The March – A Quick Reference Guide An Overview of Interpretation, Performance Guide and Historical Practices The Fillmore Wind Band, Cincinnati, Ohio Jim Daughters, Conductor, Fillmore Wind Band Stephen Lytle, Associate Director of Bands, Miami University Cody Birdwell, Director of Bands, University of Kentucky
TYPES OF MILITARY MARCHING • Funeral March ♩ = 72 • Slow/Ordinary March ♩ = 60-80 • Quick March ♩ = 116-120 • Double Quick March
EUROPEAN MARCHES • British • German • Spanish paso doble • Italian • French
♩ = 108 ♩ = 104-112 ♩ = 108 ♩ = 116 ♩ = 126
MARCH MUSIC TYPES • Military Marches ♩ = 112-144 ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF A MARCH • Circus Marches ♩ = 140-170 • Tone Quality • Gallops can reach ♩ = 240 • Technical Accuracy • Funeral Marches ♩ = 60-72 • Tempo • Patrols (simulate the sound of a band marching past a listener, coming and going) • Interpretation
MARCH STYLE (with much credit to John Whitwell) • Heart of the March – bass line, tuba, bass drum, horns, percussion • “Lilt” – 1212 (this alone will transform the style and feel of your march) • Tempo – choose a tempo appropriate for the style of march you are performing • Rhythm – master common rhythm figures and sustain notes for their duration • Accentuation – accentuation can improve the interpretation and effectiveness of a march • Dynamics – not too loud in the percussion section • Musicality – shape and balance the heart, melody, counter melody, and obbligato MARCH EDITIONS Many editions of marches were published in street or flip folder (music lyre) size. These are generally printed in tutti with all members are playing at all times. This was done to conserve printing space and so any sized group, from small circus bands, military parade bands, or large symphonic bands, might use them. Many concert marches, particularly those in large-page editions, are scored in a way to give adequate expression and tonal color when played strictly how they are printed. Current editions of the earlier street size marches may or may not include tonal variety and revoicing. Other edits in these editions can include the editors’ interpretation of accents, dynamics, phrasing, etc. Many original publications are listed under “marching band” in music catalogues. WHAT YOU CAN CHANGE IN A MARCH Change dynamics in entire strains or parts of strains in addition to octave registration. Add accents to agree with your own aural perception of how you want to hear it played. Sing through the march then mark it for style, accentuation, and phrasing. Alter percussion parts if necessary, keeping in mind that most march composers were not percussionists. Flutes, for example, can transition to piccolo in different parts of a strain or bells could be added to a melody. Add or delete voices to change colors and to bring out unique textures. Brass players can and should rest more often. Include a separate pair of cymbals to accentuate special accents in the music. Have students memorize parts of a strain and stand up, e.g. the final strain of the march. Try using a field drum rather than a snare for a more historically accurate performance. WHAT YOU CANNOT CHANGE IN A MARCH While having a unique interpretation is recommended, a detached style is necessary. Legato playing, if opportunistic, can be used in the trio section. Do not play the entire march in a legato or tenuto style; always detached. Maintain a steady tempo throughout and remain true to the melodic, harmonic and rhythmic aspects of the march.
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INTERPRETATION March manuscripts rarely contain the interpretations of the composer and composers often assumed bandmasters knew march style and did not bother with stylistic markings, dynamics, revoicings or registral alterations. Additionally, many composers rehearsed and performed their own music and as Henry Fillmore stated, “I didn’t know how I wanted it to sound until I got in front of the band.” There is no one way to play any march and you should arrive at a convincing interpretation on your own. Dr. Harry Begian perhaps summed it up best in a presentation at the Midwest Clinic in 1999, We should not think of marches as musical items that are sacrosanct and that there is only one ‘true’ style or interpretation of any march! If symphony orchestra conductors don’t all COPY one another and perform the great symphonic literature with a prescribed style, tempo and nuances then why should band conductors not figure things out for themselves and come up with their own musical convictions as to how they want to play a march! I can truthfully say that those band-conductor colleagues whom I consider great march-stylists reflect their personal musical tastes to any march they perform and never copy someone else’s interpretation. I think it truly unfortunate that there are too many band conductors who either don’t arrive at musical convictions regarding style, tempo or nuances or must always rely on some else’s way of playing a piece of music. One of the greatest challenges to conductors is to be able to study a score diligently and to come up with an interpretation of that score that is convincing, not only to him, but to his players and audiences as well. I think that is the true test of the quality of a conductor, certainly NOT how well he can copy another conductor’s interpretation!
GENERAL DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH STRAIN Avoid dull performances by changing dynamics on repeated strains, particularly in second and break strains. • Introduction – usually loud, forte or fortissimo. • First Strain – less loud, mezzo forte, usually played as written. • Second Strain – usually the loudest strain in a march. Vary dynamics in this strain, softer the first time and louder on the repeat. Try eliminating brass the first time. • Trio Strain – softest strain of the march, piano to mezzo forte. Play legato if stylized that way. • Break Strain – loud and technically involved, usually played as written. • Repeated Trio Strain – loud and played out. Trio tune is played softly with emphasis and forte volume on the countermelody and/or obbligato. • Stinger – in the style and volume of the last strain. HENRY FILLMORE MARCHES AND SMEARS (We are the Fillmore Wind Band after all...) Fillmore generally liked his marches performed much faster than a traditional military march. He stated, “my marches sit well at ♩ = 160 and the smears at ♩ = 120.” He composed under several pseudonyms and each represents a difficulty level. Marches by Harold Bennett are non-progressive and great for middle school bands. If you can play one, you can play them all. Al Hayes and Will Huff marches are a little more difficult and same in difficulty level. Henry Fillmore marches can be the easiest or the most difficult. Fillmore typically wrote two percussion parts, one for concert settings and one for marching. TYPICAL COMMENTS AT ASSESSMENTS REGARDING MARCHES • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
The march selected has no special character. There is a lack of care in preparation. The march did not have the same meticulous attention to detail as other concert selections. Rhythms are not clearly defined. Eighth notes in triple time are played too close together with a space between each grouping of three notes – this causes a ‘hopping’ effect. Accompaniment figures in triple time sound like they are in duple time. Accompaniment figures in duple time sound like they are in triple time. Harmony parts are not confident and clear. Preserve the balance of the band at all dynamic levels. Keep the tone under control at all dynamic levels. Do not depend on upper clarinets for fortissimo effects. Paying more attention to accents can liven up the march. Make a musical sound on the stinger rather than a noise. It is the space between notes, which makes a march lively and spirited rather than the rate of speed it is being performed. You cannot attack one tone before releasing the one preceding it. There is little variation in the intensity of the beat from the bass drum to conform to the spirit of others in the band. Do not allow the band to rush away with the tempo. Grandioso means a change in style, not a change in tempo.
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SELECTED MARCH LIST OF HARRY BEGIAN AND WILLIAM REVELLI
AMERICAN Americans We Barnum and Bailey’s F. Battle of Shiloh Battle of the Winds Battle Royal Boys of the Old Brigade Bravura Brighton Beach March The British Eighth The Caravan Club Chicago Tribune Chimes of Liberty The Circus Bee The Circus King Colossus of Columbia The Director General El Capitan Emblem of Freedom E. Pluribus Unum The Free Lance From Topic to Topic Gentry’s Triumphal Golden Friendships Golden Jubilee The Goldman Band Hands Across the Sea His Honor Honey Boys on Parade Independentia In Storm and Sunshine Joyce’s 71 N.Y. Regiment The Klaxon Military Escort National Emblem Olympia Hippodrome On the Mall The Outlook The Purple Carnival Quality Plus Ringling Bros. Grand Entry Robinson Grand Entrée Rolling Thunder Revelation The Royal Decree Sarasota The Southerner Tenth Regiment Washington Grays
H. Fillmore K. King C. Barnhouse C. Duble F. Jewell C. Smit C. Duble W. Latham Z. Elliot K. King P. Chambers E.F. Goldman H. Fillmore C. Duble R. Alexander F. Jewell J.P. Sousa K. King F. Jewell J.P. Sousa R. Alexander F. Jewell H. Fillmore J.P. Sousa K. King J.P. Sousa H. Fillmore E. Cupero R.B. Hall J.C. Heed T. Boyer H. Fillmore H. Bennett E. Begley R. Alexander E.F. Goldman F. Jewell H. Alford F. Jewell A. Sweet K .King H. Fillmore P. Chambers W. English K. King R. Alexander R.B. Hall C.S. Grafulla
SPANISH Corazon Gitano El Abanico El Relicario Espana Cani Flores de Espana Gallito Gerona The Golden Ear La Calesera La Sorella Lola Flores Pepita Greus Sol y Sombra
M. Domingo A. Javaloyes J. Padilla P. Marquina P. Chovi S. Lope S. Lope M. San Miguel F. Alonso C. Borel-Clerc T. Tucci P. Chovi G. Gates
ENGLISH Army and Marine Army of the Nile B.B. and C.F. The Contemptiblea Dunedin The Elephant The Middy Pentland Hills Punchinello Sons of the Brave Trafalgar The Vanished Army K. Alford GERMAN AND AUSTRIAN Action Front Alte Kameraden The Conqueror Duetschmeister Entry of the Gladiators Florentiner In Treue Fest Nibelungen Radetzky Die Regimentskinder Thrill of Victory Under the Double Eagle Wien Bleibt Wien
W. Zehle K. Alford J. Ord Hume L. Stanley K. Alford J. Ord Hume K. Alford J. Howe W. Rimmer T. Bidgood W. Zehle
H. Blankenburg C. Teike C. Teike D. Ertl J. Fucik J. Fucik C. Teike G. Sonntag J. Strauss J. Fucik F. Fuhrer J. Wagner J. Schrammel
OTHER NON-AMERICAN MARCHES Athletic Festival S. Prokofiev March of the Belgian Paratrp. P. Leemans Corrida D. Savino March Electric G. Creatore Inglesina D. DellaCese Le Regiment de Sambre et Muse R. Planquette Laurentian L. Ganne Le Grognard G. Pares March Lorraine L. Ganne Pere de la Victoire L. Ganne Sambre et Meuse R. Planquette Symphonic March E. Rivela Symphonic March G. Bonelli Valdres J. Hanseen CONCERT MARCHES Crusade for Freedom The Dam Busters The Golden Bear Hail Miami Hail to the Fleet Marche Hongroise Montmarte The Sinfonians Stars and Bars March Symphonic Metamorphosis Vilabella World is Waiting for the Sunrise American Salute Children’s March Golden Cockerel
J. Richards E. Coates J. Richards J. Richards R. Maltby H. Berlioz H. Wood C. Williams R. Jager
STREET MARCHES The Billboard Black Jack Dallas Kiefer’s Special Men of Ohio Officer of the Day On the Square Punjaub Show-boy Salutation St. Julien Them Basses The Trombone King United Services
J. Klohr F. Huffer R.B. Hall W. Kiefer H. Fillmore R.B. Hall L. Panella C. Payne W. Huff R. Seitz A.W. Hughes G. Huffine K. King J. Ord-Hume
RECOMMEND RECORDINGS William Revelli with the University of Michigan Symphony Band H. Robert Reynolds with the University of Michigan Symphonic Band Harry Begian with the University of Illinois Symphonic Band Military Bands PUBLISHED RESOURCES Bachman, Harold. "Henry Fillmore: A Tribute to a Bandman." Begian, Harry. "Behold the Lowly March." Bierley, Paul E. Hallelujah Trombone! Bierley, Paul E. The Incredible Band of John Philip Sousa. Chevallard, Philip C. Teaching Music through Performing Marches. Edited by Richard B. Miles. Goldman, Edwin Franko. Band Betterment; Suggestions and Advice to Bands, Bandmasters, and Band-players. Hansen, Richard K. The American Wind Band: A Cultural History. Pryor, Arthur. “How To Play A March.” Ryder, Donald Dean. “The March Compositions of the Goldman Library.” DMA Diss. Smith, Norman. March Music Melodies. Smith, Norman. March Music Notes. Smith, Norman. Program Notes for Band. Sousa, John Philip. Marching Along.
ONLINE RESOURCES "The Complete Marches of John Philip Sousa." "The President's Own" Marine Band. www.marineband.marines.mil Brion, Keith. “Sousa’s Marches, As He Conducted Them.” www.newsousaband.com Daughters, Jim.“Quick Reference Guide to Marches.” www.fillmorewindband.org
P. Hindemith M. Williams H. Alford M. Gould P. Grainger N. R-Korsakov
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FILLMORE WIND BAND Jim Daughters, conductor Dr. Stephen Lytle, associate conductor
Flute Kirsten Grimsley | Cincinnati, OH MA, College of Mount St. Joseph Jodi Smith | Cincinnati, OH BMME, Bowling Green State University Natalie Smith | Florence, KY BA, Denison University Oboe Nick Marques | Milford, OH Undergraduate, CCM Molly Terrill | Middletown, OH BMME, Miami University Jacob Vidourek | Cincinnati, OH MA, University of Oklahoma Bassoon Donald Forman | Charlestown, WV Undergraduate, CCM Brian Theis | Cincinnati, OH NA, Northern Kentucky University Eb Clarinet David Cramer | Covington, KY Undergraduate, Northern Kentucky University Bb Clarinet Randell Bertsche | Hebron, KY Undergraduate, CCM Sean Carey | Jonesboro, AR BA, CCM Bonnie Hugus | Ft. Wright, KY BSN, MHS Texas Weselyan University Geoff Miller | Virginia Beach, VA MM, Northwestern University Terence Milligan | Cincinnati, OH DMA, University of Texas at Austin Gayle Riemer | Edgewood, KY MA, University of Cincinnati Nick Troehler | Milford, OH BMME, CCM Contrabass Clarinet Kenton Venskus | Lorton, VA Undergraduate, CCM
Soprano Saxophone Brett Thaman | Hebron, KY Undergraduate, Northern Kentucky University Alto Saxophone Brandon Boone | Union, KY Undergraduate, CCM Christina Butsch | Independence, KY BMME, Eastern Nazarene College Brad Howard | Independence, KY MM, Eastern Kentucky University Cory Jones | Lexington, KY Undergraduate, University of Kentucky Tenor Saxophone Sean Reeves | Kingsport, TN BA, Xavier University Baritone Saxophone Jason McElroy | Cincinnati, OH MM, Miami University Trumpet George Carpten | Memphis, TN DMA, CCM Michael Cotten | Burlington, KY BMME, University of Kentucky Tim Dailey | Walton, KY DMA, CCM Jennifer Grant | Cincinnati, OH BS, Northern Kentucky University Chris Hedges | Dry Ridge, KY MM, Morehead State University Zachary Paulus | Point Pleasant, NJ BS, CCM Trombone Ben Loyer | St. Marys, OH BME, CCM Alex McCoy | Cincinnati, OH Undergraduate, CCM Richard Mitchell | Troy, OH Undergraduate, CCM Dan Stenger | Walton, KY MA, Northern Kentucky University
Horn Jacob Carpenter | Milford, OH BMME, University of Kentucky Jordan Hensly | Cincinnati, OH BA, Northern Kentucky University Bethany Howard | Florence, KY MA, University of Cumberlands Ron Lutterbie | Blue Ash, OH Vice President, Fifth Third Bank Nathan Minor | Athens, GA BA, CCM Andrea Reupert | Milford, OH MM, CCM Elise Schowalter | Ft. Wright, KY MM, CCM Bass Trombone Conrad Krieger | Cincinnati, OH Undergraduate, Northern Kentucky University Matt Phillips | Alexandria, KY BMME, Northern Kentucky University Euphonium Stewart Blatt | Liberty Township, OH BMME, Bowling Green State University Eric Knechtges | Cincinnati, OH DM, Indiana University Tuba Kyle Hurst | Independence, KY BM, University of Kentucky Mark Quintero | Cincinnati, OH MM, Miami University Percussion Brandon Dittgen | Cincinnati, OH BMME, Morehead State University Ian Stokes | Fort Thomas, KY BS, Northern Kentucky University Albin Waldbillig III | Cincinnati, OH BA, College of Mount St. Joseph
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