through trains of the CPR for Winnipeg and points beyond. Some preferred this scenic route. A local young man who made yearly harvest excursion trips was Herb Hendershot (1872-1932). He was a farmer on the Townline, south east of Scotland. His wife, Alma Malcolm (1873-1937) was a younger sister of Cecelia Malcolm (1855-1925), wife of J. Wesley Vivian (1951-1928) farmer on lot 4 (west half) Concession I. Wes and Cecelia split company at the turn of the century, Wes going West to homestead near Wishart, Saskatchewan. It was to Wes Vivians' wheat farm that Herb Hendershott went yearly to work in the harvest. On one of his visits, they always had night-time snacks, it was decided they should feast on crackers and New Brunswick sardines. A housekeeper, Lily Hammond, opened the tin and "pickled in oil" amongst the fish delicacy was part of a FINGER. Obviously, a worker at the plant at Blacks Harbour in New Brunswick had lost his finger in an accident and there it was, pickled, amongst the sardines. Until his death in 1932, this local farmer never again developed a taste for fish from a can! Some of the daily tasks of a farmer during the period 1875 to 1895 are highlighted in a diary kept by Prosper Winskel (18461923), a farmer south-west of Scotland: Jan 13 1879 1883 1883

- cleaning wheat - helped Metcalf thresh clover - fixing pump - drawed wood - drawing stone

Jan 15 1876

-

1883

shoeing horses meeting - killing hogs

-

went to Lynnville

to a

Jan 10 1877 1880 1893

- went to Father's stump bee - making doors in shed - making crow-bar

Jan 11 1877 1879

- splitting wood & choreing - fixing machinery

Jan 14 1876 1879 1893

- choreing and fixing king bolt on democrat - went to Norwich with wheat - helped Mr. Watson move house

March 22 1876 March 23 1876 24 25 26 27

-

tea

drawing wood set up buzz-saw sawing wood with buzz-saw - CUT OFF MY FINGERS! doing nothing went to doctor - fingers dressed doing nothing

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April 16 1877 18 1877

- fixing plough and ploughing - choreing and cleaning grist

May 1 2 3 4

- ploughing - sowing and harrowing oats in orchard - ploughing garden, harrowing, rolling - went to Windham Centre (jury duty) - planting trees - ploughing and sowing barley and oats - went to Teeters and traded barley for corn

1877 1877 1877 1877

14 1877 15 1877

August 13 1877 31 1877 1879 1880 -

at Niagara Falls and came back at night drawing manure drawed peas - ploughing threshing at P. Seatons' place

Sept. 1 5 25 27

went to G. Crabbs' to buy a colt reaping corn drilling wheat - harrowing harrowing wheat

1880 1880 1873 1879

Oct. 6 1879 1880 7 1879 1880 8 1879 1880 27 1880 28 1880 29 1879 31 1875

-

cleaning wheat for show picking and drawing apples to Vanessa picking and packing apples - preparing for show drawing pumpkins and cleaning furrows went to Windham fair cutting clover pulling mango Ids and digging potatoes went to mill - pulling mango Ids - turning clover fixing for tea meeting at church pulling mangolds - our first snow storm of the season - went to Mr. Rammage's

Nov 1 - 5 1875 - at court - jury duty Dec 21 1873 23 1873

-

(Sunday) at church - Rev. Mr. Howey - John 12 Chap 26 verse - in shop in forenoon - went to school examination and took Mary home (Note: Mary, his wife, was the teacher)

Draft Animals Oxen, with their heavy slow bodies, long tails and cloven hooves were strong, reliable but slow. They were harnessed as a single animal using a special yoke or worked in pairs. Shoeing was difficult. An oxen had to be placed in slings and held up to take the excess weight from its feet or it would topple. Most early pioneers were forced to use these bovines as their main working animal. A pair of oxen sold for around 15 to 17 pounds in 1830.

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Oxen hauling wheat for shipment down river on the Grand River Navigation barges. A trip to Brantford by oxen took at least three hours. The first breeds of horses seen in the area were the Conestogas. Indian ponies, brought in by the Six Nations tribe, were also used. The ponies were about thirteen hands high, tough, sure footed and docile. The Conestoga horse was bred in Pennsylvania and brought north by the U.E. Loyalists. They were about seventeen hands high, quiet, slow moving and strong, ideal for breaking land. Eventually the heavy draft horses, some weighing over 2000 pounds and 20 hands high (80 inches), replaced the ponies and the Conestogas. The Clydesdale, the bay Belgians, gentle and strong and the Percheron, an all purpose horse, were bred for heavy work and filled the stables of every farm in the Township. To buy a horse in 1803, the local farmer would have paid from 7 to 10 pounds. To shoe a horse in 1820 cost 12 shillings 6 pence. Through an appraisal, in 1851, of the estate of Abishai Rand (1791-1851), a pioneer farmer north of Scotland, the value of farm animals then can be established.

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VALUE OF LIVESTOCK

2 horses at 17 " 10 " 0 each 2 horses at 17 " 10 " 0 each 1 horse 1 " 5 " 0 6 cows 53 " 0 " 0 each 2 calves 15/0 each 11 hogs at 10/0 each 43 sheep at 7/6 each

pound 35 35 1 18 1 5 16

shilling 0 0 5 0 10 10 2

pence 0 0 0 0 0 0 6

Implements Primitive farm implements used by early pioneers were the axe (a short handled ship axe which had limitations for falling trees), a long-handled shovel and spade, the pitchfork, a hoe and rake all made of iron and very cumbersome. These were turned out by the local blacksmith, Squire Thompson of Oakland. A harrow, pulled by oxen, was used extensively. It was made from a thick round pole shaped like the letter A, with iron teeth slanted backwards so they would not become tangled amongst the roots. The first roller was made from a heavy log with a tongue attached, used to break up lumpy soil. These types of crude implements were prevalent until 1823 when a wooden plough and other manufactured machinery became available. Early harvesting was done with the assistance of a sickle, then a scythe, and later with a scythe and cradle. The wooden hand rake was replaced by a wooden lift-rake followed by a dump-rake. For threshing, the flail was the preferred tool and continued as a harvester well after the first basic threshing machines appeared in the 1840' s, powered by a sweep. If these were not available, threshing the grain was done with the use of horses to tread out the grain on the barn floor. Pioneers were used to "make do" tools and instruments, even at harvest time. A homesteader in a nearby County told the following story:

"During the 1819 harvest, I was confined to bed with ague and unable to work or harvest my acre of wheat nor did I have a sickle. My wife cut it all with a butcher knife, threshed it and pound it in a hand mill, to feed our family during the winter with bread."

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A tread-mill In 1831, implements:

Township dwellers paid the following prices for

Waggon for two horses Harness for two horses Plough Brake-harrow Long chains Double horse-sleigh Ox sleigh Scythe Axe

20 pounds 10 pounds 3 pounds

2 pounds 1 pound 7 pounds 2 pounds 8 shillings 9 pence 12 shillings

Farmers in the surrounding country had ready access to an implement dealer. Charlie L. Messecar established a ware-room at Scotland where he sold binders, mowers, ploughs, cuI ti vators, harrows and drills. His ad in the Scotland Sun read as follows: Farmers! If you would grow big crops, you must plow, harrow, cultivate and seed your land well. For the finest line of machines to accomplish this with, call at C.L. Messecar's ware-rooms, Scotland.

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A reaper of the type advertised for sale by John VanEvery in 1904. By 1866 prices were shown in Canadian dollars, with ploughs ranging in price from $5.00 to $8.00, depending on the model. A one horse plow sold for $5.00 while a jointer sold for $8.00. Anderson's vibrating two wheel cultivator cost $25.00, B.G. Tisdale of Brantford Canada West was the distributor. By the mid 19th century, local industry was serving the needs of farmers. Scotland Plow Works, E.G. Malcolm proprietor, manufactured various farm implements including his three plows. His ploughs were advertised in the local paper in the year 1885.

E. G. MALCOLM & COMPANY

Plow Works Scotland, Ontario

Egbert Malcolm Proprietor

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TELEPHONE JOINTER This plow has been on the market for the past two seasons, and has given good satisfaction. It has both solid and loose point shares. It has a loose shin piece, sharp breast, which can be replaced as easily as a share. It has a removable wheel, wrought iron beam, adjustable, which can be regulated to suite the ground. The wearing parts are of the true chilled iron and will clean in every land.

AMERICAN QUEEN To those in need of a strong, cheap plow for breaking purposes, covering manure or plowing weedy land, we can recommend this plow. It is finished with either straight side arm skimmer as required.

TELEPHONE PLOW The Telephone plow as a narrow bottom sod plow cannot be excelled. The wearing parts are of CHILLED IRON, wrought iron beam, adjustable steel coulter.

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PRICE LIST OF PLOW Economical Telephone Jointer Jewel Telephone American Queen (cast beam) Reliable New York Telephone Calden plow (one horse)

$17.00 12.50 12.70 12.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 9.00

(all skimmers, shares and boards, 25 cents each) 1880 SCOTLAND FOUNDRY R. Y. TELEPHONE

This plow is celebrated for use in light soils. It is light draft, and does good work, is furnished with either straight or side arm skimmer as required. RELIABLE

The Reliable is a genuine, first-class American plow, and has no equal in rough stumpy land. It is furnished with straight or side arm skimmer as required. JEWEL

Our Jewel plow is a light jointer, which has all the advantages of a jointer plow, and is light of draft, easily handled and does excellent work. It has wrought iron beam, adjustable, with chilled board and share. No farmer can afford to do without our double hilling plow, it can be attached to almost any iron frame corn cultivator. It has steel boards which can be adjusted to any width of drill in a moments time. It can be set to run deep or shallow and has only to be seen to be appreciated. Our Iron Duke Corn Cultivator No. 1 is a first-class Implement made almost entirely from wrought iron.

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PRICE LIST - HARROWS 45 teeth Extelsor, iron 60 teeth Extelsor, iron 72 teeth Extelsor, iron Iron duke horse cultivator Adjustable hilling plow for cultivator

$13.00 15.00 17.00 13.00 5.00

The Scotland Plow Works sold bells as well - 40 pound bell with hanger $6.00, 50 pound bell and hanger $7.00 and a 60 pound bell and hanger cost $8 . 00 as advertised in the Scotland Journal. Those wishing to install a windmill on their farm could contact Mr. Aaron Erb of Scotland who was the local agent for the Gardiner mill manufactured at Galt. The Glennie Brothers of Scotland installed one in 1885. 'tHE .MORRIS l:OUBLE DUESSElt THRESHING MAOHINE - '. .-

'.'

PERFECTLY BEARDS BARLEY, SMUTS WHEAT AND CLEANS GRAIN MARKf.t. · WRITE FOR DESCRIPTIVE PAMPLET AND TESTIMONIALS.

,

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READY ' FO'R ,' .' . '•. ;.., ... .•. , ..

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An early model

thresher made by Morris and Watts, Brantford available in 1880 - picture is taken from an advertisement appearing in the Scotland paper of 1885.

The following is an appraisal taken on Nov 21st 1851 of second-hand implements by Appraisers Chas S. Perley and Adbeel

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-

Eddy. The implements were from the estate of Abishai Rand (17911851), a pioneer farmer north of Scotland on the Town line: 2 3 3 1 3

waggons 15 sleighs 7 ploughs 2 fanning mill 2 axes

0 10 0 0 12

0 0 0 0 6

2 sets of harness with whiffle trees 1 harrow 1 cultivator pitch forks, hoes, shovels, spades 1 scraper

5 2

0 10

0 0

1 1

5 0

0 0

(figures in sterling)

A typical steam engine used in 1890 to power a threshing machine. This was a custom operation. Sylvester Stratford (18561943) was one of the first custom threshers, his business extending throughout Oakland and Townsend Townships. Ves Stratford bought his first thresher from the John Goodison Company of Sarnia for $1200.00. It was powered with steam, the engine being pulled along the dirt roads by a team of horses. For a rural country boy, nothing could match the excitement of the arrival of the threshing outfit on his farm. To this young lad, it was the biggest show of the year. Activity centred around the separator, wagons moving in and out, Ves hovering over and tending to every rattle. His ears were tuned to the whirs of belts, the grinding of chains and gears with dust flying everywhere. For Ves, his job was to thresh the dickens out of the grain sheaves passing through the separator. It was indeed a mechanical symphony brought right to the young lad's own farm as Ves greased, oiled, tested belt tension and checked regularly for the cleanness of the grain coming from the spout.

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Auction Sales Farm auction sales have always been a favourite diversion for country people and almost everyone attended, whether or not they had any intentions of bidding.

AUCTIO,N SALE FARM STOCK. ,JMPLEMENTS ETC. Welby Almas has been instructed by

M·R.J. F. VAN EVE'RY to sell by public anction at his residence one half mile west of Kelvin

;1 UESO AY, MARCH . the

19R4

following

BORSES-l span matched mares, good drivers; 1 bay mare, good single driver; 1 bay t:olt rising three yc.ars old by Shadlomd Duval, an extra good one. , COWS-IO good dairy cows all due to calf before the first of May, 3 t:-V0-yell;r-old heifers in calf, 6 spring calfs. PIGS-3 good brood sows in pig, 12 Shoats if not previously .sold. IMPLBMENTS--l Massey Harris binder; I Deering mower, good as new; 1 seed drill, Wismer make; I land cultivator, good as new; 1 land roller. nearly new; 1 disk; 1 faning mill; 1 sulky rake, Deering make, new; 1 set diamond tooth harrows; 1 corn cultivator, new; 1 two furrow plow, Vockshutt make; 2 single furrow plows; 1 Royce reaper; 1 lumber waggon; 1 pair of trucks; 1 democrat waggon; 1 pair of bob sleighs; 1 cutter; 1 scraper; 1 waggon box; 1 hay rack; 1 hay fork, new ;ropes and pulley; 1 weigh scale, capacity 600 pounds; I R"rindstone; 1 grain cradle; 1 wheel barrow; 1 stOFH! boat; 1 iron; 6 pails; kettles; about 300 tin sap pails; 2 pans for boiling I>ap; IlarR"e sap tub and about three l:.undred spiles; 2 sets of double harness, good new set of single harness; 1 "ross cut saw; a quantity of corn in the ears; whiffletrees and neck yokes, forks, chains, hoes and other articles too numerous to mention. HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE-l flower stand. 1 wash stand. I Rocker. I looking glass, 2 bed steads, 1 lounge, 3 milk cans, 2 twelve quart pails. 3 stoves. 3 kitchen chairs, 1 Daisy churn, 1 butter bowl, I sausage grinder, 15 length stovC;~p'ipe, 3 elbows, 2larg;e oil cans, 1 stove kettle, 1 checker board, 1 pali' sheep shears 2 flatIrons, 6 four quart pails. . TERMS-~11 ~lUms ?f ~lO and under, Cash; over that amount eight months cledlt on furDlshlng, approval joint notes. WELBY ALMAS, d. F. VANEVERY, Auctioneer. PrQprietor

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The sale poster advertising the closing out of farming for John F. VanEvery (1833-1920) at the turn of the century typifies the livestock, implements and household goods that an average farmer of the late nineteenth century had on hand. Mr. Van Every's farm was located south west of Scotland, formerly he had farmed at Bealton. Sale posters of stores, grist mills gristmill, dismantled the early part of the

Circa 1915 John VanEvery

all kinds were posted at the local general and other commercial outlets. Vivians' in 1991, still had posters on its walls from century.

The following appeared in the Scotland Journal, 1885:

60 ACRE

FJ~RM



CHEA~r. ~

AND ((iN .

E~SV

BOX 110, Scotland, Another ad in the Scotland Journal, the February 23rd 1893 edition, highlighted a forthcoming sale: "Don't forget the auction sale of stock and implements, on J.A. Eddy's farm in this village, on Wednesday, March the 1st. As Mr. Eddy has been farming but a few years, the implements are comparatively new and in good order. The stock consisting of horses, milch cows, six fat yearling cattle, extra bred ewes in lamb, a jersey calf, eight other calves, thoroughbred breama chickens are all in prime order, and will be sold without reserve. See posters and hand bills for particulars. Remember the date, Wednesday, March the 1st."

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Pioneer Fami1ies Three of the most procreative families to settle in the Township were Malcolm, Westbrook and the Secord. Others such as Bannister, Horning, Nelles and Roberts, to name a few, settled in the periphery and became part of the social and religious fabric of the community. Community leaders have not been oblivious of their heritage and have taken steps to honour and keep their forefather's memory alive. As a mark of respect, a cairn was erected at the Pioneer Burial Grounds in 1942. It was officially unveiled on Sunday, May 24th of that year by Payson Vivian. The Rev. J.M. Would officiated in the devotional period, both at the Church and at the unveiling of the cairn. Following the service at the United Church the gathering adjourned to the site of the memorial where it was exposed in a reverent and impressive ceremony.

t

Memorial Cairn Special speakers at the occasion were Judge D.J. Cowan, George E. Cooke, George T. Knox and Percy M. Button. The Brantford Boys' Band, under the direction of Bandmaster W.E. Clancy, provided the music for the occasion. Vocal numbers were given by a trio, Mrs. Lorne Stuart, Mrs. J. Silverthorne and Mrs. Claude Mitchell, Scotland.

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In May of 1984, the Pioneer Cemetery was the scene of another service hosted by the Women's Institute. Alice Dunningham, the oldest member of the Insti tute, at 95, assisted in the planting of a red oak. The Reverend Fred Starkey dedicated the tree, a flag of Ontario was raised by Reeve Keresturi, followed by a brief history of the cemetery by Mrs. Evelyn Chandler. Special speaker, Raymond Nelles of Boston, paid tribute to the early pioneers and noted how much history could be gleaned just by reading the headstones.

Evelyn (Dunningham) Alice Velma (Burrage) Chandler Dunningham Anderson President, Oakland WI (courtesy Oakland WI - Tweedsmuir history project)

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Some Families ANDERS -

Jacob Anders (1815-1894) married Amy Stenabaugh. They settled on lots 7 and 8 (100 acres), Concession II. Their descendants continued to live at Oakland. North Anders (Sr.) and North (Jr.) were both businessmen in the village.

AVERILL - Therin Averill, born in 1790, and his wife Christina farmed lot 1 Concession VI, the north west tip of the

Township. They were the parents of Robert born in 1824; Eliza born in 1830; Therin (Jr.) born in 1842. BALDWIN - Moses Baldwin (1790-1881) and his wife Phoebe (1790-1851)

homesteaded on lot 5 (west originally a Kings College lot.

half)

Concession

II,

Their children: 1. Amanda (1816-1836) 2. Mary Ann (1817-1889) married Otis Malcolm, son of John Malcolm (1776-1846), miller at Oakland, and Mary Chapin Eddy. Mary Ann and Otis moved to Illinois. Otis' sister married John Vivian (1810-1870), miller at Oakland. Born to Otis and Mary Ann (Baldwin) Malcolm were Emma (1837-1838); John Wesley (1840-1907); Emaranda Permelia (1842-1912); Maria Louisa "Lila" (18431921); Albert Edward (1842-1930); Chas Otis (18531886); Mary Ella (1863-19 ). 3. George Baldwin - born 1820 4. Moses Hervy Baldwin (1827-1905) married Nancy Smith who died at 84 years, daughter of another pioneer family, Lewis and Susan Smith. Hervy was a blacksmith and farmer and active in municipal affairs. Hervy and Nancy Baldwin were the parents of: (a) Lewis H. (1855-1935) married Frances C. Read merchants at Oakland. (b) Carman - married Elvira Messecar, daughter of Truman Messecar. (c) Susan - died young in 1858. (d) Melville (1858-1927) married Eleta Brown (1869-1935) (e) Emerson (1873-19 ) - served in Boer War moved to Flint, Michigan. (f) William born about 1875 moved to Philadelphia. (g) Ella (h) Kate (Mrs. Lutes) moved to Brantford.

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Circa 1890 The family of Hervy and Nancy Baldwin 1.Emerson seated 1.Lewis H. (1855-1935)

5. 6.

2.Melville

3.Ella

2.Nancy (Smith) Baldwin

4.William

5.Carman

3.M. Hervy Baldwin (1827-1905)

4.Kate

Mary (1833-1836) Nancy - born 1834

BANNISTER Charles Bannister (Sr.) and his wife Anna Dale settled on lot 7 Concession I, Townsend. They named their place "Pine Grove Farm". While the family lived just outside Oakland Township, much of their social, religious and business life was centred at Oakland.

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Charles (Sr.) and Anna were the parents of twelve children: Elizabeth Ann: George Dale born 1851: Albert: Eleanor: Walter: Georgina: Emma; Beatrice; Alice: Theresa: Wm: Charles (Jr.). George Dale Bannister married Elizabeth McAlister. Their youngest son, Stanley (1890-1964) , married Florence "Flossie" Vivian of Oakland following the death of his first wife. They were well known Oakland dwellers. Charles o. (1869-1916), the youngest of his family, married Bertha Roberts (1870-1895), daughter of Joseph and Louisa Roberts. Secondly, he married Anna Butler (1867-1934). Charles worked the homestead followed by his son Claude (1903-1956) who died in a tractor accident.

Circa 1909 Lila Anna (Butler) Bannister 1867-1934 Harold BEEBE -

Laura

Muriel Claude

Charles o. Bannister 1869-1916

Amasa Beebe (1791-1850) and his wife Rachel (1792-1862) settled on lots 7 and 8 Concession II. They had eight children - the fourth child, Smith Beebe (1825-1877), who married Sarah Secord, continued to live at Oakland and became active in municipal affairs.

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BIGGAR -

George C. Biggar (1856-1933) married Martha Binkley and settled at Maple Grove. George was active in municipal affairs. George is believed to be a son (or grandson) of James Biggar, born in 1781, an early settler in the Township.

George C. Biggar BURTCH -

Charles Burtch got his patent for lot 10 Concession I in 1802. He received other parcels of land in Concession II to become one of the largest landholders in the Township. He was appointed constable in 1809. His son Silas (1808-1880) and wife Adeline farmed lot 12 (west 1/2) Concession I. Silas' son, Hamilton (1839-1898), one of several children, Herbert Burtch married Elvira Brown. farmer lot 13 concession I Hamilton was very active in church and community affairs before the turn of the century.

CHAPIN -

Lyman (1812-1876) and Charles Sr. (1808-1871), brothers and sons of Elam and Mary (Eddy) Chapin, settled at Maple Grove. Lyman married Matilda Fairchild (1815-1875) and were the parents of eight children. In 1858, Charles Chapin Esq. owned 400 acres of land - 200 acres at lot 3 Concession III and 200 acres at lots 5 and 6 Concession IV. He married Loemma Haviland after the death of his first wife Maria Fairchild in 1841. Charles served on Council and became Reeve. Both Charles and Lyman were active participants in Duncombe's Uprising and received prison terms.

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2010CO001 - 70 CUNNINGHAM This family settled at East Oakland at the corner of the Cockshutt and Oakland roads. Their family tree identifies the progenitor as George Cunningham who married Mary Sitts; their son George Jr. born in 1798 married Abigail Slaght; their son William (1828-1902), married Eliza Westbrook daughter of Abram and Angeline Westbrook; their son Wallace, married Elizabeth A. Woodley (1854-1908). The children of Wallace Elizabeth Cunningham were: (a)

(b)

(c) (d) (e)

and

Mary "Mae" married Herbert O. Burtch (1876-1959) 1. Wallace - born 1900 2. Howard (1906-1970) 3. Lewis Frances A. married Alfred E. Bonham (1880-1935) 1. Bruce 2. Hazel Florence married a Courtnage Eliza married Will Anderson 1. Reginald Eva married Jim Martin 1. Jack S. Cunningham

The Cunningham homestead was taken over by Mary "Mae" Cunningham and her husband Herb Burtch and, in turn, by their son Lewis who sold out in 1971. There were other Cunningham families who settled at East Oakland including Andrew, born in 1820. He and his wife, Ann, were the parents of Mary, Francis, Gabriel and Rachael.

Cunningham homestead

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2010CO001 - 71 DARBY -

William Darby, born in 1805, settled on lot 10 (east 1/2) Concession II. He and his wife Louisa farmed there for many years. Thomas McEwan (1810-1885) bought the farm from the Darby family in 1875. Later, the place was bought by Stan Mordue.

DUNNETT - John S. Dunnett (1841-1911) came to Oakland village with his parents, the Reverend Samuel Dunnett (1815-1896) and Catherine Philp (1817-1898) and other members of the family. John married Eliza Roberts (1842-1938), daughter of John and Fanny Roberts. They farmed south of Oakland. Later, John became a traveller for Massey-Harris Company of Brantford. John and Eliza were the parents of eight children.

Circa 1888 - Dunnett family Mary Eliza (Minnie) (1873-1954) m. Dave Persall

Herbert (1870-1945) m. Edith Burtch

Harriett Helena John S. Dunnett Lillian V. (1864-1941) (1841-1911) (1882-1965) m. Sylvester Stratford

Eliza (Roberts) Dunnett Chas O. E. Ellsworth (1842-1938) (1866-1936) (1869-1960) m. mary Hall m. Martha (Van Every) Rammage

Fanny C. (1880-1974) m. I.Burton Wilson 2.Art Johnson

Edith M. (1878-1956) m. Geo . Riddle

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James P. Dunnett Anna (1845-1928) Sternaman (with their sons Frank and Edwin)

Milton Dunnett (1851-1935)

James and Milton Dunnett were John's younger brothers. Both grew up at Oakland. When young men, they migrated to Kansas where they homesteaded and established roots. EADIE -

Robert Eadie (Sr.) (1798-1882) farmer lot 4 Concession IV. He married (1) Eliza McLaws, (2) Margaret France A son, Robert Jr. (1825-1879), settled on lot 6 Concession III. He served on SS#2 School Board for several years and was active at the time the red brick school house was built north of the village in 1859. On the right is Wm Eadie, brother of Robert Jr., who married Mary Ann Westbrook (1838-1868), daughter of Mordecai Westbrook (Sr.).

Wm Eadie - husband of Mary Ann Westbrook.

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EDDY -

73 -

Charles Eddy (1781-1852), son of Chas (Sr.), married Sarah Malcolm (1774-1860), daughter of Finlay and Tryphena (Wardell) Malcolm. Charles settled north of Scotland on lots 1 and 2 Concession III. There are many descendants of this family throughout South Brant. Their family: 1. John Eddy (1804-1892) married I.Caroline McLeod 2.Abigail Smith farmers at East Oakland, lot 13 Concession I. John was active in municipal politics. By his first marriage five children were born and by his second marriage there were six children. Edward Eddy (1850-1932) son of John and Abigail Eddy 2. Adbeel Eddy (1806-1869) married Martha Moore. They were well-to-do farmers on lots 1 and 2 (south 1/2) Concession III. They had seven children. 3. Constant Eddy (1817-1892) married Ann Emmonds. They were farmers on lots 1 and 2 (north 1/2) Concession III and had eleven children. Their third Constant (Jr.) (1842-1862) died in the Civil War. Constant (Sr.) died on April 16th, 1892, one day before the death of the Honorable Alexander MacKenzie, statesman, politician and second Prime Minister of Canada from 1873-78. In politics Constant (Sr.) was a Reformer. He held many positions of trust and had lengthy service on the Council Board of Burford Township. The fourth child of Con and Ann Eddy, Louisa (18441895), married Joseph Roberts of Oakland. Joseph Roberts

EDY -

Louisa Eddy Roberts

A. Newcombe Edy (1810-1903) was the son of Omri (17811853) and Polly Edy. Newcombe and his wife Mary were farmers on lot 11 Concession I. By their marriage were born: Minerva; Peter; Mahlon; Ben; Luammi. Mahlon

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(1856-1909) and his wife Mary Elizabeth McLean (18531906) farmed on the homestead. Born to them were Maitland E. and Lavelle. Maitland (1880-1949) and Ella Edy farmed lot 11 Concession II as did their son J. Howard Edy (1905-1963) who married Verna westbrook. "

Circa 1930 The Maitland Edy residence at the four corners in Oakland. (note COF Hall in the background)

Circa 1935 Maitland Ella Edy FAIRCHILD Isaac Fairchild (1770-1859) was the son of the Reverend Peter Fairchild of Lower Oakland. Isaac married Lucy Kilbourne and they homesteaded at Maple Grove, lot 6 Concession IV. Isaac and Lucy were the parents of thirteen children. Fairchild's Cemetery is located on the old homestead property. Peter Fairchild born in 1809, a younger brother of Isaac, farmed the homestead, lot 17 Concession I, along with his wife Sarah. Their farm was at the extreme tip of the Township and was made up of a lot shaped in a triangle.

On the left is Matilda Fairchild Chapin (1815-1875), daughter of Isaac and Lucy Fairchild. Matilda married Lyman Chapin (1812-1876), brother of Charles Chapin, one of the Township's first Reeves. Lyman and Matilda were the parents of eight children.

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Horning (17641845) married Margaret Jones (1771-1834). His descendant Abram Isaac (1838-1915) married Jane A. Binkley (1841-1912) on January 16th, 1862. This family homesteaded in Windham, south of Scotland. Their social, religious and business life centred at the village of Scotland. Abram and Jane Ann were the parents of: Elizabeth Ada (1862-1938) married Herbert Foster of Scotland - bank manager; Abram B. (1865-1938) married Barbara Skinner (1864-1954) on January 16th, 1895 and their son Alex S. (1902-1975) married an Oakland Township girl, Gertrude I. Messecar (1901-1977); Mary Alberta (1866-1957) spinster; Annie Estella (1868-1947); Louis E. (1870-1872). Barbara

Abram B. Horning (1865-1938)

Catherine (Horning) Van Every (1805-1890) wife of Wm Van Every (1803-1842) (a granddaughter Martha Van Every (1870-1943) married Ellsworth Dunnett, well known Oakland farmer)

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Circa 1890 Elizabeth Ada Abram B. Annie Estella (1862-1938) (1865-1938) (1868-1947) married married Herbert Foster Barbara Skinner Abram I. Horning (1838-1915)

Mary Alberta (1866-1957)

Jane A. Binkley (1841-1912)

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KELLY -

Enoch Kelly, born in 1810, married Margaret Harris. They homesteaded on lot 7 Concession III. Born to Enoch and Margaret Kelly were three children: George, Lucinda and Isaac. Isaac Kelly (1835-1912) married Caroline Roberts - farmers lot 10 Concession II. Isaac and Caroline had eight children: Edith Mary (1858-1923) married Rev. Simon Waite Phelps; Rhoda Bessie (1860-1933) married Chas J. Malcolm; Fanny Marie (18631939) married Chas Orrin Lawrence; Mary Ann (1865-1952) married Edward Wilson; Ecclesia Maude (1868-1898) married Everett Tubby; John Wesley (1870-1957) married Annabelle Messecar; Sarah E. (1873-1952) married Frank Riddle; Roma V. (1878-1954) married Sam Porter. J. Wesley took over his father's farm, lot 10 Concession II. Enoch Kelly

KEY -

George Key (1791-1849) married Barbara Binn. They farmed on lot 4 Concession II (the Down's property) and paid $1.00 rent in 1846, the first year they settled. Of their six children only Henry, the youngest son, remained in Oakland Township. Henry "Hy" Key (1840-1925) married Julia A. Reynolds of Scotland. They farmed just north of Oakland village. He sold out to Sylvester Stratford (1856-1943) about 1911. Henry served as Township Clerk. Henry and Julia had three sons: James Alton; Henry Orton; Carl Binn.

LEFLER -

David Lefler (1788-1865) and his wife Margaret Brown (1785-1857) settled early in the century on lot 10 (north 2/3) Concession!. His son, Christopher (1825-1910), took over the homestead. Christopher's wife, Rachel, died in 1873. Neal Lefler (1820-1889), another son of David, and his wife Catherine Jane Westbrook (1826-1856), daughter of Mordecai Sr., were farmers on lot 8 (north 1/2) Concession I.

MALCOLM - From its beginning, the history of the township evolved around the Malcolm family. They were the most prominent family for a century and dominated the business, the manufacturing and the agricultural sector during the 19th century. At one time, thirteen farms were in the hands of this family. They were active in politics and rallied to the rebel cause during Duncombe's Uprising in 1837. Finlay Malcolm Sr. (1750-1829) together with his wife Tryphena Wardell (1761-1813) and several of their family came to Oakland in 1798 from Castine, Maine. For the first few years, the family established a homestead at

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the brow of the hill overlooking Malcolm's Creek, at Oakland. Later, Finlay (Sr.) moved to Scotland where he built an impressive home. In total, thirteen children were born to Finlay Sr. and Tryphena. The majority lived out their lives in the township and surrounding area.

Duncan Malcolm Jona Ma (1798-1866) (1821-1904), son of Eliakim, farmer lot 2 Concession I.

Emily Malcolm married Wm Whitney

Eliakim Malcolm Jr.

James Van Dusan

Mrs. D. Malcolm (1802-1888)

Deborah Moore Dr. John R. married Jonathan Malcolm Malcolm Dr.

Samantha (Sexton) Malcolm

Johnathan Malcolm

Sophrona William Malcolm Whitney married J. Malcolm

Eliakim Mrs. Whitney Malcolm Sr.

Katherine Malcolm married Jas Van Dusan

Eliza Malcolm wife of Mr. Blighton

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

2010CO001 Duncan Kalcolm - born 1720 - AJ.rdeen.h1re, Scot.land (a weaver by t.rade) - t.en children Finlay born dled -

.t.egIend (b)born (dld1ad (m)marri.ed

1

John (miller) be 17,6 Penobacot, Ha1ft_ daS.pt. 11,1847-Qakland II. (l)Bunlce Hiller (firat cou.in) in 1801 - diad Oakland (21Mary (Ch.pin I Eddy (widowl b.1784 d..Apr 21,1828 Oakland (&)S.linda b.1801 II.JOhn 8. HUM

- fourth child - a Sea capt,atn ud U.B.L. 1750 aberd_n.bire, Scot.land. Sept. 18,1829 Oakland., Upper canada buried Oakland. Ploneer c-tery mu'~i.ed. - (l)Trypbena Wardell born - 1761 Xork, Kalne dJ.ed - olu 16, 1813 Qakland (2)Bannah :::t:a~land. Ploneer C_t.ery

D1.1.1 b.1777 Nova Scot.ia burJ.ed - TJ.llsoDburcJ' II.Mr•• D1cuon (a)Pinlay b.1799 d.1878 Tl11.oDburg ... Mary A. TU~~ (.il< chllclr.nl (bIJ_· d. Grand Rapida HI

(b) Norman b.29 Feb 1820 SCot.lan.d

4.23 Feb 189S AIM., Iowa ... (11 Cjmth1. Cady (nln. children) (2)Elvlra St.raight (two children) (3)pranc•• (Poor.) Powell (CILeW1. • claughter Kat. II. Stephen Malcolm (dIOt1. d..1n 111111.01. •• Mary Ann aaldwi.a. b.1817 d.1889 Ill1nc1. ( ••ven children) d.ll Fool> 1862 OaklaDd m.John Vivian (m111er) 1810-1870 (thr.. children) (fIHarr1ett m.John Haviland (twc chllclran I

&

(faJ:1MlZ')

b.l,96 Hau. d.3 Aug 1864 Scotlud m.Elizaktet.h Slaght. b.1801 d.1847 (&)Auquatua

b.1820 d.1896 ID. Sarah B. Bugbee

b.1822 d.1912 ,e"gbt children) (blBugh (.hoe makarl b.1831 d..lSSS Scotland. m.Haney Moore

b.1832 4.1902 Michigan (c)Benry dl.ect Nt. 8ryd.•• , DDt. (d)Ezra

dl-eel Lond.on, Ont. (e,"yra m.Frank. Glover (f)Sell.nda m.John Moore

(9,Abl.qa11 m.Jeff Saines (bIliary III. Henry Osborne

3

Pinlay Jr. (lDiller) KPP b.20 June 1779 Kaine d. 4 IW: 1862 Oakland II.Fanny Tyler b.1791 d. 22 Ap~ 1823 (.,P1nl.y (3rdl b.28 P.b 1800 d.17 Ju1 1878 Springfield, Ont.. ... Mary kclelof (bIEl1ak1m (C) Isaac Brack (f&nlezo) b.4 Aug 1812 d.2 Hay 1867 Oakland a. Cbarlot.t.e Smit.h b.1814 d.1892 OaklaDd (a1x cbildren) (dISbub••l D. faz:mer 1867 b.5 Jun. 1814 Oakland d.20 Hay 1878 Oakland a.Slv1ra Post.er b.1820 d.1894 (four sons) (.,Edward - fa.....: b.7 AIIg 1830 OaklaDd d.4 Apr 1'13 OakllUld a.Hartha Chryaler (thE'se childJ:en)

_ve

(e)Sarah "1'rypbena b.1821 Oakland

Peter

bern - 1762 died - Aug 18,1821 - buried. Oakland.

7

J_. 8

S10h b.l S.pt 1784 d.20 S.pt 1860 ... Cbaa Bddy b.1781 d.1852 (.,Jolln Eddy f_r Ro.". 1863 b.29 Nov 1804 d.7 Pool> 18'2 •• (lICarc11lul JlcLaod b.1805 d.1836 (five children) (2IAb1g.1l S..1th b.1817 d.1881 (au children, (bllldbeol Eddy _ fanler b.30 Sept 1806 d.24 FIOb 186' m.Martha C. Hoare b.1816 d.1876 (seven children) (C)Ccm.t.ant Bddy - faz:mer b.1 Aprll 1817 d.16 Ap~l1 1892 Scotland II.Ann a-onds (eleven cbildren)

10

(f_, El1ak1m PLS b.18 IW: 1801 (tw1n1 d.26 S.pt 1874 Scot1aDd b.2 01 ... 1800 ID. Samuatba 8eJd:on d.6 Nov 1858 b.1806 m.Elvia Falrcbild d.29 Aug 1883 b .12 Apr 1803 (a)JonatbaD d.21 .laD 1841 (.,l1li C. . . b.23 OCt 1821 buried - P.1rchl1d. b.1826 d.1904 (.,Sarah d.1892 Scotl&Dcl m.Deborah Il001"8 b.1832 a. AIIaDCla BarJd.ason b.28 Fool> 182' d.1'12 b.1832 d.6 Jan 1885 m.Haml1t.on Smith d.1914 f_ (e1gbt chllclr.n I (bl _ _ (twc chllclr.1l1 (blBmlly b.18 IW: 1815 II.WID Whit.ney d.21 Apr 1895 ha.ruesa aaaker carpent.er Scotland b.l D.c 1829 (CIBl1z. ,aeven children) d.1892 ... Hr. 811gbton (b I Shazman 1D.21iz Scott (dlJ 1'18 b.1836 b.9 Hay 1832 Scct1 ...d (.1ght chllclr.nl d.28 Nov 1917 d.11 Oct. 1904 scotland. (.,B11aklm (Jr. I 1Dwell HI (nine cbildren) b.ll r.b 1829 m. Abbey La Rue (d.)"allaCe II.Bmily Smit.h ,t.wo cbildren) palnt.er (nine chllclran I (e) Jennet.te b.l0 HOY 1834 (f)Per.ia m.Qeo Robin.on d.190S b.1836 (flFanny Hount. Bryde., Ont. d.1874 ID.WID Brown •• &mily Robinaon 1I.Hart. Weatbrook (gIJ_. (Jr. I (thr_ aon.) (gILou1 •• m. -TedCronin (e)DunCan Warwick b.1838 die - ....1tn.yvlll. HI acbool teacher d.1861 (h)a daught.er b.1S Apr 1839 m.,.) . . . . DavieS.on d.1909 Scot.lud (b I SopbrOftO lI.cecelia Cline b.1842 b.1849 d.l'12 Scotland d.1936 cat.he'ine (t.win) m. John R. Kalcolm lID (t...... chllclranl b.2 Jan 1800 b.183' (fIJ. 01.... m. ,.)uat.u. Smitb d.1895 HI b .16 Fool> 1840 b,1794 (t.wo children) m. (1) Jaaon Leacb d.1864 Scot.land (2 ) Thomaa Ander.on ,a) Qu,artus died - Caro HI ... Mary 8ug_ Charlea (fA%lDer) (tbr_ cbllclran I (bIF1nl.y b.1805 (gICh•• Jolin (CllW:gant d .1853 Lako Ihmgar b. & June 1843 b.27 JUl 1827 II.Bli.zabet.b Loffl. . d.1935 D.ford HI m.David C. Pletcher (.,Mary II. (l)Jane W.atbrook (Ofte aon) ID.Gao BageJ:IDUI. (1848-19111 (dlCothar1lul b.1835 (2 ) Be ••1e Kelly (e)daught.er d.1902 ( 1860-19331 (fIJ ..... (Rov.1 (.1gbt chl1c1r.n I (five children 1I ••uphemia Zadie (blJolIn by Jane) b.1832 (CILev1 (d IIW:.b.ll (.,El1z. ID. Corneliua COrbLn ( f IlW:gorat m.Mr. Hen.OIl (gIJ .... b.184' 11.070. Harkle d.1894 (four cbildren)

Dunca (fAnler) b.1 AUg 1798 d.31 OCt 1866 Scotland II.Jue Beron b.1802 d.1888 Scotland

=u

11

alh (fan.rl b.ll olul 1789 Hew 8runawlck d.17 Hay 1828 ScotlaDd (bun ralaill9 accldent., ... (lIH1 •• Bddy d1.d 1821 (.,Darwin b.1813 d.1825 (b)Loui.a b.1815 d.Scot.lanc:l II. HZ'. Vu Dusen (t.wo .ona) (CIEddy b.2 Apr 1817 d. 18'2 Scotland m. (1 )Maryet.t.e W..tbrook b.1825 d.1848 (t.wo daught.er., (2lSarah J. JlcCcmb b.1817 d.18'2 (.il< chllclr_, (dIJ..... b.16 IW: 1821 d.1884 m.Elizabeth LaWZ'ence (t.wo .ona) (2IBl1z. 81g.1ow d.Wichit.a, ltansa. (a)Allen b.1825 d.1902 Gaylord, HI m. Sarah Coaai.DII b.183S d.1882 (four chl1c1ran I (bITryph.... b.1828 d.1917 m. 'f'hoa Bigelow b.1820 d.1883 Oakland cc. HI (fourt_n cbildren)

12

George b.3 Aug 1806 d.' Ap~ 18'5 m. (l)Bllz. Averill (2)Sarah Be. . .r (a)Mucus (woollen lll.ill operat.or) b.6 IW: 1830 d..1103 Brut.fom m.Bu1da Bugbee b.1830 d.1911 (two children, (b I 'l"ryphan. b.23 Fool> 1832 d.l'l' ID.J. . .S HageZ'lD&J1 (b10ckam1tbl b.1831 d.1884 (.il< chllclran I (cIF1nl.y (_r.ndl (seven chl1dren) (d)'f'bur.a (eIHart1n b.1837 (fIE11zabeth ID. WID Tennant. (g)Blvira (spinat.er) (b)Luc1na (api.nt.er) (i)Cat_rine ID. Philander Slack (t~ chllclr.nl (j IJlu ••• ll (kIW1l11am

13

'1"rypben. ... DE. Chapin

1.

K&rgaret. ID. Hatblaa

Woodley (f..",..rl b.1790 d.ll IW: 1858 Daklud (a)George b.181' d.1881 m.Abi.gail A. Brawn b.1819 d.1878

15

JaDR ".Andrew Steinhcff (a,Andrew (bIEll.n (CIBmLly (dln.i.

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

2010CO001 - 80 McALISTER -

Wellington McAlister (1814-1897) farmed lot 11 Concession II. wellington came from Burford Township, settling in 1840. He was active in municipal politics, served as Reeve in 1866, and was a school trustee for forty-three years. He married three times and had a total of seventeen children. In 1851, Wellington and his second wife, Elizabeth, were living at East Oakland with their children: Lois 7 years; Sabina 6 years; Owen 4 years; Obedience 1 year. Welby age 14 and Albert age 13 were also at home. The latter two children were by Wellington and his first wife Samantha Brown. "" •• S! uaa

!S ,*~diEi&P

Wellington McAlister (1814-1897) McEWAN -

Thomas McEwan (Sr.) (1810-1888) married Charity Smith (1838-1918) - farmers lot 10 (east 1/2) Concession II, the former Wm Darby farm.

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-

Thomas McEwan (Sr.) Thomas (Sr.) came to Oakland in the mid century and found work at the Smith farm, west of Oakland village, lot 5 Concession II. Susan Smith (1817-1888) lost her husband, Lewis, by accident in 1847 and needed help to farm her 200 acres. Thomas (Sr.) subsequently married Susan's daughter, Charity, on August 20th, 1856. Thomas and Charity were the parents of several children: (a) William L. (1857-1900) - Will married Mary "Minnie" Jane Wesbrook in 1883. Will worked for Minnie's father, Mordecai Wesbrook (Jr.) (1840-1913) farmer lots 7 and 8 (south 1/2) Concession I, for several years then moved to Brantford for a time, then returned to Oakland. Will died of T.B. on April 3rd, 1900 leaving Minnie and four sons. (b) Susan (1859-1950) married Leamon Lutes in 1884. 1921, they moved to Swampscott, Mass.

In

(c) Thomas A. (1863-1941) married Julia Vivian on October 28th 1885. They were farmers at several locations. During their married life they endured the hardship and inconvenience of sixteen moves. Their fourteenth was to the hollow in Oakland, where Tom and Julia ran the general store and post office. They were the parents of: C. Roy (1889-1971) married Alma Bradshaw; Fred (18911974) married Ecclesia M. Campbell; Florence married Constant Eddy.

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(d) John W. (1866-1927) married Rhoda A. Wesbrook sister of Minnie, Will's wife, in 1889. They lived in Brant ford , later they moved to Fairfield and kept a general store. He served on Burford Township Council and was Warden of Brant County. (e) Albert (1869-1938) married Rose Puttman. They were market gardeners near Paris. Albert died of T. B. on February 3rd, 1938. (f) Mary "Minnie" (1872-1955) married Merrit Crumback on January 15th 1896. They farmed at East Oakland. (g) Maggie (1875-1955) married Joseph Walters on September 12th 1895. They lived in Brantford, later at Windsor where they both died. McINTYRE -

Nichol McIntyre (1794-1845), one of three brothers, emigrated in 1807 from Edinburgh. He married Amelia Walker (1799-1841) and they homesteaded at East Oakland. By Nichol and Amelia McIntyre were eleven children: 1. John (1821-1846) buried Oakland Pioneer Cemetery 2. Daniel - born 1823 3. Elizabeth - born 1825 4. Christiane (1827-1845) buried Oakland Pioneer Cemetery 5. Duncan - born 1828 6. Peter (1830-1887). He married Matilda Brown (18331872) • They farmed lot 13 Concession II. Their daughter, Mary (1853-1933) married Elias Woodley (18531930). 7. Nichol - born 1832 8. Robert - born 1834 (lived at Mt. Pleasant) 9. Alexander (1837-1901) farmer at Boston. He married Amey Persley on December 18th 1861. They had two daughters. Their second daughter married Arthur Nelles of Boston. 10. Joseph (1839-1914), farmer lot 12 Concession II. He married (1) Maria Westbrook (1841-1879), (2) Miss N. Biggar - died 1912. The Daily Courier, July 28th 1914 edition, reported his death as follows:

"In the death of Mr. Joseph McIn t rye , who passed away at the residence of his daughter, 63 Brant Ave., yesterday. Brant County has lost one who has for many years been actively identified in the progress of the county and one who was known as a Christian gentleman. The late Mr. McIntyre, who was seventy-five years of age at time of his passing, had rendered splendid service to his fellow residents of Brant County, and in turn had received well merited recognition in public office of his ability for fai thful service. He was three times Warden of the county, a record which is unique in the annals of the

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a county. He served in 1891, 1897 and 1903. In the township of Oakland his memory will be cherished by many. For twenty years he was reeve of that township, the length of service reflecting to a high degree the trust imposed in him. In other county matters the late Mr. McIntyre was both diligent and active. He was the first chairman of the House of Refuge board. He was VicePresident and Director of the Brant Mutual Fire Insurance company up to the time of his sickness. In politics he was a life long Liberal and an ex-vice-president of the Brant County Reform Association. He was also active in church matters to which he gave liberal and cheerful assistance. He was a deacon of the Burtch Baptist church. Few men are called and very few respond to the service of the community such as was given in the long life of usefulness of the late Joseph McIntyre. His passing will be generally regretted as a life of great service has been closed. One son, Charles of Oakland and one daughter Mrs. T.E. Ryerson, city, also one brother, Robert, Market st. are the surviving members of the family. The funeral takes place tomorrow to Oakland cemetery from the late residence 63 Brant Avenue."

Joseph and Maria McIntyre were the parents of: Charles (1875-1955), farmer lot 12 Concession II. He married Nellie Crumback: Elizabeth - married Thos. E. Ryerson: Nettie (1870-1891). 11. Benoni - born 1841. MERRITT - Caleb Merritt (1798-1874) and his wife Hannah Underhill (1809-1890) settled on lot 3 (north 1/2) Concession II, also owned land on lots 1 and 2 Concession III. Caleb was born in Queens County, New Brunswick, son of Gilbert and Phoebe Merritt. Caleb and Hannah were the parents of several children including: Robert (1828-1887), farmer lot 1 (north 1/2) Concession I; Isaac B. (1830-1911) married Louisa Kelly; Mary Jane (1831-1891) married John Smith; Thomas born in 1832; Sarah (1834-1922); Gilbert (1836-1916) married Harriett Smith; Phebe E. (1840-1924); Prisilla (1844-1907). Abraham Merritt (1796-1861) and his wife Clarissa (17941880) came from New Brunswick and settled in Concession III. Benjamin B. Merritt (1835-1919) born in New Brunswick, son of Abraham, married in 1859, to Rhoda M. Clark (1838-1911) and farmed lot 8 (south 1/2) Concession III. They had at least three children; Clara (1862-1933) married Robert C. Tegart; Effie Jane (1865-1876); Clark (1880-1949) married Ruby May Westbrook, and secondly, Laura Cowie. Clark took over the farm at lot 8 Concession III from his father, Benjamin. Clark Merritt

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2010CO001

- 83 r---~~------- (b)

Rhoda M. (Clark) Merritt 1838-1911

B

Circa 1865 Benjamin B. Merritt 28 Apr 1835 - 3 Apr 1919 (son of Abraham 1796-1861)

On the left is Colin F. Marr (1850-1916) farmer at Maple Grove. His son, Dave, is a well known Township farmer of the next generation.

Circa 1884

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served as Reeve 1932/39. The Merritt family were devote Baptists and had close ties with Scotland Baptist Church. HESSECAR other variations of the name are: Masseker, Messeker, Massacre, Mascar, Messecre, Masiker, Masecar, Mesker, Messecher, Massecar, Massiker, Mussiker, Massaker, Massaker, Massacar, Massacher, Metseker and Metzger. For over a century, this family were one of the most influential in the Township. Their numbers are so great that an accurate family lineage has not been possible to establish. The progenitor appears to have been John Messecar born in 1765 who married Elizabeth Slaght. Some of their descendants are: William Hessecar (1804-18 ) (son of John Messecar and Elizabeth Slaght). He married Anna Slaght and homesteaded on the Townline, two miles north of Scotland, lots 1 and 2 Concession IV. Their children were: 1. John - born 1826 2. David - born (1828-1869). David and Rachel Messecar had three sons - two married into the Eddy family George W. (1854-1901) married Jane E. Eddy and Andrew B. (1859-1939) married Clara Eddy. He wrote band music under the name Metzger. 3. William - born 1835 4. Geo Wesley - born 1847 Matthew Hessecar (Sr.) (1792-18 and Elizabeth Slaght married: 1. Mary Clouse 2. Lydia McCombs 3. Hannah Daughnce

) - son of John Messecar

This family homesteaded on lot 3 Concession II. Matthew Sr. and Mary Clouse were the parents of at least nine children: 1. Silas (1819-1881) married Mary Shaver 2. Geo 3. Elizabeth 4. Hiram (1824-1873) farmer lot 4 (east 1/2) Concession I - his wife Anna died in 1900 at 75 years. 5. Matthew (Jr. (1826-1897) married Alfreda Smith 6. James born 1828 7. Mary Ann 8. Charles - born 1832 9. Truman (1836-1915) Matthew Jr. (1826-1897), son of Matthew Sr. and Mary Clouse, married Alfreda Smith (1832-1891) - farmers lot 3 Concession I. Their children were: a. Malvena (1854-1891) b. Jacob Anderson (1858-1938) married Minnie Boughner.

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They farmed lot 3 Concession I. 1. Edna 2. Edwin 3. Earl (1880-1965) married Pearl Wheller, farmers lot 3 Concession I. Jacob served three terms as Reeve of the Township, also served as Warden of Brant County. James Hessecar (1828-1906) married Angelina Misener (1839-1930) - farmers lot 3 (east 1/2) Concession 1. They had four children: a. Alfreda (1859-1921) - spinster - a practical nurselived in Buffalo - died by accident after being struck by a car. b. Albert married Mary Boughner - moved to Roswell, Michigan. c. Lucinda (Lucy) (1865-1929) - spinster - a seamstress in Michigan and Brantford. d. James David (1872-1948) married Sarah Prudence Epps (1874-1952) - farmers lots 3 (east 1/2) Concession I. Their children: 1. Francis Herbert (1898-1980) 2. Gertrude Irene (1901-1977) married Alex S. Horning (1902-1975) - farmers near Vanessa. 3. Emery A. (1905-1969) married Winnifred Eddy garage operator, Waterdown, Onto 4. James Morval (1907-1946) married Clara Furlong. He worked at McIntyre Mines, Schumacker, Ontario suffered partial physical impairment when struck by a car and a second accident at Waterdown was fatal. 5. Howard W. (1909-1986) married Helen A. Scriven e. Ethel L. (1876-1952) married Wm Pringle (1869-1924). William died accidentally, in 1924, during the construction of the Lorne Bridge at Brantford. Truman Hessecar (1836-1915) married Ellen Hall - farmers lot 3 Concession II. Their children were: a. Elvira married Carman Baldwin of Oakland b. Charles - became President of Brantford Cordage. c. Letitia married Ralph Cooper d. Ida married Frank Smith e. Rhoda married Mr. Hammer Hammer Transport of Norwich, Ontario KILLS -

Thomas Mills married Melissa Smith, daughter of Lewis and Susan Smith. They farmed west of Oakland. Their daughter, Mary (1856-1924), married Horace Finlay Malcolm, foundry operator east of Scotland who manufactured plows, harrows and other farm implements.

KOORE -

Captain John Moore and Sgt Ashman Moore, sons of Johnathan Moore and Mary Carpenter, settled near Scotland. Captain John Moore (1794-1848) married Phoebe

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Huffman (1799-1842) of Ancaster. Their land may have been across the line in Burford Township, north of Scotland village, in Concession XII. Their children included: 1. Wm Henry (1815-1836) 2. Martha Carpenter (1816-1876) married Adbeel Eddy in 1831. Adbeel (1806-1869) and Martha had seven children. They were considered affluent farmers on lots 1 and 2 (south 1/2) Concession I. 3. Paul Huffman (1818-1897) married Ellen Whitney. He was a tinsmith at Scotland. Paul and Ellen had five children. 4. Cyrus - born 1820 married Jane Park 5. Jonathan (1822-1876) married Alice Burton 6. John - born 1824 7. Sarah Ann - born 1829 Ashman Moore (1796-1872) married Elizabeth Swackhammer (1802-1876) and they settled on lot 1 Concession XIII Burford Township. They were the parents of several children including four daughters: Mary born 1822; Sarah Ann born 1824; Eliza born 1826; Deborah born 1829 married Jonathan Malcolm (1821-1904), farmer lot 2 (south 1/2) Concession I, along the Townline south east of Scotland village. Jonathan was the son of Eliakim (1801-1874) and Samantha Malcolm; Nancy born in 1832 married Hugh Malcolm, shoemaker at Scotland, son of Peter and Elizabeth Malcolm. Other children of Ashman and Elizabeth Moore were: Jacob born in 1834 married Susan Zimmerman farmers lot 2 Concession II; John (1837-1923) married Alice Barton John served as postmaster at Oakland from 1908/13; Maria (1840-1908) married Robert Gillespie a farmer on lot 1 Concession I also a hotel proprietor; Wm born in 1841 married Martha Eddy, daughter of Adbeel and Martha Eddy. Wm and Martha lived at Hamilton; Martha (1845-1917) married John P. Eddy of Scotland, son of Adbeel. John and Martha owned land north of Scotland in Burford Township and had other business interests at Scotland. John Moore (1821-1887), farmer lot 2 Concession I, married: 1. Belinda Malcolm (1826-1862); 2. Mary Harvey - died 1904. Belinda Malcolm was the sixth child of Peter Malcolm (1796-1864) and Elizabeth Slaght (Slaught). Her older brother, Augustus (1820-1896), was a farmer and one of the leading citizens of Scotland. John and Belinda Moore were the parents of Mary born 1843; Martha born 1848; Phoebe born 1849; Ellen born 1852; Robert born 1855; Sandra born 1857 and Elinor born 1859. John Moore had several children by his second wife including: Teresa; Robert; John; Ashman; Agnes; Wellington.

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John Moore (Courtesy Angela Files - Pathway of the Moores) NELLES -

Although John Nelles (1817-1885) and his younger brother Joseph (1824-1905) settled in Townsend, they were well known to Oakland Township dwellers. They were the sons of Joseph Sr. (1776-1841) and Sarah Haviland (1786-1825), who homesteaded on 200 acres of land, lot 9 Concession II Townsend. They settled in 1819. John Nelles (1817-1885) married Mary Ann Vivian (1816-1889), sister of John Vivian, grist mill operator at Oakland. Mary Ann came to Canada with her family in 1840. A year later she was married. John and Mary Ann were the parents of eight children. NELLES c. 1875 Charles David R. Mary 1855-1939 1847-1904 1844-1927 m.lda Kettle m. A. Jane m. Peter Wilson Pitcher Sarah John Nelles Mary Ann Ellen Clara 1845-1921 1817-1885 (Vivian)Nelles 1850-1922 m. John Couke m. Chas Vivian 1816-1889 Samuel B. Selena Martha 1853-1933 1841-1914 (Liza) 1858-1.947 m. Ursula J. spinster m. Chas Kitchen Tupper

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

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Mary Ann V1v1an b. 7 Jan 1816 St. Issey. Cornwall d. 23 Oct 1889 Wilsonville 73y 9m 16d m. John Nelles (son of Joseph d.1848) b. 1817 d. 1885 67yrs I

1. Selena b.1841 d . 17 Nov 1914 t73rd yr) bur. wilsonville (spinster)

2. Mary b.1844 d.7 Oct 1927 Wilsonville m. 1863 Peter Wilson d.14 Jun 1908 (70th year) L.7 C.III E.half Townsend

a)Mary Ann b.1873 d.4 May 11193 Wilsonville (21st year) b)Edward P. b.9 Oct 1878 d.27 Sept 1927 Wilsonville (61 years) m.Mary Minnie Kelly d.17 Jun 1952 Wilsonville (86yr) (2nd cousins) (See Roberts for oamplete list of descendants )

3. Sarah b.1846 d.1921 m.John Coulee 1869 a)David H. b.1874

eo.

4.

es

b.1847 d.5 Sept 1904

5. x en ara b.1850 d.1922 Oakland

6.

,'"

7. I·V1_



b.1853 b.1855 d.1939 d.1933 m. 1889 Townsend 'l\op Wilsonville (fataly injured Ida E. Kettle m.Olarles m.Ursula J . 1862-1948 Vivian in Tupper in - stuck by a a)Vera barn door) 1878 1872 (see separate m.Ann Jane Pitcher (dau of Jeremiah b. d. m.Fanny chart for and Matilda Tupd. in 1872 m.Learron Welsh Roberts b.1851 further deper. farmers (see Roberts) tails) i)Elvin d.1939 L.3 C. IV T0wnb)Mary send 'l\op.) ii)Clifford Wilsonville iii)Hazel b.1875 a)Clara Jane 1854-1947 c) Selena 1874-1957 a)Newran Cecil ivlRobert b.1878 blJohn Vivian Wilsonville 1877-1882 (typhoid) 'b.1Jun 1896 b)Alettia (Letta) m.Erla May ChisblAudra Matilda c)Mary Ann b.1880 holm d)Ada (no childrenl d.1967 c)Reba (Rheba I m.Merrit m.Hiram b.1898 Myles 1902 Grantham d.1984 1887-1960 d.S:imcoe

(farmer n.

bur. Oakland

of waterford)

m.Geo. Wray

8. - - Eliza Martha b.1858 d.1947 Wilsonville m. Chas Kitchen 1853-1901 bur .Wil5OOville

CrImtlack

1896-1967 (500 of Merritt Crlmlack) bur. Oakland i)CaDren

m. John Hunting

dlLila b.

d. m.Stanley Chapman ilGlen lllErla iii)Clair

E. Clara Nelles (1850-1922) married Chas Vivian

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1904 Relatives and friends gathered at Robert's stone house, south of Oakland, on the occasion of Fanny (Vivian) Robert's 90th birthday who is seated #3. Some of her children, her grand children, her nieces and nephews and friends attended. Seated beside her, on her right, is daughter Caroline #2 and on her left, Eliza #4, another daughter. Two sons, Joseph #5 and Elisha #6 are also in the picture. The Nelles family were well represented. Besides Fanny's brother-in-law, Joe Nelles (1824-1905) # 1, are several nieces and nephews who are sons and daughters of John and Joe Nelles. Identified are Mrs. Vivian Nelles #7; Mrs. Clark Nelles #8; Clark Nelles #9; Sarah Nelles Couke #10; Mary Nelles Wilson #11; Chas Nelles #12; Mrs. Chas Nelles #13; David R. Nelles #14; E. Clara Nelles Vivian #15. Also in the picture are the Reverend and Mrs. Clark, standing at the doorway on the right. The Reverend Clark was the Oakland Methodist minister.

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Joe Nelles (1824-1905) farmed lot 9 Concession II Townsend. He married Eliza Ann Vivian, and secondly, Margaret Waugh. EI~za

Ann Vivian m. Joseph Nelles b.1827 Cornwall b.1824 d.1851 Townsend Twp d.27 Jan 1905 (giving birth) Wilsonville (82y 3m 22d) second wife: Margaret E . Waugh d.4 May 1886 Wilsonville (51y 6m 2d) I

(by Eliza) I

Mary b . 1851

I

Vivian (farmer) b.1851 (29 Aug) d.1930 m. Ernrna Waugh b.1863 d. 1940

(by Margaret> I

William Clark (farmer) b.1862 d.1924 Wilsonville m.Alberta Letitia Moore b.1863 d.1947 Wilsonville a)Wm Carl (farmer) b . 1887 d.1959 Wilsonville m.Mary Welsh b . 1892 d.1977 i)Newton Jas. 1920-1962 Wilsonville

Circa 1904 4. Eliza Roberts Dunnett 1. Joseph Roberts 2. Caroline (Roberts) Kelly 5. Joe Nelles (1824-1905) 3. Fanny (Vivian) Roberts

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PEPPER -

91 -

William Pepper settled on lot 1 Concession IV in 1885. His two sons Frank and Robert and five daughters; Susie, Nancy, Mary, Etta and Ann came with him. William's wife had died three years earlier. Etta married William Snodgrass to become his third wife, and they took over the Pepper farm. Their son, Jim Snodgrass, married Hazel Riddle in 1941. They continued on the farm and both became active on Township Council.

The Pepper farm house, north of Scotland, on the Townline. Seated on the extreme left is William Pepper with some members of his family including Susie, Ann, Etta who married William Snodgrass, Frank Pepper (reclining) and Nancy Pepper standing on the extreme right. Their farm had been owned previously by Robert Ranshaw.

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

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RAND -

Abishai Rand (1791-1851), and his two brothers, WID and Elijah, arrived from Nova Scotia about 1810. Abishai took out a patent, 100 acres, lot I (south 1/2) Concession XI Burford. He and his wife Sarah Anne McLeod (1798-1865) raised several children at their homestead just north of Scotland village. (a) Elizabeth Rand (18241908) was one of the first pupils at the primitive school house in Scotland which opened in 1830. Her school master was WID McQuire, an active rebel during Duncombe's Uprising in 1837. Elizabeth married Henry R. Rammage (1818-1895). They farmed at Lynnville in Windham Township. Their grandson, C. Russell Rammage (18951988), farmed in Oakland Township for over half a century. Elizabeth Rand (1824-1908) (b) John Rand (1826-1909) married Charlotte A. Snider. John and Charlotte ran the homestead farm for several years then established residence near Lynnville where they became leading citizens in this Windham Township communi ty . They raised three children.

John Rand (1826-1909)

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(c) Daniel (1828-1888) married Elizabeth Jones ( 1837 -19 2 2) • Dan and Elizabeth were farmers on lot 9 Concession XII Burford. They were the parents of thirteen children: Chas H. (18581934) a rancher in Nevada; Elfreda A. (18591943); Rachael J. (18611950); Mary Ann (18621948); Rebecca A. (18641953) married Freeman Courtnage; Margaret J. Dan Rand (1828-1888) (1865-1934); Wilfred E. (1867-1926); Thomas J. (1869-1936); Abishai 1871 died young; WID J. (1873-1874); Marshall (1876-1960); D. Kingsley (1878-1955); Llewella V. (1882-1983). (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

WID (1829-1860) Abishai (1831-1860) died of T.B. Sarah born 1832 Charles P. (1836-1906) Mary J. born 1839

Charlie P. Rand (1836-1906), well known at Scotland, took over the homestead near Scotland and remained on the farm "Oakridge" until his death on August 10th, 1906. He married Mary M. Smith (1840-1872) and, secondly, Margaret Myers (1844-1932). They had several children. Three daughter Allie, Daisy and Jessie were living at home when Charlie died in 1906. ROBERTS - John Roberts (1802-1888) and his wife, Francis (Fanny) Vivian (1814-1905), sailed to Canada in 1846 with their four oldest children. Four more were born in Canada. They settled in a sod hut, on the Townline, southeast of Oakland, lot 8 (north 1/2) Concession I Townsend. Later, the L.E. & N. Railway would pass right by their land, along the western border. While the Roberts settled just outside the southern border of the Township, in Townsend, their social business and family connections were all at Oakland. John and Joseph Vivian, Fanny's older brothers, lived nearby.

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

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John Roberts (1802-1888)

Fanny (Vivian) Roberts (1814-1905)

John and Fanny were the parents of: (a) Caroline (1837-1913) married Isaac Kelly (b) Mary Ann (1840-1865) married Wilfred Eddy (c) Anna (1845-1895) - spinster (d) Joseph (1847-1941) married: 1. Louisa Eddy 2. Edith Butler Godby (e) Steven died young - fell into a well (f) Elisha (1851-1937) married: 1. Margaret T. Lefler --------2. Emma Tubby (g) Ecclesia M. (1857-1878) married Mr. Tubby

Elisha Roberts (1851-1937)

Anna Roberts (1845-1895) (photo by G.A. Snider, Brantford)

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

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Ecclesia Roberts (1857-1878)

Circa 1868 Joseph Roberts (1847-1941)

Circa 1933 Elisha Roberts 1851-1937

Eliza Martha (Nelles) Kitchen 1858-1947

Mary (Mrs. WIn. Vivian) 1842-1935

Eliza Joseph Roberts Roberts Dunnett 1847-1941 1842-1938

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Joseph "Jose" V. Roberts (18801961), son of Joseph Sr., married Alberta "Bertha" Vivian, daughter of Wes and Cecilia Vivian. Jose and Bertha migrated to Saskatchewan at the turn of the century. He returned in 1940 to take over the homestead farm south of Oakland.

Circa 1904 "Jose" Roberts (1880-1961)

Circa 1900 Elisha Roberts (1851-1937) Emma (Tubby) Roberts Marie (1860-1927) (1898-1982)

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

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John Roberts (1858-1947), a nephew of John (Sr.) (18031888) , settled in Townsend, just across the Oakland Township border, lot 6 Concession I. His daughter, Belinda, and her husband took over the farm followed by their son, Lyle McEwan. He and his wife Clara Lobb (1867-1908) were the parents of: (a) Belinda (1886-1975) married Herman McEwan (b) Ecclesia (1888-1973) married Harold Symington (c) Fanny, born in 1891, married Cecil Campbell

Circa 1889 John Roberts (1858-1947) Clara (Lobb) Roberts (1867-1908) baby Ecclesia Belinda - married Herman McEwan (1886-1975)

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

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SAYLES -

In 1806, Mordecai Sayles received a grant of 600 acres. 400 acres in lots 5 and 6 Concession I and 200 in Concession II. He is believed to have had at least three sons: Edwin (1811-1854); Soloman (1816-1859), farmer lot 11 (north 1/2) Concession II; Charles (1828-1879) married Angeline Westbrook. Mary Sales (1783-1812), wife of Haggai Westbrook (Sr.) one of the first to arrive in the Township, died on December 29th, 1812. Charles Sayles, born in 1784 and his wife Melissa were actively farming in 1851. Both were then sixty-eight years of age. Living with them were: John 26 years; Elizabeth 22 years; Daniel 14 years and Stephen 1 year. Charles and Angeline (Westbrook) Sayles were the parents of several children, four died at a young age - Ellen in 1863 at 3 years; George in 1863 at two years; Wesley in 1882 at 28 years; Wilfred in 1887 at 19 years.

SECORD -

Sergeant John Secord came to the Township shortly after the survey in 1796 and received a grant of land, the whole of lot 9 concession II, 200 acres. He had served as a Loyalist soldier during the American Revolution, with the New York Volunteers. In 1785, he filed a petition for land in New Brunswick after migrating north to the St. John River region, near Fredericton. Later, in 1795, with Upper Canada opening up for settlement, John Secord received grants at lot 24 concession XII Townsend, as well as the two hundred acres in Oakland Township. He sold off 100 acres of the latter property and made the remainder his home farm. In a second petition dated 28 Feb 1809 (UCLP Sll/ll), John Secord, of Burford, stated that he was born in New York State and resided there until the American Revolution broke out. He joined the New York Volunteers in 1777 and served as a Sergeant until discharged at St. John, New Brunswick on 10 Oct 1783. He had resided in Upper Canada before and since 28 Jul 1798 and requested that his name be entered on the United Empire Loyalist list. In a testimonial from William Hutchison, Chairman of the Court of the Quarter Sessions of the London District, it was noted that John Secord had resided in this province since 1797 inclusive. John Secord's will dated 6 Feb 1813, named the children listed below. To his sons James and John, he left the 100 acre Oakland farm. The Townsend property was willed to son Asa Secord, and grandchildren Amy and Vallyriah Doyle, and William and Joseph Ellis. In an unrecorded family arrangement, the Oakland property was taken over by Asa Secord and that at Townsend by James Secord. Children (order uncertain): 2. i. James Secord, first named bequeathed the home farm

in the will

and

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3. ii. 4. iii. 5. 6.

iv. v.

John Secord, born ca. 1786: mar. 2nd (?) Lucy Deborah Secord, born ca. 1790: mar. John Ellis Mary Secord: mar. John Doyle Asa Secord, born ca. 1795: married twice Jennette - and secondly to Sarah Darling.

2. JAMES SECORD, of Burford had an Order in Council dated 26 Jan 1820. He was the first named in his father's will, 6 Feb 1813, bequeathed the west half of Lot 9 Concession 2, Oakland Township, Brant County. This he sold to his brother, Asa, in 1828. James took over his father's Crown Grant in Lot 24 Concession 12, Townsend Twp. This he sold off in three parts in 18301832 and there is no further record of him. 3 • JOHN SECORD, born in New Brunswick ca. 1786. He came to Upper Canada with his father by 1795 and grew up on his father's farm at Oakland Twp. He was named in his father's 1813 will. In 1852, John was recorded on the Census of Brantford Township, Brant County aged 66, a farmer. His wife Lucy, born in New York State ca. 1800. In the Gore District Marriage Register, a John Secord married a Lucy Hughestone on 17 Nov 1844 (wit. John Olmstead and George Olmstead). This suggests that the older children were born to a previous marriage. In 1861, the family were living at Walsingham Township, Norfolk County. On 18 Dec 1869, the exectors of the will of John Secord, of Walsingham registered his will in the Surrogate Court of Norfolk County. Their petition for probate is in the docket, but the will is missing. The petition states that John Secord died on 17 Sept 1869. In 1871, Lucy was a widow, residing at Walsingham, perhaps with the Countryman family. This family was Baptist. Children of the censuses: 7.

i.

8.

ii.

9. iii.

Edward Secord, born at Brant County, Upper Canada ca. 1836. In 1852, he was an apprentice with John W. Tennant at Brantford Twp. In 1861, he was a merchant, living with John and Lucy Secord at Walsingham. Henry John Secord, born at Brant County, Upper Canada ca. 1838. He was living with his parents at Brantford Twp. in 1852 and at Walsingham in 1861. Ellen F. Secord, born at Brant County, Canada West ca. 1846. She was recorded with her parents at Walsingham in 1861.

Note: There may be older children. that are confirmed.

The above are all

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4. DEBORAH SECORD, born at New Brunswick ca. 1790. She married John Ellis (son of Henry and Margaret (Mahan)Ellis), born in Pennsylvania ca. 1780. This Ellis family and the Sturgis family were said to have been the first settlers at Mount Pleasant. In her land petition dated 27 Nov 1822 (UCLP E13/20), Debora stated that she was a daughter of John Secord, of Burford and wife of John Ellis, of Burford and she requested land as the daughter of a Loyalist. In 1851, they were farming in Lots 5 & 8 Concession 1, Brantford Twp., Brant Co. Their house was one storey frame. The family belonged to the Church of England (Anglican). John was said to have inherited the home farm at Mount Pleasant. Their home was located to the rear of the Octagon house and burned in 1930. They were living here in 1861. Children: 10. i. William Ellis. He was named in the will of his grandfather, John Secord, 6 Feb 1813. 11. ii. Joseph Ellis. He was named in the will of his grandfather, John Secord, 6 Feb 1813. 12.iii. Nancy Ellis, born ca. 1818. She was living with her parents, unmarried in 1816. 13. iv. Margaret Ellis, born ca. 1825; mar. Thomas [M.l Transum, born ca. 1821. He was a music teacher. They resided with Mary's parents in 1851, and in their own home at Brantford Twp. in 1861. Children: a. i. Arthur W. Transum, born ca. 1849 14. v. Courtland Ellis, born ca. 1828. He was residing with his parents in 1861, unmarried. 15. vi. Hiram Ellis, born ca. 1830. He was residing with his parents in 1861, unmarried. 16.viL Frances Ann Ellis, born ca. 1830. She was residing with her parents in 1861, unmarried. 17.viii. David Ellis, born at Mount Pleasant ca. 1832. He married on 25 Apr 1860, Bessie Whale (daughter of Robert and Ellen Whale), born at Bridgeford, Co. Devon, England ca. 1839 (Brant Co. Mar. Reg.) 18. ix. Frederick Ellis, born at Brantford Twp. ca. 1834. He married on 12 May 1858, Cornelia E. Burtch (daughter of Eli and Ann Burtch), born at Brantford Twp. ca. 1844 (aged 14) (Brant Co. Mar. Reg.). They were residing at Brantford Twp. in 1861 with no children born at that time. 6. ASA SECORD, born ca. 1795 (calculated from the 1851 census) and died in his 82nd year. Asa Secord filed a land petition dated at Charlotteville on 9 Jul 1832 (UCLP S14/ 310), stating that he was, of Oakland, and the son of John Secord of Oakland, and requesting land as the son of a United Empire Loyalist. He was named in his father's will, 6 Feb 1813, bequeathed Lot 24 Concession 12, Townsend Twp., Norfolk County. On 1 Aug 1828, Asa purchased his father's Crown in Lot 9 Concession 2,

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-

Oakland Twp. from his brother, transfered the Townsend property.

James,

to

whom

he

Asa Secord was twice married. His first wife, Jennette, is named in the marriage records of the older children included in the Brant County Marriage Register (18581869). There may have been additional children born to that marriage. Jennette Secord apparently died prior to the time of the 1861 census, and possibly much earlier. Asa married secondly to Sarah Darling, born in the United States ca. 1826. He and Sarah were recorded in the 1861 census of Oakland Twp. The 1852 census appears to be incomplete as this family and others were not then included. Asa lived out his life on his Oakland farm and made out his will on 17 Apr 1871 (probated 1873). In this, he left the farm to his wife, Sarah. The older children were not named in the will. Presumably, Asa had already provided for them. Children of the first marriage: 19. i. Robert Secord, born at Oakland Twp., Brant Co. ca. 1832. He married on 30 Sep 1860, Ruth Walker (daughter of William and Sybil Walker, born at Townsend Twp., Norfolk Co. ca. 1835. The marriage was recorded in the Brant County Marriage Register naming both their parents. Robert was a widower in 1871. His occupation was butcher. Children: a. i. George Secord, born ca. 1861 b. ~~. William Secord, born ca. 1863 20. ii. Asa Secord, born at Oakland Twp., Brant Co. ca. 1833. His wife of the 1861 census was Mary Ann, born at Goderich ca. 1840. His wife of the 1871 census was Margaret, born ca 1839. Asa farmed at Walsingham Twp., Norfolk County. This family was Episcopalian Methodist. Children: a. i. Janette Secord, born on 28 Nov 1875. She died on 19 May 1860 and was buried in the Hazen Cemetery near Port Rowan, Onto b. ii. Mary Jane Secord, born ca. 1859. She was recorded with her parents in the 1861 and 1871 census. c. iii. Maria Secord, born ca. 1865 d. iv. William Secord, born ca. 1867 e. v. Tamson Secord, born ca. 1869 21. iii. John Secord, born at Oakland Twp., Brant Co. ca. 1839. He married Maria Brown (daughter of Malcolm and Mary Brown), born ca. 1845. This marriage was recorded in the Brant County Marriage Register which also named both their parents. 1871 Oakland 015 B3.

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22. iv.

William Secord, born ca. 1839. He was living with his brother, Asa at Walsingham in 1861, a labourer. Children (which marriage uncertain): 23. v. Otis Secord, born ca. 1841. He was single and living with his parents in 1871. 24. vi. Jane Secord, born ca. 1843. She was single and living with her parents in 1871. 25.vii. David Secord, born ca. 1846. Included with the family in the 1861 census of Oakland but not named in the will of Asa Secord, He was not living with the family in 1871. 26.viii. Joseph Secord, born ca. 1848. 27. ix. Clarissa Secord, born ca. 1850. 28. x. Sanford Secord, born ca. 1851. Included with the family in the 1861 census of Oakland but not named in the will of Asa Secord. 29. xi. Charles W. Secord, born ca. 1854 - died 1937 married Rhoda Lefler. 30.xii. George Secord, born ca. 1857. 31. xiii. Naomi Secord, born ca. 1859. 32.xiv. Alberta Secord, born ca. 1864. 33. xv. Edward Secord, born ca. 1865. 34. x. Anna Secord, born ca. 1870. Asa Secord having children in his old age is not an error. They were listed with him in the 1871 census, then named as being children in his will. He was aged 74 when the youngest was born! Asa and Sarah are buried in the Oakland cemetery along with their son Charles W. (1854-1937) and his wife Rhoda Lefler. The west half of lot nine concession II has remained in Secord hands for nearly two centuries. Charles Secord (1886-1978) farmed the land for many years, then his daughter Alta took possession. Another Secord family settled in the Township. Daniel Secord, probably a brother of Sgt John Secord, was granted lot nine Concession I, 200 acres, in 1801. His son David (1809-1889) took possession followed by his son Hiram (1831-1882). Hiram farmed the north half while another son, George (1832-1875), farmed the south half of lot nine. David Secord (1809-1889) took ownership of 48 acres on lot ten and operated Millford Mills for a number of years. Ernest L. (1881-1974) who married Rachael Wesbrook, son of David and Cecelia Secord, farmed the north half of lot nine in the first half of the twentieth century. His brother, Earl D. (1884-1951), farmed a portion of lot ten which adjoins East Oakland pond. During Township centennial celebrations in 1950, Mrs. Cecelia Secord was recognized as the oldest citizen at 92 years of age. The Secords were so numerous that an accurate lineage of the various families is difficult to trace.

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Daniel and Elizabeth (Perrin) Secord (Seacord) (chart is incomplete) David Secord (Seacord) b.29 Mar 1810 d.24 Nov 1889 79y 7m 26d Oakland m. Mary b. 1810 d. 5 Nov 1872 62y 26d Oakland

Daniel Secord b. 1808 m. Emma Edwin b.1833 Henry b.1834 Wm b.1837 Daniel b.1843 Morgan b.1846

I I I

I

Hiram b.1831 d.1 Jul 1882 m. Eliz. Smith b.1833 (a)David H. b.18 Sept 1856 Oakland d.9 Nov 1923 Oakland m.Cecelia Stratford b.25 Jan 1858 Brantford Twp d.13 Jul 1952 Oakland l.Ernest L. (1881-1974) 2.Earl D. (1884-1951) 3.Chas I. (1886-1978) (b)Mary b.1854 (c)Linnie b.1858 m.Armitage (d) Sarah b.1860

I

Elizabeth b.1836/37 d.

I

George b.1832 d.21 Oct 1875 m.Amelia McIntyre b.1835 d.1 Aug 1886 (a)Clarry E. 1863-1864 (b)Welby (c)Wallace M. 1873-1924 m.Ruby M. Persall 1886-1965 1. Hazel 1909-1927 2.Leone m.Parker 3. George 4.Ellen m.Wm Gordon

I

Martha b.1842 d.

I

David Wallace b.1848/49 d.7 Apr 1909 m.Eliz b.1848 d.14 Sept 25 (a)Mortimer David m.Erna Trusdall (b)Ethel m.Charles Whitehead (son Mort) (c)Marquis DeLoss d.2 Jan 1887 (4 years) (d)Elsie d.20 Apr 82 (12 years)

Emmaline J. b.1834 d.1902 m.Ira Haviland

I

Robert m.Mary Dunnett b.1839 d.23 May 1859 (20 years)

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2010CO001

,l'7

f~,~.#..~~ PRO V INC E 0 F U P PER - CAN ADA. ;,( P?uu9-h~n"~~Nt' GF.fJRGE tlte T H I R D by the grace of 1 GOD of Great - Britain, Ireland, King, Defender of the Faitlt, --19 jOfl/t.

~nCl.1) ~t t

and

To all to whom there Prerents {hall come,-GREETING: that

WI

of OUA rpecial gnce. certaiD knowledge••nd mere motion have GiYen and Granted. and by Ihefe preCenll DO GIVE and GRANT UDID

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;tw ~eirs ~ M?"V~

.,nd a"!gn. foreyer; ALL lhat parcel or rna otland

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lillllte~ /J6;$a:?,/~/~ ..;·~r,,; .Qf;.ftN/h? ~ k",p~4"Y~""'""

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logccher wilh ~llhe Woodl and Waten Ihereon lying. and being under Ihe refenalionl. limitationl and conditionl herein .Cter cxprell'rd: which r.id~ ~"~N';~ bulled. aod bounded. 01 m.y be otherwire known .1 foIlo'-: lhat illO fay

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Ihe ;:J;; heirllnd amgnl for ey", ; f.. lnJ n.verrhclefs 10 our heirs .n~ fuccerra,.. all mines or Gold ... Silvt~that /han or m.y hr hereafter round On .ny part of the faid .,.reel artrottofla.d hereby given," t !!ranted.1 aforcf.id; and flvi'g •• nj ref.r.·inK 10 •.•• ourbeirs and {uccelTur;•• II" hire Pine Treellblt /hall. or may now. or hereafter grow. or be growing on .ny part ur Ih. f.id pareel ortratt ofJand hereby granted a..foreCald.

AN

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Proyided Ilwa, •• thaI no part ofthe parcel or lrall 01 lind hereby given a~ gra"trd ro th. faid '-~ ~,} and heirs. be "'lIhln .ny refer.ltion heretoCare m.d ••• nd marked ror UI.our heirs and fuccelTon. by our Surveyor-General of Wood •• or hillawCul Depury 1 in which care.thilOUR Grant for Cuch pari 01 Ihe land hereby given and grant.d 10 the faid_~ ~,J/ ~ /14 hein •• for eyer a. araref.id. and which a..11 upon a (.ryey thereof being made. be found within any ruch refer.arion. 0.111 be null and yoid•• nd or none eIFea, any thing herein con:ained to Ihe contrary nOlwithftanding.

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Providtd alfa •• hatthefaid . heirsor.rfiRn" a..11 aod sla wuhin three yeanCRtt and build. or caure 10 be erdled and buill. in and upon fome pan Dflhe raid parcel ortral!lofl.ndagaochnd /uRicient dwellioghouCe ( "IIu the Ilid .!~ ~ or ~ am!!,,1 not haYing buih,or nor btlng in Or their OWn riRhl la.. fully poll'errcd of an houfe in OUR (aid pro.iner) and be Iherein. or Clufe fame perCon ID bt Iherein rclident for aRel during Ihe fpace of OlIO year. thence nelll enCuins the building oC Ihe fame_

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ProYidedalfD. lhal ir acan, time or tima he_rrer.l!»: land fo hereby given and granted 10 th.raid.~k ~J and ~ hmo. /hall come into rhe poII'c/l'lOn and lenure oC:ny perron or perfons "homCoc.er. eJlher by vtrtue Dr any deed

.,

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of lal., cOll.oy"nc., enfeofFmenl or exchange, or by gift, inh.rita~o, defe.nr, de.ife or marriago, ruch perlon or perlonslb." .. ilhin 1... 01.0 mnnlhs nnlaflOl his, htr. o. Ih
If&,

l1a7n~ ~ vh~ k~"A{ 6H~~~~f~ "'4;;--(/"n'~~//J~nJ Hz, ~

By Command of lLis

ldaR~~/~

In

k.,

Counczl, )

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

2010CO001

'Wrfrltj) '"

tie Grace of God, of tlte lfnited Kingtbnn of Great , Britain anil ~reland, Q lJ~EN, Defe'luler .of the Faiti.

To all to ..,hom Ihue PrueAll ,hall eom-cfuUn.l:

.6ertQ$4.)avzd~~ CJA?d; 4J~ ~rnr:L, ¥ ~/JmFn.J4 cf-· (O{"./~u:(." VIl' 4k. @~ of g;j/l~-;' ~at,.eJ JItQh, contra('ted nud ugreed to and with Our Commillll,aner tbr the IIIlI'!.ofOur Cl9wn Lands, duly authorized by Us in this behnlf, for the absolute purchn8e, at and for the price and awn of .,..tTU/tl""LM-tJU~.d4. cd.; didLadV of lawful money of Ow said Province, olthe Lnnds Rnd Tenements hereinafter mentioned Rnd describfod, of whkh Wc 111'1' 8eized in right of Ow Crown. NOW KNOW YE, that in consideration of the !ll\id.§Um of :f-~u41";p:n.Ii~M",rLtJ;rLdd~~Q'.r,;/.------. by ~AM"_ -the IRid AJa4l'il-~-dPrU"oI.. a-d. ,{lCU'U,/" .r..;,;,.crr/,..J _ _ _ _ __ to Our said Commisaioner of Crown Lands, in hnnd well and truly paid to Our Ule, At or before the BeRling oftheee Our Letters Patent, We hav~ ~~, lold, alienedJ conveyed, Dnd ~sJ~d, Rnd by .t.he~e Prelents do grant, 8811, alien, convey Bnd Ulure, unto the said ;,(C'JatnAil ':/.hUlrd IZ/ttdJ..
C. Ia* ••• to ta • ., the IBid P.arc,el or Tract of Laud, hereby gl'lln~d, ronveyed ond ~51Ured un!o the aaid

~01.,,{q~ .IR~,",cL ,1f~

.

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4J.aJII'W/. ';,/{'(i'~ heirs an,llIs>lglI •• lor ever; IIIlvlllg, exc~phng nnd n;servmg, neverthelel5.

unto Us, Our Heira nnd SoccelBOrs, aU Mines of Gold and Silver, ond the free U8e&, paS&'\g'c nnd enjOyment of, m, ?ver alld upon nil navigable waters that ahn11 or may be hereafter fouod on or nnder, or be Bowing through or upon any part of the saId Parcel or Tract of Land hereby granted as aforesaid. GIVEN under the Great Seal of Our Province of Canada: WITlfEII, Our Right Truaty and WeU-BelovedtheRight H bl SIR EDMUND WALKER HEAD, Baronet, one of Oor Mo"t Honl)"IIhl.. Privy Count'i1, Governor d'enoral e f British North America. and Captain General IIlld Governor in Chief ill Rnd over Our Province» of I Ca:::o, ;ova Scotia, New Brunswick and the IIIland of l'rillce Edwar':, Illld Vicc-Admiral of the same, &c., &.c., &c

£:n~ ---

At TORONTO, this"dl4dc hondred and fifty- ~"-

of ~,~~ '. in the ycar of Our Lord, one thooand eight '11u-.. . and in thedRYtwenty-second yellr of Our Reign.

By Command of Hu ExcelltMY in Vount:il.

C~', ~;!ltit~7l-S'~rtary.

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David H. Secord (1858-1923) SLAGHT -

S~TH

-

The Slaght (Slaught) family settled in Townsend and Oakland Townships. Phillip Slaght bought a small parcel of land on lot 12 Concession I in the year 1828. Peter Slaght (1801-1843) settled in the Township as well.

John Smith (Jr.) got 600 acres in 1802 in lots 12, 13 and 14. Isaac Smith and his wife Abigail (1792-1862) settled as did Justus and Catherine Smith in Concession IV. Before the turn of the century, Adam Nelson Smith (18161904) owned land at the four corners, lot 6 (south-east 1/4) Concession II. Various branches of the family settled throughout the Township. The four cemeteries record a total of 136 burials under the Smith name, the first burial in 1826. Joseph Smith 1810-1861 and his wife Margaret settled on lot 1 (north 1/2) Concession V. Cyrus Smith farmed the south half of lot 1 Concession V. J. Hamilton Smith (1815-1895) married Sarah Malcolm (1832-1912), daughter of James and Elvira (Fairchild) Malcolm. They farmed lot 2 (north 1/2) Concession II. Hamilton Smith's mother, Abigail McQueen (1792-1862), wife of Isaac Smith, is buried in Oakland Pioneer Cemetery. Joseph Smith residence

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1.

2.

3.

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4. Edwin L. (1868-1944)

5.

1. Sarah Malcolm Smith

2. Hamilton Smith 3. Clara 4. (1815-1895) (the other sons of Hamilton and Sarah Smith shown in the above picture are Daniel, Harry, Fred, McKenzie and Herbert)

Albert Smith settled on lot 5 Concession II, 200 acres. His son, Lewis (1814-1847) helped build a log house and clear the land. Lewis brought his wife Susan Binkley (1817-1888) from Ancaster to the homestead property. This later became the Percy M. Button farm who married a granddaughter of Lewis and Susan Smith, Lelith M. Waugh.

Susan (Binkley) Smith 1817-1888

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Lewis and Susan were the parents of several daughters: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Malissa, born in 1836, married Thomas Mills Charity (1838-1918), married Thomas A. McEwan (1810-1888) Myra died in 1841 as an infant Jane, born in 1841, married A. Walter Smith Susan (1844-1910) married Thomas Waugh (1839-1901) Mary Ann, born in 1846, married WIn "Willie" Waugh Nancy married M. Hervy Baldwin

1905 Mohawk Park Nancy (Smith) Baldwin

Charity (Smith) McEwan

Tommy Waugh

Susan Smith Waugh

Charity (Smith) Mary Ann (Smith) waugh

McEwan (1838-1918)

STRATFORD James Stratford (1794-1854) and Martha Shrimpton (17941878) sailed for Canada in 1830 with four older children. They settled ultimately in Brantford Township, south of Brantford along the Cockshutt Road, lot 43 range III. Their son Mathias was born in Canada, near Belleville, in 1832 and came to Brantford Township with his family where he grew up. After marrying Mary E. Grummett (1832-1860), the couple settled at the eastern tip of Oakland Township, just outside the Township border at Little Brant, lot 48 range III 48 1/2 acres. They attended Little Brant church, on the Oakland circuit. Born to Mathias and Mary were: (a) (b)

Sylvester (1856-1943) married Harriett Dunnett Cecelia (1858-1952) married David Secord

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After Mary's death in 1860, Mathias re-married to her sister Sarah Garner, a widow with two children named Dora and George. Sarah's first husband, John Garner was killed in the Civil War. Born to Mathias and Sarah were: (a) (b) (c) (d)

Martha (1865-1917) married: (1) James Cruikshank (2) Gavin Muirhead Edwin E. (1867-1946) married Mary Theaker Susie M. (1871-1973) married: (1) Stephen Wiles (2) Walter Mann Mary O. (1873-1954) married John D. Hutchinson

After their marriage, both Sylvester and Cecelia Stratford settled in Oakland Township and were well known dwellers for over half a century.

Circa 1890 Family of Mathias Stratford - Mary and Sarah Grummett Susie M. (1871-1973)

Sylvester Cecelia (1856-1943) (1858-1952)

Mathias Edwin E. Stratford (1867-1946) (1832-1916)

Dora Jane George J. Mary o. (Garner) (Garner) (1873-1954) (1861-1957) (1863-1906) Martha (1865-1917)

Sarah C. Grummett (Garner) Stratford (1834-1891)

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STUTTARD -

John Studdard born in 1809, and his wife Elizabeth, farmed lot 16 Concession I at the eastern tip of the Township. THOMPSON -

Thompson (1799-1897 ) was first a blacksmith at Oakland. About 1827 he and his wife Lucinda settled on lot 8 (north 1/2) Concession III (Maple Grove). He was colonel in the Militia, a magistrate, Reeve of the Township in 1858 and Warden of Brant County. In 1851 a daughter, Adaline 17 years, was still living at home.

WIn

VANDERLIP -

Robert Vanderlip (1796-1872) and his wife Mary Files (1797-1870) settled north of Oakland on lots 7 and 8 Concession II. In 1851, their sons John 29 years, George 21 years and Edward 16 years were living at home. VIVIAN -

Two brothers, John (18101870) and Joseph (18111880), settled in 1836. Both acquired considerable land holdings in the Township and in Townsend. The Vivian story is detailed in Chapter 4. J. Wesley Vivian farmed west of Oakland village, on the old Malcolm homestead, before migrating West to Wishart, Saskatchewan about 1905. Ern Vivian (1890-1957)

J. Wesley Vivian (1851-1928)

In the picture taken about 1903 are the daughters of Wesley and Cecelia Vivian who farmed on lot 4 Concession I. Seated left to right are Minnie, Flossie and Bertha standing is Sadie.

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WAUGH -

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Several from this family settled at Oakland, the children of Thomas and Julia Waugh of Wentworth County. (a)

Eliza Jane Waugh (18271908) married Stephen Vivian (1827-1885), millwright. They built the frame house, which still stands, at the four corners, on the southeast corner.

(b)

Maria Waugh (1829-1895) married John Proper (18291 9 0 9

merchant Oakland.

)

at John Waugh

Phoebe

(c)

John Waugh (1832-1913) married Phoebe Ann Shipman (1839-1926) - farmers. In later life John ran a business at Oakland village. They had nine children.

(d)

Thomas "Tommy" Waugh (1839-1901) married Susan Smith (1843-1910), farmers lot 5 Concession two. Their daughter, Lelith M. Waugh (1877-1932), married Percy M. Button, a farmer and Township Clerk.

(e)

Wm Waugh married Mary Ann Smith, a sister of Susan who married Tommy Waugh.

WESTBROOK-WESTBROOKE-WESBROOK Next to the Malcolms this family was probably the most prolific in the Township. There are hundreds of descendants. Haggai Westbrook (Sr.) (1775-1824), son of Major John Westbrook who settled at Cainsville, married, firstly, Mary Sayles (1783-1812). Their homestead was on lot 7 Concession I. They settled in 1804. Haggai and Mary Westbrook had several children including Abram; William died young; Mordecai; Hiram; Thomas; Polly; Elizabeth (1802-1836) married Asahel Fairchild. Haggai (Sr.) remarried to Jane "Jenny" Vanderlip and had, by his second marriage, Wm; Fred and Haggai.

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Abram, Hiram and Mordecai Westbrook established farming operations in the Township. Thomas, born in 1809, operated the Red Tavern at Maple Grove along with his half brother Fred. Abram Westbrook (1798-1874 buried Fairchild's Cemetery) married Angeline Fairchild (1815-1895). They were farmers on lots 11 and 12, (north half) Concession II. Abram also had land in Brantford Township. In total, his land holdings were over 1000 acres. After Abram's death in 1874, his widow sold out and lived with her daughter Eliza, Mrs. Wm Cunningham. Abram and Angeline Westbrook had many children; (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i)

(j) (k) (1) (m) (n) (0)

Ester Mary - married Joseph McIntyre - died at age 22 Eliza - married Wm Cunningham Jane - died in 1845 at 17 years Haggai, born in 1831, married Diantha Beebe (18351911) Maria - born in 1833 Candace - died in 1845 at 12 years Rebecca, born in 1835, married Dominic Graham Julia Ann, born in 1836, married Solomon Sayles Charles, born in 1839, married Ellen Sayles. Charles died in 1885 at 45 years and his wife Ellen died in 1893 at 55 years. Angeline - died in 1847 at 4 months Katherine Marie Hiram, born in 1842, married Esther Hall Josephine - born in 1847 Matilda

Biram Westbrook (17971881), older brother of Abram, and his wife Polly (1811-1883) settled on lot 7 (north 1/2) Concession III. His neighbour, on the east side, was Wm Thompson, Reeve in 1858. In 1851, Hiram and Polly had three children living at home Polly 8 years; Mariah 7 years; Alfreda 4 years.

Hiram Westbrook (1797-1881)

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Mordecai Westbrook Sr. (1800-1883) married: ( 1) Mary Ann Shaver (1806-1847) (2) Mary Ann Burns (1818-1857) (3) Catherine (Smith) Snyder a widow. Her daughter, Alice Alberta, born in 1865, married a McIntyre. Both moved to Winnipeg and are buried there. There were at least nine children by Mordecai Sr. and his three wives: Mordecai Westbrook (1800-1883) (a) (b)

Catherine Jane (1826-1856) married Neal Lefler (1820-1889). Haggai (1828-1889) married Emily Scott and is believed to have moved to Michigan. He re-married to Melissa Snow.

Alice A. Westbrook (a step child of Mordecai Sr.)

Haggai Westbrook and his children Mary Charles and James

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By Haggai and Emily were born eight children. were born at Oakland.

(1) (2) (3)

(4)

(5) (6 )

(7) (8)

Several

John Wm (1849-1851) Chas Haggai (1852-1922) - died in Los Angeles. He married twice and had a total of four children by his two marriages. Mary Elizabeth - born 1854 married James N. Kerr and lived at Low e l l , Michigan. James H. (18561932) James was a minister -he married twice and lived in Michigan. Alonzo Mordecai (1858-1864). Albert Abraham (1860-1864) Catherine E. (1865-1866). Emily Jane died as an infant. Rev James H. Westbrook born at Oakland on March 24, 1856

By Haggai and his second wife Melissa Snow (1852-1930) were six children: Frederick; Roscoe; Laura Elmira; Rhoda Melissa; Ira Urial; Bertha Adeline; Alice Alberta. (c) (d) (e)

Wm (1830-1843) John Graves - adopted Mary Ann (1838-1868) married William Edie

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(f)

116 -

Mordecai Jr (18401913) married Margaret Jane Daniels (1841-1910) on October 15th 1862 - farmers on lots 7 and 8 Concession I. Early in marriage, they modified their surname to Wesbrook, to distinguish between his family and that of his brother Abram and his family, who lived on the next farm to the south.

Mordecai Wesbrook Jr. Mordecai Jr and Margaret Jane were the parents of twelve children, several remained in the Township and became well known Oakland residents: 1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Helen "Ella" Catharine (1863-1935) spinster practical nurse. Mary "Minnie" Jane (1864-1940) married WIn L. McEwan - their son Herman (1885-1927) married Belinda Roberts. Rhoda Ann (1865-1937) married John W. McEwan (1866-1927). Emily Elizabeth (1868-1931) married Robert A. Andrews - their son Floyd (1891-1966) married Florence Longstreet, well known Oakland dwellers. Wallace Haggai (1869-1953) married C. Maud McAlister (1870-1951) farmers on the Townline, south east of Oakland. Wally and Maud were the parents of Mordecai and Howard who married Ila A. Crumback. Rebecca (1870-1870) Melissa (1871-1943) married Stephen Hartley. Abram Elizah (1874-1948) married Emma Sibley Pasmore. Fanny (1876-1912) married George Murray their son, Ross W. (1905-1975) married Nellie Benner. The Murray family lived in the hollow at Oakland, south of the post office.

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11. 12.

13. 14.

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Rachael (1877-1953) married Ernest L. Secord (1881-1974) farmers lot 9 Concession I. Their daughter, Rheba, married Ken Barnes (1901-1974), farmer on lots 7 and 8 Concession I and Reeve of the Township 1946/48. Letitia Maud (1879-1968) married WIn Thomas Barnes (1879-1937) - their son Clayton married Fannie Edwards. Harry (1881-1963) married Ada Burtch (18831960) - farmers lots 7 and 8, along the Townline, Concession I - their son Homer was born in 1910 and Lloyd E. (1912-1927). Letta A. (1883-1884) Lettie A. (1883-1884)

The family of Mordecai Wesbrook, farmer lot 8 Concession I Maud Harry Rachel Abram Melissa Emma Wallace Rhoda (Barnes) Wesbrook (Secord) Wesbrook (Hartley) (Andrews) Wesbrook (McEwan) Minnie Ella (McEwan) Wesbrook

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(g)

118 -

Henry Shaver Westbrook (1842-1913) married Helen Marr Fairchild on Dec. 26, 1866. They migrated to Winnipeg where Henry became active in municipal politics and a successful merchant. They were the parents of four children: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Frank Fairchild (1868-1918) married Anne Taylor Ethel Florence Donald McDermid (1886-19 ) married Elizabeth Barney - lived in Montreal.

(h)

Mary Ann (Gray) Westbrook - born 1834 - adopted.

(i)

Abraham Westbrook (1844-1910) married Hannah E. Brown (1848-1902), farmers lots 7 and 8 Concession I. Their farm overlooked Oakland from the south hill, later the Alam Barnes place.

Abraham Westbrook 1844-1910

Hannah

The children of Abraham and Hannah Westbrook were: 1. 2.

Archibald B. (1869-1870) Albert Edward (1872-1958) married Clara Williams (1875-1959), on March 18th 1896. Albert and Clara were the parents of: ( a) (b) (c) (d)

Gladys V. (1897-1989) spinster. Helen Florence (1898-1957) spinster. Ethel Marion born 28 June 1904 spinster - resides in Brantford. Hilda Martha - born on November 9th 1908, married Valentine Allan Stein.

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Ruby

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Henry Allan Roy Albert Lorne

3. 4.

5. 6. 7.

Robert Allan (1875-19 ) married Nellie M. Lindabury on Nov 10th 1897. Charles Henry (1877-1961) married Alice Maud Sage (1875-1969) on Jan 10th 1900. They were the parents of Melva who married Howard Burtch; Orval married Roma Wilson; Verna H. married Howard Edy. C. Henry Westbrook Frederick Lorne (1879-19 ) married Martha M. Barnes on Feb 21, 1900. Roy Ernest (1881-1969) married E. Aileen Brickman (1884-1977). Ruby M. (1883-1910) married Clark Merritt on Feb 10th 1905. Ruby died at Oakland on June 10th 1910.

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WOODLEY - Mathias Woodley

(1790-1858) married Margaret Malcolm, daughter of Finlay and Tryphena Malcolm. They settled on lot 14 Concession I, 175 acres.

Mathias and Margaret were the parents of at least three children; George Woodley (1818-1881) married Abigail Brown (1819-1878) • Their son George is buried in Oakland Pioneer Cemetery. Another son Allison, died in 1871 at 19 years. In 1851, Mathias Jr. born in 1831 and Ben born in 1833, were living at home. Mathias saw action with the Militia at Fort Detroit in 1812 and was awarded the British General Service Medal. Aaron Woodley

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CHAPTER 4 Harnessing Malcolm's Creek

Grist Mills "No man shall take the nether or the upper millstone to pledge: for he taketh a man's life to pledge." Deuteronomy 24:6 In the beginning it was human strength that ground grain, at first no more than a man's teeth. Then man probably took up two stones and rubbed the husks away with a simple grinding action. A mortar and pestle effect was also attempted, either with a hollow tree trunk and tree joint or with the labour saving device of the sapling and stump mill where the pounding tool was raised by the spring action of the sapling. A primitive attempt to harness water-power resulted in the plumping mill (water from a stream was diverted into a scoop on a long pole which was balanced. When the scoop filled with water - it upset and caused the other end of the pole, which had a wooden pounding block attached to it, to fallon the container of grain - through a succession of continuing poundings the grain was converted to a texture resembling flour). A return to stone grinding came with the introduction of the simple stone quern or first true millstone. It consisted of a stationary stone and a top or runner stone that was rotated by hand. The stone quern evolved into the rotary mill which was hard work and time consuming to get the amount of flour required. The rotary grinding mill was further simplified by hitching animals to a millstone. The use of animal power became more efficient with the treadmill, which was often geared to perform a number of functions. Many of these primitive grinding methods were used centuries ago in Europe and the first settlers brought the techniques with them. Before corn, wheat, oats, barley or buckwheat could be taken to the mill, the grain had to be removed from the husk. In the case of corn, this was done by scraping the ear against a sharp

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knife whose blade was embedded in a table or other rigid surface. In some gristmills you could find a corn sheller, a hand-cranked machine consisting of two pieces of rotating board studded with many iron points or nails. When an ear of corn was placed between them the rotating nailheads shelled the corn. Wheat had to be threshed. In the early days this was done by throwing the wheat into the air, allowing the wind to blow the chaff away, leaving the grain. Other methods involved beating the grain or treading upon it. Wheat provides the finest flour and is not too difficult to grind. Its starchy inner kernel and oily cell of vitamin-rich germ are encased in a brittle cellulose shell of bran that must be crushed or, more efficiently, sheared off like the peel of an apple before the kernel can be ground to flour. Bran is nutritious but until modern processing made it digestible, it was used mainly to fatten livestock. Water-powered grist mills were crucial to the survival of the pioneers and the development of a community. Malcolm's Creek offered a ready source of energy, giving permanence to Perth (Oakland) as a site selected for habitation. The creek, which offered the key to successful pioneering, enters the triangle at lots 2 and 3 Concession IV, flowing south to Concession I, then veers east leaving the Township at lot 12 near the site of the former East Oakland school. Custom mills sprang up almost immediately the early settlers had established a foothold, producing flour on a "toll basis". The toll had been legislated earlier, in 1791, at one twelfth of each bushel of grain supplied by the farmer to the miller as a service fee for grinding. At the local level, settlers produced wheat both for home consumption and as barter with local merchants. The merchants, of course, planned to re-sell the grain at a profit. Grist mills emancipated man from the repetitive, timeconsuming, backbreaking physical work. They were one of the first forms of motive power used by our forefathers but the hazards of the trade could not be ignored. Many millers were maimed or fatally injured by unguarded pulleys and belts positioned in such a way as to give poor head room. That dreaded calamity, fire, was always a lingering fear which put many a miller out of business. Despite the adversities, the local grist mill offered moments of tranquillity for rural people who found these frequent trips more than work. It was also a time to socialize and interact with others of the community. To the miller, however, it was chaos and a source of frustration. He was forced to establish a proper balance of being courteous, attentive and communicative to his customers but must not allow them to impede his busy schedule. Only his congenial temperament could prevent moments of agitation. The first water powered grist mills were far from "high tech". Basic mechanical devices allowed the elevator to take the wheat by

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belt and bucket up to the scouring machine where it was dropped on the high end of the sieves. The fan blows and the cam shakes the coarse grains and chaff off the low end of the sieves. The cleaned wheat dropped into the hopper at the low end of the sieves, from there into a flexible jointed pipe below the floor, and then slid to the hopper above the millstones where it is ground between the upper and lower stone. The ground grain dropped to the cooler, where it was cooled, as it moved along to an elevator at the other end of the mill which raised it up to the bolting machine. From the bolting machine it came out flour, middlings, and bran. With wheat, it took about one bushel of grain to get forty pounds of flour. In the mid 1800's, farmers received about 75 cents for a bushel of wheat. Flour sold at around $2.00 per hundred weight. The upper millstone rested on and was driven by a vertical shaft, wooden in the early days, ending in a stout iron rod which revolved in a bearing set in the eye of the lower millstone. The upper stone had fastened into and across its eye a stout iron bar called the "rynd", and this had a socket in its centre into which fitted the end of the rod or spindle which protruded through the bearing in the lower millstone. The upper stone was thus borne entirely on top of the spindle and was free to swivel to a limited degree. The top of the spindle, just below the ball -shaped top that fitted the socket of the rynd, was made square, and over this square fitted a small iron bar, called the "driver", the ends of which contacted either the rynd or two sockets cut inside the eye. Rotation of the spindle was thus transmitted to the stone through a somewhat flexible coupling, and the upper millstone had freedom to adjust itself to the lower. The stones did not touch, and the layer of meal between them tended to keep them parallel to each other. The entire weight of the upper stone was carried by the vertical shaft down to a step bearing at its bottom. This bearing was adjustable vertically, either by a series of levers or in later days by a screw; thus the space between the stones, and so the resulting fineness of the meal, could be regulated. When engaged in average grinding, the two stones were separated by something like the thickness of a stout sheet of paper. If the stones actually met, excess heat would be generated, and both meal and stones damaged. A set of stones weighed roughly one and a half tons, some made of several pieces that were fitted together and held together with iron hoops, others were one solid piece of stone. The grinding surfaces contained furrows with a sickle and quarter dress. They remained in use until the turn of the century when a new roller technology was universally introduced.

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Afillstone Curbs a1zd Silent Feeders a1zd Hoppers Description of Silent Feeders. The pattern shown in Fig. I is light, durable "nd ornamental. Speciallyadapt· ed for low ceiling above the stones. . The bracket and regulating screw are of brass or iron : the hopper of brass, tin or galvanized iron as desired : and the lever bar is of cast iron, suitably strong for the size of the hopper. This style of feeder hsues upon a saucer attached to the top of the bail, and the in· side size or diameter of feeding tube and hopper is adapted for wheat and corn, and is made larger for mixed grain and middlings. Fig. 2 shows a cast·iron tripod, higher in s.tyle, with larger brass hopper and tu~e. It is a very handsome and substantial silent feed rig. Fig . J.

Description of Curbs. We also make curbs with the old·style hopper, hopper frame, iron shoe, damsel, feed roller and tin grain spout ; either for wheat or larger-for chopping mixed grain or for middlings. Great care and skill are used in making these curbs. The lumber is of the best quality , J':t .inch, free from sap wood and well dried. The staves are worked with a curvature to suit their circle, and tongued, grooved and jointed to fit well ; the Sla\'es are also made alternately of dark and light colored w'lOds. The tops are made double, the upper top having key pieces of black walnut. Under the bottom and top wooden skirtings are iron bands-one at the top aud one at the bottom.

Prices of Millstone Curbs. For Millstones from 3ft. to 3fl. 6in. in diameter . . . . . . . . . ...... . $15 00 For Millslonesfrom 4f: . in diam .. IS 00 .. .. 4ft. 6in. .. . ... 20 00

Prices of Hoppers and Hopper Horses For 3 ft. to 3 ft. 6 in. diam. Stones$6 00 .. 4 ft. diameter Slones. . . . . . . . .. 8 00 .. 4 ft. 6 in. diameter Stones . ... 10 00

Prices of Silent Feeders. Brass Hopper and Bracket, rigged with Saucer, Fig. 1 ... ........ ....... .. $1500 Tin Hopper . . . . . . . ... .. .. . . . . .. . ..... 12 00 Brass Hopper, with Regulating Screw on top of curb, with Saucer (without Bracket) 12 00 Tin Hopper, wilh Regulating Screw on top of Curb, with Saucer (without Bracket) 9 00 Tin Hopper, with Cast· Iron Tripod, with S.nrf'r . F if". 2 ... . .. .. .. . . . ... .. .. 16 00

JVlillstone . Staffs.

Fig. 2.

Prices of Shoes, Iron and Wooden. Iron Shoe and Stand for 3 ft. Stone ... . .. . $3 50 3~"

4"

3 50 3 50

.. 4~ 350 'Vooden Shoes .... ...... .. ............. 500

Prices of Damsels and Saucers. Damsels, Cast-Iron .. . .. . . . ....... .. ... : $3 50

This infallible instrument is a sure guide. It simplifie., expedites and thoroughly perfects the facing down of millstones to proper grinding Aoor. It can be quIckly applied either to bed or runner stones and is adjustable to the smallest fraction of an inch, is simple and duro able. Price, $25.00.

.

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DA-W-SON EROS.'

GRANULATING ROLLER MIlAI1.

For Reductions on Either Spring or Winter Wheat. 't.b1J Roller Mill hal been U,oroughly Wlted In the best mml In the Sorthwc.t. and h ... eye where given betUlr NIIIull1 th .. n any other roller mf1l known. Fourteen double Da"''IOn Roller M~ h.!07ejUlI been st&t1Ald In A. A. Freem .. n & CO.'I mill o.t La. Croae. Wb., and evcry 10111 on Ibe SQuib.

em J(lnDe&ot& Raflroad II mnnlng one or more o( them.

~~~r:r.~~;':::.}~n,:j~~~-:.u:,. ~~a~ell""

.Anpe jtw p"riflcatlon than any ou., The tMLme IJ Itrongly .. nd Rubltanlll\llv bIll It ... rid IImple provision U made (or the "ceu"'I<> and handy adlUltment o( the roll•. Samp ee or Iba work (rom these m .. ehlnea ,.111 be 8eht to any addr.,.. "pon appllcauon Send tor priCes, eto.• to . :J:).A.. ~EJC>N' ::aE.C>EJ., :l?r'e_'to:n.. l.\a:~.

Other manufacturers of milling machinery advertised wheat heaters, bolting cloth, belting, wheat cleaning machinery, smut machines, brush finishing machines, magnetic separators for removing metallic substances, f lour packers, buckwheat refiners which separated the meats from the shucks before grinding which gave pure meats for flour. They also sold corn shellers (hand or power operated) with fan, feed table, band wheel and crank (capacity 300 bushels of shelled corn per day). The latter were advertised as the ideal machine for a custom mill.

Advertised on the left is a roller mill, circa 1880. Iron works factories of that era were producing roller mills with differential speed that were steady, smooth and noiseless. They completely superseded the mill stone for the entire reduction of fine and course middlings, tailings and bran. As advertised, they also prevented discoloration and the caking of flour. The distributors offered to erect new mills or change over old mills to the new "Gradual Reduction System" but still stocked "the Violet or Old stock Mill Stones" for those who preferred not to convert to rollers. The manufacturer guaranteed to "granulate" and not cut or crush the grain.

A corn sheller, visible is the upper mill stone and crane.

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scouring machine

bolting (sifting) machine

cooling occurs along the coil elevator

A typical early mill

By 1850, steam was introduced as an optional power source and by 1880 fuel engines were being installed to drive the various pieces of machinery. The grist mill at Scotland was damaged in 1868 by a boiler explosion. Poor maintenance and indifference on the part of operators to the disastrous consequences of pouring cold water into a red hot boiler were the root causes of explosions at steam powered mills. While the Scotland mill explosion produced only minor injuries, a similar incident south west of the village at the Lymburner Mill near Little Lake, in June of 1868, created havoc. Six people were killed simply because an aging boiler and an overloaded safety valve had been ignored. The proprietor, David Huffman, states that a belt broke, and while it was being repaired, no one noticed that the boiler had run out of water. The injection of cold water into a red hot boiler did the trick and the old boiler, a large one, 26 feet by 3 1/2 feet, blew sky high. Chunks of the boiler were scattered over a hundred yards away. Such were the ever present hazards of a steam powered milling operation.

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Saw Mills The pit saw (or frame saw) was hand driven by two men. A log was placed over a pit or on a platform. Two men working as a team, one standing on the log above and his partner standing in the pit below, forced the pit saw up and down. This was laborious work, and for the man in the pit, extremely uncomfortable. He tended to receive a constant stream of sawdust from above. The earliest water powered sawmills used a gate saw, also called an up and down saw or a muley saw which was an adapt ion of the manually driven pit saw. The gate saw was suspended in a frame of wood and moved up and down by means of a crank shaft connected to the water wheel. The same principle is used in the modern jig saw. The log was pushed towards the saw by a rack and pinion on the carriage as the saw made its downward stroke, but the carriage remained stationary when the saw moved upward. The log was held secure on the carriage by metal dogs. The carriage was moved forward by power from the water wheel, and when the cut was completed, the wheel was 'thrown out of gear' so that both saw and carriage stopped. In some cases, the carriage was moved back by hand to begin the cutting of the second plank, but in others a second water wheel was employed for this purpose. The gate saw blades were very thick and their teeth removed as much as seven-sixteenths of an inch of wood which became sawdust or waste. They moved slowly and it has been said that the men sometimes placed a log on the carriage and went home to lunch. When they returned a board would be sawn off, and the log would be ready to start through once more. Production varied from 500 to 1000 board feet per day. A trade mark of the saw is the straight saw marks visible across the rather imperfect boards. The gang saw followed about 1840 which was a matter of adding two more blades to the gate. The blades were shorter and thinner than the single bladed saw. The gang saw increased production and prevented wastage.

a framed pit an open saw pit saw (driven manually) (driven manually)

a water-powered gate saw

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The circular saw was introduced about 1845, firstly in small diameters for use exclusively as a cut-off saw. They were very thick and caused considerable wastage. As steel making improved, the blades were made larger, as much as seven feet or more in diameter. Since the teeth required sharpening, some circular saws were manufactured to permit the operator the opportunity of replacing the teeth once they were worn out. Improvements in saws increased production to such an extent that the limiting factor soon became that of moving the sawn material away fast enough to prevent choking the saw. This led to a whole series of improvements such as edging saws, cut-off saws, power rollers, and so on, to move the lumber quickly out to the stacking yard. Some mills used as many as six water wheels to carry out various operations in the same plant, such as dragging the logs up the ramp from the mill pond, and operating the saw, the carriage, the edging saws, and the rollers. Both the grist mills and sawmills at Oakland, Lower Oakland and at Scotland went through various transition periods of improvement covering a span of one hundred and eighty years. A chronological look at their construction, operation and improvements in technology will be of interest to the reader.

c.l939 The Stratford sawmill Clark Stan Smith Stratford

perley Stratford

Lorne Stratford

Frank Ralph Jacob Stratford

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Oakland The first pioneers to arrive at Oakland found it necessary to travel to grist mills on the Grand for their flour supply. The Indian Mill west of Brantford where D'Aubigney Creek crosses the Burford Road and the Kings Mill were the two that were accessible by travelling the Old Indian Trail with their grain. Several years later Oakland got its own mill. John Malcolm (1776-1846) and his brother Finlay (Jr.) (17791862) jointly built the first grist mill in the year 1806. The sawmill followed a year later. They received financial help in the form of a government grant. Their father, Finlay Sr. (1750-1829), son of Duncan Malcolm, had taken out a patent on his homestead near Oakland in 1802. Finlay Sr. and his wife Tryphena Wardell (1761-1813) were the parents of fifteen children, the two oldest being John and Finlay Jr. When the brothers selected their mill site it was not a haphazard choice. Not only did they locate the building on a suitably elevated location but they took into account the terrain for dam construction and the water back up which would create a reservoir or mill pond of sufficient capacity to run a custom mill and supply a constant waterflow. A location south west of the village, in the hollow, on lot 6 at Concession I was found to be the most suitable. The pond behind the dam was calculated to extend about a kilometre west to lot 3 of Concession I where the creek curves sharply to the right and continues north into Concession IV. Once water privileges were granted by Government officials, the Malcolm brothers had to decide on the dimensions of the dam and where to block the creek to get the greatest head. A location with the shortest distance to dam was sought, thus keeping costs to the barest minimum. Another preliminary calculation they made was the height of the dam. The valley and contour of the land to the west of the proposed location gave the planners a measure of latitude for extensive flooding. The final height of the dam was such that an overshot wheel could be installed with sufficient head for a smooth downward flow of water. The higher the dam, the greater the head. (Head may be defined as the vertical distance in feet from the surface of water in the pond behind the dam to the surface of the stream below the dam at the place of the wheel being used for automation - the measurement was taken with an engineer's transit and levelling rOd). Pondage (water stored in reserve for dry periods or peak periods) was an important aspect of the construction preparations. A custom mill operation, as opposed to a private mill, required a vast supply of water, especially during the fall season when flour was being produced for reserve before winter set in. The overshot water wheel was intermittently quiet over the four months, from December through to early April,

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requ~r~ng full capacity production of flour into the Fall of each year. To keep the wheel in motion during a temperate winter period, when it was possible to operate with limited capacity, required some chopping of ice from the wheel, a hazardous job.

With the advice of those schooled in the art of dam building, the Malcolms were ready to close off the creek along the southern edge of lot six at Concession I. Using many teams of horses, tons of gravel fill was hauled from the south bank a short distance to the dam site. The pit created by the removal of the fill is still visible today. A spill-way for the overflow of water was constructed at the north end of the dam with a bridge on top to give the Malcolms easy access to their farm land directly up a steep hill on the north side of the creek. Evergreen trees were planted along the dam to help counteract erosion. The dam caused a pond which extended to both sides of the valley for nearly a kilometre to the edge of lot three, all on Malcolm property. Ultimately, a small private bridge was built over the creek where the mill pond narrowed at its western extremity and became a creek again. Lots three, four and five of Concession I were divided by the creek thus the private bridge allowed free movement back and forth to farm lands on the north and south sides of the lots. The most southerly parts of these respective lots bordered on the Oakland/Townsend line. After hundreds of man hours and horse labour, the land back of the dam was flooded and the winter of 1805/06 set in, freezing the pond solid. Skilled woodsmen cut down the lush cedar growth after the freeze up. Using shod horses on the ice, the logs were hauled away to a yard near the site of the proposed saw mill or they may have used some of the larger logs, butt end to the water, to help secure the dam from a wash-out. The stumps were not removed, and to this day, nearly two hundred years later, you can view the jagged tree stumps protruding above the water as you look west up the valley. The actual details and measurements of the first grist mill built by the Malcolm brothers are not available. It was burned by the American troops on November 7, 1814, following the Battle of Malcolm's Mill. It was probably two and possibly three stories in height which was necessary for the use of elevators to take the grain to the scouring and bolting machines and it was undoubtedly built to accommodate an "overshot" water wheel. There appears to have been sufficient "head" (fourteen feet) for such a wheel to function. We know from studying water powered grist mills of that era, which are still standing, that many three storey mills were built before 1800. The main consideration in construction was the ability of the building to support the large and heavy machinery, and to withstand the vibrations of the installed and operating equipment. Post and beam construction method was used in the mill, as this had been proven in use from the times of the Romans. The post and beam technique allowed an openess within the mill interior to position with great effectiveness the various machinery. Floor joists running from beam to beam, rest on their edges. Massive are

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the thickness to the beams and all cut using the muley saw blade. Joints were wooden pegged and strength is added to upper floor support with 45 degree angle squared timbers attached to beams. The mill itself, faced south and was positioned on an elevated spot along the south bank, off to the side of the dam, leaving just enough space for the flume to run directly from the extreme south end of the dam to the water wheel below. The head at Malcolms' Mills was built at about fourteen feet. The wheel, which was probably of the over-shot type, was no more than fourteen feet high, but probably quite wide so the buckets could take in more water. Initially, large face gears transferred the power from the wheel at right angles. The wheels, gears and cogs were made of the best hardwood, usually of maple. More complex and sophisticated gearing systems were built later in the nineteenth century to replace the basic wooden wheels and cogs. Later, wheels were built at large custom operations up to twenty-five feet in height, to provide maximum horse-power for up to eleven run of stones at one mill, using several wheels to get the power needed. A twelve foot (3.6 metre) overshot wheel, at maximum efficiency, with the buckets half full, would generate 6.5 h.p. To reach full power, over 2,900 gallons of water per minute flowed into the buckets which were about three feet wide.

November 7, 1814 A sketch of the first grist mill at Oakland - visible are the overshot wheel and flume running from the pond, with sufficient head to power this model of wheel, which rose at least fourteen feet above the creek bed.

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To power the mill, the Malcolm brothers had several choices of wheels including: (a)

Overshot (gravity) turned largely by the weight of the water and slightly by impulse. They were generally quite large in diameter, up to twenty-five feet high. They turned slowly and were not affected by sand, silt or minerals. They were built precisely and completely of wood by skilled millwrights so they would not wobble or fall from their axle. They tended to wallow if the tail water was high and they were useless in the dead of winter. This model was the preferred one for custom milling operations as they had the advantage of mechanical efficiency and easy maintenance. It got its name from the manner in which water from the flume pours into the buckets set around its periphery. The steady flow of water on the down side of the wheel simply over balances the wheel and it turned slowly but steadily giving a reliable power. The wheel was located near, but not in the stream, and a good tail race was necessary to keep it from wallowing in the water. A properly balanced wheel gave the miller a power supply for two or more run of stones. The sluice gate on the flume was constantly being adjusted, depending on the run of water available in the mill pond, so that the buckets turning on the wheel would fill to only a quarter full. Too much water, or swift flowing water, spelled trouble for the miller by causing the wheel to speed up and become unmanageable.

(b)

Undershot (poncelet) - the wheel accepts and discharges water at the bottom, the water moving along a race. It is sui table for falls of under seven feet. The wider the wheel, the more power output it gives. The rushing water flows along a trough (millrace), hitting the paddles of the water wheel, which forces the wheel into motion. The wheel turns at about twenty r.p.m., much faster than an overshot wheel. The flow of water through the race is regulated by a gate which can be adjusted. Two obstacles to the successful operation of this type of wheel are winter ice and high water.

(c)

Breastfeed - it takes water into its buckets somewhere near the middle of the wheel and discharges the water at the bottom. It is adaptable for falls of five to fifteen feet but is much more difficult to build because a breast work (a shaped shoulder under the wheel designed to retain water on the wheel) is essential and the width of the wheel must be increased to get the same power output. Modifications to the breast wheel were possible such as a high breast feed from above the wheel's axle or a low breast feed in which the water from the sluice struck the buckets at a point below the axle. Pitchback wheels, while uncommon, were also used. With this system, the flume dropped its water just short of the top of the

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wheel, over-balancing the wheel nearest the water supply, causing it to turn counter to the motion of an overshot wheel. It required slightly less head. As stated earlier, both the grist mill and the saw mill were burned by the Americans on November 7, 1814 during their tour of plunder through Upper Canada in the final stages of the War of 1812. The Malcolm brothers, both Officers in the Oxford Militia, received a gratuity for active service in the War. As mill owners who had their property destroyed, they were awarded an additional payment in the form of compensation from the Government after nearly ten years of frustrating delays.

On June 3, 1824, the Official Gazette announced to the claimants that 25% of their claims would be paid forthwith after proof of claim by affidavit. Finlay Malcolm received 362.10.0 (sterling) and his brother John 38.15.0 (sterling). Additionally John and Finlay jointly received 90.1.2 (sterling). Malcolm S saw mill was of the "up and down" type which has been described earlier and was, unlike the grist mill, positioned in the flats directly below the dam. It was put to the torch by the American invaders seven years after construction and re-built. I

Diorama Showing Model Up-and-down Saw-mill (The water wheel is small in diameter but very wide)

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John Malcolm was born in 1776 at Penobscot, Maine and he died September 11, 1846, age 70. He married his cousin, Eunice Miller (1783), in 1801. Eunice was the daughter of Janet Malcolm (1764-1816), a sister of Finlay I, and Giles Miller Sr. (1781-18 ). John was appointed to the rank of Captain in the 1st Regt., Oxford Militia seeing service in the War of 1812. By occupation, he was, not only a grist mill proprietor, but also a farmer. He was incarcerated following the Rebellion of 1837 but later cleared of wrong doing after serving several months of imprisonment. His second wife, Mary Chapin Eddy, was a widow. She died in 1828 and is buried in the pioneer cemetery along with other members of the Malcolm family. By Eunice, John had a daughter, Belinda, born in 1801 at Middleton, Conn. By Mary, John had five children: 1.

Norman Malcolm born at Scotland February 29, 1820 and died at Ames, Iowa February 23, 1898 m. ( 1) Cynthia Cady nine children m. (2) Elvira Straight two daughters

While still a mere lad, young Norman was sent by his mother to Hamilton in the Gore with a team of horses and sleigh to secure the release of his father but he was also locked up with the other prisoners involved in the Rebellion. In the spring he was released, and at age 17, set out with a team and wagon to migrate to Illinois.

Norman Malcolm 1820-1898 2.

Lewis Malcolm - his daughter Kate married Stephen Malcolm, his cousin and a son of Norman Malcolm.

3.

Otis Malcolm - married Mary Ann Baldwin.

4.

Sarah Tryphena Malcolm was born in 1821 and died 1862. She married John Vivian (1810-1870) proprietor of Vivian's grist and saw mills from 1840 to 1870.

5.

Harriett Malcolm married John Haviland.

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The other half owner of the mills, Finlay Malcolm Jr., was born on June 20, 1779 at Penobscot, Maine and died March 4, 1862 at Oakland. He married, Fanny (1791-1823), daughter of Squire Tyler. Finlay served as a Lieutenant in the Oxford Militia during the War of 1812. He also owned farm land on lots 4, 5 and 6 of Concession I. By Finlay and Fanny were five children: 1.

Finlay Malcolm III - he was born on 28 Feb 1800 and died 17 July 1878, buried Springfield, Ontario. He married Mary Ardelof (1820-1898).

2.

Eliakim Malcolm - his namesake and uncle, Eliakim Malcolm (1801-1874), was the first Reeve of Oakland Township and first Warden of Brant County.

3.

Issac Brock Malcolm was born on August 4, 1812 and died May 2, 1867. He married Charlotte Smith (1814-1892). They had six children and were farmers in the Township.

4.

Shubael Downs Malcolm was born June 5, 1814 and died May 20, 1878 with burial at Scotland. He married Elvira Foster (18201894). They were farmers on the homestead at Oakland, lots 5 and 6, Concession I. Shubael served as Warden of Brant County in 1868. He and Elvira had four children; Dr. John R. Malcolm, Charles Parke Malcolm, Egbert B. Malcolm and Horace Finlay Malcolm. Some of the latter children became active in business and industry holdings at Scotland.

5.

Edward Malcolm was born on August 7, 1820 and died on April 4, 1913. He married Martha Chrysler (1834-1909). They were farmers west of Oakland on lot 4 Concession I, one of Malcolm homesteads which was later owned by J. Wesley Vivian, followed by his son Marquis "Park" Vivian to be followed by Russell Rammage (1895-1988). Ed and Martha had three children; Cecilia, Gustavus and Alma who married Herbert Hendershot, a farmer on the Townline. Cecilia (18551925) married J. Wesley Vivian (18511928), a cousin. Wesley was the son of Circa 1899 John (1810-1870), the miller at Oakland. Edward Malcolm Wes took over the Malcolm homestead 1820-1913 until he became tired of farming and moved to the West. Cecilia remained on the farm and lived with her bachelor son, Marquis (1885-1959). Marquis had several siblings - Evylin died young, Bertha (1876-1939) married Joseph Roberts Jr. , Edward (1879-1940) married Blanche Shildrick, Minnie (1881-1957) married Thomas Chittendon, Sadie (1884-1955) married James Young, Ernest (1890-1957) married Leah Rahm (he went West to Saskatchewan

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with his father as a teenager and never returned to Oakland) and Florence "Flossie" (1893-1969) married Stanley Bannister, a well known Oakland Township farmer. Additional family history about the Malcolm's may be found elsehwere in this book. For a time, John Hendershott rented the mills from the Malcolms to be followed by John Vivian. On the 14th of May of 1834, an Englishman, John Vivian (1810-1870) with a background in milling at Little Petherick, Cornwall arrived in Canada and made his way to Upper Canada. John was the second son of Stephen and Mary Vivian, millers at Little Petherick. He worked for Joseph Loder at his mill in Lower Oakland after arriving in Oakland in search of employment. On March 24, 1835 he rented Malcolms' mills - rental 100 pounds a year with an option of cutting the necessary pine lumber for saw milling operations. He and his brother Joseph (1811-1880) worked together for several years, one operating the grist mill the other the saw mill. In 1839, John bought a mill near Teeterville on Big Creek. His ties with the Malcolms were secured when he married John Malcolms' daughter, Sarah (1821-1862), on the 31 October 1836.

Sarah

John Vivian

Sarah (Malcolm) Vivian 1821-1862 (photo by Smith and Son, Brantford Canada West)

About 1840, John ceased to rent from his father-in-law and decided to buy the mills. This was the same year that his widowed mother, Mary Vivian (1790-1847), and six of her other children arrived in Canada and settled at Oakland.

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In 1842, John sold the Big Creek mill to his brother Joseph for 625 pounds, with sixteen years to pay. His younger brother Stephen (1820-1844) died at the Oakland mill pond two years later by drowning. At the time, Stephen was operating the saw mill and had the misfortune to slip while moving logs in the pond. The 1861 census shows John, 51 years of age, as a miller at Oakland and his wife, Sarah is shown as being 39 years of age.

Residence of John Vivian, Oakland - built 1843 The hill on which the house stands was originally pine covered. The trees were cut down and taken to the saw mill. The area was scraped level with teams of horses. It was one of the show houses in Oakland Township and still stands, with modifications to the structure. John's grandson, Payson (1876-1958), says the Fenians destroyed the grist mill and it was quickly re-built. Historically, this information is questionable and does not seem to chronologically fit the events as they unfolded. The Fenian raids

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occurred in 1866 but it is unclear whether the American intruders penetrated into Canada as far as Brant County. The mill which is still standing was builtin 1842, which tends to rule out the Fenians from committing this incendiary act. John Vivian's nephew, Stephen (1827-1885) a millwright, worked at the mills from time to time keeping the building and machinery in a good state of repair. Stephen lived in the village, at the four corners, on the south-east corner in a frame house that he built shortly after arriving from Cornwall. The house was later owned by Maitland Edy. Stephen married Eliza Jane Waugh (18271908). Her brother, John (1832-1913) son of Thomas and Julia (Emery) Waugh, was a local merchant in the village and another brother, Tommy (1839-1901) married Susan Smith (1843-1910) and, in turn, their daughter Lelith Maud (1877-1932) was the wife of Percy Button, Oakland Township clerk for many years. Eliza had other brothers and sisters. John's first wife, Sarah, died at forty-one and he re-married to Charity Lowery (1826-1882). Born to John and Sarah were three children: (a)

Mary (1838-1869) who married the Rev. G. Brown and they had two children George and Mary Vivian.

(b)

Charles (1844-1914) further biographical details follow.

(c)

John Wesley (1851-1928) who married Cecilia Malcolm (18551925) daughter of Edward Malcolm (1820-1913) farmer west of the village and Martha Chrysler (1834-1909).

Charity

Wes was a miller by trade and worked with his father and older brother, Charles, at the mill. After marrying Cecilia in 1873, they lived for a time in the stately frame house overlooking the grist mill. They moved to the Edward Malcolm farm west of Oakland in 1885. Wes farmed on lot 4 Concession I for about twenty years until the lure of the West called him to Wishart, Saskatchewan where he homesteaded. His daughter Bertha, who married Joseph Roberts (Jr.), had preceded him to The Prairies.

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c

Circa 1873 J. Wesley Vivian Cecilia Malcolm (seated) Born to John Vivian and his second wife Charity Lowery were: (a)

Bertha born 27 Nov 1863 died 6 Jan 1893

(b)

Wm Matthew born 1866 Herschell

Bertha

?

-

he may have one and the same as

Herschell Vivian He married Augusta Lowery, daughter of D.J. and Elizabeth Lowery.

About the time Charles Vivian became proprietor of the mills, he faced competition. Timothy W. Shavelear (1841-1909) opened a sawmill east of the village. It is believed the mill was powered by steam.

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John died on November 28, 1870 in his sixty-first year. His two sons Charles and Wesley carried on the business. Wesley remained for several years then took up farming. The new proprietor, Charles Vivian, was born at Oakland on October 15, 1844. In 1873 he married a cousin, Clara Ellen Nelles (1850-1922), daughter of Mary Ann Vivian and John Nelles. Charles was a community minded person having served on the Board of the Methodist Church and he was active on Oakland Township Council.

John Vivian - Circa 1865

The 1871 census, one year after his father's death, shows Charles 26 years living in Oakland with his step-mother Charity 40 yrs, J. Wesley 19 yrs, Bertha 8 yrs and Matthew 4 yrs. Charles Vivian Circa 1868

Clara Ellen Nelles

In 1872 one G. H. Corner worked at the mill. Two years later one John Chart is shown as being a miller in Oakland. About 1885, the stones were replaced with rollers. William Vivian (1836-1921) a millwright was engaged to make the conversion. At some point in time, perhaps earlier, the old overshot wheel was discarded and a more modern, utilitarian and all-weather system of power replaced it. The water turbine is a horizontally positioned wheel which rests at the bottom of a deep cistern. The force of the water through a large pipe or flume rotates the turbine at a quick pace to create very effective and cheap power. The water exits out the tail race flowing on down to the lower creek.

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1800's corresponded with the trend throughout Ontario to install rollers and discard the outmoded mill stones. William Vivian was an experienced millwright and had grown up in the shadow of grist mill operations at Big Creek and Oakland after migrating to Canada together with his mother and siblings in 1840. It is natural, therefore, that his nephew would engage him to undertake the Oakland project even though he had moved from the area in 1865 and was living at Tillsonburg. William was twenty-six years younger than his brother John who did not live to see the modernization of the mill. William, born on October 14, 1836 at Cornwall, married Mary Yarrington (1842-1935) of Norwich, Ontario. They Ii ved in an ornate home at the corner of Concession and Broadway Streets in Tillsonburg. He worked for the Tillson Mills and served several terms on the Tillsonburg Town Council. He died at Tillsonburg on September 27, 1921 in his 85th year. Bill and Mary were the parents of W. Carmel Vivian (1864-1945) who moved to Carsonville, Michigan. There are a number of descendants of this family in the U.S.A. William Vivian - Circa 1915

American Turbine Water·W"heel BEST WATER WHEEL ~ WORLD. l~

ACTUAL PRAOTICE THE

Seed (or Circular and particulars to

o. A. PRA Y Oar. lat BL ao6 W> A.... Bouth,

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Vivian's mill had a capacity of 200 bushels per day using a four stone run.

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Circa 1887 (front view) Charles Vivian on the stoop, John, his son, in the buggy, Fred, another son, on the step, Clara, his wife, in front, Payson, another son, driving the horse - the old saw mill can be seen at the right of the mill in the flats. Horses can be seen pasturing on the lower right. A storm in June 1905 caused a rupture in the dam resulting in flooding of the flats between the Oakland and Lower Oakland ponds. Old timers say the area was covered with debris and dead fish. Sylvester Stratford (1856-1943), then living in Lower Oakland, was contracted to repair the dam. Reportedly, Charles had some difficulty locating a competent person to undertake the project and Sylvester, a farmer, was only one of several who bid for what was a major undertaking as the day of the back hoe and bobcat earth movers had not yet arrived. Shovels and horse drawn graders were the implements of use. Just east of the United Church in the village is a red brick house which Charlie Vivian built where he lived out his retirement years. He took a trip overseas during the summer of 1909 to visit his father's home land. Death followed at Oakland on December 16, 1914. Clara Ellen died eight years later on the 20th of May 1922. By Charles and Clara were three children: (a)

John (1874-1966) married Belle Collver (1873-1942). farmers north of Waterford.

Theywere

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(b)

Charles Payson (1876-1958) married Florence Brown in 1900. Payson's involvement in the business is detailed hereafter.

(C)

Frederick V. (18791918) married Maud I. Kelly. Fred died at Oakland during the 1918 influenza epidemic. Their son, virgil Vivian, lives in Rutland, Illinois.

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Circa 1900 Charles Vivian

Fred V. no positive Vivian identitycould be one of Charles' uncles (photo by Walker, 148 Colborne St., Brantford)

....

Circa 1912 Three generations of millers Payson Vivian (1876-1958)

Lloyd Vivian (1904)

Charles Vivian (1844-1914)

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A steady supply of water for power was always a constant concern to millers. During a particularly dry season the level of the pond could fall dangerously low, curtailing the hours of operating. A jealously guarded claim of a miller was his "water rights" which allowed him legal use of the water, provided he passed it on to the next miller in the same amount he had received it. Thus it was illegal for the Vivians to divert water in any other way which would impede the operation of Smith's Mills at Lower Oakland. The latter did not become an issue but the irrigation of tobacco farm land adjoining the creek and mill pond surfaced as a problem in the mid-twentieth century. Tort actions were readily commenced to prove the supremacy of the miller over his rights to the water. In the case of the Vivians, water rights had been theirs, uninterrupted, for a century and a half only to find that a relatively new farming industry had sprung up with great demands on water for irrigation, during critical dry spells, at peak growing season. On the ground storey of Vivians mill was a dual office and waiting room area, heated by a wood stove which also burned corn cobs. In a neat old frame hanging on the west wall was the following appropriate inscription:

"If you spit on the floor at home spit on the floor here, for We want you to feel at home" The Vivians, no doubt, had good cause to place this rather blunt message on their wall. It was a not so subtle reminder to farmers of an unacceptable social grace while waiting their turn for their grain to be processed. Some farmers considered the trip to the mill to be their outing of the week. A "miller's nightmare" would occur on a rainy mid-week day when the farm land had been soaked to the point of preventing work on the land. The farmers were off to the mill with a wagon load of bagged grain, covered with a tarpaulin, ready to be chopped. They came in droves, as many as ten teams were lined up, and the farmers lingered for hours causing the miller to blindly pray for better weather, even though the rain was needed to assure a steady supply of water power. Payson, a sturdy affable man with a rugged countenance, like his father, became active in local affairs. He served as Council He and Florence treasurer for more than twenty-five years. celebrated their golden wedding anniversary on June 13, 1950 followed by a reception at their home adjacent to the mill.

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Looking south-east is the rear of Vivians mill. Built in 1842, it was a four storey structure, fifty feet high. The landmark Vivian residence, built a year later, appears in the upper right of the picture. The mill creek below was a convenient place for washing sheep before shearing time. As many as four flocks could be seen lined up on the roadway leading to the mill, patiently awaiting a bath. Local lore implies all was not serious work when the mill was built. The carpenters and their helpers apparently had a merry time during the construction phase with several barrels of beer being consumed. Temperance had not yet arrived in Ontario and there were no liquor laws. At the time this picture was taken, turbine power had replaced the overshot water wheel and the rollers were doing the work of the three run-of-stone used earlier. The saw mill which could cut half a million feet of lumber annually was gone and, by 1920, the next generation of Vivians, Payson (1876-1958) was in charge. Look closely and you will see at least three bathers seated on a plank near the mill race, in the lower left of the picture.

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The following -,",..--...,...,~:-.- .........-..,-,..- extracted from a (identity unknown):

has local

been paper

"OAKLAND - Well-known residents of the Village of Oakland, Mr. and Mrs. C. Payson Vivian will celebrate their golden wedding on Tuesday afternoon, June 13, when they will welcome their many friends and relatives at a reception at their home, Oakland Mills, both afternoon and evening. Mr. and Mrs. Vivian were married in the Oakland Methodist Church, June 13, 1900, by Rev. T. R. Clark. A reception followed at the bride's home in Oakland. Mrs. Vivian is the daughter of the late Mr. and Mrs. Neil Brown, while Mr. Vivian is the son of the late Mr. and Mrs. Charles i.!..~~,.~~~~a\!I Vivian. Both are lifelong residents June 13, 1950 of this community and have been very active in church and social enterprises in the village. Mrs. Vivian has been president of the Woman's Association of the united Church, choir leader, and a Sunday School teacher, president of the Community Club and the Women's Institute and the first worthy matron of Halo Chapter of the Eastern Star. Mr. Vivian is still active in church affairs, being a trustee of the United Church and a member of the parsonage board. He served for a number of years on the public school board. He recently retired as treasurer of the Township of Oakland." For many years, a well known and respected Oakland native, George Knox, managed the mill for Payson. George was one of eleven children of Franklin Knox, a housebuilder and contractor. Many of the older houses in Oakland and district are the handy work of Frank Knox. George served as a Councillor and Reeve of the Township and Warden of Brant County. Lloyd N. Vivian worked with his father for a number of years and knew the trade well. He took over, as his father gradually phased out, and was referred to as "The Boss" by Payson. By then, the business mainly involved rolling and grinding grain for animal feeds plus selling commercial feed products. Lloyd, like his father, served as Township treasurer. He married Helen Kitchen (1909-1975) daughter of the local blacksmith, Harold Kitchen (18751931). Lloyd and Helen had one son, Hugh. Due to changing times and circumstances, the day of the turbine powered grist mill passed into history. The mill closed on December 31, 1967, after 160 years of milling operations on this site. At the time, grain was processed for seven cents per 100 pounds.

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Circa 1975 The mill is now gone but it still reminds us of another era when milling played a crucial role in the life of township dwellers.

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Circa 1940 Lloyd at work bagging chop - he recalls up to 12 wagons lined up at his father's mill waiting their turn to unload grain at the ramp. Much of the early business was done with a trusting hand shake in 1880 the mill had a capacity of 200 bushels per day.

Millions of gallons of water have spilled over the sluice-way since 1806. One must travel elsewhere in Ontario to view a waterpowered grist mill in action. The MacKenzie creek valley in Oakland Township was studied by a team of biologists in 1979. They found a number of plants, animals and birds rare not only in Brant County but rare in Canada. The old white cedars and tamarack trees still stand in the swamp. Cedar, both red and white, was once a preferred Christmas tree known as "the tree of life". They produced an aromatic brew, steeped from the tree branches, which was used by early explorers to prevent scurvy. The swamp, the mill and the ponds are a rich blend of history and unique biology with a heritage worth saving. Vivians' Mill, a dusty, noisy and sometimes dangerous environment, is now quiet. Flour comes prepackaged, enriched and fortified from giant processing plants. Improvements of all kinds are added to mill products for saleability. Absent is the sociability offered by the oldfashioned miller and the camaraderie his customers found during their frequent visits there. An era has truly passed. A complete Vivian family history will be found by referring to the book "You're A Stratford" volume V. A copy can be found at the local library in Scotland.

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June 1991 - Vivians mill being demolished by Rondau Smith of Paris, piece by piece - the old mill sign that hung over the front door and the weather-vane were preserved.

Lower Oakland The mills built at Lower Oakland were located on the south east corner of lot 10 Concession I, along Malcolm's Creek. At various times they included a fulling mill, a grist mill, a saw mill and a cider mill. Land registry records reveal that Charles Burtch acquired lot 10 from the Crown on May 17, 1802. The lot was subsequently divided with one hundred and forty-eight acres being sold to Henry Gates on February 10, 1807. Mr. Gates built a dam and then a fulling mill on the north bank of the creek in the year 1813. The dam created a mill pond of about 100 acres. He undoubtedly powered the mill with an over-shot wheel with a fourteen foot head. Fulling is the process of cleansing and thickening cloth by beating and washing it, also called "milling". The machinery was a series of wooden mallets which beat the cloth by being "let full up on it" - a more modern technique was to process the cloth with rollers, the cloth being washed with soap or fullers earth. (Also referred to as a carding process which involves the dressing of wool or cotton with cards or in a carding machine, the fibres when sufficiently combed are called cardings.) On the 17th of April, 1816 Charles Burtch sold thirteen acres to Job Lodor (1775-1861) for the sum of seventy-five pounds. Mr. Lodor increased his land holdings by purchasing another forty-three acres from Henry Gates on May 8, 1816. Regarding lot 10, various other land transactions occurred

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over the years involving Henry Gates, Job Lodor, Charles Burtch, Hiram Gates, David Lefler, David Secord, Neal Lefler, Chris Lefler, Malcolm Brown, William Secord, Richard Tennant, Daniel Lefler, Andrew Edy, James Haviland and Cook wright in 1874. In 1889 Horatio and Arthur Wright bought the mill property and sold it to Daniel Brooke (lawyer) who in turn leased it to A. Chapman and in 1896 Mary Ann Brooke sold it to Ward Foster for $2500.00. In 1823, Job Lodor built the grist mill, with one run-of-stone and a saw mill, on the north side of the creek. This tends to rule out the suggestion of some historians that these two mills were burned by General McArthur on November 7, 1814, following the Battle of Malcolm's Mills, but does not rule out the possibility of the fulling mill having been put to the torch, as it was then in operation. The records of claims settled by the Government with those who lost property in the War do not show the name Henry Gates. If in fact compensation was granted, it was at the rate of 25 percent of value. Archibald Burtch received compensation for damage to his property in the amount of 165 pounds. Whether or not he had an interest in the fulling mill at Lower Oakland is not known. If so, then it is reasonable to conclude the fulling mill was put to the torch following the Battle of Malcolm's Mills. Job Lodor's biography is well written in Townsend and Oakland history. Born in New Jersey, he migrated north in 1797 with the U.E.L. immigrants to flee his creditors. He settled at Turkey Point and became a builder and philanthropist. Among his various pursuits were those of merchant, tavern keeper, millwright, contractor, jailer and minister. He was involved in mill construction at Bachus Mills, Culver Mills, Finch's Mill, Gustin Mill, Burford Mill, Averill Mills (now waterford), Boston Mills, Fisher Mills and the Rockford Mill. As well, he ran the mills (grist and woollen) at Ancaster from 1820 to 1849. The first mills built at Ancaster were replaced by an impressive stone structure which is now a well known restaurant. Some of the machinery from the Ancaster mill was preserved through the efforts of Mr. Bob Phillips of Cambridge and sent to the National Museum of Science and Technology in Ottawa. Job Lodors' financial interests in Norfolk County were many, particularly at Waterford. Before western grown wheat came into competition with eastern wheat, he was a principal wheat exporter along the Grand River. Shipments were sent down the river, the product of regional mills that were then in operation. He used the recently built Grand River Navigation system to get his milled flour to outside markets at Buffalo and beyond. The flour was shipped in barrels. This high profile businessman spent his late years at Ancaster. He was twice married, firstly to Ann Lawrence and secondly to Ann's sister, phoebe Lawrence. By his first wife was a daughter and by Phoebe two sons were born. Job died at Ancaster on July 25, 1861 and is buried at the St. John's Anglican Church plot along with others of his immediate family. A complete outline of Mr. Lodor's many pursuits can be found in a book titled Historical Highlights of Norfolk County by Bruce Pearce, 1973.

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David Secord (1809-1889) farmer, bought the mills from Mr. Lodor in 1847 for the sum of fifteen hundred pounds. Mr. Secord was then about thirty-eight years of age. Family lineage shows him to be the son of Daniel Secord, one of the first landowners in the Township who settled on lot 9 Concession I in the year 1802. David and Mary Secord (1810-1872) (Seacord) were the parents of Hiram (1830-1882), George born in 1832, Emmaline J., Elizabeth, Martha and David W. Secord (1849-1909). Hiram married Elizabeth Smith and their Circa 1900 - Smith's Mill son David Hiram (1856-1923) married Cecilia Stratford (1858-1952). David and Cecilia had three sons, Ernest (1881-1974), Earl (1884-1951) and Charles (1886-1978). The family has ties with the famous Canadian heroine, Laura Secord.

,.

In the purchase of the mills from Job Lodor, Daniel Secord assumed a mortgage of seven hundred pounds to facilitate the transaction for his son. The mill was operated by the Secords from 1847 to 1869. During the latter span of years, between 1844 and 1855, they built a new grist mill across the creek, on the south side. The building measured about thirty by fifty feet, a two and a half storey timber framed structure covered with clapboard sitting on a full basement. It was nearly identical in structural shape to Vivians Mill, but smaller. The 1861 census shows the Lower Oakland mill in full production, grinding 20,000 bushels of grain. The saw mill turned out 100,000 board feet of lumber. Apparently, the saw mill never moved over to the south bank of Malcolms' Creek however a cider mill was installed in the basement of the grist mill which operated up to and including the time E. L. Smith owned the mill. While a young man, Roy McEwan (1889-1971) worked at the mill and vividly recalls operating the cider press located in the lower level of the building. Andrew Edy (1811-1882), magistrate and farmer, bought out the operation in 1869 for the sum of thirty-eight hundred dollars (89 1/2 acres). James Haviland was the next owner in 1870 and he sold to Cook Wright (1830-1882) in 1874 for $7800.00, acquiring one hundred and sixteen and a half acres (89 1/2 acres in lots 9 and 10, 27 acres in lots 7 and 8). After Mr. wrights death on May 28, 1882, a mortgage sale followed. Sold were the grist mill (still using mill stones for grinding purposes) and a cider mill. Along with the two mills, the sale involved two houses, two barns, one drive shed attached to the grist mill, an orchard and 30 acres of land.

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The water storage capacity at Millford Mills was sufficient to drive roller equipment, wi th a reported potential to produce 300 barrels of flour daily. By the late 1800's, most Ontario mil I s w ere converting to rollers but modernization did not occur at the Lower Oakland mill until 1927. With the run-of-stone system of grinding, the 300 barrel capacity, which was Millford Mills probably an exaggeration, could not hope to be achieved. Water turbines became the preferred power source after 1850. It is likely that Millford Mills switched to water turbines when the new mill was erected in 1855. Most certainly this occurred long before Edwin L. Smith (1868-1944) took over the grist and cider mills from his brother-in-law, Ward Foster, for the sum of $2800.00. Edwin Smith bought the operation in 1897 and built up the business. Little flour was being milled when Edwin Smith took over. Edwin Leslie Smith was born on December 11, 1868 and died on January 27, 1944. He married Effie Foster. Edwin had six siblings - Clara married McKenzie Malcolm, Daniel married Mrs. Campbell, Harry unmarried, Fred married Ella Daniels, McKenzie married Clara Robertson and Herbert married Ann Campbell. Edwin's father, Hamilton Smith, was born on March 18, 1815 and died April 21, 1895. He was a farmer near Scotland, on the old James Malcolm farm, lot 2 Concession II, N1/2, located somewhat north-east of the village of Scotland. Hamilton married Sarah Malcolm (1832-1912) daughter of James Malcolm (1800-1858) and Elvira Fairchild, daughter of Isaac Fairchild of Fairchilds Creek. Sarah was the first of eight children, the fourth being Dr. Isaac Brock Malcolm (1837-1917) who graduated from McGill University and practised in Lowell, Michigan. James had a twin sister, Catherine. They were the children of Finlay Sr. and Tryphena (Wardell) Malcolm who migrated to Oakland from Maine in 1798 and had fifteen children in total. Finlay Jr. (1779-1862), along with his brothers, was active in the 1837 Scotland Uprising. James Malcolm's farm later came into the hands of his daughter, Sarah, and her husband Hamilton Smith. Besides farming, Hamilton Smith took up the carpenter trade and is known to have helped in the construction of Millford Mills when the new mill was built around 1855.

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Circa 1892 Edwin Leslie Smith (1868-1944)

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Circa 1892 Effie (Foster) Smith

About 1927, used roller equipment together with an additional turbine were added. The mill stones in place were discarded. They were the good quality "buhr" type, quarter dressed with twelve or fourteen pieces of quality quartz banded together with iron hoops, a product of France. The owners son Albert "Bert" Smith (1902), a millwright, was engaged to oversee the project. Bert remembers, as a boy, his father running two pairs of millstones to make flour but cannot recall when they were removed. They were taken out quite early in this century. It is likely, as E. L. Smith installed his first steel plate grinder for custom grinding quite soon after taking over the business and it was subsequently replaced in the early 1920' s with a larger double head plate grinder which is still in place at the mill. Two years later another son, Harold Foster Smith (1898-1970) returned to Lower Oakland and became active in the business. At this juncture in the history of the mills, turbine power drove the equipment. The mill became very productive sometimes running twenty-four hours a day, six days a week, producing wheat and buckwheat flour and later rye flour.

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Double Roller Mill (old style machines, refitted and at reduced prices, were also available) This double roller mill made by WIn & J. G. Greey was advertised in 1880 as being "most perfect and sensitve for feeding material the whole width of roll in a perfectly even stream". One feature in its use was all bearings were independent of the cabinet and secured to the main casing of the roller frame, thereby avoiding tremble or shake which was a problem if the bearings or springs were secured to the roll cabinet. Wm & J.G. Greey's Mill Furnishing Works, established in 1874, had an office at 2 Church Street, Toronto with a factory at 2 to 8 Church Street and at 54 to 78 Esplanade Street. They were the main manufacturing firm of mill supplies in the late 1800' s and made rollers, mill machines, millstones, water wheels, link chain belting, steel conveyors and elevator machinery. A three double-set mill had the capacity to turn out one to two barrels of flour per hour. Such a flour mill had the usual outfitting of a wheat cleaner, three double sets of rolls, one plansifter, one purifer and dust collector, one bolting reel and three bag filters.

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Smith's mill turned out animal feed on a custom basis. The business was further expanded by producing Smiths' own brand of feeds, commercially. Ultimately, the mill reduced its operation to a five day week but Management kept busy on the weekends with ongoing maintenance and administrative duties. An oil engine provided auxiliary power for the flour mill when the water flow to run the turbines failed. The engine Circa 1900 was added as an additional Edwin L. Smith (holding Albert Effie (Foster) power supply in the mid Smith (1868-1944) Harold) 1930's. Extra storage became necessary to meet the expansion demands. In 1942, the first cement grain silos were visible on the horizon which replaced inside wooden bins and bag storage. During the second World War (1939-1945) business expanded greatly resulting in a decision to specialize in rye milling, supplemented with the established feed milling operations. Harold Smith assumed greater responsibilities in the business when his father semi-retired in 1934. Harold married Florence M. Campbell on the 18th of May 1918, daughter of George Campbell (1872-1943) and Lelia Roberts (1872-1944). Harold and Florence Smith were the parents of Edwin A. born 1923, Mae E. born 1925, Coral R. born 1932 and Kenneth H. born 1941.

Kenneth Coral Mae Edwin Harold Smith Florence Campbell Smith (1898-1970) (1899-) Harold's eldest, Edwin Jr. served in the R.C . A.F. during World War II. He returned in 1945 and took up milling as a career. He expanded his role in the business in 1963, on the retirement of his father. Edwin changed the name of the mill to "E. A. Smith Flour

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Mills Ltd.". In 1947, he married Ferne Henry a school teacher from Windham Township. They have five children, Allan Murray, Marvin Leslie, Darryl Glen, Ronald Arthur and Karen Lynne. The mill had been operating with an oil engine and the water turbine, both rated at about 50 h.p. Also, 5 h.p. electric motors were in use (single phase) to run the grain elevators. The original turbine, which is still there, was used until 1976 to drive the feed grinder and other equipment. It generated up to 70 h.p. The turbine required special care in extremely cold weather to prevent freeze-up. A steady water flow through it was used as a preventative measure to freeze-up. To meet capacity and efficiency needs, the new operator, Edwin Smith Jr., installed a powerful 60 h.p. electric motor which required three phase electrical power from Ontario Hydro. A new power line was brought down from the Oakland Road, requiring a $5,000.00 bond be posted guaranteeing long term use of the line. In 1976, he opened a more modern plant which tripled the mill's capacity. The production of rye flour at the mill became one of the largest in Ontario. The new operation required 150 h.p. if everything was working simultaneously. Reliable power was necessary once the mill concentrated on rye as it was one of the hardest grains to crush and refine. The rye flour was marketed to meet the needs of a growing population with a European background. Rye is bought locally from the tobacco farmers who use a rotation system of crop management. For texture purposes, the grain grinding process could involve up to eight grindings. Edwin terminated the animal feed business in 1969. He retired to Waterford in 1988 and sold out. The present owners are Uwe Storjohann and Clinton Campbell, shareholders, who changed the name to Brant Flour Mills Ltd. The new owners carried out a $200,000 expansion program by installing a truck hoist and weigh scale. The new unit can unload 5,000 bushels of grain hourly and has a 500 bushel dump pit. A grain truck can be unloaded in ten minutes while the old system took up to an hour. The new unit allows the grain to be delivered by elevator through the distribution head at the top to any of the 50,000 bushel storage tanks. Rye flour is produced at the rate of 3000 pounds hourly.

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Scotland The first sawmill was built by Eliakim Malcolm (1801-1874) in 1848. He located it east of the village along the Oakland Road, on lot 2, Concession II. A grist mill followed on the same site in 1861, George Malcolm (1806-1895) was the proprietor. The 1861 census shows George Malcolm and John Harding as millers, both living at Scotland. George Malcolm, son of Finlay (1750-1829) founder of Oakland, was born on August 5, 1806. He married, firstly, Elizabeth Averill (1812-1840) and, secondly, Sarah Beemer. By George and Elizabeth were eleven children; Marcus (1830-1903), who married Huldah Ann Bugbee, operated a woollen mill; Tryphena (1832-1919) married James Hagerman (1831-1884), six children; Finlay born about 1834 became a minister; Thursa born about 1835; Martin (1837-1882) married Ann Hunt (1844-1900), two children; Elizabeth born about 1839 married WIn Tennant, three children; Elvira was a spinster; Lucina was a spinster; Catherine married Philander Slack, three children; Russell and William. As indicated previously, George Malcolm's elder son, Marcus, became involved in the milling operations and opened a woollen mill near the same site as the grist mill, but on the opposite side of the road, which employed about twenty hands at peak production around 1880. A small pond, created by running a small man-made tributary from Mackenzie Creek, supplied water for the carding process. Regarding the mills at Scotland, there are puzzling and conflicting references to water energy. Whether or not the first mills were powered by Malcolm's Creek is unclear but unlikely. Considering the time element, it seems probable that Eliakim Malcolm installed a steam engine to run his saw mill in 1848 and that George Malcolm used a steam boiler to power his grist mill, also Marcus Malcolm used steam to power the woollen mill. These conclusions are drawn from the following historical facts: (a)

Steam came into common use after 1840.

(b)

There is no evidence of a large mill pond at the site of the mills which are no longer there. It is true that a pit was dug by the railway using drag scoops to remove tons of gravel during the construction of the T. H. and B. but there is little evidence of a dam or of a storage area that would hold sufficient water to energize two custom mills, even if an "undershot" water wheel had been installed. The "undershot" wheel required little head to rotate it but was not in common use at that time. The only pond was a small one below Hunters Lumber yard which supplied water in carding wool but did not have sufficient pondage to run the mill by water power.

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The date of construction of the first mill, in 1848, also rules out any possibility, as suggested by one historian, that the Americans torched mills at Scotland following the Battle of Malcolm's Mills. One well known Brant County historian tended to believe that the latter battle was fought near Scotland, and not in the hollow at Oakland, and that the mills which were burned on the morning after the encounter were those located near Scotland, not in the hollow at Oakland. The latter mentioned historian appears to have drawn an erroneous conclusion. Dr. J. R. Malcolm (1839-1895) was also involved in the grist mill operations at Scotland. He was a son-in-law of Eliakim Malcolm. The mill is reported to have had two run-of-stone in a three storey frame building 30' by 50' in size. On a summer day in the year 1868, the mill was severely damaged by a boiler explosion and Dr. Malcolm was slightly injured. The following is a quote from the local newspaper:

"The inhabitants of scotland Village were startled by a terrific explosion when the engine of a grist mill blew up. A mass of iron weighing 150 pounds was tossed across the building. Dr. Malcolm, the owner, who was in the building, had a narrow escape from serious injury. He suffered scalds on the left cheek and neck". Obviously, the mill was operating on steam power at that time and illustrates the hazards inherent in using a steam engine which was not properly serviced. The grist mill ceased to exist shortly thereafter, being converted to a foundry works. (A relative, E. Malcolm operated a saw mill south west of Scotland near Kelvin, in 1868 - it had a 16 h.p. engine employing five men who turned out 1 1/2 million feet of lumber annually.) Dr. John Rolph Malcolm was the son of Shubael Malcolm (1814-1878) and Elvira Foster (1820-1894) farmers on the Malcolm homestead at Oakland. Shubael later became Warden of Brant County. Dr. Malcolm was born in 1839 and died on the 13th of January 1895 at his daughter's home in Corunna, Michigan. (His Christian name "Rolph" is derived from a Burford man who was considered a hero in the area during the 1837 Rebellion.)

Dr. John Rolph Malcolm Sophrona (1839-1895) (1842-1912) (at the top left, standing)

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John Rolph Malcolm was an 1861 graduate of McGill University. He practised in Scotland and district and was also associated with his two brothers in the foundry business. He married his cousin, Sophrona, daughter of Eliakim Malcolm, former owner of the mill. She was born on March 10, 1842 and died November 5, 1912 at Corunna, Michigan. Both are buried at Scotland. They had a daughter, Bertha, born in 1866. Sophrona "Frony" was reportedly the most beautiful girl in Scotland and was chosen at sixteen years of age to dance with Albert Edward, Prince of Wales during his visit to Brantford in 1857. Her father, Eliakim Malcolm (18011874) was a leading politician in Township and County affairs, becoming the first Warden in January 1853 and was the Warden in 1857 during the Prince of Wales' visit to Brantford. It is alleged that Sophrona was master of the house and that Dr. Malcolm spent his whole married life under her spell. Her temperament was so pronounced and well known that the family often used the synonymous expression "don't try to Aunt Sophrona us " . Even her mother-in-law felt her presence. On one occasion, while on a short visit, Frony noticed dust on top of the organ. She wrote the word "Dust" on the organ top! This was the beginning of a tenuous and strained relationship with her mother-in-Iawl John Hagerman operated a grist mill at Scotland in the early part of the twentieth century which was later destroyed by fire. A mill was rebuilt and purchased by Arthur Campbell (18951967) son of George Campbell (1872-1943) and Lila Roberts. Art Campbell married Erie Priddle. He later started up a spray painting business in Scotland. C. T. McMartin followed Art Campbell as the proprietor of the mill which was located in the village across from Ensley Graves garage . The mill was electrically operated.

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Circa 1900 A typical engine with a large flywheel of the type used at the Scotland grist mill during the time Henry Grant and Vincent Downs operated the mill.

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About 1937, Henry A. Grant (1880-1964) and Vincent E. Downs (1896-1945) became owners of the mill. They installed a 48 h.p. diesel engine with a huge fly wheel. A 2500 gallon cistern provided a cooling system for the engine. Mr. Grant had previously operated a water powered mill at Salem, Ontario, later at Colborne and it was from Colborne, where he served as Reeve, that he moved to Scotland, then to Burford and retired at Brantford. He died on July 24th, 1964. The Grants had a son, Regionald who died in 1929, and two daughters, Eileen (Mrs. Jack McClintic of Detroit and Doris (Mrs. Morgan Hillis) of Trenton. Mr. Downs died at Hepworth on October 10, 1945. Joyce Grant Starkey, a granddaughter of Henry Grant, lives in Brantford. About 1941, the mill was sold to George Pettit. Henry and Mrs. Grant In the mid-nineteenth century, D. and D. Swords gristmill was in operation. Its exact location in unknown. A saw mill operated early in the twentieth century near the T. H. and B. station, run by the Chamber Brothers. John A. Eddy (1855-1943) provided logs for the mill and routinely ran saw logs down Malcolm's Creek to his yard. In the mid twentieth century, a small grist mill operation was set up beside the T. H. & B station by Don Eddy. It burned after a motor ran out of fuel and an attempt was made to re-fuel it while still hot. It was not re-built. A question that remains - did the Malcolm family harness the creek near Scotland? seems unlikely. Their first milling operations at Scotland were from a steam powered source.

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Having concluded that operations at Scotland were steam powered it is well to mention that this energy source was reliable and efficient if the engine was serviced regularly and kept in top notch condition. A 30 horse power engine could easily cut 2 1/2 million feet of lumber annually, employing up to six hands. A 16 horse power engine of the size used at Scotland could cut 1 1/2 million feet of lumber in a season, employing five hands.

Victoria Mills Down stream from the Lower Oakland mill, on MacKenzie Creek in Townsend Township, was another milling operation called Victoria Mills named after Queen Victoria, also known as Courtnage Mills. While it was outside the Oakland Township boundary, many farmers in the southern tip took their business there.

Circa 1890 - Victoria Mills The mill was built on lot 22, Concession II Townsend. A Crown deed signed by David Laird, Minister of Interior 1863, was conveyed from the Six Nations Reserve to John Barber and later came into the hands of the Courtnage family. The purchase price of the mill site in 1869 was $900.00. Chauncey E. Courtnage (18 -1905) was the proprietor for years. His son Lloyd (1890-1959) took over the mill and allied general store at RR#l, Wilsonville. In 1940, Lloyd married Marion Gertrude Hyde (1909) daughter of Charles Albert Hyde (18821956), a well known Bealton family. Lloyd's sister, Clara (18861963) married Perley Stratford (1886-1981) a farmer, thresher and sawmill operator at Oakland.

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The above map shows concessions I and II of Oakland township, lots one to seventeen also concessions I and II of Townsend Township, lots 1 to 23. The sites of mills along MacKenzie (Malcolm's) Creek can be pin pointed by the stars. 1.

2.

Scotland Mills Vivian Mills

3. 4.

Millford Mills Victoria Mills

In 1874, the Victoria Mill's property was acquired by Henry F. Teeter of Teeters Mills, Windham for $9000.00. Late~ in 1877, James D. Field bought the business and moved there from Vanessa when his daughter, Catherine, was sixteen years of age. James cleared more land and improved the head of the dam to gain more power for his operation. His daughter, Catherine Marie Field, married Chauncey Courtnage and they ultimately inherited the business and property. Prior to Chauncey taking over, the mill had operated as a sawmill and Chauncey converted to a grist mill with optimum production occurring during W.W.I, using the trade name "Crown Brand" to market his flour. Besides Clara (1886-1963) and Lloyd (1890-1959), Chauncey and Catherine, who were married on October 25, 1882, had Pearl, Ralph, Ross and Ethel. Following Chauncey's death in 1905, Lloyd and his mother carried on until her death in 1941 when Lloyd acquired title and continued with the business until his death, September 28, 1959. By Lloyd Clement Courtnage and Gertrude Hyde were three children; Catherine Marie born in 1941 married Andrew Evans, Lloyd C. born 1947 married Wendy L. Auclair and Mildred M. born 1952 married James E. Nagle.

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Lloyd Courtnage

Circa 1929 - four generations back row - Ellen Van Every Hyde (1861-1950) Gertrude Hyde Courtnage, C. Albert Hyde (1882(1956) seated Lucy (Kew) Van Every (1842-1930) wife of John Van Every (1833-1920) a farmer at Bealton. After Lloyds' death, his widow carried on until 1961, with assistance from her daughter Catherine who later married Andrew Evans. They established a home near the mill.

Victoria Mills Mrs. Courtnage lobbied aggressively to have this historic treasure preserved but her efforts failed. In 1962, the mill burned to the ground. The mill pond was subsequently acquired by the Grand River Conservation Authority. The dam was then strengthened and a new bridge erected at the mill site to accommodate a modern highway system. On the bridge will be found a bronze plaque which permanently marks the location of Victoria Mills which had been appropriately named during the reign of Her Majesty, Queen Victoria.

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Victoria (Courtnage) Mills

Another perspective of Victoria Mills - Mildred Courtnage in the foreground.

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CHAPTER 5 Arteries to DeveloplIlent The days of corduroy and stick-in-the-mud roads are history. Oakland can now boast of well paved arteries and good secondary concession roads which were initially made available through Township grants and statute labour. Quick and easy access to major centres is possible but this was not always the case. Passable roads were crucial to the colonization program of the Upper Canada government. The early Loyalists arriving to settle found land travel extremely difficult and somewhat hazardous. At that time, the only road communication was from Newark (Niagara), the seat of government, to York (Toronto). The more accessible way of travel and transportation of goods was by boat along the lakeshore and thence overland by sledges, roughly improvised, which were drawn by oxen. Indian trails, miry paths, blazes and corduroys were the only avenues open for land communication. A guidebook issued for prospective settlers cautioned its readers "the roads are so bad that it was hardly possible to go out of doors" • It must be remembered, however, that roads were not as important to the daily lives of settlers then as they are today. Meat was smoked, apples dried, wool spun, fuel-wood chopped, logs hewn and import needs were few. The early pioneers were nearly self sufficient and confined their daily activities to the local community in which they lived. The original trail known as the Mohawk Trail or the Old Indian Trail traversed Burford Gore, north and south. It started near Charlotteville in Norfolk County, running a little to the west of Simcoe, on to Bloomsburg and to Sovereigns (Waterford). It ran parallel to where the L. E. and N. Railway was later built, keeping slightly west of the old #24 Highway, continuing on to what would later become Oakland Township. The trail continued to run slightly east of the old #24 Highway to Mohawk (Mount Pleasant) and continued on to Brants Ford, passing close to the well known and dreaded Grand River marsh of that era, but skirted the marsh by following the elevated ground along the ridge behind the present John Noble Home. Another trail branched off at Waterford following a route, which would later become the Cockshutt Road, to Brants Ford. The Indian Trail was upgraded to so called "road status" in 1795 and to paved highway specifications in 1924. The first grant

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for road construction was given by the Upper Canada parliament in 1810, the amount of 2000 pounds. Further improvement occurred in 1812, influenced by military needs, which provided more accessible and ready land travel from York to the ports on Lake Erie. There was a need to speed up, and to better link, travel from the major military bases with navigation along Lake Erie going west to Amherstburg where the fortress, known as Fort Malden on the Western flank, was located. Fort Malden was a critical defence position for Canada and quicker access was required. This all coincided with a linkage to the Talbot Road which traversed Norfolk County, east and west, and with the ongoing upgrading of the route from Ancaster to the Thames and on to the Detroit frontier. That famous hero, General Isaac Brock (1769-1812), is known to have hurriedly passed through Perth (Oakland) with a contingent of regulars on August 7th, 1812. He was enroute to Fort Malden where he led a successful campaign against the American Forces camped at Fort Detroit. People living along the Mohawk Trail saw a constant flow of military traffic during the War of 1812. Settlers at Mount Pleasant, Perth (Oakland), Sovereigns Mills (Waterford) and on to Simcoe had considerable contact with the military defenders of Upper Canada. In 1815, the Legislature directed that seventy-five pounds be spent to improve the old Indian Trail from Malcolm's Mills south to Mrs. Ryerses in Townsend Township. No other major improvements occurred for at least another forty years. The straight country roads of Southern Ontario are the work of early land surveyors. Long narrow strips of land, some twenty metres wide, were laid out parallel and perpendicular to each other at regular intervals. From these allowances, roads were built for access to rectangular farm lots, all of standard size. Trees were cut only to the width of the roadway. The trees were simply felled into the woods and left to rot. The remaining stumps became a hazard for the oxen and the horses used to pull the carriages and wagons. During the settlement years, land cleared for roadways was all but indistinguishable from land cleared for agriculture. Some early roads crossed private property and were named "given roads" because the owner could block access if he so desired. It was a primitive road system but adequately served the needs of that era. Early road building was described this way:

"AII the woodmen that could be assembled from the settlers were directed to be employed, an explorer of the line to go at their head, then two surveyors with compasses, after them a band of blazers, of men to mark trees in the line, then went the woodmen with their hatchets to fell the trees and the rear was brought up by waggons with provisions." Many country roads were made sixty-six feet wide because surveyors found it expedient to do so - simply one measurement of the length of his surveyor's chain.

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The settlers themselves were sometimes the main road-builders because ownership of their prospective farm lot was only granted once the breadth of the road allowance in front of their lot had been cleared sufficiently to prevent the axles of wagons from snagging on tree stumps. Under an Act of Parliament in 1793, called the Highways Act, each landowner was required to annually perform from three to twelve days of maintenance, the labour expended was according to the size of his property and assessed value of his land. Statute labour, as it was called, was a tax tailored to a society where money was scarce. Assessments of twenty-five pounds required two days labour per annum and the days of work increased proportionately to twelve days of work if the property owners' assessment was between 400 and 500 pounds. Wherever land was cleared for agriculture, roads which were no more than cart tracks, followed. These trails purposely strayed from the surveyed allowances to skirt hills and swamps. There were other detours from the main road to the most important place in the community, the gristmill and sawmill. Such detours occurred in Oakland Township to mills at Lower Oakland and Oakland, along Malcolm's (MaCKenzie) Creek. Cedar logs were used to construct corduroy sections in swampy areas. The logs were laid transversely along the allowance thus raising it above the wet spots. This type of road construction was called "crosswaying". The ribbed (corduroy) surface was not necessarily dry or smooth but it was cheap to build. Plank roads appeared by the year 1840. These could be built relatively free of major expenditures. The roads were intended for all round year use. Planks were laid together side by side, topped with a layer of dirt to fill in the cracks and reduce noise. A water powered saw mill cutting pine, beech, maple or elm logs into four to eight inch planks made the job easy. The planks were in eight feet lengths, and with two lengths, it gave sixteen feet of road allowance for normal travel as well as sufficient space for wagons, coaches, carriages and sleighs to pass each other. Good drainage was the key to success. Hilly areas required special maintenance procedures. One man could easily keep several miles of plank road in a good state of repair. Special projects were contracted out. Historical records of the Brantford-Oakland Road Company show an expenditure of $10.50 in 1876 to John Van Every (1833-1920) of Townsend Township for six cords of soft wood "to be delivered to the end of the road" near Boston. In 1878, a contract was awarded to Lewis Van Every (18381913) of Bealton, a brother of John, for 10 1/4 cords of rock elm at a cost of $17.94 "to be delivered at the south end of the road". The order was signed by John Smith. Oakland was among the first villages provided with a relatively smooth surfaced road, g~v~ng quicker and more comfortable access to their main area of commerce at the Town of Brantford. At about this same time, the government built a plank road from Hamilton to London. Plank roads served a very useful

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purpose during three seasons of the year but during the spring thaw it was havoc, leaving the surface a shambles. Many a dray horse with a broken leg had to be destroyed. These planked surface roads were narrow in places with room for only one team and wagon. The driver of an empty wagon found himself duty bound to turn aside and allow the loaded wagons free access to pass. In extreme conditions, the settlers had to resort to horse back, pack horse and in some cases used trundle-barrows or copied the Indian method of transporting goods on a "travois", a practical way to transport small loads over stumpy or rutty areas.

Circa 1820 The Old Mohawk Trail These two settlers are conveying 300 pounds of cargo in a trundle-barrow. The first record of road supervisors being appointed for the Oakland area is found in the minutes of the June 13th, 1805 Court of Quarter Sessions held at Charlotteville. John Beemer and Wm Tyler, Esquires, of Oakland were named Commissioners of Roads (or pathmasters) for Townsend, Windham and Burford Gore (Oakland). These Commissioners had powers to allocate "the number of days that the different men in their divisions have to do statute labour and all men between the age of 21 to 60 were liable for statute labour.

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The Connnissioners received their instructions from the Clerk of the Peace. The Township passed several by-laws in 1850/51 concerning roads, particularly in Oakland village. Statute labour laws were abolished in 1925. Previously, in 1917, the boundaries of Oakland village were specifically defined for purpose of such connnunity service by its male population. In the spring of 1887, local dwellers lobbied for road improvement along the Oakland/Townsend line, extending from highway #24 south to the grist mill at East Oakland. Up to that time, only a dirt trail existed from the main road, east to the John Roberts' place. The Roberts buildings were situated on the east side of the L.E. & N. track, as it was later constructed. The petition went to Reeve w.m Devlin, a farmer on lot 10 concession III. To the Reeve and Councillors of the Township of Oakland The Petition of the undersigned ratepayers of the Township of Oakland Sheweth that your Petitioners consider that the opening up of a road in the Township line between Oakland and Townsend across Lots 7.8.9 and 10 would be a public benefit And therefore pray that the said Road may be opened up accordingly Dated the 21st day of May 1887 Signed: Mordecai Wesbrook Edward Eddy John Eddy R. Gillett C. Rock Samuel Eddy John Young J.A. Messecar J.R. Malcolm M.D. Morgan Silverthorne Edwin Sims David Campbell Thomas Mills T. Shave lear Wallace Secord Chas Wheeler (Whealer) Asa Beebe D. McNaughtan Geo. Taylor W. Almas Levi Green w.m Rock Daniel Malcolm Jonathan Malcolm W.C. Malcolm Thomas Swears W. Martin

Wallie Smith Wallace R. Cunningham Mathias Woodley David Campbell Jr. David McIntyre *(name not discernable) Y. Lunn J. Lunn D. Secord S. Stratford W. Smith L. Smith John Proper John Markle George Messecar Truman Messecar Constant Eddy W.E. Vivian John Silverthorne Edward Wheeler (Whealter) W. McEwan Archie Gillett George Ford D. Swears Thos McEwan Horatio Wright David Furler

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Toll Roads For nearly half a century, Upper Canada was a network of toll roads authorized by a special Act of Parliament in 1829. Figuring prominently among these was the Brantford and Oakland Road (Cockshutt Road) which cut a path through the eastern tip of the Township. This artery commenced at the Grand River, near Brant ford , and continued south through Brantford Township, passing through Oakland Township, and beyond to Townsend. Construction commenced in 1856 and was completed over the next three years. It was financed entirely by a Brantford industrialist, Ignatius Cockshutt (1812-1901). The road opened in 1859. A major piece of construction, necessary to link Brantford at the road's northern terminal, was the crossing of the Grand at Erie Avenue. The erection of a wooden bridge was completed early in the year 1856. Known as the Cockshutt Bridge, it was built as a covered structure with a roadway on the roof, unique in its style. A steel bridge replaced it in 1901 and the latter bridge was replaced by a concrete arch cantilever structure in 1933. Near the bridge was a toll gate and another toll at the southern terminus, south of Oakland Township. Keepers were paid about $12.00 a month to man the booths at both points of entry.

Toll Gate - Oakland Road Company

The Company collected a total of $1930.54 in tolls during the year 1862. Records of annual general meetings of the Company financial statements and other documents give some insight into the use of, and continual development of, the road. To pass the gatekeeper in 1860 would have cost five cents if driving horse and buggy, or if travelling with a team and wagon the fare was eight cents. A penny was charged for a traveller on foot.

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Traffic, both motor driven vehicles and horse drawn rigs, was heavy going into Brantford at the turn of the century but rigs still out-numbered cars and trucks by nine to one. Note that 185 rigs passed over the Cockshutt Bridge, going north, on November 9th, 1900, a Friday. Why only nine rigs returned, going south, is not known? Nov 9, 1900 - 7 a.m. to 6 p.m.

Number of conveyances passing over River Bridge to town ________ §~!~2_!o Town Going from Town Motors ----;i~~--------~~~~~~--------;i~~-----1111111111 1111111

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Brantford January 8th, 1862 The annual meeting of the Shareholders of the Brantford and Oakland Road Company was held this day at the office of Ignatius Cockshutt Esq. Stockholders present, Ian Cocker, Ig. Cockshutt, E.L. Passmore. Mr. Cocker having been called to the chair, the following report was read and adopted.

Amount of tolls received from January 11th, 1861 to January 8th, 1862 - $1930.54. Amount expended on road - $1424.58. The excess of expenditures this year over last is occasioned

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the improvements made in constructing a cover, for the of the bridge across the river. It will be seen that outlay for repairs has been about $540.00 (over last receipts for toll are about $216 more than last year. WOOD CONTRACTS

1877 Brantford &: Oakland Road Company Ignatius Cockshutt

(with James Campbell)

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The following, in original handwriting, of expenses incurred for the period January 1861. Expenditures include the purchase spikes, lumber, candles, p board and nails costs for men and teams to haul gravel.

is a running account 1, 1861 to May 13th, of material such as together with labour

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Financial Report 1883/84 Amount received for tolls Jan 9/83 to Jan 9/84 Amount expended on road repairs and Gate Keepers salary Balance Amounts of debts January 1/83 One year into to January 1/84 @ 6%

$2540.59

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$9322.97 559.37 $9882.34 51.46 $9830.88

Amount of tolls over expenses Amount of debt January 1/84

Statement for County Clerk Cost of construction of road Amount of stock Amount of debt January 1/84 Amount of tolls received from Jan 9/83 to Jan 9/84 Amount expended on road during past year for repairs and toll keepers salaries

$33,900.00 20,000.00 9,830.88 2,540.59 2,489.13

This private company road, like many others, was a questionable financial venture. Tolls seldom covered the high maintenance costs and the population was simply too sparse to assure a steady income for the entrepreneurs. While the plank road allowed teams to draw a much greater load than on dirt or gravel, the local people avoided the toll, when possible, by hauling their goods on other arteries, particularly during the summer months or in good sleighing conditions. The County of Brant gave serious consideration to purchasing the road in 1876. Negotiations were undertaken but broke down over the purchase price and the matter was dropped. The Company, which continued to be headed by Ignatius Cockshutt, remained in control for many more years. Mr. Cockshutt dedicated much of his late life to the overseeing of the road and travelled often, from Brantford to Oakland, with his horse and carriage to personally view the state of the road. The Ontario Highway Improvement Act hastened the end of the toll road era. This Act permitted the Province to contribute one third of the purchase price, provided the road was incorporated into the county road system. On October 13th, 1920, the County officially became owner after sixty-four years of private control. The County undertook a major up-grading project in 1925, tarring being a part of the work completed at that time, and it continued to be known as the Cockshutt Road even though it was now in public hands.

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Circa 1927 Seven Oakland Township teams and teamsters engaged in the upgrading of the Cockshutt Road in 1925. Some township men that have been identified are Bruce Bonham, Howard Eddy (1905-1963), Percy Stratford (1902-1972) and Clark Merritt (1880-1949).

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Stage Coaches The first stage service in Upper Canada was put into operation in 1828. A stage line running from Ancaster (but bypassing Oakland Township) to Detroit took three days. This type of travel before 1850 was rare and costly. For the traveller of that era, fares were three to four cents per kilometre causing most to search for alternate arrangements or simply not travel at all. As incomes increased through mixed farming and with stepped-up manufacturing, the need for a regular public transportation service was evident. The period between 1850 to 1910 was the era of the stage coach. For years, even the trains could not displace stage coach lines because they continually modified their routes to provide a feeder service for rail trunk lines. Roadside inns flourished with both Oakland and Scotland villages offering up to date hospitality. These wayside stops and interludes for the coaches making their daily runs were a part of the hotel service. Oakland House, operated by the Malcolm family, catered to stage coach travellers as did the Red Tavern at Maple Grove operated by two Westbrook brothers. The Malcolms ran a livery stable in conjunction with the hotel.

Most coaches carried a maximum of nine passengers inside and often carried passengers outside. The four horses were changed and rested about every ten to fifteen miles. They averaged about eight to ten miles an hour depending on the road surface, the time of year, and the condition of the road. Plank roads in good condition facilitated speed. For the passengers, it was a bone-jarring,

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belaboured experience of reeling and tumbling along to their destination. Winter travel was much less bumpy, the coaches being mounted on runners with stoves for warmth but they had to be ever cautious of "pitch holes" that developed after a significant snow fall. These could instantly throw the driver or passengers out of the conveyance as the runner-mounted coach lost its balance. In some cases, they upset with serious consequences. Many a "runaway" occurred as the driver and passengers were spilled onto the snowy roadway. Mail contracts were a major revenue source for stage operators, over and above some limited freight business and the passenger service. Mail contracts were lost once the railways competed for business. The stage line passing through Oakland, the Simcoe-Brantford Stage Line, lost its contract on June 6th, 1895. Two known stage drivers from Oakland Township were "Buck" Blake and Enoch Kelly (1810-18 ). Enoch moved to Oakland in 1841 and was engaged as a driver for twelve dollars a month. His son Isaac (1835-1912) and his grandson, Wesley (1870-1957) both served on Oakland Township council and they have many descendants in the area.

Enoch Kelly (1810-18 ) of Oakland, stage coach driver for four years with the Simcoe and Brantford Stage Line.

In 1867, and for many years thereafter, the Simcoe-Brantford Stage Line operated daily between Simcoe and Brantford, a five hour SIMCOE AND BRANTFORD trip, stopping at the Oakland post STA.G-E LIN"E. office to deliver mail and at the hotel livery stable to change horses. The stage left the Commercial Hotel at the north side Leave Simcoe 8 A. M., and Arrire at 12:30 P. M. of Market Square in Brantford at Leaves Brantford 3:30 P. M. 3:30 p.m. stopping at the Mount Pleasant Hotel and at the Fiddler Anns Corner Hotel, then on to Return Horses Furnished al Either Eod at Stage Fare. ----_.-Oakland arriving about one and a half hours after departure. From N. B.-LIVERY ATTACHED. Oakland the stage moved on to Waterford and Simcoe arr1v1ng at PURSEL &'BRADLEY, Proprietors. 8:00 p.m. Going north, the stage left Simcoe at 8:00 a.m., arriving ASA A. PURSEL, Simcoe, and ABRAM BRADLEY, Brantford. at Oakland around 10: 45 a .m. and arr1v1ng in Brantford at 12:30 p.m. A. Bradley was the proprietor at Brantford and A. A. Pursell was his business partner at Simcoe.

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The Commercial Hotel located on the north side of Market Square in Brantford was a general stage office. Stages left their depot, daily, for Oakland and Simcoe. Another stage went to Paris, to Scotland then to Simcoe. For their travellers, they offered omnibus service to the railway stations and accommodation at $1.00 per day. They also provided stabling facilities for their customers.

Circa 1909 North of Oakland village was the Hepburn garden farm. The dirt and gravel road seen in front of the house was travelled by the Simcoe and Brantford Stage Line for thirty years in the latter part of the nineteenth century.

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Another stage route, the Passenger Express Line, served the residents of Scotland. The stage left Simcoe for Paris at 8:00 a.m. passing through Round plains then to Scotland House operated by P.J. Pilkey. After changing horses, the stage travelled on to Burford then to Paris arriving at 1:00 p.m., in time to make connections with the afternoon train operated by the Great Western Railway. Many Simcoe merchants used the service to get supplies to and from Paris, and beyond by transferring to another train at Paris.

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PASSENGER EXPRESS LINE, Leaves Bradford's Hotel, Paris, daily, at 11 a.m., for Simcoe; and returning leaves Simcoe for Paris at 8 a.m. EXTENSIVE LIVERY IN CONNECTION. PROPRIETORS: WILLIAM BROWN, Paris. GEO. BATTERSBY, Simcoe COMMERCIAL TRAVELLERS TREATED WITH MOST REASONABLE TERMS.

The Passenger Express Line had its terminal on Peel Street in Simcoe, in a barn built by George Jackson and operated by James T. Chadwick. From this barn the stage coach, drawn by four horses, left daily for Paris. Mails were picked up at the little brick post office that stood on Norfolk Street south, on the corner of the property owned by Mr. W.A. Donly. The corner of the MulkinsDonly lot was the site of a brick post office which stood beside the Mulkins family home. It is now the Eva Brook Donly Museum. Two Mulkins men were postmasters. Passengers were taken aboard at the Norfolk House. Express parcels were picked up from the express office of Mr. A.J. Donly situated in the block later occupied by the H.R. Crabb store. A big boot at the back of the stage carried the trunks. At Scotland, the stage from Paris was met and the passengers transferred. Dinner could be ordered at the local hotel in Scotland. In those days Scotland was a bustling village. James T. Chadwick operated this stageline and kept about 25 horses at his Simcoe stables and 25 in Paris, where the stables were in charge of Billy Brown, brother of Jim Brown, long so well known in Simcoe. Among the drivers, none were better than Bill Jackson, a colored man who drove the coach for many years. The coach left at 8 o'clock in the morning and arrived in Simcoe at 5 o'clock in the evening, in the fine weather but much later in inclement weather. Snowdrifts in the winter months meant a late return. The coach was a three seated one, capable of carrying nine passengers inside and two on the driver's seat. Seasonally, as required, extra coaches were run. Stage travel declined when the Airline Railway reached Simcoe about 1878. The stage coaches and equipment were sold to Mr. Swan,

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A stage for winter travel - origin of picture unknown. who used the equipment on the Port Rowan run. At that time, the livery barn was owned by the late Benjamin Chadwick, who had bought it from his brother James. Chadwick's livery barn was sold in 1927 then moved to the farm of L.A. Sovereign of Round Plains where it was put to use in connection with seed corn drying. It had been built in 1865. The peak period for stage coach travel in Canada West fell between the years 1850 to 1890. A gradual decline was noticed after 1880, with the railways gradually capturing the business. Ultimately, as the horseless carriage gained popularity, the stage coach lines were doomed to oblivion.

County and Township Roads The year 1850 saw the first money paid out by the Township to Isaac Read in the sum of twenty-five pounds for a "Job of Work" on the concession roads. The expenditure was authorized on the 21 January during the inaugural meeting of Council. Prior to that time, the back roads were not always fully open and travellers took circuitous routes to get to their farm destinations. The road allowance had been set by law at twenty-five feet forcing some settlers to move their pine root or chestnut rail fences back from the mandatory right of way.

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Mechanization was on the increase when Burford Gore became a Township. Road scrapers and ditchers, capable of making a lasting impression, were acquired to up-grade maintenance work thus giving the roads a solid, all-weather, gravel surface. After 1850, the agricultural economy changed in the Township. Mixed farming was introduced whereby hay and livestock were alternated with grain growing. Perishable crops commenced to be grown for the urban market. These changes accelerated the need for all-weather roads to Brantford and to the other market centres in the region. The adoption of the drained gravel road system became common-place.

"

An oxen drawn road grader.

In 1875, Council authorized an expenditure of $150.00 to construct a new bridge over Malcolm's (MacKenzie) Creek in the hollow. A severe storm in 1905, which burst Vivians' dam, caused a rush of water that washed out the bridge. The surrounding flats were covered with debris and dead fish. work commenced immediately to replace and upgrade the bridge in the hollow at the south entrance to the village. area.

On a February day in 1895, a severe snow storm struck the The following is a quote from the Waterford Star:

"The blizzard on Friday last drifted the north and south roads full and an immense amount of shovelling will be required to open them up, but in the meantime the travelling public are obliged to take to the fields and through snow banks in order to make their destination. The mails were very irregular for a day or two from Simcoe and Brantford in consequence, while the trains on the M.C.R. were also more or less behind schedule time."

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Circa 1915 The democrat seen in this picture served a dual purpose of carrying goods and produce as well as passengers. In the picture on the right is Sylvester Stratford (1856-1943), a well known Oakland farmer, with his son Percy (1892-1972) on the left and Percy's wife Blanche (1892-1966) holding Bernice (1914-1941).

Circa 1920 The old #24 highway passing through Oakland was rutted and unforgiving - at the base of the hill is a vintage car travelling on the wrong side of the road to avoid the potholes. Oakland village is in the background. The C.O.F. Hall, destroyed by fire, can be seen at the top of the hill, on the east side.

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With the heavy snow blocking the roads on that February winter day in 1895, the young people of Oakland seized on the opportunity for one of their favourite forms of winter recreation - bobsledding down the north and south hills leading into the hollow. Both road entrances to the hollow were then quite steep and ideal for winter sleding as will be seen in the picture, of the valley taken from the south hill, looking north. Oakland Township got better roads in 1917, once the County inaugurated a county road system. This road improvement measure was superseded by another By-law dated April 25th, 1919. Major Alan Mair Jackson, who had recently returned from active service, was appointed county engineer and road superintendent at that time. Large expenditures for road and bridge improvements were authorized over the next several years, including much needed upgrading in Oakland Township. The Highway Improvement Act of 1916 had much to do with a surge of money being made available to all counties in the province to build a network of provincial roads.

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Circa 1900 Winter travel in a cutter - deeply drifted and snow packed roads often caused sleighs to create great "pitching holes". Many a driver and passenger suddenly found himself thrown out into the snow bank. There were no seat belts to fasten you in, just hot bricks and buffalo robes to recover after such a mishap. The following news articles leaves no doubt about the hazards of horse and buggy travel. The following accident occurred south of Oakland, near Simcoe.

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"1863 FATAL ACCIDENT: About eight 0' clock on saturday evening last, an accident occurred which has resulted in the death of Mrs. Wm. Grieve. Mrs. Grieve in company with Mrs. J. Thompson, had been out for a drive, and were returning home, when, on coming down O'CARR' hill, at the edge of town, some portion of the harness became loose and let the buggy against the horse. This caused the horse to run down the hill, which is, and has been for some time in almost impassable condition, portions of the road being carried away by the water running down the hill. While going down both Mrs. Grieve and Mrs. Thompson, and also one of Mrs. Thompson's sons who was with them were thrown out. Mrs. Thompson and her son escaped almost unhurt, but Mrs. Grieve was so severely injured that she has since died. Immediately after the accident, Dr. Clarke came up to them and kindly cared for her, having her conveyed to Mrs. Thompson's residence. Everything was done for her that the medical science could suggest but it was of no avail. About ten o'clock on saturday night, she became wholly unconscious to everything and continued in that state until two o'clock on Monday morning, when death relieved her sufferings, and her spirit took its flight to its maker. Her husband is at present in Westminster, British Columbia. She leaves one daughter, Mrs. Nichol, in Simcoe, besides a large circle of friends to mourn her tragic end." (The victim, Jane Rammage Grieve (1810-1863), was a great aunt to Russell Rammage (1895-1988) of Oakland, a well known Township farmer. ) In 1870, John Dunnett and Robert Secord were driving through the Village of Oakland with a load of beef. When descending the hill by C.P. Malcolm's Foundry, the necktie to the pole of the wagon broke and the horses ran away - the wagon upset. The men were slightly injured and the beef "moreso" - it was strewn about. (John Dunnett (1841-1911) married Eliza Roberts (1842-1938). He was the son of Samuel Dunnett, a Baptist clergyman at Oakland Robert Secord was John's brother-in-law). The horseless carriage arrived at Oakland about 1905. The first vehicles were perceived as a hazard on the roads, causing both dray animals and driving horses to bolt and run away. As well, they killed dogs and generally creating havoc with the established mode of travel. Cars were unwelcome intruders for many years before the transition was complete. The main roads of Oakland Township used by travellers of yesteryear and today include: (a)

The Cockshutt Road, built originally as a plank road, transferred to the County system in 1920. It enters the Township at lot 15 running west along the borders of concession I and II to lot 12, then taking a sharp left turn and running south out of the Township. The road was upgraded from plank, to gravel, to pavement and is one of the major arteries through the eastern tip of the Township.

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(b)

The Mount Pleasant Road (the old #24 Highway) is essentially the route of the old Mohawk Trail, which followed the high ground avoiding hollows and swamps. In earlier times, Indians feared being ambushed in low spots and took paths that gave them a view of the country-side, thus the reason the trail remained on high ground. This route enters Oakland Township at lot 9, running west along the borders of concession III and IV to lot 6, then south through concession II to Oakland Village and continuing its southward path out of the Township. The road has been upgraded from a trail, to gravel road, to a paved road. It was paved about 1925.

(c)

The new #24 Highway was built in the 1960's entering the Township from the north at lot 2, concession VI and following south through the marsh, skirting Scotland on the east side and leaving the Township at lot 1, concession I. It has replaced the Mount Pleasant Road as the main thoroughfare from Brantford to Lake Erie points.

(d)

The main road running east and west starts near the Cockshutt Road, at lot 12, and runs along the borders of concession I and II west to Oakland village and continuing west to Scotland. It has been upgraded from dirt, to gravel being paved about 1935. It was laid out in the original survey of Townsend Gore.

(e)

The Townline road between Burford and Oakland Townships enters at lot 1, concession VI and follows a straight southerly route through Scotland village. It has been upgraded from dirt, to gravel, to pavement.

Oakland residents seated in their four door Model T Ford roadster - the driver is Bruce Stratford (1921-1990) (the barn in the background is now Oakland Sports centre)

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ROAD NAMES FOR THE TOWNSHIP OF OAKLAND IN THE COUNTY OF BRANT ICINGS

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In May 1992, the Township readied the dwellers for the 911 system by producing a map which gave precise names to all highways, country roads and township roads. Better identification of roads was necessary for emergency response purposes. Roads running east and west: Jenkins Road (former Townline Road) Oakland Road West - Oakland Road East - Cockshutt Road - Campbell Drive Elliott Road Maple Grove Road - Mount Pleasant Road Bush Road Swamp Road Roads running north and south: Bishops Gate Road Willow Lake Private Road Norfolk Street (24 Highway) Pleasant Ridge Road - Marr Drive - King Street (Brant County 24) CKPC Road - Brant Mill Road Hagan Road - Cockshutt Road (Brant County 5) On the Brantford/Oakland line - Peavinery Road - Biggars' Lane Indian Line Road.

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PERTINENT BYLAWS Bylaw lSI - 1883 For the purpose of paying a bonus for the planting of certain trees in the Township of Oakland. Whereas by and with the authority of "the Ontario Tree Planting Act 1883" . The municipal council of the Township of Oakland in council assembled hereby enacts as follows - that is to say 1st That a Bonus of twenty-five cents be paid out of Municipal funds of the Township of Oakland for every maple, pine, cedar, sassafras, spruce, walnut, butternut, hickory, basswood, ash, elm, oak or chestnut tree which shall under the provisions of the said Act and from and after the passing of this Bylaw be planted within the said Township of Oakland on any Highway or on any boundary line of farms or within six feet of such boundary provided that the requirements as laid down by Section Six of said Act be properly complied with. 2nd. That Mr. Samuel Hunter of the Village of Scotland be and is hereby appointed Inspector of trees so planted in the Township of Oakland - and in addition to the requirements of Section Six of said Act it shall be his duty to prosecute in behalf of, and in the name of the Township of Oakland, any person or persons offending against Section Nine or any other section of said Act. Passed in Council this 28th day of March A.D. 1883 (Signed) William Devlin Reeve Henry Key Clerk

Bylaw 1106 - 1893 To appoint an Engineer for the Township of Oakland Whereas it is necessary under the provision of Section number two of Chap number 220 of the Revised Statutes of Ontario 1887 to appoint an Engineer to carry out the provisions of said Act and whereas it is expedient to make such appointment within the Township of Oakland. Therefore be it Enacted and it is hereby Enacted by the Municipal Council of the Corporation of the Township of Oakland as follows

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First - That Harry Jones of the City of Brantford be and is hereby appointed Engineer for the Township of Oakland under the provisions of the Ditches and Watercourse Act of the Province of Ontario. Passed in Council this 21st day of August. A.D. 1893. Henry Key Clerk

Joseph McIntyre Reeve

Bylaw '187 - 1909 To make provision for the purchase or lease of land in the Township of Oakland for the purpose of a gravel pit and for the payment thereof and to repeal Bylaw =# 178 of the Township of Oakland. It is hereby enacted by the Municipal Council of the Township of Oakland as follows: First: - That Bylaw No. 178 of the Township of Oakland be and the same is hereby repealed. Second: - That the Reeve be and is hereby authorized to enter into an agreement with Mrs. Sophronia Malcolm, subject to the provisions hereinafter contained for the purchase or lease of one acre of land more or less, situate lying and being in part of Lot 6 Con 1 of the Township of Oakland and more particularly described in Schedule marked "A" attached to this Bylaw and to have a deed properly drawn and executed for the same. Third: - That the sum to be paid for the purchase or lease of said acre of ground is not to exceed the sum of Two hundred dollars. Fourth: - That the following provisions or conditions shall also be and the Reeve is hereby authorized to embody the same in the said lease or deed. A: - That the said acre of ground more or less shall be leased for a term of fifteen years subject to the reservation of the top soil excepting such quantities of the soil as may be required for the making and keeping of the roads of the Township in proper repair and also what is unavoidably taken by any person or persons in removing gravel from the said pit. B: - That the Council shall have the right to sell gravel from the said pit to any person or persons for other than Township purposes. C: - That the Council will use every reasonable precaution to see that Clause "A" is faithfully carried out and they shall not be held responsible for the violation of the same by any person or

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persons, except on satisfactory proof being given of neglect on their part to see that the above mentioned precaution has not been properly observed. D: - That Mrs. Malcolm shall be entitled to and shall receive one half of all monies paid for gravel used from said pit by any person or persons other than for Township purposes, said half receipts to be paid every year as Mrs. Malcolm directs and upon her giving a proper receipt for the same. Fifth: - That the Reeve is hereby authorized and empowered to sign said deed or lease for and on behalf of the Corporation and to have the same duly registered. Passed in Council this second day of June 1909. Percy M. Button Clerk

J.A. Messecar Reeve

Note: This parcel of land, set aside as a gravel pit, is now part of the Nemeth Sub/Division, the north west corner along Bannister Street. Bylaw 1334 - 1925 A Bylaw Authorizing the Abolition of Statute Labour WHEREAS this Municipal Council of Twp Oakland is authorized by 4 Edq. VII, C.25, Sec.7, to abolish by Bylaw, all Statute Labour. BE IT THEREFORE ENACTED by the Municipal Council of the Township of Oakland, and it is hereby enacted (1) - That from and after the date of the passing of this Bylaw no Statute Labour shall be levied or assessed against any person resident or assessed in this municipality. (2) - That the Council shall in each and every year, in lieu of Statute Labour, levy such amount as may be necessary upon the rateable assessment of the municipality to be expended on the construction and maintenance of the roads and bridges of the township. (3) - That all existing Bylaws of this township relating to Statute Labour or parts of Bylaws, contrary to, or inconsistent with the provisions of this Bylaw, are hereby repealed. (4) That a copy of this Bylaw be forwarded to the Department of Public Highways of Ontario, within one month of the passing thereof. Passed at Oakland this 12th day of January 1925. (SEAL)

Percy M. Button Clerk

Charles McIntyre Reeve

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Bylaw 1674 - 1954 To authorize the construction of a 12 inch tile drain adjacent to the West side of No. 24 Highway from the North side of Malcolm Street to an outlet on Malcolm Creek. WHEREAS the Township of Oakland, the County of Brant and the Department of Highways of Ontario are desirous of constructing a twelve (12) inch tile drain adjacent to the West side of No. 24 Highway from the North side of Malcolm Street to an outlet on Malcolm Creek. AND WHEREAS the Department of Highways of Ontario has agreed to bear the cost of the tile drain and its installation provided the Township of Oakland assumes responsibility for its maintenance. AND WHEREAS the Reeve and Councillors of the Township of Oakland are desirous that the contract for the construction of the said drain be let in order that the work may be done as quickly as possible. AND WHEREAS a report has been submitted by George B. MacAulay, O.L.S., on the construction of the said drain. NOW THEREFORE the Council of the Corporation of the Township of Oakland hereby enacts as follows: (1)

That the construction of the 12 inch tile drain adjacent to the West side of No. 24 Highway from the North side of Malcolm Street to an outlet on Malcolm Creek be proceeded with as quickly as possible according to the amended report and specifications as submitted by George B. MacAulay, O.L.S.

(2)

That the Clerk of the Township of Oakland be empowered advertise for Tenders for the supplying and construction the said 12 inch tile drain, the successful tenderer complete a suitable contract and leave with the Clerk Guaranty Bond for the amount of the tender.

to of to a

Read a first and second time this 18th day of August, 1954. Roy McEwan Reeve Percy M. Button Clerk Read a third time and finally passed this 18th day of August, 1954. Roy McEwan Reeve Percy M. Button Clerk

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Navigation Nineteenth century township farmers found this form of transporting goods and produce beneficial, even though the system did not pass directly through the triangle. Eliakam Malcolm, in his inaugural speech to the Council on January 24th, 1853, made the following comments: "The Town of Brantford is situated at the head of the navigation along the Grand River and when navigation is fully completed, which we trust will not be long, it will afford a cheap and easy mode of conveying the produce of the surrounding country to market, and bring in return such articles of merchandise as are wanted by the inhabitants". The Grand River Navigation Company, with its headquarters at Brantford, was chartered in 1832. Dams, locks and a canal were built to correct a rise in the river as well as to overcome other obstacles to navigation. This allowed scows and steamers to take goods to the commercial markets. Millers, merchants, travellers and exporters of the County all used the system. The canal officially opened on November 7, 1848, making the river navigable for some sixty miles. Eventually, the system offered freight service which travelled along the navigable path to Buffalo. For the passengers who travelled on the steamers Red Jacket and The Queen, it was a twenty-four hour trip. For Oakland Township wheat exporters, the service remained available to them for some twenty years. Until the railways took over, the Grand River navigation route was an economic boom to the area. Businesses, the agricultural sector and fun seekers all used it. It ceased to operate in the year 1861. In so far as navigation within the confines of the Township was concerned, limited use was made of Malcolms' (MacKenzie) Creek in earlier times. J. A. Eddy, a sawmill operator, regularly ran logs down the creek to his yard located near the T. H. & B. Station. Some use was made of the Oakland pond to move logs to Malcolms' (later Vivians') saw mill situated just below the dam in the flats.

Railroads Brantford, Waterloo and Lake Erie This line was built to link Brantford (population 11,000), the largest exporting city in Canada in the late nineteenth century, wi th the Michigan Central terminus at Waterford. An Act to incorporate the B. W. & L. E. Railway Company (also called the Brantford-Waterford Railway) passed through the Provincial

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Legislature in 1885, largely through the efforts of a local citizen's committee headed by Sheriff Scarfe. The granting of bonuses by municipalities to entice lines through their respective areas was common practice at that time. This enticement, together with a Dominion government grant of so much a mile plus priv~te investment, assured construction. Oakland Township provided seed money in 1887 in a bonus By-law that approved $9,000.00, payable in twenty instalments. Brantford gave $50,000.00 and an additional five thousand came from Waterford. The Scotland Journal, a local weekly paper, published an item in May of 1885 which highlights how important it was to lobby the authorities for a railway service: VILLAGE lTEH

"We have been informed, from a reliable source, that a charter has been obtained, for a railway from a point on Lake Erie shore (pt. Dover) to connect with the C.V.R.R., in county of Waterloo, which we suppose will be the town of Galt. We would very much like if our ratepayers and others would move in the matter, (not by way of bonus) but, by subscribing an amount of money to induce this lien to come this way, and that the farmers, through whose lands the road may run, will not offer any drawback, as it will be to their interest to have it built; as the lands through which it will pass, will then be capable of draining and otherwise improved. Will some of our prominent men set the ball rolling by calling a public meeting, at the early date, and discuss the matter." (The Guarantee Act of 1849 had authorized the Government of the day to provide financial assistance for the development of the various railway systems throughout the country.) The

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L . E . Railway ran from West Brantford in a south-west path entering Oakland Township at lot 7 concession IV near Maple Grove and following through the western part of the municipality, transversing lots 6 of ...II..,!;....... the same concession, to lots 5 and 4 ;,~l"1o" ..,. of the third concession, to lot 3 of III, the second concession, to the station located along the Oakland ,, road and then following along the border of lots 2 and 3 of concession \ I where it left the Township at lot "... -.- .. _-- --~.=~.~ 3 of concession I into Townsend Township. The pit, north of the station, became a ready source of .),.'"

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gravel for construction purposes. James Messecar (1828-1906) a farmer on lot 3 Concession I capitalized on the construction project by installing a sawmill, cutting off a white oak bush on his farm, and selling ties to the railway. Waterford, as a terminus, opened its station in 1889. A nearby pond provided a much needed source of water for the steam locomotives. The Company developed a unique system of getting water up to the engine by pumping water to a holding tank and draining it into a long pan. As the train passed, it scooped up the water with the forward motion of the train. The first trains along the new line were pulled by a small locomotive originally built for service on the Toledo, Canada Southern and Detroit Railway. It was purchased by the B.W. & L.E. company in 1889. The locomotive ran four years and was scrapped in 1893. The Company purchased another locomotive in 1891 which later became the T.H. & B.'s first engine. The terminal at West Brantford offered regular service through Mt. Pleasant, Churches, Scotland and on to Waterford. The passengers rode on flat cars with bench seats and protective railings. At the terminus of Waterford, the line made connections with the Michigan Central Railway. About a year after commencing operations, the B.W. & L.E. Railway sold to American interests, with a promise by the purchaser to extend the line to Hamilton, but this commitment required a heavy expenditure to bridge the Grand River. After considerable controversy, a By-law was passed to amalgamate the line with the Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo Railway. It was then extended east towards Hamilton. For a while the Company was owned by the New York Central, the Michigan Central and C.P.R. interests, operated by the Michigan Central, linking markets in Brantford, Hamilton and Toronto plus providing a connection with the C.P.R. in Toronto. Mr. J.N. Young of Chicago had a controlling financial investment at one time and a hitch developed with regard to fulfilling his obligations. After launching civil proceedings, the former Directors together with the Sheriff and several County officials seized the Brantford depot and replaced the ticket agent and train crew. After one run with the supplanted crew, to Waterford and return, the dispute was resolved.

Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo In April of 1893 the B.W. & L.E. line ceased to exist and the T.H. & B. assumed controlling interest. The Time Table a year later shows six daily trains passing through Oakland Township from Brantford to Waterford, going south at 7:30 a.m. (train #1), 2:20 p.m. (train #3) and 6:30 p.m. (train #5) - going north at 6:30 a.m. (train #2), 9:30 a.m. (train #4) and 5:20 p.m. (train #6). The time between destinations was about fifty minutes, meaning they arrived at Scotland station about twenty-five minutes after their departure from either Brantford or Waterford.

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In 1893, the line was running to capacity. reports as follows:

The Scotland Sun

For several days past the side tracks at the T.H. & B. station in this place, have been full of loaded freight cars. Is it possible that there is more freight loaded on this line than they are able to move? It gives our village a business aspect, at least, to see so many loaded cars at the station .

.. . ... .'

Scotland Station - Circa 1910 The steam locomotive is pulling passenger cars and a horse drawn taxi may be seen in the left foreground this carriage met all trains to pick up the mail for conveyance to the post office - the operator is believed to have been Charles Fulsom. Oakland Township benefitted greatly from the service of the T.H. & B. Passenger travel from Scotland Station was brisk, the shipping of grain and produce to market was possible and a ready supply of fuel was made available to Scotland residents through a coal dealer who set up his business near the station. About the turn of the century, William A. Stuart (1867-1935) son of J.W. Stuart (1841-1904) and Mary H. Dosef of Scotland established the

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thriving business, specializing in the shipment of grain, coal, cabbage, onions and turnips to U.S.A. destinations. During WWI, when fuel was scare, a Fuel Commissioner controled shipments. In her reminiscences, Alice Dunningham (1888-1990) of Oakland, recalls she and her husband Norman moving from Brantford to Oakland in the winter of 1913. They took their belongings on the T.H. & B. to the Scotland station and then by horse and cutter to Oakland village where they settled. Norman Dunningham was killed three years later at the Battle of the Somme. The Waterford Star reports the following: "14 February 1895 the T.H. & B. trains 5 and 6 were cancelled on Friday evening owing to a raging blizzard" (train 5 should have arrived at Waterford at 7:20 p.m. and train 6 was scheduled to leave at 5:20 p.m.) In the same paper is the following item: "It is stated trains will be running over the T.H. & B. line from Brantford to Hamilton by the first week in March." (The commencement of this service was the result of the former B.W. and L.E. Railway and the T.H. and B. Railway merging in 1892 with a condition that the former's line would be extended from West Brantford east to Hamilton.) The Brantford Expositor, August 11th 1906 edition, reports the following; SEVEN HUNDRED BRANTFORD EXCURSIONISTS GO TO DETROIT TODAY -

"More than 700 people left the city at an early hour this morning on special excursion trains for Detroi t. There were two excursions, one via the T. H. & B. and Michigan Central under the auspices of amalgamated factory employees and in aid of the hospital and the other via the Grand Trunk under the auspices of the Catholic Order of Foresters.

On the T. H. & B. seven coaches ran six of which were full. The total passengers numbered 440. A fast run was made to Waterford, the distance being covered in 31 minutes. Then a change was made to the Michigan Central. A telegram from Windsor states that the train passed through there at 10:30, thus making a run from Brantford to Windsor in three hours and 30 minutes. On the Grand Trunk four coaches ran carrying more than 250 passengers. A fast run is also reported on this line. Many of the excursionists will remain at Detroit over Sunday and Monday. No accidents were reported today. " It appears the two railways were in a competition as to which line could get its passengers to Detroit in the fastest time - both claiming victory.

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Station agents known to have served at the Scotland station included: Mr. Reglan - at the turn of the century Jerome McNamara - in the 30's - he was transferred to the Brantford Station Mrs. Peter Marlatt Mrs. Percy Walker - she was the last agent to serve before the line closed down Norman Thomas of Oakland worked for many years as a section hand on the line. In the 30's, he could be seen six days a week walking from his home, just east of the four corners, to report for work at the section tool shed near the station carrying his large black lunch bucket. The Thomas family are well known to the villagers. Norman died under unfortunate circumstances and his son, Joe, was killed in an accident. It was trite in the "hay days" of railway passenger service to dub your local line with some rather farcical pseudonym. In the case of the T. H. & B. it fell victim to such labels as "To Hell and Back" or "Tramps, Hobos and Bums". Passenger cars discontinued operating in 1958, after sixtyfive years of continuous service. On April 19, 1977 a deal was consummated that saw the C.P.R. take control of T. H. and B. shares. For the first time in its history, Canadians controlled the line. C.P.R. officials indicated, at that time, that the T.H. and B. would continue to be run as a separate entity. The Scotland station building was bought privately after the termination of passenger service. For years it sat on high ground overlooking Oakland pond, on property owned by the Yarek family.

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On the left is another view of the Scotland T.H. & B. station. The sign over the bay windows reads: SCOTLAND

Railway Express Service

Circa 1954 The main entrance to the station can be seen at the left front of the building with the blackboard timetable to its left. There were steps up to the front platform from the parking area along the south side of the building. The station waiting area was heated by a pot-bellied stove. The agent had his office and administration area in the front centre of the station and tended passengers through a wicket, protected by a steel mesh. The agent could look north or south from his office, through the bay windows. This allowed him time to run to the platform with his message loop and pass information on to the train crew without the train stopping. The express cart can be seen on the right, next to the express doorway. The Scotland station itself had architectural style and character, along Gothic lines, with finials and a lacy verandah. It was not a pure rendition and had its own peculiarities which made it special and more treasured by the local people. With its removal about 1970, there was a feeling of nostalgia as another familiar landmark disappeared from the Scotland horizon. With the removal of the diesel passenger car service in 1958, the familiar drone of their engines was lost to farmers working the nearby fields. Some, without a watch, timed their morning routine around the train schedule, knowing they had at least two hours before unhooking their horses and heading for the barn for the noon hour break. For a number of years prior to the discontinuance of passenger service train 145, a single diesel passenger car, arrived daily at 9.46 a.m., going south. It was met in the early 50's by the station agent, Mrs. S.G. Pullen, wife of the local school principal.

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Lake Erie and Northern Originating in 1910 as a Brantford promotion, and incorporated on May 19th, 1911, this line had appeal because it would not only provide another corridor through rich farming country but would become an avenue to the Lake Erie area, specifically to Port Dover, a popular resort centre. The usual Dominion subsidy of $6,400.00 a mile was granted for construction purposes with W. F. Cockshutt, a local M.P., giving the request impetus in the House of Commons. The south Grand River area had not been one of the early regions to receive the services of a railway. It had been expected that the Great Western Railway would pass through Brantford years earlier. This did not occur and the region was left out in the cold because of a routing of the latter line through Harrisburg and Paris. It was nearly a half century after the construction of the Great Western that a line, the Grand Trunk which absorbed the Great Western, went through in 1905. Work commenced on the fifty-one mile line between Galt and Port Dover in May of 1913. Mr. W.P. Kellett acted as general manager and chief engineer on the project. From Brantford, the line took a route south, at some places almost within sight of its rival the T.H. & B., to Fairchilds, to Mount Pleasant, to Church's (Maple Grove), to Oakland, to Wesbrook and on to Waterford and beyond to the terminus at Port Dover. A long high viaduct crossed over the New York Central and the pond at Waterford. The line went through Oakland Township in 1914 and 1915. Traffic commenced in February 1916 with regular passenger service starting through Oakland on June 2nd of that year. This electric railway was noted for its similarity to the Toronto street car system, often with a lone passenger car propelling its way along the tracks from powered overhead wires, electrified with a 1500 volt system which used only two sub stations in its fifty-one miles. The sub stations were located at Brantford and Simcoe. The line entered Oakland Township at lot 9, concession IV following south west to lot 8, concession III and continued on to lot 8 concession II, arriving at the Oakland station, then continuing through lot 8 of concession I where it exited the Township at Wesbrook flag stop. Before the corridor could be opened there were negotiations to be held with the landowners, some not too pleased that their valuable farm land was to be used. In some cases their land holdings were divided, by the railway line. Starting at the north

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of Township, H. Heath, William Thompson a former Reeve, Benjamin B. Merritt (1835-1919 - his son Clarke was Reeve in 1932), W. Howell, S. Proper, J. Proper, Smith Beebe (1825-1877), Neal Lefler (18201889), Abraham Westbrook (1844-1910) and Mordecai Wesbrook Jr. (1840-1913) were,or had been, owners of the farms affected. It is known that the Merritt family and the two Westbrooks were deeply troubled at loosing the back of their farms and drove a hard bargain at the negotiating table. The new railway service through the township provided transportation for passengers, freight, express and mail and was welcomed by all, with the possible exception of farmers who lost 100 feet of land for the "right of way" • Local people watched with anticipation as the surveyors went through, followed by the builders who fenced off the right of way and commenced hauling gravel, crushed rock, cinders and slag for the roadbed. Some local workers found temporary employment during the building up of the roadbed which ran parallel to a tributary of MacKenzie Creek requiring the bed to be built up for good drainage in some of the low points. Modern track-laying machines had not yet been invented. Every phase of the construction project, from laying the roadbed to placing the crossties and the thirty-nine foot rails, was labour intensive both for man and beast. The railway bought some ties from local landowners who cut lumber for their stands of oak.

1. Scotland station - T.H. & B. Maple Grove station - L.E. & N. Oakland station - L.E. & N. Wesbrook flag stop - L.E. & N.

94

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y. Yarek

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The cars used on the line were built by Preston Car & Coach Company featuring a unique design unlike any other interurbans of that era. They were more strongly built than other electric cars with a specific design intended to withstand the stress of locomotive haulage in trains. The line ultimately became a C.P.R. subsidiary.

--- -

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L. E. & N. passenger cars painted with a black and white checkerboard to increase visibility for the motoring public at grade-crossings. (This picture courtesy of Orner Lavallee, C.P.R. archivist - now deceased.)

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The station at Oakland was very basic, with a small waiting area. It was equipped with a pot-bellied stove for winter warmth but had no full-time attendant. Tickets were purchased from the conductor. The stops at Maple Grove, Merritt and Wesbrook were simply "flag stops" which received or discharged passengers as the occasion required. Passenger traffic, except during the peak summer excursions to Lake Erie, was not particularly heavy and the radial passenger cars often travelled as a single unit. The peak traffic period for the line was in the early 20's when several hundred thousand passengers were carried. By 1930, passenger trade had slipped considerably. Schedules were reduced drastically in 1949. Passenger service ceased entirely on April 23rd, 1955.

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FARE COLLECTED .03 .05 .10 • 15 .20 .25 .30 .35 .40 .45 .50 .55 .60 .65 .70 .75 .80 .85 .90 .95 1.00 1.05 1. 10 1. 15 1.20 1.25 1.35 1.45 1.55 1.65 1.75 1.85 1.95 2.00 3.00

In 1921, a radial car leaving Oakland station for Brantford took eighteen minutes to reach its destination if it was on time. A car leaving Oakland for Waterford took thirteen minutes. In 1921, during the peak passenger trade, radials left Oakland, north bound, daily at (AM) 7:24, 9:37, 10:22, 11:37, (PM) 1:37, 3:37, 4:01, 5:37, 7:37 and 9:37. Southbound they left Oakland at (AM) 8:03, 8:37, 10:01, (PM) 12:01, 1:48, 2:01, 4:01, 6:01, 8:01 and 10:43. Sunday schedules did not include north bound trips at 7:24, 10:22 and 4:01. southbound on Sunday, the 1:48, 8:37 and 8:03 trips were eliminated. As with all passenger service of that era, the travelling public were not always satisfied with the service. Some felt compelled to malign their public system by renaming it "Late Every Night". The daily "milk run" fell into the latter category as it necessarily stopped at every station and flag stop to take on milk destined for the Brant ford dairies, causing delays. Oakland Township dwellers had the option of boarding the train or exiting at Maple Grove (a flag stop); at Merritt crossing (a flag stop); at Oakland station; or at Wesbrook crossing (a flag stop).

No. B 794235 1953/1952/1951/1950/1949/1948

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Note the black and white lines and checker-board painted on the front of the cars to increase visibility for passengers and motorists. Several serious accidents occurred at the Maple Grove and Wesbrook crossings which were only "flag stops". While the trains blew their whistle and slowed slightly at crossings, some motorists failed to heed their warnings. One fatality in the late 30's, at the Maple Grove crossing, took the life of a Canada Bread driver.

201

-

Preston, Ontario (courtesy Orner Lavallee)

Oakland station - demolished after the line shut down

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The small station faced east - an extension had been built on the west side with the intention of providing living quarters for an employee but this did not occur - the south end of the station had a sliding door to enter a freight storage area - the waiting room was at the north end of the building. It has been said by former employees that on Sundays and holidays during the summer months, passenger cars sometimes five or six per train, were bursting at the seams with sun-worshippers and thrill seekers in search of a day's sun at Port Dover beach. The conductor was often unable to pick his way down the chaotic aisles crowded with picnickers and littered with lunch baskets. The more adventurous passengers, to avoid the pandemonium, clung to the entrance-way railings until the conductor could force them through the mass of people, many of whom rode with their heads out the windows to get some fresh air. Students going to secondary institutions such as the Brantford Collegiate, the Waterford High School or O.U. Robinson Business College found the line convenient and economical. The L.E. and N. offered greatly reduced fares for students. In 1918, an Oakland scholar could board at Oakland and travel to Waterford fifty times for the price of $5.05 or go to Brantford fifty times for about the same price. Students travelling to O.U. Robinson Business College at Waterford, from Brantfor~paid $9.10 for fifty rides to or from Waterford. In the early days of the passenger service out of Oakland station, horse and buggy was still the main means of road travel. The people in outlying areas drove to the station in their buggy or cutter. Before boarding the train, they found accommodation for their horses at the Montgomery barn, west of the tracks. To this day, the rings for tethering the horses can still be found in the barn of the former Montgomery property which the Chandlers bought. Those conveying produce to the Saturday market in Brantford found the L.E. and N. a convenient mode of travel, and they too used the nearby barn as temporary shelter for their dray horses.

Circa 1910

Hugh Patterson

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2010CO001 Hauling coal to consumers from the Oakland siding is Hugh Patterson, an Oakland village resident. Ernest Davis had carloads of coal shipped in and the coal was unloaded by hand to a shed alongside the siding. From here it was hauled to customers after being weighed at the scales beside his office, near the road. For many years, Stewart Macaulay of Oakland held the position of section foreman working out of Oakland station property. He served the company from 1927 to 1960. His assistant was Alfred Martin of Oakland. Employees were required to work ten hours a day, six days a week, in the early life of the railway. Section hands were engaged to patrol and maintain the line summer and winter. The section men from Oakland covered an extensive jurisdiction replacing ties, cutting weeds, removing snow and ice and performing numerous other maintenance functions. In the infancy of the line, traffic was heavy enough to require track walkers, who traversed the rails on foot at night, looking for broken or loose rails. They walked their respective sections four times a night covering about twenty-two miles. For Stewart Macaulay and Alf Martin, their travelling work horse was the handpumped and manually driven jigger. Loaded with tools, they could be observed heading out from their tool shed on their daily maintenance run, pumping their vehicle like a teeter-totter. Going up hill or heading into the wind required a special effort to keep vehicle in motion. Their section ran from the Fish Hatchery at Mount Pleasant to Wilsonville and beyond. Bert Rock, Joe Montgomery, Ross Murray and Clarence Rowswell of Oakland, also Ken McNelles were employed sporadically as section men. As extra workmen, they were employed seasonally to replace ties, mow weeds and shovel snow. Switches had to be kept clean and road crossings cleared to prevent derailments and here, a cooperative system was used where possible between the railway and the municipal snowplow operators. If the snowplow of one filled a crossing, men would try to clear it away so that the other party was not unduly inconvenienced. omring the great depression of the 30's, paycuts were forced on the workers. Both Stewart Macaulay and Alf Martin were affected. Supervisor Stewart Macaulay at the Waterford station, shortly before he retired in 1960.

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A hand pumped jigger, now a museum piece, of the type used by section foreman, Stewart Macaulay, and his fellow worker Alf Martin. The L.E. & N., a typical electric line, got its power from the live wires overhead. There were two wires suspended from the poles, one above the other. The top wire was called the messenger because it carried the heavy 1500 volt current and it looped along between the poles because of its diameter and weight. The trolley wire, underneath, was stretched taut so that the trolley slide on the end of the pole would slide along with ease. This system of motive power was reliable except after an ice or sleet storm when the wires became coated. To correct the lapse of electric current, a special slide called a "sleet cutter" was used on the trolley pole. At times, the action of the trolley slide caused a noticeable arc light or flash which could be observed for miles. The train crews found the electric reaction difficult to deal with as it was, in effect, much like an arc welder in action. Without the technical advice and the precise facts, figures and pictures supplied by C.P.R. archivist, Orner Lavallee, this chapter would have lacked detail. His co-operation is greatly appreciated. He died at Montreal in February 1992, at 66 years of age.

orneR Lavallee P.O. Box 772, Station A _ Montreal, Canada _ H3C 2V2

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The following Bylaws passed by Oakland Township Council touch on proposed construction or actual construction of railways encroaching on Township jurisdiction: Bylaw 121 - June 18th, 1873 (excerpts only) Norfolk Railway Company Of the Municipal Corporation of the Township of Oakland to aid and assist the Norfolk Railway Company to construct a line of Railway from the Town of Brantford to or near the Town of Simcoe and passing through the Townships of Brantford and Oakland, by giving Five Thousand Dollars to the said Company by way of Bonusi to issue debentures therefor, to provide for the appointment of trustees to hold the said debentures, and to authorize the levying of an annual special rate for the payment of the said debentures and interest. That the said Norfolk Railway Company shall construct their said line of Railway from the Town of Brantford in the County of Brant, through the Townships of Brantford and Oakland, to or near the Town of Simcoe in the County of Norfolk within the time mentioned. That the said Norfolk Railway Company shall construct and operate not less than two miles of said Railway in said Township of Oakland, and shall locate and establish, as least one station on their said line of Railway in the said Township of Oakland. That this Bylaw shall take effect from and after the first day of July in the year of Our Lord one Thousand eight hundred and Seventy three. That the Votes of the Electors of the Municipality of the Township of Oakland shall be taken on the said proposed Bylaw at the following time and place. At the Township Hall in the Village of Oakland on Tuesday the Seventeenth day of June in the year of Our Lord one Thousand eight hundred and Seventy three at the hour of nine o'clock in the forenoon of the same day. William Vivian returning officer. Bylaw passed in council this eighteenth day of June A.D. 1873. (signed) William Thompson Reeve William Vivian Clerk Bylaw 178 - 1887 (excerpts only) To Grant a Bonus to the Brantford Waterloo and Lake Erie Railway Company.

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Whereas by an Act of the Senate and House of Commons of the Dominion of Canada passed in the 48th year of the reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, chaptered 20, entitled "An Act to incorporate the Brantford, Waterloo and Lake Erie Railway Company" power is granted to construct and operate a line of Railway through the city of Brantford to a convenient point on the Canada Southern Railway and thence to a convenient point on or near the shores of Lake Erie. And whereas the said Act was amended by an Act of the said Senate and House of Commons passed in the 50th year of the reign of Her Majesty entitled an "Act to amend the Act to incorporate the Brantford, Waterloo and Lake Erie Railway Company". And whereas the said Company is authorized to receive ~rom any Municipal Corporation which may have power to grant the same in aid of the construction, equipment and maintenance of the said Railway, bonuses in land or loans or gifts of money or securities for money. And whereas the Municipal Corporation of the Township of Oakland has determined to aid and assist the said Railway Company in the construction of that portion of the said line of Railway of the said Company authorized to be constructed as aforesaid by giving the said Company debentures as herein after mentioned to the extent of $9,000.00 under the authority of the Municipal Act. And whereas to carry out the last recited object it will be necessary for the said Municipal Corporation to issue debentures to the extent of $9,000.00 as hereinafter mentioned payable in twenty years at furthest from the day when this Bylaw shall take effect. That it shall be lawful for the purpose aforesaid for the Reeve of the said Municipality to cause any number of debentures to be made for such sums of money not exceeding in the whole $9,000.00 for the said purpose which said debentures shall be sealed with the seal of the said Corporation and be Signed by the Reeve and the Treasurer thereof. That the said debentures shall be made payable at the Canadian Bank of Commerce in Brantford in twenty years at the farthest from the day on which this Bylaw shall take effect, and bear interest at Five percent per annum payable on the fifteenth day of December in each year for which interest coupons signed by the Reeve and Treasurer of the said Township shall be attached to said debentures. Said debentures shall be payable at the times and for the amounts following namely, $300.00 of said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1888 and interest $450.00, $300.00 of the said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1889 and interest $435.00, $300.00 of said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1890, and interest $420. $300.00 of said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1891 and interest $405.00, $300.00 of said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1892, and interest

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$390.00, $400.00 of the said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1893 and interest $375.00 $400.00 of the said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1894, and interest $355.00, $400.00 of the said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1896 and interest $315.00, $400.00 of the said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1897 and interest $295.00, $500.00 of the said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1898 and interest $275.00, $500.00 of said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1899 and interest $250.00, $500.00 of said debentures on the fifteen day of December 1900 and interest $225.00, $500.00 of the said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1901 and interest $200.00, $500.00 of the said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1902 and interest $175.00, $600.00 of the said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1903 and interest $150.00, $600.00 of the said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1904 and interest $120.00, $600.00 of the said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1905 and interest $90.00, $600.00 of the said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1906 and interest $60.00, $600.00 of said debentures on the fifteenth day of December 1907 and interest $30.00. The said Railway Company shall construct not less than two miles of said Railway in said Township of Oakland and shall locate and establish at least one passenger and freight station suitable for the accommodation of Passengers and the receipt of freight with proper and suitable side tracks, and other conveniences on or near the line between concession one and two in said township and west of the line dividing lots nine and ten in the first concession of said Township and should the said Railway Company make default in construction their said line of Railway, station and side tracks as aforesaid within the time limited by the Acts of Incorporating the said Company as aforesaid then this Bylaw shall be void and of no effect, and the said debentures shall be cancelled. This Bylaw shall take effect on from and after the 15th day of December AD 1887. That the votes of the electors of the said Township shall be taken on the twenty third day of September AD 1887, on the said proposed Bylaw commencing at the hour of nine o'clock in the forenoon and continuing until the hour of five o'clock in the afternoon of the same day at the polling places and by the following persons hereby appointed. Returning Officers: At the Township Hall of Oakland Henry Key Returning Officer. At John Walker's house Scotland by John Walker Returning Officer. The Clerk of the Council of said Corporation shall sum up the number of votes given for or against this Bylaw on the 24th day of September AD 1887 at nine o'clock in the forenoon at his office in the Township of Oakland and the Reeve of the said Township shall attend the office of the Clerk on Thursday the twenty second day of September 1887 at ten o'clock in the forenoon which time and place is hereby fixed for the appointment of persons to attend at the

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polling places and at the final summing up of the votes by the Clerk respectively on behalf of the persons interested in promoting and opposing the above Bylaw. NOTICE The above is a true copy of the proposed Bylaw which will be taken into consideration by the Council of the Corporation of the said Township of Oakland on the third day of October AD 1887 being more than one month from the first publication of the same. The date of the first publication is the 26th day of August AD 1887 at the day and hour and at the places mentioned in the said Bylaw a poll will be opened for taking the votes of the electors of the Township of Oakland on the proposed Bylaw. Henry Key Clerk William Devlin Reeve Bylaw 1136 - June 11th 1901 (excerpts only) A Bylaw to grant certain privileges to Brant ford , Berlin & Goderich Railway Company.

the Port

Dover,

WHEREAS the Port Dover, Brant ford , Berlin & Goderich Railway Company was incorporated by Act of Parliament passed in the 64th year of Her Majesty's reign, and is authorized to construct and operate a railway of the guage of four feet eight and a half inches, from a point in or near the Town of Port Dover on Lake Erie, passing through or near the Town of Simcoe, and through or near the Village of Waterford, in the County of Norfolk, to a point in or near the City of Brantford, thence to the Town of Berlin in the County of Waterloo, and thence in a North-Westerly direction through the Counties of Perth and Huron, to the Town of Goderich on Lake Huron. AND WHEREAS the said Company has applied to the Municipal Council of the Corporation of the Township of Oakland for the consent of the said Municipality to the said railway being constructed upon and along such highways of the Township of Oakland as are required in constructing the said railway from Port Dover to Berlin, passing through the City of Brantford and the Town of Paris; also such other highways as may be necessary for the construction of side tracks and switches as may be necessary or expedient for the proper handling of traffic. AND WHEREAS it is expedient to grant the request of the said Company subject to the terms and conditions hereinafter contained. The Municipal Council of the Corporation of the Township of Oakland therefore ENACTS as follows:1. Subject to the consent of one-half the owners of the property abutting on such highways as may be used being first obtained, the Port Dover, Brant ford , Berlin & Goderich Railway Company, its successors and assigns, is hereby granted the right to construct, maintain, complete and operate and from time to time remove and change as required, a single iron railway, with Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

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necessary side tracks and turnouts for the passage of cars, carriages and other vehicles adapted to the same, upon and along such highways in the Township of Oakland under the jurisdiction of the said Municipal Council as may be found necessary or expedient to use in constructing the said railway from a point in or near the Town of Port Dover to the Town of Berlin, passing through or near the City of Brantford, also such other highways under the jurisdiction of the said Municipal Council as may be necessary or expedient for the construction of branches, sidetracks, and switches as may be necessary for the proper handling of traffic. The Company not to locate their main line of railway in the said township farther east than the highway running from north to south between lots Nine and Ten in the First, Second, and Third Concessions of the said Township, said highway bearing in on lot Ten on the First Concession. 2. Such railway shall consist of a single track of a standard guage of four feet eight and one-half inches and the rails laid thereon shall be T rails, and the same shall be laid in a good, substantial, and workmanlike manner according to the best modern practice under the supervision and to the satisfaction of the Township Engineer for the time being. The Company shall construct and maintain a branch line from the main line to the Village of Oakland, and also shall have the privilege of extending the said branch line to the Village of Scotland. The said branch line to be constructed and maintained by the said Company in all respects as the main line of the said railway is constructed and maintained. The Company to provide a car service for the said branch line for passengers to and from the Village of Oakland of at least six trips during the day and for freight service as frequently as the demands may require. The work of construction on the branch line to be carried on contemporaneously with the work on the main line through the said Township. The branch line to be complete and ready for use as soon as the main line is complete and ready for use. Passed at Council Chamber June 11th 1901. J.A. Messecar Reeve Mahlon Edy Clerk Bylaw '148 - August 22nd 1904 (excerpts only) The Brantford and Erie Railway Company A Bylaw to authorize and empower The Brantford and Erie Railway Company to locate and operate a single iron or steel railway for the passage of cars, carriages and other vehicles adapted to the same upon and along certain streets and highways in the Township of Oakland and to declare and prescribe the terms and conditions on which its railway may be constructed, maintained and operated.

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WHEREAS the Legislature of the Province of Ontario on the 26th day of April AD 1904 passed an Act entitled "An Act to Incorporate The Brantford and Erie Railway Company" by which the said Company (hereinafter called the Company) are authorized and empowered to construct and operate a railway through the Township of Oakland subject to any agreement to be made between the Council of the said Municipality and the Company and under and subject to any Bylaw of the Municipality. AND WHEREAS the Corporation of the Township of Oakland (hereinafter called the Corporation) and the Company are by the said Act respectively authorized to make and enter into any agreement relating to the construction and operation of the said railway. AND WHEREAS the Corporation are by the said Act authorized to pass any Bylaw or Bylaws for the purpose of carrying into effect any such agreement or agreements; Be it therefore enacted by the Municipal Council of the Township of Oakland:1. That the said Brantford and Erie Railway Company, its successors and assigns shall subject to the conditions, limitations and provisions hereinafter contained have the sole right and privilege in so far as the Council has power to grant the same of constructing, maintaining, completing and operating and from time to time removing and changing as required a single iron or steel railway with the necessary side tracks and turnouts for the passage of cars, carriages and other vehicles adapted to the same upon and along these portions of the streets or roads in the Township of Oakland namely: That is to say: - Commencing at the point where the Mount Pleasant Road from Brantford intersects the boundary between the Townships of Brantford and Oakland, thence South along the round allowance between lots nine and ten to the line between concessions one and two of the said Township of Oakland, thence westerly along the line between concessions One and Two to the Westerly boundary of the said Township of Oakland thence south along said Westerly boundary to the South West corner of the said Township. The cars upon the said railway shall be of modern type and propelled by electricity or with the consent of the said Corporation expressed by Bylaw any other motive power, provided also that the said Company shall have the privilege of using steam as a motive power for construction purposes during the construction of the said railway. All motor cars shall be provided with fenders of a modern approved type. The construction of the said railway shall be fully completed and the said railway shall be in operation on or before the expiration of three years from the and after date of the final passing of this Bylaw but the time for completion of certain sections of said railway may be extended by the Corporation on cause being shown provided no such extension shall be for a longer period than one year.

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The fares to be charged by the said Company shall not exceed the rate per mile of three cents to each person but all children under seven years of age accompanied by their parent or other person having them in charge shall be carried free; the Company shall not be bound to carry any passenger for less than five cents except children aforesaid and between the hours of eleven o'clock in the evening and six o'clock in the morning the Company shall have the right to charge double the said fare. Every car or train shall be provided with a gong or bell which shall be rung when approaching every public crossing and at a distance of at least twenty rods from every place where the railway crosses any highway and shall be rung whenever necessary to give warning. All passenger cars shall stop to whenever requested so to do providing signal the approaching car when the rods away from the point where it is

take on or let off passengers the intending passenger shall same is not less than twenty desired to stop.

The said Company shall sell to any pupil in attendance at any of the schools in Brant ford , (including the Collegiate Institute and Conservatory of Music), and resident in the Township of Oakland, Twenty tickets for one dollar, each ticket entitling the holder therof to one passage from any point on the Company's line of railway within the said Township to the Market Square in the City of Brantford aforesaid to any point on the Company's line of railway within the said Township of Oakland. This Bylaw was finally passed this 22nd August 1904. Henry Key Clerk

J.A. Messecar Reeve

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CHAPTER 6 Nineteenth Century Enterprise Trade and industrial activity in the nineteenth century developed gradually, as the settlers arrived in sufficient numbers to support activity other than agriculture. The first general store appeared at Scotland in 1835, Charles Eddy (1781-1852), proprietor. It was followed a year later by the "store in the hollow" opened at Oakland by Johne Toyne (1812-1874). Prior to that time, Ancaster was the main centre of trade for the early settlers. Businesses were opened most often by a single proprietorship and, in some cases, by a partnership arrangement. The day of the large corporation had not yet arrived in rural Upper Canada. Trade was mostly by barter until the second quarter of the century. Buyers simply "worked off" their debts to the local storekeeper. About 1827, cash was first paid for wheat, at 60 cents a bushel, but for no other kind of grain. Goods in exchange for produce was the general rule of business at small rural stores. Produce such as wheat, pork, raw deer skins, Indian dressed deer skins, racoon skins and flax seed was shipped to markets as far away as Montreal. Sterling was the currency used until the year 1858 when the Government rejected British money and introduced the decimal system. It began issuing its own currency which was circulated along side the Bank of Montreal bills and other bank notes. By the year 1861, British money had disappeared from the market place. After confederation, in 1867, most dwellers simply assumed that a dollar was 'a dollar', whether it was issued by Washington, Ottawa or by one of the banks. In 1870, "shinplasters" (25 cent government notes) were issued to counteract the effect of an over abundance of American silver coinage in the country, worth only 80 cents against the Canadian dollar. School trustee minutes for the year 1857 record a change from sterling to the dollar in Oakland township.

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The reader may be interested in the early coinage and tokens used by the pioneers of Oakland Township. Tokens, which were actually light weight half pennies, were issued following the War of 1812 in memory of Sir Isaac Brock and these were superseded in 1825 by a series of tokens with a sloop on one side and designs, ie: a plow, a keg or crossed shovels on the other side. In 1822, a copper two penny token was available, issued by Leslie & Sons. When Canada re-united in 1841, the Bank of Montreal coined copper while pennies and half pennies appeared in the Township about 1842. After 1849, the Bank of Upper Canada coined copper and large issues of pennies, and half pennies appeared throughout Oakland Township in 1850 and again in 1852, in 1854 and in 1857. With the adoption of the decimal system in 1858, based on a dollar equal in value to the American dollar, the British money soon disappeared. In its place were silver 5-, 10- and 20- cent pieces and bronze cents. In 1870, the people of Oakland Township were using 5-, 10-, and 50cent pieces with the head of Queen Victoria on the obverse side. In 1920, the cent was reduced in size and in 1922 the 5- cent piece was first coined in nickel while the silver dollar became available in 1953.

Oakland

Businesses

Barbershop David Butler, (1880-1953), son of Daniel Butler and Sarah Fairchild who settled at East Oakland, operated a shop in the village. He married Effie E. Campbell. Builders B. Franklin Knox (1848-1923) built many houses in Oakland and surrounding area. He was married to Laura E. Pew (1855-1946) and they had eleven children, one named George Taylor (1887-1944), Reeve of the Township and Warden of Brant County. He married M. Alma Birdsell (1888-1961). Butcher Shop Those recorded as being in the butcher business were Welby Almas across from the post office in the hollow, Peter Beacham (1834-1871), in business in 1869, and Robert Secord (1832-1878). A slaughter house was located in the hollow, near the creek operated by Asa Wheeler (1852-1929) who was also a butcher. Peter Beacham and Diantha had a son named Simon P. who died April 9, 1866 at 1 year. Robert Secord married Mary C. Dunnett (1838-1859). They had a son, George, who lived at Burford. Robert Secord was also a shoemaker. In 1880, fresh beef sold for several cents a pound and shanks 10 cents each.

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Cobbler Shop William Cunningham (1828 - 30 Oct 1902). His shop was located across from the post office, in the hollow. His wife was named Eliza who died Feb 1, 1904 in her 76th year. They had daughters, Candance (1853-1893) and Frances Helena (1860-1923). Hotels - Inns - Taverns The Oakland House Hotel and Tavern located at the four corners (the north-west corner) was the first to open in the village, around 1825, Finlay Malcolm (1779-1862) proprietor. It was in business for many years. The Temperance Hotel, formerly the Oakland House Hotel, accommodated travellers for a number of years, Timothy W. Shavelear (1841-1909) and his wife Malessa Wallace (1845-1918) proprietors. Tim also had a mail contract - Oakland to Windham Centre. During the time Tim operated the hotel, it is believed to have been owned by Adam Nelson Smith, along with 50 acres of land in the surrounding area of the village.

At the right, the old hotel in the foreground is the Edy family - left to right Howard; Verna, Joyce; Ella; Maitland Edy. Tim developed a reputation as a man of frivolous habits and questionable humour - a favourite was to create ghostly scenes in the Pioneer Cemetery, across from the hotel, by placing mysterious objects amongst the tombstones to startle unwary pedestrians as they passed by, thus giving his satirical tales a measure of authenticity. On September 9th, 1868 he was fined fifty shillings, plus costs, by Magistrate Anderson of Brantford for bootlegging from his establishment. No doubt his illicit activities were

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brought on by a need to keep a supply of spirits available for former customers who had been deprived of a local outlet when the people of the area chose to close down the tavern through a local option vote. The story is told by Walter Burrage that Mr. Shavelear had an intoxicated visitor arrive one evening, after business hours, when all their household had long since retired. With his unwanted guest banging on the front door, Tim opened an upstairs bedroom window with a bed chamber in his hand and shouted below "Here you are - half mine and half the old lady's" and out the window went the effusive dribble, oozing and dripping over the unfortunate intruder (the half and half concoction of that era ordered at a tavern was made up of equal parts of beer and ginger ale). Tim and Malessa were the parents of a daughter, Annie, born in 1883, who married Earl D. Secord (1884-1951). She died as a young woman, giving birth. Many years later, during renovations, the following sign was uncovered at the former Temperance Hotel; NO GAMBLING NO RAFFLING NO FLIPPING COINS (metal or copper) NO DRINKS TO BE SOLD TO DRUNKARDS NO PROPERTY EXCHANGED FOR LIQUOR OF ANY KIND

At one time, another hotel stood on the south side of MacKenzie Creek near Mill Street. In 1869, Jordon Beebe is shown as the operator of a hotel at Oakland - it may have been the latter hotel. The establishment became run down and was abandoned. A family of gypsies took over the vacant building for a while, then it was demolished. Township records reveal a payment of $20.00 (annual fee) by Jordan Beebe for his tavern license in 1870. George Sayles (18561894) and W. Sholen paid a similar fee. The Beebe and Sayles families were long time residents at Oakland and many are buried in the local cemetery. A hotel called the Starkey House, situated on the west side of King Street (old #24 Highway) just north of Malcolm Street, opened about 1850. The stage coach arrived here daily from Brantford and daily from Simcoe. The horses were changed here and accommodated at the livery stable, located at the rear of the hotel. A running stream of water bubbled out just above the hotel. With a wooden flume, the water was diverted down to a trough near the stable door as a convenience for the stable operator in watering the horses. About 1900, a spark from a passing threshing outfit set the establishment afire and it burned to the ground, not to be rebuilt. John Diamond (1846-1924), an Oakland resident living south of the hotel, managed the hotel for a number of years.

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At the wheel is Milton Dunnett (1851-1935) born at Oakland, son of Rev. Samuel Dunnett, in front of his livery stable at Abilene, Kansas.

Circa 1905 A livery stable in its waning years - by the year 1910, people were becoming infatuated with the superiority of the horseless-carriage and the wayside stables became an outmoded service to the travelling public. The Expositor reports the following in the year 1869:

"The quiet village of Oakland was surprised when Mrs. Brown, wife of the proprietor of a tavern here, eloped with a teamster named Morrison. The latter sent a horse and buggy from Brantford and she and one of her children and $100.00 of Browns' money joined Morrison here. The husband is nearly out of his mind about the money she took wi th her". Near the Maple Grove corner, north of Oakland on lot 6 Concession IV, stood the Red Tavern. In 1851, Thomas Westbrook born in 1809 and his wife Mary were the operators of the tavern along with a half brother Frederick, born in 1819. The Westbrook brothers were the sons of Haggai (1775-1824). Living in retirement at the tavern was Alexander Westbrook (1764-1852), a former mail carrier,with a route between Dundas and Waterford. The Red Tavern was a stage stop. Isaac Read is shown as being the proprietor after the Westbrooks.

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East of Maple Grove, inside the Brantford Township line, stood a tavern operated by the Odell family, W.H. Odell proprietor. The area was known as Fiddler Ann's Corner, so named because a daughter Ann, played a violin with some proficiency. The tavern was also a stage stop. For the protection of the travelling public, passed a By-law in 1857 which required that:

the Township

"sheds should be kept for wagons and sleighs, lock-up barns for horses, and a person in charge. For the travelling public, at least four clean feather beds were to be provided. No gambling, raffling, flipping of coppers or metal coins was allowed. No intoxicating drinks were to be sold to a common drunkard and no property to be exchanged for liquor of any kind." The

license fee was six pounds per annum. The following people, among others, are recorded as having been Innkeepers in the Township: G. H. Corner - settled at Oakland in 1872 Henry Hall - living in Oakland in 1867 J. M. Marlatt - worked at the Temperance Hotel Anderson Patterson - living in Oakland in 1867 Roman Segner - living in Oakland in 1870 Wm K. Taylor - living in the Township in 1851 - then twentyfive years of age Implement Dealer Charles Parke Malcolm (1845-1907) ran an implement outlet at Oakland. He was also in the foundry business at Scotland. C. P. Malcolm was the son of Shubael Malcolm (1814-1878),Warden of Brant County in 1868. Charles married Theresa Terwilligar in 1868. They later moved to Michigan. There were nine children. Lumber Dealer George Roberts (1850-1922) - George and Rachel Roberts are buried at Scotland. He died on March 28, 1922 at 72 years and Rachel pre-deceased him in 1902 at 45 years of age. Importer and distributer Carmel Vivian (1864-1945) manufacturers' importer and distributer of rubber and steel stamps, seal presses, key tags, etc. Carmel, born at Oakland, was the son of William Vivian (18361921) (millwright) and Mary Yarrington of Oakland who moved to Tillsonburg in 1872. William's older brother, John, was the

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proprietor of Vivians grist mill from 1840 to 1870. Carmel married Harriett Webster (1866-1951). They moved to Carsonville, Michigan where they lived for many years but returned to Tillsonburg in later life. A complete history of this family may be found in the book "You're A Stratford" Volume V - copy at the Oakland Township Library. Kerchants W. J. Abbott, a merchant in 1867. John Proper, (1829-1909) operated a general store for a while on Oakland Street, east of the Methodist Church. The census of 1871 shows that he was in business at that time. The actual site of the store became the first Lewis Baldwin residence, built very close to the old wooden sidewalk on Oakland Street. The building was occupied later by a photographer. John Proper moved from the old store building to a new establishment,. next door on the west side,which was bought by Lewis H. Baldwin. John married Maria Waugh (1829-1895) a sister of John Waugh, also a merchant at Oakland. John Proper was a great grandfather of North Anders Jr. who carried on an electrical business in the Township for many years. One of the Proper girls, Elizabeth (1859-1939) married North Anders Sr. (1858-1937). George Taylor (1832-1895) Mr. Taylor operated the combined general store in the hollow and post office from 1882 until his death on Aug 20th 1895, in his 64th year. He bought the business from John Toyne. His wife, Mrs. Augusta (Starr) Taylor, continued with the business until 1901. They are buried at Oakland. John Toyne (1812-1874) Mr. Toyne ran a combined general store known as "the Store in the Hollow" and "Oakland Hollow Post Office". His establishment opened in 1836 for the sale of general merchandise. The post office was opened on the 6th of August 1840.

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The store on the left was built in 1836 by Mr. Toyne and two partners, William Muirhead and Henry Lyman. Mr. Lyman moved to Scotland where he became proprietor of a store there. The Oakland store still stands a century and a half later but is in a state of disrepair. John Toyne was appointed the first Clerk of the Township on January 21st, 1850 and the Township rented a room at his place of business for their regular meetings. He died on August 31st 1874 at 62 years of age and is buried at Scotland. His wife, Mary Ann, continued to operate the business until 1881. She died on March 21, 1889 at 57 years of age. The Toynes had at least two daughters; M. Ethel Toyne (1880-1960) and Minnie Toyne who died April 27, 1880 at 21 years. Both are buried in the same plot as John and Mary A. Toyne. John Waugh (1832-1913) Mr. Waugh was born at Ancaster on the 21st of April 1832, a son of Thomas and Julia ( Emery) Waugh. He married Phoebe Ann Shipman ( 15 June 1839 - 4 May 1925). John died at Oakland on the 20th of May 1913. Both are buried in Oakland cemetery along with a daughter, Ida (1864-1880).

Circa 1895 John Waugh and his wife Phoebe John Waugh farmed for many years before buying the business at Oakland. He and his family lived in a white frame house on Oakland Street. There is some uncertainty as to whether Mr. Waugh was a merchant or an inn-keeper, or both. One report suggests he had a livery stable in conjunction with his business. The latter suggests he may have been the operator of the Starkey House in the hollow.

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John was a brother of Eliza Jane Waugh (1827-1908) who married Stephen Vivian (1827-1885), a millwright in Oakland. He was also a brother of Thomas "Tommy" Waugh (1839-1901) who married Susan Smith (1843-1910). Their daughter, Lelith Maud (1877-1932) married Percy Button, the Township Clerk for fifty years. Another brother of John Waugh, William "Willie", married Mary Ann Smith, sister of Susan. The Smiths were pioneers in the Township. Lewis Smith, father of Mary Ann and Susan, cleared land west of the village. He lost his life in a logging accident while still a young man. John had another sister, Maria waugh (1829-1895) who married John Proper (1829-1909) a merchant at Oakland. Lewis Baldwin bought his store and continued the business. John and Phoebe Ann waugh were the parents of nine children, Emma born 1863, who married Vivian Nelles of Wilsonville. Ida born 1865, Ann born 1867, Clara born 1868, Catherine born 1869, William born 1871, Thomas born 1873, Edith born 1875 and Bertha born 1881. The seventh child, Thomas (1873-1959) married Olive Louisa Howarth. They homesteaded near North Battleford but returned to Ontario in 1927. They had six children including Marquis who farmed the Grantham place, north of the village, after the death of Mathias Grantham (1855-1938) in a hit and run accident in front of his farm house north of Oakland village. Marquis' daughter, Eileen Waugh lives in Waterford. Another son of Thomas, Thomas Arthur (Jr.), born in 1908 served in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police from 1930 to 1948. F. J. Will - is shown in historical records as being a merchant at Oakland. He settled in 1874. His store may have been located just south of the post office, later converted to a butcher shop operated by Asa Wheeler. W. J. Lewis (Boston) Township dwellers in the south east part of the township found it convenient to shop at the Boston general store operated by Mr. Lewis.

Maggie Ewing

Circa 1899 Mabel Mrs. W. J. Lewis Lewis Lewis standing in the doorway

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-

Peddlars Francis Nugent - in 1867 Jonathan Plowman - in 1867 Photographer Two were in business late in the 19th Century - one, a Mr. McPherson opened a studio in the old Proper store and another named Cooke had a studio on Colborne Street which later became the Alf Martin residence. Tailors Richard Cowles (1810) - migrated from wales and settled in Oakland about 1849. He ran a tailoring business for thirty-three years. Richard had three wives, Mary Tolly died at Oakland 1858, Hannah Messecar died on Dec. 19th 1881 and his third wife was Charlotte Smoke. One daughter, Eliza, married Robert Knowles, a carriage maker who went to Michigan. Mr. Cowles owned two houses in Oakland. Mr. Cowles also performed the services of caretaker at Oakland Township Town Hall in the late 1800's.

Scodand Bakery Henry "Hank" L. Malcolm (1852-1932) was the proprietor of a bakery. Hank Malcolm was born on Sept 18, 1852, son of Isaac Brock Malcolm (18121867) and Charlotte Smith (1814-1892). Henry married and had four children; Robert Leslie, a farmer at Oakland; Gertrude married H. Bradley; Bertha; and Charlotte Mabel who married Ambrose Cannel. For his bakery business, he erected an oven in the east end of a building owned by W. E. Hooker. His advertisement in the local Scotland paper proposed "to supply Scotland and surrounding area with fresh bread daily". Gideon Walker operated a shop on Simcoe Street. While most bakers offered a standard loaf of bread for sale, some were not above offering light loaves, in some cases up to ten ounces light. The Inspector of Weights and Measures visited the area in the summer of 1859 and found some loaves on the shelf failed the weight test. In 1893, J.S. Hornsby advertised his bakery products in the Scotland Sun. Barber Shop Fred O'Riley

NEW BAKERY 1 _ ~:-::'sddTLAND. ,"::.

Having,.compieted I a New Oven, refitted my shop and secured the . services of a first class' bak~r froiH Toronto; I, i '. all prepar1ed to fUfn~sh.. I BRRADt BUNNB, CAKES,

AND OO!&EC I

TIONER,

!WEDDING I". . CAKES I

A SPECIALTY.

I

~resh Bread and Bunns; always on hand.

a- AU a.t. Bottom

prices;

I

a call is l

solicited.

J. S.

HORNSBY.

In 1885, he opened a shop on Queen Street north. His hours were every evening after six 0 ' clock and every Saturday afternoon and evening. His ad in the local paper stated "he's no s-h-a-m, but a good sham-poon-er".

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Boots and Shoes J. Allen Malcolm (1854-1892) He opened a shop next to his residence on Oakland Street in May of 1885. He married Ada Elizabeth Lamsden (1851-1937). Their children were Geo Allen, Clara Persis (1884-1956) and Bertha Beatrice (1886-1972). Butchers Edward "Ted" Hall (1865-1927) Mr. Hall opened a business in 1885, as advertised in the Scotland Journal. He was married to Mary Roswell (1867-1903).

Furniture A furniture outlet was operated by J. conjunction with his funeral parlour.

H.

M.

Vaughan

in

Funeral Director Joseph H. M. Vaughan (1869-1918) operated a furniture store and funeral parlour. He married Mary E. Townsend (1873-1955). Joe Vaughan succumbed from an attack of the flu during the Great Epidemic of 1918/19. Thos B. "Book " Wheeler (1866-1943), a teamster, drove the hearse for Mr. Vaughan.

Circa 1900 Joseph Vaughans store and undertaking business - Mary E. Vaughan is standing in the doorway with her son, Reginald. This building is now a residence located on the north-east corner of Simcoe and Queen Streets.

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Cherry wood coffins, built locally, were known to have been used in the nineteenth century. The Foster brothers ran the coffin factory which was the former woollen mill located east of Scotland village.

A horse-drawn hearse The business was bought by J. C. Vaughans' death.

(Neal) Glaves after Mr.

Harness Shop Mr. Allen operated a shop in the village in 1891.

Hotels and Inns The stage coach era saw weary travellers arrive at Scotland in great numbers. Their lodging was basic but reasonable, around $1. 00 a day for a room. One historian describes one of these establishments in vivid terms:

"Taverns in the country parts of Upper Canada consists for the most part of small log houses with three apartments; a kitchen, bedchamber and a bar room. The bar room is like the dram shop and the counting house. The kitchen is the scullery and the dining room and drawing room. "On entering one of these taverns and asking for a single bed you are told that your chance of getting one

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depends entirely on the number of travellers who may want accommodation for the night and if you obtain possession of a bed by promising to receive a companion for the night it is impossible to say what sort of companion may come. "I have already said that the bedchambers of the Canadian hotels, you are not supplied with a wash stand or any other paraphernalia of the dressing table. It may be well to inform you that on descending from your bedroom and walking outside the door you will find something in the shape of a pig trough supplied with water. In this you may wash if you please, after you dress or before, if you have any disposition to walk out in your morning gown. "If you have a horse you are obliged not merely to see him fed and cleaned but to feed and clean him yourself. " (Note: A Township By-law, attempt to improve the travellers.)

passed in 1857, made an lodging facilities for

At Scotland, all was not serene, uninterrupted slumber at the local inns. The story is told that gangs from the surrounding hamlets often tried to take Scotland by storm. One such gang known as the "Pinewoods Gang" from Kelvin sporadically entered town looking for trouble. One night when a brawl was in progress, a travelling salesman who was highly agitated with the noise below descended the stairs, his high cut leather boots grasped by the pull-on straps which he used to flail about him with such effect that he caused more damage than those involved in the fighting. The disturbance ended abruptly, the brawlers fleeing the scene as fast as they could exit out the door. As the story-teller put it "he used those leather boots to clean house"! Joseph Beemer Mr. Beemer was the proprietor of the former Foster Hotel in the Gore which was the meeting place of Dr. Duncombes' rebels in 1837. A tavern was operated in conjunction with the hotel. Joseph Beemer had a son named, Jacob, who became a ring leader during the rebellion. He was captured by the authorities and, along with other rebels, banished to Tasmania where he spent at least two years of forced hard labour. Commercial Hotel (on the Oakland Township side of the village) Jonathan Thatcher was the proprietor of this establishment which is known to have been in business in 1870 with a room rate of

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$1.00 per day, as advertised. Another former owner in 1867 was WIn Smith. Georg7 Hall <.1832-1900), a sc;>n of Thomas and Emma (Ralph) Hall, took over propr1etorsh1p about 1880, f1rstly renting for a year, then he bought the hotel and operated it for some 15 years. George, one of ten children married; (1) Frances M. Smith (died 1872); (2) Mary M. Messecar (1846: 1906) daughter of Hiram and Ann (Armstrong) Messecar. By his two wives Geo had eight children, four sons and 4 daughters. '

Foster's Hote1 Horace Foster (1797-1881) opened the first hotel in Scotland, in 1830. It stood in the Gore between Simcoe and Talbot Streets. A tavern was opened at the hotel. Mr. Foster was 84 years, 11 months and 2 days old at the time of his death at Scotland on March 9th, 1881. He married Alletta L. B. de Rapelie who died April 1st 1879. Both are buried at Scotland. His son Horace Jr. (1832-1908) married Martha J. Cline (1839-1918). Another son, Alonzo (18191905) married Jane Lymburner (1824-1873) and a second wife, Nancy Campbell. Jackson House (on the Oakland Township side of the village) Eliakim Malcolm Jr. (1829-18 ), son of Eliakim Sr. and Samantha Malcolm, took over proprietorship in 1882. He had formerly been in the lumbering business. Eliakim Jr. married Emily Smith and they raised nine children at Scotland. In 1891, Mr. Young owned the Jackson House, later Tom Dunn took over and sold out to Mr. Fulsome. Clarence McGee was an associate in the business in 1893. Scot1and House mid

P. J. Pilkey operated the hotel for a number of years in the century. It was in full operation in the year 1868.

nineteell:~h

SCOTLAND HOUSE. P.I.rILDY.

0,..-

~.O.'II'.

filii u-II __

tor til. _oda!loa'" u.. tranIIlaa ptlblIc, u4 aftt'J attollltloa will lie pai4 \0 tMir -ron. . . . . . IB GeJnlJl8R8JR

The advertisement on the left appeared in the 1966 publication "A Glimpse of the Past" by the Brant Historical Society. The hotel had a livery stable service and was also a stage coach stop for The Passenger Express Line which ran daily from Paris to Simcoe and return. Pilkey's Hotel featured an annual "New Years Eve Blow Out' in its ballroom, among other social events.

The stock of carriages at Pilkey's livery stable included a "three seater" democrat which was purchased in 1865 from the factory of William Lutes of Boston, Ontario. Mr. Pilkey sold the Scotland House hotel on the 12th of August 1870. At that time, it underwent extensive alterations. The new proprietor may have been J. Schram or J. Hurzel who are shown in historical records as being innkeepers at Scotland, or possibly Henry Glover, or J. M. Marlatt

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or Mrs. Vincent, all shown as innkeepers in the nineteenth century. Another innkeeper was Jeremiah Durham (1817-1869) whose grandson, Philip, became Reeve in 1939. John Hargill was also an inn-keeper at Scotland. Implement Dealer Bruce S. Harris (1875-1937) He was the son of John Harris, a share holder in what was later to become the huge Massey-Harris Company. His brother, Morgan Harris, lived in Mount Pleasant and was a Township Reeve and Warden of Brant County. Bruce Harris was born Aug 20, 1875 and died on June 27,1937. He married Lily Bain (1875-1964).

Circa 1890 - Jackson House at the south-east corner of the main intersection in Scotland operated by Ace M. Robinson at the lower right is the village pump.

The following appeared in the local paper on February 15th, 1892: "C .L. Messecar has fitted up a large large show-room next the hotel, where he has on exhibition Massey & Harris' binders, mowers, etc. Charlie is a good salesman and these gentlemen are to be congratulated on securing his services for the coming season".

Marriage Licenses Alonzo Foster (1819-1905) sold licenses and was also clerk of the Division Court. Mr. Foster was born in 1819 and died Aug 7, 1905 at 86y 2m 7d. He married Jane Lymburner (1824-1873) and his second wife was Nancy Campbell who died Sept 14, 1911 at 76 years of age. There were at least two children who died young, Alonzo Jr. died in 1863 at 8 years and Francelia died in 1861 at 2 years of age. Two other daughters were Elvira (1854-1934) married Ed Malcolm (1851-1918) a Scotland merchant and Alletta (1846-Dec 23, 1915) married Joseph D. Eddy (1842-1900) active members of the Congregational Church at Scotland. The latter were the children of Alonzo and his first wife, Jane Lymburner. Alonzo, an active participant in the Rebellion of 1837, served a prison term before being pardoned • .Merchants Charles Eddy (1781-1852) Mr. Eddy is reported to have opened the first general store at Scotland in the year 1835. He was married Sarah Malcolm (1784-1860), in

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1803, by Squire Tyler. Sarah was the daughter of Finlay Malcolm (17501829) and Tryphena Wardell (1761-1813) both buried in Oakland Pioneer Cemetery. Charles Eddy owned a farm north of Scotland on lot 1, Concession III. There were three sons; John born on Nov 29, 1804, Adbell born on Sept 30, 1806 and Constant born on April 1, 1817. John A. Eddy (1855-1943) In 1891, John operated a general store on Simcoe Street and was also the postmaster. He was the son of Constant Eddy (18171892), farmer north of Scotland. John's wife was Alma Messecar. They had nine children. One of their sons, Earl B. Eddy, served as the United Church minister at Scotland. Foster Brothers lU H - -

Their advertisement carried in the local Scotland Journal, May 1885 edition, shows the firm on Oakland Street carrying a large stock of "Good Furniture" plus new designs in bedroom sets, parlor sets, sofas, lounges, chairs, tables, bedsteads, spring beds and mattresses.

ON' HAN!) A lMG,E STOCK OF

TIlE 'l

AIlE OFFER1.1:' 0

The two Foster Brothers were Albert (1845-1914) who married Elizabeth Manson (1861-1952) and William "Will" (18521912) who married Eliza M. Hay (18521926) daughter of the Reverend William Hay, pastor of the local congregational church. Will and Eliza Foster had a son Ewart (1890-1914) and Alice Willena (1888-1967) who was active in her grandfathers' church. The two brothers are believed to have been the sons of Alonzo Foster (1819-1905) who married Jane Lymburner. Will Foster (1852-1912) built Fosters Hall on Oakland Street in Scotland, which later became the Masonic Hall. At one time, he used the lower level of the building as a furniture wareroom and an undertaking department. The upper storey was rented by the township and served as the Township Hall.

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Henry Lyman Mr. Lyman settled at Scotland in 1840. He operated a general store from 1852 to 1879 in conjunction with the post office. He was also a partner in the construction of the "Oakland Hollow Store" and post office, built in 1836.

Markles General Store

(Archie Markle, proprietor)

This store and ice cream parlor was a two storey brick building located on the west side of Simcoe Street, at the top of Oakland Street. The building burned in the early part of the 20th century. At that time, the establishment was owned by Cyrus Smith Burford. . of ~-

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Markle's store and ice cream parlor Welby E. McAlister (1838-1923) A merchant at Scotland in 1861. 21st 1881 and is buried at Scotland.

His wife Mary Ann died June

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E. G. Malcolm (1851-1918)

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I This merchant carried a . t f d Th var~e y 0 goo s. e store was moved in 1870, from its original site, to a new brick building located near the post office, fronting Oakland Road. His stock included drugs, groceries, fabrics, boots and shoes, clothing, hats and caps, crockery, glassware, stationary and hardware. In

'd w~ e

1885, the firm decided to

export, on a weekly basis, a large shipment of eggs to the Buffalo market, paying the "highest market price in cash or trade" to local farmers, as noted in their advertisement in the local paper. E. G. Malcolm also operated a telegraph office from his place of business and his brother, Dr. John R. Malcolm, had a partnership interest in the business. The line of goods carried by E. G. Malcolm in the drug department included chemicals, perfumes, patent medicines, medical and surgical appliances, dye stuffs, combs, brushes, coal oil, lamps, lanterns, chimneys, chandeliers, brackets, shades, machinery oils, pitchers, mugs, bowls, crockery and glassware. Egbert "Ed" G. Malcolm (1851-1918) was the son of Shubael Downs Malcolm (1814-1878) and Elvira Foster (1820-1894), farmers on the old Malcolm homestead at Oakland. Shubael served as Warden of Brant County in 1868. To prepare himself for his own business, Ed Malcolm worked as a student merchant for John Cato and Company of Toronto and returned to Scotland to marry his cousin, Elvira Foster, daughter of Alonzo and Jane Foster. He opened his store and operated it successfully until it was destroyed by fire about 1887. Ed then went to Westmeath, Ontario and set up a business in partnership with Alexander Fraser called "Fraser and Malcolm " merchants. Mr. Malcolm later moved to Ottawa and worked for the Customs Department. His wife survived him by a number of years and died in 1934, at Toronto, at the home of Mrs. E. M. Wood who was Gertrude Eddy, a daughter of Jos. D. Eddy and Alletta Foster, sister of Elvira . Ed and Elvira Malcolm had no children. George Phillips (1829-1911) Mr. Phillips took over the general store and post office in 1877 operated by Henry Lyman and remained proprietor until 1881. He married Mary Ann Gage (1831-1892). They had several children, three died young, Charley (18561877), Ida (1867-1868) and Maggie (1873-1874) also Edward (18691904) and Mary Ann (1863-1919) married Welby Smith.

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SCOTLAND SUR FEBRUARY 23RD 1093

We arc rUl!ning, just r,ow, on the LOW LEVEL BASIS; and in every department are ofiering goods at, or below . City prices. . Fon TilE WJXTER TRAD-;'~, ,\VE HAV g CAREfFLLY SELECTED. "\ CllOICE ASSORT:\IEXT OF DRY-GOOD':;. GnOCERIES, IlAHDWARE, BOOTS "and GIIOES, CROCI~ERY etc. etc. . ~ FINE STOCK 01<' GLASS W_-\RE, SELLn~G AT COST ~

:Canne~ LOO~S in. Endless ,VarieW I Our gener~l supply. is complete~ . Call a:qct exalnine goods a~q. price~ ..--':' before going to thE? city" .. ." '. • ",.it

PtlODUCg TAKEN IN PAY.MENT~ " '(;-;;

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IVVOOD FOR SALE. .,' .... : . . ,~::.:.<':~!~~~. I_ _j ..'A. EDDY, '.PROrRIET.)R, ~~otla'~d'- ''''1

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always in Etock. . IALSO. FRESH lIrEATS, CONSTANTLY ON H:\~n. FJ~K"n !HlE:,J}· '.' (DURFORD ::\JAKE), THREE TIMES A .WEEK. 0"io:lTEl~S. I )~ THEIR SEASON.. . .' 'A WELL SRi.ECTED STOOK m' STAPLE DRY-GOODS, GENTS :FURNISIIl~(:S ETC., USUALLY FOUND IN FIRST-CLASS SHOPS,

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Thomas O. Prouse A merchant at Scotland in 1861. He was married to Sarah J. Moore who died on Dec. 26, 1910 in her 69th year and is buried at Scotland. _._... _-._<':11.\:-4. \' X:-./ J)v:·;Jo;X

Charles Van Dusen A drug and fancy goods store. It burned to the ground on September 9, 1891 and was later replaced by the Van Dusen block on Oakland Street. Before it burned, Van Dusen's store was situated next to Malcolms' establishment.

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O!l\CI~ lakes the adv;lnl;llIo of anoth.:r olilloriunity of advertising his

A largo aSnOl'tillont of at very low pl'ieL's: al~o,

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PA'I'EX'1' ~I Eiliel XI':~ uP AT/:,. r N/:,'!" .. !I'7'Iv.\' .



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In tha.nking my eu'"tmners for t.heir Ub[,l'll.l pntron::t~e in tho past, i solioite a csntlnmtuco

oithe same. ChaR. Van Dllson. SqoUiud,lVIay 25th•

The above advertisement appeared in the Scotland Journal, May 1885 edition. The Van Dusen block, a brick building on Oakland Street, built in 1909, was a well known land mark in Scotland Village for many years.

The Van Dusen Block can be seen on the right, with the Masonic Temple on the left. In 1979, these two historical landmarks were demolished to make room for a new Royal Bank building.

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Charles Van Dusen was the first child of James and Kate Van Dusen. He was born at Scotland about 1860. Besides his store, Charles operated a lumber yard and was also a builder. He did not marry. The story is told that the Van Dusen dispensary was not always circumspect in the way they dispensed patent drugs. It is known that an elderly lady, the mother of a well known township farmer, sought relief from her pain after breaking a hip. The dispensary provided morphine generously but the client became dependent. The drug continued to be supplied to this elderly woman for purposes of satisfying her addictive habit without the knowledge of her immediate family members and she became an addict - almost unheard of in a rural farming communityl It was Charles' father, James (1836-12 Feb 1918) who settled in Scotland in the mid nineteenth century and opened the drug store. He married Katherine "Kate" Malcolm who died on July 18th, 1910. Kate was the daughter of Eliakim Malcolm (1801-1874) and Samantha Sexton. James and Kate Van Dusen had a daughter who married J.J. Miller of St. Louis, Missouri. The Millers had a son, Clare. They visited their family in Scotland on August 16, 1905, according to a local newspaper. James Van Dusen 1836-1918 James and Kate Van Dusen had eight children, including Charles. They were Harry C. 1872-1898; William (1871-1941) married Pearl Glover: Stella married u.S. Reglan a station agent; Myrta Pearl (1879-1913) married H. Howard; Malcolm; Jennie married Jos. Miller (1860-1908): Louisa married Mr. Parker. Peddlars John Moore was a peddlar in the year 1870. Justus Smith (1794 - May 10, 1864) the mid 19th Century.

was a peddlar at Scotland in

Justus and Catherine (Malcolm) Smith (1800-18- ) had a daughter, Mary (1842-1849) who ~s buried in Oakland Pioneer Cemetery. Their son, James Malcolm Smith, born about 1832, became a minister. He married Euphemia Eadie. Justus was born at Scotland, the son of Jonathan Smith and Bathsheba Chapin. Catherine was the daughter of Finlay Malcolm (1750-1829) and Tryphena Wardell. Catherine's twin brother, James Malcolm, was a farmer north of Scotland on lot 2 concession II which later became known as the Hamilton Smith farm. James married Elvira Fairchild, daughter of Isaac Fairchild. Catherine and James Malcolm had an older sister, Sarah (1784-1860), who married Charles Eddy (17811852) who opened the first general store in Scotland. Gideon Walker was a peddlar in the year 1870.

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Tailor A.W. Steedman was the village tailor in 1891. Teamster A. Durham was a teamster in the year 1870. Telegraph Agency The firm of Dr. J.R. Malcolm served in this capacitY,in 1891, for the Great Northwestern Telegraph Company.

OaJdand

Industry

Abraham westbrook (1844-1910) Abe Westbrook operated an apple-drying plant located opposite the Town Hall, on Oakland Street. Abraham was a descendant of John Westbrook who homesteaded east of Cainsville, one of sixteen children of Major John Westbrook and Elizabeth Gage, emigrants from the State of New York. Abe, a farmer on lots 7 and 8 Concession I, served a term as Reeve in 1897/98. Carriage-maker J. and W. Powers These two brothers operated a carriage making plant which is recorded as being in full operation in 1867. Contractor and Builder B. Franklin Knox (1848-1923) Frank Knox married Laura E. Pew (1855-1946) and eleven children followed. Many of the older homes in the village were built by Frank. One of their sons, George (1887-1944), managed Vivians grist mill. George was active in municipal affairs, serving as a Councillor, Reeve and Warden of Brant County. Distilleries Around the period 1830, there were two spirit distillation plants in the Township and another on the west border, just inside Burford Township. The Malcolms, John and Finlay Jr., ran a small distillery at their grist mill early in the century.

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Foundry Charles Parke Malcolm (1845-1907) was the proprietor of the plant which made a hand plough. His foundry overlooked Vivians Mill, on land owned by Shubael D. Malcolm (1814-1878), son of Finlay Malcolm II. The foundry is known to have been in operation in the 1860's and closed in 1876. S. W. Potts worked at the foundry in 1867, his occupation listed as founder. Malcolm's foundry turned out a limited number of wood stoves in another small factory, at the corner of Victoria and Malcolm Streets - later the Stewart Macaulay property. Charles P. Malcolm, son of Shubael and Elvira (Foster) Malcolm, was born Jan. 31, 1845 and married Theresa T. Terwilligar on Oct. 21, 1868 by the Rev. John Wood. They lived at Scotland and later moved to Oxford, Michigan. Charles died in Detroit, Mar. 20, 1907. There were nine children; Frederick Herman born in 1872 Ethel Elvira born Apr 6, 1874 Mabel born Nov 10, 1875 Evelyn Maude born Nov 11, 1878, died 1898 Clarence S. born 1881 Florence Gertrude born 1882 Odessa born 1885 Alletta born in 1887, died at 1 year Edna Alberta born Oct 17, 1888

Pumps James Scott (1853-19- ) a prominent citizen of Maple Grove had a small plant, the remains of which still stand. He turned out wooden pumps for wide distribution throughout the Township and elsewhere. James learned the trade from his father, William Scott, who ran a cooperage business. In fashioning the pumps, tamarack logs were used and a hole was drilled down the centre using horse power. A single horse was fastened by its bit to a light pole which guided the horse to walk round and round, thus forcing the augur to bore through the complete length of the log. Once the centre hole was bored, Mr. Scott would then craft the log into the shape of a pump, then he would add the wooden handle and other suction apparatus to draw water. Mr. Scott served on Council as a Councillor and Reeve, 1916 to 1922. He died of a heart attack at the bottom of a dug well. James had a son Gordon and a daughter Mamie.

James Scott

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Circa 1928 One of Jim Scott's wooden pumps can be seen on the left, located on the farm of Ellsworth Dunnett, lot 4, Concession I, west of Oakland village.

Rake-maker A. Baker - in business in the year 1870. Wagon-makers Charles Lyle - in operation in 1869. Robert Noble ~~~ - in operation n c~w.J~~ in 1861. Cheese plant (established in 1874) Abraham Westbrook (1844-1910) proprietor. Records show that Mr. Westbrook was making cheese in 1876, plus his apple drying business. Abraham owned land south of the village in lots 7 and 8 of concession I. The farm was bought by Alam Barnes. Hiram Grantham was another owner of this small cheese factory. It is believed he sold out to Abe Westbrook and moved to Simcoe. Hiram married Ada, daughter of Charles Nelles (1847-1904) and Ann Jane (Pitcher) Nelles, farmers on lot 9 Concession I, Townsend. Hiram employed William Martin as the cheese maker, turning out seventy-five cheeses per week, each weighing sixty-five pounds. Henry and Ben Key owned the factory at some point in time. The establishment was located just east of the post office on Elgin Street.

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By the year 1875, there were over four hundred cheese factories throughout Ontario. Milk and cream was handled in forty gallon cans. Purposely, the cans were not washed at the factory so that sour whey could be returned to the farmer, as swill, for his pigs.

Scodand Agricultural Foundry Dr. J. R. Malcolm erected a foundry near his grist mill in the year 1877. The following news item appeared in the Brantford Expositor on June 15, 1877: "Our village business is soon to be augmented by the addition of an Agricultural Foundry, which Dr. Malcolm is erecting near his mill. He has the building nearly ready, and expects to have the furnace in operation in about two weeks. It will be managed by Horace F. Malcolm, and will be a great convenience to the farmers, who have been at a loss for their supplies since the removal of c. P. Malcolm's foundry from Oakland. " John Rolph Malcolm, son of Shubael (1814-1878) and Elvira Foster was born in 1839 and died on Jan 13th, 1895 at his daughters' home in Corunna, Michigan. He was a graduate of McGill in 1861 and practised medicine at Scotland. He married Sophrona Malcolm (1842-1912), his cousin, daughter of Eliakim Malcolm (1801-1874) and Samantha Sexton. John and Sophrona had one daughter, Bertha born on Sept. 17, 1866. Dr. Malcolm operated the foundry and mill in an arrangement with his three brothers Charles Parke Malcolm, Egbert C. Malcolm and Horace Finlay Malcolm, who was the manager of the foundry. The foundry turned out plows, harrows and other farm implements. Charles Malcolm was an inventor and aspired to build a gasoline engine about the time Henry Ford perfected his first gasoline driven automobile. Horace Malcolm (1856-1904), manager of the foundry, married Mary M. Mills, daughter of Thomas Mills. They moved to Australia about 1895 where Horace died after a fall from a horse. Shubael D. Malcolm, father of the three brothers, provided much of the financial backing for the opening of the foundry.

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Brick Manufacturing Jefferson Finch was the owner and distributor. The plant was located at Waterford and had an outlet at Scotland. Building Contractor George Malcolm (1832-1904), son of Duncan (1798-1866), built many houses, farm buildings and other structures throughout Oakland and Burford Townships. He married Aneliza Robinson (1836-1902).

George Malcolm born at Scotland on May 9, 1832 - died in Lapeer, Mich. Oct. 11, 1904 buried Scotland

Aneliza Robinson Malcolm Born in Ireland July 12, 1836 - died 15 Apr 1902, buried at Scotland

Nine children were born to George and Aneliza: 1.

Franklin Filmore Malcolm was born at Scotland on July 12, 1858. He married Mary M. Gray. Frank left Scotland to follow the carpenter trade and became associated with James J. Hill, a railroad builder. Frank built many of the stations and freight buildings on the Great Northern. In 1903, he moved to Innisfail, Alberta and built some of the old buildings still standing in this town. His son, Franklin Robert Malcolm, was born at Innisfail in 1906 and became a farmer. He and his wife Anne Laak were the parents of four children.

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2.

Harry Abana Malcolm was born on Mar 31, 1860. He was a teacher, then went into the general store business at Harrisburgh. He later became editor of the Free Lance paper, taken over by the Innisfail Province. Later he moved to the Aberdeen area, outside of Innisfail, and became a farmer and entered local and provincial politics. He died on Jan 3, 1946 and his wife, Elsie Grace Durham, carried on with the farm. They had twelve children, William Chester who settled at Huxley, Alberta, Edna E. who settled in Calgary, Charles Sowell Pedley who settled in Edmonton, Harry Durham died young, Franklin born in 1893 was a casualty in WWI, Elsie Grace, who married George Jessop and settled at Leslieville Alberta, Albert Foster who served in WWII and settled in Michigan, George Duncan a farmer in the Red Deer area, John Roy a bachelor, Donald MacGregor of Markerville, Alberta, Wilfred Laurier who worked for the Federal Government, Harry Abana a teacher who settled in Edmonton.

3.

Hayward Malcolm was born on Oct 23, 1861 and became a farmer and custom thresher in the Scotland area. He married Martha Hagerman (1862-1943). They had two children Bruce born in 1887 and Lena born in 1898 at Scotland. Hayward died in 1950.

4.

Editha B. Malcolm (1864-1937) married Millard F. Malcolm, a cousin, and moved to Port Huron, Michigan.

5.

Robert Duncan Malcolm (1867businessman in Michigan.

6.

John Rolph Michigan.

7.

Emma C. Malcolm (1872-1948) became a nurse. She retired at Scotland and was active in the United Church.

8.

Lavina Maude Malcolm (1874-1945) moved to Pasadena, CA.

9.

John Karl Malcolm (1878-1960) was a merchant tailor and successful businessman in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He was the author, in 1950, of a book "The History and Genealogy of the Malcolm Family" which has proven to a valuable source of reference of early Scotland residents, particularly the Malcolms.

Malcolm

became

(1869-1945)

a

successful

a

successful builder

in

Cabinet Makers The Foster Brothers operated a shop at Scotland. They employed John Powers and Charles Whiting as tradesmen. Their finished products were marketed through their furniture store. The two brothers were Will Foster (1852-1912) and Albert Foster (18451914). They were the sons of Alonzo (1819-1905).

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Carriage and Buggy Works Albert Hooker (1818-1899) was the proprietor of a small plant in 1870. He and his wife, Achsah J. (1827-1911), had at least two children, Hattie A. (1851-1867) and Darcy O. (1848-1910). It is believed Walter E. Hooker (1854-1931), the postmaster and a general merchant, was Albert's son.

Cheese Factory The Scotland Cheese factory, a brick structure located south of the village on lot 1, Concession I employed several hands in its peak production years. It was built at the turn of the century, in 1906. The first owner, Mr. Robinson, employed Bob Lockyer as his cheese-maker. Mr. Lockyer was trained in the old fashioned method of making cheese from cow's milk and was considered one of the best. His special technique and skill of separating the curd from the whey and activating the fermenting process produced a top quality cheddar product. He allowed aging to continue for up to two years, thus providing his customers wi th a sharp, bi ting flavour which won acclaim. The by-products were also sold locally. Charles O'Reilly, who moved from Bookton in 1910, bought the business and turned the operation to butter making, known thereafter as the Scotland Creamery. The market for their butter was mainly local, including customers on the milk route. The surplus supply went on the T.H. & B to Brantford, until 1920, when a trucking firm hauled the product to the Hamilton Dairy and to Brantford Produce, owned by Claude Snyder. Local truckers under contract to haul to the creamery were Morley Wheeler and Reg Vaughan, a former undertaker at Scotland. The milk routes encompassed all the surrounding district, but lay mainly in the south, the south-west and to the west of Scotland. In the early 30's, the tobacco industry emerged and, one by one, the dairy farms were taken over by the tobacco farmers, doing away with a great many dairy herds. Ultimately, there was not enough milk available in the area to keep the creamery in operation. It was closed about 1935/36. Scotland Creamery had a reputation for producing only #1 quality butter. When it closed, the brand name "Scotland Creamery Butter" was acquired from Mr. O'Reilly by another dairy, under the condition only #1 butter would be sold bearing that brand name.

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Scotland Cheese Factory - Circa 1910 The above picture, facing north-east, shows three chimneys. A sign above the centre window says "separators" - "Maple Lane Cream" - over the ramp door is a sign which reads "De Laval Separators" - a wagon at the right is loaded with barrels. Cider Hill A small mill was in operation in the village in the mid nineteenth century where Mrs. Howsons house stood. It was operated by the Malcolms. Cooperage Factory The Malcolm Cooperage and Starch factory, operated by Eddy Malcolm, employed local hands. Two coopers employed were Joseph Adair and Jacob Grover. Eddy Malcolm (1817-1892) was the son of Hugh Malcolm (1789-1828), killed in a barn raising on May 17, 1828 at his farm north of the cemetery at Scotland, and Miss Eddy who died in 1821. Eddy Malcolm married Maryette westbrook (1825-1848) and re-married to Sarah Jane McComb (1817-1892). There were two children by Maryette and six children by Sarah Jane.

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Foundry Works

The Scotland Foundry Works owned by E. G. Malcolm and Company turned out a variety of products. They specialized in bells for schools, churches, factories and farms. (In the nineteenth century it was conunon for farmers to install a bell in a strategic location, near the house, to alert those working in the fields of meal time and other urgent messages.) FARM BELLS:

FACTORY BELLS I

SCHOOL BELLS I

CHURCH BELLS I

IN In presenting the TRADE & PUBLIC with our list of bells, we beg to state, that in the manufacture of our bells we use only the BEST OF COMPOSITION. BELL METAL and the DIAMETER & WEIGHT are so correctly proportioned that the best possible vibrations are obtained; both in VOLUME AND RICHNESS of tone. All our bells are finely BRONZED and PAINTED. SCOTLAND Foundry Works The advertisement above appeared in the Scotland Journal, May 1885 edition. In 1885, a 40 pound bell complete with hanger sold for $6.00, a fifty pound bell for $7.00 and a sixty pound bell for $8.00. Ebgert "Ed" G. Malcolm (1851-1918) was the son of Shubael (1814-1878). Ed operated a store at Scotland which burned about 1887. Ed married his cousin, Elvira Foster (1854-1934), daughter of Alonzo Foster. After the fire, he and Elvira moved to Westmeath, Ontario and set up a partnership merchant business.

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Funeral furnishings At their woodworking shop, in the former woollen mill east of Scotland village which was equipped with special machinery, Albert and Will Foster manufactured coffins and caskets for the local market. Their wareroom, located in the lower floor of Fosters Hall, later became the Masonic Hall. They advertised regularly in the Scotland Journal, featuring cherry wood. This branch of their business peaked about 1887. Albert Foster (1845-1914) married Elizabeth Manson (1861-1952). His brother, William (1852-1912) married Eliza M. Hay (1852-1926) daughter of the Rev. William Hay, pastor of the Congregational Church at Scotland for many years. William and Eliza had a son, Ewart M. (1890-1914) and Alice Willena Foster (1888-1967). Furniture maker Albert and will Foster also made furniture. In 1885, Albert (1845-1914) left Scotland to take charge of a newly opened branch warehouse at Burford. His brother, Will (1852-1912), remained to supervise their Scotland business interests. In the local paper Will made the following comment about their expansion; "the old original wareroom here will always have on hand a full stock of their own make of extra good furniture, notwithstanding the new branch at Burford". Plow Works (plows, harrows and cultivators) A factory owned by E. G. Malcolm & Company, proprietor Egbert "Ed" Malcolm (1851-1918), turned out three plow models; (a)

N. Y. Telephone - for light soil, of light draft and furnished with either straight or side arm skimmers.

(b)

Reliable - a first class American plow for rough, stumpy land, furnished with a straight or side arm skimmer.

(c)

Jewel - a light jointer, light of draft, easy to handle with a wrought iron beam, adjustable, with chilled board and share.

Depending on the model, plows sold in 1885 from $9.00 to $17.00 - the N. Y. Telephone $10.00, the Reliable $10.00, the Jewel $12.00 and a one horse plow for $9.00. A plow share, skimmer or board sold for 25 cents each. The Scotland Foundry Works manufactured an adjustable double hilling plow for attachment to an iron frame corn cultivator - set to run both deep and shallow. It sold for $5.00. Their Iron Duke Corn Cultivator No. I, made almost entirely of wrought iron, was on the market in 1885 which sold for $12.00. Their forty-five teeth harrows sold for $13.00, sixty teeth for $15.00 and seventy-two

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teeth harrows for $17.00. Mr. Whealy, manager of the foundry, reported in 1885 that business was brisk, doubling last years orders and that they were branching out into other lines. Starch factory The Eddy Malcolm Starch Factory was run in conjunction with its allied cooperage business. Tannery Established about 1860 by Robert Gillespie, the tannery at Scotland manufactured harness, leather goods, kip and calf leathers in a frame two storey building, 24 by 50 feet. The tannery converted about $1,000.00 worth of hides into leather annually. Robert Gillespie (1833-1908) married Marie Moore (1840-1908). Wagon makers The Wagon and Carriage Works run by George Phillips was in operation in 1870. George (1829-1911) married MaryAnn Gage (18311892). He was the postmaster at Scotland from 1879 to 1881. They had a least three children; Charles (1856-1877), Ida (1867-1868) and Maggie (1873-1874). William G. Reynolds (1812- 29 Aug 1872) is shown in records as being a wagon maker in 1865. William and Catherine Reynolds had a son, John B. who died Aug 5, 1857 at 4 years. John Taylor is also shown as being a wagon maker. In 1870, fancy wood turning and designing is advertised as a specialty trade. Well diggers John Eastman was in business in the year 1870. Woollen Factory - Marcus Malcolm and Son The woollen mill was established in 1865 by Marcus Malcolm and his father, George Malco~. For the first fifteen years, it was a custom mill employing six hands in carding and cloth dressing, working all seasons of the year. In 1880, the mill converted to the manufacture of flannels and sheets for the wholesale trade. The building was 30 by 36 feet, two stories in height, with eleven looms employing twenty-five hands. Steam power operated the mill. It turned out an average of three hundred pairs of shanty blankets for the North West and about eight hundred yards of flannel weekly. The Company also manufactured barrel staves.

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It was necessary to have a sustainable supply of water for the carding process. Accordingly, water from MacKenzie (Malcolm's) Creek was diverted into a small pond for storage. Signs of the pond are still visible. In 1881, Mr. Malcolm moved the business to Brantford and the family departed Scotland at that time. The abandoned mill found another use as a shop for the manufacture of coffins, operated by Albert and Will Foster.

Circa 1881 M. Malcolm & Son Custom Woollen Works Fourteen employees, four females and ten males can be seen in the picture, one male is at the top of the ladder. Marcus Malcolm (1830-1903) was the son of George (1806-18- ) and Elizabeth Averill (1812-1840), the first of eleven children. His younger brother, Finlay, was a minister. Born on March 6th, 1830, Marcus married Hulda Ann Bugbee (1830-1911) in January 1851. Hulda was a native of Vermont. Four children were born to them, two of whom survived their parents; George H. Malcolm, well known in Brantford; and Angus G., who was a director of the firm of Gordon, McKay & Co., Toronto. The woollen business was very successful in its early years which allowed for one of the sons to be taken into partnership. For eleven years, Marquis filled the office of Justice of the Peace; he had served in the counc il twelve years and was a Commissioner for taking affidavits.

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Throughout his life, Mr. Malcolm was a consistent member of the Congregational church, also a member of the Masonic Order and Canadian Order of Foresters. In politics, Mr. Malcolm upheld the Liberal side, and many times rendered his party valuable service. Marquis died at Brantford on November 11th, 1903. After conveying his remains via the T.H. & B. to Scotland, his funeral took place there. The Reverend Mr. Harrison conducted the service at Brant ford , assisted by Mr. George Foster. At Scotland Rev. Messrs. Harrison and Boulton officiated. 12 11 10

l. I

------

6 1

5

Marcus Malcolm (1830-1903)

Village of Oakland

3

I. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10.

II. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Hotel - Jordon Beebe proprietor Slaughter house - Asa Wheeler proprietor =~~~~er shop - proprietor Asa Wheeler - formerly a general General store and post office Cheese plant Cobbler shop - Wm Cunningham proprietor Butcher shop - Welby Almas proprietor Starkey House - John Diamond proprietor Blacksmith shop Hotel 4 corners General store General store Foundry - C.P . Malcolm proprietor Foundry - manufactured stoves Wagon works and wood working

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CHAPTER 7 Early TradesDlen Blacksmithing Blacksmithing in the early part of the nineteenth century varied little from the techniques employed in past centuries. The smith's tools as well as his products and his trade methods were well established and had been unaffected in rural Canada even though, by the 1790's, a transition was occurring, with ironware becoming more prevalent after the industrial revolution in Great Britain took hold. But the major product was still wrought iron which had been the smith's prime forging medium since the emergence of the iron age. Cast iron had been perfected and was being turned out in increasing quantities. It was the development of steel late in the nineteenth century that ultimately threatened the smith's livelihood. In the pioneer community of Burford Gore, one of the first smiths to arrive, Squire Thompson, did not feel the immediate impact of cast iron or steel and was able to maintain a traditional shop for the benefit of the predominantly rural population. He was still considered the proverbial "jack-of-all-trades" when he opened in 1822. As a general repairman, he was responsible for almost all the settlements' metal-working needs. His daily tasks were carried out based on the rural technology of that era. Horse-shoeing was his major undertaking but he repaired and manufactured farm tools and simple implements such as harrows and small carts such as wheel barrows. He also fashioned iron fittings, he made screws, nails, bolts, nuts, chains, hooks, staples, rings and iron clamps. For a set of shoes, installed, Squire Thompson charged ten shillings. In the early years, the spread of smithing services throughout the community was slow simply because the homesteaders had limited buying power. In some cases, the smith was forced to give up his trade in favour of farming. This was the case with Mr. Thompson. In 1835, he bought land on lot 8 concession III but continued to offer some smithing services at his farm near Maple Grove.

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The smith tended to work alone in his small shop as an independent proprietor, but did employ an apprentice as a helper. Payment for services was in cash or "in kind". Farmers preferred to exchange goods for blacksmithing service. Consequently, as a tradesman, the local smith found himself depending on a limited income gained from the hundreds of work orders he had contracted with the farmers. Seasonal rhythms of the agricultural economy impacted on his income. The spring and summer found his shop very busy filling orders for the local farmers but payment came later when the customer could afford to pay after the harvest. Like the local storekeepers, he was often in a credit arrangement. Personal knowledge of his customers and their ability, or willingness, to pay dictated his credit arrangements. There are many recorded cases of the smith's helper, often a mere boy, being indentured to a smith to learn the trade. This was simply a child-master relationship which committed the boy to a future of several years of very hard work before he could venture on his own. A father, by contract, would bind his son in the manner of an apprentice until he reached the age of twenty-one. The contract ordered the boy to "serve fai thfully, keep his Master's secrets and obey the Masters' lawful commands". Other requirements may involve an agreement not to marry, "to behave", not to lend the Master's tools and not to be absent from the Master's home without permission. In turn, the Master contracted to teach the boy his trade, provide food, lodging and education. Under these conditions, only the strong at heart survived the life of the contract but, in fact, most boys did persevere to the end of the term. Failure to obey his Master tradesman could result in a jail term for the young apprentice. The village smith's workplace was built for accessibility, utility and economy. In Oakland, one of the shops was located just below the four corners, on the east side of the road. This shop continued to serve the community well into the 1940's. In the first part of the 20th century, some smiths broadened their skills by doing repair work on the cars of that era, there being few garages that could straighten bent axles or mend broken headlight brackets. The Oakland shop, south of the four corners, was about 25' by 25' with a single working area. The amount of light inside was purposely limited, to better detect the glowing colours of the heated metal in the semi-darkness, allowing the blacksmith to establish the right temperature for forging and tempering. The smith's basic technique of working the metals was physical and some chemical. Air from the bellows, fire from the forge, water for tempering and hand operated tools did the job. Inside the shop, situated for easy access, was a forge-fire and hearth, bellows, an anvil, a slack tub, a workbench, tool racks, a swage block, a grindstone, wooden horses, a mandrel and drills, a vice, a horseshoe rack, a stockpile of iron, a stove and a supply of charcoal and coal. Hanging on the wall could be found a twitch used to restrain unruly horses. A small bench was set near the main doorway to accommodate customers and visitors alike who gathered for village chit chat.

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Circa 1920 Looking south, down to the hollow, from the four corners - the building visible on the left part way down the hill is the local blacksmith shop.

A typical shop with wide doors, high enough to allow horses to enter.

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All smiths wore protective clothing on the job. A cowhide leather apron was the piece of apparel preferred which extended from the waist to well below the knees, split in the front centre, so he could cradle a hoof when shoeing. Harold Kitchen generally wore a cap with no protruding edges which he could safely rub against the horse he was working on. He also had heavy boots with metal protection around the toe area to prevent injury from falling objects. His hands were never covered - they became tough and calloused. It was a marvel to watch Mr. Kitchen as he expertly welded his hammer to draw out or bend a bar of hot iron on the anvil, as he thinned and lengthened it.

Circa 1928 Harold Kitchen (1875-1931) The picture was taken with Mr. Kitchen standing at the doorway of his shop. He is wearing his leather apron, a piece of apparel necessary for the trade. In his right hand are tongs holding a horse shoe yet to be fashioned and in his left hand a blacksmith's hammer which he used in drawing, bending and upsetting the heated metal. The shop operated by Mr. Kitchen had been a wagon, woodworking and paint shop, with two storeys. A ramp, on the north side, ran up to the second floor.

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His technique, with skill acquired through years of experl.ence, was to hammer with a steady rhythm, the blows always in the same spot. This required moving the object back and forth with his left hand which held the tongs. Harold Kitchen's tool box Harold Kitchen was equally skilled with the sledge hammer. As one passed by his shop with the two front doors wide open, the uninterrupted rhythm of his hammer could be heard, heavy blows to the object that was being moulded and lighter blows to the anvil. The ringing, pinging and vibrations were all in proper time to maintain the momentum of every blow. He was truly a master artisan who had fine-tuned his skills at the anvil. The smith's shop was not only a place of work but a gathering place which served as a social outlet for the rural people. Here they gathered for fellowship and idle talk. The shop brimmed with chit-chat as men of all ages mingled to up date themselves on the latest news. Many a dispute has been settled at the doorway of a blacksmith shop when muscle and brawn determined a winner, not lawyers and court rooms. One such incident occurred at Kitchen's shop in Oakland as two protagonists Chas McIntyre (1875-1955) and Ellsworth Dunnett (1869-1960), both young men at the time, faced off. It was a fist fight that caused local gossip for years. Dunnett maintains he was the winner by using his well known tactical move of going in fast with a burst of hard punches to score early points, no holds barred. The local blacksmith, who played a dual role as a farrier, handled health care problems as well, particularly the hooves. Often, he provided a castration service, using a clamp which was easily heated in his shop then applied to sever the cords leading to the horses testicles. Occasionally, he was asked to dock a horse's tail. His medicine cabinet included medicines and tools for the teeth, both for animal and human. He was often called upon to extract a customer's tooth. Dentists were unavailable in rural areas early in the nineteenth century. In the absence of a veterinarian, he could apply the bleeding treatment to arrest founder of the hooves. The back breaking work smith carried a supply of basic patent medicines to better serve his customers and, if all else failed, the liberal use of a poultice was resorted to.

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2010CO001 The village smith made a study of common horse defects such as stumbling, forging, clicking, brushing and knuckling. He could make a variety of shoes to correct such problems by fashioning a rolled shoe, a bar shoe, a three quarter shoe, a knocked-up shoe, a feather-edged shoe, a rocker bar shoe or perhaps a swan-neck shoe. Depending on the particular disorder the horse had developed, the appropriate corrective shoe was fashioned at extra cost to the customer. Invariably, the smith encouraged regular customers to refrain from bringing a newly broken colt for shoeing without acclimatizing it for shop work. By raising and holding its feet with a conditioning progr~, the young horse could easily be broken for the first visit. A three year old colt not properly broken, suddenly led into the shoeing area at a strange location and then instantly exposed to unfamiliar sights and sounds was a risk to handle. The roar of bellows, the sight of fire, the ringing of the anvil, the shower of sparks, the feel of a red hot iron, the smell of smoke and the burning hoof-horn could cause a young animal to bolt. Proper conditioning for the new experience was a must. This was one of the smith's worst occupational hazards. To reach for and lift the rear leg of a young animal for the first time, only to have it rear up in fright, resulted in many an injury to limb and body. The day of hard hats and protective eye goggles had not yet arrived. Fortunately, an experienced smith could quickly recognize a "spooked" animal and govern his approach accordingly. The following men are known to have been engaged in the blacksmith trade. There were undoubtedly others; Alex Anderson (1788-1854)

Scotland - in 1850

Charles Baker

Scotland

George A. Bowman (1807-1904)

Scotland - in 1867 - he had a son, Daniel (1846-1933)

Peter Coon

Scotland his shop was on the Burford town line he became involved in Duncombe's Uprising of December 1837, making pikes for the patriots.

Elliott Epps (1864-1923)

Scotland - his son, Cecil Hubert, died in WWI - the family lived on the N/W corner of Church and Talbot Streets - a son, Lloyd, operated a garage at the corner of Church and Talbot - another son, Elmer, had a business at Clinton, Ontario.

Mr. Fitchett

Oakland - he followed Harold Kitchen at the Oakland black shop in the mid 30's, then moved to Scotland.

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James G. Hagerman (1832-1884) Scotland in 1865 he married Tryphena Malcolm (1832-1919) and they had six daughers. Tryphena was the daughter of Geo Malcolm (18061895). Her brother, Marcus, operated the woollen mill at Scotland. Robt Henderson

Oakland

Albert Hooker (1818-1899)

Scotland - in 1880

J. S. Hornsby

Scotland - in 1891

John Huffman (1856-1912)

Oakland

Samuel Hunter (1842-1917)

Scotland in 1865 Hagerman and Hunter ran a joint shop. Hunter later took up agriculture and gardening, especially the growing of nursery stock and fruit trees. Sam married Emily D. Dean (1841-1927).

Harold Kitchen (1875-1931)

Oakland - he married Emma T. Aspden (1878-1939) Harold and Emma had several children; Russell (19101986), Gordon (1912-1963), Helen (1909-1975) who married Lloyd Vivian, Carrie (1905-1980), Mildred (1900-1970). Harold died on May 18, 1931. Mr. Fitchett took over the business in 1932.

John Knox

Oakland - in 1851 - he and Nancy were the parents of several children - their youngest, Franklin, became a builder.

Thomas Lawrence

Scotland - in 1870

WIn Lyle

Oakland - in 1867

John McDonald

Oakland (settled in 1861)

Morris Okem

Scotland

John Peaker (1807-1889)

Oakland - in 1861 - his wife was Sarah Thompson (1804-1893)

Chas Plested

Oakland - the village smith in 1918 - he had at least two daughters, Mildred and Ruby.

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WIn Pringle

Scotland his shop burned in January, 1872 the local paper stated "Mr. Pringle cried the other week as fire consumed everything in his shop - he cleared the rubble and built an up-to-date establishment".

Thomas N. Reynolds

Scotland - in 1880

William G. Reynolds (1810-1872)

Scotland - in 1880 - he was also a wagon-maker

James Scholfield

Oakland - in 1867

Harry Slaght

Scotland - his Graves garage

Chas Stewart

Scotland - in 1860

Robert Sullivan

Scotland - in 1861

John Taylor

Scotland - in 1880

Jonathon Thatcher

Scotland - in 1880

Squire WIn Thompson (1801-18 )

Thomas Wheeland (1812-1898)

shop was

next

to

he opened the first shop at Oakland in 1820 after apprenticing at Alberton. Later, he bought a farm near Maple Grove, lot 8, concession III. He was imprisoned following Duncombe's Uprising in 1837. He was Reeve in 1858 and again in 1876 and served one term as Warden of Brant County. Scotland - his shop was reportedly converted to a one room school. Thomas married Marana Smith (18101885) and they had a son Charles (1846-1920) who married Marion Myers.

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Other Trades In 1870, Scotland village had three coopers, four shoemakers, ten carpenters and painters and a baker. Bakers

Gideon Walker

- in 1880 - he joined the local Congregational Church in 1860.

Bricklayer and plasterer

Geo L. Park

- Oakland - 1851 - he was then 28 years of age.

James Lindsay

- Scotland

David Ephriam Bloomfield (1856-1926)

Scotland he helped in the construction of Scotland Continuation School in 1924 married Isabella J. JOhnson (18561940) - sons David W. (1881-1963), Wm, George, Allan d. 1965 and daughters Mary, Clara (Mrs. S.H.Campbell), Ida (Mrs. Stone) and Irene (Mrs. Moore).

Carder

Lewis F. Handy

- Scotland - 1870 - he joined the Congregational Church in 1860.

Carpenters

In 1820, a carpenter would hire for lOs per day plus board. By the mid 1800's their pay ranged from 12 to 20 cents per hour. Neal Brown

Oakland 1870 - he married Sarah Ann Vanderlip (1837-1908)

Wm Buckburrough Hiram Burtch of East Oakland

- in 1861

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Cornelius F. F. Corbin (1835-1880) Samuel Fairchild (1799-1865)

255 -

- he was also a painter - Maple Grove Eliza Yareks.

1851 -

he married

John Flanigan

- Scotland - in 1870

Henry Hickson (Hixon)

Scotland he joined Congregational Church in 1860.

Frank Knox

- Oakland - he did the renovations for the Foresters after they bought the old Methodist Church in 1885 and converted the building to a hall.

Geo Malcolm Jr. (1832-1904)

Wm Martin (1829-1899)

the

- Scotland - 1861 - son of Duncan Malcolm (1798-1866) George Jr. was also a contractor - his son Hayward (1861-1950) a long time farmer and custom thresher lived at Scotland. Hayward's younger brother, Kar I (1878-19 ) was the author of the Malcolm history book. George was a member of the Congregational Church, joining in 1860. Scotland - in 1861

Wm W. McFarlane

(1836-1908)

Oakland - settled in 1863

John Powers Henry Pretty

Scotland

James Ripley (1880-1953) Oakland - proprietor of James Ripley and Sons Wm Sloan

Jas H. Smith

Oakland - in 1851 he was thirty-four years of age.

D. W. Smith

Oakland - in 1867

Robert Vanderlip

Oakland - he lived near Oakland with his wife Caroline and their children Angeline, Jordon, Smith, John and Sarah.

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John Walker (1813-1900)

Scotland he joined Congregational Church in 1881.

the

Lyman Wheeler

Scotland - son of Wm and Elizabeth Wheeler

Chas Whitney (1839-1922) (carpenter and cabinet maker) in 1861 - he married Elizabeth Malcolm (1844-1918), daughter of Augutus Malcolm (1820-1896), a leading citizen of Scotland. Charles joined the Congregational Church in 1853, his wife in 1860. Wm Whitney

Scotland - his wife Emily, born about 1823, was the daughter of Eliakim and Samantha Malcolm.

Wm Whitney

Coopers Joseph Adair Geo Clark

Scotland

Jacob Grover

Scotland 1867

Eddy Malcolm (1817-1892) Scotland - in 1861 - Eddy was the son of Hugh Malcolm (1789-1828) killed in a barn raising accident at thirty-nine years of age. Eddy joined the Congregational Church in 1860. Wm Scott (1830-1868)

of Maple Grove (his son, James, became a well known pump maker) William married Mary Jane Fairchild of Maple Grove.

Cordwainer John Macklin

- he was a participant in Duncombe's uprising at Scotland in 1837.

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Harness maker Andrew Malcolm (1829-1892)

Scotland son of Hugh Malcolm (1789-1828) farmer north of Scotland village, before being killed in a barn raising accident. He joined the Congregational Church in 1869.

Hatters Shuman Bingham

Oakland - 1851 - he was active in Municipal affairs and instrumental in the construction of SS#2 school house, north of Oakland, in 1859.

Edward C. Griffin

Oakland - in 1861

Horse Trainer B. H. Cooper

His ad appeared in the Scotland Journal, May 1885 as follows:

"B.H. Cooper Practical Horse Trainer. Colts handled by a professional system. Vicious horses become gentle and safe under his management. Proprietor of YOUNG GEORGE SCOTT, a dapple brown with white points, has superior action arising four years old and well known by all prominent horsemen. This colt will take route this season in this neighborhood - see him before servicing your mares." Masons Robert Glover

Scotland in 1870 he died February 13, 1892. The Glover family were large land holders just south of Scotland, on the Burford side of the Townline.

Rupert Leamon

Scotland - in 1851 - he was then forty-one years of age.

Mechanics A. Baker

Oakland - in 1867

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Millwrights Stephen Vivian (1827-1885)

A millstone with sickle furrows.

Oakland - Stephen, a red head, was a cousin to John Vivian (1810-1870) proprietor of Vivians Grist Mill, Oakland. Stephen married Eliza Waugh and they built a house at the four corners on the south east corner. The 1871 census shows Stephen 44 yrs, Eliza 44 yrs, Robelle 18, Edgar 14, Beatrice 12, Franklin 9, Julia 7 (she married Tom McEwan in 1885 and he later served as the postmaster) Ellen 5, Charles 8 mo. Stephen Vivian was active in church and community affairs at Oakland.

William Vivian (1836-1921) Bill Vivian was a younger brother of John (1810-1870), the grist mill operator. Bill worked at his trade in Oakland Township until 1872, then moved to Tillsonburg to take up employment at the Tilson Mills. Here he became active in municipal affairs. His marriage to Mary Yarrington (1842-1935) resulted in the birth of their son Wm Carmel (1864-1945), born at Oakland. A millwright was a busy man in the 19th century; levelling, balancing and spacing the stones; adjusting and fixing belts and pulleys; repairing sieves; maintaining water wheels and turbines; lubricating and repairing the hammermill, the scales, pulleys, the smutter, roll stands, plansifter, bran duster, whipsifter, baggers and a variety of other pieces of equipment and moving parts.

Looking inside a grist mill equipped with four roll stands similar to those used at the East Oakland mill.

Skilled tradesmen such as Stephen and Bill Vivian -were a vital part of milling operations at Oakland and East Oakland. A breakdown meant hours of costly down time for the miller and he relied on his millwrights to carry out an intensive program of preventive maintenance. With their sharp eyes and fine-tuned ears, possible trouble was avoided. Painters C.T. Corbin

Scotland - 1870

Robert Knox

Oakland - in 1870

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2010CO001 Saddler Robert Scott Sr. and Robert Scott Jr.

Shoemakers - Cobblers

Scotland - in 1870 - they joined the Congregational Church in 1869. Many early shoemakers did not maintain a shop. These craftsmen bought their leather from the local tanner, then travelled by horse and buggy from house to house with their tool kits to custom build boots and shoes on the spot.

John H. Abbott

Oakland-in business 1867 - his shop may have been just south of Baldwin's store.

WID Abbott

Oakland-in business 1867 - his wife Penelope (1797-1847) is buried in the Pioneer Cemetery along wi th a daughter, Cornelia who died at 18 yrs and a son, Milford who died at 14 yrs, in 1853.

Joseph Beemer

Scotland - in 1861

John B. Clark

Scotland - in 1861

WID Cunningham

Oakland - in 1880 - his shop was on the north side of the post office, property later bought by Herb Young.

Robert Elliott

Scotland - in 1861

Cyrus Hunt (1804-1869)

Scotland - in 1865

John Longhurst

Scotland

Hugh Malcolm (1831-1888) Scotland - he married Nancy Moore (1832-1902) . Hugh was the son of Peter Malcolm a pioneer on lot 1 concession XIII Burford Township which later formed a large part of the west side of the Village of Scotland. Hugh's brother, Augustus, was a high profile elder in the Congregational Church at Scotland. Hugh and Nancy Malcolm had six children; Eliza b. 1852, Allen b.1854, Maria (1856-1874), Cyrus b. 1858, John Hugh (1861-1924) m. Catherine Westbrook (1862-1940), and

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Clara who died in 1923 married John Gardner, a druggist in Lapeer, Michigan. Hugh Malcolm's grandfather was Finlay, the founder of Scotland. Martin Malcolm (1837-1882)

Scotland - he was the son of George Malcolm (1806-1895) - he joined the Congregational Church in 1853.

John C. Neville

Scotland - in 1861

Wm Place

Oakland - in 1867

Robert Secord

Oakland - in business 1860 - born in 1832, he married Mary Catherine Dunnett (1838 23 May 1859) daughter of the Rev. Samuel Dunnett. Their son, George, was born in 1857 at Oakland and moved to Burford where he ran a horse drawn taxi service to and from the railway station. Mary Dunnett served as teacher at the Union Sabbath School in 1854 - she died giving birth. On the left is George Secord, son of Robert. George lived at Burford.

Circa 1920 George, son of the shoemaker Robert Secord, can be seen on the left at the Burford Station with his horse drawn taxi and delivery service.

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Robert Secord remarried to Ruth Walker (1838-1861) who died at twenty-three years of age and is buried at Oakland along with an infant son, Welby. Robert is believed to be the son of David and Mary Secord, pioneers of the Township. Ralph Swayze

Oakland - in 1865

Samuel Thompson

Maple Grove - in 1861

M. Westbrook

Scotland - in 1861

Tailors In 1831, a tailor was in great demand and their shops were taxed to capacity. A good tailor could demand up to $5.00 to make a custom coat. John Bicknell Richard Cowles (1810-18 ) Edward Herbert

Oakland - in 1851 Oakland - in 1869 - he was a tailor in Oakland for over thirty years. Scotland - in 1867

Bessie Kelly (1860-1933) of East Oakland. Bessie was the daughter of Isaac Kelly (1835-1912) and Caroline Roberts (1837-1913). Bessie married late in life to a school teacher, Charles Malcolm (son of Duncan), and moved to Michigan. She is buried at Oakland. Henry Broomfield

Scotland - in 1867

Thos Phillips

Scotland - in 1867

Tanners John Cline

1837 - Cline was a rebel and took up arms at Duncombe's Uprising. He was arrested, acquitted and released after four months in prison.

Robert Gillespie (1833-1908)

Scotland - he married Marie Moore (1840-1908)

Robert Elliott

He was active in the Scotland uprising of 1837 jailed and released in June 1838.

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage

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Tinsmith Richard B. Tucker

Scotland - in 1870

Paul H. Moore (1818-1897)

Scotland son of Captain John Moore - Paul married Ellen Whitney (1821-1900). They had five children.

Watchmaker Jos Bates

Scotland - in 1861

Weavers Edwin Cook

Oakland - in 1867

Mrs. Hugh Stevenson

Scotland ( In the Scotland Journal 1885, this lady advertised her craft as follows: "any person having carpets to weave would do well to call me - I turn out carpets that are hard to beat either in design or work" •

Welldigger John Easton

Scotland he joined Congregational Church in 1864.

the

Wheelwright Nicholas Snow

Oakland - in 1861

The following is a typical Indenture drawn up in the early part of the nineteenth century to bind an apprentice cabinet-maker to his employer:

"This indenture witnesseth that James Hearne the younger doth put himself apprentice to James Hearne, the elder cabinet-maker and joiner of Ryders Court, Liecesterfields to learn his lot, and with him after manner of apprentice to serve from the day of the date hereof, unto the full term of seven years from thence next following, to be fuly complete and ended. During which term the said apprentice, his master faithfully shall serve. His keep his lawful commandseverwhere gladly do. He shall do no damage to his said.master, nor see to be done of others but to his power shall let, or forthwith give warning to his said master the same. He shall not waste the goods of his said master, nor lend them unlawfully to any. He shall not commit fornication nor contract

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matrimony within the said term. He shall not play at cards, dice tables or any other unlawful games whereby his said master may have any loss with his own goods or others during the said term without licence of his said master. He shall neither buy or sell. He shall not haunt taverns or playhouses, nor absent himself from his master's service day or night unlawfully. But in all things as a faithful apprentice, he shall behave himself towards his said master and all during his said term. And the same James Hearne hereby bindeth himself to learn and instruct his said apprentice in the art of cabinet maker and joiner which he useth by the best means that he can shall teach and instruct or cause to be taught and instructed. Finding unto the said Apprentice during the term sufficient meat, drink, clothes, washing and lodging and all other necessaries during the said term of seven years. And for the same performance of all and every, the said covenants and agreements either of the said parties bindeth himself unto the other by these present."

Provided by the descendants of Stuart Rammage