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THE EFFECT OF SELF-ESTEEM ENRICHMENT BIBLIOCOUNSELING PROGRAM ON THE SELF-ESTEEM LEVEL OF SIXTH GRADE STUDENTS A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCH...

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THE EFFECT OF SELF-ESTEEM ENRICHMENT BIBLIOCOUNSELING PROGRAM ON THE SELF-ESTEEM LEVEL OF SIXTH GRADE STUDENTS

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES OF MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

BY

NURTEN KARACAN

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES

JULY 2009

Approval of the Graduate School of Social Sciences

Prof. Dr. Sencer Ayata I certify that this thesis satisfies all the requirements as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science in Educational Sciences.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Oya Yerin Güneri Head of Department

This is to certify that we have read this thesis and that in our opinion it is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science in Educational Sciences.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Oya Yerin Güneri Supervisor Examining Committee Members Assoc. Prof.Dr. Safure Bulut (METU, EDS)

____________________

Assist. Prof. Dr. Zeynep Hatipoğlu Sümer (METU, EDS) _____________________ Assoc. Prof. Dr. Oya Yerin Güneri (METU, EDS)

_____________________

I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all material and results that are not original to this work.

Nurten Karacan : Signature iii

:

ABSTRACT THE EFFECT OF SELF-ESTEEM ENRICHMENT BIBLIOCOUNSELING PROGRAM ON THE SELF-ESTEEM LEVEL OF SIXTH GRADE STUDENTS Karacan, Nurten M.S., The Department of Educational Sciences Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Oya Yerin Güneri

July 2009, 91 pages This study aims to design and investigate the effect of “Self-Esteem Enrichment Bibliocounseling Program” on the self-esteem level of sixth grade students. Twenty four subjects (13 female, 11 male) out of 166 total sixth grade students from a university affiliated private middle school in Ankara, were randomly selected based on Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) total scores and assigned to treatment and no-treatment control group conditions. An experimental design with one selfesteem treatment group and one no-treatment control group, and two measurements (pre and post) were used to investigate the effectiveness of “Self-Esteem Enrichment Bibliocounseling Program”. The treatment program developed by the researcher was introduced to subjects during eight weeks. The group sessions were held once a week. Each session lasted 80 minutes. Mixed Design (one between and one within factor) Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed to the pre-test and post-test CSEI scores of experimental and control group subjects. Results indicated that, the “Self-Esteem Enrichment Bibliocounseling Program” employed to the treatment group produced significant increase in treatment group subjects self-esteem scores.

Keywords: Self-esteem, Self-esteem Enrichment Program, Bibliocounseling, Bibliotherapy, Sixth Grade Students iv

ÖZ

BİBLİODANIŞMAYA DAYALI ÖZGÜVEN GELİŞTİRME PROGRAMININ 6. SINIF ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN ÖZGÜVEN DÜZEYLERİNE ETKİSİ Karacan, Nurten Yüksek Lisans, Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü Tez Yöneticisi: Doç. Dr. Oya Yerin Güneri

Temmuz 2009, 91 sayfa

Bu çalışmanın amacı, “Bibliodanışmaya Dayalı Özgüven Geliştirme Programı”nın 6. sınıf öğrencilerinin özgüven düzeyi üzerindeki etkisini araştırmaktır. Bu çalışmanın deney ve kontrol grubunun katılımcılarını, Ankara’daki bir özel okulda 6. sınıfta okuyan 166 öğrenci arasından Coopersmith Benlik Saygısı Ölçeği toplam puanlarına göre tesadüfi örnekleme yöntemi ile seçilen 24 öğrenci (13 kız, 11 erkek) oluşturmuştur.

“Bibliodanışmaya

Dayalı

Özgüven

Geliştirme

Programı”nın

etkililiğini araştırmak amacıyla öntest-sontest ve deney-kontrol gruplarından oluşan deneysel desen kullanılmıştır. “Bibliodanışmaya Dayalı Özgüven Geliştirme Programı” sekiz hafta süreyle uygulanmıştır. Oturumlar haftada bir kez yapılmış ve seksen dakika sürmüştür. Deney ve kontrol grubu katılımcılarından elde edilen Coopersmith Benlik Saygısı Ölçeğinin öntest ve sontest puanlarının analizinde, 2 (deney-kontrol) X

2 (öntest-sontest) faktörlü, varyans analizi kullanılmıştır.

Bulgular, deney grubuna uygulanan “Bibliodanışmaya Dayalı Özgüven Geliştirme Programı” altıncı sınıf öğrencilerinin benlik saygıları üzerinde olumlu bir artışa neden olduğunu göstermiştir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Benlik Saygısı, Bibliodanışmaya Dayalı Özgüven Geliştirme Programı, Bibliodanışma, Biblioterapi, 6. Sınıf Öğrencileri v

To My Parents

vi

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would initially like to express my warm feelings to my supervisor, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Oya Yerin Güneri, for her invaluable guidance, encouragement, support, intimacy and advice while monitoring my personal and academic development. I have learned lots of things and felt privileged to work with supervisor with constant energy during my thesis process. I must express my gratefulness to the examining committee members, Assos. Prof. Dr. Zeynep Hatipoğlu Sümer and Assos. Prof. Dr. Safure Balcı for their valuable contributions, recommendations, and positive supports. My special thanks also goes to Berna Güloğlu, Gülşen Çevik and Gökhan Atik for their ongoing help on scoring of the scale. I would like to express my indebted thanks to administer and my colleagues at METU College in which this study was conducted and administer and my colleagues at Kavaklı Dershane. My close friend Serpil Ergin deserves a special thank, for lots of things; her interest, love, support, intimacy…She was my near always during my most difficult times. I owe my heartful gratitudes and thanks to my parents for their love, trust, patience, encouragement, everything I do through my all life. To my father Muammer and my mother Ayşe Karacan, thank you for all things, you never complained about my longs works; instead you were supportive and near me always. I am also very luck because of belonging my sister Fatma (also your baby Şafak), my brothers Ramazan and Harun; thanks you to be best friends of me.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PLAGIARISM.............................................................................................................iii ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………iv ÖZ……………………………………………………………………………….…....v DEDICATION……………………………………………………………..……...…vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS…………………………………………………………..vii TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………......viii CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………1 1.1 Background of the Study……………………………………………......1 1.2 Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………….4 1.3 Significance of the Study………………………………………………..4 1.4 Definition of the Terms………………………………………………….7 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE……………………………………………… 8 2.1 Self-Esteem…………………………………………………………… 8 2.2 Theoretical Overview of Self-Esteem………………………….………11 2.3 Enhancing Self-Esteem……………………………………………….. 15 2.4 Bibliocounseling……………………………………………………… 24 2.5 Theoretical Basis of Bibliocounseling ……………………………….. 25 2.6 Types of Bibliocounseling……………………………………………. 28 2.7 Implementing and Benefits of Bibliocounseling………….…………. 30 2.8 Researches on Bibliocounseling and Self-Esteem ………..……..…….36 2.9 Summary of Review of Literature……….…………………………….39 3. METHOD…………………………………………………………………...40 3.1

Design of the Study……………………………………………………40

3.2

Subjects………………………………………………………………..40

3.3 Data Collection Instrument…………..………………………………..41 3.3.1. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI)……………….41 viii

3.4

Training Procedure…………………………………………………….43

3.5

Self-esteem Enrichment Bibliocounseling Program ……………...…..44 3.5.1. Summary of the Sessions…………………………….…………48

3.6

Variables………………………………………………………………52

3.7

Data Analyses…………………………………………………………53

3.8 Limitations of the Study……………………………………………….53 3.9 Ethical Considerations …………………………….…………………..54 4. RESULTS…………………………………………………………………...55 4.1. Results Concerning the Effect of the Self-esteem Enrichment Group on the Self-esteem Level of the Treatment and Control Groups’ Subjects……………….……………………………..55 5. DISCUSSIONS……………………………………………………………...59 5.1. The Effects of Self-Esteem Enrichment Program Based on Bibliocounseling……………………………………………………...59 5.2. Implications for Practice...…………...……………………………….62 5.3. Recommendations for Research.…………….……………………….63 REFERENCES………………………………………………………………….64 APPENDICES (In Turkish)……………………………………………………..79 A. Coopersmith Benlik Saygısı Ölçeği (CSEI)…………………………….79 B. Hikayeye Dayalı Özgüven Geliştirme Programı...……………………...80

ix

LIST OF TABLES

TABLES Table 4. 1. The Means and Standard Deviations of Self-Esteem Scores For Treatment and No-Treatment Control Group ………………………..……………..62 Table 4. 2(a) The Results of Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance Carried out to Pre and Post-Test Scores of Groups. ………………………………………...63 Table 4. 2(b) Interactions Contrast…...………………………….…...……………..64

x

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURES Figure 4. 1. Mean Score Differences of Self-Esteem Treatment and No-Treatment Control Group at Pre and Post Test Measures………………………64

xi

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of the Study The world is changing very fast and as a result, there are a lot of challenges, struggles, and problems for all age groups to overcome. Especially, children who are psychologically and socially more vulnerable, face with numerous difficult life situations such as divorce, death, bullying and loss. Although some children have high self-esteem that would help them to cope with struggles and challenges in their lives more powerfully, some others do not. Self-esteem is regarded as crucial for personal happiness and effective functioning. People want and need high self-esteem to overcome their problems effectively, to feel themselves better, and to reach their personal goals. For these reasons, selfesteem has been regarded as a central psychological concept (Behamdouni, 1993). There are many definitions of the term self-esteem. For example, Coopersmith (1967) who is one of the pioneers of self-esteem research defined it as “an attitude of approval or disapproval and indicates the extent to which the individual believes himself to be capable, significant, successful, and worthy” (as cited in, Hamm, 1989, p. 3). More recently, Osborne (1996) viewed self-esteem as “one person’s relatively permanent negative or positive feelings and interpretations about successes and failures of the self in daily lives” (p. 65). Self-esteem is also regarded as how the individual values and regards him/herself (Owens, 1991).

1

According to Branden, (1969), the concept of self-esteem consisted of three parts. The cognitive part refers an person’s being aware of differences between ideal and perceived self of own, affective part refers to person’s emotions and feelings to these differences, and behavioral part refers to some behaviors such as assertiveness, resilience, respectfulness (Branden, 1969, as cited in Hull, 1982). Adolescence is a turbulent period in which self-esteem becomes more changeable. Researchers accepted that due to some significant biological, social, psychological, and academic changes that make adolescence period stressful, self-esteem which is high during childhood drops in adolescence (Bos, Muris, Mulkens & Schaalma, 2006). The level of the self-esteem may affect adolescents’ friendships, school achievement, life satisfaction, and communication skills. Therefore, self-esteem improvement programs are particularly important during adolescence period. There are mainly two self-esteem interventions as treatment programs and primary prevention programs. While treatment programs aim at enhancing self-esteem in low self-esteem people, primary prevention programs focus on healthy population and emphasize determining irrational beliefs and thoughts and changing them with more rational and realistic beliefs (Osborne, 1996). Self-esteem enhancement programs based on increasing students’ awareness about themselves, helping them feel better, and helping them fostering school achievement and participation (Smith, 1998). Group experiences formed to enhance self-esteem, enable students to get positive feedback and self-evaluations; hence, promote selfesteem (O’shea, 2008). Educational settings tend to be more suitable to improve these prevention programs due to the school’s social role on contributing students’ general health and well-being, correlational relationship between self-esteem and school concerns and the impact of school environment on improving students’ personal development (Smith, 1998). Self-esteem enrichment programs in educational settings can be combined with bibliocounseling. Bibliocounseling is defined as “the use of reading to produce affective change and to promote personality growth and development, through a 2

comprehensive

analysis

of

the

literature”

(Lenkowsky,

2001

p.123).

Bibliocounseling helps students see the world, improve cognitive awareness, and gain positive sense of self (Watson, 1993). It provides information and insight to clients about their problems through discussion of situations, creates awareness that others have similar problems. Lastly, clients may find solutions to their struggles (Pardeck, 1994). As concluded by Meier-Jensen, (2001) children may not share their problems openly in counseling process but they can discuss their problems in an impersonal setting through discussion of a story in which children have identified with a character. For this reason, bibliocounseling enables counselors to help children to realize their struggles and cope with difficult situations via exploring their own abilities and needs by using books. Children can learn to overcome struggles through others’ experiences. Developmental bibliocounseling that refers guided reading in schools by school counselors can be used mostly as preventive technique and enables students see relationship between their current life and the book they read (Olsen, 2007) To conclude, self-esteem affects an individual’s life skills such as adjustment and healthy interpersonal relationships. It is vital to participate in society efficiently to have healthy personality and life satisfaction as well. Thus, it appears important to enhance self-esteem especially in children through use of various interventions. Bibliocounseling that help children gain awareness about problems, relieve of emotions, find alternative solutions and see that problems are universal, has been regarded as an effective intervention to improve self-esteem.

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1. 2. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to design a self-esteem enrichment bibliocounseling program and investigate its effect on self-esteem level of 6th grade students. The research questions of the study can be summarized as follows: 1. Is there any significant difference between experimental and control group participants’ posttest self-esteem scores? 2. Is there any significant difference between pre-test and post-test self-esteem scores of experimental group participants’? 1. 3. Significance of the Study Self-esteem is regarded as essential for coping with life struggles and disappointments and finding personal happiness. Research supports the idea that people with high self-esteem have some characteristics such as perceiving themselves more positively, being less vulnerable to esteem threating events, having feeling of control, concentrating on problem-oriented activities (Schütz, 1998), selfrespect, superiority, pride, self-acceptance, and self-love (Rich, 1978), constructive thinking, life satisfaction and happiness (Bartoletti, 2006), successful selfadjustment, greater ability to cope with negative feedback and satisfaction with body image (Coopersmith, 1967; Stanwyck, 1983; Cash et. al., 1986; as cited in Eiter, 2002), feeling powerful, unique and worthwhile (Glenn, Smith, & Tina, 1998). Children with high self-esteem, have powerful coping resources. Thus, enriching self-esteem can help children to deal with stress, solve problems effectively, accept mistakes and disappointments, and have successful experiences. During adolescence period, some internal and external factors have strong influence on development of self-esteem such as physical development and appearance, social relationships,

4

cognitive development (Bishop, 2008), increasing risk taking behaviors (O’shea, 2008), identity, and autonomy building (Eitel, 2002). Sixth grade which is a transition from elementary to middle school, include dramatic changes such as entering to a new social environment, facing with new expectations, academic challenges, rapid physical, emotional and cognitive changes. All these developmental and environmental challenges may cause children to feel overwhelmed and underequipped (L’Esperance, 2006; Bishop, 2008). Hence, it seems clear that providing treatment programs which aimed at promoting self-esteem at middle school level in which self esteem is challenged would be beneficial. So that it would be possible to prevent low self-esteem and its negative consequences before it becomes a serious issue for students in future years. There are some methods and approaches to enhance self-esteem. Self-esteem enrichment programs especially implemented in schools depend on three main approaches which are teaching methods approach, the packaged program approach, and the “whole school” approach. The teaching methods approach based on the assumption that changes on global self-esteem would influence the variety of behaviors such as academic achievement and performance. The program focuses on personal development and centered on values and talking about children’s selves. On the other hand, the packaged program approach that is a commercially prepared based on more formal structure during school day with class members to enhance self-esteem. Lastly, the whole school approach accepts the importance of the environment and realitionships as a result tries to establish a more democratic climate. The primary aim of this approach is to enhance learning environment not to enrich self-esteem directly (Smith, 1998). On the other hand, some educational and psychotherapeutic techniques such as rational emotive techniques, social skills training programs, relaxiation training (Adams, 1988), cognitive styles and reflective thinking methods (Marciano, 1991) are used to promote self-esteem. Bibliocounseling is also regarded as an effective method to increase students’ selfesteem (Wadsworth, 2007), and usually combined with other therapies (Pardeck & Pardeck, 1984; as cited in Olsen, 2007). Through bibliocounseling, children realize 5

and imitate with characters similar to themselves in the book, they can have a sense of relief of emotions, produce new and productive directions and ways in life to interact (Gladding & Gladding, 1991; as cited in Meier-Jensen, 2001). A central reason why bibliocounseling is practiced is that bibliocounseling allows children to see their problems from a new perspective, realize that they are not alone, and have overcome them. It gives children hope and insight into their current problems or circumstances. In Turkey, self-esteem has been one of the widely studied topics. Existing research focused on investigating the relationship between self-esteem and some variables such as gender, age, academic achievement, locus of control, academic achievement, test anxiety (e.g. Durmuş, 1994; Çankaya, 1997; Bilgin, 2001; Ünal, 2006; Başkara, 2002). In the last decade, research studies that investigate the effects of self-esteem enrichment program on the self-esteem level of students (e.g. Güloğlu, 1999; Sezer, 2001; Aksaray, 2003; Altıner, 2004) have also been rising. However, there are few number of studies that investigated the effect of bibliocounseling with high school students. For example, Uçar (1996) examined use of literature in guidance. Yılmaz (2002) also investigated the effect of bibliocounseling on teenager-parent conflicts. Findings of Yılmaz’s study indicated the positive effect of bibliocounseling on reducing teenager parent conflicts. On the other hand, there exists no published research study in Turkey that investigated the effect of bibliocounseling on selfesteem levels of middle school students. Thus the present study that investigates the effect of bibliocounseling on self-esteem levels of 6th grade students is designed in a preventive manner. The study is unique in the sense that researcher wrote a continuous story about a self-esteem that is based on cognitive behavioral approach. It is hoped that the findings of the study will make important contributions to the self-esteem and bibliocounseling literature. If the treatment procedure used in this study found to be effective, it is expected that it can be used by school counselors to improve the self-esteem levels of 6th grade students.

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1. 4. Definition of Terms Bibliocounseling: Non-medical usage of books to foster emotional, behavioral, and cognitive abilities and skills of clients (Olsen, 2007). Self-esteem: A personal judgment of worthiness expressed in the attitudes as approval or disapproval with regard to oneself (Coopersmith, 1981; as cited in Metz, 1995). Self-esteem enrichment program: It is a planned and systematic teaching used cooperative learning activities to enhance self-esteem that is individual’s self-worth and confidence (Morganett, 1994).

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CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This chapter contains a review of literature on self-esteem and its theoretical overview, self-esteem enrichment programs, bibliocounseling, and its theoretical background, implementation, and benefits and finally research on bibliocounseling and self-esteem. 2. 1. Self-Esteem The self refers an individual’s personality traits based on personal differences from others such as attitudes, values, goals, beliefs, interpersonal relationships, and styles (Tyler, Kramer & John, 1999). Hansford and Hattie (1982) reviewed 143 studies and determined 15 different self-terms

such as self, self-concept, self-esteem, self-

concept of ability, self-acceptance, self-perception, ideal-self, self-assurance, selfsentiment, self-attitude, self-confidence, self-regard, self-actualization, identity development and self-expectation. Among various self-terms, self-esteem has been one of the widely studied one. Baumeister and Tice (1985) defined self-esteem as “a global evaluation of the self, and it is typically measured by the degree to which the person endorses various evaluative statements about the self” (p. 450). The concept of self-esteem has a cognitive compotent that refers an organized schema about the self and an evaluative component that is the positivity of the resultant attitude (Campbell, Chew & Scratchley, 1991). Brehm and Kassin (1993) defined self-esteem as “an affective component of the self, consisting of a person’s positive and negative selfevaluations” (as cited in Osborne, 1996, p. 160). 8

Overall, Fleeming and Watts (1980) stated that, a general definition of self-esteem agreed by most psychologists is a personal judgment of one’s own worth. More basicly, self-esteem refers “a child's feelings about himself or herself” (Glenn, Smith & Tina, 1998, Building Self-Esteem 1). According to Podesta (2001), definitions of self-esteem could be summarized in three ways as feelings about ourselves, how much we like ourselves, and the amount of confidence to ourselves. Although there are many terms regarding self-esteem, the self-concept has been used interchangeably with the concept of self-esteem. Hence, there is a need to clarify the distinction between the two terms to alleviate confusion (Flecther, 2005). Selfesteem is regarded as evaluative or judging part of the self-concept (Smith, 1998). According to the traditional self-esteem literature, self-esteem and self-concept is familiar only in terms of the positivity of contents of them (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry & Harlow, 1993). Wells and Marwell (1976) stated that the term of selfconcept was used by psychoanalysis, ego psychology, personality research, sociology, and experimental social psychology mostly and these perspectives used a variety of self-terms. Consequently, a lot of terms entered to literature and lead to confusion in their use. One more conflict is about explicit and implicit self-esteem that are ralated with definition and measurement of self-esteem (Tafarodi & Ho, 2006). Explicit selfesteem is regarded with conscious, relatively controlled, and self-reported beliefs. On the other hand, implicit self-esteem is opposite to explicit one in terms of uncounsious, uncontrolled and overlearned associations about the self. Both of them are formed by interaction with significant others because people internalize the feedback received from others (Dehart, 2003). As a result, self-esteem of children may be influenced by social interactions with parents, teachers, peers, and society. Apart from confusion on measurement of self-esteem, increasing attention has been focused on stability of self-esteem that is crucial for understanding the role and the

9

functioning of self-esteem (Johnson, 1998). Stability of self-esteem refers selfesteem’s fluctuations in momentary, and contextually (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry & Harlow, 1993). Global self-esteem is a more general term of self-related feeling as successful, satisfied, liking most things about themselves (Lawrence, 2006). People’s affective states, their specific self-views, and framed of self-views constituted global self-esteem. Global self-esteem scale centers around general sense of self-worth, self-confidence, and self-competence unidimensionally and as content-free as Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (1965). On the other hand, another perspective of self-esteem and its measurements is Basic self-esteem scale that derives from psychodynamic and humanistic approaches. This scale focuses on experiences of early phase of development and is regarded as more stable and relatively independent of positive and negative daily events (Johnson, 1998). Experiences of an individual through lifetime have an important role in the development of self-esteem (Eitel, 2002). Research emphasized that the level of selfesteem affects people’s feelings about themselves (Gecas, 1971, Kostelnik et. al., 1988; as cited in Güloğlu, 1999). People with low self-esteem recognize their weaknesses and deficits and ignore their strengths and abilities (Whelan, Haywood & Galloway, 2007). People with low self-esteem also tend to be focus on and take negative information (Wells & Marwell, 1976). More specifically, characteristics of low self-esteem people include inferiority, self-hatred, lack of personal acceptance, submissiveness (Rich, 1998), having less clear self-concept, feeling worse after failure, having self-blame and reality-escaping strategies (Schütz, 1998), using more esteem-bolstering strategies, focusing on self-protection (Wood, Giordano-Beech, Taylor, Michela & Gaus, 1994) poor self-appraisal, timidity, lack of personal acceptance and submissiveness (Wylie, 1960; as cited in Eitel, 2002). On the other hand, high self-esteem people appreciate their own abilities, potentials and weaknesses, deal with environmental demands, struggles and stress, have high sense of well-being and security, open to new experiences, opinions, have a sense of humor, cope with critisim, feel respect from peers and significant others (Edwards, 1993; as cited in Patterson, 2000). They tend to avoid or ignore negative information 10

and they are more successful in relationships as a result they are socially acceptable (Osborne, 1996). As stated by Rosenberg (1965) people with high self-esteem recognize own limitations but want to improve their social role in their environment. They consider themselves worthy and hence they respect themselves (as cited in Wells & Marwell, 1976). High self-esteem is promoted by recognizing and valuing our own efforts and achievements and having a secure sense of identity. It provides confidence, energy, and optimism. Lastly, high self-esteem increased by positive self-experiences (Roberts, 2006). Developmentaly, it is regarded that self-esteem changes over time and it is a dynamic process with ebbs and flows (Bishop, 2008). Stanwyck (1983) pointed that psychosocial development crises influence development of self-esteem (as cited in Eitel, 2002). Adolescence is a time that contains unique physiological and cognitive characteristics; hence, it is regarded as important in self-esteem enhancement (Barron, 1995). In addition to struggles and challenges coming with period of adolescence, transition from elementary school to secondary school is critical for self-esteem development and enhancement as this transition occurs at a time of significant development change (Blyth & Traeger, 1983). Consequently, there is a decline in self-esteem of adolescents (Barron, 1995). Thus, it is vital to help adolescents promote high self-esteem. In view of the big picture, either global and basic or explicit and implicit self-esteem of students are needed to promote especially during critical periods such as transition to high school and adolescence as high self-esteem people more positive characteristics than their low self-esteem counterparts. 2. 2. Theoretical Overview of Self-Esteem Early attempts to self were associated with the soul. Although empirical validation of self was considered as imposibble by early experimental psychologists (Hilgard, 1987; as cited in Waggoner-Weir, 1991), self-esteem and its importance has been focus of research and theorizing since 19th century (Owens, 1991). For example, 11

symbolic interactionist theorists, Cooley (1902) and Mead (1934) concerned with the development of a social psychology of personality. While Cooley suggested that the self was formed through social interaction, Mead added reflexive attitudes to Cooley’s approach a in the formulation of self (as cited in Owens, 1991). Theoretical background of self-esteem goes back to psychoanalytic approaches. Classical psychoanalytic theorists beginning with Freud developed a motivation model for self-development (Waggoner-Weir, 1991). Although Freud was initially concerned with ego rather than self and concentrated on the self-concept, concepts used by other theorists such as

Adler’s “superiority striving”, Horney’s

“self

realization” and Fromm’s “self-fulfillment” were related to the concept of selfesteem (Wells & Marwell, 1976). The early studies of self-esteem go back to 1940s with personality theorists’ beginning to address self-theory (Wylie, 1974). James (1890, 1892) identified as the earliest “self” psychologist with the familiar I-Me dichotomy defined self-esteem as a ratio between a person’s successes and his expectations (as cited in Kernis, 2006). James viewed that the self was considered as a conscious phenomenon and a person’s evaluations about himself was formed by his aspirations (as cited in Wells & Marwell, 1976). In the late 1940s, behaviorism that provided new self-esteem’s resurgence based on theoretical and empirical interests have become popular and self-esteem was handled by a variety of personality theories (Wells & Marwell, 1976). Rogers (1951) developed “nondirective psychotherapy” that was based on the idea that the self is the central aspect in personality formulation and needs positive regard from both others and oneself (Skube, 1994). Maslow (1970) concerned with self-concept and self-esteem centered on the notion of self-actualization and provided a hierarchy of needs arranged from basic physiological needs such as hunger, thirst, and sex to highest need for self-actualization. Self-esteem was seen precondition of the notion of self-actualization.

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In the 1960s, two familiar therapists as social interactionists, Coopersmith (1967) and Rosenberg (1965) examined self-esteem and self-concept (Waggoner-Weir, 1991). Coopersmith (1967) defined self-esteem as more complex, involving stronger selfevaluation about the self, approval, or disapproval of owns characteristics, and judgment of worthiness (as cited in Owens, 1991). Coopersmith presented four specific antecedents of self-esteem as success, values, aspirations, and defenses and found no distinct family patterns of high and low self-esteem adolescents (as cited in Waggoner-Weir, 1991). Coopersmith’s the concept of self-esteem derives from subjective expression that refers the individual’s self-perception and description and behavioral expression that means individual’s behavioral manifestation that was observed by others. Additionaly, according to Coopersmith, genuine and defensive self-esteem differ from each other in terms of whether a success or experience express or deny or not (Flecther, 1995). On the other hand, Rosenberg (1965) defined self-esteem as “a positive or negative attitude toward a particular object, namely, the self…high self-esteem…expresses the feeling that one is good enough” (as cited in Wells & Marwell, 1976, p. 65). Rosenberg concerned with adolescents’ self-image development and stated that although high self-esteem people see their weaknesses they accepted their own merits and view themselves worthy (Waggoner-Weir, 1991). According to Rosenberg,

reflective

appraisals,

social

comparisons,

self-attribution,

and

psychological centrality constitute self-concept and if an individual influenced by others attitudes or views to oneself then that person begin to see oneself as others view points (Flecther, 1995). In 1970s, the touchy-feely programs that were short-term applications created feeling of exhilatation were implemented to help participants feel good. Hovewer, they were not interventions to create long-term behavior changes (Skube, 1994). As moving into 21st century, more recent definition of self-esteem is provided by “California Task Force to Promote Self-Esteem”. It defines self-esteem as

13

“appreciating my own worth and importance and having the character to be accountable for myself and to act responsibly toward others” (Podesta, 2001, p. 3). Apart from the previous theories of self-esteem, Hull (1982) cited three self-esteem theories from both an historical and ontological perspective as the self-as-object theory, the self-as-knower theory, and the self-as evaluater theory. While the self-asobject theory assumes that social communication forces form self-esteem, the self-asknower theory suggested formation of self-esteem occurring by internal psychological and intrapersonal communication forces. Lastly, the self-as-evaluater theory adds that self-esteem exceed to mature by cognitive evaluation in addition to two forces of previous two theories. There are some models that explain self-esteem. Baumeister (1993) for example developed a model as “the puzzle of low self-regard” in which self-esteem enhancement depends on an individual’s interpretation of feedbacks about the self (as cited in Osborne, 1996). Another model, an earth- core assumed that there is a self-productive system of self-esteem, which must be defused to change self-esteem. An eclectic approach assumed that self-esteem may be shaped by previous experiences and future expectations as result self-esteem is a combination of situational feelings (Osborne, 1996). Cognitive model also states that self-esteem depends on evaluative feedback taken from environment and self-evaluations (Kernis, 2006). In affective model, on the other hand, both of global self-esteem and evaluative feedback influence self-evaluations and feelings of self-worth (Kernis, 2006). As well as models that explained self-esteem centered on self-evaluations, Flecther (1995)

also

cited

three

conceptual

models

as

unidimensional

model,

multidimensional model, and the hierarchical construct self. Unidimensional model based on Coopersmith and Rosenberg’ self-esteem measurement that global score of self-esteem on the various aspects such as the academic, social, and physical selfesteem is used to acknowledge an individual’s feelings about himself/herself. Hovewer, because global scores of self-esteem imply only an indivual’s having 14

either high or low self-esteem, it does not sufficient to address where high or low areas may be manifest. As a result, multidimensional model proposed by Shavelson et. al. (1976) (as cited in Flecther, 1995) provides more exploration of the underlying domains of self-esteem and investigation of realitionships between self-esteem and variables. Finally, the hieararchical model investigates deeply how self-esteem is constructed and how the subdomains influence the higher levels. Overall, the models explaining self-esteem seek to investigate and explain how selfesteem is constructed. The common characteristic of the former models is that they explain self-esteem as self-evaluations and interpretations of feedbacks as positive or negative. On the other hand, the latter of models focused on self-esteem measurements and determine exploration of the underlying domains of self-esteem. Especially, multidimensional and hieararchical models added information to the previous models’ assumptions. 2. 3. Enhancing Self-Esteem Self-esteem ehnacement is important because of satisfaction of self-esteem needs of an individual leads to feelings of self-confidence, worth, and a desire to be beneficial in the world (Martinez, 1997). As a result, for psychological health, self-esteem is essential. According to Akin, Cowan, Dunne et.al. (1990) self-esteem refers to the emotional results of accurate or inaccurate assessments, which a person makes about himself/herself continually. For example, physical appearance, personality traits, status in various groups, and the like assessments are indicator of the way one views oneself and thinks about oneself, which show self-esteem of the person (as cited in O’Rourke & Worzbyt, 1996). Coopersmith (1967) suggests four significant factors that promote self-esteem as the perception of value that others have toward the child, experiences of the child with success, the perception of success or failure by the child, the child’s coping strategies 15

to negative feedback of criticism ( as cited in Güloğlu, 1999). In a similar vein, O’Rourke & Worzbyt (1996) cited that self-esteem has been linked to social, academic, family, body image, and global self-esteem areas. Pope, McHale and Craighead (1988) stated following:

Self-esteem appears to be related to other areas, including psychological health and academic performance, in an interactional manner; that is, self-esteem may be both a cause and an effect of the type of functioning which occurs in other areas (as cited in O’Rourke & Worzbyt, 1996, p. 347). Awareness of physical characteristics improves the development of self-image in children. If boys or girls feel dissatisfaction with physical appearance, they may have low self-esteem (Lawrence, 2006). If an individual’s physical appearance is mistreated such as called names, because their core selves affected negatively, and they may become shamed of their body. If people learn to feel appreciation and satisfaction with their body, they may have attitude toward their inner selves (Schiraldi, 2007). Low self-esteem people perceive their disabilities only as a result they cannot see their physical appearance accurately because they have a sense of inadequacy (McKay & Fanning, 2006). Because of this, it is vital to help people perceive their positive physical appearance. Additionally, people with high self-esteem differ from low self-esteem people as they concentrate their positive aspects of self; being brighter, more attractive, or more skillful. Low self-esteem people do not appreciate their core worth and realize what is right about them; hence, self-acceptance is blocked. To enhance self-esteem, people may learn to approve oneself and seek the good for self and others (Schiraldi, 2007). When an individual realize own strengths, appreciate themselves, then people may feel their self-esteem strong (McKay & Fanning, 2006). High self-esteem children also have ability to make plans for the future (Lawrence, 1996). If somebody has sense of meaning and purpose, self-esteem is influenced positively (Schiraldi, 2007). If somebody has goals of future then he/she can control 16

their environment and behavior. Thus, goal setting has a crucial in enhancement selfesteem (Lindenfield, 1997). On the other hand, negative thoughts increase sensitivity and result in lower selfesteem (Borton, Markowitz & Dieterich, 2005). While there is a positive realitionship between positive self-talk and high self-esteem, negative self-talk is not influential in the development of self-esteem (Burnett & McCrindle, 1999). Thus, clearing away negative thoughts is crucial to enhance self-esteem (Lındenfield, 1997). Furthermore, becoming self-determined person who make up his/her own mind when making decision may help to promote self-esteem. Self-determined people can analyze the situation because of their logical thinking ability (Lawrence, 2006). Critical thinking, decision making and problem solving skills help people to cope with problem situations. Inability to deal with problems threats children’s sense of confidence and mental health. Thus, learning problem-solving strategies help children to overcome problems they faced with and have high self-esteem (Lındenfield, 1997). One more important factor influencing self-esteem is the period of adolescence that is a dynamic and critical stage of human development from biophysiological changes to significant psychological growth (Khanlou, 2004). There are enormous decreases on global self-esteem during adolescence (Bos, Muris, Mulkens & Schaalma, 2006). Adolescents with low self-esteem are more likely to develop negative coping styles and are at increased risk for developing depression and suicidal tendencies. Problems experienced during adolescence, may have implications for future psychological, academic, occupational, and personal functioning (Barrett, Webster and Wallis, 1999). According to Erikson (1968), adolescents must have an ability to connect with the past effectively, set rational and reachable future goals and be good at interpersonal realtionships to successfully cope with the struggles of adolescence period. 17

Peers affect self-evaluations, which are the part of self-esteem; hence, relations with peers have important influence on self-esteem (Güloğlu, 1999). Children may remote their social environment and lack satisfying peer relationships if they have a sense of consecutiveness inadequately. By practicing positive and strong aspects, children can learn connect with others in positive ways and build connections with peer groups, which raise their self-esteem (O’Rourke & Worzbyt 1996). Thus the researchers concluded that since adolescents may have inappropriate coping strategies, it is important to support adolescents to have healthy coping strategies (Chandler, 1999). In the last three decades interest in self-esteem enhancement programs and practices especially in schools have increased (Smith, 1998). These programs include various methods and techniques. Programs based on participation of sports activities (Richman & Shaffer, 2000; as cited in O’shea, 2008), affective education (Marciano, 1991), modification interventions such as cirriculum, classroom techniques, (Gurney, 1987), educational interventions, broader skills-development programs that is based on especially motor skills development (Harville, 1986), advisor-advisee or homeroom-advisory programs were found to be effective in fostering self-esteem (Reasoner, 1982). In advisor-advisee or homeroom-advisory programs, advisors contain all teachers and staff that provide help students to develop positive self-esteem. Barron (1995) for example developed a self-esteem curriculum in a homeroom-advisory group and test its effectiveness on self-esteem level of middle school students. While the treatment group received self-esteem curriculum, the comparison group received regular assignments, journal writing and silent reading. The subjects of this quasi experimental study were 846 students from grades 6 through 8 in an urban school. The training consisted of twenty structured lessons. Results of this study showed that while self-esteem scores of experimental group increased significantly the comprison group’s self-esteem scores decreased but decrease was not a statistically significant. Academic concerns and school-based factors were area of interest in self-esteem research. Morrison and Thomas (1975) examined the effect of classroom 18

participation on self-esteem of college students. Subjects were 78 college students who enrolled in two sections of an introductory psychology course. Classes were designed and conducted in lecture-discussion format. The instructor provided lecture materials to students on assigned topics and encouraged discussion. Results indicated significant increase in Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, Ziler’s Social Self-esteem Scale scores of participants. In a similar vein, Hoge, Smit & Hanson (1990) investigated the impact of school experiences on students’ self-esteem using a longitudinal study of sixth and seventh grade students. Self-esteem level of students was measured in the fall and spring semesters of each year. A 2-year longitudinal study beginning in the sixth grade was applied to 322 students aged with 11 to 13 from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Results yielded that although school climate and evaluations by teachers influenced self-esteem level of students, the effects were not constant with respect to time. In addition, Owens (1991) developed “Self-esteem and Academic Skills Enrichment Program” and examined its effectiveness on college students’ academic self-esteem and self-esteem levels. The program consisted of positive thinking, setting goals, accepting strengths, helping each other. One of the treatment groups received academic skills and self-esteem enrichment program, other group received only academic skills training, and last group received only self-esteem enrichment training. According to results, all of treatment groups were found to be effective in increasing perceived approval, school satisfaction, perceived academic efficacy, and self-esteem levels of students. As well as group counseling based on some approaches, there are also skills training and activity-centered programs to enhance self-esteem. Laszlo (2000) for example in a single case experimental design employed a group intervention to sixth and seventh grade girls to promote their self-esteem. The Girls’ Circle curriculum that aimed at building peer realitonship, learning new skills, and increasing self-esteem administered to participants for six weeks, once a week. The findings of this study showed that most girls benefited from group meeting positively. 19

Allen (1993) designed and investigated the effects of a self-esteem training program on self-esteem and college persistence. Participants of this study were 110 students at registered in the Course College Survival Skills for the fall semester as 63 students in the experimental group and 47 students in the control group. While treatment group received college survival skills course aimed at teaching time-management, textbook reading, making outlines, setting goals, study habits, note taking, and testtaking skills, control group received regular treatment of content in the class. The study indicated that self-esteem level of treatment group participants increased significantly. Self-esteem enrichment programs have also been focused on some different interventions. Look (2008) for example investigated the effects of playwriting curriculum on adolescent self-esteem and writing ability. Pre-posttest experimental design with one training group and one control group was used. The nonrandom sample of this study consisted of 56 students from two seventh grade classes. Participants completed a monolog and a 10-minute play and lasted 3-4 weeks. The control group did not receive any intervention. Results of this study yielded significant increase on self-esteem level of participants but no significant change on writing ability. Cognitive/behavioral group approach has been used mostly in self-esteem and selfesteem related issues with adolescents such as depression, body image, ADHD, anxiety, aggression, assertiveness, hope etc. Martinez (1981) investigated the effects of group Assertive Training and Self-Esteem Enhancement Therapy in decreasing anxiety, depression, and aggression and increasing assertiveness and self-esteem. The subjects of study selected from a therapy center and consisted of fifteen participants between the ages of 18 to 63. While the first treatment group received 2 to 2½ weekly sessions of assertiveness training, the second treatment group received self-esteem enhancement for eleven weeks, control group did not receive any treatment. Assertiveness group based on rational emotive therapy, cognitive

20

restructuring therapy, imagery, and behavioral learning techniques such as roleplaying, role-reversals, modeling, coaching, behavioral practice and in vivo follow through. Self-esteem enhancement group used structured approach, didactic instruction with discussion and cognitive behavioral learning techniques. Results of this study yielded that self-esteem enhancement group had greater impact on promoting self-esteem than assertiveness group. In a similar vein, Pearce (1999) conducted a study to compare the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program in reducing symptoms of depression and improving school performance and self-esteem in four groups of depressed adolescents. The sample included 43 adolescents (32 female, 11 male) with ages 15 through 18, with nearly 10-11 adolescents in each treatment group. All treatment groups received eight session of cognitive behavioral group counseling. Results of this study showed a positive increase on self-esteem scores of all treatment group subjects. In an extensive attention to body image perception, Waggoner (1998) designed an intervention based on cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, and skill training and investigated the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions in improving body image perception and global self-esteem with young adolescent females. The subjects of this study consisted of twenty-three participants with the mean age of 12. Treatment lasted seven sessions. Results indicated a significant increase in body image and global self-esteem scores of participants of all groups. Generally, self-esteem enhancement programs based on some targets such as improving awareness of students about themselves, helping them to recognize their personal worth, teaching positive thinking etc. (Smith, 1998). In conclusion, when studies about enhancing self-esteem were examined, it can be seen that while some studies based on group counseling techniques, some of them developed activitybased programs. In addition, self-esteem enrichment programs were implemented mostly in school settings and indicated positive effects.

21

In Turkey, the number of studies about self-esteem enrichment is limited. For example, Kaner (1993) conducted a study that consisted of two experiment and onecontrol groups with 30 juvenile delinquents between the ages 15 to 19. Psychodrama and reality therapy approaches were used in two treatment groups. Results indicated no significant difference between the self-concept and the empathy scores of the juvenile delinquents after the treatment. However, it was found that psychodrama treatment affected the cognitive dimension of empathy positively (as cited in Sezer, 2001). Özkan (1994) examined the effect of structured and unstructured counseling on selfesteem and acceptance of university students. Each counseling group included 10 students assigned with random sampling. The study lasted for 10 weeks. Results indicated significant increase in self-esteem and self-acceptance scores of treatment group participants. However, unstructured group was found to be more effective than structured group. Durmuş (1994) examined the effect of group counseling on academic achievement and self-esteem level of students. Fifty-four students participated in the study as 27 subjects in treatment and control group. Treatment program based on client-centered approach lasted 12 weeks. Group counseling affected students’ self-esteem level and academic achievement scores positively. No gender and treatment interaction was found. On the other hand results indicated significant class and treatment interaction effect. Bogenç (1998) conducted a study to examine the effect of group counseling on juvenile delinquents self-esteem level. Twenty subjects participated in the study as 10 subjects in experiment and 10 subjects in control condition. After 12 weeks interaction group counseling program, significant difference on pre-test and post-test of scores of experiment group was found. Güloğlu (1999) investigated the effect of a self-esteem enrichment program on the self-esteem level of fifth grade elementary school children. An experimental design 22

with no-treatment control group with 15 students (8 males, 7 females) and selfesteem enrichment group with 15 students (8 males, 7 females)

and three

measurements (pre-post-follow-up) were used to investigate the effectiveness of “Self-esteem Enrichment Program” developed by Morganett (1994) adopted to Turkish culture. The results of study indicated that self-esteem enrichment program was not an effective intervention in improving self-esteem scores of children. Sezer (2001) conducted a study to examine the effect of the “Self-esteem Improvement Program” on self-esteem levels of 28, sixth and seventh grade students’. According to results of this quasi-experimental study, the program on improving self-esteem level of students was not found to be effective. Bozanoğlu (2004) investigated the effect of a group guidance program based on Cognitive-Behavioral Approach on academic motivation, academic self-esteem, academic achievement, and test anxiety levels of 9th grade students. The subjects of this study consisted of 26 students for as 13 students in experiment and control group. The treatment program lasted 15 weeks. The treatment program found to be effective on academic motivation, academic self-esteem, and test anxiety level of students. Çeçen and Koçak (2007) conducted a quasi-experimental study to examine the effect of self-esteem enrichment program on middle school students’ self-esteem level. In this study pre-test and post-test control group design was used. The self-esteem enrichment program affected positively middle school students’ self-esteem level. In the light of self-esteem enrichment literature in Turkey, it can be concluded that in self-esteem enrichment programs, group counseling that is based on different approaches such as client-centered, cognitive behavioral approach, reality therapy was more widely used. Participants of the studies were mostly students from elementary school to university. However, no research study in Turkey has been conducted on the effect of bibliocounseling on self-esteem levels of middle school students. 23

2. 4. Bibliocounseling The books have been used as therapeutic vehicle in psychological counseling process from Plato’s time and before. According to Schlenther (1999), “Books can make a difference to children’s health, both physical and emotional” (p. 29). Additionally, Sturm (2003) stated that “Books are indeed powerful sources of healing, and they work on various levels to facilitate the process of self-discovery” (p.171). A more detailed, stories may affect communication effectively because of their characteristics as being interactive, teaching by attraction, bypassing resistance, engaging, and nurturing imagination. In addition, stories educate, teach values, discipline, build experience, facilitate problem-solving, change, and heal (Burns, 2004). Therapeutic reading has been used in formal psychotherapy and counseling by professionals (Mcardle & Byrt, 2001). The concept of “bibliotherapy” derives from biblio meaning “book” and therapia meaning “healing”, in short, “books for healing” from Greek words (Sturm, 2003). Bibliotherapy is known by many names such as biblio-counseling, biblio-guidance, biblio-psychology, book matching, literatherapy, library therapeutics, literapeutics, reading therapy. There are many definitions of bibliocounseling from simplier to more complex. For example Schrank and Engels (1981) defined bibliocounseling as “Guided reading that helps individuals gain understandings of the self and environment; learn from others, or find solutions to problems” (p.143). This definition however limits bibliotherapy to the area of personal problems. As the well-known researcher concerning bibliocounseling studies, Pardeck (1994) defined bibliocounseling as the therapeutic usage of the literature to help people overcome some problems such as emotional, mental problems and adjustment changes in their lives (as cited in Abdullah, 2002, p. 1). Adults also have accepted books as an adjunct to counseling to guide children’s thinking, strengthen their character, shape their behavior, and help to solve their problems (Myracle, 1995). 24

Consequently, bibliocounseling may be help people to grow and develop in personality and adapt to changes more effectively (Lenkowsky, 1987). The common thread of most of the definitions of bibliocounseling is that bibliocounseling requires some form of reading. The time of using literature as healing tool as well as art and drama to arise emotions in persons goes back ancient Grek and Romans (Piercy, 1996; Ouzts & Brown, 2000). Using of books to change a person’s thinking or behavior appeared in the early 1900s. Crothers (1916) labeled this technique “bibliotherapy” in a 1916 issue of Atlantic Monthly (as cited in Myracle, 1995). In the 1930s, The Menninger Clinic implemented a bibliotherapy program for the treatment of both “physical and psychological presenting problems” as the first (Giblin, 1989, p. 219; as cited in Glaman, 1999) and it was applied with children for the first time in 1946 (Agnes, 1946; as cited in Myracle, 1995). Literature of children has been grown up from didactic to fiction. To a large extent, the use of bibliocounseling with children and adolescents has got attention and many changes from didacticism to sentimentality to realism with growth of children literature from didactic to fiction (Mitchell-Kamalie, 2000). In short, the commonality that seems to appear among the states is that bibliocounseling as a counseling technique that brings the right person with the right book at the right time (Öner, 2007). Bibliocounseling was found as an effective method in many situations, despite that its’ being a foolproof cure-all (MitchellKamalie, 2000). 2. 5. Theoretical Basis of Bibliocounseling Bibliocounseling has been used by many disciplinary perspectives. When looking at the stages of bibliocounseling as identification, catharsis, insight and integration, it can be said that the concept of bibliocounseling relates to the more traditional 25

psychodynamic processes (Schrank & Engels, 1981). Adlerian therapists use bibliocounseling to help establish relationships with clients, to explore clients’ lifestyles, to promote client insight and to help reorient and reeducate a client (Jackson, 2001). In the Adlerian psychology, the “six E’S” are aimed to reach in the process. These are that educating clients, encouraging via the reading of materials, empowering for setting goal, enlightening the clients by increasing awareness about self and others, engaging the client with the environment and enhancing changes that comes healing (Riordan, Mullis and Nuchow, 1996). Recently, because the cognitive-behavioral approach has been used frequently and effectively, cognitive bibliocounseling has gained popularity (Shechtman, 1999). When looking at a cognitive level of cognitive bibliocounseling, children may learn appropriate strategies for their potential problems and prevent stress with using literature (Meier-Jensen, 2001). On the behavioral level, children can imitate characters and see how they cope with difficult situations. There are four applications of bibliocounseling as self-actualization, problem solving utilization, social utilization, psychotherapeutic utilization, and educational didactic utilization (Lenkowsky, 1987). Firstly, self-actualization, problem-solving utilization is important to improve self-understanding and successful problem solving. Secondly, social utilization promotes some life skills such as effective attitudes, social

acceptance,

social

awareness,

and

being

sensitive.

Thirdly,

at

psychotherapeutic utilization enables clients to develop emotional and psychological insight and growth, improve self-concept, and change inappropriate behaviors. Lastly, at educational didactic utilization; it is essential to teach the methods and process of bibliocounseling to benefit by using self-help material (Glaman, 1999). The mental health field used bibliocounseling first and most commonly as therapy to heal ranging from depression and anxiety to sexual dysfunction and schizophrenia as well as medical issues of illness and disability, disease and dying (Piercy, 1996). 26

Bibliocounseling can be used to increase the effectiveness of clinical practice such as normalizing feelings, problems, and reducing guilt. In addition, it can help the process of diagnosis and termination by promoting insight and supporting after therapy (Glaman, 1999). Clinicians may use bibliocounseling to diagnose and treat medical illnesses and to prevent illness such as psychosocial dysfunction (Silverberg, 2003). Therapists may use the bibliocounseling also to help children solve personal problems, look them different

aspects,

or

promote

self-concept

(Lenkowsky,

1987).

Hence,

bibliocounseling process can be used with children with emotional and adjustment problems. It is assumed that the client will draw the information, experiences, and solutions for his or her needs from the material used. In bibliocounseling, if selected readings focus on specific needs of clients, the process may influence thinking and behavior (Lenkowsky, 1987). Bibliocounseling can be used to reframe a situation for the client to help see new alternatives. Clients can gain different life experiences and have information about problem solutions. Bibliocounseling research with children is more extensive compared to other age groups (Glaman, 1999). In the past, practitioners have been using bibliocounseling to help both young children and adolescents to cope with problems such as divorce, death, or alcoholic parents. Professionals from educational and developmental areas have bibliocounseling to promote social skills, positive and effective behaviors toward people, to improve reading ability, to cope with problems (Piercy, 1996). In the recent years many changes on using bibliocounseling with children and adolescents have appeared. There has been an increase in usage and popularity of bibliocounseling along with the wealth of excellent young adult novels (Myracle, 1995). Although the concept of bibliotherapy seems complex and assertive, it is a simple process. In addition, although bibliotherapy consists of the concept of “therapy”, this does not mean that this approach is a clinical application used in only psychology (Öner, 2007). On the other hand, in this study the term bibliocounseling was used instead of bibliotherapy generally. 27

2. 6. Types of Bibliocounseling There are two categorizations of bibliocounseling as clinical and developmental bibliocounseling. Categorizations are more related to purpose and professionals who implement bibliocounseling. Clinical bibliotherapy is implemented by trained helping professionals to help people to deal with significant emotional or behavioral problems. There are the cathartic effects of using literature to heal. Freud emphasized this effect (as cited in Mcardle & Byrt 2001, p. 519) such “Our actual enjoyment of an imaginative work proceeds from a liberation of tensions …enabling us…to enjoy our own daydreams without self-reproach or shame.” Schlenther (1999) stated that “it is used with people experiencing severe emotional or behavioral problems, probably in a psychiatric hospital, child development centre or similar institution” (p. 29). Developmental bibliocounseling, on the other hand, is not so formal as a result it may be used by teachers, librarians, parents, or social worker to facilitate normal development and promote self-actualization. It can be used with an essentially healthy population faced with a life crisis (Schlenther, 1999). According to Jean and John Pardeck’s (1984) who were American social workers and reading specialists vertical approach bibliocounseling may be used with the mentally ill, for dealing with minor adjustment problems and as a tool for developmental needs in children (as cited in Schlenther, 1999). Abdullah (2002) on the other hand concluded that whichever approach it includes, bibliocounseling necessitates careful planning. Another categorization of bibliocounseling included two types as reactive and interactive

bibliocounseling

which

are

bibliocounseling.

28

more

related

to

the

process

of

In reactive bibliocounseling, the clients read the literature pre-selected by the therapist/counselor and respond to it. It is called as traditional bibliocounseling also. In the process, practitioners get individuals to react positively or negatively to the reading material (Abdullah, 2002). There is the interactive dialogue between helper and the reader after the reading, which brings change (L’Esperance, 2006). As stated by Gladding and Gladding (1991) interactive bibliocounseling itself is “an effective interpersonal process (as cited in L’Esperance, 2006). Interactive bibliocounseling is viewed as a natural and easy way for the counselor to enter into tentative and sometimes confused world of the students. Discussing the implications of what was read is often a less threatening way for students to share their thoughts and feelings on sensitive personal issues with the counselor (Christenbury & Beale, 1996, ¶ 2). Recently, the use of bibliocounseling in educational settings is more based on interpersonal and interactive bibliocounseling (Öner, 2007). Bibliocounseling is used to deal with a large range of problems such as aggressiveness, adoption/ foster care, death & dying, chemical dependency, divorce, obsessive-compulsive disorder, conflict resolution, child abuse/ neglect, diversity, awareness/ valuation, depression, separation & loss, family violence, self-destructive behavior, communication disorders. There are two categories of materials used in bibliocounseling process as imaginative and didactic. While imaginative literature which includes fictional, poetic, and inspirational forms of writings may provide insight for readers, didactic or self-help literature gives suggestions for appropriate behaviors (Riordan, Mullis & Nuchow, 1996). In this research, the imaginative literature created by researcher was used.

29

2. 7. Implementation and Benefits of Bibliocounseling According to Wilson and Thornton (2007) there are three stages of bibliocounseling: identification, catharsis and insight. With identification process, children may identify with another character or group and increase motivations for behaviors. In this process, self-esteem might be enhanced if individual is aware that he/she is not alone and others have similar problems. Catharsis comes after identification. With awareness of belonging others, reader may release emotions and gain motivation to solve problems. This process involves insight. “These three stages also are referred to stages as recognizing, feeling, and thinking” (Wilson & Thornton, 2007, p.37). Regarding implementation of bibliocounseling, (Meier-Jensen, 2001) stated that there are five stage of preparation, introduction of book, reading time, discussion of book and follow-up activities. At the first stage, counselor should determine the target behaviors for children. Selecting book is important task of first stage also. The book should be selected for target behaviors and matched reading and developmental level of the clients. Counselor should motivate individuals to process and accep. At the second stage, counselor should introduce the book to children and discuss theme of the book. Children should have enough time to read in the group session and. At the stage of discussion of the book, some questions should be asked to clients to help gain insight. Discussion questions include, what the story is about, who is the main character, what problem main character encountered, how the main character solved the problem, how the story make you feel. At the last stage, some follow-up activities should be used to improve awareness such as creative writing, art activities, and role-play.

30

L’Esperance (2006) stated following about the application of bibliotherapy.

Bibliotherapy can be used individually or with groups in both school and clinical settings. School counselors in classrooms or small group settings often use it and usually focus on improving children’s understanding of others and improving children’s social skills. Counselors or therapists may read a book with the student and then create a role play based on the story. In a group setting, the book may be read and then discussed. Before the discussion, the group members may be asked to draw or write about the story in order to facilitate discussion (p. 13). According to Gladding (1991) (as cited in Myers, 1998) there are some benefits of combining bibliocounseling with counseling process. Firstly, clients may recognize their own important characteristics through reading. Secondly, when clients find solutions for their problems they may release or relief from stress. Thirdly, clients may see that others have similar problems or problems are universal. Finally, clients may discover new approaches to solve problems with constructive ways and positively. As stated by Sullivan and Strang (2003) because of material’s familiarities to the children’ interms of context and problem, children may like the process of bibliocounseling. There are many benefits of bibliocounseling to help children to deal with problems. Firstly, there are emotional benefits of bibliocounseling such as awareness of similarities with others, acknowledging alternative solutions to problems, gaining comfort, gaining motivation to talk about problems and act differently, relieving of emotions and stress, growth interpersonal and fostering emphatic understanding. However as stated by Myers (1998) “It is more effective when viewed as an interactive process in which guided discussion is used to achieve therapeutic goals” (p. 244). In addition, coping skills can be improved as alternative responses to problems. For example, self-esteem, interpersonal skills and emotional maturity are often increased. By using bibliocounseling, self-awareness can be increased such as the further development of a positive self-concept, the development of honesty in self-image, 31

the growth of interests beyond just the self. In bibliocounseling process, the clients may look the situation from an objective perspective because the reading involves a third person (Wilson & Thornton, 2007). Based on the outcome of research studies conducted by Schrank and Engels (1981), the implication that bibliocounseling might be more beneficial working with individual and groups because of having a structured material and discussions that augment the process. Bibliocounseling aims at providing information about problems, gaining insight into problems, teaching positive thinking and behaving constructive ways, encouraging expression of problems, helping people to analyze situations, searching alternative behaviors, learning social skills and an adjustment to problems not in conflict with society, communicating new values and attitudes, creating an awareness that others have dealt with similar problems, stimulating discussion of problems and finding appropriate solutions. However while implementing bibliocounseling; counselor should be aware of the limitations of bibliocounseling. For example, counselors should be aware of the client’s readiness for the process and select the book that present problem appropriate ways, contain believable characters and situations and is suitable for the client’s interest and reading level (Pardeck, 1994). Sometimes, clients may come to session without reading the material or behave unwillingness to discuss about problems such as staying on surface issues. Counselors should be familiar with the books and read it before process (Myers, 1998). Bibliocounseling is not likely to be useful with clients suffering from thought disorders, psychoses, limited intellectual ability, or active resistance to treatment (Fitzgerald, 2003). Clinicians may use bibliocounseling to diagnose and treat medical illnesses and to prevent of illness such as psychosocial dysfunction using it as a tool (Silverberg, 2003). Therapists may use the bibliocounseling also to help children solve personal problems, look them different aspects or promote self-concept (Lenkowsky, 1987).

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Hence, bibliocounseling process can be used with children with emotional and adjustment problems. It is assumed that the client will draw the information, experiences, and solutions for his or her needs from the material used. In bibliocounseling, if selected readings focus on specific needs of clients, the process may influence thinking and behavior (Lenkowsky, 1987). Bibliocounseling can be used to reframe a situation for the client to help see new alternatives. Clients can gain different experience of life and have information about problem solutions. Riordan (1991) cautioned that “Despite its heavy use and support, bibliocounseling still needed study as to ‘what, when, and how it should be used as part of a treatment plan’ and that the sharing of resources, of who is using what and why, and under what conditions, can add precision to the use of bibliocounseling” (as cited in Piercy, 1996, p. 12). The first set of studies about bibliocounseling is those that research were conducted to review the related literature. A meta-analytic study of 103 empirical studies of bibliocounseling from United States and Canada between two time groups, 19701983, and 1984-1996 (Piercy, 1996) showed that the occupational fields of authors involved in this research were education, library science, psychiatry, and sociology. Subjects were categorized into 3 age groups: children (<13), adolescents (13-17) and adults (17>). Studies with children focused on anxieties, self-concept, self-reliance, loss, behavior, development. Teen studies focused on attitudes, self-reliance, loss as well as skills. Adults studies focused on except for above depression, weight loss, panic, relationships, sexual, habits, parenting, disease. Results indicated that there were slight changes in approach and methodology between the two time groups. Additionally, Schranks and Engels (1981) conducted a review to identify effectiveness of bibliocounseling and summarized the research related to bibliocounseling. Although

research on academic achievement, fear reduction,

behavioral change showed mixed results, bibliocounseling was found to effective in increasing assertiveness and self-concept. 33

More recently, Adams and Pitre (2000) conducted a survey study with mental health therapists to evaluate the usage of bibliocounseling with all therapists in a Northern Ontario community. The findings showed that the practitioners used bibliocounseling as a self-help process. It was found that there was a significant relationship between the length of work experience and the usage of bibliocounseling. Pardeck (1994) wrote an article to illustrate how bibliocounseling can be used to help adolescents cope with family breakdown, foster care, and adoption placement and he presented books that can be useful in clinical practice with introducing bibliotherapeutic treatment. Pardeck noted that books are not only useful for helping children identify emotions which may be troubling, but also for helping practitioners establish trust with them and warned the practitioners to be aware of the limitations of bibliotherapeutic approach, such as selecting books. In a similar vein, Nicholson and Pearson (2003) stated that children can learn cope with fears such as death, crime etc. in schools by helping school counselors. They emphasized importance of selecting books and presented some books and counseling activities for the primary grades for counselors. Apart from research focused on theoretical basis and application of bibliocounseling or review of research findings, a research conducted by Shechtman (1998) investigated the process of group therapy combining bibliocounseling with five aggressive young boys. The program lasted ten sessions consisted of 45- minute sessions. A single-subject design was used to compare the effectiveness of the treatment to matched counterparts. Results indicated that there was a significant decrease in aggression and a meaningful increase in constructive behaviors of children in the group. On the other hand, Jarjoura and Krumholz (1998) designed a program as “Changing Lives through Literature” combining bibliocounseling and positive role modeling with 32 subjects in experimental group and 40 participants in control group. The program conducted with men who have long histories of criminal convictions. 34

Follow-up data showed that there was a reconviction rate of 18.75 % in the study group, compared with 45% in the comparison group. The results indicated that using bibliocounseling with the combining of positive role models affected significantly recidivism and the value of fitting such a program within a comprehensive system of punishments. One more study, Rapee, Abbott and Lyneham (2006) examined the effect of bibliocounseling for children with anxiety disorders. In this study, parents of children with anxiety disorder were selected and randomly assigned to standard group treatment, waitlist, or a bibliocounseling group. The parent bibliocounseling program was found to be effective than waitlist control group but not found more effective than standard group treatment. In Turkey, there are few studies that investigated the effectiveness of bibliocounseling. For example, Uçar (1996) conducted a study to examine use of literature in school guidance service. The participants of this study were 12 high school students. The books were advised to participants as homework and then discussed in the group. This study is not an empirical research. It has been observed that literature which is suitable for needs and interests of people affect their learning and development positively. Students reported that they had opportunity to express their feelings and opinions though bibliocounseling. Yılmaz (2002) conducted a study to examine the effectiveness of bibliocounseling in the level of conflict on teenagers who have conflicts with their parents. Participants have been divided into two groups as the test and control group. Each group included 12 people. Bibliotherapy group lasted 10 weeks. The result of this study indicated that bibliocounseling has positive effect on decreasing the level of the conflict between teenagers who are 9th class students and their parents. Öner (2007) also wrote an article that explain the importance of stories in human life and its use as a means of counseling and emphasize the use of bibliocounseling in counseling and guidance process.

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Overall, studies based on bibliocounseling focused on a variety issues such as aggression, self-concept, self-esteem, stress, anxiety. The research studies investigated the effectiveness of bibliocounseling with various age groups and provided information about the process of bibliocounseling and an introduction of books that can be used in this process. Although some studies aimed at examining the usage of bibliocounseling and its effectiveness through meta-analysis, some of them developed bibliocounseling treatment programs. It is obvious that there is need to conduct more research about bibliocounseling and the books that can be used in the process, and to develop bibliocounseling treatment program in Turkey. 2. 8. Research on Bibliocounseling and Self-Esteem Empirical studies focused on bibliocounseling showed that bibliotherapeutic interventions were aimed at helping students a various issues such as promoting selfesteem, reading achievement, and attitudes. For example, Kohutek (1983) conducted a research to evaluate the effect of bibliocounseling on individuals’ self-concept and locus of control. Participants included 54 volunteer male inmates with the average age of 34.5. According to findings of this study, while there were no significant differences between the treatment and control group condition, there were significant increases in self-concept and internal locus of control scores of participants. Additionally, Watson (1993) examined the effects of four reading instructional approaches,

bibliotherapy/reading

aloud,

bibliotherapy/silent-reading,

bibliotherapy/oral reading, and basal reading instrucition on the self-esteem, reading achievement, and attitudes toward reading. Subjects of this study consisted of twenty-seven fourth grade students assigned to each bibliotherapeutic group and twenty-four students assigned to basal instruction group randomly. The training lasted 15 weeks with a 45- minute session per week. Results yielded no significant difference on self-esteem scores for four groups. Another study conducted by Spear (1996) investigated the effect of bibliocounseling on the self-esteem level of gifted students. The participants of this study consisted of 36

twenty six fourth and fifth grade gifted students. The study included one intact class consisting of nine students as a control group and an experimental class consisting of seventeen students. Training group subjects read pre-selected literature and discussed it. There was any significant change pre and posttest measure of training group participants’ self-esteem scores. Looking at the effectiveness of bibliotherapy techniques, Mitchell-Kamalie (2000) developed a bibliocounseling program to examine the effectiveness of three bibliotherapy techniques on fourth graders’ self-esteem, reading achievement, and attitudes toward reading. The experimental design was used and bibliocounseling group consisted of twenty-four grade students. The study conducted in a school that is located in violent neighborhood. The results of the study showed that although bibliocounseling programme was not effective on personality development and interpersonal relations, the intervemtion increased the self-esteem level of participants. According to Meier-Jensen (2001), when children have positive self-esteem, they have a powerful coping resource. Thus, he stated that enriching self-esteem and teaching problem-solving skills would help children to deal with stress. In MeierJensen study, twenty students attended to bibliocounseling process, for thirty minutes, five days a week, for 8 weeks. The results of this study indicated that the most common causes of stress/worry in inner city first grade students were going to school, others being nice to them, having to share their things, brothers, and sisters, spending time with their parents, and homework. Bibliocounseling was found to effective in reducing the impact of those stressors. It is widely recognized the importance of collaboration with teachers and counselors. Stringer, Reynolds and Simpson (2003) examined the effect of the Literature Circles program on enhancing self-esteem. Twenty-six students participated in this study in which two second grade teachers and one school counselor worked collaboratively for two months to teach reading using bibliotherapy trade books. The books were selected to help students deal with a variety of self-esteem concerns. While each 37

teacher worked with students in classrooms, the counselors was present during these sessions and working with collaborate. Tennessee Self-Concept Scale-Children’s Form was used to collect the data from subjects. Results showed that there was not any significant difference between pre and post-test scores; whereas there was a significant difference in only identify score when the two teachers were compared. Similary, Wadsworth (2007) implemented a literature circle-reading program using bibliocounseling to foster comprehension skills and self-esteem of fifth-grade students. Researcher worked with two classes as Class A with 16 students and Class B with 14 students. Students of Class A done small group circle and did read a book, discussed the topic and completed follow-up activities. Students’ self-esteem is evaluated through observation, student journals and by Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale as pre and posttest measure. On the other hand, Class B students simply read the book journal their feelings about the title read and responded Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Developmental Reading Assessment was used to measure progress in comprehension by each group. Students of both groups increased their comprehension skills and their self-esteem. However Class A was slightly better in scores of self-esteem and written expression of learning than Class B. When looked at the research about the effectiveness of bibliocounseling in promoting self-esteem in students, it can be seen that the studies based on mostly classroom curriculum in which teachers, counselors, and self-esteem issues were handled in this process through reading related books. On the other hand, there was also a study with adults that focused on bibliocounseling treatment program in which therapeutic reading was occurred. Those studies showed positive effect of bibliocounseling on enhancing self-esteem. Although an abundance of literature exists examining self-esteem, its relationship with some variables, the effectiveness of self-esteem enrichment program, and a few the effectiveness of bibliocounseling in various forms and combinations in Turkey, the amount of literature examining the effectiveness of self-esteem bibliocounseling enrichment program with sixth graders is notably absent. 38

2. 9. Summary of the Review of Literature In sum, enhancing self-esteem, self-esteem enrichment is important for adolescents due to a decline of self-esteem during this turbulent time that included many changes and challenges. Although group counseling that is based on some approaches such as cognitive behavioral approach, guidance activities, and skills tranining programs were used to enhance self-esteem, in the two last decades, biblicounseling that means using books for healing has also been increasingly used to enhance self-esteem.

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CHAPTER III

METHOD

This chapter includes eight sections that present the design of the study, the subjects, the data collection instrument, the training procedure, the training program, the variables of the study, the data analysis procedure, the limitations of the study, and ethical considerations. 3.1. Design of the Study The purpose of this study is to design a self-esteem enrichment bibliocounseling program and investigate its effect on 6th grade student’s self-esteem level. The subjects of this study composed of 24, 6th grade students. An experimental design, with a treatment and a no-treatment control group and pretest-posttest measurements was used. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale was used as the data collection instrument. The treatment group received an 8-sessions self-esteem enrichment bibliocounseling program developed by the researcher. The control group was not exposed to any training procedure. A Mixed Design Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was administered to the total Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale scores on the of treatment and control group subjects’ pre and posttest measures to investigate the effect of self-esteem enrichment bibliocounseling program. 3. 2. Subjects The subjects of this study consisted of 24 students selected among 166 (94 female, 72 male) sixth grade students attending university affiliated private middle school in Ankara. 40

Following the Human Subjects Ethics Committee approval from the Middle East Technical University, the researcher administered the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to all six graders in the school with the help of class teachers. The students completed the inventory approximately in 20 minutes. All students were informed about research and assured of the confidentiality of their responses. Fifty students who responded to lie items defensively excluded from the study. The CSEI scores of the remaining 166 subjects ranged from 7 to 49, with a mean of 32.69 (SD=10.42), and a median score of 36. In the present study, cut of point score was established to identify the subjects who had low self-esteem. Twenty-six students (12 males, 14 females) who scored below the median score of 36 (cut off point) on self-esteem measure were randomly selected among 166 subjects and assigned to treatment group and no-treatment control group. However, one of the male participants in control group did not complete posttest measure and one of the female participants from the experiment group did not attend sessions after the initial session. Thus, 24 students (13 females, 11 males) constituted the final sample of the study. The mean pretest CSEI score of treatment group subjects was 26 with a standard deviation of 6.78 and the mean pretest CSEI score of no-treatment control group subjects was 24.70 with a standard deviation of 8.99. The t-test comparison yielded no significant differences between the pretest scores of treatment and no-treatment control group subjects (t (22) =-.80, p=.43). 3. 3. Data Collection Instrument

3. 3. 1. Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) In this study, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) (Appendix A) was used to assess the students’ self-esteem level. Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was developed for children (CSEI), beginning with items from the Butler-Haigh Q Sort reworded for children. After adding and eliminating items according to expert judgments, all the items were categorized as indicating either high or low self-esteem in the final scale (Wylie, 1974). 41

CSEI is a self-report scale consisting of 58 items and 50 of these items measure selfesteem whereas; the remaining eight items constitute a socil desirability scale (Behamdouni, 1993). The scale consisted of four subscales as General (26 items), Social Self-Peers (8 items), School-Academic (8 items), and Home-Parents (8 items). The lie items are scored separately and the responses are not included in the selfesteem scores (Barron, 1995). The sample items include “I am pretty sure of myself.”, “I am popular with kids of my own age.”, “My parents usually consider my feelings.”, “I am proud of my school work.” and “Most people are better liked than I am.” Children select one of the alternatives of “like me” or “unlike me” for the each item. According to the study conducted by Kimball (1972) with 7,600 public-school students, grades 4 through 8 from all socioeconomic status, Kuder-Richardson reliability of the scale was ranged from .87 to .92 (Coopersmith, 1987; as cited in Barron, 1995). Coopersmith (1967) reported that test-retest reliability coefficient of the scale was .88 at five weeks interval, and .70 at three years interval. The internal reliability evidence by KR-20 was .92 for fourth grade students and .89 for seventh grade students (Ünal, 2007). Behamdouni (1993) founded the test-retest reliability for a 5-week interval as .88 with a sample of 50 fifth grade students and for a 3-year interval as .70 with 56 fifth grade students. The scale was adapted to Turkish by Özoğlu (1988). The Turkish version of the CSEI included 57 items. One item was excluded from the scale (as cited in Sert, 2003; Ünal, 2007). High self-esteem items receive 1 point and low self-esteem items receive 0 point (Güloğlu, 1999). If a student responds to five and more lie items defensively, he /she is excluded from the study (Kapcı, 2004). Internal concisistency of the scale which was assessed on fourth and fifth grade students yielded the Chronbach alpha value of .77 (Özoğlu, 1988; as cited in Sert, 2003; Ünal, 2007). Pişkin (1996) conducted a study to carry out the reliability of the scale on high school students and reported the KR-20 value of .81 and .86 for both long and short forms of the scale (as cited in Ünal, 2007). To assess the internal 42

consistency of CSEI, Güloğlu (1999) calculated the Cronbach Alpha coefficient and administered scale to 440 randomly selected fifth grade students in different regions in Ankara. The computed Chronbach alpha value was .84. In this study, the alpha coefficient calculated from 130 sixth grade students for the total scale was .90. The reliability coefficients of subscales of CSEI were as follows; general .85, social .63, family .74 and school .61. On the other hand, by using Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale as a criterion and Pearson Moment Correlation coefficient, the validity of SEI with similar scales was found .72 (Güçray, 1993; as cited in Güloğlu, 1999). Overall, researchers stated that CSEI is highly recommended research tool due to its realibility and validity evidence (as cited in Barron, 1995). 3. 4. Training Procedure Self-Esteem

Enrichment

Bibliocounseling

Group:

“Self-Esteem

Enrichment

Bibliocounseling Program” was designed and employed in the present study. In the self-esteem enrichment bibliocounseling group, the continuous story was used as a base for eight sessions of the treatment procedure. The group sessions were held on Thursdays, once a week, in a classroom. Each session lasted approximately 80 minutes. No-Treatment Control Group: Subjects in this group did not receive any treatment, and only participated in pretest and post-test measurements. Ten days after the last session of the treatment procedure, post-test measure was applied to treatment group subjects. Twelve days after the last session, posttest was given to no-treatment control group subjects.

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3. 5. Self-Esteem Enrichment Bibliocounseling Program Researchers stated that self-esteem of children has been linked to social, academic, family, body image, and global self-esteem (O’rourke & Worzbyt, 1996; DroeseVarellie, 2000). Social self-esteem based on how children view himself as a friend, interactions with peers, whether or not being popular or obtaining their social needs from others. Academic self-esteem, on the other hand, is related to how children see their academic performance and how significant others see their performance in this area. Next, the family self-esteem refers child’s perception as a member of the family. One important and mostly studied area is body image that is related to physical appearance and capabilities in physical performance. Lastly, global selfesteem refers the overall evaluation of the self (Droese-Varellie, 2000). The puberty (Barrett, Webster & Wallis, 1999; Chandler, 1999; Khanlou, 2004; Bos, Muris, Mulkens & Schaalma, 2006; Lawrence, 2006) is a dynamic period in which there are significant changes in psychological, physical, academic, and personal functioning that may result in meaningful decreases on global self-esteem. Therefore, the transition to adolescence presents many challenges and makes students feel owerhelmed, which may cause a decline in adolescents’ global self-esteem (McCain, 2009). Individuals evaluate themselves in many separate areas of their lives such as realitionships, academic success, physical appearance, global self-esteem refers a general sense of self-worth (Eitel, 2002). According to Coopersmith (1967, p. 6), “an indidual’s self-appraisals might vary in different areas so that “his overall appraisal of his abilities would presumably weight these areas according to their subjective importance enabling him to arrive at a general level of self-esteem” but that “objective evidence on the method of arriving at general appraisals is sparse.” (as cited in Marsh, 1986). In addition, Rosenberg (1965) stated having self-esteem high in some areas but low in other areas moderates global self-esteem (as cited in Marsh, 1986). People differ from having the quantity and quality of self-esteem. For instance, some people consider being the best in school or work as important, thus their self-esteem depends on success on this criterion. For others, love, appearance e.g. may be more significant (Kernis, 2006). Other factors that influence the level of 44

self-esteem of students are effective peer relationships, dealing with bullying positively (O’Rourke & Worzbyt 1996; Güloğlu, 1999; Lındenfield, 1997; Kapcı, 2004), making future plans and setting goals (Lawrence, 1996; Lındenfield, 1997; Schiraldi, 2007), learning positive thinking and clearing away negative thoughts (Schiraldi, 2007; Lindenfield, 1997) and learning problem solving skills (Lindenfield, 1997). Knowing adolescents’ overall level of self-esteem as high or low would help counselors and any professionals to recognize whether the esteem needs of youths are being met. Then, they must be aware of which factors influence overall self-esteem of adolescents (Patterson, 2000). Researchers accepted cognitive-behavioral group approach based treatment as “empiricaly validated treatment” when dealing with both depression and low selfesteem issues (DeRubeis & Crits-Christoph, 1998; as cited in Case, 2003). Dickerson (2002) reported some impacts of cognitive behavioral treatment program including direct benefits such as increasing self-esteem and hope that improves functioning and lower recidivisim and developing coping skills that reduces symptoms and foster quality of life. In order to challenge misperception and dysfunctional beliefs of adolescents about body image especially and to improve more realistic thinking, a cognitive and behavioral method is found to be effective. Support for selfevaluations in the domain of physical appearance of adolescents could be promoted global self-esteem (Waggoner, 1998). Group-based interventions such as cognitive behavioral group treatment provide participants to receive support, reinforcement, and immediate feedback from group members in supportive atmosphere (Waggoner, 1998; Case, 2003). Therefore, cognitive behavioral approach may be used effectively with adolescents. Paralel to the literature, “Self-esteem enrichment bibliocounseling program” developed by the researcher that was based on cognitive behavioral approach assumes that perception of physical appearance as satisfying, attractive, and realization of own strengths and positive character traits, learning problem solving and effective communication skills, setting goals, having positive and task relevant thoughts may promote self-esteem.

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In this study, while developing the self-esteem enrichment bibliocounseling program inaddition to literature review, researcher examined the school counseling service annual reports (from 2003 to 2008) of the school where study was being conducted to investigate the self-esteem needs of students. School counseling service reports indicated that self-esteem related issues of students included bullying, relationships with peers and parents, physical appearance, and academic success. Thus these issues were also taken into account while developing the self-esteem enrichment bibliocounseling program. As a part of self-esteem enrichment program, bibliocounseling process requires a crucial priority that is selecting the book to be used in the treatment process. The book should include chapters related with the topic under the study. In addition, the book should be clear, understandable, and suitable for real life situations, childrens’ age level and should contain believable characters. It is important that the practitioner should be familiar with the book selected (Mitchell-Kamalie, 2000). In this study, researcher examined the children’s books in Turkey, however, not being able to find a book that is related to self-esteem that contains the stages of selfesteem enrichment, the researcher decided to write 32 page-story entitled “The Close Friends.” Thus, in the present study, bibliocounseling self-esteem enrichment program was based on cognitive behavioral approach that has been used effectively in self-esteem enrichment (e.g. Bednar & Wells, 1992; Burnett, 1996; Raich et. al. 1995, Shechtman, 1999). The continuous story “The Close Friends” was about three children (2 boys and a girl) and composed of eight parts. Each part of the story constituted a treatment session. The treatment procedure at cognitive level, aimed at helping children to learn appropriate strategies for problems that was handled at each session related to enhancing self-esteem. For this reason, a problem or situation related to self-esteem and methods or ways to follow were presented at each session. At behavioral level, characteristics and behaviors of characters of the story were described to enable subjects to imitate them and see how they cope with difficult situations. The feelings of characters about some challenges were also presented to help students realize that 46

they are not alone in such problems and to help them gain a sense of relief of emotions. The story was also used to reframe some situations to help students to see alternative solutions. In order to ensure that the continuous story written by the researcher and the activities in the story appropriate to the reading and cognitive developmental level of 6th grade students, first the continuous story was given to an experienced school counselor. The school counselor examined the story in terms of whether or not the content of the story, the activities in the story and the language of the story was appropriate for the students’ level. The school counselor suggested minor changes in regarding the language of the story. Second, a pilot reading was conducted by a sixth grade student

to check whether the language used in the story is clear and

understandable, the content of story was suitable for real life situations and the story contained believable characters or not. After reading the story, student commented that activity in the first session is difficult to understand and story is long and boring to be read by herself. She suggested researcher to read story loud to students and give them a chance to follow from a manual copy during the treatment procedure. According to suggestions made by the sixth grade student, the activity of first session was reorganized. Third, the continuous story and treatment program were given to three judges who were three professors in the field of psychological counseling and guidance (1 associate professor and two assistant professors). Judges were asked to evaluate the story on the basis of appropriateness for purpose of the treatment and to give feedback. Judges gave positive feedback and suggested minor changes. After the changes they suggested have being made, the training program was given to a middle school teacher specialized in Turkish language to check, grammar, and clarity of the story. The minor changes suggested by the teacher were also made and final version of the story was formed.

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3. 5. 1. Summary of the Sessions In the present study, while implementing self-esteem enrichment bibliocounseling program, the researcher did read each part of the story aloud at each session and students followed it from their own copies. Then, the students were asked to summarize the story. Next, structured post reading discussion in which students asked some questions regarding the topic was conducted. The post reading discussion questions were as follows: Who were the characters of the story? Who was the main character faced with the problem? What feelings and thoughts did the character have about his/her problem? How did he/she overcome the problem? Have you ever faced with the similar problem? What did you feel? What did you think? How did you deal with the problem? If not, what would you do if you face with? What other solutions would you use? Post reading discussion enabled children to identify challenges in feelings, relationships, and behaviors of the character/s. As concluded by Crosby, (1963) when children asked to compare his/her experiences with the experiences of the character, the children may explore his/her own behaviors and feelings and the consequences of them. Thus, the children make a conclusion or generalization about the topic through the discussion (as cited in Olsen, 2007). Lastly, a follow-up activity that was aimed to reinforce the skills used by the characters was administered to subjects. As stated by Forgan, (2002) activities allow students to identify the problem presented in the story, produce alternative solutions to the problem, and evaluate the results of the chosen solution. The first session of the treatment program was about physical appearance. Firstly, the warm-up activity was conducted. Next, the basic ground rules were discussed. Then, researcher asked members input to help them develop “ownership” and listed all the ground rules on a place where everyone can see during every session. Next, the researcher did read the first part of the story titled “Close Friends Recognize Their Body” and students followed it. After the story was read by the researcher following questions were asked and students were encouraged to share their feelings and thoughts on story and about their own experiences. After discussion of the questions, the activity of “Recognizing of My Body” (adapted from McKay & Fanning, 2006, 48

p. 49) was applied. Throught the activity, firstly, students were expected to write their physical traits according to how they see themselves when they look at a mirror. Then, students wrote positive ones of their physical traits at left of and negative ones at the right of activity sheet. Next, students evaluated their negative traits, discussed what they could do to change them with positive ones if it was possible. If not, they were expected to restate their negative traits positively. The activity help students recognize their both positive and negative physical traits as a result gain awareness about themselves. It was aimed at reframing their dysfunctional thoughts about their physical appearance with more realistic and positive ones. After the discussion on the activity, students gave feedback about the session and made the summary of the session. The second session was about character traits. The session started with the summary of the previous session. The researcher did read the second part of the story titled “Close Friends Recognize Their Character Traits” and students followed it. The discussion on the story were made and students’ shared their feelings and thoughts and about their own experiences. After the discussion questions, the “The Billboard” activity (Jones, 1998, p. 86) was conducted. Throughout the activity, firstly, students were expected to create a billboard that introduce him/her positive characteristics using with colorful papers, pencils, and any material they would select. Then, students introduced their billboard to group members. Next, the questions were asked students and discussed such as whether they had any difficulties when they considered their positive characteristics or not, what they felt while they shared their billboard with group members, and why it was important that positive characteristics of them could be recognized and talked about them with others. The activity helps students discover and focus on their positive characteristics with eliminating negative ones. Hence, they feel positive sense of self. After the discussion on the activity, students gave feedback about the session and made the summary of the session. The third session was about dealing with negative thoughts. After the summary of the previous session, the researcher read the third part of the story titled “Close Friends Deal with Their Negative Thoughts” and students followed it. The 49

discussions about the story were made and students’ shared their feelings and thoughts about their own experiences. After discussion questions, the activity of “ABC Model” (Vernon, 2006, p. 37) was applied. Throught the activity, firstly, ABC model was introduced to students. Then, students were expected to evaluate their own experience according to ABC Model. Next, throught an experience of any student, the model was handled. The activity help students clear away negative thoughts and learn task relevant thoughts. After the application and discussion of the activity, students gave feedback about the session and made the summary of the session. The fourth session was about improving problem solving skills. The session started by the summary of the previous session. The researcher read the fourth part of the story titled “Close Friends Improve Their Problem Solving Skills” and students followed it. The discussions on the story were made and students shared their feelings, thoughts and their own experiences. After discussion of the questions, the activity of “Problem Solving Steps” (McKay, Davis & Fanning, 2007, p. 185) was applied. Throught the activity, firstly, students learned the stages of problem solving as defining the problem, setting goal for solution, finding some possible alternatives to slove problem, evaluating of each alternatives, making a decision for most appropriate solution, and lastly taking step to problem solving. Then, students were expected to think about a problem faced with and completed activity sheet provided for them. The activity helps students learn the stages of problem solving and make a respectful decision for their problems as a result overcoming the stress. After the application and discussion of the activity, students gave feedback about the session and made the summary of the session. The fifth session was about changes in adolescence. After the summary of the previous session was being made, the fifth part of the story titled “Close Friends Become Adolescent” did read aloud by the researcher. The discussion of the story was made and students shared their feelings, thoughts and their experiences. After the discussion, the activity of “Adolescence” (adapted from Öner, Baluniye, & Savcı, 2002, p. 11) was applied. Throught the activity, firstly, students were expected to 50

write that when they recognized changes of their body and how. Then, the questions were asked students and discussed such as what they felt about changes of their body, what they needed to learn about this period, what emotions and thoughts they had related with changes, whether they shared their feelings or thoughts with anybody or not, if could not, how they was influenced etc. Next, students were informed about the adolescence, and its characteristics. Students did take a turn and discussed the activity. This activity helps students see that they are not alone, others have similar emotions and thoughts, and this period is a developmental stage that everybody has to handle with either earlier or last. Students gave feedback about the session, and made the summary of the session. The sixth session was about how to cope with bullying. The summary of the previous session was made. The researcher did read aloud the story of “Close Friends Learn to Cope with Bullying”. The discussion of the story was followed by students sharing their’ feelings, thoughts and experiences. After the discussion of the story, the activity of “Coping with Bullying” (Çifci & Sucuoğlu, 2003, p. 102) was applied. Throught the activity, firstly, students were expected to write a bullying experience they faced with or remembered and find appropriate questions and answers on the activit sheet to overcome bullying. The activity helps students to learn appropriate methods and ways to cope with bullying and see that they can get a help from peers, parents or teachers. Session ended with students’ feedback about the activity, the session, and the summary of the session. The seventh session was about improving effective communication skills. The researcher read aloud the part of the story titled “Close Friends Learn Effective Communication Skills” and students followed it. The discussions on the story were made and students shared their feelings, thoughts, and experiences. After discussion of the story, the activity of “How Should Tell?” (Öner, Baluniye, & Savcı, 2002, p. 54) was applied. Throught the activity, firstly, students were informed about “you messages”, “I messages”, and they discussed importance of “I messages”. Then, students practiced it. Next, students were completed activity sheet including sample actions. This activity helps students learn appropriate communication style and 51

importance and use of it. After the discussion on the activity, students gave feedback about the session and made the summary of the session. The last session was about setting personal goal. After the summary of the previous session, the researcher did read the last part of the story titled “Summer Vacation.” After the story was being discussed, students shared their feelings, thoughts, and experiences. After the discussion of the questions, the activity “One Step Next” (Hobday 2005, p. 20) was applied. Throught the activity, firstly, students were informed about setting goals, characteristics of future goals and students discussed the importance of having future goals. Then, students thought their goals for twenty years later thorough the imagery. They determined what steps they have to take first to access this goal. Next, students were expected to set the goal to reach at the end of that year and determined steps for it. This activity helps students recognize importance of making future goals on motivation, academic achievement, and leisure time activities. They also learn timemanagement throught the planning their activities and study for goals. Then, students gave their feedback about the session, and made the summary of the session. In the last session, students were also asked to assess the group process and qualifications of the researcher, and asked to share their gains from the group. 3. 6. Variables Group: refers to self-esteem enrichment bibliocounseling treatment group or notreatment control-group. Self-esteem: refers to sum of total scores as measured by Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI).

52

3.7. Data Analyses Mixed Design (one between and one within factor) Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed to the pre-test and post-test global self-esteem scores of (CSEI) treatment

and no treatment control group to examine the

effectiveness of the self-esteem enrichment bibliocounseling program on the selfesteem level of the 6th grade students. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) for Window (Version 13.5) was used to perform all analysis. 3. 8. Limitations of the Study Several limitations of the present study should be taken into consideration when generalizing the results. First, since students went on summer holiday immediately after the treatment procedure, follow-up measurement was not taken. Thus, whether the improvement observed in subjects’ self-esteem scores is permanent or not, could not be assessed. Second, this study relied on self-reported data; therefore, considering the limitations of self-reported data, future studies should collect data about children’s self-esteem levels from various sources, such as parents and teachers. Third, the subjects were selected from a private school in which children of middle to high SES families attend. Therefore, findings cannot be generalized to other sixth grade students from other SES levels and public schools.

53

3. 9. Ethical Considerations The Human Subjects Committee issues require guidelines to be considered in research with humans. To ensure the protection of the rights of human subjects, the researcher gained the Human Subjects Ethics Committee (HSEC) approval from the Middle East Technical University. Because the subjects in this study were under the age of 18 and were included in the protected population category, parental permission was collected by the distrubition of the “Parental Permission Form”. In the letters of permission, parenst of prospective subjects were informed of the general nature and purpose of the study, confidentiality and the fact that this study has no any negative effect on subjects and they have opportunity to learn the results of the study. At the end of consent form, contact numbers were provided for the researcher and parents were asked to give their permission for their youth’s participation in the study. On the other hand, prior to treatment procedure a group meeting was conducted with the the training group subjects. Subjects were informed about the purpose of the study, confidentiality of identity, test scores and any information of subjects, and the fact that they were free to withdraw from the study any time without penalty. Additionally, the information about the group process, place, and time of group meetings were provided and questions of the students about the treatment procedure were answered. The permission from the school where the study was conducted also granted.

54

CHAPTER IV

RESULTS This chapter presents the results of Mixed Design (one between factor and one within factor) Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) carried out to investigate the effect of self-esteem enrichment bibliocounseling program on sixth grade students’ self-esteem. 4.1.

Results

Concerning

the

Effect

of

the

Self-esteem

Enrichment

Bibliocounseling Group on the Self-esteem Level of the Treatment and Control Groups’ Subjects In this study, a 2 (groups: treatment and control) X 2 (time: pretest and posttest) Mixed Design (one between factor and one within factor) Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was run on dependent variable of self-esteem. Prior to analysis assumptions underlying the repeated measures ANOVA such as independence of the observation and normality were checked. Random selection of subjects indicated that independence of observation assumption was met. In the light of information about descriptive statistics and normality test, it was assumed that normality was not violated. On the other hand, subscales of CSEI did not meet normality, global self-esteem scores of subjects were used in data analysis. To sum up, assumptions for repeated measures ANOVA was not violated.

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Table 4. 1. The Means and Standard deviations of Self-esteem Scores for Treatment and No-treatment Control Group Descriptive Statistics

Measure Pretest

Self-Esteem Posttest

Group

M

SD

N

Treatment

25

7.45

12

Control

28

8.75

12

Total

26

8.06

24

Treatment

33

10.62

12

Control

29

10.14 12

Total

31

10.33 24

The results of Mixed Design, Repeated Measure Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) employed to the pre and post scores of treatment and no-treatment control group subjects revealed significant time main effect [Wilks 'λ = .61, F(1,22)=13.57 p< .001, ŋ²= .38] favoring the treatment group (See Table 4.1 and Table 4.2). Results also revealed significant time X group interaction effect [Wilks 'λ = .78, F (1, 22) =6.08 p< .05, ŋ²= .21. In other words, there were significant differences between pre and posttest self-esteem scores of treatment and no-treatment control group participants. A close investigation of self-esteem mean scores of treatment group subjects indicated that treatment group subjects self-esteem scores increased significantly after the pretest, (t (11) = -3.29, p <.05). However, pre and posttest scores of no-treatment control group subjects (t (11) = -1.71, p=.11) did not show any significant change from pretest to posttest. These findings suggested that selfesteem enrichment bibliocounseling program employed to the treatment group was effective in increasing self-esteem scores of treatment group subjects. The results of the 2 (pre, post) X 2 (groups) Mixed Design (Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) presented in Table 4. 2.

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Table 4. 2. (a) The Results of Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance Carried out to Pre and Post-Test Scores of Groups Source

Wilks 'λ

df

F

ŋ²

p

1

0.03

0.00

0.84

Between Subjects Group

0.99 Within Subjects

Time

0.61

1

13.57

0.38

0.00

Time * Group

0.78

1

6.08

0.21

0.02

Table 4. 2. (b) Interactions Contrasts Comparison

df

t

p

11

-3.29

0.00

11

-1.71

0.11

Treatment Group Pretest vs. Posttest Control Group Pretest vs. Posttest

The differences of mean scores of self-esteem treatment group and no-treatment control group at pre and posttest measurements are shown in Figure 4.1.

57

34

32

30

28

GROUP

26

treatment 24

control

pretest

posttest

TIME

Figure 4. 1. Mean scores of self-esteem treatment and no-treatment control group of CSEI at pre and post-test measures.

58

CHAPTER 5

DISCUSSION

This chapter includes the discussions regarding the results of the statistical analysis, implications drawn from the results of the study, and recommendations for the future research. 5.1. The Effects of Self-Esteem Enrichment Bibliocounseling Program

Children need to have a high self-esteem to overcome some life struggles and school challenges as well (Wadsworth, 2007). However, while children grow, they face with more integrated issues that force improving self-esteem (Meier-Jensen, 2001), and, their self-esteem becomes vulnerable (Garbarino & Scott, 1989; as cited in MeierJensen, 2001). For this reason, supporting self-esteem of students, especially in stressful periods such as transition to next school level is crucial. School counselors being equipped with both knowledge in psychology and in the field of education have important role to foster students’ self-esteem in schools (Güloğlu, 1999). Thus, through taking into account the importance of increasing self-esteem among school children, the present study examined the effect of self-esteem enrichment bibliocounseling program on 6th grade students’ self-esteem. In this study, it was hypothesized that self-esteem scores of participants in treatment and no-treatment control groups would differ as a function of time and treatment. The results of the 2 (group) X 2 (time) repeated measures ANOVA conducted on self-esteem scores of subjects indicated significant time and group interaction effects.

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The treatment program developed in this study mainly based on cognitive behavioral approach and underlined the skill development by use of a continuous story, discussion questions, and follow-up activities. Thus, findings indicated that the treatment program based on cognitive behavioral bibliocounseling produced significant increase in treatment group subjects’ self-esteem scores. It could be concluded that “Self-Esteem Enrichment Bibliocounseling Program” was found to be effective on promoting self-esteem of students for several reasons. Firstly, the continuous story covered the topics that were determined according to esteem-needs of students in the middle school in which the study was conducted. Additionally, in each chapter of the story, a topic regarding self-esteem enhancement was handled by three characters of the story. First, the characters faced with the problem situation that troubled them and then they overcomed this stressful problem by using some methods based on cognitive behavioral approach. After reading of the story, students discussed some questions about the problem, as well as their own experiences which aimed to help them (a) to see that they are not alone in their problems; (b) others face with similar problems, (c) there are solutions for problems and (d) so that they can have a sense of relief. In addition, students conducted a follow-up activity that was included in the story which that enabled them to practice their learnings. Furthermore, while researcher reading the story, the students listened and followed it from their own copy. This made easier to follow the story for the participants. Thus, the application of bibliocounseling that involved issues corresponds to the needs of students and based on cognitive bahvioral approach, might be listed among the factors that increased the power of treatment. Although the present study is different from the previous studies in terms of the material used in the sessions and the age group of participants, the result of this study supports the previous studies that indicated the positive effect of bibliocounseling programs on the self-esteem. For example, Kohutek (1983) evaluated the psychotherapeutic adjunct of bibliocounseling in aiding 54 volunteer inmates incarcerated male individuals to promote self-concept and locus of control. Three bibliocounseling groups as rational growth, personal growth, and control group were 60

designed and treatments groups received treatment program for 4 weeks with the appropriate reading material. Results showed that bibliocounseling treatment program had positive effect on self-concept and internal locus of control. In a similar vein, Meier-Jensen (2001) conducted a study to determine stressors for inner-city first grade students so that counselors can help students to learn problemsolving skills and promote self-esteem. The sample of this study consisted of twentyfirst grade low income, low achieving students from racially diverse neighborhood, with high discipline problems, and high mobility. An 8-week bibliotherapy program was applied. The sessions were completed with a process contained the introduction of the book, the discussion of the book, and extensions such as writing activities and role-playing. The results showed that going to school, others being nice to them, having to share their things, brothers and sisters, spending time with their parents and too much homework were identified stressors for first-grade students. In addition, Wadsworth (2007) developed a literature circle-reading program using bibliocounseling to promote comprehension skills and self-esteem of fifth-grade students. The results indicated positive effect of this action project on self-esteem and comprehension skills of subjects. While the present study based on self-esteem enrichment

bibliocounseling

program

with

cognitive

behavioral

approach,

Wadsworth’s study included classroom intervention based on bibliocounseling by collaboration with classroom teachers. The finding of the present study was also similar to the results of the studies in Turkey (For example, Aydoğdu, 1997; Arıcak, 1999; Reçber, 2002; Doğru, 2002; Aksaray, 2003; Altıner, 2004; Oğurlu, 2006) that aimed at enhancing self-esteem. The results of the present study was consistent the finding of the study conducted by Uçar (1996) and Yılmaz (2002 regarding the effectiveness of bibliocounseling. However, these researches did not aim at enriching self-esteem and studied with high school students. While in Uçar’s (1996) study, the related books were suggested to students after each session, in Yılmaz’s (2002) study, it was expected that the related chapters of the book selected by the researcher for purpose of the study were read by 61

the participants before they came to session. However, this study differed from selfesteem enrichment and bibliocounseling programs in Turkey in terms of design of the study. The researcher developed a self-esteem enrichment bibliocounseling program that included bibliocounseling procedure as reading related material that was written by the researcher, discussion of the topic, and completing extension activity to enhance self-esteem. In addition, these activities were contained in the story as the experiences by the characters and the story were based on cognitivebehavioral approach. When considered all of these factors, it can be concluded that this study is the first study to enhance self-esteem using with bibliocounseling. 5.2. Implications for Practice Several implications of this study for the practice, and research may be addressed. First, “Self-Esteem Enrichment Bibliocounseling Program” was found to be an effective program to improve the self-esteem scores of 6th grade students in Turkey. Sixth grade is important transition period for students because of new rules, expectations, school environment and in transition from childhood to adolescence. Thus, this program after being examined with other groups of students from various school types, SES levels and grade levels could be used to enhance self-esteem levels of middle school students. In other words, the treatment procedure developed by the researcher seems a promising intervention for the improvement of self-esteem among 6th grade students. Second, although “Self-esteem Enrichment Bibliocounseling Program” was effective to enhance self-esteem of sixth grade students, the limitations of the present study such as duration of training, lack of follow-up assessment, size of the group may be considered in future research when implementing the program.

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5.3. Recommendations for Research First, because the participants of this study were sixth graders from an inner city private school, this study needs to be replicated to assess the effect of “Self-Esteem Enrichment Bibliocounseling Program” on self-esteem level of students from various socio-economic status levels, gender, and age. Second, in the present study

the follow up measures were not taken. Thus in the

future studies follow-up could be taken to assess whether the improvement in treatment group subjects’ self-esteem scores are permanent or not. Third, in the present study only self report self-esteem scale was used to select the subjects and data on self-esteem level of students were not gathered from various sources such as peers, teachers, and parents. Thus, considering the limitations of selfreported data, future studies can collect data about children’s self-esteem from various sources, such as parents and teachers.

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Eitel, B. J. (2002). Body image satisfaction, appearance importance, and selfesteem: A comparison of Caucasian and African-American women across the adult lifespan. Doctoral dissertation. Texas Woman’s University, Denton, Texas. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crises. New York: W. W. Norton Company, Inc. Fincancıoğlu, N. & Bulut, A. (2000). Cinsel sağlık eğitimi. İstanbul: Ceren YayınDağıtım. Fitzgerald, J. A. (2003). Bibliotherapy. Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. Retrieved June 10, 2009 from findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_gx5197/is_2003/ai_n19119230/ Fleming, J. S. & Watts, W. A. (1980). The dimensionality of self-esteem: Some results for a college sample. Journal of personality and social psychology. 39 (5), 921-929. Fletcher, R. B. (1995). Body composition and self-esteem: A validation of selected self-esteem measures. Master’s thesis, University of Alberta. Alberta. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. Forgan, J. W. (2002). Using bibliotherapy to teach problem solving. Intervention in School & Clinic, 38 (2), 75-82. Glaman, J., A. (1999). A meta-analysis of the literature on the use of bibliotherapy in conjunction with short-term therapy in a university counseling center setting. Master’s thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stout. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from www.uwstout.edu/lib/thesis/1999/1999glamanj.pdf Glenn, E. E. & Smith, T. T. (1998). Building self-esteem of children and adolescents with communication disorders. Professional School Counseling, 2 (1), 39-46. Güloğlu, B. (1999). The effect of a self-esteem enrichment program on the selfesteem level of elementary school students. Unpublished master’s thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara. 68

Hamm, M. G. (1989). An analysis of the self-esteem scores of fifth-grade students who have had the “Building Self-Esteem” program. Doctoral dissertation. University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. Hansford, B. C. & Hattie, J. A. (1982). The realitionship between self and achievement/performance measures. Review of Educational Research, 52 (1), 123-142.

Hobday, A. (2005). Creative therapy with children & adolescents. California: Impact & Publishers, Inc. Hoge, D. R., Smith, E. K., & Hanson, S. L. (1990). School experiences predicting changes in self-esteem of sixth and seventh-grade students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82 (1), 117-127. Hull, J. W. (1982). Self-esteem, confirmation, and emotional satisfaction in small groups. Doctoral dissertation, University of Denver, Denver. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. Jackson, A. A. (2001). Using bibliotherapy with clients. The Journal of Individual Psychology, 57 (3), 289-297. Jarjoura G. R. & Krumholz, S.T. (1998). Combining bibliotherapy and positive role modeling as an alternative to incarceration. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 28 (1/2), 127- 139. Johnson, M. (1998). Self-esteem stability: The importance of basic self-esteem and competence strivings for the stability of global self-esteem. Europen Journal of Personality Eur. J. Pers. 12, 103-116. Jones, A. (1998). The wrecking ball of games and activities: self-esteem, coping skills, communication, anger management. Riclond: Rec Room Publishing. Kapcı, E. (2004). İlköğretim öğrencilerinin zorbalığa maruz kalma türünün ve sıklığının depresyon, kaygı ve benlik saygısıyla ilişkisi. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 37 (1), 1-13. 69

Kendall, P. C. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral therapies with youth: Guiding theory, current status, and emerging developments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61 (2), 235-247. Kernis, M. H. (2006). Self-esteem issues and answers. New York: Psychology Press. Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C., Berry, A. & Harlow, T. (1993). There’s more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 (6). 11901204. Khanlou, N. (2004). Influences on adolescents self-esteem in multicultural Canadian secondary schools. Public Health Nursing, 21 (5), 404-411. Kılıç, H. (2006). İlköğretim 4. sınıf sosyal bilgiler dersinde kubaşık öğrenme yönteminin, geleneksel küme çalışması yöntemine göre benlik saygısına ve akademik başarıya etkisi. Unpublished master’s thesis, Çukurova Üniversitesi, Adana Kohutek, K. J. (1983). Bibliotherapy within a correctional setting. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39 (6), 920-924. Laszlo, A. M. (2000). Effects of a group intervention on the self-esteem of sixth and seventh grade girls. Doctoral dissertation. University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. Lawrence, D. (2006). Enhancing self-esteem in the classroom. London: Paul Chapman Publishing. Lenkowsky, R. (1987). Bibliotherapy: a review and analysis of the literature. The Journal of Special Education, 21 (2), 123-132. L’Esperance, J. M. (2006). Harry Pother and the transitions group: A developmental curriculum (Doctoral dissertation, Antioch University, Antioch New England Graduate School, 2006). Lindenfield, G. (1997). Kendine güvenen çocuk yetiştirme. Ankara: Hyb Yayıncılık. 70

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Oğurlu, U. (2006). The effect of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) centered group counseling to the self-esteem level of adolescents. Unpublished master’s thesis, Mersin Üniversitesi, Mersin Olsen, M. A. (20007). Bibliotherapy: School psychologists’ report of use and efficacy. (Thesis for educational specialist, Brigham Young University, 2007), Retrieved March 20, 2008, from http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/ETD/image/etd1274.pdf Q’Rourke, K. & Worzbyt, J. C. (1996). Support groups for children. London: Accelerated Development. Osborne, R. E. (1996). Self an eclectic approach. Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon. O’shea, K. M. (2008). Exploring the benefits of an outdoor adventure program for improving self-esteem and self-efficacy and reducing problem behaviors in adolescent girls. The University of Montana, Missoula. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. Ouzts, D. T. & Brown, K. L. (2000). Practical Applications for the Classroom Teacher: A Bibliotherapeutic Approach, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Internal Reading Association 45th, Indianapolis, Indiana. Owens, K. B. (1991). An integrative self-enhancement and basic-skill program and its impact on students’ global self-esteem, academic self-concept and academic performance. Doctoral dissertation. Saybrook Institute. Lake Bluff. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. Öner, U., Baluniye, I. & Savcı, Ç. (2002). Psikolojik destek programları tanıtım ve kullanma kitapçığı. M.E.B., Eğitek: Ankara Öner, U. (2007). Bibliyoterapi, Journal of Arts and Sciences, 7, 133-150. Özdemir, M. (2002). The psychological effects of the university entrance examination on high school students: The role of self-esteem and anxiety. Unpublished master’s thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara.

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Riordan, R. J., Mullis, F. & Nuchow, L. (1996). Organizing for bibliotherapy: the science in the art. Individual Psychology, Journal of Adlerian Theory, 52 (2), 169-180. Roberts, R. (2006). Self-esteem and early learning key people from birth to school. London: Paul Chapman Publishing. Schiraldi, G. R. (2007). 10 simple solutions for building self-esteem. United States of America: New Harbinger Publications. Schlenther, E. (1999). Using reading therapy with children. Blackwell Science Ltd., Health Libraries Review, 16, 29-37. Schrank, F. A. & Engels, D. W. (1981). Bibliotherapy as a counseling adjunct: Research findings. The Personnel and Guidance Journal, 60, 143-147. Schütz, A. (1998). Coping with treats to self-esteem: the differing patterns of subjects with high versus low trait self-esteem in first- person accounts. European Journal of Personality Eur. J. Pers. 12, 169-186. Sert, A. G. (2003). The effect of an assertiveness training on the assertiveness and self-esteem level of 5th grade children. Unpublished master’s thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara Sezer, S. (2001). Özsaygı düzeyini geliştirme programının ilköğretim 6 ve 7. sınıf öğrencilerinin özsaygı düzeylerine etkisi. Unpublished master’s thesis, Gazi University, Ankara. Shechtman, Z. (1999). Bibliotherapy: An indirect approach to treatment of childhood aggression. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 30(1), 39-53. Silverberg, L. (2003). Bibliotherapy: The therapeutic use of didactic and literary texts in treatment, diagnosis, prevention, and training. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 103 (3), 131-135.

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Ünal, A. (2006). OKS’ye hazırlanan öğrencilerin sınav kaygıları ile benlik saygı düzeyleri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. Unpublished master’s thesis, Gazi University, Ankara. Ünal, S. (2007). Atılganlık becerileri eğitim programının ilköğretim ikinci kademe öğrencilerinin atılganlık düzeyi ve benlik saygısı üzerindeki etkisi. Unpublished master’s thesis, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, İzmir. Wadsworth N. (2007). Addressing self-esteem through the use of bibliotherapy in literature circles. An Action Research Project submitted to the faculty of the Graduate Program for Education, Westminster College, Salt Lake City, Utah Waggoger, I. R. M. (1998). Cognitive-behavior therapy and cognitive therapy for body image awareness in sixth grade females. Doctoral dissertation. Auburn Universtiy, Auburn, Alabama. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. Waggoner-Weir, M. S. (1991). The positive action program and self-esteem of 6thgrade students. Doctoral dissertation. University of Montana. Missoula. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. Watson, D. C. (1993). The effects of three bibliotherapy techniques on fourth graders’ self-esteem, reading achievement, and attitudes toward reading. Doctoral dissertation. North Carolina State University. Carolina. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database. Wells, E. & Marwell, G. (1976). Self-esteem its conceptualization and measurement. London: Sage Publications. Whelan, A., Haywood, P. & Galloway, S. (2007). Low self-esteem: Group cognitive behavior therapy. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 125-130. Wilson, S. & Thornton, S. (2007). To heal and enthuse: Developmental bibliotherapy and pre-service primary teachers’ reflections on learning and teaching mathematics. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from http://209.85.129.132/search?q=cache:Q1OC8zDEdnYJ:www.merga.net.au/p ublications/counter.php%3Fpub%3Dpub_conf%26id%3D275+To+Heal+and +Enthuse:+Developmental+Bibliotherapy&cd=1&hl=tr&ct=clnk&gl=tr

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APPENDICES APPENDIX A COOPERSMITH BENLİK SAYGISI ÖLÇEĞİ (CSEI) SAMPLE İTEMS Sevgili Öğrenciler, Bu ölçek, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi yüksek lisans öğrencisi ve ODTÜ Geliştirme Vakfı Özel İlköğretim Okulu’nda psikolojik danışman olarak görev yapmakta olan Nurten Karacan tarafından, 6. sınıflarda yapılacak olan benlik saygısı geliştirme programı kapsamında uygulanmaktadır. Verdiğiniz cevapların doğru veya yanlış olması söz konusu değildir. Önemli olan verdiğiniz cevabın sizin gerçek duygu ve düşüncelerinize uygun olmasıdır. Bu uygulamadan elde edilecek sonuçlar kesinlikle gizli tutulacaktır. Ölçeği cevaplarken herhangi bir şekilde rahatsızlık hissederseniz, cevaplamayıp yarıda bırakmakta serbestsiniz. Aşağıda bazı cümleler göreceksiniz. Bu cümlelerden kendinize uygun bulduklarınızı yanındaki “Bana Uygun” kutucuğuna (X) işareti koyarak belirtin. Kendinize uygun bulmadığınız cümleleri ise yanındaki “Bana Uygun Değil” kutucuğuna (X) işareti koyarak belirtin. Adınız Soyadınız Cinsiyetiniz Kulübünüz

: …………………………………….. : Kız Erkek : Bana Uygun

1. Hayal kurmakla çok vakit geçiririm. 2. Cana yakın bir çocuğum. 3. Annem-babamla birlikte çok iyi vakit geçiririz. 4. Sınıfın önünde konuşmak bana çok zor gelir. 5. Elimde olsaydı kendimde pek çok şeyi değiştirirdim. 6. Okuldaki çalışmalarımdan gurur duyarım. 7. Annem-babam çoğu kez duygularımı dikkate alırlar. 8. Kendimden küçük çocuklarla oynamayı tercih ederim. 9. Annem-babam benden çok şey beklerler.

79

Bana Uygun Değil

APPENDIX B

HİKAYEYE DAYALI ÖZGÜVEN GELİŞTİRME PPROGRAMI I. OTURUM BEDENİMİ TANIYORUM Süre

: 90 dakika

Hedefler

:

ƒ

Temel kuralları belirlemek ve gizlilik konusunu tartışmak

ƒ

Öğrencilerin beğendikleri ve beğenmedikleri fiziksel özelliklerinin farkına varmalarını sağlamak

ƒ

Öğrencilerin beğenmedikleri özelliklerini aşağılayıcı olmayan ve gerçekçi bir şekilde ifade edebilmelerini sağlamak

ƒ

Kendilerini bir bütün olarak kabul edebilmelerine yardımcı olmak

Eğitsel Etkinlik: “Bedenimi Tanıyorum” Etkinliği

80

Materyaller : Can Dostlar isimli hikayenin “Can Dostlar Bedenlerini Tanıyor” Bölümü Kişi sayısı kadar boş renkli kağıtlar Yeterli sayıda kalem Süreç

: Ön tanışmadan sonra öğrencilere grubun amacı hatırlatılır ve grup

kuralları belirlenir. 1. Grup kuralları oluşturulur. ƒ

Gizlilik

ƒ

Grup üyelerinin birbirine karşı saygılı olması

ƒ

Söz alarak konuşma, başkasının sözünü kesmeme

ƒ

Birisi konuşurken onu dinlemek

ƒ

Oturumlara zamanında gelmek ve düzenli katılmak

Öğrencilerden yukarıda belirtilen genel kurallara, eklemek istedikleri kurallar olup olmadığı konusunda görüş alınır. Grup kuralları bir kartona yazılır ve her bir öğrenciden imzalaması istenir. Oluşturulan afiş her oturumda uygulama alanına asılır. 2. Can Dostlar” isimli hikayenin “Can Dostlar Bedenlerini Tanıyor” bölümü grup lideri tarafından okunur ve öğrencilere de ellerindeki materyalden takip etme fırsatı verilir. (ÖZET: En büyük hayali okulun futbol takımına seçilmek ve takımın kaptanı olmak isteyen Cem kiloları yüzünden seçmelerde nefesi kesildiği için okulun futbol takımına yedek oyuncu olarak seçilir. Bunun üzerine Cem bedenini olumsuz olarak algılar ve arkadaşları ile birlikte fiziksel görünümündeki beğendiği ve beğenmediği yönleri keşfeder. Olumlu yönlerini sahiplenir, beğenmediği özelliklerinden değiştirebilecekleri için gayret gösterir, değiştiremeyeceklerini aşağılayıcı olmayan ve gerçekçi bir dil kullanarak yeniden ifade eder ve onları kabullenerek kendini bir bütün olarak sevmeyi öğrenir.) 3. Hikaye üzerine öğrencilerle paylaşım aşamasına geçilir. 81

ƒ

Hikayenin kahramanları kimlerdir?

ƒ

Problemle karşı karşıya kalan kahraman kimdi?

ƒ

Kahraman problem karşısında neler düşündü? Neler hissetti?

ƒ

Bu problemi nasıl çözdü/çözdüler?

ƒ

Hikayedeki kahramanın yaşadığı probleme benzer bir durum yaşadınız mı? Bu durumda neler düşündünüz ve hissettiniz? Problemi nasıl çözdünüz?

ƒ

Siz neler düşündünüz ve hissettiniz?Problemi nasıl çözdünüz? (Eğer yoksa)

ƒ

Öğrenciler arasından böyle bir problemi yaşamış olanlar yok ise, öğrencilere şu soru yöneltilir. Eğer benzer bir problemi siz yaşasaydınız, bu problemi çözmek için neler yapardınız, başka hangi yolları denerdiniz?

ƒ

Öğrencilere hikaye’ye ilişkin duygu ve düşünceleri sorulur.

4. Öğrencilere “Bedenimi Tanıyorum” etkinliği uygulatılır. Her öğrenciye farklı renklerdeki kağıtlardan istediğini seçmesi söylenir. Birinci aşamada, herkesten fiziksel özelliklerini kağıdın sol üst köşesine yazmaları istenir. İkinci aşamada, öğrencilerden ellerindeki kağıtları ortadan ikiye bölecek bir çizgi çizmeleri istenir. Birinci aşamada yazdıkları özelliklerden olumlu olanları kağıtlarının sol tarafına, olumsuz olanları da sağ tarafına yazmaları istenir. Üçüncü aşamada, öğrencilerden olumlu ve olumsuz özelliklerini okumaları istenir. Olumsuz

özellikleri

değiştirilemeyecek

üzerinde

olanlar

konuşulur,

değerlendirilir,

değiştirilebilecek değiştirilebilecekler

olanlar için

ve neler

yapılabileceği tartışılır. Değiştiremeyecekleri yönleri için olumlu bir dil kullanarak yeniden ifade etmeleri sağlanır ve bunun için dördüncü aşamaya geçilir. Dördüncü aşamada, her bir öğrenciden bir önceki aşamada olumsuz olarak yazdıkları yönlerini yeniden değerlendirmeleri istenir. Kağıdın alt kısmına aşağılayıcı olmayan

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ve gerçekçi bir dil kullanarak bu özelliklerini yeniden ifade etmeleri sağlanır (McKay & Fanning, 2006). Son aşamada, öğrencilerden yeni ifadelerini okumaları istenir. 5. Oturumun değerlendirmesi yapılır. 6. İkinci oturumun kısa bir tanıtımı yapılır.

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EK-1 CAN DOSTLAR I. BÖLÜM Can dostlar bedenlerini tanıyor… Kaya, Cem ve Aysu aynı mahallede oturan ve aynı sınıfta okuyan üç yakın arkadaştı. Okul çıkışları aynı servisle evlerine giderlerdi. Birbirlerine çok bağlıydılar. Can dostuydular ve Pupille birlikte ayrılmaz bir dörtlüydüler. Kaya, kumral, orta boylu, mavi gözlü bir gençti. Belgesel izlemeyi sever, bilimsel deneyler yapardı. Sınıfın en çalışkanı olan Kaya, sınavlardan önce ders notlarını arkadaşlarına verir, onlara anlamadıkları derslerde yardımcı olurdu. Kaya yaşıtlarına göre oldukça yakışıklı sayılırdı. Ama o bunun farkında bile değildi. Gözlük takıyordu. Bazen aynaya baktığında gözlüklerinin ona yakışmadığını düşünürdü. Cem esmerdi, kahverengi gözleri vardı, boyu yaşına göre normaldi ancak kiloluydu. Cem derste öğretmenlerini dikkatli dinlerdi ama düzenli ders çalışma alışkanlığı yoktu. Verilen ödevleri üstünkörü yapardı. Onun tutkusu futboldu. En büyük hayali ise iyi bir futbol oyuncusu olmaktı. Kaya ve Cem’in arkadaşlığı Aysu’ya göre daha eskiye dayanıyordu. Onlar çocukluk arkadaşıydı. Aysu mahalleye sonradan gelmişti. Babasının tayini üzerine şehir değiştirmişler ve bu mahalleye taşınmışlardı. Aysu’nun upuzun, dalgalı, kumral saçları ve zeytin siyahı gözleri vardı. Boyu yaşıtlarına göre uzundu. Kilosu normal olmasına rağmen zayıf görünüyordu. Pupil’e gelince… o sevimli bir köpek yavrusuydu. Can Dostlar Pupille şu şekilde tanıştılar. Üç arkadaş bir gün okuldan eve dönerken mahalledeki birkaç çocuğun küçük bir köpek yavrusunun canını yaktıklarını gördüler. Köpeği çocukların elinden 84

kurtarmak için birlikte epey uğraştılar. Sonunda da başardılar. Bu küçük yavru o güne kadar gördükleri en sevimli köpekti. Küçük sivri kulakları, zeytin siyahı gözleri ve beyaz tüylerinin üzerinde kahverengi lekeleri olan ufacık, tefecik bir şeydi. Pupil adını Aysu buldu. Okuduğu bir romandaki köpeğin adıydı bu. Romandaki köpek de evsiz ve kimsesizdi. Ancak oldukça güçlüydü ve dost canlısıydı. Onun da bu özelliklere sahip olması için adını Pupil koymaya karar verdiler. Pupil, can dostlara hemen alışmıştı. Üstlerine atlıyor, onları yalıyor ve onların sevgisini kazanmaya çalışıyordu. O günden sonra can dostlar artık dört kişi olmuşlardı. İzleyen günlerde hayatları okul, ev, ödevler ve tabii bir de Pupille dolu geçti. Okullar açıldıktan dört hafta sonra futbol seçmeleri vardı. Bu Cem için çok önemliydi. Okulun takımına girmek, hatta takımın kaptanı olmak onun en büyük hayaliydi. Seçmelerden önceki akşam Kaya ve Aysu’yla konuşan Cem, heyecanını onlarla da paylaşmış ve arkadaşlarının desteğini almıştı. Cem seçmelerin yapılacağı gün salona gitti. Diğer öğrenciler çoktan gelmişti ve herkes ısınma hareketleri yapmaya başlamıştı. Cem de aralarına katıldı. Ancak ısınırken kendini çok zorladı ve yoruldu. Bu nedenle de seçmeler sırasında birkaç kez kendini güçsüz hissetti ve duraksadı. Ama yine de futbolda ne kadar iyi olduğunu göstermeye çalıştı. Seçmeler sonuçlandığında koç Cem’e onu yedek oyuncu olarak takıma aldığını söyledi. Cem haberi duyunca şok oldu. Takıma seçileceğine o kadar emindi ki, böyle bir sonucu hiç beklemiyordu. Koç’a çekinerek neden yedek oyuncu seçildiğini sordu. Koç, “Bu kilolarla maç sırasında kesilir kalırsın. Sıkı bir idmanla forma girmen lazım. İleride belki iyi bir oyuncu olabilirsin ama şu an için takımda yedek oyuncu olman daha uygun,” dedi. Cem adeta yıkılmıştı. Üzüntüden ne yapacağını bilemedi. Seçmelerin yapıldığı salondan çıktı ve onu bekleyen Aysu’nun yanına gitti. Aysu onu görür görmez işlerin yolunda gitmediğini anladı. “Seçmeler nasıl gitti Cem” diye sordu. Cem konuşamadı, tepki veremedi. Öylesine üzgün ve mutsuzdu ki canı kimseyle konuşmak istemiyordu. Ama içinden bir ses “Bir umut var.” diyordu. Aklı karmakarışıktı. Neler hissetmesi, neler düşünmesi ve nasıl davranması gerektiğini bilemiyordu. Aysu’yla servise bindiler. Cem sessizce oturuyordu Aysu ise neler olduğunu öğrenmek için sabırsızlanıyordu. Bu sessizlik 85

anında bütün olanlar Cem’e çok olumsuz göründü. Aklından “Kendimden, şişman olmaktan nefret ediyorum, bu kilolarla çok çirkin görünüyorum, aynada kendime bakmak bile istemiyorum.” diye geçirdi. Böyle düşündükçe iyice öfkelendi ve kendisine çok kızdı. Cem bunları düşünürken Aysu dayanamayıp “Cem bana anlatmayacak mısın olanları çok merak ediyorum” dedi. Cem “Yedek oyuncu oldum, bu benim içim takıma alınmamak gibi bir şey dedi” dedi. Aysu “Asil listeye seçilemediğin için kendine çok kızgınsın” dedi. Cem başını salladı. “Öyle üzgünüm ki, kendime öyle kızıyorum ki anlatamam” dedi. Aysu “Ben çok kızgın olduğum ve bir türlü sakinleşemediğim zamanlarda birkaç kez derin nefes alıp veririm. Nefesimi verirken içimdeki bütün öfkeyi, mutsuzluğu, olumsuz düşünceleri dışarı attığımı düşünürüm. Bu nefesler sakinleşmeme yardımcı olur. İstersen sen de dene” diye öneride bulundu. Bunun üzerine Cem, Aysu’nun önerdiği şekilde burnundan derin bir nefes alıp ağzından yavaşça verdi ve bu nefes egzersizini birkaç kez tekrarladı. Nefesini verirken tüm olumsuz düşüncelerini dışarı attığını düşündü, bu düşünce onu rahatlattı. “Şimdi daha iyiyim, sağol. Şu an canım hiç konuşmak istemiyor, akşam konuşuruz” dedi. Sonrasında Cem ve Aysu yol boyunca hiç konuşmadılar. Akşam Kayalarda buluştuklarında “Seçmelerde ne oldu?” diye sordu Kaya. Cem. “Hoca beni seçmedi, koca göbekli şişkonun tekiyim, hoca ne yapsın. Kendimden nefret ediyorum” diye ekledi. “Kendine çok kızgınsın” dedi Kaya. Cem “hem de nasıl” diyerek hiçbir ayrıntıyı atlamadan bütün olanları anlattı ve derin bir iç çekti. “İşte hepsi bu.” dedi. “Siz de öğrendiniz işte, şişkoluğum nelere mal oldu.” dedi Cem. Aysu “Olanları hep olumsuz yönünden bakıyorsun. Biz senin yıllardır arkadaşınız. Senin ne kadar iyi oynadığını biliyoruz. Koç seni tanımıyor. Ancak seçmelerde zorlanmana rağmen senin çok iyi olabileceğini görmüş, sana umut vermiş, çok çalışırsan daha iyi olabileceğini söylemiş. Bence bu olayları daha gerçekçi bir gözle görmeye çalış, olanları öyle bir anlatıyorsun ki birisi duysa takıma yedek olarak bile alınmadığını düşünür.” dedi. Kaya da başını salladı ve “Bence yedekte olsan da takıma alınmışsın, antrenmanlarla ve yediklerine dikkat ederek kilo verebilir ve kendini gösterebilirsin. Her şey senin elinde. Yeter ki pes etme ve başkalarının sözüne aldırış etme. Kendine güven ve başarabileceğine inan” dedi. Aysu “Her işte engeller vardır. Önemli olan ilk engelde yıkılmamak, mücadele 86

etmek, kendine güvenmek ve yapabileceğine inanmak.” dedi. “Evet” dedi Kaya ve “Ancak hemen çözüm bekleme, istediğin noktaya gelmen için çaba göstermen gerekecek ve bu biraz zaman alacaktır. Yeter ki sen kararlı ol.” diye sonlandırdı konuşmasını. Sonrasında üç-dört dakikalık bir sessizlik oldu. Herkes içinden konuşulanları ve özgüvenin ne kadar önemli olduğunu düşünüyordu. Özgüven bir kişinin kendini beğenme ve değerli bulması demekti. Sessizliği Kaya bozdu. “Biliyor musunuz” dedi. “Ben de gözlüklerimden nefret ediyorum. Keşke gözlerim bozuk olmasaydı.” dedi. “Bence gözlükler sana çok yakışıyor.” dedi Aysu. “Gerçekten mi?” diye sordu Kaya. “Tabi ki, seni çok karizmatik gösteriyor.” dedi. “Ayrıca seni çok zeki gösteriyor.” dedi Cem. “Bu da çok güzel bir şey. Keşke ben de şişko olacağıma, gözlüklü olsaydım.” diye de ekledi. “Bence şişko abartılı bir kelime” dedi Aysu. “Senin fast-food yiyeceklere, abur cubura düşkünlüğünün göstergesi olan bir göbeğin var. İstersen bu yiyeceklerden uzak durarak onu eritebilirsin.” dedi. “Biliyor musunuz arkadaşlar ben de çok uzun boylu olduğum için kendimi beğenmiyorum.” dedi Aysu. “Diğer kızların arasında çok fark ediliyorum. O yüzden sürekli kamburumu çıkararak yürüyorum.” dedi. Cem “Bence uzun boylu olmak avantajdır. Bazı sporlarda uzun boylu olanları seçerler.” dedi. Kaya da ekledi “ Bence uzun boylu olduğun için şanslısın.” dedi. “Kambur yürümek yerine dimdik yürümelisin. Sonra duruşun bozulur.” Arkadaşlarının sözleri Aysu’yu rahatlattı. “Farkında mısınız arkadaşlar” dedi Aysu. “Hepimizin kendi özelliklerimiz hakkında düşünceleri var. Aynı zamanda birbirimizin görünüşü hakkında da fikirlerimiz var.” dedi. “Bir oyuna var mısınız?” diye sordu. “Nasıl bir oyun bu?” diye sordu Kaya. “Bize kağıt kalem gerekli” dedi Aysu ve anlatmaya başladı. “Birinci adımda, herkes elindeki kağıtlara kendi fiziksel özelliklerini yazacak.” Kaya sordu: “Yani, aynaya baktığımızda kendimizi nasıl gördüğümüzü diyebilir miyiz?” “Evet aynen öyle” dedi Aysu. “Sonra bunları okuyacak mıyız?” diye sordu Cem. “Evet, sonraki adımlarda” dedi Aysu. “Bana ne, o zaman ben yokum” dedi Cem. “Mızıkçılık yapma Cem” dedi Kaya. “Biz birbirimizi iyi tanımıyor muyuz zaten.” Sonunda ikna olan Cem oyuna katılmayı kabul etti. 87

Kaya her biri için kağıt kalem getirdi ve “Artık başlayabiliriz.” dedi. Sabırsızlanmışlardı bu yüzden hemen yazmaya koyuldular. Üçü de elindeki kağıda bir şeyler yazıyordu. “Önce ben bitirdim” dedi Cem. Arkasından da diğerleri de tamamladı. “Şimdi” dedi Aysu ikinci basamaktayız. “Herkes yazdıklarını sessizce okusun. Hoşunuza giden özellikleri kağıdın sağ tarafına, beğenmediklerinizi sol tarafına yazın, ya da yanlarına + ve – işaretleri koyun.” Üçü de yeniden kağıtlarına döndü. Herkesin bitirdiğini gören Aysu “Sıra yazdıklarımızı okumaya geldi.” dedi ve “Önce sen oku Cem” diye ekledi. “Hayır ben okumam. ” diye karşılık verdi Cem. “Bugün canı sıkkın olan sensin o yüzden önce senden başlayacağız.” dedi Aysu.. “İyi tamam başlıyorum ama gülmek yok.” dedi Cem. Cem’in listesi şöyleydi: (-)

(+)

Şişman, Koca göbekli

Kahverengi gözlü,

Orta boylu, Koca burunlu

Kaslı kol ve bacakları olan, Güçlü

Sonra Aysu listesini okudu. Aysu’nun listesi şöyleydi: (-)

(+)

Fazla uzun boylu, Çelimsiz vücutlu

Kumral, Siyah gözlü, Dalgalı saçlı,

Uzun kirpikli Ön dişleri düzgün olmayan En son olarak da Kaya listesini açıkladı. Kaya’nın listesi şu şekildeydi: (-)

(+)

Gözlüklü, Güçsüz ve çelimsiz, Çirkin burunlu

Normal kilolu, Normal boylu,

Dalgalı saçlı Herkes birbirinin listesini şaşkınlıkla dinliyordu. Şaşırmalarının nedeni eksi koydukları maddelerdi. Hepsi de diğerlerinin olumsuz diye düşündüğü özellikleri abarttığını düşünüyordu. Cem dayanamadı “Bence ikiniz de abartmışsınız. Siz 88

benden de dertliymişsiniz. Bir sürü güzel özelliğiniz var, olumsuz gördüğünüz özeliklerinize katılmıyorum.” dedi arkadaşlarına. Kaya “Asıl senin listen baştan aşağı eksi dolu” diye tepki verdi Cem’e. “Arkadaşlar” dedi Aysu. “Birbirinize kızmayın. Fark ettiniz mi hepimiz kendimize karşı çok acımasız davranmışız.” dedi. Cem de “Kendimizi yerden yere vurmuşuz.” diye ekledi. Kaya ise “Biz kendimize böyle davranırsak başkaları neler söyler.” dedi. Aysu başını salladı. “Söylüyorlar zaten” dedi. “Biz izin veriyoruz. Çünkü önce biz kendimizi beğenmiyoruz.” Cem “Çok haklısın Aysu” dedi. “O zaman üçüncü basamağa geçelim” dedi Aysu, “Bu listeleri düzeltelim”. “ Nasıl yani?” diye sordu arkadaşları. Aysu anlatmaya başladı. “Hepimiz yeni birer kağıt alalım. Bu eksi koyduğumuz özelliklerimizi yeniden yazalım. Bunu yaparken bu sefer gerçekçi olalım. Kendi özelliklerimizi yazarken daha önce yaptığımız gibi aşağılayıcı dil kullanmayalım.” “Tamam” dedi ikisi bir ağızdan. Sonra hepsi yeniden işe koyuldu.. İlk Cem bitirdi, “Sırayı bozmayalım, önce ben başlayayım okumaya.” Cem şöyle şunları söyledi: Aşağılayıcı dil

Aşağılayıcı olmayan dil/gerçekçi dil

Şişman

Biraz kilolu

Koca göbekli

Bol tişörtler giydiğimde saklayabildiğim bir göbek. (Ama mutlaka eriteceğim. Yeni bir başlangıç yapıyorum. Sporla forma gireceğim. )

Orta boylu

1.50 cm. boy

Koca burunlu

Kemerli bir burun (McKay & Fanning, 2006).

Cem sonra “Kollarımı ve bacaklarımı da çok seviyorum. Çok güçlüler. Kaslıyım. Futbol oynamak için uygun bir yapım var. Sadece biraz fazlalığım var. Onu da verince çok iyi olacağım. Bunun için pizza, hamburger ve kolayı bırakacağım. Sporcu dediğin sağlıklı beslenir, ben de bundan sonra kendime bakacağım.” dedi. Cem bu sözleri söyledikten sonra ayağa kalktı. Kollarını yumruk yapıp, kaslarını gösterdi. Ortada şöyle bir döndü. Çok mutlu görünüyordu. Ayrıca kendine olan güveni iyice artmıştı.

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Sonra Kaya ve Aysu da listelerini okudu. Onlar da olumsuz cümlelerini düzeltmişlerdi. Aşağılayıcı bir dil kullanmadan, kendilerine haksızlık etmeden yazmışlardı. Bu paylaşımın sonunda onlar da oldukça mutluydu. Herkes güçlü yanlarını görmüştü ve bununla gurur duymuştu. Ayrıca herkesin güçlü yanları olduğu kadar güçsüz yanlarının da olabileceğini görmüşlerdi. Önemli olan insanın zayıf yönlerini bilmesi, onlara sahip çıkmasıydı. Herkesin hem güçlü hem de güçsüz yanları vardı. İnsan kendini bir bütün olarak sevebilmeliydi. Düzeltebileceği yönleri için de adım atmalıydı. “Biliyor musunuz” dedi Aysu. “Bugün çok faydalı bir gün oldu. Kendimizi ve birbirimizi daha yakından tanıdık. Kendimize haksızlık etmemeyi öğrendik.” “Evet” dedi Kaya. “Ayrıca kendimize güvenmenin, inanmanın ne kadar önemli olduğunu.” diye ekledi. Cem “Fiziksel özelliklerimizi sevmeyi öğrendik. Kendimizi olduğumuz gibi kabul etmeyi öğrendik.” dedi. Sonra da ayağa kalktı ve yüksek sesle “Kendimi seviyorum. Kendimi olduğum gibi seviyorum” dedi. Aysu ve Kaya da bağırdı: “Kendimi seviyorum.” “Kendimi seviyorum.” Üçü de birbirlerine sarıldılar.

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EK-2 ETKİNLİK I BEDENİMİ TANIYORUM (Mckay & Fanning, 2006’ dan uyarlanmıştır.) 1. AŞAMA: Fiziksel özelliklerim

2. AŞAMA Olumlu Olanlar (+)

Olumsuz Olanlar

(-)

3. AŞAMA: Değerlendirme

4. AŞAMA: Olumsuz özelliklerin aşağılayıcı olmayan ve gerçekçi bir şekilde yeniden ifade edilmesi

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