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CLEVELAND. Side-wheeler of 579 tons. Built at Huron Ohio in 1837 for the Great Lakes trade.Lost in 1854: Cover is postmarked at Cleveland,Ohio on March 16 1845.



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, HECLA. Side-wheeler of 285 tons. Built at New Albany,Indiana in 1847. Operated in the New Orleans trade until abandoned in 1857. Cover was carried from Alexandria,Louisiana on the Red River to New Orleans December 31,1850.

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B.L.HODGE. Side-wheeler of 289 tons.Built at New Albany, Indiana in 1857 for the New Orleans-Red River trade.She was lost in 1868.

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H. H. WHITE, 1816 Wallace Street,

PIIILJlDELPHlil, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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GEORGE II.WHITE,Chief Engineer,U.s.Steamer WACHOSETT,writes a long letter describing his train ride over the CALLAO,LlKA, AND OROYA RAILROAD .. one of the highest railroads in the world.Cover was probably carried by a naval ship to New York ..here it entered the

mails on AUG 12"DUE 5 CENTS"At Philadelphia a postage due stamp was added and 5 cents collected on delivery.SEE content of letter on the following pages.



, TilE WESTERN MAILS

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and has very picturesque look,on all sides rise the mountains while all around the place are cUltivated fields and pastures green, the Rimac tumbling C.AU,\O, LIMA, over its rocky bed winds through the place scattering its fertalizing influence on every hand; the sides of the mountain are terrased for some dista~. ~ nce up and small fields are laid off with fences,at '- . ~~ e~~ ........ this season of the year the lower ones arecultiva.~= ~;~ ted the others being dry and barren,as the rains • • ~.;-I;-;;,",~'~M~..-..-...-..-.-_-·.-..- ---; come on they are plant-ed,and the place furnishes continuous crops of potatoes and other vegetables 110 LI-. _ _ H.. 4«1 11'); 6 ....... nu.. .•......... ISIS for the Lima market.There is no attempt at archite.'" CMooIea In_I........... _ .." (~ •••• •••• &:.8! cture at any of these places, the houses consisting ." s.rto~. .!IOS u'"'"" So. \·...... toAII"" .. ".......... t8IO of four walls of sun dryed bricke(adobe}laid in mud 611',"" ••• .••. ••• •••.•••• I:Q.S l:',\ )I"oro'l0.............. 11M3 aspires to more style being larger WI th a more peak~1)f s..o )lttea . • " •.. .•••• If);I.SlJ ~')i PM.'etki lllll<-nlillo ...•• 10llt3 ed gable and a bell tower. We are now persueing a a \ Pw..... .,. .A.od:.!. ••••.•••• 1I:'lOO II" Rie 11kD
.Ii nd Oroya Railroad.

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TIlE WEI:iTERN MAILS

iog Chosica we come to a straighter road and dash along at the rate of nearly a mi Ie a minute. I never went faster, even wi th stea~ horse power. at 5: 55 we reach Lima just about the time the up train arrives at Chicla.The construction of this road is one of the most wonderfull pieces of Engineering in the 'World, between Lima and Chicla there are 40 hunnels and nearly as many br1dges ,whOle sides of the mountain has been cut away and the road is but a shelf on the side of a preciplce 600 feet high, all the iron and wood had to be imported I {fire wood is worth a cent per Ib,in Lima}in order to bridge many of the chasms the 'Work during construction had to be suspended from wire cables. the lines by which they were hauled across having been fired across from a morter;at one place a tunnel has been cut through the mountain for the river to run through the road taking a part of the old bed.The head spirit of this gigantic enterprise was Henry Meiggs an Amerlcan who contracted with the government for its construction and through whose energy the necessary ft;nds were raised,had he lived there is no doubt but what the road would have been completed,he died 3 years ago, the preliminary surveys were made by a Polish Engineer in the employ of the government but the laying out and construction was done by JI.mericans.As thee looks at the card I enclose and recalls the discription of the place thee will no doubt .mnder wherein conslsted the necessity for such a road, the main idea is to develope a belt of very fertile country some 300 miles wide laying beyond Oroya, there are also silver mines on the other slope of the Andies and ecentually to connect ""ith the '\-!ater of the Amazon [river] thus connecting Peru with a \loaded country. I donot know vhen I have spent a more enjoyable day, going up I sat in the Engineers seat and could see ahead and all around,coming back I stooe up nearly all the way so as to miss nothing,Y"e were tired out on our return and three of us went to bed in one room at10 oclock,we sprinkled the sheets with flea pOll'der but I very much dOUbt if lie would have been disturbed by them. The next morning we arri ved on board [ship] at 11: 30 just as breakfast is ready, havi ng had a good time from the start ana at a total cost of $2.70 each. I am up early to write this as we are under orders to go some where, but not even the Captain knows our destination. I suppose we are waiting orders from our r-1inister at Lima, stearn is up and \.j'e are all ready, we had expected to go to Chimbote on friday, but something else seems to be in the wind. I am qui te ",ell and hope to hear the same ~ooc report from you all in a day or two.with much love .. Geo.H.White" 2 P.M. We are expecting to start in about an hour,but dont knO\I where we are going and shall leave our mail on board the Lackawana.Good by."

********************

At the time of Geo. Whi te' s train ride the railroad had not been completed. Lat.er it was completed to Oroya,crossing the the \-lestern Cordillera of the Andes at 15,800 feet. It is the highest standard-guage raih:ay in the ,mrld. In 1532 Francisco Pizaro conquered the Incas and after the ernperor,Atahualpa, declined to accept Spanish domination and the Christian religion he was seized. Although a fabulous ransom in gold ane silver was paid for his freedom, he was executed by strangulation on Aug. 29,1533 Al though Atahualpa did ac~ept the CathOlic faith through baptism, after being promised that his body would not be burned, it was burned, to prevent it from becoming a shrine to the natives. Today Peru is over 90 percent Roman Catholic in spite of the ruthless treatment by the Spaniards and as stated in White'S letter the people still mourn the memory of Atahualpa!

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HARRY JOHNSON. Side-wheeler of about 800 tons. She was a sister boat to the ANDY JOHNSON. Operated in the Upper Mississippi trade for the Keokuk Packet Company. Cover was postmarked at Hanbal,Hissouri,on the Mississippi, on October 3,1868.

UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER

BURLINGTON. Side-wheeler of 359 tons. Built at Cincinnati in 1864 for the Northern Line Packet Company. Sank one mile above Wabasha after hitting a snag on September 7,1867. Both covers are postmarked at towns on the MississipPi - La Crosse Wis. and Rock Island,Illinois.

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Cover above probably originated onboard the Steamboat MILWNJKEE and entered the U.S.mails.as per postmark. at"HMnnBAL MO JUL 6"(1869).

Hannibal is 144 miles up river from St.Louis.

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In 1£57 for the Upper Aississippi trade. Operated by the Northwestern Union Packet Company until abandoned in 1874.

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Dr. FRANKLIN Na.2. A side-wheeler of 189 tons.Built at Wheeling,West Virginia in 1848 and sold to Captain D.Smith Harris for the Upper Mississippi trade.Lost August 22,1852 with the loss of 32 passengers. The cover shown above was carried by the boat from St .Louis on May 23, 1849 to Bloomington, Iowa,where it was placed in the Post Office and i.warded on May 28th to Iowa Ci ty.

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UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER PHIL SHERIDAN. Side-wheeler of 700 tons. Built at Cincinnati in 1866 for the Ohio River trade. Later, the same yellT, she was sold to the Northwestern Union Packet Company to operate In the Upper Mississippi trade. She sank at La Crosse in 1876. Cover 1$ postmarked at Minneapolis, Minnesota September 29 in the early 1870·s.

THE WESTERN MAlIS

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DUNCAN S.CARTER. Side wheeler of 428 tons, built at

St.Louis in 1858. Operated on the Missouri River until she was lost in 1859. KATE HOHARD.Sidewheeler of 504 tons,built at Jeffersonville, Indiana in 1857. Operated on the Missouri until lost in 1859.Letter placed in the Post Office a t JEFFERSON CITY MQ / APR 12. No year da te on cover. J.S.Nanson was captain and M.Millard the clerk.

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B.L.HODGE NO.2. Sidewheeler of 700 tons, built at Louisville,Ky. in 1867 for the New Orleans trade. Rebuilt as the SOUTHERN BELLE in 1876.Destroyed by

fire the same year on October 12th. CRAS.HORGAN. Sidewheeler built at Cincinnati in 1873 and burned at the levee at Cincinnati Dec.4,18S6.No tonnage give but was a very large boat.

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with the name TIMOUR,a side wheeler of 232 tons,built at saint Louis in 1849 and lost in 1854. Lloyds steamboat Directory list of steamboats destroyed in the great steamboat fire of 1849. ioeludes the steamboat TIMOUR.Milgram states it was badly damaged and rebui 1 t and probably naQed TIHOUR NO 2. So only one boat!

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ROUTE AGENTS POSTMARKS used on steamboat mail on the

Ohio River bet ....een Wheeling and Parkersburgh,West Virginia in the 1850's. See map for route.

WIIEEI.INC & PARK RIVER MAIL.



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Orleans trade. Passed to Confederate control in 1861.

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MIAMI PACKET COMPANY. Operated the five boats listed on on this cover between Saint Louis and Kansas City.Cover from St.Louis in the 1870 period.



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NEW COMPANION. No listing for this steamboat. The Bill of lading is dated at Cincinnati the 26th of June 1834. It is for a consignment of 10 barrels of whiskey - one of the staples of frontier American - for delivery at Kaskaskia,Illinois on the Mississippi.

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JNO.V. THOMPSON No data Oil this boat bl.lt i t O'lerated on the Atlantic coast. Stamp is tied by the handstamo of

the boat - STEAMER/JUL 22 1878/JNO.W.THOMPSON. NEW MARY HOUSTON Sidewheeler built at Jeffersonville. Indiana in IM77. Operated on the Ohio River and was damaged in the ice at C4 ncinnatl in January of 1893. The same year she was dismantled and convprted

a barge. Cover 1880's.

postmark~d

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NEW MARV HDUS CHARLES MILLER, Ma;;!cr.

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~ ~ :L. z The Robert E. Lee & The Katie The ROOERT E. LEE was the first of five steamboats to bear the name. She was built in 1866 at New Albany, Indiana anc! was abandoned in 1876. The LEE was a large sidewheeler of 1,467 tons. She was the boat thal ran the race with the NATCHEZ, which is immortalized in steamboat history. The KATIE was alia a large sidewheeler built in 1871 at Jeffersonville, Indiana and dismantled in 1878. The above is an unusual combinatk.n oCthe letterhead oCthe LEE and the envelope of the KATIE. It was writlen byCaplain Wm. Campbell. the commander listed on both the cover and the letter. Cover is postmarked at Vicksburg, February 28. 1873. See also the menu of the KATIE in this exhibit.

TIlE WESTERN MAILS

EARLY STEAMBOAT MAIL Rivers have always been important art-

eries {or transportation in the development of a country. The steamboat was a potent factor in the conquest of the Mississippi. valley. The "Virginia" was the first stea.:mer to stem the Upper Mississippi. reaching Fort Snelling on May 10, 1823. This voyage estab1ished the practicability of navigating this river above the rapids near Keokuk. After this the government did not hesitate to utilize this quicker and !nore reliab 1 e way of moving troops and supplies. Huge quantities of lead and furs

were

shipped,

down to St. Louis. and great waves of immigrants moved steadily northward. This letter was posted June 27, 1828 on the "Steamboat Missouri" bound for Prairie du Chien, among the earliest steamermail on the Upper Mississippi. The writer refers to llready communications" between St. Louis and "the prairie" and of his proposed visit at the II m ines li in the Summer. Note cancellation by the Rock Island P. M. "Missent II and final corrections of the postage rates by the Prairie du Chien P.M .



RED RIVER OF THE SOUTH

D.R.CARROLL. Side-wheeler of 300 tons. Built at Louisville in 1858 for the New Orleans-Red River trade. She passed to Confederate control in 1861 •



COMPROMISE. Side-wheeler of 270 tons. Built at Monongahela,Pennsylvania in 1851. Operated 1n the New Orleans-Red River trade until she was abandoned in 1860.

TIlE WESTERN MAILS

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DANUBE Sidewheel steamboat of 156 tons. Built at Brownsville,Pennsylvania in 1847.Shp operated on the Upper MisSiS!l'PO' River IIntil c:hp. was lost in

1852.

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. NEW BOSTON A stern-whpetpr of 234 tons. built at Port Byron,Illino{s in 1864.for thp Northprn Linp Packet Comoany.The boat was abandoned in IB73.Thp cover probably originated on the NEW BOSTON and placed tn thp mails as per poatmark at BJRLINGTOU. Iowa - No year datp but 1860'~.Not clover Ips! ca~· c@l tying the 3¢ 1861 stamp.

OHIO RIVER

CINCINNATI AND LOUISVILLE

MAIL I-tNE, D, VVFlrTTElST. l'J,l!:.ABTEE_

Steamer United States.

UNITED STATES. Side-wheeler built at Cincinnati for the U.S.Mail Line Company in 1865. She was rammed in a collision with the Steamboat AMERICA on the night of December 4,1868,with the loss of both boats and 74 lives. A second UNITED STATES was built on the salvaged hull of the first.

MISSISSIPPI RIVER

--

-

NATCHEZ. Side-wheeler of 700 tons. Built at Cincinnati in 1854 for Captain Thomas P. Leathers. This was the 4th boat to bear the name of several that were owned and operated by Leathers. It was the 6th boat of the series that lost the race with the ROB'T E. LEE. The NATCHEZ was awarded the U.S.Mail contract for Route 7309. This contract called for three deliveries a week from New Orleans to Vicksburg at $40,000 annually. She was lost in 1863 •



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MISSISSIPPI RIVER VICKSBURG. Side-wheeler of 635 tons. Built at New Albany, Indiana in 1857 for the New Orleans-Memphis trade. Lost in 1863. Original copy of The Evening True Delta, of New Orleans, under date of February 6, 1862. New Orleans was still in Confederate hands and did not fall to the Federals until April 24,1862. This copy was for the use of the passengers and bears the handstamp of the boat. Besides war reports the paper contains Steamboat & River News.

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