The Evolution of Cartels in co, 1980–2015 The Evolution of Cartels in

The Evolution of Cartels in co, 1980–2015 The Evolution of Cartels in

Mexico, The Evolution 1980–2015 of Cartels in Mexico, 1980–2015 2008 2015 2002 2007 2014 2001 2006 2013 2000 2005 2012 1999 2004 2011 19...

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Mexico, The Evolution 1980–2015 of Cartels in Mexico, 1980–2015 2008

2015

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Cártel de Sinaloa

1992

Cártel de Sinaloa

1997

Cártel de Sonora

2004

Cártel de Sonora

1991

Cártel de Tijuana

1996

Cártel de Tijuana

2003

Cártel de Juárez

1990

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Cártel de Juárez

Cártel de Guadalajara

Cártel de Colima

“El Teo” Faction

“El T

La Mano con Ojos

Cártel de Colima

Cártel del Pacífico Sur La Nueva Administración

Cártel de los Beltrán Leyva

Los Rojos

Cárt Cártel del Charro

Cártel de la Barbie

Cártel Independiente de Acapulco

La Barredora

Cártel de Oaxaca

La Resistencia Cártel del Milenio

Cártel del Milenio Cártel Jalisco Nueva Generación

Los Zetas

Cártel del Golfo

Los Zetas

La Familia Michoacana

Los Zetas

La Familia Michoacana

Los Zetas

La Familia Michoacana

La Familia Michoacana

La Familia Michoacana

Guerreros Unidos

Caballeros Templarios

Los Viagras

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Mexico Center intern Juan Diego Saldaña and director Tony Payan created this timeline in collaboration with program manager Lisa Guáqueta. Saldaña compiled the research for this project between July 2015 and February 2016. His source materials are listed in the references sheet. The Mexico Center thanks Guadalupe CorreaCabrera, Rocío Rivera Barrada and Fernando Chinchilla for their contributions to this project. Graphic design by Sonja Fulbright and Shawn O’Neill.

1994

er intern Juan ThisDiego timeline Saldaña includes and director every major Tonygroup Payanthat created has been this responsible for mass drug ollaborationtrafficking with program and for manager which Lisa sufficient Guáqueta. information Saldañaiscompiled available.the Please note that the this projectbreakdown between July and2015 chronology and February of each 2016. cartel Hismay source at times materials be estimated, due to the references problems sheet. inherent The Mexico to the Center study thanks of covert Guadalupe organizations, Correa- such as conflicting data and cío Rivera Barrada missingand dates. Fernando DesignChinchilla considerations, for their rather contributions than specific to this characteristics, determined phic design by Fulbright and Shawn O’Neill. theSonja placement of each group on the timeline.

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Notes

References Anderson, John Ward. 1997. “Alleged Kingpin of Sonora Cartel Untouched by Law.” The Washington Post, February 26. Accessed July 21, 2015. Beittel, June S. 2012. “Mexico: Organized Crime and Drug Trafficking Organizations.” Trends in Organized Crime: 1-33. Accessed July 29, 2015. Borderland Beat. 2011. “Another ‘La Barredora’ Leader Is Arrested.” November 5. Accessed July 21, 2015. Brito, Luis. 2011. “Cómo surgió la organización delictiva ‘La Mano con Ojos’.” CNN Mexico, August 11. Accessed July 21, 2015. Bunker, Robert J. 2013. “Introduction: The Mexican Cartels—Organized Crime vs. Criminal Insurgency.” Trends in Organized Crime 16.2: 129-37. Accessed January 31, 2016. Castellanos, Guillermo Valdés. 2013. Historia del narcotráfico en México. México, D.F.: Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial México. “¿Cómo surgió el grupo criminal ‘La Mano con Ojos’?” 2012. Univision Noticias, July 13. Accessed July 21, 2015. De Amicis, Albert. 2011. “Los Zetas and La Familia Michoacana Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs).” University of Pittsburgh Graduate School for Public and International Affairs, March 12. Accessed October 2, 2015. De La O, Ricardo. 2011. “Genealogía del narcotráfico (Parts 1-5).” Peninsular Digital, November 10. Accessed July 21, 2015. “El narco Miguel Ángel Caro Quintero, sentenciado a 17 años de cárcel en EU.” 2010. CNN Mexico, February 4. Accessed July 21, 2015. “El origen de ‘Los Rojos’ y ‘Guerreros Unidos’.” 2014. Televisa, November 17. Accessed September 11, 2015. Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2012. 2011 National Gang Threat Assessment: Emerging Trends. Morgan James Publishing. Accessed via Google Books. Fernández Menéndez, Jorge. 2014. “Beltrán Leyva, auge y caída de un cártel.” Excélsior, March 10. Accessed July 21, 2015. Flores, Nancy. 2013. Los 89 cárteles que arrasan México. Paris: Red Voltaire. Accessed September 11, 2015. Government of Mexico. 2015. “NarcoData.” Animal Politico. Accessed December 7. Government of Mexico. 2015. “Organizaciones criminales.” Animal Politico, October 21. Accessed November 27, 2015. http://www.scribd.com/doc/286347648/Organizaciones-criminales-EPN. Grayson, George W., and Samuel Logan. 2012. The Executioner’s Men: Los Zetas, Rogue Soldiers, Criminal Entrepreneurs, and the Shadow State They Created. New Brunswick: Transaction. Accessed via Google Books. Grayson, George W. 2014. The Cartels: The Story of Mexico’s Most Dangerous Criminal Organizations and Their Impact on U.S. Security. Santa Barbara: Praeger. Grayson, George W. 2010. La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications for U.S.-Mexican Security. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College. Grayson, George W. 2011. Mexico: Narco-Violence and a Failed State? New Brunswick: Transaction. Accessed via Google Books. Guerrero Gutiérrez, Eduardo. 2014. “El dominio del miedo.” Nexos, July 1. Accessed October 2, 2015. Guerrero Gutiérrez, Eduardo. 2014. “La dictadura criminal.” Nexos, April 1. Accessed July 27, 2015. Guerrero-Gutiérrez, Eduardo. 2011. “Security, Drugs and Violence in Mexico: A Survey.” Survey presented at the Seventh North American Forum meeting, Washington, D.C., October 6-8. Accessed October 23, 2015. Heinle, Kimberly, Cory Molzahn, and David A. Shirk. 2015. Drug Violence in Mexico: Data and Analysis Through 2014. San Diego: Justice for Mexico Project, University of San Diego. Accessed February 1, 2016. Jones, Nathan. 2013. “The Unintended Consequences of Kingpin Strategies: Kidnap Rates and the ArellanoFélix Organization.” Trends in Organized Crime 16.2: 156-76. Accessed January 31, 2016.

“La Tuta Message Says: ‘Los Viagras Are the Worse Criminals I’ve Ever Met … Worse than Me’.” 2015. Borderland Beat, February 6. Accessed July 21, 2015. Langton, Jerry. 2011. Gangland: The Rise of the Mexican Drug Cartels from El Paso to Vancouver. Mississauga, Ont.: J. Wiley & Sons Canada. Accessed via Google Books. Logan, Samuel and John P. Sullivan. 2009. Mexico’s ‘Divine Justice.’ Zurich: International Relations And Security Network. Accessed July 21, 2015. Lyman, Michael D. 2013. Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control. Routledge. Accessed via Google Books. “Neza, bajo el control de la Familia Michoacana.” 2012. El Universal, August 20. Accessed July 21, 2015. “Nuevo cártel: Los Mazatlecos.” 2013. Animal Político, January 22. Accessed July 21, 2015. Ortiz, Carlos. 2010. Private Armed Forces and Global Security: A Guide to the Issues. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger. Accessed via Google Books. Philip, George and Susana Berruecos, eds. 2012. Mexico’s Struggle for Public Security: Organized Crime and State Responses. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Accessed via Google Books. Polarization and Sustained Violence in Mexico’s Cartel War. 2012. Austin: Stratfor. Accessed July 21, 2015. Pérez Salazar, Juan Carlos. “México: el cártel que protagonizó el peor enfrentamiento del gobierno de Peña Nieto.” 2014. BBC Mundo, July 2. Accessed July 21, 2015. “¿Quiénes conforman el cártel de ‘Los Rojos’?” 2014. Red Politica, April 15. Accessed September 11, 2015. “¿Quiénes son los ‘Guerreros Unidos’ que azotan a México?” 2014. Semana, October 16. Accessed July 21, 2015. Ramsey, Geoffrey. 2012. “Mexico Captures Leader, Founder of Resistencia Gang.” InsightCrime, September 13. Accessed November 27, 2015. Reed, Tristan. 2015. Mexico’s Drug War: A New Way to Think About Mexican Organized Crime. Austin: Stratfor. Accessed July 21, 2015. Reed, Tristan. 2014. Mexico’s Drug War: Criminal Groups Splinter as Bosses Fall. Austin: Stratfor. Accessed July 21, 2015. Sanchez, Mariana. 2011. “Drug Gangs Wage War for Acapulco.” Al Jazeera, August 15. Accessed July 21, 2015. Sánchez Valdés, Víctor Manuel. 2015. “La nueva configuración del crimen en Michoacán.” Animal Político, March 12. Accessed July 21, 2015. Sánchez Valdés, Víctor Manuel. 2014. “¿Organizaciones criminales más pequeñas es menos violencia?” Animal Político, October 28. Accessed October 23, 2015. Stewart, Scott. 2010. Mexico and the Cartel Wars in 2010. Austin: Stratfor. Accessed July 21, 2015. Stewart, Scott. 2015. The Real ‘El Chapo.’ Austin: Stratfor. Accessed July 21, 2015. Stratfor. 2015. In Mexico, the Delineation of Cartel Power Becomes More Complex. Accessed July 21, 2015. https://www.stratfor.com/image/mexico-delineation-cartel-power-becomes-more-complex. Stratfor. 2013. Mexican Cartels: Sinaloa Federation. Accessed July 21, 2015. https://www.stratfor.com/video/ mexican-cartels-sinaloa-federation. Stratfor. 2012. Mexico Security Memo: A New Juarez Cartel. Accessed July 29, 2015. https://www.stratfor. com/analysis/mexico-security-memo-new-juarez-cartel. United States Drug Enforcement Agency. 2009. La Familia Michoacana Fact Sheet. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency, Office of Public Affairs. Accessed July 21, 2015. United States Library of Congress. Organized Crime and Terrorist Activity in Mexico, 1999-2002. Washington D.C.: U.S. Library of Congress, Federal Research Division. Accessed July 21, 2015. Valenzuela, Rubén Aguilar. 2011. “El cártel de los Amezcua.” El Economista, August 22. Accessed December 7, 2015. “What Is Guerreros Unidos?” 2014. Borderland Beat, October 16. Accessed November 27, 2015. http://www. borderlandbeat.com/2014/10/what-is-guerreros-unidos.html.