teachers notes secondary schools - Royal Museums Greenwich

teachers notes secondary schools - Royal Museums Greenwich

TEACHERS NOTES SECONDARY SCHOOLS Samuel Pepys: Plague, Fire, Revolution – Teacher Notes Introduction: The Samuel Pepys: Plague, Fire, Revolution exh...

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TEACHERS NOTES SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Samuel Pepys: Plague, Fire, Revolution – Teacher Notes Introduction: The Samuel Pepys: Plague, Fire, Revolution exhibition explores the world of Stuart London and the changes of the late 17th century. At its heart is Samuel Pepys, one of the most engaging characters of the period and witness to the great events that shaped late-Stuart Britain. These were famously brought to life in his diary. He lived through a time of change: the restoration of the monarchy and the overthrow of James II; the devastation of London by plague and fire, and its resurrection as a world city. He lived a colourful existence as a lover of music, theatre and fine living, surviving a dangerous medical operation and the cutthroat world of Stuart politics until his luck, intimately entwined with the King’s fortunes, finally ran out and forced him to retire. Using the voice and personality of Samuel Pepys, the exhibition explores the period from the execution of Charles I in 1649 to the Glorious Revolution of 1688. It investigates both the key political changes, with Pepys as a witness, and the lives of citizens of London, using him as an example. The exhibition: There are over 150 paintings and objects from museums, galleries and private collections across Britain and beyond. The exhibition is divided into nine sections: Trial and Execution – the death of Charles I, witnessed by Pepys in 1649 Commonwealth and Crisis – the end of the Civil War and rule of Oliver Cromwell Return and Restoration – the return of Charles II from exile in 1660, which Pepys witnessed first-hand King and Crown – the coronation of Charles II, attended by Pepys in 1661 Court and Pleasure – the life, luxury and personalities of the court of Charles II Plague and Fire – the devastation of London caused by the disasters of the 1665–66, vividly recorded by Pepys War and the Navy – England’s growing role as a naval power and Pepys’s part in this Science and Society – the foundation of the Royal Society and the scientific advances of the time Religion and Revolution – religious divisions and the events of 1688, leading to the downfall of James II Key themes: There are two key strands to investigate: 

Firstly the political changes, from the execution of Charles I through the Restoration court of Charles II to the expulsion of James II, with Pepys as a witness.



Secondly, the massive social changes that affected England and particularly London, with Pepys as a participant and recorder: 

the Great Fire



the Great Plague



science and knowledge



medicine and surgery



entertainment



the impact of sea trade and naval power.

Curriculum links: Key Stage 3 National Curriculum for history: ‘the development of state and society in Britain from the end of the civil war through the interregnum, the Restoration and the Glorious Revolution’. The exhibition and Pepys’s diary also bring the society, economy and culture of the period to life.

Opportunities to develop / extend students’ historical-enquiry skills: The exhibition provides great scope for historical enquiry. The unprecedented range of Stuart and Pepysrelated artefacts can be combined with historians’ accounts and the diary of Pepys himself to provide a rich vein for students to investigate further during and after their visit. The following suggested activities provide examples of enquiries that could be carried out during a visit to the exhibition. Each activity can be adapted and developed to suit your students.

Suggested pre-visit activities It may be useful to prepare students prior to attending the exhibition by providing them with information on Samuel Pepys and a general overview of events of the time. This will allow them more time to focus on investigating the objects rather than understanding context.

Suggested activities in the exhibition (NB resources for both of these activities can be found at the end of these notes)

Team object enquiry – life in Stuart London Divide the students into teams of around five. Give each student within a group an aspect of life in the Stuart period to investigate, these are: 

The Great Fire



The Great Plague



medicine and surgery



science and knowledge



entertainment



The Navy, ships and trade (this task is more challenging and can be made into a differentiated task for more able students, or omitted).

Use resource sheets 1–6 to guide students through their investigations. Each of them needs to find and investigate two objects in the gallery, one which is specified and another which they select for themselves. For each they should describe what it tells them about that aspect of life in Stuart Britain and how they could use it as evidence. As background evidence they will have an extract from Pepys’s diary on the area they are investigating and some points of contextual knowledge to help them. For guidance/ support on likely responses to these objects see the next page. Outcome / follow-up: students report back to their group with what they have discovered about their two objects and how useful they found them as evidence. Object timeline curation – turbulent times Challenge students to curate a timeline of key events which occurred during Pepys’s life, using objects in the exhibition. The challenge is to find items to represent each event highlighted in the timeline. These objects should be those that best exemplify the issue and the time and allow the student to describe the events of 1649–88. Outcome / follow-up: Students produce a presentation telling the story of political power in the 17th century using the objects they have chosen as the starting point for each of the key events of the period.

We hope you and your students enjoy your visit to the exhibition and it is useful for your area of study. Please remind students that this is a public exhibition and we request that they show awareness of other members of the public while they are visiting it and the Museum more generally.

Team object enquiry – suggested responses (this is not exhaustive or in any way the ‘right’ answer, merely to assist teachers in supporting students) The Great Fire - how significant was its impact? The picture shows London during the Great Fire and reveals the scale of destruction. The fire is obviously completely impossible to control at this point. It also shows refugees fleeing the city and the different means of doing this. It is worth noting how little these people have been able to carry: students might question whether it will be easy for them to survive. Despite this destruction, the south bank of the Thames (the left-hand side of the picture) remains untouched and appears peaceful. Strengths could include: 

vivid image



dramatic scene conveying the urgency of events



displays the extent of the fire



displays reactions to the fire.

Weaknesses could include: 

dramatic reconstruction rather than realistic representation of events



the artist may have made sections up



elements of the picture are not accurately represented (London Bridge and the Tower of London are not shown as they were).

The Great Plague – how severe was the impact of the Great Plague upon London? The picture shows the figure of death dressed as a king holding a sceptre and an hourglass to represent time. The poem reads ‘Death triumphant clothed in Ermine / bout whole bones do crawl with vermin / doth denote that each condition / to his power must yield submission’. The image speaks of mankind’s powerlessness in the face of ‘King Death’ and connects with a history of such images in times of plague. The second page suggests the limited impact of attempts to cure the plague. Strengths could include: 

demonstrates that people felt powerless in the face of the plague



many saw religion as their best hope of salvation



Includes descriptions of (ineffective) attempted cures on the second page.

Weaknesses could include: 

the second page appears contradictory, as one appeals to God as the only salvation while the other lists attempted cures



there is nothing specific shown here that explains how or why particular cures were used.

Medicine and surgery – why was surgery so dangerous in Pepys’s lifetime? The forceps are similar to modern medical ones and require skillful handling, suggesting skillful surgeons existed. But instruments were not sterilized and effective anesthetics were unknown: surgery was therefore both dangerous and very traumatic for patients. Strengths could include: 

demonstration of Stuart medical equipment



demonstrates the existence of specialist equipment for specific purposes, suggesting advances in medicine



easy to understand how it was used.

Weaknesses could include: 

lack of better context, such as other surgical equipment, makes wider judgements very difficult to reach



extent of patient risk is hard to judge



the abilities and success rate of surgeons are difficult to understand from this.

Science and knowledge – to what extent did scientific knowledge advance in Pepys’s lifetime? The picture shows the impact of microscopes in advancing scientific understanding, in that people were able to study things that had previously been too small to see. However, microscopes were not yet advanced enough to look at even smaller things like cells, so people were unaware of them. The picture also shows that a concerted attempt was being made to understand and quantify the world through work like Robert Hooke’s. Ironically, the role of fleas in carrying the plague was not understood at the time. Strengths could include: 

clearly demonstrates what scientists were able to observe using new technology



shows an area which scientists were interested in investigating



demonstrates that scientific knowledge was not as advanced as today and what its limits then were.

Weaknesses could include: 

does not explain what scientists already knew about fleas does not tell us about the equipment they used or what they used this information for (although this does appear elsewhere in the book)



does not show anything about other scientific advances.

Entertainment – how did people entertain themselves in Pepys’s London? This portrait demonstrates how important music was to Pepys, as he has chosen to be painted holding a sheet of music that he wrote. It is his own setting of a lyric by Sir William Davenant, 'Beauty retire'. It is important to link this to the background information and the extracts from Pepys’s diary on the exercise sheet to understand his enthusiasm for music, and why he was painted holding music rather than a pen or with something to do with his job at the Navy Board.

Strengths could include: 

Pepys chose the content of the picture, so it demonstrates how he thought of himself



shows that the significance of music in his life was something he wanted to demonstrate



can link well with the diary extract to explain why Pepys wanted music to feature prominently in the painting.

Weaknesses could include: 

it does not show us the extent of music in wider society



also does not demonstrate anything about the wider population or other forms of entertainment

The Navy, ships and trade – how did sea travel change Britain during Pepys’s lifetime? This imported teapot shows the growing importance of luxury traded goods in Stuart London, including such everyday modern commodities like tea, coffee, chocolate etc. Pepys’s statement in his diary that he had never had tea before makes it clear that the sea had started to change Britain’s food, drink and tastes. The teapot itself represents a fascination with Chinese porcelain and other luxury items which helped fuel the development of trade. Pepys’s diary extract also suggests the effect of the wars with the Dutch, including the dramatic Dutch attack on the English fleet at Chatham: this was a disaster for the Navy and features in the exhibition. Strengths could include: 

demonstrates a change in Britain’s food and drink brought about by trade, and the areas that Britain had begun to trade with.



shows that there was an interest in Chinese and other ‘exotic’ goods.

Weaknesses could include: 

very weak as evidence for the extent of the impact of trade



even Pepys had only just tried tea (and it would be assumed that, as a member of the Navy Board, he would be aware and have access to it.)



does not show if ordinary people had any access to these items (they did not).

How significant was the impact of the Great Fire? What Pepys’s diary says: 2 September 1666 So down [I went], with my heart full of trouble, to the Lieutenant of the Tower, who tells me that it began this morning in the King's baker's house in Pudding Lane, and that it hath burned St. Magnus's Church and most part of Fish Street already. So I rode down to the waterside, and there saw a lamentable fire. . . . Everybody endeavouring to remove their goods, and flinging into the river or bringing them into lighters that lay off; poor people staying in their houses as long as till the very fire touched them, and then running into boats, or clambering from one pair of stairs by the waterside to another. And among other things, the poor pigeons, I perceive, were loath to leave their houses, but hovered about the windows and balconies, till they some of them burned their wings and fell down. Background: On 2 September 1666 fire broke out in a bakery. The fire destroyed four-fifths of the City of London and left around 100,000 people homeless and destitute. Samuel Pepys was in London: he spent most of his time packing, hiding and moving his own belongings, but reported the fire to the king and suggested pulling down houses to prevent it spreading. Despite this the fire lasted five days. Although only six people were (officially) killed, many more lost everything. Some also died afterwards due to poverty caused by the fire in poorly rebuilt homes. OBJECT 2 – Choose an object relating to the Great Fire for yourself What is it?(Describe it, how might it be used etc.)

OBJECT 1 – In the gallery Find and watch the animation about the spread of the Great Fire The Fire of London, September 1666 (Date and Artist Unknown)

What can you see?

Why do you think the museum has decided to present this information in this way?

What does it tell you about the Great Fire of London?

What links can you find between this and your extract of Pepys’s diary opposite?

Investigation: How useful is Object 1 for a historian trying to find out about the Great Fire of London? Draw an arrow on the scale Tells you nothing

Tells you everything

How useful is Object 2 for a historian trying to find out about the Great Fire of London? Draw an arrow on the scale

What made you chose this object?

What does it tell you about the Great Fire of London? (Try to give three or four points.)    

Tells you nothing

Tells you everything

Using these objects and the information in the exhibition what have you learned about the impact of the Great Fire of London?

What questions do you have for future investigation?

To what extent did Scientific knowledge advance in Pepys’s lifetime? What Pepys’ diary says:

OBJECT 1 – Find this in the gallery Page taken from Micrographia, or, some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses with observations and inquiries thereupon, Robert Hooke, 1665

13 February 1664 ... to Reeve's the perspective-glass maker; and there did indeed see very excellent Microscopes, which did discover a louse or a mite or sand most perfectly and largely. Background: In November 1660 Charles II founded the Royal Society of London, a scientific club, to recognize, promote and support excellence across a range of subjects. Its members were some of the greatest minds of the day. They met to debate, discuss and demonstrate scientific theories. Pepys was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in February 1665. Although not a ‘man of science’, he rose to become its President in 1684.

© The British Library Board.

What can you see (it might be a image of a louse)?

435.e.19 plate opposite page slightly different 212

What does it tell you about science and knowledge in the Stuart period?

Pepys therefore witnessed new wonders first-hand, such as microscopes and the ideas of Isaac Newton. What links can you find between this and your extract from Pepys’s diary opposite?

OBJECT 2 – Choose an object relating to Stuart science and knowledge for yourself What is it? (Describe it, how might it be used etc.)

Investigation: How useful is Object 1 for a historian trying to find out about Stuart science and knowledge? Draw an arrow on the scale Tells you nothing

What made you chose this object?

How useful is Object 2 for a historian trying to find out about Stuart science and knowledge? Draw an arrow on the scale Tells you nothing

What does it tell you about Stuart science? (Try to give three or four points.) 

Tells you everything

Tells you everything

Using these objects and the information in the exhibition what have you learned about the extent to which scientific knowledge advanced in Pepys’ lifetime?

  

What questions do you have for future investigation?

How severe was the impact of the Great Plague upon London? What Pepys’s diary says:

OBJECT 1 – Find this in the gallery Londons Loud Cryes to the Lord by Prayer. Plauge Bill from it.1665

7 June 1665

© The British Library Board. 816.m.9.(26.)

This day, much against my Will, I did in Drury-lane see two or three houses marked with a red cross upon the doors, and "Lord have mercy upon us" writ there - which was a sad sight to me, being the first of that kind that to my remembrance I ever saw. It put me into an ill conception of myself and my smell, so that I was forced to buy some roll tobacco to smell to and chaw - which took away the apprehension.

What can you see? (Make sure you investigate both the writing and the picture.)

Background: A devastating outbreak of bubonic plague struck London in 1665, killing an estimated 100,000 people, a quarter of London’s population.

What does it tell you about the Great Plague of 1665? (try to list three or four points)

Without knowledge of the causes of the sickness, people sought desperately for ways to cure or avoid it. Many had little effect, like chewing tobacco. Those who could afford to fled the city.

What links can you find between this and your extract of Pepys’s diary opposite?

Pepys lived through the plague and recorded what he saw in his diary. His entries provide an unparalleled account of these traumatic events. OBJECT 2 – Choose an object relating to the Great Plague for yourself What is it? (Describe it, how might it be used etc.)

Investigation: How useful is Object 1 for a historian trying to find out about the Great Plague? Draw an arrow on the scale Tells you nothing

What made you chose this object?

How useful is Object 2 for a historian trying to find out about the Great Plague? Draw an arrow on the scale Tells you nothing

What does it tell you about the Great Plague? (Try to give three or four points.) 

Tells you everything

Tells you everything

Using these objects and the information in the exhibition what have you learned about the impact of the Great Plague?

 What questions do you have for future investigation?  

Why was surgery so dangerous in Pepys’ Lifetime? OBJECT 1 – Find this in the gallery

What Pepys’s diary says: 5 September 1660 This day it is two years since it pleased God that I was cut of the stone at Mrs. Turner’s in Salisbury Court. And did resolve while I live to keep it a festival, as I did the last year at my house, and for ever to have Mrs. Turner and her company with me.

Forceps for removing a bladder stone © Royal College of Physicians.

What can you see? Background: After years of agonizing pain, Pepys decided to have surgery to remove a large bladder stone in 1658. Without pain relief and using unsterilized instruments, this was a life-threatening operation. Pepys made a remarkable recovery in five weeks.

What does it tell you about the dangers of surgery at this time? (Try to list three or four points.)

He occasionally celebrated his good fortune with a lavish meal on the anniversary of his operation. These ‘stone feasts’ are recorded in his diary. Stuart medicine was basic and operations such as Pepys’s took place with the patient fully conscious. Apart from the pain, the risk of infection made them very dangerous.

What links can you find between this and your extract of Pepys’s diary opposite?

OBJECT 2 – Choose an object relating to surgery in Pepys’s lifetime for yourself What is it? (Describe it, how might it be used etc.)

Investigation: How useful is Object 1 for a historian trying to find out about surgery in Pepys’ lifetime? Draw an arrow on the scale Tells you nothing

What made you chose this object?

How useful is Object 2 for a historian trying to find out about surgery in Pepys’s lifetime? Draw an arrow on the scale Tells you nothing

What does it tell you about Stuart surgery? (Try to give three or four points.) 

Tells you everything

Tells you everything

Using these objects and the information in the exhibition what have you learned about the dangers of Stuart surgery?

 What questions do you have for future investigation?  

How did people entertain themselves in Pepys’s London? What Pepys’s diary says: 2 January 1666 My dear Mrs. Knipp, with whom I sang, and in perfect pleasure I was to hear her sing, and especially her little Scotch song of “Barbary Allen;” and to make our mirthe the completer, Sir J. Minnes was in the highest pitch of mirthe, and his mimicall tricks, that ever I saw, and most excellent pleasant company he is. 28 January 1661 ... and thence to the Theatre, where I saw again The Lost Lady, which doth now please me better than before. And here, I sitting behind in a dark place, a lady spat backward upon me by a mistake, not seeing me. But after seeing her to be a very pretty lady, I was not troubled at it at all.... Background: Music and the theatre were particular passions of Pepys. He played many musical instruments, wrote his own music and employed a personal musician. After the Civil War, theatres were closed as part of Oliver Cromwell’s campaign against immorality. Soon after the restoration of the monarchy, they opened again and soon flourished as a major source of entertainment. Pepys visited the theatre as often as he could and often wrote in his diary about the plays he had seen.

OBJECT 1 – Find this in the gallery Portrait of Samuel Pepys, by John Hayls, 1666 © National Portrait Gallery, London

What can you see? (look carefully at what’s in his hand?

What could it tell you about the entertainment people like Pepys enjoyed? (Try to list 2 or 3 points)

What links can you find between this and your extract of Pepys’s diary opposite?

OBJECT 2 – Choose an object relating to entertainment in Pepys’s London for yourself What is it? (Describe it, how might it be used etc.)

Investigation: How useful is Object 1 for a historian trying to find out about Entertainment in Pepys’s London? Draw an arrow on the scale Tells you nothing

What made you chose this object?

How useful is Object 2 for a historian trying to find out about Entertainment in Pepys’s London? Draw an arrow on the scale Tells you nothing

What does it tell you about Stuart leisure activities in London? (Try to give three or four points) 

Tells you everything

Tells you everything

Using these objects and the information in the exhibition what have you learned about how people entertained themselves in Pepys’s London?

  

What questions do you have for future investigation?

OBJECT 1 – Find this in the gallery

How did sea travel change Britain during Pepys’ lifetime?

Imported Chinese porcelain teapot with European mounts (unknown maker, 17th century)

What Pepys’s diary says: 25 September 1660 We talked together of the interest of this kingdom to have a peace with Spain and a war with France and Holland; and afterwards I did send for a cup of tea (a China drink) of which I never had drank before, and went away. 12 June 1667 For the news is true, that the Dutch have broke the chain and burned our ships, and particularly the Royall Charles; other particulars I know not, but most sad to be sure. Background: Pepys was a key naval administrator, first at the Navy Board, and later as Secretary to the Admiralty. The Royal Navy was important because it protected trade routes. These brought both essential and exotic new products to England, like tea, coffee and chocolate. Trade was becoming ever more important in peoples everyday lives although only the wealthy could afford exotic imports like a Chinese teapot. The Navy was Britain’s crucial first line of defence, protecting the island nation and safeguarding its developing empire. In Pepys’s day the Dutch were Britain’s principal rival at sea for trade, territory and naval power, and the Dutch attack on the British fleet at Chatham in 1667 was a national disaster. OBJECT 2 – Choose an object relating to the Navy for yourself What is it? (Describe it, how might it be used etc.)

What can you see?

What does it tell you about how trade changed Britain?

What links can you find between this and your extract of Pepys’s diary opposite?

Investigation: How useful is Object 1 for a historian trying to find out about the impact of sea travel on Britain at this time? Draw an arrow on the scale Tells you nothing

What made you chose this object?

How useful is Object 2 for a historian trying to find out about the impact of sea travel on Britain at this time? Draw an arrow on the scale Tells you nothing

What does it tell you about the Navy and its importance in Pepys time? (Try to give three or four 4 points)    

Tells you everything

Tells you everything

Using these objects and the information in the exhibition what have you learned about how trade and naval conflict changed Britain during Pepys’ lifetime?

What questions do you have for future investigation?

1649

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Charles II’s court Charles’ court was notorious for its extravagance and personal freedom, which contrasted with the strict Puritanism of the Commonwealth. Extravagance and luxury flourished around the king and art and culture was openly celebrated.

Item selected to represent this (draw or describe it):

1678

1679

1680

1681

1682

1683

1684

1685

What does this item tell you/additional information?

1677

1687

1688

What does this item tell you/additional information?

Item selected to represent this (draw or describe it):

The ‘Glorious’ Revolution On Charles II’s death, his brother James became king. However, James was a Roman Catholic whose policies soon lost the support of many of England’s powerful men, and of the people. A faction in Parliament invited the Dutch prince, William of Orange to invade. James fled and William became king, ruling jointly with his wife and cousin, Mary II, who was James’s daughter.

1686

Instructions: Your task is to find an object in the exhibition to represent each of the six stages of the timeline below as you go through the exhibition. You can then draw or describe it in the appropriate box. You will also need to explain what you can learn from that item and include any additional information. You may also want to photograph the items you chose to enable you to make an item timeline.

1671

Item selected to represent this (draw or describe it):

Upheaval in England – Plague and Fire Charles II’s reign saw tremendously significant events such as the Plague and the Great Fire which both devastated London in 1665–66. One of our key witnesses to the terror and turmoil caused by these events is the subject of the exhibition, Samuel Pepys

1666

What does this item tell you/additional information?

Item selected to represent this (draw or describe it):

The Restoration of the Monarchy Cromwell died in 1658 and the title of Lord Protector passed to his son, who was unable to maintain control. Parliament was recalled and they invited Charles I’s son, Charles II, to return from exile in the Netherlands in 1660 and reign again as king.

COMMONWEALTH, MONARCHY AND REVOLUTION OBJECT TIMELINE The Execution of Charles I Following his defeat in the Civil Wars Charles I was placed on trial by Parliament for treason. He was found guilty and beheaded at Whitehall on the 30 January 1649. Item selected to represent this (draw or describe it):

1651

What does this item tell you/additional information?

1650

The Commonwealth After the abolition of the monarchy there followed a period of rule by Parliament and then by Oliver Cromwell, who took control as Lord Protector with the support of the army from 1653.

Item selected to represent this (draw or describe it):

What does this item tell you/additional information? What does this item tell you/additional information?

COMMONWEALTH, MONARCHY AND REVOLUTION OBJECT TIMELINE– suggested exhibition items that students could use as part of their timeline. (These are not in any way the ‘right’ answers,

merely suggestions to assist teachers in supporting students). The Execution of Charles I

IMAGE NOT AVAILABLE. In the exhibition this painting is supported with lighting and audio explanation.

Painting of the execution of Charles I showing various stages of the event. However, as the executioners’ identities were secret the figure on the right is Thomas Fairfax (a prominent Parliamentarian) who was in no way involved in the event and refused to take part in Charles’ s trial.

An official Parliamentary report on Charles I’s trial. © The National Archives

The Commonwealth

Oliver Cromwell portrait demonstrating his almost royal power and status (as this is painted in the style of a royal portrait) ©Leeds Museums and

This document declared Cromwell as Lord Protector and endowed him with much of the power of a king.

Galleries (Leeds Art Gallery) U.K./Bridgeman Images

© The British Library Board. Add. 18739

The Restoration of the Monarchy

Drawing of the Royal Charles from Edward Barlow’s journal. Barlow was a sailor who was present on the ship, which returned Charles II from exile. Pepys was also on board!

Model of the ship on which Charles II returned to England from exile. It had been called the Naseby but Charles himself renamed it Royal Charles on embarking.

Charles II’s court

Embroidered shoes suggesting the wealth and opulence of Charles II’s court, although the owner of this pair is unknown

Love letter from Charles II to Louise de Keroualle, representing affairs and intrigue in Charles II’s court. In it he calls her by a pet name, ‘Fubbs’.

© Northampton Museums and Art Gallery

Upheaval in England – plague and fire

Painting depicting the destruction wrought by the Great Fire of London. Note that the fire does not affect the south bank of the Thames (left) and the flood of refugees heading from the city.

Plague bill containing an account of deaths caused by the plague and an appeal to God to protect Londoners from it. © The British Library Board. 816.m.9.(26.)

The ‘Glorious Revolution’

A resolution by the House of Commons declaring that, since he had fled upon the arrival of William of Orange, James II had deserted his crown. The word abdicated has been crossed out, possibly seen as too controversial. © 'Parliamentary Archives

James II’s armour, possibly worn in 1690 at the Battle of the Boyne (in Ireland), where he was defeated by forces led by William of Orange. © Royal Armouries