Ten Truths About Conservation Agriculture and Smallholder Farmers

Ten Truths About Conservation Agriculture and Smallholder Farmers

Ten Truths About Conservation Agriculture and Smallholder Farmers BY HOWARD G. BUFFETT ,QWKH-XO\LVVXHZHSURYLGHGH[DPSOHVRQZKDWZHKDYH...

1MB Sizes 2 Downloads 5 Views

Ten Truths About Conservation Agriculture and Smallholder Farmers BY HOWARD G. BUFFETT ,QWKH-XO\LVVXHZHSURYLGHGH[DPSOHVRQZKDWZHKDYHOHDUQHGGXULQJRXUĦ\HDUH[SHULHQFHZRUNLQJLQFRQVHUYDWLRQ DJULFXOWXUHLQERWKODUJHDQGVPDOOV\VWHPV1RZZHZDQWWRVKDUHZLWK\RXZKDWRWKHUVKDYHOHDUQHG There are growing numbers of smallholder farmers throughout the developing world who are successfully implementing FRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHSUDFWLFHVDGDSWHGWRVSHFL¿FORFDOFRQGLWLRQVDQGH[LVWLQJFURSDQGOLYHVWRFNSURGXFWLRQFXVWRPV$V a result, farmers are using a wide variety of reduced tillage techniques and various means to protect soils with organic ground FRYHUV,WLVFOHDUFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHOLNHDOODJULFXOWXUHSUDFWLFHVRɱHUVQRVLQJOH³VLOYHUĥEXOOHWVROXWLRQ´WKDWVDWLV¿HV HYHU\IDUPFRQGLWLRQ7KHFRQVWUDLQWVDQGDYDLODELOLW\RIQDWXUDOUHVRXUFHVORFDOFOLPDWLFFRQGLWLRQVVRFLRĥHFRQRPLFSROLFLHV DQGRWKHUIDFWRUVDOOKDYHDUROHLQVKDSLQJDIDUPHU¶VDSSURDFK+RZHYHUFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHRɱHUVXQLTXHDQGFULWLFDOO\ĥ QHHGHGVROXWLRQVWRPDQ\RIWKHFKDOOHQJHVDOOIDUPHUVIDFHUHTXLULQJXVWRPDNHHYHU\HɱRUWWRGHYHORSLWVIXOOSRWHQWLDO $ULJRURXVVFLHQWL¿FXQGHUVWDQGLQJRIWKHVXFFHVVIDFWRUVLQYROYHGLQFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHIRUVPDOOKROGHUIDUPHUV LVRQO\QRZEHLQJHVWDEOLVKHG&RQVHTXHQWO\PXFKRIWKHHYLGHQFHWKDWGHPRQVWUDWHVFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUH¶VSRWHQWLDO IRUWKLVJURXSRIIDUPHUVLVGUDZQIURPDOLPLWHGQXPEHURIVXEĥVFDOHGHYHORSPHQWLQLWLDWLYHVDQGXQGHUIXQGHGUHVHDUFKE\ VFLHQWL¿FLQVWLWXWLRQVDQGFLYLOVRFLHW\RUJDQL]DWLRQV We do not have all of the answers but there is no question we need more public and private sector support for research LQWKLVDUHD7KHUHDUHPDQ\SURPLVLQJVLJQVWKDWLQYHVWLQJLQFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHSUDFWLFHVZLOOOHDGWRLPSURYHGIDUPHU OLYHOLKRRGVLQFUHDVHGIRRGVHFXULW\DQGHQKDQFHGORFDODQGJOREDOHQYLURQPHQWDOTXDOLW\([DPSOHVRIKRZLWLVEHLQJVXFĥ FHVVIXOO\LPSOHPHQWHGDQGWKHVFLHQWL¿FUHVHDUFKWKDWLVSURYLGLQJVROXWLRQVWRNH\LVVXHVDUHGLVFXVVHGLQWKHIROORZLQJ RYHUYLHZRIFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUH¶VEDVLFWUXWKVDQGWKHLUDSSOLFDELOLW\WRVPDOOKROGHUIDUPHUV

Truth #1: Smallholder farmers who adopt integrated conservation practices can realize a higher return on investment in terms of labor savings, net income and improved soil quality. ‡

7KH)RRGDQG$JULFXOWXUH2UJDQL]DWLRQRIWKH8QLWHG1DWLRQVĪ)$2īVWXGLHGQHDUO\VPDOOKROGHUIDUPHUVZKR DGRSWHGFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHSUDFWLFHVLQIRXUGLɱHUHQWUHJLRQVRI7DQ]DQLDDQG.HQ\DIROORZLQJWKHLUSDUWLFLSDĥ WLRQ LQ IDUPHU ¿HOG VFKRROV )DUPHUV ZKR DGRSWHG FRQVHUYDWLRQ DJULFXOWXUH VXEVWDQWLDOO\ UHGXFHG WKHLU ODERU LQSXWV ZKLOHDOVRLPSURYLQJWKHLUFURS\LHOGVIURPİĥİRUPRUHRYHUDSHULRGRIWKUHHWRWHQ\HDUV)DUPHUVZKRXVHG DSSURSULDWHGLUHFWVHHGLQJHTXLSPHQWĪHJDPDQXDOµMDEEHU¶īFRXOGSODQWD¿HOGRIKHFWDUHVLQWKUHHWRIRXUKRXUV DVFRPSDUHGWRFRQYHQWLRQDOWLOODJHZKHUHWKUHHSHRSOHZRUNLQJZLWKKDQGKRHVQHHGHGDQHQWLUHGD\Ī6KHWWRHWDO ³&RQVHUYDWLRQ$JULFXOWXUHDV3UDFWLFHGLQ7DQ]DQLD7KUHH&DVH6WXGLHV´ī

‡

With conservation agriculture’s reduced labor and time requirements for planting new crops, farmers are better able to VRZVHHGVGXULQJWKHRSWLPDOSODQWLQJµZLQGRZ¶6WXGLHVLQGLFDWHWKDWIRUHDFKGD\WKDWVHHGLQJLVGHOD\HGSDVWWKHRSWLĥ PDOSODQWLQJSHULRGKDUYHVWHGFURS\LHOGVFDQEHUHGXFHGE\ĥİĪ2ODI(UHQVWHLQ³=HUR7LOODJHLQWKH5LFHĥ:KHDW 6\VWHPV RI WKH ,QGRĥ*DQJHWLF 3ODLQV´ ,)35, 'LVFXVVLRQ 3DSHU   ,QWHUQDWLRQDO )RRG DQG 3ROLF\ 5HVHDUFK ,QVWLWXWH:DVKLQJWRQ'&ī

‡

:LWKWKHHQFRXUDJHPHQWDQGVXSSRUWRIWKH0LQLVWU\RI$JULFXOWXUHDQGVHYHUDOQRQĥJRYHUQPHQWDORUJDQL]DWLRQVĪ1*2Vī PDQ\VPDOOKROGHUIDUPHUVLQ*KDQDKDYHUHSODFHGWKHLUUHOLDQFHRQWUDGLWLRQDOµVODVKDQGEXUQ¶FXOWLYDWLRQPHWKRGVZLWK QRĥWLOODQGFURSUHVLGXHPXOFKLQJSUDFWLFHVWKDWLQFOXGHWKHXVHRIKHUELFLGHVWRFRQWUROZHHGV7KH,QWHUQDWLRQDO0DL]H DQG:KHDW,PSURYHPHQW&HQWHUĪ&,00<7īDQGWKH&URS5HVHDUFK,QVWLWXWHFRQGXFWHG¿HOGVXUYH\VRIIDUPHUVLQ GLɱHUHQWYLOODJHVWRGHWHUPLQHWKHUHODWLYHODERUUHTXLUHPHQWVRIWKHWZRV\VWHPV7KHVHVXUYH\VIRXQGWKDWWKHRYHUDOO IDPLO\ODERULQSXWVZHUHİORZHUIRUWKRVHIDUPHUVZKRDGRSWHGFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHDQGWKHLUPDL]HFURS\LHOGV ZHUHİJUHDWHUWKDQWKRVHDFKLHYHGE\IDUPHUVZKRFRQWLQXHGWRUHO\RQVODVKDQGEXUQSUDFWLFHVĪ-(NERLUHWDO³,Pĥ SDFWRI1Rĥ7LOO7HFKQRORJLHVLQ*KDQD´&,00<7(FRQRPLFV3URJUDP3DSHUĥī

‡

7KH:RUOG)RRG3URJUDPPH¶VĪ:)3ī3XUFKDVHIRU3URJUHVVĪ33īSURJUDPKDVUHSRUWHGWKDWSDUWLFLSDWLQJ1LFDUDĥ guan smallholder farmers’ adoption of conservation agriculture practices has enabled them to reduce their production FRVWVE\İĪ.HQ'DYLHV:)333&RRUGLQDWRUī

‡

7KHFDUERQVHTXHVWUDWLRQSRWHQWLDORIFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHSUDFWLFHVLVYDULDEOH+RZHYHUPDQ\VWXGLHVKDYHVKRZQ WKDWVRLORUJDQLFFDUERQĪ62&DNDFDUERQīOHYHOVXQGHUQRĥWLOODUHPXFKKLJKHULQWKH¿UVWFHQWLPHWHUVRIWRSVRLO WKDQLQVRLOVXQGHUFRQYHQWLRQDOWLOODJHĪHJDSSUR[LPDWHO\İKLJKHUDWD¿YHFPGHSWKDQGİKLJKHUDWDFP GHSWKī62&OHYHOVDUHVLPLODUDWĥFPGHSWKVIRUERWKV\VWHPV0RGHOVLQGLFDWHWKDWWRWDO62&XQGHUFRQVHUYDĥ WLRQDJULFXOWXUHFRXOGEHĥİJUHDWHUWKDQIRUFRQYHQWLRQDOWLOODJHĪ5REHUWHWDO6RLO&DUERQ6HTXHVWUDWLRQIRU ,PSURYHG/DQG0DQDJHPHQW)$2ī

‡

$PHWDDQDO\VLVRIORQJĥWHUPDJULFXOWXUHH[SHULPHQWVWKDWFRPSDUHGVRLOFDUERQVHTXHVWUDWLRQUDWHVEHWZHHQQRĥWLOO DQGFRQYHQWLRQDOWLOODJHSUDFWLFHVIRXQGWKDWWKHWUDQVLWLRQIURPWLOODJHWRQRĥWLOOSUDFWLFHVFRXOGFRQWLQXDOO\VHTXHVWHU DQDYHUDJHNJ&KD\HDURYHUDSHULRGRIĥ\HDUVXQWLOWKH62&OHYHOVUHDFKDVWDEOHHTXLOLEULXPĪ7:HVWDQG :3RVW³6RLO2UJDQLF&DUERQ6HTXHVWUDWLRQ5DWHVE\7LOODJHDQG&URSURWDWLRQ$*OREDO'DWD$QDO\VLV´6RLO6FLHQFH 6RFLHW\RI$PHULFD-RXUQDOī

‡

5DWDQ/DOWKH'LUHFWRURIWKH&DUERQ0DQDJHPHQWDQG6HTXHVWUDWLRQ&HQWHUDW2KLR6WDWH8QLYHUVLW\KDVUHSRUWHG WKDWWKH62&OHYHOVRIQDWXUDOHFRV\VWHPVKDYHEHHQVLJQL¿FDQWO\GHSOHWHGE\KLVWRULFDOODQGPLVXVHDQGSRRUPDQĥ DJHPHQWRIVRLOV/DOQRWHVWKDWLIIDUPHUVDGRSWHG³UHFRPPHQGHGPDQDJHPHQWSUDFWLFHV´WKDWLQFOXGHFRQVHUYDWLRQ DJULFXOWXUHZLWKQRĥWLOOIDUPLQJUHVLGXHPXOFKLQJFRYHUFURSSLQJFURSURWDWLRQVDSSURSULDWHXVHRIERWKRUJDQLFDQG LQRUJDQLFIHUWLOL]HUVDQGRWKHUUHODWHGODQGVWHZDUGVKLSWHFKQLTXHVDSSUR[LPDWHO\WRNJ&KD\HDUFRXOGEH VXVWDLQDEO\VHTXHVWHUHGXQWLODQHZHTXLOLEULXPOHYHORI62&LVDFKLHYHGRYHUDĥ\HDUSHULRGĪ/DO³%H\RQG&Rĥ SHQKDJHQPLWLJDWLQJFOLPDWHFKDQJHDQGDFKLHYLQJIRRGVHFXULW\WKURXJKVRLOFDUERQVHTXHVWUDWLRQ´)RRG6HFXULW\ 6SULQJHUDQG0-DUHFNLDQG5/DO³&DUERQ0DQDJHPHQWIRU6RLO&DUERQ6HTXHVWUDWLRQ´&ULWLFDO5HYLHZVLQ 3ODQW6FLHQFHV9ROī

Truth #2: A combination of education and site-specific analysis will help balance competing uses for crop residue. ‡

$Q,QWHUQDWLRQDO&URSV5HVHDUFK,QVWLWXWHIRUWKH6HPLĥ$ULG7URSLFVĪ,&5,6$7īVWXG\RIWKHGXDOXVHĪVRLOFRQVHUYDĥ WLRQYVOLYHVWRFNIHHGīRIFURSUHVLGXHVLQ1LJHULQGLFDWHGWKDWWKHQXWULHQWFRQWHQWRIVRPHFURSUHVLGXHVLVXQHYHQO\ GLVWULEXWHGWKURXJKRXWWKHSODQWVHJPHQWVĪHJVWDONVVWHPVSDQLFOHVHWFī,QVXFKFURSUHVLGXHVWKHORZHUVWUXFWXUDO ELRPDVVKDVYHU\OLWWOHQXWULWLRXVYDOXHDVOLYHVWRFNIHHG,WLVEHOLHYHGWKDWIRUVRPHFURSVĪHJPLOOHWīQHDUO\İRI total residues could be more valuable in contributing to overall farm productivity and farmer income if used as ground FRYHUIRUVRLOFRQVHUYDWLRQWKDWLQFUHDVHFURS\LHOGVUDWKHUWKDQDVIRGGHUIRUOLYHVWRFNĪ3RZHOODQG)XVVHOO³1XWULHQW DQG6WUXFWXUDO&DUERK\GUDWH3DUWLWLRQLQJLQ3HDUO0LOOHW´$JURQRP\-RXUQDO9RO-XO\ī

‡

7KH&RQVXOWDWLYH*URXSRQ,QWHUQDWLRQDO$JULFXOWXUDO5HVHDUFKĪ&*,$5ī6\VWHPZLGH/LYHVWRFN3URJUDPPH¶VDQDO\ĥ VLVRIHFRQRPLFWUDGHĥRɱVEHWZHHQXVLQJFURSUHVLGXHVIRUJURXQGFRYHUPXOFKHVRUIRUIRGGHULQ:HVW$IULFDIRXQG WKDWRSWLPXPUHWXUQVZHUHSRVVLEOHZLWKYDU\LQJOHYHOVRIFURSUHVLGXHUHWHQWLRQDFURVVGLɱHUHQWORFDWLRQVDQGFURS YDULHWLHV,QVRPHFDVHVWKHPDMRULW\RIUHVLGXHVVKRXOGEHXVHGIRUVRLOFRYHUDQGQXWULHQWUHF\FOLQJLQRWKHUFDVHVXVLQJ DPDMRULW\RIUHVLGXHVIRUIRGGHUSURYLGHGIDUPHUVZLWKWKHKLJKHVWUHWXUQĪ,,7$HWDO³%DODQFLQJOLYHVWRFNQHHGVDQG VRLOFRQVHUYDWLRQ)LQDO5HSRUW´ī

‡

,QVRPHFRPPXQLWLHVIDUPHUVSURWHFWWKHLUFURSUHVLGXHPXOFKHVIURPIUHHJUD]LQJOLYHVWRFNE\GLVFXVVLQJWKHLPSRUĥ WDQFHRIRUJDQLFJURXQGFRYHUIRUFURSSURGXFWLYLW\ZLWKYLOODJHJRYHUQLQJRUJDQL]DWLRQVDQGWKHLUQHLJKERUV,QVRPH DUHDVFRPPXQLW\VHOIĥJRYHUQDQFHJURXSVSURKLELWIUHHJUD]LQJOLYHVWRFNSUDFWLFHVUHVXOWLQJLQUHVLGXHVEHLQJUHWDLQHG IRUPXOFKĪ&$ĥ6$5'3URMHFW&$&DVHVIURP7DQ]DQLDī

‡

)DUPHUVKDYHFXOWLYDWHGOLYHVWRFNIRGGHUFURSVRQ¿HOGFRQWRXUVDQG VHWDVLGHDUHDVDQGWKHQKDUYHVWHGWKHVHFURSVDVµFXWDQGFDUU\¶IHHG IRUFRUUDOOHGOLYHVWRFN7KHVHSUDFWLFHVKDYHUHVXOWHGLQFURSUHVLGXHV EHLQJ DYDLODEOHIRUXVHDVPXOFKDQGHQDEOHGIDUPHUVWRHɱHFWLYHO\ FROOHFWPDQXUHIRUXVHDVRUJDQLFIHUWLOL]HUĪ%ROOLJHUHWDO³7DNLQJ 6WRFNRIWKH%UD]LOLDQ=HURĥ7LOO5HYROXWLRQ$5HYLHZRI/DQGPDUN 5HVHDUFKDQG)DUPHUV¶3UDFWLFH´(OVHYLHUī

Truth #3: Diverse varieties of cover crops, crop rotations and substantial residue retention can reduce reliance on herbicides. ‡

$VIDUPHUVJDLQH[SHULHQFHLQJURZLQJFRYHUFURSVWKDWFRQWUROZHHGV ZHHG SUHVVXUHV FDQ EH UHGXFHG *URXQG FRYHU UHVLGXHV DQG JUHHQ manure crops can also suppress weed infestations in later years to a level that enables farmers to use a fraction of the herbicides that were RULJLQDOO\QHHGHGĪ6WHLQHUHWDO³:HHG0DQDJHPHQWLQ&RQVHUYDWLRQ 7LOODJH6\VWHPV´$IULFDQ&RQVHUYDWLRQ7LOODJH1HWZRUN,QIRUPDWLRQ 6HULHVDQG.R¿%RID*KDQDSHUVRQDOFRPPXQLFDWLRQī

‡

A farmer in Ghana collects and spreads leaves and crop roots onto his soil to increase organic matter. When I asked him why he was doing this, he replied, “to give my soil life.” All farmers understand the importance of healthy soil.

,QORQJĥWHUP¿HOGWULDOVLQ0DODZL&,00<7UHVHDUFKHUVIRXQGWKDWWKHXVHRIFRYHUFURSVDQGJUHHQPDQXUHVRYHU DSHULRGRIVHYHQFURSSLQJVHDVRQVFRXOGFRQWUROZHHGVZLWKRXWWKHQHHGIRUIXUWKHUDSSOLFDWLRQVRIKHUELFLGHVĪ%UDP *RYDHUWV&,00<7SHUVRQDOFRPPXQLFDWLRQī

‡

0XOWLĥ\HDUFURSURWDWLRQVZLWKGLɱHUHQWSODQWYDULHWLHVKDYHVLJQL¿FDQWO\UHGXFHGWKHQHHGIRUKHUELFLGHVWRFRQWURO ZHHGV$VWXG\LQ,RZDRI/RZ([WHUQDO,QSXWĪ/(,īIDUPLQJSUDFWLFHVFRPSDUHGFRQYHQWLRQDOWZRĥ\HDUFRUQVR\EHDQ URWDWLRQVZLWKWKUHHĥDQGIRXUĥ\HDUURWDWLRQVRIFRUQZLWK1ĥ¿[LQJFURSV7KHVWXG\IRXQGWKDWRYHUDIRXUĥ\HDUSHULRG WKHORQJHUURWDWLRQVVLJQL¿FDQWO\UHGXFHGWKHQHHGIRUKHUELFLGHVĪLHE\İDQGİUHVSHFWLYHO\īDQGV\QWKHWLFIHUWLOĥ L]HUVĪLHE\İDQGİUHVSHFWLYHO\ī7KHURWDWLRQDOFURSV¶DOOHORSDWKLFELRFKHPLFDODQGJURXQGFRYHUFRPSHWLWLRQ SURSHUWLHVPD\H[SODLQWKHVXSHULRUZHHGFRQWUROUHVXOWVĪ0/LHEPDQHWDO³$JURQRPLFDQG(FRQRPLF3HUIRUPDQFH &KDUDFWHULVWLFV RI &RQYHQWLRQDO DQG /RZĥ([WHUQDO ,QSXW &URSSLQJ 6\VWHPV LQ WKH &HQWUDO &RUQ %HOW´ $JURQRP\ -RXUQDO9ROī

Truth #4: Efforts to identify crops adapted to local conditions, building capacity of farm organizations and improving smallholder access to key inputs are gaining traction. ‡

6LQFHWKH3URJUDPIRU$IULFD¶V6HHG6\VWHPVĪ3$66īKDVSURYLGHGWHFKQLFDODQG¿QDQFLDOVXSSRUWWRORFDOUHVHDUFK LQVWLWXWLRQVIRUWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIWKHLULQVWLWXWLRQDOFDSDFLW\DQGVFLHQWL¿FEUHHGLQJRIKLJKĥ\LHOGLQJGLVHDVHUHVLVWDQW PDL]HFDVVDYDDQGULFHYDULHWLHV3$66DOVROLQNVUHVHDUFKLQVWLWXWLRQVZLWKORFDOVHHGFRPSDQLHVDQGSURYLGHVGLUHFW ORDQV DQG HTXLW\ LQYHVWPHQWV WR HPHUJLQJ VHHG FRPSDQLHV ZKHUH QHFHVVDU\ 7KHVH HɱRUWV HQVXUH IDUPHUV DUH DZDUH RILPSURYHGVHHGVFDQDFFHVVWKHPDQGJHWWKHH[WHQVLRQVHUYLFHVWKH\QHHGWRLPSURYH\LHOGV7RGDWHRYHULQGHĥ SHQGHQWVHHGFRPSDQLHVKDYHEHHQFUHDWHGĪZLWKDQRWKHUSODQQHGE\īDQGRYHUDJURĥGHDOHUVKDYHEHHQ WUDLQHGDQGQHWZRUNHGUHVXOWLQJLQ07RIVHHGVROGWR$IULFDQIDUPHUV,Q06FDQG3K'VWXGHQWV VXSSRUWHGE\3$66JUDGXDWHGKHOSLQJWREXLOGFULWLFDOWHFKQLFDODQGUHVHDUFKFDSDFLW\2XUIRXQGDWLRQKDVVXSSRUWHG WKHH[SDQVLRQRI3$66¶VHɱRUWVLQWR6LHUUD/HRQH/LEHULDDQG6RXWK6XGDQĪ$*5$$QQXDO5HSRUWī

‡

1*2VDQGDJULFXOWXUDOUHVHDUFKLQVWLWXWLRQVDUHGHYHORSLQJDQGSURSDJDWLQJJUHHQPDQXUHFRYHUFURSVDQG1ĥ¿[LQJ SODQWVDQGZRRG\OHJXPHVWKDWDUHDGDSWHGWR$IULFDQDJURFOLPDWLFFRQGLWLRQV,QDGGLWLRQ)DUPHU)LHOG6FKRROVDUHHQĥ FRXUDJLQJIDUPHUVWRHVWDEOLVKORFDOVHHGEDQNVLQZKLFKDYDULHW\RIURWDWLRQDODQGFRYHUFURSVHHGVDQGVHHGOLQJVDUHSURĥ GXFHGDQGH[FKDQJHGZLWKLQWKHFRPPXQLW\Ī(RWXOHR)DUPHU)LHOG6FKRRO&$ĥ6$5'3URMHFW&$&DVHVIURP7DQ]DQLDī

‡

7KH:RUOG)RRG3URJUDPPH¶V33LVDĥFRXQWU\SLORWSURMHFWWRVRXUFHFRPPRGLWLHVIRU:)3¶VIRRGDVVLVWDQFHHIĥ IRUWVIURPORFDOVPDOOKROGHUIDUPHUV$VSDUWRIWKHSURJUDPLQ&HQWUDO$PHULFD33SURYLGHVFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUH H[WHQVLRQVHUYLFHVWRSDUWLFLSDWLQJIDUPHURUJDQL]DWLRQV2QHHOHPHQWRIWKLVWUDLQLQJLQWURGXFHG1ĥ¿[LQJEHDQYDULHWĥ LHVWRZRPHQIDUPHUVLQ*XDWHPDOD%\DGGLQJWKHVHOHJXPHVWRWKHLULQWHUFURSSLQJDQGFURSURWDWLRQSUDFWLFHVWKH farmers improved the nutrition of their diets, introduced an additional source of income from the sale of these beans DQGQDWXUDOO\SURGXFHG1IHUWLOL]HUIRUWKHLU¿HOGVĪ:)333-DQXDU\8SGDWHī

‡

&$5( ,QWHUQDWLRQDO¶V +LOOVLGH &RQVHUYDWLRQ $JULFXOWXUH 3URMHFW Ī+,&$3ī LQ 7DQ]DQLD HQFRXUDJHG SDUWLFLSDWLQJ IDUPHUVWRFXOWLYDWH1ĥ¿[LQJFRYHUFURSVĪHJSLJHRQSHDODEODEDQGFRZSHDVīWKDWFRXOGEHKDUYHVWHGIRUVDOHDVVWDUWHU VHHGVWRRWKHUIDUPHUV7KH+,&$3SURMHFWDOVRIDFLOLWDWHGVHHGGLVWULEXWLRQWRIDUPHUVLQWKHDUHDWRVXSSRUW)DUPHU )LHOG6FKRROVDQGGHPRQVWUDWLRQSORWVĪ&$5(+,&$33URMHFW$QQXDO5HSRUWWR+*%)ī

Truth #5: Many smallholders who adopt conservation agriculture experience increased crop yields. ‡

/RQJĥWHUPFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUH¿HOGUHVHDUFKLQ0H[LFRGHPRQVWUDWHVWKDWFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHSUDFWLFHVIRUPDL]H DQGZKHDWSURGXFWLRQFRQVLVWHQWO\DFKLHYHGKLJKHU\LHOGVRYHUFRQYHQWLRQDOSUDFWLFHVIURPWKH¿UVW\HDURQZDUG,QWKHLQLĥ WLDO\HDURIWKHVWXG\FRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHPDL]HDQGZKHDW\LHOGVZHUHUHVSHFWLYHO\İDQGİJUHDWHU&RQVHUYDWLRQ agriculture yields for both crops were particularly better during drought years when conservation agriculture’s enhanced soil PRLVWXUHUHWHQWLRQSURSHUWLHVKDGDSRVLWLYHLPSDFWRQJUDLQSURGXFWLRQĪ(UHQVWHLQHWDO³$GDSWLQJ1RĥWLOODJH$JULFXOWXUHWR WKH&RQGLWLRQVRI6PDOOKROGHU0DL]HDQG:KHDW)DUPHUVLQWKH7URSLFVDQGVXEĥ7URSLFV´1Rĥ7LOO)DUPLQJ6\VWHPV(GV7 *RGGDUGHWDO%DQJNRN:RUOG$VVRFLDWLRQRI6RLODQG:DWHU&RQVHUYDWLRQī ‡

DFKLHYHGE\IDUPHUVSDUWLFLSDWLQJLQ&$5(,QWHUĥ

Effect of Conservation Agriculture on Maize Yields in El Batan, Mexico, 1996-2010

QDWLRQDO¶VIDUPHU¿HOGVFKRROGHPRQVWUDWLRQSURMĥ HFW LQ 7DQ]DQLD 7KHVH IDUPHUV KDG DQ DYHUDJH

8000

Grain yield (kg/ha at 12% H2O)

,PPHGLDWH FURS \LHOG LPSURYHPHQWV ZHUH

\LHOG JDLQ RI İ RYHU WKH FRQYHQWLRQDO FRQWURO

7000

SORW\LHOGVLQWKH¿UVW\HDUĪ&$5(,QWHUQDWLRQDO

6000

+,&$33URMHFWUHSRUWWR+*%)ī

5000

Truth #6: Conservation agriculture’s focus on soil health, reduced erosion and an emphasis on crop diversity reduces the exposure of smallholders to crop failures.

4000 3000 2000 1000 0

‡ 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Harvest Year Conservation agriculture: Maize-wheat rotation, zero tillage, residue retention Farmer practice: Continuous maize, conventional tillage, residue removal

Adapted from: CIMMYT analysis, Verhulst, N., Nelissen, V., Jespers, N., Haven, H., Sayre, K.D., Raes, D., Deckers, J., Govaerts, B., 2011.

/RQJ WHUP ¿HOG UHVHDUFK E\ &,00<7 LQGLFDWHV WKDW ]HUR WLOODJH ZLWK UHWHQWLRQ RI UHVLGXHV VLJQL¿ĥ cantly improves soil moisture levels and enables crop yields that are far greater than those from convenĥ WLRQDOSUDFWLFHVGXULQJH[WHQGHGGU\SHULRGVĪ9HUĥ KXOVWHWDO³&RQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHDVDPHDQVWR PLWLJDWHDQGDGDSWWRFOLPDWHFKDQJH«´ī

‡

7KH7URSLFDO6RLO%LRORJ\DQG)HUWLOLW\,QVWLWXWHRI7KH,QWHUQDWLRQDO&HQWHUIRU7URSLFDO$JULFXOWXUHĪ&,$7ĥ76%)ī OHGDPXOWLĥLQVWLWXWLRQDOUHVHDUFKVWXG\RIPL[HGFURSĥOLYHVWRFNV\VWHPVLQ0R]DPELTXHWKDWHYDOXDWHGVPDOOKROGHULQĥ WHUFURSSLQJRIPDL]HZLWKSLJHRQSHDDQGFRZSHDOHJXPHV7KLVLQWHUFURSSLQJSUDFWLFHSURYLGHGIDUPHUVZLWKLPSURYHG VXUIDFHFRYHURIWKHLU¿HOGVYDOXDEOH1ĥ¿[LQJVRLOLQSXWVLQFUHDVHGUHVLOLHQFHWRORZUDLQIDOOFRQGLWLRQVDQGEHWWHUIRRG VHFXULW\Ī5XVLQDPKRG]LHWDO³3URGXFWLYLW\RI0DL]Hĥ/HJXPH,QWHUFURSSLQJXQGHU1Rĥ7LOOLQ&HQWUDO0R]DPELTXH´ 5HJLRQDO&RQVHUYDWLRQ$JULFXOWXUH6\PSRVLXP-RKDQQHVEXUJ6RXWK$IULFDī

‡

*KDQDLDQ IDUPHUV VXUYH\HG E\ &,00<7 DɷUPHG WKDW WKH\ EHQH¿WHG IURP UHGXFHG ULVNVDVDUHVXOWRIWKHLUDGRSWLRQRIFRQVHUĥ YDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHĪ(NERLUHWDO³,PSDFWRI 1Rĥ7LOO7HFKQRORJLHVLQ*KDQD´&,00<7 (FRQRPLFV3URJUDP3DSHUĥī

Truth #7: Investing in conservation agriculture requires a long-term commitment to achieve widespread adoption. ‡

,Q%UD]LOFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHLVDZHOOĥ HVWDEOLVKHG SUDFWLFH EXW LW WRRN D WUHPHQĥ GRXVFRPPLWPHQW¿UVWE\HDUO\DGRSWHUVDQG WKHQ E\ JRYHUQPHQW DQG H[WHQVLRQ DJHQWV

In Mozambique we discovered farmers using a homemade roller crimper to control weeds, protect seedlings from the heat and “provide food for their soil,” as one of the farmers told me.

WR HQFRXUDJH ZLGHVSUHDG DGRSWLRQ /RFDO land user clubs were invaluable to changing IDUPHUV¶PLQGVHWVE\SURPRWLQJWKHFRQFHSWDQGKHOSLQJHDFKRWKHULQWKHLUFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHDGRSWLRQHɱRUWV 7KHPRVWLQQRYDWLYHFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHIDUPHUVFRQWLQXDOO\VKDUHWKHLUNQRZOHGJHRIEHVWSUDFWLFHVZLWKWKHLU QHLJKERUV7KH\DOVRVKDUHPRGL¿FDWLRQVWRGLUHFWVHHGLQJHTXLSPHQWDGDSWHGWRORFDOVRLODQGFURSUHVLGXHFRQGLWLRQV Ī%ROOLJHUHWDO³7DNLQJ6WRFNRIWKH%UD]LOLDQ=HURĥ7LOO5HYROXWLRQ$5HYLHZRI/DQGPDUN5HVHDUFKDQG)DUPHUV¶ 3UDFWLFH´(OVHYLHUDQG5LEHLURHWDO³&RPSUHKHQVLYHLQYHQWRU\DQGDVVHVVPHQWRIH[LVWLQJNQRZOHGJHRQVXVĥ WDLQDEOHDJULFXOWXUHLQ/DWLQ$PHULFD´&,5$'ī ‡

&DWKROLF5HOLHI6HUYLFHV¶Ī&56īFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHGHYHORSPHQWSURMHFWLQ=LPEDEZHKDVEHHQDPXOWLĥ\HDUHɱRUW WRLQWURGXFHIDUPHUVWRFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHSUDFWLFHVDQGVXSSRUWWKHLUDGRSWLRQ$QLQLWLDOIDUPHUVDGRSWHG FRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHSUDFWLFHVLQWKH¿UVW\HDUĪīDQGIDUPHUVZHUHSUDFWLFLQJFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULĥ FXOWXUHDWWKHHQGRI¿YH\HDUVĪ0XWVLQGLNZDHWDO³&RQVHUYDWLRQ$JULFXOWXUH³DZLQQHUV¶FKRLFH¶´&56ĥ=LPEDEZH )$2&$5HJLRQDO:RUNVKRSī

Truth #8: Plants use synthetic fertilizer more efficiently when combined with conservation agriculture practices. ‡

$WHDPRIVRLOVFLHQWLVWVDVVHVVHGWKHHɷFLHQFLHVRILPSURYHGFURS\LHOGJDLQVZLWKLQRUJDQLFIHUWLOL]HULQSXWVZKHQ DSSOLHGWRVRLOVZLWKKLJKHUOHYHOVRIRUJDQLFFDUERQ7KHVWXG\WHDPFRQFOXGHGWKDW³IRUHɷFLHQWQXWULHQWXWLOL]DWLRQ LQRUJDQLFIHUWLOL]HUPXVWEHFRPELQHGZLWKRUJDQLFPDWWHUZDWHUKDUYHVWLQJFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHDQGFRQWUROOLQJ VRLOHURVLRQLQVLWHĥVSHFL¿FLQWHJUDWHGVRLOIHUWLOLW\PDQDJHPHQWVWUDWHJLHV´7KHLUUHFRPPHQGDWLRQVFOHDUO\LGHQWLI\WKH LPSRUWDQWUROHRIFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHSUDFWLFHVLQHQDEOLQJVPDOOKROGHUIDUPHUVWRPD[LPL]HWKHEHQH¿WVRIWKHLU XVHRIV\QWKHWLFIHUWLOL]HULQSXWVĪ%DWLRQRHWDO³$IULFDQ6RLOV7KHLU3URGXFWLYLW\DQG3UR¿WDELOLW\RI)HUWLOL]HU8VH´ $IULFDQ)HUWLOL]HU6XPPLW1LJHULDī

‡

,QWKHDEVHQFHRIFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHLIIHUWLOL]HUXVHLVVWRSSHGĪEHFDXVHRIODFNRIDYDLODELOLW\RUDɱRUGDELOLW\ī SURGXFWLRQOHYHOVZLOOOLNHO\IDOOVRLOTXDOLW\ZLOOQRWKDYHEHHQLPSURYHGDQGIDUPHUVZLOOVWLOOODFNWKHVNLOOVQHHGHG WRVXVWDLQDEO\EXLOGVRLOKHDOWKWRDFKLHYHORQJĥWHUPSURGXFWLYLW\Ī'RUZDUGHWDO³7RZDUGVµVPDUW¶VXEVLGLHVLQDJĥ ULFXOWXUH" /HVVRQV IURP UHFHQW H[SHULHQFH LQ 0DODZL´ 1DWXUDO 5HVRXUFHV 3HUVSHFWLYHV  2YHUVHDV 'HYHORSPHQW ,QVWLWXWH6HSWHPEHUDQG-D\QHHWDO³)HUWLOL]HU6XEVLGLHVLQ(DVWHUQDQG6RXWKHUQ$IULFD´&20(6$$IULFDQ $JULFXOWXUDO0DUNHWV3URJUDPPH3ROLF\6\QWKHVLVī

Truth #9: Investment in farmer organizations helps farmers develop the skills and confidence to encourage and support the adoption of new practices like conservation agriculture. ‡

&RRSHUDWLYHJURXSVRIORFDOIDUPHUVFRQYLQFLQJO\GHPRQVWUDWHEHVWSUDFWLFHVDQGVHUYHDVPHQWRUVWRWKHLUSHHUV7KH\ DUHDOVREHWWHUDEOHWR¿QDQFHSXUFKDVHDQGVKDUHWRROVH[FKDQJHLPSURYHGVHHGVDQGDJUHHWRIROORZOLYHVWRFNPDQĥ DJHPHQWSURJUDPVWKDWSURWHFWUHVLGXHVDQGFRYHUFURSVIRUXVHVWKDWLPSURYHVRLOKHDOWKDQGFURS\LHOGV:KHUHORFDO FRPPXQLWLHVKDYHEHHQWHFKQLFDOO\DQGRUJDQL]DWLRQDOO\GHYHORSHGWKHHYHQWXDOGLVFRQWLQXDWLRQRIH[WHUQDODVVLVWDQFH KDVQRWOHGWRZLGHVSUHDGIDUPHUUHMHFWLRQRISURGXFWLYHFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHSUDFWLFHVĪ3HQQLQJGH9ULHVHGLWRU ³%ULJKW6SRWV'HPRQVWUDWH&RPPXQLW\6XFFHVVLQ$IULFDQ$JULFXOWXUH´,0:,:RUNLQJ3DSHUī

‡

,WLVFULWLFDOWRIRFXVRQHQKDQFLQJIDUPHUVNLOOVNQRZOHGJHDQGRSSRUWXQLWLHVWRGLUHFWO\SDUWLFLSDWHLQUHVHDUFKDQG WHVWLQJRIWHFKQLTXHVDQGWHFKQRORJLHVWKDWEHVWOHYHUDJHORFDOUHVRXUFHV%\EXLOGLQJIDUPHUV¶LQGLYLGXDODQGFROOHFĥ WLYHFDSDFLWLHVWRPDQDJHLQWHJUDWHGFRQVHUYDWLRQDJULFXOWXUHSUDFWLFHVWKHLUVNLOOVDQGH[SHULHQFHVPDWXUHDQGWKH\ ZLOOEHFRPHOHVVUHOLDQWRQUHPRWHO\VRXUFHGLQSXWVDQGSURYLVLRQVRIH[WHUQDOIXQGLQJĪ$JULFXOWXUHDWD&URVVURDGV ,$$67',VODQG3UHVVī

Truth #10: Smallholder farmers themselves must participate as partners in the research, development and demonstration efforts to advance conservation agriculture adoption. ‡

,QWKHHDUO\VPRVWPDL]HDQGZKHDWIDUPHUVLQWKH
‡

,QWKHVSDQRIIRUW\\HDUV%UD]LOKDVXQGHUJRQHDUHPDUNDEOHWUDQVLWLRQIURPUHO\LQJRQWUDGLWLRQDODQGFRQYHQWLRQDO WLOODJHSUDFWLFHVWRWRGD\¶VFRQGLWLRQZKHUHLWLVDPDMRUDJULFXOWXUDOSURGXFHUZLWKİRIFURSODQGXQGHUQRĥWLOORU UHGXFHGWLOODJH:KLOHWKLVWUDQVIRUPDWLRQVXEVWDQWLDOO\UHOLHGRQLQQRYDWLQJDQGH[SDQGLQJODUJHVFDOHIDUPLQJRSHUDĥ WLRQVLWDOVRLQFOXGHGDGRSWLRQE\KXQGUHGVRIWKRXVDQGVRIVPDOOKROGHUIDUPHUV7KLVIDUPLQJUHYROXWLRQZDVDFFRPĥ plished with strong and persistent support from government and private sector investment in developing techniques, WHFKQRORJLHVDQGFURSSLQJSUDFWLFHVWRSURPRWHVRLOIHUWLOLW\DQGFRQWUROHURVLRQZKLOHSURGXFLQJSUR¿WDEOHDJULFXOWXUDO RXWSXWV7KHVHHɱRUWVLQFOXGHGIRFXVHGUHVHDUFKSURJUDPVGHYHORSPHQWDQGFRPPHUFLDOL]DWLRQRIQRĥWLOOWHFKQRORJLHV H[WHQVLYH¿HOGWUDLQLQJDQGRWKHULQLWLDWLYHVĪ%ROOLJHUHWDO³7DNLQJ6WRFNRIWKH%UD]LOLDQµ=HURĥ7LOO5HYROXWLRQ¶´ (OVHYLHUī

:LWK ORQJĥWHUP LQYHVWPHQW DQG D FRPPLWPHQW WR UHVHDUFK LQQRYDWLRQ DQG GHYHORSLQJ D VXSSRUW V\VWHP WR HQFRXUDJH the adoption of conservation agriculture, it is clear the developing world can transform its approach to farming to be more SURGXFWLYHDQGPRUHVXVWDLQDEOHIRUFXUUHQWDQGIXWXUHJHQHUDWLRQV

THE

HOWARD

G.

BUFFETT

About The Howard G. Buffett Foundation

Established in 1999, The Howard G. Buffett Foundation’s primary mission is to improve the standard of living and quality of life for the world’s most impoverished and marginalized populations. The Foundation’s focus is on international programs that operate in challenging environments, including conflict and post-conflict countries. The Foundation has supported more than 120 agricultural projects in over 40 countries and more than 50 nutrition projects in over 30 countries. The Foundation believes achieving global food security requires all countries—including the United States—to adapt its agricultural practices and policies to meet long-term agricultural needs and successfully address hunger and malnutrition. To learn more, visit www.thehowardgbuffettfoundation.org. FO U N D AT ION