The Secret World of Seeps

The Secret World of Seeps

The Secret World of Seeps David C. Culver American University Washington DC 20016 • • • • What is the nature of the habitat? What is the fauna? Ho...

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The Secret World of Seeps

David C. Culver American University Washington DC 20016

• • • •

What is the nature of the habitat? What is the fauna? How is it collected? How can it be protected?

The Hypotelminorheic is • a persistent wet spot in a slight depression in an area of low to moderate slope; • rich in organic matter; • with a drainage area of typically less than 10,000 m2; • underlain by a clay layer typically from 5 and 50 cm beneath the surface; • with a characteristic black color derived from decaying leaves which are usually not skeletonized; and • occurring in a wide variety of geologic settings.

The Hypotelminorheic is • a persistent wet spot in a slight depression in an area of low to moderate slope; • rich in organic matter; • with a drainage area of typically less than 10,000 m2; • underlain by a clay layer typically from 5 and 50 cm beneath the surface; • with a characteristic black color derived from decaying leaves which are usually not skeletonized; and • occurring in a wide variety of geologic settings.

The Hypotelminorheic is • a persistent wet spot in a slight depression in an area of low to moderate slope; • rich in organic matter; • with a drainage area of typically less than 10,000 m2; • underlain by a clay layer typically from 5 and 50 cm beneath the surface; • with a characteristic black color derived from decaying leaves which are usually not skeletonized; and • occurring in a wide variety of geologic settings.

The Hypotelminorheic is • a persistent wet spot in a slight depression in an area of low to moderate slope; • rich in organic matter; • with a drainage area of typically less than 10,000 m2; • underlain by a clay layer typically from 5 and 50 cm beneath the surface; • with a characteristic black color derived from decaying leaves which are usually not skeletonized; and • occurring in a wide variety of geologic settings.

The Hypotelminorheic is • a persistent wet spot in a slight depression in an area of low to moderate slope; • rich in organic matter; • with a drainage area of typically less than 10,000 m2; • underlain by a clay layer typically from 5 and 50 cm beneath the surface; • with a characteristic black color derived from decaying leaves which are usually not skeletonized; and • occurring in a wide variety of geologic settings.

The Hypotelminorheic is • a persistent wet spot in a slight depression in an area of low to moderate slope; • rich in organic matter; • with a drainage area of typically less than 10,000 m2; • underlain by a clay layer typically from 5 and 50 cm beneath the surface; • with a characteristic black color derived from decaying leaves which are usually not skeletonized; and • occurring in a wide variety of geologic settings.

Chemical and physical parameters show considerable variation among sites

Comparison of chemical/physical conditions at three hyptelminorheic sites (means only) Temperature

pH

Conductivity

Dissolved Oxygen

Nanos Mountain

5.2

7.33

344

3.99

George Washington Memorial Parkway

12.6

6.27

410

7.70

Medvednica Mountain

7.1

7.20

415

10.14

• • • •

What is the nature of the habitat? What is the fauna? How is it collected? How can it be protected?

Amphipoda dominate the macro-fauna and include stygobionts

Four Species from a Single Seep on Nanos Mountain, Slovenia

• • • •

What is the nature of the habitat? What is the fauna? How is it collected? How can it be protected?

• • • •

What is the nature of the habitat? What is the fauna? How is it collected? How can it be protected?

Threats • Compaction of soil around seep • Impervious surfaces within drainage • Water quality—especially heavy metals and nutrients • Sediment clogging

Students and Collaborators • • • • • •

Ben Hutchins Irena Šereg Marion Carroll Molly Madden Michelle Chesnut Diane Butarac

• Florian Malard (France) • Tanja Pipan (Slovenia) • Sanja Gottstein (Croatia) • Bill Jones (Karst Waters Institute)