The Renaissance

The Renaissance

Renaissance Politics and Economics 1 Setting the Stage for the Renaissance: Economics Revival of trade: 11th century • Improved agricultural techni...

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Renaissance Politics and Economics

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Setting the Stage for the Renaissance: Economics Revival of trade: 11th century • Improved agricultural techniques • Population increase • New trade routes • Improved transportation A Renaissanceera moneychanger 2

Setting the Stage for the Renaissance: Politics • • • • •

City-states Communes New economic elite The popolo Oligarchies and dictatorships • Condottieri A group of condottieri 3

Italian City-States

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Milan • The Visconti family • Territorial expansion

Milanese ruler Gian Galeazzo Visconti

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The Sforza Family • Ruled Milan, 1450–1535 • Francesco Sforza (1401– 1466) • War with Venice (1450) and Peace of Lodi (1454) • Ludovico Sforza (1451– 1508)

Francesco Sforza 6

Venice • Major center of trade • Doge • Merchant oligarchy

Customs House and entrance to the Grand Canal (Venice) 7

War Between Venice and Genoa

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Venice in the 15th Century • Mainland expansion • Constantinople • The Ottoman Turks

“The Capture of Constantinople” by Renaissance 9 artist Jacopo Tintoretto

Florence • Center of banking and textiles • Bankers for the papacy • The gold florin • Nominally a republic, but controlled by an oligarchy of bankers and merchants

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The Medici Family • Powerful bankers • Ruled Florence for most of the 15th century • Cosimo de Medici • Patrons of the arts

Cosimo de Medici 11

Lorenzo de Medici • Grandson of Cosimo • Assumed power in 1469 at age 20 • “Lorenzo the Magnificent” • The Pazzi consipracy • War against Rome and Naples

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Savonarola • Dominican friar • Preached against Florence’s “sinfulness” and “immorality” • Expulsion of the Medici (1494) • Bonfire of the Vanities • Hanged and burned

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Rome and the Papal States • Renaissance popes: both religious and political leaders • During the Renaissance, the Papacy became more political and secular

A distant view of Vatican City in Rome

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Popes and the Arts During the Renaissance

Pope Nicholas V

Interior view of the Sistine Chapel 15

Papal Politics During the Renaissance

Pope Sixtus IV

Pope Alexander VI

Pope Julius II 16

Pope Sixtus IV (1471–1484) • Member of the della Rovere family • Favoritism towards relatives • Pazzi conspiracy • Encouraged Venice to attack Ferrara

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Pope Alexander VI (1492–1503) • Member of the Borgia family • One of the most corrupt and immoral popes • Put his son Cesare in charge of papal armies

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Pope Julius II (1503–1513) • Member of the della Rovere family • The “warrior pope” • Restored territories in Romagna, Perugia, and Bologna to the Papal States • Orchestrated wars against Venice and France

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Cesare Borgia (1475–1507) • • • •

Son of Pope Alexander VI Campaigns in Romagna Admired by Machiavelli Power declined after the death of Alexander

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Naples • Only kingdom in Italy during the Renaissance • Vassal state of Rome • More feudal than other city-states • King Alfonso (1396– 1458) • King Ferdinand I (also known as Ferrante; 1458–1494) Statue depicting the coronation of the Neapolitan king Ferdinand I 21

Exploration and Trade • Marco Polo • Quest for sea routes to the East • Portuguese traders

Marco Polo at the court of Kublai Khan

• The African “Gold Coast” • Vasco da Gama • The spice trade

Vasco da Gama

• Christopher Columbus 22

The “Black Death”

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Patronage • Financial support of artists • Means for the wealthy and powerful to compete socially with one another • Types of patronage

Wealthy Renaissance merchants, as depicted in a fresco by artist Domenico Ghirlandaio 24

Intellectual Basis of the Renaissance

A page from a Renaissance-era version of Diomedes’ Grammatica, a text on Latin grammar

• Humanism • Revival of antiquity • Importance of the individual • Celebration of humanity • Secular/worldly focus

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Education and Thought: Machiavelli • The Prince • Advised rulers to use force or deceit if necessary • Better for rulers to be feared than loved • Admired Cesare Borgia

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Courtly Education: Castiglione • Libro del Cortegiano (The Courtier) • Described ideal behavior for social elites • Sprezzatura • Role of women

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Women and the Renaissance • Education • Roles as patrons of the arts • Women political leaders in Italy

Isabella d’Este

Caterina Sforza 28

The Italian Wars • 1494–1559 • European powers fought for control of various Italian citystates • Helped spread the Renaissance to western Europe Entry of the French king Charles VIII into Florence at the start of the Italian Wars

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Charles VIII of France

Charles VIII

• 1470–1498 • Encouraged by Ludovico Sforza to invade Italy and lay claim to Naples • France enters Italy in 1494 • Charles takes Naples, but is then defeated by the League of Venice

Ludovico Sforza 30

Louis XII of France • 1462–1515 • Succeeded Charles VIII • Invaded Italy in 1499, taking Milan and Genoa • Partitioned Naples with King Ferdinand of Spain • Treaties of Blois (1504 & 1505)

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Pope Julius II • 1503: Romagna cities annexed by Venice • 1509: The League of Cambrai— France, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Papal States vs. Venice • 1510: The Holy League—The Papal States, Venice, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire vs. France • 1516: Peace of Noyon 32

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V • Grandson of Ferdinand of Spain, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I • 1521: War to take Milan from France • 1525: Battle of Pavia— France defeated • 1527: Sack of Rome • The Italian Wars finally end in 1559, when France renounces all claims in Italy 33

The Northern Renaissance • More focused on Christianity than the Italian Renaissance • Began late 15th century/early 16th century

Altarpiece for the Cathedral of St. Bavo in Ghent, created by Northern Renaissance artist Jan van Eyck 34

The Printing Press • Invented by Johann Gutenberg in the mid1400s • Made printed works cheaper and more readily available • Increased literacy in Europe • Helped spread new ideas A replica of Gutenberg’s printing press 35

Christian Humanism

Christian humanist scholar Desiderius Erasmus

• Union of classical influences and Christianity • Desiderius Erasmus (1466–1536) • Influence on northern Renaissance art

A woodcut of Adam and Eve by Albrecht Durer, a German Renaissance artist 36

Renaissance Politics and Economics: Legacy

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