TEACHING ACTIVITIES BY TIME PERIOD Colonization and the Revolution (1670-1800) TA-COLR-1 Plantation Life Properties:
Fish Hall Plantation (Beaufort) Boone Hall Plantation (Charleston) Roseville Plantation Slave and Freedman’s Cemetery (Florence)
SI: 3-2.7; 3-4.1; 4-2.6; 4-2.7; 4-3.6; 4-3.7; 8-1.4; 8-1.6; 8-2.2; USHC 1.1 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Working in pairs, have students describe a day in the life of a slave child, and a day in the life of a plantation owner’s child. Illustrate the story. Use Nancy Rhyne’s Voices of South Carolina Slave Children as a resource. 2. Locate one of the plantations on a current map and explain the importance of the geographic features surrounding it. 3. Use photos, drawings and paintings to create a storyboard depicting life on a plantation.
TA-COLR-2 Free and Enslaved African Americans Properties:
Silver Bluff Baptist Church (Aiken) Fish Hall Plantation (Beaufort) Stono River Slave Rebellion (Charleston) Bonds Conway House (Kershaw) William Hill (York)
SI: 3-2.7; 3-4.1; 4-2.6; 4-2.7; 4-3.6; 4-3.7; 8-1.4; 8-1.6; 8-2.2; USHC 1.1 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Create a visual to compare and contrast the lifestyle, jobs, and contributions to the community of the people involved with the sites. 2. Create a list of interview questions for one of the individuals discussed in class (such as William Hill or Bonds Conway) or an individual discovered during the research of these historic properties. 3. Create a graphic organizer comparing the daily life of African Americans and independent farmers.
TA-COLR-3 The Stono Rebellion and the 1740 Slave Code Property:
Stono River Slave Rebellion (Charleston)
SI: 3-2.7; 3-4.1; 4-2.6; 4-2.7; 4-3.6; 4-3.7; 8-1.4; 8-1.6; 8-2.2; USHC-1.1 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Create a “cause and effect” chart depicting conditions leading up to the Stono Rebellion.
2. Write a closing argument for the defense attorney had Jemmy gone to trial. 3. Research the 1740 Slave Codes using the original document and a transcription found at www.teachingushistory.org/ttrove/1740slavecode.htm. Then generate a list of the five slave codes that had the greatest impact.
Expansion and Reform: Antebellum (1800-1860) TA-ANTE-1 Textile Mills Property:
Saluda Factory Historic District (Lexington)
SI: USHC-3.3 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. After studying the history of textile factories during the turn of the century, research the significance of the Saluda Factory. 2. Compare the Saluda Factory’s work conditions to another antebellum textile mill, Graniteville Mill in Aiken County. Refer to the National Register nominations of both for initial background information: www.nationalregister.sc.gov/nrlinks.htm. 75 3. Illustrate similarities and differences of the Saluda Factory’s work conditions to that of another textile mill by creating a poster board, PowerPoint presentation, or some other creative representation.
TA-ANTE-2 Plantations Properties:
Coffin Point Plantation (Beaufort) The Oaks (Beaufort) Seaside Plantation (Beaufort) Boone Hall Plantation (Charleston) McLeod Plantation (Charleston) Point of Pines Plantation (Charleston) Middleton Place (Dorchester) Arundel Plantation Slave House (Georgetown) Hobcaw Barony (Georgetown) Keithfield Plantation (Georgetown) Mansfield Plantation Slave Street (Georgetown) Pee Dee River Planters Historic District (Georgetown) Richmond Hill Plantation Archaeological Sites (Georgetown) Goodwill Plantation (Richland)
SI: 3-4.3; 3-4.4; 3-4.7; 4-2.6; 4-6.3; 5-1.2; 8-3.1; 8-3.6 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Research the triangular trade routes and the African slave trade.
2. Research antebellum rice and cotton plantations using the National Register of Historic Places nominations of the above sites (www.nationalregister.sc.gov/nrlinks.htm), local newspapers, church records, etc. 3. Using research information, create a chart for each type of plantation including the following: name of plantation, location, number of slaves, acreage, and pounds of rice produced. 4. Students will create a flow chart showing the planting, cultivating, harvesting, and processing of rice and another one for cotton production. 5. Create models of cotton and rice plantations including the fields, the buildings, and the rivers or streams. 6. Research the cultural influence that African Americans had on the surrounding areas. Include language, music, farming techniques, food, medicine, religion, and arts and crafts.
TA-ANTE-3 Free and Enslaved African Americans Properties:
Boone Hall Plantation (Charleston) Richard Holloway Houses (Charleston) Old Slave Mart (Charleston) Ellison House (Sumter)
SI: 3-4.3; 8-1.4; 8-5.1; USHC-4.5 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Research the practice of free blacks owning slaves of which William Ellison was an example. Books such as Larry Koger’s Free Black Slave Masters in South Carolina, 1790-1860 provide a good basis for research. 2. Take a field study to one of the above properties. Have students write their observations of this field study in a journal. Students will share observations and curriculum connections when returning to class the next day. Students will use their journals and other information researched and discussed in class to develop a presentation related to their study. 3. Research the significance of the sites using the National Register nominations (www.nationalregister. sc.gov/nrlinks.htm), local newspapers, church records, etc. 4. Research the people associated with these sites by visiting a local archives or research facility.
Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877) TA-CWR-1 Runaway Slaves and the Underground Railroad Property:
Old Slave Mart (Charleston)
SI: 2-1.3; 3-4.3; 3-4.4; 4-2.5; 4-2.6; 4-3.6; 4-3.7; 4-6.2; 4-6.3; 5-1.3; 8-1.4; 8-3.1; 8-3.3; 8-3.6
SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Make an electronic flip book (using text and illustrations) about slavery in Charleston using the following site: www.readwritethink.org/materials/ flipbook/. Label pages as Slavery 1670-1739; Slavery 1740-1800; Antebellum Slavery 1801-1850; and Civil War Slavery 1851-1865. 2. Have students read the fictional book Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt by Deborah Hopkinson and the nonfiction book The Underground Railroad by Raymond Bial. Students should create a concept map examining the moral issues of slavery, considering the perspectives of both slaves and slave owners. If technology is available, this can be accomplished using Kidspiration, if not using sticky notes on a whiteboard. 3. Using the books Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt and The Underground Railroad, have pairs of students take the perspective of Clara and write a letter home to her aunt about her experiences traveling the Underground Railroad, or as a slave owner and write a letter to another slave owner about an escaped slave. Students can use the online letter generator located at www.readwritethink.org/materials/letter_generator to type and print their letters. 4. The quilt in the story Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt contained a coded message that only other runaway slaves would recognize to help them find the Underground Railroad. Discuss why runaway slaves needed coded messages. Have pairs of students create a secret message that runaway slaves would be able to use to find the Underground Railroad. 5. Using online resources, such as archived Charleston News & Courier original newspapers or copies of actual newspapers from the early to mid-1800s, have students examine advertisements of actual auctions and sales of slaves.
TA-CWR-2 Robert Smalls Properties:
Robert Smalls House (Beaufort)
SI: 3-4.3; 5-1.5; 8-3.6; USHC-3.3 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Using Microsoft Word, compose a short biography of Robert Smalls, including a picture of the former slave. 2. Write a journal entry describing Robert Smalls’ daring commandeering of the Confederate steamer, the Planter, and its subsequent delivery to Union forces. 3. Using Microsoft Publisher, create a flyer describing details of the newly commissioned ship, the USAV Maj. Gen. Robert Smalls, a 314-foot long, 5,412-ton transport vessel, the first naval vessel named after an African American man. 4. Read Yearning to Breathe Free: Robert Smalls of South Carolina and His Families by Andrew Billingsley, as a class novel documenting important milestones in Robert Smalls’ life.
5. Describe the different jobs held by Robert Smalls — from slave to harbor foreman to naval commander to Legislator. 6. Research the role of African Americans in the South Carolina General Assembly during Reconstruction, especially the 1868 Constitutional Convention. For a copy of the original Constitution and transcript, visit
TA-CWR-3 Representative Alfred Rush Property:
The Assassination of Rep. Alfred Rush (Florence)
SI: 5-1.2; 5-1.3; 5-1.5; 8-5.1 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Read and discuss historical marker text about Representative Alfred Rush’s assassination. 2. Discuss his important and influential role as a deacon at Savannah Grove Baptist Church and his role as a Representative during Reconstruction and a delegate to the 1868 South Carolina Constitutional Convention. Discuss some of the main features of this constitution, such as free public education, voting rights for all men, and others. For a copy of the original Constitution and transcript, visit www.teachingushistory.org/tTrove/ 1868Constitution.htm. 3. Allow the students to read the letter several black Darlington County officials wrote Governor D.H. Chamberlain in reaction to the assassination. A copy of the letter can be found at www.teachingushistory.org/ documents/RushLetter.htm. Discuss why this was called a “cold blooded murder” and why the people would be excited over it. Emphasize the racial and political tensions that existed during this time to help explain Rush’s assassination. 4. Put the students in cooperative groups and allow them to use the writing process to write a letter to Governor Chamberlain. a. Prewriting — pick out specific historical facts to use in the letter. b. Writing — Write your letter from the heart and include specific historical facts. c. Revising — allow another group to read the letter and suggest revisions. d. Editing — Make corrections. e. Publishing — Complete and share each group’s letter. 6. Allow students to peer review listing three positives about another pair's letter and one comment about what could have been done differently with the letter.
TA-CWR-4 Cemeteries Properties:
Mt. Zion Methodist Church (Florence) Clinton Memorial Cemetery (Lancaster) Randolph Cemetery (Richland)
SI: 3-4.7; 8-3.6
SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Research the significance of the sites using the National Register of Historic Places nominations (www.nationalregister.sc.gov/nrlinks.htm) and other primary and secondary sources. 2. Research Arlington Cemetery Section 27 where fallen Colored Troops, contraband slaves, and notable African Americans are buried (www.arlingtoncemetery.org/ historical_information/section_27_facts.html). 3. Compare and contrast any two of the above cemeteries and Arlington Cemetery using a Venn Diagram. 4. Write eulogies for fallen African American Civil War soldiers, Civil War civilians, or Reconstruction politicians.
TA-CWR-5 Colleges/Universities Property:
Allen University (Richland) Benedict College (Richland)
SI: USHC-4.1; USHC-4.5 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Research the history of Allen University and Benedict College using the National Register of Historic Places nominations at www.nationalregister.sc.gov/nrlinks. htm and other primary and secondary sources. 2. Research the American Baptist Home Mission Society and the African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church (See TA-CWR-2 for more ideas.) Discuss their roles in the education of African Americans. 3. Research the namesakes of the schools, Richard Allen and Stephen Benedict. Write biographical sketches of each. 4. Compare and contrast Allen University and Benedict College using a chart. 5. Create posters recruiting African Americans to attend either of the schools.
TA-CWR-6 Colleges/Universities Property:
Clinton Junior College (York)
SI: USHC-4.1; USHC-4.5 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Research the history of Clinton Junior College using the National Register of Historic Places nomination link (www.nationalregister.sc.gov/nrlinks.htm) and other primary and secondary sources. 2. Research the A.M.E. Zion Church and its role in the education of African Americans. 3. Research Revs. Nero Crockett and William Robinson and write a proposal from them on the need for a school for African Americans in York County. 4. Dr. Sallie V. Moreland was president of Clinton for 48 years. Make a list comparing and contrasting technology during her tenure (1946-1994).
TA-CWR-7 Schools Property:
Penn Center (Beaufort)
SI: USHC-4.3; USHC-4.5 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Research the Penn Center using the National Register of Historic Places nomination (www.nationalregister. sc.gov/nrlinks.htm) and other primary and secondary sources. 2. Some South Carolina sea islands were held by the Union by 1861. Discuss what life may have been like for African Americans living there (better or worse). 3. Research Pennsylvania Freedman’s Relief Association and its relationship with Penn Center. 4. Draw a map of the Beaufort area showing St. Helena Island. 5. Research the Union occupation in 1861. 6. Write an article about the occupation for the Beaufort newspaper. 7. Research teachers Laura Towne and Ellen Murray and write a biographical sketch for each one. 8. Research teacher Charlotte Forten and do a Venn diagram comparing her with Towne and Murray.
TA-CWR-8 Property: 78
Life on McLeod Plantation
McLeod Plantation (Charleston)
SI: 3-4.3; 3-4.4; 3-4.9; 4-6.4; 5-1.1; 5-1.2; 5-1.3; 8-3.1; 8-3.6; USHC-4.5 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Using a current map of James Island, mark off the Plantation’s boundaries in 1851 using this description: The Plantation’s footprint extended from confluence of Wappoo Creek and Ashley River westward down Wappoo Creek to about Fleming Road . . . then south to James Island Creek . . . then east to Charleston Harbor . . . then north back to confluence of Ashley River and Wappoo Creek. 2. Compare and contrast the life of two 13 year old girls living on the McLeod Plantation: one in the McLeod “big house” and one living in one of the slave cabins. 3. Make a timeline of the McLeod Plantation using information from www.south-carolina-plantations. com/charleston/mcleod.html. 4. Research the Freedmen’s Bureau whose headquarters for the James Island District was McLeod Plantation during Reconstruction. 5. Research the 54th and 55th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry that camped at McLeod Plantation in 1865 during the Civil War.
Modern America: Jim Crow Segregation (1877-1945) TA-MAJC-1 African American Entertainment Property:
Dizzy Gillespie Birthplace (Chesterfield) Atlantic Beach (Horry) Big Apple (Richland) Carver Theatre (Richland) Columbia Township Auditorium (Richland)
SI: 3-5.2; 5-4.1; USHC-7.2; USHC-7.3, USHC-9.5 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Research the significance of the above sites using the National Register of Historic Places nominations (www.nationalregister.sc.gov/nrlinks.htm) and other primary and secondary sources. Create a web quest to teach about the achievements and lives of Black entertainers connected with the above sites. 2. Research biographies of African American actors, actresses, and performers from the 1930s-1960s. Provide a written report of at least two entertainers and how they crossed paths with other nationally known black Americans in the field of entertainment. For example, students might focus on Dizzy Gillespie and other jazz greats such as Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, or Thelonius Monk. Brief biographies are available at www.sciway.net/afam/byname.html. 3. Use Photostory (free software from Microsoft) to create a narrated travelogue of the places associated with black South Carolina entertainers. 4. Create an African American Entertainment Map of South Carolina. Working with a large map, mark the places with photos and captions to highlight the people and places that entertained African Americans during the Jim Crow era. 5. Create a movie poster, ticket, or brochure advertising upcoming attractions at one of the above sites. Display students’ products on a classroom wall illustrating highlights of pop culture during the 1930s-1950s. 6. Create postcards from an Atlantic Beach vacation experience of an African American family who spends a week at Atlantic Beach from the 1930s-1970s. Use historical information about Atlantic Beach online at www.atlanticbeachsc.com/asps/history.asp.
TA-MAJC-2 School Segregation Properties:
Jefferson High School (Aiken) Michael C. Riley Schools (Beaufort) Dixie Training School (Berkeley) Howe Hall Plantation (Elementary School) (Berkeley) Laing School (Charleston) Granard Graded and High School (Cherokee) Brainerd Institute (Chester) Kumler Hall, Brainerd Institute (Chester) Summerton High School (Clarendon)
Butler School (Darlington) Alston Graded School (Dorchester) Howard School (Georgetown) St. James Rosenwald School (Horry) Laurens County Training School (Laurens) Dennis High School (Lee) Howard Jr. High School (Newberry) Oconee County Training School (Oconee) Law Offices of Coblyn and Townsend (Orangeburg) Liberty Colored High School (Pickens) Siloam School (Richland) Marysville School (Spartanburg) Goodwill Parochial School (Sumter) Emmett Scott School (York)
SI: 3-5.6; 5-5.1; 8-7.4; USHC-9.5 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Define Jim Crow laws and list examples of facilities affected by these laws. 2. Identify and discuss significant cases regarding the desegregation of South Carolina’s public schools. Briggs Petition (www.teachingushistory.org/tTrove/ briggsvelliott.htm) Brown v. Board of Education Adams v. School District No. 5 3. Research the significance of the sites above using the National Register of Historic Places nominations (www.nationalregister.sc.gov/nrlinks.htm). 4. Trace the order of events that occurred during the integration of these sites on a chronological time line using photos and quotes. 5. Using local sources, research local graduates from segregated high schools who have become successful community members. 6. Create a journal describing a typical school day in the life of a 10-year old. 7. Redesign one of the historic properties to meet modern day educational needs. 8. Write an editorial to the local paper explaining why “Separate is not Equal.”
TA-MAJC-3 Faith Cabin Libraries Properties:
Faith Cabin Library (Anderson) Faith Cabin Library Site (Saluda)
SI: 3-5.2, 5-4.1, 8-7.4, USHC-7.2 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Research the life of Willie L. Buffington. (www.libsci.sc.edu/histories/aif/aif08.html) 2. Locate on a South Carolina map any of the 110 faith cabin library sites. 3. Compare and contrast public libraries for whites and blacks at the time using a Venn diagram. 4. Write a short essay on the influence that libraries have on a community.
TA-MAJC-4 Mary McLeod Bethune Property:
Birthplace of Mary McLeod Bethune (Sumter)
SI: 3-5.2; 5-4.1; 8-7.4; USHC-7.2 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Research the life of Mary McLeod Bethune and create a timeline of significant events in her life. 2. Use the Internet to investigate Bethune-Cookman College. 3. Use the Internet to investigate the National Council of Negro Women, an organization she founded. 4. Write an article about her educational legacy based upon the research.
TA-MAJC-5 Harlem Renaissance & the Roaring 20s Property:
William H. Johnson Birthplace (Florence)
SI: 2-1.3; 5-4.1; USHC-7.2 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Read and discuss William H. Johnson’s biography (brief) found on DISCUS - Kids Infobits. 2. View and discuss his paintings found in the above biography. 3. Discuss how growing up in a rural area during the early 1900s in Florence, South Carolina affected his artwork (religion, farming, self portraits, etc.).
TA-MAJC-6 Dizzy Gillespie Property:
Dizzy Gillespie Birthplace (Chesterfield)
SI: 2-1.3; 5-4.1; USHC-7.2 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Use Knowitall.org (www.knowitall.org/roadtrip/crflash/flash.cfm) to take a virtual tour of The Dizzy Gillespie Park located where the birthplace once stood. 2. Read his biographical information found on the website. 3. Read and view biographical information about Dizzy Gillespie found on DISCUS. 4. As a class, create a collage using pictures of him performing and pictures of the Dizzy Gillespie Park.
TA-MAJC-7 African American Women in Health and Education Property:
Modjeska Montieth Simkins House (Richland) Old City Cemetery (Mary Honor Farrow Wright grave) (Spartanburg) Birthplace of Mary MacLeod Bethune (Sumter)
SI: 3-5.2, 3-5.6, 5-5.3, 8-5.1, USHC-7.3, USHC-9.5
SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Using a Venn diagram compare the accomplishments/ contributions of Simkins, Wright, and Bethune. 2. Write a eulogy for a local woman who was an educational pioneer in the African American community. 3. Create a biographical poster for each of the women. Include photographs of the women and the sites associated with them. 4. Make a BEFORE and AFTER poster for one of the women listed above. Choose an issue on which this woman had a great impact.
TA-MAJC-8 Edwin Augustus Harleston and the Harlem Renaissance Property:
Harleston-Boags Funeral Home (Charleston)
SI: 3-5.2; 3-5.6; 5-4.1; 5-5.1; 8-7.4; USHC-7.2 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Research the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), including the first branch in Charleston. 2. Create a Visitors’ Book of famous prominent African Americans who visited Edwin A. Harleston here, including W.E.B DuBois, James Weldon Johnson and Mary McLeod Bethune. Using historical fiction writing skills, make sure to note how the visitor felt about Charleston, things seen, meetings and important conversations that may have taken place. 3. Write an obituary for Edwin A. Harleston, including his education, family and business life, and political ambitions. 4. Research African American artists, including Edwin A. Harleston, and their contributions as part of the Harlem Renaissance. 5. Using a Venn Diagram, compare some of the death traditions, customs, procedures, mourning practices, burial rites, and even the structure of African American cemeteries and how they differ greatly from that of non-African Americans.
Contemporary America: Civil Rights Movement (1945-Present) TA-CRM-1 Dr. Benjamin Mays Property:
Dr. Benjamin E. Mays (Greenwood)
SI: 3-5.6; 5-5.1; 8-7.4; USHC-9.5 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Research the life of Dr. Benjamin Mays. 2. Construct a timeline of significant events in his life. 3. Use internet access to read his eulogy to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Select quotes from that eulogy and write a journal entry explaining their meanings. 4. Locate any living relatives and arrange to write letters or interview them.
TA-CRM-2 School Integration Property:
Integration with Dignity, 1963 (Pickens)
SI: 3-5.6; 5-5.1; 8-7.4; USHC-9.5 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Research the integration of southern college and university campuses. 2. Research the integration of Clemson University. 3. Arrange interviews or letter writing to Dr. Robert Edwards, President of Clemson at the time or read article in Sandlapper Magazine, Winter 2007-2008, Pages 48-50. 4. Arrange an interview with Harvey Gantt or e-mail. 5. Compare and contrast Harvey Gantt’s experiences of integrating Clemson University in 1963 to those of Henrie Monteith, Robert Anderson, and James Solomon at the University of South Carolina in the same year.
TA-CRM-3 Modjeska Monteith Simkins Property:
Modjeska Monteith Simkins House (Richland)
SI: 3-5.6; 5-5.1; 8-7.4; USHC-9.5 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Research the life of Modjeska Simkins. 2. Construct a timeline of significant events. 3. Visit her residence or take a virtual tour of her home through etv’s RoadTrip! Through SC Civil Rights History at www.knowitall.org/roadtrip/cr-flash/flash.cfm. 4. Use the Internet to create a web quest. One site is www.usca.edu/aasc/simkins.htm. 5. Research her involvement in the Briggs v. Elliott case.
TA-CRM-4 Early Civil Rights Protests Properties:
All-Star Bowling Lanes (Orangeburg) Fisher’s Rexall Drugs (Orangeburg) Kress Building (Richland) McCrory’s Civil Rights Sit-Ins (York)
SI: 3-5.2, 3-5.6, 5-5.3, 8-5.1, USHC-9.5
1. Using the booklet Civil Rights in America: Racial Desegregation in Public Accommodations, www.nps.gov/ nhl/themes/Pub%20Accom.pdf, create a newspaper front page that shows the sit-ins that were used to demand equal access to public places in South Carolina during the 1960s. 2. Write three journal entries describing civil rights protests from the perspective of a Freedom Rider who comes to South Carolina to protest unequal access to public facilities and include a map. Read the personal account of Congressman John Lewis’ involvement in the Freedom Rides of 1961 from his autobiography, Walking with the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement. 3. Write a news article that describes the protest at one of the historic sites in South Carolina using first hand accounts of the first sit-ins and other protests of the era as models.
4. Create a poster presenting the key facts of lunch counter sit-ins across the South and especially in South Carolina, using the summaries on the American Memory site of the Library of Congress as a model (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/ aopart9b.html). 5. Research the lives of those who participated in the sit-ins. One participant in the Rexall Drug protest in Orangeburg was James E. Clyburn, a current South Carolina Congressman. Also Rev. Jesse Jackson, at the Greenville Public Library. Create a brochure with bios and photographs.
Teaching Activities Covering Multiple Time Periods TA-MTP-1 Houses Time Periods: Properties:
Fair-Rutherford and Rutherford Houses (Richland) Goodwill Plantation (Richland) Magnolia, slave house (Richland) Mann-Simons Cottage (Richland) Waverly Historic District (Richland)
SI: K-1.1; 1-1.2; 3-4.1; 3-4.7; 5-1.2; 8-3.2; 8-3.6; 8-4.4 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Create a map of Columbia and locate the historic houses. 2. Generate a time line of the historic houses with a brief description of each. 3. Design a brochure featuring four homes in Richland County. 4. Compare and contrast architecture from 3 different time periods.
TA-MTP-2 Churches Time Periods: Property:
Centenary United Methodist Church (Charleston) Emanuel A.M.E. Church (Charleston) Liberty Hill Church (Clarendon) Mt. Zion A.M.E. Church (Clarendon) Greater St. James A.M.E. Church (Florence) Mt. Zion Methodist Church (Florence) Mt. Carmel A.M.E. Zion Church and Campground (Lancaster) Shiloh A.M.E. Church (Orangeburg) Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church (Orangeburg) Bethel A.M.E. Church (Richland) Herman Presbyterian Church (York)
SI: K-1.2; 1-1.1; 3-4.1; 3-4.7; 5-1.2
SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Locate at least three of the churches on a map of South Carolina. 2. Research the role of African American churches in local politics. 3. Discuss why the church has been the center of community life.
TA-MTP-3 Slave Rebellions Time Periods: Properties: Denmark Vesey House (Charleston) Stono River Slave Rebellion Site (Charleston) SI: 3-4.3; 4-3.5; 8-3.5 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Read William Bull’s account of the Stono River Slave Rebellion (www.teachingushistory.org/lessons/ GovBullLetter.htm). Review excerpts of the resulting Slave Code of 1740 (www.teachingushistory.org/tTrove/ 1740slavecode.htm). 2. Research Denmark Vesey and his rebellion plot of 1822 using the National Register of Historic Places nomination (www.nationalregister.sc.gov/nrlinks. htm), local newspapers, court records, etc. 3. Present a skit in class about Denmark Vesey and his plot. 4. Discuss other ways in which slaves resisted, i.e. faking an illness, running away, poisoning of masters, etc. 5. Discuss reasons why more rebellions did not occur considering the state’s demographics from the mid-18th century through the mid-19th century.
TA-MTP-4 Veterans in South Carolina Time Periods: Properties:
Aiken Colored Cemetery (Aiken) Darlington Memorial Cemetery (Darlington) Mt. Zion Methodist Church (Florence) Richland County Cemetery (Greenville) Clinton Memorial Cemetery (Lancaster) Orangeburg City Cemetery (Orangeburg) Randolph Cemetery (Richland) Old City Cemetery (Spartanburg)
SI: 5-1.5; 5-6.6; 8-7.1 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Visit a local cemetery and make rubbings of veterans’ headstones from different campaigns. 2. Write a thank-you letter to a veteran. 3. Research a campaign from a particular war and create a medal in a veteran’s honor. Note that African Americans have fought in every major war in American history.
TA-MTP-5 Racial Violence in South Carolina Time Periods: Properties:
Cainhoy Massacre (Berkeley) The Assassination of Rep. Alfred Rush (Florence) The Orangeburg Massacre (Orangeburg) Randolph Cemetery (Richland)
SI: 5-5.3; 8-5.1; USHC-4.5; USHC-9.5 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Using the 40th Anniversary website created to honor the victims of the violence (www. orangeburgmassacre1968.com), recreate the events leading up to the Orangeburg Massacre. 2. Construct a timeline of incidents of racial violence in South Carolina. 3. Research old newspapers and other primary sources to learn more about the sites listed above. 4. Create a PowerPoint presentation detailing racial violence in South Carolina using pictures of historic sites or markers. 5. Write an editorial chronicling the history of race relations within South Carolina. Compare and contrast the past with race relations today. 6. Research two lynchings in the South that were key events in civil rights history. Then, in a comparisoncontrast essay, compare the two murders.
TA-MTP-6 Cemeteries Time Periods: Properties:
Aiken Colored Cemetery (Aiken) King Cemetery (Charleston) Darlington Memorial Cemetery (Darlington) Middleton Place (Dorchester) Mt. Zion Methodist Church (Florence) Roseville Plantation Slave and Freedman’s Cemetery (Florence) Richland County Cemetery (Greenville) Clinton Memorial Cemetery (Lancaster) Orangeburg City Cemetery (Orangeburg) Randolph Cemetery (Richland) Old City Cemetery (Spartanburg)
SI: 2-1.2; 2-1.3; 3-4.3; 4-2.6; 8-1.4; 8-3.6 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Research how some of the cemeteries were named. 2. Research the burial rituals and patterns originating in slavery and typically associated with plantation slaves. 3. Research the meaning behind the placement of personal items and other grave goods by reading secondary sources like Grave Matters: The Preservation of African-American Cemeteries published by the Chicora Foundation or The Last Miles of the Way: African American Homegoing Traditions, 1890-Present edited by Elaine Nichols.
4. Visit and create colored sketches during the early spring to see all of the daffodils, yucca plants and snowflakes marking individual graves.
TA-MTP-7 Trades and Professions Time Periods: Property:
Jacksonville School/Jacksonville Lodge (Aiken) Grand Army of the Republic Hall (Beaufort) Knights of Wise Men Lodge Hall (Beaufort) Sons of the Beaufort Lodge No. 36 (Beaufort) Harleston-Boags Funeral Home (Charleston) Moving Star Hall (Charleston) Seashore Farmers’ Lodge No. 767 (Charleston) Working Benevolent Society Hospital (Greenville) Working Benevolent Temple & Professional Building (Greenville) E.H. Dibble Store/Eugene H. Dibble (Kershaw) Charles S. Duckett House (Laurens) All Star Bowling Lanes (Orangeburg) Law Offices of Coblyn and Townsend (Orangeburg) North Carolina Mutual Building (Richland) A. P. Williams Funeral Home (Richland) Union Community Hospital (Union) Afro-American Insurance Company (York)
SI: USHC-4.4; USHC-4.5; USHC-7.3; USHC-9.5 SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Create a brochure about African Americans who influenced business practices in South Carolina in particular or in the United States like A. Phillip Randolph and Madam C. J. Walker. 2. Research the role of fraternal and burial societies in the African American community and how they supported business ventures and community members. 3. Interview prominent African American business leaders in the community. 4. Make an advertisement for African American businesses showing photographs of the location and the owners and examples of the work or services provided. Barbershops and beauty salons, mortuaries, insurance agents, doctors, and dentists have a long history in the African American community. 5. Create a chart showing the dates of operation, the leaders, the goals, and the major achievements of each of the businesses and organizations associated with the above historic sites.
6. Research the first African American physicians and dentists in the community. Create a scrapbook of their biographies, their education, their office locations, their services, and their advertisements. Describe what it was like to go to the doctor or the dentist for an African American in the Jim Crow era.
TA-MTP-8 African Methodist Episcopal Churches Properties:
St. James A.M.E. Church (Abbeville) Bethel A.M.E. Church (Charleston) Emanuel A.M.E. Church (Charleston) Friendship A.M.E. Church (Charleston) Mt. Zion A.M.E. Church (Charleston) Mt. Zion A.M.E. Church (Clarendon) Trinity A.M.E Church (Clarendon) St. Peter’s A.M.E. Church (Colleton) Greater St. James A.M.E. Church (Florence) Bethel A.M.E. Church (Georgetown) Mt. Pisgah A.M.E. Church (Greenwood) Bethel A.M.E. Church (Laurens) Miller A.M.E Church (Newberry) Shiloh A.M.E. Church (Orangeburg) Williams Chapel A.M.E. Church (Orangeburg) Bethel A.M.E Church (Richland) St. Phillip A.M.E. Church (Richland) Mt. Zion A.M.E. Church (Williamsburg)
SI: K-1.1; K-3.2; 1-4.2; 2-2.5; 3-4.7; 8-3.6; 8-5.1; USHC-4.5
SUGGESTED LESSON ACTIVITIES
1. Discuss the significance of the church in the lives of students. 2. Ask families to visit the class one day and share experiences that they have encountered in A.M.E churches. 3. Invite a minister from an A.M.E. church to speak to the class about the Church’s national and local histories. 4. Research Richard Allen, the founder of the A.M.E church. 5. Choose one or two sites to research for younger children and more sites for older students. After researching the sites using the National Register of Historic Places nominations (www.nationalregister. sc.gov/nrlinks.htm), local newspapers, church records, etc., have students create collages that represent some of the important aspects and significances of these sites to the lives of individuals. 6. Provide younger students with as many hands-on activities as possible. Try to find artifacts that the children can touch. If not, have students create their own replicas of items such as newspapers, church records, etc. 7. Visit one of the sites that can share its history with the students. 8. Organize a celebration program to pay tribute to the A.M.E church in the form of a performance skit, exhibit, or documentary.
LESSON PLANS BY TIME PERIOD Expansion and Reform: Antebellum (1800-1860) LP-ANTE-1 The Insurrection of 1822 — Lisa Bevans Denmark Vesey House (Charleston) 3-2.7; 3-4.1; 4-2.7; 4-3.6; 4-4.6; 8-1.4
LP-ANTE-2 Pots of Clay: A “Must Have” of the 1800s — Barbara Padget Trapp and Chandler Pottery Site (Greenwood) 3-4.1; 4-6.1; 8-3.1
Civil War & Reconstruction (1860-1877)
LP-CWR-1 Black Voices of the Pee Dee: Three Prominent Citizens — Gina Kessee Edmund H. Deas House (Darlington) Joseph H. Rainey House (Georgetown) Stephen A Swails House (Williamsburg) USHC-4.5; USHC-5-7
LP-CWR-2 Worshipping Free, African American Churches After the Civil War — Rosamond Lawson Centenary United Methodist Church (Charleston) Emanuel A.M.E. Church (Charleston) Holy Trinity Reformed Episcopal Church (Charleston) Old Bethel United Methodist Church (Charleston) Old Plymouth Congregational Church (Charleston) Saint Mark’s Episcopal Church (Charleston) K-1.1; 2-2.5; 3-4.7; 5-1.3; 8-5.1; USHC-4.5
LP-CWR-3 Robert Smalls: Warrior and Peacemaker — T. Lynn Moseley First African Baptist Church (Beaufort) Robert Smalls House (Beaufort) Sons of Beaufort Lodge No. 36 (Beaufort) Tabernacle Baptist Church (Beaufort) South Carolina Statehouse (Richland) 3-4.4; 3-4.7; 4-6.4; 4-6.5; 5-1.2; 5-1.5
Modern America: Jim Crow Segregation (1877-1945) LP-MAJC-1 African American Women in Education — Ellen Bagby President’s Home of Harbison College (Abbeville) African American School Site (Anderson) Voorhees College Historic District (Bamberg) Birthplace of Mary McLeod Bethune (Sumter) 8-4.4; USHC-5.7
LP-MAJC-2 If These Stones Could Speak — Linda F. Hardin Richland Cemetery (Greenville) 8-5.1
LP-MAJC-3 Amen! Schools In! — Sherie Sawyer Mt. Zion Methodist Church (Florence) Mt. Zion Rosenwald School (Florence) St. James Rosenwald School (Horry) Hope Rosenwald School (Newberry) Howard Jr. High School (Newberry) Great Branch Teacherage (Orangeburg) 5-1.5; 8-5.1; 8-7.4
LP-MAJC-4 Traveling Southern Style — Valentina Cochran Atlantic Beach (Horry) Harriet M. Cornwell Tourist Home (Richland) 3-5.2; 8-7.2; 8-7.3
Contemporary America: Civil Rights Movement (1945-Present)
LP-CRM-1 Integration with Dignity — Cleo Crank Integration with Dignity, 1963 (Pickens) Liberty Hill Church (Clarendon) Summerton High School (Clarendon) Sterling High School (Greenville) Marysville School (Spartanburg) McCrory’s Civil Rights Sit-Ins (York) 3-5.2; 3-5.6; 5-5.3; 8-7.4; USHC-9.1; USHC-9.5
LP-CRM-2 Orangeburg Massacre — Dale Evans All Star Bowling Lanes (Orangeburg) The Orangeburg Massacre (Orangeburg) South Carolina State College Historic District (Orangeburg) 3-5.2; 3-5.6; 5-5.3; 8-7.4; USHC-9.5
Multiple Time Periods
LP-MTP-1 South Carolina’s African American Women: “Lifting As We Climb” — Harmonica Hart Alston House (Richland) Mann-Simons Cottage (Richland) Modjeska Montieth Simkins House (Richland) 3-5.6; 8-5.1
THE INSURRECTION OF 1822 Lisa K. Bevans
Drayton Hall Elementary, Charleston County School District Property: Denmark Vesey House (Charleston) Standard Indicators: 3-2.7; 3-4.1; 4-2.7; 4-3.6; 4-4.6; 8-1.4 Literacy Elements: E, G, H, P
1. How did the Denmark Vesey trial contribute to white anxieties about free blacks? 2. How did the conspiracy of an insurrection contribute to the treatment of the enslaved?
In 1820 the ratio of the white population to the black population in South Carolina was not equally balanced. In that year, South Carolina was estimated to have 237,440 whites compared to 265,301 blacks. In Charleston, those unbalanced numbers were even greater. About 40% of all free persons of color in South Carolina lived in Charleston and 89% of all free blacks in Charleston County lived in the city. Denmark Vesey was a free black man who lived in Charleston, SC. He won $1,500 in a lottery and was able to buy his own freedom. He was a co-founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston. During the summer of 1822, there was a rumor that Vesey conspired to stage an insurrection that would involve more than 9,000 slaves. Even though the insurrection never occurred the rumors frightened whites and lead to the execution of 35 men, including Vesey, and the burning of the church he co-founded. The conspiracy resulted in stricter control of the enslaved and limited movement of free Africans in Charleston.
Primary Source (in addition to the historic site) Governor’s Messages to the South Carolina General Assembly, June-August 1822. S165009 Box 1328. South Carolina Department of Archives and History. Secondary Sources Egerton, Douglas. He Shall Go Out Free: The Lives of Denmark Vesey. New York City: Madison House Publishers, 2004. Lofton, John. Insurrection in South Carolina: The Turbulent World of Denmark Vesey. Yellow Springs, OH: Antioch Press, 1964. South Carolina State Historic Preservation Office, “Denmark Vesey House, Charleston County, South Carolina,” National Register of Historic Places nomination, www.nationalregister.sc.gov/charleston/ S10817710094/index.htm.
1. Teacher will open discussion with students on ways the slaves resisted captivity. 2. Teacher will tell students of other slave rebellions, such as Stono Rebellion and/or Gabriel Prosser’s attempted revolt. 3. Teacher will ask students to describe how they believed whites might have felt about the unbalance between slaves and whites. 4. Teacher will give background about Denmark Vesey and his plan for the Insurrection of 1822. 5. Teacher will highlight excerpts from the original transcript from the Vesey trial and give to the students to read. 6. Students should be placed in small groups and asked to come up with “hard evidence” in which to convict Denmark Vesey. 7. Teacher and class will discuss the evidence found by the groups and discuss whether white fear played a part in the trial. 8. Students should be asked to do one of the activities listed below after the discussion.
1. Have students create a concept map of the plans of Denmark Vesey to lead the revolt using Kidspiration. 2. Create a cause-and-effect chart depicting the events and conditions leading up to the trial of Denmark Vesey and the effect the foiled revolt had on the state of South Carolina in terms of legal and social developments. 3. Compare the lives of the enslaved Africans to those of free Africans. 4. Draw conclusions about how sectionalism arose from events or circumstances of racial tension, internal population shifts, and political conflicts, including the Denmark Vesey plot, slave codes, and the African American population majority. 5. Write a short point-counterpoint piece that describes differing points of view concerning an event such as the Trial of Denmark Vesey or the events leading up to the trial.
POTS OF CLAY: A “MUST-HAVE” OF THE 1800 s Barbara Padget
Gilbert Middle School, Lexington County School District I Property: Trapp and Chandler Pottery Site (Greenwood) Standard Indicators: 3-4.1; 4-6.1; 8-3.1 Literacy Elements: F, K, L
1. What role did pottery factories play in local communities? 2. What determined the location of these factories? 3. What kinds of items were produced and for what were they used? 4. How were slaves involved? 5. Why did these pottery factories close?
The Trapp and Chandler Pottery Factory was one of several manufacturing sites that produced alkaline-glazed pottery for the local area. Located near Kirksey Crossroads in what was the Edgefield District (present-day Greenwood County). John Trapp was a minister at Mountain Creek Baptist Church from 1833 until his death in 1876. He was an investor in the business, not a potter. (Baldwin 50-51) Thomas Chandler was the main turner in the business. (51) This business produced pan form bowls, jugs, storage jars, churns, chamber pots, and cups. (51-52) It closed in 1849. (53) Apparently, Chandler opened his own business the following year, which was a stoneware and brick factory, according to an advertisement in the Edgefield Advertiser. (53) Chandler had eleven slaves and journeymen pottery makers in 1850, paying $165.00 a month. (53) In a January 29, 2008 interview with Stephen Ferrill, curator of Old Edgefield Pottery Museum, Ferrill confirmed that Chandler had at least four slaves, a couple, Simon and Easter and their two sons, Ned and John. Ferrill said that the journeymen were Irish immigrants. (Ferrill interview) Pottery making was profitable in an agricultural society (Baldwin 1) because of its practicality and the availability of the clay needed to form the pots. (2) The Edgefield District used different components in their glazes to give their pottery a distinct look. (2-3) Both saprolite and kaolin were used, saprolites having a “reddish hue” and kaolin having a more grayish, green color. (3) Pots were made for specific purposes with tier rims and handles designed to enhance their uses. (53-54) Slaves worked in the pottery business. The jobs consisted of mining the clay, preparing the clay for turning and turning the pots themselves. The most famous, Dave, worked for Lewis Miles and other members of the Landrum and Drakes families in Edgefield. (Koverman 20-25) Dave has garnered much interest from scholars and historians because he wrote verses on the
pottery he made. He worked as a potter from the 1830s through 1864, when he dated his last pot. (33) Koverman also suggests through her research that Dave’s phrases may have brought him trouble as a slave. She bases this on the gaps in the dates of his works compared to events that may have suggested trouble in the slave community. (33-34) Pottery making began to decline after the Civil War and the invention of mass-produced glass and metal containers. (An Edgefield Tradition 2008)
Primary Sources (in addition to the historic site) “Chandler and Dave pots.” Photographs. Collection of Old Edgefield Pottery Museum, Edgefield, South Carolina. Edgefield, South Carolina. Photographs taken by Barbara Padget, January 2008. Ferrill, Stephen. Interview by Barbara Padget, 29 January 2008, Edgefield, South Carolina. Secondary Sources “An Edgefield Tradition.” Edgefield Pottery, www.edgefieldpottery.com/tradition.htm (accessed 26 January 2008). Baldwin, Cinda K. Great and Noble Jar. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1995. Koverman, Jill Beute, ed. I Made This Jar: The Life and Works of the Enslaved African-American Potter: Dave. Columbia: McKissick Museum, University of South Carolina, 1998. South Carolina State Historic Preservation Office. “Trapp and Chandler Pottery (38GN169). Greenwood County, South Carolina.” National Register of Historic Places nomination, www.nationalregister.sc.gov/greenwood/ S10817724012/index.htm.
1. Show students examples of modern storage containers — Tupperware, etc. 2. Brainstorm modern uses and direct students to speculate what people living in the 1800s used for storage. 3. Show students examples of pottery — pictures or real examples. 4. Explain briefly how pottery is made and what it is made of. 5. Locate Edgefield, Aiken, and Greenwood counties on a state map of South Carolina. Have students identify the geographical regions (Sand Hills and Piedmont) in which these counties are located. Discuss why pottery factories would be located here.
6. Show maps of Edgefield potteries using the Baldwin book. Locate the Trapp and Chandler Pottery Site. 7. Discuss the different kinds of pots based on the use. 8. Contrast different glazes used to make pots look different. 9. Discuss the use of slave labor in the potteries. Include Dave. 10. Discuss what ended the “hey day” of pottery making. Relate to items today that are no longer being made. (analog television, VCR tapes, etc.)
1. Visit a local potter or have a potter visit. (Explain differences in then and now.) 2. Work with the art teacher to have students create and produce a piece of pottery of their own. 3. Construct a web quest using an Edgefield Pottery site for students to complete. 4. Work with the school Technology person to set up a blog for students to share ideas about what they have learned.
1. Make a “shopping list” of necessary pieces of stoneware needed for a household in antebellum South Carolina. Explain why you need each piece. 2. Create a journal entry from one of these three different points of view. You are reacting to this scenario: the present owner is selling the factory to another person. Different points of view: Turner (slave), Present owner, customer
Above: Butter Churn — Chandler piece. Top left: Dave the Potter Storage Jar. Bottom left: Early Chandler Storage Jar.
89 Above: Decorated Clabber Bowl Chandler piece. Below: Early Chandler Storage Jar — two views. All pieces courtesy of Stephen Ferrill. All photos taken by Barbara Padget.
BLACK VOICES OF THE PEEDEE: THREE PROMINENT CITIZENS Gina Kessee
Fairfield Central High School, Fairfield County School District Properties: Edmund H. Deas House (Darlington) Joseph H. Rainey House (Georgetown) Stephen A Swails House (Williamsburg) Properties not listed: Friendly Society Cemetery (Charleston) (Swails burial site) Baptist Cemetery (Georgetown) (Rainey burial site) Standard Indicators: USHC-4.5; USHC-5-7 Literacy Elements: A, B, D, E, I, K, L, O, P, R, S, T, U, V, W
1. How were Black citizens (native or migrants) of the Peedee region able to overcome adversity and make significant contributions in local and state politics, economics, education, and culture? 2. Why did these particular Black citizens rise to the occasion to positively affect the lives of many other citizens of the Peedee region, of South Carolina, and the United States? 3. Explain the lasting legacies of these three Peedee region citizens. 90
The Gilded Age and Progressive Era, encompassing the time span of 1865-1920, represent roughly two generations of major transitions. One of those major transitions was the era of Reconstruction, 1865-1877. As America transformed from an agrarian, frontier society to a highly urbanized and industrialized nation, a way of life in the southern region ended. The antebellum world of slavery would end violently. The old relationship of master and slave changed rapidly as blacks were freed by the 13th amendment; conferred citizenship by the 14th amendment; and granted the franchise by the 15th amendment. Those hard-earned rights would have to be fought for by blacks on a continual basis throughout the southeastern region. Nearly 4,000,000 African American citizens would retain those civil rights in a very precarious situation until 1896. It was in that year that the United States Supreme Court would uphold the constitutionality of racial segregation in the landmark case of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). To the newly freed blacks, freedom was a positive event although it was also a time of trepidation. They were no longer property, were now mobile, reclaimed family units, owned property, entered into contracts, and had legalized marriages. However, the main focus of black communities/ people/families was survival, establishment of their own churches, political power, and education. As citizens, blacks viewed freedom from a cultural perspective; the government viewed freedom from the constitutional base. Men such as Edmund Deas, Joseph H. Rainey, and Stephen A. Swails, recognizing this disconnect, sought office and went above and beyond to ensure that
freedom would remain an absolute condition for their fellow black brothers and sisters. Although most initial changes were rejected by Redeemers, some reforms continued. The funding of public schools and the limited land redistribution did give many black citizens in the Peedee Region a foundation from which they could perpetuate a measure of independence within a society in which they were, after 1877 and especially after 1896, in a subordinate position. South Carolina’s Peedee Region encompasses the coastal zone, outer coastal plain, and inner coastal plain. It is divided into nine counties: Chesterfield, Darlington, Dillon, Florence, Georgetown, Horry, Marion, Marlboro, and Williamsburg. Named for an Indian nation, the Peedee region would become the home of thousands of enslaved Africans by the 1730s. Africans and their descendants cleared many of the ancient pine trees and dredged swampy areas to cultivate rice and other plantation crops. By the 1740s, blacks would greatly outnumber whites in much of the Peedee region. By 1800, cotton would be cultivated by African slaves and the crop caused an economic boom for this northeastern area of South Carolina. At the end of slavery, there was a critical need in the black communities of the Peedee for persons who would rise to the occasion and strive to make life better for their people. This lesson focuses on three prominent black citizens (Deas, Rainey, and Swails) of the Peedee as well as on the historic places associated with them. Information about their lives, accomplishments and contributions is examined.
Primary Sources (in addition to the historic sites) Freedmen’s Contract between C.K. Singleton and 32 Freedmen, 22 January 1867, Singleton Family Papers, South Carolina Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. This document indicates the extent to which newly freed Black men took charge of their lives and lived up to their responsibilities regarding families and community. Petition of Colored Citizens, Mobile, Alabama, 2 August 1865, in Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of Alabama, National Archives Record Group 105: Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, National Archives Microcopy M809, Roll 23 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives Microfilm Publications), transcribed and available online at
accessed 2 February 2008. This historical document shows how freed Blacks took charge of and demanded proper treatment concerning their political rights and economic conditions. Nast, Thomas. “The Modern Samson,” Harper’s Weekly, 3 October 1868, and “The Union As It Was,” Harper’s Weekly, 24 October 1874, reproduced online at “Cartoons
of Thomas Nast: Reconstruction, Chinese Immigration, Native Americans, Gilded Era,” www.csub.edu/~gsantos/ cat15.html, accessed 2 February 2008. These famous cartoons sum up the end of Reconstruction and the descent into a virtual hell for millions of southern African Americans in the United States. Correctly titled “The Union As It Was,” this cartoon is referred to as “Armed White Man’s Leaguer and KKK Member Shake Hands” on this website. Secondary Sources Altman, Susan. The Encyclopedia of African-American Heritage. New York: Facts on File, 1997. This source contains information about the Reconstruction era and the following years 1877-1900. Blight, David W. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2001. This book provides much detailed insight into the conditions of the South during and after Reconstruction. Ciment, James. Atlas of African-American History. New York: Facts on File, 2001. The Atlas contains biographical data about famous African Americans. Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877. New York: Harper & Row, 1998. This is a great source of information concerning the social, political, and economic aspects of black life during Reconstruction. Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., and Cornel West. The African-American Century: How Black Americans Have Shaped Our Country. New York: The Free Press, 2000. This source provided much information on the first fifteen years of the 20th century black experience. Segal, Ronald. The Black Diaspora: Five Centuries of the Black Experience Outside of Africa. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1995. This source was used primarily for the information found in the chapter that deals with the black experience in the United States of America. South Carolina State Historic Preservation Office. “African American Historic Places in South Carolina.” Columbia: South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 2007. _____. “Edmund H. Deas House, Darlington County, South Carolina,” National Register of Historic Places nomination, www.nationalregister.sc.gov/darlington/S10817716019/ index.htm. The nomination provides an understanding of
the historical significance of the site as well as primary and secondary source information. _____. “Joseph H. Rainey House, Georgetown County, South Carolina,” National Register of Historic Places nomination, www.nationalregister.sc.gov/georgetown/S10817722018/ index.htm. The nomination provides an understanding of
the historical significance of the site as well as primary and secondary source information. Tindall, George Brown, and David Shi. America: A Narrative History. Seventh Edition. New York: W.W. Norton, 2007. Williams, Lou Falkner. The Great South Carolina Ku Klux Klan Trials, 1871-1872. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 1996. This book provides a good context for understanding the social and political conditions in South Carolina during the Reconstruction era.
1. E.Q. — How were black citizens of the Peedee region able to overcome adversity and make significant contributions in local and state politics, economics, education, and culture? Introduce students to the three prominent black citizens of the Peedee region via handouts of biographical information. Provide maps of the United States and of South Carolina, dry erase markers, and paper to students. Have students trace the physical routes that these men traveled during their lives as they rose to prominence and embellish those accomplishments with biographical information as well. 2. E.Q. — Why did these particular Black citizens rise to the occasion to positively affect the lives of many other citizens of the Peedee region, of South Carolina, and the United States? Have students analyze pictures of the historic places (monuments, graves, edifices, markers, etc.) and brief biographies associated with these individuals. Have students make connections to the situation of blacks in the Peedee after slavery, after the Compromise of 1877, and after Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) to the political achievements and contributions of these three black men. 3. E.Q. — How did these places (Darlington, Georgetown, and Williamsburg Counties) progress from the post-Civil War era to the present as a result of the contributions of these three black citizens? Have students view a series of short films via United Streaming (‘Palmetto Places: Darlington,’ ‘Palmetto Places: Georgetown,’ ‘Palmetto Places: Reconstruction’) focusing on the history of the counties of the Peedee region. Students are making connections with the legacies of Deas, Rainey, and Swails in relation to the history of the Peedee and of South Carolina in general. (Students will complete a chart indicating progression from point A to point B).
1. Have students write an evaluative essay in which they compare the accomplishments of Deas, Rainey, and Swails, to nationally well-known African Americans of the latter half of the nineteenth century (i.e., Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, Hiram R. Revels, Robert Smalls, Robert Brown Elliott, etc.) 2. Students create a timeline of prominent black citizens in the Peedee Region and include the historic sites associated with them.
Complete the following worksheets: 1. KWLH Technique 2. Compare and Contrast 3. Fishbone Mapping 4. Interaction Outline 5. Problem/Solution
1. KWLH Technique KWLH technique is a good method to help students activate any prior knowledge that they may possess of the Peedee region’s prominent black citizens. This activity is done by grouping and giving each group an African American Historic Places in South Carolina booklet. K — what students already KNOW W — what students WANT to learn L — what students identify as they read and LEARN H — HOW students can learn more about the above topic Use of this graphic organizer is helpful to groups of students in organizing their thoughts and information. What We Know What We Want to Learn What We Learned
Categories of information we expect to use:
How We Can Discover More Information
2. Comparison & Contrast Comparison and Contrast is a tried and true method to get students to indicate similarities and differences. The graphic organizer below is what I consider an advanced model of a Venn diagram.
1-Rainey & Swails 3-Deas & Swails
2-Rainey & Deas 4-List what all three had in common
3. Fishbone Mapping Use the fishbone map to demonstrate the causal interaction of black politicians during the Reconstruction era (1865-1890) in the Peedee region.
1. What are the factors that caused the establishment and growth of independent black churches in the Peedee Region? 2. How were black freedmen and women able to establish schools for their children?
3. What factors helped former slaves to survive in an economy largely closed to them? 4. Are the factors that caused a coalescence of the black community in the Peedee prior to 1900 the same that cause it to continue in the present day? Why or why not?
4. Interaction Outline The interaction outline requires students to indicate the nature of an interaction between persons or groups at the local, state, and national levels.
Reaction 1 Reaction 2
for Joseph Rainey
for Republican Party
for Southern Blacks
for U.S. Congress
1. What were the goals of persons and groups involved in Reconstruction politics? 2. Did they conflict or cooperate?
3. What was the outcome(s) of each person or group? 4. What was the effect(s) of the goals and outcomes upon the black people of the Peedee region in South Carolina?
5. Problem/Solution This method requires students to identify a problem encountered by one historical figure and consider multiple solutions and possible results. Apply this method to Deas, Swails, and Rainey.
Who: Lieutenant Stephen A. Swails WHAT PROBLEM
WORSHIPPING FREE: AFRICAN AMERICAN CHURCHES AFTER THE CIVIL WAR Rosamond Lawson
Charleston School of the Arts, Charleston County School District Properties: Centenary United Methodist Church (Charleston) Emanuel A.M.E. Church (Charleston) Holy Trinity Reformed Episcopal Church (Charleston) Old Bethel United Methodist Church (Charleston) Old Plymouth Congregational Church (Charleston) Saint Mark’s Episcopal Church (Charleston) Standard Indicators: K-1.1; 2-2.5; 3-4.7; 5-1.3; 8-5.1; USHC-4.5 Literacy Elements: A, E, G, K, O, P
1. How did freedom affect the ability of African Americans to worship in Charleston and where did they worship? 2. Why was the worship experience important? 3. How did African American churches influence society?
From African Americans and the Palmetto State pages 117-118, 122: “. . . African Americans in pre-Civil War South Carolina were deeply religious. They took active roles in building churches whenever and wherever they could . . . . Churches were a center of social life for people who were not welcomed elsewhere in society. They helped develop organizing skills in members. Until the Civil War was over, those skills were kept inside the church.” Many new African-American churches were created during this period. “. . . African-Americans were eager to test their freedom. One way to test freedom was to move away from the churches identified with whites. Many white churches wanted to keep black members. However, they did not want to allow black participation in decision-making. In addition, they insisted on keeping segregated seating for services. As a result, African-Americans left these churches. Two church groups with very similar names, the African Methodist Episcopal Church and the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, sent missionaries to the South. Both attracted large numbers of people in many new churches.” “Had it not been for churches providing opportunities for schooling, many African-Americans would have had little chance for an education. Church schools offered an elementary education to many African-Americans . . . there were no
government services to help the poor. Churches also assumed this role . . . . Churches also played at least a limited role in politics . . . . Most of the African-American churches supported the policies of the Republican government . . . . Ministers became central figures in African-American communities . . . [and] served as role models and leaders during the era of segregation.”
Primary Sources (in addition to the historic sites) Photographs to use in a PowerPoint presentation of the topic Readings from interviews with former slaves pertaining to religion, specifically to church Audio of the Slave Narratives that might pertain to religion and church Secondary Sources Botsch, Carol Sears, Robert E. Botsch, James O. Farmer, W. Calvin Smith, and Barbara Woods. African Americans and the Palmetto State. Columbia, SC: South Carolina Department of Education, 1994. www.ed.sc.gov/agency/ offices/cso/african_american_history/aaps.html. Powers Jr., Bernard E. Black Charlestonians: A Social History, 1822-1885. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1994. South Carolina State Historic Preservation Office, “Old Bethel United Methodist Church, Charleston County, South Carolina,” National Register of Historic Places nomination, www.nationalregister.sc.gov/charleston/ S10817710089/index.htm.
Have a cooperative group activity comparing the photographs and history of the three sites 1. Give a PowerPoint presentation to the students that provides general background information about the sites. Include pictures of other examples of African American churches in the area. 2. Have groups examine the photos and other written material on the sites (provide specific information in the lesson plan so that the students will be able to answer the essential questions in their class presentations). 3. In groups, students can research the original pastors’ and members’ biographies. Based on their research, have each group present one site to the class in a way they have designed (i.e. drawing, skit, interview, etc.). 4. Finish with group discussion about the results of any investigation they have done.
1. Informal evaluation of the group presentations. 2. Include vocabulary and facts from the lesson on a test.
Lesson Activities 1. Have a field trip to downtown Charleston to see the sites. 2. Have a daylong field trip to St. Helena Island or Edisto Island to visit other church sites. 3. Research a specific African American denomination and present a one to two page paper. 4. Make a drawing or painting based on one of the sites. 5. Act out a skit about African Americans deciding to leave white church groups and form their own churches.
ROBERT SMALLS: WARRIOR AND PEACEMAKER T. Lynn Moseley
Granby Education Center, Lexington District II Lesson can be found online at www.teachingushistory.org/Smalls.html Properties: First African Baptist Church (Beaufort) Robert Smalls House (Beaufort) Sons of Beaufort Lodge No. 36 (Beaufort) Tabernacle Baptist Church (Beaufort) South Carolina Statehouse (Richland) Standard Indicators: 3-4.4; 3-4.7; 4-6.4; 4-6.5; 5-1.2; 5-1.5 Literacy Elements: K, O, P
1. How did Robert Smalls become a Civil War hero to the Union cause? 2. What did Robert Smalls accomplish as a leader and politician after the Civil War? 3. How should Robert Smalls be remembered today?
As a Civil War hero and politician, Robert Smalls’ career of over forty years coincided with the rise and decline of the Republican Party in South Carolina during the nineteenth century. Born enslaved in Beaufort on April 5, 1839, Robert Smalls began his life as a house slave for the family of his owner, Henry McKee. In 1851, he was hired out as a laborer in Charleston, working in a variety of jobs and eventually as a ship rigger and sailor. In July 1861, he took a job as a deck hand on a harbor boat called The Planter for $16 a month. The Planter was chartered to run munitions among the widespread Confederate fortifications in the Charleston harbor. Robert Smalls gained notoriety on May 13, 1862, when he and his crew drove The Planter through and outside of the Charleston Harbor to the Union blockade (Miller 1995, 2). Among the intelligence information passed on to Union authorities, an important piece was that Confederate fortifications on Cole’s Island on the Stono River had been disarmed, allowing Union forces to occupy this area without resistance. As a skilled pilot who was familiar with the waters, Smalls was able to give important details about the area. By April 1863, Smalls took part in a Union attempt to take the Charleston Harbor. A flotilla of ironclads, led by a 3,500-ton battleship, approached the harbor at a point between Forts Moultrie and Sumter. Shells were exchanged for hours and eventually the Union flotilla retreated in what was the last naval attempt to take Charleston. In December 1863, Smalls took command of The Planter after it was caught in an intense crossfire with Confederate forces. From that point on, Smalls was officially made the captain of The Planter.
Smalls became a war hero to the Union cause. In describing his actions in a speech at a later date, Robert Smalls said, “Although born a slave I always felt that I was a man and ought to be free, and I would be free or die.” He added that he felt “The Planter might be of some service to Uncle Abe.” (Miller 1995, 3). After the war, Smalls returned to his native Beaufort, and he purchased the home of his former master. As one of the founders of the state’s Republican party, Smalls was a delegate to the 1868 Constitution, and he represented Beaufort County in the State House of Representatives and the State Senate. In 1874, Smalls was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served intermittently until 1886. As a political force during the turbulent postbellum era, Smalls fought for the interests of his constituents, which consisted largely of formerly enslaved African Americans of the Lowcountry. One example of Smalls’ influence as a leading politician comes from a letter written by Robert Smalls on August 24, 1876. Smalls was writing to South Carolina Governor Daniel Chamberlain reporting on a strike in the Rice Districts of the state. Smalls noted that the strikers were not receiving money for their services, and were being overcharged for the goods and services needed to live. Smalls ended his letter by asking Governor Chamberlain to end the system of checks, in order to restore peace to the rice districts of the Lowcountry. A resolution to the conflict came when the planters agreed to pay cash to their employees. Smalls died at his home in Beaufort on February 23, 1915, and he is buried in the cemetery at Tabernacle Baptist Church.
Primary Sources (in addition to the historic sites) Simmons, William J., 1887. Men of Mark: Eminent, Progressive and Rising. Documenting the American South. University Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2000. http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/simmons/. Smalls, Robert to Governor Daniel Chamberlain, 24 August 1876. Papers of Governor Daniel Chamberlain. S518024 Box 14. South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia, South Carolina. www.teachingushistory.org/documents/SmallsLetter.htm. Secondary Sources Miller, Edward A. Gullah Statesman: Robert Smalls from Slavery to Congress, 1839-1915. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1995.
Perlin, Don. The Life of Robert Smalls. New York: Golden Legacy, Illustrated History Magazine. Fitzgerald Publishing Company Inc., 1970. South Carolina State Historic Preservation Office, “Robert Smalls House, Beaufort County, South Carolina,” National Register of Historic Places nomination, www.nationalregister.sc.gov/beaufort/S10817707017.
1. Display an image of Robert Smalls such as one found online or in Edward Miller’s book, Gullah Statesmen. “Documenting the American South” has an image of Smalls located at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/ simmons/simm165.jpg. The website has the full text of a book published in 1887 by William Simmons called Men of Mark: Eminent, Progressive and Rising (http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/simmons/). The book features a chapter on Robert Smalls beginning on page 165. Images of The Planter are available online as well. 2. Tell students the story of Robert Smalls based on information in the essay above, the National Register of Historic Places Nomination for the Robert Smalls House (www.nationalregister.sc.gov/beaufort/ S10817707017), and from the book by William Simmons.
3. Discuss the roles of African Americans during the Civil War and Reconstruction, especially Smalls’ role as a legislator and his efforts as one of the founders of the Republican Party in South Carolina. Review South Carolina’s 1868 Constitution (found online at www. teachingushistory.org/tTrove/1868Constitution.htm). 4. Give students a copy of the letter from Robert Smalls to Governor D.H. Chamberlain from August 1876 regarding tensions between rice workers and landowners along the Combahee River. Go to www. teachingushistory.org/documents/SmallsLetter.htm to find the letter and additional information. Read and discuss this letter using a glossary of terms. This glossary is located online at www.teachingushistory.org/documents/Glossary.doc. 5. Use a PAST handout to analyze the letter (www.teachingushistory.org/documents/PAST.DOC).
Students will complete the Robert Smalls Assessment that consists of multiple choice questions and an essay found at www.teachingushistory.org/documents/assessment_000.doc).
AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN IN EDUCATION Ellen Bagby
Beltline Campus, Midlands Technical College Properties: President’s Home of Harbison College (Abbeville) (Attended by Jane Edna Hunter) African American School Site (Anderson) (Attended by Jane Edna Hunter) Voorhees College Historic District (Bamberg) (Founded by Elizabeth Evelyn Wright) Birthplace of Mary McLeod Bethune (Sumter) Properties not listed: Woodburn Plantation (Anderson) Mayesville (Sumter) Standard Indicators: 8-4.4; USHC-5.7 Literacy Elements: B, E, O, P
1. How did African American women influence education post-reconstruction and during the Jim Crow era? 2. Where were the sites of emerging education that African American women influenced or founded?
In ten short years from 1872 to 1882 three southern women were born who would help to form social networks and enact social reform to make education an attainable goal. Elizabeth Evelyn Wright, Mary McLeod Bethune and Jane Edna Hunter were African American women who participated in the transformation from slavery to the classroom. Life was difficult in the aftermath of the Civil War and the beginnings of an approaching industrial era. Poverty, illiteracy and exploitation were the norm for African Americans. These women knew it was through education that freedom would truly be attained. Elizabeth Evelyn Wright was born on April 3, 1872 in Talbotton, Georgia. She was one of twenty-one children growing up in the rural South reeling with poverty and with little means of supporting oneself. At age fourteen she found an advertisement urging poor African Americans to enroll in Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama. She went to Tuskegee and graduated in 1894. She promised herself she would found a school much like her mentor, Booker T. Washington, had done at Tuskegee. Following her dream, Elizabeth bought land in South Carolina and opened Denmark Industrial School on April 14, 1897. Its humble beginnings with fourteen students grew when Ralph Voorhees, a blind philanthropist from New Jersey, and his wife, Elizabeth, donated money to the school, which was later renamed in the Voorhees’ honor. The name changed once again in the 1940s and lastly in the 1960s to Voorhees College. Unfortunately, Elizabeth Wright died at the early age of 34 in 1908.
Mary McLeod Bethune (d. 1955) was born on July 10, 1875 in Mayesvile, South Carolina. She was one of seventeen children whose parents had been former slaves. She entered Presbyterian Mission School in Mayesville when she was eleven years old. In 1893 she graduated from Scotia Seminary, a school for African American girls in Concord, North Carolina and then Moody Bible Institute. Her role as an educator took her to Daytona Beach, Florida where she opened Daytona Literacy School for Training Negro Girls in 1904 with six students. In 1912 she gained considerable financial help from James Gamble of Proctor and Gamble. In 1923 Bethune’s school merged with Cookman Institute of Jacksonville, Florida, which was a school for boys, and Bethune-Cookman College was born. Jane Edna Hunter (d. 1971) was born on December 13, 1892 on Woodburn Farm near Pendleton, South Carolina. In 1896, at the age of 14, she attended a boarding school on the campus of Ferguson and Williams College (renamed Harbison College in 1898) in Abbeville, South Carolina. Jane relocated to Charleston, South Carolina for work after an unhappy marriage to Edward Hunter, where she 101 entered Cannon Street Hospital and Training School for Nurses with the help of friends. In 1904 she completed advanced training at Dixie Hospital and Training School and at Hampton Institute in Virginia. Jane moved to Cleveland, Ohio to seek employment and felt firsthand the difficulties of an African American woman in a large city. With the help of friends she founded the Working Girls’ Home Association where unemployed women could find shelter, resources, and education. By 1912 the home was expanded and known as the Phillis Wheatley Association. In 1925 Jane passed the Ohio bar examination having graduated from Baldwin-Wallace Law School in Cleveland. Her autobiography, A Nickel and A Prayer, tells of her struggles and was published in 1940. She went on to found the Women’s Civic League in 1943.
Primary Sources (in addition to the historic sites) Bethune, Mary McLeod to Booker T. Washington. 3 November 1902 in Mary McLeod Bethune: Building a Better World, eds. Audrey T. McCluskey and Elaine M. Smith. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999. Hunter, Jane Edna. A Nickel and a Prayer. Cleveland, OH: Elli Kani Publishing Co., 1940. Secondary Sources Barton, Rebecca C. Witnesses For Freedom. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1948.
Blight, David W. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001. Bodie, Idella. South Carolina Women. Orangeburg, SC: Sandlapper Publishing, Inc., 1978. Jones, Adrienne Lash. Jane Edna Hunter: A Case Study of Black Leadership, 1910-1950. Brooklyn, NY: Carlson Publishing, Inc., 1990. Jeffries, Dr. Leonard, Jr. “The African Americans Search for Truth and Knowledge: African American Educators and Their Sacred Mission,” http://africawithin.com/jeffries/ aapart29.htm (accessed 9 January 2008). Peterson, Carla. “Lifting as We Climb: African American Women and Social Activism: 1880-1920,” in Beth Savage, ed., African American Historic Places. Washington, DC: Preservation Press, 1994. South Carolina Department of Archives and History. “African American Historic Places in South Carolina.” Columbia: South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 2007. South Carolina State Historic Preservation Office, “Harbison College President’s Home, Abbeville County, South Carolina,” National Register of Historic Places nomination, www.nationalregister.sc.gov/abbeville/ S10817701010/index.htm. _____. “Voorhees College Historic District, Orangeburg, South Carolina,” National Register of Historic Places nomination, www.nationalregister.sc.gov/bamberg/ S10817705009/index.htm.
1. Have students imagine that they are someone like Elizabeth Evelyn Wright, Mary McLeod Bethune, or Jane Edna Hunter growing up African American in South Carolina between the years 1877 and 1900. Have them make a plan for their future. They need to be specific as to how they would get an education. 2. Discuss where African Americans might turn to get an education (churches, communities, missionaries, Northerners) between the years 1877 to 1900. 3. Have students write a chronological sketch of Jane Edna Hunter, Elizabeth Evelyn Wright, and Mary McLeod Bethune and tell how these women furthered education.
1. Students write letters to one of the women studied asking for advice in furthering their education. Other students would answer their letters. 2. Students write obituaries for Jane Edna Hunter, Elizabeth Evelyn Wright, and Mary McLeod Bethune.
1. Locate places where African Americans received an education between the years 1865 and 1945. 2. Visit a historically black college or university in South Carolina and learn its history. 3. Create a South Carolina map showing where African Americans might turn for educational opportunities. 4. Visit one of the three sites associated with Jane Edna Hunter, Elizabeth Evelyn Wright, or Mary McLeod Bethune.
IF THESE STONES COULD SPEAK Linda F. Hardin
Tanglewood Middle School, Greenville County School District Property: Richland Cemetery (Greenville) Standard Indicators: 8-5.1 Literacy Elements: G, S, U
1. What can we learn about Greenville’s African American population from the inscriptions on tombstones in Richland Cemetery? Consider community leaders, talents, professions, religions, personal interests and other factors. 2. How do African American burial customs in Richland reflect the African origins of the people buried there? 3. What inferences can we make about the life spans and health of the African American population of Greenville, SC from 1900 to the present from surveying Richland Cemetery?
Taken from 2007 African American Historic Places in South Carolina pg. 34. Richland Cemetery was established by the City of Greenville in 1884 as its first municipal cemetery for African Americans. It was named for nearby Richland Creek. Today the cemetery occupies approximately six acres on a small hill northeast of downtown Greenville in a traditionally African American area known as the Greenline-Spartanburg neighborhood. After the Civil War African Americans were generally excluded from white cemeteries. Richland Cemetery is a rare example of a municipal African American cemetery established in the late nineteenth century. The establishment of the cemetery led to the development of a self-sustaining African American community in downtown Greenville when in 1886 a portion of it was divided into ten building lots and sold. Richland is the final resting place of many of Greenville’s most notable African American educators, health practitioners, and community leaders. The cemetery also features a variety of landscape features, funerary art, and cultural artifacts that distinguish it as a traditional African American cemetery.
Primary Sources (in addition to the historic site) “African-American Heritage in Colleton, Dorchester, and Bamberg Counties,” www.oldplaces.org/Colleton/ AfricanAm/. This site, part of the SCGenWeb Project, has photographs, genealogical resources, and general historical resources. It contains a large variety of links to other sources. “African-Americans in The South Carolina Room,” http:// hometown.aol.com/pastense2/scroom.htm. This site
provides studies of church archives and cemeteries done by the WPA in the 1930s. Secondary Sources “African-American Cemeteries in South Carolina,” http://africanamericancemeteries.com/sc/. This site provides lists of names for selected African American cemeteries in South Carolina. Unfortunately, there are many cemeteries listed that have broken links to the name lists. Aheron, Piper Peters. Greenville: Images of America. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 1999. Aheron has assembled excellent photographs of Greenville in the early 1900s. Chicora Foundation, Inc. “Grave Matters,” www.sciway. net/hist/chicora/gravematters.html. The information on this webpage, provided by the Chicora Foundation, provides an overview of the history of African American cemeteries, maps, songs, the differences between African American and European American cemeteries, archeological research in the cemeteries, locations of cemeteries, and methods of cemetery preservation. The site demonstrates the importance of the cemeteries not only as a final resting place, but also as a storehouse of African American history. See Chicora’s informational website specifically about cemetery preservation at http://chicora.org. “Find a Grave,” www.findagrave.com/. If you wish to find the grave of a specific South Carolina figure, you can browse by state and then the grave locations are indexed by the person’s name. Students could compose grave listings for South Carolina’s African American leaders and tell others where their graves are located. “Greenvillesouth.com,” www.greenvillesouth.com/history. html. This site has an eclectic collection of history information and links, not only for Greenville County, but also for the upcountry and the state. Helsley, Alexia Jones. Silent Cities: Cemeteries and Classrooms. Columbia, SC: South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1997. Available online at www.state.sc.us/scdah/silentcities.pdf. Helsley has a comprehensive overview of cemetery research methods including many activities for the classroom. Huff, Archie Vernon, Jr. Greenville: The History of City and County in the South Carolina Piedmont. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1999. Dr. Huff’s careful review of Greenville history has details of African American history interwoven throughout the book. McGahee, Susan, and Mary W. Edmonds. South Carolina’s Historic Cemeteries: A Preservation Handbook.
Columbia: South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1997. Available only online at www.state. sc.us/scdah/hstcm.pdf. This handbook helps create a plan for the maintenance and preservation of historic cemeteries. Methods and additional resources are discussed. South Carolina State Historic Preservation Office. “Richland Cemetery, Greeenville County, South Carolina,” National Register of Historic Places nomination. www.nationalregister.sc.gov/greenville/ S10817723060/index.htm. This nomination provides a brief description of Richland Cemetery, its significance to Greenville, and site images. It also includes an extensive bibliography of published and unpublished primary and secondary resource materials. _____. “African American Historic Places in South Carolina.” Columbia: South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 2007. This publication was used to supply the historic content for the lesson. “Tombstone Transcription Project,” www.rootsweb. com/~cemetery/southcarolina/scarolina.html. This site provides links to counties and cemeteries in which tombstones have been listed or transcribed. The exact location of each cemetery is listed and photos can be accessed.
Greenville Cultural Exchange Center, Greenville, South Carolina Ruth Ann Butler and the directors of the Cultural Exchange were instrumental in having Richland Cemetery designated as an historical site. They have artifacts from prominent African American citizens, a cemetery map, and many biographical details about Greenville’s African American community.
1. What can we learn about Greenville’s African American population from the inscriptions on tombstones in Richland Cemetery? Consider community leaders, talents, professions, religions, personal interests and other factors. a. Students will visit Richland Cemetery, using a cemetery map from the Greenville Cultural Exchange. They will take photographs of selected tombstones and transcribe the inscriptions. Using the dates of death, the students can find out more about selected individuals from newspaper obituaries, city directories, and secondary resources. Students can also rewrite a brief inscription so that it is more reflective of the person’s life, or create an inscription that accurately describes accomplishments. Students will also complete a checklist of the talents, professions, religious beliefs, personal interests, or
other factors found during the cemetery visit. 2. How do African American burial customs in Richland reflect the African origins of the people buried there? a. Using Silent Cities: Cemeteries and Classrooms, as well as internet research on African American burial customs, students will create a list of customs or tomb styles typical of African American origins. Then, during the cemetery visit, students will look for and document with photos, evidence of these customs at Richland Cemetery. They may present their findings in a PowerPoint presentation or in a poster format. 3. What inferences can we make about the life spans and health of the African American population of Greenville, SC from 1900 to the present from surveying Richland Cemetery? a. Using a cemetery survey form, available at http://csiwebquest.org/CSIExpert/forms/Cemetery_ Survey_Form.pdf or the form on page 27 of Silent
Cities: Cemeteries and Classrooms, record dates of birth and death for as many graves as possible. List ages at death. About how long did most African Americans live during different decades? Are there dates when many deaths occur? What events might have caused these deaths? Look at the graves of children. Are there more deaths of children in certain time periods? Students can display their findings in charts or graphs of various decades, making conclusion statements about each data display.
1. Students will create a video and photo documentary of Richland Cemetery. They will use photographs of graves, live video footage taken at the cemetery, interviews with Ruth Ann Butler (Director of the Greenville Cultural Exchange Center), members of the Friends of Richland Cemetery, or other experts on the history of Greenville’s African American community. The documentary will present the major conclusions about the African American community gained from the cemetery study. They will distribute copies of the DVD to the public library, the Upstate Historical Museum, school libraries and churches. 2. Students will create a cemetery brochure that includes a map, locations of the most notable graves, especially those of important Greenville citizens, graves that show cultural heritage, and the qualities that make Richland Cemetery a unique historical site. 3. Students will create video podcasts that could be posted online on the school website of 2-3 minutes in length that describe and illustrate various aspects of the cemetery.
1. Visit sites like the Greenville Cultural Exchange Center and the Upstate History Museum. Students will have lesson, interview, or summary forms to complete at each location. 2. Read selections from Spoon River Anthology by Edgar Lee Masters. Create Spoon River style monologues for the people of Richland Cemetery giving details of African American life in Greenville between 1890 and 1960. Perform the speeches using tombstone photos or grave rubbings as a setting for the performance. 3. Use the obituary section of the Greenville News to read about Greenville citizens. Ideally, a newspaper reporter could visit the class and talk about the methods of writing an effective obituary. Create an obituary page for Richland Cemetery featuring prominent or unusual people who are buried there.
4. Visit the South Carolina Room of the Greenville Public Library to see the cemetery survey books. Contact the Friends of Richland Cemetery to determine what they have already surveyed or how your students’ efforts can be used to assist them. Consult South Carolina’s Historic Cemeteries: A Preservation Handbook written by Susan McGahee and Mary W. Edmonds for information about the techniques used to create an effective cemetery survey for Richland Cemetery that would allow the most important features to be explored. Publish the survey in the South Carolina Room. 5. Using information about Greenville’s prominent African Americans in Richland Cemetery, post photos of the graves and biographies of the citizens online at www.findagrave.com/. 6. Interview a genealogist about the use of cemetery records to research family history.
AMEN! SCHOOLS IN! Sherie Sawyer
Latta Elementary School, Dillon School District 3 Properties: Mt. Zion Rosenwald School (Florence) Mt. Zion Methodist Church (Florence) St. James Rosenwald School (Horry) Hope Rosenwald School (Newberry) Howard Jr. High School (Newberry) Great Branch Teacherage (Orangeburg) Standard Indicators: 5-1.5; 8-5.1; 8-7.4 Literacy Elements: E, G, H, P
1. How did discriminatory laws affect the academic opportunities of African Americans in the Southeast? a. How was the Plessy v. Ferguson decision used to develop Jim Crow laws in the South and specifically South Carolina? b. How did Jim Crow Laws affect educational opportunities for African Americans? c. How did local churches and programs like the Rosenwald Fund attempt to improve African American education in the South and specifically South Carolina? d. How did Rosenwald educational facilities compare to white educational facilities in the same area during Jim Crow segregation?
In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the U.S. Supreme Court decided that a Louisiana law mandating separate but equal accommodations for blacks and whites on intrastate railroads was constitutional. This decision provided the legal foundation to justify many other actions by state and local governments to socially separate blacks and whites. This separation was evident in education throughout South Carolina. From 1877 to the 1970s, several Southern states enacted and maintained formal and informal rules limiting the legal rights of African Americans. These rules were known as Jim Crow laws, named after a minstrel character (white musical performer who portrayed blacks negatively). The rules were meant to maintain white supremacy. South Carolina had twenty-two formal Jim Crow laws and six specifically related to education. Separate schools meant that authorities did not have to guarantee an adequate education for blacks or have to maintain black schools at the same level. Segregated schools also reinforced feelings of inferiority among black children and superiority among whites. Many South Carolina African American communities already had a legacy of providing educational opportunities for their children when others could not be found. Unfortunately, due to unequal funding, many of
these schools were either held in churches or one-room shanties that provided for neither adequate lighting nor ventilation. Because of the inadequacies of black public and private schools and the high value of education among African Americans, community and church leaders were always seeking better educational opportunities for their children. In 1912, Julius Rosenwald, a northern philanthropist and president of Sears & Roebuck at the turn of the twentieth century, worked with Booker T. Washington to help fund the construction of five schools near Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. Rosenwald was keenly aware of the deplorable state of educational facilities for African American children throughout the South and saw building quality schoolhouses as a way to supplement the monies spent on black education. From this small effort began a matching grant fund that launched a 20-year regional building program that encompassed 15 southeastern states and over 5,300 schools, shops, and teacher’s homes. At a time when State support for educating African American children was woefully inadequate, Rosenwald Schools played a critical role in educating South Carolina’s African American children. Generally, to receive a Rosenwald Fund matching grant for the construction of a school, one-third of the funds had to come from the community. This one-third could be in the form of labor, land, money or any other monetary resource. The state and/or local government had to provide one-third of the money also. Once these requirements were met, the Rosenwald Fund provided the remaining one-third of the necessary funds. Once 500 Rosenwald school buildings dotted the South Carolina landscape. They were built using mandated school plans created by an architect funded solely by the Rosenwald fund. The communities that built these schools were willing to work hard and sacrifice financially and in many other ways to build adequate schools for their children. Though African Americans paid taxes into the public school system, they were required to raise additional funds to build the schools and in some cases donate land to the public school system to have these schools built. The Rosenwald Schools were greatly needed and appreciated, but often they still did not compare in size and equipment to their local white school counterparts. The Mars Bluff (white) and Mt. Zion (black) schools were a prime example of this inequality. It has taken many laws, the strength of great people and many years to improve education and educational facilities for all. The Rosenwald Schools were a step in the right direction to correct the inequality found in African American schools during segregation.
Primary Sources (in addition to the historic sites) Jim Crow History. “Jim Crow Laws: South Carolina.”
www.jimcrowhistory.org/scripts/jimcrow/insidesouth. cgi?state=South%20Carolina (accessed January 31,
2008). Know It All. “Mt. Zion Rosenwald School.” www.knowitall. org/roadtrip/cr-flash/flash.cfm (accessed January 31, 2008). Pictures of Julius Rosenwald South Carolina Department of Archives and History. “Mars Bluff School.” www.archivesindex.sc.gov/onlinearchives/ Thumbnails.aspx?recordid=240196 (accessed February 2, 2008). _____. “Mars Bluff Colored School.” www.archivesindex.
(accessed February 2, 2008). Secondary Sources Anderson, James D. Black Education in the South, 18601935. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988. Ascoli, Peter M. Julius Rosenwald: The Man Who Built Sears, Roebuck and Advanced the Cause of Black Education in the American South. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2006. Hoffschwelle, Mary S. The Rosenwald Schools of the American South. New Perspectives on the History of the South, ed. John David Smith, 2006. “Jim Crow Laws.” Junior Scholastic, 107(13) (Skills Master 1). National Trust for Historic Preservation. “The Rosenwald Schools Initiative.” www.rosenwaldschools.com/index.html. Ourdocuments.org. “Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).” www. ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=52
(accessed January 31, 2008). “Rosenwald, Julius.” Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. http://gme.grolier.com/cgi-bin/ article?assetid=0250550-0. “Rosenwald, Julius.” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., reproduced in Kids InfoBits. http://galenet.galegroup. com/servlet/KidsInfoBits.
South Carolina State Historic Preservation Office. “Great Branch Teacherage, Orangeburg County, South Carolina,” National Register of Historic Places nomination. www.nationalregister.sc.gov/orangeburg/ S10817738039/index.htm. _____. “Hope Rosenwald School, Newberry County, South Carolina,” National Register of Historic Places nomination. www.nationalregister.sc.gov/newberry/ S10817736031/index.htm. _____. “Howard Junior High School, Newberry County, South Carolina,” National Register of Historic Places nomination. www.nationalregister.sc.gov/newberry/ S10817736030/index.htm. _____. “Mt. Zion Rosenwald School, Florence County, South Carolina.” National Register of Historic Places nomination. www.nationalregister.sc.gov/florence/ S10817721020/index.htm.
Steamer, Robert J. “Plessy v. Ferguson.” Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. http://gme.grolier.com/cgi-bin/ article?assetid=0230580-0. Street Law and the Supreme Court Historical Society. “Landmark Supreme Court Cases: Plessy v. Ferguson.” www.landmarkcases.org/plessy/home.html (accessed January 31, 2008).
1. Choose one of the historic sites above. Read and discuss its historical background. Check for prior knowledge and connect to past learning during the discussion time. 2. Share pictures and background information on the schools found on the South Carolina Department of Archives and History websites. The Mt. Zion Rosenwald School has a virtual tour on www.knowitall.org/. 3. Give a brief but detailed description of the founder of the Rosenwald Fund and share his portrait and purpose for setting up the fund. 4. Give specific information about the community and church leaders that helped build Rosenwald Schools in your area. Example: pictures, church histories, newspaper articles. 5. Read the South Carolina Jim Crow Laws that effected education and led to the need for Rosenwald Schools. www.jimcrowhistory.org/scripts/jimcrow/insidesouth. cgi?state=South%20Carolina.
6. Compare white schools during the same time period with the Rosenwald Schools in the same area. Use a Venn diagram. Use the knowitall.org website. 7. Discuss the need and importance of the Rosenwald School in your area.
1. The class will create a picture story of a Rosenwald School using knowitall.org and/or South Carolina Department of Archives and History website.
2. Each student will use the pictures and historical background discussed and shared in class to write a summary of the history of a Rosenwald School. 3. The students will write about their experience as a student attending a Rosenwald School using their summary of the historical background information discussed and shared during the lesson. Each student or group of students will include pictures found on the knowitall.org and South Carolina Department of Archives and History website.
1. Use a Rosenwald School to create a diorama. 2. Create an Acrostic Poem describing a Rosenwald School. 3. Jim Crow Must Go! Rewrite the law or create a political cartoon (propaganda) showing why Jim Crow Must Go! 4. Create an advertisement showing the criteria that has to be met to build a Rosenwald school. Remember, it has to be inviting and simple.
TRAVELING SOUTHERN STYLE Valentina Cochran
Pine Grove Elementary School, Richland County School District 1 Lesson can be found online at www.teachingushistory.org/travelingsouthernstyle.html Property: Atlantic Beach (Horry) Harriet M. Cornwell Tourist Home (Richland) Standard Indicators: 3-5.2; 8-7.2; 8-7.3 Literary Elements: A, E, G, H, K, L, O, P
1. How did Jim Crow laws make travel different for African Americans? 2. Where did African American travelers find lodging during the Jim Crow era?
Traveling during The Jim Crow Era exposed African Americans to both risk and humiliation. Crossing the Mason-Dixon Line or the Ohio River meant entering a different world with different laws. While traveling basic necessities were needed such as food, gas, water, restrooms and maybe an overnight hotel stay. Stopping for these necessities in the South was dangerous for African Americans due to Jim Crow segregation laws. Seeing signs enforcing segregation and denial of service were a common part of life for African Americans living and traveling in the South. While traveling by train the conductor was sure to let passengers know which sections were for “whites” and “colored.” The train stations also had separate entrances, ticket offices, restrooms and waiting rooms. “White Only” signs hung above restaurant entrances, gas stations, and other public facilities. Parks, benches, movie theaters and hospitals were also segregated. Many restaurants served blacks through a door or window at the rear of the building, not allowing them to sit in the dining area. Most stores practiced segregation by making people of color wait until the white people were served first. Blacks were forbidden to try on hats, clothes or shoes in the store. Public libraries were closed to African Americans in the South. While traveling south during the Jim Crow Era travelers had to pass through small towns where knowledge of the local unwritten Jim Crow laws was very important. Blacks could be stopped at anytime and forced to state their reason for being in a certain place at a certain time. Local people in small towns knew where the whites and blacks were allowed to mix such as the post office, banks and certain stores. Blacks were often warned not to let the sun go down on them in certain towns. Traveling during this time presented great danger. Victor Green, publisher and owner of The Negro Travelers’ Green Book began publishing the book in 1936. It offered “Assured Protection for the Negro Traveler.”
Green created the book from his own personal experiences while traveling. His encounters and those of his friends were often described as painful embarrassments, which ruined the vacation or business trip. (Green 1956, 5) Two properties listed in The Negro Travelers’ Green Book were the Harriet M. Cornwell Tourist Home in Columbia and the Theretha Hotel in Atlantic Beach, both in South Carolina. Harriet Cornwell, known for her community activism, provided travelers to Columbia with an alternative to staying in the two black hotels in town. At her house was a comfortable place to stay with one meal a day provided. She only required guests to pay what they could. While white travelers had no problems getting rooms or food, the Cornwell Tourist Home, which never advertised with signs, is an example of how much people of color depended on word of mouth for an enjoyable traveling experience. Not much is known about the Theretha Hotel, but Atlantic Beach became a popular destination for African Americans as early as the 1930s. Nicknamed “the Black Pearl,” Atlantic Beach is a 4-block stretch of beach from 29th to 32nd streets surrounded by North Myrtle Beach on three sides and the Atlantic Ocean on the other. Atlantic Beach was not only segregated by land with barricades at 29th and 32nd Street but barricade wire also ran into the water. The land barricades still remain today that block off Ocean Boulevard on either side from Atlantic Beach. During segregation Atlantic Beach was one of the most popular beaches for blacks on the East Coast from Virginia to Florida. Even nationally-known black entertainers like Ray Charles and James Brown who performed in Myrtle Beach had to stay in Atlantic Beach because of Jim Crow Laws. Incorporated in 1966, Atlantic Beach may be the only black-owned and governed oceanfront community in the United States.
Primary Sources (in addition to the historic sites) South Carolina ETV Roadshow. “Atlantic Beach.” YouTubeTM. www.youtube.com/watch?v=zKldzJqmUVc&feature=related. The Negro Motorist Green Book. New York: Victor H. Green and Company, 1949. From the Collections of Henry Ford, in partnership with the University of Michigan. www.autolife.umd.umich.edu/Race/R_Casestudy/Negro_ motorist_green_bk.htm.
The Negro Travelers’ Green Book. New York: Victor H. Green and Company, 1956. Published Materials Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina. Selected portions of this source are online at www.teachingushistory.org/tTrove/ blackandwhitetourism.htm.
State Development Board. Tourism Promotional Brochure. S149013. South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia, South Carolina. www.
The Town of Atlantic Beach, www.atlanticbeachsc.com/ asps/index.asp. Secondary Sources Cooper, Michael L. Bound for the Promised Land: The Great Migration. New York: Lodestar Books, 1995. Dawson, George and Richard Glaubman. Life Is So Good. New York: Penguin Books, 2000. Litwack, Leon F. Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998. South Carolina State Historic Preservation Office. “Harriet M. Cornwell Tourist Home, Richland County,” National Register of Historic Places nomination. www.nationalregister.sc.gov/richland/S10817740141/ index.htm.
Taylor, Mildred. The Gold Cadillac. New York: Scholastic, 1987.
1. Students will read aloud and discuss The Gold Cadillac by Mildred Taylor. The students will use the book for building background and prior knowledge to discuss some of the problems African Americans faced while traveling South during the 1950s. 2. Students will compare travel guides (The Negro Travelers’ Green Book, The Negro Motorist Green Book, and the South Carolina Tourism Promotional Brochure that was intended for white travelers). Students might also compare these travel guides with modern travel guides provided today by the state of South Carolina (www.discoversouthcarolina.com). Students can discuss the differences between travel guides of the past and present.
3. Students will pretend that they are traveling to Columbia from another part of the state that includes an overnight stay. They will create a poster showing the route they will travel, including signs and stops along the way. 4. Students will write a two-paragraph essay explaining and comparing a trip taken by an African American family and one by a white family during the Jim Crow era. Students could also pretend that they are leaving South Carolina to a city in the North, such as Chicago, Detroit, or New York, making the same comparisons. Students should read selections in the 1949 Green Book and 1956 Green Book (cited above) in order to describe conditions for African Americans traveling during the Jim Crow era. 5. Drawing on their personal experiences of traveling within and outside the state, have students compare traveling during the Jim Crow era to today by creating a poster and writing a two-paragraph essay.
Descriptive Poster and Essay. See Project Rubric on next page.
Traveling Southern Style Project Rubric
The writing assignment must include two paragraphs. The first paragraph must describe four stops listed in either the 1949 Green Book or the 1956 Green Book. Students should read pages 1-7 of the 1949 Green Book and pages 3-7 of the 1956 Green Book to learn more about the emotions of African Americans who traveled in the Jim
Crow South. Posters must include features listed below to receive points toward this assignment. Illustrations from either Green Book may be copied and printed to create the poster. Other images from the web may be used. Be sure to include images from the Jim Crow era as well as from today.
Total Points Possible Student Grade First Paragraph
Description of 4 Stops from Green Book
Explanation of Feelings
Reasons to Visit Particular Stops
Second Paragraph 2 Stops Today
3 Ways Travel Differs Today
Poster Route of states in order
Pictures of 4 Stops
4 Stops labeled
4 Jim Crow Signs
INTEGRATION WITH DIGNITY Cleo Crank
Greenville Tech Charter High School, Greenville County School District Properties: Integration with Dignity, 1963 (Pickens) Liberty Hill Church (Clarendon) Summerton High School (Clarendon) Sterling High School (Greenville) Marysville School (Spartanburg) McCrory’s Civil Rights Sit-Ins (York) Standard Indicators: 3-5.2; 3-5.6; 5-5.3; 8-7.4; USHC-9.1; USHC-9.5 Literacy Elements: E, G, K, O, P, S
1. What constitutes segregation? a. How is segregation different from racial separation? b. How did Brown v. Board of Education promote racial equality? 2. Why was the nation changing established views on racial segregation? a. What was the national response to mandated desegregation? b. How did the state of South Carolina respond? 3. What were some significant places affected by the Civil Rights Movement in the South Carolina Upstate?
The moniker “Integration with Dignity” that is embossed on the historical marker on Clemson University’s campus in Pickens county suggests that South Carolina’s engagement with the Civil Rights Movement and the desegregation of many schools is unique. While South Carolina’s decision to end school segregation can be traced back to Clarendon County in the Briggs v. Elliott case, it was later combined with Brown and desegregation cases from Virginia, the District of Columbia, and Delaware and renamed Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas so the nation would not see the case as just a southern issue. This case eventually mandated racial integration in all public schools nationwide. Many areas in America reacted with protests and violence. In contrast, the upstate of South Carolina witnessed very little civil unrest and managed desegregation with dignity and grace. This lesson will help high school students explore the events of the Civil Rights Movement and the sites of racial separation and segregation. Students will gain a broader understanding about how different people in different regions reacted and eventually accepted the changing times.
Primary sources (in addition to the historic sites) Civil Rights Movement photos from South Carolina Archives and History Center (www.scdah.sc.gov) and the Library of Congress (www.loc.gov). Jim Crow History, “South Carolina Segregation Laws,” www.jimcrowhistory.org/scripts/jimcrow/insidesouth. cgi?state=South%20Carolina.
Photos of historical sites Williams, Cecil J. Freedom and Justice: Four Decades of the Civil Rights Struggle as Seen by a Black Photographer of the Deep South. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1995. Also see www.cecilwilliams. com/freedomjusticeimages/gallery.html. Yearbooks from local white high school and black high school during early 1960s Secondary Sources Bast, Kirk K. “ ‘As Different as Heaven and Hell’: The Desegregation of Clemson College.” Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Association (1994): 38-44. Edgar, Walter. South Carolina: A History. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1998. _____. South Carolina in the Modern Age. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1992. Haessly, Lynn. “’We’re Becoming Mayors’: An Interview with Former Sit-In Leader Harvey Gantt, Now Charlotte’s Mayor.” Southern Exposure 14 (1986): 44-51. Horton, James Oliver. Landmarks of African American History. New York City: Oxford University Press, 2005. South Carolina State Historic Preservation Office, “Marysville School, Spartanburg County, South Carolina,” National Register of Historic Places nomination, www.nationalregister.sc.gov/spartanburg/ S10817742058/index.htm. _____. “Summerton High School, Clarendon County, South Carolina,” National Register of Historic Places nomination, www.nationalregister.sc.gov/clarendon/ S10817714006/index.htm.
1. E. Q. - What constitutes segregation? Opening hook: Randomly select 20% of students to represent those who are “segregated” — provide the other 80% with laptops to use, new pencils and pads, new markers, etc. Give to the other 20% old, used, outdated supplies. As students protest, explain that they have supplies just like everyone else. Discuss how “equal is not fair.”
2. How did Brown v. Board of Education promote racial equality? Show pictures/yearbooks of Marysville School in Spartanburg and Sterling High School and Greenville High School in Greenville (or your local segregated schools). Have students find proof in the images that the schools were not equal. 3. E.Q. - Why and how was the nation changing established views on racial segregation? Place students in 5 small groups to read summaries of u Jim Crow laws; u the Brown v. Board of Education decision; u early desegregation activities in the South (the Arkansas nine; the University of Mississippi and James Meredith; sit-ins and the Friendship Nine at McCrory’s); u Briggs v. Elliott and Scotts Branch School; and u Clemson University and Harvey Gantt. Each group has one topic. Have students share info on their topics. 4. E.Q. -What were some significant places affected by the Civil Rights Movement in the South Carolina Upstate? Show pictures of historical markers for Sterling High School and Clemson. Show pictures of statue in downtown Greenville to honor Sterling High School. Discuss the importance of recognizing important events, people and locations.
1. Have students write a letter to the editor of the local paper explaining how diversity in public school has benefited them. 2. After generating possible questions, have students interview someone who remembers when integration of public schools began — need to be 50 years old or older. 3. Have students create a presentation on the topics they researched using various creative formats, (i.e. PowerPoint, skits, newspapers). Lesson Activities 1. Visit the Upstate History museum and concentrate on the section on Civil Rights. Have students keep journals of their observations and connections. Based upon these journals, students will complete additional research on a topic of interest to them found in this section and create a presentation for the class. 2. Create a calendar of famous events during the modern Civil Rights Movement. 3. Generate a map of the Upstate showing the location of African American historical places. Plan a one-day trip to see them including mileage, basic info on each and why each is important. 4. Create a digital timeline of Civil Rights events with pictures and music.
ORANGEBURG MASSACRE Dale Evans
Robert E. Howard Middle School, Orangeburg Consolidated School District 5 Properties: All Star Bowling Lanes (Orangeburg) The Orangeburg Massacre (Orangeburg) South Carolina State College Historic District (Orangeburg) Standard Indicators: 3-5.2; 3-5.6; 5-5.3; 8-7.4; USHC-9.5 Literacy Elements: F, K, O, S
1. On what legal grounds did the students feel they were entitled to entrance at All Star Bowling Lanes, the segregated bowling alley? 2. What impact did the Orangeburg Massacre have on the Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina?
On February 8, 1968, African American students protesting the segregation of All Star Bowling Lanes, the city’s only bowling alley, were fired upon by local law enforcement. Three students from South Carolina State College were killed and 28 more were wounded. The Orangeburg Massacre, as it was then called, went on to have a major impact on race relations not only in the state of South Carolina, but on the Civil Rights Movement as a whole.
Primary Sources (in addition to the historic sites) “AAS Envoy Investigates Orangeburg.” The Dartmouth (Hanover, NH), February 29, 1968. “Curfew Imposed by Governor in Orangeburg, S.C.” New York Times, February 10, 1968. Davis, Mike. “Boycott Set in Orangeburg.” The Afro American (Philadelphia Edition), February 17, 1968. Ford, Wally. “Afro-Ams Aid Victims of ‘Atrocities’.” The Dartmouth (Hanover, NH), February 19, 1968. Interviews from actual participants Library of Congress, Washington, DC and online at www.loc.gov. “One Slain, 50 Shot in Carolina.” Atlanta Constitution, February 9, 1968. “Riot Brings Curfew in Carolina.” Atlanta Constitution, February 10, 1968. Trainor, Charles. “Afro-Ams Push Towards Goal of $1750.” The Dartmouth (Hanover, NH), February 29, 1968. Secondary Sources Bass, Jack and Jack Nelson. The Orangeburg Massacre. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1984.
Hine, William C. “Civil Rights and Campus Wrongs: South Carolina State College Students Protest 1955-1968.” South Carolina Historical Magazine vol 97, October 1996. “Orangeburg Massacre: 40th Commemoration Ceremony.” www.orangeburgmassacre1968.com/
Sellers, Cleveland with Robert Terrell. The River of No Return. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1990. South Carolina Educational Television. “RoadTrip! Through SC Civil Rights History,” www.knowitall.org/roadtrip/crflash/flash.cfm, (accessed February 24, 2008). South Carolina State Historic Preservation Office. “All Star Bowling Lanes, Orangeburg County, South Carolina.” National Register of Historic Places nomination,
_____. “ South Carolina State College Historic District, Orangeburg County, South Carolina.” National Register of Historic Places nomination, www.nationalregister. sc.gov/orangeburg/S10817738034/index.htm. Williams, Cecil. Out of the Box in Dixie. Orangeburg: Cecil J. Williams Photography/Publishing, 2007.
1. Students will be given a brief history of the Civil Rights Movement and laws relating to integrating public places in order to examine the “racial barometer” of the 1960s and look at the response of both blacks and whites to Brown v. Board of Education and the integration of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. 2. Using cooperative learning groups, the students will examine issues and outcomes using selected documents, photographs, and film footage of highly publicized protest movements like the Montgomery Bus Boycott, The Sit-In Movement, The Freedom Rides, Voter Registration movements, the Selma March, and urban riots. The Orangeburg Massacre can be introduced by having recorded interviews with actual participants. If this isn’t possible, a synopsis of events using excerpts from secondary sources can be used. Students will again use documents and photographs to examine issues and outcomes specific to the Orangeburg Massacre. 3. This unit can culminate with a guided tour of the sites at South Carolina State University where the Orangeburg Massacre took place.
1. Students can choose from one of the following: a. write an editorial on the Orangeburg Massacre with a call to action for positive change b. create a PowerPoint presentation of the causes and events leading up to the Orangeburg Massacre c. write and perform a poem, song, or rap on the Orangeburg Massacre d. construct a brochure or booklet on the Orangeburg Massacre A rubric or a checklist type of evaluation can be used to assess the above activities. 2. Students can be given grades for participation in group work, class discussion, and the “Ticket out the Door” activities. “Ticket out the Door” questions can include the essential questions, or one of the following questions: a. What does the Orangeburg Massacre tell us about the Civil Rights Movement in 1968? b. What impact did the Orangeburg Massacre have on the Civil Rights Movement in Orangeburg, the state of South Carolina, and the rest of the United States?
Lesson Activities 114
1. Construct an annotated timeline of important civil rights events. 2. Write a dialog between a white conservative southern resident and an African American progressive southern resident on race relations in 1968.
3. Have students do a photograph analysis of any one of the following Cecil William’s photographs relating to the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s:
Photographs: In Pursuit of Human Dignity, Thank God for Mississippi, Prayer on the Green, Ministers Marching for Freedom, Lest We Forget, Colored Rest Room, Hate at Sandy Run, and Beginning of an American Massacre. 4. Write a poem, song, or rap that depicts what they view as issues of the day and hopeful solutions. 5. Interview actual participants of the Orangeburg Massacre. Noted speakers like Cleveland Sellers and Cecil Williams will visit school sites. Visit websites like Road Trip! Through South Carolina Civil Rights History www.knowitall.org/roadtrip/cr-flash/flash.cfm for interviews on the Orangeburg Massacre. 6. Research the Kent State demonstration and do a Venn diagram comparing the Orangeburg Massacre to the Kent State demonstration. 7. Watch or read To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. Explore the relationship between the social and historical context which influenced the author, and the ways in which this novel makes relevant connections to today. Students can also explore one of these concepts: prejudice, intolerance, courage, and/or justice. 8. Dramatize the play A Long Road to Freedom by Fannie Lou Hamer that depicts the author’s struggle for equality when she was refused the right to vote in 1962. The play can be printed from the website ww2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=4788. 9. Students in groups can write and dramatize a play dealing with a civil rights protest.
SOUTH CAROLINA’S AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: “LIFTING AS WE CLIMB” Harmonica R. Hart
Kelly Mill Middle School, Richland School District 2 Time Periods: Properties: Alston House (Richland) Mann-Simons Cottage (Richland) Modjeska Monteith Simkins House (Richland) Standard Indicators: 3-5.6; 8-5.1 Literacy Elements: O, P, S, V
1. What does the motto “Lifting As We Climb” mean? 2. Why did women of color feel it was necessary for them to form an organization to help their gender and their race when few women were politically empowered after the Reconstruction Period? 3. In what ways has the National Association of Colored Women’s Club been beneficial? 4. How did the personal involvement of South Carolina’s African American women contribute to the social and political success of African Americans after the Reconstruction period?
South Carolina’s African American Women: “Lifting As We Climb” tells the story of how South Carolina’s African American women used their education, leadership, and possessions as a means to lift their race from social and political inequality as they themselves climbed to higher positions in society. The empowerment of African American women became most evident as early as 1896 when women of color made the decision to merge two prominent women’s organizations to create the National Association of Colored Women’s Club (NACWC), the oldest African American secular organization designed to combat the social and political issues most important to African American women; issues such as education for women and children, women’s suffrage, anti-lynching and Jim Crow laws. South Carolina native Modjeska Monteith Simkins and the founders and well-known members of the NACWC like Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin, Ida Barnett Wells, and Mary Church Terrell, were examples of women of color who desired to “promote interracial understanding so that justice may prevail among all people.” In addition to this objective, they promoted the education of women. With an education, women were in a position to take a stand for women’s equality and “secure and enforce civil and political rights for the African American race.” Attending college and choosing a career would help women of color advance themselves and their race. Education and leadership allowed women of color to contribute to the cause of equality and “work
for the moral, economic, social, and religious” welfare of all women. Women of color were able to accomplish this goal by offering their possessions to help African American political leaders and their race. For example, during the Antebellum period, Celia Mann, a free African American woman, opened the basement of her home to three prominent black churches for members to come and worship. During Jim Crow segregation, Carolina Alston acquired property to start her own dry goods business, which allowed her to be in a position to serve African American customers. Modjeska Monteith Simkins invited prominent African American political leaders to lodge and carry out political business at her home during the Civil Rights Movement. South Carolina women of color offered their services by opening their homes and their hearts. They welcomed opportunities to help social and political leaders fight for justice and equality in areas of health-care, education, voting, and ending Jim Crow laws and lynching practices. The “aims and interests [of women of color] are identical with those of all good and aspiring women.” Lifting As We 115 Climb symbolizes the dedication of women of color who gave what they had to help their race and themselves. Sources Needed Primary Sources (in addition to the historic sites) National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, Inc. www.nacwc.org. Primary source selected to understand the objectives of the organization and its influences on women of color in South Carolina. Simkins, Modjeska, to The State (Columbia, SC), 18 May 1981. Modjeska Monteith Simkins Papers, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Primary source selected to capture the voice and political and social perspectives of Simkins. “Un-American Activity Group Exhibits List Mrs. Simkins.” News and Courier (Charleston, SC), 23 October 1953. Modjeska Monteith Simkins Papers, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Primary sources selected to analyze the life and work of Modjeska Monteith Simkins. Secondary Sources Peterson, Carla. “Lifting as We Climb: African American Women and Social Activism: 1880-1920,” in Beth Savage, ed., African American Historic Places. Washington, DC: Preservation Press, 1994. Secondary source used to understand how women’s political and social roles developed over the course of the Reconstruction period and how women became political and social leaders.
“Simkins, Modjeska Monteith.” In The South Carolina Encyclopedia, ed. Walter Edgar, 866-867. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2006. Secondary source provided background information about the life and work of Simkins. South Carolina State Historic Preservation Office. “Alston House, Richland County.” National Register of Historic Places nomination, www.nationalregister.sc.gov/ richland/S10817740048/pages/S1081774004801.htm. Secondary source selected to provide an understanding of the significance of the historical site. _____. “Mann-Simons Cottage, Richland County.” National Register of Historic Places nomination, www.nationalregister.sc.gov/richland/S10817740026/ index.htm. Secondary source selected to provide an
understanding of the significance of the historical site. _____. “Modjeska Monteith Simkins House, Richland County.” National Register of Historic Places nomination, www.nationalregister.sc.gov/richland/ S10817740102/index.htm. Secondary source selected to provide an understanding of the significance of the historical site.
Day 1 1. Ask students what does the motto “Lifting As We Climb” mean to them. 2. Introduce students to women of color organizations — National Federation of Afro-American Women, National League of Colored Women, and National Association of Colored Women — and compare these organizations to other women’s organizations established during the same time period using a graphic organizer. 3. Discuss the meaning of the colors and symbols chosen by organizations to represent their goals and objectives. Discuss the National Association of Colored Women’s Club colors and symbols. Day 2 1. Students will read the seven objectives of NACWC and discuss why members of NACWC included each objective. 2. Identify key women of color who were involved in the NACWC and compare their efforts to gain suffrage for women with the efforts of other women’s organizations of the period. Determine how their efforts were alike and how their efforts were different using the organization’s documents and a Venn Diagram to illustrate findings.
Day 3 1. Preview a photograph of Modjeska Montieth Simkins’ historical house and discuss how women of color contributed their possessions to help in the fight for equality. 2. Study other South Carolina historical sites that were instrumental in the fight for equality in areas of health care, education, voting, ending Jim Crow and lynching practices.
1. Written and oral responses to essential questions. 2. Informal and formal lecture quizzes and tests. 3. Create a portfolio of African American Women’s Organizations and their key leaders and prominent members. List the organizations that were set up for and by women, give dates of organizations and goals of each — include primary sources collected (maps, letters, governmental documents, photographs, newspaper clippings).
1. Visit the Mann-Simons Cottage and Modjeska Monteith Simkins House. Take notes, pictures, and study the grounds. Imagine the traffic of people coming in and out of the houses. Draft an analytical poem describing your perspective of one of the houses. 2. Visit the Richland County Public Library Local History Room. Research newspaper clippings on the life and work of Simkins to determine the life Simkins lived in South Carolina. 3. Have students design a collage of South Carolina African American women who were instrumental in the fight for equality and justice in South Carolina. Explain how their contributions impacted South Carolina and African American history. 4. Students can create a Tour Guide Brochure of Simkins’ home. Include in the brochure the history of the home, key people, rooms of significance, a map of the home, directions to the home, and any other interesting facts from primary and secondary sources you have researched. 5. After reading letters to the editor written by and about Simkins, have students write a letter to an editor explaining their views about women activists. Ask if they agree or disagree that African American women should be involved in the fight for equality and justice for African Americans and most importantly for African American women? Have the students explain their responses using information learned from primary and secondary sources.