The A to Z of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Warfare

The A to Z of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Warfare

OTHER A TO Z GUIDES FROM THE SCARECROW PRESS, INC. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. Th...

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OTHER A TO Z GUIDES FROM THE SCARECROW PRESS, INC. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

The A to Z of Buddhism by Charles S. Prebish, 2001. The A to Z of Catholicism by William J. Collinge, 2001. The A to Z of Hinduism by Bruce M. Sullivan, 2001. The A to Z of Islam by Ludwig W. Adamec, 2002. The A to Z of Slavery & Abolition by Martin A. Klein, 2002. Terrorism: Assassins to Zealots by Sean Kendall Anderson and Stephen Sloan, 2003. The A to Z of the Korean War by Paul M. Edwards, 2005. The A to Z of the Cold War by Joseph Smith and Simon Davis, 2005. The A to Z of the Vietnam War by Edwin E. Moise, 2005. The A to Z of Science Fiction Literature by Brian Stableford, 2005. The A to Z of the Holocaust by Jack R. Fischel, 2005. The A to Z of Washington, D.C. by Robert Benedetto, Jane Donovan, and Kathleen DuVall, 2005. The A to Z of Taoism by Julian F. Pas, 2006. The A to Z of the Renaissance by Charles G. Nauert, 2006. The A to Z of Shinto by Stuart D. B. Picken, 2006. The A to Z of Byzantium by John H. Rosser, 2006. The A to Z of the Civil War by Terry L. Jones, 2006. The A to Z of the Friends (Quakers) by Margery Post Abbott, Mary Ellen Chijioke, Pink Dandelion, and John William Oliver Jr., 2006 The A to Z of Feminism by Janet K. Boles and Diane Long Hoeveler, 2006. The A to Z of New Religious Movements by George D. Chryssides, 2006. The A to Z of Multinational Peacekeeping by Terry M. Mays, 2006. The A to Z of Lutheranism by Günther Gassmann with Duane H. Larson and Mark W. Oldenburg, 2007. The A to Z of the French Revolution by Paul R. Hanson, 2007. The A to Z of the Persian Gulf War 1990–1991 by Clayton R. Newell, 2007. The A to Z of Revolutionary America by Terry M. Mays, 2007. The A to Z of the Olympic Movement by Bill Mallon with Ian Buchanan, 2007.

27. The A to Z of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia by Alan Day, 2009. 28. The A to Z of the United Nations by Jacques Fomerand. 2009. 29. The A to Z of the “Dirty Wars” by David Kohut, Olga Vilella, and Beatrice Julian, 2009. 30. The A to Z of the Vikings by Katherine Holman, 2009. 31. The A to Z from the Great War to the Great Depression by Neil A. Wynn, 2009. 32. The A to Z of the Crusades by Corliss K. Slack, 2009. 33. The A to Z of New Age Movements by Michael York, 2009. 34. The A to Z of Unitarian Universalism by Mark W. Harris, 2009. 35. The A to Z of the Kurds by Michael M. Gunter, 2009. 36. The A to Z of Utopianism by James M. Morris and Andrea L. Kross, 2009. 37. The A to Z of the Civil War and Reconstruction by William L. Richter, 2009. 38. The A to Z of Jainism by Kristi L. Wiley, 2009. 39. The A to Z of the Inuit by Pamela K. Stern, 2009. 40. The A to Z of Early North America by Cameron B. Wesson, 2009. 41. The A to Z of the Enlightenment by Harvey Chisick, 2009. 42. The A to Z of Methodism edited by Charles Yrigoyen Jr. and Susan E. Warrick, 2009. 43. The A to Z of the Seventh-day Adventists by Gary Land, 2009. 44. The A to Z of Sufism by John Renard, 2009. 45. The A to Z of Sikhism by W. H. McLeod, 2009. 46. The A to Z of Fantasy Literature by Brian Stableford, 2009. 47. The A to Z of the Discovery and Exploration of the Pacific Islands by Max Quanchi and John Robson, 2009. 48. The A to Z of Australian and New Zealand Cinema by Albert Moran and Errol Vieth, 2009. 49. The A to Z of African-American Television by Kathleen FearnBanks, 2009. 50. The A to Z of American Radio Soap Operas by Jim Cox, 2009. 51. The A to Z of the Old South by William L. Richter, 2009. 52. The A to Z of the Discovery and Exploration of the Northwest Passage by Alan Day, 2009. 53. The A to Z of the Druzes by Samy S. Swayd, 2009. 54. The A to Z of the Welfare State by Bent Greve, 2009.

55. The A to Z of the War of 1812 by Robert Malcomson, 2009. 56. The A to Z of Feminist Philosophy by Catherine Villanueva Gardner, 2009. 57. The A to Z of the Early American Republic by Richard Buel Jr., 2009. 58. The A to Z of the Russo–Japanese War by Rotem Kowner, 2009. 59. The A to Z of Anglicanism by Colin Buchanan, 2009. 60. The A to Z of Scandinavian Literature and Theater by Jan Sjåvik, 2009. 61. The A to Z of the Peoples of the Southeast Asian Massif by Jean Michaud, 2009. 62. The A to Z of Judaism by Norman Solomon, 2009. 63. The A to Z of the Berbers (Imazighen) by Hsain Ilahiane, 2009. 64. The A to Z of British Radio by Seán Street, 2009. 65. The A to Z of The Salvation Army by Major John G. Merritt, 2009. 66. The A to Z of the Arab–Israeli Conflict by P R Kumaraswamy, 2009. 67. The A to Z of the Jacksonian Era and Manifest Destiny by Terry Corps, 2009. 68. The A to Z of Socialism by Peter Lamb and James C. Docherty, 2009. 69. The A to Z of Marxism by David Walker and Daniel Gray, 2009. 70. The A to Z of the Bahá’í Faith by Hugh C. Adamson, 2009. 71. The A to Z of Postmodernist Literature and Theater by Fran Mason, 2009. 72. The A to Z of Australian Radio and Television by Albert Moran and Chris Keating, 2009. 73. The A to Z of the Lesbian Liberation Movement: Still the Rage by JoAnne Myers, 2009. 74. The A to Z of the United States–Mexican War by Edward H. Moseley and Paul C. Clark Jr., 2009. 75. The A to Z of World War I by Ian V. Hogg, 2009. 76. The A to Z of World War II: The War Against Japan by Anne Sharp Wells, 2009. 77. The A to Z of Witchcraft by Michael D. Bailey, 2009. 78. The A to Z of British Intelligence by Nigel West, 2009. 79. The A to Z of United States Intelligence by Michael A. Turner, 2009.

80. The A to Z of the League of Nations by Anique H. M. van Ginneken, 2009. 81. The A to Z of Israeli Intelligence by Ephraim Kahana, 2009. 82. The A to Z of the European Union by Joaquín Roy and Aimee Kanner, 2009. 83. The A to Z of the Chinese Cultural Revolution by Guo Jian, Yongyi Song, and Yuan Zhou, 2009. 84. The A to Z of African American Cinema by S. Torriano Berry and Venise T. Berry, 2009. 85. The A to Z of Japanese Business by Stuart D. B. Picken, 2009. 86. The A to Z of the Reagan–Bush Era by Richard S. Conley, 2009. 87. The A to Z of Human Rights and Humanitarian Organizations by Robert F. Gorman and Edward S. Mihalkanin, 2009. 88. The A to Z of French Cinema by Dayna Oscherwitz and MaryEllen Higgins, 2009. 89. The A to Z of the Puritans by Charles Pastoor and Galen K. Johnson, 2009. 90. The A to Z of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Warfare by Benjamin C. Garrett and John Hart, 2009. 91. The A to Z of the Green Movement by Miranda Schreurs and Elim Papadakis, 2009. 92. The A to Z of the Kennedy–Johnson Era by Richard Dean Burns and Joseph M. Siracusa, 2009. 93. The A to Z of Renaissance Art by Lilian H. Zirpolo, 2009. 94. The A to Z of the Broadway Musical by William A. Everett and Paul R. Laird, 2009. 95. The A to Z of the Northern Ireland Conflict by Gordon Gillespie, 2009. 96. The A to Z of the Fashion Industry by Francesca Sterlacci and Joanne Arbuckle, 2009. 97. The A to Z of American Theater: Modernism by James Fisher and Felicia Hardison Londré, 2009. 98. The A to Z of Civil Wars in Africa by Guy Arnold, 2009. 99. The A to Z of the Nixon–Ford Era by Mitchell K. Hall, 2009. 100. The A to Z of Horror Cinema by Peter Hutchings, 2009. 101. The A to Z of Westerns in Cinema by Paul Varner, 2009. 102. The A to Z of Zionism by Rafael Medoff and Chaim I. Waxman, 2009.

103. The A to Z of the Roosevelt–Truman Era by Neil A. Wynn, 2009. 104. The A to Z of Jehovah’s Witnesses by George D. Chryssides, 2009. 105. The A to Z of Native American Movements by Todd Leahy and Raymond Wilson, 2009. 106. The A to Z of the Shakers by Stephen J. Paterwic, 2009. 107. The A to Z of the Coptic Church by Gawdat Gabra, 2009. 108. The A to Z of Architecture by Allison Lee Palmer, 2009. 109. The A to Z of Italian Cinema by Gino Moliterno, 2009. 110. The A to Z of Mormonism by Davis Bitton and Thomas G. Alexander, 2009. 111. The A to Z of African American Theater by Anthony D. Hill with Douglas Q. Barnett, 2009. 112. The A to Z of NATO and Other International Security Organizations by Marco Rimanelli, 2009. 113. The A to Z of the Eisenhower Era by Burton I. Kaufman and Diane Kaufman, 2009. 114. The A to Z of Sexspionage by Nigel West, 2009. 115. The A to Z of Environmentalism by Peter Dauvergne, 2009. 116. The A to Z of the Petroleum Industry by M. S. Vassiliou, 2009. 117. The A to Z of Journalism by Ross Eaman, 2009. 118. The A to Z of the Gilded Age by T. Adams Upchurch, 2009. 119. The A to Z of the Progressive Era by Catherine Cocks, Peter C. Holloran, and Alan Lessoff, 2009. 120. The A to Z of Middle Eastern Intelligence by Ephraim Kahana and Muhammad Suwaed, 2009. 121. The A to Z of the Baptists William H. Brackney, 2009. 122. The A to Z of Homosexuality by Brent L. Pickett, 2009.

The A to Z of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Warfare

Benjamin C. Garrett John Hart

The A to Z Guide Series, No. 90

The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanham • Toronto • Plymouth, UK 2009

Published by Scarecrow Press, Inc. A wholly owned subsidiary of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc. 4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200, Lanham, Maryland 20706 http://www.scarecrowpress.com Estover Road, Plymouth PL6 7PY, United Kingdom Copyright © 2007 by Benjamin C. Garrett and John Hart All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without written permission from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote passages in a review. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The hardback version of this book was cataloged by the Library of Congress as follows: Garrett, Benjamin C., 1949– Historical dictionary of nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare / Benjamin C. Garrett, John Hart. p. cm. — (Historical dictionaries of war, revolution, and civil unrest ; no. 33) Includes bibliographical references. 1. Weapons of mass destruction—Dictionaries. 2. Weapons of mass destruction—History—Dictionaries. I. Hart, John, 1967– II. Title. U793.G37 2007 358'.303—dc22 2007005487 ISBN 978-0-8108-6877-9 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN 978-0-8108-7040-6 (ebook)

⬁ ™ The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992. Printed in the United States of America

Contents

Editor’s Foreword Jon Woronoff

xi

Preface

xiii

Acronyms and Abbreviations

xv

Chronology

xxi

Introduction

xxxi

THE DICTIONARY

1

Bibliography

237

About the Authors

261

ix

Editor’s Foreword

Unlike other volumes in the series of Historical Dictionaries of War, Revolution, and Civil Unrest, this volume does not deal with specific wars or branches of the armed forces but with certain categories of weapons that are of particular interest at present. On the face of it, there is little in common among nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Nuclear weapon programs require vast resources in terms of know-how and finance. Yet there is concern that the hurdles for developing a nuclear weapon have substantially diminished in recent years, partly because of a continuing diffusion of scientific and technological expertise and capabilities around the world. Chemical and biological weapons, by comparison, are relatively cheap and, in principle, easy to acquire. But all three weapon types are particularly nasty in the eyes of the general public, so much so that efforts have been made repeatedly over the past decades to ban or at least contain their spread. While some progress has been made to this end, great challenges remain in an age when warfare can be waged by nonstate actors, as well a world in which terrorism is a constant threat. Control of these weapons is therefore more vital than ever. So The A to Z of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Warfare has a double purpose: first, to describe the various sorts of weapons, their origins and characteristics, and their military uses; second, to show what has been done and what remains to be done to bring them under control. This is primarily the task of the dictionary section, with numerous entries on the weapons themselves, persons who helped create them, programs and installations that developed them, and the many states and sometimes individuals who used them, often to devastating effect, as well as the various agreements and organizations, which it is hoped can provide a modicum of control. The introduction offers an overview of the situation, clearly and succinctly, and the chronology traces the milestones in both efforts—to create and to contain. The list of acronyms xi

xii •

EDITOR’S FOREWORD

and abbreviations, always helpful, is this time almost indispensable, since it is quite impossible to read up on the topic without knowing what they all mean. Obviously, this book is intended as just a starting point or a point of reference to which one can return later, but the bulk of the information lies in countless other books, the more important of which are included in an extensive bibliography. This latest, and rather unique, addition to the series was written by Benjamin C. Garrett and John Hart. While they are both strongly interested in the same field, they have quite different backgrounds and approach it from different angles, which is obviously to the good. Dr. Garrett is a scientist, with training in chemistry, who spent the past two decades working on defense and intelligence programs before joining the Federal Bureau of Investigation, where he serves as a senior scientist. John Hart is presently a researcher at the prestigious Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, after having worked previously at the Verification Research, Training and Information Centre and the Monterey Center of Nonproliferation Studies, among other places. He has already written on many of the topics in this book. While this experience provided an excellent base on which to work, it is obvious that they had to put in countless hours tracking down the basic facts and figures, thereby facilitating the process for any who consult this book. Jon Woronoff Series Editor

Preface

In selecting the entries for this volume, attempts have been made to provide an overview of historical, legal, technical, and political aspects of nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons. We have endeavored to maintain a balance within the entries in terms of coverage devoted to noteworthy events, notable individuals, nations, fundamental research, and the testing and fielding of NBC weapon systems. We hope that the dictionary contains information that those who closely follow NBC-related developments will find unusual as well as useful. This work also attempts to provide insight into the behavior and concerns of individuals and organizations. It is hoped that this work will assist readers in gaining an enhanced understanding of how the NBC field has both evolved and remained unchanged over the years. We also hope that it can help to inform consideration of issues of continuing international concern, including determining the purpose for which dual-use/dual-purpose materials, technology, and equipment that can support NBC weapon programs will be used. For example, information is included about the main technological stages necessary to develop a nuclear weapon (e.g., definition of the nuclear fuel cycle, enrichment of nuclear material, fission, fusion, the characteristics of a peaceful nuclear energy program, verification concepts). Future consideration of such issues can be at least partly informed by how they were handled in the past. The country entries contain unavoidable information gaps. This situation is due in part to space constraints in a work such as this one. By necessity, a choice had to be made regarding content, creating certain gaps in coverage. These holes are also a consequence of the fact that most primary-source research in the NBC field has focused on a limited number of states, mainly in the West. To a certain extent, this Western focus reflects the states that have been most active in the NBC field. xiii

xiv •

PREFACE

Other contributors to this focus include our language constraints and the availability of reliable primary or otherwise authoritative source material from non-Western sources. It is nevertheless reasonable to suppose that a great deal of research remains to be carried out using primary historical sources from and about countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. Activities carried out in these regions might include NBC threat assessments, defensive chemical and biological warfare (CBW) programs, the development of standby NBC weapon capacities, and perhaps the use of CBW agents for assassination purposes. The information contained in this work is based on unclassified primary or other authoritative sources. While some of the information or phrasing might be considered politically sensitive in some circles, this work contains no sensitive technical information. It is hoped that this work will also assist to correct the occasional error in fact that may have found its way into the literature. In addition, while states are generally able to find out for themselves the information they require to evaluate NBC threats, individuals often cannot. If individuals were to have better understanding of possible threats posed by such weapons, they would be better able to judge the appropriateness and effectiveness of measures taken to meet such threats. We hope that the present work will assist in this regard as well. Finally, we would like to thank Jon Woronoff, the series editor, for his patience and great assistance. Any errors or omissions are, however, our responsibility.

Acronyms and Abbreviations

ABACC ABM AChE ACW ADM AEC AEF AFB AG AHG AviaKhim AWE BDA BII BND Bq BTWC BTX BW BWC BWPP BZ CAIS CBIAC CBM CBRN

Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials Antiballistic Missile System Acetylcholinesterase Abandoned Chemical Weapon Atomic Demolition Munition Atomic Energy Commission American Expeditionary Forces Air Force Base Australia Group Ad Hoc Group Volunteer’s Society of the Friends of Aviation and the Chemical Industry Atomic Weapons Establishment Bilateral Destruction Agreement BioIndustry Initiative Bundesnachrichtendienst [Germany’s Federal Intelligence Service] Becquerel Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention Botulinum Toxin Biological Warfare; Biological Weapon Biological Warfare Committee BioWeapons Prevention Project Hydrochloride salt of 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate Chemical Agent Identification Set Chemical and Biological Information Analysis Center Confidence-Building Measure Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear xv

xvi •

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

CBW CD CDC CEP CG CHASE Ci CIA CmlC CN CNS COCOM CTBT CTR CS CSP CUA CW CWC CWPF CWS DAS DDA DF DIA DobroKhim DOD DOE DPG DPRK DSTL DU EC EMP

Chemical and Biological Weapons; Chemical and Biological Warfare Conference on Disarmament Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Circular Error Probable Phosgene Cut Holes and Sink ’Em Curie Central Intelligence Agency Chemical Corps Chloroacetophenone Central Nervous System Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Cooperative Threat Reduction 2-Chlorobenzilidene malonitrile Conference of the States Parties Catholic University of America Chemical Warfare; Chemical Weapon Chemical Weapons Convention Chemical Weapon Production Facility Chemical Warfare Service Diacetoxyscirpenol Department of Disarmament Affairs Methyl phosphonic difluoride Defense Intelligence Agency Volunteer’s Society of the Friends of Chemical Defense and Chemical Industry Department of Defense Department of Energy Dugway Proving Ground Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) Defence Science and Technology Laboratories Depleted Uranium Executive Council Electromagnetic Pulse

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

EMPTA ERDA EUISS eV FBI FMD FSB FSU GA GB GB2 GD GF GI GLP GMP GosNIIOKhT GPC GWS Gy HD HELCOM HEU HL HN IAEA ICBM ICI IIBR IMS IND INFCIRC INVO IPEN IRBM ISG

• xvii

O-Ethyl methylphosphonothioic acid Energy Research and Development Administration European Union Institute for Security Studies Electron-volt Federal Bureau of Investigation Foot-and-Mouth Disease Federal Security Service Former Soviet Union Tabun Sarin Binary sarin Soman Cyclosarin Gastrointestinal Good Laboratory Practice Good Manufacturing Practice State Scientific Research Institute for Organic Chemistry and Technology (Moscow) General-Purpose Criterion Gulf War Syndrome Gray Sulfur mustard Helsinki Commission Highly Enriched Uranium Sulfur mustard–lewisite mix Nitrogen mustard International Atomic Energy Agency Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Imperial Chemical Industries Israel Institute for Biological Research International Monitoring System Improvised Nuclear Device Information Circular Iraq Nuclear Verification Office Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (São Paulo, Brazil) Intermediate-Range Ballistic Missile Iraq Survey Group

xviii •

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

ISU IUPAC JRDB kg km L LAC LEU LTBT LWR MADM MCTL MED MIRV MIT Mk MOD MOPP MOU MTCR MUF NAM NAS NATO NBC NDRC NE NEST NIE NNSA NNWS NORAD NORM NPT NRC NSG NTS

Implementation Support Unit International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry Joint Research Development Board Kilogram Kilometer Lewisite Large Area Coverage Low-Enriched Uranium Limited Test Ban Treaty Light-Water Reactor Medium Atomic Demolition Munition Militarily Critical Technologies List Manhattan Engineering District Multiple Independently Targetable Reentry Vehicle Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mark Ministry of Defense Mission Oriented Protective Posture Memorandum of Understanding Missile Technology Control Regime Materials Unaccounted For Nonaligned Movement National Academy of Sciences North Atlantic Treaty Organization Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical National Defense Research Committee Polymeric sulfur mixture Nuclear Emergency Search Team National Intelligence Estimate National Nuclear Security Administration Non–Nuclear Weapon State North American Aerospace Defense Command Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material Nonproliferation Treaty (Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons) National Research Council Nuclear Suppliers Group Nevada Test Site

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

OCW OPA OPCW OsoAviaKhim OSRD OSS PAL PMR PNE POW PPE PRC PrepCom PSI PSP QL R Rad RADIAC RAF RCA RDD Rem SA SAB SADM SBU SHAD SI SIPRI SLBM SNM SORT SPRU SQP SS

• xix

Old Chemical Weapon Isopropyl alcohol–isopropylamine mixture Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons General Society for Aviation and Chemistry Office of Scientific Research and Development Office of Strategic Services Permissive Action Link Proximity Measuring Radar Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Prisoner of War Personal Protective Equipment People’s Republic of China Preparatory Commission Proliferation Security Initiative Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning O-Ethyl O´-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonite Roentgen Radiation Absorbed Dose Radioactivity Detection, Indication, and Computing Royal Air Force Riot-Control Agent Radiological Dispersal Device Roentgen Equivalent (in) Man Stürm Abteilung Scientific Advisory Board Special Atomic Demolition Munition Sensitive but Unclassified Shipboard Hazard and Defense Système International d’Unités [metric system] Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile Special Nuclear Material Strategic Offensive Reduction Treaty Science Policy Research Unit Small Quantities Protocol Schutzstaffel