The Evolution of the Steam Locomotive, 1803 to 1898 (1899)

The Evolution of the Steam Locomotive, 1803 to 1898 (1899)

> J> "^ as g s ° Q : F7 lA-dh-**^) THE EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE (1803 to 1898.) BY Q. A. SEKON, Editor of the "Railway Magazine...

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THE

EVOLUTION OF THE

STEAM LOCOMOTIVE (1803 to 1898.)

BY Q.

A.

SEKON,

Editor of the "Railway Magazine" and "Hallway Year Book, Author of "A History of the Great Western Railway," *•., 4*.

SECOND EDITION

(Enlarged).

£on&on

THE RAILWAY PUBLISHING 79

and

80,

Temple

Chambers, 1899.

Temple

CO.,

Ltd.,

Avenue,

E.C.

T3 in

PKEFACE TO SECOND EDITION. When, ten days

ago, the first copy of the " Evolution of the Steam for sale, I did not expect to be called upon to

Locomotive" was ready write

preface

a

for

new

240 hours had expired. that the whole of the edition was exhausted practically upon publication, a

The author cannot but be extremely large

first

edition

before

gratified to

know

and since many would-be readers are still unsupplied, the demand for Under these circumstances but slight another edition is pressing. modifications have been made in the original text, although additional particulars and illustrations have been inserted in the new edition. The new matter relates to the locomotives of the North Staffordshire, London., Tilbury, and Southend, Great Western, and London and North Western Railways. I sincerely thank the many correspondents who, in the few days that have elapsed since the publication: of the "Evolution of the Steam Locomotive," have so readily assured me of ,

their hearty appreciation of

the book.

-

rj

G.

A.

.;!

SEKON. -!

January, 1899.

PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. In connection with the marvellous growth of our railway system there is nothing of so paramount importance and interest as the evolution of the locomotive steam engine. At the present time it is most important to place on record the actual facts, seeing that attempts have been made to disprove

known and accepted details relative* to several we might almost write historical, locomotives. work most diligent endeavours have been made to

the correctness of the interesting,

In

this

chronicle only such statements as are actually correct, without reference to personal opinions. In a broad sense, and taken as a whole, the old works on locomotive history may be accepted as substantially correct. ••-,

From

these,

by the various

therefore, and from authentic documents provided railways, locomotive builders, and designers, together

with the result of much original research, has the earlier portion of this account of the evolution of the locomotive steam engine been The various particulars of modern locomotive practice constructed. have been kindly supplied by the locomotive superintendents of the different British railways, so that no question can arise as to the strict accuracy of this portion of the work. Nearly forty years ago it was authoritatively stated " That kind of knowledge of the locomotive engine which answers the purpose of a well-informed man has already become so popular that it almost amounts to ignorance to be without it. Locomotive mechanism is very simple in its elementary nature, and the mind is naturally disposed to receive and retain any adequate explanation of striking phenomena, whether mechanical or otherwise; and hence it is that there aro A 2 :

'

PREFACE

iv.

thousands of persons who, although in no way concerned in the construction or working of railway engines, are nevertheless competent to give a fair general explanation of their structure and mode of working." If such were true at that time it is abundantly evident that it is more so at the threshold of the 20th century, considering the growth of inquiry into, and appreciation of, scientific and mechanical knowledge by an ever widening and increasing circle of general readers, which has been one of the marked signs of intellectual development during recent years. Under such circumstances it is not surprising that the locomotive and its history have received a large share of public attention. Whilst railway officers, with the intelligence for which they are justly distinguished, have always evinced a proper desire to be acquainted with the evolution of the " steam horse," the spread of education has increased and quickened a desire for knowledge concerning the locomotive amongst all classes in a remarkable manner. Many of the numerous illustrations that embellish the book have been specially collected for the purpose, and several will be quite new to the majority of readers. Special pains have been taken to admit only such illustrations the authenticity of which was known to the author, and for the same reason many otherwise interesting pictures, upon the accuracy of which suspicion rested, were excluded from the collection. Despite these exclusions, we believe that no other book on locomotive history in the English language is so fully illustrated. As it ia proposed to deal with the railway locomotive only, it is not necessary to make more than a passing reference to the more or less crude proposals of Sir Isaac Newton, the Marquess of Worcester, Savery, Dr. Robinson, Leupold, and other writers and scientists, who hinted at the possibility of steam locomotion. Nor does the writer propose to discuss the alleged use of railways and steam locomotives in Germany at a date prior to their general introduction into England. The claims of Cugnot, Symington, Evans, Murdoch, and others as builders or designers of actual or model steam road locomotives will also be passed without discussion.

We take this opportunity of expressing our sincere thanks to the locomotive superintendents of British railways, who have all been so willing to assist the author, not only in supplying accurate data concerning the locomotives of their own design, but also for so kindly revising the portions of the volume that relate to the locomotive history of the particular railway with which each one of these gentlemen is connected. " In conclusion, we leave the " Evolution of the Steam Locomotive to the kindly consideration of our readers, hoping that from a perusal of

it

they

may

derive both information and pleasure. G. A.

December, 1898.

SEKON.

CONTENTS. PAGE Prefaces

i

List of Illustrations

vi.

Chapter

Index

ii.

1

1

II

10

HI

28

IV

40

V

56

VI

66

VII

82

VIII

103

IX

130

X

156

XI

185

XII

205

XIII

231

XIV

260

XV

294 321

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Page "330," the

type of Great Northern Railway express engine Frontispiece 3 The First Railway Locomotive of which authentic particulars are known 6 Locomotive built by Murray for Blenkinsopp's Railway 8 ••• Brunton's " Mechanical Traveller " Locomotive " 11 Hackworth's " Wylam Dilly," generally known as Hedley's " Puffing Billy 13 Hackworth's or Hedley's Second Design, used on the Wylam Rwy. in 1815 15 Stephenson's Initial Driving Gear for Locomotives 16 Stephenson and Dodd's Patent Engine, built in 1815 17 Stephenson's Improved Engine, as altered, fitted with Steel Springs ... 20 ... ... ''Locomotion," the First Engine to Run on a Public Railway 23 The. First Successful Locomotive, Hackworth's "Royal George" ... ... 24 Hackworth's Blast Pipe in the "Royal George" ... ... i.. ... ... 25 Waste Steam Pipe in Stephenson's "Rocket" The "Novelty," entered by Braithwaite and Ericsson for the Rainhill Prize 29 32 ... ... Haokworth's " Sanspareil," one of the Competitors at Rainhill 35 Stephenson's "Rocket," the Winner of the Rainhill Prize of £500 38 Winan's "Cycloped" Horse Locomotive ... ... ... ... 41 Bury's Original "Liverpool," the First Engine with Inside Cylinders, etc. 45 The " Invicta," Canterbury and Whitstkble Railway, 1830 The " Northumbrian," the Engine that Opened the Liverpool and Man46 chester Rwy. ... 48 Hackworth's "Globe" for the Stockton and Darlington Railway ... Stephenson's "Planet," Liverpool and Manchester Railway 49 " Wilberforce," a Stockton and Darlington Railway Locomotive 53 54 Galloway's "Caledonian," built for the Liverpool & Manchester Rwy. in 1832 ... 57 Roberts's "Experiment," with Verticle Cylinders, Bell Cranks, etc. " 59 Hawthorn's Comet," First Engine of the Newcastle & Carlisle Rwy., 1835 "Sunbeam," built by Hawthorn for the Stockton and Darlington Railway 64 The "Grasshopper," with 10ft. driving wheels, built by Mather, Dixon & 73 ... ... Co., for the G.W. Rwy The "Hurricane," with 10ft. driving wheels, a Broad-Guage Engine, built 76 ... on Harrison's System ... ... The "Thunderer," a geared-up Broad-Guage Engine, built on Harrison's latest

Plan

...

Bury's Standard Passenger Engine for the London and Birmingham Railway " Garnet," one of the First Engines of the London and Southampton Rwy. "Harpy," one of Gooch's "Firefly" Class of Broad- Gauge Engines Interior of Paddington Engine House, showing the Broad-Guage Locomotives of 1840 " Jason," one of Gooch's First Type of Goods Engines for the G.W. Rwy. Paton & Millar's Tank Engine, for working on the Cowlairs Incline, Glasgow ... Stephenson's " Loag Boiler" Goods Engine, Eastern Counties Railway Gray's Prototype of the "Jenny Lind,' No. 49, London & Brighton Rwy. "Hero," a Great Western Railway Six-Coupled Broad- Gauge Goods Engine The 'Great Western " Broad-Gauge Engine as originally Constructed ... The Original " Great Western," as Rebuilt with Two Pairs of Leading Wheels The "Namur," the First Engine built on Crampton's Principle Crampton's "London," First Engine with a Name, on the L &N W. Rwy. ... "Great Britain," one of Gooch's Famous 8ft. "Singles," G.W. Rwy. "No. 61," London and Brighton Railway 7 ilson and Co. ... The "Jenny Lind," a Famous Locomotive, built by Trevithick's " Cornwall,' with 8ft. 6in. Driving Wheels, and Boiler below the Driving Axle ... Trevithick's "Cornwall," as now Running between Liverpool and Manchester " Old Copper Nob," No. 3, Furness Rwy., Oldest Locomotive now at work The "Albion," a Locomotive built on the "Cambrian" System The "Fairfield," Adams's Combinsd Broad-Gauge Engine and Train ... The "Enfield," Combined Engine and Train for the Eastern Counties Railway " Red Star," a 7ft. Single Broad-Gauge Saddle Tank Engiae

W

78 33 85 90

92 93 98 104 104 106 107 109 112 113 114 115 119

120 121 1?3 127 132 134

136

LIST 01 ILLUSTRATIONS

vii.

PAGE 'No. 148," L. Engines

& N.W. Rwy.; Example

of

Stephenson's

..'

"Long ••

Boiler" •••

•••

137

Adams's "Light" Locomotive for the Londonderry and Enniskillen Railway 139 England & Co. 's " Little England," Locomotive Exhibition, London, 1851 142 ... 145 Orumpton's "Liverpool," London and Ncrth Western Railway 149 Timothy Hackworth's " Sanspareil, No. 2" 153 ... •• Caledonian Railway Engine, "No. 15" 154 "Mat's Mangle," No. 227, London and North Western Railway 155 "President," one of McConnell's "Bloomers," as originally built 155 ... Ramsbottom ... ... One of McConnell's "Bloomers," as Rebu'lt by The "Folkestone," a Locomotive on Crampton's System, built for the



S.E.R.,

1851

V. Gooch's "Single" Tank Engines, Eastern Counties Railway ... "Ely," a Taff Vale Railway Engine, built in 1851 McConnell's "300," London and North Western Railway Pasey's Compressed Air Locomotive, Tried on the E.C. Rwy., 1852 ... The First Type of Great Northern Railway Passenger Engine, one cl the "Little Sharps" ... Sturrock's Masterpiece, the Famous Great Northern Railway, "215" Pearson's 9ft. "Single" Tank Engine, Bristol and Exeter Railway Western "Single" Tanks, taken over by the Great One of Pearson's 9ft. Railway A Bristol and Exeter Rail.vay Tank Engine, as Rebuilt (with Tender) by the G.W.R "Ovid," a South Devon Railway Saddle Tank Engine, with Leading Bogie "Plato," a Six-Coupled Saddle Tank Banking Engine, South Devon Railway The First Type of Narrow Gauge Passenger Engines, Great Western Rwy. "Robin Hood," a Broad-Gauge Express Engine, with Coupled Wheels 7ft.

One

of J.

North

in diameter ... ... ... British Railway Inspection Engine,

...

...

...

...

...

...

No. 879

159 161 163 165 170 171 172 174

176 178 180 181 182 183 184

The "Dane,"

L. and S.W.R., fitted with Beattie's Patent Apparatus for Burning Coal ... Cudworth's Sloping Fire Grate, for Burning Coal, as fitted to S.E.R. Locomotives ... ... ... ... ... ... ... " Nunthorpe," a Stockton and Darlington Railway Passenger Engine, 1856 Beattie's Four-Coupled Tank Engine, London & South Western Rwy., 1857 Sinclair's Outside Cylinder, Four-Coupled Goods Engine, Eastern Counties Railway (Rebuilt) Six-Coupled Mineral Engine, TafF Vale Railway, built 1860 Outside Cylinder Engine, Inverness and Aberneen Junction Railway "Brougham," No. 160, Stockton and Darlington Railway .. Conner's 8ft. 2in. "Single" Engine, Caledonian Railway (Rebuilt) "Albion," Cambrian Railways, 1863 ... ... ... A Great Northern Railway Engine, fitted with Sturrock's Patent Steam Tender Sinclair's Design of Tank Engine for the Eastern Counties Railway ... ... Beattie's Standard Goods Engine, London and South Western Railway, 1866 Beattie's Goods Engine, London and South Western Railway (Rebuilt) ... Adams's Passenger Tank Engine, N.L. Rwy., as Rebuilt by Mr. Pryce. Jt Pryce's Six-Coupled Tank Goods Engine, North London Railway ^. ... Locomotive and Travelling Crane, North London Railway ... '... .!. "Python," a 7ft. lin. Coupled Express Engine, L. and S.W. Rwy 8ft. lin. " Single "Express Engine, Great Northern. Railway "John Ramsbottom," one of Webbs "Precedent" Class, L. & N.W. Rwy. "Firefly," a London and South Western Outside Cylinder Tank Engine " Kensington," a Four-Coupled Passenger Engine, London, Brighton and South Coast Railway "Teutonic," a London and North Western xCailway "Compound" Locomotive on Webb's System ... " Queen Empress," one of Wehb's Compound Locomotives, L. & N.W. Rwy. "Black Prince." L. & N.W. Railway, a Four-Coupled Four-Cylinder Compound Engine ... ... Johnson's 7ft 9in. "Single" Engine, Midland Railway " Georore A. Wallis," an Engine of the "Gladstone" Class, L., B. and S.C. Railway .



.

187 189 193 194

196 202

204 206 208 210 218 219 226 227 228 229 230 232 237 238 239

240 244 245 248 251

252

LI SI'

OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PA«E "1463," North Eastern Railway, one of the " Tennant " Locomotives ... 253 254 ... Holmes's Type of Express Engines for the North British Railway Liquid 7ft. "Single" Engine, Great Eastern Railway, fitted with Holden's 256 Fuel Apparatus "No. 10," the Latest Type of Great Eastern Railway Express Engine, 258 Fired with Liquid Fuel " Goldsmid," one of the new London, Brighton and South Coast Railway 261 Express Passenger Engines .. 262 "Inspector," London, Brighton and South Coast Railway "No. 192," a Standard Express Passenger Locomotive, L.C. & D.Rwy. ... 263 264 Standard Express Passenger Engine, Cambrian Railways ... 265 Standard Passenger Tank Engine, Cambrian Railways " No. 240," the 8.E. Railway Engine that obtained the Gold Medal, Paris Exhibition, 1889 .. Standard Goods Engine, South Eastern Railway Standard Passenger Tank Locomotive, South Eastern Railway Latest Type of Express Passenger Engine, South Eastern Railway Adams's Standard Express Engine, London and South Western Railway ... " Windcutter " Locomotive, "No. 136," L. and S.W. Railway, fitted ... with Convex Smoke-Box Door ... Drummond's Four-Cylinder Engine, London and South Western Railway Four-Coupled Passenger Engine with Leading Bogie, North British Railway Holmes's Latest Type of Express Engine, North British Railway Four- Wheels-Coupled Saddle Tank Engine, London & North Western Rwy. Standard Express Passenger Locomotive, Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Standard Eight-Wheel Passenger Tank Engine, Lancashire & Yorkshire Rwy. Oil-Fired Saddle Tank Shunting Engine, Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway " Dunalastair," Caledonian Railway ... ... Mcintosh s " Dunalastair 2nd " Caledonian Railway Express Locomotives Six- Wheels-Coupled Condensing Engine, Caledonian Railway " Carbrook," one of Drummond's Express Engines for the Caledonian Railway Mcintosh's 5ft. 9in. Condensing Tank Engine, Caledonian Railway "No. 143," Taff Vale Railway Tank Loccmotive, for working on incline ... A Great Eastern Railway "Double Ender " Tank Engine A Great Eastern Railway Four-Coupled Tank Engine 7ft. 8in. "Single" Convertible Engine, Great Western Railway "Empress of India," Standard G.W. 7ft. 8in. "Single " Express Locomotive " Gooch," a Four-Coupled Express Engine, Great Western Railway " Pendennis Castle," one of the Great Western "Hill Climbers" .. "Single" Express Engine, Six- Wheel Type, Great Western Railway ... ... 6ft. 6in. Four-Coupled Passenger Locomotive, Great Western Railway Engine, Great Passenger Western Railway Four-Coupled ... 6ft. " Barrington," New Type of Four-Coupled Engine, Great Western Railway Four-Coupled- in-Front Passenger Tank Engine, Creat Western Railway ... .. Great Western Railway Four-Coupled-in-Front Tank Engine " No. 3,204," one of a Sturdy Class of Great Western Railway Engines 1312," of Mr. Ivajtt's Smaller one (1073) Class of Four-Coupled "No. Bogie Engines, Great Northern Railway The Latest Type of 6ft. Gin. Coupled Engine, Great Northern Railway Latest Type of G.N.R. Express Locomotive; 7tt. 6in. "Single," with Inside

267 268 269 271 273

A

of the

"T"

Class Four-Coupled Passenger Engines, Great North

of Scotland Railway Pettigrew's New Goods Engine for the Furness Railway Six- Wheels-Coupled Bogie Engine, with C-utside Cylinders, Highland Railway ... New type, Eight-Wheeled Tank Engines, North Staffordshire Railway Standard Type Four-Coupled Passenger Engine, North Staffordshire Railway ... Outside Cylinder Tank Engine, North Staffordshire Railway New Type, Eight- Wheeled Passenger Tank Engine, L. & N. W. Railway ... Liquid Fuel Engine, Belfast and Northern Counties Railway Jubilee," Four-Wheels-Coupled Compound Locomotive, Belfast and Northern

Northern Counties Railway

" No.

293 295 296 297 298 300 300 301 301 302

303 303 305 306 309

Cylinders, etc.

"No. 100," one

274 275 277 279 281 282 283 284 285 287 288 289 290 292 293

Railway (Ireland) Four-Coupled Bogie Express Engine, Great Southern and Western Railway " Peake," a Locomotive of the Cork and Muskerry Light Railway 73," Standard Passenger Engine, Great Northern

THE

EVOLUTION OF THE

STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

CHAPTER Frevithiok's

I.





his first stearn locomotives Mistaken for the dovil Tha engiac >A successful railway journey at Merthyr Tydvil of the engine " Catch-me-who>-can '" The locomotive in

triumph

CoaJbrookdale

—Description —

;









— —

London Blenkinsopp's rack locomotive Chapman's engine Did Chapman bmld an eight-wheel locomotive? Brunton's "steam horse" It9 tragic end.



Richard Trevithick, the Cornish mine captain and belongs the honour of producing the

first

<

ngineer,



true, his

locomotive'

was a road locomotive.

As long ago as 1796 he ; and on Christmas Eve, 1801, he made the initial trip with his first steam locomotive through the streets of Camborne. This machine carried original essay

^|7

constructed a model locomotive which ran round a room

several passengers at a speed in excess of the usual walking pace of a

man.

Trevithick

engines,

24th

who

Vivian,

cousin

and

March,

construction

to

patent

1802. of

was

steam

joined

provided

It,

them, is

in

the

the

money

their

first

described

engines,

and

the

enterprise to

as

build

by the

his

steam

being dated improving the

patent '"for

application

thereof

for

drawing carriages on rails and turnpike roads and other purposes." It was claimed that their engine would produce " a more equable rotary

"

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

2

motion on the several parts of the revolution of any axis which is moved by the steam engine, by causing the piston rods of Wo cylinders to work on the said axis by means of cranks, at a quarter turn asunder."

Among

other improvements claimed in the specification, mention

made

should be

of the return-tube boiler, bellows to urge the

fire,

and a second safety valve, not under the control of the driver. A steam carriage with these improvements was constructed, and Vivian and Trevithick commenced a journey on it from Camborne to Plymouth, from which port it was shipped to London'., On the road to Plymouth a closed toll-bar was met, and the steam carriage stopped for the gate to be opened.

demanded Vivian. and

teeth

his

The

"

What have

us got to pay here ]

affrighted toll-keeper, shaking in every limb,

essayed

chattering,

to

answer,

and

at

last

said,

— na—na—na." "What have us got to pay, say?" demanded Vivian. "Na—noth—nothing to pay, my de—dear Mr. Devil; do "Na

I

drive on as fast as you can.

Nothing to pay."

must be remembered that to Cornishmen of a century ago the devil was a very real personage and, seeing the horseless It

;

carriage proceeding with a fiery accompaniment, the poor toll-keeper

thought he had at last seen his Satanic majesty. to

have remembered that

devil included

;

there

Hence the

wishes."

is

it

is

He

also appears

well "to be civil to everyone,

no knowing when you

toll-keeper's

reason

for

may

the

require his good

calling

Vivian

"my

dear Mr. Devil."

As early as August, 1802, R. Trevithick (according to his life, by his son, F. Trevithick) appears to have constructed a railway locomotive at Coalbrookdale. This engine had a boiler of cast-iron l£in. thick, with an interior return wrought-iron tube: The length of the boiler was 6ft., and the diameter 4ft. The cylinder as written

working this engine was

7in. in diameter,

the stroke being

3ft.

The

next railway locomotive was that constructed for the Pen-y-darreri

Tramroad near Myrthyr

U

iii

Tydvil.

Of

this particular locomotive (Fig. 1)

possible to obtain authentic particulars, although

already

legendary

clusters

around

much

this historic locomotive.

that

is

For

that the locomotive in question had a brick chimney, was demolished by colliding with an overhanging branch Then the amount of the bet between Mr. Homfray, the of a tree. owner of the tramroad, and his friend, as to whether the locomotive would successfully perform a journey from Pen-y-darren to the navi-

instance,

and that

we read it

EVOLUTION

Ul<'

THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

3

gation at Plymouth, is a variable quantity. The amount staked has been stated to be £500 a side, and also £1,000 a side. It is evident that some days prior to February 10th, 1804, the

engine successfully performed the journey, and that overhanging trees and rocks considerably impeded the travelling, several stoppages having Mr. Homfray, howto be made whilst these obstacles were removed. ever, won the bet. On February 21st another trip was made by the locomotive. On this occasion the load consisted of 5 wagons, 10 tons

fig

i.— tee first

railway locomotive of which authentic particulars are known

of

bar iron,

water and

formed average

in

and 70 passengers, the weight of the engine, with

fuel, -1

being 5 tons; the journey of nine miles being per5 minutes, including several stoppages ; the

hours

speed when travelling being

five

On

miles an hour.

the

return journey the engine hauled the empty wagons up an incline

18 at the rate of five miles an hour. Several of the tram which weighed only 281b. per yard, were broken on the downward trip. Early in March the engine conveyed a load of 25 tons from the iron-works to the navigation. of 1 in

plates,

n

2

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

4

It will

be observed that this engine from the

practicability

smooth

of

first

decided fh»

conveying loads by means of smooth wheels on

by adhesion. Yet, strange to say, for was the firmly-fixed belief of succeeding locomotive constructors that it was impossible to obtain sufficient adhesion between a smooth surface and a smooth rail to successfully work a locomotive. The result was the invention of many curious methods to overcome this apparent difficulty, which, as a fact, never existed, save in the minds of the designers of the early locomotives. These men do not seem to have been fully acquainted with the results simply

rails,

several years after,

of Trevithick's

A

it

experiments on the Pen-y-darren tramroad in 1804.

description of this locomotive prototype

was

The

is

of

-

The

interest.

and chimney were both at the same end, an extended heating surface being obtained by means of the return tube; above the fire-door was the single horizontal cylinder, the diameter of which was 8Jin. a considerable portion of the cylinder was immersed in the boiler, the exposed portion being surrounded by a steam jacket. The The piston-rod worked on a motion frame stroke was 4ft.. 6in. extending in front of the engine. At the other end of the boiler was a fly-wheel some 9ft. 6in. in diameter, the motion being conveyed to it by connecting rods from the cross-head; a cog-wheel on the fly-wheel axle conveyed the motion by means of an intermediate wheel to the four driving-wheels, which are stated to have been 4ft. 6in. in diameter. The exhaust steam appears to have been turned into the chimney, not for the purpose of a blast, but only as an easy method of getting rid of the vapour. It will boiler

cylindrical, with a flat end.

fire-door

!

be remembered that Trevithick, in his patent specification, specially

mentioned bellows

for

urging

the

fire,

and was,

acquainted with the nature of the exhaust steam blast. to bear this in mind, as the reader will

engine

is

important find in a later chapter. This It is

up through not being provided with a though Trevithick specially ordered one to be fixed

stated to have blown

safety valve, to

not

therefore,

the boiler,

but his instructions do not appear to have been

carried out.

Trevithick

made another

locomotive, called " Catch-me-who-can."

This ran on an ellipse-shaped railway specially laid down for

it

at

Euston Square, London, and was visited by many people during the few days it was on view. Another locomotive was constructed from the drawings of Trevithick's Coalbrookdale locomotive of 1802, to

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

b

the orders of Mr. Blackett, the owner of Wylani Collieries.

This

had a single cylinder 7in. diameter, For some reason or another 3ft. stroke, and, of course, a fly-wheel. this engine does not appear to have been used on the Wylam tramMr. road, but was used in a Newcastle foundry to blow a cupola. Armstrong, a former Locomotive Superintendent of the Great Western weighing

engine

i\

tons,

Railway, was acquainted with this engine of Trevithick's at the time

was so employed at Newcastle. Having given an outline of Trevithick's invention of the tramroad locomotive, and the other locomotive engines designed by him, we will deal with the locomotive built for J. Blenkinsopp (Fig. 2), of the it

Middleton Colliery, near Leeds, who, on April 10th, 1811, obtained a patent for a self-propelling steam engine, worked by means of a cog-wheel, engaging in a. rack laid side

by

side

with one of the

rails

forming the tramway.

The erroneous idea that the locomotive

of itself

had not

sufficient

adhesion between the smooth wheel and the surface of the

rail to

and draw a load was strongly entertained by Blenkinsopp, hence his patent rack and pinion system. Blenkinsopp having propel

itself

which he published by means

this opinion,

caused succeeding inventors to the

adhesive

properties

of

the

fall

of his patent specification,

into the

locomotive,

same error regarding and consequently con-

siderably retarded the development of the railway engine.

Although this engine is generally known as Blenkinsopp's, it was constructed by Matthew Murray, the Leeds engineer. The boiler was cylindrical, with slightly convex ends, a single flue ran through it, which was in front turned upwards, and so formed the chimney the fire-grate was at the other end of the flue, as in the ;

modern locomotive. This engine was provided with two cylinders, and was, in this respect,

an improvement on Trevithick's single-cylinder engines. The were 8in. in diameter, and placed vertically, the major

cylinders

them being placed within the boiler. The stroke was and the motion w as conveyed by means of cross-heads, working connecting-rods these came down to two cranks on either side portion of 20in.,

r

;

below the boiler.

The cranks worked two

shafts fixed across the

frames, on which were toothed wheels, both Avorking into a centre

toothed wheel, which was provided with large teeth, these engaged

on the rack

rail

angles,

that

so

previously described.

The cranks were

one piston was exerting power when

set at right,

the

other

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

6

was

dead centre, and

at its

on the

rails

by four wheels

vice versa.

3ft,

The engine was supported The two cylinders

6in. in diameter.

were connected by a pipe which conveyed the exhaust steam and discharged

it

into

the

atmosphere through a vertical tube.

The

engine weighed 5 tons, burned 751b. of coal per hour, and evaporated

Fia.

2—LOCOMOTIVE

BUILT BY MUBKAY FOB BLENKIXSOPP'S BA1LWAT?

50 gallons of water in the same time.

This locomotive could haul

94 tons on the level at 3 J miles an hour, or 15 tons up an incline of 1 in 15 ; its maximum speed was 10 miles an hour.. The engine cost of

£400

to construct,

and worked from August, 1812, for a period

about 20 years, and in 1816 the Grand Duke Nicholas, afterwards

Emperor

of Eussia, inspected the machine. The tramway on which it worked was about 3 J miles long. In September, 1813, Murray supplied two of Blenkinsopp's engines to the Kenton Colliery. On December 30th, 1812, a patent was granted to William and Edward Chapman for a method of locomotion. A chain was stretched along the railway and fastened at each end; connected to the

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE locomotive

by spur

When

was passed. it,

and

since

was a

gear

which

around

barrel,

the barrel rotated, the chain wag

the chain

was secured

was of necessity propelled.

An

at

chain

the

wound over

end,

either

7

the

engine

engine on this principle was tried

on the Heaton Colliery Trarnroad, near Newcastle-on-Tyne. The machine was supported on wheels travelling on the rail*. The boiler

and fanners were used to excite the of Chapman's engine was 6 tons. After a few trials the scheme was abandoned, as it was found imEvery eight or ten practicable to successfully work such a system.

was

of

Trevithick's

combustion of the

design,

fuel.

The weight

yards the chain was secured by means of vertical forks, which held

when disengaged from the drum of the locomotive. By this method the pressure of one engine on the chain was limited to the fork on either side of the drum instead of being spread

it

over the whole length of the chain, and

it

would, therefore, have

been possible for several engines to have used the chain at one and the same time.

According to Luke Herbert and Lieut. Lecount, Chapman also an 8-wheel locomotive for the Lambton Colliery. This engine,

built

was stated, had vertical cylinders, and the motion was conveyed by means of spur wheels. It weighed 6 tons loaded, and drew

it

18 loaded wagons, of a gross weight of

5*4 tons, from the colliery on the Wear; with the above load it attained The a speed of four miles an hour up an incline of 1 in 115. dimensions and capabilities accredited to this engine appear suspici-

to the shipping place

ously similar to those related of the

On May

22nd, 1813, Mr.

first

W. Brunton,

Wylam

locomotive.

of the Butterfly Ironworks,

obtained a patent tor a novel method of steam locomotion. locomotive inventor was also suffering from the

common

This

belief that

it

was impossible to obtain sufficient adhesion between a smooth rail and smooth wheels, despite the successes that had already been obtained in this direction by Trevithick. He therefore built an engine supported on four flanged carrying wheels, but propelled from behind by means of two legs. Indeed, another inventor considered the idea of steam legs so natural that he constructed a steam

road coach that was to be propelled by four

legs,

one pair partaking

and motion of the forelegs of a horse, and the other pair being fashioned on the model of the hind legs of the same

of the character

quadruped. In

Brunton's

leg-propelled

steam locomotive (Fig.

3)

we

find

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

8

that the boiler was cylindrical, with a single horizontal tube passing

through

it,

and turned up in front in a vertical position, thus The mot on was obtained from a single !

forming the chimney.

horizontal cylinder, fixed near tht cop of the boiler, the piston rod

projecting behind;

the end of the piston rod was attached to a

jointed rod, the bottom portion of which formed one of the legs.

The upper portion

of this

rod was attached to a framework fixed

above the boiler of the engine, which formed a fulcrum, and then

by an ingenious arrangement given to the second leg. Each at the

leg

levers,

had a

an alternate motion was formed of two prongs

foot

bottom; these stuck in the ground, and prevented the legs

Fig.

from

of

3.--BEUNTON'S

slipping.

"MECHANICAL TRAVELLER" LOCOMOTIVE

Upon steam

way would have

being applied, the piston in the ordinary

travelled to the end of the cylinder, but the leg,

having a firm hold of the ground, presented a greater resistance to the steam than did the weight of the engine, so the

steam acting

on the surface that presented the lesser resistance, caused the cylinder to recede, and with it the engine, to which it was, of course,

a

firmly

horizontal

attached.

rod

By means

travelled

on

the

of

the

top

reciprocating of

the

boiler

levers,

and

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE over

wag

cog-wheel

a

another

;

on

then

horizontal

the

other

which,

rod,

travelled in a contrary direction,

side

actuated

of

by

this

the

9

cog-wheel cog-wheel,

and being attached to the other leg first leg, it drew

the engine, as the machine receded from the

of

tho

second

leg

second leg was

up

close

now ready

to

the

back

of

to propel the engine,

steam being applied to the other side

was alternated with each admission

the

which

of the piston,

of

engine. it

Th.3

did upon the

and the process

steam to the front or back

of the piston.

Whilst the legs were returning towards the engine the feet were raised by

means

and passing movable in one direction only by a ratchet

of straps or ropes fastened to the legs

over friction-wheels,

and catch, and worked by the motion of the engine. Brunton called his locomotive a " mechanical traveller," and stated that the boiler was of wrought-iron, 5ft. Gin. long and 3ft. diameter,

weighing 1\ tons, stroke of piston,

2ft.,

and at 2£ miles

per hour, with a steam pressure of 451b. per square inch, was equal horses.

This locomotive curiosity blew up

in

power to nearly

at

Newbottle in 1816, and about a dozen people were thereby either

six

killed or seriously injured.



-

CHAPTER Who

II.

is entitled to the honour of constructing the Wylam locomotives?— The '' claims of Hackworth, Hedley und Koster Puffing Billy Rebuilt as an eight-wheel < ngine— Stewart's locomotive Sharp practice causes Stewart to abandon locomotive' building George Stephenson as a locomotive builder His hazy views as to his first engine " Blucher " The German General proves a failure Stephenson and Dodd's engine Stephenson's third engine, with (so-called) steam springs Competent critics condemn Stephenson's engines The " Koyal William " The '" Locomotion " Hackworth, General Manager of the Stockton end Darlington Railway Horse haulage cheaper than Stephenson's locomotives Hackworth to the rescue The " Royal George," the first successful locomotive The "exhaust" steam blastRival olaiovints and its invention Locomotive versus stationary engine"Twin Sisters" "Lancashire Witch" " Agenoria " Tho "Maniac," " a Forth Street production."









— — —





'

— —











— —





We have now arrived at a point in the evolution of the steam locomotive where the claims of several men are in competition. The facts as to the experiments and construction of the engines at Wylam are not disputed.

The question

of the success should Colliery,

be given.

previously stated,

as

at issue is as to

whom

the honour

Christopher Blackett, of the

Wylam

ordered a locomotive of Trevithick,

but never used

it. He, however, determined to make a trial of steam haulage on his plate way, and in 1611 some kind of experiments were made, having in view the above-mentioned object. At this time Timothy Hackworth was foreman of the smiths (he would

now be Wylam.

called an engineer),

respective

The

friends of both

and William Hedley was coal-viewer at Hackworth and Hedley claim for their

heroes the honour of these early essays in locomotive

construction.

But it is probable the honours should be sharer" by by Jonathan Foster, who also assisted in the experi-

both, as well as

ments and construction of the Wylam locomotives. Hedley was colliery-viewer at Wylam, and therefore, most likely, Hackworth was, to an extent, under his orders, and probably had to defer to, and act under, the instructions of Hedley. But Hackworth's position as foreman-smith did not preclude him from making suggestions and introducing improvements of his own into the locomotives It is stated

under construction.

that Hedley was jealous because Hackworth obtained

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE the praise for building the

Wylam

11

locomotives (or " Timothy's Dillies,"

as they were locally called), and to force

Hackworth

to leave

Wylam,

Hedley required him to do some repairs to the machinery on Sundays.

Now, Timothy was a fervent Wesleyan, and spent local preaching, so

his

Sundays

in

he naturally refused to violate his conscience by

Consequently Hackworth sought employment

working on that day. elsewhere.

Fig

On

4.

-IIACKWOKTHS "WYLAM DILLY," GENERALLY KNOWN AS HEDLEYS "PUFFING BILLY"

the other hand,

Stephenson spent

his.

it

was a sore point with Hackworth that George

Sundays

at

Wylam

ticulars of the locomotives at that time at

taking sketches and work on the Wylam

parRail-

way, the result of which observations was apparent in the locomotive built

by Stephenson at Killingworth in 1814.

The Wylam experimentalists in October, 1812, constructed a fourwheel vehicle driven by manual power working cranks connected with spur wheels. The carriage was loaded until sufficient weight had been placed upon it to cause the wheels to turn round without progressing.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

12

The experiment, however,

Mr. Blackett that locomotive

satisfied

engines with smooth wheels could be employed in drawing loads on

tramroad;

his

and the construction

proceeded with. It

had a

of

an engine was immediately

This was completed and put to work early in 1813.

cast-iron boiler,

and a single internal

flue;

the solitary

cylinder was 6in. in diameter, and a fly-wheel was employed after

model

the

of

Trevithick's

engine.

The steam

pressure was

501b.

This four-wheel engine drew six coal trucks at five miles an hour, and, therefore, did the

work

steam locomotive,

of a

what

of

a

failure,

—not a very powerful example

of three horses it

will

be observed.

was decided

it

to

This engine being somebuild

another,

and one

with a wrought-iron boiler and a return tube was constructed. his

engine (Fig. 4)

at the

same end

it will

In

be noticed the fire-box and chimney were both

of the boiler.

Two

vertical cylinders

the trailing wheels of "Puffing Billy" (for

it

is

were

fixed over

this historical loco-

motive, now preserved in the South Kensington Museum, that now being described). The piston rods were connected to beams

the "Grasshopper" pattern, being both centred at the funnel end

is

of .'>?

The driving rods were connected with these beams at about their centres, and passed down to spur wheels, which, by means of toothed wheels on either side, communicated the motion The spent steam was conveyed from to the four carrying wheels. the cylinders to the chimney by means of two horizontal pipes laid along the top of the boiler. It was soon discovered that the castthe

engine.

iron tram-plates, which were only of four square inch section, were

unable to bear the weight of

" Puffing Billy,"

and another change was

decided upon.

The engine was therefore placed on two four-wheel trucks

(Fig. 5), so

that the weight was distributed on eight instead of four wheels, the same method of spur gearing was employed, and the whole of the wheels

To prevent, as by the escaping steam, a vertical cylinder was fixed on the top of the boiler between the cylinders and Into this chamber the spent steam was discharged, and the funnel. from it the same was allowed to escape gradually into the chimney. In addition to the improvement of a return tube, with its extended heating surface, with which this class of engine was provided, the

were actuated by means of intermediate cog-wheels. far as possible, the noise caused

funnel was only 12in. in diameter, as compared with 22in. diameter as used

by Stephenson

in his early engines.

As already

stated, the

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE Wylam

13

were locally called "Timothy's Dillies," after to whose inventive genius they were popularly In 1830, the cast-iron plates on the road from Wylam to ascribed. Leamington were removed, and the course was relaid with edge rails, locomotives

Timothy Hackworth,

so

that

the

necessity

for

eight-wheel

engines was at

an end.

'•'Timothy's Dillies" were then reconverted to four-wheel locomotives, and continued at work on the line till about 1862. Not many locomotive writers are acquainted with the fact that

Fig.

5— HACKWORTHS OK '

in

HEDLEY'S SECOND DESIGN, AS USED ON THE WYLAM RAILWAY IN 1815

1814 William Stewart, of Newport, Mon., constructed a locomotive Park End Colliery Company, which was tried on the Lydnoy

for the

Railway, and found to work in a satisfactory manner. Colliery

Company were paying about £3,000

The Park End

a year to contractors

for horse haulage of their coal to the Forest of

Dean

Canal, and

Stewart undertook to do the same by locomotive power for half that sum. The Company accepted his terms, and he set about th©

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

14

construction of his engine.

Whilst this was progressing the contrac-

who provided the horses were told at each monthly settlement that the Company were going to use a locomotive to haul the coal, as tors

By means

horse-power was too expensive. tractors were induced each

month

of these threats the con-

to accept a less price than pre-

viously for " leading " the coal over the tramroad.

date

Upon

the specified

Stewart's locomotive was duly delivered on the line, and ac-

cepted by the Park

End

Company

Colliery

for

doing the work

required; but the engineer was informed that the horse-power contractors were then only receiving

£2,000 a year

and

for the work,

that as Stewart had agreed to provide locomotive power at one-half

sum paid

of the

for horses, he

would only receive £1,000 a year.

Stewart was so highly indignant at this piece of sharp practice

Park End Company, and at once removed his locomotive off their tramroad, and took it back to Newport. The earliest attempts of George Stephenson in connecthat he refused to have anything further to do with the

Colliery

with

tion

the

engine,

first

evolution

Stephenson

attention.

of

speaking

for,

steam locomotive now deserve

the

himself at

is

not

very

Newcastle

at

clear

about

the

opening

Darlington Railway in 18it, thirty-two years ago he constructed his first engine. engine for

and

Newcastle

the

'My

its

Lord,' after

construction."

his first engine till

years before 1844 would have been 1812. "

not exist in

did

Thomas

Liddell

till

My

of

he

said

We

called the

that

Lord Ravensworth, who provided the money Both these statements are erroneous, for

Stephenson did not build have been called

"

his

1814, and thirty-two

Then the engine could not

Lord," after Lord Ravensworth, for fhe the gentleman

1814,

title

alluded to being only

the coronation of King George IV. in 1821,

Sir

when

he was created Lord Ravensworth. " Blucher," as this engine was in fact usually called, was first on the Killingworth Railway on July 25th, 1814; she had a wrought-iron boiler, 8ft. long and 2ft. lOin. diameter, with a single The flue 20in. diameter, turned up in front to form a chimney. power was applied by means of two vertical cylinders located partly

The

tried

within the boiler, and projecting from

near the middle.

The

its

top, close together,

and

cylinders were 8in. diameter, the stroke 2ft.

The motion was conveyed

to the wheels

by means

of cross-heads an<£

connecting-rods working on small spur wheels (Fig. 6), whic-j. engaged the four carrying wheels by means of cogged wheels fitted on the axles of

— EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

15

; these were only 3ft. in diameter, and were The spur wheels engaged another cogged wheel, placed

the flanged rail-wheels apart.

3ft.

be*

tween them, for the purpose of keeping the cranks at right angles.

No

springs were provided for the engine, which was mounted on a wooden frame, but the water barrel was fixed to one end of a lever, and also weighted; the other end of this lever was fixed to the frame of the engine. This arrangement did duty for springs 1

Fig.

The

6.— STEPHENSON'S

best

INITIAL DRIVING

"

work done by

GEAR FOR LOCOMOTIVES

Blucher " was the hauling of loaded coal-

wagons, weighing 30 tons, up an incline of

This

first

method

of

miles an hour.

about

it

;

the

effort of

1 in 450, at about four Stephenson had no original points

working was copied from the Wylam engines, was followed with regard to the position

whilst Trevithick's practice of the cylinders

i.e.,

their location, partly within the boiler.

The

average speed did not exceed three miles an hour, and after twelve

months' working the machine was found to be more expensive than the horses it was designed to replace at a less cost. The absence of

by this time the engine was so by the vibration that the Killingworth upon a second time to find the money to

springs was specially manifested, for

much shaken and

injured

Colliery owners were called

enable Stephenson to construct another locomotive.

The second engine

(Fig. 7) constructed

by George Stephenson wa3

under the patent granted to Dodd and Stephenson on 28th Febru1815. In this engine vertical cylinders, partly encased in the boiler,

built ary,

were again employed at

;

but their position was altered, one being placed

each extremity of the boiler over the wheels, the intermediate spur

wheels formerly used for keeping the cranks at right angles were

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

16

abandoned, and the axles were cranked. A connecting-rod was fitted on these cranks, thus coupling the two axles. To give greater adhesion, the wheels of the tender were connected with those of the engine by means of an endless chain passing over cogs on the one pair of engine wheels, and over the adjoining pair of tender wheels by these methods six pairs of wheels were coupled. The mechanics

engaged were not, however, capable of forging proper crank axles, and these had to be abandoned, and an endless chain coupling employed for the engine wheels, similar to the one connecting the tender

and engine, as previously described.

Fig.

7.— STEPHENSON'

AND DODD'S PATENT ENGINE, BUILT

IN 1815

This engine had no springs, and, to avoid excessive friction arising

from the bad state of the tramroad, Stephenson employed " ball and socket " joints between the ends of the cross-heads and the connecting-rods.

In this

way

the

necessary

parallelism

ends of the cross-heads and the axles was maintained.

between the

The spent

steam in the engine was turned into the chimney, as in Trevithick's Pen-y-darren locomotive.

This locomotive commenced to work on

6th March, 1815.

George Stephenson constructed a third engine

(Fig. 8),

under a

patent granted to Lock and Stephenson on 30th September, 1816

;

this

patent covered several matters, the most important in connection with the engine being malleable iron wheels, instead of cast-iron, and what

has been described as "steam springs."

The patentees

called

them

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE " floating pistons" " they are not,"

;

of this description

Colburn says

and the same authority continues,

*

17

emphatically

and they (Loci

and Stephenson) added, evidently without understanding the true which were different in principle from the

action of the pistons,

action of springs, that inasmuch as they acted

they produced the desired

effect,

with

upon an

elastic fluid,

much more accuracy than

could

Fm. 8.— STEPHENSON'S IMPROVED ENGINE, AS ALTERED, FITTED WITH

STEEL SPRINGS (INVENTED BY NICHOLAS WOOD)

be obtained by employing the

finest springs of steel to

suspend the

engine.

The whole arrangement was, on the

principle

and objectionable on the score of leakage, wear, was ultimately abandoned."

contrary, defective in etc.

;

and,

as a matter of course,

In the drawings attached to the patent specification this engine

shown with six wheels, and the chain coupling is employed. Lecount " The six wheels were continued in use as long as the steam says springs were applied, and when steel springs were adopted they were

is

:

again reduced to four."

So much praise has been given to Stephenis supposed to have introduce.4

son for the "great improvements" he

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

18

into the construction of the locomotive, that

ing

we here reproduce the extremely

if

it will

not be uninterest-

pertinent remarks of Galloway,

the well-known authority on the steam engine, which go far to prove that

was only the great success obtained by George Stephenson

it

from the construction

and Manchester and other

of the Liverpool

railways, that caused historians and biographers to either magnify his

locomotive successes, or to gloss over the evident faults in the design

and construction

of his engines.

In his " History of

Engine," published in 1827, Galloway says

t.ie

Steam

These locomotive engines

:

have been long in use at Killingworth Colliery, near Newcastle, and at iietton Colliery on the Wear, so that their advantages and defects

have been

sufficiently

submitted to the test of experiment; and

it

appears that, notwithstanding the great exertions on the part of the inventor, Mr. Stephenson, to bring railroads,

now

them

into use on the different

either constructing or in agitation,

has been the

it

opinion of several able engineers that they do not possess those

advantages which the inventor had anticipated;

indeed, there can-

not be a better proof of the doubt entertained regarding their utility

than the fact that shall

it has been determined that no locomotive engine be used on the projected railroad between Newcastle and Car-

lisle,

since,

had their advantages been very apparent, the persons

immediately on the spot in which they are used, namely,

living

Newcastle, would be acquainted therewith.

"The

objections

principal

mounting even the

seem

to

be

slightest ascent, for it has

of only one-eighth of

the

difficulty

of

been found that a

an inch in a yard, or of eighteen

surrise

feet in a mile,

retards the speed of one of these engines in a very great degree

much

so, indeed, that it has been considered necessary, in some where used, to aid their ascent with their load, by fixed engines, which drag them forward by means of ropes coiling round a drum. The spring steam cylinders below the boiler were found \ery

so

parts

defective,

for

in

the

ascending stroke of the working piston they

were forced inwards by the connecting-rod pulling at the wheel and turning

it

forced as

round, and in the descending stroke the same pistons were

much

outwards.

This motion or play rendered

to increase the length of the

it

necessary

working cylinder as much as there was

play in the lower ones, to avoid the danger of breaking or seriously

and bottom of the former by the striking was forced too much up or down."

injuring the top

piston

when

it

of the

:

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

19

Stephenson must have felt himself to be a personage of some importance when he received an order from the Duke of Portland for

a steam locomotive. The engine, which had six wheels, was duly built and delivered in 1817, when it was put to work on the tramroad connecting the Duke's Kilmarnock Collieries with the harbour at

Troon; but, after a short

trial, its

use was abandoned, as the weight

engine frequently broke the cast-iron tram-plates.

It has been stated that " this engine afterwards worked on the Gloucester

of the

and Cheltenham Tramroad until 1839, when the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway bought the line, and took up the cast-iron tramplates."

There

is

no doubt that a six-wheel engine with vertical cylinders

partly encased in the top of the boiler, and called the " Royal William,"



was actually at work on this line the fact having been commemorated by the striking of a bronze medal; but there is nothing to show that the " Royal William " and the engine built for the Kilmarnock and Troon Tramroad were one and the same locomotive whilst it is certain that the Gloucester and Cheltenham Tramroad was not purchased by the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway, but jointly ;

by the Cheltenham and Great Western Union Railway and the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway, the price paid being £35,000. It would appear from a letter written by George Stephenson, and dated Killingworth Colliery, 28th June, 1821, that he had but

little

what a great degree the development of the steam locomotive would be carried. The letter, which was addressed to Robert Stevenson, the celebrated Edinburgh engineer, proceeded as follows idea to

I have lately started a new locomotive engine with some improvements on the others which you saw. It has far surpassed my expecta-

''

tions. is

I

am

confident that a railway on which

far superior to a canal.

On

my

engine can work

a long and favourable railway

I

would

my

engine to travel 60 miles a day, with from 40 to 60 tons of goods." Taking Stephenson's " day " to mean twelve working start

hours, his idea of at that time.

maximum

Before this

speed did not exceed



in December,

1824

five

miles an hour

— Charles

MacLaren

had published in the Scotsman his opinion that by the use of the steam locomotive " we shall be carried at the rate of 400 miles a day," or an average speed of 33 1-3 miles an hour. Yet such is the irony of fate, that MacLaren, the true prophet, is forgotten, and George Stephenson is everywhere extolled.

The Hetton

(Coal) Railway

was opened on November 18th, 1822, c

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

20

and

five of

Stephenson's "improved Killingworth " locomotives were

placed upon the level portions.

These engines were capable of hauling

a train of about 61 tons, the

maximum

speed being four miles an

hour.

<

§3 S g g

The Stockton and Darlington Railway, the

first

public railway,

was opened on September 27th, 1825. The "Locomotion" (Fig. 9) was the first engine on the line. It was constructed at the Forth Street Works of R. Stephenson and Co., at Newcastle-on-Tyne. At thia

53

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE now celebrated Forth Street Works were than a collection of smiths' forges.

early period these

21

little

better

Timothy Hackworth had been manager of these works, and he had a good deal to do with the construction of "Locomotion." His improvement of the coupling-rods in place of the endless chain pre-

by Stephenson is worthy of passing George Stephenson expressed a very strong desire that Hackworth should remain in charge of the Forth Street Works, and went so far as to offer him one-half of his (Stephenson's) share in

viously used for the purpose notice.

the business

if

as a partner;

Hackworth agreed to do so if his and he were publicly recognised proposition was not accepted by Stephenson.

he would remain.

name were added

to that of the firm

but this

Hackworth then took premises in Newcastle, and intended to commence business as an engine-builder on his own account, he having already received several orders from the collieries, etc., where his skill was well known and appreciated. George Stephenson, having heard of Hackworth's plans for carrying on a rival engine factory at Newcastle, saw Hackworth, and persuaded

him

to relin-

quish the proposition and accept the office of general manager and

engineer to the Stockton and Darlington Railway.

Hackworth commenced these duties in June, 1825, and removed to The "Locomotion" had four coupled wheels, 4ft. in diameter; two vertical cylinders, lOin. in diameter, placed partly Darlington.

within the boiler

square inch of

;

;

the stroke was 24in.

;

steam pressure, 251b. per The tender van

weight in working order, 6£ tons.

wood, with a coal capacity of three-quarter ton, and a sheet-iron holding 240 gallons ; weight loaded, 2\ tons. The tender

tank

was supported on four wheels, each of 30in. diameter. This engine worked on the Stockton and Darlington Railway till 1850. In September, 1835, "Locomotion" engaged in a race with the mail coach for a distance of four miles, and only beat the horses by She was used to open the Middlesbrough and one hundred yards! Redcar Railway on June 4th, 1846, being under the charge of Messrs. Plews and Hopkins on this occasion, when she hauled one carriage and two trucks, and took thirty-five minutes to cover the eight

From 1850

1857 she was used as a pumping engine by South Durham, after which she was mounted on a pedestal at North Road Station, Darlington. This engine was in steam upon the Darlington line during the celebration of the Stockton and Darlington Railway jubilee in September, 1875.

miles.

Pease at his West

to

Collieries,

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

22



She has been exhibited as follows: 1876, at Philadelphia; 1881, Stephenson Centenary; 1886, Liverpool; and 1889, Paris. In April, 1892, she was removed from North

The Forth

Works

Road

to

Bank Top,

Darlington.

1826 supplied three more engines to the Stockton and Darlington Railway, named " Hope," " Black Diamond," and " Diligence." These locomotives possessed many faults Street

in

;

they were frequently stopped by a strong wind, and the

indeed,

horse-drawn trains behind the locomotive-propelled ones were delayed because

the

engines

known

far

not

could

proceed.

"

Jemmy "

Stephenson

George) was the principal engine-driver, and he was

(brother to

and near as most

from Parliamentary

prolific in

the use of oaths of a far

style.

"Jemmy" would be cursing his engine and the horsemen "Jemmy" for the delay; and, indeed, the usual result was a

cursing

general

We have already stated that Hackworth was a deeply man, and these scenes of lawlessness made a deep impression on his mind, so that he sought for some means to improve the locomotives, the radical fault of which was the shortness of steam Hackworth knowing that if things progressed smoothly "Jemmy" would have fewer occasions to display his oratorical gift. After eighteen months' working of the Stockton and Darlington Railway it was found that locomotive haulage was much more expensive than horse power indeed, for every pound spent on horse power about three pounds were paid for locomotive power for doing an exactly similar amount of work. The £100 stock of the Stockton and Darlington Railway quickly skirmish.

religious



;

to £50, and the shareholders began to get alarmed. There were two opposite interests at stake that of the general body of shareholders and that of the locomotive builders (Messrs. Pease and Richardson), who were also large shareholders in, and directors

fell



of the

Stockton and Darlington Railway, as well as partners in the The question as to retaining the

firm of R. Stephenson and Co.

use of locomotive engines was fully discussed at a meeting of the principal proprietors,

and Hackworth, as manager and engineer

He

the railway, was asked to give his -opinion on the point. "

Gentlemen,

way,

I

refused

will

if

you

will allow

engage that

it

me

shall

to

make you an engine

answer your purpose."

him permission would have shown

clearly

to

in

of

replied

:

my own To have

the

other

proprietors that Pease and Richardson did not care for the principles of steam locomotion, but that it was the locomoti-es constructed at

E EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

23

the Forth Street Works they wished to retain. Therefore, after some it was agreed that " as a last experiment Timothy shall be

discussion,

allowed to carry out his plan."

Hackworth's opportunity had now arrived, and the result was first really successful locomotive steam engine. But although the shareholders "as a last experiment" gave Hackworth leave to build a locomotive on his own plan, they do not appear to have had much belief in the success of the venture, for the boikr the production of the

of

an old locomotive was given him

to use in the construction of the

nev? engine.



1ST 3 1§) 10—THE FIRST SUCCESSFUL LOCOMOTIVE, IlACKWORTirs "ROYAL GEORGE," STOCKTON AND DARLINGTON RAILWAY, 1827

Fig.

The with

engine

was

four cylinders,

originally

two

stated to have been the

to

four-wheel

a

each

first built

in

pair

of

engine,

wheels,

provided

and

it

is

which a single pair of wheels

was worked by two pistons actuating cranks placed at right angles to each other. She was built by Wilson, of Newcastle, and was the fifth engine supplied to the Stockton and Darlington Railway. This boiler was a plain cylinder, 4ft. 4in. in diameter, and 13ft. long.

A

wrought-iron tube of

surface, the vapour

>

shape provided the heating

from the furnace travelling from the

fire-grate

up

— EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

24

which was at the same end of chimney was an elongation of the tube continued through the end of the boiler and turned up

and down the tube

to the chimney,

indeed, the

the boiler as the grate;

vertically.

This return tube gave the new engine twice the heating surface which were only provided with one straight

of the ordinary engines,

tube.

The

called the "

The locomotive was

was supported on

Royal George "

coupled wheels, each of

six

4ft.

cylinders were placed in a vertical position over the pair of

They were

wheels farthest from the chimney.

Four

stroke being 20in.

of the

the

cylinders

rendering

The other improvements "Royal George" are:



(1.)

(2.)

(6.)

the position

fitted,

be used.

to

springs

be noted in the construction of the

The short-stroked pumps. The

cylinders

the centre of (5.)

impossible for

Springs instead of weights for the safety-valves.

(3.) Self-lubricating

(4.)

it

to

diameter, the

11 in.

wheels were provided with springs,

but the pair connected to the pistons were not so of

and

(Fig. 10),

diameter.

The The

bearings fitted with placed

central

oil reservoirs.

with the crank journals and

its orbit.

first

example

first

really spring-mounted locomotive, the springs per-

of six coupled wheels.

forming the double functions of "bearing springs" and "balance beams."

A

(7)

portion of the exhaust steam used as a

jet.

beneath the fire-grate and part also for heating the feed water ; and last and most important so impor-



tant, indeed, that it has

breath of the high-pressure locomotive" Blast.

(Fig.

Trevithiok,

" life-

been described as the the

Steam

11.)

Nicholson, Stephenson, Gurney,

and

others have been credited with the production of this

valuable contrivance, but an inquiry conclusively proves that before fig. ii

-

Br ast pipe in T he -'ROYA/i

"

into

the facts

Hackworth

built the

Royal George " the real nature of the exhaust steam was not understood by any of those who have

since been credited with the invention.

Doubtless several locomotive experimentalists, after various endeavours to get rid of the spent steam, at last turned the

escape pipe into the chimney, as the most practical

the exhaust steam.

Trevithick did

so,

way

of discharging

and George Stephenson and

P

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE others simply followed Trevithick' s example, but

value of the exhaust steam as a of

means

25

knew nothing

of increasing the heating

of the

powers

the locomotive.

The claims

of

founded on the use " Treatise,"

when

he probably contracted

both Stephenson and Trevithick appear to be of the words " steam blast " by N. Wood in hia

describing the exhaust steam arrangement.

This

understanding the true nature of the blast, or as invented by Hackworth.

did, not

orifice,

It is

abundantly evident that Trevithick was

absolutely ignorant of the effect of the blast on

the is

of

no mention

although the specification

it,

drawn

minutely

C3D

^1

for in his patent (No. 2,599)

fire,

made

;

Trevithick actually patented "fanners,

[/

is

mos*;

thirteen years later

indeed,

etc.,

for

jj

creating an artificial draught in the chimney."

Novem"The steam must be

Nicholson, in his patent (No. 2,990) dated

ber 22nd, 1806, also says,

; the steam draught cannot be produced by exhaust steam. This clearly shows he was not aware of the exhaust steam blast

high pressure

FlG

12

indeed, he expressly states that exhaust steam

waste steam pipe in stephexsoxs " rocket"

cannot be used.

wrote tried

Bolton; believe

new we have

the

months

after

Timothy

to

locomotive

George Stephen-

engine

Hackworth,

('Lancashire

"We Witch')

lie

have at

burning coke, and 1 There are two bellows, worked by eccentrics

the tender."

son's "blast"

to

also tried the blast to it for

answer.

it will

underneath

With regard

son, the fact that as late as July 25th, 1828,

It will, therefore,

be observed that Stephen-

was produced by bellows. This letter was written ten Hackworth had successfully used the steam blast in

tho " Royal George." It will

be shown later that

it

was only

at the Rainhill trials, in

October, 1829, that Stephenson learned Hackworth's secret of the blast pipe.

Although Gurney, in 1822, used a coned pipe, he expressly steam must be continuously ejected at a high velocity

states that the

from a high-pressure

boiler,

which

distinctly

shows he did not us^

exhaust steam as Hackworth did.

Walker and Rastrick were the engineers engaged by the directors and Manchester Railway to report on the advantages be gained from the adoption of stationary or locomotive engines on

of the Liverpool

to

!

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

26

the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. They decided in favour of the former, but they stated in their report, "Hackworth's engine

Royal George ') is undoubtedly the most powerful that has yet been made, as the amount of tons conveyed by it, compared with the ('

other engines, proves."

The

first

year's

of the "

work

Royal George "

consisted of conveying 22,442 tons of goods 20 miles, at a cost of only £466, whilst the same amount of work performed by horses cost .£998, showing a saving in

one year.

of the S.

by the use of the "Royal George" of £532 The "Royal George" was numbered, l£, in the books

and D. R.

This was the

time that a locomotive engine had worked for

first

a whole year at a cheaper rate than horses.

known

Upon

this result being

and Darlington Railway directors, one of them exclaimed, "All we want is plenty of Timothy's locomotives." The Royal George " worked night and day upon the Stockton and Darlington Railway until December, 1840, when she was sold to the to the Stockton

'•

Wingate Grange R.

£125 more than

Colliery for

Stephenson

and Co. in

1828

her original

cost.

supplied a six-wheel coupled

engine, " Experiment," to the Stockton and Darlington Railway.

This

locomotive had inclined outside cylinders, 9in. diameter, with a stroke of 24in.

;

the wheels were

4ft.

diameter.

This engine did not give

nearly so satisfactory results as Hackworth's

Reference must here be

made

"

Royal George."

to Stevenson

s

locomotive, "Twin

and Manchester She had two fire-boxes and boilers, and two chimneys; she was supported on six coupled wheels of 4ft. diameter ; the cylinders were outside in an inclined position. The "Lancashire Witch" (previously mentioned) was built by Stephenson and Co. in 1828 and sold She was supported on four coupled to the Bolton and Leigh Railway. wheels, 4ft. diameter the cylinders were outside, 9in. diameter, fixed in an inclined position, projecting over the top and at the rear of Sisters," used in the construction of the Lancashire

Railway.

;

The engine

the boiler.

is only mentioned for the purpose of noticing was urged by means of bellows, worked by on the leading axle of the four-wheeled tender, which

the fact that the eccentrics fixed

was

fire

specially built with outside frames for the purpose of allowing

sufficient

room

to locate the bellows,

etc.

Yet some people have

assurance enough to state that at the time Stephenson built this engine, fire,

and provided

it

with bellows for the purpose of urging the

he was fully acquainted with the nature and advantages of the

steam blast

!

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

27

preserved the is South Kensington Museum there a locomotive built for the Shutt End Railway by Fostsr, Ragtrick and Co. in 1829, the engine being put to work on June 9n-l It is a four-wheel engine, with vertical cylinders, 7£in. in that year. diameter, placed at the fire-box end; the stroke is 3ft., and the In

the

" Airenoria,"

motion is taken from two beams fixed over the top of the boiler, which is 10ft. long and 4ft. diameter. The slide valve eccentrics are loose upon the axle, and to enable the engine to work both ways a clutch

is

the axle to

is hand gear to the valves, to enable a half turn, and so bring either the forward or

provided, as also

make

backward clutch into action. The chimney was of abnormal height. The "Agenoria" worked for some thirty years. In 1829 R. Stephenson and Co. supplied an engine named " Rocket," No. 7, to the Stockton and Darlington Railway, similar in general This engine design to "Experiment," No. 6 (already referred to). was delivered at the time Hackworth was attending the Rainhill locomotive contest, and a director of the Stockton and Darlington Railway wrote to Hackworth, describing the shortcomings of this engine as follows: "The new one last sent was at work scarcely a week before it was completely condemned and not fit to be used in The hand gear and valves have no control in its present state. working it. When standing without the wagons at Tully's a few dayj ago it started by itself when the steam was shut off, and all that Jem Stephenson could do he could not stop it ; it ran down the branch with such speed that old Jem was crying out for help, everyone expecting to see them dashed to atoms; the depots being quite clear of wagons, this would have been the case had not the teamers and others thrown blocks in the way and fortunately threw it off. A similar occurrence took place on the following day in going down to Stockton. As soon as the wagons were unhooked at the top of the run, away goes 'Maniac,' defying all the power and skill of her



Jem nor could it be stopped until it arrived near the Had a coach been on the road coming up, its passengers

jockey, old staiths.

;

would have been in a most dangerous position. The force-pump is nearly useless, having had, every day it was at work, to fill the boiler with pails at each of the watering-places. No fewer than three This 'Maniac' was a Forth was obliged to be towed up to the 'hospital' by a real 'Timothy' in front, on six wheels, and actually had twenty-four wagons in the rear as guard. It is now at head-

times the lead plug has melted out. Street production, and at last

quarters at Shildon."

Such was the opinion expressed by a director of the Stockton and Darlington concerning a Stephenson locomotive!



CHAPTER

III.

The Liverpool and Manchester Railway Locomotive Competition —The conditions of tha contest The competitors The " Novelty " The " Sanspareil " The secret of the steam-blast stolen Mr. Hick's history of the " Sanspareil "— The "Rocket" Colburn's comparison of the "Rocket" and "Sanspareil" Booth's tubular boiler fitted to the " Rocket " The prize divided— History of the "Rocket" The "Perseverance" withdrawn from competition The " Cycloped " horse-propelled locomotive Yvinan's manumotive vehicles for the Liverpool and -Manchester Railway The directors purchase a dozen.

— —







— —









Although Walker and Rastrick had reported

to the

directors

of

the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in favour of stationary engines,, there were some of of giving

them who were enlightened enough to be desirous fair trial. The Stephensons being

steam locomotives a

locomotive engine builders, naturally were not behindhand in fully and frequently describing the superiority of locomotive traction. Finally, at the suggestion of Mr. Harrison, the directors offered a prize of

£500, to be awarded to the locomotive that at the trial appeared machine competing. The following is a copy of the-

to be the best

notice detailing the conditions of the competition: "

" Stipulations

Railway

Office, Liverpool,



25th April, 1829.

and Conditions on which the Directors

pool and Manchester Railway offer a

premium

£500

of the Liver-

most improved Locomotive Engine "1st. The said engine must effectually consume its own smoke, according to the provisions of the Railway Act, 7, George IV. :

" 2nd.



of

for the

engine, if it weighs six tons, must be capable of drawday by day, on a well-constructed railway, on a level plane, a train of carriages of the gross weight of twenty tons, including the tender and water tank, at a rate of ten miles per hour, with a pressure of steam on the boiler not exceeding fifty pounds per square

ing after

The

it,

inch. " 3rd. There must be two safety-valves, one of which must be completely out of the control of the engineman, and neither of which must be fastened down while the engine is working.

" 4th. rest

on

boiler must be supported on springs, and and the height from the ground to the top of the

The engine and

six wheels,

chimney must not exceed

fifteen feet.

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE " 5th.

The weight

of the

machine, with

its

the boiler, must at most not exceed six tons

weight will be preferred and,

if

if

it

draw

the weight of the engine,

after it

etc.,

;

29

complement of water in and a machine of less

a proportionate weight

does not exceed five tons, then

the gross weight to be drawn need not exceed fifteen tons, and in that

proportion for machines of engine,

etc., shall still

be on

still

smaller weight

six wheels, unless

;

provided that the

the weight (as above)

be reduced to four tons and a half or under, in which case the boiler, And the Company shall be at etc., may be placed on four wheels. liberty to put the boiler, fire-tube, cylinders, etc., to a test of pressure of water not exceeding

150 pounds per square inch, without being

answerable for any damage the machine

Fig

may

receive in consequence.

13—THE "NOVELTY," ENTERED BY BRAITHWAITE AND ERICSSON FOR THE RAINHILL PRIZE

" 6th.

There must be a mercurial gauge affixed to the machine with index rod showing the steam pressure above forty-five pounds per square inch. " 7th.

The engine

to be delivered complete for trial at the Liver-

pool end of the railway not later than the 1st of October next. " 8th.

The

price of the engine

which may be accepted not to

exceed £550, delivered on the railway, and any engine not approved to be taken back

by owner.

—The

Railway Company will provide the engine tender with a supply of water and fuel for the experiment. The distance

"N.B.

within the rails

is

four feet eight inches and a half."

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

30

At

this period there

were but few

outlines of locomotive construction,

men who understood even

and unfortunately

all

the

of these

did not take part in the competition. The fifth condition, limiting the weight of the loaded locomotive to six tons, probably deterred

some makers from competing. Others had commenced constructing locomotives for the competition, but were unable to finish them by the date mentioned in the conditions.

The actual entries were as follows: 1. Braithwaite and Ericsson's "Novelty"; 2. Timothy Hackworth's " Sanspareil" ; 3. R. Stephenson's "Rocket"; 4. Burstall's "Perseverance"; and 5. Brandreth's " Cycloped."

The "Novelty"

was far and awav the favourite engine at and smartness attracting universal attention. It was a " tank " engine, and probably the first locomotive constructed to carry its supply of water and coal on the engine, being thus (Fig. 13)

Rainhill, its neat appearance

complete without a tender. This raised a

difficulty in

apportioning the

was arranged that the tender was to be the load hauled. The machine with water and

load, as in the conditions it

counted as part of coal

weighed 3 tons 17 cwt. 14

lb.;

the allowance

made

for the

tender and fuel reduced the theoretical weight of the "Novelty," as

an engine only, to 2 tons 13 cwt. 2

qr.



lb.

;

the gross weight

hauled, including the locomotive, being 10 tons 14 cwt. 14

lb.

upon October 10th, 1829—she had not previously been upon a railway and it was found necessary Timothy Hackworth, to make some alterations to her wheels. although he had an engine running in competition with the " Novelty," generously offered to repair the defect, and he personally took out the broken portion, welded it, and replaced it in position with his

The "Novelty" was

first

tried



own hands. The trials were conducted upon a

level portion of line at Rainhill,

on a course only one and a half miles in length, and at either end an additional eighth of a mile was allowed for the purpose of getting up the speed and stopping after the run of a mile and a half. The engine*

had to make forty runs over the course, or a distance of sixty miles in all, which was computed to be equal to a return journey between Liverpool and Manchester. After running two trips of one and a half miles each, the pipe from the pump to the boiler burst, in consequence of the cock between " the boiler and pump having, by accident, been closed. The " Novelty and train covered the first trip in five minutes thirty-six seconds, and

a

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

31

the return in six minutes forty seconds; being at the rate of 16.07

and 13£ miles an hour respectively. its train, mide an unofficial

After being repaired, the engine,

and developed a speed cf Without a load the "Novelty" attained a speed of nearly thirty miles an hour. The " Novelty " was again tried on October 14th, but upon its third with 21

1-6

trip,

miles an hour.

trip part of the boiler

gave way, and

it

was decided

to

withdraw the

locomotive from competition.

The

boiler of the

"Novelty" was partly

vertical

and partly

hori-

zontal; the latter portion was about 12ft. long and 15in. in diameter.

In the former was the fire-box, surrounded by water, coke being supplied through what at

a steam fire-engine.

first

might be mistaken

for the funnel of

This was, however, kept air-tight, the fuel

being introduced by means of a descending hopper. the fire-grate was 1.8

The area

the fire-box heating surface 9| and the heating surface of the tubes, 33 sq. ft.

The

air entered

of the engine,

sq.

ft.,

of

sq. ft.,

below the fire-bars by a pipe traversing the length

and connected with bellows

fixed

above the frame at the

The bellows were worked by the engine, so that the " Novelty " was provided with a forced draught. The heated air was forced through a tube, which made three journeys through the horizontal portion of the boiler, and was consequently 36ft. in length. It was 4in. in diameter at the grate end, and 3in. at the other extreme, where it was turned up as a chimney. The other extreme of the engine.

cylinders were located over the pair of wheels at the bellows end of

the machine.

and length

of

They were stroke

fixed vertically, the diameter being 6in.,

12in.

The piston rods worked through tho

top covers, and by means of cross-heads, side-rods, and bell-cranks the motion was conveyed to the crank axle beneath the vertical portion of the boiler, although, as previously mentioned, the cylinders

over the other pair of wheels.

The wheels were

4ft. 2.1in. in

and chains were provided for coupling the wheels together

;

were

diameter,

but these

were not used at Rainhill.

The water was carried in a tank located between the axles below The construction of the "Novelty" was only decided upon on August 1st, 1829, but so expeditiously was the work carried out that she was constructed in London and delivered in Liverpool lengthy journey at that time by September 29th, 1829. Her distinguishing colours at Eainhill were copper and blue. the frame.





After the conclusion of the Rainhill Competition several alterations

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

32

were made in the design of

this engine, the position of the cylinders

being altered from vertical to horizontal by Watson and Daglish,

and in 1833 she was working on the

St.

Helens and Runcorn Gap

Railway.

Although, through an accident, the "Novelty" had to be withdrawn from competing for the prize at Rainhill, the directors of the

WW

FIG.

14.— HACKWORTH'S

"SANSPAREIL," ONE OF THE COMPETITORS

AT RAINHILL Liverpool and Manchester Railway were so well satisfied with her

performances that they gave Braithwaite and Ericsson an order for

some locomotives

of the

same design.

A

description of these will be

found in Chapter IV.

The engine next in order was Timothy Hackworth's " Sanspareil," {Fig. 14), now preserved in the South Kensington Museum.

"

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

33

The engine-shops at Shildon were not in a position to construct the whole of this locomotive; consequently Hackworth was forced to obtain the boiler and cylinders from other makers. The former was constructed at Bedlington Ironworks, and was of cylindrical form, 6ft. long, 4ft. 2in. diameter, with one end flat and the other hemispherical. The heating surface was provid'd by means of a double return tube, the fire-grate and chimney being botn at the same end.

The area of the fire-grate was 10 sq. ft., the heating surface of same 15.7 sq. ft., the remaining heating surface 74| sq. ft. The cylinders were constructed by R. Stephenson and Co., and six had to be made before two perfect ones were obtained, the sixth one, indeed, only being fitted at Liverpool It

when the

contest

was

in progress.

has been stated that these cylinders were purposely constructed

in a faulty

manner

to prevent the " Sanspareil " beating the " Rocket."

may or may not be true, but it is very evident that, save for Stephenson's imperfect workmanship in this respect, the " Sanspareil This

would have won the £500

prize.

When

the " Sanspareil " was com-

peting for the prize, one of the cylinders supplied by Stephenson and Co. burst, and

inch thick!

it

A

7in. diameter,

was found that the metal was only one-sixteenth nice state

the stroke being 18in.

wheels, 4ft. 6in. diameter.

She was,

of things

1

Total weight of engine, 4 tons 15 cwt. 2

of course, fitted with Hackworth's exhaust

During some preliminary surprised to see

how

an

of

The cylinders were The engine was carried on four

certainly

trips at Rainhill,

steam

qr.

blast-

Stephenson was greatly

well the "Sanspareil" ran, and he noticed she

always had a good supply of steam, so he got upon the engine and had a ride on her. During this trip he said to Hackworth, " Timothy,

what makes the sparks

fly

out of the chimney 1 "

Hackworth touched

the exhaust pipe near the cylinders, and answered, "It

is

the end of

this little fellow that does the business."

After Stephenson got

off

the engine, John Thompson, the driver

(he was Hackworth's foreman at Shildon), said to Hackworth,

"Why

him how you did it, sir? He will be trying to fit up the 'Rocket' in the same way." Hackworth said he did not think so, but Thompson determined to watch the " Sanspareil " all night. He did you

tell

therefore locked himself in the shed containing the engine that night,

but towards daybreak sleep overcame him, and when he awoke he saw two men getting out of the window of the shed, and he found the chimney door of the "Sanspareil" open, and some materials The secret of the exhaust steam blast was inside the chimney.

"

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

34

stolen]

The next evening the

"

Rocket " again appeared

she was fitted with a similar contrivance.

The above

this time

;

Hackworth's

is

foreman's version of the theft, but the " Practical Mechanic's Journal for June,

1850, gives the tale as told by the

man who committed

the theft.

When

in repair, the " Sanspareil " ran faster, took a heavier load,

and consumed less coke than the "Rocket," and whilst the latter was remodelled within twelve months of the Rainhill contest, the In 1864 former worked with practically no alteration until 1844. she was presented to the South Kensington Museum by Mr. John Hick, M.P., Bolton.

The following is an extract from her history, as supplied by Mr. Hick to the Museum authorities "After the Rainhill trial the engine was purchased by the Liver:



pool and Manchester Railway Company, and used by

In

purposes.

them

for various

1831, the engine was purchased by Mr. John Har-

and was employed by him in traffic on the Boltcn and several years. In 1837, Mr. Hargreaves had the repaired, and put on a pair of new cylinders of

greaves, of Bolton,

the conveyance of

passengers and general

Leigh Railway for

than the old ones, so as to increase the power.

engine thoroughly larger dimensions

The

original wood-

spoked wheels were also removed at this time, and replaced with cast-iron hollow-spoked wheels. "

One

pair of these are under the engine at the present time.

The

engine continued regularly at work in conveying coals, general goods,

and passengers until 1844, when, being found much too small and short of power for the rapidly increasing traffic, Mr. Hargreaves took her to his colliery at Coppull, near Chorley, Lancashire, where the engine was fixed near a coal-pit. One axle and one pair of wheels were removed, and upon the other toothed gear was fitted, in order to give motion to winding and pumping apparatus, and the engine commenced its work as a regular fixed colliery engine, pumping and winding in the most year 1863

;

satisfactory

having raised

manner

many thousand

until

the

tons of coal and

end

of

the

many million

and even at the time above named was in fair working order, and only removed because the coal in the pit was gallons of water,

exhausted.

"I hope the old engine

will

now

find a

permanent resting place

the Kensington Museum, where her end will be peace,

Mr. Hargreaves has kindly given

me

if

in

not pieces.

the old engine, in consequence

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE of

my

having told him of

my

Zb

And

intention with regard to her.

having restored her as far as possible by collecting and putting together the available materials, I have pleasure in presenting this interesting relic to the

FIG.

Museum."

15— STEPHENSON'S "ROCKET," THE WINNER OF THE RAINHILL PRIZE OF

The

"Rocket"

Robert

Stephenson,

Works, were the

first

5

cwt.

entered 15), was and was constructed at

(Fig.

Newcastle-on-Tyne,

yellow

and

£500.

black,

in

1829.

with

a

During the

load first

(including

tender),

name

of

Forth

Street

Her distinguishing

colours

the

chimney.

white

Her weight

engine to be tried at Rainhill. ;

the

in

12|

tons;

twenty trips she attained a

She was was 4 ton

total,

maximum

3

17

tons.

speed

of

24.43 miles an hour, the average being 13.42 miles an hour; during

the second twenty trips an average speed of 14.2 miles an hour was the result, with a

maximum

speed of 24 miles an hour.

These short

d2

;:

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

36 trips

one and a half miles each just suited the design of the

of

"Rocket," as the steam raised before starting on each trip

work her the one and a

sufficient to

longer,

but

she

with

stopped cantly

—not

that for

states

derived but

:

illustrated

want " The

;

on

steam.

of

with

furnished

Page Of

25

had the

Z.

proper

a

—would

this

trips

blast,

probacy Colburn

Avas

been

have signifi-

on the first day of her trial, from the discharge of the exhaust steam and, indeed, made steam nearly as freely when stand-

little

up the chimney ing as

being

then

half miles;

'

Rocket,'

benefit

when running."

Without a

load, or tender even, she attained

a speed of 29 \ miles an hour. The authority just quoted says " The real power of the Sanspareil is to be estimated by its rate '

'

of evaporation,

which was one-third greater than that

of the

'

Rocket,'

and thus the 'Sanspareil,' after allowing for its greater weight, was As far as the most powerful engine brought forward for trial. Sanspareil ') was greater it had gone, the mean rate of speed (of the than that of the 'Rocket' up to the same stage of the experiment." The boiler of the "Rocket" was cylindrical, with flat ends, 6ft. long, 3ft. 4in. diameter; the fire-box was 3ft. long, 2ft. broad, and about 3ft. deep; between the box and the outer casing was a space The cylinders were placed at an angle of of 3in. filled with water. .

.

'

45 degrees at the fire-box end, the connecting-rod being attached to 4ft. 8 Jin. diameter, that of the stroke was 16|in.

a pin on the leading wheels, which were the cylinders being 8in.

;

The "Rocket" had a great advantage over other engines because she was supplied with a tubular boiler, containing 25 tubes of 3in. diameter. The idea of the tubular boiler did not originate with Mr. Booth, the Secretary of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, suggested their use in the " Rocket " ; but before this the tubular locomotive boiler had been patented by a Frenchman the Stephensons.

(M. Sequin), on February 22nd, 1828. that he was unaware of the French

concerned, the tubular boiler

was an

Mr. Booth, however, states

was The use of

patent, and, so far as he original discovery.

these tubes increased the evaporating power of the boiler three-fold, and at the same time reduced the consumption of coke 40 per cent.

yet th*

*'

Rocket," with this great advantage, was not equal to the

until the former was fitted with Hackworth's blast. had been done, the "Rocket" was capable of hauling 20 tons (engine included) up an incline of 1 in 96, at 16 miles an The prize of £500 was Vour, for a distance of one and a half miles. " Sanspareil,'

When

this

*

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

37

" divided between Robert Stephenson, the constructor of the Rocket," enabled which boiler, and Mr. Booth, the suggester of the tubular

Tubular boilers had been

that locomotive to be entitled to the prize.

successfully used in steam road coaches as early as

After running a year or so, the

"

Rocket

was

"

1821.

re-built,

the cylin-

ders being placed in a slightly inclined position over the trailing

wheels, but

still

working the leading wheels

;

a smoke-box was added,

and other improvements introduced.

The " Rocket " was bought in the year 1837, from the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, by Mr. J. Thompson, of Kirkhouse, the lessee of the Earl of Carlisle's coal and lime works. Here the engine was worked

—a

line

local

line

on the Midgeholme

for five or six years

belonging to Mr.



Thompson

for

forwarding his

coals from the pits towards Carlisle.

Soon

after the engine

was placed on

this line the great contest

Cumberland took place, when Sir J. Graham was superseded by Mayor Aglionby, and she was used for conveying the Alston express with the state of the poll from Midgeholme to Kirkhouse. Upon that occasion the " Rocket " was driven by Mr. Mark Thompson, and accomplished her share of the work, a distance of upwards of four miles, in 4£ minutes, thus reaching a speed nearly equal to 60 miles an hour. On the introduction of heavier and more powerful engines, the '"Rocket" was "laid up in ordinary" in the yard at Kirkhouse. for East

This historic steam locomotive is now preserved in the South Kensington Museum. It must not be forgotten, however, that the "Rocket" has been rebuilt, and

its

design considerably altered, since the Rainhill

competition of 1829.

The

last of the

steam locomotives entered for

trial

at Rainhill

The " Perseverance " was constructed by Mr. Burstall, of Edinburgh. He was already known as a maker of steam road coaches. Unfortunately for the success, or rather want of remains to be described.

success,

of the

locomotive on

"Perseverance," Mr.

much

Burstall

designed his railway

the same lines as his steam coaches.

The "Perseverance" had the misfortune to have some damage done to its wheels, etc., when being unloaded at Rainhill off the wagon on which it had been conveyed from Liverpool. A preliminary trial was made, and Mr. Burstall, finding the engine was unable to attain a higher speed than about six miles an hour, withdrew his locomotive from competition. The boiler was horizontal, and the water was admitted to shallow

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

38

fire, and in this way was immediately converted The cylinders were vertical, and worked horizontal beams placed above them the wheels were worked by cranks fixed on the beams about half-way between the cylinders and the centre pivots of the beams. The second pair of wheels was driven by means of an axle wiih bevel wheels at each end, which conveyed the motion

trays placed over the

into steam.

j

from the o&e axle to the other. This engine was distinguished by having the wheels painted red. Although not " steam " locomotives, we think it right to give a few details of the " Cy eloped," (Fig. 16), and also of Winans' manumoti tq carriage, both of which were exhibited at Rainhill. The former was

Fig.

16.—WINANS*

"CY0L0PED" HORSE LOCOMOTIVE

forked by a horse or horses fastened on a frame supported by four wheels ; the horses walked at a speed of one and a quarter miles an hour, on an endless platform formed of planks of wood. The horses beiag firmly attached to the frame could not go forward when they essayed to walk, and the consequence of their using their legs was revolving of the floor, which worked round wheelsat a

drums

tb.3

geared to the driving

This motion caused the vehicle to move forward on the rails

speed of about three miles an hour, with a load of fifty passengers. horses moved at a quicker rate, the speed of the " Cycloped "

Had the

wo'ild have been increased in a proportionate ratio.

Winans' carriage was worked by two men, who turned a windlass, ^hich actuated the wheels. It accommodated six passengers, and it

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE



was facetiously proposed that those passengers "•ho worked at the windlasses should be conveyed by such vehicles at reuuced rates. Although we now smile at the simplicity of such vehicles ever having been suggested for working on a railway, the Directors of the Liverpool and Manchester Eailway were considerably taken with the idea of Winans' man-propelled carriages, and they engaged two well-known engineers to report on their adaptability for passenger traffic on the railway.

As might be expected, the experts reported against the

proposed use of Winans' machines the

Directors

of

the

;

but, despite this adverse report,

and Manchester Eailway actually manumotive " carriages of Winans. The

Liverpool

bought twelve of these "

purchase was made prior to March, 1830, and as we do not read of

was opened in September, 1830, we may conclude that during the six months that elapsed between the purchase and the opening of the line the Directors had come to the same conclusion regarding the machines as did the engineers

their being used after the railway

who

reported against their use on the railway.





CHAPTER An

important improvement

IV.



the locomotive Bury's origin?,! "Liverpool," Bury's own account of his invention— Other authorities Extract, supplied by the Secretary of the L. & N.W.Rly., from the minute hooks of the Liverpool and Manchester Bly. An r-arly authentic list of Bury's locomotives Description of Bury's " Liver" pool " Last hoard of on the Bolton and Kenyon Railway- The '* Invicta for the first Kentish railway— Still preserved by the S.E.R First official trip on the Liverpool and .Manchester Railway -Formal opening of the L. & M.R. The locomotives that took part in the ceremony The " William the " Queen Fourth " and Adelaide " for the L. & M.Rly. Hackworth's "Globe" for the Stockton and J Arlington Railway The romance of her construction, life, and end— Stephenson's " Planet "—Same of her feats on the L. & M.Rly. Heavier locomotives for the L. &. M.Rly. Dodd's engine for the Monklind and Kirkintilloch Rly. Historical locomotive sold by auction for J?0 guineas Bury's "Liver" for the L. & M.Rly. Hackworth "iron horses" for the Stockton and Darlington Rly. —Despite theipeculiaricies, they prove most .successful—The " Caledonian." the

in

— —

mgine agree with Bury

inside cylinder

first





















We ments





Mom

have now to deal with one of the most important improve-

of the Clarence



viz., that introduced by Mr. Edward Bury, Foundry, Liverpool, in the design of his celebrated

in the locomotive

"Liverpool," (Fig. 17).

Of

late years

many

extraordinary statements

concerning various types and designs of locomotives have been made,

and the "romancing" relative to the original "Liverpool" the most conspicuous, whilst at the same time easily

its

is

perhaps

utter incorrectness

is

proved.

of these statements is that "the first engine built by Bury Clarence Foundry was an outside cylinder engine, the 'Dread-

One at

nought,' which was completed

March

30th, 1830, but proved a failure.

However, he lost no time, but, with the assistance of his foreman, Mr. Kennedy, got out working drawings for a new engine, to be named the 'Liverpool.' This engine, No. 2 in the locomotive order book, and class

A

January, 1831

it

1831,

it

in the description book, was commenced early in was completed in March of that year, and in May, was put to work on the Petersburg Railroad of America. It ;

had four coupled wheels

Now,

creditors on

are

now

August 15th and I6th, 1851

in existence (which

impossible for them very

simple

original "

of 4ft. 6in. diameter."

as to the facts, Bury's books were sold

is

;

by auction by his

and, even

extremely unlikely),

it

if

is

the books obviously

to contain the particulars quoted above, for the

and conclusive reason that the

Liverpool " are quite different to the

facts

relative to

the

statement just quoted.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE There are three improvements with which Bury in the locomotive

now under review



is justly

41

credited

the adoption of (1) horizontal inside cylinders below the smoke-box, (2) cranked driving axle, and viz.,

(3) coupled driving wheels of the (then) great diameter of six feet. In describing this historical " Liverpool " locomotive we cannot

do better than quote Bury, the maker and designer of it, and Kennedy, his foreman, who constructed it. The former, at a meeting of the Institute of Civil Engineers, held on March 17th, 1840, read a paper on the locomotive, and, speaking of the inside cylinder engine, "This form of engine was adopted by the author as early as

said

:

when he constructed the 'Liverpool,' which was the original model engine, with horizontal cylinders and cranked axles. It was set to work on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in July, 1830." 1829,

\

"f

FlS. 17.— BURY'S ORIGINAL " LIVERPOOL," THE FIRST ENGINE WITH INSIDE CYLINDERS AND CRANKED DRIVING AXLE. COUrLEL WHEELS, 6ft. DIAMETER.

About 1843 there was considerable discussion amongst engine builders and locomotive engineers as to the relative safety of inside

and outside cylinder

engines, and also regarding the superiority of

the four-wheel or six-wheel locomotive.

Bury and

Co. thereupon

issued a circular giving a history of the locomotive practice of their firm,

and the various advantages claimed

From

this circular

we

for their locomotive designs.

extract the following remarks, as bearing



" It was the good fortune of upon the point now under discussion the conductor of this foundry to originate the construction of fourwheel engines, with inside framing, crank axles, and cylinders placed :

42

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

in the smoke-box.

The first engine on this principle was manufactured in this foundry in 1829, prior to the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway." Such are Mr. Bury's statements .

.

.

concerning the original "Liverpool."

We will now see what his partner, Mr. James Kennedy, the then President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, had to say regarding the "Liverpool."

At a meeting ber 11th,

of the Institute of Civil Engineers, held

on Novem-

1856, a communication was read from Mr. Kennedy, in

which he stated that "the late George Stephenson had told both Bury and Kennedy, after having seen the 'Liverpool' engine on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, that his son, the present Robert

Stephenson, had taken a fancy to the plan of the 'Liverpool,' and intended to make immediately a small engine on the same principle." This he afterwards did, Stephenson's "Planet" being the said engine "

on the same principle."

Kennedy went on

to

state that " the

letter-book of the firm (Bury and Co.) for the year 1830 contained

the whole of the correspondence on the subject between the Directors of the Liverpool

and Manchester Railway and Bury."

The reader can correct

—those

readily judge as to which statement is likely to be

of such well-known

men

as

are concise, straightforward statements of

Bury and Kennedy, which known and accepted facts,

or the recently published remarks concerning the "books, etc."

Fortunately, students of locomotive history are not even obliged

way or the other on the statements pro and con already quoted concerning the original "Liverpool," but are able to

to decide either one

gain independent and conclusive evidence on this important point in

locomotive history. For the purpose of finally clearing up the point, the writer communicated with the Secretary of the London and North

Western Railway, asking him to examine the Directors' Minute Books of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway for the year 1830, to see if these authentic documents contained any reference to Bury's " Liver-

Mr. Houghton most generously had the search we required made, and the result was as might have been expected. But let the

pool."

letter tell its

own

tale.

"London and North Western Railway, "Secretary's Office,

Euston Station, N.W.

"June, 3rd, 1896.

"Dear

Sir,

—With further reference to your request

for information

!

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE relative to Bury's locomotives, I

43

have had the Minute Books

the

of

Liverpool and Manchester Railway searched for the years 1829-30. "Towards the end of 1830 the Board sanctioned the [further] trial of

the 'Liverpool,' and

it

was consequently allowed to work on the

railway in competition with one of Mr. Stephenson's engines. The engineer was dissatisfied with the size of the wheels, which were instead

6ft.

of

maximum

his

5ft.;

and there was a long con-

troversy as to the respective merits of circular and square fire-boxes, which was ultimately referred to arbitration, when the square boxes-

recommended by Mr. Stephenson were given the

preference.

—Your*

"(Signed) T. Houghton."

truly,



The above letter conclusively settles the points in dispute viz., that the " Liverpool " was tried on the Liverpool and Manchester Rail1830, and that the diameter of the wheels was 6ft. have thus pricked the specious bubble that stated the " Liverpool" was duly commenced to be built in 1831, and that the diameter

way

in,

We

was but

of the wheels

be

should of

early

locomotives

These

early

however,

following

the

be

table

its

Many

conjecture.

past

feAv

accepted of

years

with

dimensions 18th,

*iie

lists

been,

very

of Bury's

1857, in

this was nearly forty years before "locomotive

As had any marketable

question a © 5.2 « 2P

The

only

during

engines appeared as long ago as September

the Engineer. lists "

have

should,

caution.

such obviously inaccurate statements

One can

published.

published. greatest

6in.

4ft.

may wonder why

Readers

accuracy

:



value, there can be no reason to call in

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

44

We

have a copy

by the Directors into

the

of the report

prepared by the arbitrators, appointed

of the Liverpool

question

of

the

and Manchester Railway, to inquire or square fire-box, as mentioned

round

letter. The report was made by John Farey and two celebrated engineers of that period, and was in

in Mr. Houghton's

Joshua

Field,

favour of the square fire-box. It will "''

now be

of interest to give a description of Bury's original

Liverpool," which was designed and her construction

She contained many unusual

1829.

commenced

in

Instead of a tubular

features.

number of convoluted flues were used. The fire was urged by bellows fixed under the tender ; the driver stood at one end of the engine in front of the smoke-box, and the fireman at the other end, boiler a

behind the fire-box

;

the cylinders were horizontal, placed inside the

frames beneath the smoke-box; their diameter was 12in., the stroke

being 18in.

;

the four wheels were

and the driving axle was,

6ft. in

diameter, and were coupled,

of course, cranked.

The "Liverpool," in this her original state, was used as a ballast engine in the construction of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, but not being very successful, was withdrawn.

After some altera-

she was again put to work on July 22nd, 1830.

Then the crank axle appears to have broken, and she was again removed for repairs, and again put to work on the Liverpool and Manchester tions,

Railway on October 26th, 1830.

After the report previously men-

tioned, the Directors refused to purchase the "Liverpool,"

removed her to the Bolton and Kenyon Railway.

and Bury Here she attained

a speed of 58 miles an hour with twelve loaded wagons. On this one of her wheels broke, and the driver was killed. As a result of this accident, she was then rebuilt and sold to Hargreaves, the contractor, for locomotive power on the Bolton and Kenyon Railway, and line

continued to work on that line for some years.

The Canterbury and Whitstable Railway was opened on May 1830, and was the

first

locomotive line in the South of England.

original engine, the " Invicta " (Fig. 18), is

Eastern Railway at Ashford, but

it is

still

3rd,

The

preserved by the South

a mere chance that this engine did

not disappear nearly sixty years ago.

The Canterbury and Whistable

Railway Company, after a short time,

let

contractors, and they preferred to find

that

in

"Invicta" for

October, sale,

1839,

work

the working of the line to it

by horse-power, and we

the contractors were advertising the

describing her as of " 12 horse-power, 18in. stroke,

cylinders 24in. long, 9jin. diameter, wheels

4ft.

in diameter."

Fortu-

a

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE nately for students of early locomotives, there was no

demand

45

for the

engine anywhere in the neighbourhood of Whitstable, there then being no other locomotive line nearer than Greenwich, on which she could

have been used

;

so

no buyer was forthcoming, and the

" Invicta "

was

of the " Invicta," as

thereupon laid up. The dimensions to us by Mr. J. Stirling, are as follows

:

supplied Cylinders, lOiin. diameter,

fixed in inclined position over leading wheels,

wheels;

stroke,

18in.

;

four-coupled

base, 5ft.;

boiler,

10ft.

Fig.

18.—THE

"INVICTA,"

long,

5in.

and working the

wheels,

3ft.

4in.

4ft.

diameter;

trailing

wheel

diameter, containing-

CANTERBURY AND WHITSTABLE RWT.,

1830

single flue 20in. diameter; distance

from top

of

chimney to

total length over

all,

from top of boiler to rails, 6ft.; lin. ; chimney, 15in. diameter; At the bottom of the chimney is a

lift.

rails,

13ft. 6in.

kind of smoke-box, measuring about

2ft. 4in. high, 1ft. Sin. long, and The South Eastern Railway exhibited the "Invicta," at the jubilee of the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1875, and at the Newcastle Stephenson Centenary in 1881. The "Invicta," when originally built, is said to have had a tubular boiler. The Directors of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in 1829 ordered of Stephenson and Co. seven engines of somewhat similar design to the " Rocket." The Directors made their first trip by railway from Liverpool to Manchester and back on Monday, June 14th, 1830. The train was drawn by the "Arrow," and consisted of two 2ft.

4in. wide.

1

carriages and seven wagons

;

the total weight, including the engine,

was 39 tons, the journey to Manchester being made in two hours one

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

46

minute, whilst the return trip to Liverpool only took one and a half hours, a speed of 27 miles being attained for some distance.

The Liverpool and Manchester Railway was formally opened on September 15th, 1830, when the "Northumbrian" (Fig. 19), driven by George Stephenson, hauled the train consisting of the Duke of Wellington's carriage, the band, etc., on one line, whilit the " Phoenix," " North Star," "Rocket," "Dart," "Comet," "Arrow," and "Meteor," each hauled a train upon the other line.

Starting from Liverpool,

the eight

trains proceeded to-

wards Manchester. At Parkside Mr. Huskisson was run over by the " Rocket," and he was placed

on the

"Northumbrian"

and

conveyed to Eccles in 25 minutes, or at the rate of 36 miles an hour.

The Duke of Wellington's was now left without an engine, and a curious sight was witnessed; a long chain was

carriage Fig. 19.—THE "NORTHUMBRIAN," THE ENGINE THAT OPENED THE LIVERPOOL

AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY

obtained, and the trains which

had been up to this point hauled "North Star," consisting of ten carriages, were The chain was then fixed to the Duke of Wellingjoined together. ton's train on the other line, and so the rest of the journey was performed by the two engines and ten carriages on one line hauliu * another train upon a parallel set of rails. It may be of interest to observe that the carriage built for the Duke of Wellington was provided

by the "Phoenix" and

be noticed that eight-wheeled passenger stock is not at all a modern introduction, but, on the contrary, has been in use ever since the opening of the first railway built for the conwith eight wheels, so

veyance of passengers.

it will

The

vehicle in question was 32ft. long

and

8ft.

wide.

The two engines ordered by the Directors of the Liverpool and of Braithwaite and Ericsson after the style of the " Novelty," were named " William the Fourth," (by special permission of that monarch) and " Queen Adelaide." They were delivered to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway immediately the railway was opened, and on September 22nd, 1830, the "William the Fourth" ran off the rails on the Sankey Viaduct. A very considerable number Manchester Railway

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

47

trials were made with these locomotives on the Liverpool and Mam-hester Railway; but, as was the case with Bury's "Liverpool,'' Stephenson strongly objected to any other maker's engines being used

of

on

the

dered

fault

the

to

great

four

and

line,

some

out

he

was,

the

in

company.

advantages

total absence of all

always

therefore,

not

engines

and

Braithwaite their

for

smoke;

class

his

of

ready

to

find

construction

ten-

Ericsson

engines

of

(2) the dispensing



viz.,

claimed (1)

with a chimney;

the (3)

a saving of 120 per cent, in the cost of the fuel, and of 30 per cent, in the space required to store it;

(4) a saving of

400 per

cent, i*

the space occupied by the boilers. Several improvements were introduced into the "William the Fourth," and " Queen Adelaide," so that they differed somewhat from

the " Novelty."

They were provided with four-wheeled tenders, which were placed in front of the engines. The four wheels of the engines were oft. in diameter, the wheel base being 6ft. 9in. The horizontal portion of the boiler was

the

etc.,

fire,

were

vertical,

being

6ft.

8ft.

6in.

long, the vertical portion, containing

high and

4ft.

The

diameter.

cylinders

but worked downwards; they were located one on each

side of the vertical portion of the boiler,

and a

little to

the leading wheels, to which the motion was conveyed bell-cranks and connecting-rods

—the

the rear of

by means

of

latter joined the axle within the

wheels, so that the driving axle was cranked.

The next engine that

requires

our attention

is

the celebrated

" Globe " (Fig. 20), designed for the Stockton

and Darlington Railway by Timothy Hackworth, and built by R. Stephenson and Co. The u Globe " was built for passenger traffic she was provided with a steam ;

dome, and was the first locomotive built with this advantageous appendage for obtaining dry steam. The valve motion was reversible by a single lever. The heating surface was provided for by means of a single fire-tube, whilst behind the fire-bridge, and extending to the chimney, were seven small radiating tubes crossing the main

flue.

This idea of Hackworth' s was afterwards introduced by Galloway in his stationary engine boilers, and patented by him. *"

Globe

"

had a cranked axle and inside

The engine

cylinders.

Hackworth explained the construction of the "Globe" to the of the Stockton and Darlington Railway, and he was instructed to go to Newcastle and arrange for the building of the "Globe" by Stephenson and Co. He saw the officials at the Forth Directors

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

48

Street

Works on March

plana there,

it is

3rd, 1830,

and after the examination

stated that one of the

officials

of the

objected to the crank

axle, saying " it

would certainly involve a loss of power, as the efficient from the inside of the journal It is well known that Geo. Stephenson had centre."

length of lever could only be calculated to the axle's

" previously seen Bury's " Liverpool," and said of it, My son has taken a fancy to the plan of the 'Liverpool' engine, and intends to make

Fig.

20.— HACKWORTH S "

GLOBE " FOR THE STOCKTON AND DARLINGTON THE FIRST LOCOMOTIVE WITH A STEAM DOME :

RAILWAY.

immediately a small engine on the same principle."

Hackworth's

reply to the objection to the crank axle was " that he held Stephen-

son responsible only for supplying good workmanship, and not for

any failure

of the design, should

On March son,

such occur."

Hackworth, in company with Harris Dickin-

one of R. Stephenson and Co.'s foremen, drove over to Bedling-

ton Iron of

3rd, 1830,

Works

to order the boiler plates required for the construction

the " Globe."

till March 6th, and being satisGlobe " would be immediately proceeded with, he returned to Darlington, having obtained a promise The boiler plates were delivered ft the Forth of quick delivery.

Hackworth remained

at Newcastle

" fied that the construction of the

Street Works, April 14th, 1830.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE The completion

49

of the engine was, however, delayed until aftei

had delivered the "Planet," inside cylinder The "Globe" Branch of the Stockton and Middlesbrough and opened the Stockton Her speed frequently Darlington Railway on December 27th, 1830. R. Stephenson and Co.

locomotive, to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.

exceed 50 miles an hour with passenger trains. In consequence of a deficiency of water, she blew up in 1839.

The

engine was provided with a copper globe for the purpose of obtaining dry steam hence her name "Globe." She had four wheels, each of



oft.

diameter.

Fig.

21.— STEPHENSON'S

'PLANET," LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER.

RAILWAY

F'ephenson soon put into practice the borrowed idea of inside cylinder locomotives, to his

he delivered the

first

ders, placed in the

own advantage, and on October

4th, 1830,

engine of his construction containing inside cylin-

smoke-box, as suggested to R. Stephenson by Trevi-

locomotive was

named the

" Planet,"

and was constructed The cylinders were llin. diameter, stroke 16in. The boiler was 6ft. 6in. long, 3ft. diameter, and contained 129 tubes. She weighed eight tons; the driving wheels were 5ft. diameter, and were placed just in front of the fire-box. The leading wheels were 3ft. diameter, and projected beyond the front of the smoke-box. thick.

for

j.his

the

Liverpool

and

Manchester

Railway.

50

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

The frames were outside the wheels, and were of oak lined with iron plates. As the "Planet" embodied several improvements not before used in the engines constructed by Stephenson for the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, it is natural that the locomotive should be able to perform better service than the earlier ones.

On Novem-

ber 23rd, 1830, she conveyed a train from Manchester to Liverpool in one hour, including a stop of two minutes for water.

On December 4th,

1830, the " Planet " (Fig. 21) hauled a mixed train,

weighing 76 tons without the engine and convoy (tender) from Liverpool to Manchester in two hours thirty-nine minutes' running time.

Stephenson continued to supply various locomotives to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway with different minor improvements thus ;

the "Mercury," built in December, 1830, had the outside frame placed

above the driving

an improvement on the

axle,

the frames below the driving axle.

But

all

" Planet,"

Stephenson were of a very unsatisfactory character.

them

"

which had

these early engines of

Pambour, writing

When

an engine requires any repair, unless it be for some trifling accident, it is taken to pieces and a new one is constructed, which receives the same name as the first, and in the construction of which are made to serve all such parts of the old in 1834, says of

engine as are

still

quence of this a new one.

is

The

:

capable of being used with advantage. that a reconstructed or repaired engine

repairs

amount thus

The

conse-

is literally

to considerable sums, but they

include also the renewal of the engines."

The

directors of the Liverpool

and Manchester Railway soon found

the method of working their heavy trains with four or five locomotives was far from economical, and Stephenson was required to supply more powerful engines for the merchandise traffic. He, therefore, built the "Samson" and "Goliath." These were only four wheel

engines, but

all

the wheels were

The former was

made

of one size

and coupled together.

delivered in January, 1831, and on February 25th

she conveyed a train weighing 164 tons (without reckoning the weight of

engine or tender) from Liverpool to Manchester in two and a half

hours.

The dimensions

stroke 16in., wheels

4ft.

of the engines

were

6in. diameter,

:

Cylinders 14in. diameter,

heating surface 457.10

sq. ft.

In 1831, the Directors of the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway decided to work their line by locomotives, and instructed Mr. Dodd, their

engineer, to design engines for the purpose. He, however, merely adopted the plan used in the construction of the " Locomotion " (Stockton and Darlington Railway), with the cylinders placed partly

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

51

within the boiler over the wheels, working by means of cross-heads and connecting-rods. course,

He

also

wanting in the

adopted the tubular

"Locomotion."

boiler,

which was,

The engines were

of

con-

by Murdoch and Aitken, of Glasgow, and were the first lococity. The first was put to work on May 10th, 1831, and the second on September 10th, 1831. The boilers of these two locomotives were lagged with wood, and metallic packing was for the first time employed in connection with the pistons. The

structed

motives built in that

cylinders were lOiin.

diameter, stroke 24in., steam pressure 501b.

The locomotives were supported on four coupled wheels, the couplingrods having ball-and-socket joints at each end.

A

speed of

six

miles

an hour was attained with Dodd's engines, and, although of rough design, they were much more economical in fuel and repairs than the engines supplied about the same time by Stephenson to the neighbouring Glasgow and Garnkirk Railway. These latter two engines were named the "St. Rollox" and "George Stephenson." Their dimensions were as follows:

St.

Rollox



:

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

52

"Liver."

She had cylinders

wheels

diameter.

5ft.

1836 her

The

llin. diameter, 16in. stroke, and driving Liver " worked very successfully, and in

"

was altered to burn

fire-box

coal,

but this experiment turned

out somewhat of a failure.

Towards the end

of 1831,

and during 1832, the increasing

the Stockton and Darlington Railway

made a

the number of locomotives necessary.

work the trains. and six engines of

classes of engines to

"Majestic"

class,

traffic

on

considerable increase in

Hackworth designed two new One type was known as the this description

were soon at

work.

The "Majestic" locomotives had each six coupled wheels. The heating surface was obtained from a tube 9ft. long, 2ft. 6in. diameter, one end of which communicated with the fire-grate; the other was divided from the boiler by a partition plate, inserted in which were 104 copper tubes 4ft. long, and reaching to the smoke-box. lc should

The cylinders were fixed smoke-box, the connecting-rods

be observed that the boiler was 13ft. long. in a vertical position in front of the

working on a straight shaft or axle parallel with the wheel axles this driving shaft was coupled by outside rods to the six wheels. The slide valves had "lap," and were worked by two eccentrics, which also worked :

The engine was reversed by means

the force pumps.

This class of engines included

:



of a single lever.

" Majestic," built by Hackworth. " Coronation," built by Hawthorn.

-

.

"

William the Fourth," built by Hackworth. Northumbrian," built by Hackworth. ''Director," built by Stephenson. " Lord Brougham," built by Hackworth. "

All

of

them were

dimensions being

13ft. long, 3ft. lOin. full,

this

built

from Hackworth's designs, the leading

Cylinders, 14£in. diameter, stroke, 16in.

:

— empty,

diameter; weight of engine

;

boiler,

10J tons; llf tons. The other class of engines designed by Hackworth at time included :



"Darlington," built by Hawthorn. " Shildon," built

by Hackworth. by Hawthorn. "Lord Durham," built by Stephenson. " Adelaide," built by Stephenson. " Wilberf orce," built by Hawthorn. "Earl Grey,"

built

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

53

" Wilberforce,"

an illustration of which is given (Fig. 22), was built and commenced to work in 1832 it had six coupled wheels 4ft. in diameter; the cylinders were 14§in., with lGin. stroke. Like many of the locomotives of that period, the "Wilby Hawthorn,

of Newcastle,

;

berforce," as will be observed,

On

engine.

had two tenders, one

at each

end of the

the tender at the front end, which only carried coals (the

fire-door being at the

chimney end

of the engines), the

fireman stood

whilst the other tender, at the footplate end, carried water in a barrel,

and

also the tool boxes.

The engine wheels were made

castings or rings, and the axles were

all straight,

of

two separate

the crank shaft being

There were no

carried in separate bearings beneath the footplate.

lamps in those early days; to make up for this deficiency a cresset eontaining burning coal was used. In some cases, when it was neces-

tail

sary to indicate the destination of the engine, or the section to which it

belonged, as

many

as three of these cressets of glowin

coals

were

employed on the same locomotive.

Fig.

22— " WILBERFORCE," A STOCKTON & DARLINGTON RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVE

On

certain favourable gradients the "Wilberforce" was capable ol

taking 36 loaded chaldron wagons, equal to about 171 tons, and

its

coal consumption is given as 681b. per mile.

June, 1839, this

During the year ending engine ran; 16,688 miles, conveyed 635,522 tons over

one mile, and cost £318 10s.

The wages

of the driver

8d., or 4.5d.

to

£353 12s. 8d. The engines of

of

work than any others then

this class, in their time, existing.

principal officials of the Stockton

them

:

"

Take them, weight

the line."

per mile run, for repairs.

and fireman during the same period amounted performed a greater amount

As

late as

1846 one of the

and Darlington Railway said

for weight, they surpass

of

any engine on

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

54

The

cylinders were 14£in. diameter, 16in. stroke; the valve gear-

etc., were similar to the " Majestic " class, but the cylinders were fixed on a framing extending 6ft. beyond the boiler over the driving shaft, which was coupled to the six wheels, each of. 4ft.

wheels,

ing,

diameter.

The heating

surface of the engines was on a different system, a

"return multitubular fire-tube"

a principal tube

being

employed.

This

comprised

long and 28in. diameter at the fire-grate end, and

8ft.

24in. at the other. Here was fixed a D-shaped box from this, 89 copper tubes conveyed the heated air back through the boiler to the semi-circular box fixed at the fire-grate end ; the chimney came ;

out of this smoke-box extension.

many

These

lasting as long as six years, and,

could be fixed, and the engine again at

was

10ft.

long and

4ft. 4in.

flues

proved most economical,

when necessary, duplicate ones work in three days. The boiler

diameter, weight of engine 10J tons empty,

11| tons loaded.

by Hackworth, at Shildon, in 1832, was above. The cylinders were 15in. The fire-tube at the furnace end was diameter, 16in. stroke. 2ft. diameter, and was divided in the middle by a 4in. fire-brick The number of return tubes was 110. These were 7ft. Gin. partition. Hackworth was at this time hauling all the trains on the long. Stockton and Darlington Railway by contract, at the rate of 2-5d. per

The "Magnet),"

improvement

an

built

on

the

ton of goods per mile

\-f

;

afterwards reduced to a still lower price.

He

paid the Stockton and Darlington Railway interest at 5 per cent,

on

the cost of locomotives

employed on the line, which were the property of the Stockton

and Darlington Rail23— GALLOWAY'S "CALEDONIAN," RUnV FOR THE* way Company, but LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY IN 1832

Fig.

leased to him.

An engine named " Caledonian " pool and Manchester Railway in

was supplied to the Liver1832, by Galloway, Borman and Co. (Fig. 23)

She had inside frames, four coupled wheels oft. diameter, and a domed fire-box. The curious point about the locomotive was

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE tho

location

of

the cylinders,

55

which were placed on the framo

in front of the smoke-box, and were fixed vertically, with the piston-

rods working through the upper cover, connecting-rods working downwards to the leading wheels, the axle of which was below the frames, in front of the smoke-box.

As might be expected, the easy-running locomotive, rails,

and,

" Caledonian " after

several

was

far

from being an

times running

she was rebuilt with inside cylinders and a crank axle.

off

the

A

CHAPTER

S3

•U

V.

Stephenson- " bogie

'* engine for America- -The genesis of a world-fimous locomotive film—Tts initial effort in locomotive ronstructicn, the "Experiment"— *Ier cylinder valves— Two early Scotch locomotives— Stephenson favours 6-wheeI ingines, and constructs the " Patentea "—Forrester's ." Swiftsure "—Opening of the Newcastle and Carlisle Rvvy.—The " Comet "— R. Stephenson's early ••ultimatum," th<3 "Harvey Combe "—Hackworth to the front with a locomotive novelty -The first locomotive in Russia— The " Goliath " "—The Tyne " and her steam organ—Other early Newcastle and Carlisle Rwy. engines— An engine driver's reminiscences—No eight hours day then—The " Michael Longndgo "—Opening of the Grand Junction Rwy.—Its first locomotives.

R. Stephenson and Co., in 1833, constructed a locomotive for the Saratoga and Schenectady Rail Road of America, which deserves mention from the fact that it had a leading bogie, rendered necessary because of the sharp ourves on the Saratoga and

Schenectady

Rail

Road.

R,

Stephenson

named

this

locomo.

tive the "Bogie," because the low

Newcastle were locally called " that he developed the

wagons used on the quarries at bogies," and it was from these vehicles providing a small truck to carry the

ides, of

leading end of the locomotive

in

question.

Ever since 1833 the and other railway

swivelling truck used for supporting locomotives rolling stock has, in England,

been designated the "bogie."

Richard Roberts, of the firm of Sharp, Roberts and Co. (the predecessors of Sharp, Stewart and Co., Limited), in the year 1833,

turned his attention to locomotive construction.

was

of a

His

initial

effort

somewhat novel kind-

were constructed, one



Four locomotives of his first design "Experiment" for the Liverpool and Man-



chester Railway, and the others for the Dublin and Kingstown Railway.

The

cylinders,

which were llin. diameter, were placed in a vertical posi-

tion on the frames, just at the point were the boiler entered the

smoke-box.

By means

conveyed

a bell crank, and so transmitted by a connecting-rod to

to

the driving wheels.

of cross-heads

There was,

and

side-links the

of course, a similar

motion was

arrangement of

The

stroke was The driving wheels, 5ft. in diameter, were placed in front of the fire-box, and had inside bearings; the leading wheels were The located below the vertical cylinders, and had outside bearingscylinder, crank, etc., 16in.

on both

sides of the engine.

:

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE pump was

placed in a horizontal position above the frame over the

driving wheels, and was worked by a rod actuated

member

The "Experiment"

vertical

bell-crank,

etc.,

was unsuccessful, and was rebuilt, when was added, and the position of the cylinders,

(Fig. 24)

The

altered.

valves were also of a novel kind,

patented by Mr. Roberts in 1832.

The

by the

of the bell-crank.

a third pair of wheels

"

57

valve, of wrought-iron,

pipes, the larger pipe

Colburn thus describes them

was formed

of

two concentric tubes or

having holes perforated to admit steam from

the steam-pipe into the annular space.

This annular space was closed

steam-tight at each end of the valve, and steam could only escape '

from it alternately to. each end of the cylinder through the slots. The exhaust steam passed from one end of the cylinder directly into the waste pipe, and from the other end it traversed the interior of the

Fig.

24— ROBERTS'S "EXPERIMENT," BELL-CRANK

WITH VERTICAL CYLINDERS,, CONNECTING-ROD, AND CYLINDER VALVES

pipe of the cylindrical valve.

These valves did not work

did not expand equally with their cast-iron casings steam. It

For

this reason the cylinder valves,

should be mentioned that, in Mr. Roberts'

-

well, as

thev

when heated by

were soon abandoned. first

engines, the valve

was worked with a motion derived from the opposite side of the engine. No eccentrics were employed, the requisite motion being taken from a pin near the fulcrum of each bell-crank, and trans-

for each cylinder

mitted thence through suitable gearing to the valve attached to the cylinder on the opposite side of the engine."

The engines used on the Dundee and Newtyle Railway, consomewhat of the character of Roberts's "Experiment," inasmuch that right-angled cranks and vertical cylinstructed in 1833, partook

ders were

employed,

the diameter

of the

latter

being llin., and

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

58

stroke 18in.

These engines were named "Earl

Wharncliffe," and were constructed by

J.

and

of Airlie"

and "Lord Dun-

C. Cariniehael, of

Both these engines were delivered at the end of September, 1833. driving wheels were placed in the leading position,

dee.

The "single"

the axle being just behind the smoke-box.

The cylinders were placed on the side frames, about midway between the two ends. The piston-rods worked upwards, and the motion was conveyed by means of rods from the piston cross-heads. These connecting-rods passed down outside the pistons, and were connected to one end of the bell-cranks, which were fixed beyond the cylinders, with the pivots over the centre of the second pair of wheels. From the lower ends of

the bell-cranks the driving-rods were pivoted, the other ends being connected to the outside cranks of the driving wheels. The fire-box end of the engines was supported on a four-wheel truck or bogie.

These engines weighed 9£ tons each, and cost £700 each. An ordinary four-wheel wagon, fitted with a water-butt, was used for a tender.

An

engine of similar design was ordered from Stirling and Co.,

of the East Foundry, Dundee,

and delivered on March

3rd, 1834.

Mr. A. Sturrock, the first manager of Swindon Works, and afterwards locomotive superintendent of the Great Northern Railway, helped to construct this engine, which was named " Trotter." Sturrock was at the time an apprentice at the East Foundry.

Mr.

The gauge of the Dundee and Newtyle Railway was only 4ft. Gin., but when the line was taken over by the Dundee and Perth Railway the gauge was altered to the normal gauge of Great Britain. The original engine, " Earl

of Airlie," after

some

alteration,

of

course,

could not run on the railway, but for some years after the change the " Earl of Airlie "

was employed

as a stationary

pumping

engine.

Stephenson's four-wheel passenger engines with a short wheel

were found to be very unsteady at the very moderate speeds then attained, and he, therefore, added a pair of trailing wheels, Stephenthus constructing a six-wheel " single " passenger engine.

base

son considered that the moderate wheel base of these small engines with six wheels would, on the easy curves of the Liverpool and

Manchester Railway, patent,

in which he

offer considerable resistance, so

he took out a

provided that the middle or driving pair of

wheels should be without flanges (or flanches, as they were then He claimed that by this modification the six-wheel passencalled). ger

engine would pass round curves with

much

less

strain

and

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE The

greater safety.

59

engine so constructed by Stephenson he

first

designated the "Patentee," and she was delivered to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in January, 1834. She had outside frames, inside cylinders,

wero

George 1834

in

12in.

stroke,

and

Forrester

diameter;

Vauxhall

Co.,

engine

six-wheel

constructed a

locomotive

This

18in.

the driving wheels

diameter.

5ft.

possessed

many

novel

Foundry,

named

features.

It

Liverpool, " Swiftsure."

had outside

horizontal cylinders; the frames were also outside, thus making the

cylinders a considerable distance apart.

keyed on cranks,

at

The connecting-rods were

some distance outside the frames, whilst the

fact that the driving wheels

engines of this class to be

Fig.

were not counterbalanced caused the most unsteady at even moderate speeds,

25— HAWTHORN'S " COMET," THE FIRST ENGINE OF THE NEWCASTLE AND CARLISLE RAILWAY, 1835

«md they were soon known by the says

:

"

A

sobriquet of "Boxers."

Colburn

few pounds of iron properly disposed in the rims of tho

•driving wheels

would have redeemed the reputation of these engines." of cylinders and frames allowed the leading wheels

The arrangement to

be placed well forward, the total length of the frames of the

"Swiftsure" being

and the cylinders

17ft.

llin.

;

The driving wheels were

5ft.

diameter,

the stroke was 18in.

In the "Boxer" Forrester employed his patent valve gear, with vertical

A March

gab ends and four eccentrics.

portion of the 9th,

Newcastle and Carlisle Railway was opened

1835, and R. and

W. Hawthorn

constructed the

first

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

bO

"

engines for that railway.

No.

wheel (coupled) locomotive

the cylinders (12in. diameter, 16in. stroke>

were

placed

below

the

leading

under

Hawthorn's "

Comet

was

gear

to

Railway for a number of

the

used

were

the

in

25), a four-

passing

connecting-rods

wheels

diameter.

4ft.

engines

this

of

The by four fixed eccentrics. work on the Newcastle and Carlisle years, and was afterwards used as a

driving the steam

engine for

stationary

Comet," (Fig.

actuated

continued

"

The

axle.

was

was the

smoke-box,

the

valve

which

class,

;

1

saws

at

Bank

the Forth

She was so engaged up to and subse-

Engine Works, Newcastle. quently to 1863.

into locomotives short-stroke came 1836 Tayleur and Co. built ten for the Liverpool and

About and

Although the cylinders were

chester Railway.

stroke

was only

We

12in.

favour,,

Man-

14in. diameter, the

need scarcely add the experiment was

not successful, although some of the original broad-gauge engines

These

were built with short strokes.

will,

however, be dealt with

fully later on.

R. Stephenstn and Co. constructed the

In 1836

"Harvey Combe ,r

ballast engine, and was engaged in the conLondon and Birmingham Railway.. R. Stephenson had a minute description of this engine written by W. P. Marsha]], and the work in question is stated to be " the most perspicuous and the illustrations of the most elaborate kind of any work describing a

She was a

locomotive.

struction of the

locomotive."

The is

fact

that at once strikes the intelligent reader as peculiar

that, although the "

Harvey Combe " was designed

" for

conveying

the earth excavated in the construction of a line of railway," as

Marshall

"

describe

as

therefore,

She

3ft.

is

it

much

not

(but

and was

of

by

18in.

diameter

;

ing surface, 480ft.; 11 tons 18 cwt.

a "single"

engine!

"Harvey Combe" were: 5ft.,

and leading and

102 tubes, lfin. internal diameter weight, empty, 10 tons;

No

and,,

engine.

50 horse-power.

driving wheels,

;

which we should shortly

is

a modern six-coupled ballast

like

principal dimensions of the

12in. 6in.

puts

a "ballast" engine), she

cost £1,400,

The ders,

perspicuously "

flanges

;

Cylintrailing

total heat-

with fuel and water,

were provided to the driving wheels.

Although the "Harvey Combe" was built for, and had rough usage as, a ballast engine, yet; when at the end of 1837 Nicholas Wood

was making experiments

for

the

purposes

of

his

report

to

the



!

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

61

"

Great Western Railway as to the broad-gauge, the' " Harvey Combe was the principal narrow-gauge engine with which he experimented.

gross load (including engine, etc.) of 81 tons, she attained a speed of 25 to 53 miles an hour, and consumed 0.471b. of coke per T ith a gross load of 50 tons the speed reached was only ton per mile.

With a

W

32.88 miles an hour, with the above coal consumption.

In 1836, Hackworth built a locomotive of novel construction with double-acting ram or trunk engines, by means of which

viz.,

piston-rods were dispensed with, the connecting rods being pivoted

on to the piston and oscillated within the trunk.

directly

This was the

-

locomotive engine ever seen in Russia.

She

commenced work on the Zarskoe-Selo Railway on November

18th,

first

1836, a religious service being held and the locomotive consecrated t

before the

remarked

first

train

was run.

Of

this engine the Russian

in English, "It is the finest I ever saw."

An

Emperor

old officer of the

Stockton and Darlington Railway, informs the writer that a locomotive

on the double-acting trunk principle was also built by Hackworth for that line,

the

"

Arrow

"

and so far as his memory serves him, he believes passenger engine.

The

"

it

Arrow " had leading and

was

trail-

ing wheels 3ft. 6in. diameter; driving wheels, 5ft. 6in. diameter; 135

tubes in the boiler of lfin. diameter; cylinders, 20in. in diameter, and

with a stroke of only 9 in.

We

have already mentioned the

first

engine (the " Comet ") sup-

and Carlisle Railway, but several of the other early locomotives used on that line were powerful ones, and their design in advance of the generality of locomotives then in use. Thus,

plied to the Newcastle

the " Goliath," one of the

first

engines supplied to the line by Haw-

thorn, in March, 1837, hauled a train consisting of 63 coal,

weighing 267 tons, 12 miles in " Goliath "

The 14in.

diameter,

less

had six-coupled wheels

18in.

stroke.

wagons

of

than 40 minutes. 4ft.

diameter,

cylinders

Total heating surface 550.91

sq.

ft.

Weight, empty, llf tons: in working order, 13 tons. The "Atlas,' built by R. Stephenson and Co. in 1836, drew a train of 100 wagons, loaded with coal,

co'.e,

in 45 minutes, but this

215 to being

in

1

4ft.

553.77

106.

This locomotive was also six-coupled, the wheels

diameter; cylinders, 14in. by 18in. stroke; heating surface,

sq. ft.

,

working trim. Carlisle

and lime, and weighing 450 tons, lOf miles was on a falling gradient, varying from 1 in

weighing 10 tons 6 cwt. empty, and 11 tons 6| cwt. in Another small locomotive on the Newcastle and

Railway,

named "Tyne,"

built

by Hawthorn,

is

worthy

:

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

<2

of notice, for

the reason that the

steam organ was

first

fitted to

the

engine. This was the invention of the Rev. It

was

fixed

on the top

of the fire-box,

James Birket, of Ovingham. and was thus described

•'The organ consists of eight pipes, tuned to compass an octave, but without any intervening tones or semi-tones. This is the first attempt to adapt a musical instrument to the steam engine capable of producing a tune, and though not so perfect as to admit of all the pleasing variety and combination of sound capable of being produced by tbe

instrument to which we have compared it, there is no doubt but very considerable improvements will be made in this steam musical instrument by the inventor, who is a skilful musician as well as an ingenious mechanic."

The "Tyne" had

by

cylinders 13£in.

16in. stroke,

and four wheels,

diameter ; she weighed only 9| tons. After working for many years, a pair of trailing wheels 3ft. 6in. diameter was added, thus 4ft. 6in.

making her a six-wheel engine, with the leading and driving wheels coupled. She continued to work on the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway till the end of 1857, when she was sold, but even at that time the "Tyne" was in good working order. Three other old locomotives were sold



the time

at

viz.,

"Eden," "Meteor," and

" Lightning."

The

"

Eden" was

built

four-coupled wheels of

by R. Stephenson and Co. in 1836, and had 6in. diameter, and a third pair 3ft. 6in.

4ft.

diameter; cylinders, 14in. by 15in. stroke, afterwards increased to 16in. stroke.

Weight, empty, 10 tons, 6 cwt.

The "Meteor" was

built

by Bury and

Co., of Liverpool,

and had

The 4ft. Steam 16in. was made but afterwards was loin., stroke at first She was provided with hand gear, the slide valves pressure, 551b. working into the front of the steam chest by means of weight bars The located between the front buffer beam and the smoke-box end. only four wheels of

diameter;

piston connecting-rods, of course,

cylinders,

12in.

diameter.

actuated the rear axle, but the

upon the leading axle, so that if the crank pins upon which the side rods worked went a bit loose, the side rods had This to be disconnected, and the valves worked by the gear handles. occawas rather hard work for the driver and fireman, who, upon such This Bury locosions, took it in turns to thus work the valve gear. eccentric sheaves were

October motive opened the line from Blaydon to Newcastle on Sunday, time that at The man who was fireman on this engine 31st, 1839.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

—"The

'Meteor' engine was sent to work the passenger trains between that station coal trains and other things, with this tiny engino

thus relates his experiences:

Redheugh Station and Blaydon, also

to

We

of about eleven tons all told.

don

with

arrangement

watchman fire

of

close after

bars, put

them

off,

reunited as often as

had

I

new

this

bed by a

also to clean to clean

and pushed on one

For

at 5 a.m.,

overtime being allowed, and

my

work

my we

from

of the

up the shed, take

side to get past

There

short trip.

this

when

most

To turn the engine the tender

etc.

we made a

in the divorce court.

commencing

of

to take our first train

had

I

engine, the driver doing part.

ashes out, coke the tender,

had to be taken

out

two o'clock each morning, to gather up my and get a fire as best I could as

Gateshead to Blaydon at 5.20 a.m.

all

For

west. called

into the box,

and have steam ready by 5 a.m.

usual,

little

formed the connection at Blay-

to and from the running I was to be

trains

all

63

pay was

made

driver

is

and

it,

nothing like h

2s.

per day,

8d.

his appearance,

little-

did well to finish by 8.45 p.m.

I

worked about 18 J hours daily, with one exception, weekly, and on this particular time we had our boiler to clean out, and had to fill by hand buckets this after our train work was finished. Water being a little scarce in the shed, it was frequently necessary to haul out of the river Tyne and carry to the shed, and pour into the boiler by the safety valve or man-hole by the driver, the fireman having the honour of carrying it from the river quay.



" This

work took

so

much

labour and time that our only rest on

that particular night and morning was upon the soft side of a plank

while the steam was rising in the engine boiler, to leave for Blaydon

Then we were again

at 5.20 a.m. with our usual first train. until 8.45 p.m. I

had the closing

There was not a guard for our passenger of the carriage doors, etc., to attend to, to

spare time, and to keep myself awake. part of the day from

much

When

Wylam,

fear of falling asleep.

etc.,

I

We

had

fill

to Dunston, so that there

my

work

up

my

to load coals during

was coupler and guard

not otherwise engaged I had

at

train, so

was not

for this work.

cleaning to attend to, and

tubes to keep clean daily, so I was really never committed for going

work over the winter I had a fall from end first. J wrong the down came shed, and the boiler top in the one month. work off me which laid injured one shoulder very much,

to sleep during working hours.

I

was

at this

almost the whole of 1839-40, when early one morning

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STZAM LOCOMOTIVE

(A Z kept at

work

all

the day after falling, but only one

arm was

of any

use to me, and I was compelled to give up. .

"A

bone-setter in North Shields

had

to

do the needful

for

me, as

they have often had to do for others before and afterwards."

The "Lightning" was an engine with dimensions of the "

similar to those

Eden," previously described.

Longridge and Co., of Bedlington, supplied the Stanhope and in 1837 with a very powerful locomotive named the

Tyne Railway

" Michael Longridge."

She had

six

coupled wheels,

4ft.

diameter

and a stroke of 18in. The Grand Junction Railway was opened in July, 1837, and R. Stephenson and Co. (together with other builders), supplied the Stephenson's engines at this time had become original locomotives. a little more dependable, for we find it chronicled that three of them which had run uninterruptedly since they were first employed had, cylinders,

14in.

diameter;

between July 8th and September 30th, 1837, accomplished the following distances—viz:, the "Wildfire," 11,865 miles; "Shark," 10,018 miles; and "Scorpion," 11,137 miles; and, moreover, they were then

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE present heavy

by

traffic.

The

boiler of the

"Sunbeam" was

2in. in diameter, and contained 104 copper tubes.

3ft.

65 8ft.

The

long

"Dart,"'

No. 4j, was built by Hackworth in 1840, at Shildon, and was a four-

The

wheeled engine, the wheels being

4ft.

containing 122 tubes, was

long and 3ft 3in. in diameter.

fire-box

was

4ft.

8ft. 2in.

high, 3ft.

6in. in diameter.

lOin. long,

and

3ft.

wide.

The

boiler,

The

boiler

pressure was 1001b., and the heating surface of the engine 602 square feet;

the cylinders were

14in.

in

diameter, and the stroke

16in.

The extreme length of the engine and tender was 35ft. 3in., and the regular speed attained is said to have been thirty miles an hear.

r

CHAPTER

VI.



An important epoch

in locomotive history. The firs', broad-gauge enginesAbsurd incorrect statements regarding these locomotives. The facts concerning same; extracts from director' report. —Brunei and the engine builders The delivery of the first engines to the Great Western Railway.—Furtiu extract from the directors' repot i Daniel Gooch appears on the scene- -Trial of the broad-gauge engines.—Table of the original Great Western engine.— The " "Vulcan " " iEolus " " Bacchus " " Venus " " Apollo " " Mars " and " Ajax," lOft.-wheel engines. The builders' account of one of these gianfc3. "Ajax," a sister engine.—10ft. disc wheels.—Dr. Lardner. The "boat" engines.—T. R. Crampton and the "Ajax." The "Ariel."—"Atlas."— " Hurricane," a locomotive monstrosity with 10ft. driving wheels.— The " Thunderer," a geared engine on Harrison's system Gooch's opinion of these two curious locomotives.—The Haigh Foundry geared engines, described by an























eye-witness.— Table

engines.—The

showing results of trials witli the original " Lion," " Planet," and " Apollo."

broad-gaug?

last of

We have now come to an important era in the evolution of the steam locomotive viz., the first appearance in the arena of broad,



gauge locomotives. Readers are probably aware that very much has been written on the subject of the early Great Western Railway locomotives during the past few years, and a surprising or

7ft.,

lack of knowledge of the subject has been exhibited by people taking

The

part in discussions that have arisen. lished, so that it

would be waste

inaccurate statements that have been

broad-gauge locomotives.

Thus

Ave

facts

are clearly estab-

time to recapitulate the

of

made

many

relative to the original

read that "the

first

portion of

the Great Western Railway was opened in 1837," also that "Mr.

Brunei designed the

'

Hurricane.' "

These statements

are, of course,

utterly at variance with the facts, but they prepare one for yet

more

extraordinary statements on the same subject, such as " the directors of the Great

Western Railway having appointed Mr. (afterwards Sir

Daniel) Gooch as locomotive superintendent, the duty devolved upon

him

to design

inspected 5ft.

6in.

all

and provide the necessary engines. Mr. Gooch, having the locomotives on other railways, considered that

wheels were far too small;

he

therefore

designed thf

engines for the Great Western with driving wheels of 6ft., 7ft., and 8ft. diameter, and placed orders for their construction with the leading builders of that time."

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE To commence

with, therefore,

particulars as to the ordering

will

it

be as well to give the exact

and delivery

locomotives, for the opening of the

first

67

of the original broad-gauge

portion of the Great Western

Railway.

The stated

facts as given in the directors' reports to the shareholders,

the meetings of the shareholders, or mentioned in the

at

various reports of Brunei,

The

Wood, and Hawkshaw,

mentioned them:

directors in their report of that date thus

and objections were at

culties

are as follows:





The

locomotive engines were ordered prior to August, 1836.

first

"Diffi-

supposed by some persons to

first

exist in the construction of engines for this increased

width of

rails,

but the directors have pleasure in stating that several of the most experienced

locomotive

manufacturers in the North have

engine

undertaken to construct these, and several are now contracted

for.

adapted to the peculiar track and dimensions of this railway,

cal-

culated for a

Instead

minimum

of

the

velocity of thirty miles an hour."

having personal

builders

orders for engines,

as

interviews

has been recently stated,

it

obtain

to

appears from

Brunei's report of August, 1838, that he "left the form of construc-

and the proportions entirely to the manufacturers, stipulating

tion

merely that they should submit detailed drawings to approval.

This was the substance of

my

me

circular, which,

for

my

with your

unction, was sent to several of the most experienced manufacturers.

Most

of these manufacturers, of their

communication with

vious

me,

own

adopted

accord, and without pre-

the

posed that the manufacturers

by

me

to adopt certain

in other parts,

on some them, such

I is

lines

by a

—and

modes

large

As

necessary consequence of the speed required.

may have been

it

wheels

as

a

has been sup-

compelled or induced

of construction, or certain dimensions

—a practice which has been adopted

specification

that these restrictions

may have embarrassed

should wish to take this opportunity to state distinctly that not the case."

Then, as to the delivery of the engines, from the directors' report it is

clear that

on the

line.

on August 12th, 1838, eleven locomotives were actually According to a statement drawn up by Mr. C. A.

Saunders, the superintendent of the Great Western Railway, for the

purposes of Mr. N. Wood's report, the following engines were then



"North Star," "uEolus," "Venus," "Nepon the railway: tune," "Apollo," "Premier," and "Lion." This leaves four ei gines to

in use

be accounted

for.

Sir Daniel

Gooch

states that the six engines built p 2

"

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

68

by the Vulcan Foundry Company could be depended upon. We caa, therefore, take' it for granted that the " Vulcan " and " Bacchus were two of the four, whilst the geared " Thunderer " was delivered before April 26th, 1838, and the "Ariel" before June 1st, 1838.

eight

company had only accepted and the three others required alterations

directors stated that the railway

The

of these

engines,

before the engineer would accept them.

This report continues with the following significant paragraph:

"The



two

directors are under the necessity of declining to receive

made for them, in consequence of a material variation in the them since it was submitted to and approved by their These two engines may be the "Ajax" and her sister engineer." engines

plan

of

10ft.

wheel

Dixon and

the

engine,

Co., or the

Company; although

"Mars,"

it

is

by

constructed

Mather,

by the Haigh Foundry probable that the two latter engines had

two geared engines

not been delivered at this date.

built

Besides the eleven engines already

and the two refused by the engineer, the directors stated that nineteen others were then in course of construction, making a total of thirty engines. Of the seven engines mentioned as being in use on the line, according to Mr. Brunei, only four were on the

really

line,

used for the passenger service, the

fifth

being kept with

steam up to take the place of one of the other four in case of a breakdown, and the other two were used for conveying ballast, etc., for the construction of the line.

dated October 4th,

According to Hawkshaw's report,

1838, fourteen engines had at that time been

to the Great Western Railway, and seven more were approaching completion, the nine remaining to complete the thirty

delivered

not having then been put in hand.

Mr. Daniel Gooch commenced

his duties as locomotive superintendent of the Great

way on August

18th,

1837.

At

Western

Rail-

this period the following engines



had been ordered for the Great Western Railway: Six from the Vulcan Foundry, where Gooch had served under Stephenson; four from Mather, Dixon and Co., Liverpool; two from Hnwthorn and two from the Haigh Foundry Company, and, curiously, two from R. Stephenson and Co. Mr. Gooch states in his " diaries " that these two engines were constructed for a Russiuu railway with a 6ft. gauge, and that he himself prepared the working drawings from which they were Co.,

Newcastle

constructed.

;

There,

however,

appears

to

be

some

doubt

as

"

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

69

to whether it was a Russian or American railway for which the two locomotives in question were originally built. When ready for

delivery the purchase money was not forthcoming, so the careful firm of R. Stephenson and Co. did not part with the " North Star

and her

sister

engine.

They afterwards widened the frames,

fitted

longer axles to the two locomotives, and then sold them to the Great

Western Railway as

The "Vulcan," first

gauge engines.

7ft.

by the Vulcan Foundry Company, was the One of Mather

built

engine delivered to the Great Western Railway.

and

Dixon's

10ft.

wheel

engines

a

arrived

few

days

after,

in Bristol to by sea from Liverpool and forwarded by canal from Bristol to December, 1837, West Drayton. A preliminary trial of these two engines was made on Wednesday, January 18th, 1838, and the following extract

been

having

details the full trial

sent

working

of the

two locomotives on

was made during the whole

this occasion:

—"A

Wednesday in running the West Drayton, between

of

engines on two or three miles of the line near

London and Maidenhead. The object of the trial was to prove the rails, and most satisfactory was the result, both as to the increased width of gauge and the use of continuous bearers of kyanised wood by

confined

engine Co.,

with

piles, 8ft.

Warrington,

on which plan the drawing wheels, weight

23

tons,

line

made by

is

An

constructed.

Messrs.

with the tender,

ami

Tayleur

coke,

water,

and another engine made by Messrs. Mather, Dixon and Co., weight about 19 tons, with the tender, etc., ran the whole day withetc.,

out producing the slightest vibration either in the

under them.

The

rails or

rails are, in fact, so beautifully firm,

true, that the engines glided over

them more

loom or an arrow out of a bow than There is literally no noise railway.

like a shuttle

like the effect

—no

apparent

the

wood

smooth, and

through a

on any previous effort

—nor

can

there ever be discovered any difference between the centre and the joint in the rails.

short a piece the

A maximum speed was momentum would be no

not attempted, as on so

sooner attained than

it

would require to be lowered, in preparation for stopping the engine.

A

speed of forty-five to

fifty

miles an hour was attained, and

when

the engines are run, as they will be, either next or the following

week, on an eight or ten-mile length, there easily

is

no doubt they

will as

run at a very much greater speed."

The following table gives particulars

of the original locomotives

70

as

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE supplied

the

to

Great Western

Kailway.

These engines were

ordered by Brunei before Sir D. Gooch was appointed Locomotive

Superintendent

;

the

first

duty

of

the latter was to inspect these

locomotives, then in course of construction, and he was not at

pleased with their dimensions

:



all

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

71

the average speed for the trip of 13 miles being 28.32 miles an hour.

On the return trip, with a load of only 14£ tons, the average speed was only 21 miles an hour. The "Vulcan" was afterwards converted into a tank engine, and worked the traffic on a branch line for a few years. "

The

.Eolus " appears to have been a somewhat better engine than

Gooch states that, excluding Foundry were the only N. Wood, in his tables, states that

her sister (although, by the way, Sir D.

the " North Star," the engines from the Vulcan

ones he could depend upon).

".Eolus" was capable

of

hauling 32 tons at

fifty

miles an hour, with

a consumption of 0.761b. of coke per ton per mile, the water evapor-

ated in an hour being 115-3 cubic feet. The greatest load drawn by

"Jiolus" during N. Wood's experiments was 104 tons, the speed attained being 23 miles an hour, and the consumption of coke .301b. per

ton

per

mile.

Whishaw

four

details

experiments

with

this

most successful being on November 6th, 1838, when with a load of about 20 tons she attained an average speed of 31.39 miles an hour; the maximum on this occasion being 48 miles an hour. Whishaw's remarks concerning another journey are worth repeating. It was on July 21st, 1838, when "zEolus" took a train consisting cf engine, the

carriages, two open and one closed second-class and two stage coaches on trucks, or a load of 96,1641b., or about 43 tons, and essayed a trip to Maidenhead but " after about two and a half miles the train was suddenly stopped, and remained in

three

first-class

carriages,

;

statu

qwo

away

to recover her strength, »and having sufficiently exercised herself,

In the meantime, '^Eolus'

for 21 f minutes.

moved

slowly

returned after a lapse of 21 £ minutes to lead the train forward";

but the engine did not appear to have quite recovered her strength by this exercise

( !)

for she

had to stop at Slough, where she took water.

This journey took 150 minutes to complete;

but,

deducting the

34 minutes spent in four stoppages, the average travelling rate was 11.71 miles per hour.

On January remarkable at

11th, 1840, the "J£olus"

trip.

At

this

stated to have

made a

Monmouth, and the Dispatch, a Democratic Sunday paper, pub-

lished

detailed

reports

despatched by road from (the " iEolus ") is

is

time certain Chartists were being tried

of

the

trial.

Monmouth

Special

was engaged to carry the messengers

said to have covered the first

rate of 85 miles

an hour.

messengers

were

to Maidenhead, where an engine to

London.

She

ten miles in seven minutes, or at the

Here the preceding train was overtaken,

EVOLUTION OF THE STEA

72

and the whole journey

of 31 miles

M LOCOMOTIVE

was completed in about twenty-five

minutes.

Whishaw

records a trip with

"Bacchus" on December

when, with a train of two second and one carriages, she covered 13 miles at

first-class

13th, 1839, (four-wheel)

an average speed of 29 miles an

hour, the highest speed attained on the trip being 44.11 miles an

On January 9th, 1840, Whishaw made a trip to West Drayton and back with the "Bacchus." On the down journey, with a load

hour.

of three coaches,

maximum

similar

of a quarter-mile,

50 miles an hour was attained.

On

the up trip a

speed was attained three times, twice for a distance

and once

for a half-mile.

With "Venus" Whishaw records one experiment with a load of 25£ tons, made up of one open second-class, one first-class carriage,, and two stage coaches on trucks. The average speed was 21 miles an hour, the highest being 48 miles an hour. The "Venus" was not much used during the first four months following the first opening of the Great Western Railway, her total mileage during that Mr. Gooch found this engine was so extremely unsteady that he did not make use of her, save when no other engine was conveniently available hence her small mileage. period being only 240 miles.



The

"

Venus

"

was afterwards

driving wheels reduced to

6ft.

worked the Tiverton branch

The

" Apollo "

drew the

rebuilt

a tank engine,

in diameter.

When

and her

so rebuilt

she

some years.

traffic for first

as

up-train on the Great Western Rail-

way, leaving Maidenhead for Paddingtpn at 8 a.m. on June

4th r

1838; whilst the next day, when leaving Maidenhead with the afternoon train of 13 carriages, she broke down, in consequence of a tube

some hours, and great exciteLondon consequent upon the exaggerated reports

bursting, the train being delayed for

ment being caused

X

in

the mishap.

It will be noticed that in the table of the original Great Western Railway locomotives we have given the diameter of the cylinders of "Venus," "Neptune," and "Apollo" as 12in., and we have also given the names of several men (whose probity is unimpeachable) as

our authorities on the point. Nor is that all the weight of evidence N. in favour of 12in. being the original diameter of the cylinders. Wood, in his report to the Great Western Railway directors, specially refers to the point, thus

:

"

such as 'Venus,' 'Neptune,' is

.

and

.

.

.

The performance

of engines,

'Apollo,' with 12in. cylinders."

in addition to the statement contained in

This

Wood's Table, No.

3,

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE where also he gives the dimensions as 12in.

It

73

now, however,

is

stated that the cylinders of these engines were 14in. in diameter.

We now

have to deal with the two locomotives with

wheels, constructed

by Mather, Dixon and Co.

10ft. driving

for the Great

Western

Railway. Fortunately, one of the people these engines

is

living,

still

and

who

assisted in the construction of

in the

Engineer

for

January 3rd,

1896, he gave a detailed account of the building of the locomotive,

and

also a

drawing of the

or "Mars"), which

FIG.

"

Grasshopper

here reproduced:

is

" (a



nickname

for the "

Ajax

"

27—THE "GRASSHOPPER," ONE OF THE TWO BROAD GAUGE ENGINES ("AJAX" AND "MARS"), WITH 10ft. DRIVING WHEELS, DISC PATTERN, BUILT FOR THE GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY COMPANY BY MATHER, DIXON AND CO.

The gentleman following

question

in

particulars

concerning

has favoured the writer with the this

engine:

—"The

engine

was

designed by John Grantham, draughtsman at Mather, Dixon, and Co.,

North Foundry, Liverpool.

The outside view resembled

a steamer,

the driving-wheel splashers like a paddle-box, and the handrail plates,

brought to the buffer planks, shaped like the stem of a intended to take the wind pressure

The great diameter

of

something to say about

off

vessel,

and

the front end of the engine.

the driving wheel shows that Brunei had it

—perhaps ordered

it

to be

made

twice the

any other then made- The staff employed in the works then were John Grantham, principal of drawing office, afterwards partner; Robert Hughes, manager of the marine department, afterwards of the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, and inspector of steamships Mr. Banks, locomotive foreman, well known at Derby on the Midland size of :

— EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

74

Mr. Buddicomb, first locomotive superintendent of the Grand Junction Railway, and of the locomotive works at Rouen,

Railway;

France; Josiah Kirtley, land Counties;

George

Scottish Central, and

first

locomotive superintendent of the Mid-

Harrison,

manager

first

superintendent

locomotive

at Brassey's,

Birkenhead; Mr. Potts,

afterwards of the firm of Jones and Potts, Newton-in-the-Willows,

locomotive builders, where the

first solid

locomotive wheel was made

by the wheelsmith Frost. "All the above-named were apprentices and journeymen with in

my

me

time.

"William

Tait, of the firm of Tait

and Mirlees, Scotland

Glasgow, was the erector of the 10ft. wheel locomotive;

I

Street,

worked

as mate with him on the same engine. Tait was manager of Neilson's Hyde Park Locomotive Works, Glasgow, in 1845, and his mate



John Wilson was manager from 1864 to 1884 under Mr. James Reid, sole owner of Neilson's Works. James Smith Scarf welded the 10ft. tyres. The crank axles were forged at the Mersey Forge, when Mr. Norris was manager, and turned by Charles Ackers. Ned Bursing turned the rims and tyres on a large lathe, driven by the gearing of the boring mill.

I

remember, having worked on the same

lathe, that

they had to cut a curved piece out of the shop wall for clearance." "

and " Mars " (Fig. 27), the 10ft. wheel engines supplied by Mather, Dixon, and Co., had the driving wheels of peculiar construcInstead of the usual spokes, the circumference and the centres tion. were connected by means of iron plates, bolted together in segments,

The

and

Ajax

slightly

"

convex in form.

These disc wheels were constructed under a patent granted to The primary object of Mr. B. Hicks, of Bolton, in October, 1834. Mr. Hicks's patent was not, however, the disc wheels, but a threecylinder engine, with the cylinders placed vertically above the crank axle. Steam was only to be admitted at the top of the piston, so that

the force of the steam was always pressing downwards by this method Mr. Hicks expected to considerably augment the adhesive properties ;

We cannot discover that an engine with three such was ever constructed, although the disc wheels were used in Mars," " Ajax," and other locomotives.

of the engine.

cylinders

the "

be seen from the illustration of the " Grasshopper," these engines had a projecting front, and the splashers wheel two covering the wheels above the frames were made to represent paddle-

As

will

10ft.



EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE boxes of a steamboat.

known

generally

M-f-re

lb

For these reasons, Dr. Lardner says, they and he goes on to

as the " boat engines,"

remark that they were found incapable

of

working the passenger trains

(probably in consequence of the time lost in starting and stopping the monsters), and were used to haul the ballast trains during the

Mr. Brunei gave the

construction of the Great Western Railway.

following evidence relative to these 10ft. wheel engines before the



Gauge Commissioners in 1845: "Three engines were made for 10ft. The idea did not originate with me, but it was proposed by certain manufacturers, and although I expressed some fear of the feasibility constructing

of

They

were

10ft.

made,

wheels,

and

it

thought

I

so

worth

it

happened

the

that

the

trial.

three

engines to which they were applied totally failed in other respects,

The engines

and the whole engine was cast aside

which

was

also

to

were a pair made in Liverpool by a maker there, who

I refer

making other engines

bility, of course, of

for us.

having allowed the

take the whole responsi-

I

10ft.

wheel to be made; but

the engines, from other circumstances, were not successful, and the construction of the wheels was one which

we should

certainly never

was an entire plate, and that with such a diameter is heavy, and offers such an enormous surface to the side wind that it certainly would not do to adopt it. In the other engine (' Hurricane'), which was tried with a 10ft. wheel, the wheel worked very again adopt.

well,

It

but accidental circumstances threw the engine out of use

;

the

wheels got broken by an accident which would have broken any wheels, and no further attempt

was made

to use it."

Mr. T. R. Crampton, the designer and patentee of the famous Crampton engines, gives the following particulars of the "Ajax": "Area of fire-grate, 10.22ft.; total heating surface, ±74. Oft. diameter ;

of

driving

stroke,

wheels,

20in.

;

The cane" "

diameter of cylinders,

surface in fire-box,

cylinders, 7.09ft. " Ariel "

10ft.;

;

57.3ft.

cubic contents of both

;

appears to have come into collision

at Bull's Bridge (Hayes)

length of

;

proportion of capacities to the wheel,

on November

Lion " broke down near the same spot at

6th,

wwh

kill

a

1

:

1.41."

the " Hurri-

1838, whuV. the

five o'clock

and was unfortunate enough to run over and

November

14in.

on July 30tb,

man

at Ealing

on

6th, 1838.

About midnight on March 3rd, 1839, the "Atlas" was hauling a wagons towards Paddington, and instead of stopping

ballast train of 25

76

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

at the usual

[ilace,

the

continued on

train

into the engine-house,

colliding with the "

North Star," and doing considerable damage to then, proceeding on its victorious career, that renowned locomotive ;

it

next charged the wall of the engine-house, and,

Upon

stop.

the accident

|

came

finally,

to a

inquiring into the cause of

was discovered that both

it

the driver and stoker were asleep on the

and that the train had been running for some miles with no one in engine,

Although there were fifty men wagons, none of them were

charge.

on

the

seriously injured.

Great excitement was caused in London on the evening of October 26th, 1838, by the report that Mr. Field

partner

(a

Maudslay

hOs

and

the

in

Field,

firm

of

well-known

the

engineers) had been run over and killed by the "Hurricane" (Fig. 28), but tbij was not quite correct. The true facts

were as follows assistant, a

:

—Dr.

youth of

Lardner and 19,

named

his

Field,

were making experiments at Acton on the deflection of the

for the pur-

rails,

pose of Wood's report to the directors,

and "

were

using

the

up

The

line.

Hurricane " was the engine employed,

and

this engine

came down from Pad-

dington on the up line for their use.

Young

Field

was

stooping

down

to

measure the amount of deflection as the

moment

engine passed, and just at the

overbalanced himself in

front

" Hurricane," and, although it

travelling at the rate of five

hour,

it

of

the

was only miles an

could not be pulled up in the

short space, and he was, unfortunately,

run over and

killed.

In December,

patented

1836, T. E. Harrison

an arrangement

for

carrying-

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

77

the boiler of the locomotive on one carriage and .the machinery on another, the idea being that when repairs were necessary to the boiler portion boilei

could be disconnected from the machinery, and another

it

Considering the amount

carriage substituted, and vice versa,

of repairs necessary to locomotives at this early period of their ev Na-

economy

great

tion,

was

from

expected

the

adoption

the

of

arrangement.

The "Thunderer" (Fig. 29) was constructed in 1837 by Hawthorn's The boiler portion of the machine was carried on six

of Newcastle.

wheels, and viewed from

carriage, carried

being 3 to

1,

its exterior, it

appeared to be similar to an

In front, at the chimney end, was the machinery

ordinary locomotive.

on four-coupled wheels of

diameter.

6ft.

The gearing

therefore, one revolution of the prime driving wheels

caused the travelling wheels to turn three times, thus making them equal to driving wheels 18ft. in diameter.

The

cylinders

were

horizontal,

and

the

connecting-rods

were

attached to a double-cranked axle, on which was the cogged wheel this

worked a pinion on the axle

The

of the driving wheels.

axle of

the driving wheels had a motion up and down, to allow for imperfections in the road;

and the cogged wheel and pinion were kept

at

the requisite distance in gear by the supports of the cranked axJo

being fixed over and connected with those of the driving wheels, and

Two

thus moving in conjunction with them.

eccentrics on the cogged

wheel axle worked the slides with the usual levers and hand-gear,

and the exhaust steam from the cylinders was discharged into the chimney.

The two

carriages were connected

had a ball-and-socket packing

by a bar, and the steam pipes

joint for lateral motion,

with a metallic ring

they also were composed of two parts which

;

slid

one within

the other, allowing by this means a motion in the direction of their length.

The tank was under the

boiler,

and the engine-wheels were

coupled, in order to have the whole weight for the purpose of obtain-

ing adhesion.

To keep the

teeth at the right pitch, and prevent back-

lash on reversing the motion, the pinion was in two parts, one of

which was movable round the

axle,

and by means

of keys theso

be set so as to place the two halves of the teeth a

little

might

out of the

right line, and thus tighten their action.

The diameter (internal)

;

of the boiler

the tubes were

with a mid-feather.

8ft.

was

44in., that of the

7in. long.

The

135 tubes, l&in.

fire-box

was provided

•r.

t>

pi Pi

oo rt

3 c

H 8

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE On

Friday, January 18th, 1839, the

79

"Thunderer" drew a heavy

ordinary train from Maidenhead to Paddington in 32 minutes, including the time occupied in stopping at Slough.

The '"Hurricane" was

of the

same general design and dimensions

as the " Thunderer," with, of course, the wide difference as to the

mode

The machinery

of working.

supported on

vehicle of the

'Hurricane" was

the leading and trailing being

six wheels,

6in. dia-

4ft.

meter, whilst the driving wheels were 10ft. in diameter, the piston-

rod connections working direct on the crank axle.

The

were above the frames, as was also the case with the two

axle-boxes

whael

10ft.

locomotives previously described. In a so-called locomotive history what purports to be an illustration of the " Hurricane "

were, however, of the

V

is

given

;

The spokes

direct radiating spokes.

the wheels are there shown with of both these curious locomotives

description, as

shown

in the illustrations (Figs.

28 and 29), and in Colburn's "Locomotive Engineering."

At the end was open

of

September, 1839, when the 31 miles of the line

to Twyford, the driver of the " Hurricane," having obtained

a promise from the directors that they would provide for his wife

and family <;

if

an accident happened to him, undertook to drive the

Hurricane " to Twyford at the speed of 100 miles an hour

allowing three miles for getting up speed and stopping,

it

is

;

and,

stated

that he successfully covered 28 miles at the rate of 100 miles an hour.

In 1816, Grissell and Peto, the well-known railway contractors,

undertook the task of removing the statue of the

Duke

of

mammoth

bronze equestrian

Wellington from Mr. Wyatt's studio in the

Harrow Road, near the Great Western Railway locomotive shops, to Hyde Park. The car weighed 20 tons, and was borne by four wheels 10ft. in diameter, lent by the Great Western Railway, one pair being open-spoked wheels from under the " Hurricane," the other pair being constructed of disc sheet iron, and were from under the "

Ajax."

News

for

"Mars" or London

Both pairs are clearly illustrated in the Illustrated October 10th, 1846.

Of the original Great Western locomotives there now only remain to be described the two geared engines supplied to the Great Western

Railway by the Haigh Foundry Company.

Unfortunately,

little

is

Gooch thus writes of them (after describing "The same plan the spur and pinion gearing of the "Thunderer"): of gearing was used in the two engines built by the Haigh Foundry;

known

of these.

Sir D.



!

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

80

their wheels were 6ft.*

cylinders were small.

machines,

1,

hut the

uneasy about the working of these

they would have

sure

feeling

diameter, and the gearing 2 to

I felt very

enough

to

do

to

drive

In the face of this emphatic and distinct

themselves along the road."

statement of Sir D. Gooch respecting the two geared engines built by the Haigh Foundry Company,

it

has been stated that Sir D. Gooch

Fancy reading " the Haigh Foundry valve gear same (spur and pinion) plan of gearing was used in the two engines the gearing being 2 to 1," built by the Haigh Foundry valve gear that was Haigh and then being told that it was the was referring

to the

!

...

meant In addition to Sir D. Gooch's statement, we are fortunate to have the evidence of an independent person. This eye-witness, who saw one of the Haigh geared-up engines at Paddington in August, 1838, gives a very interesting

—"I

and lucid account

of this engine

and

its trial

have just returned from witnessing the perHe trips. formance of an engine on the Great Western Railway, built by the Haigh Company, upon somewhat of a new principle, which combines what the writer deems to be essential to the perfectibility of the locomotive engine namely, slower motion of piston with increased writes:



The experiment was completely

speed of engine.

successful,

and,

Harrison has abandoned his plan, the principle of giving increased speed by the application of tooth and pinion gear although Mr.

fully established

is

"The engine

by

this experiment.

from Paddington with five carriages to five carriages and two wagons loaded with iron, and frequently travelled at the rate of 40 miles an hour. "The engine then took the five o'clock train with passengers to Maidenhead, and performed the journey at the rate of 36 miles an started

Maidenhead, and returned with

hour with from 120 to 150 passengers." It

will

be noticed in the above statement that Harrison had

already discontinued the 3 to

1

gearing of the " Thunderer."

Sir

D. Gooch says that he had to rebuild one-half of the original engines

make them of any service. It is more than probable that the two Haigh geared engines were thus rebuilt. Indeed, the fact that the books of the Great Western Railway show that the "Snake" and to

"Viper" had driving wheels .

*

had

The records wheels 6ft

at 4in.

Swindon in

6ft.

4in.

in diameter is evidence

Locomotive Works show

diameter.

that the

that

"Snake" ani "Viper"'

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

81

such was the case, as the geared engines when delivered had wheels 6ft.

in diameter,

certain

'

position,

and allowing that the small spur wheels were in a it would only be necessary to remove the spur

wheels, slightly alter the length of the connecting-rods, and place

wheels of

6ft.

4in.

diameter on the crank axle to

make

ordinary

locomotives of the engines in question. that the discs of the " Ajax " wheels were cut and new tyres provided, which would account for the

It is also possible

down

to

8ft.,

fact that in

1842 Whishaw gives the diameter of "Ajax's" driving

wheels as only

8ft.

The following interesting table gives the result of the working some of the original Great Western Railway locomotives:



of



CHAPTER

VII.



Opening

cf the London and Birmingham Railway " Wallace," with feed water heating apparatus. Dr. Church's tank engine, "Eclipse." Balanced locomotives. —Smoke-coasuming locomotives. Opening of the London and Southampton Railway. " Soho," a locomotive without eccentrics. A double flanged wheel engine Hancock's attempts to supply railway locomotives. American engines for England. Particulars of the engines and their working. Gooch commences to design engines for the (Jreat Western Railway. His patent steeled tyro3 Gray introduces expansive working. Trial of his valve gear. The " long boiler " fallacy Stephenson's design for the York and North Midland Ra>!«vay. Rennies build a powerful locomotive. Inventor of the link motion: Howe, Williams, or Stephenson? America claims the credit for the improvement. Beyer's single-plate frame engines Early Crewe engines. Robertson fit3 a steam brake to a locomotive. Engines for working the Cowlairs incline. Bodmer's reciprocating or "compensating" engines Tried on the Sheffield and Manchester, South Eastern, and London and Brighton Railways. They prove failures. McConnell's "Great Britain." Dewrance's Coal-burning " Condor."

— —









the

celebrated

contracted to supply the

The







first







Bury,









motives.







Edward





locomotive engineer,



of

Liverpool,

London and Birmingham Railway with

loco-

portion of the line was opened on June 20th, 1837

f

and four-wheel Bury engines of his well-known types hauled the trains. Fig. 30 shows one of his standard passenger engines for the London and

Birmingham Railway. In 1838 Kimmond, Hutton, and Steele, of Dundee, built a locomotive, named " Wallace," for the Dundee and Arbroath Railway, at a cost of £1,012, including the tender. This engine had inside frames and inclined horizontal outside cylinders, 13in. diameter, 18in. stroke; the driving wheels were 5ft. 6in. diameter, the leading and trailing being 3ft. 6in. diameter; the valve chests were on top of the cylinders.

The exhaust steam was turned into the tender for the purpose of heating the feed-water. The "Wallace" was described as being, "without exception, one of the most splendid and beautifully finished pieces of mechanism ; indeed, all present who had seen the Scorpion,' '

'Spitfire,' and other celebrated English engines, gave the preference to the 'Wallace.'" The gauge of the Dundee and Arbroath

Railway was

5ft.

6in.

Birmingham, Dr. Church, a celebrated scientific experimentalist of "Eclipse." the named in 1838, engine tank four-wheel constructed a

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

83

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

84

This locomotive was used in the construction of the London and

Birmingham Railway.

The cylinders were placed outside in a and were ll|in. diameter, the stroke being 21in.

iorizontal position,

The leading

or driving wheels were

6ft.

2|in. diameter,

and are said

to have been the largest used up to that time on the narrow-gau^re,

being 2 Jin. larger than the 6ft. wheels of the original "Liverpool." trailing wheels were 3ft. The water tanks diameter.

The

were

placed

ing

wheels

beneath

the

sustained

a

and

boiler,

weight

of

9

when

loaded

tons,

and

the

driv-

the trailing

The "Eclipse" hauled a load of 100 tons, and when running "light" attained a speed of 60 miles an hour. It will be observed 5 tons.

that for the size of the driving wheels, weight of engine, design, and

the " Eclipse " was a considerable advance on the narrow-

speed,

gauge practice then obtaining.

was

at

work

at

Swansea

The

"Eclipse," after being rebuilt,

in 1861.

In 1838, two important improvements were introduced in loco-

motive construction of the engine,

as



an

Heaton,

fuel.

the balancing of the reciprocating parts

viz.,

and the partially successful use engineer

balancing of locomotive wheels.

of

of coal in place of coke

Birmingham,

introduced

the

This was in August, 1838, when he

made a model engine on the suggestion of a director of the London and Birmingham Railway. The " Brockhall," one of the engines of the Company, was repaired at the Vulcan Works, Birmingham, early in Sharp, 1839, and was then fitted with Heaton's improvement. Roberts and Co. had, in the previous December, supplied an engino to the London and Southampton Railway fitted with balancing weights just within the wheel rim

;

while Heaton's weights took the form of a

i

extension of the crank-throws on the opposite side of the axle, a

method

still

employed

in

modern

engines.

The

first

locomotive

thfit.

ever burned coal in a satisfactory manner, without the smoke causing

a nuisance, was the " Prince George," a six-wheel engine belonging to the Grand Junction Railway. In 1838 it was fitted with Chanter's patent furnace, the fire-bars of which sloped from the fire-box door to the tube-plate at an angle of 45 degrees; over the fire-bars was a The motion of the engine caused all the fuel to fall deflector. to the lower end.

Early in 1839 another six-wheel engine belonging

to the Grand Junction Railway, the 13in.

by

18in.,

was

fitted

fire-bars did not slope so

"Duke

of Sussex," with cylinders

with a Chanter furnace.

much, and on a

trip

This time the

from Crewe to Liver-

"

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

8b

the engines covered several consecutive miles at the speed of

>ol

60 miles an hour, the

officials

company at the same time more smoke than the engines

of the

declaring that the engine emitted no

burning coke.

The first portion of the London and Southampton Railway (now London and South Western) was opened on May 12th, 1838, from London to Woking. The original locomotives were, with four excepthe

" single " engines,

tions, six-wheel

Fig. 31, "Garnet," is

meter.

31.— "GARNET,"

FlG

an

with driving wheels 5ft 6in. diaillustration of

one of these locomo-

ONE OF THE FIRST ENGINES SUPPLIED TO THE

LONDON AND SOUTHAMPTON RAILWAY tives

;

the cylinders were 13in. diameter, and the stroke 18m.

leading and trailing wheels were

3ft.

6in. diameter.

The

"

The

Garnet

weighed 13 tons empty. In 1839, Peel, Williams, and Peel, of Soho Works, Ancoats, sent the

first

locomotive constructed by them to the Liverpool and Mnn-

chester Railway.

This engine was named "Soho," and took a train

of 25 loaded wagons, weighing 133 tons 18 cwt. 2 qrs., to Manchester

;

from Liverpool was running

whilst for a fortnight before this she

with the ordinary passenger trains, and " no failure had taken place,

and the trains having usually been brought in before their time." into this engine consisted of a new

The improvement introduced

!

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

86

method

of

The "Soho" had no eccentrics, but valves. them were two spur wheels, staked on to the crank axle,

working the

in place of

driving two other wheels of equal diameter placed immediately over

them, so as to preserve the distance between the centres constantly the same, and unaffected by the motion of the engine on

its springs.

The wheels last mentioned were attached to a short axle, carrying at each end a small crank arm, which drove a connecting-rod' attached to the valve spindle.

Fenton, Murray, and Jackson, of Leeds, in 1839, supplied a

fix-

wheel engine named "Agilis" to the Sheffield and Rotherham Rail-

We

way.

but she

is

have only very meagre details relating to this locomotive, said to have had flanges an each side of the wheels, and

also "that

if

either one or all the eccentrics

were broken, disarranged,

lost off, or

which move the valves

taken away, she

is

still

under

the control of the engineer,

who can

railway nearly as well as

those parts had remained entire."

explanation

In

is

1840,

if

given as to "

how

Walter Hancock,

known as a steam road-coach somewhat the same system as tried

it

of

safely conduct her along the

was done

Stratford,

builder,

No

"

Essex,

who was

well

constructed a locomotive on

his steam coaches. This engine was on the Eastern Counties Railway. The boiler was of peculiar

a number of separate chambers, each enclosing Each chamber or set of tubes connected with two

design, containing several tubes.

general reservoirs, one at the bottom for the supply of water, the top

one being a reservoir for the steam. The connection from each chamber to the water,

steam pipes, and reservoirs had self-acting valves,

so

that should an accident happen to any one chamber the self-acting valves were closed

by the pressure

of the steam above, or the water

beneath, so that the remainder of the boiler retained

its efficiency,

the only result of the accident being a reduction of the heating surface.

as the

An accident of this kind was not so serious as a burst tube, damaged portion was automatically thrown out of use. Another

advantage of this locomotive was the great heating surface contained in a comparatively small space

The

cating set of fire-bars.

independent crank shaft

;

;

a further improvement was a recipro-

cylinders were vertical,

and actuated an

the progressive motion was conveyed to the

wheel axle by means of endless chains working over pulleys fixed on the driving wheel axles, the diameter of the pulleys being graduated,

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE bo that the engine could be geared

up or down,

87

as either speed or

power was required.

As the machinery did not

was possible became necessary to work the feed pumps, etc. This was a considerable improvement on the usual locomotive, which upon such occasions either had to make a few directly drive the wheels, it

to put that portion out of gear

when

it

for the purpose of supplying the boiler with water, or perform over a "race." trips

else

In 1839, Norris, the locomotive builder of Philadelphia, U.S.A.,

made an

offer to the directors of the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway to provide engines for working the severe gradient known as the Lickey Incline, 2 miles 3.35 chains in length. The agreement

stipulated that the " locomotive engines were to

be of a higher power,

greater durability, and less weight than could be obtained in this

They were

country.

to be subjected to 15 trials within 30 days, and

prove their capability by drawing up a gradient of of 100 tons gross weight, at a speed of 20 miles

gradient of hour."

If

in

1

1 in

330 a load

an hour, and up a

180 a load of 100 tons at the speed of 14 miles an

the American locomotives

fulfilled

these

conditions the

Birmingham and Gloucester Railway were under a contract to accept ten of the engines, at a price not exceeding £1,600 each, including

the 20 per cent, import duty.

Captain Moorsom, the engineer of the

railway, stated that the " engines stipulated

engines."

conditions, will

It

yet

he

had not

complied with the

strictly

them

considered

good,

what work these engines would accomplish on the Lickey

The bia,"

three engines to arrive were the

first

and

serviceable"

be observed that no guarantee was given as to

" Atlantic," and, according to the

"

Incline.

England," " Colum-

arrangements between the

Birmingham and Gloucester Railway, they underwent a series of trials on the Grand Junction Railway before the directors of the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway accepted the engines.

builder and the

These

trials

took place during April and May, 1839, between Bir-

mingham and quently made oblained, and train to

Liverpool, a double journey of 156 miles being in one day. it

The

f

re-

requisite load could not always be

then became necessary to add empty wagons to the

make up

the right weight.

The

trains

occasions exceeded 220 yards or 1-8 mile in length.

on some of the

With a steam-

working pressure of 621b. per square inch, the results tabulated wer?

J

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

88



On a rising gradient of 1 in 330, with a load ranging between 100 and 120 tons, the speed ranged from 13 4-5 miles to 22i miles an hour; on an incline of 1 in 177, with a load of 100 tons, as follows:

the variation in speed ranged between 9 4-5 miles and 13 4-5 miles an hour. Twenty-one trial trips were made, and in only five were the stipulated performances carried out, in five others doubt existed as to the

work performed, but

in eleven the engines failed to do the

required amount of work.

These experiments showed a curious result with regard to the consumed. The aggregate rise of the gradients from Liverpool to

fuel

Birmingham

is about 620ft.; that from Birmingham to Liverpool is about 380ft. (exclusive in both cases of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway); the difference, therefore, up to Birmingham is about 240ft.

In seven journeys of 596 miles up to Birmingham, the engine conveyed 682 tons gross, evaporated 12,705 gallons of water, and consumed 177 sacks of coke (1| cwt. each). In seven journeys of 596 miles

down from Birmingham, the same engine conveyed 629

tons gross,

evaporated 12,379 gallons of water, and consumed 177 sacks of coke. It

would thus appear that the consumption

was the same

of fuel

in

both cases, and the only difference was the evaporation of 326 gallons

more

up than in the journey down, conveying The construction of these engines was very simple, and the work plain. The boiler was horizontal, and contained 78 copper tubes 2in. diameter and 8ft. long, with an iron fire-box. The cylinders, 10|in. diameter, were inclined slightly downwards, and so placed that the piston-rods worked outside the wheels,

of water

in the journey

nearly the same load both ways.

thus avoiding the necessity of cranked axles.

The framing

of these

American engines was supported by six 4ft. diameter were placed close

wheels; the two driving wheels of before the fire-box;

the other four wheels, of 30in. diameter, were

attached to a truck, which carried the front end of the boiler, and was connected with the frame by a centre-pin, on which it turned freely, allowing

the truck to accommodate

itself to

the exterior

rail

of the curve, and, with the assistance of the cone of the wheels, to pass round with very little stress upon the rails. Tons cwt. of the engine with the boiler and firebox full was .. of the tender with 21 cwt. of coke and 520 gallons of water

The weight That

...

9 6

Total weight

15

...

was

These engines, when empty, weighed only eight tons each.

Hi 4i 15

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

89

Another of the American bogie engines supplied to the BirmingGloucester Railway was named the " Philadelphia." She

ham and

was a more powerful locomotive than the three mentioned above, and Captain Moorsom, the engineer of the railway, in a letter dated from Worcester on June 22nd, 1840, gives an interesting account of her trial

on the Lickey Bank.

" Seventy-six

chains in the incline of

1 in

37£ were made ready with a single way, and three chains nearly level were laid temporarily to rest upon before starting. The road was quite new, and consequently not firm or well gauged, and the works going on close at hand occasionally covered the rails with dirt. The

wagons used were of a large class, like those on the Manchester and Leeds line, and weighed when empty rather more than 2^ tons, and at first worked very stiffly. They were loaded with 4 tons, and generally Philaweighed, including persons upon them, about 6f tons. The delphia' weighed (as she worked) about 12 tons 3 cwt., and her '

tender weighed nearly 7 tons, being in

all

19 tons.

She had 12iin.

cylinders, 20in. stroke, 4ft. driving wheel not coupled.

The weight

on her driving wheels was 6 1-3 tons (as weighed at Liverpool) without water. "

The usual load she took was eight wagons, engine, and

tender,

with persons, equal to 74 tons gross weight, in ten minutes, or nearly 6 miles per hour, the last quarter of a mile being at the rate of

9J miles per hour.

Seven wagons,

etc.,

equal to 67£ tons gross mean speed. Six

weight, in about 9 minutes, or 6£ miles per hour

wagons,

etc.,

equal to 61 tons gross weight, in sometimes h\

and

sometimes

say in or 9 6 minutes average, 6^ minutes, miles per hour mean speed, the last quarter of a mile usually giving a speed of nearly 11 miles an hour.

Five wagons, equal to

about 53 tons gross, were usually taken at a speed of 13 miles per

hour for the

last

half-mile

up.

The foregoing

results

occurred

generally during fine weather, but sometimes the rails were partially wet,

and

this occasioned a difference of speed in the ascent of half a

One day when showery the men walked with marl on their boots, rendering the way very

minute to a minute and a over the rails

half.

greasy and slippery, also the lower part of the plane had been formed only a few hours, and was very soft and badly gauged-

Under these circumstances the 'Philadelphia'

tooK. five

wagons,

and tender, being a gross weight, including persons, of about 53 tons, up at a mean rate of rather more than 5 miles per hour,

self,

"

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

90

quarter of a mile was passed at the rate of 8 miles per

and the

last

hour.

Two wagons were then taken

took the remaining three wagons,

self,

weight, including persons, of 40 tons,

nearly per hour, her

maximum

off,

up

and the

'

Philadelphia

and tender, being a gross at a

mean

rate of 12 miles

speed being nearly 16 miles per hour."

Gooch was not at all satisfied with the original broad-gauge and in 1839 he obtained the sanction of the directors of the Great Western Railway to design two classes of locomotives for Sir D.

locomotives,

the railway. the

"

Fury "

These engines were known as the " Firefly " class and class, the former having 7ft. driving wheels, cylinders

15in. diameter, 18in. stroke,

had

6ft,

and

700ft. of heating surface; the latter

driving wheels, cylinders 14in. diameter

and 18in.

stroke,

and 608ft. of heating surface. One hundred and forty-two locomotives of the "Fury" and " Firefly " design were constructed. Sir D. Gooch states that the best

-4m

&fffc Fig.

32.-

'HARPY," ONE OF GOOCH'S "FIREFLY" CLASS OF BROAD-GAUGE ENGINES

were built by Fenton, Murray and Jackson, of Leeds. The sixty-two of the "Firefly" class were built as follows: Twenty, by Fenton,



Murray and Jackson, Leeds; sixteen, by Nasmyth, Gaskell and Co., Manchester; ten, by Sharp, Roberts and Co., Manchester; six, by Jones, Turner and Evans, Newton six, by Longridge and Co., Bed;

:

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE lington

two, by Slaughter and Co., Bristol

;

:

91

and two, by G. and

J.

Rennie, London. It

of

observed that most of these were built in the North

will be

England, and

a significant fact that these broad-gauge loco-

is

it

motives were conveyed on narrow-gauge trucks for some hundreds

Western Railway, thus showing that

of miles to the Great

it

would

have been quite possible to widen the existing narrow-gauge railways,

by simply decreasing the space between the two roads, comparatively at a small expense.

All these engines

were built from the specifications and drawings

supplied by the Great Western Railway to the makers, and thin iron

templates were also supplied of those parts which were to be interFig. 32 illustrates the "Firefly" type.

changeable.

The

by Jones and

"Firefly," built

was the

first of

Co.,

made an experimental

Viaduct Foundry, Newton,

On March

these engines delivered.

28th, 1840, she

from Paddington to Reading, with a load of two carriages, containing 40 passengers, and a carriage truck; she performed the journey in 46 minutes 25 seconds from start to stop.

A

trip

spring of one of the tender wheels broke on the journey,

necessitating

careful

running.

On

the

return

trip,

between the

26th and 24th mile posts, a speed of 56 miles an hour was reached, and the average speed from Twyford to Paddington was over 50 miles

an hour.

On

the occasion of the Queen's accouchement in August, news was brought to London by a special messenger The journey from Slough to travelling on one of these engines. Paddington, 18£ miles, was accomplished in 15 minutes 10 seconds, The illustration (Fig. 3o) or at the rate of 75 miles an hour. shows the interior of the old Paddington engine shed, and amongst the locomotives to be seen are the " Ganymede " and " Etna." All the engines had domed fire-boxes, and outside frames, the 1844,

the

principal

dimensions,

in

addition to those

Leading and trailing wheels, long, 4ft. diameter;

4ft.

already

given,

diameter; boiler barrel,

131 tubes, 2in. diameter,

9ft.

being 8ft.

6-n.

long; weight, in

working order on leading 4| tons, driving 11 tons 13 cwt., trailing 7 tons 16 cwt. ; total, 24 tons 4 cwt.

On November steeled classes

tyres,

were

20th,

1840, Daniel Gooch obtained a patent for

and the locomotives

fitted

of

the

with these patent tyres.

contained one-fifth part of shear

steel,

"Fury" and "Firefly" Although the tyres only

yet the use of Gooch's tyres

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

92

did not become general, as 56 years ago steel was an expensive com-

modity,

and consequently railway rolling stock generally was not fitted with steel tyres

;

indeed,

the Great Western Railway

went no further than using improvement

the

for

their

locomotive and tender wheels.

Many

locomotives fitted with

these patent tyres ran nearly

300,000

miles

new

before

tyres were required.

These

first

essays of Daniel

Gooch as a locomotive designer at once placed him at the very head of locomotive engineers, and

these

Gooch himself,

modest,

usually so

says

of

may

" I

locomotives,

with confidence, after these

have been working

engines for

28 years,

better

say

engines

that

for

no

their

weight have since been constructed, either

continue duty."

by myself or

They have done, and

others.

to

admirable

do,

This candid eulogium

of these engines

by

their de-

signer certainly did not go

beyond the truth their first

goods

good design

of

diameter,

wheels inside

16in. diameter,

The

fire-box

was of the domed pattern.

Gooch's

broad-gauge

locomotives

coupled

of 24in.

in describing

points.

had

six

oft.

in

cylinders

and a stroke

Fig. 34 ("Jason")

represents one of these engines.

John Gray, who was

in

1840 locomotive superintendent of the

f

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

93

Hull and Selby Railway, introduced a striking improvement into the

(Gray had, on July 26th, construction of locomotives at that time. 1838, taken out a patent for his valve gear; and whilst on the subject of valve gears,

be of interest to note that Dodds and

will

it

patented their wedge motion on September 16th, 1839.)

Owen

In

Gray's improvements in the Hull and Selby engines he adopted

Fib

inside

33

ONE OF OOOCH'S FIRST TYPE OF GOODS EXCISES FOR THE GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY

"JASON,"'

bearings for the driving wheels, an extended base for the and,

springs,

working.

of

course,

his

Shepherd and Todd,

of the

structed the engines in question.

meter, 3ft.

cylinders

6in.

12in.

The driving wheels were

diameter by 24in.

and 94 2in. tubes, Star " and " Vesta," were

(inside),

locomotives, "

engines on Tuesday,

motion and expansiveRailway Foundry, Leeds, con-

patent valve

November

9ft.

stroke, 6in.

fire-box

long.

Two

2ft.

dia-

by

of these

tried in competition with other

10th, 1840.

Sixteen trips were

by the "Star" and "Vesta," the average loads being 55.4 1,718 tons over one mile;

6ft.

made

tons,

or

coke consumed, 4651b., or 027llb. per

ton per mile; water evaporated, 2,8741b., or 1.621b. per ton per mile.

Two

other classes of locomotives were tried in competition with

Gray's patent



viz.,

the usual kind of engines then in use, and

same with the addition

of Gray's expansion gear

tliS

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

94

The

result of the trials

is

shown

in the following table

:



EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

95

per mile, with a load of eight coaches over half the distance (45 miles)

and

coaches over the remaining half.

five

This consumption included the whole of the fuel used in lighting the

fire

R.

and raising the steam. Stephenson

introduced

tubes

wrought-iron

of

instead

of

brass or copper, in order that the increased heating surface might be

obtained without a corresponding augmentation in the price of the engine.

This he did not adopt without making several experiments.

During the last twelve months he had several boilers working under his own eye with iron tubes, for the special purpose of determining how far he could recommend them for general adoption. The result was all that he could desire; and owing to this he introduced

The valve gear is thus eulogised " In ordinary engines the mechanism for working the slide' valves was very

them with great liable to "

confidence.

:

derangement and considerable wear and

tear.

This part of the engine he so far simplified that

it

required only a

simple connection between the eccentrics and slide valves, thus doing

away with a considerable number

of

moving

parts.

" This was attained

by placing the slide valves vertically on the sides of the cylinders, instead of on the top as heretofore, so that the direction of the sliding motion of the valves and the central line of the valve-rods intersected the central line of the main axle at the point where the eccentrics were placed. In this case the eccentricrods were connected immediately to the prolongation of the valverods, without the usual intermediate levers

and weigh bars ; the

slide

valves of both cylinders were placed in one steam chest, between the cylinders."

Another improvement was

pumps;

consisted in connecting the pump-rods to the eccentrics

it

in the

working

of the feed

By this arrangement the velocity of pump was greatly diminished, by which

used for reversing the engine-

the moving part of the

was secured greater regularity Messrs. G. and

J.

of action.

Rennie, of Holland Street, Blackfriars, S.E., in

named the "Larabro" for the Milan Lambro " was built from the design of Mr.

1841, constructed a locomotive

and Monzo Railway. The

"

Albano, the engineer to the railway; the cylinders were 13in. diameter, 18in. stroke, driving wheels 5ft. 6in. diameter,

steam pressure

501b.,

Her average coke consumption with trains weighing 36 miles an hour, was only 221b. per mile. The loco-

weight 22 tons.

143 tons at

motive engineer of the railway reported that

"

no engine he had

,

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

96

seen at all approached the locomotive engine Lambro in any respect whatever, in the economy of fuel, in her immense dragging power, and in the excellency and solidity of her framing and working gear." '

The

particular evolution

now about

'

to be described occupies a

foremost position in locomotive history.

many

Like

other

useful

inventions, the link motion has been proclaimed as the production of different people. Its popular title, the "Stephenson" link motion, is a well-known misnomer indeed, Stephenson never appears to have put forward a claim in which he figured as the inventor of the curved link motion ;

perhaps, at

first,

The germ

he did not

fully appreciate its value.

of the idea belongs to Williams, of Newcastle, who, in

1842, designed a form of straight link coupling the two eccentrics

Of course, suoh an arrangement was utterly impossible in would soon place the two eccen-

together.

practice, as the crank, in revolving, trics

The

such a position that the link would be destroyed.

in

curved link, placed half-way between the valves and eccentrics, was

soon evolved from Williams' crude idea, and up to 1846 generally called Williams' motion. valves, in

the Practical Mechanics' Magazine for April, 1846,

described;

so

May number

but in the

appears from William Howe, a Co.,

Newcastle.

utter

made no Howe's

of

the magazine

it

is

a letter

employed by R. Stephenson and

fitter

In this communication

proposed the straight its

was most

it

In an article describing expansion

Howe

states that Williams

mentioned, but that

link, previously

Howe saw

and evolved the curved link. Williams communication although he may not have seen

impracticability,

reply to this

;

Be

letter claiming the invention.

this as

it

thereafter given the credit for the curved link. significant that he never patented

neither he nor Stephenson saw

it,

its

and

it is

may, Howe was It

is,

however,

probable that at

first

value as a means of effectually

working the valves expansively, or one or the other would have protected

the

invention,

patented

seeing

the

top

Howe's supposed claim

may

recently

that

Stephenson

and bottom gab-gear.

had then quite Then,

again,

have been a reason for not protecting

it.

In the invention of the link motion, this country does not appear to have been forestalled

many

by the

Celestial Empire, as

(it is

asserted)

is

But the glory does not rest with us, for it has been shrewdly "guessed" that the idea originated with one of our American cousins, W. T. James, of New York, who, as the case with so

useful discoveries.

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

97

"James" locomotive, which was proThe invention at this period does not ?.ppear to have been considered of any value, for its use was not perpetuated in later locomotives in America until after it had been re-discovered by the Williams-Howe experiments of 1842-3.

early as 1832, constructed the

with link motion.

vided

In 1843 Mr. C. Beyer, then employed with Messrs. Sharp Brothers

and

Co., but afterwards of the

Messrs.

well-known firm of locomotive builders,

Beyer, Peacock and Co., Manchester, introduced the single

iron plate for locomotive frames. Trevithick's son directed his attention to the evolution of the

steam locomotive, and while chief engineer of the Grand Junction Railway, the now world-famous Crewe Works were erected, being

opened in 1843. Mr. A. Allan became manager at Crewe, and under his superintendence a new class of engines was constructed, the novel points being the coupling of the driving and trailing wheels

—Allan

having, in 1863, publicly claimed this innovation as wholly and solely

due

to

him.

The engines in question are usually described as " the old Crewe goods class," and had outside cylinders, 15in. by 14in. The coupled wheels were oft. diameter, and were placed one pair before- and the other behind the fire-box; these wheels had inside bearings, and fhe small leading pair had outside bearings. The steam pressure was 1201b. These useful engines weighed 19^ tons, and were used for goods traffic for many years- Mr. Ramsbottom afterwards rebuilt, several of them as tank engines, and some, as such, are still in use on the London and North Western Railway. Alexander Allan, who died as recently as 1891, was noted for his invention of a straight link

motion in 1855.

The need

of a powerful brake has always

necessities of locomotive engineers.

that

it

was not advisable

been one of the greatest

For a long time they

all

agreed

to brake the driving wheels of locomotives

but Peter Robertson, the locomotive superintendent of the Glasgow

and Ayr Railway, was of a different opinion, and in April, 1843, he a locomotive on that railway with his patent steam brake.

fitted

The apparatus

consisted of a flexible metal band, of a semi-circular

shape, surrounding the upper half of the driving wheel.

One end

of

the band fastened to a hinge, and the other was fixed to a pistonWhen "off," the piston-rod held the band away from the tyre rod. of the driving wheel, but

when steam was

applied behind the piston,

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

98

Such was the simple, steam brake. A familiar action can be seen in the hand brakes still fitted to

the band was tightly pressed against the tyre.

but

application of Robertson's

effective,

example

of its

cranes.

The Cowlairs British Railway,

what was opened

incline at

and

originally

is

Glasgow

is

the bete noir of the North

situate just outside the

Glasgow terminus

the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway.

of

When

this incline was (as is, indeed, at present the case) worked by stationary engines; but towards the end of 1843 Mr. Paton, the locomotive superintendent, and Mr. Millar, the engineer of the- Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway, designed and built a powerful locomotive for working this two-mile incline of 1 in 42. The engine was first

FIG.

34a.—

PATON AND MILLAR'S TANK ENGINE FOR WORKING ON THE COWLAIRS INCLINE, GLASGOW

put to work in January, 1844, and during that year the cost of working the incline was, with the locomotive, one-third of the amount expended during the previous twelve months on the stationary engine.

Upon

reference to the illustration (Fig. 34a) of this remarkable loco-

motive, the

first detail that attracts notice is the immense steam dome. The engine was supported on six coupled wheels of 4ft. 3|in. diameter. The cylinders were "outside," fixed in an inclined position about half-way up the smoke-box, their diameter being 15|in. The stroke was 2oin. These dimensions, it will be noticed, were considerably The in advance of tbe general practice obtaining 55 years ago.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

99

were above the cylinders, and the eccentrics were fixed the driving axle, within the frames; the springs were underhung, and all the wheels were counterbalanced. Two lever safety valves were live chesty

>n

The heating surface of the fire-box was 60 sq. ft., that of 748ft. The other principal dimensions of this engine Fire-box, 4ft. long by 4ft. 6in. deep; smoke-box, 2ft. 6in.

provided.

tubes

the

were:



long by

4ft. 4in.

This engine,

deep; 136 tubes,

2in. diameter,

and

10ft. 6in. long.

should be observed, was of the "tank" class, 200 gallons of water being stored in a tank below the smoke-box, that amount being sufficient for two trips. The water was supplied from a it

and not from the usual columns. The driving wheels were furnished with brakes, the levers of which were worked by a screw, the handle of the latter being placed stand-pipe,

within reach of the engineer.

The

had a steam brake, something like those Ayr line by Mr. Robertson. Sand-boxes

trailing pair of wheels

applied to the engines of the

were placed in front on each side of the water tank for dropping sand rails, which was done by the stoker on the footplate, by a handle and rod from valves or stoppers in the boxes. The most effectual

on the

remedy against slipping was to keep the rails clean, which was done by means of two jets from the boiler in going down the incline plane.

When

very dirty two other jets of cold water were used, a small air

vessel

and one of the feed pumps being used

for that purpose.

The total weight of the engine was 26 \ tons; the rate of speed with 12 carriages of the gross weight of 54 tons was 15 miles per the rate of speed with 20 trucks of goods of a gross weight 104 tons was 9 miles per hour, up the Cowlairs incline.

hour

;

WORK OF ENGINE FOR THE MONTH OF NOVEMBER, TOTAL WORK DONE ON INCLINE PLANE.

Carriage.

1844.

of

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

100

The table on page 99 gives the

results of one

month's working of a

second locomotive of similar design, the cylinders, however, being diameter, and additional heating surface being provided by

16|in.

The second engine

means of a water space dividing the fire-box. was put to work towards the end of 1844. These engines were named " Hercules

and " Sampson," and were Cowlairs, whilst two others of the same general design, and

built at

named

"

" Millar "

and

"

Hawthorne," were constructed at Newcastle.

Mr. A. E. Lockyer states that these engines "had not run any length of time, however, before the foreman platelayer complained of

the engines destroying the

which,

rails,

only 581b. per yard, with the sleepers

was

this report the incline

being reduced to

and

matters,

began

2ft.

to

leak,

to

it

must be remembered, were

relaid, the distance

between the centres. This did not much mend Canal and Clyde Forth all, the crown

no

consequence,

in

doubt,

movement

the rear then became

to

of

the

vibration

A

heavy locomotives.

induced by the constant passage of the strategic

In consequence of between the sleepers

3ft. apart."

and an

necessary,

eminent engineer (Mr. McNaught) was appointed by the directors U strengthen the land engine, and put it in proper working order, so as to reintroduce the haulage system for working the incline.

A Newcastle firm (R. S. Newall and Co., the original inventors and patentees of untwisted iron rope) supplied the railway company with one of their wire ropes. The land engine was finished by March

4th, 1847,

and on

trial

under the new conditions the haulage

system proved highly satisfactory, so much so that the four

loco-

motives were removed altogether.

The Manchester and powerful ciple.

goods

The

Sheffield line was, in 1845, supplied with four

locomotives,

cylinders

coupled wheels were

were 4ft.

built

18in.

diameter;

6in.

engines was only 24 tons each.

Bodmer's

on

diameter,

They

are,

stroke

patent 24in.

;

prin-

the

six

but the weight of these however, stated to have

been equal to hauling a gross load of over 1,000 tons.

Bodmer's

locomotives deserve recognition in the evolution of the steam locomotive, because of their curious construction, and also because other

locomotive histories do not mention these peculiar engines.

The engines are described

as "compensating," the whole strain

being confined to the pistons, piston-rods, connecting-rods, and cranks.

There were two pistons in each cylinder, one being connected with

— EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE one crank and the other with the opposite crank

of

101

an axle with

double cranks on each side, so that the driving axle was fitted with four cranks.

The steam was admitted alternately between the two pistons at the time the pistons met in the middle of the cylinders, also between tne ends or tops of the cylinders and the pistons when the latter arrived at the other

end

of the stroke.

Bodmer claimed

that by this arrangement the engine was perfectly

balanced, and no oscillation or pitching of the engine resulted, no

matter what speed was attained. Another engine of this description

was supplied Sharp 20in. 5ii.

Bros,

and Manchester Railway, constructed by

to the Sheffield

The

and Co.

cylinders were 14in.

diameter, stroke

(two strokes of lOin. each in both cylinders), driving wheels

During Novem-

diameter, steam pressure 901b. per square inch.

ber, 1844,

the average coke consumption of this engine amounted to

only 21.921b. per mile.

A

and more powerful engine on the same principle was supplied to the Joint Locomotive Committee of the Soutn Eastern and when the Railways, Brighton London and and larger

Committee was dissolved the engine was taken over by the South

The

Eastern Railway in 1845, and was numbered 123.

cylinders

were 16in. diameter and 30in. stroke, or rather, two pistons each Heating surface was:

box 73

working a stroke

of

tubes 769 sq.

steam pressure 951b.; weight 18 tons; coke con-

ft.;

loin.

sumption 151b. per mile.

The

driving wheels were

sq.

ft.

\

diameter.

5ft. 6in.

Shortly after the South Eastern Railway took over this engine

it

broke down, and one of the men in charge was killed. Bodmer also supplied the London and Brighton Railway with

one

of

patent

these

December, 1845 to Brighton.

;

The locomotive

driving wheels,

6ft.

diameter.

first

in

London and had single

5 p.m. express from

in question

The

was

This

engines.

reciprocating

and she ran the

was No.

7,

cylinders were

15in.

diameter,

and the 20in. of stroke was, of course, covered by two pistons in each The fire-box was of the well-known "Bury" cylinder working lOin. type. No. 7 was rebuilt in January, 1850, when Bodmer's reciprocating pistons were taken out, and ordinary ones put

years No. 7 was

in.

In later

named "Seaford."

Bodmer designed another engine on cylinders 22in. diameter and 24in. stroke

this i.e.,

with

outside

two pistons

of 12in.

plan,

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

102

stroke

each.

pressure

of

The this

driving wheels were

extraordinary

consumption was estimated

engine

7ft.

diameter.

The

boiler

was 1001b. and the coke

at 101b. per mile,

with trains of 12 coaches.

This engine was fitted with cylindrical slides and expansion valves,

under a patent obtained by Bodmer. In 1845,

J.

E. McConnell, then locomotive superintendent of the

Birmingham and Gloucester Railway, determined

to construct a

more

powerful engine for working the Lickey Incline than the American

The "Great Britain" was the result She was a six-wheel coupled saddle-tank locomotive. The wheels were 3ft. lOin. diameter, and the cylinders 18in. by 26in. stroke. This powerful "iron-horse" easily hauled trains weighing 150

engines previously describedof his essay.

tons up the Lickey Bank. engines,

branch

McConnell

also rebuilt

one of the American

as a saddle-tank locomotive, for working the

Tewkesbury

Birmingham and Gloucester Railway. This curious a saddle-tank engine had outside cylinders 10 Jin. dia-

of the

specimen of

meter, 20in. stroke, single driving wheels

4ft.

diameter, and a leading

bogie.

Mr. Dewrance, of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, about

time turned his attention to the experiments which were, ever and anon, being made towards the long-wished-for goal of a perfect In the "Condor" he tried the effect of coal-burning locomotive.

this

two

fire-boxes.

The

fuel

was inserted

manner into the chamber being designed

in the usual

exterior fire-box; the second, or combustion

consume the gaseous matter that escaped from the first furnace. During the period of special attention to the working of the "Condor" this system of coal burning appears to have been of a The idea of a combustion chamber as a fairly successful character. question of a successful smoke-consuming locosolution of the vexed

to

motive was afterwards tried by other locomotive designers.

The

division between the two fire-boxes of the " Condor " consisted of a Air was admitted to transverse water-space, fitted with short tubes.

the combustion-chamber by means of a pipe, with a head perforated with small holes.



CHAPTER VIIL Stephenson's "long boiler'* goods engines for the Eastern Counties Railway— Grays prototype of the " Jenny Lind " Hackworth builds twelve of the class for the Brighton Railway Stephenson and Howe's three-cylinder locomotive not a success The "Great A," another Stephenson absurdity The competitive trials betweja broad and narrow-gauge locomotives Gooch to the rescue! The " Premier," the first engine constructed at Swindon The " Great Western" the forerunner of the standard express engine of to-day Trial trip tf this "mammoth" notable run of the "Great Western" The "Great Western" altered to an eight-wheel engine Galloway's incline-climbing loc< motive tried on the Great Western—Beyer's "Atlas" for the Manchester and Sheffield Rail.viy The Eastern Union "Essex" draws 149 loaded goods wagons Stepaenson's " White Horse of Kent " Crampton, as a locomotive designer, the "Namnr" constructed Gooch's "Iron Duke" and "Lord of the Isles" make the broad-gauge still more popular The "Jenny Lind," a "storm in a tea cup" Trial of the "Jenny Lind" and "Jenny Sharp" " frevithick's Cornwall,'' a locomotive monstrosity Exhibited at the 1851 Exhibition Rebuilt in 1 er present form, and still running McConnell's "counter-balancing" experiments The "most powerful narrow-gauge engine ever built "—" No. 185" o* the Y.N. and B.R.— The oldest locomotive now running, " Old Coppern>b." of the Furness Railway " Lablaehe," another locomotive freak "Cambrian' locomotive?, and the peculiarities of their construction The "Albion," of 1848—-Half a century later, the writir unearths the working drawings of this engine and her sisters.











—A





















— —













During 1845 R. Stephenson and

Co.

built

boiler " engines, with outside cylinders, for of the

Eastern Counties Railway.

Fig. 35

seven of their "long-

working the goods is

these ungainly specimens of locomotive construction. barrel

was no

less

than

traffic

an illustration of one of

The

boiler

were bene.ith diameter, and the driving and

13ft. 6in. in length, all the axles

the barrel, the leading wheels were

3ft.

trailing (coupled) wheels 5ft. 9|in. diameter.

diameter, the stroke being 21in.

weighed 23 tons 12 cwt.

The cylinders were

16in.

In working order, these locomotives

After looking at the illustration,

scarcely necessary to add that these engines were very unsteady

it

is

when

travelling, the oscillation being excessive.

In the arrangement of inside and outside bearings to the various wheels of the patent engines, designed by John Gray for the Hull and Selby Railway (previously described), we make acquaintance with the

embryo as the

design, afterwards perfected,

"Jenny Lind"

class.

and known the whole world over

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

104

In 1846 Gray had become locomotive superintendent of the Brighton Railway, and he prepared another design of express engines for that line, in

which the type now known as "Jenny Lind" was

Q


Fig.

35.— STEPHENSON'S

"LONG-BOILER" GOODS ENGINE, COUNTIES RAILWAY

EASTERN

J. Hackworth and Co. obtained the contract for the supply of twelve of these locomotives, and in November, 1816, pair, they delivered the first numbered 53 and 54. Fig.

further developed.

36 represents

No.

49,

trailing wheels were

one

3ft.

6in.

of

these

engines.

The leading aai

diameter, the drivers being

by 24in.

6ft.

dia-

Heating surface: tubes, 700 sq. ft. ; fire-box, 79 sq. ft. Inside bearings were provided to the driving, and outside to the leading and trailing wheels ; the engines

meter.

Cylinders 15in.

FIG.

stroke.

PROTOTYPE OF THE "JENNY LONDON AND BRIGHTON RAILWAY

36.-GRAY'S

LIND,"

No.

49,

with Gray's " horse-leg motion," and several of the dozen centre of '.he had two square-seated steam domes, one located on the provided was dome Each fire-box. the over other boiler barrel, the

were

fitted

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE with a steam safety-valve.

The steam pressure was

106

1001b. per square

inch.

These engines were found to be good at hauling heavy loads computed 50 years ago) at speeds up to and slightly exceeding miles an hour. In

Stephenson and

184:6

cylindered engine.

Howe

(as -10

obtained a patent for a three-

"Locomotive Engineering," exposes the fallacy of the idea that the action of the steam admitted Colburn,

Z.

in

his

whose centres are far apart, sets up a danThe object of Stephenson and Howe's threecylinder engine was to overcome this winding motion. Colburn states that a few pounds of counterweight would have served a better purpose than the extra cylinder and working parts." Two engines alternately to cylinders

gerous sinuous motion.

appear to have been built on this plan before the true cause of the

way of overcoming it, were fully grasped The outside cylinders were only 10|in. diameter and 22in. stroke; whilst the centre or inside cylinder was 16|in. diameter, but the stroke in this case was restricted to 18in. It is rocking motion and the real

by the patentees.

needless

add

to

these

that

three-cylinder

were not

locomotives

successful.

Passing reference must be made to the celebrated gauge experiments which took place during the last days of December, 1845, and resulted so greatly in favour of the broad-gauge, despite the fact that

new engines prepared for the comwork on the broad-gauge railways. The narrow-gauge experiments were made on the Great North of England Railway, a special engine being built for the purpose by R. Stephenson and Co., and called "A." The "A" was a six-wheel the Great Western Railway had no

petition, but used those regularly in

long-boiler engine, with outside cylinders

Hot water place

in

from

a

for supplying the boiler

cold

of

state

of

on

and 6ft. 6in. driving wheels. was used on the narrow-gauge

the broad-gauge.

rest,

but

The

latter

the narrow-gauge

the starting-point at as great a velocity as possible standing these sharp practices of the narrow-gauge

;

started

ipproacled yet, notwith-

officials,

they were

completely beaten in the experiments.

The Swindon Works commenced 1846

;

and, as

constructed at

to build locomotives early

in

name implies, the " Premier " was the first engine these now world-famous locomotive shops.

its

She was a six-coupled goods engine, with wheels

5ft.

diameter.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

106

Numerous engines of this type, with slight modifications, vera Swindon; "Hero" (Fig. 37) is a good example of the G.W.

built at

standard goods engine at the time.

The narrow-gauge engineers having made

frantic efforts to pro-

duce locomotives as powerful as those in use on the Great

Western

H

A GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY SIX-COUPLED BROAD-GAUGE GOODS ENGINE

37.—" HERO,"

Fig.

Railway, the directors of the latter company decided to have a larger

and more powerful engine constructed, and Mr. Gooch received orders to construct a colossal locomotive, and to have it in work before the

commencement

of

the

Parliamentary Session of 1846.

time the decision was arrived

at,

until the

From

the

"Great Western" was

at

work, onry 13 weeks elapsed, during which short period the design of the engine

had

to be decided upon, the drawings

made, the patterns

made and put produce this most

prepared, and the whole of the complex machinery

together

yet those three months were

;

sufficient to

famous locomotive.

As

originally constructed, the " Great

Western

" (Fig. 38)

was a

six-



Cylinders, 18in. diameter and wheel engine, the dimensions being: and trailing wheels, diameter 8ftwheels, j leading 24in.stroke ; driving 4ft.

6in.

side),

diameter; 278 tubes,

oft.

6in.

by

6ft.,

through the centre; 160

sq. ft.;

diameter; fire-box (out-

9ft. long, 2in.

inside 4ft. lOin.

by

5ft.

4in.,

heating surface, tubes 1,591 sq.

grate area, 20ft.;

height,

from

with partition ft.;

fire-box,

level of rail to top of

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE boiler, 9ft.

24ft.

Gothic

By was

6in.

the chimney was

;

weight (empty), 36 tons.

;

fire-box, as supplied to

5ft.

2in.

high

;

10?

length of engine,

In this engine Gooch retained the

the engines he had previously designed.

the way, a picture, purporting to be an illustration of this engine,

given

Fig.

in

a

book

on

locomotive

history,

with

the

flush

GREAT WESTERN" BROAD-GAUGE ENGINE AS ORIGINALLY CONSTRUCTED

38.— THE

top fire-box and four leading wheels

!

The

"

Great Western " con-

tinued to work trains on the Great Western Railway until the end of 1870, having run a total distance of 370,687 miles during the 23£

years she was in work.

On Saturday, June 13th, 1846, the the " Great Western " was usually called) London

to Bristol

"mammoth" made

and back, and, but for the

locomotive (as

a sensational trip

from

failure of one of the six-

feed pumps, necessitating slower running, even better results would

have been attained.

But, despite the accident, the result of the trip

came like a " bolt from the blue " upon the narrow-gauge engineers. The train weighed 100 tons, and consisted of ten first-class carriages, seven of which were ballasted with iron, the other three being occupied by the directors and those interested in the experiment. The train started from Paddington at 11 hours 47 minute* 52 seconds; at Didcot a stop of 5 1 minutes was made; Swindon was reached in 78 minutes.

After staying there 4 minutes 27 seconds,

the journey was continued to Bristol, the whole distance of 118* miles being covered in 2 hours 12 minutes, or at the rate of 54 miles or, excluding the 9f minutes spent in the two stoppages, at about 59 miles an hour for the complete journey, includiug the slowing

an hour,

down and getting up speed again on three occasions. The maximum speed was obtained between the 82nd and 92nd mile-posts (from the 80th to the 85th mile there is a falling gradient of 8ft. per mile, from the 85£th to about the 86£th mile there is a falling gradient

And

"

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

108 of

about

1

in 100,

and a

fall of 8ft.

per mile then reaches to about

the 90|th mile-post; a rising gradient of

8ft. per mile then succeeds and extends beyond the 92nd mile-post), performing the ten miles in 9 minutes and 8 seconds, or at an average speed of nearly 66 miles an hour. The 87th and 88th miles, on a falling gradient of 8ft. per mile, were run over at a rate of 69 miles per hour.

One Monday

early

in

June,

1846,

the

"Great Western" was

attached to the 9.45 a.m. express Paddington to Exeter, the crack train of that time, which, indeed, continued to be the fastest ordinary

passenger train until the establishment of the " Flying

many

years later.

When

it

was advertised that

this

Dutchman train would

perform the journey between London and Exeter in 4£ hours, people said it was impossible; what, then, must have been thought of the

run performed by the

"

Great Western " and chronicled below

1

The

193f miles from Paddington to Exeter were covered in 214 minutes (3 hours 34 minutes) running time, being an average rate of 55 \ miles The actual running time on the journey was as follows — per hour. :

From Paddington

to Didcot Didcot to Swindon

Swindon to Bath Bath to Bristol Bristol to Taunton Taunton to Exeter

53

miles



EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

109

were constructed during the next eight years, and these same design, built at a more recent period, worked the famous broad-gauge expresses between London and Newton Abbot until the abolition of the broad-gauge in May, 1892.

fire-box)

engines, with a few of the

of

In March, 1847, the Great Western Railway laid down a length line at Maidenhead for the purpose of testing Elijah Galloway's

Fig

system

39—THE ORIGINAL "GREAT WESTERN" AS REBUILT WITH TWO PAIRS OF LEADING WHEELS of

locomotive

with

propulsion

horizontal

wheels.

driving

The horizontal wheels gripped a centre rail, and the engine not being dependent upon the weight placed upon the driving wheels for adhesion, was enabled to ascend inclines that were impossible for ordinary locomotives

;

whilst the fact that the two horizontal driving wheels

were pressing one on either side of the centre to safely pass round curves of extremely short

rail

enabled the engine

such as would be The line put down at Maiden19, but a model engine and train suc1 in 6. Mr. D. Gooch gave the followradii,

impossible with ordinary locomotives.

head was on an incline of cessfully ascended

1 in

an incline of

ing account of the experiments

:



" Engineer's Office,

" "

The following

is

the result

of

the

Paddington,

March 25th, 1847. experiment

I

made with

Mr. Galloway's locomotive engine, in which the driving wheels aiv placed horizontally, and act against the sides of a centre rail Weight Weight

of engine of load

:



20 tons. 134 h 33$ tons.

"This weight was taken at a slow speed up an incline

of 1 in 19,

with a pressure on the boiler of 601b. on the inch, and calculating the

power of the engine and actual duty performed, we have as follows — With steam at 601b. in the boiler, the average effective pressure on the pistons, after deducting back pressure, will be about 501b. on :

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

110

the inch, then the area of the two cylinders 308

and double stroke

of piston equals 32in.,

X 50

== 15,400io.,

and circumference

of driving

wheel 116in. "Therefore, as 116in.

:

15,400

:

:

32: 4,248 tractive power on the

rim of the wheel, And

gravity per ton, 1 in 19 == 118 lb, Friction ditto 7 lb. ... 125



therefore, 4,248

4,187

=



4,187-5 lb. X 33-5 tons resistance overcome,

can be hoped for in any

from the

611b., the total loss

the working parts of the engine, which I think,

and from the

class of engines,

friction of

as small a loss as

is

facility of

applying screws to increase the weight on the driving wheels to an/ required amount, there

is

no

difficulty

from

slipping.

" (Signed)

The

" Atlas,"

Daniel Gooch."

constructed for the Manchester and Sheffield Railway,

She was

deserves notice.

built

by Sharp Bros, and

from the

Co.,

designs of Mr. Beyer, their then chief engineer, but afterwards head of the well-known firm of locomotive builders, Beyer,

Peacock and

Co., of Manchester.

The

" Atlas "

commenced work

in

May,

1

846, and during the suc-

ceeding 17 months she travelled 40,222 miles, with a coke consumption of 36.531b. per mile, although engaged in hauling heavy goods

The engine had

trains.

inside cylinders, 18in. diameter, 24in. stroke

the whole of the framing and bearings were inside the wheels boiler

was

13ft. 6in. long

and

3ft.

6in. diameter,

brass tubes of If in. external diameter; 4ft. 6in.

diameter

ments being

3ft.

;

and a mid-feather,

;

the

and contained 175

the wheels were cast-iron,

a copper fire-box was provided,

8in. long, 3ft. 3£in. wide,

fire-bars to the top.

;

and

its inside 3ft.

The water space around the

4|in.

fire-box

measure-

from the

was

3in.,

4in. wide, divided the fire-box.

The cylinders were secured to each other by internal flanges, which formed the bottom of the smoke-box, and also the chief cross-stay between the frames. The valves were in one chest, located below the The weight of the cylinders, and inclined towards each other. The stuffing-boxes. through working spindles was carried by valves regulator was provided with two perforated discs, so that the steam was admitted very gradually, the volume increasing as the two sets of perforations

came opposite each

The weight

of the " Atlas "

other.

was 24

tons,

and

five other

engines of

"

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

111

exactly similar designs were supplied to the Manchester and Sheffield Railway. of the same description was supplied to the ManBirmingham Railway, and on October 3rd, 1836, "No. 30"

Another engine chester and

hauled a train of 101 wagons, weighing 597 tons, from Longsight to Crewe, a distance of 29 miles, at the average speed of 13.7 miles an hour.

The mention of a powerful engine and a record train on one railway naturally suggests a better one on another line, so we have the "Essex" going "one better" than "No. 30." This time we have a load of 149 loaded wagons (probably equal to 890 tons), and forming a train nearly half a mile long. The "Essex" is also stated to have hauled a train of 192 empty trucks. The engine in question was built for the Eastern Union Railway by Stothart, Slaughter, and Co., Bristol, in 1847, and had wheels 4ft. 9in. diameter, cylinders 15in. by 24in. stroke, weight 22 tons.

In 1846, Stephenson and Co. supplied the South Eastern Railway " White Horse of Kent " (the " White Elephant Newcastle " would have been a far more descriptive name). This engine probably exhibited the "long boiler" folly in a more marked

with an engine called the of

manner than any other engine

She was She had cylinders 15in. by 22in. stroke, 5ft. 6in. driving wheels, and weighed Gooch says this engine was so unsteady that it was 18| tons. necessary to be tied on to make experiments on the smoke-box temperature, and that the tubes were so long that one end of the engine was 21ft.

lOin. long,

of that notorious class.

with a wheel base of only

10ft.

3£in.

!

actually condensing the steam generated at the other end!

At this time Mr. T. R. Crampton turned his attention to locomotive construction, and patented a design of locomotive. He claimed for his design the following

advantages



viz.,

a reduction of the rock-

ing and vibrating motion, obtained by lowering the centre of gravity,

and by locating the greater portion of the weight between the supan increased heating surface ; and a superiority of arrangement

ports of

;

the working parts, the whole of which were placed immediately

under the eye of the driver.

The

first

engine constructed on this principle was the "

Namur

under Crampton's patent by Tulk and Ley, of the Lowcra Works, Whitehaven, for the Namur and Liege Railway. " The illustration shows that the chief peculiarity of the " Namur behind was the position of the driving wheels, the axle of which was (Fig. 40), built

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

112

One

the fire-box, so that the axle extended across the foot-plate. spring,

formed

parallel with

of plates, also

extended across the back of the fire-box,

and above the driving

axle,

and acting upon

it

at the

bearings.

The chimney was

6ft.

6in.

high

the smoke-box was very narrow,

;

being no wider than the diameter of the chimney; the cylinders were outside,

bearings;

inside

all

the wheels had

and horizontal;

the

valve-chests were on the outer side of the cylinders, so that the eccen-

were

trics

extreme ends of the axles, beyond the wheels, and

at the

quite exposed.

Y7

"NAMUR," THE FIRST ENGINE BUILT ON CRAMPTON'S

HO. 40.-THE

PRINCIPLE

The boiler barrel was surmounted by an immense fluted dome, which was fitted with two lever safety valves, whilst a third one, of casing. the spring pattern, was provided on the fire-box The following are the

principal dimensions of the

"Namur"

of leading

:



and middle

Diameter of driving-wheels, 7ft, diameter total wheel base, 13ft.; cylinders, 16in. diameter, 3ft, 9in. ;

wheels,

20in. stroke; 2in.

;

;

number

of tubes,

182—length

fire-box, 4ft. 3in. long, 3ft. 5in. wide

heating surface

:

;

lift.,

external diameter

area of fire-tube, 14ft. Bin.

fire-box 62ft., tubes 927ft., total 989ft.

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

113

The engine was completed

early in February, 1847, and previous was tried for several weeks on the London and North Western Railway, running over 2,300 miles. All classes of to its exportation,

traffic

A

it

were hauled by the engine, and she gave general

satisfaction.

speed of 75 miles an hour was attained between Willesden and

On

Harrow, when running "light."

another occasion, 50 miles an

hour was attained on a trip from Camden Town to Wolverton with a coke train, weighing 50 tons, between Tring and Wolverton. "

The

Namur " weighed

22 tons, of which 7£ tons were on the

leading wheels, 4 tons on the centre wheels, and 10| tons on the driving wheels.

The L. and N.W.R. were so satisfied with the " Namur " that Tu!k and Ley were instructed to build a Crampton engine for that railway and the "London" (Fig. 41) was produced in 1848 in response to this

-

FIB.

"LONDON," THE FIRST ENGINE WITH A NAME ON THE SOUTHERN DIVISION OF THE L. & N.W.R,

41.— CRAMPTOJTS

order.

She was the

N.W.R.

to

first

engine on the southern division of the L, and

The driving wheels were 8ft. diameter, the The boiler was oval in vertical diameter being 4ft. 8in., and its horizontal diameter The heating surface was 1,350 sq. ft. The fire-box exhave a name.

cylinders 18in. diameter and 20in. stroke.

shape, its 3ft.

lOin.

tended below the driving In

April,

1847,

axle.

Mr.

express engine, "Iron Duke," sents an engine of this class.

D.

Gooch's

commenced

famous

to run.

She was the

first

broad-guage

Fig.

42 repre-

of a set of twenty-

nine locomotives of almost similar construction, designed to work the

114

EVOLUTION OF TEE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE Great Western express

ment on the

trains.

The

" Iron

115

Duke " was an improve-

celebrated "Great Western," previously described;

the

most noticeable difference was the absence of the domed fire-box in the "Iron Duke." The total mileage of this engine, up to October, 1871, when it was withdrawn from service, amounted to 607,412 miles. The best-known engine of the class is "Lord of the Isles," built at Swindon in 1850, and exhibited at the International Exhibition, Lonshe commenced to run July, 1852, and continued inactive don, 1851 service on the Great Western Railway for 29 years, during which time 789,300 miles were covered by the " Lord of the Isles." This famous ;

FiO.

43.— "No. 61,"

LONDON AND BRIGHTON RAILWAY

broad-gauge locomotive

is still preserved by the Great Western Railway. The next point in the evolution of the locomotive that deserves attention is the famous class of engines known as the "Jenny Lind"

design.

Much has been written concerning these engines during recent many uncorroborated and absurd statements have been made but it was most clearly demonstrated that to Mr. David Joy

years, and ;

was due the chief honour of designing the successful class of locomotive known far and near as "Jenny Linds." Such a design wa? elaborated from the adoption of the best features of the several descriptions of locomotives then in use.

The first of the type of engine afterwards known as the Jenny Lind " class was constructed for the London and Brighton Railway by E. B. Wilson and Co., Railway Foundry, Leeds, and was commenced building in November, 1846, and completed in *'

i

2

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

116

The

May, 1847. ag follows

to driving

:

principal features of the engines

—Steam

pressure

1

may

and outside bearings to the leading and

outside frames, outside

pumps

be summarised

201b. per square inch, inside hearings

trailing wheels,

located between the driving and trailing

wheels, and worked by cranks fixed on the outside of the driving axles.

The engine had a square seating

raised fire-box; the dome was fluted and had a the safety valve was enclosed within a fluted column,

;

and fixed on the

fire-box.

Polished mahogany lagging was used for both the boiler and firebox, the same being secured by bright brass hoops. The tops of the safety valves and dome were bright copper. The first trip of the

"Jenny Lind" was from Leeds to Wakefield and back. Ten engines were supplied to the London and Brighton Railway, and were numbered 61 (Fig. 43) to 70. The principal dimensions were Driving wheels 6ft. diameter; leading and trailing wheels, 4ft. diaof this class

:

meter; cylinders

(inside),

loin, diameter, 20in. stroke;

A

long, 3ft. 8in. diameter; 124 tubes, 2in. diameter.

boiler,

lift,

water space of

3in. was left between the inner and outer shells of the fire-box. ing surface, tubes 700 sq. ft., fire-box 80 sq. ft.

It is



Heat-

significant to note that in the original description of the

"Jenny Lind," published

in 1848,

we

are informed that "in establish-

ing this class of engine Messrs. Wilson have studied less the introduction of dangerous novelties than the judicious combination of isolated

examples of well-tried conveniences."

This statement exactly agree*

with those recently made by Mr. Joy.

The great

success of the "

Jenny Lind " type caused Sharp Bros, and "Jenny Sharps."

Co. to introduce a rival class of engines nicknamed

The engines were provided with a mid-feather for the purpose of dimensions of the " 801b.

;

augmenting the heating

Jenny Sharps

"

were as follow

:

in the fire-box

The

principal

—Steam

pressure,

surface.

cylinders, 16in. diameter, 20in. stroke; driving wheels, 5ft. 6in.

diameter; heating surface, tubes

(of

which there were 161, each

10ft.

919 sq. ft. Mr. Kirtley, the locomotive superintendent of the Midland Railway, arranged a trial between the rival "Jennies," and the event came off

long and 2in. diameter) 847

on May

4th, 5th,

and

sq. ft,, fire-box,

72

sq. ft.

;

total,

6th, 1848.

Sharp's engines were Nos. 60 and 61, and Wilson's Nos. 26 and 27.

The first trip was with a load of 64 tons, made up of nine carriages and two brake-vans, weighted with iron chairs to 64 tons.

— EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE 60 took the

Sharp's No.

the weight being, engine

train,

first

21 tons 9 cwt., tender 12 tons 11 cwt., load 64 tons; including

officials, etc.,

The journey was from Derby

39min.

Among ;

tons, or,

1

in 330,

and

falling for the

The weather was

rate.

the metals dry, and there was no wind.

William

ent

98

to Masborough, 40^ miles, the line

remainder of the distance at about the same

3h.

total,

about 100 tons.

rising for the first 20 miles at about

fine,

117

Huskinson 5§sec.

p.m.,

drove

the

which

train,

and arrived

left

Masborough

at

at

Derby

at

4.28 "p.m.

the passengers were Messrs. Kirtley, locomotive superintend-

Marlow, assistant locomotive superintendent

superintendent

and Co.

;

The

and first

;

;

Harland, carriage

E. B. Wilson and Fenton, of the firm of E. B. Wilson

T. R. Cranipton.

18 miles up the bank of

1

in

330 were covered in

25 minutes 12£ seconds, being at an average speed of nearly 43 miles

an hour.

Before starting, the water in the tender had been heated

to nearly boiling point

;

16 cwt. of coke were consumed, or 44.81b- per

mile; 10,2901b. of water were evaporated, equal to 5.71b. of water to lib. of coke.

Wilson's engine, No. 27, was next tried. 1 cwt.,

and her tender, loaded, 15 tons 13

thus being 103 tons 14 cwt.

Derby

at 7h.

She weighed 24 tons

cwt., the total load with train

William Carter drove the train, which left

lOmin. 20sec, and arrived at Masborough at 7h. 56miu,

42sec, the speed averaging 52 miles an hour.

The first 18 miles were

negotiated in 22 minutes 44f seconds, or at nearly 47 miles an hour. Only 13 cwt. of coke was used, equalling 36.41b. per mile.

The following table shows the working bank to the seventeenth mile-post

of the

two engines up the

:

1

Mile Post. 1 2

3

4 5 6 7

Jenny

Sharp." Miles per hour. 21-6 39-6 42-0

42-5 45-4 46-8 44-5 46-2 47-0

" Jenny

" Jenny Lind." Miles per

hour. 2J.9 44-5 51-0 51-4 51-4 51-2 48-9 50-0 52-5

Mile Post. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

118

William Mould drove the Sharp engine, and William Barrow the Wilson 'engine (No.

26).

The coke consumption was

-

— Sharp's,

16 cwt., or 44.81b. per mile

Wilson's, 12 cwt., or 33.61b. per mile.



Water evaporated by lib.

or 61b. of water

Sharp's,

per mile, or 7.51b. of water by

The

10,8401b., equal to 27.11b. per mile,

of coke; Wilson's, 10,1161b., equal to 25.291b. lib. of coke.

18 miles up the bank were covered in 26 minutes 19 seconds by the "Jenny Lind," and in 27 minutes 55 seconds by first

the "Jenny Sharp."

The

tables

show the speeds Sharp's Engine. Miles per hour. 15

Mile Post. 1 2 3

4 5 6 7 8 9

43-9 43-9 41-9 42-4 43-9

Beyond the

which the posts were passed

Wilson's Engine. Miles per hour. 18-3 40-9 45'6 46'8 46'8 46-2

36-5

48 42-4

at

434 43 4 44-5

Sharp's Engine. Miles per hour.

Mile Post. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

:

— Wilson's Engine. Miles per hour.

43-9 44-5 43-9 43 4

445

43 4

44 5

44 -.r> 45-(>

450 45-0

429

43-9-

42 9

42-4 41-4

41-9

thirtieth mile-post Wilson's engine,

which had been

considerably in advance, according to the time taken, began to lose

ground, in consequence of the driver allowing the

upon

arrival at

Masborough he had

fire to

get low, and

scarcely sufficient steam to shunt

the train.

Mr. Kirtley considered the

a second one was arranged

trial unsatisfactory for this reason,

for the next day, but with

no more

and

satis-

factory result, as upon this occasion, after travelling a mile, a joint

cover of one of the cylinders worked loose, consequently a great deal

Weof steam escaped during the remaining 39 miles of the trip. have given the real facts in connection with the original " Jenny Linds " at some length, for the purpose of placing on permanent record the details of these capital locomotives, and so prevent our readers-

and students

of locomotive history generally

from being misled by the

absurdly inaccurate romances that have, for some obscure purpose,

been recently circulated concerning the

The

"

Jenny Lind."

original design of the locomotive

singular that

we

now

(Fig. 44.)

to be described

is

so-

are reminded of the extravagant examples of locomo-

tive construction appertaining to 1830, or thereabouts, rather than

the year now under review.

Yet, strange as

it

may

to-

appear, the " Corn-

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE wall " (Fig. 45) is

still

running express trains, although

it

119

must be

con-

has undergone a complete metamorphosis since it was built The engine in question was designed by Mr. F. at Crewe in 1847. Trevithick, son of the famous "father of the locomotive," and was fessed

it

to be a narrow-gauge improvement on Gooch's famous "Great Western," as Trevithick wished to build a locomotive that would be able to attain a higher rate of speed than the renowned broadgauge engine. To do this, he considered an increase of the diameter

intended

of the driving wheels a sine

the "

Cornwall

Fie.

44,

"

qua non.

with driving wheels

8ft.

He

therefore

constructed

6in. in diameter.

His next

-THE "JENNY L1ND," A FAMOUS LOCOMOTIVE BUILT BY

WILSON AND proposition was that as

CO.,

8ft.

LEEDS, IN

1846

was then considered the limit

of size

for driving wheels on the broad-gauge, with the boiler above the

driving axle,

it

was necessary to place the boiler below the driving on the narrow gauge. And, there-

axle with wheels 8ft. 6in. diameter fore, i.e.,

Trevithick constructed the " Cornwall," with underhung boilers,

beneath the driving

axle.

meter, with a stroke of 24in.

The cylinders were outside, 17^ in. diaThe heating surf ace was 1,046 sq. ft. The

—a group

of four leading wheels,

the driving, and a single pair of trailing wheels.

in

working order, 27

in

locomotive was carried on eight wheels

tons.

Weight of engine The "Cornwall" was very successful

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

120

attaining high rates of speed, and, indeed, far exceeded Trevithick's

expectations in this respect.

has

It

been

miles an hour

stated

accepted with reserve

made

it

that

she

attained

down the Madeley Bank.

—not

that the bond fides of the engineer

when

travelling at a great

even when proper instruments are employed.

FIG

who

are doubted, but rather because of the difficulty of obtain-

ing correctly the exact speed of engines rate,

a speed equal to 117

Such a statement must be

We know

that

CORNWALL." WITH Bft. 6in. DRIVING WHEELS, AND BOILER BELOW THE DRIVING AXLE

45.— TREVITHICK'S

'

with an ordinary watch cor-ect results are almost impossible, and an error of a second or two

make a very

when calculating a quarter of a mile will when arriving at the approximate rates

great difference

However, be this as

in miles per hour.

acknowledged that the

"

it

may,

is

it

Cornwall " attained speeds that

generally

may

fairly

be called phenomenally high.

On November train

9th, 1847, the "Cornwall" was hauling a goods from Liverpool, and upon rounding the curve near Winsford

Station, ran into a coal train, the result being the death of the driver of the " Cornwall," the engine

being thrown across both

lines, whilst

the tender and trucks were projected over the engine, and did not

come to a standstill for several yards. The " Cornwall " was one of the features Exhibition (held in

Hyde Park, London,

of the first International

in

1851).

In 1862

Mr.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE.

121

y

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

122

Ramsbottom

and placed her new boiler over She was numbered " 1 73," and still works the three-quarter-of-an-hour express trains between Liverpool and Manchester. She completed her jubilee of active service last year, and is still running. The present number of the "Cornwall" is "3020," J.

rebuilt the "Cornwall,"

the driving wheels.

and she

now

is

only a

six- wheeled

engine.

McConnell made an experiment in counterbalancing a locomotive on the London and North Western Railway in 1848. The engine in question was the "Snake," No.

built

175,

by Jones and Potts on

McConnell's plan was to provide a

Stephenson's long-boiler principle.

connecting-rod attached to a block working between slide bars, on the

opposite side of the driving axle to that on which the piston,

By

etc.,

method he considered that, providing his extra rod-block, etc., weighed the same as the pistons and other reciprocating parts, he had attained a perfect method of counterbalancing. The result was a rude disillusion of the idea, and a complete wreckage of both the theory and the " Snake," the engine breaking down on its were located.

after being fitted with this reciprocating counterbalance.

trip,

first

The only

this

result of such an addition to the

in the weight of the engine

"Snake" was an

and an augmentation

increase

of the friction

and

axle strains.

In the spring of 1848 McConnell built an engine which he expected " to prove the

had outside cylinders

It

centres. lOin.

3ft.

most powerful narrow-gauge engine ever yet diameter, and

18in.

The driving wheels were The boiler was 4ft. Sin.

6ft.

between

6in.

7ft.

diameter, leading and trailing

external diameter, 12ft. 7in. long,

and contained 190 tubes of 2in. diameter. from

built."

Height of top

of boiler

rail level, 7ft. 9in.

The height.

was 5ft. 9£in. wide, by The wheel base was as follows

fire-box

:

driving to trailing,

1 Oft.

5ft. 5in. long,

—Leading to

and

of the

same

driving, 6ft. 8in.

6in.

Another combination design in locomotive practice

is

to

be found

"No. 185," delivered to the York, Newcastle, and Berwick Railway on October 3rd, 1848, by R. Stephenson and Co. in engine

This engine had inside cylinders, but outside valve gearing and The cylinders were 16in. diameter, with 20in. stroke. The eccentrics. boiler

was

3ft.

lOin. diameter

l£in. outside diameter, tubes,

964

sq. ft,

j

lift.

fire-box,

82

long; there were 174 tubes,

and

lift,

5in.

long, the heating surface being:

sq. ft.

The driving wheels were

6ft. 6in.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

123

diameter, the leading and trailing being

3ft. 9in. diameter. Inside bearings were provided for the driving wheels and outside bearingsfor the leading and trailing wheels. Inside and outside iron-plate

frames,

lin.

thick

and

8in.

deep,

were provided.

weighed 22 tons in working order, and consumed

The

with express trains of four carriages.

"No. 185" was the driving wheels

;

This

engine

181b. of coke per mile

peculiar

feature

of

worked by eccentrics outside the the pumps were also worked off the same eccentrics, vertical valves,

and were consequently

outside, as in the "

Jenny Lind

''

The

design.

exhaust ports were below the cylinders, the pipes from which united at the blast orifice.

47—"OLD COPPER-NOB."

No. 3, FUENESS RAILWAY, THE OLDEST LOCOMOTIVE NOW AT WORK

Fig.

Locomotives that attain their "jubilee" of active service indeed very few and far between, and of the late firm of Bury, Curtis

it

and Kennedy,

Liverpool, that locomotives constructed still

are-

redounds much to the honour of the Clarence

Foundry,

by them in the year 1846 are

engaged in hauling trains on an English railway.

This firm of builders ceased to exist 46 years ago, but engines Nos. 3 (Fig. 47) and 4 of the Furness Railway are continuing monu-

ments

of the

Kennedy.

good material and sound workmanship of Bury, Curtis and

The locomotives

in question are

mounted on four

wheels.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

124

(coupled) of stroko

hase

4ft.

is 7ft.

9in. diameter, the cylinders are 14in. diameter,

and

the valves being between the cylinders.

24in.,

6in.

The

boiler is lift. 2in. long,

The wheel with a mean diameter

and contains 136 tubes of 2in. diameter, the total heating surface being 940 sq. ft. Steam pressure, 1101b. The tenders are

of 3ft. 8in.,

carried on four wheels of 3ft. diameter, the wheel base being 6ft. 9in.

The tank holds 1,000 gallons of water, and the coal space is 100 cubic feet. The engines weigh 20 tons each, and the tenders 13 tons each. The prominent "Bury" features bar framing and round back

dome

fire-boxes with

tops





are, of course,

en evidence.

The chimneys appear abnormally high when viewed side by side with modern engines; whilst the pair of Salter safety valves with long horizontal arms, the one reaching from the centre to the back of the fire-box, and •objects.

its

fellow continuing to the front, are also noticeable

These engines are usually employed in shunting goods trains

in the Barrow Docks and goods yards,

and are locally called the

" old copper nobs."



Two

viz.,

Bury engines are worth recording

the splashers, which are extended in a curious

of the wheels, " old

^

further peculiarities of these

and reach within a few inches

way over the

of the rails,

rear

and the round

copper nobs."

The period under review was a time of considerable competition between the rival gauges, and this competition naturally led to the projection of various extraordinary designs in locomotive construction,

such designs being the results of the efforts made by the narrow-

gauge engineers to equal the splendid broad-gauge locomotives then recently introduced.

During the

first

weeks

of

1848 E. Wilson and

Co., of the

Railway

Foundry, Leeds, turned out a remarkable specimen of locomotive construction ; the engine in question was named " Lablache " (after a celebrated singer).

This locomotive had two inside cylinders 16in.

diameter, 20in. stroke, and was supported on four wheels each

7ft.

•diameter; the wheel base was 16ft.

mode of working introduced into the Between the two pairs of wheels was a straight bar, or shaft, extending under the boiler, parallel with the axles, and proBetween the frames two jecting on each side beyond the frames. It is

necessary to describe the

"Lablache."

levers

were attached to

this shaft,

and the other extremities

levers were attached to the pistons

of these

by the usual piston-rod and

con-

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE necting-rodsit will

Now comes

the difference in working

;

125

the driving axle r

The

be observed, was not cranked, but provided with arms.

axle did not revolve, but simply vibrated backwards and forwards.

Outside the frames were double-ended levers, one end being coupled to a crank on the leading wheel, and the opposite end connected in a

locomotive were connected in

The wheels on both sides of the the same way that a rotary motion is

communicated to a lathe by a

treadle.

similar

manner to the

trailing wheels.

When

first

constructed india-

rubber springs were provided for this engine's bearings.

Another engine It

of a similar design

was

built,

but

much

lighter.

ran upon the York, Newcastle, and Berwick line for some years.

We may With a

say that no other engine on this system was ever

built.

an hour is said to have been maintained between Rugby and Leicester. This was, however, due to the high pressure of the steam. Upon another occasion 80 miles an hour was attained ; and the engine hauled train of three carriages, an average speed of 75 miles

a train of 53 loaded wagons, weighing 430 tons, at an average speed

30 miles an hour. After some little time, the fire-box of the "Lablache" was destroyed, and she was then returned to the Railway

of

Foundry, and altered into a four-coupled engine of the usual type, and sold to a railway contractor.

Another locomotive of peculiar design now deserves notice. At a glance it might be supposed that the " Albion " was propelled on the same principle as the "Lablache" previously described. Such is first

not, however, the case, the

machinery being of an entirely different

We

have been fortunate enough to secure the original working drawings of the " Albion " and the three other engines con-

character.

structed on the same method, designated the " Cambrian " system.

A

patent for this method of working steam engines was obtained in

1841 by Mr. John Jones, of Bristol, and applied to stationary engines.

Broadly speaking, the modus operandi

as follows

is

:

—A central

shaft is provided, extending under the boiler of the locomotive and

projecting beyond the frames on both sides.

Between the frames the which and fitted to

shaft passes through a segmental cylinder, within

the shaft was a species of disc piston,

made

to vibrate throughout the

length of the hollow segment of the cylinder.

It will, therefore, te observed that the motion was obtained from a vibrating disc engine,

the blades of which were fixed on the driving shaft

;

the difference,

between Wilson's locomotive and the ones we are now describing being

3

;;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

126

that the former was actuated by two horizontal engines working a rocking shaft by connecting-rods, whilst the latter were driven by a

upon the rocking

disc engine, fixed directly

shaft.

for connecting the driving wheels with the shaft

The arrangement was very similar

in both classes of engines.

The premier "Cambrian" locomotive was named "Albion" (Fig. 48), and was built in 1848 by Messrs. Thwaites Bros., of the Vulcan Foundry, Bradford. She was a six-wheel engine, the leading and middle pairs of wheels both receiving motion by means of the connecting-rods from the outside levers attached to the driving shaft.

The top

of the fire-box

the boiler barrel.

was considerably above the

Upon

this raised fire-box

with a square seating, above the

dome

was

level of the top of

fitted

a steam

dome

was an enclosed Salter patter a

safety valve.

The

principal dimensions of the

driving wheels,

wheel base

5ft.

—leading

Gin.

to driving, 9ft. 6in.

boiler, 12ft. long, containing It

"Albion" were:

diameter, and trailing, ;

3ft.

—Leading 9in.

in

diameter;

driving to trailing, 5ft. 8in.

149 tubes; throw of cranks, 20in.

should be observed that the "Albion " was fitted with the " link "

motion.

The patentee claimed the following advantages for locomotives "Cambrian" system viz., perfect balance of working parts, thus entirely doing away with the centre pressure and strain



built on the

the complete avoidance of

dangerous oscillation; the ends of the through the greater part of a circle, the extremities of the stroke, and so comall

oscillating levers, in passing

gained increased power at

pensated for the loss of power in the cranks as they approached the

dead centres. This

is

explained by observing that as the lever approaches the

extremities of the stroke

from

the actual length diminishes, and becomes and 13£in. at the centres,

18in. to l7tin., 16in., 15|in., 14in.,

so that the

power

of the lever increases in proportion to its

diminution

in length. tear of the machinery was less than in an ordinary being fewer working parts, whilst the centre of there locomotive,

The wear and

gravity was considerably lowered.

The above advantages summarised amounted

to the advantages oi

the long-stroke crank without a long-stroke cylinder, and consequently

ihe absence of a high-piston velocity.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

127

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

128

The

**

Albion" made. its

initial trip in

June, 1848, the length of

line selected being

from Bradford to Skipton, on the Leeds and Bradford Railway; the distance was about 18 miles. The speed attained and the low fuel consumption are stated to have more than the

satisfied

builders

and

others

concerned.

The "Albion" was

afterwards tried on the Midland Railway between Derby and Birmingham, and the result of these trials showed that the coke consumption

was

51b. per mile less than with the ordinary locomotives, although the trains hauled were of greater weight than usual. We have been unable to obtain further details of the working of this interesting loco-

motive. The patentee appears to have sent details of the duties performed by the "Albion" to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 1849 ; but these were not printed in the " Proceedings," nor is

now able to find any

trace of the papers

archives of the Institution.

Messrs. Thwaites

the Secretary of the Institution in question

among the

Bros., the builders, inform us that about

30 years ago the engine in question was working at Penistone, near Sheffield, and that she was afterwards taken over by the Manchester, Sheffield

and Lincolnshire

Railway. Unfortunately, the locomotive department of that railway does

not appear to have preserved any particulars relating to the "Cambrian" it came into the possession of the Manchester, Shefand Lincolnshire Railway. The other three engines with " Cambrian " machinery were tank

locomotive after field

Two of these were propelled in a similar manner to the locomotives. " Albion," the segmental cylinder being below the frames, and located between the driving and leading wheels, both pairs diameter, the trailing wheels being

5ft. 3in.

3ft.

of

which were

9in. diameter.

One

two tank engines had a raised fire-box, similar to that of the "Albion"; but the other had a " Gothic " fire-box, with the wood lagging exposed to view. The other features of the former were a boibr of these

12ft. long,

and a steam dome on the

safety valves, placed side

by

side.

fire-box, fitted

with two Salter

This engine had the " link " motion.

Three water-tanks were provided, one beneath the foot-plate, the second below the frames between the leading and driving wheels, and the third extended from the front of the leading axle under the

The wheel base was, The engine had inside frames and

smoke-box, and terminated at the buffer beam. L. to D.

9ft. 6in.,

bearings.

D. to T.

5ft. 8in,

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE "

The locomotive with the reversing gear,

worked

off

boiler

was

The

was 19in.

129

Gothic "

fire-box' was fitted with a T ab the leading axle; the throw of the cranks

12ft. long

<

and

3ft. 5in.

diameter, and con

— one

tained 121 tubes.

Two

foot-plate, the other

below the frames between the leading and driving

water-tanks were provided

The wheel base

wheels.

beneath the

of this engine was, L. to D. lift., D. to T.

oft, 8in.

The third Cambrian tank engine of which we possess the drawings was a six-wheel locomotive, with single driving wheels oft. 6in. diameter, the leading and trailing wheels being

wheel base was

loft. 5in.,

3ft. 9in.

The

diameter.

equally divided.

This engine also had a "'Gothic" fire-box, and was provided with a sledge brake, which acted on the rails between the driving and

The reversing gear was

trailing wheels.

water tanks were fixed frames,

the

boiler

was

this

in

between

driving

the

driving

engine

and

trailing

and contained 126 tubes. arranged in an entirely

shaft

Avas

being

cylinder

through

passed

the

The

of the fork pattern.

foot-plate, the other

below

the

cylinder,

beneath

The The machinery

wheels.

lift. 2in. long,

segmental

the

—one below the

different

manner,

The

smoke-box.

and projected beyond

the frames on either side of the engine, and vibrated in an arc, as did ihat of the " Albion "

;

but instead of a lever being attached to each

end of the cranks, the latter only extended in one direction, so that at

one end the crank was fixed on the driving shaft, while to

extremity was pivoted a

mnecting-rod,

i

4ft.

its

which was pivoted on a vertical arm, the upper end of this attached to the frame by a horizontal bolt, on which it hung. very

difficult to explain

other

end of arm being

long, the other

,

It is

the method of propulsion without a drawing,

be understood that the connecting-rod from the driving Another crank, 6ft, long, was shaft to the hanging-rod only vibrated. vertical swinging-rod; the end the bottom of also attached to the the driving wheel by means with connected crank was of this other end

but

it will

of the usual outside pin.

It will, therefore,

be seen that by means

of

the hanging-rod the vibrating motion was transformed into a rotary The feed-pumps were worked off the vertical rod, the motion of one.

which was similar to that fastened to its bottom end.

of

a pendulum, with the connecting-rods of these four remarkable

The drawings

locomotives are on a large scale, and are well executed

;

parts of

them

being coloured, they are also mostly in a good state of preservation.



CHAPTER

IX.



locomotives Samuel's "Lilliputian "_ and broad-gauge "Fairfield," constructed by Bridges Adams—Samuel's " Enfield "- Original broad-gauge "singles" converted into tank engines The rise of "tank" engines, "saddle," and " well "-— Adams'

The

era of "light" and combination

"Little

Wonder''

—The





railways—The Norfolk Railway adopts them Engexhibited at the 1851 Exhibition- Supplied to the the Liverpool and Stockton, Dundee and Perth, Hawthorne's " Plews " for the Y.N. and B.R.— Crampton's monster "Liverpool" Taylor's design for a locomotive— Pearson's prototype of the "Fairlie" engine Ritchie's non-oscillating rngine Timothy Hack,vorth again to the front—His celebrated " Sanspareil, No. 2" His challenge to Robert Stephenson unaccepted—Bury's " Wrekin " Caledonian Railway locomotive, No. 15 " Mac's Mangle " on the L. and N.W.R.

"light" engines on Irish land's "Little England" Edinburgli and Glasgow, and Blackwall Railways









Many

curious

contrivances

of the locomotive



were introduced into the construction

about the period now under review.

Among

these

improvement of locomotion, few are move interesting than the combined locomotive and carriage introduced some fifty years ago by Mr. W. Bridges Adams. early proposals

Mr.

for the

Adams had a wide

experience of every section of railway con-

Indeed, in the preface to one of his books, in writing of his

struction.

he says that he had " years of practical utility in planning the construction of nearly all machines that run on roads and rails also from navvy's barrow up to a locomotive engine," experience,



Nor

are Mr. Adams's contributions to railway literature inconsider-

books between 1838 and 18G2, he was periodical, and also wrote voluminously under of a editor time one at the pseudonym of " Junius Redivivus." Having thus briefly mentioned Mr. W. B. Adams as being entitled

able, for, besides writing several

to a far more important position in the evolution of our locomotives than is usually accorded him, we will now proceed to discuss the

combined locomotives and railway carriages, of which Mr. Adams was the chief advocate. The first machine of the kind, however, appears to have been constructed by Mr. Samuels, of the Eastern Counties Railway, for the purpose of quickly and economically

subject

of

conveying the

officials of

the railway over the system.

was apparently called both the "Lilliputian" This It was constructed in 18i7, and made its Wonder." "Little and the engine

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE first trip

to

131

Cambridge on Saturday, October 23rd, leaving London

10-30 a.m., and reaching the University town at 2.45 p.m.

were made at three intermediate stations for water,

etc.,

at

Stops

which occu-

pied about half an hour, so that the 57£ miles were covered in about

105 minutes' running-time.

The

total length of the "Little

Wonder" was

12ft. 6in., in

which

space was included the boiler, machinery, water-tank, and seats for

The frame was hung below the

seven passengers.

on four wheels

3ft.

axles,

and carried

4in. diameter.

The floor was 9in. above rail level. The machinery consisted of two cylinders, 3|in. diameter, and placed one on each side of the vertical boiler

The it

boiler

was

The

the driving axle was cranked.

;

cylindrical in shape, 19in. diameter

contained 35 tubes.

3in. long

3ft.

heating surface being 38

The

sq. ft.

diameter and 14in high,

and

l|in.

fire-box

stroke was 6in.

and

4ft. 3in.

high;

diameter; the tube

was

circular in shape,

heating surface being 5 J sq. ft. The link motion, feed pumps, etc., were provided. The water-tank

16in.

its

held 40 gallons, and was placed under the seats.

the "Little

Wonder" with a

full

The usual speed

of

load was 30 miles an hour; and as

The coke

high a rate as 44 miles an hour was often attained.

sumption was only 2 Jib. per mile.

The weight

of the

con-

whole vehicle,

including fuel and water, was only 2 5 J- owt.

Samuels' cessful,

it

initial effort

with light locomotives having been so suc-

occurred to him that branch

traffic

could be

much more

cheaply worked by means of a combined engine and carriage, instead of the usual locomotive

Mr. of the

Adams

also

kind, and

had

and train of carriages. for some time been in favour

of

a combination

Mr. Gregory, the engineer of the Bristol

and Exeter

Railway, was also in favour of the system being tried on the short branches of that railway, the passenger carriages on one at least of

which were at that time drawn by horses. Mr. Gregory, the directors of the Bristol

Adams

Acting upon the advice oi and Exeter Railway ordered

and engine for working the traffic was completed in December, machine The was made upon the broad-gauge satisfactory trial of it and a 1848, metals of the West London Railway. This combination, which was

Mr.

to construct a vehicle

on the Tiverton branch.

constructed by Mr.

Adams

at Fairfield

Works, Bow,

E.,

was

called

the " Fairfield " (Fig. 49), and was brought into use on the Tiverton

branch on December 23rd, 1848.

E

2

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

132

was 39ft., and the boiler was placed in a vertical posiThe driving wheels were 4ft. 6in. diameter, and were originally made of solid wrought iron. The middle and trailing wheels, 3ft. 6in. diameter, were of wood, and loose on their axles as well as their Its length

tion.

journals, the middle wheels having a lateral transverse of 6in.

Fia.

49.—THE "FAIRFIELD,*" ADAMS'S

COMBINED BROAD-GAUGE ENGINE

AND TRAIN, FOR THE BRISTOL AND EXETER RAILWAY

The

boiler

was

vertical, 3ft. in

tained 150 tubes; the fire-box

was

diameter and 2ft.

high and

6ft.

high, and con-

2ft. 6in. in

diameter.

The cylinder was 8in. diameter, with 12in. stroke. The connectingrods worked on a separate crank shaft, which communicated with the driving wheels by side rods, the axle of the driving wheels being straight,

The

with crank pins on the outside. boiler

of holding

was placed behind the driving

axle,

200 gallons of water, being in front of

box was attached to the front part

of

The working pressure was 1001b. The bottom of the framing was within

the tank, capable it;

and the coke-

the carriage behind the

driver.

9in. of

the

rails,

so tLat

by keeping the centre of gravity low greater safety might be ensured at high speed, and freedom from oscillation obtained. The first-class carriage was in the form of a saloon, and accom-

compartment machine was about 10 and when occupied with forty-eight passengers it amounted to

modated sixteen passengers; seated thirty-two. tons,

The

about 12^ tons. On the experimental

whilst the

second-class

entire weight of the

trip,

on December

8th, 1848, the "Fairfield'"

Paddington Station at 10.30 a.m. for Swindon, 77 miles down the line, with a party of gentlemen connected with various railways. Mr. Gooch officiated as driver on both the up and down journeys. left

Though the

rails

were greasy from the prevailing

rain, in addition

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE



ltt



eo a head wind and, what was worse, a leak in the boiler the machine soon attained considerable speed, and for a portion of the

way reached the rate of 49 miles an hour. On arriving at Swindon the fire was extinguished, the leak partially repaired, and, after a reasonable sojourn, the party returned to town. The run back was exceedingly satisfactory, the speed of 49 miles being maintained for

a considerable part of the way, the passage from Slough to Paddingto-i

being performed in 30 minutes.

As previously

stated, the crank-shaft

was unprovided with wheels,

the motion being conveyed to the driving wheels by means of craiks fixed

on the outeides of the driving

axle,

and connected

to similar

cranks on the driving wheels by means of connecting-rods.

This method has erroneously been called " Crampton' s system," but it

should be noticed that

Adams used

it

for several years previous to

Crampton adopting the plan in question. and carriages were, in

Adams

built

fact,

in 1846, and, therefore,

These combined engines under a patent obtained by Mr.

some time before Crampton adopted

the inside cylinder and intermediate driving shaft. It

was found

in practice that the vertical boiler of the " Fairfield "

was not a success, so

by a horizontal tubular drawbacks to the

after

some nine months'

boiler.

trial it

was replaced

Then, after further experience, several

by means of So the engine was disconnected from the carriage and given an extra pair of wheels, and efficient

working of branch

line traffic

the combined engine and carriage were evident.

became, in engine

fact,

Adams

a miniature four-wheeled tank locomotive, a style of

afterwards became noted for building.

Mr. Samuel having obtained the sanction of the directors of the

Eastern Counties Railway, Mr. riage for the

Enfield branch

Adams traffic.

constructed a locomotive car-

The "Enfield"

(Fig.

50), in

appearance resembled a four-wheel tank engine and a four-wheel carriage, built together on a continuous frame, instead of being connected

by couplings and buffers.

two buffer bars, was together by deep bound in width,

The whole framing, with the exception of wrought-iron,

and was

8ft. 6in.

of the

cross-bars.

The engine was 7in. in diameter,

The cylinders were They were simply bolted down

of the outside cylinder class.

with a 12in. stroke.

to the surface of a stout wrought-iron plate, in the middle of which

the boiler was placed.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

134

The driving wheels were

in diameter, and, as well as the front

5ft.

pair of wheels of the carriage, were without flanges, those of the

loading engine wheels and the hind pair of the carriage being sufficient to retain the engine on the

rails,

whilst greater freedom was thus

obtained for passing around curves. the usual manner, and was

had 115

The boiler was constructed in by 2ft. 6in. in diameter, and

in length

ljin. tubes 5ft. 3in. long, giving 230ft. of tube-heating sur-

The dimensions

face.

5ft.

being an area of 25

of the fire-box

sq. ft.,

making the

were

2ft.

10|in.

by

total heating surface

2ft.

255

6in., sq.

ft.

The water was carried below the floor of the carriage in wrought-iron tubes 12in. in diameter and 12ft. long.

The coke was carried in a chest placed behind the foot-plate of the engine and immediately in front of the carriage head. The side frames were ingeniously trussed by diagonal bars of iron, and were thus rendered of great strength without adding

much weight

to the

machine.

Fig.

50.— THE "ENFIELD,"

COMBINED ENGINE AND TRAIN FOR THE EASTERN COUNTIES RAILWAY

The leading engine wheels, together with the running wheels of 3ft. in diameter. The carriage was divided into four compartments, the two middle ones being for first-class and the two external ones for second-class passengers. The guard's seat was on the carriage, were

the top of the carriage head. its

A

vertical shaft with a hand-wheel on

upper end passed down the side of the head, and was connected

beneath the framing with two transverse rocking shafts, carrying the brake blocks, placed one on each side of the driving wheels, thus giving the guard a ready

means

of control over the

speed of the

engine.

To bring up the buffers to the line of those of ordinary carriages, beams were passed across each end of the carriage, the front one being supported by neat wrought-iron brackets, rising separate timber

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE The

from the framing. 10 tons, including

£55

its

total weight of the whole was not more than supply of coke and water, and accommodation

was afforded for 42 passengers, to convey which, at 40 miles per hour, che calculated consumption of coke

was

71b.

per mile.

Mr. Samuel stated that the accommodation provided by the combined engine and carriage was not sufficient for the

traffic,

so two

additional carriages (one with a guard's compartment) were added,

the train thus having accommodation for

The

150 passengers.

"Enfield" worked this train regularly at 37 miles an hour speed.

From January 29th

to

September 9th, 1849, the train travelled

14,021 miles, and was in steam 15 hours daily, but only five of which

were spent in running.

The

total

time in steam during the above

period was 2,162 hours, the total coke

consumed being 1,437

cwt., of

which 743 cwt. was consumed in running, 408 in standing, and 286 raising

the

ll.iSlb.,

in

The average coke consumption per mile was considerable portion of this was spent in standing, the

steam.

but a

actual consumption for running being only about 61b. per mile.

In addition to the passenger

traffic,

the "Enfield" hauled

all

the

on the branch, which, during the period under review, amounted to 169 tons of goods and 1,241 tons of coal. On June 14th, 1849, the "Enfield" took the 10 a.m. train from Shore-

goods and coal

traffic

ditch to Ely, 72 miles, the train consisting of three passenger carriages

and two horse-boxes but the " Enfield " arrived eight minutes before time, and the coke consumed only amounted to 8|lb. per mile for the ;

trip,

including that used in raising steam.

When

tried

the journey of

An ordinary

between Norwich and London, the " Enfield " performed 126 miles in 3 hours 35 minutes, including stoppages.

train had, at that time, never

Although the gauge

A

" Fairfield "

special trial

Britain "

and

" Enfield "

made

appeared to use so

the journey so quickly. little fuel,

the broad-

does not seem to have been an economical machine.

was made between Gooch's famous " Fairfield,"

between Exeter and

wagon weighing 10 tons was drawn by the

8ft.

single

"Great

A

loaded

Bristol.

"Fairfield,"

making a

total

weight of 26k tons, of which the engine portion can be reckoned at

9£ tons and 17 tons for the weight of the train. The distance is 76 miles, and the time allowed for the 8 a.m. train, including ten stops,

was 2 hours 35 minutes; but the "Fairfield" took 3 hours 17 minutee to cover the distance,

and consumed 131b. of coke per mile, only

of water being evaporated for each

pound

of coke.

6.31b.

136

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

The duty performed by the two locomotives

is

thus tabulate!

:



EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

137

manner as to enable it to run independently of the Another engine and carriage was built for a Scotch railway, and was guaranteed to work at 40 miles an hour. But the advantage structed in such a

carriage.

of

Mr.

having the engine separate from the carriage was so great that Adams soon ceased to build the combination vehicles, and instead

constructed his celebrated "light" locomotives; these, and the some-

what similar "Little England" engines,

built

by England and

Co.,

were at one time very popular. Fig. 52, representing " No. 148," one of the first batch of outside

and N.W.R., shows good example of Stephenson's "long boiler" locomotive. " 148 was built by Jones and Potts, of Newton-le-Willows in 1847. The cylinders were 15in. diameter, the stroke being 24in. The driving cylinder engines on the Southern Division of the L.

''

also a

Fig.

148," LONDON AND NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY; AW EXAMPLE OF STEPHENSON'S "LONG BOILER" ENGINES

52.— "No.

wheels were without flanges, and were

6ft.

6in.

in diameter.

The

This engine was destroyed in a seven collision at Oxford on January 3rd, 1855, in which accident

leading wheels were

people lost their

4ft.

diameter.

lives.

At this period a fashion for " tank " engines had become prevalent, and most of the locomotive builders produced designs, each having features. Thus Sharp Brothers and Company's characteristic "tank" engines had outside cylinders, with the tank between the frames and below the boiler, whilst the coal was carried in a bunker Somewhat similar " single affixed to an extension of the foot-plate. tank" engines were made by the same firm for the Manchester and Birmingham Railway (London and North Western Railway). The two engines in question were Nos. 33 and 34, and were used

in

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

130

working the traffic between Manchester and Macclesfield, the daily duty of each averaging 114£ miles. These engines commenced work in May, 1847. They weighed 21 tons in working order; the driving wheels were 5ft. 6in. diameter, and the leading and trailing 3ft. 6in.

Two water-tanks were

provided," one between the leading and drivingwheels, the other under the coal bunker, at the rear of the trailing wheels. The two tanks contained 480 gallons of water. woo len

A

attached to a vertical rod was fitted to show the amount of water in the tanks The bunker contained half a ton of coals. These engines

float

!

were

with sand-boxes; but these were placed in front of the leading wheels only, although the locomotives were specially constructed for

fitted

running either bunker or chimney in front.

However, the intro-

duction of the sand-box was a step in the right direction

yet Tredgold ; only mentions the innovation in an apologetic manner. He says (after describing the working of the apparatus) that " it is very seldom required on the Macclesfield line, owing to the ballast between the rails

being mostly sand; but when the

are moist

rails

it

is

necessary in

starting a heavy train to open the sand-cock."

Tredgold then pro-

ceeds to give a detailed explanation of "

done."

how

it is

In September, 1849, Walter Neilson,, of Glasgow, obtained a patent

tank engine.

for his design of

The tank was

of the

now well-known "saddle"

the whole boiler, barrel, and smoke-box;

kind, and covered

the bottom of the saddle

tank rested on the frames on either side of the boiler, so that the

tank was semi-circular in shape, instead of being but an arc, as is the practice with modern "saddle tanks." Neilson was, however, sufficiently ingenious not to limit the design of his saddle tank, for

that "the tank

framing,

if

may be

we

find

supported from the boiler, instead of the

necessary, and

of the boiler, if required."

its

length

The

may

boiler

be made shorter than that

was fed with water drawn

from the smoke-box end of the tank, to obtain the advantage of the escaping heat. The coal bunkers were placed at the sides of the fire-box r and extended some distance towards the back buffer beam, but a bunker was not provided at the end, so as to allow " of ready access

wagons behind." The engine in question had underhung springs, outside cylinders, single driving

to the couplings of the

inside frames,

wheels, unprovided with flanges, and small leading and trailing wheels.

A

dome was placed over the fire-box, and on two "Salter" pattern safety valves, covered by a brass

short cylindrical

fixed

this were

casing.



EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE " Light locomotives "

was the popular name

of

139

tank engines when

the general use of such engines was being urged as a method of reducthe

ing

working expenses

previously alluded to Mr.

of

We

unremunerative railways.

W. Bridges Adams and

his

have

combined engines

This gentleman and Mr. England were the principal

and carriages.

advocates of the "light" locomotive, and both attained some success in connection therewith.

The engines

in question

would now be considered absurdly

but nearly fifty years ago far different ideas. of "light"

light,

and "heavy,"

as applied to locomotive engines, obtained.

The

practice of

Adams and England regarding " light " locomotives The former was a firm advocate of four wheels

differed considerably.

FIG.

53.— ADAMS'S "LIGHT"

LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE LONDONDERRY AND ENNISKILLEN RAILWAY

and a long wheel base. light locomotives to

England, on the other hand, preferred his

be supported by six wheels.

In 1847,

Adams

built

a light locomotive (Fig. 53) for the Londonderry and Enniskillen Rail-

way

(Ireland), with outside cylinders 9in. in diameter, the stroke being

15in.

The driving wheels were

th9 fire-box

;

placed beneath the smoke-box. boiler 2ft. 3in. diameter

from

5ft. in

diameter, and located in front of

the other pair of wheels were

rails, 5ft. 8in.

pressure was 1201b.

and

The

3ft.

fire-box

10ft. 3in.

long

;

was

diameter, and war* 2ft.

9in. long,

the

height of top of boiler

The connecting-rods were 5ft. 3in. long the steam The water-tank was placed beneath the boiler,

and reached to within a few inches of the surface of the

;

rails.

Mr.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

140

Adams

In Novem-

built a similar engine for the St. Helen's Railway.

1849, a broad-gauge light locomotive was built at Mr. Adams's

ber,

Works, for service on the Holyhead breakwater. The engine was from designs prepared by Mr. Thos. Gray, resident engineer of C. and J. Rigby, the contractors for the breakwater. This engine had cylinders 8in. diameter, the stroke being 18in. In July, 1849, Adams supplied two of his light engines to the Cork and Bandon Railway. These differed from those already described, as the driving wheels were the leading ones, the smaller Fairfield

in question

The

pair of wheels being at the rear. signified "

Running Fire " and

"

Irish

names

of the engines

Whirlwind."

In August, 1853, the engineer of the Cork and Bandon Railway reported that " the cost of repairs to the engines was very small, more particularly on the light engines,

which have worked

all

the fast

passenger trains in a satisfactory manner, and with the same con-



sumption of coke as heretofore

viz.,

about 101b. per mile.

These

engines were put upon the line in July, 1849, since which period they

have been daily working the passenger of cost in their repairs

traffic.

The

principal item

during the four years has been a new crank

two light engines, as also a new set of tyres on cho The light special trains conveyed by these engines

axle to each of the

driving wheels.

generally occupy about 26 minutes between the two termini of Cork and

These two

Bandon."

the Cork and

On May

light locomotives continued to

Bandon Railway

1st,

work

traffic

over

for several years.

1851, Mr. Peto, the chairman of the Norfolk Railway,

provided four light engines with 12in. cylinders, and weighing 10 tons each, to

work the branch

traffic of

that railway under the following

circumstances.

The Norfolk Railway was worked by the Eastern

Counties, and

the branch or local trains of the former were supposed to meet thb

main

line trains of the latter line at the junctions.

But the Eastern Counties

trains

had a habit

of being behind-

hand, putting in an appearance at the junctions any time between thirty minutes

As a

and an hour after the times given in the time-tables. on the Norfolk branch lines was thoroughly disindeed, so little could it be depended upon that local

result, the traffic

organised ;

passengers almost completely neglected the

line.

Then the Eastern

Counties Railway worked the Norfolk branches with the main line engines, and charged the Norfolk Railway the average expense per

mile incurred in working with these engines.

:

EVOLVTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE Such a melhod did not meet with the approval of the Norfolk Railway, so Mr. Peto obtained the

Eastern Counties Railway to allow the Norfolk

branch

local

main

of the

traffic itself,

line trains.

141

chairman

of the

sanction

Company

of

the

work the

to

and independent of the arrival and departure

Mr. Peto's new system met with instantaneous

and complete success, a great saving being effected. Thus the coke consumption of Adams's light engines, introduced by Mr. Peto, only averaged 101b. per train mile; but the Norfolk Railway had been paying the Eastern Counties Railway at the rate of 27lb. per mile, that being the average coke consumption of the Eastern Counties

Railway main line engines. traffic

was

built

A

up by reason

large and remunerative local passenger

of the

improved

local services.

The advantages claimed by Mr. Adams for his light engines were as follows Less dead weight, less friction, and less crushing and :



deflecting of the rails.

We light

will

now proceed

locomotives,

to

popularly

give

some

account

" Little

called

of

England's

Englanders

"

j

but

cognomen then had a very different meaning, as applied to loo motives, than the words have at the present time in their application England constructed his premier light engine to certain individuals. in 1849, and the " Little England " (Fig. 54) was exhibited at the ExhiDriving wheels, 4ft. 6in. bition of 1851. The chief dimensions were diameter, located in front of the fire-box leading and trailing wheels, this

:



;

3ft.

diameter; inside cylinders, placed between the leading and driv-

ing wheels, and not under the smoke-box; the frames were outside.

The

fire-box

was

of the

Bury

type, with safety valves, similar to those

still at work on the Furness was placed on the boiler barrel over the cylinders, so that the steam-pipes proceeded in a curved vertical line from the An The dome was on a square seating. dome to the cylinders. auxiliary pipe for the escape of the steam was provided at the back of the chimney, but was only about one-half as high as the chimney. At the rear of the foot-plate was a well-tank, holding water sufficient A prize medal was awarded to this engine at the for a 50-mile trip.

previously described as on the

Railway.

Bury engine

A dome

Exhibition.

England and Co. in August, 1850, sent one of their light engines on the following conditions guarantee that the engine should work the express trains between

to the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway

A

Edinburgh and Glasgow, consisting

of seven carriages,

and keep good

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

142

time as per time-bill, while the fuel consumption was not to exceed 101b. of

coke per mile.

If

the light engine performed these condi-

tions to the satisfaction of the railway

burgh and Glasgow Railway was

But

if

the

company's engineer, the Edin-

to purchase the locomotive for £1,200.

work done and the quantity

of fuel

consumed were not

as guaranteed, England and Co. were to remove the engine and pav all

expenses of the

This

" Little

trial.

England " was

tried in competition with the

" Sirius,'

former being 81b. 3oz. per mile against 291b. loz. of the "Sirius," both performing exactly the same work. The "Little England" so frequently ran in before her time that the the coke consumption

of the

had to be ordered to take longer time on the trips for fear an accident happening in consequence of the train arriving before driver

of it

was expected. The speed of this light engine frequently exceeded 60 miles an hour, and during the heavy winds and gales of January, that 1851, the "Little England" was the only locomotive on the line

Fig. 54. -ENGLAND & CO.'S "LITTLE ENGLAND" LOCOMOTIVE EXHIBITED AT THE PREMIER INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, LONDON.

1851

With a train of five carriages the coke consumption only amounted to 6Jlb. per mile. On the Campsie Junction line, the "Little England" hauled a train of seven carriages and a brake-van,

kept time.

all of

of

which were overloaded with passengers, over the several gradients

Nebrand, at 30 miles an hour.

Although the train stopped at a

station on the incline, the light engine successfully started from the station

and continued the ascent.

An

ordinary engine was sent to

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE Eissist

143

the train at the rear, in case the " Little England " proved un-

equal to the task, but

it is

said that the

bank engine was unable

to

keep up with the train!

The

following table shows the result of the trial of the "Little

England" on the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway:

to

i ia og



'

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

144

being outside the frame and worked by eccentrics on the naves of the It will be remembered that the valve gearing of

driving wheels.

Stephenson's "No. 185" was on this plan. The pumps were worked off the driving wheels, as in the "Jenny Linds." A double-beat safety valve was provided.

To enable a low-pitched boiler to be employed, the axle was cranked at the extreme ends, so that at each extremity of the axle only one return crank-arm was provided, the wheel itself forming the second one, and a pin connecting the wheel and axle-crank formed the shaft upon which the connecting-rod worked.

To increase the weight upon the driving axle, a toggle joint was placed between the bearing of the trailing axle and the springs ; a rod connected the knuckle of the toggle joint with the piston of a small

steam cylinder.

When the driver wished to obtain additional adhesion for the driving wheels, he admitted steam to this auxiliary cylinder, which drove the toggle joint into -an upright position, thereby removing the weigiit from the trailing wheels and placing it upon the driving wheels. Several other novel proposals were included in the specification in question.

In 1848, Hawthorne, of Newcastle, built an engine

No.

180,

of

number of boiler was

the York, Newcastle,

engine, 711).

named

"

Plews,"

and Berwick Railway (makers'

The locomotive had a copper fire-box. and consequently had

10ft. 8in. long, of oval shape,

The to be

stayed with four plates; 229 brass tubes of lfin. external diameter were

provided

;

two lever safety valves were

fixed

on a raised

fire-box

enclosed in a brass casing; the steam pressure was 1201b. large cast-iron

dome

A

and very

placed on the centre ring of the boiler was a

characteristic of the "Plews."

The

cylinders were placed between the outside and inside frames,

diameter 16in. and stroke 20in.

;

whilst the slide valves were outside

the cylinders, being worked by four eccentrics, on the outside of the

The driving wheels were

wheels, but within the outside frames.

diameter, the leading and trailing being

4ft.

diameter

;

7ft.

the whole of

the bearings were outside.

When

was turned into the tender for the purThe tender was carried on six wheels diameter, and was capable of holding 1,400 gallons of

at rest, the steam

pose of heating the feed-water. of 3ft. 6in.

water.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

145

Brake blocks were provided for both sides of the six wheels, and an ingenious arrangement of tooth wheels and rack applied the whole of the blocks by

means

of a few turns of the

Crampton's engine, 14

"

ultimatum for the narrow-gauge."

stand

many

;

"

ultimatum

title for

the

Why, we

are at a loss to under-

other narrow-gauge engines have been constructed of

greater power, and certainly of

The

brake handle.

Liverpool " (Fig. 55), has been described as the

more compact and pleasing

of locomotive ugliness "

design.

would have been a correct

" Liverpool."

The engine

was

by Bury,

and Kennedy, for The one good point about the engine was the immense heating surface, which amounted When our locomotive superintendents make up their to 2,290 sq. ft. minds to construct express locomotives with such an amount of heating surface, we shall hear no more of "double engine running," and our in question

built

Curtis,

the London and North Western Railway, in 1848.

Flo.

express trains

55— CRAMPTON'S "LIVERPOOL."

may be

hour from start to

L.

AND

N.W.R.

expected to average a speed of over 50 miles an

finish (including stops)

The general arrangement

on

all trips.

of the "Liverpool"

was similar to the



engines on Crampton's system already described

viz.,

the driving

wheels at the back of the fire-box and outside cylinders fixed about the centre of the frames.

This engine had three pairs of carrying

The upon transverse bearers, formed of iron curved to the shape of the boiler and passing below

wheels under the boiler, in addition to the driving wheels. cylinders were outside, fixed plates l^in. thick, it.

The

cylinders were 18in. diameter, the stroke being 24in. Metallic

packing, consisting of two concentric rings of cast-iron, each with a

wedge and

circular steel spring,

pistons steam-tight.

The

was used

for the purpose of

making the

valves were above the cylinders, and wer« L

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

146

inclined, the eccentrics being of large size

and outside the driving

wheels. The regulator was located in a steam-box on the top of the boiler barrel ; the steain reached the valves by means of curved vertical copper pipes outside the boiler, whilst the exhaust was conveyed to the

smoke-box by similar horizontal "outside" pipes.

The two exhaust

pipes united within the smoke-box beneath the bottom of the chimney,

the blast

orifice

being 5|in. diameter.

leading wheels were

The

pairs 4ft., fire-grate

4ft.

was

8ft. in

The tubes were

21.58ft.

two intermediate

3in. diameter, the

and the driving wheels

diameter. of

brass,

The area

of the

6in.

long;

12ft.

292 were 2 3-16th in diameter, the remaining eight being lfin. The heating surface was: Tubes, 2,136.117 sq. ft.; meter.



box, 154.434 sq.

The pumps were

ft.

horizontal, fixed

diafire-

on the frames

over the leading wheels; they were worked by extension piston-rods,

worked through the covers

The engine weighed were

ojj

the driving

of the cylinders.

(loaded) 35 tons, of

The tender weighed

axle.

which weight 12 tons 21 tons.

With a

light

load the "Liverpool" attained a speed of nearly 80 miles an hour, whilst on one occasion she hauled the train conveying Franconi's

troupe and horses, consisting of 40 vehicles, from

Rugby

to Euston

Three engines had been engaged to haul the same train from Liverpool to Rugby, when time was lost. The power of the "Liverpool" would, therefore, appear to have exceeded that of three of the usual London and North Western Railway locounder the schedule time.

motives of that date.

Adams's idea

of

a straight driving shaft connected by means of

outside rods with the driving wheels soon attracted attention, and in

1849 Crampton incorporated the principle in his patent locomotive specification of that year.

any engines were These locomotives

We

will

now

built will

But

it

was some two years

later before

under this particular patent of Crampton'a.

be described in due sequence.

give a few details of some engines that would have

been most interesting had we knowledge that they were ever built. We possess drawings of the engines in question, but lack authentic details of their performances, so

we

will

mention the principal features

of the designs, as given in the patent specifications. of Holbeck, Leeds,

George Taylor,

obtained his patent on June 3rd, 1847.

The

drawing shows the boiler to be hung below the wheels, of which there are only four; these were to be loft, diameter, and in addition the

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE wheels were geared up 2 to

147

so that one revolution of the cogged

1,

driving wheel would have propelled the engine six times the distance of a driving

wheel of

5ft.

diameter.

The

cylinders were inside the

frames, over the boiler, and, of course, at the rear of the smoke-box

the connecting-rods were attached to cranks on either side of a central cog-wheel, which engaged with a cog-wheel of half its diameter, fixed

on the centre of the rear

axle.

The motion being conveyed

centre of the axle, instead of alternately on each side, as

is

to the usual,

motion so apparent in two-cylinder engines. An examination of the drawing of this locomotive design of George Taylor shows with what ease and slight alteration it was possible for the two geared engines supplied to the Great Western

practically abolished the oscillating

Railway by the Haigh Foundry to have been altered to ordinary direct action engines.

Large wheels were also to be used for the tender, the axles passing through the water-tank, so that the centre of gravity was lowered.

James Pearson, the locomotive superintendent

of the Bristol

and

Exeter Railway, obtained a patent on October 7th, 1847, for a double locomotive.

Fairlie's

"Little

Wonder" narrow-gauge

engines were

probably suggested by Pearson's design of 1847; whilst the

latter's

famous broad-gauge double-bogie tanks were decidedly evolved from his earlier form of locomotive.

The

boiler

was to have the

fire-box in the centre, the latter being

divided into two parts, connected below the furnace doors axle

was across

;

the driving

this central foot-plate, to allow of very large wheels

a low centre of gravity.

Each

and

boiler (there being practically two, one

each side of the central double fire-box) was carried on a four-wheel

was carried on ten wheels, as in the later The bogie frames were connected by tension-rods, passing

bogie, so that the locomotive

design.

outside the fire-box.

India-rubber springs were employed, their use

being to allow each bogie to adjust itself to any inequality of the road, and to bring the bogies back to the straight position on an

even road.

The coke was

to

be stowed in bunkers over the

boilers,

and the water could be either in tanks between the tops of the boilers and the coke bunkers, or a separate tender could be provided. The steam domes were on the fire-box, and were to be of abnormal height, and connected over the head of the foot-plate, thus forming the roof of the cab.

heated

air

An

exhaust fan was fixed in the smoke-box to draw ihe

through the tubes and discharge

it

up the chimney, or h 2

it

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

148

could be used again as a hot blast for the furnace, and a chimney and a

smoke-box were provided for each driven by pulleys

off

one of the

The fans were

boiler.

and

axles,

it

was claimed

to

be

that, as

the exhaust steam was not required for the purpose of creating a blast, extra large exhaust pipes could be used, and the cylinders thereby

"back

relieved of

cylinders were outside,

and the

cylinders.

These were fixed between the

The

general design of this engine, as

wheels of one of the bogies.

shown

The

pressure."

valves were beyond the

was very ingenious, and is certainly the most symmetrical "double-ended" type of engine we have seen illustrated. Pearson for some reason did not construct an engine after this style, in the drawings,

but produced the well-known

9ft.

" single "

(double-bogie)

tanks

instead.

The

third patent

now

to be described

The

ture extra large driving wheels.

had

also for its leading fea-

specification is that of Charles

Ritchie, of Aberdeen, the patent being granted to

1848.

The

him on March 2nd,

principal feature was the providing of two piston-rods to

each piston, one on each side. Four driving wheels were proposed, one pair placed in front of the smoke-box and one pair behind the fire-box. The cylinders were outside, and were, of course, fixed at an equal distance between the two pairs of driving wheels.

One

carrying wheels was to be used, placed below the cylinders.

pair of It

was

claimed that this arrangement of pistons and connecting-rods exactly

and therefore Another improvement related to the slidevalves, the starting, stopping, and reversing of the engine, together with the expansive working of the steam, the whole to be controlled

balanced the reciprocating parts of the machinery, abolished oscillation.

by a wheel on the

foot-plate, connected

by cogs with the link

of the

valve-gear.

Other improvements were compensating safety-valves, an "antiprimer," and an improved feed-water apparatus. as follows cylinder,

the

:



"

Upon steam being admitted from

through the steam-port, the piston

ram be withdrawn; the water

will

will

The

last is described

the boiler into the

be acted upon, and

then raise the valve and enter

the barrel, to occupy the space previously occupied by the ram. this

time the piston

will

have acted upon a

slide-valve to uncover one port

By

lever, so as to cause the

and cover the other, thereby allowing

the steam on the other side of the piston to escape through the

exhaust

pip*>.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

149

" The piston will now be impelled in a contrary direction, and the ram entering the barrel will cause the one valve to be closed and the

other to be opened by pressure of the water therein, which, as the

ram advances,

will

be forced into the boiler."

Another part of the specification related to an " anti-fluctuator." A partition-plate was to be fixed between the tube-plate and the firebox, and the water was to be let into the boiler at the fire-box end,

and would only reach that portion of the boiler beyond the fire-box by flowing over the top of the partition-plate. By this means the fire-box

would always be covered with water.

It will

be seen that the

specification contained several useful propositions, which, however,

do

not appear to have been put into practice.

FIG.

56.— TIMOTHY

HACKWORTH'S "SANSPAREIL

No.

2"

We have previously, upon more occasions than one, shown th* important position occupied in the evolution of the steam locomotive by the engines built or designed by Timothy Hackworth. We now have to give an account of his last locomotive, the * Sanspareil No. 2.*' A comparison of the drawings of this engine (copies of which are in our possession) with Hackworth's earlier efforts of 20 years before, clearly discloses the remarkable strides

made

in the

improvement

of

the locomotive during that period, and also most clearly shows that in

1849 Hackworth was still in the very van of locomotive construction, even as he had been in the days of his " Royal George."

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

150

The "Sanspareil No. 2" (Fig. 56) was constructed by Timothy Uackworth at his Soho Engine Works at Shildon. The patent was obtained

name

in the

of his son, the late

John Wesley Hackworth.

We

are

indebted to the executor of the will of Timothy Hackworth for many of the following details concerning the engine now under review.

The locomotive was of the six-wheel " single " type, with outside bearings to the L. and T. wheels, and inside bearings of the driving wheels. The cylinders were inside. A cylindrical steam dome was placed on the boiler barrel close to' the smoke-box. The fire-box was of the raised pattern, and on it was an encased Salter safety-valve. Cylindrical sand-boxes were fixed on the frame-plates in front of the driving wheels. The principal dimensions of the engine were: Driving wheels, 6ft. 6in. diameter; leading and trailing, 4ft. diameter; cylinders, 15in. diameter, 22in. stroke. Weight in working



order



L.,

:

8 tons 6 cwt.

;

D., 11 tons 4 cwt.

;

T.,

4 tons 5 cwt. Total,

23 tons 15 cwt. It

if we mentioned the principal novelties in conWelded longitudinal seams in boiler-barrel; the was connected to the smoke-box and fire-box by means of welded

would be well

struction boiler



viz.:

angle-irons, instead of the usual riveted angle-irons;

the lagging of

now

general, instead

the boiler was also covered with sheet-iron, as

wood being

of the

A

baffle-plate

left

was

to view, as fitted at the

was

at that

is

time the usual practice.

smoke-box end of tubes, as well as

at the fire-box end.

The The

pistons and rods were

made

of wrought-iron in

one forging.

valves were constructed under Hackworth's patent, and were

designed to allow a portion of the steam required to perform the return stroke to be in the cylinder before the forward stroke was completed,

and thus to form a steam cushion between the piston and Such working was said to economise 25 to 30 per

cylinder covers. cent, of fuel.

The engine conveyed 200 tons 45 miles

in 95 minutes,

consuming

She also same distance without a itop, in 13 cwt. of coke and 1,155 gallons

21 cwt. of coke, and evaporating 1,806 gallons of water.

drew a train

of six carriages over the

63 minutes, with an expenditure of of water.

Upon

the completion of this engine,

following challenge to Robert Stephenson "Sir,



It

is

now about 20

J.

:



W. Hackworth

sent 'the

years since the competition for

4

he

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE premium

151

was played off at Rainhill, on the Your father and mine were the Since that period you have generally been

of locomotive superiority

Liverpool and Manchester Railway. principal

competitors.

looked to by the public as standing

York,

which

and

Newcastle is said

in the construction of loco-

Berwick

Railway

come forward

to tell

with you, and prove to

you publicly that

whom

engine

locomotive

a

from Forth

to be the best production that ever issued

Street Works, I to contest

first

Understanding that you are now running on the

motive engines.

I

am

prepared

the superiority in the con-

now belongs. when any reduction

struction of locomotive engines

"At

the present

crisis,

in the expense of work-

ing the locomotive engine would justly be hailed as a boon to railway

companies, this experiment will no doubt be regarded with deep interest as tending to their

mutual advantage.

York, Newcastle and Berwick Railway

I

fully

Company

believe

that the

will willingly afford

every facility towards the carrying out of this experiment. " Relying

upon your honour as a gentleman,

I hold this

open

for a

fortnight after the date of publication. " I

am,

Sir, yours, etc.,

John W. Hackworth."

We

do not think Robert Stephenson accepted the challenge ;

at all

no records of such a competition have ever been made public, and had it taken place the victor would have doubtless well published

events,

the result.

The " Sanspareil " frequently attained a speed of 75 miles an hour on favourable portions of the line. She was sold to the North Eastern Railway by the executors shortly after the death of Timothy Hackworth, something like £3,000 being obtained for the engine, which continued to work upon the North Eastern Railway until recent years, having, of course, been rebuilt during the long time

it

was in active

service.

We

have now to describe another specimen of the locomotives con-

structed

by the celebrated firm

of Bury, Curtis

and Kennedy.

This

locomotive was one of the last engines built by the firm before

its

The "Wrekin" was a six-wheel engine with inside bar frames and inside cylinders, and was constructed for the Birmingfinal dissolution.

ham and Shrewsbury Railway The

in 1849.

special points noticeable in the construction of the engine in

question are the width of the framing, which was arranged horizontally

E

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM L0C0M0T1Y

152

instead of vertically, and only two bearings to each axle.

The

axle-

boxes of the leading wheels were bolted to the frames, those of tbo other wheels being welded to i,he frames, and the cylinders were also

An

directly affixed to the framing.

as resulting from the

method

advantage claimed by the builders,

of construction employed,

was that the

weight being placed entirely within the wheels, such weight had a tendency to press down the axle between the bearings, and bo counteract the constant tendency arising

from the flanges

of the wheels,

when

pressing against the edge of the rails, especially in passing round curves.

The cylinders were driving wheels were

15in. diameter, the stroke being 20in

5ft.

7in.

diameter, the leading

4ft. lin. ;

Tbo

and the

trailing 3ft. 7in.

The fire-box,

No

and 2^in. was: Tubes, 1,059 sq. ft.;

boiler contained 172 brass tubes, lift. 6in. long

external diameter.

80

The heating

sq. ft.; total,

1,139

surface

sq. ft.

Grate area, 15

sq. ft.

steam dome was provided, the main steam-pipe being of

iron,

with a longitudinal opening 3-1 6th inches wide along the top; this pip 3 extended to the smoke-box, at which end of

was placed

;

it

the regulator valve

the actuating-rod passing through the

main

steain-pipe

from end to end. Two encased Salter safety valves were fixed on the fire-box. The wheel base of the " Wrekin " was leading to driving, :

lin.

8ft.

;

driving to trailing,

6ft.

In 1849 the Vulcan Foundry

Railway with an engine known as

llin.

Company "

No. 15."

supplied the Caledonian

In general appearance

the locomotive was very .^milar to Allan's "Velocipede" engine on the

London and North Western Railway.

No. 15 " (Fig. 57) was a six-wheel engine, with inclined outside The driving wheels were cylinders, 15in. diameter and 20in. stroke. "

6ft.

diameter, leading and trailing wheels

barrel was

9ft. 9in.

long and

3ft. 6|in.

3ft. 6in.

diameter.

The boiler

diameter, containing 158 brass

Wheel base, L. to D., 6ft. diameter. The chimney was 6ft. 6in. high on the centre of the boiler was a man-hole, surmounted by a column safety-valve of The Salter's pattern, the blowing-off steam pressure being 901b. tubes of

D. to

lfin.

external

T., 6ft. 6£in.

;

steam dome was of brass, placed on the raised fire-box, and surmounted with a second Salter's safety-valve. The driving and leading wheels were provided with underhung springs, but the trailing wheels

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

153

had the springs over the axle-boxes. These latter springs were of and were provided with a screw device fixed on the footplate, by means of which the weight was taken off the trailing wheels

elliptic shape,

and thrown upon the driving wheels. In addition to the semi-circular brass name-plates

(i.e.,

Caledonian

Railway) affixed to the splashers of the driving wheels, brass niimber-

diamond shape (12in. long by 6in. diameter) were fixed beams of "No. 15." The tender was supported on four wheels, 3ft. 6in. diameter, and held 800 gallons of water. During June, 1849, " No. 15 " made a number of trial trips between Glasgow and Carlisle, with seven, eight, and nine coaches of an average weight of five tons each, the weight of the engine and tender plates of

on the

buffer

57.— CALEDONIAN

Fia.

being 28 tons.

On

RAILWAY ENGINE,

"No.

the trips to Glasgow the Beattock

This consists of 10 miles of

course to be climbed.

15"

Summit had, stiff

of

gradients,'

varying between 1 in 75, 80, and 88. The run of 13£ miles from Beattock to Elvanfoot, consisting of the 10 miles just described and of

was negotiated by "No. 15" in 33 minutes, with seven coaches the time was 41 minutes, and with a pilot and eleven coaches, 30 minutes, or at the rate of 27 miles an hour. These were considered exceptionally good

3£ down

at 1 in 100,

with a train of six coaches;

specimens of hill-climbing performances 48 years back, but course, entirely out of comparison with

over the same line with

much

are,

of

modern Caledonian records

heavier trains.

McConnell, the locomotive superintendent of Wolverton, turned out several remarkable locomotives for the

Railway, and No. 227, (Fig. 58),

was one

or, as

London and North Western

she was generally called, "Mac's Mangle,"

of these peculiar specimens of McConnell's design.

The

cylinders were of large size, being 18in. diameter, with a 24in. stroke

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

154

they were outside, as were also the axle bearings

wheels being 4ft.

6ft.

fire-box

safety valve (encased)

was

vided, located, originally,

but afterwards

driving wheels.

1,383 sq.

ft.

The

(in

was

fixed

trailing wheels

of the raised pattern,

on

it.

close to the

A

and a Salter

huge steam dome was

smoke-box end

pro-

of the boiler

1850) placed near the fire-box end, over the

boiler-heating surface of "Mac's

Mangle" was

No. 227 enjoyed but a short locomotive career, being

built in April, 1849, J

and the leading and

6in. diameter,

The

diameter.

barrel,

—a very uncommon

No. 227 was a six-wheel "single" engine, the driving

combination.

and "scrapped" in May, 1863.

It is stated that

a consequence of the extreme width of this engine, caused by outside

[

EVOLUTION OF

Til

STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

155

cylinders being employed in conjunction with outside axle-boxes,

became necessary to

set

back the platforms at some of the

it

stations, so

that the engine could clear these erections without coming to grief.

PIG. 59.—'*

PRESIDENT," ONE OF McCONNELL'S "BLOOMERS," AS ORIGINALLY BUILT

L.

& S.W1

1850 McConnell designed a very powerful class of passenger for the L. and N. W. R. These are generally called the "Bloomers." "President" (Fig. 59) illustrates this favourite class In

engines

of L.

and N. W. R. locomotive, when

inside, 16in. diameter,

The cylinders were The driving wheels were

built.

with a stroke of 22in.

diameter. The heating surface was 1,152 sq. ft. These engines weighed 28f tons. (Fig. 60) is from a photo of a "Bloomer" as rebuilt by Ramsbottom. 7ft. in

Fig.

60— ONE OF McCONNELL'S "BLOOMERS" AS REBUILT BY RAMSBOTTOM



CHAPTER

X.

— — Crarupton's system— Sharp's "single" engines for the S.E.R. — J. V. Gooch's designs for the Eastern Counties Railway —The "Ely," Taff Vale Railway Beattie "Hercules" —A inueh-vaunted locomotive, McConnell's "300." L. & N.W.R — London and Birmingham in two hours —The chief features of " " 300 — Competitive trials with other engines— Coal coke— An earlier "recewod" boiler—Dodd's "Ysabel" —The compound locomctive Another Beattie design.—P« say's compressed air railway engine— Its trial tripa on the Eastern Counties Railway—The original Great Northern engines " single " Sturrock's masterpiece, " No. 215, G.N.R. — Pearson's famous double bogies, Bristol and Exeter Railway—Rebuilt with drivers, and a tender ntldid by the G.W.R. —More old Furness Railway engines— Ncilson's outside cylinder locomotives —A powerful goods engine on the Maryport and Carlisle Railway — Gooch's 7ft.-c.mpled broad-gauge locomotives— His

The locomotive exhibits of 1851—The " Hawthorn " Wilson's two boiler engine, "Folkestone" on »he "Duplex" Fairbai:n'a tank engine The S.E.R.



s

v.

first

'

Sft.

8ft.

narrow-gauge engines

—N.B.R.

first

" Cab " or inspection engines.

The premier International Exhibition, which, as all the world well knows, was held in Hyde Park, London, 1851, brought together quite a respectable collection of railway appliances. The British exhibitors showed the following locomotives:



London and North Western Railway's "Cornwall " and "Liverpool." Great Western Railway's "Lord of the Isles."

Hawthorne's express,

"

Hawthorn."

Adams's combined engine and carriage, Wilson and Co., Leeds.

" Ariel's

Girdle," built

by

England's light locomotive, built by Fairbairn. Fairbairn's tank engine.

South Eastern Railway's "Folkestone." E. B. Wilson

and

Co.'s

double boiler tank engine.

Several of these have been described in an earlier chapter, whilst details of other types (such as the

been given, so that

We

it is

"Lord

of the Isles" type)

have also

not necessary to describe such designs again.

have, however, to give particulars of Hawthorne's express, Fair-

bairn's tank, the "Folkestone,"

engine.

The dimensions

and Wilson's "double boiler" tank

of the first are

:

cylinders, 16in. diameter.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE 22in. stroke

j

driving wheels,

3ft. 9in.

diameter

110

ft.;

sq.

6ft. 6in.

157

leading and trailing wheels,

;

heating surface of fire-box, including water bridge,

;

tubes, 865.4 sq.

The tubes were

ft.

of brass, of 2in.

external diameter, and 158 in number.

The

"

Hawthorn " had

inside cylinders

and double sandwich frames,

a raised fire-box, with an enclosed safety-valve, no dome, but a per-

forated steam-pipe for the collection of the steam was provided.

engine was designed for running at 80 miles an hour features of the engine being double compensating

buting the weight uniformly on

all

The

the special

j

beams

for distri-

the wheels, equilibrium slide valves,

and an improved expansion link suspended from the slide-valve rods. Instead of fitting a spring to each wheel,, two only were placed on each side of the engine between the wheels. These springs were inverted,

and sustained by central straps attached to the framing. Their ends were connected by short links to the wrought-iron douDle-compen-

beams placed longitudinally on each

sating

side of the engine, inside

and beneath the framing.

The two inner contiguous ends

of these

beams were linked by a

transverse pin to an eye at the bottom of the axle-box of the driving axle, whilst

the opposite ends of the beams were respectively linked

in a similar

manner

The

boxes.

to eyes

on the top of the leading and trailing axle-

action of these

beams was

obvious.

By them

a direct

and simultaneous connection was given to all the axle-bearings, and consequently a uniform pressure was always maintained on all the wheels,

irrespective of irregularities

on the permanent-way.

The-

slide valves were placed on vertical faces in a single steam-chest,,

One

located between the two cylinders.

on

its

slide valve

had a

plate cast

back, and the other had an open box cast on its back to receive

a piston, which had

upper end parallel with the valve

its

piston was fitted steam-tight in the box, and

the face of the plate in working. relieved

from half

a port was

made

of the

in the

By

;

and to

back plate of one of the

by means

additional exit for the spent steam

face.

This;

planed top bore against

arrangement the

this

steam pressure

its

assist

slides were-

a free exhaust,

slides, so

providing an

of the piston

and the

exhaust ports of the opposite valve.

The expansion bottom

link

of the boiler to

was placed

in such

be quite near the

a position as to allow the axle.

The

link, instead of

being fixed to the ends of the eccentric-rods, so as to rise and fall with then* wJ.en the reversing lever was moved, was suspended from its.

;, ;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

158

by an eye, from the end of the removed the weight of the link, etc., from

centre,

This

slide-valve spindle.

the reversing gear.

off

The

eccentric-rods were jointed to the opposite ends of the link slide-block, to secure steadiness and durability of the parts. It was claimed that

method of a fixed link-centre as more correct action of the valves.

this a.

fitted to

the " Hawthorn " ensured

Wilson and Co., of the Railway Foundry, Leeds, exhibited a tank engine at the Exhibition of 1851, called the "Duplex," sequence of it being provided with two boilers. The idea designer was to obtain sufficient steam from an engine of light to haul a heavy train. in the possession of Mr.

The

curious in conof the

weight

original drawings of this engine are

David Joy, who designed

and

still

waa proposed to build the "Duplex" with three cylinders and six-coupled wheels, but afterwards fresh drawings were prepared, and it was from these latter ones that the engine was built.

it

;

at first it

The two

boilers were

placed side by side, and these each measured 10ft. 6in. long

by and together contained 136 tubes of If in. diameter, the heating surface of which was 694 sq. ft., that of the fire-box 9in. diameter,

lft.

being 61

sq. ft.,

making a

755

total of

outside, their diameter being 12£in.,

ing wheels were diameter.

5ft.

breadth,

5ft.

diameter

3ft. 6in.

;

sq.

ft.

The

and the stroke

cylinders were lead-

the driving and trailing (coupled)

—Total

Some

other dimensions were:

3in.

height from rail to top of chimney,

;

The

18in.

length, 24ft. 3in. 1 3ft,

weight, empty, only 16 tons, with fuel and water 19 tons 17 cwt.

6in.

The

capacity of tank was 520 gallons, sufficient for a journey of 25 miles

bunker,

coke

42

cubic

The "Duplex" was and in

its

feetj,

further career

is,

equal

to

26

bushels,

or

15

cwt.

a Dutch railway after the Exhibition,

sold to

therefore,

unknown

to

those interested

it,

Fairbairn's tank locomotive was of the "well" type, supported on :six

wheels, the driving pair being 6in.

3ft.

diameter.

The

5ft,

diameter, and the L. and T. each

cylinders were inside, measuring lOin. by

was

3ft. diameter, and contained heating surface amounted to The 88 copper, and measured 2ft. 5in. was of fire-box internal The 480 sq. ft. behind and under the The tank deep. 5in. 3ft. and wide, long, 3ft, consumption of this coke The water. gallons of 400 held foot-plate

15in. stroke.

The

boiler

8ft.

long by

brass tubes of 2in. diameter.

little

engine was only 101b. per mile with trains of six carriages, the it may interest our readers

weight in working order only 13 tons; and

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE to

know

159

was described as

that this diminutive locomotive

a fan

-

" specimen of the heavier class of tank engine

The engine

calling

for the greatest atten-

tion at the Exhibition

£

18 51

Of

the

was

"Folkestone" (Fig. 61), exhibited by the South

Eastern Railway.

was an engine

This

built

by

R. Stephenson and Co.,

under one of Crampton's patents, but the

principal feature in

design

was an

mediate

its

inter-

driving axle,

connected by means of outside

and

cranks,

coupling-rods

to

the

driving wheels, which

were

(under

ton's

patent)

the fire-box,

extending

Crampbehind the axle

across

foot-plate.

the

It will

well, perhaps, if

we

be at

this point reiterate the fact

of

that the method

working locomotives

by means mediate

of

an

inter-

crank-shaft

was not introduced by Crampton, it having been used some years previously by W. B. Adams, not to mention some of the early

ton

Railway

ployed,

but

engines,

with

where

vertical

the

same

cylinders.

Stockton and Darlingarrangement was em-

Readers

will,

therefore,

1

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

160

see

it is incorrect to describe locomotives with this system of machinery as " Crampton's patent," although it is quite possible for a " Cramp-

ton patent'' locomotive to be provided with an intermediate driving shaft, as was the case with the " Folkestone."

Eight engines of this type were built by Stephenson and Co. for numbered 136 to 143, the first of which was named " Folkestone." These engines were supported by the South Eastern Railway, and were

a group of four being arranged close together at the smoke3ft. 6in. The driving wheels were 6£r. in diameter, the wheel base 16ft. These engines weighed 26£ tons each, of which only 10 tons were on the driving wheels, the remainder six wheels,

box end.

of the

Their diameter was

weight being supported

by the four leading

The

wheels.

cylinders were inside, 15in. diameter, and the stroke 22in.

The

fire-

box top was flush with the boiler barrel, the straight lines of which were unrelieved by a dome, but an encased safety valve was fixed near the back of the fire-box top.

diameter and

The

boiler contained 184 tubes, of 2in.

1 1ft. in length.

The "Folkestone" ran its trial when Mr. McGregor, the chairman

trip

on Monday, March 31st, 1851, South Eastern Railway, Mr.

of the

R. Stephenson, the builder of the engine, Mr. Barlow, the South Eastern engineer, and Mr. Cudworth, the South Eastern locomotive

superintendent, were present.

From London Bridge

to Redhill no

great speed could be attained, as a Brighton train was in front; but

beyond the

latter station,

and with a train

of nine carriages, the 19

miles to Tonbridge were covered in 19 1 minutes, a

maximum

speed

an hour being attained. After a short stop, the journey to Ashford was resumed, and that town was reached in 20£ minutes after leaving Tonbridge. The times and distances were as follow Redhill to Tonbridge, 19 miles 47 chains, start, to stop in 19| minutes Tonbridge to Ashford, 26 miles 45 chains, start to stop in 20J minutes, or at the rate of 78 miles an hour; the whole 46 miles 12 chains being covered in 40 minutes, running time, or, including the of 75 miles

:

— ;

It must be remembered that the between Redhill and Ashford is, perhaps, the most level and straight in England for so long a distance.

stop at Tonbridge, in 43 minutes.

line

These eight engines did not prove very successful in general workand they were afterwards rebuilt as four-coupled engines, an

ing,

ordinary cranked axle with wheels being provided in place of the intermediate driving shaft.

.

_„__

.

not be out of place

It will

if

we here mention

eight "single"

engines built by Sharp Bros, in 1851 for the South Eastern Railway,

and numbered 144 to 151.

The general dimensions were

the Cramptons, except that the wheel base

was only

similar to

and that the The admission of the steam to the heating surface was 1,150 sq. ft. ylinders was controlled by a hand lever, with catch and notches, Six similar to and placed by the side of the ordinary reversing lever. eccentrics were on the driving axle, two of them working the pumps. 15ft.,

<

The framing and by Cudworth in

springs of these engines were afterwards perpetuated his later

and better known types

of

South Eastern

locomotives.

Fig.

The locomotives designed

sizes

J.

of the despised

by Mr.

about 1850

described. express,

V. GOOCH'S "SINGLE" TANK ENGINES, EASTEKN COUNTIES RAILWAY

62— ONE OF

They were

J.

"Eastern Counties," that were now be concisely

V. Gooch, will

of three kinds



viz., "

single " tanks,

and four-wheels-coupled tender engines.

were constructed, chiefly at the "Hudson

Works).

The

14in. diameter

''

single

"

Of the tanks, three

Town"

(or Stratford

largest of these were provided with outside cylinders,

and 22in.

containing 164 tubes of

stroke, the boiler being 10ft. 6in. long,

1 3-1

6th

in.

diameter.

The leading and

erd

trail-

ing wheels had outside bearings, the driving wheels being provided with inside bearings only.

A column pattern safety-valve was placed on the raised water was stored

in

two tanks,

fixed

the boiler and the other beneath the foot-plate.

were known as the " 250 "

class,

fire-box.

The

between the frames, one below

These tank engines

and some of our readers may recollect

M

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

162

that when Peto, Brassey and Betts leased the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway, engines of this design were used to work the traffic on that railway. We understand it is now 20 years since the last of

them (No. 08) reached the

final

bourne of worn-out locomotives—

the " scrap heap."

The dimensions

of the smallest class of these tanks (Fig. 62) were

Cylinders, 12in. diameter, 22in. stroke; boiler, 10ft. long

diameter, 127 tubes of

was 709 6ft.

sq.

1

7-8th

in.

6in. diameter,

and the L. and T.

the driving axle. T.,

5ft.

J.

ft.

The driving wheels were The total weight of

3ft. 8in.

was 23 tons 19 cwt., of which 9 tons 14 The wheel base was L. to D., 6ft.

these engines

:

3ft. 2iu.

diameter; the total heating surface

grate area, 9.7 sq.

ft.;

and

:

was on

cwt. 3in.

D. 10

;

9in.

V. Gooch's four-coupled, or "Butterflies,"

had leading

diameter, and driving and trailing (coupled)

3ft. Sin.

base, L. to D., 6ft. 3in.

;

D. to

T., 7ft. 9in.

diameter, the stroke being 24in.

The

The

wheel.,

Wheel

5ft. 6in.

cylinders were 15;n.

boilers of this class,

and

also of

the singles, next to be described, were of the same dimensions as those of the " 250 " class of tanks.

The "single"

expresses

were provided with

6ft.

6in.

driving

wheels, and cylinders 15in. diameter and a 22in. stroke; in this class also the leading

and

trailing wheels

wheel base was

14ft.,

leading and

3in.

7ft.

were

3ft.

8in.

the driving wheels being

from the

trailing wheels.

6ft.

diameter. 9in.

The

from the

Ten engines

of this

design were constructed, some at Stratford, and others at the then

Canada Works of Brassey and numbers were from 274 to 283.

recently opened

Their

official

The

"

Ely "

Co.

at Birkenhead.

(Fig. 63) represents the type of 6-wheel passenger engine

She was built in 1851 on the Taff Vale Railway at this period. She had designs. Vale Taff from Company, by Messrs. Kitson and of 5ft. 3in. coupled, wheels four and stroke, 20in. 13in. cylinders, with four-wheel a had lOOlbs., she of pressure a carried She diameter.

in use

the tender, carrying 900 gallons of water, and as the gross weight of of the tender was about 11 tons in working order, the gross weight " " could not take a engine and tender would be 33 tons. The Ely the Abercynon train of three carriages, weighing only 21 tons, up " engine. bank " 1 in 40 without the assistance of a

bank

of

Elms, In 1851 Mr. Beattie, the locomotive superintendent at Nine four-wheelsthe Railway Western built for the London and South

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

16*

coupled engine, " Hercules," No. 48.

The frames of this engine were which can be still seen on seme of the

of the " lattice " type, examples of

older Great Northern Railway tanks.

The diameter tender, 3ft. 6in.

;

of wheels

was:

L-, 3ft. 6in.

wheel base, L. to D.,

to leading tender, 7ft. 3£in.

7ft. lin.

;

D. and

;

D. to

T., 5ft. 6in.

T., 6ft. 6in.

;

\

T.

the tender wheel base being 10ft. 3in.

;

equally divided.

Fig

63.— "ELY." A

The weight was 17 cwt.

;

19 cwt.

;

15in.

by

D., 9 tons

TAFF VALE RAILWAY ENGINE. BUILT IN

distributed as follows:

17 cwt.;

T., 9 tons

—Engine,

;

tractive force

on

rail,

L. axle, 8 tons

16 cwt; tender, L., 4 tons

M., 5 tons 19 cwt.; T., 7 tons 10 cwt. 22in.

1851

7,5001b.

;

The

cylinders were

1,800 gallons of water

The 'Hercules" had a flush top and a raised fire-box surmounted by a large inverted, urnshaped dome. This design of locomotive was a favourite one on the London and South Western Railway for many years, but the last could be carried in the tender tank. boiler,

engine of the kind has

now been

scrapped.

Having favoured the London and South Western Railway, to equalise matters, we cannot do better than give a description of a locomotive belonging to its cousin-german, the London and North Western Railway. The latter was indeed the more famous, being no other than McConnell's notorious " No. 300," (Fig. 64) which, being

introduced with a vast amount of publicity, became a nine days'

wonder, then sank into quiescent mediocrity, and after a brief loco-



motive career, was seen no more served, to that of the It

a rather different fate, be

London and South Western Railway's

it

ob-

" Hercules."

has been stated that only one drawing of this engine

m2

exists.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

164

This

is incorrect; the writer possesses a complete set of drawings relating to " No. 300," together with the whole of the specifications

from which the engine was constructed.

To reproduce

this specifica-

would give too technical a character to this narrative., and would try the patience of even the most ardent It. ;: motive

tion in detail

enthusiast.

The

directors of the

London and North Western Railway

in 1851

expressed their determination to run their express trains from London to

Birmingham

in two hours,

and gave instructions to McConnell, the

locomotive superintendent at Wolverton, to design the necessary loco-

The

motives.

by

I8in.

wheels,

24in. 7ft.

were Inside cylinders, and outside frames; driving

salient features of the design six wheels, with inside

;

6in.

diameter;

leading, 4ft.

:

6in.

and

;

trailing,

4ft.

diameter.

The boiler was lift. 9in. long and 4ft. 3jin. external diameter. The tubes were of brass, 303 in number, only 7ft. in length, and l^in. were outside, axle bearings outside diameter. The crank



deep

7in.

and

in

lOin.

an.

being

ones

the inside

length,

The leading and training axles were 4Jin. hollow, the metal being l|in. thick, and the hollow centre 4£in. diameter, thus making the total diameter of the straight axles 7Mn. The slide valves had an outside lap of l|in. The principal innovations and

respectively.

were axle

Coleman's patent india-rubber springs,

:

and above the leading and

fitted

and

trailing axles,

below the driving

also to the buffers.

McConnell's patent dished wrought-iron pistons, forged in one piece

with the piston-rod, and encased with continuous undulating packing.

The steam-pipe was

of flat section,

superheating chest in the smoke-box its

journey from the

dome

;

flat

metal

and passed through a

the steam was thus dried during

to the cylinders.

The

great feature of the

design was the arrangement of the fire-box, with a mid-feather, a combustion chamber, hollow stays for a free supply of air to the fire-box,

and the cutting away for the cranks

wheels.

of the bottom of the fire-box to obtain clearance and yet retain a low centre of gravity with large driving

Assertion to

observed that

so

much

the contrary notwithstanding,

it

should be

did McConnell insist upon a low centre of

gravity that he specially mentioned

it

in his patent specification of

February 28th, 1852.

A

more particular description

of the fire-box, etc., is requisite.

extended into the cylindrical portion of the boiler a distance of

It

4ft. 9in.,

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE . so

that the boiler tubes were only

the fire-box was 10ft. 6in. plate 6ft. lOin.

;

long.

7ft.

The whole length

depth at front-plate

;

length on fire-bars

5ft.

165

of

5in.,

at door-

10 Jin., thus leaving

4ft. 7fin.

6ft.

and the combustion chamber. At its the top of the recess above the driving axle)

for the portion over the axle

narrow part (directly at the fire-box was only 2ft.

3in.

(beyond the cut away portion)

;

height at tube-plate

in height;

width at tube-plate

3ft. 9in.

3ft.

It will

be noticed that Webb's " Greater Britain " class of locomotives is designed with the long fire-box and combustion chamber; but as Mr.

Webb, unlike McConnell, does not

object to the high-pitched boiler,

the former does not recess the boiler barrel for the purpose of obtaining a low centre. Webb also divides his tubes into two sets by having

McConnell's combustion the combustion chamber between them. chamber was a continuation of the fire-box. We must now describe the general appearance of this engine.

Fig.

The

W.-McCOXNELL'S

cylinders

LONDON AND NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY

-300,"

were inclined upwards from the

valve-chests were above them, below the smoke-box.

valves were provided, encased Stirling's

within

a

front,

Two

sheet-brass

and the

Salter safety

covering

of

Great Northern pattern. The steam pressure was 1501bs.

The dome was

also of brass, with a hemispherical top surmounting the

cylindrical lower part.

The steam regulator was at the mouth of the dome (inside, of course).

steam-pipe, which was placed at the top of the

The heating Wheel

surface was

base, 16ft. lOin.

:

sq. ft. ; fire-box, 260 sq. ft. steam could be raised in 45 minutes

Tubes, 980

Sufficient

m'OLUTlOS OF THE STEAM LOCO MOT IV E

lib

after lighting the fire to built about the

move

the engine.

Two

of these engines

—one (No. 300) by Fairbairn and

same time

chester, the other

by E. B. Wilson and

Co., Leeds.

Co.,

were

Man-

The orders were

given early in July, 1852, and the engines delivered the second week in

November, Wilson and Co. having occupied but eight weeks

in the

construction of the one g'iven to them.

Both engines were delivered at Wolverton on the same day, and on Thursday, November 11th, 1852, Wilson's engine was tried for the first

when on her

time,

journey to Euston she attained a speed of

first

60 miles an hour.

was soon found that "No. 300" and her sister engine were Euston to Birmingham in two hours, was confidently predicted, and the failure to do so was perhaps It

unable to cover the 111 miles as

—attributed

justly

On







to

the inferior condition of the permanent-way.

300" hauled a train of o4 8th, 1853, "No. weighing 170 tons, from Birmingham to London in three

March

carriages,

hours eight minutes, including five stoppages. A similar train drawn by the "Heron" and "Prince of Wales" took ten minutes longer to perform the same journey. These two engines had cylinders 15in. by 20in., and 6ft. driving wheels. The results of this trial are thus tabulated

:



No. 3d0 "

Heron

4,-529 lb.

"

&

'-Prince of Wales'

Upon

Average

Maximum

per mile.

speed per hour.

speed per hour.

40-8 lb. 43-7 lb.

36-4 miles 34-5 miles

Coke

Coke.

4,851 lb.

the result of this run

it

was claimed that McConnell's patent

engines were considerably superior to two of the ordinary London and

North Western Railway locomotives, and one of Stephenson's " long boiler" abortions was altered by McConnell, being fitted up with his patent combustion chamber, short tubes, and the other innovations, as mentioned in our description of

"No. 300."

The "long boiler" originally had 1,013 sq. ft. of tube-heating surface; when altered, the length of the tubes was reduced to 4fft., and some additional ones were fixed diagonally across the combustion chamber.

547

sq.

ft.,

By

this alteration the tube-heating surface

and the engine

is

stated to have drawn

was reduced

to

170 tons at 60

miles an hour, and to have attained a speed of 70 miles an hour wich

EYULUTIOX OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE light trains.

From

the working of this locomotive the following table

(by which a reduction of 23 per cent, in the

was claimed

167

for the altered engine)

amount was prepared :



of fuel

consumed

— EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

168

improvement

in this respect,

the heat which

is at

The whole report

by means which

shall

tend to

utilise

present wasted." is

of great interest to the technical reader

;

it is,

however, too long to reproduce in extenso. It is

abundantly evident that there

locomotive designing, or

is

no great pecuniary gain from

we should be

treated to great law-suits

regarding the validity of the patents, such as have recently been the case with pneumatic tyres and incandescent gas-burners. We have

upon more occasions than one, pointed out that certain patented locomotive designs had previously been anticipated, although the later patentees were probably unaware of the fact. We find this already,

to have been the case with McConnell's " recessed " boiler locomotives just described, for of Llanelly,

on December 2nd, 1846, W. Stubbs and

enrolled a design

of locomotive.

The

J. J. Grylls,

specification in

question not only mentioned the recessing of the boiler for the purpose of allowing the use of a large driving wheel and yet retaining a low centre of gravity, but

it

even anticipated McConnell's combustion

chamber between the fire-box and tubes. An adaptation of Bodmer's double piston motion was also specified by Stubbs and Grylls. The two cylinders were placed below the boiler, four wheels being connected by means of side-rods with the cross-heads of the two cylinders in such a manner that from each cylinder two wheels were driven, by means of a cross head, and each cross-head, by means of two connecting-rods, rotating the wheels. related to driving a locomotive

by

Another claim under this patent eccentrics fitted with antifriction

rollers as a substitute for the ordinary cranks.

Although in the "Evolution

of the

Steam Locomotive"

intended to describe locomotives for British railways, of place to first,

it

may

it is

only

not be out

mention an engine for a foreign railway, for two reasons it was built by an English firm in England, and, secondly,

because

it was tried on an English railway before exportation. The "Ysabel" was constructed in 1853 by Dodds and Sons, of Rotherham, for the " Railway of Isabella II. from Santander to Abar del Rey," and

because

was

tried

on the Lickey incline of

1 in

37 for two miles, under the

direction of Mr. Stalvies, the locomotive superintendent at Broomsgrove.

The "Ysabel" had four-coupled wheels 4ft. 6in. diameter; cylinders, 14jin. by 20in. stroke; 137 tubes, If in. diameter, and lift. 3in. in length, and was fitted with Dodds' patent wedge expansive motion, which required only two eccentrics. For the purpose of easy trans-

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE portation, the " Ysabel " was so constructed that single portion weighed

more than sk Ions

;

169

when disconnected no

in addition to the fittings

it and were the steam-pipe and the two feedpump connections. When tried upon the Lickey bank this locomotive hauled six trucks weighing 45 tons 12§ cwt. up the two miles one furlong in 12 minutes 12 seconds, and with a train weighing 29 tons 4£ cwt. the incline was negotiated in seven minutes five seconds.

necessary to secure the boiler, the only connections between the frames, machinery,

etc.,

The compound locomotive is

popularly supposed,

is

not quite so modern an invention as

putting aside the suggestion emanating in

for,

1850 from John Nicholson, an Eastern Counties Railway engine-driver, whose plan of continuous expansion is generally accepted as the foundation of the compound system, we find that in 1853 a Mr. Edwards, of Birmingham, patented a "duplex" or in other words a

compound

engine, the steam, after working in a high-pressure cylinder,

The cylinders were so when the other piston

being used over again in a low-pressure one. placed that the dead centre in one occurred

was

at its

maximum

power.

In 1853 Beattie constructed for the London and South Western

Railway at Nine Elms Works, the "Duke," No. 123, a six-wheel " single "

L.

engine

express

and

T.

The

stroke.

driving

;

was

weight

wheels,

diameter;

6in.

3ft.

arranged

in

6in.

6ft.

cylinders,

diameter

16in.

an

by

21in.

extraordinary

manner, 10 tons 9 cwt. being on the leading axle, only 9 tons 9 cwt. on the driving axle, and 5 tons 11 cwt. on the trailing axle. The wheel base was, L. to D.,

6ft.

8|in.

;

D. to T,

7ft. 6in.

The

"

Duke " had

a

by a large dome similar to that of the " Hercules," whilst another dome was located on the centre of the The shape of this centre dome resembled a soup-tureen boiler barrel.

raised fire-box, surmounted

turned upside down.

At

this point

we take

the opportunity to briefly describe a railway

locomotive which, although not propelled by steam, deserves to be

mentioned as an pressed

initial

attempt at railway haulage by means of com-

air.

in question was constructed by Arthur Pasey, and was on the Eastern Counties Railway in July, 1852. This machine was, in point of size and power, nothing more than a model, the

The engine

tried

dimensions being

:

Cylinders,

wheels, 4ft. diameter;

39 cubic

ft.

2£in.

diameter, 9in. stroke

weight, 1£ tons;

;

driving

air capacity of reservoirs,

;

170

By seen

reference that

of 4ft.

side

LITION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

FA-

to

the

curious

this

illustration

(Fig.

locomotive

little

65)

had

'

the

it

Trill

six

be

wheels

diameter within the frames, and the horizontal cylinders outframes, and actuating the centre pair of wheels-

the

Above the frames was placed a cylindrical air reservoir, with egg shaped ends. This extended from the buffer beam at one end of the vehicle to the leading axle, a distance of about 12ft. The remainder of the space, about 4ft., was occupied by the pressure-reducing and other apparatus, and afforded a place of vantage for those in charge of the machine. The reservoir was constructed to withstand a pressure cf 2001b., but the engine was only pressed to 1651b., and this at the time

-PASEY'S COMPRESSED AIR LOCOMOTIVE. TRIED

Fig. 65

EASTERN COUNTIES RAILWAY of the trial at Stratford

ON TUE

IN i852

was reduced to 201b. working pressure. With

a load of eight people, the engine ran the four miles, Stratford to Lea

Bridge and back, in 30 minutes. the curiosity of the left

their

men engaged

employment

The incident

of the trial so aroused

at the Stratford

Works, that they

all

for the purpose of witnessing the trial of so great

an innovation as Pasey's compressed air locomotive. For this reason no further trials could be held at Stratford, but on July 2nd a second trip

was made

at Cambridge,

and on

the following results were recorded

:

this occasion,

with

six passengers,

Starting from the 60th mile-post

near the Waterbeach Junction, with a working pressure of 151b. per sq. in.,

the

first

mile was covered in five minutes.

By

increasing the

pressure on the pistons, the second mile was covered in four minutes the pressure was then reduced to 18- 851b., and 3| additional miles

were covered

in ten minutes.

The designer

of this little

machine gives

— EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE by which he apparently succeeds

eight reasons

own t

satisfaction



is

still

all

events to his

in proving the great superiority of compressed air

taction over that of steam.

steam

— at

171

Unfortunately for Mr. Pasey's theory,

—or

triumphant, and compressed air dead

nearly so

for tractive purposes.

The opening of the Great Northern Railway next claims our attenThe first locomotives were supplied by contract, an order for 50 passenger engines having been given to Sharp Bros, and Co. These tion.

Lb.— THE Filter

TYPE OF GltKVT SOUTH M,N K.AILWaY I'ASS-NGER BKGIKK, OXE OF THE "LITTLE SIIAIU'S"

F:g

were six-wheel

single engines (Fig. 66), the driving wheels being 5ft. 6in.

The cylinders were

diameter.

loaded, 18 tons 8£ cwt.

and (Fig. 66)

We

will

is

now

15in.

by 20in. stroke. Weight

of enpiie,

These engines were called "Little Sharp3,"

an illustration of one of them. describe the famous " No. 215 " (Fig. 67) of the -Great

Northern Railway, designed towards the end of 1852 by Mr. Archibald Sturrock, constructed by

Hawthorn and

livered to the Great Northern Railway on

and

Co., Newcastle,

August

de-

6th, 1853.

Fortunately, Mr. Sturrock has supplied the writer with complete r.nd

authentic details, together with a drawing, of this engine, so that

r.aders id

though

may it

rely

upon the information being

should be noted that

it

strictly

accurate,

does not correspond in several

particulars with other statements concerning

"No. 215" that have

been published. a matter of railway history that in 1852 the "Gladstone" uward settled the great rivalry existing at that period between the It

is

London and North Western and Great Northern Railways.

The

172

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

competition had been carried on in a manner



railroad warfare

viz.,

still

in favour in

American

the cutting of rates and fares; but Mr. Glad-

stone having decided this point, the Great Northern Railway intro-

duced the method of rivalry now universally recognised as English

—that

railway competition

is,

trial of speed.

Mr. Sturrock, with the

under the daring broad-gauge leaders, was, of course, conversant with what a locomotive could do, and his published experience

gained

reasons for the construction of "No. "

215" are as

follow:



This engine was constructed to prove to the directors of the

FlQ. 67.

- STUEROCK'S

MASTERPIECE, THE FAMOUS

G.N.R.

"215"

Great Northern Railway that

it was quite practicable to reach Edinburgh from King's Cross in eight hours, by only stopping at Grantham, York, Newcastle, and Berwick. This service was not carried out, because there was no demand by travellers for, nor competition

amongst, the railways to give the public such accommodation."

Although delayed

for

35 years, the demand for such a service

arose in 1888, and Mr. Sturrock then had the satisfaction of seeing

runs

such as he had built "No.

accomplished

facts.

originally built, she

It should

was

fitted

215"

to

be noted that

perform

become

daily

when "No. 215" was

with a leading bogie, such an arrange-

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE ment being a the

principal feature of Mr. Sturrock's original design for

The bogie and

the engine.

173

driving wheels

being

trailing wheels

were

diameter;

6in.

7ft.

3in. diameter,

4ft.

the

were and had a diameter of 17£in., with a stroke of 24in. The heating surface was large, this being another of the strong points in cylinders

inside,

Mr. Sturrock's design.

Tubes, 1,564

total heating surface, 1,718.2 sq.

11 cwt. 2 qr. 21ft.

working order,

in

;

Water capacity

8|in.

fire-box, 155.2 sq. ft.;

sq. ft.;

The weight was, empty, 32 tons 37 tons 9 cwt. 2 qr. Wheel base,

ft.

of tender,

and axle bearings were outside; the driving axle, as in the broad-gauge

2,505 gallons.

The" frames were curved above the

latter

"Lord

of the Isles" type.

The boiler and raised fire-box were also after the same pattern. The engine had no dome, but an encased safety valve on the fire-box

—a

further evidence of attention to the Swindon practice.

Com-

pensation beams connected the two pairs of bogie wheels, and tha

underhung springs of the driving wheels were also connected with the trailing axle springs by means of compensation levers. "No.

215" frequently ran at 75 miles an hour. She appears to have been broken up about 29 years back, for in 1870 Mr. Stirling built an engine, "No. 92," in which he used the 7ft. 6in. driving wheels of Mr. Sturrock's famous "215." Engine No. 92, is still at work, so that the driving wheels

must be 45 years

old.

"215" with McConnell's "300"

A

comparison of Mr.

show the immense superiority of the former, especially with regard to the amount of heating surface, the pitch of the boiler, and the bogie in place of the Sturrock's

will

rigid wheel base.

In the last chapter, Mr. Pearson's initial patent for a locomotive

was described, and a description of his famous double-bogie tank engines, with 9ft. " single " driving wheels,

is

given below. The design

which was brought out in 1853, was a modification of the patent specification already alluded to. The engines were constructed by Rothwell and Co., Union Foundry, Bolton-le-Moors, and (Fig.

68),

were famous for the low average cost for repairs and fuel consumption per mile run

;

indeed, a feature of most of the broad-gauge loco-

motives was the low average cost of maintenance and working.

ends the

of

wheels

wheels cylinders

frames

the of

9ft.

(the

which

diameter; ends

of

were

supported

on

a

four-wheel

The bogie,

and the driving The had no flanges. which projected beyond the front of tne

were

4ft.

these

in

diameter,

latter

!

174

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

175

smoke-box) were 16|in. diameter and 24in. stroke; the driving axle

The

was above the frame. diameter;

it

was

boiler

10ft.

9in.

long and

4ft.

£in.

contained 180 bras3 tubes of one and thirteen-sixteenths

The steam pressure was

inch external diameter.

No dome

1301b.

was provided, and the Salter safety valves were located on the top The weight of the of the fire-box and enclosed by a brass casing.

The water was

engine, in working order, was 42 tons.

three

tanks,

one

beneath

and

the

usual

fire-box,

The

two

the

boiler,

behind

tank,

well

another the

stuffing-box jointed pipe,

the

foot-plate.

were connected by means which was continued to the bottom

tanks

suspended

stored in

below

of

a

of the

wheel-tank, so that the water in the three tanks was thus able. to pass

The feed-pumps were worked from

from one tank to any other one.

the pist'on-rod cross-head, and the feed-pipes passed along behind the

To steady the suspended

splashers to the boiler.

There were

passed between the two.

necting the bogie frames with the

also

tanks, link-rods were

"bogie safety links" con-

main frame

at

each end, and

similar links connected the suspended tanks with the other ends of

the bogie frames.

These links were each

fitted

with india-rubber disc buffers, to allow

The parts were thus so strongly

of the necessary elastic working.

linked together, that should a bogie centre-pin break, or should the

bogie

movement

in

fail

of the

still

remain in

springs were of the india-

Those of the driving axle presented some

rubber disc kind.

markable

any way, the wheels would

The whole

their right position.

re-

peculiarities.

They were double, an

elastic

connection being formed between

the boiler and the axle-boxes by large plate brackets projecting from the boiler barrel, and carrying centre studs for a short double-armed

each end of by a long link.

lever; it

this lever

had a separate spring-box attached

The inner spring-box worked down behind the

to

disc plate of the

driving-wheel splashers, whilst the outer one worked parallel to outside the driving wheel.

it,,

The springs for the other wheels were all beneath their axles, and were very compact and neat in appearance. The brake action was confined to the after bogie, all four wheels being used for the frictional effect, the sliding bars carrying the brake blocks being actuated in

reverse

to be

directions

worked by the

by a screw driver.

spindle,

which

carried a winch

176

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

177

regulator valve was a slide, worked in a simple and certainly a convenient manner by a short lever, set on a pillar stud on the front of the fire-box, and passing through a slot in the end of the

The

slide

This was a far more effective plan of working the

spindle.

valve than the ordinary rotatory handle.

These engines were remarkable for their steady running at. high 80 miles an hour and over being a daily performance of the engines on certain portions of the main line between Exeter and

speeds,

Bristol.

One reason

for the freedom

from excessive

oscillation for

which

•:hese engines were famous was and the slow piston velocity arising therefrom; thus with 6ft. wheels at a speed of 60 miles an hour, the pistons have to make no less than 280 double strokes per minute without making allowance for " slip." With the 9ft. driving wheels the double piston strokes per minute at

attributable to the 9ft. driving wheels,

60 miles an hour

fall

able a reduction in the

machinery obtain a

of

to

18G,

the locomotive,

much more

and consequently with so consider-

movements

steady

it

of the reciprocating

is

and rotating

only reasonable to expect and

movement

of the

machine.

In the matter of coal consumption the engines were no less successful.

No.

-.1.0

Writing in August, 1856, Mr. Pearson reported: "Engine has run 81,790 miles since her delivery in October, 1853, and

has consumed 794 tons 17 cwt. 2 qr. of coke, or 21.761b. per mile: the repairs as yet have been very trifling, consisting chiefly of

turning the tyres.

re-

This engrne has been working passenger trains

on the main

line

almost the whole of the time since she was delivered.

Our mileage

is

rather heavy, each engine averaging 750 miles per

week." After 1876, when the Bristol and Exeter Railway was amalgamated with the Great Western Railway and the former company's locomotive stock became the property of the latter, 4 of the 8 origiaal 9ft. tank engines then in existence were rebuilt, and their character and design entirely remodelled. The diameter of the driving wheels was reduced to 8ft., and tyres fitted to them, a pair of trailing wheels were provided in place of the rear bogie, and a separate tender was added, the tanks being done away with. The B. and E.R. numbers of these engines were 39 to 46. The G-W.R. numbered the four taken " over 2001 to 2004. The lattor was hauling the " Flying Dutchman when the Long Ashton accident happened on July 27th, 1876. It wiy

178

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

3

— EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

179

in consequence of this disaster that the engines were rebuilt with 8ft.

In concluding this sketch of Pearson's famous broad-gauge

wheels.

double tanks, we

may

state that until recent years,

when phenomenal^

high locomotive speeds have been recorded, these engines held the

"blue ribbon" in that respect with an authenticated speed of 81 miles Figures 69 and 70 represent them as rebuilt.

an hour.

The Furness Railway Company is certainly notorious for the manner in which it preserves its locomotives; not only has it the two old Bury engines (already described) yet in active service, but there are still at work on the same Company's iron roads other engines manufactured as long ago as 1854.

These locomotives are

cousins to Bury's four wheel (coupled) goods engines; they were

first

by Fairbairn,

built

der

i.e.,

of the

and have cylinders

of Manchester,

with a stroke of 24in.

Bury "inside"

cylin-

type, with the cylinders within the

frames, but below the smoke-box, instead of within are, in fact,

15in. diameter,

Of course, they are technically inside

but a few inches above

rail level

;

The

it.

cylinders

they incline upwards,

and the connecting-rods pass beneath the leading axie and actuate the trailing axle;

the four wheels are

4ft.

9iu.

coupled by means of round section side-rods; 9in.

7ft.

diameter, and are the

the frames are of the inside bar pattern

;

;

wheel base

is

the fire-box

is

round, with circular top, and surmounted by a double Salter safety valve. it

The

and

boiler is lift. 2in. long

contains 148 tubes, 2in. diameter.

940

sq. ft.

;

steam pressure, 1201b.

;

of 3ft. llin.

The

mean diameter;

total heating surface is

weight of engine in working order,

22£ tons. There is no dome on the boiler; but some modern attachments have been fixed on the upper portion of the round fire-box, tho steam pressure gauge being very noticeable. The tender is sup 3ft. diameter, the wheel base being 3ft.,

ported on four wheels of

capacity of tank 1,000 gallons, and coal space 100ft.; weight in work-

ing order, 14 \ tons.

The tender has

outside frames, and the brake

actuates blocks to both sides of the four wheels.

used for working goods and mineral

The

particular engine "

Ovid

" (Fig.

we have been

traffic

These engines are

over the Furness Railway.

describing

'

is

"No.

9."

71) represents a type of bogie saddle-tank engines,

with four-coupled wheels, designed by D. Gooch for working the passenger trains on the steep inclines of the South Devon Railway. cylinders were I7in. diameter, with a stroke of 24in.

wheels were 5

ft.

in diameter.

The The coupled

Weight, in working order, 38£ tons,

n2

!

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

180

Steam

pressure, 120 lbs. per square inch.

"Ovid" was

built

by Haw-

thorn in 1854. " Plato " (Fig. 72)

was one of the

signed by Gooch for the South

six coupled

banking engines,

de-

Devon Railway.

She was built at Swindon in 1854. The steam pressure, cylinders, stroke, ana weight were the same as in the " Ovid " class. The wheels were 5ft in diaThe rectangular meter. The tanks contained 740 gallons of water. projection in front of the smoke-box is the sand-box and Co., of the Hyde Park Works, Glasgow, pro1855 a type of outside cylinder goods engine. Readers will remember that at that period goods locomotives were not necessarily Neilson

duced

in

Fig. 71.— "

OVID,

A SOUTH DEVON RAILWAY SADDLE TANK ENGINE, WITH LEADING BOGIE

of the six or eight wheels coupled description

; they more generally had but the leading and driving wheels coupled. This type of engine, it will be remembered, is now usually described as "four-coupled in front"

or a "mixed traffic" engine.

The locomotive

in question

Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway, and was numbered Neilson and Co.'s books.

for the

The

boiler

was

of considerable length,

was "

built

353

" in

and appeared longer from

the fact that the fire-box top was not raised, so that a long, un-

broken line of boiler top met the eye, relieved at the extremity

of

the fire-box end by being surmounted by an immense steam dome, on the top of which was fixed an enclosed Salter safety valve.

The

horizontal outside cylinders were below the foot-plate side frames, located as usual at the smoke-box end.

Their diameter was 16in.

— EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE and stroke 22in. wheels

3ft.

6in.

The coupled wheels were

5ft.

and the

181

trailing

diameter.

The frames were "inside," and the driving and leading wheels were provided with inside bearings only, but by a curious practice of at about the middle of the fire-box bolting on to the main frames



which curved outwards, the trailing wheels were The rams actuating the boiler feedbearings. outside with provided the piston-rods, the pumps being extensions of simply were pumps

an elongated portion,

Fro.

fixed

72.— "PLATO,"

A SIX-COUPLED SADDLE TANK BANKING ENGINE, SOUTH DEVON EADLWAT

between the leading and driving wheels.

The engine was

pro-

vided with a steam-pressure gauge, fixed on a vertical pillar over

—indeed,

much the same position the steam "No. 353" had no cab or weathertherefore appeared singular to see the gauge in tho

the top of the fire-box

gauge

still

board, and place

in

occupies, save that it

indicated.

Rotatory valves for locomotives are almost annual "inventions," ant as old friends as the "biggest gooseberry" and "sea serpent," whicL appear regularly year by year. Under such circumstances, we may be excused for giving an account of Locking and Cook's patent rotatory York and North Midland Railway engine, " No. 48,"

valve, fixed to the

May

same year, the " No. 48 " was used on the Hull and Bridlington branch ; and although she was an old engine, having been built for the Hull and Selby Railway in 1840, yet with the rotatory valve, good old " 48 " is stated to have consumed 20 per cent, less coke than a modern engine doing the same

on January 26th, 1854, and taken out in

of the

locomotive in the interim having run 10,000 miles.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

182

work on the same branch; we also read that when the valve was removed no perceptible wearing was to be noticed. We are not, however, aware that "No. 48" or any other of the York and North Midland Railway locomotives were afterwards fitted with Locking and Cook's patent rotatory valves. Mr. G. Tosh, locomotive superintendent of the Maryport and CarRailway, designed in 1854 a powerful goods engine to work the

lisle

heavy mineral wheels, surface

traffic

4ft. 7in.



over the railway.

This engine had

six coupled

diameter; cylinders, 16fin. by 22in. stroke; heating

tubes, 1,181ft.;

fire-box, 84ft.;

pressure, 1201b.; weight, 26 tons 12 cwt.

total, ;

cost,

1,265

sq.

£2,175.

ft.;

steam

She hauled

a train of 100 loaded wagons, weighing 445 tons, for a distance

of

28 miles in If hours. The line is of a very undulating character, including an ascent nine miles long, one mile of which is 1 in 192. The

wagons were borrowed from the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway, and the 100 only weighed 172 tons, or an average of less than If tons each.

The dead weight 1854, although

it

is

of mineral

wagons has largely increased

since

to be feared their carrying capacity has not

increased in the same proportion.

FIG. 73.— THE

FIRST TYPE OF NARROW-GAUGE PASSENGER ENGINES

ON THE GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY

About

this time, the

growth of narrow gauge

lines in the districts

served by the G.W.R., together with the amalgamations and alliances of

narrow gauge railways with the G.W.R., made

bitter railway to provide narrow-gauge engines.

one of the

first

it

necessary for the

Fig.

73 represent

narrow-gauge Great Western locomotives.

It will

be

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE seen that Daniel Gooch introduced these engines.

Co.

The

all

his

183

well-known features into

These locomotives were built by Beyer, Peacock, and

" single " driving wheels were 6ft. 6in. diameter, the cylin-

< 9

ders being 15£in. diameter, and the stroke 22in.

Compensation levers

connected the leading and driving springs. In 1855 Sir D. Gooch designed a class of coupled express broad These engines had a gauge engines for the Great Western Railway.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

184

Isles " class.

group of four leading wheels, like the " Lord of the

driving and trailing wheels were coupled, and were

The

in diameter.

7ft.

At that time, no coupled wheels of so large a diameter had been con-

The cylinders were

structed.

R

17in. diameter, with a 24in. stroke-

Stephenson and Co. built the engines, of which there were

Thev

10.

were a most successful class of engine, and ran about 500,000 miles "

each before being " scrapped." these engines.

By

Robin Hood

" (Fig. 74)

reference to the illustration,

the tender was fitted with the sentinel box for the that formerly accompanied the

G.W. broad-gauge

it will

was one

of

be seen that

" travelling

porter

"

expresses.

Fig. 75 represents the inspection or cab engine of the N.B.R.,

it is

numbered 879, and was originally built by Messrs. Neilson and Co., in She is now used for 1850, for the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway. inspection purposes. stroke.

The cylinders are

Other dimensions are

diameter; driving,

5ft.

:

diameter; wheel base,

leading to centre of driving, 10ft. 8in. trailing,

face

:

diameter by

;

15ft.

8in.

Tubes, 324 ft.

35

;

75.-

3ft.

centre of

359

Heating

sur-

sq. ft.

Fire-

Weight, in working order, 22 tons lcwt. 3qrs.

Tank

sq. ft.

;

fire-box,

sq. ft.

;

total,

capacity, 426 gallons.

Fig.

15in.

centre of driving to centre of

Tubes, No. 88, lfin. diameter outside.

5ft.

grate, 5 sq.

lOin.

Wheels, leading and trailing,

NORTH BRITISH RAILWAY INSPECTION ENGINE,

No.

879



CHAPTEL,

XI.





of the in coal-burning locomotives Beattie'8 eystem Trials "Canute" Yorston's plan Cudworth's successful efforts Yarrow's apparatus D. K. Clark's system tried on the North London and other railways Wilson's plan h'ied to engines working the O.W. & W.R.—Lee and Jacques* experiments Frodsham's de\ico tried on the E.C.R.—Douglas' system The various plans re\iewoc " Nunihorpe," a S. & D.R. engine Double engine on the Turin and Genoa Railway— -Orampton's engines on the E.K.R.—French locomotives Gifford'? inventicn of the injector First fitted to the "Pro>n the EC.R. blem" Ramsbottom's -.'ater "pick-up apparatus Brunei's powerful B.W. tanks for the Vale of Neath Railway Incorporation of the Metropolitan Railway— Trial of Fowler's "hot brick" engine Its end Fletcher's sadde tanks " 75." T.V.R. Second-hand locomotives on the L. & S.W.R. The "-Meteor" Early L.C. and D.R. engines Hawthorn's locomot.ve for the Inverness and Aberdeen Junction Railway.

Improvement



















— — —

'

















We have now reached an era in the "evolution of the steam locomotive" which, in its after development, amounted to a complete revolution in the character of the fuel used for locomotive purposes. The year 1855 found the locomotive, or rather those responsible for working, on the threshold of successful experiments, which resulted in the complete substitution of the "black diamonds" in their

its

natural state for locomotive fuel in preference to the use of coal afte/ it

had undergone the process

of carbonification necessary to form coke. must not be forgotten that steam-users never had a preference for coke, but they were compelled to use it, because the more volatile coal produced so much smoke in the process of combustion that It

legislative

action

(which compels locomotive engines to be so con-

structed as " to

practically prevented the

use of coal

of

consume their own smoke ") until science discovered a method

consuming the smoke.

There had been various attempts to reach this desirable state, and we have from time to time in this series of articles described certain of these efforts; but none of them up to the date under review had been sufficiently successful to warrant the adoption of any

one

of

The

the

methods proposed

as a complete

made by

smoke-consumer.

London and South Western Railway, to solve the problem of smoke consumption in the locomotive so as to admit of coal being used as fuel stand out prominently. The salient points of his smoke-consuming locomotive comprised an enlarged fire-box, a combustion chamber,, the transverse successful efforts

Beattie, of the

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

186

division of the fire-box

by means

an inclined water bridge, and

of

A perforated fire-door for the admission of air to the fire-box was another of the features of Beattie's system, as were also the use of the ashpan dampers and the employthe fire-box arched with fire-bricks.

ment

of

was at

an auxiliary steam

jet in the chimney for use when the engine and the ordinary exhaust blast consequently not available.

rest

With the addition

of a feed-water heating apparatus Beattie reduced

the fuel consumption to from .12 to .171b. per ton mile.

The dimensions of the London and South Western Railway locomotive " Canute " (an engine fitted with Beattie's coal burning apparatus)

were:

—Cylinders

(outside), 15in. diameter, 21in. stroke; driving

The

wheels, 6ft. 6in. diameter.

wide, oft. lin. deep at the back,

chamber had a The tubes were

6ft. long, 1 Jin.

area of fire-grate, 16 sq.

The heating 107

sq.

total,

4ft.

sq.

ft;

surface of 80 sq.

2in. long,

and

The combustion 6in. diameter.

3ft.

Total

,

of

"Canute" was as

the

in addition to

ft.,

llin. long, 3ft. 6in.

4ft.

diameter, and 373 in number.

ft.

surface

was

4ft. lin. in front.

combustion chamber, 37

ft.;

769

was

flat roof,

fire-box

and

sq.

ft.;

follows:

tubes,

625

ft.;

which red-hot bricks presented a

not, however, for heating the water,

purpose of burning the smoke.

—Box,

sq.

Four

series of trials

but for the

were made with

the "Canute" engine No. 135, and these are detailed in "Locomotive

Engineering."

The experiments

in its usual order,

with

are described as " 1st, the engine

coal, bricks,

and hot feed-water; 2nd, with

and cold water; 3rd, with coke, bricks, and hot feedwater; 4th, with coal and hot feed-water, but without the bricks." coal, bricks,

Three different kinds of coals were used for the experiments. The 1st, a regular following is a brief summary of the experiments: express train, of 10 J coaches, weighing 66 tons, or with the engine



and tender, 99

tons.

Average speed, exclusive of stoppages, 34 miles coal, 151b. per train mile; water evaporated,

an hour; consumption of 9.351b. per lb. of coal

water,

187

degrees.

consumed; average temperature

2nd

trial,

of heated feed-

a weighted train of

28

coaches,

weighing with engine and tender 236 tons. Average speed, exclusive of stoppages, 301 miles an hour; coal consumed, 28|lb. per mile, 8.871b. of water evaporated by each pound of coal; temperature of feed-water, 212 degrees.

3rd experiment with an express train, but

without the fire-bricks in the fire-box, showed that a saving of 12 per

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE cent,

was due

coal as fuel,

to the use of the fire-bricks,

187

and with coke instead

the saving was 24 per cent, in favour of coal

;

of

whilst the

use of the feed-water heating apparatus showed a saving of 30 per cent, "

of

apparatus

Beattie's

fuel.

is

illustrated

Dane," being a locomotive contemporaneous with

Fig. 76.-

THE

by Fig. K

76,

the

Canute."

L. & S.W.R., FITTED WITH BEATTIE'S PATENT APPABATUS FOE BUBNING COAL

DANE,"

As the feed-water heating apparatus was an important innovation we append a descrip-

in locomotive practice, it will be of interest if tion of the same. of the apparatus

In outward appearance, the most noticeable portion was the condenser, a cylindrical appendage placed in

a vertical position on the top of the smoke-box and in front of the

chimney.

From

a casual glance, the condenser

steampipe of a steamship which smoke-stack.

From

the

is

bottom

of

the

engine, a pipe conveyed the heated water tender.

The method

of

much resembled

the

usually to be observed outside the

condenser,

outside

the

and steam back to the

working was for the exhaust steam to be

discharged from the blast pipe into the condenser, which, as previously explained, was on the top of the smoke-box, and consequently

Here the exhaust steam was mixed with a which was pumped into a condenser. The result of such meeting was the condensing of the steam and heating of the water, which flowed by gravitation -through the pipe previously described. The supply pump for the boiler was worked off this pipe, and both the heated water and that from the tender were together

right over the blast orifice. jet of cold water,

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE.

188

pumped

into the boiler.

If

the boiler were not being fed, the heated

water from the condenser, instead of passing into the

boiler,

flowed

through the pipe into the tender, and thus raised the temperature the whole of the water in that vessel. It

of

should be mentioned that before entering the boiler the tem-

perature of the feed-water was further increased by passing through

a special heating apparatus, fixed in the smoke-box. This smokebox chamber was heated by the exhaust steam, which passed through it after leaving the blast pipe,

and before entering the external con-

By

these methods the temperature of the

denser placed above

it.

feed-water was raised above the boiling point before entering the boiler.

The engines of this design gave satisfaction, both as regards smokeconsuming and feed-water heating, and to Beattie, therefore, is due much of the honour of successfully overcoming the defects that previously

existed

in

so-called

"

smoke-consuming " locomotives.

The

"

Canute " can, therefore, be considered amongst the earliest of the locomotives burning coal in such a manner as to consume the smoke. It

should be mentioned that in later engines built under Beattie's

patent the external condenser fixed on the top of the smoke-box in front of the funnel

was not used,

a modified

form

of interior appa-

ratus bein^ substituted.

must not be supposed that

was alone in smoke-consuming " locomotives. Several other engineers were engaged in the same useful research, amongst whom we mention Yorston, Cudworth, Yarrow, D. K. Clark, It

the

field

of

a
experiment relating to

this period Beattie

"

Wilson, Lee and Jacques (jointly), Sinclair, and Douglas.

Yorston's

The fire-box was divided into two 'parts by a transverse mid-feather, which was perforated by a series of tubes, to allow the coal gases to escape and The coal was fed into the portion of the fire-box next air to enter. plan was patented by Sharp, Stewart, and Co. in 1855.

the tubes, the front part being reserved for coke

;

separate fire-doors

were used for introducing the coke and coal into the fire-box. The air entering through the perforations in the fire-box, at the tube-plate end, was expected to force the smoke, etc., from the coal fire over the incandescent coke, where the combustion of the coal would be comThe system, however, appears to have been better in theory pleted. than practice, as no particular steps were taken to push the invention in question.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

189

With Cudworth's system the opposite course was adopted, and resulted in his engines taking a foremost position

among

those burn-

ing coal as fuel.

Mr. Cudworth, the locomotive superintendent of the South Eastern

Railway appears to have made his

first

experiments with engine No.

was tried as a coke-burning locomotive; but during October and November of the same year experiments wero made with this engine, fitted with Cudworth's patent grate, etc. The principal dimensions of Cudworth's standard passenger engines were as follows: Cylinders, 16in. by 24in. stroke: driving wheels, 142, which during July, 1857,



6ft,

diameter; wheel base, 15ft.; heating surface, 965ft.; grate area,

21 sq. leading

Fig

axle

7

trailing

30£

Total weight in working order

ft.

supported

9 tons

9

tons, of

driving

cwt.,

lOf

which the cwt.,

and

CUDWORTH'S SLOPING FIRE GliAiE, FOB BURNING COAL. \S FITTED TO SOUTH EASTERN RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES

?.-

10

tons

6

The

cwt.

tender

was

carried

on

six

wheels, and weighed in working order 20J tons. These engines had inside cylinders and " back-coupled " driving wheels, and for many

years

comprised

the

locomotives. Several of

distinguishing features

principal

them are



viz.,

type still

of

South

Eastern

passenger

running, but rebuilt, their former

the large brass

dome on

the centre of the

boiler barrel, the raised fire-box, with a brass encased Salter safety

190

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

valve, the sloping fire-grate,

and the peculiar chimney— all having

been removed during the present locomotive regime.

The

chief feature in Cudworth's system

box, which was

by Fig. 77.

7ft. 6in.

The

was the

long, sloping fire-

in length, the grate being 7ft. long, illustrated

fire-box

was divided into two parts by a

longitudinal,

mid-feather, thus forming two furnaces, with separate doors

;



furnaces united at the lower end

the two

in front of the tube-plate.

The was introduced alternately into each furnace, being placed just within the doors; the sloping grate and the motion of the engine coal

caused the fuel to gradually slide

down the grate towards tne

tube-

and by the time the fuel had reached the lower end of the grate, the smoke had become separated from the carbon of the coal, and was plate,

consumed by the incandescent mass of fire at the lower end it passed over the same on its way to the tubes.

of the

grate, as

Cudworth employed neither combustion chambers nor air-bricks in system; but air was admitted to the fire-box by means of a damper fixed in the front of the lower end of the grate. A steam- jet his

was

fixed in the

engine was

still.

chimney to create a sufficient draught when the Cudworth's " smoke-consuming " locomotives were

as economical in coal as Beattie's, whilst the former's system

much more

was

simple.

On March

18th, 1857,

Thomas Yarrow,

of Arbroath,

was granted

a patent for his smoke-consuming apparatus for locomotives, which

was used on the Scottish North Eastern Railway. The leading characteristic of the design was a flat arch of fire-bricks constructed inside an ordinary

fire-box.

The lower end

of the arch

commenced below

bottom row of tubes, and the arch was continued upwards ing direction

Upon the top

till

within 8 or 10 inches of the roof of the fire-box.

of this arch

were fixed a number of tubes, through

which the vapours passed before reaching the ordinary boiler

Hot

was supplied to the shaped mouths placed in front air

the

in a slant-

fire

by means

of the ashpan.

of pipes

The

tube^i.

with trumpet-

fire-bars

were fixed

on a transverse rocking-shaft fitted with several short arms, upon which the ends of the fire-bars rested. To prevent the formation of clinkers, an occasional rock was given to the fire-bars by the fireman, a sector being provided for the purpose.

Yarrow's system required

be placed at the extreme front of the fire-box, so that the forced by the brick arch to return towards the fire-door was smoke before it could get over the arch and enter the tubes, and in the

the coal to

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

191

passage the denser portion of the smoke was burnt.

The patent also use when the the feed-water by means

the chimney for

included the use of a steam-jet in

engine was not working, and the heating of of the exhaust steam.

Late in 1857 D. K. Clark devised his system of smoke-consuming furnaces

the air was forced through tubes into the fire-box by the

:

much

action of minute jets of steam, which acted

The

as the blast pipe in the smoke-box.

with the steam-jet

meter,

in the

same way

air-tubes were l^in. dia-

contracted to one-sixteenth inch

orifice

diameter.

The

first

locomotive fitted with D. K. Clark's system was one of

London Railway's

the North

tanks.

This was in January, 1858, but

only one side of the fire-box was fitted;

four air-tubes were emand with a small fire the prevention of smoke was complete. In April of the samr year one of the passenger engines on the Eastern Counties Railway was fitted with Clark's apparatus. Four air-tube's were fitted to one side of the fire-box, and three to the ployed,

other

side.

In the following

January a South Eastern Railway

passenger locomotive was fitted with two rows of seven tubes each,

through the front and back of the

North

of Scotland

with

system,

fire-box.

Railway engine was

such

satisfactory

results

motive stock of that railway was speedily

No complete

In March, 1859, a Great

fitted

with tubes on Clark's

fitted

investigation appears to have been

performed by the

jets of

the

that

made

steam as employed by Clark.

supposed that the steam had a merely mechanical of

drawing the

the

air into

the fire-box.

It

whole

loco-

with the apparatus. as to the

work

It is generally

effect



viz.,

that

has also been suggested that

steam produced a chemical combination which facilitated the

combustion of the volatile gases, besides precipitating the unconsumed carbonaceous matter on the

fire.

The

result of the adoption of the

system on the Great North of Scotland Railway's locomotives was fell to under .21b. of coal per ton was also made of Clark's system on the London Brighton, and South Coast Railway, one of the old passenger engines

such that the coal consumption mile.

A

trial

being fitted with air-tubes and steam-jets to the front of the fire-box. with good results.

In 1858 Mr. Edward Wilson, who supplied the Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhampton Railway with locomotive power by contract, fitted Mr. David Joy, his system to several of the engines on that line.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

192

the inventor of the celebrated Joy valve-gear, was at that time loco-

motive superintendent of the Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhampton Railway, and he possesses records of fitted,

many runs

and the comparisons between the

fitted

of the engines so

and unfitted engines

show an immense saving of fuel by the former; indeed, the coal consumption was remarkably low considering the severe nature of the Some short time ago Mr. Joy line between Oxford and Worcester. showed the writer the tabulated results of these trials, and, if

memory

serves correctly, the coal consumption averaged about 211b.

Wilson's system consisted in fixing several tubes from lire-box underneath the whole length of the boiler the bottom of the and smoke-box, so that the mouths of the air-tubes projected in front of the engine, and the resistance of the train when travelling forced the per train mile.

air

through the tubes into the

fire-box.

By

method Wilson

his

ob-

tained a forced draught without the expenditure of the steam, which

was necessary in Clark's system.

Lee and Jacques' system was introduced on the East Lancashire It consisted of a narrow fire-brick arch, and a deflector fixed at the top of the underhung fire-door. The deflector A valve projected in a downward sloping direction into the fire-box. for controlling the supply of air to the fire-box was fitted to the firedoor, and this valve was worked by means of a sector. The air Railway in July, 1858.

entered the fire-box through the valve, and the deflector caused the air to

be projected downwards on to the

fuel, whilst

the brick arch

prevented the immediate escape of the gases, and kept them within the fire-box sufficiently long for the smoke to be consumed.

In December, 1858, Mr. Sinclair, the locomotive superintendent of the Eastern Counties Railway, commenced to fit some locomotives

on a plan introduced by a Mr. Frodand the baffle-plate was fixed underhung, The fire-door wa-s

with the deflecting plate,

sham. above

it,

etc.,

to direct the air

down on

to the fuel

:

whilst instead of a

on each side of the door. These also helped to force the air on to the burning fuel and to- drive the liberated, but unconsumed, smoke back into the fire, .when it

brick arch,

two steam-jets were

used, one

was consumed. Mr. Douglas's plan was adopted by the Birkenhead Railway. He combined the use of an inclined fire-grate of large area, and a baffleplate.

In January, 1858, when

first

introduced, the deflector was fixed

to the inner side of the fire-door, but in June of the

same year an

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE underhung

fire-door

and movable

baffle-plate

were employed.

193

These

afterwards gave place to a plain inverted scoop, to project the air right on to the fire. After reading the description of the various plans adopted for the consumption of the smoke, readers will at once observe that each and every designer had the same object in view viz., to supply a



volume

and mix the air with the unconsumed gases given off by the burning coal, and then to prevent the immediate escape of this gaseous mixture from the fire-box. Bein^ sufficient

of air to the fire,

retained within the heated fire-box, the temperature of the vapour

was raised

Fig. 78-

sufficiently, so that the

vapour readily burnt when forced

A STOCKTON' AND DARLINGTON' PASSENGER ENGINE, BUILT IN 1856

"NUNTHORr-E,"

HAILWAT

by the steam deflector, or brick arch (according to the system adopted), back on to the incandescent fuel. As stated, the object of all the inventors was the same, but the methods adopted were different, and these latter (though some systems had advantages that others lacked) were successful in each case ; but from the whole could be chosen

some that certainly were more noteworthy, both as regards simplicity of application and design, and others that were more successful in attaining the object in view viz., a consumption of the smoke given 1855-59 however, the problem off by the coal. In these four years



of

consuming

the

coal

smoke





was

successfully

and the era of the coal-burning locomotive

accomplished,

definitely inaugurated.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEA

194

Fig. 78

is

an illustration of the

"

M

LOCOMOTIVE

Nunthorpe," No.

117 of the

Stockton and Darlington Railway. This engine shows a distinct advance in locomotive construction ; indeed, it is possible at the present time

some

to see on

lines engines

somewhat similar

in appearance

still

at

She was built by Gilkes, Wilson and Co., in 1856, and was intended for passenger traffic. Four of the six wheels were coupled, these work.

The cylinders were inside, 16in. in diameter, and The tender was on six wheels, and the tank capawas 1,200 gallons. The cost of the engine was £2,550. It will

being

5ft. in

diameter.

with 19in. stroke. city

" Nunthorpe " afforded very be observed that the weather-board of the

Fig. 79.— BEATTIE'S

little

4-COUPLED TANK ENGINE,

&

L.

protection to the driver and fireman, but

S.W.R.,

its

1857

inclusion in the

design of the engine was a step in the right direction.

In 1857 Beattie designed a handy class of passenger tank enginei for the L.

"

and S.W.R.

Howe," and "Hood."

and a small pair

Three were built at

first,

and named

They had four coupled wheels,

of leading wheels.

The

cylinders,

5ft.

w

Nelson/

diameter

which were out

were 15in. diameter, the stroke being 20in. These engines ar< They were good locomotives, and " Hood illustrated by Fig. 79. side,

:

and

"

Howe "

Fairlie is

continued in work

till

1885.

usually given the credit of introducing double locc

motives with a centre footplate. By reference to Chapter IX., it wi be seen that the design was patented by Pearson, of the Bristol an as long ago as 1847, and in 1855 a doubl by R. Stephenson and Co., was at work on the Gioi The incline in questio incline of the Turin and Genoa Railway. commences 7f miles after leaving Genoa, and is six miles long, th average gradient being 1 in 36. The double locomotive was of th tank type. The wheels were 3ft. 6in. diameter, the cylinders 14i:

Exeter

Railway,

engine, built

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

195

The machine actually appears to have fire-box, and connected by means between the two fire-boxes. The combination, with

diameter, and the stroke 22in.

been two engines placed fire-box to of a foot-plate fuel

and water, weighed 50

In fine weather a load of 100 tons

tons.

was hauled up the Giovi bank

an hour; in bad weather

at 15 miles

the load was reduced to 70 tons.

The first portion of the East Kent Railway from Chatham to Faversham was opened in January, 1858, the original locomotives being designed by Crampton,

who was one

of the contractors for the

line. The engines in question were "tanks," aDd weighed 32 tons each at that period considered an excessive weight for an engine. They were also unsteady and generally unsatisfactory,

construction of the



frequently running

off

the metals.

Mr. Robert Sinclair was appointed locomotive superintendent of the Eastern Counties Railway in 1858, and his

was a

class for

working the goods

structed, Rothwell

traffic, of

first

design of engines

which only

and Co. being the builders.

pair of leading wheels, 3ft. 7in. diameter, and

six

were con-

The engines had a two pairs

of coupled

wheels, 5ft. diameter; the cylinders were 18in. diameter, the stroke

being 22in.

During the following years another

class of

goods engines (Fig. 80)

were built by various firms from Mr. Sinclair's improved design. Indeed, as will be seen later on, some were even constructed and These had Co. Schneider of the French firm by outside

cylinders,

and

3ft.

9in. diameter.

The

frames

inside

coupled wheels (D. and T.) were boiler

6ft. 3in.

was

10ft.

to

wheels.

all

The

diameter, and the leading 9in.

long by

meter, and contained 203 tubes, of If in. diameter;

4ft.

2in, dia-

heating space,

1,122 sq. ft.; weight, 35£ tons. Twenty-one of these engines, built by Neilson and Co., had Beattie's patent fire-box, which was surmounted by a large dome. These were numbered 307 to 327. When Mr. W. Adams was appointed locomotive superintendent of the Great Eastern Railway, he rebuilt several of these engines with a leading bogie in place of the pair of wheels.

In November, 1858, a design of locomotive engine was patented, four pairs of coupled wheels being employed, all of which were

The two leading

located under the boiler barrel.

had

outside

axle-boxes,

the

axle-boxes, latter

and

having

the a

two

lateral

pairs of wheels

trailing

motion.

pairs

The

inside

cylinders o 2

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE were

under

inside,

the

smoke-box,

but

the

197

method

proposed

for working the locomotive was of a curious type, being somewhat after the fashion

employed in ancient steamboats, the pistons work-

ing out towards the front buffer beams, but connected to the leading

wheels by outside cranks

A

Working

off

the crose-heads.

design for four-wheel tank engines was patented by

Davison, in February,

1859,

the leading feature being

S.

D.

plate-iron

frames formed into tanks for holding a supply of water. Attention must

now be given

to an invention that has proved of

to the locomotive engineer, but

enormous value

which from

its

sim-

apparent impossibility, was not at first deemed worthy of practical use. On July 23rd, 1858, a patent was granted to H. J. Giff ard, a Frenchman, for his injector, or boiler feeder, which in a short period almost completely superseded feed pumps, with plicity of action, yet

their

outlay

attendant for

disadvantages

from

the

of danger,

friction,

maintenance of

minds

the of

uncertainty

and feed

repair.

pumps,

locomotive

action,

of

But the

engineers

above

and

excessive

injector

that

a short supply of water in the boilers,

minor removed

these

great as well

source as

the

additional expense and inconvenience of " exercising " the locomotives

where such a method was working the engine over a "race" for the same pur-

solely for the purpose of filling the boiler, or,

ino*\nvenient, of pose.

The theory

of the injector did not originate with Giffard, for

as long ago as 1806 Nicholson mentioned

it

as applicable for forcing

water, whilst other philosophers have suggested its utility;

indeed,

the principle was used in connection with vacuum sugar boiling

The story of Giffard's accidental discovery of the action of steam and water in supplying a steam boiler with additional water reads almost like an extravagant romance, but many other great inventions and scientific discoveries had beginnings that appeared quite as improbable. The action of the injector, although curious, is well known, and therefore needs no description here. It is stated that Ramsbottom's "Problem," built at Crewe in November, 1859, was the first locomotive fitted with Giffard's " injector." This engine was the prototype of the worldfamous "Lady of the Lake" class. Her dimensions were, outside cylinders, 16in. by 24in. ; single driving wheels, 7ft. 7^in, diameter; weight in working order, 27 tons. These engines have inside frames and bearings to all the six wheels. pans 20 years before Giffard's patent.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

198

An

invention of Mr. Ramsbottom in connection with the improve-

ment

of the

point.

We

working of the locomotive deserves attention at this

refer to his self-filling tender apparatus,

as introduced

1860 on the London and North Western Railway system, and

in

afterwards partially on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, but

which until the

last

year or so has not been used on other

The

lines.

speed competition of recent years, and the expiration of the patent,

has

now caused

the Great Western, Great Eastern, and North Eastern

to adopt the water pick-up apparatus. is,

One advantage

of the system

of course, the considerable reduction in the dead weight

unimportant factor in express train running.

Ramsbottom's system

is

easily seen

The

—a

not

superiority

by comparing the small

of

light

tenders in use on the London and North Western Railway with the gigantic ones adopted lines

by the Great Northern, Midland, and other

running long distances without stopping, but which systems

are unsupplied with the water trough and the necessary ,

apparatus.

The

first

pick-up

pair of water troughs appear to have been put

down near Conway, on the North Wales section of the London and North Western Railway. They were of cast-iron, 441 yards long, 18in. wide, and 7in. deep, the water being 5in. deep. At each end of the main trough was an additional length of 16 yards, rising 1 in 100. It

was towards the end

system was made.

of

1860 that the

first

trial

of the

trough

Here, again, as in the case of the "injector," the

arrangement requisite to produce the

effect is so

simple that at

first

blush the effect appears to be the result of some marvellous secret

power rather than the operation

of a simple natural law, the effect of

the travelling scoop upon the water being exactly the same as

if

the

water were forced against a stationary scoop at a velocity equal to that at

which the train

tus works properly

is travelling. is

The lowest speed at which the appara-

something about 22 miles an hour.

however, brings

it

trains can scoop

up the water when

This speed,

within the scope of fast goods trains, whilst express travelling at 50 miles

an hour, and

can pick up about 1,500 gallons in the length of the trough of a mile. effect

The speed

of the train

upon the water picked up

—quarter

would not appear to have much

in passing over a trough, as although

with a slower train less water would be raised per second, yet the extra length of time spent in travelling over the trough would compensate for the smaller amount of water raised per second. The water supply-pipe

is

fixed inside the tender

;

it is slightly

curved throughout

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE its

entire length,

and

is

expanded towards

its

199

upper end to about ten

times the area of the bottom, in order to reduce the speed or force of the

incoming stream, which

or delivering

pipe

is

mouth

is

directed

downwards by the bent end

To the lower end

at the top of the pipe.

a movable dip-pipe, which

fitted

of Ihis

curved forward in the

is

direction of the motion of the tender, so as to act as a species of

This dip-pipe

scoop.

ways, with a view to

rendered movable and adjustable in various

is its

being drawn up clear of any impediments,

such as ballast heaps lying on the way, and also

to

regulate the

depth of immersion in the water of the feed-water trough, the dippipe being capable of sliding up inside the feed-pipe

arrangement of rods and

by a convenient

levers.

may

In order that the dip-pipe

enter and leave the feed-trough

freely at each end, the rail surface at that part of the line is lowered

a few inches, a descending gradient at one end of the trough serving to allow the dip-pipe to descend gradually into the trough, whilst a rising gradient at the opposite

end enables

it

to rise out of the trough

again, the intervening length of line between the

To

level.

two gradients being

meet emergencies, Mr. Ramsbottom provided a small

plough, to be

ice-

used occasionally during severe frost for the purpose of

breaking up and removing any ice which might form in the trough.

This plough consisted of a small carriage mounted on four wheels,

and provided with an angular-inclined perforated top, which worked its way under the ice on being pushed along the bottom of the trough,

and

effectually

A

broke

it

up and discharged

it

over each side.

very powerful class of broad-gauge saddle tank locomotives was

designed by Brunei for working the heavy coal

traffic

over the severe

These engines were supdiameter, the cylinders being

gradients of the Vale of Neath Railway.

ported by six coupled wheels of 18in. diameter, sq. ft.;

4ft. 9in.

and the stroke 24in.

The heating

surface was 1,41 7.G

the water capacity of tanks was 1,500 gallons.

which were

fitted

with Dubs' wedge motion, were built

The engines, by the Vulcan

and weighed 50 tons in working order. A noteworthy performance of one of these locomotives consisted in hauling a train of 25 loaded broad-gauge trucks, each weighing 15

Foundry

Company,

tons, the gross weight, including the engine,

This train travelled up a bank of

1

amounting to 425

tons.

in 90 for a distance of 4£ miles.

Such a load on the gradient mentioned is equal to one of 1,275 tons on level, and in a general way we do not find engines hauling tiains of

the

a

200

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE The Vale of Nea:h perform-

the latter weight upon our most level lines.

ance must, therefore, be regarded as an exceptional locomotive

These engines were numbered

13, 14,

and

15,

with compensating beams between the wheels,

feat-

and not being provided it is

stated that one axle

During 1860 these

frequently carried 20 tons of the total weight.

three locomotives were, under the advice of Mr. Harrison, rebuilt as

tender engines, to reduce the weight on the wheels, the excessive

amount of which had been very destructive to the permanent-way. The cost of the alterations to the engines and the addition of the tenders was £700 each engine. About the same time some of the other Yale of Neath six-wheels-coupled engines were converted into four-wheels-coupled bogie locomotives.

The locomotive now to be described had but a very shadowy existit was rather a tentative essay to produce a steam locomotive without the aid of a fire. The idea when proposed by Sir John Fowler, was not new, for more or less successful essays had already been made on a small scale With engines, ttie steam for propelling which was generated in the same manner as in Fowler's locomotive. ence;

In 1853 a railway was incorporated as the North Metropolitan; the next year a

new Act was

obtained, and the title changed to the

This authorised the construction of a railway from the

Metropolitan.

Great Western Railway at Paddington to the General Post Office;

powers were afterwards obtained to allow the City terminus to be in

Farringdon

Street

instead

of

at

the Post

Western Railway subscribed £175,000

of

convenience of that Company's through laid out

on the mixed-gauge, and when

Office.

The Great

the capital, and for the

traffic

the Metropolitan was

was

first opened it was worked on the broad-gauge only, by the Great Western Railway most sensible arrangement, and one which ought never to have been

it



relinquished,

seeing

how

well

adapted the wider vehicles were for

conveying the immense crowds that travel by every train on this

line.

The Act of Incorporation specially provided that the line was to be worked without annoyance from steam or fire. At first it was proposed to convert the water into steam by means of red-hot bricks placed around the boiler, and Mr. (afterwards Sir) John Fowler designed such a locomotivw, which was built by a Newcastle firm, and tried on the Metropolitan Railway between Bishop's Road and Edgware Road The first trial took place on Stations before the line was opened. Thursday, November 28th, 1861. The following is an account of the

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE trip: it

201

—"The engine was

of considerable size, and it was stated that could run on the railway from the Great Western at Paddington to

Finsbury Pavement without allowing the escape of steam from the engine or smoke from the fire. A few open trucks were provided with seats, and when the gentlemen were seated, the new engine

them under the covered way of the Metropolitan Railway Edgware Road, and back again to the Great Western Station, the steam and smoke being shut off. The tunnel, or covered way, was perfectly fresh and free from vapour or smoke. On the signal being given to work the engine

propelled

to the first station at the eastern side of the

in the ordinary way, a cloud of smoke, dust, and

steam soon covered emerged from the tunnel into the open air. The experiment was perfectly successful, but it was understood that engines so constructed would be rather more expensive to work than those running in the ordinary way." To work the Metropolitan Railway on this system would have required the erection

the train, and continued until

of

immense

boilers at

the locomotive,

and

it

both ends of the

also

line to

heat the water for

furnaces for making the bricks red-hot,

whilst the charging of the locomotive boilers with hot water and the

would have occupied some considerable time

fire-boxes with hot bricks

at the end of each trip. It

is.

of

from being

much

course, well " perfectly

known

that the experiment was very far

successful."

Indeed,

" failure "

would be a

better definition of the hot-brick engine, since the proposed

method of working was not carried out. We understand the engine was sold to Mr. Isaac Watt Boulton, the well-known purchaser of secondhand locomotives, and for some time remained in his " railway museum" before being finally scrapped. The Metropolitan Railway had, consequently, upon the failure of the hot-brick engine, to

fall

back upon the Great Western Railway for working the underground line, until Sir John Fowler's later design of engines, constructed by Beyer, Peacock, and Co., were ready to work the

In 1862 Fletcher, Jennings, and

handy type

of saddle

The

traffic.

Whitehaven, designed a

tank engine for shunting purposes,

engine ran on four wheels, 6ft.

Co., of

3ft.

4in.

etc.

The

diameter, the wheel base being

cylinders were 10m. diameter, with 20in.

stroke.

Allan's

and was worked off the leading This axle (it will be understood that the four wheels were coupled). method of actuating the valves was not conducive to good working,

straight link motion was employed,



EVOLUTION OF THE STEA

202

as, of course, if

became

the coupling-rods worked slack the valve gear motion

disorganised.

Fig. 81

4ft.

a photograph of engine No. 75, of the Taff Vale Railway

is

built at the

were

Company's Cardiff Works

stroke was 24in.

lated to

FIG.

The

in 1860.

six-coupled wheels

8in diameter, the cylinders were 16in. diameter, and the

pressure was

mineral

M LOCOMOTIVE

No. 75 weighed 32 tons in working order; the steam

130

traffic of

lbs.

per

sq. in.

She was employed in the heavy

the Taff Vale Railway, and from her design well calcu-

work over the heavy gradient

81.— SIX-COUPLED

of that system.

MINERAL ENGINE, TAFF VALE RWY., BUILT

1860

In 1862 the L. and S.W. Railway purchased some second-hand

engines from a contractor.

They were built by Manning, Wardle, and and comprised six-wheels-coupled saddle tank engines. The wheels were 3ft. diameter; cylinders, 12in. by 18in. stroke; wheel

Co., Leeds,

base, 10ft. 3in.

;

length over buffers, 21ft. 6in.

;

weight, empty, 14 tons

8 cwt., loaded, 16 tons 4 cwt. The fire-box was surmounted by a safety valve enclosed within a high fluted pillar. 1201b.

One

The steam pressure was

of these engines is leased to the Lee-on-the-Solent (Light)

Railway, and

may

be seen working the

traffic

on

this

little

line,

which, by the way, spends over twopence to earn each penny of

its

gross income.

Before leaving the London and South Western Railway and it* of the it is as well to record the dimensions

goods locomotives,

EVOLUTION JF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE li

Elms

Meteor," No. 57, constructed at Nine

The

of Mr. Beattie.

3ft. 3in.,

and the coupled (D. and

diameter; the wheel base was

14ft., of

which

T.)

2£in.

8ft.

and the front buffer beam was about

An immense dome was

6ft. in

fixed

wheels

was

The leading wheels were under the

tween the coupled wheels.

this axle.

in 1863 from the designs

cylinders were 16£in. diameter, 22in. stroke;

the leading wheels were oft.

203

be-

boiler,

advance of the centre of

on the raised fire-box; the

was within an inverted urn-shaped case on the boiler The weather-board had slight side-wings, and was curved

safety valve barrel.

upwards

and so formed an incipient

at the top,

The

cab.

The

sloped from the tube-plate towards the foot-plate.

fire-box

total weight,

working order, was 32 tons 18 cwt., of which 11 tons 9 cwt. was on the leading, ll£ tons on the driving, and 9 tons 18 cwt. on the The tender was supported on six wheels, 3ft. 9fin. trailing axle. in

diameter, and had a tank capacity of 1,950 gallons.

By a marvellous nothing of various

way

addition of a big head and a bigger tail (to say

legs),

the diminutive body of the East Kent Rail-

had, in August, 1859, blossomed into the London,

Chatham and

and for this railway 24 locomotives were supplied They were numbered by various firms from Crampton's designs. The design was peculiar a leading bogie having wheels 3 to 26.

Dover Railway

;



3ft. 6in.

diameter, and a base of

The cylinders were

diameter.

diameter beiiur 16in. engines, the cylinders

4ft.,

and four-coupled wheels

outside,

and had a stroke

5ft. 6in.

of 22in., the

As in the "London" and other Crampton were placed about mid-way between the smoke

fire-boxes, whilst the connecting-rods actuated the rear pair of coupled wheels, so that in describing the position of the wheels of

and

these engines " centre,"

and

we should have to enumerate them as " driving."

and driving wheels. of

A

" leading bogie,"

compensation lever connected the centre

Like other engines and within three or four six-wheel engines, with inside cylinders and

Gooch's valve gear was used.

Crampton's design, this class was a

years they were rebuilt as

failure,

outside frames; some of them, as reconstructed without a bogie, are still in active service on the London, Chatham and Dover Railway.

Before the grave faults inherent in the previously described class of engines

had been

fully

appreciated, the London, Chatham, and

Dover Railway had arranged for a second batch another of Crampton's designs. These consisted of structed

by R. Stephenson and Co.

in

1862.

engines from

of five

The

engines con-

locomotives in

M LOCOMOTIVE

EVOLUTION OF THE STEA

204

question were worked on the principle patented by W. Bridges Adams, and previously described in an earlier chapter viz., an intermediate driving shaft, coupled by outside rods to the driving wheels, situated



behind the fire-box. The cylinders were 16in. diameter by 22in. stroke, and within the frames. The driving wheels were 6ft. 6|in. diameter, and bogie wheels 4ft. Ojin. diameter. Cudworth's sloping fire-box, fitted with a longitudinal mid-feather, was employed. The heating surface amounted to 1,200 sq. ft., made up of 130 sq. ft. fire-box and 1,070 sq. ft. tubes, which were 2in. diameter, 10ft. lOin. long, and 189 in number. The grate area was 26 sq. ft.



The engiues iu question were No. 27, "Echo " 29, " Elirt 30, " Flora " 31, " Sylph." :

"

;

As remarked

;

28, " Coquette "

'

;

in describing the previous class, Crampton't; d^gines

were in this case also found to be unsuitable, so that the London, Chatham and Dover Railway rebuilt the five engines, when the intermediate driving shaft was provided with a pair of wheels, and th6 engines became "four-coupled bogies." The diameter of the cylinders was increased to l7in.

the Cudworth fire-box was dispensed with, ; and the heating surface reduced, the present dimensions being firebox, 100 sq. ft.; tubes, 987 sq. ft.; grate area, 16J sq. ft.; weight in drhing wheels, 14 tons working order: on bogie, 14 tons 12 cwt. 12 cwt. and on trailing wheels, 10 tons total, 38 tons 16 cwt. Engine No. 11, Inverness and Aberdeen Junction Railway (now amalgamated with the Highland Railway) is represented by Fig. 81a. She was built in 1859 by Hawthorns and Co., Leith, and represents their



;

;

;

then type of four-coupled engine with inclined outside cylinders.

Fig.

81a.— "No. 11," INVERNESS

AND ABERDEEN RAILWAY, BUILT

1859



CHAPTER

XII.

" Brougham," Stockton and Darlington Railway— L. & N.W.R. engines at th> 1862 Exhibition Sinclair's " Singla " engines for the G.E.R. French locomotives on the G.E.R. L. & S.W.R. tank engines, afterward converted to tender engines—Conner's 8ft. 2in. " Single " engine on the Caledonian Rail way The liliputian "Tiny," the Crewe Works locomotive "Dignity and Impudence " Bridges Adams's radial axle tank engines His spring tyres Account of the St. Helens Railway locomotive with these innovations Broadgauge engines for the Metropolitan Railway Rupture between the Great Western and Metropolitan Sturrock to the rescue G.N. tender engine3 on the Metropolitan Delivery rf the Underground Company's own engines Great Northern "condensing" locomotives— The Bissell bogie truck well advertised End of the "hot brick" engine Sturrock's steam-tender engines on the G.N.R. Sinclair's tank engine with Bisi-ell trucks Fell's system of locomoiive traction Tried on the Cromford and High Peak line Adopted on the Mount Cenis Railway Spooner's locomotives for the Festiniog Railway Fairlie's double bogie engines The "Welsh Pony" and "Little Wonder —Fairlie's combined trains and engines Cudworth's trailing bogie North London engines, a model fcr tank locomotive constructors- Pryce's designs for the North London Railway.































82

"Brougham," No. 160, of the Stockton and This engine was designed for hauling passenger

She was a bogie engine, as

illustration,



illustrates the

Darlington Railway. trains.





'

Fig.









will

be noticed by reference to the

and had four-coupled wheels

The tender was on

6ft. in

The

diameter.

cylin-

were 16in. in diameter, with a stroke of 24in.

ders, placed outside,

six wheels,

and the tank was capable

of carrying

No. 160 was constructed in 1860, not a very long time prior to the amalgamation with the North Eastern Railway Company, 1,400 gallons.

by R. Stephenson and Co., of Newcastle, at a cost of £2,500. The London and North Western Railway exhibited at the London International Exhibition of 1862 a locomotive constructed at Wol-

verton from the designs of Mr. McConnell; the engine was built the previous year, was numbered 373, and cylinders were 18in.

and

L.

T.,

4ft.

by

7£in.

;

24in.

;

;

fire-box,

242.339

sq. ft.

tender) 59 tons 14 cwt. provided.

Two

7ft.

steam pressure, 1501b.;

heating surface (14 tubes l|in. diameter, ft.

named "Caithness."

driving wheels,

A

;

The

7£in. diameter;

wheel base, 18ft.;

9ft. 4in. long),

980.319

sq.

weight in working order (engine and

combustion chamber

2ft.

8in.

other engines of this design were built,

long was

No 372

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

206

"Deiamere" and No. 272 "Maberley."

Apparently these engines were not very successful, as we do not find accounts of their later

performances.

In 1862 Fairbairn and Co. constructed for the Great Eastern Railway a class of " single " engines designed by Mr. R. Sinclair.

These locomotives had outside wheels,

7ft.

3in.,

cylinders,

and leading and

16ft.

trailing

by

wheels,

24in. 3ft.

driving

;

9in.

meter; heating surface, tubes (203, If in. diameter), 957.6

Fig. 82

— "BROUGHAM,"

fire-box, 94.9 sq.. ft.;

No.

160,

sq.

diaft.;

STOCKTON AND DARLINGTON RAILWAY

grate area, 15.27 sq.

ft.;

weight, 32 tons, of

which 13 tons 13 cwt. 1 qr. was on the driving axle. Gooch's link motion was employed. The design in question was of rather attractive appearance, the open somewhat of splasher being an attractive feature, as was also the cab an innovation 35 years ago. Mr. S. W. Johnson succeeded Mr. Sinclair at the end of 1865 as Great Eastern Railway locomotive superintendent, and under the regime of the former some of these engines were rebuilt with a leading bogie, and the diameter of the cylinders was increased to 18in. Another form of cab was introduced, the Salter safety valve on the dome was removed, and one of Ramsbottom design placed on the flush top fire-box, which had superseded the raised pattern as employed in this class of engine by Mr. Sinclair. One of the engines of this class (No. 0295) was in active service as recently as



-July, 1894.

In connection with this class of engine a special circum-

— EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

207

stance needs mention—viz., that 16 of these locomotives were not " in Germany," but in the country of her foe

German name

ing firm with the

to supply the 16 locomotives at

a

;

made

the French engineer-

of Schneider, in 1865, contracting less price

than any English maker.

This event was certainly a curiosity in the economic history of this country's trade.

We

many

import

articles;

let

us hope, however,

that foreign locomotives will not again be seen on English railways.

There

is

some consolation

to be found in the statement that

all

the

British locomotive builders were so full of orders at the time that

they practically refused to accept orders for the engines in question by tendering for them at outside prices, so that consequently the order

had to be given to a foreign

firm.

In 1863 Beyer, Peacock and Co. commenced to construct a class of tank engines for the

the designs of Mr.

London and South Western Railway from The locomotives in question had out-

J. Beattie.

by 20in. stroke; four coupled wheels, 5ft. 7in. and a pair of leading wheels, 3ft. 7|in. diameter. The

side cylinders 16£in.

diameter;

boiler contained 186 tubes, lfin. diameter.

made up

of tubes 715.17 sq.

area was 14.2 sq.

A

ft.,

and

The heating

fire-box

80

sq. ft.

surface was

The

grate

ft.

lock-up safety valve was placed on the front ring of the boiler

and two of Salter's pattern on the immense dome which surmounted the raised fire-box. The steam pressure was 1301b. The engine weighed in working order 29 tons 17 cwt., of which 10| tons was on the driving axle. We have already stated that the engines were built as tanks, but Mr. W. Adams, who had succeeded Mr. J. Beattie as locomotive superintendent of the London and South Western Railway, added tenders to some of their engines in 1883. It is barrel,

a

common

practice to rebuild tender engines as "tanks," but the

opposite practice is

somewhat

ported on six wheels,

of a novelty.

The tenders were

sup-

diameter, and weighed 20f tons in working order, the water capacity being 1,950 gallons.

An

engine that

3ft. 9fin.

attracted

considerable

attention

at the

1862

Exhibition was one built by Neilson and Co. from the designs of Mr. B.

Conner, locomotive superintendent of the Caledonian Railway (Fig. 83).

The engine in question had outside stroke of 24in.

underhung bearings.

;

driving

8ft.

cylinders, 17 Jin. diameter, with a with inside bearings and

2in. in diameter,

springs. The trailing and leading wheels had outside The engine had 1,172 sq. ft. of heating surface; the

EVOLUTION OF TBE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

208

grate area was 13.9 sq.

ft.;

wheel base,

27£ tons; in working order, 30 tons 13

was on the driving

15ft. 8in.

cwt., of

weight, empty,

axle.

Colburn describes the locomotive as a engine,

;

which 14 tons 11 cwt.

standing gracefully on

its

" fine,

well-constructed

wheels, large, yet compact, and

run at any speed with ease and steadiness." Nor can any measure contradicted. For, until Stirling built his famous 8ft. lin. "singles" for the Great Northern Railway, Conner's 8ft. 2in. Caledonian engines were far and away the most

qualified to

this description be in

FlO. 83.— CONNER'S 8ft. 2in.

"SINGLE" ENGINE, CALEDONIAN RAILWAY (REBUILT)

graceful locomotives ever placed on the 4ft. 8£in. gauge.

was a modification

In general

Crewe pattern engine. The dome was, however, of rather a peculiar shape it was placed on the top of the raised fire-box. The driving axle was of cast steel, and the tyres of Krupp steel. The large number of spokes in the driving wheels was noticeable, being at only lOin. centres at the rim The slide-valves were provided with l^in. lap. A of the wheels. great improvement was the provision of a cab, and that of not disproportionate dimensions, considering the "year of grace" in which design, the engine

of the old

:

the engine was constructed. Trains of nine carriages were hauled at an

average speed of 40 miles an hour, with a coal consumption of 2 Jib. per mile; 14 loaded carriages were frequently taken up the terrible Beattock bank, 10 miles in length, at 30 miles an hour.

The this

late

engine

Khedive of Egypt was so taken with the appearance of it was at the Exhibition, that he immediately

when

ordered one for his

own

railway.

He was

searching for a locomotive

to convey him at 70 miles an hour, and Conner's

8ft.

2in.

single

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE appeared to be the one most likely to

we hear It

is

know

interesting to

specimen of

Nor do

his requirements.

his purchase.

that the Caledonian Railway has

this notable design

unscrapped

To prevent our appetite becoming dingnagian locomotives, we

fulfil

way disappointed with

that he was in any

209

—may

still

ever remain

it

a

so.

vitiated with a galaxy of Brob-

descend to the other end of the scale, and detail the Liliputian "Tiny," as used in the Crewe locomotive works.

The railway

for a length

of

is

will

of 18in. gauge, and

three-eighths of a mile.

was opened In

its

in

May, 1862,

course the engine

traverses curves of loft, radius each, no difficulty being found in going round these curves with loads of 12 to 15 tons, or in taking 7ft. 6in. wheel fcrgings or tyres on edge by means of trucks specially adapted for the purpose. This engine has four wheels coupled;

and

inside cylinders, 4|in. diameter, in diameter,

42

sq. ft.

on a base of

A

wheels are 15in.

total heating surface is about

No. 2 Giffard's injector supplied the boiler with water

this precious liquid is stored

28 gallons.

6in. stroke; the

The

3ft.

"

Tiny,"

when

in a saddle tank, with

" right

a capacity cf

and tight and ready

for action,"

weighs only 2£ tons.

The duties

of the Liliputian engines consist in

to

and from different parts

in

most places

is

also called

An

laid parallel

upon

hauling materials

and as the with the standard gauge

of the works,

to fly shunt the trucks, etc.,

when

engine of this type, the "Nipper," forms

" Cornwall "

that

well-known

photographic

18in. rails are lines,

"Tiny"

necessary.

with the giant

picture

—the

railway

''Dignity and Impudence." Fig. 84 represents Sharp, Stewart,

The

and

Co.'s standard design of

" Albion "

was delivered to the May, 1863. She was an inside cylinder engine, with a pair of leading wheels, and an enclosed Salter safety valve. Altogether, the " Albion " is a fair example of locomotive practice 36

passenger engine of this period.

Cambrian Railway

in

years ago.

We

have on previous occasions referred to the improvements in W. Bridges Adams, and

locomotive construction introduced by Mr.

we now have again to record a successful employment of his design. In the first week of November, 1863, Mr. James Cross, locomotive engineer of the

St.

Helens Railway, completed a tank locomotive, sup-

ported on eight wheels, the leading and trailing pairs of which were fitted

with the radial axle boxes patented by Mr.

W.

B.

Adams;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

210

whilst the four coupled wheels were fitted with spring tyres, which

were another invention of the same engineer.

The of view,

St.



Helens Railway was famous

we should

say, perhaps,

or,



infamous

from an engineer's point

for the severe gradients,

sharp curves, and numerous points, crossings, and junctions.

The were as steep as 1 in 35, 1 in 70, and 1 in 85, whilst the curves were constructed with radii of 300ft. and 500ft., and reverse or inclines

Fig.

S curves were

also

"ALBION," CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS,

more frequent than

pleasant.

Railway was only 30 miles long, but within two miles

1863

The

Station no less than 12 miles of sidings were located.

mean

to suggest that the whole line of railway

was

St.

of the St.

We

Helens Helens

do not

as thickly covered

with siding connections, but such were distributed over the remaining mileage of the railway in too plentiful profusion.

Here, then, was

a length of railway containing the three great hindrances to smooth

and quick running, but the locomotive about to be described was so constructed as to successfully overcome these impediments.

This engine had inside cylinders, I5in. diameter and 20in. stroke. 5ft. lin. in diameter, the rigid wheel base

The coupled wheels were

8ft., but as these wheels had spring tyres, each pair of wheels was practically as free to traverse the curves as uncoupled wheels. Other dimensions were: Heating surface, 687 sq. ft.; grate area,

being



1

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE 16.25

ft;

sq.

whe.

total

1

11 1 tons; on trailing,

weight in working order,

base, 22ft.;

leading wheels, 7 tons 15 cwt.

21

on

on driving, 111 tons; on rear coupled, 10 tons, including 4£ tons water and 1J ton? ;

Total weight, 401 tons.

coal.

The boiler contained 121 tubes, 10ft. llin. long, and l|in. diameter; steam pressure, 1401b.; water capacity of tank, 950 gallons.

The

fire-grate

plate.

The

was

5ft.

a compensation lever.

and

cab,

fixed

fitted

means

The dome was placed on the raised

with a screw-down safety valve;

fitted

same pattern was enclosed

and sloped from the door to the tube-

long,

springs of the coupled wheels were connected by

a second valve of the

on the boiler barrel.

with side windows,

of

fire-box,

A roomy

and

well-

thoroughly protected the

enginemen.

Adams's radial axle-boxes are, of course, still in use on the Great Northern Railway, London, Chatham, and Dover Railway, and other lines,

so that a detailed account here

feature being that they are

the

centre

curved to boxes was side.

of

fit.

7ft.,

the

adjoining

axle,

were each

and the

It will

fitted

The

the

not necessary, the salient radius, having its centre in

axle-box

guide-boxes

being

In the engine we are now describing the radius of the lateral play of the boxes

The spring-pins were not

traverse.

is

made with a

fixed

was

4^in.

on each

on the top of the boxes, but

with a small roller to allow the boxes to freely

axle-boxes weighed 3£ cwt. each.

be understood that when an engine

fitted

with these boxes

enters a right-hand curve the flanges of the leading wheels draw the

boxes to the right, so that the engine

itself

remains a tangent to the

curve, whilst, since the axle-boxes are themselves curved, the effect is

that the right-hand side axles are brought nearer the rigid wheels,

and consequently the radial wheels on the opposite side of the engine further from the fixed wheels, the whole effect of the radial axle-boxes being that the trailing and leading axles actually become radii of the curves being traversed, although the flanges continue parallel to the

rails.

Adams's spring tyres require a more precise description, and before we describe them, readers may perhaps be reminded that Adams

had strong views on the subject of railway rolling-stock wheels. enters rather fully into the matter in his book, " Roads and Rails," of especially in the chapter dealing with "the mechanical causes

He

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

212

accidents."

In this,

Adams maintains

that the usual forms of wheels

are in reality rollers, and not wheels.

The spring tyres had

been

on

tried

London

North

the

and on another locomotive on the

Railway, Eastern Counties,

St.

Helens Railway, before the engine now under review was constructed.

Upon

the coupled wheels of the new locomotive for the latter railway,,

double spring hoops were employed, the single form having been

The plan adopted

used in the three previously mentioned engines.

was as "

follows

The

:



tyres chosen were constructed with a deep rib in front

was bored

out, internally, to a

depth of

fin.,

A

and, of course, parallel to the tread.

thus left on either "

The

springs,

l>olts,

(he

effort

the

containing

and a of

was

flat

ring

steel,

were placed on the

Corresponding curves were turned across

the outer circumference of the wheels.

cones

section,

edge, fin. wide,

side.

formed of tempered hoop

inner surface of the tyres.

the

and to a conical

fiat

this

;

springs,

The wheels were forced and retained by three

the groove

in

the spring tyres

at

the

back

of

into lin.

the

tyre,

being to allow of a slight lateral

motion in running round curves and also to give a better grip of the rails,

as the tyres,

by reason

of the

weight upon them being trans-

mitted through the tyre springs, slightly flattened upon the so presented a larger surface for adhesion

rails,

between the tyres and

and

rails."

The

following interesting account of the working of the radial and spring tyre locomotive on the St. Helens Railway is extracted from a paper by Mr. J. Cross, the designer of the locomotive, and read before the Institution of Civil Engineers. Mr. Cross stated axle

that "the engine was completed in the first week of November, 1863, and has since been running very regularly, taking its turn of duty

with passenger trains or coal trains, or as a shunting engine; and about the numerous works connected by sharp curves with the St. Helens line. The motion round curves is free from all jerking, and

on straight

lines the speed is

ond of the engine being ness; and the motion

first,

is

so

more than 60 miles an hour;

either

without any train behind to give steadi-

smooth that

it

has only been by taking

the actual time that the engineers have convinced themselves of the fact of the speed exceeding

curves of 200ft. radius.

40 miles an hour.

This

it

It

was

built to traverse

does with the greatest

facility,

ami

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE it

213

has regularly worked the passenger trains round a curve of 1,000ft.

radius, goiag directly off the straight line

by a pair

of facing points

a speed of more than 30 miles an hour, and it has gone round curves of 1 32ft. radius. It has also run a train of 12 passenger av

carriages,

weighted up to 100 tons, exclusive of

60 miles an hour on the

level.

From

own

its

the advantages

it

weight, at

possesses over

the ordinary mixed engines for weighting the trailing coupled wheel, it,

without

difficulty,

on a wet, slippery day,

started,

and took this

load up a gradient of 1 in 70, drawing seven of the carriages with u load weighing 72 tons 5 cwt., up a gradient of

in 36, round a

1

curve of 440ft. radius; and coal trains of 250 tons are worked over

long gradients of

"It

is

1 in

evident,

200 with the greatest

ease.

then, that engines on this principle,

affording

the use of high power in hilly countries, are peculiarly

facilities for

adapted for Metropolitan (being equally

lines,

safe whichever

where sharp curves are a necessity end

is

and are

foremost),

suited for light lines in India and the Colonies.

may

It

also well

likewise be

remarked that carriages and wagons on this principle would carry heavier freights, with a saving in the proportion of dead weight, while their friction round curves

woidd be

less

than at present."

The improvement* adopted in the construction for the St.

of this locomotive

Helens Railway were so successful that, as usual, other

who appropriated the radial axle-boxes as their were soon contending with Adams and Cross as to who was claimants,

invention, entitled to

the iionour of introducing the improvement.

The

first

portion of the Metropolitan Railway was opened

on

January 18th, 1863, and the line was then worked on the broad-gauge

by the Great Western Railway for a percentage of the receipts. The Great Western Railway provided the stations, staff, locomotives, and rolling stock.

Mr. D. Gooch, in 1862, designed a special class of tank engines for working the Metropolitan Railway.

the driving and trailing wheels being cylinders were outside.

A

They were

6ft.

six-wheel engines,

special form, of fire-box

and

were employed, and tanks were provided beneath the into which the exhaust steam

baffle-plate

boiler

was discharged by means

ing valve fitted to the bottom of the blast pipe. air,

The

diameter and coupled.

When

barrel,

of a reversin the

open

the waste steam escaped up the chimney in the usual manner.

EVOLUTION OF

iil4

'iHE

STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

The first of these engines were named Bee, Hornet, Locust, Gnat, Wasp, Mosquito, Bey, Khan, Kaiser, Mogul, Shah, and Czar. Later ones were named after flowers and Great Western Kailway :

officers.

A dispute arose between the two companies at the beginning of August, 1863, and immediately developed into a complete rupture. The smaller quasi vassal railway, through the energy displayed by officers,

its

chief

successfully overcame the apparently insurmountable obsta-

it, and consequently the Metropolitan Railway asserted complete independence of the Great Western Railway, and has since maintained it.

cles that beset its

was indeed a nine days' wonder that the Metropolitan Railway upon to perform, for it had to obtain from somewhere locomotives and carriages to work the underground line, commencing on the morning of August 10th, 1863 It

was

called

Mr. Sturrock, the locomotive superintendent of the Great Northern Railway, had at this time under construction a class of condensing-

tank engines

Railway

that he had designed to work the Great Northern

over the Metropolitan Railway. The directors of the Metropolitan Railway in this emergency applied to Mr. Sturrock for traffic

assistance,

and by working day and night he managed to

fit

up some

Great Northern tender engines with a temporary condensing apparatus.

The difficulty was

to provide

some kind

the Great Northern tender engines,

it

of condensing apparatus on

being necessary to use flexible

connecting pipes between the engine and tender strong enough to

withstand the steam pressure, but Mr. Sturrock was successful enough

by which the exhaust steam was conveyed from the engine to the water tank of the tender, but these pipes very frequently burst, and all concerned were far from sorry when the proper engines were delivered.

to contrive the necessary flexible pipes

An order for eighteen had already been placed with a well-known Manchester firm of locomotive builders by the Metropolitan Railway, Beyer, Peacock, and Co. building them from the designs of the late Mr. (afterwards Sir) John Fowler.

The type

is

well

known

to

London

readers, the engines having

side tanks, a leading bogie, the wheels of which were 3ft. diameter, with a base of 4ft. The driving and trailing wheels (coupled) were 5ft.

9in. diameter, their

being

base being

8ft.

lOin.

;

20ft. 9in., or to centre of bogie, 18ft. 9in.

the total wheel base

The

cylinders were

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE outside, 24in.

slightly inclined

stroke.

from the horizontal, The grate area was 19 sq. ft.

215

I7in.

diameter,

The

fire-boxes

and had

sloping grates, which were 6in. deeper at the front than the back. The boiler barrel was 4ft. in diameter, and 10ft. 3in. long; it contained

166 tubes, 2in. diameter, the total heating surface being 1,014 sq. ft. 1301b. per sq. in., but when working through the tunnels, condensing the steam, and with !he

The working pressure was nominally dampers

closed,

a very

much

lower pressure resulted. The frames with a Salter valve) was on the boiler barrel, close to the smoke-box, a sand-box being also fixed on the

were

inside,

the

dome

boiler barrel at the

(fitted

back of the dome.

The bogie truck was

built of plate frames,

and was on the

Bissell

system, turning on a centre-pin fixed to the engine frame, at a radial distance of

8in.

6ft.

"Locomotive

from the centre of the truck.

Engineering" says that "this radial length ensures a nearly correct radiality of the bogie to curves of all radii, the proper length of the

radius to ensure exact radiality of the centre of the bogie for all curves

being

7ft.

which

is,

2in.,

or 6in. more than the actual length

—a

difference

perhaps, of no great importance in practice."

For the purpose

of effectually condensing the exhaust

steam the

and the steam was discharged upon the surface of the water, from a 7in. pipe on each side one to each tank. Into the mouth of these 7in. pipes a 4in. pipe was projected a short distance, and the other end of the side tanks were only filled with water to within 6in. of the top,



-tin. pipe was below the surface of the water, so that a portion of the steam was discharged right into the water in the tanks, and agitated the water sufficiently to prevent the surface of the water from becoming

too hot, as would have been the case if the same portion of the water had always been presented to tne waste steam. The tanks held 1,000 gallons, and at the end of a journey the water had become too

warm

to properly condense the exhaust, and

necessary to quickly empty the tanks and

it

therefore became

to take in a fresh supply of

cold water.

To expeditiously perform the former operation, each tank was provided with a pipe 7in. in diameter; this led to a cast-iron valvebox placed below the foot-plate. By means of a screw, worked from the foot-plate, a lOin. valve was operated, and the water in the tanks could be discharged into the pits below the engine in the course of

some 60 seconds.

.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

216

The first

following list gives the

names and

builders'

numbers

locomotives constructed for the Metropolitan Railway

Engine No

:

of the

EVOLUTION OF THE STEA U LOCOMOTIVE

217

John Fowler, Esq., C.E., F.G.S., upon all the new engines, eighteen in number, now working on the Metropolitan Railway, and by Robert Sinclair, Esq., C.E., upon twenty new eightwheeled engines on the Great Eastern Railway, which may be seen daily. The royalty for the use of the Bissell Patents has been reduced to £10 per engine, so that every engine requiring a bogie underframe should be provided with the Bissell safety

Apply

truck.

."

to

Whilst on the subject of railway advertisements we take the opportunity to record the obituary announcement of the tentative " hot brick " engine, previously referred to, designed to politan Railway. early

months

Railway.

work on the Metro-

appeared in the railway newspapers during the

It

of 1865,

and was to the following

One locomotive engine

effect:

"Metropolitan

for sale, either entire or in parts.

For particulars apply to the Locomotive Superintendent, Bishop's Road, Paddington." Reference must here be tenders, as adopted

by him

made to

to Mr. Sturrock's system of steam work the heavy coal and goods trains

on the Great Northern Railway.

In addition to the usual engine, the

pistons of a pair of cylinders, 12in. diameter, with a stroke of 17iu-

actuated the centre axle of the tender, and the six tender wheels were

The tender wheels were 4ft 6in. diameter. The steam tenders weighed about 35 tons, with water and coal, and of After use in the this weight over 13 tons was on the driving wheels. tender cylinders, the exhaust steam was condensed in the tender tank. Forty-six of these steam tenders were constructed, and some are still coupled by outside rods.

running, but as simple tenders, the propelling apparatus having been

done away with many years ago.

Fig. 85 represents a Great Northern

engine fitted with one of Sturrock's patent steam tenders-

Mr. Robert Sinclair, whilst locomotive superintendent of the Great

Eastern Railway, only designed one type of tank engine, and Neilson

and Co. constructed the

first of this class in

1864.

Twenty

of the class

were built, being originally intended to work the Enfield Town Branch, but in later years these engines were used on the North Woolwich

The engines

(Fig. 86)

trailing being 3ft. 5ft.

6in. diameter.

line.

were supported by eight wheels, the leading and

7in.

The

diameter, and the driving and back coupled cylinders were outside, 15in. diameter, and

The leading and

fitted

with the

Bissell truck, referred to in the advertisement just quoted.

So that

22in. stroke.

trailing wheels

were

218

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

EVOLUTION OF THE STE IM LOCOMOTIVE although the whole wheel base was the coupled wheels

—was only

6ft.

17ft. 4in.,

The

boiler

U9

the rigid base

was

—that

13ft. 6in. long,

of

and

the water was carried in the tanks beneath the boiler and between the frames.

An

enclosed cab with front and rear spectacle plates

was

provided.

This improvement so delighted the Great Eastern Railway drivers' that they presented a testimonial to Mr. R. Sinclair in May, 1864, iu

which they described him as the "inventor" of the weather-board or " cab," as fitted to locomotives. The tank engines in question weighed

SINCLAIR'S DESIGN

38 tons 6 cwt. 3

qrs., of

OF TANK ENGINE FOR THE EASTERN COUNTIES RAILWAY

which weight 20 tons 5 cwt. 2

qrs.

was on the

coupled wheels.

In January, 1863, Mr. for

J.

B. Fell patented a locomotive designed

working over extremely steep gradients.

At that time there was

a

break 47 miles long in the continuity of the iron road communication between France

and Italy by the Mount Cenis route.

This break

has in later years been abolished by the construction and working of the famous Mount Cenis tunnel. Brassey and Co. in 1863 proposed that during the construction of the tunnel a temporary mountain

way worked on

Fell's

system should be built over the mountain.

rail-

An

experimental locomotive was, therefore, constructed at the Canada

Works, Birkenhead. boiler

was

2ft.

This engine weighed 14£ tons loaded.

9in. diameter,

and

7ft.



in.

long,

The

and contained 100

The heating surface was 420 s>q. The engine had two sets of machinery

tubes of l^in. external diameter. ft.,

and the grate area 6£ sq. ft. for working the vertical wheels, acting on the ordinary carrying

—one rails,

and the other actuated the special horizontal clutch wheels.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

220

which were pressed against the centre

The outside cylinders

rail.

which worked the four-coupled vertical wheels, of 2ft. 3in. diameter, were llfin. diameter, the stroke being 18in. The horizontal coupled wheels were 16in. diameter, with a base of 19in. these were driven by :

inside cylinders llin. diameter

by means

tons, actuated

and

lOin. stroke.

A

pressure of 12

of a screw apparatus, could be applied to the

horizontal wheels.

By

permission of the London and North Western Railway, an ex-

perimental railway, 800 yards long, was laid down upon the Whalley

Bridge Incline of the Cromford and High Peak Railway.

The gauge was 3ft. 7|in., and there were 180 yards of straight line on a gradient of 1 in 13.5, and 150 yards of curves, with radii of 1\ and 3^ chains, on a gradient of 1 in 12. The third rail upon this line,

was

to be clipped between the horizontal driving wheels of the engine, laid'

on

its side,

7^in. above the other rails.

In the course of a series of experiments carried on from September, 1863, to

February, JH64, the engine, working up to a pressure of

1201b. to the square inch, never failed, with a

maximum

load of 30

up the above inclines and round the The outer cylinders working on the four vertical wheels curves. could only draw up, besides the weight of the engine, a loaded wagon weighing seven tons; while the inside cylinders, acting upon the horizontal wheels, which pressed with 12 tons against the middle rail, enabled the engine to take up 24 tons on the same day and under The inside cylinders alone were able to carry the same conditions. up the engine itself, round the curves, and exhibited the power of taking up altogether 17, tons. tons, to take a load of 24 tons

on the High Peak Railway were Mount Cenis was commenced without delay. The engine was not properly adapted for working the mountain traffic, in consequence of the crowded and complicated nature of the machinery, and also because the feed-oil dropped on to the horizontal wheels and lessened the bite on the

The

results of the experiments

considered so satisfactory that the line up

centre

16

rail.

tons.,

The weight on the

horizontal wheels

was increased

to

and an additional pair of guide wheels acting on the centre

was provided at the Peak experiments.

rail

The Board

of

trailing end of the engine, after the

High

Trade was at that time so far interested in railway

matters as to send out Captain Tyler, one of

its inspectors,

to report

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

We

on the Mount Cenis Railway.

IBB

extract from his report the follow-

ing account of the working of this engine on the mountain railway: " In

the course of two days

down the experimental

line,

I

took

six trips

with this engine up and

carrying each time a load of 16 tons, in

three wagons, including the weight of the wagons, and

it

in the ascent 1,800 metres in 8Jmin., with a loss of 141b. of of 5

l-3in. of



performed steam and

water in the gauge glass, at steam pressure, varying

between 92 and 1251b. to the square inch in the

boiler, as the average

of all those experiments.

"The speed is

attained was in every case greater than that which

proposed to run with the same load with the express trains

;

it

and the

average speed, as above given, i$as at the rate of 13 1-3 kilometres (or 8 1-3 English miles) per hour, instead of 12 kilometres (or 1\ English miles) per hour, which

is

the highest running speed allowed in the

programme given to the French Government "

The weather was

first-rate

were

order

;

fine

for this part of the line.

and calm, and the bearing

but the middle

rail,

rails

were

in

as well as the horizontal wheels,

and, therefore, in a condition very unfavourable for good

oily,

adhesion."

A

second engine was built on Fell's system specially for working

over the steep

Mount Cenis Railway, and

in its construction several

improvements, suggested by the shortcomings of the

first

engine, were

introduced.

The second engine was

built partly of steel,

and weighed 13 tons

empty, and 16 tons 17 cwt. fully loaded, afterwards increased to 17 tons 2 cwt. The boiler was 8ft. 4£in. long, and 3ft. 2in. in diameter, and contained 158 tubes of ljin. external diameter. Fire-box and

tubes contained altogether 600 superficial feet of heating surface, and there were 10ft. of fire-grate area.

There were only two

cylinders,

with a diameter of 15in. and stroke of 16in., which worked both

?,he

four-coupled horizontal and four-coupled vertical wheels, which were all

27in.

The wheel base of the and that of the horizontal wheels, 2ft.

in diameter.

6ft. 10in.,

vertical wheels 4in.

was

The maximum

pressure in the boiler was 1201b., and the effective pressure on the piston

was

751b. to the square inch.

amount of boiler power, this engine more steadily than No. 1, its machinery was more easily attended to, and the pressure upon its horizontal wheels could be This regulated by the engine-driver at pleasure from the foot-plate. Besides possessing a greater

travelled

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

222

was applied through an iron rod connected by means and left-handed screws, with a beam on each side of the middle rail, and these beams acted upon volute springs which pressed pressure

of right

the horizontal wheels against that

rail.

The pressure employed during the experiments was 2£ tons oh each horizontal wheel, or 10 tons altogether; but the pressure actually for, and which when necessary was employed, was 6 tons upon each, or 24 tons upon the four horizontal wheels.

provided

The

vertical wheels

were worked indirectly by piston-rods from

the front, and the horizontal wheels directly by piston-rods from the

back of the cylinders.

Having already given Captain with the

first

engine,

Tyler's account of his experiments

we cannot do

ment concerning the second

better than reproduce his state-

of the Fell engines, built for the

Mount

Cenis Railway.

Captain Tyler stated that with the new engine he "was able to take up 1,800 metres of the experimental line with the same load as before, of 16 tons in three wagons, in 6£ minutes, or at a speed of 171 kilometres per hour, as against 12 kilometres per hour which it proposed to run with the express trains. The steam pressure in the

is

boiler fell

from 1121b. to 102pb., and

3in. of

water were lost in the

gauge-glass, the feed having been turned on during the latter period

only of this experiment. "

The engine exerted

in this instance, omitting the extra resistance

from curves, about 177 horse-power; or, adding 10 per cent, for th< resistance from curves, 195 horse-power, or more than 12 horse-power to each ton of its own weight, and nearly 60 horse-power in excess of what was required to take the same load up the same gradient and I curves at 12 kilometres per hour, as proposed in the programme. observed on the following day that 401b. of steam-pressure in the boiler, or one-third of the maximum pressure employed, was sufficient

and the friction alone up a gradient of 1 in 1 2^ wagons being proportionately much less than that of an engine, the same engine ought, a fortiori, to be able to move a

to

move the engine

;

of carriages or

gross load of three times its

own

weight, or 48 tons, at

its greatest

working pressure, up the same gradient."

Having now given some details of locomotives constructed for working on a foreign steep grade railway, it will not be out of place

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE describe

to

the

narrow-gauge

special

line,

223

form* of engines designed for the Welsh

usually called the Festiniog Railway.

has been open for a great number had only been used for conveying

of years, but slates

up

The

line

to June, 1863,

from the quarries

to the

Horses were employed to haul the empty trucks up the quarries, the loaded wagons running down to Portmadoc by

shipping port. to

gravity.

The average gradient for 12| miles was 1 in 92, the steepest 1 in The radii of the curves ranged between two and four chains. 60. Unlike the Mount Cenis line just reviewed, the Festiniog Railway wan worked with locomotives depending solely on the adhesion of the

no central

carrying wheels,

11£

lft,

rail

being provided.

The gauge was

in.

The engines were designed by Mr. C. E. Spooner, the engineer of the railway. At first two were constructed, England and Go. being the builders. These miniature iron horses (one was more correctly called the "Welsh Pony") had two pairs of coupled wheels, with a wheel base of 5ft. The cylinders, which were outside the framing, were 8£in. in diameter, with a length of stroke of 12in., and they we;e only 6in. above the

rails.

The maximum working pressure of the steam was 2001b. to the square inch. Water was carried in tanks surrounding the boilers, and coal in small four-wheel tenders. The heaviest

of these engines

and they cost £900 each.

weighed 7^ tons in working order,

They could take

up, at 10 miles an hour,

about 50 tons, including the weight of the carriages and trucks, but

and tender. They actually conveyed on the up journey an average of 50 tons of goods and 100 passengers, besides parcels. Two hundred and sixty tons of slates were taken down to Portmadoc daily. The engines were well adapted for convenience in starting and in working at slow speeds, but their short wheel base and the weight overhanging the trailing wheels gave them more or less of a jumping motion when running. exclusive of that of the engine

daily

Safety guards, similar in form to snow ploughs, were afterwards added in front of the engines, behind the tenders, and under the platforms of the break-vans, in consequence of their being so near to the rails.

After

a

few

years'

experience

of

these

four-wheel

loco-

motives, the directors of the Festiniog Railway determined to experi-

— EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

224

ment with an engine constructed on Fairlie's double-bogie system, and the "Little Wonder" was constructed. In February, 1870, several trials were made with this engine, when a train of 72 wagons, of a total length of 648ft., of

206 tons 2

qrs.,,

and

of a gross weight, including the engine,

was drawn up an

incline of 1 in

85 at a speed

of

an hour, the steam pressure being 2001b. per square inch. The "Welsh Pony's" best performance in these trials upon the same

five miles

gradient, but with a pressure of 1501b., consisted in drawing 26 wagons^ the gross load of which, with engine, amounted to 73 tons 16 cwt. Tabula eel, the results of these trials were as follows :

Total

Gravity.

resistance. lbs.

" Little Wonder " "Welsh Pony" with 1501bs steam

Do.

The

general



1301bs steam

gross. 40 51-4

445

arrangements

described as follows.

The

of

Frictional resistance,

lbs.

per ton

per

lbs.

...

ton. 26-3 26-3

...

...

263

...

...

the

per ton. ...

"Little

13-7 25-1 18 2

Wonder" may be

was double, having two fire-boxes united back to back with two distinct barrels and sets of flue-tubes, and consequently a chimney at each end. A bogie was placed under each barrel, and each bogie had two pairs of wheels coupled together, worked independently by a pair of steam-cylinders to each bogie. Thus a total wheel base of 19ft. lin. in length was covered by the bogies; each bogie had a 5ft.-wheel base, and the distance between the centres of the bogies was 14ft. lin. The four cylinders were 8 3-16th in. in diameter, and had a stroke of 13in. ; the wheels were 2ft. 4in. in diameter. The combined grate area was 11 sq. ft., and the heating surface 730 sq. ft. Fairlie's system of double engines soon came into repute for working steep gradients, and many very powerful engines were and are still constructed on his system for use on foreign railways.

boiler

Fairlie, in conjunction

with Samuels,, adapted his system to

a species of combined locomotive and carriage, and,

in.

1869, one was

constructed for working on the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway

between Swanley Junction and Sevenoaks.

Seven passenger com-

partments were provided in this vehicle, accommodation comprising seats for 16 first-class and 50 second-class passengers; its total length

and weight, empty, 13£ tons. The leading end was supported by the engine bogie, and the trailing end by an ordinary Curves of only 50ft. radius were easily passed over by bogie truck.

was

43ft.,

the combination vehicle.

"

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE Leaving Fairlie and his combinations, both carriages,

and

also of double locomotives,

of

226

locomotives and

we now glance

at a class of

tank engines designed by Cudworth for working the trains between

Cannon

Street and Charing Cross

terminus in 1866. structed at the

upon the opening

of the

former

These engines were seven in number, and were con-

Canada Works.

pattern, with a trailing bogie.

They were of the " coupled The cylinders were inside,

in front

15in. dia*

meter and 20in. stroke. The coupled wheels were 5ft. 6in. diameter. Outside frames were employed, and also compensation beams both to

The coal bunker, with water-tank under, was always a puzzle to the writer as could manage to squeeze through the narrow

the coupled and bogie wheels.

was to

of exceptional length.

how a

stout driver

It

entrances to the foot-plate, especially as these apertures were situate at the side of the fire-box

ing the axiom,

the drivers,

know

if

Mr.

Wm.

but evidently the " trick was done " by follow-

"Where there's a will there's a way,'' and doubtless asked, would have replied, " It's very easy if you only These South Eastern Railway locomotives were

way."

the

numbered 235

;

to 241.

Cowan, locomotive superintendent of the Great North

which Neilson and The design was stated to be that of a "goods" locomotive, but upon examination we find the engines in question to of Scotland Railway, designed a class of engine,

Co.

constructed.

be no other than the popular four-coupled behind, with a leading bogie and outside cylinders. The latter were arranged in a horizontal position immediately below the frames. The coupled wheels were 5ft. 6|in. diameter, with underhung springs connected by

means

of

an equalising lever-beam.

diameter, with a base of

bogie axles-

The

boiler barrel

The bogie wheels were

3ft.

in

Inside bearings were supplied to the

6ft.

measured

10ft. lO^in.

between the tube-

diameter was

4ft. lin., and it contained 206 tubes The engine was fitted with D. K. Clarke's system of smoke consuming apparatus, previously described. The fire-box was of the raised pattern, and the steam dome was placed on it. The

plates, its external

of lfin. diameter.

engine weighed 39 tons 13 cwt, and the tender 27 tons, in working order.

In general appearance this "goods" engine resembled in a remarkable degree the London and South Western Railway express passenger engines as built by Mr. Adams. The tender was carried on six wheel*.

u

EVOLUTION OF

22b

L.

THjjj

STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

Fig. 85 represents Beattie's standard design of goods engine for the and S.W.R. in 1866, the wheels were 5ft. 1 in. diameter, the cylinders

being inside, and having a diameter of I7in., the stroke 24in.

Peacock and Co. were the builders.

Fig.

Beyer,

86 represents an engine

of

Nine Elms Works. In 1868 Mr. W. Adams placed upon the North London Railway the first locomotive constructed from a design which has, in its broad features and general outline, ever since been a model of simplicity, attractiveness, and utility, showing, as the design does, what engines constructed to work important local traffic should be like. In its original form there were some points that need alteration, as they certainly spoilt the general symmetrical effect of an otherwise. this class as rebuilt

FIG.

some years

85.— BEATTIE'S

later at

STANDARD GOODS ENGINE,

artistic appearance.

We may

and then proceed to

detail the locomotive.

The

first of

drical sand-box nT-d

the dome.

L.

&

S.W.B., 1866

as well allude to these defects at once,

such blots on the design was the placing of a

on the top of the boiler

barrel,

To show that such a position

cylin-

between the chimney

for this useful

appendage

was not necessary, we mention that only the driving wheels were supplied with sand from this unsightly excrescence, the supply of sand for the trailing wheels (for use when running bunker in front) being placed in an unobtrusive position. If the latter sand-boxes could thus be located, why was it necessary to place that for the leading wheels This example of awkward location of in so conspicuous a position? so useful an adjunct is further emphasised

when we remember that

these engines run just as frequently bunker

first

as

chimney

first.

EYOLVTION OF THE STEA

M LOCOMOTIVE

22'i

Further, in consequence of the position of this sand-box, the rod for working the sand valves was carried along the top of the boiler several inches above its surface, thus still more detracting from the symmetry of the design. The other feature we wish to barrel,

allude to,

dome cover, the whole of which was of Then, again, in later years an enclosed

the shape of the

is

a needlessly ugly contour.

cab was added, the back and front of which, being of sheet-iron, extending to the extreme of the coal bunker, and with no return sides, has given a rather toy-like appearance to these otherwise fine locoWe are glad to be able to mention that when these

motives.

engines were rebuilt, the objectionable sand-box was removed, and a

more pleasing form

Fig.

of

steam dome provided, but

86— BEATTIE'S GOODS ENGINE,

L.

&

this

improvement was

S.W.R.,

REBUILT

measure negatived by the black enamelled iron which is now used for the cover in place of the bright brass formerly employed for

in a threat

the purpose.

Having thus mentioned the defects in appearance, rather than the North London Railway passenger tanks (Fig. 87), we

utility, of

can proceed to do justice to this really fine class of engines designed

by Mr. Adams.

The outside cylinders were l7in. diameter, and the stroke was The driving and trailing wheels (coupled) were 5ft. 3in. The heating diameter, the bogie wheels being 2ft. 9in. diameter. The boiler was 4ft. lin. diawas 1,015 sq. feet. surface 24in.

meter,

and

contained

200

tubes

of

lfin.

diameter.

A

good feature in the design was the high steam pressure employed —viz 1601b. per sq. in. and there can be no doubt that muck of Q 2 ,



EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

228

the success of this class of engine can be traced to the use of so high a pressure of steam

were using a

much

at

a time

— 29

lower pressure.

years

London and

any

companies' trains starting side by

side,

to

watch

a

North

the North London generally gets away fact,

osipitJil

at starting,

ago

—when

Indeed, to-day

of

and

it is

other

several it

first;

will

other

lines

only necessary

railway

be observed that

these engines are, in

and soon attain a high rate

of speed.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE The weight was

as

follows

:

— Empty.

On bogie wheels .. On driving wheels... On trailing wheels...

229

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

230

The wheel base of the bogie was 5ft. 8in. The coupled wheels have underhung springs connected by a compensation beam. Indiarubber springs are used in connection with the hanging of tho springs, and also to guide the bogie, etc., and it was found that such springs answered the use to which they were put in a most admirable manner. In

all

the

new engines that have

lately

been

built,

and when

re-

building old engines of this type., the cylinders have been increased to I7^in. diameter, and other things considerably modified in detail.

Mr. Pryce has also built 24 powerful six-wheel tank engines (Fig. These engines are very 88) for dealing with the N.L.R. goods traffic.

Fig.

89.— LOCOMOTIVE

AND TRAVELLING CRANE,

efficient.

They have outside cylinders

and

4in.

4ft.

coupled wheels.

I7in.

N.L.R.

diameter, 24in. stroke,

Boiler pressure,

1601b.

]

or sq. in.

Weight in working order, 45 tons 9 cwt., all available for adhesion. The total wheel base is 1 1ft. 4in. ; consequently, they take curves easily.

The coal consumption of these engines was very satisfactory. The trains of the North London Railway consist of twelve vehicles, weighing, empty, 90 tons 14 cwt., and loaded 112 tons 6 cwt., but the coal consumption, with very frequent stoppages, only averaged 30.281b. per mile.

combined saddle-tank locomotive and crane North London Railway, as recently rebuilt by

Fig. 89 represents the

belonging to Mr. Pryce.

the



CHAPTER

XIII.

—Kendall's three -oylindor engine for the Blythe and — Heavy engines for the —Metropolitan and St. John's Wood Railway — Sold to the Taff Vale Railway " The most powerful loccmotive in — the world" for sale " Jinks's Babies" — The " Areo-steam " lecomotive on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway— Tank engines on the Furness Railway

Beattie's

express

engines

Tyne Railway

for the G.N.K — Webb's PrecePatrick Stirling's world famous "8ft. Mnglcs dents " for the L. and N.W.R. The " John Ramsbjttom " " The Firefly," an engine that has " played many parts " J. Stirling's 7ft. coupled engines on the G. and S.W.R. Stirling's reversing apparatus Watkin's express engines for the S.E.R. Stroudley's " Grosvenor," L.B. and S.C.R. The era of "compounds" F. W. Webb's first compound locomotive Bowen-Cooke's views on the subject The Experim-aiit " 7ft. lin. compounds "Queen Empress"—

















'





——







"Black Prince" Wordsell compounds Midland coupled expresses Stroudley's "Gladstone" class--Th.3 "General Managers" on the North Eastern N.B.R. locomotive, "No. 592" Holmes's "633" class Great Eastern 7ft. coupled 7ft.

— Holden's

6in.



licpiid fuel

— Serve

locomotives



tubes in locomotives

— Sacre's

" Singles."

Fig. 90 represents the "Python," one of J. Beattie's four-coupled

The cylinders wera The coupled wheels were 7ft. diameter. The heating surface

express engines, constructed for the L. and S.W.R. outside, l7in. diameter

by

22in. stroke.

lin. diameter, and the leading wheels 4ft. was 1,102 sq. ft. Weight of engine in working order, 35 tons 11 cwt. For some years this class of engine was the favourite express engine

on the L. and S.W.R.

Locomotive engineers have always one great difficulty to provide viz., the extra power required to start locomotives, especially on steep inclines, and as such grades are particularly en 6viden.ee on



for

it is not surprising to find Mr. W. Kendall, of patenting a locomotive designed to Northumberland, Percy Main, overcome the defects just indicated. The patent is dated October The engine was of the three cylinder type, with one 26th, 1867.

the mineral

inside

lines,

and two outside

cylinders.

When

running on a

level

road

only the inside cylinder was used, but for starting or ascending inclines the power of all three was brought into use, the whole

arrangement of the power being actuated by the reversing gear

By a peculiar adaptation of the lap of the valves, a apparatus. small quantity of steam was admitted to the valves of the outside

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

232

cylinders

when these cylinders were not working, for the purpose of The engine in question was built at the Percy Main

lubrication.

Works

of the

behind"

Blythe and Tyne Railway.

type,

with a single pair

of

cylinder was connected in the usual

She was

of the " four-coupled

leading wheels.

manner

The

inside

to the cranked axle of

the centre wheels, the outside cylinders actuating the trailing pairs Without diagrams it is rather difficult to explain the

of wheels.

method employed to prevent the pistons, etc., of the outside cylinders from reciprocating, but shortly it may be stated that the connectingrod was divided into two fneces, and at the joint each end fitted into

an enclosed

link.

When

that

disconnected,

portion

of

the

rod

coupled to the wheels which was in the link merely travelled up and down the link, whilst the part connected with the piston, etc., was

Fig.

at rest.

90.-

7ft. Iiu. COUPLED EXPRESS ENGINE, LONDON AND SOUTH WESTERN RAILWAY

-"PYTHON," A

By means

of

a screw gear this

latter portion of

the con-

necting-rod was lowered in the link, and engaged with the other part of the rod,

which was coupled to the wheels, and so the outside

cylinders were brought into action.

If

required, the outside cylin-

ders could be used independently of the one inside cylinder, so that

the engine could be a one,

frvro,

or three cylinder locomotive.

Sepa-

rate regulators were provided for the inside and outside cylinders, but

the handles were coupled together, so that,

ment actuated the admission

of

steam to

all

if

required, one move-

the cylinders.

To

pre-

vent too strong a blast, the driver could, by the operation of a ball valve, "discharge the exhaust steam

from the outside cylinders into

the atmosphere by means of a pipe in front of the engine.

On

the

:

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

233

other hand, the whole of the exhaust from the three cylinders could

be discharged up the chimney in the usual manner

Upon

April

if

preferred.

1868, the Metropolitan and St. John's

13th,

Railway was opened for

Wood

The line branches from the Metroand was worked by the Metropolitan

traffic.

politan Railway at Baker Street,

Company. The gradients on the short line are very severe, and it was not considered advisable to attempt to work the railway by the usual

type of engine employed on the underground line

Burnett,

the

then locomotive

superintendent

of

;

so

Mr.

the Metropolitan

Railway, designed a special class of engine for the St. John's

Wood

These were constructed by the Worcester Engine Company, and were numbered 34 to 38. They were provided with six Railway.

coupled wheels of

4ft.

diameter, with outside bearings; the cylinders

were 20in. diameter, with a 24in. stroke; they were placed within the frames at

2ft.

2in. centres.

The wheel base

motives was divided as follows: 7ft.

2in.

The

was

boiler

lift,

of these powerful loco-



to D., 6ft.

long,

and

L.

4ft.

lOin.

3in.

;

D.

to T.,

diameter, and

contained 176 tubes of 2in. diameter.

The

fire-boxes

Length, outside

were exceptionally

7ft.

lin., inside 6ft.

large, the 6in.

;

measurements being

width, outside

4ft.,

inside

The depth was 5ft. 5in. in front, sloping to 3ft. llin. at back. The steam pressure was 1401b.; heating surface, 1,165 sq. ft. grate area, 22 J sq. ft. The water capacity of the tanks was 3ft.

6in.

;

1,000 gallons.

it

These mammoth engines weighed 46 tons in working order, and was soon discovered that they were far too powerful for working

the light traffic over the St John's

Wood

line,

the ordinary type of

Metropolitan locomotives being quite capable of successfully working the trains over these inclines.

So, in 1873,

when the

Taff Vale

Railway was in urgent need of some powerful engines for hauling the heavy coal trains over the Penarth Dock lines, the Metropolitan Rail-

way succeeded in disposing of these five engines to the South Wales Company, and they can still be seen employed on work more adapted to their construction than

on the

St.

John's

Wood

was that

of hauling light passenger trains

Railway.

tit

It is evident that

both the patentee and builders of the "doubia

bogie" locomotives had a very exalted opinion of the capabilities of these peculiar

engines.

In

December,

1870,

G.

England and Co.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEA M LOCOMOTIVE

234

were advertising for sale by private tender to the best bidder "the most powerful locomotive at present known upon any railway in the United Kingdom, irrespective of gauge." This "most powerful" locomotive was constructed for the 8^in.

gauge on

ders,

15in.

4ft.

Fairlie's

double bogie system.

She had four

diameter and 22in. stroke, eight wheels,

6in. diameter,

all

4ft.

cylin-

drivers of

and with steel tyres.

Amongst other useful features claimed for this "most powerful" we read that she "would take a load up an incline at

locomotive,

any other engine

a speed exceeding that of

at present

known, and

would round the sharpest curves with ease." "Jinks's Babies" consisted of a batch of ten engines constructed

and early in 1872. They had outside and 30in. stroke, with a leading bogie and four coupled wheels of 7ft. diameter; they had, perhaps, as good a right to the title "most powerful" as the Fairlie engine just mentowards the end of

1871,

cylinders, I7in. diameter

tioned.

Be this as it may, however, " Jinks's Babies " were not successful. They were built at the Stockton and Darlington Locomotive Works, at Darlington, and originally numbered 238 to 240, etc., and upon the consolidation of the North Eastern Railway were renumbered They were rebuilt by Mr. Fletcher as six-wheel 1238 to 1240, etc. engines, the bogie giving place to a single pair of leading wheels, and the stroke of the pistons was reduced from 30in. to 26in. Even after this metamorphosis, successful

valves sq.

" Jinks's

Babies " could not be truthfully described as

locomotives.

Amongst other peculiarities the circular The steam pressure was 1401b. per

should be enumerated.

in.

In

1871

the Lancashire

and Yorkshire Railway

fitted

up an

engine with an apparatus said to have been invented by Mr. Richard Eaton,

but called

which

a

"Warsop's Areo-Steam system," by means of supply of heated air was forced into the

continuous

bottom of the

boiler, so causing

the water to be continually agitated,

and thereby preventing incrustation cpiickly generating steam,

the

fuel.

and

last

of the metal, as well as

—but

from

The engine experimented upon was a

No. 369, with cylinders 15in. by 24in., pressure of 1301b. per sq.

meter by

far

2ft.

in.

An

stroke, with piston

5ft.

least

more

—economising

six-coupled goods,

wheels, and working at a

air pump, single acting, 6in. diaand metallic rings, driven from ono

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE of the

main

cross-heads,

235

was secured to the framework of the engine by the feed pump. The compressed

in the place originally occupied

air passed along a pipe l^in. in diameter, 6ft. long, to

la;>-welded

iron

arranged as

pipe,

within

avoid

to

contact

the

smoke-box,

61ft.

with the blast

coil of l£in.

a,

in

deposited in the smoke-box by the action of the blast. versing the

so

length,

or the

pipe

ashes

After tra-

the expanded air became heated to a temperature

coil,

nearly as high as that of the waste gases, and thus ranging between

500 degrees and 800 degrees, or 850 degrees Fahr., lifted the selfact imr valve, and entered the perforated distributing pipe within the boiler, and was constantly passing in jets through the water to the

steam space, whence the combined powers of steam and air proceeded to the cylinders to carry out their duty. A very simple apparatus was

when desirable to stop compression, by keeping the inlet valve open when steam was shut off; otherwise an undue proportion of air would enter the boiler, and impede the feed-water injectors. used

At the same time, occasions arose where a, judicious use of the was made with great advantage, even with steam shut off. It "on March 21st, 1872, there wa> is stated that

air injection

a

heavy

make ford

fall

the

bank

of

most he

with steam shut

and

snow, his

of

had

but

off.

He

driver

the

1001b.

of

at

pump

had

down

coming

steam

allowed the air

369

No.

of

In

resources.

to

Rain-

Balcarres siding, to continue work,

and in 400 yards his gauge rose to 140, when he opened his regulator mount the incline with his heavy load, and so successfully gained the summit." The annexed table shows the working of engine again to

L'o.

369, with and without the apparatus,

and

also

of

similar engine, No. 38, employed on the

same length

hauling the same trains.

fitted

Engine.

No. 38 was not

an exactly

of line,

and

with the apparat

is.

;;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

236

the power consumed in working the pump, and the cost of repair*

ful,

running away with the economy supposed to have been gained in the original experiment.

About design

96

fire-box,

The

introduced

powerful

a

were

cylinders

:

Inside,

and 24in. stroke; heating surface tubes, 1,048 sq. ft. The frames were "insida." ft.; grate area, 15 sq. ft.

sq.

side-tanks were capable of containing 1,000 gallons of water.

"Weight in working order T.,

Railway

tank engines.

six-coupled

18in. diameter

The

time the Furness

this

of

14 tons 15 cwt.

total,

;

:

L.,

13 tons 13 cwt.

On

44 tons 14 cwt.

;

D., 16 tons 6 cwt.

the level this class of

engine hauled 372 tons at 20 miles an hour, and up an incline of

in

1

80 a load of 367 tons was drawn at llf miles an hour. The steam pressure was 1451b., and the coal consumption 40.161b. per mile.

The name

of Patrick Stirling, the late locomotive superintendent of

the Great Northern Railway, will long be remembered and held in

high honour amongst those of his confreres, consequent upon his successful design of 1870, in

which year he

built the first of his

now

a type of locomotive which immedic ately leaped into public favour, of which for elegance and simplicity

world-famous of design it

lin.

8ft.

singles,

not saying too much, in stating that no modern engine

is

has surpassed or

likely to surpass.

is

These engines soon showed the

travelling public that really express speed could be safely indulged in for continuous runs of great length without fear of accident or failure.

modern express speed can date its foundation from the introThe Great Northern Railway undoubtedly owes its popularity and fame as the " express " route to the successful

Indeed,

duction of these engines.

running

of

Patrick

Stirling's

8ft.

outside

lin.

cylinder

"single"

engines.

The earlier

following

may be

accepted as a correct description of

type of this locomotive design.

class have,

in

common with

l

he

Later engines of the same

the development of locomotive design,

increased in weight, grate, tube, and cylinder area, and steam pressure is

;

the

think

but

the

same this

general as

that

compliment

outline

as

seen

ago,

and

to-day,

of

27

years

can

be

paid

to

the

in

Fig.

91,

we

do

not

design

of

any

The cylinders were The small ends of 18in. diameter, with a length of stroke of 28in. the connecting-rods were furnished with tolid bushes of gun metal. The inner and the outer fire-boxes were connected together by stays.

other locomotive built at

the present time.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

237

screwed into each of the plates, without the intervention of iron

By this arrangement, which had been in use for some time in Belgium, the large amount of deposit generally existing upon girder-boxes was prevented, the facility for cleansing was much

girder bars.

greater,

and the

of the tube holes in the copper-plate to

liability

become oval had been got

The heating in the fire-box

122

91. -8ft.

Fig

rid of.

surface in this engine was, in the tubes, 1,043, and sq. ft.

Iin.

The

fire-grate

had an area

of 17.6 sq.

It.

"SINGLE" EXPRESS ENGINE, GREAT NORTHERN

RAILWAY

When

engine was

in working order, the weights upon the and bogie wheels were 15, 8, and 15 tons respectively. The distance from the centre of the trailing wheels to the centre of the bogie pin was 19ft. 5in. These engines were capable of

the

driving, trailing,

drawing a weight of 356 tons on a level at a speed of 45 miles an hour, with a working pressure of 1401b. to the sq. in.

sumption of

coal,

The

con-

with trains averaging sixteen carriages of 10 tons

weight each, had been 271b. per mile, including getting up steam and piloting.

The

cost of maintaining

on the Great Northern Railway was

and renewing passenger engines in 1873 estimated to amount to

2id. per mile.

The

contemporary

type

of

engines

on

the

"

West Coast"

238

EVOLUTION OF THE

SI EAM

LOCOMOTIVE

route was the celebrated "Precedent" class, illustrated by

ltamsbottom

"John

" (Fig. 92).

These London and North Western Railway locomotives were constructed at the Crewe Works, from the designs of Mr. F.

locomotive superintendent,- the

cember, 1874. coupled wheels, 9in. diameter.

The 6ft.

The

first of

W. Webb,

them being constructed

in De-

engines, as our readers well know, have four6in. diameter,

and a leading pair

of wheels

principal dimensions originally were

—they

3i't.

may

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE vary a

some

little in

details in certain engines

and 103.5

sq.

ft.



inside cylinders, 17in.

Heating surafce, 980

diameter, with a stroke of 24in.

in fire-box; grate area, 17.1 sq. ft.;

ing order, L., 10 tons 5 cwt.

D., 11 tons 10 cwt.

;

239

sq. ft. in

tons;

T., 11

;

tubes,

weight in wo

c-

total,

Steam pressure, 1201b. wheel base, 15ft. 8in. The most famous engine of this class is the " Charles Dickens," No. 955, built at Crewe in 1882; the "Inimitable" is shedded at Manchester, and the daily journey to and from Euston consists of 366^ miles the trains worked by this engine are the 8.30 a.m. up, and the 4 p.m. down. As long ago as September 21st, 1891, the " Charles position premier in the Dickens " had obtained of the shades "she" if On that day engine mileage. 32 tons 15 cwt.

;

;



JwKL^^^s^z-^

93— - FIREFLY," A

Fig.

"

Boz "

in

of

&

the

allow

will

consisting

L.

S.W.R.

bull

—completed

between

trips

2,651

OUTSIDE CYLINDER TANK ENGINE

addition to 92 other journeys.

219 days

her

millionth

Manchester

During

and

this period of 9

the engine had burned 12,515 tons of coal.

end of February,

1893,

the

total

mileage

of

"Charles

amounted to 1,138,557, and up to the present time the enormous total of 1,600,000 miles! In April, 1874. Mr.

Webb

it

mile,

London,

Up

years to the

Dickens"

has exceeded

introduced another type of locomotive for

the London and North Western Railway: the "Precursor," No. 2145, gives its title to the design in question.

The 3ft.

were

cylinders were l7in.

6in. 5ft.

by

24in. stroke.

The leading wheels were

diameter, whilst the driving and trailing wheels (coupled) 6in. diameter.

The tubes contributed 980

sq. ft.,

and

th«>

EVOLUTION OF THE STEA

240

M LOCOMOTIVE

fire-box 91.6 sq. ft., of the heating surface, order was 31 tons 8 cwt.

The. weight in working

" Firefly " (Fig. 93) is one of the numerous six-wheel outside cylinder tank engines built from the designs of J. Beattie by Beyer, Peacock and

Co. for the L. and S.W.R. between 1863 and 1875. were 15|in. by 20in. stroke, the leading wheels 3ft.

and the coupled wheels 795.17

5ft. 7in.

diameter.

The cylinders 7fin. diameter,

The heating surface was

the weight, in working order, 34 tons 12 cwt. A number of these engines had the cylinder diameter increased to 16iin, and a tender added by W. Adams in 1883. "Firefly" was built in sq.

ft.;

1871.

*IG. 94.— "

KENSINGTON," A 4-COUPLED PASSENGER ENGINE,

L.B.

&

S.O

It.

"Kensington" (Fig. 94), a L., B. and S.C. locomotive, was, in December, 1872, rebuilt by Mr. Stroudley in the form illustrated. The cylinders were I7in. by 24in. stroke; coupled wheels, 6ft. 6in. diameter; leading wheels, 4ft. 3in. diameter. In 1872, "Kensington" was domeless, that appendage being added later. This engine was originally

a single engine, built by R.

Altogether, this engine, like

We

Stephenson and Co. in 1864.

many individuals, has " played many parts."

have now reached a period in locomotive history when the

engines to be described are of comparatively modern construction, a

very large proportion of them being lines of railway,

and readers interested

still

in

work on the variou

I

in such matters are probably

acquainted with the particulars of the locomotives.

>

Under such

cir-

cumstances, a detailed and particular account of each design would be rather wearisome, therefore the general features of modern engines

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE be

will

less fully described.

241

At the same time any uncommon points

in their design or construction will

be mentioned.

now used on the South Eastern Railway has developed from a class introduced by Mr. Stirling, when locomotive superintendent of the Glasgow and J. The standard type

of express passenger engines

South Western Railway. In 1873 he constructed at the Kilmarnock Works an engine with a leading bogie and four coupled wheels of

7ft.

diameter.

ders were inside, 18in. diameter and 26in. stroke.

The

cylin-

In this design, as

in the later type on the South Eastern Railway, the boiler

was un-

provided with a dome, but in the latter the duplex safety valve

is

placed about the centre of the boiler barrel, whilst on the Glasgow

and South Western Railway engines Mr. Stirling's reversing apparatus

it is

surmounts a flush-top

fire-box.

a very useful contrivance

;

it

enables the driver to reverse his engine without the expenditure of

any muscular power. At first the new reversing gear was frequently mistaken for the Westinghouse air-brake pumps. It consists of two vertical cylinders placed

One

attached to

One

tandem fashion

at the side of the boiler barrel.

piston-rod passes through both cylinders,

cylinder contains steam, the other

to prevent the

and the pistons are

this rod is connected with the reversing apparatus.

it;

movement

oil.

The duty

of the piston or rod.

It will

of the latter is

be understood

that, since the cylinder is quite full of oil, it is impossible for the

piston and connections to

move

unless the oil can pass from one sid^

of the piston to the other. is accomplished by a handle, which also actuates the valve steam reversing cylinder so that when the steam is admitted into one cylinder to move the piston, the oil is at the same time

This

of the

permitted to flow through a valve to the other piston, and the reversing apparatus

The

is

worked.

keeps the piston in any desired position.

As soon as the cannot pass from one side of the piston face to the other, the gear is firmly locked. oil

oil

Mr. A. M. Watkin became locomotive superintendent of the South Eastern Railway in 1876, and he introduced a very pretty design of express passenger engines. Twenty engines of the type were conNos. 259 to 268 by Sharp Stewart, and Co., and Nos. 261) 278 by the Avonside Engine Company. Inside frames were provided; the leading wheels were 4ft. and the four-coupled wheels U structed to

:

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

242 6ft.

The

diameter.

6in.

The weight

stroke.

cylinders were l7in. diameter and 24in. working order was 34 \ tons; the total heating

in

The splashers to the coupled wheels were of The chimney was of the rimless South Eastern a dome was provided on the centre of the boiler barrel, and

surface, 1,1 03£ sq.

ft.

open-work design. pattern

;

A cab very much resembling the standard London and North Western Railway pattern was fitted a duplex safety-valve on the fire-box top. to the engines.

Several of these engines, as rebuilt

work Kent

by Mr.

at the present time; they are principally

Stirling, remain in employed on the Mid-

services.

In 1874 Mr. Stroudley,

the London, Brighton

the then locomotive

superintendent of built the " Gros-

and South Coast Railway,

venor" with 6ft. 9in. single driving wheels, inside cylinders 17in. by 24in., and a total heating surface of 1,132 sq. ft. The "Stroudley" speed indicator was fitted to this engine. 1875,

"

the

On August

13th,

Grosvenor " conveyed a train from Victoria to Ports-

mouth

This was the first occasion on which (87 miles) without a stop. such a trip had been performed; the time taken was 110 minutes.

No

other engine exactly similar to the "Grosvenor" was con-

but in 1877 the "Abergavenny"

structed;

and cylinders

drivers

of the "

These

G"

also

class of



—with

have single driving wheels

6ft.

An

is

6in.

6in. in diameter,

cylinders are I7in. diameter, the stroke being 24in.

the driving wheel

6ft.

single

by 22in. was built, and in 1880 the first singles was turned out at the Brighton Work* 16in.

but the

The weight on

13 tons.

interesting era in the evolution of the steam locomotive

this point arrived at



viz.,

the

first really practical trial of

is

at

compound

engines, or the use of steam twice over for the purpose of propelling

a locomotive.

To Mr. Webb, the

chief mechanical engineer of the

London and

North Western Railway, is due the honour of introducing the compound system on an extended scale in railway practice. Although 21 years have now passed since the premier attempt of giving the system a

fair trial

on an English railway was made,

it

does not seem

Into have gained much favour with English locomotive engineers. deed, at the present time, excepting a few minor trials elsewhere, the London and North Western Railway is the only company that con-

structs

and uses compound locomotives.

EVOLUTION OF THE Webb employs

Mr.

S'jPEa

M LOCOMOTIVE

243

the three-cylinder type of engine, which

is

an

adaptation of the system introduced by M. Mallet on the Bayonno and Biarritz Railway. Three engines were built from Mr. Mallet's design by Schneider and Co., Creusot, and were brought into use in July,

In

1876.

these

locomotives

Mallet employed two and the other 9£in. diameter.

cylinders, one being 15 fin.

outside

Mr. Webb uses three cylinders an inside cylinder for the l.p. steam and two outside cylinders for the high-pressure steam. But at first one of Trevithick's old "single" engines was fitted up on Mallet's :

This was in on the Ashley and North Western Railway, and struct compound engines on his two-cylinder plan.

fully for five years

The

of

first

h.p. cylinders

meter.

1878. The engine worked successand Nuneaton branch of the London

thereupon Mr.

Webb

decided to con-

three-cylinder system.

such engines was the "Experiment."

were 11 £in. diameter, the inside

Joy's celebrated valve gear

Her

outside

being 26in. dia-

l.p.

was employed

regulate the

to

admission of steam to the cylinders. " Webb " compounds have two pairs of driving wheels, but these are uncoupled, so that practically the engines are " singles." Whether

the four driving wheels work well together, or whether, on the other

hand, there exists a considerable amount of either

another matter. cylinders,

The

slip or

trailing pair of wheels is driven

and the middle pair from the inside or

l.p.

skidding

from the

is

h.p.

cylinder.

Mr. Bowen-Cooke, an authority on London and North Western

Railway locomotive practice, sums up the advantages of the

compound system under the

five following

heads

:



1.

Greater power.

2. 3.

Economy in the consumption of fuel. The whole of the available power of the steam

4.

A more

"Webb"

used.

even distribution of the strains upon the working parts,

and larger bearing surfaces for the axles. 5. The same freedom of running as with a single engine, with the same adhesion to the rails as a coupled engine.

The 6ft. wheel type compound was introduced

of

London and North Western Railway The outside cylinders are 14in.

in 1884.

and the inside 30in. diameter, stroke all

the valves

valve of the pressure

is

;

24in.

Joy's gear is used for

the valves to the outside cylinders are below, and the

l.p.

cylinder

is

1751b. per square

above the cylinder. in.,

but

The

boiler stean>

it is reduced to 801b.

when r

2

enter-

— 244

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE j

The weight of the engine in working ing the low-pressure cylinder. order is 42 tons 10 cwt. Heating surface: Tubes, 1,242 sq. ft.; firebox, 159.1 sq. ft; total, 1,401.5 sq.

An

engine built to this design

was exhibited

at

ft.

—the

Grate area, 20.5

sq. ft.

"Marchioness of Stafford''

the London Inventions Exhibition of 1885,

and

gained the gold medal. In 1890 the first of the "Teutonic" (Fig. 95) class of 7ft. lin. compounds was constructed at Crewe Works. The leading wheels of this

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE type are

245

l£in. diameter. Total weight in working order, 45 tous In these engines Mr. Webb's loose eccentric motion is used for the low-pressure inside cylinder, but Joy's gear is retained for tU 1ft.

10 cwt.

n.p. outside cylinders.

During Another type of compound is the "Greater Britain." " 1897 the "Greater Britain'*' was painted red, and ".Queen Empress white, whilst the Caledonian locomotives "Victoria" and "Jubilee" were, of course, painted blue.

Tbese engines hauled the royal train

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEA

246

11

LOCOMOTIVE

when travelling over the West Coast route The consequence, nicknamed Ihe " Diamond Jubilee?.

engines

were, in

-

'

The boiler,

special feature of these L.

which

chamber.

is

and N\W. engines

is

the length of the

divided into two portions by means of a central combustion

The heating surface

chamber, 39.1

sq.

tubes, 506.2 sq.

ft.

ft.;

total,

;

is

:

fire-box, 120.6 sq. ft.

;

front se^ of tubes, 875 sq. ft.;

1540.9

wheels are located in front of the

sq.

ft.

fire-box,

combustion back set of

The two pairs

of driving

and in addition there are

a pair of leading and a pair of trailing wheels.

An

engine of

—the "Queen Empress"



was exHer leading dimensions are: Two high-pressure cylinders, 15in. diameter by 24in. stroke one low-pressure cylinder, 30in. diameter by 24in. stroke wheels driving, 7ft. lin. diameter (four in number) leading, Weight on each 4ft. ljin. diameter; trailing, 4ft. l|in. diameter. pair of driving wheels, 16 tons. Total weight of engine in working this; class

(Fig. 96)

hibited at the World's Fair held at Chicago in 1893.

;



;

order, 52 tons 15 cwt.

Centre to centre

Total wheel base, 23ft. 8in.

of driving wheels, 8ft. 3in.

The most recent type of compound goods locomotives constructed by Mr.

Webb

under

has eight-coupled wheels, three pairs of which are located

the boiler barrel, the trailing pair being close to the

fire-box.

The

back

of the

outside cylinders are below the top of the frame-plate,

and incline towards the rear. This type of engine was designed by Mr. F. W. Webb, chief mechanical engineer of the London and North

Western Railway, principally

for

working the heavy mineral

over that Company's South Wales

The wheels The

built in 1893.

with tyres 3 in. thick. is

5ft.

9in.,

(all

district,

coupled) are

first

4ft.

5^in. in diameter,

distance between the centres of each pair All the cylinders

the total wheel base being 17ft. 3in.

drive on to one axle

traffic

engine being

the

—the second

from the front of the engine the two high-pressure cylinders are connected to crank pins in the wheels set at right

;

angles to each other, the low-pressure cylinder being

connected to a centre crank-pin set at an angle of 135 degree with the high-pressure cranks; the high-pressure cylinders are 15in. diameter

by and in line, the low-pressure being placed immediately under the smoke-box and the high-pressure cylinders on each side outside the frames, the steam

by

24in. stroke,

24in. stroke.

and the low-pressure cylinders are

30in. diameter

All the cylinders are bolted together

chests being within the frames.

Tons

248

The

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE. illustration

shows the engine

-with

experiment in connection with the exhaust.

Duke

"

was a

sister 4-cylinder

a

— now

double

chimney— an " Iron

abandoned.

engine constructed by Mr. Webb, first as a " compound" locomotive.

a "simple," but afterward converted to

3 a i, 03

«*

The

total distance

aa

run by this engine up to June 30th, 1898, wa»

52,034 miles.

The high-pressure cylinders are 15in. diameter by 24in. stroke, And the low-pressure cylinders are 20^in. diameter by 24in. stroke.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE The heating sq. ft.

A

surface

total 1,409.1 sq.

;

Tubes, 1,241.3

is:

ft.;

sq.

Grate area, 20.5

ft.

fireoox,

159.1

sq. ft.

compound locomotives

concise survey of other

249

will

be of interest

at this juncture.

Mr.

Worsdell,

the then locomotive superintendent of the Great

Eastern Railway, in 1882 built a compound engine, with two inside cylinders, the h.p. 18in. 24in. 7ft.

of

and the

l.p.

steam pressure, 1601b. per

;

The engine was

diameter.

which were

lin.

3ft.

26in. diameter; the stroke was

sq.

in.

The coupled wheels were

with a leading bogie, the whdela diameter; with her tender she weighed 77

tons in working order; her

fitted

number was

230.

A

similar engine, !No.

702, with Joy's valve gear, was built in 1885.

Mr. Worsdell also built a two-cylinder, six-coupled goods engine for the fitted

Great Eastern Railway, on the compound principle.

This wa

j

with the ordinary link motion.

Mr. Worsdell, upon his appointment as locomotive superintendent

North Eastern Railway, introduced compound engines on that both inside, with the valves on top. Tha h.p. cylinder is 18in. and the l.p. 26in. in diameter, the stroke being 24in. Mr. Worthington thus describes the North Eastern "In outside appearance Railway standard compound goods engine: of the

These were provided with two cylinders,

line.



this engine is neat, simple,

and has

six

"The

coupled

5ft.

and substantial.

It

weighs 40 tons 7 cwt.,

ljin. in diameter.

cylinders are placed, as in the passenger

beneath the

slide valves

compound

engines,

and inside the frames.

"The

chief features of this goods engine to be observed are the and intercepting valves, which enable the engine-driver to the engine by admitting sufficient high-pressure steam to the

starting start

large cylinder without interfering with the small cylinder, in case the latter is not in

"The two If

a position to start the train alone.

valves are operated by steam controlled

the engine does not start

occur

when the

when the

regulator

is

by one handle.

opened, which v

high-pressure valve covers both steam

ports,

ill

the

driver pulls the additional small handle, which closes the passage from

the receiver to the low-pressure cylinder, and also admits a small

amount

of

steam to. the low-pressure steam-chest, so that the two

cylinders together develop additional starting power.

"After one or two strokes

of the engine the exhaust

">

steam from the

high-pressure cylinder automatically forces the two valves back to

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

250

normal

their

and

position,

the

engine

proceeds

worK.ng

com-

pound."

The North Eastern Railway has other compound engines Van Borries system, a 6ft. 8|in.

structed on the Worsdell and

coupled locomotive, with a leading bogie, being turned

Engines of this type have a heating surface of 1,323.3 area of 17.33

sq.

ft.,

and a working pressure

of

confour-

out in 1886.

a grate

sq. ft.,

1751b. per sq. in.

Another North Eastern Railway type of compound has 7ft. 7|in. and a leading bogie. The h.p. cylinder is 20in.,

single driving wheels

and the

l.p.

coupled

class,

The

first

compared with

26in. diameter,

18in.

and 26in. in the four-

the stroke being the same in each design

of the

7ft.

7|in.

structed at the Gateshead

compound

Works



in 1890.

The engines

24in.

viz.,

class Of locomotives

was con-

of this design

appear capable of doing very heavy work with a low coal consumption, the average being 281b. per mile, which, considering the heavy

and speed maintained, any other

is

class of engine

With a

traffic

low, being, in fact, 21b. per mile below that of

engaged on the same

traffic.

train of 18 coaches, weighing 310 tons (including 87 tons,

the weight of the engine and tender), a speed of 86 miles an hour

was attained on a level portion of the road, the horse-power indicated These engines have a commodious cab, and the tenders carrying 3,900 gallons of water, this making it possible for the run of 125 miles, from Newcastle to Edinburgh, to be performed without a being 1,068.

tank engines, with a trailing and the diameter of cylinders h.p. Compound engines have also been tried on the 18in., and l.p. 26in. Glasgow and South Western Railway and on the London and South Western Railway, and a tandem type on tbe Great Western Railway.

There

stop.

radial axle.

The

is

also a class of six-coupled

The

stroke

is

24in.,

advantages of express locomotives being

with leading

fitted

bogies were speedily recognised by most of the locomotive superintendents.

Mr.

S.

W. Johnson, the Midland

design of such engines in 1876.

introduced a

chief,

The steam pressure

of the early

engines of this class was 1401b., but in later years this was increased to 1601b., whilst in the recent engines the pressure

is

still

further

augmented.

The same progress of the

is to be noticed in the diameter of the cylinders Midland engines, the diameter having increased from I7£in. in

1876 to ],hs

19|-in.

at the present time.

also increased

been the same in

from all

6ft.

6in. to

The 7t't.

size of

the coupled wheels

The length

engines of this design



viz.,

26in.

of

stroke ha s

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

251

.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

252

The new Midland single express engines are illustrated by Fig. 98. These locomotives have inside cylinders 19£in. diameter, with a stroke The driving wheels are

of 26in.

9in. in diameter.

7ft.

By

standing

on a railway station platform alongside one of these engines, one gets a good idea of their immense proportions, the abnormally high pitch of the boiler being especially noticeable.

Mr. Stroudley, in his

"

Gladstone " class of engines for the London,

Brighton

and South Coast Railway, adopted an entirely opposite

practice.

His engines had the leading and driving wheels coupled,

and a pair of smaller

trailing wheels.

and the trailing

6in. diameter,

4ft. 6in.

6ft.

are

and measure 18|in. diameter, the stroke being 26in.

inside,

The reversing apparatus

is

actuated by means of compressed

supplied by the Westinghouse brake

steam

The coupled wheels are The cylinders

diameter.

pump

air,

whilst part of the exhaust

;

projected against the flanges of the leading wheels, and upon

is

condensation upon the flanges forms a lubricant to the flange surface,

when pressing against the inner sides of the rails. Fig. 99 is from "George A. Wallis," an engine of the u Gladstone"

a photograph of class.

Fifl.

99.-"

GEORGE

A.

WALLIS," CLASS,

The "Tennant"

(Fig,

AN ENGINE OF THE L.B.

it

is

"

GLADsiOXK,"

S.C.E.1

100) class of express engines, on the North

Easttrn Railway, deserves mention, data,

&

because,

perhaps on

insufficient

usually described as the design of a general manager during

the North-Easteru locomotive interregnum of 1885.

The engines have four-coupled wheels, ing pair of small "wheel?, cylinders

being

7ft.

diameter, and

18in.

diameter,

a lead-

and 24in.

strokf

The cab

is

somewhat

Northern Railway.

similar to the Stirling pattern on the Great

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

253

The North British Railway engine, No. 592, was exhibited at the Edinburgh Exhibition of 1886, and Mr. Holmes, her designer, was awarded the gold medal. The driving and trailing wheels are coupled, their diameter being The fore part of the machine is supported on a four-wheeled 7ft.

The symmetrical appearance of this and other North British is spoilt by having the safety valve located above dome casing. The cylinders are 18in. diameter, and 26in. stroke.

bogie.

Railway locomotives the

No. 602, another engine of this design,

is

notorious as being the

first

engine to cross the Forth Bridge, when formally opened by the Prince of

Wales on March 4th, 1890, the Marchioness

of

Tweeddale driving

the engine upon the occasion.

Mr. Holmes, in 1890, introduced another very similar design of

North British Railway engines, but with coupled wheels only 6ft. 6in. diameter. These are known as the " 633 " class, illustrated by Fig. 101. Turning to the Great Eastern Railway, we have to chronicle some types of locomotives designed by Mr. Holden.

The express passenger

engines have a pair of small leading wheels and four coupled wheels of 7ft. diameter, with cylinders 18in. by 24in. The valves are below the cylinders, which,

Fia.

100.

by the way, are both cast in one

«*1463."

N.E.R

,

piece.

ONE OP THE "TENNANT" LOCOMOTIVES

In connection with this design of locomotive, the triumph of skilled

mechanism,

combined with the application

of

scientific

research,

deserves record, seeing that a troublesome waste product has been

turned into a valuable calorific agent. of

liquid

fuel

for

Holden's patent.

We

locomotive purposes,

refer to the introduction

as carried

out

under Mr.

254

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

Now, sanitary authorities have large powers, and they are very fond of abusing these powers, and pushing matters to extreme issues although at times, as we know from personal experience, they some-



times exceed their statutory powers, and find themselves in a tight place from which they can only retreat by payment of compensation

and heavy law

costs.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEA M LOCOMOTIVE

255

In connection with the pollution of streams the authorities have very wide powers, and

when they found the waters

of the never clear

or limpid Channelsea and Lea were further polluted by some oily, iridescent matter, with a

pungent odour, the sanitary inspectors were The waste products from the Great

soon ferreting out the offenders.

Eastern Railway oil-gasworks at Stratford were found to be responsible for the nuisance,

and the service of a notice requiring immediate abatement of the same was the result of the discovery. Mr. Holden, remembering the good old proverb, " Necessity

mother

of invention," soon

commenced

to

the

is

experiment with the matter

which the sanitary authorities refused to allow to be emptied into the already impure waterways under their jurisdiction. of a series of trials on, first a six-coupled single express,

named

760,

The

result

tank engine, and then on a

was a four-coupled express engine on the G-E.R,, No

" Petrolea."

This locomotive was constructed in 1886, and in general appearance

is

The

similar to the four-coupled express engine just described.

heating arrangements are, however, supplemented by the liquid fuel

burning apparatus, which oil fuel is

may

be briefly described as follows

The

:

carried on this engine in a rectangular tank of 500 gallons

capacity, but in later examples occupies two cylindrical reservoirs,

which contain 650 gallons, placed on the top of the tender water-tanks, one on each

The

side. is

supplied to these reservoirs through man-holes

at the footplate end.

The feed pipes from these tanks unite on the

liquid fuel

tender footplate at the centre, and from this junction the

veyed by the

flexible

oil is

hose pipe to the engine, where the supply

is

con-

again

divided to feed the two burners situated on the fire-box front just

under the footboard.

Both the use, the

by

liquid in the tanks and the injected air are heated before

former by means of steam

coiled pipes in the smoke-box.

coils in

the tanks, and the Tatter

The heated

liquid fuel

and

air

are injected into the fire-box, through two nozzles in the form of fine

same moment through an outer The steam divides the mixture of air and particles that it immediately ignites when in con-

spray, steam being injected at the

ring of the

same

nozzles.

liquid into such fine

tact with the incandescent coal fire-box.

The

The whole

and chalk

fire-box is fitted with

fire

already provided in the

a brick arch

of the apparatus is controlled

deflector.

by a four-way cock

fitted

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

256

on the fire-box lator.

coils

The in

case,

near the position usually occupied by the regu-

positions of the cock in question are: (1) steam to

liquid

fuel

tank ;

(2)

warm

steam to ring-blowers on injectors

steam to clear out the liquid "Petrolea" was so apparent fuel pipes and ejectors. and unquestionable that Mr. Holden's patent system of burning liquid (3)

steam to centre

jets of ejectors

;

(4)

The success

of

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM 10COM0TIVE was immediately

fuel

fitted

257

other Great Eastern Railway loco-

to

motives, with the result that at the present time a

number

are fitted

with his patent apparatus.

The following Great Eastern Railway locomotives have been to burn liquid fuel:



fitted

9 four-wheel coupled express engines. 6 single express engines. 1

1

six-wheel

(Fig.

102)

coupled goods engine.

six-wheel coupled tank, and

20 four-wheel coupled bogie tanks.

and the 10 engines (Fig.

of

the new class of "single" bogie expresses.

103.)

The

application of the " Serve "

corrugated tube has also been

Introduced on the Great Eastern Railway in connection with the

The goods engine and also two of the express passenger engines have the " Serve " tubes. The experiment of burning liquid

liquid fuel.

fuel

has been very successful, only 161b. of

oil

having been consumed

per mile run, against an average of 351b. of coal per mile, with coalfired engines.

Some very handsome Bogie

Express Locomotives have

Single

Works of the G.E.R. Company to the designs of Mr. James Holden. They have been specially constructed for running the fast Cromer traffic. The boiler has a tele-

recently been built at the Stratford

scopic barrel lift, long, in

tho smaller ring.

the height of

The

its

It

is

box 114.2

plates,

and

ft.,

and

and is

4ft. ^in.

fired

with

is 7f.

The working pressure

The driving wheels are trailing wheels

4i't.

bogie wheels centres being centre of driving wheel to centre of trailing

7ft.,

diameter.

6ft. 6in.

is 10ft. 6in.,

is 9ft.

The

The

oil fuel.

is

160

«=q.

lbs.

total heating

ft.,

per

the bogie wheels are

The

9in.

wide outside, and has a grat9

1,292.7 sq. ft, the tubes giving 1,178.5 sq. ft.

diameter outside

is 4ft. 3in.

centre line above the rail level

fire-box is 7ft. long,

area of 21.37 sq. surface

two

contains 227 tubes lfin. external diameter, and

and the

fire-

sq. in.

3ft. 9in.,

and tho

total w,heel base is 22ft. 9in., the

apart,

from centre of bogie pin to

and from centre

total length of engine

of driving wheel

and tender, over

buffers, is 53ft. 3in.

Tho cylinders are

18in. diameter

tween centres being 24in.

The

by 26in.

stroke, the distance be-

slide valves are

arranged underneathy S

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE'

258

and are

fitted

with a small valve, which allows any water that

collect in the slide valve to drain

Steam sanding apparatus wheels.

may

off.

is fitted

at front

and back

of the driving

:

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE Macallan's variable blast pipe

is

259

used, the diameter of the pip©

being 5Jin., and of the cap 4Jin. This variable pipe

is

being adopted on

all

the Company's engines.

The pipe has

a hinged top, operated from the footplate.

hinged top

on the

is

and when the top

moved

is

When

the

pipe, the area is that of a suitable ordinary pipe, off

the area

is

about 30 per cent, larger.

found that a large proportion of the work of the engines can

It is

be done with the larger exhaust outlet, the result being a reduced

back pressure in the cylinders and also a reduced vacuum in the smoke-box, and

less

disturbance of the

fire

and consequent saving of

fuel.

The tender

715

capable of carrying 2,790 gallons of water,

is

and l£ tons of coal. It is provided with a water replenishing the tank whilst running.

gallons of oil fuel,

scoop for

The weights engine, 48| tons

of

the engine and tender in working order are

tender, 36 tons

total, 84£ tons. The oil-firing arrangements embody a number of ingenious details, among them the supply of hot air for combustion from a series of ;

;

around the inside

smoke-box, the

air

being drawn from the front through the heaters to the burners for

the-

cast-iron heaters placed

exhausting action of the steam jets used for latter is

warmed

of the

ir

The

jecting the oil fuel.

before leaving the tender in a cylindrical heating

chamber, through which the exhaust steam from the air-brake

pump

circulates.

The regulation

of the oil supply

is

by a neatly designed and

effected

gear attached to the cover and hood of the ordinary fire-door, finally

the burners or injectors are so constructed that should one

all be removed from the casing by simply unscrewing one large nut. These engines have polished copper chimney tops, and are painted and lined in the standard G.E.R. style, and fitted with the Westinghouse auto-

require cleaning, inspection, or renewal, the internal cones can

matic brake.

The

late

Mr. Sacre introduced an excellent type of

express engine on the M.S. and L.R.

diameter, and the stroke 26 in

working order: on

These engines are

in.

driver*,

still

The outside

7ft. 6in.

employed in

working

;

m

cylinders were 17|in.

Heating surface 1,144 17 tons 11 cwt.

" single

total,

the

sq. ft.

Weight

40 tons 12 cwt. Cheshire Lines

" Punctual" expresses between Liverpool and Manchester.



CHAPTER



Modern L.B. and S.C.R.

——

XIV.



locomotives? Four-coupled in front p?j68enger tank Sixcoupled tank with radial trailing wheels Goods engines " Bessemer," fourcoupled bogie express " Inspector " Standard L.C. and D.R. passsnger engines Goods locomotives Three classes of tanks Cambrian lacoinotire*, passenger, goods, and tank S.E. engines "Prize Medal" locomotive Stirling's goods and tank engines His latest type of express engines— Adams's locomotives on the L. & S.W.R. Mixed traffic engines Passenger and sixcoupled tanks -Dru-nmond's " Windcutter " smoke-box His four-cylinder express engine— North British passenger locomotives—Engines for the West Highland Railway Holme's goods and tank engines His latest express type of engine— Classification of N.B.R. locomotives— L. and Y. locomotives Aspinall's water " pick-up" apparatus— Severe gradients on the L. and Y. system— 7ft. Sin. coupled expresses— "A'' class of goods engines— Standard tank engines— L. and Y. oil-burning tank locomotives— Caledonian Railway engines— Drummond's famous "Dunalastairs"— Excelled by his " Dunalastairs 2 " —Six-coupled "condensing" tender engines— " Carbrooke " class— Dimensions of 44 types of Caledonian locomotives— Two types of Great Eastern tank







— —







—A







— —



engines.

The modern engines on the London, Brighton, and South Coast Billinton, and comprise The four-coupled in front tank with a trailing bogie, of which

Railway are designed by Mr.

"Havant," No.

363,

Coupled wheels,

Steam

5ft.

an

is

Brighton Works, 1897.

This

engine

by

18in,

was

26in.

built

Weight in working

at

diameter

;

Heating surface, 1,189

diameter.

6in.

pressure, 1601b.

example.

Inside cylinders,

sq.

ft.

order, 47 tons.

" Watersfield," No. 457, built at Brighton in 1895, is a specimen of

the six-coupled goods tank engines, with radial trailing wheels.

This class

have inside cylinders, 18in.

1,200 sq. ft.; diameter of wheels,

4ft.

by 26in. ; heating surface, steam pressure 1601b.;

6in.

;

weight in working order, 51 tons.

No. 449 represents the six-coupled goods tender engines, built Dy

Vulcan Foundry Co. in 1894, from Mr. Billinton's designs. cylinders,

by

18in.

engine, 38 tons

;

213,

is

diameter

;

Inside

heating surface,

weight in working order:

1897.

cylinders,

Inside

of coupled wheels, 6ft. 9in.

one of the new type of four-coupled

with leading bogie,

passenger engines,

Works,

5ft.

tender, 25 tons.

"Bessemer," No. ton

wheels,

;

steam pressure, 1601b.;

1,212 sq. ft-;

express

26in.

;

18in.

and was built at

by

heating surface, 1,312

26in. sq.

diameter

;

ft.

;

working

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

261

pressure, 1701b.; weight in working order: engine, 44 tons 14 cwt.

tender, 25 tons.

engine of this

Fig. 104

is

from a photograph

of

" Goldsmid," an

class.

Before closing this short description of the London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway locomotives, attention must be called to the combined engine and carriage named "Inspector," No. 481 (Fig. 105). This engine was constructed in 1869 by Sharp, Stewart, and Co., as

an ordinary four-coupled passenger tank, and rebuilt in

its

present

form some 11 years or so ago.

The wheels,

cylinders are inside, lOjin. diameter, 16in. stroke; 4ft.

diameter;

steam pressure, 1201b. also a pair of leading

weight in working order,

about

couple^

20 tons;

In addition to the coupled wheels there are

and a pair

of trailing wheels.

There

is

no

steam dome, and the side tanks are as long as the boiler barrel, being

Fig.

ONE OF THE NEW PASSENGER ENGINES

104.— "GOLDSMID,"

extended on each side to the smoke-box.

on

to the

back of the coal bunker,

L.B.

&

S.C.R.

EXPRESS

The inspection car is fixed some distance below the

its floor is

engine frames, and the car

is entered from a platform at from the outside by steps on either side, as in a tram-car. The back of the platform is quite open, whilst the partition dividing the platform from the enclosed portion of the car is glazed, so that anyone sitting with his back to the coal bunker can see the permanent-way, etc., over which "Inspector" has There is a speaking just passed without leaving his seat if necessary.

level of the

the end, which

is

in turn entered

tube, to enable those in the saloon to

communicate with the

driver.

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

262

A

special

by

carried

form

of indicator board, not used for

" Inspector "



any other

train, is,

a white board with black horizontal

viz.,

stripes.

The modern locomotives of the London, Chatham and Dover Railway are built from designs prepared by Mr. William Kirtley, the Company's locomotive superintendent. The main line passenger engines (Fig. 106) are of the

Cylinders,

M3

Bogie



and have the following dimensions

:



diameter, 26in. stroke;

18in.

Coupled wheels,

class,

chamber;

6ft. 6in. in

3ft.

6in.



Heating surface: tubes, 1,000.2 sq. ft.; fire-box, 110 Grate area, 17 sq. ft.; working pressure, 1501b. Weight, in working order, 42 tons 9

cwt., of

sq. ft.

which the driving

and trailing coupled wheels support 28 tons 18 cwt.

The standard

tender, for both goods

and passenger engines,

_

*—

!

111

Si

1

Fig. 105.— "INSPECTOR,"

is

LONDON, BRIGHTON,

AND SOUTH COAST

carried on six wheels, and, loaded, weighs 34 tons

;

RY.

accommodation

provided for 4| tons of coal, and 2,600 gallons of water. The standard goods engines have six coupled wheels,

5ft.

is

in

diameter. Cylinders, 18in. by 26in;

Heating surface: tubes, 1,000.4 sq. ft.; fire-box, 102 sq. ft.; working pressure, 1501b. per sq. in. driving, Weight, in working order leading 13 tons 2 cwt. total, cwt.; 39 tons 10 tons J 15 tons 4£ cwt.; trailing, 19 :

6

cwt.

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE These engines are known H2." The tank engines consist of three classes. The dimensions of those for working the main

263

as " Class

services are as follows

:



line

and suburban

Inside cylinders, with an incline of

1 in 10, l7in. diameter; 24in. Wheels, four coupled in front, 5ft. 6in. diameter. A trailing bogie with 3ft. wheels. Heating surface: tubes, 971.7 sq. ft.; fire-

stroke.

box, 99.3 sq. ft.; grate area, 16£ sq. of water, 2 tons of ooal.

Steam

ft.

Tank

capacity, 1,100 gallons

Weight, in working order, 49 tons 15 cwt.

pressure, 1501b. per sq. in.

These engines are

FIG. 106.— "No. 192,"

officially

described as Class R.

ONE OF THE STANDARD EXPRESS PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVES, LONDON, CHATHAM AND DOVER RAILWAY

The A class of bogie tank engines were specially designed for working through tunnels. The inside cylinders are I7£in. diameter, and 26in. stroke. The coupled (leading and driving) wheels are 5ft. 6in. diameter, the

The heating

wheels of the trailing bogie being

surface

box, 100 sq. ft.;

is

made up

as follows

grate area, 16| sq.

ft.;

:

3ft. in

Tubes, 995

working order, 51 tons.

;

fire-

working pressure, 1501b,;

water capacity of tanks, 970 gallons; fuel space, 80 cubic in

diameter.

sq. ft.

ft.;

weight,

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

264

All of these engines are fitted with steam condensing apparatus

working over the Metropolitan Railway between Snow and King's Cross and Snow Hill and Moorgate Street. to allow of

Class

T

comprises the goods or shunting tanks.

coupled wheels of

These have

diameter, with a wheel bore of 15ft. cylinders are inside, with a I7in. diameter and 24in. stroke.

heating surface

is

4ft. 6in.

as follows

:

Tubes, 799.3 sq.

ft.

Hill

;

fire-box,

six

The The 88.7

:

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE Atlas Works, Glasgow, the particular one

265

we have described having

been turned out in 1893.

The modern goods engines numbered 73 to 77 were built by Neilson Co., Glasgow, in 1894, the maker's numbers being 4,691 to 4,695. The six-coupled driving wheels are 5ft. l£in. diameter ; the wheel and

;

base being

:

leading to driving,

lOin.

The springs

wheel

springs

ipparatus

is

aro inside,

all

being

driving to trailing, 7i c.

the wheels are underhung, the driving patent design. Steam sanding

provided in front of the leading wheels.

and are inclined

tubes, 986.2

:

;

Timmis'

of

sq.

ft.

The

in 10.

1

and contains 204 tubes

long,

16|

to

being

Sin.

7ft.

of lfin. diameter; fire-box,

;

98.3

The

boiler barrel

sq.

cylinders

is 10ft. 3in.

the heating surface ft.

;

fire-grate

area,

working pressure, 1601b. per sq. in. The tenders have six wheels. 3ft. lOin. diameter, with a wheel sq. ft.;

base of 12ft., equally divided. space,

200 cubic

Fig.

108

Water

capacity, 2,500 gallons;

coal

ft.

—STANDARD

PASSENGER TANK ENGINE, CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS

The above dimensions are those

of the

Cambrian Railways modern

standard tender, and apply both to the passenger and goods engines.

The bogie passenger tank engines

(Fig. 108)

l7in. diameter, 24in. stroke, inclined 1 in 9-

and driving) are diameter.

tubes Boiler

of

The

5ft.

3in. diameter, the bogie

boiler barrel is

2in.

(pressure,

diameter, 1601b.

and per

10ft.

have inside cylinders,

The coupled wheels (leading wheels being

2|in. long,

38

tubes

sq,

inch.

of

3ft. l|in.

and contains 134 l|in.

Heating

diameter surface

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

26b

Tubes,

920.1

sq.

ft.;

fire-box,

9.0

The tanks contain 1,200 gallons of coal. The total wheel base is 20ft.

sq.

grate area,

ft.;

13.3 sq.lt.

water, and the bunkers 2 tons of

lin., the coupling side-rods being Weight, in working order, 45 tons 9 cwt. 3 qrs.

7ft. 8in. long.

These engines were built by Nasmyth,

and

Wilson,

Co.,

Ltd.,

Bridgewater Foundry, near Manchester. Mr. James

till the end of 1898 locomotive superintendent of Railway, soon after his appointment, took steps to

Stirling,

the South Eastern

thoroughly renovate and classify the various types of locomotives on the

He

system.

has

now succeeded

in doing so

T. coupled, of Cudworth's design,

D. and

;

now

indeed, save for a few 6ft. rebuilt without a dome,

and

the six-wheel four-coupled express engines built during the short Watkiu locomotive regime, and

now

rebuilt

on the South Eastern Railway

is

by Mr.

from Mr.

Stirling, nearly every engine

own designs. Those new type designed by Mr.

Stirling's

interested are awaiting the appearance of a

H. Wain wright. It

should be mentioned that Mr. James Stirling, like his brother,

the late Patrick Stirling, of Great Northern Railway fame, does not

Another feature of resemblance in their

believe in a steam dome.

designs

is

discovered in the style of cab.

Patrick favoured a brass

encased safety-valve, located on the top of the fire-box; whilst James chooses the boiler barrel for the position of that useful feature in a locomotive, which he, however, constructs after the

Ramsbottom

type.

The modern South Eastern Railway engines

have inside

cylin-

ders,

and Mr.

all

Stirling's excellent reversing gear previously described.

They may be divided Four-wheels

into the following classes

coupled

bogie

express

:



engine



of

two

sets

of

dimensions.

Four-wheels coupled bogie passenger engine.

Four-wheels coupled bogie tank engine. Six-wheels coupled goods engine.

Six-wheels coupled shunting tank engine.

The standard express

class

of

engines was introduced about 15

years ago, and the locomotives were then painted black, but fortunately for their appearance, Mr. Stirling has recently reverted to the

Eastern Railway colour obtaining before his appointment as

South loco-

motive superintendent, and the newer engines are now painted a pleas-

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

267

" No. 240 " (Fig. 109), an engine of this class, was exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1889, and obtained the Gold

ing tint of olive green.

Medal.

The leading dimensions are: stroke (incline

in 30);

1

wheel base of bogie,

Cylinders,

oft. 4in.

;

have

wheels

Timmis's

3ft.

diameter,

26in.

diameter;

9in.

driving and trailing wheels (coupled),

diameter; wheel base of coupled wheels,

7ft.

19in.

leading bogie wheels,

springs;

the

8ft.

trailing

6in.

wheels

The driving underhung

laminated springs.

The tender base of

12ft.,

is

carried on six wheels of 4ft. diameter, with a wheel

The tender tank holds 2,650

equally divided.

water, and the coal capacity

is

gallons of

4 tons.

«***<

109.— "No. 240," THE SOUTH EASTERN RAILWAY ENGINE THAT OBTAINED THE GOLD MEDAL AT THE PARIS EXHIBITION. 1889

FlO.

"Weight, in working order:

wheels,

on bogie, 13 tons 12 cwt.

15 tons 18 cwt.; on trailing wheels,

10 tons 6 cwt.; centre, 10 tons

1

cwt.;

T.,

13 tons;

;

driving

tender, L.,

10 tons 3 cwt.; total

weight of engine and tender, 73 tons.

From

the above description

it

will

be seen that these locomotives

are finely proportioned and should be capable of doing excellent service.

They

are good for hauling heavy loads, and the "direct" line

via Sevenoaks has

some severe gradients, which these engines nego-

tiate in fine style.

Another, point in their favour

being low, although the fuel

is

is

the coal consumption, the average

of inferior quality.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

268

The it

is

speed, however, of the fast trains is disappointing.

not right to blame the engines for

this,

Probably

but rather the timing

of the trains.

Whilst other railways are accelerating their services, the South Eastern Railway retrogrades in the matter of speed. Yet there is not a finer length of line in the kingdom for showing

what an engine can do than that between Redhill and Folkestone, or leaving the main line at Ashford and on to Ramsgate. For many miles these tracks are practically straight and level; but no advantage is

taken of the circumstances so far as speed

travellers are

apt to blame the locomotives.

is

concerned; hence

These probably have

never had a chance to show what speed they are capable

Fig.

110.— STANDARD

of.

GOODS ENGINE, SOUTH EASTERN RAILWAY

Mr. Stirling's other class of bogie tender engines

is

very similar in

appearance to the one just described, but of smaller dimensions. engines the

7ft.

now

to

be described were

coupled

expresses

;

first

indeed,

appointed locomotive superintendent.

The

constructed some years before

soon

They

after

Mr. Stirling

vi

as

are principally used for

working the passenger trains on the North Kent

line

(London to

Maidstone). Cylinders, 18in. by 26in. (incline

1

in 15);

bogie wheels, 3

ft,

8in.

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE diameter ; (coupled),

wheel base,

framing similar to the wheel base,

oft.

4in.

7ft.

8ft.

trailing

2in.);

wheels

springs

and

class; tender wheels, 3ft. 8in. diameter;

equally divided water capacity, 2,000 gallons; Weights in working order: on bogie, 12 tons 12 cwt.

12ft.,

coal, 3 tons.

and

driving

;

diameter (wheel base,

0|in.

6ft.

269

;

driving axle, 14 tons 2 cwt.; 8 tons 12 cwt.;

centre,

trailing,

11 tons 5 cwt.; tender, L.,

8 tons 2 cwt.;

T.,

9

tons;

total weight

(engine and tender), 63 tons 13 cwt.

The tender goods engines 2in.

to

(Fig. 110)

have

six

diameter; cylinders, 18in. by 26in. (incline

D.,

water capacity.

1

5ft.

in 9); wheel base, L.

The tenders are

D.

to

passenger engines, with 100 gallons additional

T.,

8ft,

2in.

Weights in working order:

2 cwt.; D., 15 tons 3 cwt.; T., 11 tons.

C, 9 tons

1

6ft.

4in.;

7ft,

dimensions to the

wheels (coupled) of

cwt.;

T.,

engine,

of

L.,

similar

12

tons

Tender, L., 9 tons 5 cwt.;

9 tons 17 cwt.; total (engine and tender),

64 tons 18 cwt.

The four wheels coupled bogie tanks

(Fig. Ill)

have the leading

f



EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

270

The above is a capital type of passenger tank engine, of which the South Eastern Railway possess a largo and increasing number. They are mostly constructed by Glasgow firms, whilst the tender engines are built at Ashford Works. There is a similar type of bogie tanks, fitted with condensing apparatus, and used for working the through South Eastern trains

over the Metropolitan Railway to the Great Northern Railway. of these engines were also used for hauling the

Some

South Eastern trains

through the Thames Tunnel, when the through service between Croydon (Addiscombe Road) and Liverpool Street was in operation. For this purpose they were the

fitted

with a short funnel, to enable them to clear

Thames Tunnel.

The illustration (Fig. 112) shows Mr. Stirling's latest type of express engine for the South Eastern Railway, the first of which commenced to

work

Several differences of detail com-

at the end of July, 1898.

pared with Mr. Stirling's previous South Eastern Express engines are introduced. The more noticeable are the large bright brass stand

upon which the safety-valves are mounted, the improvement in the shape of the cab on the engine, whilst the sides of the tender are painted in two panels, with the Company's coat of arms between (MrStirling, it will

be observed, has not slavishly copied other practice in and

lettering the tenders S.E.R.); the springs are below the frames,

steps at the back are provided

The diameter

of the wheels

The tender

base remain the same. length

over butters 52ft.

pressure

is

now

on either side of the tender. and cylinders, the stroke, and wheel-

1701b. per sq.

in.,

ternal diameter, 10ft. 4 Jin. long.

sions are tabulated below "440"

Class,

by Fig.

illustrated

is

.

.

.

.

a

longer,

trifle

52ft.

"240"

112.

differences in the dimen-

Class, illustrated

7ft.

new Engines having Funnels

16

14

T. tons

13

cwt.

Bogie. 13 tons 12 cwt.

1,0204 sq. 't 2in. shorter.

D. 15 tons

cwt.

T. 13 tons.

Tender.

Tender. L.

109. 5in.

Engine.

D. tons 8 cwt.

by Fig.

7ft.

Engine. Bogie. 15 tons.

making the total The working

4in.

there being 215 tubes of l|in. ex-

The other

lOin 1,100 sq. ft 13ft. 4in. in both classes.the

Eail level to centre of Boiler Total Heating Surface

To top of Chimney Weight loaded—



:

is

instead of

8in.,

T.

C.

C. 10 tons 1 cwt.

L.

10 tons 15 cwt. 10 tons 18 cwt. 12 tons 9 cwt. 10 tons 6 cwt. Total 80 tons 3 cwt. Total .. 3,000 galls Water Capacity of Tender .. tons. .. 3 Coal ,, „

.

.

....

With the increased weight,

boiler pressure,

"

T.

10 tons 3 cwt. 73 tons. 2,650 galls. 4 tons.

and heating surface

of

these engines, coupled with a compromise towards a steam dome, such fine locomotives

ought to be quite equal to hauling the heavy trains

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

:

:

EVOLUTION OF THE STEA

272

M LOCOMOTIVE

run by the South Eastern Railway at high speeds. Mr. Stirling is to be congratulated upon the appearance of the machines. The standard engines now in work on the London and South

Western Railway were constructed from the designs of Mr. Adams,

who resigned about three years Drummond, who succeeded Mr. Adams, has built several

the late locomotive superintendent, ago.

Mr. D.

new types

of engines, viz., large bogie

tank engines, six-wheels-coupled

goods engines, four-wheels-coupled bogie express engines, as well as a " four-cylinder " engine, which latter is decidedly a new departure in

London and South Western Railway practice. Adams' designs can be classified thus

The most important

of Mr.

Four-coupled bogie express

engine

and tender.

Four-wheels-coupled in front, mixed engine and tender. Six-wheels-coupled goods engine and tender.

Four-wheels-coupled bogie tank engine;

and

Six-wheels-coupled bogie shunting tank engine.

There

are two

classes

of

four-wheels-coupled

bogie

passenger

same design, but of different dimensions. The appended table will show the variations in the two classes

engines, both of the

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE The mixed

traffic

trailing wheels

engines have inside cylinders, 18in. diameter,.

and

26in. s'troke, leading

273

di-iving

wheels (coupled)

6ft.

diameter, and

diameter, underhung springs and compensation

4ft.

to the coupled wheels; steam pressure, 1601b. The heating Tractive force surface and grate area are similar to the " 26 " design.

beams on

rails,

The meter,

six-coupled goods engines have inside cylinders, 26in.

1401b.;

Tender capacity the same as "43" design.

11, 7001b.

stroke;

5ft.

underhung springs; boiler

diameter; fire-box,

Fig

wheels,

5ft.

lOin. long,

lin.

barrel,

10ft.

high.

5ft.

l7£in. dia-

steam pressure,

6in. long,

4in.

4ft.

The smoke-box

front

LONDON AND SOUTH WESTERN RAILWAY

113.-APAMS\S STANDARD EXPRESS ENGINE,

inclines, so that

the box

the case with the

is

wider at the base than at the top, as

London and North Western goods

are 218 tubes of If in. external diameter; tubes,

diameter;

1,079 sq.

Tractive force on

ft.;

fire-box,

rails,

108

10,4421b.;

sq.

engines.

is

There

the heating surface being:

ft.;

grate area,

17.8

sq.

ft.

water capacity of tender, 2,500

gallons.

The suburban and other short distance passenger traffic is performed by tank engines, having the leading and driving wheels The cylinders are inside, 18in. diacoupled, and a trailing bogie. meter, 26in. stroke; coupled wheels,

5ft. 7in.

diameter; bogie wheels,

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

274

3ft. diameter; heating surface and grate area the same as in the " 26 " class and the mixed traffic engines already described. Steam

1601b. per sq. in.; fuel space of bunkers, 80 cubic ft.; Tractive force on rails, water capacity of tanks, 1,200 gallons. pressure,

12,5731b.

The

six-wheels-coupled shunting tanks are altogether of smaller

dimensions, the cylinders being l7|in. diameter, and having a 24in. 4ft. lOin. diameter; boiler barrel, 9ft. 5in. long and

stroke; wheels, 4ft.

2in.

diameter, containing 201 tubes of Hin. external diameter.

The heating ft.

;

surface is:

the fire-bOx

13.83

sq.

ft.;

is 5ft.

tubes,

long and

897.76 4ft.

the steam pressure,

sq.

1601b.

fire-box,

ft.;

9in. high,

89.75

sq.

the grate area being

Tractive force on

rails,

^

Photo by] Fis. 114.— A

"WINDCUTTEE" LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE, "No. 136, " L. & S.W.R FITTED WITH A CONVEX SMOKE-BOX DOOB

12,6721b.; fuel capacity of bunker, 77£ cubic ft.;

Moon

,

capacity of water

tanks, 1,000 gallons.

The London and South Western Railway at one time had an number of different designs of locomotives, and the present time the number of designs in use probably exceeds that

extraordinarily large at

fact that the older classes Are being rapidly "scrapped," although some of the very ancient

on any other British railway, despite the

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

275

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

276

types have in recent years been rebuilt with,

new

boilers-

The

older

engines of Battie design mostly have names, but this practice, unfortunately, has been disregarded

by recent London and South Western

Railway locomotive superintendents, save in the case of one tank engine, named " Alexandra," under special circumstances, and even this

name has

lately

been removed.

Drummond

Since Mr.

has become chief at Nine Elms, two at least

One

of his innovations deserve notice.

windcutter smoke-box door (Fig. 114). do with a design of spark arrester.

136 being so

fitted,

this

form

with a is an experiment In reality the shape has to

In addition to the tender engine

convex smoke-box door

of

is fitted

to a

L. and S.W.R. tank engine, and also to some of the tender goods engines. Another type of engine, designed by Mr. Drummond, that has

attracted considerable attention, built at

Nine Elms

at the

is

the four-cylinder engine (Fig. 115),

end of 1897.

four driving wheels (uncoupled) of bogie.

Joy's valve-gear

is

6ft.

This engine 7in.

is

supported on

diameter, and a leading

used for the outside cylinders

cylinders are 15in. diameter; the stroke

is

A

26in.

all

;

the

very large heat-

ing surface, including the water tubes in the fire-box, amounting to

1,700 sq.

ft.,

Tho tender gallons

of

apparatus.

is

is

provided.

water.

A

The steam pressure

is l7olb.

per

sq.

in.

carried on two four-wheel bogies, and carries 4,300

The motion

is

reversed by means of

portion of the exhaust

steam

is

a steam

discharged at

the

back of the tender. The latest L. and S.W.R. 4-coupled bogie express engines have inside cylinder*.

North British Railway are situate Cowlairs, Glasgow, and Mr. M. Holmes is the present locomotive

The locomotive works at

of the

superintendent. Originally the North British Railway works were located at St.

when the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway was amalgamated with the North British, in 1865, the Cowheadquarters lairs works of the former were chosen as the locomotive Margaret's, near Edinburgh, but

of

the Company. Considerable power

is

required to work the trains over the North many are run

British system, as not only are the trains heary, but at

a good speed, whilst steep gradients are not unknown. engines should be It is not, therefore, surprising that "single"

absent from the locomotive stock.

:

EVOLUTION OF THE STEjiM LOCOMOTIVE The passenger engines

are mostly

of the

277

four-coupled

leading

bogie type. (Fig. 116). The principal passenger 6in.

6ft.

and

engines have the coupled wheels of diameter, both with cylinders 18in. by 26in. The

7ft.

steam pressure

is

1401b. usually, but

with an additional 101b. per

The other dimensions

some

are 7

Heating Surface Tubes Fire-box

p r. Wheels. 1,007 sq.ft.

119 22

..

Grate Area Weight in Working order

of the engines are credited

sq. in.

.

.

..

..

6 ft. 6 in.

118 20

,,

45 tons 6 cwt.

Wheels.

1,148 sq.ft.



46 tons 10 'cwt.

The driving wheels of both sizes have a weight of 15 tons 12 cwt. upon them. The tenders weigh 32 tons, and hold 5 tons of coal and 2,500 gallons of water.

Engines of these classes work the East Coast expresses between

Fig.

116— FOUR-COUPLED

PASSENGER ENGINE V.1TH

LEADING BOGIE,

N.B.B.

Edinburgh and Berwick, 57 miles 42 chains. The booked time is 72 minutes, but the runs are frequently performed under the hour; indeed, a train has been timed from start to stop in 57 minutes 21

on the journey up from Edinburgh to Berwick. For working the West Highland Railway Mr. Holmes designed

seconds,

class of four-coupled bogie engines of exceptional power.

wheels are only

5ft. 7in. in

a

The coupled

diameter; cylinders, 18in. diameter, 24in.

stroke; heating surface tubes, 1,130.41 sq

ft.

;

fire-box,

104.72

sq. ft.;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

278

J grate area, 17

sq. ft,; steam pressure, 1501b. per sq. in.; weight working order, 43 tons 6 cwt., of which 14| tons rest

of engine in

on the driving

The tender

axle.

similar to that previously described.

is

Goods engines are very numerous on the North British Railway, the most modern ones being known as the " 18in. standard" type. These have six coupled wheels of 5ft, diameter; cylinders, 18in. by 26in. stroke; heating surface tubes, 1,139.96 sq. ft.; fire-box, 107. 7i sq.

ft.;

cwt.,

of

ft.; weight in working order, 40 tons 13 which 15 tons 8 cwt. are supported by the driving wheels.

grate area, 17 sq.

The tender

is of

the usual type.

Other gOods engines have cylinders

l7in. diameter, with 26in. stroke.

The short

distance passenger traffic

one type of which

tank engines,

worked by four

is

very

is

classes of

similar to the London,

Brighton, and South Coast "terriers," though of larger dimensions.

These have cylinders 15in. by

22in.,

coupled wheels

dia-

6in.

4ft.

meter, tanks to hold 600 gallons of water, and weigh 33£ tons

Another

working order.

class of bogie

tank has coupled wheels

a leading bogie with solid wheels

in diameter,

cylinders 16in. by 22in. stroke.

is

is

now

followed,

and the

used as a blast for increasing the draught.

The two other dimensions

diameter,

6in.

These engines originally condensed

the exhaust steam, but the usual practice

exhaust

2ft.

m 5ft.

classes

of

tank

engines

have

the

following

:

494 Class: Cylinders, water

6ft.

;

47

tons

586 Class:

4

l7in.

capacity,

9in.

50

tons

;

;

diameter of driving wheels,

gallons

;

coal,

30 cwt.

;

weight,

cwt.

Cylinders, I7in.

5ft.

by 26in. 950

by

24in.

;

diameter of driving wheels,

water capacity, 1,281 gallons; coal, 50 cwt.; weight, 7

cwt.

There is a handy little type of saddle tanks, known as "shunting These run on four (coupled) wheels of 3ft. 8in. diameter; pugs." they have outside cylinders, 14in. diameter and 20in. stroke. The wheel base

is 7ft.

;

weight in working order, 28 tons 15 cwt.

;

water

capacity of saddle tank, 720 gallons.

Mr. Holmes' latest type of express engines for the N.D.R. (Fig. 117) has a working pressure of 1751b. per sq. in. The principal dimen Wheels Cylinders, 18Jin. diameter by 26in. stroke.

sions being

:

Bo^Sj

6in.

3ft-

:

diameter; driving and trailing,

6ft.

6in.

diameter;

:

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE wheel base, lOin.

;

22ft. lin.

;

centre of bogie to centre of driving wheels, 9ft.

centre of driving to centre of trailing wheels, 9ft.

254, ljin. diameter outside. fire-box,

126

of engine in

sq.

j

The North

total, 1,350 sq. ft.

Tank

Tubes No.

Heating surface: Tubes, 1,224

working order, 47

order, 38 tons.

engines, but

ft.

279

Fire-grate, 20 sq.

Weight

tons-

ft.

of tender in

sq. ft.-;

Weight working

capacity, 3,500 gallons.

British Railway locomotive stock comprises about 30l>

many

of these are in the

A

or duplicate

list,

and are not,

therefore, included in the statutory returns.

FTO.

117.— HOLMES'S

The North seven headings

By

LATEST TYPE OF EXPRESS ENGINE, NOETH BRITISH RAH

British Railway tender locomotives are classified under

—four

goods and three passenger.

a recent return the

number

of engines

under each head was

GOODS. 18in. cylinder, 6 wheels eoupied 1st class, 6 wheels coupled .. class, 6 wheels coupled ...

2nd

WAY

main

line

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

(Of which 1 (No. 17a) is on the duplicate list.) 3rd class, 6 wheels coupled ... ... ... ... ... (Of which 2 (18a and 250a) are on the duplicate list.)

144 26" 8 75

PASSENGER. 121 ... ... 1st class, 4 wheels coupled ... ... ... 22 ... ... 2nd clasB, 4 wheels coupled ... ... ... (Of which 5 (268a, 269a, 394a, 395a, and 404a) are on the duplicate list ) 29 ... 8rd class, 4 wheels coupled ... ... .. ... (One (247a; is on the duplicate list.)

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

280

The locomotive works

and Yorkshire Railway

of the Lancashire

are situate at Horwich, in the vicinity of Bolton, and are the newest of the

immense assemblages

of

workshops and factories designated by

the various railways as their "works," which have been erected by the principal railway companies.

therefore, surprising to

It is not,

Horwich works are quite equal

find that the

to

all,

other, of the railway establishments in the matter of tools,

and in the general completeness of the undertaking.

Mr. shire

and exceed many modern machine

J.

A. F. Aspinall

is

chief mechanical engineer of the Lanca-

and Yorkshire Railway, and under his supervision the locomo-

tive stock of the railway has been raised to a degree of excellence

seldom equalled and never exceeded. This position has been attained because Mr. Aspinall has always

shown a determination

to introduce the best features of all kinds into

his locomotive designs.

The Joy valve gear

is

very extensively em-

ployed in the construction of Lancashire and Yorkshire locomotives,

and has always given excellent results on that line. For many years past the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway has adopted the Ramsbottom system of water tanks, while the pick-up apparatus is actuated by a vacuum arrangement patented by

Mr. Aspinall.

on the system

The water troughs



viz

:



are situate at nine different places Begi'ter No.

Horbury Junction East end of Horbury Junction Station Hoscar Moss Between Hoscar Moss and Burscough Bridge Kirkby Between Kirkby and Fazakerly Lea Boad Between Lea Boad and Salwick Bufford Between Bufford and Burscough North Junction Smithy Bridge West end of Smithy Bridge Station Sowerby Bridge Wi st end of Sowerby Bridge Tunnel ... \\ alkden: Between Moorside and Wardley and Walkden Whittey Bridge: West end of Whittey Bridge Station ...

••3

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

-

on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, many stretches of 1 in 50, between which rate of inclination and that of 1 in 100 very many banks exist, some of which are of considerable length ; whilst from Baxenden *j Accrington the line falls 1 in 40 for two miles at a stretch, and at the

Very severe gradients are

same and

to be found

from Padiham Junction to Padiham Station, Junction to If miles at 1 in 40 from Hoddlesden as follows are gradients the Bacup to Britannia From

rate for 1£ miles, also

for

Hoddlesden.

:

Fall 286 yards, 1 in 61. Fall 550 yards, 1 in 35. Fall 154 yards, 1 in 70.

Fall 1,056 yards, 1 in 34,

EVOLUTIOX OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE But

this

bank

is

281

even eclipsed in severity by the Oldham incline

All these stiff banks are worked by locomotive engines without the help of stationary engines. Every train which leaves Victoria Station, Manchester, in an east-

27 for three-quarters of a mile.

of 1

in

ward

direction, has to start off

77, followed

to 1

by another of

Newton Heath, or in 59

and

1

else to

of

by ascending a serious incline round a sharp S curve, on

in 65,

of 1 in its

way

ascend gradients towards Miles Platting of

in 49.

The locomotive stock 590 are

1

consists of 1,333 engines.

Of

this

number,

the standard types described below as being of the three

leading types designed by

Mr.

Aspinall

The balance

is

made up

282

EVOLUTION OF THE STEA M LOCOMOTIVE

Darwen, No. 25 j Hellifield, No. 26 ; Lostock Hall, No. 27 Chorley, No. 28; Ormskirk, No. 29; Fleetwood, No. 30; Blackpool (Talbot Road), No. 31 ; and Blackpool (Central), No. 32. ;

o S

d

s < a * a !S

w> OS en

3

OS cu

a

* < a as

Q SB 4 H
We will now proceed to describe some of the types of Lancashire and Yorkshire locomotives. The "H." or Standard class of four-wheels coupled passenger engines is illustrated by engine No. 1,093 (Fig. 118a). The cylinder*

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE are inside, and the axles also have the bearings inside.

dimensions are

diameter.

Firegrate area, 18 75sq. -ft. Pressuie of steam per sq. inch, ItiOlbs. Weight of 6-wheel tender, loaded, 26 tons 2 cwt. 2 qrs. Capacity of water tank of tender, 1,800

base. 21ft. 6|in.

2Jin

Centre of driving to centre of trailing wheel, 8ft. 7in.

Weight loaded „ „

(bogie), 13 tons 16 cwt. (driving), 16 tons 10 cwt. (trailing), 14 tons 10 cwt. „ Total, 44 tons 16 cwt. Boiler, 4ft. 2in. diameter, 10ft. 7fin. long. Firebox, 6ft. long, 4ft. lin. wide, 5ft. loin. high.

gallons.

Fuel capacity of tender, 3 tons. " No 70 " the first of a new type, was built in February, 1899, in addition to wheels of the dimensions of the' H" class. <*o 700 has a pair of trailirg wheels 3ft. Hin. diameter. The total heating surface is i

,,

Number

of tubes, 220.

Steam pressure

is 2,852sq.-ft.

" No. 700," the

new

of a

first

was

type,

In addition to wheels of the dimensions is

2,052

sq. ft.

;

"H"

of the

steam pressure 175

1

751bs.

built in February, 1899.

has a pair of trailing wheels 3ft. 8in. diameter. surface

principal

Tubes (outside diameter), If in. Heating surface, tube*, l,i0873sq.-ft. firebox, lo7681sq.-ft. „ „ Total, 1,2 641 sq. -ft.

Centre of bogie to centre of driving wheel, 10ft.

Tha

:

Cylinders, 18in. diameter by 26in. stroke. Bogie wheels, 3ft. Ojin. diameter. Coupled wheel (driving and trailing), 7ft. 3in.

Wheel

283

class,

The

"No. 700"

total

heating

lbs.

goods engines have cylinders, boilers, of heating surface, steam pressure, etc., the same as the "H" class

The

"

A"

or standard class

passenger engines just described; whilst a similar pattern of tender coupled wheels are 5ft. lin. diameter; the wheel is employed, the six-

base

D.,

FIG.

113- STANDARD

in

9in.

7ft.

L.

Weight T.,

to

is:

8

Tank engines

T.,

8ft.

7in.

WHEEL PASSENGER TANK

working order:

IS tons 6 cwt. 2 qr.;

D. to

;

L.,

;

ENGINE,

13 tons 16 cwt. 2 qr.

total,

16ft.

total,

;

L.

D.,

&

tin.

Y.E.

15 tons:

42 tons 3 cwt.

are employed

to

work the

trains

between Man-

chester and Blackburn, a distance of 24£ miles, of which 13 miles are on rising gradients,

being steeper than

1 in

and 100.

on falling gradients, most of them The most serious gradients affecting the

six

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

284

from Bolton up towards Entwistle, where, and a quarter, the gradient is 1 in 72, and for the following 4§ miles is 1 in 74 a more serious incline than the celebrated one over Shap Fell. These tank engines are fitted with the water

working

of this line are those

for a mile

;

pick-up apparatus which can be used or bunker in front.

The

when running

either

chimney which

trains each consist of thirteen coaches,

including the engine weigh about 250 tons.

The engines

have eight wheels

(Fig. 119)



viz.,

a pair of leading

The

cylin-

ders are inside, and have 26in. stroke, the diameter being 18in.

The

radial,

two pairs

diameters of the wheels are Radial,

and a pair

of coupled,

:

of trailing radial.



3ft. 7}in.

Coupled (driving and

trailing), 5ft. 8in.

Wheel

base, 24ft. 4in., divided as follows :— Front radial wheel to centre of driving, 7ft lOjin. driving to rear coupled, 8ft. 7in. rear coupled to trailing radial, 7ft. 10£in. Weight loaded (leading radial wheel;, 13 tons 10 cwt. (driving), 16 tons 12 cwt. „ ,, (rear coupled), 15 tons 2 cwt. ,, ,, (trailing radial), 10 tons 15 cwt. ,, ,, Totj.1, 55 tons 19 cwt, ;

FIG.

The class.

;

120— OIL-FIRED SADDLE TANK SHUNTING ENGINE, LANCASHIRE AND YORKSHIRE RAILWAY boiler, fire-box,

The tanks

etc.,

dimensions are the same as the

"H"

of these locomotives hold 1,340 gallons of water,

the bunkers two tons of coal.

aDd

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE The above three

285

form the leading types of locomotives of 120 illustrates a four-wheel-coupled saddle tank locomotive designed by Mr. Aspinall, and fired with oil on Mr.

Aspinall's

classes

designing.

Holden's system.

It.

is

Fig.

used for shunting at Liverpool.

At the present time the locomotives of the Caledonian Railway first place in the popular mind for speed and hauling capacity.

hold

This result has been attained through the remarkable performances of the engines of the " Dunalastair "

class,

constructed at St. Rollox

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

286

Works from the designs

of Mr. J. F. Mcintosh, the present locomotive

superintendent of the Caledonian Railway.

These engines (Fig. 121) have been frequently described, but

it is

The cylinders are

well to recapitulate the leading dimensions.

as

inside,

18 Jin. diameter and 26in. stroke. The engine is supported by a leading bogie, and by four-coupled wheels of 6ft. 6in. diameter. The

bogie wheel base llin.

6in.

6ft.

The weight

53ft. 9|in.

14 cwt. 3 qr.

cwt;

13

is

;

centre of bogie to driving wheel,

86 tons

The

in

working order

D., 16 tons;

;

M., 13 tons 4 cwt.; cwt.

1

1

and



Engine ;

bogie, 15 tons

tender



13 tons 4 cwt. 2

T.,

is

12 tons

L.,

qr.

;

to'al,

Water capacity of tender is 3,570 The leading feature of the

1601b.

engine consists of the large heating surf ace "

:

qr.

The working pressure

fire-box,

is

15 tons 5 cwt.

T.,

tractive force is 14,4001b.

gallons.

and

9ft.

D. to T., 9ft.; total length over buffers (engine and tender),

;

118.78

sq. ft.

To obtain



viz.,

tubes, 1,284.45 sq.

ft.,

this result the boiler has been

high pitched," giving the engine a rather squat appearance, and

causing the driving wheels to appear to be of smaller diameter than is

actually the case.

An

extended cab

fireman.

is

provided for the protection of the driver and

The splendid work performed by these machines has

fre-

quently been chronicled, the principal feature being the daily run

118 miles, in 123 minutes, without a stop: tremendous pull up the Beattock Bank, with a Yet Sir James Thompson, the general rise of 650ft. in ten miles. Railway, said of this class of engine, Caledonian manager of the " But, effective as it is, we are already improving upon it, and it will from Carlisle to

Stirling,

this trip includes the

undoubtedly be superseded by our next type of engines."

As

Sir

J.

Thompson

intimated,

the above type, the result being (Fig. 123).

These

fine engines also are

West Coast corridor trains between burgh and the North.

From Glasgow

Mr.

the

Mcintosh

excellent

improved

upon

" Dunalastair 2nd "

employed to haul the heavy and Glasgow, and Edin-

Carlisle

to Carlisle one of the engines hauls the 2.0 p.m.

corridor train without a pilot throughout the journey, the weight of the train, excluding passengers, luggage,

of

350

with

tons.

The dimensions

are

:

leading bogie; cylinders 19in.

four-wheel bogies;

and tender

of engine, is

upwards

wheels, 6ft. 6in., D. and T. coupled,

water capacity,

by 26in.

Tender runs on two

4,125 gallons.

The weights oi

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

287

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

288

wheels are as follows

:



engine

bogie,

1

6 tons 6 cwt.

16 tons 17 cwt.; trailing, 15 tons 17 cwt.



;

driving wheels,

49 tons.

Tender: 22 tons llf cwt.; hind bogie, 22 tons 64; cwt. total, Total weight of engine and tender in working order, 94 tons. total,



front bogie,

45 tons.

Total length over buffers (engine and tender), 57ft. 3f in. ; tractive 16,8401b.; working pressure, 1751b. oer sq. in. Heating sur-

force,

face

:

tubes, 1,381.22 sq.

Bogie

wheel

llin-

10ft.

;

ft.

base,

driving

to

centres of tender, lift. 3in.

Another new type 5ft.

6in.

;

fire-box,

118.78

sq.

6in.

centre

of

6ft.

trailing, ;

It

9ft.;

total tender

of engine

coupled wheels.

;

is

ft.—total, 1,500 bogie

distance

wheel base,

to

sq.

ft.

driving,

between bogie 16ft. 9in.

introduced by Mr. Mclntosa has a passenger-goods, or mixed traffic

engine (Fig. 123), for working goods, mineral and heavy passenger and

,

J^K.

:

EVOLUTION OF THE STEA M LOCOMOTIVE

289

by 26ia. stroke. Wheel base and water capacity as in the " Dunalastair " class ; but the weight and tractive force are dis-

cylinders, 18in.

similar.

The former, on

7 cwt. 3

qr.

;

bogie,

is

14 tons 13 cwt. 2

qr.

D., 15 tons

;

tender, L., 12 tons 13 cwt.; M., 13 tons 4 cwt.

tons 4 cwt. 2 qr.

total,

;

84 tons 6 cwt. 3

The

qr.

ti active

;

T.,

13

force is

12,9001b.

FIG.

To

124— " CARBR00K," ONE

OF DRUMMOND'S EXPRESS ENGINES FOR THE CALEDONIAN RAILWAY

give full details of all the 44 types of Caledonian Railway

engines would be rather wearisome to the reader, so of the remaining classes, particulars

only are appended:



Passenger Engines with Tenders. Diameter of Driving Wheels 5ft. 9in.

four-coupled, with leading bogie.

Cylinders, 18in. by

26in. stroke. 7ft.

single, with leading bogie and pair of trailing wheels. C) clinders, 18in. by 26in. stroke. (No. 123, only engine of r

the class.) 7ft.

four-coupled, with leading bogie. stroke.

(This

is

Cylinders, 18in.

by

24in.

Tender only

a rebuilt type of engine.)

holds 1,880 gallons. 7ft.

four-coupled, Avith a small pair of leading wheels. l7in.

6ft.

diameter by 24in. stroke.

and

6in. four-coupled (D.

wheels.

Cylinders,

I7in.

No dome on

Cylinders, boiler.

T.),

with a small pair of leading

by

24in.

stroke.

No dome

to

engine, and only four wheels to tender, with a water capacity of 6ft.

D.

and

1,428 gallons. T.

coupled,

small

Cylinders, l7in. diameter

by

leading

wheels.

22in. stroke.

No dome.

Six-wheel tender.

;:

EVOLUTION OF THE STEA M LOCOMOTIVE

290 8ft.

2in.

single,

No dome.

small leading and trailing wheels.

Cylinders, l7in. diameter

by

24in. stroke.

Six- wheel tender.

6ft.

D. and T. coupled, small leading wheels, rebuilt by Drum-

5ft.

mond, with safety valve on dome. Cylinders, 18in. by 24in. D. and T. coupled, with leading bogie. Cylinders, 18in. by 24in. Four-wheel tender; water capacity, 1,550 gallons. Cylinders, 17fin.

7ft. single.

by

22in.

No dome.

Four-wheel

tender, water capacity, 1,384 gallons.

9in. CONDENSING TANK ENGINE, caledonian railway

125.— MCINTOSH'S 5ft.

Fia

Passenger Tanks. 5ft.

L.

and D. coupled,

Drummond 5ft.

coal L.,

;

cylinders,

16in.

by

22in.

valve; water capacity of tanks, 830 gallons.

single (for use of officials)

stroke;

5ft.

trailing bogie;

well

tank holds

wheel base

:

:

gallons;

L. to D., 6ft. 6in.

7 tons 10 cwt. 3 qr.

;

by

cylinders, 9^in. diameter

520

;

30

bunker,

D. to T.,

7ft. 6in.

D., 1 1 tons 6 cwt. 2 qr.

16 cwt. 1 qr. ; tractive force, 2,4891b. cylinders, 17|in. by 22in. D. and T. coupled ;

Water

;

1

5in.

cwt.

of

Weight T.,

7 tons

capacity,

820

gallons. 5ft. 6in. L.

and D. coupled

;

cylinders, 16in.

by 20in. Water capacity, 450

gallons. 4ft. 6in.

L. and D. coupled with trailing bogie; cylinders, 18in. by

22in. 3ft. 8in.

14in.

Water capacity, 950 gallons. and D. coupled, and pair of trailing wheels; cylinders, by 20in. stroke. The saddle tank holds 800 gallons.

L.

;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE 5ft.

291

8 in. radial L. and T. Avheels, and 4 coupled wheels (eight wheels in

all);

cylinders,

by 22in.

17Ain.

Water

in side tanks, 1,200

Coal in bunker, 3 tons.

gallons. 5ft.

D. and T. coupled with leading bogie

5ft.

9in. L.

;

cylinders,

I7in.

by

24in.

and D. coupled, with trailing bogie; cylinders, 18in. by This class

I'Oin.

is fitted

with condensing apparatus.

(Fig. 125.)

GOODS ENGINES WITH TENDERS. 6ft.

D. and T. coupled, with pair of leading wheels-

Cylinders, 18in.

diameter, by

water capacity,

Six-wheel tender;

stroke.

24in.

1,840 gallons. 5ft.

Cylinders

six-wheels coupled.

18in.

water capacity, 2,500 gallons.

The following engines have no domes 5ft.

Inside

6-wheels coupled.

tender

:

by

26in.

6-wheel tender;



cylinders,

by

I7in.

6-wheel

24in.

water capacity, 1,800 gallons.

;

5ft.

(mineral engine) L. and D. coupled, small trailing wheels, no dome.

5ft.

6-wheels-coupled mineral engine.

Cylinders, l7in.

D. to T., 18in. 5ft.

by

by

5ft. 6in.

24in.

;

all

4-wheel tender

;

1,542 gallons.

Wheel base

:

L. to D., 5ft. 6in.

wheels under boiler barrel.

24in. 6-wheel tender;

Cylinders,

water capacity, 1,840 gallons.

6-wheels coupled mineral engine.

Cylinders

l7in.

by

24in.

4-wheel tender; water capacity, 1,383 gallons. 5ft.

6in. L.

4ft. 8in. L.

insido

and D. coupled and small pair trailing wheels;

cylinder, 16in.

by

20in.

4-wheel tender.

and D. coupled, mineral engine.

Cylinders, I7in.

by

20in.

4-wheel tender; water capacity, 1,000 gallons.

(A similar class 5ft.

I7in. 5ft.

of engines

has cylinders l7in. diameter by 18in. stroke.)

D. and T. coupled, with pair of small leading wheels.

by

24in.

4-wheel tender;

Cylinders,

1,545 gallons.

D. and T. coupled, with small leading wheels. Cylinders, I7in. by 6-wheel tender; water capacity, 1,700 gallons. 20in.

MINERAL TANK ENGINES. 4ft. 6in.

6-wheels coupled, saddle tank, holding 1,000 gallons of water

;

safety valves on dome ; cylinders 18in. by 26in. 4ft. 6in. 6-wheels coupled, side tanks, with condensing apparatus; cylinders, 18in. 4ft 4ft.

by

26in.

6-wheels coupled; saddle tank; cylinders, 18in. by 26in. 6-wheels coupled; saddle tank, 1,000 gallons; cylinders, 18in. by 6in.

22in. stroke. ITS

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

292

coupled;

6-wheels

4ft.

3ft. 8in.

tank, 940

saddle

Cylinders,

gallons.

l7in.

No dome.

by 20in.

4-wheels-coupled

wheel base,

;

7ft.

saddle tank, 800 gallons.

;

Cylinders, 14in. by 20in.

There

is

a similar class of engine built by Neilsons, the difference

being in the weight.

13 tons 14 cwt.

Weight

1 qr.

:

That of the former is, on leading axle, on driving axle, 13 tons 13 cwt. 1 qr.

of Neilson's class:

9 cwt.

L.,

13 tons 10 cwt. 3 qr.

Drummond's Lastly, a

class

diameter

board

D., 13 tons

tank; water capacity, 900 gallons.

8in. 6-wheels-coupled, saddle

3ft.

;

1 qr.

;

;

Cylinders, 14in.

safety valves.

of

4-wheel

side tanks hold

wheel base,

by

engines, with coupled

6ft.

500

No dome,

gallons.

3in.

20in. stroke.

wheels,

Cylinders,

14in.

3ft.

6in.

cab, or weather

diameter, 22in.

stroke.

Fig. 126.-- "No.

143,"

TAFF VALE RAILWAY INCLINE TANK LOCOMOTIVH

Engine "No. 143"

one of three peculiar locomotives, working on the Pwllyrhebog Incline, of 1 in 13,

(Fig. 126) is

specially constructed for

The fire-box and roof slopes backwards, so when the engine works bunker first up the incline, the water

on the Taff Vale Railway. that Is

level over the top of the fire-box.

bars for attaching a wire rope.

She

This rope

is fitted

is

with two draw-

coupled to a low draw-

bar under the drag-plate, so as to keep the rope below the axles of the wagons, which follow the engine down the incline, or are pushed up before the engine. " 143" has cast-iron " Sleigh" brakes acting on The the rails, in addition to the usual steam brakes on the wheels.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE dome

is

placed on the fire-box, and the regulator

is

293

within

so as

it,

steam when working on the incline. Wheels, 5ft. Cylinders, l7|in. by 26in. Weight, 44 tons 15 cwts.

to ensure dry

diameter.

i

3in.

Referring again to Great Eastern Locomotives, another useful class is by Fig. 126A. These are 8-wheel tank engines with

lustrated

4 coupled wheels, diameter

;

5ft.

8in.,

and leading

weight, 58 tons 12 cwt.

;

and

trailing

wheels, 4ft.

cylinders 17|in. diameter by 24in.

These engines also do very good work on a variety of trains working to Southend, Chelmsford, Lough ton and Ongar, Broxbourne, stroke.

It will be seen that the one illustrated (" No. 1085 ") with the condensing arrangement for working through tunnels. etc.

Photo] FIG. 123a.- A

Fig.

[F.

is fitted

Moore

GREAT EASTERN HAILWAY " DOUBLE-ENDER," TANK ENGINE, FITTED WITH CONDENSING APPARATUS

126B

represents a type of Great Eastern Railway 4-coupled-

in-front tank engines with

coupled wheels

46 tons 17 cwt.

;

a trailing bogie.

10in.,

that of

is

4ft.

in

working order.

ri.o o by]

FIG, 126b.— GREAT

The diameter

the bogie 2ft.

lOin.

[F.

;

of

the

weights

Moore

EASrE«N RAILWAY 4-COUPLED-1N-FRONT TANK ENGINE

A —

CHAPTER

XV.

Great Western "convertible" locomotives—The value of names in locomotive practice Water troughs on the G.W.R. Dean's 7ft. 8in. singles His " Armstrong" class An extension smoke-box on the G.W.R.; the ''Devonshire" "2202" and "3225," four-coupled G.W. engines The class 7ft. "singles" "Barrington" Great Western passenger tanks "Bull Dog' uesigu —-5tt. coupled-wheel engine, G W.R. ''No. 36, Great Western Railway, a six-wheel coupled goods engine with a leading Dogie Ivatt's advent on the Great Northern, and his innovations "Domes" to the fore New goods and tank engines— Rebuilt " BtirliDgs "—Ivatt's inside cylinder four-coupled bogie engines- His chef d'eeuvre " 990"— A ten-wheel tank on the G.N.R— "266," the latest Great Northern engine Possibilities of the future Great North of Scotland locomotives Manson's designs James and Johnson's tank tender engines Furness engines, passenger and goods The 1896 "express" new goods engines Highland Railway engines design Pettigrew's Great Central Railway locomotive North Staffordshire Railway locomotives London, Tilbury, and Southend Railway engines. 8-wheel tank L. &N.W R. Some Irish locomotives Belfast and Northern Counties Compounds The " Restrevor " class, (I.) Great Southern and Western standard passenger design A locomotive for an Irish " light " railway.

— —











— —









GN































The broad gauge having been finally abandoned on the G.W.R. in May, 1892, it became necessary to re-arrange the locomotive power.

W. Dean,

the G.W.R. Locomotive SuperinSwindon several six-wheeled express locotendent, had constructed at

Previous to that date Mr.

motives (Fig. 127), with

"

single" driving wheels,

7ft. 8in. in

diameter,

and a stroke of 24in., and weighing 4 cwt. was on the leading axle. tons which 13 4 cwt., of 44 tons This class of engine was designed to work the West of England

inside cylinders 20in. in diameter,

expresses between

London and Newton Abbot, consequent upon the

conversion of the gauge, and the locomotives were therefore built upon

narrow-gauge dimensions, but some few of them were worked on the West of England expresses whilst the gauge was yet broad, and

strictly

for this

purpose the wheels were fixed outside the framing.

In this

condition they had a very curious and ungainly appearance, intensified by the squat chimney, large dome, and bulged fire-box covering.

After the alteration of the gauge had been effected, and the wheels

had been fixed in their normal position, was considerably improved, bvt there still remained about the locomotives a somewhat indescribable want of symmetry and unison of outline. However, it was decided to substitute a bogie for the pair of leading wheels, whilst the diameter of the cylinders was reduced These alterations, coupled with other minor improveto 19 inches.

of the engines of this class

their appearance

ments, added to the admittedly good qualities of the engines as locomotive machines, soon caused the class, thus improved,, to gain a

— EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

295

high place in the estimation of both experts and the railway public. The amount of bright brass about the engines and the names



carried by them mostly those of famous broad-gauge engines, or popular broad and narrow-gauge, Great Western Railway officials

have also added to the prestige of the design. Let cynics say what will, one feels more interest for, say, the " Rover than he can

they

'

ever expect to for plain "No. 999."

The adoption of water troughs on the Great Western Railway, and the addition of the "pick-up" apparatus to the tenders of these engines, enables the Great Western Railway to perform many daily runs for length and speed that, a few years back, would rightly ha^e

been considered quite phenomenal.

we improve with giant end of the 19th century.

Happily,

strides in matters locomotive at the tail

rhoto]

IF.

Fig. 127.- 7ft.

8in.

Moore

"SINGLE" CONVERTIBLE ENGINE,

GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY

With the adoption

of the

normal gauge over the whole

of the

Great Western Railway system, engines of this class are now used on the expresses on

all

sections

where the character of the gradients

allows such engines to be run with proper economy.

circumstances,

it

is

Under these

not surprising to learn that additional batches of

engines of Mr. Dean's

7ft. 8in.

"single" design (Fig. 128) are being

added to the Great Western Railway locomotive stock at not quent intervals. at work, of

one

At the present time, there are 71



infre-

of these engines

and nine others under construction probably a larger number modern express locomotives than can be found elsewhere.

class of

896

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

— EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE The huge pipe

297

for delivering the feed-water to the boilers of these

engines, formerly placed in a conspicuous position, has been removed,

an alteration that has added much

to the beauty of outline of these

fine-looking locomotives.

Mr. Dean has constructed a class of four-coupled engines, with a leading bogie, features,

known

the design

is

as the

"Armstrong"

described above, but naturally several of the similar in the two classes.

"Armstrong"

is

In

class.

a modification of the

8in.

7ft.

its

salient

single class

dimensions are

No.

"Gooch"

7,

dis-

(Fig.

129), No. 8, "Charles Saunders," No. 14, and "Brunei," No. 16.

Fig. 129.—"

GOOCH," A 4-COUPLED EXPRESS ENGINE,

GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY

Immediately subsequent to the change of gauge in May, 1892, a and a trailiig

class of tank engines, with wheels four-coupled in front

was built for working the fast passenger traffic west of Newton The bogies of these engines were fitted with Mansel wheels quite an exceptional practice in locomotive building. Mr. Dean has since designed another class of locomotive to work the fast train traffic over the severe jrradients and curves so common to the Great Western Railway main line west of Newton Abbot. These engines are popularly called the "Devonshire" or "Penbogie,

Abbot.

dennis Castle" class (Fig. 130), after the

name given

to the first engine

298

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

A

constructed on the plan.

299

prominent feature of the design

is

the

—a feature copied from modern American Before constructing the Pendennis Mr. Dean had another engine— No. 426 —with an extended smoke-box, and

" extension " smoke-box

"

practice. fitted

the result of the trials

made with

Castle,"

this locomotive satisfied the

Western Railway locomotive superintendent as

Great

to the advantages of

tho arrangement.

The

cylinders of this class are 18in. diameter, the stroke being

The coupled wheels

26in.

also

(D.

and

T.) are 5ft. 7£in. diameter, that of

The use of Mansel wheels has been adopted both for the bogies and the tenders of the loco-

the (leading) bogie being

motives of this tracted

at

class.

7|in.

The frames are double, and are

smoke-box end to allow

the

sufficient

specially con-

plav

to

the

Both inside and outside bearings are provided for the The boiler is of steel, the heating surface being Tubes,

bogie wheels. driving axle.

:

1,285.58 sq. ft.;

grate area, 19 7 cwt. is

3ft.

sq.

ft.;

112.60

steam pressure, 1601b.; weight of engine, 46 tons, of which 15 tons

fire-box,

on the driving

axle,

sq.

ft.;

17£ tons on the bogie, and 13 tons

The tender holds 2,000 gallons Ten engines of this design Swindon viz.

3 cwt. on the trailing (coupled) axle. of water,

and weighs, loaded, 24

were originally constructed at 32.">2

Duke

of Cornwall.

3253 Pendi'iinis Oaatle. 8364 BoBcawen.

tons.



i'l'i'i

3258

:



SS59 Lizard. 3260 Merlin. 3261 Mount Edgcumbe.

8255 Cornubia. 3256 Excalibur.

Guinevere. King Arthur.

These proved so satisfactory in performing the peculiar duties West of England main line

required from passenger engines on the

Western Railway that a second batch of thi-ty was put These commenced running in the early months of 1898.

of the Great in hand.

Thev are named and numbered as 3262

Powderb

,m.

follow

:



EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

300

of the Great

Western Railway residing in Devon and Cornwall, and help to palliate the keen regret with which the abolition of the broadgauge was felt in those counties.

Among

types of Great Western locomotives, one

Photo] Fig. 131.—

SINGLE EXPBESS ENGINE,

6-

WHEEL

may

be mentioned

[P Mooe. TYPE, GREAT WESTERN

RAILWAY

—the trains 18in.

square

"singles" (Fig. 131), largely used for hauling the express on the Birmingham and Northern lines. The cylinders are

7ft.

diameter, the

being 24in.

stroke

Heating surface,

1,250.31

feet.

Many

of the passenger trains

sections are

worked by the

by engine 2,202

Fig. 132.-

6ft.

(Fig. 132).

6FT. 6in.

on the Gloucester and

r



eymouth

Gin. four-coupled engines, illustrated

The leading dimensions

of this class are

:

4-COUPLED PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE, GREAT WESTERN-

RAILWAY Cylinders, 1 7in. diameter

;

stroke, 24in.

Weight of engine and tender, North of Wolverhampton,

;

heating surface, 1,363.5

sq. ft.

working order, 59 tons 8 cwt. for working the West to North expresses, in

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

.30!

and

for other fast trains in the North Western district of the G.W.R., the engines represented by 3,225 (Fig. 133) are largely used.

[C. C. Phillips

l'hoto]

Fig. 133. -6ft.

4-COl'PLED

PASSENGER ENGINE,

GREAT WESTERN

RAILWAY This class has cylinders 18in. by 24in. stroke

;

leading wheels

meter, and coupled, driving, and trailing wheels,

heating surface totals to 1,468.82

sq.

ft.

;

6ft.

The

and the weight of engine

Photo] Fig. 134.—

4ft. dia-

diameter.

[C. O. Phillips

"BARRINGTON,"

NEW TYPE OF

4-COUPLED

ENGINE,

GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY

and tender, including the load

of 4 tons of coal

and 3,000 gallons

of

water, amounts to 74£ tons.

"Barrington"

(Fig. 134) is

one of Mr. Dean's latest type of express

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

302

These powerful locomotives are somewhat of the

passenger engine.

" Devonshire " type, having

paire " fire-box early

is

an extended smoke-box, whilst the " iieh

also introduced.

G.W. practice

is

reverted

to.

In the framing,

it will

be noticed,

The cylinders are 18in. by 26in. and the coupled wheels 6ft. 8in. in

The bogie wheels are 4ft., The engine weighs 51 tons 13 cwt. ; the tender, with the same amount of water and coal as "3,225" class, 32J tons. stroke.

diameter.

A large little

number

of the

G.W. passenger

by smart

trains are bauled

six-wheel (four-coupled) tank engines, which are specially noted

getting away quickly, and immediately attained high speeds. No. 576 " (Fig. 135) represents a coupled-in-front engine of this de-

for "

scription, but the

more generally-known Great Western Railway

Photo]

[F.

Fig. 135.— 4-COUPLED-IN-FRONT

PASSENGER TANK ENGINE,

pas-

Moore

G.W.E.

senger tank engines have the driving and trailing wheels coupled these are

5ft.

diameter, the cylinders being 16in. diameter

stroke, illustrated

;

24ft.

by Fig- 135A.

Mr. Dean's latest creation for the Great Western Railway

"Bull Dog," No. 3,312, and the design

Dog"

by

will

is

named

be known as the "Bull

Except that the bogie wheels have spokes, the wheels,

class.

framing, and motion are similar to the "Devonshire" class (Fig. 130).

The

boiler is of gigantic proportions;

type,

and projects over the top and

smoke-box whilst

steam

is

extended,

and

steam

the fire-box

is of

the Belpaire

sides of the boiler barrel.

reversing

gear

is

The

employed,

another improvement, Davies and Metcalfe's patent exhaust injector, is fitted to the engine,

and

on Great Western Railway locomotives. sides of the fire-box;

is

being extensively adopted

The name-plates

are on the

the clack valves are below the boiler barrel,

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

303

The cab of the "Bull Dog" extends to the edge of the footplate, with a door in the front on the fireman's side.

behind the smoke-box.

[

Fig.

.

Moore

135A.-GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY TANK ENGINE

Fitted with condensing apparatus for working over the Metropolitan and Metropolitan District Railways.

Fig.

135B

Railway "

hill

represents climbers."

another valuable

class

of

Great

The coupled wheels are only

5ft.

whilst the cylinders are 17in. diameter and 27in. stroke. features of the engine, and the tender, are [of

Western diameter,

The other

the usual standard of

Great Western Western Railway 6-wheel passenger engines.

Fk;. 135b.— "No. 3204,"

ONE OF A STURDY CLASS OF

G.W.R.

LOCOMOTIVES

Before closing these remarks on modern Great Western Railway loco-

some description of No. 36 is necessary. Here again we have an adaptation of American practice a six- wheels-coupled engine, with a leading bogie, and an extension smoke-box. The cylinders are inside, motives,

20in. diameter



by

24in.

stroke,

with the steam chests below them.

EVOLUTION OF TEE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

304

The

driving wheels are

have

wheels

150

tains

sq.

Serve "

2,385

is

sq. ft. is

diameter.

2£in.

steam pressure, 1651b.

;

as follows:

On

of tender,

32 tons;

total

grate area,

16 tons

Total weight of engine,

91 \ tons.

together,

con-

The

driving wheels,

cwt.;

with a water pick-up apparatus.

;

boiler

12 tons 6 cwt.;

bogie,

11 cwt.; and trailing wheels, 15 tons 1 cwt.

fitted

The

addition.

in of

leading coupled wheels, 15 tons \2

59 \ tons;

2ft.

have outside bearings, and the driving

tubes

The weight

ft.

the bogie wheels only

6in. diameter,

bearings

inside

''

heating surface

35

4ft.

All the wheels

8in. diameter.

The tender

is

been

This locomotive has

employed in hauling goods trains for many months past, and it is stated, to have hauled a train weighing 450 tons through the Severn Tunnel despite the severe gradients and length in ten minutes,





although for such a load two goods engines of the usual Great Western design would be required, and they would take 18 minutes to perform

the

trip.

—one

Consequent upon the death of the late Mr. Patrick Stirling

—the

of the best locomotive superintendents of his time

directors of

the Great Northern Railway appointed Mr. H. A. Ivatt to the supreme

command

Mr. Ivatt received his early training in the

at Doncaster.

science of locomotive construction at Crewe,

and

left

the Great Southern

where he was locomotive superintendent, to succeed Mr. P. Stirling on the Great Northern Railway.

and Western Railway

(Ireland),

Mr. Ivatt, having decided opinions of his design, soon set to

system

;

so that after

own

relative to locomotive

on the Great Northern more than two decades of dome-

to introduce his ideas

many

years





Doncaster awoke one morning to find a Stirling

less locomotives, 8ft.

work

"single" fitted with a steam dome encased in a green-painted

cover.

It

was

—the colour —but those interested survived the

certainly a great surprise

many had hoped

especially, for

to see bright brass

shock, and waited to see

some engines

of

Mr. Ivatt's design on the

Great Northern Railway. Several engines, with pronounced Ivatt features, were soon running, but the

main designs

of all of

them are

cast after distinctly

Stirling models, as they were already under construction at the time of

Mr. Ivatt's appointment. In the 1070 class (four-coupled, six-wheeled engines)

the

dome and

cab,

amongst external

signs, are the

work

we

of the

find that

new

chief

EVOLUTION OF THE STEA at

M

LOCOMOTIVE

305

Doncaster; whilst those of the 1073 design have his leading bogie, splasher over the coupled-wheels, dome, and cab.

Fig. 136.— "No. 131a," ONK OF MR. IVAIT'S (lu73) SMALLEK CL SS OF 4-COUPLED BOGIE ENGINES FOK THUS GREAT NOhTHBKN RAILWAY. •

Coming

to " No. 34," a rebuilt 8ft. " single," Mr. Ivatt is responsi-

ble for the

dome, cab, and safety-valve casing, whilst in the 1206, sixwe again find the dome and new pattern valve

coupled saddle-tanks, casing.

Readers

will notice that

appended tables

we have only

attributed to Mr.

details that are

Ivatt,

referred to the apparent but,

by reference

to

the

of dimensions, "they will find that several alterations

meet with notice have been mp.de in other with the Great Northern locomotives. connected matters

that do not so readily

FOUR-WHEELS COUPLED ENGINE,

6ft. 6lW.

No. 1070.

CYLINDERS. 17|in.

Diameter Stroke

261n.

WHEELS. 6ft. 6in.

Driving Trailing

6ft. 6in.

Leading

4ft. Oin.

diameter. diameter. diameter.

WHEEL CENTRES. From centre From centre

wheels

8ft.

3in.

of driving to centre of leading wheels

9ft,

8in

of trailing to centre of driving

Total wheel base

17ft. llin

EOILER. Length of barrel Diameter of barrel Length of firebox casing

10ft. lin. 4ft. 5in. 5ft. 6in.

HEATINU SURFACE. Tubes

...

Firebox Total area

Tubes

*

l,020-7sq.-ft. in:;-

lsq. -ft.

l,123'8sq

-ft.

17-8sq.-ft.

215— ljjin. diameter cutside

X

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

306

6ft. 6in.

FOUR- WHEELS COUPLED BOGIE ENGINE, by Fig.

(Illustrated

No. 1073.

136.)

CYLINDEBS. Diameter

17Jin. 26in.

Stroke

WHEELS. Driving

diameter. diameter. diameter.

6ft. Gin.

Trailing

6ft. Gin.

Bogie

3ft. Gin.

WHEEL CENTRES. From centre of trailing to From centre of driving to

centre of driving wheels centre of bogie pin

sit

stn.

9ft. 9in. Git. Min.

Centres of bogie wheels Total wheel base

21ft. 3in.

BOILER. Length of barrel Diameter of barrel Length of firebox casing

10ft. lin. 4ft. Sin.

,

5ft. 6in.

HEATING SURFACE. Tubes

l,0207sq.-ft.

Firebox

103-lsq.-ft. l,123'8sq.-ft. 17'8sq.-ft. 215 lfin. diameter outside

Total Grate area ..



Tubes

FIG. 137.—

-Fig. 6ft.

6in.

THE LATEST TYPE OF 6ft. 6in. COUPLED ENGINE, GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY

137 represents the larger and later type four-coupled

is

out) of the

on the Great

In these engines the boiler diameter has been

Northern Railway.

augmented by 3 in., heating surface

(just

engine, with a leading bogie,

so that

it

bulges out over the splashers

increased to

greatly enlarged, having 120 sq

1,250 ft.

sq.

ft.,

the

;

while the fire-box

This enlargement of the

is

fire-

box has involved a lengthening of the side rods and coupled-wheel base by Oin.

The

height of

fire-

grate area

is 20.8in.,

instead of 17.8in., in the

The chimney, which is much shorter owing the boiler, is built up in three pieces.

smaller engines.

to the

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE 8ft.

SINGLE PASSENGER ENGINE

No.

307

34.

CYLINDERS. Diameter

18ln

Stroke

28in.

WHEELS Driving

8ft.

Oin. diameter. 6in. diameter.

Trailing

4ft.

Bogie

3ft. lOin.

diameter.

WHEEL CENTRES. From

centre of trailing wh?el to centre of driving From centre of driving wheel to centre of bogie pin Centres of bogie wheels Total wheel base

9ft

Oin.

10ft. 9in. 6ft. Gin. 23ft. 3in.

BOILER. Length of barrel Diameter of barrel Length of firebox casing next to barrel Length of firebox cising at butt im...

UEATIN Tubes

i

lift. 2in. 4ft. 9in.

(ft. 9in. 7fn. 2in.

SURFACE. 980sq.-ft. 114 2sq.-ft.

Firebox Totil Grate area

M-

Tubes

181— ljin. diameter

4ft. 6in\

1,

94-2sq-ft. 6sq-ft.

SIX-WHEELS COUPLED SADDLE TANK ENGINE,

outside.

No. 1206.



308

.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

of the fire-box,

and a pair

The dimensions

are

:

of trailing wheels



under the foot

plate.

CYLINDERS. Diameter

19in.

Stroke

24in.

WHEELS. Trailing

3£fc -

Un-

coupled Bogie

6ft.

6ln 6ln

6ft

-

-

-

WHEEL CENTRES. From

centre oi trailing to centre of driving wheels Centres of coupled wheels Centre of leading coupled to centre of trailin? • bogie wheel Centres of bogie wheels

wheel base

Total

Oin. lOin.

8ft. 6ft.

6ft.

3in. 3in.

26ft.

4in.

5ft.

BOILER. Length of barrel between tube plates Diameter of barrel Length outstde firebox casing

..

..

13ft. Oin.

Sin.

4ft.

8ft. Oin.

HEATING SURFACE. Tubes

..

l,302sq.-ft.

..

Firebox

-

..

.

Total

Grate

140*1. -ft. l,442sq.-ft

Area

26.7sq.-ft.

191— 2n. external diameter.

Tubes

Mr. Ivatt has also designed a

new

class of 10-wheel

tank engines

for the G.N.R., the leading dimensions being

CYLINDERS.

m Diameter

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

Stroke

17iin. 26iu.

WHEELS. Coupled

..

6in.

5ft.

Trailing

3ft.

bin.

Bogie

3ft.

6in.

WHEEL CENTRES. From From From

centre centre centre Centres of

of trailing to centre of back coupled of back coupled to centre of driving of driving to centre of trailing bogie

6ft. 8ft.

3in.

6ft.

9in.

bogie

6ft.

3in.

27ft.

3in.

Total

wheels

wheel base

..

Oin

BOILER.



Length of barrel Diameter of barrel Length of firebox casing

..

10ft.

lin.

4ft.

5in.

5ft.

6in.

HEATING SURFACE. Tubes

l,0?0.7sq.-ft.

Firebox

103sq.-ft.

_

Total

Grate

Tubes

Area

...



1,123. 7sq.-ft.

17.8sq.-ft. :

215—lfin.

external

diameter

EVOLUTION OF THE STEa

M

LOCOMOTIVE

309

There now remains to be described Mr. Ivatt's newest engine (Fig. 188), a 7ft. 6in. single-wheeler with leading bogie, a large boiler, llff..'4in.

1

1

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

310

diameter by 26in. stroke. is

The grate area

23 sq

is

ft.

As

eng ne

this

only just out of the Doncaster shops none of her performances have

aa yet been recorded, but

Railway

Northern

if

she prove as good as she looks the Great

have

will

a

valuable

addition

to

its

already

numerous "single" locomotives.

And now,

perhaps,

may

be ventured an opinion on Mr. Ivatt's

innovations in Great Northern locomotive practice. In the first place, from an aesthetic point, there can be no two opinions that a dome greatly improves the appearance of a locomotive, but one of bright

"To

brass is infinitely superior to one covered with green paint.

win all," and plenty of bright brass about a locomotive is certainly an attraction ; a large amount of the popularity of the Great Western engines is due to the fine display of brass. The same reason that causes us to prefer a brass dome makes us sorry to win the eye

is

to

see the Stirling brass casing of the safety valve give place to Mr. Ivatt's design.

Green paint undoubtedly

have "too

much

of

a good thing, but then you can

is

a good thing."

Again, a curved splasher for

coupled wheels, following the outlines of both wheels, looks neater than the design used with Class 1073.

an improvement; so

is

The bogie

is

much

decidedly

an extended cab, but graceful outlines might

be used in connection with the

latter. Mr. Ivatt has certainly introduced some decided improvements into the composition of the Great Northern Railway locomotives, but the tout ensemble might be more

pleasing

a

;

a few alterations in matters of detail would give observers

more appreciative opinion

of

modern Great Northern Railway

engines.

Now

water-troughs are so

much

cult to find suitable locations for

in fashion,

it

should not be

diffi-

them on the Great Northern system,

and with a double-bogie tank engine, with outside cylinders, a 9ft. or larger driving wheel, York ought to be reached in less than three hours from King's Cross, and without an intermediate stop. Will the 19th century see such an achievement? We hope so, but fear to prophesy;

its

sands are almost run.

The Manson engines of the Great North of Scotland Railway deAs long ago as 1878 and 1879 it was decided to place serve notice. heavier and more powerful engines on that railway. The engines weighed 41 tons 5 cwt. each, and the tender 28 tons 5 cwt. in working order.

The working pressure was 1501b. per square inch. who succeeded Mr. Cowan, got some

In 1884 Mr. Manson,

six-

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

511

wheel coupled inside cylinder tank engines from Kitson and Co.,

The following are the

Leeds.

Cylinders

-

principal dimensions, viz. _

..

..

Coupled wheels Wheel base Tubes Heating surface Tubes Heating surface Firebox

by 24in. 6in. diameter. 8in. 140 l|in. external 6a0sq.-ft. 663q.-ft.

:



of'

16in. 4ft.

13ft.







Total

diameter

756sq.-ft.

Working steam pressure Weight in working order

per

lij.u.

.

37

tons

sq.-in.

7 cwts.

In the same year Messrs. Kitson and Co. also supplied some four-

coupled passenger engines, with leading bogie and a six-wheeled tender.

Tho cylinders are

" inside,"

and the bogie

Company has used

type, which this

is

Kitson's swing link

These engines were

since 1884.

delivered with a brick arch in the fire-box, but this was afterwards

taken as to

out, and air tubes put into the front and rear of the consume the smoke. The principal dimensions are:

fire-box, so



Coupled wheels Bogie wheels Tender wheels

Wheel base Wheel base Total wheel

6ft. Oin. •

3ft. Oin.

-

(6),

of engine of tender base of engine

20ft.

lift.

and tender

.

.



.

..

..

_

Tubes Heating surface Tubes Heating surface— Firebox .

40ffc.

in

,,

3ft.

diameter.. diameter. 9in diameter.

8in. Oin.

3|in.

189—1 jin.

.

external diameter.

946sq.-ft. 90sq.-ft.

Total

l,036sq.-ft.

Tank capacity Working steam pressure Weight

by 26in

17£in.

Cylinders



working order Engine Tender ,, „

.. ..

.

2.000 gallons. 1401b. per sq.-in. 37 tons 2 cwts. 29 tons cwts.

.. ..

Total

e6 tons

2 cwts.

In 1888 Mr. Manson brought out his engine with inside cylinders, having the valves placed on the top, which were of the balanced type introduced by Mr. Cowan. The valves were driven by the ordinary

Stephenson link motion working on a rocking the engine very

much resembled

shaft.

In other respeots

those just described, except that the

engine and tender were coupled by a central bar and one solid central rolling block

in place of side spring buffers.

The cylinders were 18in. by The engine weighed The tender weighed They were

In 1890 Mr. ojallons,

and

26in.

and the coupled wheels

Manson increased the capacity

0£ia

diameter.

9 cwts. 29 tons cwts

In working order. by Messrs. Kitson and

built

6ft.

41 tons

Co.

of the tender to 3,000

in doing this introduced a bogie tender.

The tender was

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

312

carried on eight wheels 3ft. 9§in. diameter.

were

fixed,

The four

trailing wheels

and the four leading carried a bogie similar to that on tho

emrine.

The wheel base

*

of the tender

was

The engine

16ft.

6in.,

and the weight in was the same as

for these tenders

working order 38 tons. These were built by Stephenson and Co.

that just described.

.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

h'li

In 1393 Mr. James Johnson, who succeeded Mr. Manson, designed some heavy bogie tank engines. They were four wheels coupled m

The valves were of the ordinary type, placed between the cylinders, which were " inside."

front, with trailing four-wheeled bogie.

These engines were all

with the brick arch, and since that time

fitted

the Company's engines have had the air tubes removed, and brick

archea

fitted.

The following are the principal dimensions .

Cylinders

..

Coupled wheels .Bogie

Fixed Bogie Total

— by

26in diameter. diameter.

Oin

5ft.

wheels wheel base wheel base wheel base

Tubes Heating surface

:

17iin.

Oiin.

3ft. 7ft.

6in.

5ft.

6in.

22ft. Oin.

220—ljin.

—Tubes

external

diameter.

l,093.5sq.-ft.

Firebox

113.5sq.-ft.

Total

1.207.0sq.-(t.

Grate area

18sq.-ft.

Working steam pressure Tank capacity Bunker capacity Weight in working order

1651b.

per sq.-in. gallons.

1,200

2 tons coal. 53 tons 15 cwts.

Built

by

Neilson.

some inside cylinder paswhich had the same size of boiler as the

In the same year Mr. Johnson designed

senger engines (Fig. 139). bogie tank engines.

They had a four-wheeled bogie in front, and four-coupled driving The tender was on six wheels, and carried the same amount wheels. of

S .ring buffers are

water as the bogie tenders previously described.

used between engine and tender.

The

principal dimensions are 18in.

Cylinders

Coupled wheels Bogie wheels Tender wheels Wheel base of engine

,,

Tender



4ft.

431t.

4Jin.

]h5 b. per sq.-in. 43 tons 18 cwts. cwts. 35 tons

.

..

78 tons 18 cwts.

Total Built

is

diameter.

9iin. diameter. lin. diameter. 21ft. 9Ain. 13ft. Oin.

..



This



3ft.

of tender Total wheel base of engine and tender Working pressure Weight in working order Engine ,,

:

26in.

lin.

bit.

6

Wheel base

,,

by

by Neilson and

Co.

the present standard type of passenger engines on the

Great North of Scotland Railway. In addition to the engines of the Furness Railway, previously described, others deserve recognition,

and

fE

should be placed on record

that the red-brown colour distinguishing the locomotives of this line

has been the standard colour for a number of years.

Some

sixteen years

or so back, the Midland Railway discarded green as the distinguishing colour for its engines, and adopted the red-brown shade of the 1 urness

,

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

314

Some people have imagined that the Furness Railway locomotives are painted in imitation of the Midland, but the facts show Railway.

the opposite to be the case.

In 1870 a type of four-wheels-coupled passenger engines vere inti >duced on the Furness Railway. The leading dimensions of these were :



Diameter

cylinders

of

lit.

Stroke

lft.

Diameter of coupled wheels Diameter of leading wheels

5ft. 3ft.

WHEEL

BASE.

Leading to driving

7ft.

~

..

-

Diameter of boiler (mean) Length of barrel Length of firebox (shell)

14ft.

157—2in.

tubes

of

6in. 9in. 3in. 3ft. llin. 10ft. Oin. 4ft. 4in. 6.'t.

Driving to trailing Total wheel base

Number

4in 8in 7iin. 8in.

external diameter

HEATING SURFACE Tubes

839.5sq.-ft.

Firebox

_

Total

TENDER Grate

(Four

..

Diameter

~

wheels

of ..

..

..

and tender

916.5sq.-ft.



11.5sq.-ft. 3ft.

Biu.

«

9ft

f?in.

..

1,200

-.

..

3

..

..

«

Capacity of tank Capacity coal Total wheel base, engine

77.0sq.-ft.

~

WLeels)

area

Wheel base

..

~.

..

t^ns 120.

WEIGHTS IN WORKING ORDER. Leading

8

Driving Ti ailing

Total Total

weight

of

Working pressure

tender in

lbs.

.

per

sq.-in.

gallons

...

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

315

HEATING SURFACE. Tubes

871.27sq.-ft.

Firebox

88.08sq.-ft.

Total

959.35sq.-ft.

TENDER (Four Grate area Diameter of wheels Wheel base Capacity of tank Capacity coal Total wheel base, engine and tender

Wheels). 13.8sq.-ft 3ft.

8in.

9ft.

6in.

1,600 gallons.

3 tons. ..

7in.

32ft.

..

WEIGHTS IN WORKING ORDER. Leading Driving



Trailing

,

Total

weight

Total

per

in lbs.

The modern main

sq.-in.

.

Q.

11 10 18

C

8

..

tender

of

o.

10 11

'

Working pressure

T.

30

19

19

10

120.

.

.

Furness Railway passenger engines have

line

four wheels coupled of 6ft. diameter, with a leading bogie, the wheels of

which are

The cylinders are inside The other dimensions are:

6in. diameter.

3ft.

meter, with a 24in. stroke.



WHEEL

BASE.

Centre of bogie to centre of driving axle Centre of driving to trailing Centres of bogie wheels Total wheel base Diameter of boiler (mean)

Length Length

barrel of firebox

.

. .

6iin.

8ft.

6in.

5*t.

9in.

20ft. llin.

(shell)

4ft.

3in.

10ft.

3in.

5ft.

9in.

.

230— If in.

tubes

of

9ft.

.

of

Number

external

HEATING SURFACE. Tubes

l,109.0sq.-ft.

Firebox

99.5sq.-ft.

Total

l,208.5sq.ft.

TENDER Grate

(6

wheels). 17sq.-ft.

area

Diameter

3ft. lOin.

of barrel

Wheel base

12ft.

Capacity of tank Capacity coal Total wheel base, engine

and tender

Oin.

_

..

2,500 gallons 44 tons.

..

..

42ft

lin.

WEIGHTS IN WORKING ORDER Lending bogie Driving

..

..



Trailing

Total Total

weight

of

Working pressure

tender in

IBs.

per

sq

in

18in. dia-

T.

0.

13 14 13

12

41

6

23

5

150.

10 4

Q.

C

diameter.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

316

This express class of passenger engines was introduced in 1896. When Mr. W. Pettigrew, M.Inst.C.E., who was, during the latter years of Mr. Adams's regime, practically the chief at Nine

Elms Loco-

motive Works, was appointed locomotive superintendent at Barrow, to

FlG. 140.—

PETTIGREW'S

NEW GOODS ENGINE FOR THE

succeed Mr. Mason, he got out designs for a of

FLTtNESS

RAILWAY

new and powerful

class

goods engines, which are now being delivered to the Furness Rail-

way.

Fig. 140 represents one of these engines, the leading dimen-

sions of which are Diameter

of

:



cylinders

Stroke

Diameter

coupled wheels Wheel base of engine of

Diameter of boiler (inside) Length of barrel Length of fire-box (outside)

The

boiler

contains

18in.

f

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE design to be well adapted for the heavy

this

traffic

317

of the system,

whilst the leading bogie gives sufficient facility for easily negotiating

the curves of the Highland Railway.

The

first of

Drumraond,

the

new

class of expre-s engine 3 , designed

The dimensions

just delivered.

is

the

leading

1,175

sq.

ft.

bogie

wheels

6in.

diameter.

Steam pressure, 1751b. per

order: engine, 46 tons

Mr. H.

3ft.

Pollitt's

;

No.

1,

by Mr. P.

"Ben-y-Gloe,"

The coupled wheels

by 26in.

(inside) cylinders, 18|in.

are:

of

sq. in.

Heating

6ft.

and

surface,

Weight, in working

tender, 374 ton?.

design of locomotive for working the express

traffic

over the London extension of the Great Central Railway has four-

FlG. 141.— SIX-WHEELS-COUPLED

BOGIE ENGINE, WITH OUTSIDE CYLINDERS,

HIGHLAND BAIL WAY coupled wheels

7ft.

diameter; cylinders, 18|in. by 26in., with piston

a Belpaire fire-box, and steam-pressure

valves;

The tender holds 4,000 Mr. H. Railway,

is

Pollitt, the

now

extension.

Locomotive Superintendent of the Great Central

building some very large single-wheelers for the London

They

will have 7

the latest Midlands.

like

huge

boiler?,

l701bs. per sq. in.

gallons of water and 5 tons of coal.

ft.

9

in. driver?,

But they

with about 1,750

will

sq. ft. of

and cylinders 19| by 26,

have the great advantage

(

heating surface, and 200 lbs

steam pressure. Fig.

142 represents one of the new 8-wheel tank engines designed

by Mr. Luke Longbottom, M.Inst.C.E., the locomotive superintendent of the

North Staffordshire Railway,

trains over that system.

One

for

working the heavy passenger

of the features of these local trains is

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

318

the

many

stops that are made.

The coupled wheels are

the cylinders being 17in. diameter, and 24in. stroke.

what

similar class

of goods tanks,

5ft. in

There

is

with 6 coupled wheels

diameter, and cylinders 18in. diameter 24in. stroke.

diameter a some-

4ft.

6in.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE. 143 represents the North Staffordshire Railway main

Fig.

with tender, the cylinders are 17in. by 24in. diameter.

sq.

ft.

line

engine

Coupled wheels

6ft. in

Steam pressure, 1501bs. per

Weight, in working order (engine and tender)

sq. in.

Water

Heating surface, 811

319

:

58 tons 9 cwt.

capacity of tender, 1,550 gallons.

Fig.

144 represents one

of five outside cylinder

tank engines, supplied

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE.

320

by Sharp, Stewart

&

Co. to the

North Staffordshire Railway in 1874.

These engines are now being rebuilt to design.

They

Mr. Longbottom's standard

are em] loyed in working the half hourly service of trains

144.— 4-COUPLED TANK ENGINE WITH OUTSIDE CYLINDERS. NORTH STAFFORDSHIRE RAILWAY.

Fig.

between Stoke

bank

arid

Hanley

via the loop,

which includes the ascent

of

a

of 1 in 40.

The new locomotives of the London, Tilbury, and Southend Railway

are

very large tank engines, with a leading bogie, 4 coupled wheels, and a pair of radial trailing wheels.

wheels

6ft. 6in.

The

principal dimensions are: driving

diameter, bogie and trailing wheels 3ft. 6in. diameter,

weight in working order 63 tons, cylinders (outside) 17in diameter by

FiG. 145.-"

COMMERCIAL BOAD," ONE OF THE NEW TYPE OF LOCOMOTIVES.

L.T.

&

S.R.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE.

[P.

Photo]

321

Moore

LONDON AND NORTH-WFSTEUN RAILWAY, NEW TYPE OF^8-WHEEL TANK ENGINE

Fig. 146.-

26in. stroke.

The older engines are

are only

6ft.

lin, in

«engine

quite capable of running the trains to time, but the 6ft. 6in.

is

engines

are

usually employed on

IFenchurch-street and Southend Fig. 146 represent the

new

the

Fig.

but the wheels Either class of

50 minute expresses between

145

is

5ft. 6in. in

LIQUID FUEL ENGINE, BELFAST AND

new type. & N.W.R. express

one of the

type of 8-wheel L.

tank engines, with 4-coupled wheels

Via. 117.—

of similar design,

diameter, and weight 55 tons.

diameter.

NORTHERN COUNTIES RAILWAY

322

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE.

Before closing this account of locomotive evolution, details of modern Irish locomotives will be of interest.

some few

Fig. 471 represents a four-coupled passenger engine of the Belfast and Northern Counties Railway. This engine is of the compound type, and is fired by petroleum on Holden's system. is also a compound express passenger engine Both these engines were designed by Mr. B.

"Jubilee" (Fig. 148) of the

same

railway.

Malcolm, the Company's locomotive superintendent.

The modern passenger engines on the Great Northern Railway (Ireland) are of the four-coupled type, with a leading bogie, and are

1

.

EVOLUTION OF TEE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE.

323

HEATING SURFACE. In

_

firebox

109sq

-ft

1.013sq.-ft l,122sq.-rt

Tub.>s Totai

Grate area

..

18isq. ft. 1601b

..

.

Working pressure per

sq. in.)

WEIGHT.

In working order. T.

..13

Bogie Driving axle

..14 ..14

Trailing

Total

o.

Q.

5 15 -0

42

Fid. 149.

-"No.

73,"

A STANDARD PASSENGER ENGINE, GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY (IRELAND)

Fit;.

149 represents one

of

the engines

(Ireland) Railway, as decorated to haul the

of

Duke

the Great Northern of York's train

during

his recent visit to Ireland.

Fig. 150 is from a photograph of one of the standard passenger engines of the Great Southern and Western Railway. This engine

was designed by Mr. R. Coey, the Company's locomotive superintendent.

The coupled wheels

are 6ft. 6in. diameter, the cylinders being

18in. diameter, with a stroke of 24in.

324

FIG.

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE..

150.

-FOUR-COUPLED BOG.E EXPRESS ENGINE, GREAT SOUTHEKN AND WESTERN RAILWAY

Our last illustration (Fig. 151) is produced from a photograph of Y Peake," one of the " light " engines of the Cork and Muskerry Light Railway. Engines of this type are specially designed ior working on li

light " railways.

Fig. 151.— "PEAKE,"

A LOCOMOTIVE OF THE CORK AND MUSKERRY LIGHT RAILWAY; .'

FINIS.

INDEX. [N.B.

— The

letters

B.G. denote a Broad Gauge locomotive.]

PAGB Belfast

Adams, Bridges, combination

en130, 133

gines and carriages Adams, Bridges, radial axle-boxes 209 Adams, Bridges, system of in133 termediate driving shafts 211 Adams, Bridges, spring tyres Adams, W., engines for the N.L.

Ry

226

Adams, W. engines S.W. Ry ,

"^Eolus," B.G "Agenoria," " Agilis," with wheels

"Ajax," B.G " Albion " on system"

for the L.

& 272 71

27

double

flanged

£6 73, 75 "

the

Cambrian 125

have introduced "back-coupled" engines, 97; link motion American engines for the Birming-

Allan claims to

ham &

Gloucester Railway

"Apollo," B.G Areo-steam '" engines

"

"Ariel,"

B.G

"Armstrong"

class,

G.W.R,

...

97

87 72 234 75 297

Aspinall, «T. A. F., locomotives for the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway 280 Aston, W., engines for the Cam-

brian Railways "Atlas," B.G "Atlas," M. & S.R

264 75 110

& Northern

Counties Rail-

way engines Beyer's single

iron

plate

97

(frames

Beyer's

" Atlas,"

for

the

M. &

S.R

110

Billinton, R. J., engines for L.B.

& S.C.R Birmingham

260

&

Gloucester Ry., engines on 87 Birmingham & Gloucester Ry., McConnell's engine for 102 "Black Prince," L. & N.W.R. ... 247 Blackett, Hedley, and Hackworth construct an engine 10 Blenkinsopp's, J., engine 5 "Blucher" 14 "Boat engines," B.G 73 Bodmer's reciprocating engines... 100 Bogie tenders 241, 277, 310 Bogie engines (early) 56, 173Braithwaite & Ericsson's "No-

American

velty" Braithwaite & Ericsson's "William the IV." and "Queen Adelaide" Bristol & Exeter Ry. locomotives,

B.G

*

Broad gauge engines Bristol

&

30

45 173

G.W. &

(see

Exeter Railways)

"Brougham,"

8.

& D.R.

206

Brunei, I. K., and broad gauge locomotives, 67, 75; Vale of

Neath

Ry

(See

also

39 Great

Western

Railway engines) Brunton's " leg propelled " engine 7 "Bull Dog," G.W.R ... 302 Burnett's tanks for the M. & S J -W.R 233 Bury, Edward, inventor of the inside cylinder locomotive 40 Bury, his first "Liverpool" 40 Bury. Authentic list of his first .

"Bacchus," B.G Back-coupled engines by Allan ... Balanced locomotives Beattie's engines, 162, 169 (coalburning),

185,

194,

72 97 84

203, 207, 226, 231, 240

engines

43

T

;;

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

322

PAGE)

Bury, Contractor to the London

& Birmingham By Bury, Engines

on

82

Furness

the

Ry

123, 179

Bury, Extract from the Minutebooks of the L. & M.R. relating to the "Liverpool" Bury, "Liver," for the L. &

M.R Bury, "Meteor," N.

Cudworth, coal burning engines... Ib9 Cycloped " horse locomotive ... 38

"

fitted valves, Cylinder Roberts's " Experiment "

to

57

42 52 62

& C.R

& Metcalfe's exhaust-steam injector 302

Davis

C 125 Cambrian locomotive system Engine "No. Caledonian Ry. :



"single," 15," 152; 8ft. 2in. 285 to 292 207; modern 54 Caledonian," L. & M.R Canterbury & Whitstable Rail44 way Jambrian Railways engines 209, 264 "Canute," an early coal-burning 186 engine 6 Chapman's chain locomotive "Charles Dickens," L. & N.W.R. 239

smoke consuming engines 191 locomotives, Coal-burning 84 Dew84 Chanter's system, rance's, 102 ; London & North Beattie, 185 Western, 167 Yorston, 188; Cudworth, 189; Yarrow, 190; Clark, 191; Wilson, Lee and Jacques, 191 ; Douglas Sinclair, 192 192 192 6v Frodsham Coey, R., engines for the G.S. 319 & W.R.' Cork & Muskerry Light Railway ... 324 Combined engines and carriages 130, 136, 224 Clark's

Dean, W., locomotives Great Western Ry

for

the

2S4 "^Devonshire " class, G.W.R. ... 297 Disc wheels 74, 75 Dodd's engines for the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Ry 50 Douglas, coal burning engine 192 Drummond, D., engines for the L. & S.W.R 276 Drummond, D., engines for the Caledonian Ry 288 " Dunalastair," Cal. Ry 285 Dundee & Newtyle Ry. engines ... 57 "Duplex," a two-boiler engine... 158

;

;

;

;

"

Newcastle

Comet," Railway

&

Carlisle

60

Compound locomotives

...

169, 242 249, 316

169 Compressed air locomotive 119 "Cornwall' Cork & Bandon Ry., Adams's 140 light engines on 5

"Caithness," L.

W

Cowan, Cowlairs tion

,

& N.W.R

goods engine rope trac98

incline,

205 225

;

100

on

Crampton, T. R., 75; on the lOft.-wheel. B.G.,

locomotives,

112, 145, 159, Z03

Crewe Works erected Cudworth, I., coal -burning gipes

97 en-

189

Eastern Counties Ry., Hancock's " Essex," locomotive for, 86 compressed air engine, 111 coal burning, 192 ; Sin169 ;

;

;

engines 195 (See also G.E.R.) " Eclipse," Dr. Church's tank engine 82 Eight - wheels - coupled engines, early 195 Eight - wheels - coupled engines, clair's

Webb's Eight-wheel

246 rolling

stock,

the

46

first

"Enfield," carriage

combined engine and 133

England's "Little England" locomotives 141 "Essex," E.C.R Ill Exhaust steam blast (see Hack-, worth) Exhaust steam injector (Davies & Metcalfe's patent) 302 "Experiment" engine frr the L. & M.R 56 "Experiment," L. & N.W.R. ... 243

";;

INDEX.

" Fairfield "

carriage, Fairlie's

combined engine and

B.G " double

bogie

'*

131, 133 en224, 234

gines Fairlie's Railway, Festiniog engines on Fell's steep gradient engines Fletcher's 4-wheel tank engine ... "Folkestone," a Crainpton engine for the S.E.R Four-cylinder engines, L. & N.W.

223 219 201 159

I

323

Great Southern & Western Ry. ... 319 "Great Western," B.G 106 Great Western Ry. locomotives, the original, 66; first trial of, 69 ; table of dimensions, 70 the 10ft. wheel engines, 73, 76 geared-up engines, 77, 79 table of mileage of original engines, 81 ; Gooch's first engines, 90 first engine built at Swindon, 105; "Great Western," 106; trial trips, 107, 108 Galloway's engine, "Iron Duke," 109; first narrow 113 ; gauge engines, 182 ; " Robin Hood," 184 Metropolitan Ry. engines for, 213 ; Dean's designs, 294 to 303 "Grosvenor," L.B. & S.C.R 242 ;

;

248 Railway 276 Four-cylinder engines, S-W.R Fowler, Sir J., "hot-brick" engine 200, 217 French locomotive on the Eastern Counties Ry 195, 207 Fui ne^s Railway Engines', 123,179, 236

,

;

313 to 316

"Fury'' and "Firefly" G.W.R., B.G

classes,

90

Timothy,

Hackworth,

first

en-

10

gine

Galloway's incline climbing experiments 109 Gauge locomotive experiments ... 105 Geared-up engines, B.G. 77, 79, 147 197 Giffard's injector "Gladstone" class, L.B. & S.C. Railway 252 Glasgow & South- Western Ry. 241 locomotives " Globe," the first engine with a 47 steam dome "Goliath,'' Newcastle & Carlisle 61 Railway Gooch, Daniel (see G.W.R.) Gooch, J. V., engines by ... 161, 162 Grand Junction Ry., opening ... 64 Grand Junction Ry. early locomo64 tives 73 "Grasshopper," B.G 93 Gray's expansion gear 102 "Great Britain,'' M'Connell's "Greater Britain," L. & N.W.R. 245 Great Central Ry., Pollitt's en316 gines for Great Eastern Ry., locomotives Eastern Counties also (see Ry. ... 2'6, 217, 249, 255 to 259, 293 enGreat Northern Railway "215" gine, 171 Great Northern Ry. engines, 171, 216,236. 304 to 310 Great North of Scotland Ry. en22P. 310 «o 313 gines Great Northern (Ireland) Ry. en322 gine

Timothy, and the and Darlington Ry.

Hackworth,

Stockton locomotives

Hackworth, GeorgeT Hackworth,

21 Timothy,

" Royal

Timothy,

" Sans-

24

,

32

pareil"

Hackworth, Timothy, and the

ex-

haust steam blast, 24; secret stolen at Rainhill

the

Timothy,

Hackworth, for the S.

"

33

Globe

& D.R

47

Hackworth, Timothy, "Majestic" and Wilberforce " classes " for the S.

& D.R

ram

52, 53

Timothy,

Hackworth, engine,

61

;

"

trunk,

Arrow

Timothy, Hackworth, "Jenny Linds " Timothy, Hackworth,

"

or ...

61

builds

1C4 " Sans-

challenge to R. 150 Stephenson concerning Harrison's patent engines, B.G.... 76 " Harvey Combe " ballast engine 60 Hancock's engine for the Eastern 86 Counties Ry Haigh Foundry engines, B.G. ... 79 157 "Hawthorn'' 52, 59, 156 Hawthorne's engines 10 Hedley (see Blackett) Highland Railway locomotives ... 316 pareil 2," 149;

Historical

locomotives

sold

by 51

potion Holden, tives

J.,

liquid

fuel

locomo254, 316

-

.il"!

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE

324

PABB Holden, J., engines for the G.E.R. 253 Holmes, M., engines for the 253, 277 N.B.R " Hot-brick " locomotive, Fowler's, 200, 217 for Met. Ry Howe and the "link" motion, 105 96; 3-cylinder engine ^9 " Hundred miles an hour!" B.G. engine, wheel Hurricane 10ft. 76, 79 B.G

I Gifford's invention of

Injector,

"Iron Duke"

...197

H3

BG

Inside cylinder locomotive, " Liver4C pool," the first Inside cylinder locomotive extract from the minute books of the L.



& M.R.

same

relating to

4<

... 261 "Inspector," L.B. & S.C.R. Exhibition, 1851, International 156 locomotives at "Invicta," Canterbury & Whit-

stable Ivatt,

Ry

H

44

A.,

engines

the 303 to 309

for

G.N.R

130 bined engine and carriage Liverpool," Crampton's engine 145 for the L. & N.W.R " Link '' Motion, 96 97 Allan's "Liver," Bury's, for L. & M.R.... 52 " Liverpool," the first engine with inside cyclinders and crank axles 40 ,' 44 Liverpool description of Liverpool & Manchester Ry., early locomotives on, 45, 46, 50, 52, 85 Liverpool & Manchester Ry., opening of 46 Liverpool & Manchester Ry., 8-wheel passenger carriage at opening 46 Liverpool & Manchester Ry., Rainhill contest, 28; the comw

;

'

'

'

petitors

"Locomotion,"

30 20

& D.R

S.

London & Birmingham Ry., opening, 82 Bury's engines for ... 82 London, Brighton & S.C.R., Bodmer's engine on 301 ;

"Long

boiler" engines, 94, 103,

London,

Gooch's B.G., "Jason,"' goods engine James and the link motion "Jenny Lind " engines

"Jenny Sharps"

92 96 104, 115 116

234

Johnson, S. W., engines for the 250 Midland Ry

K Kendall, W., 3-cylinder engine ... Kennedy's, James, testimony regarding the first inside cylinder locomotive

"

&

S.C.

Ry.,

262 231

116

London," Crampton's engine the L.

for

&N.W.R

"Lord

of the Isles,"

L. & 169,

S.W.R.

113 115

B.G

locomotives, 187, 194, 202, 207, 231, L. & N.W.R. locomotives, 122, 153, 155, 205, 238, (See also

for the L.C.

& D.R

Brighton

"Jenny Lindsi"

first

"Jinks's Babies"

W., engines

" Little

111, 122, 137

J

Kirtley,

FAGB 141 England" Wonder," Samuels' com-

"Little

162, 226, 240, 2^2 163, 239, 243 281, 321

London & Birmingham Ry.)

London, Tilbury & Southena hail-

way engines

320

M

42

D.R & D.R

"Magnet," S. & " Majestic " class, S.

54 52

Malcolm, B.. engines for the Belfast & Northern Counties Ry. 316 Manson, engines for the G.N. of S. Ry 309 "Mars," B.G 73 " Great McConnell's Britain," . . .

"Lablache"

124 95

"Lambro" Lancashire

&

Yorkshire Ry.

gines

L.B.

&

en234, 280

S.O.R. locomotives, 240,

;

"'Little

Wonder," Festiniog Ry.

counterbalancing experi102 " most powerful ments, 122 N.G. engine," 122; "Mac's " Bloomer's Mangle," 153 155 " 300," 163 " Caithness," 205 Mcintosh, J. F., locomotives for the Caledonian Ry 286 ;

242, 252, 260 L.C. & D.R. locomotives ... 203, 262 " Light locomotives," Samuels' England's 141 130 ; Adams's, 139 253, 285 Liquid fuel locomotives

224

;

;

;

;

INDEX.

325

Ml brick hot Metropolitan Ry., engine for, 200; B.G. engines 214 on, 213; first engines "Meteor," L. & S.W. R 203 " Meteor," Bury's, for the N. & 62 C. Ry packing, first piston Metallic 51 used "Michael Longridge," for the S. & D. Ry 64 Midland Ry., trials of "Jenny Sharps" and " Jenny Linds" on 116 to 118 Midland Ry., Johnson's engines 250 Monkland & Kirkintilloch Ry., first engines on the 50 Murray's, M., engine [see Blenkinsopp] 5

N "Namur," on Crampton's system 112 Narrow gauge engines on the G.W.R., the

182

first

Neilson's type of goods engine... 180

Newcastle

&

Carlisle

&

Carlisle Ry.,

Ry., open-

59

ing of

Newcastle

Tyne

Go-

locomotive

liath

Newcastle Carlisle & "Atlas" locomotive Newcastle & Carlisle "

"

"

61

Ry., 61

Ry.,

locomotive

&

Newcastle

"Eden"

Carlisle

61

Ry.,

locomotive

62

Newcastle & Carlisle Ry., " Meteor " locomotive 62 Norfolk Ry., light engines on ... 140 North British Ry. engines ... 253, 276 North Eastern Ry. locomotives, 249, 252 North London Ry. engines, 191, 226, 230 North Staffordshire Railwav en317 to 31ft gines 308 "No. 266," G.NR "No. 990," G.N.R 306 "Nunthorpe," S. & D.R 193

" Old Coppernob," Furness Ry, the oldest engine now at work 123 Opening of the Canterbury and

Whitstable Railway of the Liverpool and Man-

44

Opening

chester

Ry

46

Opening of the Stockton & Darlington

Ry

47

Opening lisle

of the Newcastle

MM

&

Car-

Ry

59

Opening of the Grand Junction Railway Opening of the Great Western Ry. Opening of the London & Bir-

mingham Ry Opening

of the

64 72 82

London & South-

ampton Ry

85 Opening of the East Kent Ry. ... 195 Opening of the Metropolitan Ry., 213 B.G Opening of the Metropolitan & St. John's

Wood Ry

233

Pambour, on the early L. Ry. engines

& M. 50

Pasey's compressed air locomotive 169 " Patentee," Stephenson's 6-wheel passenger engine for the L. &

M.R



Paton's Cowlairs Incline engine... Pearson's design for a double tank locomotive, 147; 9ft. singles... engines for the Pettigrew, Furnes« Riilway .. "Perseverance," at Rainhill "Planet." L. & M. Ry " Plews," Y.N & B.R Pollitt, H., engines for the Great Central Rv " Precedent " type, L. & N.W. R.

59 98 173

W,

&N.W.R.

"Precursor" tvpe, L. "Pretolea,"

G.E.R

"Premier," B.G "Problem," L. & N.W.R.,

316 37 49 144

316 238 239 255 105

first

engine fitted with the injector... 197 Prvce, H. J., engines for the

230

N.L.R

12

"Puffing Billy"

"Python," L.

"

& S.W.R

Queen-Empress." L.

& N.W.R.

Rainhill locomotive contest, " Cycloped" at the contest, Rainhill locomotive Manumotive carriages at the ... contest, Rainhill locomotive "Perseverance" at the locomotive Rainhill contest, "Rocket" at the

231

246

38

38 37

35

:;; ;

256

EVOLUTION OF THE STEAM LOCOMOTIVE PAGE

Rainhill locomotive " Sanspareil " at the Rainhill locomotive " Novelty " at the

contest

33 contest,

30

paratus Star," B.G Rennie's " Lambro " Ritchie's design for a locomotive "Experiment," L. & Roberts's M.R., with cylinder valves Robertson's steam brake " Rocket," at Rainhill, 35 ; later history "Rocket," Colburn's opinion of her " Rocket," her tubular boiler in-

198 136 95 148

vented by Booth Rocket," awarded the Rainhill

36

"Red

56 97 37 36

Hackworth's trunk engine, the first locomotive in " Royal George," first financially

61

23 19

successful locomotive

"Royal William"

"singles"

G.N.R

236

design for the G.

&

S.W.R

241

Stirling, J., reversing apparatus... 241 Stirling, J., locomotives for the

S.E.R 266 Stockton & Darlington Ry., opening of 20 Stockton and Darlington Railway, "Royal George" 23 Stockton & Darlington Ry. locomotives, 22, 27, 47, 52, 53, 54, 61, 64, 65, 193, 206 234 Stroudley's engines for the L.B. & S.C.R 242, 252 Sturrock, Archibald, apprenticed,

58; "215," G.N.R., 171; and Met. R. 214 condensing engines, 216; steam tenders 217 "Soho" 86 South Eastern Ry., Bodmer's engines on 101 South Eastern Ry., "White Horse of Kent," 111; "Folkestone," 159 Sharp's engines, Cudworth's, 189, 225; 161; Watkin's, 241; Stirling's 266 South Devon Ry. locomotives, B.G 179 "Sunbeam,' S. & D.R 64 " Swiftsure," Forrester's, engine fortheL. &M.R 59 ;

,

36

prize Russia,

for the

P., 8ft. lin.

Stirling, J.,

Ramsbottom's water pick-up ap-

"

PAGE Stirling,

;

S 130 Samuels' "Little Wonder" Rainhill, 33 at "Sanspareil," 34 later history 149 "Sanspareil 2" & Manchester Ry., Sheffield 100, 101 Bodmer's engines on Sheffield & Manchester Ry., " At110 las " 60, 61 Short-stroke engines Sinclair's gines,

smoke 192

;

consuming " singles,"

en-

206

;

217 122 " " 62 Steam organ, fitted to the Tyne 217 Steam tenders Steam blast (see also Hackworth) 24 Stephenson, Geo., & Hackworth, 11, 21, 25, 33 first, 14 Stephenson's engines later third, 16 ; second, 15 tanks.

"Snake"

:

;

types, 26, 27, 35, 43, 46, 49, 50, 51, 56, 59, 60, 64; long 3-cylinder, 105 boiler, 103 ; "A," 105; "White Horse of

194 Kent," 111, double engine Stephenson's, Robt., valve gear, 96 94; link motion Stephenson's, Robt. challenge to, ,

.

150 "Sanspareil 2" Stewart, W., early locomotives by 13 re

Tayleur's short stroke locomotives 60 137, 158 engines, early Taff Valley Ry. engines, 163, 202,

Tank

Ten

feet

BG

driving wheel

engines, 69, 73, 76

"Teutonic," L. & N.W.R "Thunderer," B.G Three-cylinder engines, son & Howe's Three-cylinder engines,

244 77 Stephen-

105

Kendall's 231 "Tiny," Crewe Works, engine ... 209 182 Tosh's goods engine ... 119 Trevithick's, F., "Cornwall" Trevithick, R., inventor of the 1 steam locomotive Trevithick, R., his first railway 2 engine 62 "Tyne," N. & C.R

; ;

INDEX.

327 PAGB

Whishaw on Great Western Ry. Vale of Neath Railway (see Brunei). Valve gears, " Experiment," 57 ; Gray's, "Soho," 86; 93; Dodds & Owen's, 93 ; Stephenlink motion, 96 son's, 94 ;

123

vertical,

;

rotatory,

181

Dubs'

199

"Venus," B.G "Vulcan," B.G.

72, 136

69, 70

W " Wallace,"

Dundee & Arbroath

Railway

82

Water pick-up apparatus, Ramsbottom's

B.G. engines (see Chapter VI., pages 66 to 81) Williams and the "link" motion 96 Wilson's, Ed., system of smoke consuming i9i " Wilberforce," S. & D.R. ...... 53 "William the 4th," and "Queen Adelaide" locomotives 46 Winans' Manumotive carriages at Rainhill 38 Worsdell's compounds 249 " Windcutter," locomotive 274 Wood, N., on Great Western Ry. B.G. engines (see chapter VI., pages 66 to 81) "Wrekin, 151

198

"Welsh Pony," Festiniog Ry. ... 223 Webb, F. W., engines for the L. & N.W.R., " Precedents," 238; "Precursors," 239; compounds, 243 " Greater Britain," 245; 8 wheel-coupled, 246; ;

"Black

Prince"

248

Yarrow's coal-burning engine Yorston's coal-burning engine

"Ysabel"

...

190 188 168

04