TABLE OF CONTENTS - Riigikantselei

TABLE OF CONTENTS - Riigikantselei

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION...

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................... 2 1. THE OBJECTIVE OF SECURITY POLICY AND THE PRINCIPLES FOR ITS REALISATION........................................................................................................................................... 2 2. SECURITY ENVIRONMENT .............................................................................................................. 3 3. GOALS AND GUIDELINES ................................................................................................................ 6 3.1 Diplomacy .......................................................................................................................................... 8 3.2 Military Defence .............................................................................................................................. 11 3.3 Protection of Constitutional Order and Law Enforcement ........................................................ 12 3.4 Conflict prevention and crisis management ................................................................................. 14 3.5 Economic Security and the Supporting Infrastructure ............................................................... 15 3.6. Cyber Security................................................................................................................................ 16 3.7 Protection of People ........................................................................................................................ 17 3.8 Resilience and Cohesion of Society ................................................................................................ 19 3.9 The Distant Future .......................................................................................................................... 20

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INTRODUCTION National Security Concept 2017 (hereinafter “the Concept) defines the objective, principles and course of action of Estonian security policy. This document has been prepared by the Government of the Republic and approved by the Parliament (Riigikogu). As a framework document it provides guidance for drafting national development and action plans. This document replaces the National Security Concept approved by the Riigikogu in 2010. The Concept is amended or reviewed pursuant to changes in the security environment and developments of the Estonian national security system, but each composition of the Riigikogu shall update the Concept at least every four years. At least twice during the four-year cycle the Prime Minister shall inform the Riigikogu about achieving the goals set in the concept. Estonia addresses its security as a part of a wider international security. Trends connected to globalisation and the impact of international crises and conflicts affect Estonia with increasing immediacy. In maintaining its security, Estonia seeks and supports ways and means that have a positive impact on Estonia as well as on other states. Estonia’s approach is based on the conviction that security is generated to protect human rights, fundamental freedoms and basic human values. These values determine our way of life and Estonia represents them in general. When we honour democratic principles, our society can last and develop in a constant and sustainable manner.1 In this way, a viable civil society and the people’s will to defend Estonia will grow stronger and Estonia’s position and reputation in the world will improve. 1. THE OBJECTIVE OF SECURITY POLICY AND THE PRINCIPLES FOR ITS REALISATION The objective of Estonian security policy is to secure the Nation’s independence and sovereignty, the survival of the people and the state, territorial integrity, constitutional order and the safety of the population. In pursuing of its security policy, Estonia respects fundamental rights and freedoms and protects constitutional values. Estonia’s security policy proceeds from principles listed in the Charter of the United Nations (UN), including the right and freedom of every country to choose its own security solutions. Estonia’s security policy is not directed against any other state. Estonia maintains its security through actively coordinated measures in foreign and domestic policy.

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Sustainable development—developing the social, economic and natural environment holistically and harmoniously, which will guarantee a sustainably good quality of life for people and a clean living environment, both now and in the future.

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Estonia’s security policy is based on a broad security concept,2 which includes all trends and fields relevant to maintaining security. Estonia implements the broad security concept following the principles of society as a whole and government as whole. To maintain national sovereignty and its continuity, the goal of Estonian security policy is to prevent and pre-empt threats, as well as counter them quickly and flexibly, should the need arise. Estonia will defend itself in any case, no matter how overwhelming the opponent might be. If the state temporarily loses control over a part of its territory, Estonian citizens will engage in organised resistance in that area. Estonia controls and defends its territory, territorial sea, peripheral bodies of water, air space and cyber space and is responsible for their safety. Estonian security is guaranteed by the membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union, as well as close cooperation with allies and other international partners. Estonia regards its own security and that of its allies as indivisible: the factors that influence the security of allies also affect Estonia and vice versa. Estonia contributes to NATO and the EU, in order to strengthen the solidarity of member states, counter the security threats in different regions, and improve the defence capability of member states. NATO’s collective defence provides credible deterrence and defence for Estonia. Being a part of the European Union’s common political, legal and economic space, which is based on member states’ trust, cooperation and shared values, strengthens Estonia’s security. Estonia follows comprehensive national defence concept,3 which involves both military and nonmilitary capabilities, activities and resources from the public and private sectors and civil society. To facilitate consistent and effective functioning of national defence Estonia develops six pillars: military defence, the civilian support for military defence, international action, domestic and internal security, maintenance of the continuous operation of the state and society, and psychological defence. Estonia’s defence is based on initial individual defence system and NATO’s collective defence. Estonian security is strengthened by a cohesive civil society, in which its citizens’ awareness and activity plays an important role in promoting security and safety. Estonia’s security is strongest in a tolerant, caring and participatory society. 2. SECURITY ENVIRONMENT The international security environment is tense. Threats and risks that emerged in connection with globalisation still exist and their influence has somewhat sharpened. The number of conflicts has not decreased; there are several conflict zones in Europe and its vicinity; a number 2

Broad security concept—Security is understood as the ability of a state and its people to defend its intrinsic values and objectives from various external political, military, economic and social threats and risks and their combined impact, as well as the capability to neutralise those threats and risks. In order to achieve this, national and non-state bodies and resources that have participated in shaping and maintaining a stable and peaceful environment are employed in a coordinated manner. 3

Comprehensive national defence concept (riigikaitse lai käsitus in Estonian)—This term is used instead of the earlier Estonian term laiapindne riigikaitse as proposed by the Committee on Security and Defence Policy Terminology created upon the initiative of the Estonian Ministry of Defence. Comprehensive national defence is a part of the broad security concept.

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of disputes that had earlier been frozen have still not been resolved. Europe’s security is influenced by migration flows—a problem that has been exacerbated by the slow and inefficient resolution of international conflicts. Ideological and religious extremism have taken greater hold globally and are increasingly attacking the democratic world and its foundations. Humanitarian crises are more common in today’s world than before and it is increasingly difficult for the international community to counter them. The state of the global economy is still uncertain; the impact of climate change and inequality impinges on everyday life and development. The global influence of the Western value space – based on democracy, the market economy, the rule of law and human rights – is decreasing, and ideological opposition to it is increasing all over the world. The United States is still the leading political, military and economic power but, in addition to developed industrial states, other nations have been developing their political, economic and military capabilities and are gaining more prominent role in resolving global issues. Several world regions contain states that would like to develop and function according to beliefs that diverge from universal principles. Immediate threats to Estonia’s security primarily depend on the security situation in the EuroAtlantic region and the relations between its neighbouring countries. European security is affected by Russia’s increased military activity and aggressive behaviour. Russia is interested in restoring its position as a great power and for that purpose will not refrain from coming into a sharp opposition with the West and the Euro-Atlantic collective security system. In addition to political, diplomatic, informational and economic means, Russia has used military power to achieve its objectives. Russia has strengthened its armed forces and increased its military presence on the borders of NATO member states, including in the Baltic Sea region and on Estonia’s border. Russia’s unpredictable, aggressive and provocative activity, e.g. airspace violations, offensive military exercises, and nuclear threats, is generating instability. Sanctions and other countermeasures applied to Russia have had a restraining effect, but the restoration of trust and cooperation depends on alleviating tensions and resolving the conflicts in which Russia is involved. NATO is the foundation of security and defence cooperation in the Euro-Atlantic region and the cornerstone of collective defence. Actions intended to weaken NATO and the solidarity of allies, jeopardise Estonia and transatlantic security. The possibility of a military attack on Estonia cannot be ruled out if NATO’s collective deterrence is not credible. Military coercion and the probability of military deployment against Estonia or another state in the Baltic Sea region have increased. At the same time, NATO’s military predominance is sufficient to repel adversaries an attack now and in the near future. The visibility of NATO and the international security and defence cooperation, as well as the level of activity, has increased in the region; Baltic and Nordic states are engaging in more active cooperation. The European Union and its fundamental freedoms have come under pressure and their cohesion has decreased. Global recession, the economic difficulties of some member states and subsequent political instability, increasing pressures on European borders from migration, the grown threat from terrorism, and one member state’s decision to leave the Union are all testing its foundations and eroding its political impact and resilience,4 and may weaken the ties that bind the EU together. Signs of political radicalisation and the polarisation of politics are clearly evident in 4

A society’s resilience is its ability to recover quickly from the impact of negative phenomena, and restore its strength, flexibility and success.

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some democracies thus reinforcing other negative phenomena that create instability. In these conditions, the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and its coherence become more important than ever. The weakening of the ties that keep the European Union together may bring Russia to understanding that its aggressive policies are working and encourage it to proceed with its power politics. Threats have become more complex and their sources more varied in recent decades. Asymmetric threats that know no state borders and whose sources are difficult to detect have emerged and their impact on security is comparable to traditional security threats. Today it is increasingly clear that security is influenced by economic instability; developments in the cyberspace; technology-related threats; radicalisation and terrorism; organised crime and corruption; migration flows; and variety of other emergencies. The instability of the global economy makes the international security environment more complicated and reduces the ability of states and international organisations to react. The Estonian economy is closely connected to the worlds’. Estonia is therefore significantly influenced by global trends, including economic crises and the instability of important international markets. As a small country, Estonia is more vulnerable to changes in the global economic environment than large ones, since such changes have a faster and deeper impact on a small state, which is less able to manage risks and deal with their consequences. Changes in the global energy market, as well as in the established structure of energy supply between the European Union and Russia, may affect the Estonian economy. The cyberspace has transformed human interaction and has become a part of global human development, but also a political and military battleground; public services depend on it. Information and communication technology and media can be used even more effectively to influence people and their level of information how people are informed. The influence of the reality distorting information has created tension in international relations, caused the radicalisation of certain groups and harmed the cohesion of society. Manipulating with and spreading of false information is widely used, also on a state level, to escalate conflicts. The number of violations in the cyberspace is increasing, and the perpetrators include terrorist groups and organised crime syndicates. Attacks are also launched by individuals and groups whose activity is too often supported and directed by states. Estonia’s digital services are integrated in large extent to the society. Without them it would be impossible to function as a modern state, and this increases the impact that potential attacks have on Nations security. Due to the connectivity between communications and information systems, an interruption in one vital service may influence the availability of many others, thereby endangering the functioning of the state as a whole. Cyber security and digital services are fields where Estonia’s expertise is trusted on a global level, and Estonia is able to influence their development internationally. Not only Estonian residents but also the constantly growing community of international entrepreneurs related to Estonia depend on the quality and safety of Estonian digital services. E-residency has created responsibilities and obligations for the state also in relation to people who are not Estonian citizens and who do not physically live in the Republic of Estonia. Being responsible for guarding the European Union’s border, Estonia plays an important role in maintaining the reliability of the Schengen area. Ineffective or non-existent control of the internal borders of the Schengen area may be exploited to extend the reach of international 5

crime, and create and strengthen connections between terrorist groups, illegal migration or smuggling. In these conditions and taking into account that Estonia is a democratic and open society the country may be also affected by the spread of extremist, malevolent or hate-based ideologies. This weakens the cohesion of society, reduces tolerance and creates social tensions. Organised crime and corruption harm the country’s reputation; weaken political, social and economic stability; undermine trust in the state and democratic values; may facilitate the emergence of an unfavourable social and economic environment; and be detrimental to the population’s sense of security. Manifestations of terrorism are often connected to international crime and the radicalisation of society. A major terrorist attack in a country of the Western value system have an impact on Estonian security. Security may also be jeopardised due to a crisis caused by natural disaster, environmental pollution, or the spread of infectious disease or epizootic in Estonia or its vicinity. Considering the country’s geographical position, this may, in turn, have an impact on food security, which could significantly influence various links in the food chain and the availability of certain food commodities. The spread of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances endangers people’s health and their living environment. We cannot rule out the spread of a global outbreak, epidemic or epizootic elsewhere to Estonia. Uneven regional development, social inequality, poverty, poorly adapted segments of society or manifestations of intolerance may also affect the stability of the state. The polarisation of society due to adversarial opinions and understandings increases uncertainty and decreases society’s resilience. In addition, the ageing and reducing size of population, which may also have ramifications for the country’s security, affects the functioning of Estonia’s society and state. Estonia’s future and security are clearly also connected to global trends. People have started to understand better the challenges to the global sustainability, and their multiple facets and interconnections. Poverty, and the inequality and limited access to education it causes, rapid growth of the global population, and demand for vital resources necessary for life—fresh water, arable land, food, energy—and climate change, as well as other changes in the environment brought about by human activity, may exacerbate tensions and lead to conflict. All of this generates global instability. People are more knowledgeable because they are better informed and use new forms of communication, which in turn means that they expect more from leadership and institutions but are also more prepared to contribute to the development of society. The inability to harness this grassroots initiative may make people feel rejected on a massive scale, which creates tensions in societies and increases the threat of conflict. Urbanisation is spreading and the growth of the economic, social and political influence of cities may cause changes in the traditional world order founded on the sovereignty of states. 3. GOALS AND GUIDELINES Countering security threats and risks calls for preventive measures and if they do not prove sufficient, state should be ready to take active steps. The cumulative impact of diplomatic, informational, military, economic and social measures must create sufficient deterrence to prevent attacks against the state and its citizens and maintain stability. The broad security concept foresees increased and deepened integration of and cooperation between the state institutions, but also at an international level, and the involvement of all sectors of society. In maintaining security civil-military cooperation and the combined efficiency of its 6

two components is critical. Networks of civilian volunteers and the private- public partnerships also play an important role. As maintaining security anticipates effective cooperation of the state institutions and other stakeholders, joint planning is crucial for the better use of the state’s and society’s resources and the improvement of resilience. For this, clear management and planning, quick and concise decision-making, prompt division of labour and readiness to use their capabilities whatever their ownership is needed. To achieve the main objective, it is necessary to:  maintain world order based on international law and the UN Charter safeguard the global influence and strength of the democracy, rule of law and human rights, and fasten the identity based on these values  deepen the solidarity of NATO and EU member states, also in issues concerning security  increase the capabilities and effectiveness of diplomacy and the foreign service in reinforcing a world order founded on shared values and common rules  strengthen the collective defence, enhance its efficiency and deterrence value, focusing on the defence of the Alliance’s territory and consolidate the presence of combat-ready allied forces in Estonia and its vicinity  develop independent defence capability based on actual and rapidly usable military capabilities  implement the comprehensive national defence concept, focusing inter alia on development and funding critical capabilities, increase the efficiency of the cooperation between defence and security institutions, and employ to a greater extent the country’s research potential  empower a cooperative security system for the peaceful resolution of regional security issues  improve strategic communication to strengthen the cohesion of society and reinforce the positive international image of the country, as well as consolidate psychological defence to neutralise hostile information attacks  participate actively in international conflict prevention and crisis management, peacebuilding and global or regional humanitarian aid  strengthen control of the country’s borders (also the external border of the European Union), thereby reducing transnational threats and risks  improve society’s resilience by reducing the vulnerability of vital services and potential interruptions in the supply of food and potable water as well as enhancing emergency preparedness, civil emergency management, and protecting society from cyber threats by introducing effective cyber defence system  guarantee that constitutional institutions and state governance are reliable and resilient, and that public services, state functions and key leadership are able to operate without interruption  improve the reaction of internal security authorities to prevent security threats with grave consequences

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 resolve security issues using a community-based approach5 by involving civil society networks and volunteers, which improves the resilience of society and strengthens the deterrence  systematise present and future ICT solutions intended for defence and internal security, information collection and management, and situational awareness, as well as develop their connectivity  promote a cohesive, caring and tolerant society in which people feel safe and play a role in day-to-day societal life  increase peoples´ perception of security and enhance their ability to evaluate various threats and factors that influence security, as well as their ability and readiness to counter such threats  contain manifestations of radicalisation, reduce corruption, create a counterbalance to the ever-increasing threat from terrorism and international crime connected to it, as well as reduce to a minimum the negative impacts of international migration  take steps to enhance the competitiveness of the Estonian state and enterprises, and make the economic environment more attractive  analyse the long-term influence of an ageing society, a decreasing population and new technological applications on the security and prepare measures for the neutralisation of potential negative impacts. 3.1 Diplomacy The objective of Estonian diplomacy in maintaining security is a safe security environment based on international law and reinforced by broad international cooperation. Diplomacy primarily focuses on preventing and pre-empting security threats for which the state will provide all necessary means. In resolving security issues, Estonia prefers international and broad multilateral cooperation, on both a global and a regional level, but also cooperation based on mutually supportive inter-state relationships. The cornerstones of Estonian security are its belonging to the Western value-based community, and membership and active engagement in NATO and the European Union. Close bilateral relations with the United States are an important part of this. Estonia supports maintenance of wider security on the basis of law and norms, values, preventive diplomacy, international crisis management and peacebuilding, and confidence and security building measures. Development aid and the protection of human rights help to create an environment in which conflicts are less likely and which is more secure. Security should preferably maintained by rules-based and internationally established means. International organisations enable to use wide variety security enhancing instruments and ensure the legitimacy of action. It is important for Estonia that the global and regional international security organisations are effective. In order to develop international law and apply it effectively, Estonia contributes to numerous international organisations, primarily the UN, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and the Council of Europe. 5

The community-based approach is a concept envisaging the cooperation of the people, non-governmental organisations, local governments and private sector in order to determine the problems, plan for joint preventive action and minimize the impact of threats . Regional characteristics and needs are considered in the communitybased approach.

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On all international levels, Estonia strives to ensure that in maintaining security human rights and fundamental freedoms are more decisively protected. Estonia proceeds from the position that human rights apply also on-line and the Internet is free and available to all without restrictions. Estonia also fully supports the activity of international courts and the prosecution of persons who have committed crimes against humanity. International restrictive measures are used more frequently as a foreign-policy instrument. In order to achieve political objectives, these restrictions must be combined with diplomatic efforts and other appropriate means. The UN is in the centre of international security and stability and enforcement of international law. The OSCE, a regional collective security organisation, is Europe’s representative body for broad political and security-related dialogue and confidence-building measures. It is in Estonia’s interests that both the UN and the OSCE could perform their tasks more effectively. In order to raise its influence and gain more information,, it would be advisable that in any given time a country with similar security perception as Estonia, would serve as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Arms control plays an important role in increasing international security and building mutual trust. Estonia supports international agreements on arms control that increases the security for Estonian and internationally. Estonia expects other states to follow the same principle. It is important that restrictions related to arms control should not hinder collective defence or Estonia’s independent defence capability. Estonia’s purpose is to prevent the smuggling or unlawful transit through its territory of weapons of mass destruction and the components required for their manufacture. Estonia continues its active participation in control regimes of strategic goods to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and conventional arms. A united NATO and European Union are in Estonia’s interests. For that purpose, these organisations should be internally integrated and the member states’ solidarity and readiness to act should help to cope with security issues. Estonia aspires that NATO, the European Union and their member states express joint positions and act in unison on the foreign policy arena and in international organisations. To achieve it Estonia should fend together with other member states alongside its national interests also for common interests. NATO’s core task is to defend the territory of its member states, i.e. collective defence. Collective defence must be visible, capable and credible in order that an attack on a member state can be prevented, pre-empted and, if necessary, countered. Credibility and political impact of NATO’s deterrence is largely determined by the Alliance’s unity and performance, as well as its capabilities and resources available. It is important for Estonia that NATO functions for her members as the primary representative body of transatlantic security policy. The United States’ political attention to and military presence in Europe, including the Baltic Sea region and Estonia, is crucial, as is the political and military integration of all allies. As a member of NATO, Estonia must be ready to act outside its territory if this is required to prevent and manage crises that endanger the security of the Alliance and its member states. The European Union is stronger and more united as long as its member states are unanimous and the Union’s policy in terms of providing the four freedoms—the free movement of goods, services, people and capital—is as cohesive as possible. More cohesive Foreign and Security Policy of EU ensures greater protection against security threats. A more integrated European Union is also more effective and powerful in international relations. The interaction of the CFSP 9

and other fields of EU’s courses of action are an important factor in maintaining Estonia’s security. Estonia contributes to increasing the EU’s international influence by taking part of the development and implementation of the CFSP and CSDP and stands for the greater cohesion of the European Union’s external action. Developing EU defence cooperation and creating new more effective capabilities for member states will increase the Union’s influence and strengthen security. Political dialogue, close cooperation and bilateral coordination of EU and NATO activities is crucial for the effective protection of European and transatlantic interests. Estonia will continue to promote the cooperation between the European Union and NATO, including in the fields of strategic communication and situational awareness. As Russia has become more aggressive in the past decade, Estonia works for greater unanimity and consistency in EU’s and NATO’s Russian policy. Estonia supports the continued enforcement of the restrictive measures imposed until their reasons have been eliminated. As a neighbouring state, Estonia will cooperate with Russia on a practical level as much as necessary and will keep the options for dialogue open. The development of democracy and the rule of law in Russia would serve Estonia’s interests. Estonia supports enlargement of both the European Union and NATO. The enlargement will reinforce the Western values and virtues in Europe and around the World. Membership should primarily depend on a candidate state’s readiness to bear responsibility and fulfilment of membership criterias. Drawing on its own experience, Estonia will support the integration of states that would like to join NATO and the European Union, and help them to carry out required reforms and develop civil society. Estonia values the EU’s and NATO’s partnerships with third countries. Estonia promotes the European Union’s neighbourhood policy and wants this to develop into an effective instrument in bringing the target states of the neighbourhood policy closer to the Union and increasing stability in those countries. As a member of NATO, Estonia approaches flexibly to all organisations’ partnerships. In addition to being active in international organisations, Estonia develops bilateral relations that help to secure its international status, find common interests and conduct joint activities, thereby increasing Estonia’s security. Broad cooperation with all allies and partnerships with similarly minded democratic states are an intrinsic part of Estonian security. A good relationship between Estonia and the United States reinforces Estonian security and transatlantic cooperation. US involvement in maintaining of European security is the central factor in the security of Estonia and the whole of Europe. For Estonia, the strong transatlantic link is manifested in the US presence, including its military presence in Europe, cooperation within NATO, and relations between the EU and the United States, which are also the prerequisite for resolving global political, economic and environmental issues. It is important to deepen EU-US cooperation in international organisations, tighten economic and trade relations, and facilitate cooperation in internal and legal matters and in the field of energy security and research. Estonia wishes to promote extensive bilateral relations in all significant fields with the United States and deepen the dialogue between the two countries. Estonia wants to maintain a good relationship with all its neighbouring states. Its objective is to maintain and develop security in the Baltic Sea region. Closer cooperation between the Nordic and Baltic states is in Estonia’s interests. In this way, the country can promote political dialogue and security cooperation, including in the fields of defence, energy, environmental protection 10

and transport infrastructure. In order to employ better the potential of the Baltic Sea region, Estonia participates actively in realising the regional strategies, as it is important to focus on activities that unite the region as a whole. 3.2 Military Defence The objective of Estonian defence is to prevent and pre-empt military threats, or counter them if necessary. For this purpose, Estonia develops defence posture and deterrence, which must be credible and is based on independently generated off-the-self military capabilities and collective defence. Estonia defends its mainland territory, territorial sea, peripheral bodies of water, air space and cyberspace in all circumstances, however overwhelming the opponent, using the capabilities of both conventional and asymmetric warfare. In the event of a military attack, the entire nation will be involved in immediate defence and counterattack. In the event of an attack, Estonia will defend its entire territory from the state border onwards and will continue military resistance even in areas over which it may have temporarily lost control. Estonia’s military, economic and other potential as a whole will be used to defend the country. The participation of entire society in defence and counterattack in maximum extent is ensured by the population’s high-rate willingness to defend their country, widespread military training, and the large membership of the Defence League. The organisation of Estonia’s military defence is subject to the democratic and civilian control. The defence system is constantly being developed and the whole of society is involved. Military expenditure is at least 2% of Estonian GDP, in line with the NATO-approved criterion; in addition to these figures resources are allocated to the Host Nation Support and National Defence Investment Programme. Estonia’s individual defence capability must be based on real and existing military capabilities and a functioning command structure. Decisions which military capabilities Estonia should develop are made by a long-term planning process taking into account the country’s military needs and resources available. The aim is to develop the complete military capabilities, id est, fully manned, trained, equipped, armed and supplied units and capability packages. Estonia to prevent military threats and apply timely collective defence must have a functioning intelligence service and early-warning system. Military capabilities that Estonia cannot develop independently will be provided in cooperation with NATO. Defence Forces units will be armed and equipped with understanding that they must interoperable with NATO allies and deployable as well as able to act as a “security blanket” across the entire country. Military defence is built in line with the principle of territorial defence. For this reason, Estonia will develop both mobile units and territorial defence units, which are able to provide resistance that hinders the opponent in the event of a crisis. Units of the Defence Forces are comprised of active duty personnel, members of the Defence League, and reservists. Compulsory conscription is maintained as the main way of manning reserve units and as a pool for recruiting active duty personnel. Training is organised with the involvement of wider society, constantly expanding the circle of individuals who have passed the military training. In order to raise the effectiveness of military training the state will develop training areas that correspond to modern requirements on land and sea and in the air and the cyberspace. The voluntary Defence League participates in preparing the country’s military 11

defence capability, reinforcing the safety of Estonian people and deepening their patriotic education. Units of the Defence Forces are ready to commence military defence on the mainland, at sea and in the air and the cyberspace, even when an attack is unexpected. To guarantee a timely response, the state has an efficient early-warning system, a flexible legal base and the modern mobilisation and apprisal systems. In order to make the mobilisation system more efficient, reservist training and additional short-notice reservist training assemblies will be held regularly and contemporary apprisal system used. Capabilities that can be used to notify Estonian residents and the wider world about what is happening in the event of attack will be developed. Cyber warfare is an integral part of military defence and cyber security. The private sector and volunteers will be involved in these activities. Estonia’s defence is foreseen as a collective defence operation under Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty. The prerequisites of credible deterrence and defence are the unity and solidarity of allies, which are constantly demonstrated. To develop unity NATO must deal with security threats of all the Allies and guarantee a uniform level of security across its territory. NATO must be capable of immediate collective counteraction everywhere on the Alliance’s territory—on land and sea, in the air and the cyberspace - to make deterrence credible. NATO’s ultimate security guarantee is its nuclear deterrent. This must be credible and available in the Alliance’s European territory. In order to maintain credible deterrence and defence of the Baltic region, combat-ready units must be stationed in the Alliance’s territory, including Estonia, and organisation must be capable to deploy more forces to the area if necessary. The allied military presence must be permanent and involve several allied countries, and the forces must maintain interoperability with Estonian units. Estonia participates in collective defence and other military operations outside its territory to maintain the security of all its allies. The prerequisites of the redeployment of allied forces are the rapid-reaction units and plans for their deployment, an efficient early warning system, swift decision-making and highly capable Host Nations Support system. Estonia together with its allies will guarantee the infrastructure that meets the needs of hosting allied forces is in place and conforms to requirements, and ensures the provision of Host Nation Support and training areas. Estonia engages in bilateral and multilateral defence cooperation to strengthen NATO’s collective defence and Estonia’s individual defence capability, and to promote stability and security in Europe and its vicinity. Estonia wants to involve partner states that are not NATO members in the defence of the region through NATO, the European Union and other forms of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. 3.3 Protection of Constitutional Order and Law Enforcement The foundation for safety is a safe living environment. This is maintained by constitutional order and rule of law as well as the capability to prevent threats, rapid and effective reaction, and maximum alleviation the damage caused to society as a result of a threat being realised. Inadequate safety may amplify external threats. In order to promote the safety of the population and develop internal security, the state will ensure efficient management of state agencies and their cooperation, exchange of information, modern working conditions, sustainable development and joint action with non-governmental 12

organisations and private sector. IT solutions, effective information security measures, motivation of personelle and legislation supporting it need more attention. Safety is reinforced by a cohesive society and more extensive involvement, empowerment and support6 of various communal actors. The increasing diversity of threats and their cross-border nature has made it more difficult to maintain security. The reliability of constitutional institutions and state governance is the prerequisite of safety. To achieve this, the state must ensure the continuity of those institutions, plan and practise the uninterrupted functioning of the services provided by government agencies during the crisis, and provide required safe locations, communications and supplies. Relevant information must be collected and processed, hostile intelligence and subversive leverage must be pre-empted, and cooperation must be practised on both the state and international level to prevent and pre-empt the contingencies that endanger the constitutional order. The state takes consistently care of the development of security institutions and focuses more on defending the constitutional order, including through prevention and raising awareness in society. Efficient guarding of the external border helps to prevent illegal migration and international crime, thereby strengthening the security of Estonia and other European Union member states. Identifying dangerous individuals and hazardous substances and materials already on its border makes the Schengen area safer. The Schengen area functions efficiently only if the member states and the EU as a whole cooperate, and being a part of the area means that national institutions interact. More efficient control of the EU’s external border requires that technological surveillance be improved, new electronic control measures be taken and departmental cooperation yield better results. Estonia already contributes to cooperation and exchange of information in EU border control. Common compensatory measures reduce risks for states that belong to the Schengen area. Estonia is prepared to reintroduce temporary controls on the external border, should the need arise. The control of the Estonia’s sea-territory will be improved by civil-military cooperation on National level. In the circumstances of globalisation and free movement within the EU fighting organised crime needs more attention. Estonia is committed to prevent the impact of international organised crime, gaining illegal profit and any attempts to legalise it. It has become more probable that the global proliferation of violent extremism and hostile ideologies will gain ground in Estonia. To counter radicalisation, we need to strengthen the cohesion of society— integration, adaptability and inclusion of society, strategic communication and the psychological protection of the population play an important role in this. The threat of terrorism increases together with radicalisation; it is multifaceted and involves very diverse security sectors, from hatemongering and reactivated firearms to the security of national defence assets and key individuals. The terrorist groups, foreign fighters who have participated in armed conflicts and self-radicalised persons and their eventual action constitutes a security threat. Estonia contributes to the fight against terrorism on the national, regional and global level. 6

Communal actors are local residents, non-governmental organisations, businesses and the local government and state institutions that service or influence them.

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The objective is to prevent and pre-empt terrorism in all its forms, achieving it without violating people’s fundamental rights and ensuring the proportionality and flexibility of the applied measures. Estonia has the objective to develop a support system for victims of terrorism and contribute to programmes that help people who have de-radicalised to return to society. In fighting corruption, Estonia prevents and pre-empts the proliferation of organised crime, the black economy and money laundering, herewith avoiding harming the country’s reputation. Corruption is prevented in both the public and private sectors, focusing on increasing awareness and the capability of law-enforcement authorities to detect and investigate offences. Estonia will improve ways of informing people of potential threats and in time of emergency will inform public by communication means how to act. As part of emergency preparedness, more training exercises involving all related parties will be organised, the prevention of emergencies and dealing with their consequences will be reviewed, and using the Estonian Defence Forces capabilities in emergency relief will be improved. Estonia supports voluntary activity undertaken to prevent threats and cope with emergencies. Like many other states, Estonia must improve concurrently with preventive measures its reaction capability and rate. In neutralising threats the swift and efficient cooperation of all agencies, clear and concise guidelines, communication, and cooperation with international partners are more important than ever. In addition to developing IT systems, the country must also focus on modernising existing systems. 3.4 Conflict prevention and crisis management Estonia emphasises the importance of the international conflict prevention. Countering the crises where they emerge reduces its impact to Estonia, its allies and the world as a whole. Contributing to dialogue and communication with its partners Estonia emphasises the importance of preventive diplomacy and supports the international actors in preventing conflicts. Participating in international peace operations and civil missions is an opportunity, but also an obligation to help maintain security and stability in our vicinity and elsewhere in the world. Estonia participates in international operations, civil crisis management, humanitarian operations and peacebuilding, as well as in generation of international formed to carry out these operations with capabilities that are developed in accordance of the country’s priorities and needs. It is in Estonia’s interests that conflict prevention and crisis management measures and tools are effective, deployable, and available without National caveats and with clear division of labour. Estonia supports the EU’s comprehensive approach to conflict prevention and crisis management. Estonia is prepared to deploy internal security units to states that need support in coping with migration pressures and combating transnational crime on the EU’s external border, including in securing the proper functioning of the Schengen area. In order to maintain security and stability, prevent conflicts and manage crises, Estonia provides humanitarian aid and carries out development cooperation, the purpose of which is the political, economic and social development of the target state, and the stability that goes with it. In alleviating humanitarian crises, Estonia values cooperation between aid organisations and assisting states and the ability to provide aid quickly and independently. Estonia considers it necessary to improve the use of resources in development cooperation and endeavours to meet the funding obligation taken on as a member of the European Union. In bilateral development 14

cooperation, Estonia primarily supports states to whose development it can contribute with its knowledge and resources and who are prepared to build up their society established on democracy and human rights. Estonia helps to create a free and safe cyberspace in states where the voluntary sector does not have the necessary expertise and technical capabilities. Estonia implements outreach programmes and participates in international peacebuilding initiatives to develop the security and defence sectors of partner states. The aim of Estonia’s defence-related outreach is to help partner states to reform their security and defence sectors. These policies increase security and create stability in areas important for NATO and the European Union, promote democratic values and strengthen the bilateral relations of Estonia and its partners. 3.5 Economic Security and the Supporting Infrastructure The Estonian economy is part of the European and global economy, and is therefore influenced by developments in the international financial system, and energy and commodity economies. The reliability of the economy and economic security are i.a. improved by the development of the country’s electronic communication network and transport infrastructure. These elements have implications on wider security matters. The state of the Estonian economy is dependant on exports to stable and reliable markets, trustworthy foreign investments in the Estonian economy, and Estonian companies’ ability to realise their potential, investing in stable markets that offer growth opportunities. Estonia has a solid, simple and modern legal system for business environment. This increases competitiveness and makes the economic environment more attractive, thus raising the level of reliability of the economy. To sustain the development of strategic and important companies and provide highquality services (in the energy, transport, communications and information technology sectors) the continuous investments should be ensured. Economic security is maintained through defensive measures such as, inter alia, remedies against corruption, tax fraud, tax evasion and tax havens. The stable functioning, transparency and reliability of the financial system must be ensured so that the country and its economy can function properly. Necessary legal and control measures are taken to prevent and resolve international or national financial crises and to alleviate their economic consequences. Funding is provided so that the financial system can function properly and in a stable manner. In securing the stability of the financial system, it is important to prevent problems related to the solvency of credit and other financial institutions present in Estonia, as well as interruptions in payment and settlement systems, and to maintain the ability to eliminate swiftly problems and interruptions that do emerge, should the need arise. In order to resolve financial crises, the crisis management system that involves both national banks and the European Banking Union as a whole, including reserve funding, is needed. It is of the utmost importance in a crisis that liquid assets are available and can be used, and that reliable transnational safety networks are in place—these must be provided by the state. Energy security is ensured by securing infrastructure and supply systems, connection with other power networks of EU member states, and enforcing energy diversity. Increasing energy efficiency is a primary measure for Estonia in reducing dependence on imported energy. Security of energy supply is facilitated by the European Union’s strategy to use and develop its internal energy resources to the maximum. In the case of Estonia, this means the maximum rational use of oil shale and peat, as well as wider use of renewable energy technologies. Working power 15

transmission connections with the Baltic and Nordic countries and Poland ensure the security of supply, reducing dependence on a single supplier or limited number of suppliers. The EU measures on the storage of liquid fuel supply the stability of the liquid fuel market is ensured. Estonia aims to produce power and thermal energy from renewable energy sources. In producing thermal energy, a better balance must be found in relation to the energy sources currently used, and conditions must be created so that large heat producers can switch from natural gas to other fuels. Required security and safety measures must be applied in ensuring the continuous operation of energy systems and protecting energy infrastructure. Electronic communication and transport infrastructure and their development strengthens the economy and make it more resilient. They are also directly connected to national security and therefore the economic and social development, as well as national defence requirements are taken into account in their planning and development. Organisational, IT and physical security and safety measures are applied in protecting information systems that support the functioning of electronic communications. State should constantly have an overview of the technical working condition of means of communication, communication systems and their infrastructure, and the options for duplicating and ensuring the safe functioning of these systems in times of crisis. Estonia must develop and put to use alternative solutions for making communication services available to institutions important to the functioning of the state in situations where services provided by commercial operators are down. International cooperation is necessary for ensuring cross-border communication. In this way, the interoperability of electronic communication networks can be maintained and the use of resources coordinated. In the case of transport infrastructure, it is crucially important to reconstruct or build ports and airports as well as railways and highways that form part of the trans-European transport network. From the point of view of a Host Nations Support system, the transport network plays an important role in national defence. In ensuring the continuous operation of the transport system and defending it, security and safety requirements conforming to international standards are applied. 3.6. Cyber Security The population expects that the state functions expediently and safely. Modern information technology plays an increasingly significant role in fulfilling their expectations, and employing it comes with an ever-greater responsibility. The cyber world is present in all spheres of life, inter alia, in security, so given the Estonian digital lifestyle and society’s trust in digital services the state must guarantee information integrity.7 Estonia organises cyber security uniformly using the same structural solutions during peacetime and war. Cyber defence as part of national defence system is organised in cooperation between agencies and is regularly practised. Estonia also applies measures to ensure the digital continuity of the state in a situation where it has lost control over its territory.

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Information integrity—Data is accurate, complete, consistent and reasonable (in terms of value), and conforms with the intentions of the person who created it; in the narrow sense, no unauthorised changes have been made to the data (including that the data is identical for the sender and receiver and has been synchronised in a database).

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The Estonian cyberspace can be defended if the state and society as a whole participate in the defence, the necessary experts have been trained, and society is aware of the dangers of the virtual world and knows how to avoid them and acts correctly if problems occur. Estonian cyber security is based on close and trust-based cooperation between the public and private sectors, in which the involvement of volunteers and civil society also plays an important role. Cyber security starts from the cyber safety of each institution. It is important to raise people’s awareness about safety measures that can be used to avoid cyber risks. Improving the awareness of users and introducing the norms of safe cyber behaviour must be a constant endeavour, the results of which must be continuously evaluated. Estonia will continue to develop cyber defence. Estonia monitors its cyberspace and controls the application of information safety requirements in the information systems of the government and vital service providers. In this way, the state ensures that the situation in the cyberspace conforms to current standards and threat levels, while training service providers and providing advice to them. Estonia must prepare for a situation in which there is reason to doubt the integrity of information and where it must be able to cope with this situation’s impact on the functioning of digital services and users’ trust in them. Estonia will develop digital services and cyber security primarily by investing in them, providing a role model for the private sector. In the case of new digital services and innovative projects, the accompanying risks and options for their neutralisation will be always evaluated. In addition to creating new projects, contributions must be made to modernising information systems already in place, and updates must be carried out to improve security. In parallel, the use of encrypted networks developed for the transmission of classified information must be expanded. The Estonian cyberspace is part of the safe and stable global cyberspace. Cyber security is founded on constant and close international cooperation. Cooperating and communicating with allies and partners in the field of cyber security, contributing to the work of international organisations—primarily the European Union and NATO—and participating in global cybersecurity forums is an integral part of international relations. Analysing international law that supports cyber security and applying it in the Estonian legal system, and developing cyber standards, have an important role. 3.7 Protection of People A secure and predictable living environment makes people feel safer, creates better conditions for the development of society and individuals, and improves the reliability of the state. This reduces the vulnerability of society and individuals, the peoples’ will to defend the country is stronger and they are happier to contribute to the country’s development. Factors that influence the living environment are: the state of the natural environment and public health; the level of emergency preparedness; the consistent, uninterrupted and steady availability of vital services, food and potable water; and the ability of society and people to cope on their own for a certain period, should these services be interrupted. The living environment is more secure with effective civil protection system. The aim of Estonian civil protection system is to protect people, the environment and property in the best possible manner in the emergencies, whether caused by human or natural contingences, crises or war. Civil protection system improves society’s ability to cope with crises of this nature and scope, which can be reasonably foreseen and for which preparations can be made. This yields the best results when society is aware of potential threats and knows how to neutralise them. 17

To ensure the more effective functioning of civil protection system in times of large-scale and long-term crisis, the government will inform the population, provide instructions on how to cope independently, and create adequate operational stockpiles to deal with the emergency. Civil protection works through cooperation between the state, local governments, the private sector, civil society and individuals. If necessary, it is supported by the civil protection undertaken by international organisations and measures set out in bilateral agreements. The continuity of vital services is of the utmost importance in the context of security and safety. To achieve this, the state applies measures to prevent emergencies and keep potential consequences to a minimum in cooperation with all actors in society, monitoring the measures’ performance more closely than ever. Many vital services are provided by the private sector, so it is critical to strengthen cooperation between the public and private sectors in ensuring their continuous operation. The provision of these services not only depends on internal factors but is also influenced by global events and developments in the world economy. This have to be considered in planning. Estonia takes measures to monitor climate change, neutralise its risks and deal with the consequences on the local, regional and national level to reduce vulnerability created by it. The best results are achieved through international cooperation and the balanced development of conservancy and environmental protection, the economy and social sphere, and the intentional and considered use of a well-functioning system intended for development as well as the funds allocated for environmental protection. In addition to the national and local government level, the private sector and non-governmental sectors and research facilities will be involved in enhancing measures for adapting to the impact of climate change. Estonia applies measures to prevent the spread of hazardous substances and materielle and to neutralise sources of pollution on land and sea. Estonia develops maritime traffic management and monitoring systems for the Baltic Sea, primarily the Gulf of Finland, in cooperation with other states to prevent marine pollution. In order to discover pollution as early as possible and identify the source, the long-distance surveillance of marine pollution, including aerial surveillance, must be improved. To prevent major accidents and alleviate their consequences interagency cooperation in planning the location of and monitoring the activity of businesses where those accidents might occur must be improved. Estonia has an early warning system for radioactivity detection, to identify and warn of radiation accidents in nuclear power stations close to Estonia as early as possible. Estonia engages in international cooperation with the EU, NATO and states in the Baltic Sea region to react to major incidents promptly, promote protection against radiation, improve the safety of nuclear plants and reduce possible radiation exposure in the Baltic Sea region. Estonian rescue and crisis management units and experts could be used in UN rescue and aid missions. Health protection helps people cope with their daily lives and increases their contribution to society and the economy, thereby reinforcing the cohesion of society and also raising the country’s ability to neutralise security threats. With globalisation and open societies, the probability of the spread of epidemics and epizootics has increased and the state must be always ready for prevention and their elimination. Diseases that are still unknown and incurable may spread, lack of knowledge or low awareness may cause uncertainty and unsubstantiated fear in the population.

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In terms of public health and the well-being of society, Estonia needs to focus on preventing the spread of HIV and the excessive consumption of alcohol. General surveillance for infectious disease is organised on a national level. A national programme of immunisation is carried out to restrict the outbreak and spread of vaccine-preventable diseases and epidemics caused by them; similarly, state-organised, funded and planned activities are undertaken to hinder the spread of tuberculosis and HIV. The purpose of preventing drug addiction—a phenomenon that weakens society—is to reduce the supply of and demand for illicit drugs and contribute to the treatment and rehabilitation of addicts. The impact of the Estonian illicit drug prevention policy is reinforced by reliable statistics, epidemiological research, constant monitoring and communication with other countries. National emergency relief system will be improved to be ready for natural disasters, catastrophes or outbreaks of infectious disease, in the event of which many people may need medical assistance. 3.8 Resilience and Cohesion of Society The more united a society and the more common values it shares, the less it can be influenced and the less susceptible it is to security threats. The more residents trust the state, the more resilient it is. Trust increases when the state takes responsibility for the well-being of its people and prepares for coping with security threats and risks. Strategic communication is important in determining society’s values and facilitating people’s readiness to contribute to it. The cohesion of society is improved by tolerant, caring and inclusive understandings, the strong integration of different segments of society, and uniform regional development. The resilience of society develops through the joint influence of credible civil protection, people’s psychological strength, and a safe social and physical living environment. All these areas need constant attention and development; for some, global processes must be understood, while society has to adapt and adjust to them; some fields have a broader influence in the region. The national security is influenced by economic, social and environmental factors across Estonia. Life must habitable and safe everywhere in Estonia. Unfavourable demographic processes and the excessive accumulation of major socio-economic, security and safety risks in certain regions must be avoided or prevented. To guarantee uniform regional development and even population distribution, the government develop the infrastructure; support the improvement of the performance of local governments; promote civil society and voluntary action; and ensure public safety, the availability and quality of education, healthcare and other public services, as well as the comprehensive management of regional policy. Regional characteristics will be considered in providing state services. State agencies and local governments must cooperate more effectively to cope with society related security risks. Cohesive society is less vulnerable and less open to the influences from outside. The better integration of society will reinforce unity and cohesion. The purpose of integration in Estonia is to shape a culturally versatile society that has a strong identity and shares common values. The state will continue activities that facilitate the adjustment and integration of different groups in society to develop and improve the people’s willingness and opportunities to participate actively in societal life. Integration is more effective through uniform regional development, equal access to high-quality education, promotion of instruction in national language, making variety types of support service available, and adaptation of new migrants to the society. The activity and cooperation of civil society, local governments and state agencies helps to shape a favourable environment for adjustment and integration. Excessively divergent views and unbalanced 19

criticism of diversity damages the cohesion and resilience of society. The state must focus more on the equal treatment of the most vulnerable segments in society, protecting their fundamental rights and creating a liveable environment for them. The cohesion and integration, as well as the resilience, of society can be reinforced if the population is better and more reliably informed. Strategic communication involves planning the state’s political, economic and defence-related statements and activities, preparing a comprehensive informative whole on the basis of these, and transmitting it to the population. It is based on the nation’s values expressed in a democratic, versatile and deep dialogue, which the government will follow in serving society. The main objective of strategic communication—the resilience and better cohesion of society—cannot be achieved by political declarations alone; it comes about due to the combined influence of many factors. As a result, the living environment will grow more stable and secure, and the vulnerability of society (due also to security threats) will decrease. Psychological defence is about informing society and raising awareness about informationrelated activities aimed at harming Estonia’s constitutional order, society’s values and virtues. Psychological defence is needed to neutralise attacks by terrorist organisations as well as assaults proceeding from the military doctrine of certain states with the help of efforts to influence the society under attack with cognitive methods. Appropriate measures must be drawn up for this. The purpose of psychological defence is to prevent crises in Estonia, facilitate security awareness in society and neutralise information attacks that provoke violence in the population by manipulation and the provision of false information, or that promote crisis management with resources that are not compatible with constitutional order. The best tool of psychological defence is to inform the public of attacks, manipulation and false information and guarantee access to multifaceted information for all segments of society. Psychological defence is developed in cooperation with civil society. Strategic communication and psychological defence complement one another. While the notification methods of psychological defence are mostly reactive, strategic communication must be able to reach society as well as foreign target groups, which play an important part in conflict management in the context of the greater information noise generated during a conflict. To achieve this, networks of people and the media must provide their support. 3.9 The Distant Future Although Estonian security is assured, maintaining stability requires constant attention and action. The vigilance have to be sustained into the distant future since, although the security environment is more and more unpredictable and ever-changing, there are security factors whose influence will be revealed only decades from now but whose seeds are already present. For this reason, there is in addition to current and highly likely security threats a need to monitor factors that may affect Estonian security in the more distant future. We must raise awareness about this subject and use preventive measures if possible. The three trends that could hinder or obstruct achieving the main objective of Estonian security policy are the ageing and gradual decreasing size of the Estonian population; failure to reach the goals of global sustainable development, or the low effectiveness thereof; and the impact of technological evolution on humankind and security. To cope with all these trends, we must develop research-based methods that should be realised, depending on their impact, in cooperation with Estonian society or in the context of global measures. Although the trends may 20

turn out to be problematic in the distant future, they must be acknowledged and measures needed to solve certain issues should be discussed now. The biggest issue that depends on Estonia itself and may turn out to be a security risk is its demographic condition. The Estonian population is ageing and decreasing. Global demographic trends are the opposite and, if their influence is combined with potential negative changes in the living environment, an economic recession, radicalisation and conflicts or crises, it may be that waves of migration of a magnitude never before seen will occur, and Estonia will become a potential target country for these. In 2015, the UN General Assembly adopted 17 Sustainable Development Goals in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Achieving these would reduce the root causes of conflicts and create global conditions for the survival of humankind. Relevant measures concerning environmental, economic and social development should alleviate tensions arising from poverty, inequality, environmental degradation, bad governance, population growth and low employment, and help to create conditions that allow the global population (which will potentially number more than ten billion) to coexist and develop peacefully. Should the global society fail in reaching these goals, security pressures will increase and tensions will become keener. These may grow into a large-scale conflict or global chaos. As a member of the global community and a recognised developed country, Estonia must participate in promoting sustainable development, and society has a distinct role in achieving the aforementioned goals. First and foremost, this consists in admitting that Estonian society is a part of the rest of the world and that we are responsible for what is happening there. If we consciously and deliberately participate in the process, the results will be better and more substantial. Security risks will be neutralised more effectively if we do not ignore the process or pay little attention to it. Technological evolution is speeding up and its influence on security and warfare, as well as on people’s daily life and behaviour, is evident. Modern smart technologies and their applications will be replaced by next-generation intelligent technologies able to make decisions independently in addition to analysing information. The application of artificial intelligence, genetics, bio- and nanotechnology and our increasing ability to harness solar and magnetic fusion energy create new possibilities that will change our living environment and existence to a remarkable extent. Besides the major positive impacts, the use of new technologies will also be accompanied by threats and risks; old ones will be complemented by new that require novel countermeasures and solutions. In the context of security and defence, this means that if a potential opponent’s technological solutions are very advanced, we need to work hard to ensure that the defence organised against them is smart, preventive and well thought through. Procuring strategic security technology and acquiring, developing and applying the knowledge and skills related to it are important and inescapably necessary to all independent states, and Estonia needs to pay more attention to this.

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