The Gemini Planet Imager:

The Gemini Planet Imager:

The  Gemini  Planet  Imager:     Bruce  Macintosh  (Stanford)         LLNL:  Dave  Palmer,  Lisa  Poyneer,  Brian  Bauman  UC  Berkeley:  James  Grah...

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The  Gemini  Planet  Imager:     Bruce  Macintosh  (Stanford)        

LLNL:  Dave  Palmer,  Lisa  Poyneer,  Brian  Bauman  UC  Berkeley:  James  Graham,  Jason  Wang,  Paul  Kalas  Toronto:  Quinn  Konopacky,  Jerome  Marie,  Max  Millar-­‐Blanchaer   UC  Santa  Cruz:  Don  Gavel,  Daren  Dillon,  Jim  Ward,  Sloane  Wiktorowicz  JPL:  Kent  Wallace,  John  Angione,  Bijan  Nemati,  Chris  Shelton,  Fred  Vescelus  UCLA:  James   Larkin,  Jeff  Chilcote,  Jason  Weiss,  Mike  Fizgerald,  Evan  Kress  Gemini:  Stephen  Goodsell,  Markus  Hartung,  Kayla  Harding,  Brian  Wolf,  Carlos  Quiroz,  Fredrik  Rantakyro,   Pascale  Hibon,  Andrew  Cardwell,  Markus  Hartung,  Gaston  Gausachs,  Ramon  Galves   HIA:  Les  Saddlmyer,  Jennifer  Dunn,  Dan  Kerley,  Kris  Kaputa,  Andre  Anthony,  Christian  Marois,  Zach  Draper,  Darren  Erikson,  Jenny  Atwood,  Malcolm  Smith,  Alexis  Hill,   Vlad  Reshitov,  John  Pazder  AMNH/STScI/JHU:  B.R.  Oppenheimer,  Remi  Soummer,  Anand  Sivaramakrishnan,  Lauret  Puyeo  Marshall  Perrin,  Schuyler  Wolfe,  Alex   Greenbaum      Stanford:  Patrick  Ingraham  Other:  Dmitry  Savransky,  Sandrine  Thomas,  Franck  Marchis,  Katie  Morzinski,  Rene  Doyon,  Simon  Thibaut  ASU:  Abi  Rajan,   Joanna  Bulger,  Jennifer  Patience,  Rob  deRosa  

   

and  the  GPIES  Consortium:  

  Jonathan  Aguilar,  S.  Mark  Ammons,  Pauline  Arriaga,  Etienne  Artigau,  Travis  Barman,  Steve  Beckwith,  James  Brewster,  Sebastian  Bruzzone,  Joanna  Bulger,   Ben  Burningham,  Adam  S.  Burrows,  Christine  Chen,  Eugene  Chiang,  Jeffrey  K.  Chilcote,  Rebekah  I.  Dawson,  Robert  J.  De  Rosa,  Ruobing  Dong,  René   Doyon,  Zachary  H.  Draper,  Gaspard  Duchêne,  Thomas  M.  Esposito,  Daniel  Fabrycky,  Michael  P.  Fitzgerald,  Katherine  B.  Follette,  Jonathan  J.  Fortney,   Benjamin  Gerard,  James  R.  Graham,  Alexandra  Z.  Greenbaum,  Pascale  Hibon,  Sasha  Hinkley,  Tara  Hufford,  Li-­‐Wei  Hung,  Patrick  Ingraham,  Mara  Johnson-­‐ Groh,  Paul  Kalas,  Quinn  Konopacky,  David  Lafreniere,  James  E.  Larkin,  Samantha  Lawler,  Jinhee  Lee,  Michael  Line,  Douglas  Long,  Bruce  Macintosh,  Jerome   Maire,  Franck  Marchis,  Mark  S.  Marley,  Christian  Marois,  Brenda  C.  Matthews,  Stanimir  Metchev,  Max  Millar-­‐Blanchaer,  Tushar  Mittal,  Caroline  V.  Morley,   Katie  M.  Morzinski,  Ruth  Murray-­‐Clay,  Eric  L.  Nielsen,  Rebecca  Oppenheimer,  David  W.  Palmer,  Rahul  Patel,  Jenny  Patience,  Marshall  D.  Perrin,  Lisa  A.   Poyneer,  Laurent  Pueyo,  Roman  R.  Rafikov,  Abhijith  Rajan,  Julien  Rameau,  Fredrik  T.  Rantakyrö,  Emily  Rice,  Patricio  Rojo,  Jean-­‐Baptiste  Ruffio,  M.  T.  Ruiz,   Maissa  Salama,  Didier  Saumon,  Dmitry  Savransky,  Adam  C.  Schneider,  Anand  Sivaramakrishnan,  Inseok  Song,  Rémi  Soummer,  Sandrine  Thomas,  Gautam   Vasisht,  J.  Kent  Wallace,  Jason  J.  Wang,  Kimberly  Ward-­‐Duong,  Sloane  J.  Wiktorowicz,  Schuyler  G.  Wolff,  Ben  Zuckerman  

 

?  

Directly imaged planets (a subset)

HR 8799 bcde GJ 504 b

Beta Pic b HD 95086 b

Fomalhaut b

Known  extrasolar  planets  

Planet Mass (MEarth)

1000

100

10

1 0.01

RV only Transit only Transit+RV Microlensing Direct Imaged

0.10 1.00 10.00 100.00 Semi-major axis (AU)

Characterized  extrasolar  planets  

Planet Mass (MEarth)

1000

100

10

1 0.01

Transit Spec Sec. Eclipse Direct Imaged

0.10 1.00 10.00 100.00 Semi-major axis (AU)

Imaging  self-­‐luminous  planets  

First-­‐gen  AO  

High-­‐entropy   GPI  goal  

Low-­‐entropy  core   accretion  models   Marley  et  al  2007  

Key  questions  in  imaging  extrasolar  planet  studies   •  What  is  the  mass  and  orbital  radius  distribution?     • 

Can  we  overlap  measurements  with  Doppler  and  microlensing?    

•  What  are  the  properties  of  planetary  atmospheres?   • 

When  does  the  cloudy  -­‐>  methane  transition  occur?  

• 

What  are  planetary  metallicities  and  abundances?    

•  What  are  the  formation  mechanisms?   • 

Do  planets  start  at  high  or  low  entropy?  

• 

Do  planets  exist  at  1-­‐2  MJ  and  5-­‐20  AU  separations?      

Gemini Planet Imager: 2003-2013 Super-­‐smooth  optics   reduce  scattered   starlight    

Infrared  integral  field  spectrograph  (UCLA   &  U.  Montreal)  makes  images  and  spectra   of  planets   Mechanical  structure  and   top-­‐level  software  (NRC   Canada)  holds  and   connects  subsystems  

Infrared   calibration  sensor   (JPL)  measures   small  systematic   erorrs  

Adaptive  optics  system   (LLNL)  corrects  for   atmospheric   turbulence  and  optical   imperfections   Coronagraph  masks   (AMNH)  block   diffracted  light  from   the  star    

GPI  installation  October  2013  

“First  Light”  November  11-­‐17  2013  

GPI  operated  right  out  of  the  box  

Beta  Pictoris  

GPI  image  of  Beta  Pictoris  b  

GPI  data  pipeline  

User-­‐friendly  reduction,  calibration,  &  analysis  

available  open  source  for  users  to  perform  their  own  publication-­‐quality   calibrated  reductions.  Actively  maintained  by  GPI  team    ~80k  lines  of  code   Rene  Doyon,  Jerome  Maire,  Marshall  Perrin,  Patrick  Ingraham,  et  al.  

Massive  planet  orbiting  Beta  Pictoris  b   GPI 2013 60 sec GPIHHBand BandNov. November 2013

Calibration spots

N 0.4"

E

Gemini Planet Imager Gemini NICI (previous generation) 1980 3952 seconds 60 seconds

Reaction  

Beta  Pictoris  b  2013-­‐2015  

18

Beta  Pictoris  b  orbit     Millar-Blanchaer et al. et  al  2015)   (Millar-­‐Blanchaer   ,  Graham   E<0.06  P=21  years  

Fig. 7.— The RA (blue) and DEC (red) o↵sets of

Pic b from

Pic for a random selection of 100 accepted orbits (dotted lines) from

Beta  pic  disk  polarimetry   Pic’s inclined disk in polarized light

13

Fig. 1.— Left: The Pic debris disk in tangential polarized intensity, Qr from observations with GPI’s polarimetry mode. The disk image has been rotated so that the midplane of the outer disk (P.A.= 29.1 ; black dashed horizontal line) is horizontal. The star’s location and Pic b’s location are marked by the magenta ⇥ and black circle, respectively. Center : The Qr image with polarization vectors overplotted. Though the centrosymmetric nature of the polarization is captured in the transformation to the radial stokes images, this image serves to emphasize this behavior. Right: The radial polarized intensity, Ur from the same datacube as the image on the left, shown at the same color scale. For circumstellar material, the polarization is expected to be tangential and this images therefore provides an estimation of the noise in the disk image.

TABLE 1 GPI observations of

Pic Pic b

Observing

Exposure

Parallactic

Beta  pic  geometry  –  planet  not  aligned  with  disks   20

Millar-Blanchaer et al.

GPI  first  disk  discovery:  Currie  et  al.  2015  

GPI  

NICI  

HR4796  Polarimetry  (Perrin  et  al  2014,  Arriaga  et  al.  in  prep)   GPI,  K  band  

Radiative  Transfer  Disk  Models  

Total  Intensity  

Hubble  STIS,  0.2-­‐1.0  µm  

Polarized  Intensity  

Schneider  et  al.  2009  

Perrin  et  al.  2015  

Arriaga  et  al.  in  prep  

Small  dust  particles,   amorphous  silicates   (Rayleigh  scattering)  

Large  dust  particles,   silicates  +  iron  mixture   (Fresnel  scattering)  

Disk  Gallery   HD  32297   KLIP/ADI  -­‐  Tot  

Pol  

HD  61005  

HD  15115  

Esposito+,  in  prep  

Pol  

V4046  Sgr  

KLIP/ADI  -­‐  Tot  

KLIP/ADI  -­‐  Tot  

Spec  

HD  115600  

Rapson+,  2015  

KLIP/ADI  -­‐  Tot  

PDS  66  

Wolff+,  in  prep  

Pol  

Currie+,in  press  

HD  100546  

Pol  

AU  Mic   Wang+,  submitted  

HD  xxxxxx   Kalas+,  in  prep  

Pol  

HR  4796A   Perrin+  2015,  Arriaga+,  in  prep   HD  141569   Pol   KLIP/ADI  

Pol  

Beta  Pic  

Millar-­‐Blanchaer  +,  in  prep  

Pol  

GPI’s%37%Hz%poin3ng%vibra3on%is%fixed%by%LQG GPI’s%37%Hz%poin3ng%vibra3on%is%fixed%by%LQG Life  at  Gemini:  37  Hz  vibration  

January  2015    

January  2015  with  LQG      

LQG(off( LQG(off( LQG(on( at  37  hz   •  Telescope   developed  20-­‐50  mas  of  tip/tilt  LQG(on( vibration   Image(obviously(blurred Image(obviously(blurred

Crisp(image;(lihle(leakage Crisp(image;(lihle(leakage

•  GPI  LQG/Kalman  controller  adapted  to  correct  this  (at   reduced  stability  margin)    

%L SA %LWARWE R N EC NE %CLEI %VL EI R E %RNE A% N T IAOT NI O AN L %AL LA% BL O OT PI CT SI C VM E ROMR O AR BA O TR OA RT YO % R Y %

Contrast  curves  vs   NICI  

GPI  exoplanet  gallery   HR  8799  cde    

1/2  hour  Combined    sequence   ADI  +  SDI  via  TLOCI    

Beta  Pic  b   HD  95086  b  

Galicher  et  al.   2014  

Macintosh  et  al.   2014  

PZ  Tel  

GOI-­‐2  

GOI-­‐2  spectrum  –  methane-­‐dominated  

GPIES  exoplanet  discovery:  51  Eridani  b   •  Star:  20  Myr  (β  pic   moving  group)  F0  star   at  29  pc   •  Observed  by  GPI   December  2015   •  T=650  K,  L  2x10-­‐6   •  P  (background)  <  10-­‐5   •  Mass  2  Jupiter  masses   (hot-­‐start)   •  Projected  sep.  13  AU   Image  analysis  by  Julian  Rameau,  Christian  Marois,  Laurent  Puyeo,  Jason  Wang  

51,Eri,b GQ,Lup,b

Mass:# Hot,start,—,M,=,~2,MJup, Cold,start,—,M,=,2E12,MJup

2M,1207b beta,Pic,b HR,8799,bcde

51#Eri#b

Figure  by  Rob  deRosa  

Marley+07

GPI:  future   •  Science  operations  –   campaign,  queue  and   long-­‐program   •  Continuing  small-­‐scale   upgrades  and   performance   evaluations   •  Proposals  for  larger   upgrades  –  faster  and   lower-­‐noise  CCD  

We  would  especially  like  to  recognize  the   unique  contributions  of  Gary  Sommargren,   Steven  Varlese,  Christopher  Lockwood,   Russell  Makidon,  Murray  Fletcher,  and  Vincent   Fesquet,  who  passed  away  during  the  course   of  this  project.