The Home Front During World War II

The Home Front During World War II

Name Date REVIEW CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARD 11.7.5 The Home Front During World War II Specific Objective: Understand the constitutional issues an...

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Name

Date

REVIEW CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARD 11.7.5

The Home Front During World War II

Specific Objective: Understand the constitutional issues and impact of events on the U.S. home front, including the internment of Japanese Americans and the restrictions on German and Italian resident aliens; the response of the administration to Hitler’s atrocities against Jews and other groups; the roles of women in military production; and the roles and growing demands of African Americans. Read the summary to answer questions on the next page.

Copyright © McDougal Littell/Houghton Mifflin Company

Internment of Japanese Americans • In 1941, 120,000 Japanese Americans lived in United States, most on West Coast. Most were citizens; many Japanese Americans were serving in the army. • In February, 1942, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 on advice of the military requiring removal of people of Japanese ancestry from California and other areas. • The army rounded up 110,000 people and interned them at prison camps (relocation centers). No specific charges were ever filed against them; there was no proof of sabotage. In 1944, the Supreme Court ruled internment legal for military necessity (Korematsu v. United States.) The decision is now considered a national embarrassment. In 1976, President Ford repealed Executive Order 9066. Racial and Ethnic Tensions • Race problems occurred throughout the war, with riots in summer of 1943. “Zoot-suit” riots occurred in Los Angeles between young Mexican Americans (wearing suits with baggy trousers and long coats) and white sailors and civilians. Riots in Detroit between African Americans and whites required federal troops. • Nazis began attacks on Jews and others they considered inferior during late 1930s. German Jews tried to emigrate to escape. The United States and other countries stopped allowing Jewish immigration about 1939. Roosevelt refused further entry because the Depression was still strong and he didn’t want more competition for jobs. Many Americans were anti-Semitic and feared plots by enemy agents. Women at Work • After proving their abilities, over 6 million women worked in defense industries. Rosie the Riveter was a symbol of women’s abilities to do new types of jobs. • Women were paid only about 60% of men’s wages for doing the same job. Some Progress for African Americans • To avoid a huge protest march in 1944, Roosevelt signed an order for equal access to defense jobs. • More than 2 million African Americans worked in defense industries, although many were limited to cleaning or other menial jobs.

CSS Specific Objective 11.7.5: Review 99

Name

Date

PRACTICE CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARD 11.7.5

The Home Front During World War II

Directions: Choose the letter of the best answer.

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What was the main constitutional issue raised by the Japanese internment during World War II?

How did African Americans gain more access to defense industry jobs during World War II?

A

Illegal immigrants were deported without a hearing.

A

General Eisenhower persuaded companies to hire them.

B

Asian immigrants were not allowed to become citizens.

B

Roosevelt persuaded Congress to pass a bill that guaranteed equal access.

C

American citizens were denied the right to hold peaceful protests.

C

D

American citizens were denied due process of law.

Roosevelt signed an order for equal access after they threatened a large protest.

D

Business leaders like Henry Ford showed other owners that equal access was a good policy.

Which best describes the Supreme Court decision handed down in Korematsu v. United States (1944)? A

B

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It stated that persons of Japanese ancestry but born in the United States were not to be confined in relocation centers. It declared the internment of Japanese Americans to be legal as a matter of military necessity.

C

It provided for financial compensation to Japanese for losses suffered during their confinement.

D

It repealed Roosevelt’s executive order requiring the removal of Japanese Americans to internment camps.

The United States suspended Jewish immigration around 1939. One reason was that A

other countries took them in.

B

the Supreme Court decided all new immigrants had to speak English.

C

there was fear of competition for jobs during the Depression.

D

they preferred to go to Canada.

100 CSS Specific Objective 11.7.5: Practice

6

What did the African-American and Hispanic-American experiences during World War II have in common? A

increased racial hostilities

B

relocation to internment camps

C

widespread integration into American society

D

key roles and top positions in the American military

American women who worked in defense industries during World War II performed A

more menial jobs than men but were paid more.

B

easier jobs than men, and were paid about equally.

C

the same jobs as men, and were paid about equally.

D

the same jobs as men but were paid less.

Copyright © McDougal Littell/Houghton Mifflin Company

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