Teacher Resource - Western Australian Museum

Teacher Resource - Western Australian Museum

Western Australian Museum Perth 8 - 10 Early Adolescence Teacher Resource Cast of Crouching Man © William Starling, Alabama, USA 21 MAY - 5 SEPTEMB...

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Western Australian Museum Perth 8 - 10 Early Adolescence

Teacher Resource

Cast of Crouching Man © William Starling, Alabama, USA

21 MAY - 5 SEPTEMBER 2010

www.museum.wa.gov.au/pompeii

Education Partner

Western Australian Museum Perth 8 - 10 Early Adolescence

A Day in Pompeii

Self-guided Experience Overview :

Step back in time and discover what life was like in the ancient city of Pompeii before it was buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Feel the terror of the town’s citizens during the eruptions with an immersive 3D theatre presentation! Body casts, photo murals, and hundreds of archaeological artefacts bring history alive and provide your students with a look at daily life in a bustling Roman city.

Duration :

Approximately one hour (includes 3D movie and exhibition)



Your group/s are welcome to explore the remainder of the Museum’s galleries before or after viewing the A Day in Pompeii exhibition. We recommend that teachers become familiar with the Museum’s layout and collections by visiting the Museum prior to their excursion date.

What your class will experience:

View a 3D movie showing what residents of Pompeii would have experienced when Mount Vesuvius erupted. Examine more than 250 archaeological objects from ancient Pompeii. Explore a variety of themes including business, private residences, medicine, religious beliefs, and burial practices. Use the Focus on A Day in Pompeii Trail to look at daily life in a bustling Roman city.

Excursion Booking and Enquiries: A Day in Pompeii Excursion Bookings Please contact BOCS Ticketing Group Bookings Department on (08) 9321 6831 for all school bookings for the A Day in Pompeii exhibition. Please refer to A Day in Pompeii Excursion Essentials for important booking and excursion information. Museum Education Bookings and Enquiries (not to be contacted for A Day in Pompeii bookings): Phone: 9427 2792 Fax: 9427 2883 Email: [email protected] Please refer to www.museum.wa.gov.au/education or our 2010 Education Programs brochure (available on our website or in hard-copy form) for an overview of the range of facilitated programs and self-guided experiences available for school groups.

Western Australian Museum Teacher Resource: A Day in Pompeii © 2010

Mount Vesuvius, © Museum Victoria.

www.museum.wa.gov.au

Contents Teacher Resource 3

Links Curriculum Galleries

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At the Museum Self-guided Experience Related Museum Resources

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At School Classroom Activities

Student Exploration Trail

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Photocopy Focus on A Day in Pompeii trail (for every student)

Glass cremation urn © Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Napoli e Pompei.

Western Australian Museum Teacher Resource: A Day in Pompeii © 2010

www.museum.wa.gov.au

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Links Curriculum A Day in Pompeii provides a variety of opportunities for schools to integrate into classroom programs in the following learning areas:

Science Society & Environment The Arts

Galleries A Day in Pompeii 3D Theatre experience, Hackett Hall, Foyer Basement A Day in Pompeii, Temporary Exhibition Gallery, Beaufort Street Wing

Cast of Crouching Man, © William Starling, Alabama, USA.

Western Australian Museum Teacher Resource: A Day in Pompeii © 2010

www.museum.wa.gov.au

3

At the Museum Self-guided Experience

Approximately one hour (includes 3D movie and exhibition) Step back in time and discover what life was like in the ancient city of Pompeii. A spectacular, immersive 3D presentation will allow visitors to experience the dramatic eruption of Mount Vesuvius that wiped out this amazing city. More than 250 exquisite objects including marble sculptures, gold jewellery and delicate frescoes evoke the richness and culture of life during the Roman Empire. The Focus on A Day in Pompeii trail will highlight aspects of the exhibition to bring history alive and provide your students with a look at daily life in a bustling Roman city. As we expect higher than usual visitation to the Museum to view the A Day in Pompeii exhibition, it is essential that all teachers, students and adult helpers are familiar with exhibition rules and safety information before entering. Please refer to A Day in Pompeii Excursion Essentials for further information. Please split your class/es into small groups of no more than ten students as we need to manage capacity for this exhibition. Each group should be allocated an adult leader.

Photocopy Please bring with you on the day of your excursion: Focus on A Day in Pompeii trail (for every student)

Related Museum Resources Exhibition Information For information on A Day in Pompeii, please visit the exhibition website at http://www.museum.wa.gov.au/pompeii

Planning your excursion to A Day in Pompeii A Day in Pompeii Excursion Essentials Excursion Management Plan Available online www.museum.wa.gov.au/pompeii/education

Publications A Day in Pompeii Exhibition Guide Available for purchase from the Western Australian Museum – Perth

Western Australian Museum Teacher Resource: A Day in Pompeii © 2010

www.museum.wa.gov.au

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At School Classroom Activities From this list, please select some activities that are suitable for the age and ability of your students. Reel Romans: Introduce students to ancient Roman culture by watching movies set in the Roman Empire (e.g. Gladiator or Ben Hur). Have them take note of clothing, technology, cityscapes and landscapes to build a picture of what life was like. Do they think such movies are historically accurate? Have them present their findings in a written or oral report. Latin lingo: Have students research Latin root words and create a list of modern English language words derived from these and their meanings. Research and comment on the influence of ancient Roman culture and language on our lives today (eg technology, politics, place names etc). Booming business: Have students investigate what businesses operated in Pompeii. What goods or services were sold? What goods were items of trade, and where were they imported from or exported to? What can this tell us about Pompeii’s economy and the influences introduced to its society (in such areas as art, religion, fashion, etc)? Students could prepare a map of the ancient Roman Empire outlining key trading regions and routes. Bathing beauties: Get students to research hygiene, bathing and plumbing in Pompeii. What was available to its citizens? What technology was used to provide these services? What role did the public bath play in Pompeian society? What can this tell us about Roman society? Roman recreation: Have students research the role of gladiators in ancient Roman society. Who were they and what purpose did they serve? What other recreational activities did Pompeians have? What evidence of this is there? Compare these with the leisure and recreational activities available in modern times. Students could imagine they lived in Pompeii and create an illustrated brochure, flyer or similar piece of advertising for the recreational activities available to its citizens, similar to those published by local councils today (eg gym, pool, dance classes etc). Document study: Have students search online for ‘Seneca Gladiatorial Games’ to find the account of Gladiatorial games that the Roman philosopher Seneca wrote in a letter to a friend. Have students analyse his account and express what they believed his main concerns to be. Do they agree or disagree with his opinions? The writing on the wall: Have students read some examples of the graffiti found on the walls of Pompeii (please note that the content of some graffiti may be inappropriate for your students). What can we learn about the people of Pompeii from the graffiti on its walls? What purposes do these messages have? How does it compare to the graffiti commonly seen in our culture? Do they serve the same purpose?

Western Australian Museum Teacher Resource: A Day in Pompeii © 2010

www.museum.wa.gov.au

5

Slaving away: Investigate the practice of slavery in ancient Roman times. Where did slaves come from, and how were they used in Roman times? How could they be freed? Could they ever return home? Get students to imagine they were a citizen of Pompeii, and debate the case for and against slavery in their city. Medical mysteries: What happened if you were sick in Pompeii? Get students to research medicine and doctors in ancient Roman times including treatment, procedures and what medicines were available. How does it compare to modern day medicine? What’s cooking?: Research what food was available in Pompeian times. What was grown or farmed locally? What was imported and exported? What kitchen equipment was available to use? Have students create and illustrate a decorative menu of what a Pompeian household might have eaten for a special occasion, such as a religious festival. They may even like to try recreating some of the dishes by cooking and serving up some food for their classmates! Roman real-estate: Research housing in Pompeii. What different types of residences were there? Consider what architectural styles, building methods, materials, trades and craftsmen were used. What was a typical floor-plan and what features and furnishings did it contain? Luxury and beauty: Research the fashions, hairstyles, make-up and jewellery for men and women in Pompeii. What evidence remains to tell us about these things, what influenced their styles, and where did they source their products from? Religious Romans: What was the role of religion in the lives of Pompeian people? What evidence do we have of this? Research some of the myths, legends, gods, cults and temples that formed part of their belief system. Burial practices: Investigate death and burial practices in ancient Roman times, and in Pompeii specifically. Was there a difference in the way rich or poor people were buried? How does it compare to modern day religious and burial practices in our society? Frozen in time: Have students research the body casts from Pompeii. How and why were they made? Why were those people still there, and why didn’t they (or couldn’t they) leave? What factors might have influenced this? (Consider such things as religious beliefs, sickness, or slavery). Are there any other human remains from the eruption of Mt Vesuvius? What can we learn about the past from studying human remains? Class debate: In addition to what students have learned about the body casts from Pompeii, have them research what human remains have been found at other archaeological sites (such as the bog bodies from northern Europe and mummies from Egypt). Have them consider the ethics of displaying human remains in museums, and conduct a debate on this topic. Is it disrespectful and insensitive, or enlightening and invaluable?

Western Australian Museum Teacher Resource: A Day in Pompeii © 2010

www.museum.wa.gov.au

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Very volcanic: Have students research the different types of volcanoes, where they occur in the world and why they occur in these places. Investigate what towns or cities are near them, and discuss what precautions people could take to stay safe if they erupt. Natural disasters: Have students compile a list of natural disasters that have impacted on human populations around the world, eg earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes and floods. Consider the impacts of these disasters, and how they have influenced future emergency planning around the world. Astounding archaeology: Research the role of archaeologists (and other specialty areas they liaise with such as forensics and microbiology) and find out what skills, experience and tools they use to piece together the past. Then investigate the rediscovery of the ancient cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Why were these two cities so important to the study of history? What have we been able to learn? Pliny on Pompeii: One contemporary account of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius remains from Pliny the Younger. Have students research this account, and discuss how accurate they believe it was compared to the conclusions drawn by archaeological research. What can we learn from primary sources such as these and why are they so important to historians?

Cast of young woman © William Starling, Alabama, USA.

Western Australian Museum Teacher Resource: A Day in Pompeii © 2010

www.museum.wa.gov.au

7

Western Australian Museum Perth Self-guided Trail

A Day in Pompeii

Student Exploration Trail Photocopy Please bring with you on the day of your excursion: Focus on A Day in Pompeii trail (for every student)

How to use Focus on A Day in Pompeii Trail In small groups, have students use the questions and items contained in the trail to lead them on a journey of discovery about the ancient city of Pompeii. Adult helpers can help facilitate this process by guiding students to areas of interest. They could: Ask the students about the exhibits and artefacts Encourage students to read the exhibit labels and information panels

Galleries You will visit two galleries to complete this trail. A Day in Pompeii 3D Theatre experience, Hackett Hall, Foyer Basement A Day in Pompeii, Temporary Exhibition Gallery, Beaufort Street Wing

Western Australian Museum Student Exploration Trail: A Day in Pompeii © 2010

www.museum.wa.gov.au

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Focus on

Self-guided Trail for Year 8-10 Students Western Australian Museum − Perth 21 May - 5 September 2010 www.museum.wa.gov.au/pompeii

Fresco with winged female figure © Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Napoli e Pompeii

© Bill Wood

A Day in Pompeii

Businesses Owning a business in Pompeii was a respectable and often lucrative profession. Businesses included bakeries, laundries, restaurants and taverns. Find the gold coins (aurei). Most Pompeians used bronze and silver coins for everyday business, and gold coins like these were usually kept as savings and investments. As such, they were often kept hidden in a very safe place. Why do you think some of Pompeii’s victims were carrying gold coins when they died?

For further thought: As you look through the exhibition, find examples of five different trades or businesses found in Pompeii. What businesses are like those we find today? Can you find an example of a business or trade that isn’t used any more? Why would this be?

Gold coins provided portable savings © William Starling, Alabama, USA

Food and Dining Pompeians enjoyed three meals a day; breakfast (ientaculum), lunch (prandium) and dinner (cena). People ate either at home, at the bars, or at hundreds of ancient fast-food outlets (thermopolia) which lined the streets. Look for the carbonised bread. Bread was a staple food for the people of Pompeii. This is a cast of an actual bread loaf that had been left in an oven and burnt during the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Why do you think it appears to be so well preserved?

For further thought:

Carbonised bread © William Starling, Alabama, USA

Look around as you move through the exhibition, and see if you can find what else people ate and drank in Pompeii. What evidence is there of this? What other clues and techniques do you think archaeologists and historians use to learn about this?

© Bill Wood

A Day in Pompeii

Medicine The wealthier citizens of Pompeii had access to surprisingly sophisticated medical care. Doctors used a variety of plants to make medicines, and used surgical instruments very similar to modern ones.

Find these medical instruments. What are they made from and what do you think they were used for?

For further thought: From the evidence in the exhibition, and what you know of the technology of the time, what sorts of medical procedures do you think Pompeians were capable of? Who might have been the doctor and what training would they have had? What do you think their understanding of hygiene was, and how did that affect the health and prosperity of the people in Pompeii?

A set of medical instruments © William Starling, Alabama, USA

The Town – Water and Baths Public baths were great social meeting places, and Pompeii had three operating at the time of the eruption in 79AD. In addition to the main bathing block which had facilities for hot, warm and cold bathing, there was usually an adjoining gymnasium.



For further thought: Pompeii was a city of 10,000-12,000

people in 79AD. How did it get enough water for all its inhabitants? What does this say about Roman ingenuity and technology? Can you think of any other clever Roman innovations that have influenced us in modern times?

Find the set of four bronze strigils. How were these peculiar items used?

© Bill Wood

A Day in Pompeii

The Town – Public Entertainment Gladiatorial combats were fought in an amphitheatre and were the most popular form of entertainment in Pompeii. Gladiators would fight each other or fight wild animals.

Look for the gladiator helmet. Because many helmets and armour worn by gladiators were highly decorated, many historians believe that they were used purely for ceremonial purposes. Do you think this helmet was used in combat or for ceremonial occasions?

For further thought:

What other leisure and recreational activities is there evidence of in this exhibition? How do they compare to modern recreation and entertainment activities?

Luxury and Beauty Luxury and beauty were just as important in Pompeii as today, and also an indication of social status. Gold was highly valued and very expensive, so usually reserved for the wealthy.

Find the inscribed gold armband. What makes this piece of jewellery so unusual?

For further thought:

Snake bracelet © Alfredo and Pio Foglia

Look for other artefacts related to luxury and beauty in the exhibition. What were items made of and who used or wore them? What can the materials or fashions tell us about the Pompeians and who they traded with? What skills and trades were required for the pursuit of beauty?

A Day in Pompeii

Private Residences Pompeian houses were very different to those we live in today. All the living rooms of the house faced inwards to a courtyard. Instead of having a front garden, the front door opened directly onto the pavement. The size of the house and the quality of decorations reflected the power, social rank and wealth of the family. Find the fresco that includes this image. Frescoes were murals painted onto the walls of wealthy people’s homes for decoration. Why would landscapes such as these have been painted on walls?

For further thought: Furnishings in Pompeian houses were sparse, partly to showcase pictorial decorations like frescoes and mosaics. Have a look around the exhibition and find examples of furnishings and accessories that would have adorned people’s homes. What materials, skills and craftsmanship were utilised in producing these? How do our homes and lifestyles compare to those in Pompeii?

Garden fresco © William Starling, Alabama, USA

Burial Practices Burial was not allowed within the city walls of Pompeii, so burials lined the roads leading into the city. Before becoming a Roman colony Pompeians buried their dead, but by the time Mount Vesuvius erupted cremation was the norm. Ashes were kept in an urn and placed in a tomb, niche, or simply buried in the ground. Find the display of burial objects. What was the significance of these objects?

For further thought: Looking at the various burial objects and urns in the exhibition, do you think there was a difference in the way rich or poor people were buried? Why do think burials were forbidden within the city walls? Can you think of a reason why burial practices changed over time?

Glass cremation urn © Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Napoli e Pompei.

A Day in Pompeii

Religious Beliefs The Pompeians worshipped many different gods, and there were many temples dedicated to these gods and goddesses. Most houses also had a small shrine (lararium) where they could perform daily ceremonies and rituals. Find this statue of Venus, Roman goddess of love and beauty. She played a key role in many Roman religious festivals and myths. What is the significance of this goddess to the people of Pompeii?

For further thought: Can you find examples of three other gods or cults and find out what they were worshipped for? What role do you think religion played in the lives of Pompeian people? What evidence do we have of this? Statue of Venus © William Starling, Alabama, USA

Body Casts Pompeii had a population of between 10,000 and 12,000 people when Mount Vesuvius erupted. While most people fled the city, around 2,000 were unable to escape or refused to leave and met their fate beneath the ash. Some of these victims have been preserved as body casts.

Cast of a young woman © William Starling, Alabama, USA

For further thought: How were the body casts formed? Do the casts contain the remains of the people or animals? What ‘stories’ can the casts from Pompeii tell us and what evidence do we have of this?

Find the cast of a man with shackles on his ankles. What do you think the social status of this man was? © Western Australian Museum 2010