The Evolution of the US Internet Peering Ecosystem - North American

The Evolution of the US Internet Peering Ecosystem - North American

The Evolution of the U.S. Internet Peering Ecosystem William B. Norton Co-Founder and Chief Technical Liaison Equinix, Inc. NANOG 31 San Francisco, CA...

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The Evolution of the U.S. Internet Peering Ecosystem William B. Norton Co-Founder and Chief Technical Liaison Equinix, Inc. NANOG 31 San Francisco, CA

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The Evolution of the U.S. Peering Ecosystem

Question 150 Peering Coordinators: How has Peering changed since Telecom Crash?

Foreign Tier 1 ISP enters U.S. and expects peering with all the Tier 1 ISPs -> explain / document motivations of NO Explain Peering Motivations and Behavior, particularly across Internet Regions

The U.S. Peering Ecosystem Internet Regions

The Internet Peering Ecosystem

Definition: Global Internet Peering Ecosystem consists of many Autonomous but interconnected Internet Regions (Countries) Each Internet Region has roughly three classes of organism each with their own position, motivationsÆpredict peering behavior: 1. Tier 1 ISPs 2. Tier 2 ISPs 3. Content Players

NOTE:

reclaiming definitions HERE

Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Model Peering Links

1998 Tier 1 ISP Tier 2 ISP Content

Tier 1 ISP

Def: An ISP that has 3 access to the entire Internet Region routing table , solely through Peering Relationships.

Transit (Downstream) Ge Links Peering Behavior Motivation: “We don’t need any more Peering.” Inclination: Restrictive

SEA

S

A

CHI

U ASH

SJOG LAX

NYC

DAL

ATL

Q C L 8 Interconnection Regions

Upstream Links 1998 Tier 1 ISP Tier 2 ISP Content

Tier 2 ISP Tier 2 ISP Model

Peering Links Def: All non-Tier 1 ISPs 9 (must buy transit)

Ge Transit (Downstream) Links Peering Behavior Motivation: Peer to reduce transit fees, performance Inclination: OpenÆSelective

Sparse Peering

Upstream Links

Model

1998 Tier 1 ISP Tier 2 ISP Content

Content Provider Content Provider Def: ProvideS content, Does not peer, Does not sell transit, Mostly Outbound Traffic

Content Provider

Ge Peering Behavior Motivation: Focus on End-User Experience: generally few netstaff Inclination: No Peering

The Internet Peering Ecosystem

Pre-Crash: 1998

The Internet Peering Ecosystem Pre-Crash : circa 2000

U.S. Internet Region Tier 1 ISPs

1998

Transit

Tier 1 ISP Tier 2 ISP Content

In-group Peering

Tier 2 ISPs

Tier 1 Full Mesh Tier 2 Sparse Mesh Transit $388/Mbps Booming Economy Peering Growth

Content

And then, the crash

BSOD?

No, not that type of Crash…

Not that type of Crash

The Telecom Industry Crash Crash: ’99-’01

Internet Peering Ecosystem Pre-Crash : circa 2000

Five key events led to a drastic disruption in the U.S. Peering Ecosystem: Crash: ’99-’01

1) Tier 1 ISP Bankruptcies Internet Ecosystem 2) The growth of the Peering Used Equipment Market 3) The Upstream Provider for the Cable Companies (@Home) went bankrupt 4) Peer-to-Peer file sharing systems (like Kazaa) grow in popularity, traffic grows exponentially between Access Providers (1.5MB MP3 Æ 700MB AVI files) 5) Transit Prices Drop, Transport Prices Drop

Led to 3 major evolutions Æ A new Organism

Transit (Upstream) Links Cable Company Cable Organism @HOME Handled Internet 2002 30-60 days notice Tier 1 ISP Peering ÆTier 1 Transit Tier 2 ISP Cable Co Content Links Cable Co. 40% Traffic Kazaa 3-5 Gbps of transit Æ Up to 2Gbps of Peering Traffic! Ge Peering Behavior Motivation: Peer to save money, improve performance Inclination: Open-Selective

Sparse (Regional) Peering

U.S. Cable Companies Eyeballs MSO Comcast Time Warner Cox Charter CableVision Shaw (Big Pipe) Rogers Adelphia Bright House Mediacom RCN Insight Cable One Total

Country YE02 Change in 02 USA 3,620,300 1,199,100 USA 2,613,000 1,027,000 USA 1,407,900 524,400 USA 1,180,000 572,300 USA 770,100 263,500 Canada 750,000 ? Canada 650,000 ? USA 610,000 305,900 USA 490,000 159,000 USA 191,000 76,000 USA 160,400 49,800 USA 144,800 56,700 USA 78,100 45,200 12,665,600 4,278,900 12,665,600

Source: The Bridge & Leichtman Research Source: I$P HO$TING ReportMay 2003, Volume VII, Num

AOL is the 800 Pound Gorilla AOL Cable Company

Cable Company

Cable Company

Cable Company

Cable Company Cable Company

Source: The Bridge & Leichtman Research Source: I$P HO$TING ReportMay 2003, Volume VII, Num

T1 ISPs

Evolution #1 Cable Companies Peer Evolution #1 Significant Evolution…

T2 ISPs

Content

1) Volume of traffic is huge 2) Cable Cos Open Peering 3) “Kazaa Effect” amplifies peering benefits

Transit (Upstream) Savvy Links Large Scale

Network Savvy Content Content Providers

2002 Tier 1 ISP Tier 2 ISP Content Cable Co. LSNSCP

Large Scale Player Peering 393 Network SavvyLinks Organism Content Player

Ge Peering Behavior Motivation: Peer to save money, improve performance Inclination: Open

Sparse (Regional) Peering

T1 ISPs

Evolution #2 Large Scale Content Players Peer Significant Evolution…

T2 T2ISPs ISPs

Content Content

1) Volume of traffic is huge 2) Content is Open Peering 3) Improves End-User Experience 4) Leading Players are paving the way …need to move out of Bankrupt colo anyway…

T1 ISPs

Evolution #3 Cable Cos Peer w/Large Scale Content Players Significant Evolution…

T2 ISPs T2 ISPs T2 ISPs

Content Content Content

1) Volume of traffic pulled away from T1s is huge 2) Reduces perceived need for T1s (for local delivery anyway) 3) T1s still needed for distance Æ Content Literally right on the Cable Company Network

Peering Ecosystem Evolution Summary NoPeering Open

Selective

Restrictive

Lg.Content Tier2 ISPs CableCos RBOCs Tier 1 ISPs Foreign ISPs

[email protected]

Questions?