The Downward Spiral of Harmful Alcohol Consumption and Poor

The Downward Spiral of Harmful Alcohol Consumption and Poor

The downward spiral of harmful alcohol consumption and poor mental health Brain disorders in Europe cost €798 billion1 1/5 1/3 40% 60% indirect c...

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The downward spiral of harmful alcohol consumption and poor mental health

Brain disorders in Europe cost €798 billion1

1/5 1/3

40%

60%

indirect costs

women’s

direct costs

deaths due to mental and neurological disorders are caused by alcohol4

Costs of mental disorders2

2.4%

Bi-polar disorder

Tobacco Alcohol

4.3%

Idiopathic intellectual disability

7.1%

Schizophrenia

Dementia Psychoses Anxiety

41.7%

Stroke Headache Brain injury MS €

50.000

100.000

150.000

200.000

men’s

The burden and costs (direct and indirect) of mental illnesses, including AUDs is equivalent of 3.4% of the GDP in the EU3

44.4%

Drug use disorders

Alcohol use disorders

The cycle of mental well-being6 Socioeconomic position

Material conditions

Psychosocial conditions

Political voice

Gender Age Ethnicity Disability Sexuality Physical health

Economic assets Income Wealth Environment

Human & social capital Community ties Family life Education Autonomy Control over life Capability

Governance Influence on decisions Participation in civic life

Proportion of years of life lost per mental and substance use disorder group (2010)5

27%

of the European adult population have experienced at least one mental disorder7

Alcohol can hijack your brain: the harmful alcohol use cycle8

Meeting needs for status, control & social inclusion Trust in people; trust in institutions Reinforcement

Health system

Mental disorders

Risk factors

Accessible Acceptable Affordable Quality Equitable

ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

Alcohol Smoking Poor diet No exercise Substance misuse Violence Lack of inclusion

Mental disorders in children Stress and anxiety Depression and bi-polar disorder Schizophrenia Substance use disorders Dementia

NCDs and Suicides Prevalence Morbidity

Disability Mortality

Alcohol consumption Genes

Environment

Brain Adaptation

Increased dopamine

Increased endorphin u-system

For more information on the Awareness Week on Alcohol Related Harm please see: www.awarh.eu

The downward spiral of harmful alcohol consumption and poor mental health

Mental health conditions, including alcohol abuse, tend to deteriorate in times of economic crisis and recession9

People who experience unemployment and family disruptions are at greater risk of mental health problems, particularly depression and AUDs10

The European Psychiatric Association’s (EPA) guidelines recommend the reduction of alcohol to reduce the risk of depression11

Effective early intervention and treatment can help reduce mental disorders with co-morbid alcohol and substance abuse12

According to the WHO Global Strategy on Alcohol, health services should “provide prevention and treatment interventions to individuals and families at risk of, or affected by AUDs”13

The risk of developing mood disorders, anxiety or depression is higher in people with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and alcohol dependence (AD)14

of subjects with any AUD have a comorbid anxiety disorder15

of subjects with any AUD have a comorbid mood disorder16

60%

of men with AD experience alcohol induced mood disorder with depressive features17

20

Anxiety

Alcohol

Anxiety

Tolerance

19

Dependency

Alcohol

Withdrawal

Anxiety

Depressed/anxious patient

Sleep disturbance Fatigue Loss of appetite Irritability Depressed/anxious

Alcohol dependent patient

Goldberg depression score

33.4% 40.7%

1/2

suicides is alcohol related18

4.5 4.0

21

Women

3.5 3.0

Men

2.5 2.0

Lower-level Higher-level Hazardous/ harmful

Weekly alcohol consumption

Mental health strategy or plan covering alcohol abuse in selected OECD countries22

Yes No No information

For more information on the Awareness Week on Alcohol Related Harm please see: www.awarh.eu

The downward spiral of harmful alcohol consumption and poor mental health

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

European Brain Council (2011), Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010, European Neuropsychopharmacology, 21, pp.718-779, http://europeanbraincouncil.org/pdfs/Publications_/Cost%20of%20Disorders%20of%20the%20Brain%20in%20 Europe%20-%20EurNeuro2011.pdf Effertz T, et al (2013), European Neuropsychopharmacology, 23(7), pp. 742-8 OECD (2014), “Making Mental Health Count”, Focus on Health, July, http://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/Focus-on-Health-Making-Mental-Health-Count.pdf WHO Europe (2012), Alcohol in the European Union, Consumption, harm and policy approaches, p.21 http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/160680/e96457.pdf Whiteford et al. (2013), Lancet, 382, pp. 1575-86 WHO (2013), The European Mental health Action Plan 2013 – 2020, http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/194107/63wd11e_MentalHealth-3.pdf WHO Europe, Data and statistics, http://www.euro.who.int/en/what-we-do/health-topics/noncommunicable-diseases/mental-health/data-and-statistics Clapp et al. (2008), Alcohol Research and Health, 31(4), pp. 310-339 Sirohi, S. et al (2012), Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 5(95) WHO Europe (2011), Impact of Economic Crises on Mental Health, http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/134999/e94837.pdf Ibid European Psychiatric Association (2012), “European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance on prevention of mental disorders”, European Psychiatry, 27, pp. 68-80, http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/pdf/Journal%20article-%20Guidance%20on%20the%20 prevention%20of%20mental%20disorders.pdf OECD (2014), “Making Mental Health Count”, Focus on Health, July, http://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/Focus-on-Health-Making-Mental-Health-Count.pdf WHO (2010), Global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol, http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/msbalcstragegy.pdf Alonso J et al. (2004), Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Suppl. 109(420), pp. 28-37 Grant et al. (2004), Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(8), pp. 807–816 Ibid Schuckit MA et al (2013), Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 74(2), pp. 271-9. WHO Europe (2011), Impact of Economic Crises on Mental Health, http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/134999/e94837.pdf Lingford-Hughes A, et al (2002), Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 8, pp. 107-116 Boden JM, et al (2011), Addiction, 106, pp. 906-914 Rodgers B, et al 2000), Addiction, 95(12), pp. 1833-1845 OECD (2014), Making Mental Health Count - The Social and Economic Costs of Neglecting Mental Health Care, OECD Health Policy Studies, http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration-health/making-mental-health-count_9789264208445-en

For more information on the Awareness Week on Alcohol Related Harm please see: www.awarh.eu