The story of ancient Egypt

The story of ancient Egypt

MMW THE STORY OF THE NATIONS I2MO, ILLUSTRATED, PER VOL , $1.50 /2 l ; LEATHER, GILT TOP, $1-73 THE EARLIER VOLUMES ARE THE THE THE THE STOR...

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THE STORY OF THE NATIONS I2MO, ILLUSTRATED, PER VOL

,

$1.50

/2 l

;

LEATHER, GILT TOP, $1-73

THE EARLIER VOLUMES ARE

THE THE THE THE

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G. P.

this

volume

PUTNAM'S SONS, NEW YORK AND LONDON

GREAT HALL OF COLUMNS AT KARNAK (RESTORED.) (Built

by

Seti 1.1

.

he

Storn of

Ihc

Actions

THE STORY OF

ANCIENT EGYPT GEORGE _RAWLINSON,

M.A.

CAMDEN PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD. AND CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF TURIN; AUTHOR OF " THE FIVE GREAT MONARCHIES OF THE ANCIENT EASTERN WORLD," ETC. ETC.

WITH THE COLLABORATION OF

ARTHUR OILMAN, M

.

A

AUTHOR OF " A HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE," " THE STOKY OF ROME," " THU STORY OF THE SARACENS," ETC.

G. P.

LONDON

NEW YORK PUTNAM'S SONS •

T.

FISHER UNWIN 1897

fjne Arts

DT ~0

KaG4>

Copyright

By G. P Putnam's Sons 1887 Entered at Stationos' Hall, Londoi,

Py

T. Fisher

Unwin

REGINALD STUART POOLE, KEEPER OF COINS

IN

THE URITISH MUSEUM,

AND CORRESPONDENT OF THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE, I \

ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF

MUCH HELP AND MICH PLEASURE DERIVED FROM HIS EGYPTIAN LABOURS.



CONTENTS.

PAGE

1-22

The Land of Egypt General

shape of

division,

2

;

Egypt,

I



threefold division,

3

Chief

divisions

:

twofold

— The

Egypt of the maps the river," in what sense,

4 — Egypt, " the of —The Fayoum, — Egyptian speculations concerning the 8 — Size of Egypt, 9— FerNile, 8—The Nile not 12 — The Nile, as a 10 — Geographical situation, means of communication, 13 — Phenomena of the inunda14 — Climate of Egypt, 14 — Geology, 15 — Flora and Fauna, 17 — General monotony, 19 — Exceptions, 20-22. unreal,

5,

gift

6

7

beautiful,

7,

II,

tility,

12,

tion, 13,

16,

II.

The People of Egypt Origin

of the Egyptians,

and type, 24

—Two

types of character

— Character Animal

:

23-45 23

marked

— Phenomena

the melancholic, 25, 27

of the Egyptian religion

:

31-33

:

—Two 30, 31 —

25

the gay, 27-29

pol) theism,

— Worship of the 35 — Evil gods, 36 — Local

worship,

Osirid saga, 34,

of their language

varieties of physique,

monarch,

cults,

37

33

— Esoteric

religion, 38 ; how reconciled with the popular belief, 39 Conviction of a life after death, 40, 41 Moral code, 41-43

Actual state of morals, 43

— — Ranks of society, 44, 45.

—" :

CONTENTS. III.

The Dawn The

.....

of History

Early Egyptian myths

:

Seb and Thoth legends,

the



46-64

40, 47

mankind by Ra, 48 Traditions concerning Site of Memphis, 49 Great Temple of Phthah at Memphis, 50, 51 Names of Memphis, 51 Question Supposed successors of M'na, of the existence of M'na, 52, 53 destruction of

M'na, or Menes, 48







— — 54 — First historical Egyptian, Sneferu, 55 — The Egypt of time, 56 — Hieroglyphics, 57 — Tombs, 58 — Incipient pyramids, 59, 60 — Social condition of the people, 60 — Manners, 61 — Position of women, 62-64.

his

IV.

.....

The Pyramid Builders Difficult to realize the

65-94

conception of a great pyramid, 65

— Number of pyramids in Egypt — Description of the " Third Pyramid,"

Egyptian idea of one, 66 the Principal Three, 67

of the "Second Pyramid," 72; of the "First" or "Great Pyramid," 75-81 The traditional builders, Khufu,

67-71

;



the pyramids their tombs, 82 Grandeur of Khufu's conception, 83 Cruelty involved in it, The builders' hopes not realized, 85, 86 Skill dis84, 85 Shafra, and Menkaura, 82

;





played in the construction, 86 tectural effect,

89— Inferiority

— Magnificence of the



of the

archi-

"Third Pyramid," 90

— Continuance of the pyramid period, 91-94. V.

..... —

The Rise of Thebes to Power, and the Early Theban Kings



Shift of the seat of

power

name

— Earliest

of Thebes, 96

— His

site

of Thebes, 95

known Theban

95-:

Origin of the

king, Antef

I.,

Mentu-hotep I. and "Antef the Great, 98 Other Antefs and Mentu-hoteps, 98, 99 Sankh-ka-ra and his fleet, 99, 100 Dynasty of Usurtasens and Amenemhats 97

successors,







:

— — CONTENTS. spirit

I02 I.

— His wars and his

:

106

of their civilization, ioo, 101 105

wars,

— His obelisk, in,

PAGE

— Reign of

Amenemhat

hunting expeditions, 103, 104

— His

I.,

— Usurtasen

sculptures and architectural works,

107-109

— Reign

belonging to his time, 109, quests,

xi

of

Amenemhat

no — Usurtasen

II.

and

II.

:

tablet

his con-

112.

VI.

The Good Amenemhat and

his

Works

113-T23

.

Dangers connected with the inundation of the Nile, twofold, 113— An excessive inundation, 114; a defective one, 115 Sufferings from these causes under Amenemhat III., 115, 1 16 117 — Amenemhat's reservoir, the — Doubts as to dimensions, 119, 120 " Labyrinth," 121 — His pyramid, and name of

Possible storage of water,

"Lake

Moeris," 118

Amenemhat's

its

Ra-n-mat, 122, 123.

VII.

Abraham

in

.....

Egypt

Wanderings of the Patriarch, 124

124-131

— Necessity which drove him

Desert, 126 — A dread anxiety — Reception on the frontier, and removal of Sarah to the court, 128 — Abraham's material well-being, 129 — The Pharaoh restores Sarah, 130 — Probable date of the into

Egypt, 125

— Passage of the

unfaithfully met, 127

visit,

130— -Other immigrants,

131.

VIII.

— The Hyksos or —Joseph and Apepi

The Great Invasion herd Kings

Exemption of Egypt hitherto from foreign

Shep.

.

attack,

132-146 132



Threatening movements among the populations of Asia, 133

Manetho's

tale of the

able reality, 135,

136

" Shepherd " invasion,

— Upper

134— The

prob-

Egypt not overrun, 137

— The



CONTENTS.

Xll

i

first

Hyksos

— Duration

king, Set, or Saites, 138

of the rule,

— Character of the rule improves with time, 140 — Apepi's great works at Tanis, 144 — Apepi and Ra-sekenen, 145 — Apepi and Joseph, 146. doubtful, 139

IX.

How

the Hyksos were Expelled from Egypt 147-169

Rapid deterioration of conquering races generally, 147, 148 Recovery of the Egyptians from the ill effects of the invasion, 149 Second rise of Thebes to greatness, 150 War of Apepi with Ra-sekenen III., 151 Succession of Aahmes war continues, 152 The Hyksos quit Egypt. 153 Aahmes perhaps assisted by the Ethiopians, 154-157.





The





;



First Great Warrior King, Thothmes

Early wars of Thothmes

in

I.

158-169

Ethiopia and Nubia, 158-160



His desire to avenge the Hyksos invasion, 161 Condition of Western Asia at this period, 162, 163 Geographical sketch of the countries to be attacked, 164, 165 Probable informa-



tion of

Thothmes on

tion into Syria

His greatness

— — His

these matters, 167

and Mesopotamia, 167

— His

great expedi-

buildings, 168

insufficiently appreciated, 169.

XI.

Queen Hatasu and her Merchant Fleet High estimation Hatasu as

at this period,

174-177

of

women

joint ruler with

— Her

173

— Her

in

Egypt, 170

Thothmes

II.,

for

— Early position of — Her buildings attire

Thothmes

III.,

and titles, and real

177, 178 — Construction and voyage of her — Return of the expedition to Thebes, 1S4 — Construc-

sovereignty,

178-183

170-188

173

assumption of male

nominal regency

.

tion of a temple

fleet;

to

commemorate

it,

185

— Joint reign — Her name

Hatasu with Thothmes III.- Her obelisks, 186 obliterated by Thothmes, 187.

of"



Contents.

xih PACK

XII.

.......

Thothmes the Third and Amenhotep the 189-207 Second hirst

Thothmes

expedition of

III.

189-191 — His — Great expedition

into Asia,

second and subsequent campaigns, 191, 192



Adventure with an elephant, amount of plunder and tribute, Employment of a navy, Interest in natural history, 196 195 197— Song of victory on the walls of the Temple of Karnak,

of his thirty-third year, 192, 193

194

— Further

expeditions

:





198-199

— Architectural 202

diffusion,

works,

— Thothmes

Description of his person, 204

Thothmes

III.,

205

— Short

199-201

— Their

present wide

compared with Alexander, 203

— Position of the Israelites under

reign of

Amenhotep

il., 206.

XIII.

— .....

Amen-hotep III. and his Great Works Vocal Memnon

The 208-222

The " Twin Colossi" of Thebes their impressiveness, 2082ii The account given of then by their sculptor, 212 The Eastern Colossus, why called "The Vocal Memnon," 213, 214 Earliest testimony to its being "vocal," 214— Rational account of the phenomenon, 215-217 Amenhotep's temple at Luxor, 217, 218 His other buildings, 219 His wars and expeditions, 219, 220 His lion hunts ; his physiognomy and :















character, 221, 222.

XIV.

Khuenaten and the Disk-Worshippers

.

223-230

Obscure nature of the heresy of the Disk-worshippers, 223Possible connection of Disk-worship with the Israelites, Hostility of the Disk-worshippers to the old Egyptian religion, 227 The introduction of the "heresy" traced to Queen Taia, 228 Great development of the "heresy" under 225 226

— —





her son,

Amenhotep

IV., or Khuenaten, 229

introduced by him, 230.

— Other

changes

— —

CONTENTS.

XIV

PAGE

XV.

Beginning of the Decli-ne of Egypt

.

.

231-252



Advance of the Hittite power in Syria, 231 War of Saplal with Ramesses I., 231-— War of Seti I. with Maut-enar, 232 Great Syrian campaign of Seti, followed by a treaty, 233-235 His great wall, 237 Hittite war Seti's other wars, 236

of Ramesses

242, 243

— Military decline of Egypt, 244— Egyptian art reaches

highest point

Tomb



238-240— Poem of Pentaour, 241 Results Kadesh, a new treaty and an inter marriage,

II.,

of the battle of

its







of

Ramesses

II.

:

Great Hall of Columns

246, 247

Seti,

the

I.

at Karnak, 245 Ramesses II., 248

of

oppressor of the

great

Physiognomies of Seti

— Colossi

and Ramesses

II.,

Israelites,

249

250-252.

XVI.

MENEPHTHAH

I.,

THE PHARAOH OF THE EXODUS 253-268

Good

prospect of peace on Menephthah's accession, 253 General sketch of his reign, 254 Invasion of the Maxyes, 255 Their Mediterranean allies, 256,257 Repulseof theinvasion,





258-261



Israelite

troubles,

tian chariot force in the

Reel Sea, 265

— General

265 period, 266-268. difficulties,

— — Loss

262-264

of

— Internal

the

Egyp-

revolts

and

review of the civilization of the

XVII.

......

The Decline of Egypt under the later Ramessides Temporary 270

269-287

— Reign of Setnekht, — General restlessness of

disintegration of Egypt, 269

— Reign

of Ramesses

III., 271



Libyan invasion of Egypt, 273, 274 Great invasion of the Tekaru, Tanauna, and others, 275> 276 First naval battle on record, 277, 278 Part taken by Ramesses in the fight, 278-281 Campaign of revenge, 282 Later years of Ramesses peaceful, 283 General decline of Egypt, 284 Insignificance of the later Ramessides, 284, 285 Deterioration in ait, literature, and morals, 285-287. the nations in his time, 272















CONTENTS.

XV PAGE

XVIII.

The Priest-Kings — Pinetem and Solomon Influence of the

Egypt,

priests in

288



.

— Ordinary

288-297

relations

between them and the kings, 289 High-priesthood of Amnion Reign of Pinetem I., 293 llerhor, 290 becomes hereditary Reign of Men-khepr-ra, 294 Rise of the kingdom of the Israelites, 295 Friendly relations established between Pinetem II. and Solomon, 296 Effect on Hebrew art and archi;











tecture, 297.

XIX.

Shishak and his Dynasty

....

298-313

Shishak's family Semitic, but not Assyrian or Babylonian, 298

— Connected by marriage with the priest-kings, 299, 300 — Reception of Jeroboam by Shishak, 301 — Shishak's expedition against Rehoboam, 302 — Aid lent to Jeroboam in his own kingdom, 303 — Arab conquests, 304 — Karnak inscription, 305 — Shishak's successors, 306 — War of Zerah (Osorkon with Asa, 308 — Effect of Zerah's defeat, 309 — Decline of the II. ?)

310— Disintegration of Egypt, 310, deterioration in literature and art, 311-313.

dynasty,

311

— Further

XX.

The Land Shadowing with Wings — Egypt under the ethiopians Vague use

....

of the term Ethiopia, 314



— Ethiopian

314-330

kingdom of

315 Wealth of Napata, 316— Piankhi's rise to power, 317 His protectorate of Egypt, 318— Revolt of Tafnekht and others, 318 — Suppression of the revolt, 319-322

Napata,





Death of Piankhi, and revolt of Bek-en-ranf, 323 Power of Shabak established over Egypt, 324— General character of the Ethiopian

324 — Advance of Assyria towards the Egyptian — Collision between Sargon and Shabak, 326 Shabatok — Sennacherib threatens Egypt, 327 —

rule,

border, 325

Reign of Reign of Tehrak, 328-330.



CONTENTS.

XVI

PA'.F

XXI.

The Fight over the Carcase — Ethiopia

r.

Assyria

33 I "34 I

Egypt attacked by Esarhaddon, 331, 332 - Great battle near Memphis, 333— Memphis taken, and flight of Tehrak to Napata,

334— Egypt

up

split



by Esarhaddon,

into small states

Tehrak renews the struggle, 336— Tehrak driven 334> 335 His last effort, 337 Attempt out by Asshui-bani-pal, 337





made by Kut-Ammon fails, 338— Temporary success of MiAmmon-nut, 339 Egypt becomes once more an Assyrian dependency, 340 — Her wretched condition, 341.



XXII.

The Corpse comes to Life again — Psamatik and

his Son,

.....

Neco

Foreign help needed to save a sinking origin of Psamatik

344

I.,

decline of Assyria, 345



— His

state,

I.

342-359

342— Libyan

revolt connected with

—Assistance

the

rendered him by Gyges,

His struggle with the petty princes, 346— Reign of 345 Psamatik place assigned by him to the mercenaries, 347 His measures for restoring Egypt to her former prosperity, He encourages intercourse between Egypt and 348, 349 :





Egypt restored to life character of the new 353 Later years of Psamatik conquest of Ashdod, 354 Reign of Neco: his two fleets, 355 His circumnavigation His conquest of Syria, 357 Jeremiah on the of Africa, 356 Greece, 350-352 life,





:

:





battle of Carchemish,

358

— Neco's



dream of empire

termi-

nates, 359.

XXIII.

The later Sai'te Kings — Psamatik and Amasis The

......

Ethiopia,

strength, 361

362



Apries,



360-367

and architecture, 360 Some recovery Expedition of Psamatik II. into Part taken by Apries in the war between

Sa'itic revival in art

of military

II.,





CONTENTS.

Xvn



Nebuchadnezzar and Zedekiah, 363 His Phoenician conquests, 364 His expedition against Cyrene, 364— Invasion of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar, 365— Quiet reign of Amasis, 366— The



Saitic revival not the reco'/ery of true national

life,

367.

XXIV.

The Persian Conquest

368-3 8c

,

Patient acquiescence of Amasis in his position of tributary to

Babylon, 368 appeal

— Rise

made by

of the Persian

power under Cyrus, and

Croesus to Amasis, League of Egypt, Lydia,



and Babylon, 369, 370 — Precipitancy of Croesus, 371 Fab of Babylon, 371 Later wars of Cyrus, 372 Preparations made





against Egypt by Cambyses, S73^ 374 sium, 375 Psamatik III. besieged in



— C-reat

baitle of Pelu-



Memphis. 376 Fall of Memphis, and cruel treatment ol the Egyptians by Cambyses, His iconoclasm checked by some considerations of 377) 378



pobcv, 379

— Conciliatory

measures of Darius Hystaspis, 379,

3S0.

XXV.

....

Three Desperate Revolts First

revolt,

381, 382

under Khabash,

— Second

revolt

easily suppressed

380-386

by Xerxes,

under Inarus and Amyrtreus, assisted

— Suppressed by Megabyzus, 384— Hero— Third revolt, under Nefaa-rut, attains

by Athens, 382, 383 dotus in Egypt, 385 a certain success

;

a native

monarchy

re-established, 386.

XXVL Nectanebo

I.

—A

Last Gleam of Sunshine

.

387-392

Unquiet time under the earlier successors of Nefaa-rut, 387 Preparations of Nectanebo (Nekht Hor-heb) for the better protection of Egypt against the

Persians,

388



— Invasion

of

Egypt by Pharnabazus and Iphicrates, 389 Failure of the exDedition, 390 A faint revival of art and architecture, 391.



CONTENTS.

Will

XXVII.

The Light goes our

in

Dakknfss

393-402



Reign of Te-her (Tacho), 39; Reign of Nectnnebo II. (Nekhtnebf ), 394 Revolt of Sidon, nnd great expedition of Ochus, Sidon betrayed by Tennesand Memnon of Rhodes, 394, 395 396 March upon Egypt disposition of the Persian forces, 397 Skirmish at Pelusium, and retreat of Nekht-nebf 10







:



Memphis, 39S, 399 — Capture of Pelusium, 399— Surrender of Bubastis, 400 — Nehkt-nebf flies to Ethiopia, 401 — General reflections, 402.

Index

403

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

PILLARED HALL OF SETI

I

DOM AND DATE PALM TREES

....

Frontispiece 17

FIGURES OF TAOURT

36

.....

FIGURE OF BES

TABLET OF SNEFERU AT WADV-MAGHARAH

PYRAMID OF MEYDOUM

GROUP OF STATUARY

55

59

,

GREAT PYRAMID OF SACCARAH SECTION OF THE SAME

37 .

61

.

.....

— HUSBAND

61

AND WIFE,

63

SECTION OF THE THIRD PYRAMID.

69

TOMB CHAMBER

69

IN

THE SAME-

SARCOPHAGUS OF MYCERINUS

73

.

SECTION OF THE SECOND PYRAMID

73

SECTION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID

76

KING'S

CHAMBER AND CHAMBERS OF CONSTRUCTION IN

THE GREAT PYRAMID

THE GREAT GALLERY

IN

THE SAME

77 79

.

VIEW OF THE FIRST AND SECOND PYRAMIDS

.



87

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

XX

PAC.P

SPEARING

CROCODILE

Til K

OBELISK OF USURTASEN

103

ON THE SITE OF Mil

I.

OPOLIS

BUST OF A SHEPHERD KING

.

HEAD OF NEFERTARI-AAHMES BUST OF THOTHMES

I

HEAD OF THOTHMES

II.

.

HEAD OF QUEEN HATASU GROUND-PLAN OF TEMPLE EGYPTIAN SHIP

IN

VI'

MEDINET-ABOU

THE TIME OF HATASU

HOUSE BUILT ON PILES

.

THE LAND OF PUNT

IN

THE QUEEN OF PUNT AT THE COURT OF HATASU SECTION OF THE PILLARED

BUST OF THOTHMES

HALL OF THOTHMES

.....

AT KARNAC III

TWIN COLOSSI OF AMENHOTEP BUST OF AMENHOTEP

HEAD OF AMENHOTEP SETI

AT THEBES

IV.

'THE SOLAR DISK

OR KHUENATEN

I

BUST OF RAM ESSES

II

HEAD OF MENEPHTHAH SEA-FIGHT IN

III.

III

KHUENATEN WORSHIPPING

HEAD OF

II

....

THE TIME OF RAMESSES

III.

CARICATURE OF THE TIME OF THE SAME

HEAD OF HER-HOR

....

FIGURE RECORDING THE CONQUEST OF

SH1SHAK

J

I

'H.I

A 305

1

LIST UF

1

LLCS

1

L.

1

I

XXI

lO.XS.

PAGE HI'

Alt

OF SHISHAK

.

.

.

.... ...... ...

.

3°7

P1ANKHI RECEIVING THE SUBMISSION OF TAFNEKH'I

AND OTHERS HEAD OF SHABAK SEAL OF SHABAK HEAD OF TIRHAKAH FIGURE OF ESAR-HADDON AT THE NAHR-EL-KELB HEAD OF PSAMATIK I. BAS-RELIEFS OF THE TIME OF PSAMATIK I. HEAD OF NECO

....

...... ,

320 325 327

329 335

344 35

355

THE STORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT.

i.

THE LAND OF EGYPT. IN shape Egypt

is like a lily with a crooked stem. broad blossom terminates it at its upper end a button of a bud projects from the stalk a little below

A

;

the blossom, on the left-hand side. is

direct distance of a

hundred and eighty

the projection of the coast petals is

the

shut

The broad blossom

Delta, extending from Aboosir to Tineh, a

the

— the

miles,

— enlarges to two hundred and thirty. Fayoum, a

in

The bud

natural depression in the hills that

the Nile valley on the west, which has been

rendered cultivable for introduction into

known

which

graceful swell of the

it

many thousands

of years by the

of the Nile water, through a canal

Bahr Yousouf." The long stalk of the itself, which is a ravine scooped in the rocky soil for seven hundred miles from the First Cataract to the apex of the Delta, sometimes not more than a mile broad, never more than eight or lily is

as the "

the Nile valley

ten miles.

No other country in the

world

is

so strangely

THE LAND OF EGYPT.

£5

shaped, so long compared to

its

width, so straggling;

so hard to govern from a single centre.

At

the

first

country seems to divide

glance, the

two strongly contrasted regions and this was the original impression which it made upon its

itself into

;

The

inhabitants.

natives

from a very early time

"

the two lands," and repre-

designated their land as

by a hieroglyph in which the form used to " was doubled. The kings were called " chiefs of the Two Lands," and wore two crowns, as being kings of two countries. The Hebrews caught up the idea, and though they sometimes called Egypt " Mazor " in the singular number, preferred commonly to designate it by the dual form " Mizraim," which means " the two Mazors." These " two Mazors," " two Egypts," or " two lands," were, of course, the blossom and the stalk, the broad tract upon the sented

it

express "land

Mediterranean known as

"

Lower Egypt,"

"

or

the

and the long narrow valley that lies, like a green snake, to the south, which bears the name of " Upper Egypt," or " the Said." Nothing is more striking than the contrast between these two regions. Entering Egypt from the Mediterranean, or from Asia by the caravan route, the traveller sees stretching before him an apparently boundless plain, wholly um broken by natural elevations, generally green with crops or with marshy plants, and canopied by a cloudless sky, which rests everywhere on a distant flat Delta,"

horizon.

An

absolute

monotony surrounds him.

alternation of plain and highland,

no slopes of

hills,

meadow and

No

forest,

or hanging woods, or dells, or gorges,

or cascades, or rushing streams, or babbling

rills,

meet

THE CHIEF DIVISIONS. gaze on any side

his

look which

;

3

way he

sameness, one vast**smooth expanse of soil,

to

varying only waste.

lie

in

will, all

rich

is

alluvial

being cultivated or else allowed

Turning

his

back with something of

weariness on the dull uniformity of this featureless plain, the

wayfarer proceeds southwards, and enters, at

the distance of a hundred miles from the coast, on an

new scene. Instead of an illimitable prospect meeting him on every side, he finds himself in a comparatively narrow vale, up and down which the eye still commands an extensive view, but where the prospect on either side is blocked at the distance of a few miles by rocky ranges of hills, white or yellow or tawny, entirely

sometimes drawing so near as to threaten an obstruction of the river course, sometimes receding so far as to leave some miles of cultivable soil on either side of the stream. The rocky ranges, as he approaches them, have a stern and forbidding aspect. They rise for the most part, abruptly in bare grandeur on their ;

craggy sides grows neither moss nor heather clothe their steep heights.

They seem

;

no

trees

intended, like

the mountains that enclosed the abode of Rasselas, to

keep

the inhabitants of the vale within their narrow and bar them out from any commerce or ac-

in

limits,

quaintance with the regions beyond.

Such

is

the twofold division of the country which

impresses the observer strongly at the longer sojourn and a more intimate

The lower

differs

On

a

one which is threefrom die upper valley, it is a

twofold division gives place fold.

first.

familiarity, the

sort of debatable region,

to

half

plain, half vale

cultivable surface spreads itself out

;

the

more widely, the

"

THE LAND OF EGYPT.

4

enclosing

hills

recede into the distance

above

;

all,

to

greatest

Fayoum, diameter, and

of four hundred

square miles.

the middle tract belongs the open space of the

nearly

miles across in

fifty

containing an

area

its

Hence, with some of the occupants of Egypt a triple division has been preferred to a twofold one, the

Greeks interposing the

Heptanomis " between the and the Arabs the " Vostani "

Thebais and the Delta, between the Said and the Bahari, or

"

country of the

sea." It

may be

which maps.

it

objected to this description, that the

presents to the reader

is

Egypt

not the Egypt of the

Undoubtedly it is not. The maps give the name of Egypt to a broad rectangular space which they mark out in the north-eastern corner of Africa, bounded on two sides by the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and on the two others by two imaginary lines which the map-makers kindly draw for us across But " this Egypt," as has the sands of the desert. been well observed,

" is

a fiction of the geographers,

untrue to fact as the island Atlantis of Greeklegend, or the Lyonnesse of mediaeval romance, both

as

sunk beneath the ocean to explain their disappearance. The true Egypt of the old monuments, of the Hebrews, of the Greeks and Romans, of the Arabs, and of its own people in thb day, is a mere fraction of this vast area of the maps, nothing more than the valley and plain watered by the Nile, for nearly seven hundred miles by the river's course from the Mediterranean southwards."

1

The

great wastes on either side of the

Nile valley are in no sense Egypt, neither the un1

R. Stuart Poole, " Cities of Egypt,"

p. 4,

NATURE PREFERABLE TO MAPS.

5

dulating sandy desert to the west, nor the rocky and gravelly highland to the east, which rises in terrace

some

after terrace to a height, in

places, of six thou-

Both are sparsely inhabited, and by tribes of a different race from the Egyptian tribes whose allegiance to the rulers of Egypt is in the best times nominal, and who for the most part spurn the very sand

feet.



idea of submission to authority. If,

Egypt be the

then, the true

— the — the

described

Delta

Nile valley, with the

lily stalk,

can well understand that

"

Egypt was

lively Greek,

tract that

Fayoum and

the bud, and the blossom

how

it

came

first

the

— we

to be said of old,

the gift of the river."

who

we have

Not

that the

used the expression, divined

exactly the scientific truth of the matter.

The

fancy

saw Africa, originally, doubly severed from Asia by two parallel fjords, one running inland northwards from the Indian Ocean, as the Red Sea does to this day, and the other penetrating inland of Herodotus

southwards from the Mediterranean to an equal or greater distance The Nile, he said, pouring itself into this latter fjord, had by degrees filled it up, and had then gone on and by further deposits turned into !

land a large piece of the

"

sea of the Greeks," as was

evident from the projection of the shore of the Delta

beyond the general westward

own

;

coast-line of Africa eastward

and, he added,

part, that

if

" I

am

convinced, for

and

my

the Nile should please to divert his

waters from their present bed into the

Red

Sea, he

would fill it up and turn it into dry land in the space of twenty thousand years, or maybe in half that time for he is a mighty river and a most energetic



THE LAND OF EGYPT. Here,

one."

in this last

right, though the

expression, he

method of the

The

been other than he supposed. its

immense

is

Nile,

thoroughly

energy has

Nile's

working from

reservoirs in the equatorial regions, has

itself out a deep bed in the sand and rock of the desert, which must have originally extended across the whole of northern Africa from

gradually scooped

Red

the Atlantic to the

out this bed to a depth,

Having scooped

Sea. in

places, of three

itself

hundred

from the desert level, it has then proceeded Occupying, fill it up with its own deposits. when it is at its height, the entire bed, and presenting feet

partially to

at that

time the appearance of a vast lake, or succession

of lakes,

over

it

deposes every day a portion of sediment

whole space which

the

tracting gradually,

it

it

covers

:

then, con-

leaves at the base of the

hills,

any rate on one, a strip of land fresh dressed with mud, which gets wider daily as the waters still recede, until yards grow into furlongs, and furlongs into miles, and at last the shrunk stream is content with a narrow channel a few hundred yards in width, and leaves the rest of its bed to the embraces of sun and air, and, if he so wills, to the industry ot man. The land thus left exposed is Egypt Egypt is the temporarily uncovered bed of the Nile, which it reclaims and recovers during a portion of each year, when Egypt disappears from view, save where human labour has by mounds and embankments formed on both

sides, or at



artificial islands

that raise their heads above the waste

of waters, for the

most part crowned with build-

ings.

There

is

one exception to

this

broad and sweeping



;

THE NILE. The Fayoum

statement.

is

7

no f ?rt of the

natural"

bed of the Nile, and has not been scooped out by energy.

It

is

a natural depression in

desert, separated off

of limestone

hills

the

its

western

from the Nile valley by a range five hundred

from two hundred to

feet in height, and, apart from the activity of man would have been arid, treeless, and waterless. Still,, it derives from the Nile all its value, all its richness, all its fertility. Human energy at some remote period introduced into the depressed tract through an artificial channel from the Nile, cut in some places through the rock, the life-giving fluid and this fluid, ;

bearing the precious Nile sediment, has sufficed to spread

fertility

over the entire region, and to

make

the desert blossom like a garden.

The Egyptians were not unaware of the source of From a remote date they speculated on their mysterious river. They deified it under the name of Hapi, " the Hidden," they declared that "his abode was not known " that he was an inscrutable their blessings.

;

god, that none could

tell

ledged him as the giver of cially

of the " Hail

fruits to thee,

all

good

O

they acknow-

:

things,

They

of the earth.

said

Nile!

Thou showest thyself in Coming in peace, giving

O A

his origin

this land,

life to Egypt Amnion, thou leadest night unto day,

leading that rejoices the heart

!

Overflowing the gardens created by Giving life to all animals ;

Ra

Watering the land without ceasing : The way of heaven descending : Lover of food, bestower of corn, Giving life to every home, O Phthah!

)

.

. -

and espe

;

!

THE LAND OF EGYPT.

o

O

inundation of Nile, offerings are

Oxen

are slain to thee

Great

festivals are

Fowls are

made

to thee;

;

kept for thee

sacrificed to thee

;

Beasts of the field are caught for thee;

Pure flames are offered to thee

;

made to every god, made unto Nile.

Offerings are

As

they are

Incense ascends unto heaven,

Oxen, bulls, fowls are burnt Nile makes for himself chasms

Unknown

He

his

is

name

in

doth not manifest his forms

Vain are

all

in the

Thebaid

representations

!

!

Mortals extol him, and the cycle of gods

Awe

by the terrible ones made Lord of all,

is felt

His son

To

is

enlighten

all

;

heaven,

!

;

Egypt.

Shine forth, shine forth,

O

Nile

shine forth

!

Giving life to men by his omen Giving life to his oxen by the pastures Shine forth in glory, O Nile "*

!

:

.

!

!

Though

thus useful, beneficent, and indeed essential

to the existence of Egypt, the Nile can scarcely be said to add

much

to the variety of the landscape or to the

beauty of the scenery. have the sight of water

down is

all

land where the sun beats

day long with unremitting

like a furnace of iron

But the Nile is

something, no doubt, to

It is

in a

is

force

till

never clear.

During the inundation

deeply stained with the red argillaceous

down from

the

the earth

beneath a sky of molten brass.

Abyssinian

soil

highlands.

it

brought

At

other

always more or less tinged with the vegetable matter which it absorbs on its passage from seasons

Lake

it

is

Victoria

to 1

Khartoum

;

and

Translation by F. C. Cook.

this

vegetable

SMALL SIZE OF EGYPT. matter,

combined with

its

9

depth and volume, gives it it from having the

a dull deep hue, which prevents

and more translucent streams. The Greek name, Neilos, and the Hebrew, Sichor, are thought to embody this attribute of the mighty river, and to mean " dark blue " or " blue-black," terms

attractiveness of purer

sufficiently expressive of the stream's ordinary colour.

Moreover, the Nile

seldom

it

enters Egypt,

shores

it

less

is

too wide to be picturesque.

It

than a mile broad from the point where

is

and running generally between

scarcely reflects anything, unless

it

grey-blue sky overhead, or the sails of a

flat

be the passing

pleasure boat.

The

size

of Egypt, within the limits which have

been here assigned to it, is about eleven thousand four hundred square miles, or less than that of any

European State, except Belgium, Saxony, and Servia. Magnitude is, however, but an insignificant element in the greatness of States

— witness

Athens, Sparta,

Rhodes, Genoa, Florence, Venice. Egypt is the richest and most productive land in the whole world. In

most flourishing age we are told that

its

tained twenty thousand

cities.

It

it

con-

deserved to be called,

more (probably) than even Belgium, " one great town." But its area was undoubtedly small. Still, as little

men have warriors, so

often little

taken

the

States have

place in the world's history. size of

than

Wales

;

to

but

among

Palestine was about the

was no larger

Attica had nearly the same

Thus the case of Egypt does not

area as Cornwall. itself,

;

rank

a most important

the entire Peloponnese

New Hampshire

stand by

highest filled

is

merely one out of many exceptions

what may perhaps be

called the general rule.



THE LAND OF EGYPT.

10

If stinted for space,

Egypt was happy

in

her

soil

and in her situation. The rich alluvium, continually growing deeper and deeper, and top-dressed each year by nature's bountiful hand, was of an inexhaustible fertility, and bore readily year after year a threefirst a grain crop, and then two crops of fold harvest The wheat sown esculent vegetables. grasses or returned a hundredfold to the husbandman, and was gathered at harvest-time in prodigal abundance " as the sand of the sea, very much," till men " left numbering" (Gen. xli. 49). Flax and doora were largely cultivated, and enormous quantities were







produced of the most nutritive vegetables, such as lentils, garlic, leeks,

onions, endive, radishes, melons,

cucumbers, lettuces, and the important element

in

like,

which formed a most

the food of the people.

vine was also grown in

many

The

places, as along the

between Thebes and Memphis, in Fayoum, at Anthylla in the Mareotis, the basin of the at Sebennytus (now Semnood), and at Plisthine, on flanks of the hills

the shore of the

Mediterranean.

springing naturally from the

soil in

The

or planted in avenues, everywhere offered clusters to the

wayfarer, dropping

date-palm,

clumps, or groves,

its

its

golden

fruit into his

Wheat, however, was throughout antiquity the of Egypt, which was reckoned the granary of the world, the refuge and resource of all the neighbouring nations in time of dearth, and on which in the later republican, and in the imperial times, Rome almost wholly depended for her suslap.

chief product

tenance. If the soil

was thus all that could be wished, still more

ADVANTAGES OF GEOGRAPHIC POSITION. advantageous was the

situation.

II

Egypt was the only

nation of the ancient world which had ready access

two seas, the Northern Sea, or " Sea of the Greeks," and the Eastern Sea, or " Sea of the Arabians and the Indians." Phoenicia might carry her traffic by the to

painful

travel of caravans

across fifteen degrees of

desert from her cities on the Levantine coast to the

inner recess of the Persian Gulf, and thus get a share in the trade of the

and

trouble.

time,

when

East at a vast expenditure of time

Assyria and

Babylonia might for a dominion, obtain a

at the height of their

temporary hold on lands which were not their own, and boast that they stretched from the "sea of the rising

"

to

"

that of the setting sun

"

— from the Persian

Gulf to the Mediterranean but Egypt, at all times and under all circumstances, commands by her geographic position an access both to the Mediterranean and to the Indian Ocean by way of the Red ;

Sea, whereof nothing can deprive her.

always

be

hers,

for

the

Isthmus

is

Suez must her

natural

boundary, and her water-system has been connected with the head of the Arabian Gulf for more than three

thousand years

;

and, in the absence of any strong

Arabia or Abyssinia, the entire western coast of the Red Sea falls naturally under her influence with its important roadsteads and harbours. Thus Egypt had two great outlets for her productions, and two great inlets by which she received the productions Her ships could issue from the of other countries. State

in

and trade with Phoenicia, or Carthage, or exchanging her corn and wine and and furniture and works in metallurgy for

Nilotic ports

Italy, or Greece,

glass

THE LAND OF EGYPT.

12

Etruscan vases, or Grecian statues, or purple Tyrian robes, or tin

brought by Carthaginian merchantmen

from the Scilly islands and from Cornwall

;

or they

from Heroopolis, or Myos Hormus, ot some port further to the southward, and pass by way of the Red Sea to the spice-region of " Araby the Blest," or to the Abyssinian timber- region, or to the shores of Zanzibar and Mozambique, or round Arabia could

to

start

Teredon on the Persian

or India. " far

The products

Gulf, or possibly to

Ceylon

of the distant east, even of

Cathay," certainly flowed into the land, for they

have been dug out of the ancient tombs but whether they were obtained by direct or by indirect commerce must be admitted to be doubtful. ;

The

possession of the Nile was of extraordinary

advantage to Egypt, not merely as the source of fertility, but as a means of rapid communication. One of the greatest impediments to progress and civilization which Nature offers to man in regions which he has not yet subdued to his

will,

locomotion and of transport. torrents,

the difficulty of forests,

marshes, jungles, are the curses of

countries," forming, until they

bridged

over,

barriers,

hindering commerce

through

is

Mountains,

or tunnelled

isolation.

"new

have been cut through, under, insurmountable

and causing hatreds Egypt had from the first a broad



it from end to end a road seven hundred miles long, and seldom much less than a mile wide which allowed of ready and rapid communication between the remotest parts of the kingdom. Rivers, indeed, are of no use as arteries cf commerce or vehicles for locomotion until men have invented

road driven through



EGYPT DURING THE INUNDATION,

13

ships or boats, or at least rafts, to descend and ascend

but the Egyptians were acquainted with the use of boats and rafts from a very remote period, and

them

;

took to the water like a brood of ducks or a parcel of South Sea Islanders. Thirty-two centuries ago an

Egyptian king built a temple on the confines of the Mediterranean entirely of stone which he floated down the Nile for six hundred and fifty miles from the and the passage up the quarries of Assouan (Syene) ;

river

is

for a considerable portion of the

as the passage

down. "



Northerly winds

year as easy

— the

famous

Egypt during the whole of the summer and autumn, and by hoisting a sail

"

Etesian gales

it is

prevail in

almost always possible to ascend the stream at a

good pace.

If the sail

be dropped, the current

will

down-stream and thus boats, and even vessels of a large size, pass up and down the water-way with equal facility. at all times take a vessel

Egypt sents the

is

;

at all seasons a strange country, but pre-

most astonishing appearance

of the inundation.

At

that

at the period

time not only

is

the

lengthy valley from Assouan to Cairo laid under water, but the Delta itself becomes one vast lake, interspersed with islands, which stud

and there

its

surface here

and which reminded Herodotus of " the islands of the yEgcan." The elevations, which are the work of man, arc crowned for the most part with the white walls of towns and villages sparkling in the sunlight, and sometimes glassed in the flood beneath them. The palms and sycamores stand up out of the expanse of waters shortened by some five Everywhere, when the or six feet of their height. at intervals,

THE LAND OF EGYPT.

14

inundation begins, the inhabitants are seen hurrying their cattle to the shelter provided in the villages, and,

the rise of the water is more rapid than usual, numbers rescue their beasts with difficulty, causing them to wade or swim, or even saving them by means if

An

of boats.

life

into peril,

themselves, which

villages

swept away

A

excessive inundation brings not only

human

animal, but

if

may

endangering the

be submerged and

the water rises above a certain height.

deficient inundation,

on the other hand, brings no

may

immediate danger, but by limiting production create a dearth that causes incalculable suffering.

Nature's operations are, however, so uniform that these calamities rarely arise.

Egypt

than almost any other country,

in

rejoices,

more

an equable climate,

an equable temperature, and an equable productiveThe summers, no doubt, are hot, especially in ness. the south, and an occasional sirocco produces intense discomfort while

it

But the cool Etesian wind,

lasts.

blowing from the north through nearly all the summertime, tempers the ardour of the sun's rays even in the and during the remaining hottest season of the year months, from October to April, the climate is simply ;

Egypt has been and summer.

delightful.

said

to

have but two

Spring reigns from October into May crops spring up, flowers bloom, soft zephyrs fan the cheek, when it is mid-winter in seasons, spring



Europe blossom

by February the

;

;

fruit-trees

are

in

full

the crops begin to ripen in March, and are

reaped by the end of April wholly unknown at any time rain are rare.

A bright,

lucid

;

;

snow and

frost

are

storm, fog, and even

atmosphere

rests

upon

GEOLOGY AND FLORA. There

the entire scene.

cloud

is

I

no moisture

in

the

air,

no

One day-

the sky; no mist veils the distance.

in

5

follows another, each the counterpart of the preceding; until

length

at

spring

retires

to

make room

for

summer, and a fiercer light, a hotter sun, a longer day, show that the most enjoyable part of the year is gone by. The geology of Egypt is simple. The entire flat country

is

The

alluvial.

hills

on either side

The

south granite and syenite.

in the

the

are, in

and

north, limestone, in the central region sandstone,

granitic forma-

between the twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth parallels, but occasional masses of primitive rock are intruded into the secondary regions, and these extend tion begins

northward as in

many

far as lat. 2j°io'.

places,

Above

deposits of gravel

the rocks are,

and sand, the

former hard, the latter loose and shifting.

A portion

Gold is found even at the present day in small quantities, and seems Copper, iron, anciently to have been more abundant. and lead have been also met with in modern times, and one iron mine shows signs of having been anciently Emeralds abound in the region about worked. Mount Zabara, and the eastern desert further yields

of the eastern desert

is

metalliferous.

jaspers, carnelians, breccia verde, agates, chalcedonies,

and rock-crystal.

The

flora of the

country

is

not particularly interest-

ing.

Dom

latter

having a single tapering stem, the former divid-

and date palms are the principal

The sycamore common, as are

ing into branches. also

tolerably

acacia.

The

trees,

the

[Ficus sycamorus) several

species

acacia seyal, which furnishes the

is

of

gum

THE LAND OF EGYPT.

l6

arabic of commerce,

is

"

a gnarled and thorny tree,

somewhat like a solitary hawthorn manner of growth, but much larger." full

grown,

is

sacred plant

from

twenty

fifteen to

among

in

its

habit and

when The persea, a

Its height,

feet.

the ancient Egyptians,

is

a bushy

which under favourable circumstances, and bears a fruit resembling a date, with a subacid flavour. The bark is whitish, the branches gracefully curved, the attains the height of eighteen or

tree or shrub,

twenty

feet

foliage of an

ashy grey, more especially on

Specially characteristic of

surface.

not altogether peculiar to lotus

— the

it,

under

were the papyrus and the

Cyperus papyrus and NympJicea lotus of

The papyrus was

botanists.

its

Egypt, though

a

tall

smooth

reed, with

a large triangular stalk containing a delicate pith, out of which the Egyptians

The

manufactured their paper.

shown by its continuance to the present day, and by the fact that the Greeks and Romans, after long trial, preferred it to parchment. The lotus was a large white water-lily of exquisite beauty. Kings offered it to the gods guests fabric

was

excellent, as

is

;

wore upon

it

at

banquets

;

architectural forms were modelled

was employed in the ornamentation of Whether its root had the effect on men asbut no one cribed to it by Homer may be doubted ever saw it without recognizing it instantly as "a it

;

it

thrones.

;

thing of beauty," and therefore as

Nor can Egypt have any very exciting amusement

"

a joy for ever."

afforded in

present day gazelles are

ancient

to sportsmen.

times

At

the

chased with hawk and hound

during the dry season on the broad expanse of the

Delta

;

but anciently the thick population scared off the

MS!* DOM AND DATE

PALMS.

MONOTONY OF EGYPT.

to,

whole antelope tribe, which was only to be found in the Nor desert region beyond the limits of the alluvium. can Egypt, in the proper sense of the word, have ever been the home of red-deer, roes, or fallow-deer, of lions, Animals of these bears, hyaenas, lynxes, or rabbits. classes may occasionally have appeared in the alluvial plain, but they would only be rare visitants driven by hunger from their true habitat in the Libyan or the Arabian uplands. The crocodile, however, and the hippopotamus were actually hunted by the ancient Egyptians and they further indulged their love of sport All kinds of in the pursuits of fowling and fishing. waterfowl are at all seasons abundant in the Nile waters, and especially frequent the pools left by the ;

retiring river

— pelicans,

geese, ducks, ibises, cranes,

storks, herons, dotterels, kingfishers,

Quails also arrive

in

and sea-swallows.

great numbers in the

month

of

March, though there are no pheasants, snipe, woodcocks,

nor partridges.

Fish are very plentiful

the Nile and the canals derived from are not

many kinds which

much

afford

it

;

in

but there

sport to the

fisherman.

Altogether, Egypt The eye commonly

is

a land of tranquil

travels

either over

monotony a waste of

unbroken by elevations. which inclose the Nile valley have level tops,

waters, or over a green plain

The

hills

and sides that are bare of trees, or shrubs, or flowers, The sky is generally cloudless. No fog or mist enwraps the distance in mystery no rainstorm sweeps across the scene no rainbow spans the empyrean no shadows chase each other over the landscape. There is an entire absence of picturesque or even mosses.

;

;

;

THE LAND OF EGYPT.

20

A

scenery. limits of

single broad river,

Egypt even by a

rapid,

unbroken within the two flat strips of green

two low lines of straight-topped hills beyond them, and a boundless open space where the river divides itself into half a dozen sluggish branches before reaching the sea, constitute Egypt, which is by nature a southern Holland " weary, stale, flat and unprofitable." The monotony is relieved, however, in two ways, and by two causes. Nature herself does something to relieve it. Twice a day, in the morning and in the evening, the sky and the landscape are lit up by hues so bright yet so delicate, that the homely features of the prospect are at once transformed as by magic, and wear an aspect of exquisite beauty. At plain at

its side,



dawn long

streaks of rosy light

stretch

themselves

across the eastern sky, the haze above the western

horizon blushes a deep red self

;

a ruddy light diffuses

it-

around, and makes walls and towers and minarets

and cupolas to glow like fire the long shadows thrown by each tree and building are purple or violet. glamour is over the scene, which seems transfigured by an enchanter's wand but the enchanter is Nature, and the wand she wields is composed of sunrays. Again, at eve, nearly the same effects are produced as in the morning, only with a heightened ;

A

;

"the redness of flames" passes into "the redness of roses " the wavy cloud that fled in the morning effect;

— —



comes into sight once more comes blushing, yet still comes on comes burning with blushes, and clings to the Sun-god's side. 1

Night brings a fresh transfiguration. 1

Adapted from Mr. Kinglake's "Eothen,"

The

p. 188.

olive

MONOTONY BROKEN BY ARCHITECTURE. after-glow

gives place

moon

yellow

to

a

deep blue-grey.

rises into the vast

expanse.

A

21

The

softened

and sky. The orb of through a firmament of sapphire or, if the moon is below the horizon, then the purple vault is lit up with many-coloured stars. Silence profound reigns around. A phase of beauty wholly different from that of the day-time smites the sense and the monotony of feature is forgiven to the changefulness of expression, and to the experience ol light diffuses itself over earth

night walks in brightness ;

;

a

new

delight.

Man

has also done his part to overcome the dulness and sameness that brood over the " land of Mizraim." Where nature is most tame and commonplace, man is tempted to his highest flights of audacity. As in the level Babylonia he aspired to build a tower that should " reach to heaven " (Gen. xi. 4), so in Egypt he strove to startle and surprise by gigantic works, enormous undertakings, enterprises that might have seemed wholly beyond his powers. And these have constituted in

all

ages, except the very earliest, the great

Men are drawn there, not by the mysteriousness of the Nile, or the mild beauties of orchards and palm -groves, of well-cultivated fields and gardens no, nor by the loveliness of sunrises and sunsets, of moonlit skies and stars shining with many hues, but by the huge masses of the pyramids, by the colossal statues, the tall obelisks, the enormous temples, the deeply-excavated tombs, the mosques, the The architecture of Egypt castles, and the palaces. It began early, and it has conis its great glory. But for the great works, strewn thickly tinued late. attractiveness of Egypt.



THE LAND OF EGYPT.

22

over the whole valley of the Nile, the land of Egypt

would have obtained but a small share of the world's attention and it is at least doubtful whether its " story " would ever have been thought necessary to ;

complete

" the

Story of the Nations."



IL TTTE PEOPLE

WHERE

the

OF EGYPT.

Egyptians came from, is a difficult Ancient speculators, when they

question to answer.

could not derive a people definitely from any other,

took refuge

in

the statement, or the figment, that they

were the children of the

Modern

occupied.

soil

which they had always

may

theorists

say,

if

it

please

them, that they were evolved out of the monkeys that

abode on that particular portion of Monkeys, however, are not found everywhere and we have no evidence that in Egypt they were ever indigenous, though, as pets, they were very common, the Egyptians delighting in keeping them. Such evidence as we have reveals to us the had

their primitive

the earth's surface. ;

man

as anterior to the

Thus we

Where

monkey

in

the land of Mizraim.

are thrown back on the original question

did the man, or race of men, that

is

found

in

come from ? It is generally answered that they came from Asia but this is not much more than a conjecture. The Egypt

at the

dawn

of history

;

physical type of the Egyptians

of any

known

Asiatic nation.

traditions that at

language,

all

indeed,

is

different

from that

The Egyptians had no

connected them with Asia. in

historic

times

was

Their

partially

THE PEOPLE OF EGYPT.

24

Semitic, and allied to the Hebrew, the Phoenician, and

the

may

Aramaic

;

but the relationship was remote, and

be partly accounted

for

by

later intercourse, with-

out involving original derivation.

The fundamental

character of the Egyptian in respect of physical type,

language, and tone of thought, is Nigritic. The Egyptians were not negroes, but they bore a resemblance to the negro which is indisputable. Their type differs from the Caucasian in exactly those respects

which when exaggerated produce the negro. They were darker, had thicker lips, lower foreheads, larger heads, more advancing jaws, a flatter foot, and a more attenuated frame.

It

is

quite

conceivable that the

negro type was produced by a gradual degeneration from that which we find in Egypt. It is even conceivable that the Egyptian type was produced by gradual advance and amelioration from that of the negro. Still, it

whencesoever derived,

the*

Egyptian people,

a«.

existed in the flourishing times of Egyptian history,

was beyond all question a mixed race, showing diverse Whatever the people was originally, it received into it from time to time various foreign elements, and those in such quantities as seriously to affect its physique Ethiopians from the south, Libyans from the west, Semites from the north-east, where Africa adjoined on Asia, There are two quite different types of Egyptian form and feature, blending together in the mass of the nation, but strongly developed, and (so to speak) accentuated in individuals. One is that which we see in portraits of Rameses IIL, and in some of Rameses II. — a moderately high foreaffinities.



EGYPTIAN PHYSIQUE— TWO TYPES.

2$

head, a large, well -formed aquiline nose, a well-shaped

mouth with lips not over full, and a delicately rounded chin. The other is comparatively coarse forehead



low, nose depressed and short, lower part of the face

and sensual-looking, chin heavy, jaw The two types of and projecting. face are not, however, accompanied by much differThe Egyptian is always slight in ence of frame. figure, wanting in muscle, flat in foot, with limbs that Something more are too long, too thin, too lady-like. prognathous

large, lips thick

of muscularity appears, perhaps, in the earlier than in the later forms

;

but this

is

perhaps attributable to a

modification of the artistic ideal.

As Egypt so

it

presents us with two types of physique,

brings before us two strongly different types of

character.

On

the one

hand we

see, alike in the pic-

tured scenes, in the native literary remains, and in the

accounts which foreigners have

a grave and dignified race,

left

us of the people,

of serious and sober

full

thought, given to speculation and reflection, occupied rather with the interests belonging to another world

than with those that attach to this present scene of existence,

and inclined

to

The

dreamy melancholy.

indulge

in

a gentle and

thought of a king, when

first

he began his reign, was to begin his tomb. of the grandee was similar. feasts a slave carried

sentation of a in turn,

It is

round to

mummied

all

corpse,

with the solemn words

eat and drink

thou shalt be."

;

for

the guests the repre-

and showed



be sure that

The

a trite

The desire tale how at it

to each

Look at this, and so one day such as this

"

favourite song of the Egyptians,

according to Herodotus, was a dirge.

The

"

Lay

of

!



THE PEOPLE OF EGYPT.

26

Harper," which we subjoin, sounds a key-note that

was very

any

familiar, at

rate, to large

numbers among

the Egyptians. The Great One * has gone to his rest, Ended his task and his race Thus men are aye passing away, And youths are aye taking their place. As Ra rises up every morn, ;

And Turn

every evening doth

So women conceive and bring

And men

set,

forth,

without ceasing beget.

Each soul in its turn draweth breath Each man born of woman sees Death.

Take thy

pleasure to-day,

Father

!

Holy One

Spices and fragrant Father,

On

thy

we

On

thy

Aye Sound

And

bring to thee.

sister's

Wreaths of sister,

See,

!

oils,

bosom and arms we place

lotus

;

dear to thy heart,

sitting before thy face.

the song

let

;

let

music be played

cares behind thee be laid.

Take thy pleasure to-day Mind thee of joy and delight ;

Soon

life's

And we

pilgrimage ends, pass to Silence and Night.

Patriarch perfect and pure,

Nefer-hotep, blessed one

Didst

finish thy course

Thou

!

upon

earth,

And art with the blessed ones now. Men pass to the Silent Shore, And their place doth know them no morec They

are as they never

had been,

Since the sun went forth upon high

They

sit

on the banks of the stream

That floweth 1

in stillness by.

Nefer-hotep, a deceased king.

;

— — TWO TYPES OF CHARACTER. Thy

soul

among them

is

2J

thou

;

Dost drink of the sacred tide, Having the wish of thy heart At peace ever since thou hast died. Give bread to the man who is poor, And thy name shall be blest evermore.

Take thy

pleasure to-day,

Nefer-hotep, blessed and pure.

What availed thee thy other buildings? Of thy tomb alone thou art sure.

On

the earth thou hast nought beside,

Nought of thee else is remaining And when thou wentest below,

Thy

last sip

of

Find that Let

all,

life

thou wert draining.

life

Even they who have comes

;

millions to spend,

an end.

at last to

then, think of the

Of departure without

day

returning

'Twill then be well to have lived, All sin and injustice spurning. For he who has loved the right, In the hour that none can flee, Enters upon the delight

Of

On

a glad eternity.

from out thy

Give

freely

And

thou shalt be blest evermore.

the other hand, there

is

store,

evidence of a lightsome,

joyous, and even frolic spirit as pervading numbers, especially "

among

the lower classes of the Egyptians.

Traverse Egypt," says a writer

the

ancient

person,

who knows more

of

country than almost any other living

"examine the scenes sculptured or painted on

the walls of the chapels attached to tombs, consult the inscriptions graven on the rocks or traced with ink on the papyrus to

rolls,

and you

will

be compelled

modify your mistaken notion of the Egyptians

— THE PEOPLE OF EGYPT.

28

I defy you to find being a nation of philosophers. anything more gay, more amusing, more freshly simple, than this good-natured Egyptian people, which was fond of life and felt a profound pleasure in its

Far from desiring death, they addressed in life, and to an old age that should give them a happy old age perfect term of reach, if possible, to the 10 years.' They gave themselves up to pleasures of every kind they sang, they drank, they danced, they delighted in making excursions into the country, where hunting existence.

prayers to the gods to preserve them



'

1

;

and

fishing

the

nobility.

were occupations reserved especially for In conformity with this inclination

towards pleasure, sportive proposals,

a

pleasantry

raillery, and vogue among the people, and fun was allowed entrance even into the tombs. In the large schools the masters had a difficulty in training the young and keeping down their passion When oral exhortation failed of for amusements. success, the cane was used pretty smartly in its place; a for the wise men of the land had a saying that boy's ears grow on his back.' " I Herodotus tells us how gaily the Egyptians kept

that

was perhaps

a mocking

spirit,

over-free, witticisms,

were

in

(

their

festivals,

thousands of the

common

men, women, and children together

people

— crowding

into

the boats, which at such times covered the Nile, the

men

piping,

and the women clapping

their

striking their castanets, as they passed from

hands town

or to

town along the banks of the stream, stopping at the various landing-places, and challenging the inhabi1

Brugsch, "Histoire d'Egypte," p. 15.



"

EGYPTIAN DROLLERY, tants

to a

From

the

contest

of good-humoured Billingsgate.

monuments

their labours

2Q

how

\vc see

the

men sang

— here as they trod the wine-press

at

or the

dough-trough, there as they threshed out the corn by driving the oxen through the golden heaps.

case the words of a harvest-song have us

to

:

" Thresh

O

for yourselves,"

they sang, " thresh for yourselves,

oxen, thresh for yourselves, for yourselves

Bushels for yourselves, bushels for your masters

in

In one

come down

!

Their light-hearted drollery sometimes found vent The grand sculptures wherewith a caricature.

king strove to perpetuate the

memory of his warlike who reproduced

exploits were travestied by satirists,

combats between cats of the monarch were held up to derision by sketches of a harem interior, where the kingly wooer was represented by a lion, and his favourites of the softer sex by gazelles. Even the scenes upon papyrus

and

in

The amorous

rats.

as

follies

serious scenes depicting the trial of souls

in the

next world, the sense of humour breaks out, where the bad man, transformed into a pig or a monkey, walks off with a comical

air of

surprise

and

dis-

comfiture. It

true

docs not, however, help us

knowledge of a people

study their

facial

their thoughts, their



in

life.

We

want

to

know

innermost feelings, their hopes,

a word, their belief.

character of a people so

we

the

angle, or even to contemplate the

outer aspect of their daily

their fears

much towards

to scan their frames or

much

Nothing

tells

are only dealing superficially

the

and with the outward

as their religion

;

THE PEOPLE OF EGYPT.

30

shows of things being,

we

until

get

down

to the root of their

the conviction, or convictions, held

Egyptian religion

What did What

?

did they reverence

forward to

in

the

What, then, was the

recesses of a people's heart.

they worship future

?

did

?

What

they look

?

Enter the huge courts of an Egyptian temple, or temple-palace, and you will see portrayed upon its lofty walls

makes

row upon row of

Mentu, Shu, Seb, Nut, pours a libation

to

Osiris, Set,

Horus

Sati,

;

elsewhere,

Khem,

Isis,

it

erects an altar to Satemi, Turn, Isis,

Set,

may

Pasht, be,

he

Nephthys, Athor,

One monarch

Harmachis, Nausaas, and Nebhept. Seb, Netpe, Osiris,

there he

;

Phthah, Sekhet, Turn,

Anuka, Thoth, Anubis pays his court to

Here the king Maut, Khons, Neith,

deities.

Ammon,

his offering to

Khepra, Shu, Tefnut,

Nephthys, Horus, and

Thoth, mentioning on the same monument Phthah, Num, Sabak, Athor, Pasht, Mentu, Neith, Anubis, Nishem, and Kartak. Another represents himself on a similar object

Khem, Osiris,

as

offering adoration

Phthah-Sokari, Isis,

Horus,

Seb,

Nut,

Athor,

Uat

to

Ammon, Khons,

Thoth, (Buto),

Sekhet, Anata, Nuneb, Nebhept, and Hapi.

Neith,

All these

by distinct forms, and have distinct attributes. Nor do they at all exhaust the Pantheon. One modern writer enumerates seventythree divinities, and gives their several names and forms. Another has a list of sixty-three "principal deities," and notes that there were " others which perdeities

are represented

sonified the elements, or presided over the operations

of nature, the seasons, and events."

The Egyptians

Egyptian polytheism.

31

themselves speak not unfrequently of "the thousand

sometimes further qualifying them, as " the gods male, the gods female, those which belong to the Practically, there were before the land of Egypt." gods,"

eyes of worshippers some scores, of deities,

who

invited their

if

not

some hundreds,

approach and challenged

their affections.

Nor was tian

to

In one place goats,

potami,

in

The Egyp-

this the whole, or the worst.

was taught

pay a in

religious regard to animals.

another sheep,

a fourth crocodiles, in a

in a third

hippo-

fifth vultures, in

a

sixth frogs, in a seventh shrew-mice, were sacred crea-

be treated with respect and honour, and under no circumstances to be slain, under the penalty of death to the slayer. And besides this local animal-

tures, to

was a

which was general. Cows, cats, cynocephalous apes, were sacred throughout the whole of Egypt, and woe to the cult,

there

dogs,

ibises,

man who

cult

hawks, and

injured

them

A

!

Roman who

accidentally

caused the death cf a cat was immediately

"

lynched"

by the populace. Inhabitants of neighbouring villages would attack each other with the utmost fury if the native of one had killed or eaten an animal held sacred in the other. In any house where a cat or a dog died, the inmates were expected to mourn for them as for a relation. Both these and the other sacred animals were carefully embalmed after death, and their bodies

were interred

in

sacred repositories.

The animal-worship reached its utmost pitch of grossness and absurdity when certain individual brute beasts treated

were declared to be incarnate accordingly.

At Memphis,

deities,

the

and

ordinary

THE PEOPLE OF EGYPT.

32 capital, there

time of

known

was maintained,

Aahmes

I.

any

at

rate from the

(about B.C. 1650), a sacred

bull,

Hapi or Apis, which was believed to be an actual incarnation of the god Phthah, and was an as

of the highest

object

dwelt

in a

temple of

The Apis

veneration. his

own near

train of attendant priests, his

bull

the city, had his

harem of cows,

his

meals

of the choicest food, his grooms and currycombers

who kept his coat clean and beautiful, his chamberlains who made his bed, his cup-bearers who brought him

water,

&c, and on

fixed days

was led

in a festive

procession through the main streets of the town, so

and come forth from their dwellings and make obeisance. When he died he was carefully embalmed, and deposited, tothat the inhabitants might see him,

gether with magnificent jewels

and statuettes and

vases, in a polished granite sarcophagus, cut out of a

single block,

tons

!

times,

and weighing between sixty and seventy of an Apis funeral amounted some-

The cost as we are

told, to as

much

as

£ 20,000.

To

contain the sarcophagi, several long galleries were cut in

the solid rock near

Memphis, from which arched

chambers went off on either side, each conThe number of to hold one sarcophagus. Apis bulls buried in the galleries was found to be lateral

structed

sixty- four.

Nor was boasted. in

this the

Another

only incarnate god of which Egypt bull, called

the great temple of the

Mnevis, was maintained

Sun

at

being regarded as an incarnation of as

much

Heliopolis, and,

Ra

or Turn,

was

reverenced by the Heliopolites as Apis by

the Mcmphites.

A

third, called Bacis or

Pacis,

was

— 'THE

KING RECKONED A GOD.

33

kept at ITcrmonthis, which was also an incarnation

And

Ra.

an

a white

incarnation

cow

of

at

Who

Athor.

can wonder that

foreign nations ridiculed a religion of this kind

that

"

turned the glory

"

ot

Momemphis was reckoned

of the

— one

Eternal Godhead

" into the similitude of a calf that eateth

hay

" ?

The Egyptians had also a further god incarnate, who was not shut up out of sight like the Apis and Mnevis and Bacis bulls and the Athor cow, but was continually before their eyes, the centre of the nation's

who

Each

time being occupied the throne.

for the

life,

This was the monarch,

the prime object of attention.

king of Egypt claimed not only to be

"

son of the

Sun," but to be an actual incarnation of the sun "

And

the living Horus."

this

claim was, from

an

and allowed. " Thy Majesty," says a courtier under the twelfth dynasty, " is the the great God, the equal of the Sungood God God. ... I live from the breath which thou givest." Brought into the king's presence, the courtier " falls on his belly," amazed and confounded. " I was as one brought out of the dark my tongue was dumb my lips failed me my heart was no longer in my body to know whether I was alive or dead;" and this, although "the god" had "addressed him mildly." Another courtier attributes his long life to the king's favour. Ambassadors, when presented to the king, "raised their arms in adoration of the good god," and "Thou art like the Sun in all that declared to him early

date, received

.

.

.

;

;

;



thou doest

:

thou wish to forthwith.

thy heart realizes

make

...

it

If thou

all its

wishes

day during the

;

shouldest

night,

sayest to the water,

it '

is

so

Come

THE PEOPLE OF EGYPT.

34 from the

come in a torrent suddenly at The god Ra is like thee in the god Khepra in creative force. Truly

rock,'

it

will

the words of thy mouth. his limbs,

thou art the living image of thy father, Turn. All thy words are accomplished daily."

kings set up their statues

in

Some

.

.

.

of the

the temples by the side

of the greatest of the national deities, to be the objects of a similar worship.

Amid

this

wealth of gods, earthly and heavenly,

human, animal, and

make

puzzled to

divine,

an Egyptian might well

feel

In his hesitation he was apt

a choice.

to turn to that only portion of his religion

which had



myth possesses the introduction into a supramundane and superhuman world of a quasi-human element. The chief Egyptian myth was the Osirid saga, which ran somewhat as follows: "Once the attraction that

upon a time the gods were tired of ruling in the upper sphere, and resolved to take it in turns to reign over Egypt in the likeness of men. So, after four of them had in succession been kings, each for a long term of years, it happened that Osiris, the son of Seb and Nut, took the throne, and became monarch of the two regions, the Upper and the Lower. Osiris was of a good and bountiful nature, beneficent in will and words

:

he set himself to

civilize the

Egyptians, taught

them to till the fields and cultivate the them law and religion, and instructed them useful arts.

after

to

who hated him

compass

it

gave

various

into the Nile,

whence

goodness,

for his

This he effected

his death.

a while, and, having placed the body

he threw

in

Unfortunately, he had a wicked brother,

called Set or Sutekh,

and resolved

vine,

it

in

floated

a coffin,

down

to

LEGEND OF the

sea.

Isis,

the sister and

OSTRTS.

widow of

35 Osiris, together

with her sister Nephthys, vainly sought for a long

time her lord's remains, but at

last

found them on the

Syrian shore at Byblus, where they had been cast up

She was conveying the corpse for by the waves. interment to Memphis, when Set and embalmment stole it from her, and cut it up into fourteen pieces, which he concealed in various places. The unhappy queen set forth in a light boat made of the papyrus plant, and searched Egypt from end to end, until ^\i2 had found all the fragments, and buried them with due honours. She then called on her son, Horus, to avenge his father, and Horus engaged him in a long war, wherein he was at last victorious and took Set Isis now relented, and released Set, who prisoner. be it remembered, was her brother which so enraged Horus that he tore off her crown, or (according to some) struck off her head, which injury Thoth repaired by giving her a cow's head in place of her own. Horus then renewed the war with his uncle, and finally slew him with a long spear, which he drove The gods and goddesses of the into his head." Osirid legend, Scb, Nut or Netpe, Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, Set, and Horus or Harmachis, were those which most drew towards them the thoughts of the Egyp;

tians,

the greater

number being

favourite objects of

worship, while Set was held in general detestation.

was a peculiar feature of the Egyptian religion, contained distinctively evil and malignant it gods. Set was not, originally, such a deity but he became such in course of time, and was to the later It

that

;

Egyptians the very principle of

evil

— Evil personified.

THE PEOPLE OF EGYPT.

36

Another

evil deity was Taour or Taourt, who is represented as a hippopotamus standing on its hindlegs, with the skin and tail of a crocodile dependent

down

back, and a knife or a pair of shears in one Bes seems also to have been a divinity of the same class. He was represented as a hideous dwarf, with large outstanding ears, bald, or with a plume of feathers on his head, and with a lion-skin down his its

hand.

back, often carrying in

his

two hands two knives.

FIGURES OF TAOURT.

Even more

than Bcs was Apcp, the great huge and many folds, who helped Set against Osiris, and was the adversary and accuser of souls. Savak, a god with the head of a crocodile, seems also to have belonged to the class of malignant beings, though he was a favourite deity with some of the Ramesside kings, and a special object of worship in the Fayoum. The complex polytheism of the monuments and terrible

serpent, with

its

EVIL DEITIES the literature

of

many

most

was

not,

Egyptians.

of

the

— TAOURT,

BE$.

37

however, the practical religion

Local cults held possession

nomes, and the

ordinary

ot

Egyptian,

affections by his religious them among the thousand divinities ot the Pantheon, concentrated them on those of his nome. If he was a Mem phi te, he worshipped Phthah Sekhet, and Turn if a Theban, Ammon-Ra, Maut,

instead

of

dissipating

distributing

;

H<;n:i

01

i;ks.

Khons, and Neith if a Ileliopolite, Turn, Nebhebt and Horus if a Elephantinite, Kneph, Sati, Anuka, and Hak and so on. The Egyptian Pantheon was a gradual accretion, the result of amalgamating the various local cults but these continued predominant and practically the only in their several localities ;

;

;

;

;

deities that obtained

anything like a general recog-

THE PEOPLE OF EGYPT.

38 were

nition

Osiris,

Horus, and the Nile-god,

Isis,

Hapi.

common

Besides the

popular religion, the belief of

among The primary

the masses, there was another which prevailed

among

the priests and

the educated.

doctrine of this esoteric religion was the real essential

The

unity of the Divine Nature.

only to the priests and to the there

was a

single

things both in

duced of any," "

nated,"

made

who

Being,

known

taught that

the sole producer of

all

heaven and earth, himself not pro"

the only true living God, self-origi-

exists from the

things, but

all

"

sacred texts,

initiated,

beginning,"

"

who

has

has not himself been made."

This Being seems never to have been represented by any material, even symbolical, form. It is thought that he had no name, or, if he had, that it must have

been unlawful to pronounce or write it. He was a pure spirit, perfect in every respect all- wise, almighty, supremely good. It is of him that the Egyptian poets



use such expressions as the following

graven

marble

in

;

he

is

not beheld

;

"

:

He

abode

his

not

is

not

is

found with painted figures of known no shrine " him there is no building that can contain him " Unknown is his name in heaven he and, again doth not manifest his forms vain are all representa" His commencement is from tions ;" and yet again is

;

;

;

:

;

;

:

the beginning

;

he

is

the

God who

has existed from

no God without him

no mother no father hath begotten him he is a godgoddess, created from himself all gods came into

old time

there

;

bore him

is

;

;

;

;

existence

The

when he began."

other gods, the gods of the popular mythology,

ESOTERIC RELIGION. were understood

3g

the esoteric religion to be either

in

personified attributes of the Deity, or parts of the

nature which he had created, considered as informed and inspired by him. Num or Kneph represented the creative mind, Phthah the creative hand, or act of creating

;

Maut

the moon, Seb the earth,

power

in

Nut

nature,

Ra

represented matter,

Khons

Khem

the sun,

the generative

the upper hemisphere of the

heavens, Athor the lower world or under hemisphere

Thoth

personified the Divine

Wisdom,

Ammon

;

per-

haps the Divine mysteriousness or incomprehensibility, Osiris the Divine Goodness.

difficult

It is

many

in

cases to fix on the exact quality, act, or part of nature

intended

;

No

but the principle admits of no doubt.

educated Egyptian conceived of the popular gods as really separate

and

All

distinct beings.

knew

that

One God, and understood that, when worship was offered to Khem, or Kneph, or Maut, or Thoth, or Ammon, the One God was worshipped there was but

under some one of his forms or in some one of his He was every god, and thus all the gods' aspects. names were interchangeable, and in one and the same

hymn we may find a god, say Ammon, addressed also as Ra and Khem and Turn and Horus and Khepra ;

or

Hapi, the

Nile-god,

invoked

as

Phthah or Osiris as Ra and Thoth any god invoked as almost any other. ;

limit,

it

is

in respect

Ammon ;

or,

in

fact,

If there be a

of the evil deities, whose

good ones. Egyptians seems

and

names

are not given to the

Common belief,

if

to all

to have been a

not, strictly speaking, in the immortality of

the soul, yet, at

any

rate, in

a

life

after death,

and a

THE PEOPLE OF EGYPT.

40

judgment of every man according to the deeds which he had done in the body while upon earth. It was universally

immediately

received, that,

the soul descended into the

after

death,

Lower World, and was Truth," where it was

conducted to the " Hall of judged in the presence of Osiris and of the forty-two assessors, the " Lords of Truth " and judges of the dead. Anubis, " the director of the weight," brought forth a pair of scales, and, placing in figure or

emblem

of Truth, set

in

one scale a

the other a vase

containing the good actions of the deceased

standing by the while, with a tablet

whereon

to

record

in

According

the result.

;

his

Thoth hand, to

the

side on which the balance inclined, Osiris, the presi-

good deeds preponwas allowed to enter the " boat of the Sun," and was led by good spirits to Aahlu (Elysium), to the " pools of peace " and the dent, delivered sentence.

If the

derated, the blessed soul

dwelling-place of Osiris.

good deeds were passed, then the

If,

insufficient,

unhappy

soul

on if

the

contrary, the

the ordeal was not

was sentenced, accord-

round of transmigrations into the bodies of more or less unclean animals, the number, nature, and duration of the transmigrations depending on the degree of the deceased's demerits, and the consequent length and severity of the punishment which he deserved or the purification which he Ultimately, if after many trials purity was needed. not attained, then the wicked and incurable soul underwent a final sentence at the hands of Osiris, Judge of the Dead, and being condemned to annihilation, was destroyed upon the steps of heaven by Shu, ing to

its

deserts, to begin a

Egyptian morality.

The good

the Lord of Light.

41

having

soul,

been

first

by passing through the basin of purgatorial fire guarded by the four ape-faced genii, was made the companion of Osiris completely

cleansed

of

impurities

its

thousand years

for a period of three

returned from Amenti, re-entered

and

The

lived

human

once more a

process was repeated

years had gone by, when,

life

finally,

it

former body,

upon the

earth.

number

a mystic

till

which

after

;

its

of

the blessed attained

the crowning joy of union with God, being absorbed

which they had ema-

into the Divine Essence, from

and thus

nated,

attaining

the

end and

true

full

perfection of their being.

Such a should action

belief

as

this,

and thorough,

earnest

if

be productive of a high standard of moral ;

and undoubtedly the Egyptians had a code

of morality that will compare favourably with that of

most ancient nations.

It

has

been

contained "three cardinal requirements love of virtue, and love of man." ciently indicate the

first

;

said

to

The hymns

the second

may

suffi-

be allowed,

by "virtue" we understand justice and truth is testified by the constant claim of men, in

if

have

— love of God,

third

;

epitaphs, to have been benefactors of their species.

was not an

idler,"

counsels of sloth

my

;

water to the thirsty I

;

all I

" I

" I

was no listener to the name was not heard in the

says one

place of reproof ...

the

their

;

men

set the

respected

me;

wanderer on

I

his

gave path

;

took away the oppressor, and put a stop to violence."

" I

myself was just and

malice, having put

to discern

His

God

will.

I

true," writes

my

another

:

"without

and being quick have done good upon earth in

heart,

;

THE PEOPLE OF EGYPT.

42

I have not been have harboured no prejudice have not approved of any offence or I have taken pleasure in speaking the iniquity I while living I bore no Pure is my soul truth. attributable to me no errors There are no malice. The men of sins of mine are before the judges. the future, while they live, will be charmed by my remarkable merits." And another: " I have not oppressed any widow no prisoner languished in my days no one died of hunger. When there were years of famine, I gave food to the inI had my fields ploughed. I habitants, so that there was no hungry person. I

;

wicked

;

;

.

.

.

;

;

.

.

.

;

;

gave the widow an equal portion with the married I

;

did not prefer the rich to the poor."

The moral standard so far as

it

went, was

thus set up, though satisfactory, in

many

did not comprise humility

it

;

respects deficient.

It

scarcely seems to have

The religious sculptures of the comprised purity. Egyptians were grossly indecent their religious fes;

tivals

were kept

in

an indecent

way

;

phallic orgies

were a part of them, and phallic orgies of a gross The Egyptians tolerated incest, and could dekind. fend it by the example of the gods. Osiris had married his

sister

Khem was

;

The Egyptian

Egyptian

immorality, and

amours very

" the

novelettes are

much

in

Bull full

of his mother." of indecency and

travellers describe

their

the spirit of Ferdinand, Count

which each Egyptian declares himself on his tomb to have possessed every virtue, and to have been free from " I was a good man all vices, is most remarkable.

Fathom

;

moreover, the

before the king

;

I

complacency with

saved the population

in

the dire

Divisions of society.

43

I shielded the weak good things when the I was pious towards my time came to do them I was kindfather, and did the will of my mother hearted towards my brethren ... I made a good sarcophagus for him who had no coffin. When the

calamity which befell against the strong

;

all

I

the land

did

;

all

;

;

dire calamity befell the land,

I

made

established the houses,

I

did for them

the children to all

such

good things as a father does for his sons." And, notwithstanding all this braggadocio,

per-

live, I

formance seems to have lagged sadly behind profession.

Kings boast of slaying their unresisting prisoners own hand, and represent themselves in the They come back from battle with act of doing so. the gory heads of their slain enemies hanging from with their

their chariots.

Licentiousness prevailed

in

the palace,

and members of the royal harem intrigued with those who sought the life of the king. A belief in magic was general, and men endeavoured to destroy or injure those whom they hated by wasting their waxen effigies at a slow fire to the accompaniment of incantations. Thieves were numerous, and did not scruple even to violate the sanctity of the

formed

for

tomb

in

order to obtain

A

famous " thieves' society," the purpose of opening and plundering

a satisfactory booty.

the royal tombs, contained

among

its

members persons

of the sacerdotal order. in Egypt were divided somewhat There was a large class of nobles, who were mostly great landed proprietors living on their estates, and having under them a vast body of dependents, There was also a servants, labourers, artizans, &c.

Social

sharply.

ranks

— THE PEOPLE OF EGYPT.

44

numerous

government

country, which regarded

and looked down de

Commands

the

in

employed

class, partly

official

holding

partly

as

itself

/unit en

army seem

at the court,

throughout

posts

bas on

"

the people."

to have been

the prizes which from time to time

the

highly dignified,

fell

among

to the lot of

Further, there was a literary class, such persons. which was eminently respectable, and which viewed with contempt those who were engaged in trade or handicrafts.

Below these three classes, and removed from them by a long interval, was the mass of the population " the multitude " as the Egyptians called them. These persons were engaged in manual labour of different The greater number were employed on the kinds.



farms of the nobles, the

rearing

fishermen,

known

of

or

in

the cultivation of the

A

cattle.

portion

or in

were boatmen,

Others pursued the various

fowlers.

They were

handicrafts.

soil

weavers, workers in

metal, stone-cutters, masons, potters, carpenters, upholsterers,

builders,

also

shoe-makers, glass-blowers, boat-

tailors,

wig-makers, and embalmers.

among them

There were But all

painters and sculptors.

these employments

"

stank

"

in

the nostrils of the

and were regarded as unworthy of any to be thought respectable. wished one who upper

classes,

Still,

the line of demarcation, decided as

might be crossed.

It is

that caste existed in Egypt. their sons to their in all countries,

there

own

it

was,

an entire mistake to suppose

Men

frequently bred up

trade or profession, as they

do

but they were not obliged to do so in the matter.

was absolutely no compulsion

CONDITION OF THE LOWER ORDERS.

The

"public-schools" of

Egypt were open

45 to

all

comers, and the son of the artizan sat on the same

bench with the son of the noble, enjoyed the same education, and had an equal opportunity of dis^ If he showed sufficient promise, tinguishing himself. he was recommended to adopt the literary life and the literary life was the sure passport to State employment. State employment once entered upon, merit secured advancement and thus there was, in fact, no obstacle to prevent the son of a labouring man from ;

;

rising to the very highest positions in the administra-

Successful ministers were usually rewarded by large grants of land from the royal domain and it follows that a clever youth of the labouring class might by good conduct and ability make tion of the empire.

;

his

way even

On

into the ranks of the landed aristocracy.

the other hand, practically, the condition of the

labouring class was, generally speaking

sad one.

The kings were

entitled to

of their subjects as they pleased

in

a hard and

employ

many

as

forced labours, and

monarchs often sacrificed to their inordinate vanity the and happiness of thousands. Private employers of labour were frequently cruel and exacting their overseers used the stick, and it was not easy for those who suffered to obtain any redress. Moreover, taxation was heavy, and inability to satisfy the collector subjected the defaulter to the bastinado. Those who have studied the antiquities of Egypt with most care, tell us that there was not much to choose between the condition of the ancient labourers and that of the unhappy fellahin of the present day. lives

;

x

1

A

fellah

is

a peasant, one of the labouring class, just above the slave,

III.

THE DAWN OF HISTORY.

ALL

have a pregloom, them. dawns upon history the keen light of before mythplayground of the This period is the favourite hi toric

nations, unless they be colonies,

time

—a

dark period of

mist and

where they disport themselves freely, or lounge heavily and listlessly, according to their different The Egyptian spirits were of the heavier natures. and duller kind not light and frolicsome, like the Greek and the Indo-Iranian. It has been said that Egypt never produced more than one myth, the and this is so far true that in no other Osirid legend case is the story told at any considerable length, or spirits,



;

with any considerable number of exciting incidents. There are, however, many short legends in the

Egyptian remains, which have more or less of interest, and show that the people was not altogether devoid of imagination, though their imagination was far from Seb, for instance, once upon a time, took the lively. form of a goose, and laid the mundane egg, and

Thoth once wrote a wonderful book, full it. wisdom and science, which told of everything con-

hatched of

air, and the fishes of the sea, and the four-footed beasts of the earth. He who knew

cerning the fowls of the

EGYPTIAN MYTHS.

47

a single page of the book could charm the heaven, the

and the seas. Thoth took the work and enclosed it in a box of gold, and the box of gold he placed within a box of silver, and the silver box within a box of ivory and ebony, and that again within a box of bronze and the bronze box he enclosed within a box of brass, and the brass box within a box of iron and the box, thus guarded, earth, the great abyss, the mountains,

;

;

he threw

into the

Nile at Coptos.

But

a priest

discovered the whereabouts of the book, and sold the

knowledge to a young noble for a hundred pieces of and the young noble with great trouble fished the book up. But the possession of the book brought him not good but evil. He lost his wife he lost his child he became entangled in a disgraceful intrigue. He was glad to part with the book. But the next possessor was not more fortunate the book brought him no luck. The quest after unlawful knowledge silver,

;

;

;

involved

all

who sought

Another myth had destruction of

it

in calamity.

for

its

subject

the

proposed

mankind by Ra, the Sun-god.

Ra

had succeeded Phthah as king of Egypt, and had reigned for a long term of years in peace, contented with his subjects and they with him. But a time came when they grew headstrong and unruly they uttered words against Ra they plotted evil things they grievously offended him. So Ra called the council of the gods together and asked them to advise him what he should do. They said mankind must be destroyed, and committed the task of destruction to Athor and Sekhet, who proceeded to smite the men But now fear came upon over the whole land. ;

;

;

— THE DAWN OF HISTORY.

48

mankind and the men of Elephantine made haste, and extracted the juice from the best of their fruits, and mingled it with human blood, and filled seven thousand jars, and brought them as an offering to Ra drank and was content, and the offended god. ordered the liquor that remained in the jars to be poured out and, lo it was an inundation which covered the whole land of Egypt and when Athor went forth the next day to destroy, she saw no men in the fields, but only water, which she drank, and it pleased her, and she went away satisfied. It would require another Euhemerus to find any groundwork of history in these narratives. We must turn away from the "shadow-land "which the Egyptians called the time of the gods on earth, if we would find ;

!

;

;

trace of the real

doings of

men

in

the Nile valley,

and put before our readers actual human beings in The Egyptians themthe place of airy phantoms. selves taught that the first man of whom they had any record was a king called M'na, a name which the Greeks represented by Men or Menes. M'na was born

at

Tena (This

Thinis)

or

in

Upper Egypt,

where his ancestors had borne sway before him. He was the first to master the Lower country, and thus " to unite under a single sceptre the " two Egypts the long narrow Nile valley and the broad Delta Having placed on his head the double crown plain. which thenceforth symbolized dominion over both tracts, his first thought was that a new capital was needed.

Egypt could

not,

he

felt,

be ruled conve-

niently from the latitude of Thebes, or from in

the

Upper country

;

it

any

site

required a capital which

SUPPOSED FIRST KING.

49

should abut on both regions, and so command both. Nature pointed out one only fit locality, the junction of the plain with the

vale— "

the balance of the two

regions," as the Egyptians called

the narrow

"

Upper Country

"

it

;

the place where

terminates, and

spreads

on every side

itself

be, in a

commanded

way,

Hence

to the sea.

would be easy access to both regions

Egypt

that thence

opens out into the wide smiling plain

there

both would

;

was a readily only in front. Ex-

here, too,

;

defensible position, one assailable

shown that the instinct of the first founder was right, or that his political and strategic foresight Though circumstances, once was extraordinary. and again, transferred the seat of government to Thebes or Alexandria, yet such removals were shortThe force of geographic fact was too strong to lived. be permanently overcome, and after a few centuries power gravitated back to the centre pointed out by perience has

nature. If

we may

believe the tradition, there was,

the idea of building the in

obtaining a

new

advantageous.

site in all respects

debouching upon the miles the base of the Libyan

Nile, before

many

on the wrong side of the the other side,

in

when

capital arose, a difficulty

valley.

The

hugged for hills, and was thus It was wanted on plain,

order to be a water-bulwark against

The founder, therefore, before an Asiatic invader. He building his city, undertook a gigantic work. raised a great

of the river

enter a or, if

;

embankment and, forcing

new channel and

across the natural course it

run

from

its

bed,

midway down

anything, rather towards

its

made

it

the valley

eastern side.

He

THE DAWN OF HISTORY.

50

thus obtained the bulwark against invasion that he

and he had an ample

required,

between the

new channel

of the western

site for his

capital

of the stream and the foot

hills.

undoubtedly strange to hear of such a work being constructed at the very dawn of history, by a population that was just becoming a people. But in Egypt precocity is the rule a Minerva starts fullgrown from the head of Jove. The pyramids themselves cannot be placed very long after the supposed It is



reign of

Menes

the pyramids

and the engineering

;

is

skill

implied

in

simply of a piece with that attributed

Memphis.

to the founder of

was nothing without a and the capital city of the most religious temple people in the world could not by any possibility lack that centre of civic life which its chief temple always was to every ancient town. Philosophy must settle In ancient times a

city

;

the question

were

how

in ancient

it

came

strongly pronounced. the fact. city of

to pass that religious ideas

times so universally prevalent and so

History

is

only bound

to

note

Coeval, then, with the foundation of the

Menes

was, according

erection of a great temple to

to the tradition, the

Phthah



"

the Revealer,"

by whom the world and man created, and the hidden thought of the remote were made manifest to His creatures. Supreme Being was within the town, and was oritemple lay Phthah's single building probably ginally a naos or "cell," a not unlike that between the Sphinx's paws at Ghizeh,

the Divine

situated

artificer,

within

a

watered from the

temenos, river,

or

" sacred

enclosure,"

and no doubt planted with

— MEMPHIS AND

ITS TEMPLE.

51

Like the medieval cathedrals, the building trees. grew with the lapse of centuries, great kings continually adding new structures to the main edifice, and enriching it with statuary and painting. Herodotus saw it in its full glory, and calls it " a vast edifice, very worthy of commemoration." Abd-el-Latif saw it in its decline, and notes the beauty of its remains :

"

the great monolithic shrine of breccia verde, nine

cubits high, eight long, and seven broad, the doors which

swung on hinges of

stone, the well-carven statues,

the lions terrific in their aspect."

day scarcely a trace remains. of the Great Ramesses,

till

*

At

and

the present

One broken

colossus

very recently prostrate, and

a few nondescript fragments, alone continue on the spot, to attest to

moderns the position of that antique

which the Egyptians themselves regarded as

fane,

the oldest in their land. its founder the name It was also Good Abode." known as Ei-Ptah — " the House of Phthah." From the former name came the prevailing appellations

The new

city received from

of Men-nefer

the



"Memphis"

"Moph" rians,

"

the

of the

Greeks and Romans, the " Mimpi" of the Assy-

of the Hebrews, the

and the name still given to the It was indeed a "good abode"

Monf."

ruins, " Tel-

— watered

by

an unfailing stream, navigable from the sea, which at once brought it supplies and afforded it a strong pro tection, surrounded on three sides by the richest and

most productive alluvium, close to quarries of excellent stone, warm in winter, fanned by the cool northern breezes in the summer-time, within easy reach of the 1

R. Stuart Poole, " Cities of Egypt," pp. 24, 25.

THE DAWN OF HISTORY.

52 sea,

yet not so near as

Few

pirates.

capitals

It

ruins, a

Memphis

glories of the

jacent

attract

the cupidity of

was inevitable that when the old town new one should spring up in its

placed.

went to stead.

to

have been more favourably

site,

still

exists, in a certain sense, in the

modern Cairo, which occupies an adlargely of the same is composed

and

materials.

The Egyptians knew no more

of their

first

king

than that he turned the course of the Nile, founded

Memphis, built the nucleus of the great temple of Phthah, and " was devoured by a hippopotamus." This last fact is related with all due gravity by Manetho, notwithstanding that the hippopotamus is

an

a graminivorous animal, one that " eats grass like

ox"

writer

(Job

whom

xi.

15).

Probably the old Egyptian

he followed meant that M'na at

last fell

Goddess of Evil, to whom the hippopotamus was sacred, and who was herself figured as a hippopotamus erect. This would be merely equivalent to relating that he succumbed to death. Manetho gave him a reign of sixty-two years. The question is asked by the modern critics, who will take nothing on trust, " Have we in Menes a real Egyptian, a being of flesh and blood, one who truly lived, breathed, fought, built, ruled, and at last died ? Or are we still dealing with a phantom, as much as when we spoke of Seb, and Thoth, and Osiris, and Set, and Horus ?" The answer seems to be, that we cannot tell. The Egyptians believed in Menes as a man they placed him at the head of their dynastic lists but they had no contemporary monument to show a victim to Taourt, the

;

;

:

M*NA AND HIS SUCCESSORS.

A

inscribed with his name. is

found

at

name

like that of

beginning of things

the

in

nations, that on that account alone the

be suspicious

Manis,

in

Mannus.

in

;

Greece

Lydia Manes,

And

in

again, the

it

Minos,

is

$3

Menes many

word would in

India Menu, in

name

so

Phrygia

Germany

of the founder

is

so

which he founded, that another Have we not here one of the many

like that of the city

suspicion arises



instances of a personal

name made

out of a local one,

Nin or Minus from Nineveh (Ninua), Romulus from Roma, and the like ? Probably we shall do best to acquiesce in the judgment of Dr Birch " Menes must be placed among those founders of monarchies whose personal existence a severe and as

enlightened criticism doubts or denies."

The

city was,

was a

however, a

reality, the

reality, the

embankment

temple of Phthah was a

reality,

and

kingdom in Egypt, which included both the Upper and the Lower country some considerable time before the date of Abraham, was a the founding of a

reality,

cannot

which the sternest criticism need not

— doubt.

of the Nile was one of the

Abraham found there series

— nay,

All antiquity attests that the valley first

seats of civilization.

government established the country, and a consecutive

a settled

when he visited of monuments

carries

civilization at least as far

the

back as

date of the

B.C.

2700



first

probably

further.

Menes, then, notwithstanding all that we are told of his doings, be a mere shadowy personage, little more than tnagni nominis umbra, what shall we say of his twenty or thirty successors of the If the great

THE DAWN OF HISTORY.

54 first,

second, and third dynasties?

they are shadows of shadows

?

The

What

native

of the early Ramesside period (about B.C. assign to this time

but that

monuments 400-1 300)

1

some twenty-five names of kings

but they do not agree

in

The

altogether agree in the names.

;

do they

their order, nor

kings,

if

they



no history we can only by co ijecture attach to them any particular buildings, v\e can give no account of their actions, we can iissign no chronology to their reigns. They are of no more importance in the " story of Egypt " than the Alban kings in the " story of Rome." " Non ragionam weie kings, have

di loro,

The

maguarda first

e passi."

living, breathing, acting, flesh-and-blood

whom

personage, to us,

left

so-called histories of

Egypt present

a certain Sneferu, or Seneferu,

is

Egyptians seem to have regarded as the of their fourth dynasty.

Sneferu

we know

— has

not why, Soris

whom

first

the

monarch

— called by Manetho,

left

us a representation

and an inscription. On the rocks of Wady Magharah, in the Sinaitic peninsula, may be seen to this day an incised tablet representing the monarch in the act of smiting an enemy, whom he holds by the hair of his head, with a mace. The of himself,

action

apparently emblematic, for at the side

is

see the words it is

Ta

satit, "

Smiter of the nations

a fair explanation of the tablet, that

its

" ;

intention

was to signify that the Pharaoh in question had duced to subjection the tribes which in his time habited

the

Sinaitic

regions.

we and

The motive

rein-

of the

attack was not mere lust of conquest, but rather the desire

of

gain.

The Wady

Magharah

contained

SNEFERU, THE FIRST CERTAIN KING.

65

mines of copper and of turquoise, which the Egyptians desired to work and for this purpose it was necessary ;

to hold

the country by a set of military

order that

in

might pursue their labours

the miners

Some

without molestation.

posts,

ruins of the fortifications

and the mines themselves, now exhausted, pierce the sides of the rocks, and bear in are

still

to

be seen

;

TABLET AT SNEFERU AT WADY-MAGHARAII.

many places The remains

traces

of

of temples

colonists were not left

hieroglyphical

inscriptions.

show that the expatriated without

the

consolations of

deep well indicates the care that was supply their temporal needs. Thousands of

religion, while a

taken to

stone arrow-heads give evidence of the presence of a

strong garrison, and

make

us acquainted with the

THE DAWN OF HISTORY.

56

weapon which they found most

effectual against their

enemies.

Sneferu calls himself Neter aa, " the Great God,"

and Neb mat, " the Lord of Justice." He is also " the Golden Horus," or "the Conqueror." Neb mat is not and its asa usual title with Egyptian monarchs sumption by Sneferu would seem to mark, at any rate, his appreciation of the excellence of justice, and his desire to have the reputation of a just ruler. ;

Later ages give him the

title

of " the beneficent king,"

so that he would seem to have been a really unselfish and kindly sovereign. His form, however, only just emerges from the mists of the period to be again concealed from our view, and we vainly ask ourselves what exactly were the benefits that he conferred on Egypt, so as to attain his high reputation. Still, the monuments of his time are sufficient to tell us something of the Egypt of his day, and of the amount and character of the civilization so early attained by the Egyptian people. Besides his own tablet in the Wady Magharah, there are in the neighbourhood of the pyramids of Ghizeh a number of tombs which belong to the officials of his court and the members of his family. These tombs contain both sculptures and inscriptions, and throw considerable light on the condition of the country.

In the writing

first

place,

it

is

apparent that the style of

which is called hieroand which has the appearance of a picture though it is almost as absolutely phonetic as has been

invented

glyphical, writing,

any

other.

Setting apart a certain small

" determinatives," each sign stands for a

number sound

of

— the

— CIVILIZATION OF SNEFERU'S TIME.

5/

we

greater part for those elementary sounds which

express by

An

letters.

eagle

a horned serpent/, a hand

and the

It

like.

/,

is

a leg and foot

a,

an owl

;//,

a chicken

true that there are signs which

is

compound sound,

express a

word of two the sound of

A

syllables. neb, a

a whole word, even a bowl or basin represents

hatchet that of neter, a guitar that

of nefer, a crescent that of aah, and so on. it

clear that artistic

is

animal forms used

in

vulture, the ura^us, the

are well drawn. merit, but

have

still

spirit.

In

;

is

Secondly,

— the

bee, the

hawk, the chicken, the the

The

considerable.

the hieroglyphics

they are

No

power

human forms

fairly well

there

eagleis

less

proportioned and

rudeness or want of finish attaches

either to the writing or to the

time

b,

n,

drawing of Sneferu's

the artists do not attempt much, but what they

attempt they accomplish.

Next, we may notice the character of the tombs. Already the tomb was more important than the house; and while every habitation constructed for the living men of the time has utterly perished, scores of departed still exist, an excellent condition. They are stone buildings resembling small houses, each with its door the dwellings assigned to the

many

of

in

entrance,

but

internally a small sculptures. five

The

with no windows, and forming chamber generally decorated with

walls slope at an angle of seventy-

or eighty degrees externally, but in the interior

The

composed of large chambers are not actual tombs, but mortuary chapels. The embalmed body of the deceased, encased in its wooden coffin are perpendicular. flat

stones.

roof

is

Strictly speaking, the

;

THE DAWN OF HISTORY.

58

(Gen. 1. 26), was not deposited in the chamber, but in an excavation under one of the walls, which was carefully closed up after the coffin had been placed inside

it.

The chamber was used by

the relations for

and the like, held in honour of the deceased, especially on the anniversary of his death and entrance into Amenti. The early Egyptians indulged, like the Chinese, in a worship of ancestors. The members of a family met from time to time in the sepulchral chamber of their father, or their grandfather, and went through various ceremonies, sang hymns, poured libations, and made offerings, which were regarded as pleasing to the departed, and which secured their protection and sacred

rites,

sacrificial

feasts,

help to such of their descendants as took part in the pious practices.

Sometimes a tomb was more pretentious than those above described. There is an edifice at Meydoum, improperly termed a pyramid, which is thought to be older than Sneferu, and was probably erected by one of the "shadowy kings" who preceded him on the throne. Situated on a natural rocky knoll of some it rises in three stages at an angle an elevation of a hundred and twentyis built of a compact limestone, which

considerable height,

of 74 five

10' to

feet.

It

must have been brought from some first

stage has a height a

little

the next exceeds thirty-two feet

over twenty-two there were

more

feet.

stages,

;

the third

It is possible that

The

is

a

little

originally

and probable that the present

highest stage has in part crumbled

may

distance.

short of seventy feet

away

;

so that

we

fairly reckon the original height to have beep

PYRAMID OF MEYDOUM.

59

between a hundred and forty and a hundred and fifty The monument is generally regarded as a tomb, feet. from

its

Memphian

situation in the

necropolis and

its

but as yet it remote resemblance to the pyramids has not been penetrated, and consequently has not ;

been proved to have been sepulchral. A construction, which has even a greater appearance of antiquity than the

Meydoum

tower, exists at

PYRAMID OF MEYDOUM.

Saccarah.

Here the architect carried up a monument two hundred feet, by constructing it in

to the height of

six or seven sloping stages,

The this

having an angle of j$°

30'.

composed of rubble, but was protected on every side by a thick casing of core of his building was

limestone roughly hewn, and apparently quarried on the spot. is

The sepulchral

unquestionable.

excavated

in

Tt

intention of the construction

covered a spacious chamber

the rock, whereon the

monument was

THE DAWN OF HISTORV.

60 built,

which,

when

first

discovered, contained a sarco-

phagus and was lined with slabs of granite. Carefully concealed passages connected the chamber with the outer world, and allowed of its being entered by possession of the " secrets of the

those in

prison-

In this structure we have, no doubt, the tomb of a king more ancient than Sneferu though for our own part we should hesitate to assign the house."



monument to one king rather than another. If we pass from the architecture of the period to its social condition, we remark that grades of society already existed, and were as pronounced as times.

The kings were

later

in

already deities, and treated

with superstitious regard.

The

state-officials

were a

highly privileged class, generally more or less con-

The

nected with the royal family.

land was partly

owned by the king (Gen. xlvii. 6), who employed his own labourers and herdsmen upon it partly, mainly ;

perhaps, tors

it

was

in

— nobles, who

the hands of great landed proprielived in country houses

upon

their

maintaining large households, and giving employment to scores of peasants, herdsmen, artizans, estates,

The " lower orders" were They were at the beck and

huntsmen, and fishermen. of very call

little

account.

of the landed aristocracy

in

the country districts,

of the state-officials in the towns.

Above

all,

the

monarch had the right of impressing them into his service whenever he pleased, and employing them in the " great works " by which he strove to perpetuate name. There prevailed, however, a great simplicity of manners. The dress of the upper classes was wonderfully

his

THE GREAT PYRAMID OF SACCARAH. plain and

scarcely

unpretending presenting -

,

any ornament.

elaborate wig,

it

being imperative on

GREAT PYRAMID OF SACCARAH

SECTION'

little

The grandee

(

Ol

variety and

wore, indeed, an all

men

to shave

Present appearance).

OF THE SAME, SHOWING ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION.

the head for the sake of cleanliness.

But otherwise, costume was of the simplest and the scantiest. Ordinarily, when he was employed in the common

his

duties of

life,

a short tunic, probably of white linen,

— THE DAWN OF HISTORf.

62

reaching from the waist to a

was feet,

his sole

were naked

;

little

His arms,

garment.

for sandals, not to

ings or shoes, were

unknown.

above the knee, even his

chest, legs,

speak of stock-

The only

decoration

which he wore was a chain or riband round the neck, to which was suspended an ornament like a locket probably an amulet. In his right hand he carried a long staff or wand, either for the purpose of belabouring his inferiors, or else to use stick.

On

special

more elaborate

it

as a walking-

occasions he made, however, a

Doffing his linen tunic, he

toilet.

clothed himself in a single,

somewhat

scanty, robe,

which reached from the neck to the ankles having exchanged his chain and locket collar,

and adorned

ready to pay

for a

his wrists with bracelets,

to receive

visits or

company.

;

and

broad he was

He had

no carriage, so far as appears, not even a palanquin no horse to ride, nor even a mule or a donkey. The great men of the East rode, in later times, on " white the Egyptian of Sneferu's age asses " (Judges v. 10) had to trudge to court, or to make calls upon his ;

;

friends, by the sole aid of those means of locomotion which nature had given him. Women, who in most civilized countries claim to themselves far more elaboration in dress and variety of ornament than men, were content, in the Egypt of which we are here speaking, with a costume, and a

personal decoration, scarcely less simple than that of their husbands. The Egyptian matcrfamilias of the time wore her hair long, and gathered into three masses, one behind the head, and the other two in

front of either shoulder.

Like her spouse, she had

Statuary of snefer&s time. but a single garment

—a

gown

63

or

petticoat

reaching from just below the breasts to half

way down

short

the calf of the leg, and supported by two broad straps

passed over the two shoulders.

She exposed her

GROUP OK STATUARY, CONSISTING OF A HUSBAND AND WIFE.

arms and bosom her husband's.

to sight,

and her

feet

were bare,

Her only ornaments were

There was no seclusion of women

among

the ancient Egyptians.

The

like

bracelets.

at

any time

figure of the wife-

THE DAWN OF HISTORY.

64

on the early monuments constantly accompanies that of her husband.

She

is

his associate in all his

Her subordination

oc-

by her representation being on an unduly smaller scale, and by her ordinary position, which is behind the figure of her " lord and master." In statuary, however, she appears seated with him on the same seat or chair. There is no appearance of her having been either a drudge or a plaything. She was regarded as man's cupations.

true

"

is

indicated

helpmate," shared his thoughts, ruled his family,

and during

had the charge of his in Egypt during the primitive period even the kings had then but one wife. Sneferu's wife was a certain Mertitefs, who bore him a son, Nefer-mat, and after his death became Women were entombed the wife of his successor. with as much care, and almost with as much pomp, as men. Their right to ascend the throne is said to have been asserted by one of the kings who preceded Sneferu and from time to time women actually exercised in Egypt the royal authority. children.

their early years

Polygamy was unknown ;

;

IV.

THE PYRAMID BUILDERS. It

is difficult

for

a European, or an American,

who

has not visited Egypt, to realize the conception of a

Great Pyramid. tirely

mental

perfection

embellishment. in

The pyramidal form has gone enmonu-

out of use as an architectural type of

It

;

nay,

even as an architectural

maintained an honourable position

architecture from

its

first

discovery to the time of

Maccabee kings (i Mac. xiii. 28) but, never having been adopted by either the Greeks or the Romans, it passed into desuetude in the Old World with the conquest of the East by the West. In the New World it was found existent by the early discoverers, and then held a high place in the regards of the native race which had reached the furthest towards civilizathe

tion

;

;

but Spanish

bigotry

looked

with horror on

everything that stood connected with an idolatrous religion, and the pyramids of Mexico were first wantonly injured, and then allowed to fall into such a state of decay, that their original form is by some questioned. visit to the plains of Teotihuacan will not convey to the mind which is a blank on the subject the true conception of a great pyramid. It requires a pilgrimage to Ghizeh or Saccarah, or a

A



THE PYRAMID BUILDERS.

66

and well-instructed imagination, to enable a the true call up before his mind's eye impressiveness such a and of form and appearance

lively

man

to

structure.

Lord Houghton endeavoured to give expression to the feelings of one who sees for the first time these wondrous, these incomprehensible creations in the following lines

:

After the fantasies of

many

After the deep desires of

a night,

many a

day,

Rejoicing as an ancient Eremite

Upon the desert's edge at last I lay : me rose, in wonderful array, Those works where man has rivalled Nature

Before

most,

Those Pyramids, that fear no more decay Than waves inflict upon the rockiest coast, Or winds on mountain-steeps, and like endurance boast» Fragments the deluge of old Time has left Behind in its subsidence long long walls Of cities of their very names bereft, Lone columns, remnants of majestic halls, Rich traceried chambers, where the night-dew falls, All have I seen with feelings due, I trow, Yet not with such as these memorials Of the great unremembered, that can show The mass and shape they wore four thousand years ago.





idea of a pyramid was that tf a

The Egyptian

structure on a square base, with four inclining sides,

each one of which should be an equilateral triangle, all meeting in a point at the top. The structure might

be

solid,

and

in

that case might be either of

stone throughout,

or

consist

of

a mass of

hewn rubble

merely held together by an external casing of stone it might contain chambers and passages, in which

;

or

case the

employment of rubble was

scarcely possible.

THE THREE PYRAMIDS OF GHIZEH. It

6j

has been demonstrated by actual excavation, that

all the great pyramids of Egypt were of the latter character— that they were built for the express purpose of containing chambers and passages, and of

They

preserving those chambers and passages intact. required, therefore, to be, and in

most cases

are, of a

good construction throughout. There are from sixty to seventy pyramids in Egypt, Some of chiefly in the neighbourhood of Memphis them are nearly perfect, some more or less in ruins, but most of them still preserving their ancient shape when seen from afar. Two of them greatly exceed all the othes in their dimensions, and are appropriately designated as " the Great Pyramid " and " the Second Pyramid." A third in their immediate vicinity is of very inferior

size,

and scarcely deserves the pre-emin-

ence which has been conceded to of

"

it

by the designation

the Third Pyramid."

Still,

the three seem,

all

of them, to deserve descrip-

and to challenge a place in "the story of Egypt," which has never yet been told without some account tion,

of the marvels of each of them.

The

smallest of the

three was a square of three hundred and fifty-four feet

each way, and had eighteen

feet.

It

a

height of two hundred

roods,

and twenty -one

poles, or

dinary

London

The

to

and

covered an area of two acres, three

square.

above nine million

about that of an or-

cubic contents amounted

feet of solid

masonry, and are

calculated to have weighed 702,460 tons.

The

height

was not very impressive. Two hundred and twenty feet is an altitude attained by the towers of many churches, and the "Pyramid of the Sun" at Teotihua-

— ;

68

THE PYRAMID BUILDERS.

fall much short of it but the mass was immense, the masonry was excellent, and the ingenuity shown in the construction was great. Sunk in the rock from which the pyramid rose, was a series

can did not

;

One, the largest, almost apex of the pyramid, was empty. In another, which had an arched roof, constructed in the most careful and elaborate way, was found the chambers.

of sepulchral

directly under the

sarcophagus of the king, Men-kau-ra, to

whom

tradi-

formed of a single mass of blue-black basalt, exquisitely polished and beautifully carved, externally eight feet long, three feet high, and

tion assigned the building,

three feet broad, internally six feet

by two.

In the

sarcophagus was the wooden coffin of the monarch, and on the lid of the coffin was his name. The

chambers were connected by two long passages with the open air and another passage had, apparently, been used for the same purpose before the pyramid attained its ultimate size. The tomb- chamber, though carved in the rock, had been paved and lined with slabs of solid stone, which were fastened to the native rock by iron cramps. The weight of the sarcophagus which it contained, now unhappily lost, was three tons. The " Second Pyramid," which stands to the northeast of the Third, at the distance of about two hundred and seventy yards, was a square of seven hundred and seven feet each way, and thus covered an area of almost eleven acres and a half, or nearly double that of the greatest building which Rome ever produced ;

the Coliseum.

The

sides rose at an angle of 52

10'

and the perpendicular height was four hundred and fifty-four feet, or fifty feet more than that of the spire

A,4

u

i

i

ft

I

MASS OF THE SECOND PYRAMID.

J

The cubic contents are Salisbury Cathedral. estimated at 71,670,000 feet; and their weight is calNumbers of this vast culated at 5,309,000 tons. of

amount convey but little idea of the reality to an ordinary reader, and require to be made intelligible by comparisons. Suppose, then, a solidly built stone house, with walls a foot thick, twenty feet of frontage,

and

thirty feet of depth

from front to back

;

let

the

walls be twenty-four feet high and have a foundation

of six

feet

;

throw

in

party -walls to one-third

extent of the main walls building

containing

— and

thousand

four

the

the result will be a

cubic

feet

of

Let there be a town of eighteen thousand such houses, suited to be the abode of a hundred thousand inhabitants then pull these houses to masonry.



pieces,

and

pile

them up

heap

a

into

to a

height

exceeding that of the spire of the Cathedral of Vienna,

and you will have a rough representation of the " Second Pyramid of Ghizeh." Or lay down the contents of the structure

in

a line a foot in breadth



and depth the line would be above 13,500 miles long, and would reach more than half-way round the earth Again, suppose that a single man at the equator. can quarry a ton of stone in a week, then it would have required above twenty thousand to be employed constantly

for

five

years

in

order

to

obtain

;

required to be large, the

number employed and

and

time occupied would have had

is

if

the

the blocks were

material for the pyramid

the

to be greater.

Second Pyramid

"

The

internal construction of the "

less

elaborate than that of the Third, but not very

different.

Two

passages lead from the outer

air to

a

THE PYRAMID BUILDERS.

72

chamber almost exactly under the apex of its base, one of them commencing about fifty feet from the base midway in the north side, and the other commencing a little outside the base, in the pavement at the foot of the pyramid. The first passage was carried through the substance of the pyramid for a distance of a hundred and ten feet at a descending angle of 25 55', after which it became horizontal, and was tunnelled through the native rock on which the pyramid was built. The second passage was wholly in the rock. It began sepulchral

the pyramid, and exactly at

with a descent at an angle of 21° 40', which continued for

a hundred feet

;

was then horizontal for fifty ascended gently for ninety-six

it

after which it and joined the first passage about midway between the sepulchral chamber and the outer air. The sepulchral chamber was carved mainly out of the solid rock below the pyramid, but was roofed in by some of the basement stones, which were sloped at an angle. The chamber measured forty-six feet in length and sixteen feet in breadth its height in the centre was twenty- two feet. It contained a plain granite sarcophagus, without inscription of any kind, eight feet and a half in length, three feet and a half in breadth, and in depth three feet. There was no coffin in the sarcophagus at the time of its discovery, and no inscription on any part of the pyramid or of its contents. The tradition, however, which ascribed it to the immediate predecessor of Men-kau-ra, may be feet

;

feet,

;

accepted as sufficient evidence of

Come we now still,"

to the

"

its

author.

Great Pyramid," "which

says Lenormant, "at least in respect of

its

is

mass,

SARCOPHAGUS OF MYCERINUS.

'->-•

„ SECTION OF THE SECOND PYRAMID.

1

THE GREAT PYRAMID.

75

of all human co?istructions." The Great Pyramid," or " First Pyramid of Ghizeh," as it

the mvst prodigious "

is situated almost due northSecond Pyramid," at the distance of about two hundred yards. The length of each side at the base was originally seven hundred and sixtyfour feet, or fifty-seven feet more than that of the sides of the " Second Pyramid." Its original perpendicular height was something over four hundred and eighty feet, its cubic contents exceeded eightynine million feet, and the weight of its mass 6,840,000 tons. In height it thus exceeded Strasburg Cathedral by above six feet, St. Peter's at Rome by above thirty feet, St. Stephen's at Vienna by fifty feet, St. Paul's, London, by a hundred and twenty feet, and the Capitol at Washington by nearly two hundred feet. Its area was thirteen acres, one rood, and twenty-two poles, or nearly two acres more than the area of the " Second Pyramid," which was fourfold that of the Third Pyramid," which, as we have seen, was that is

indifferently termed,

east of the

"

'•

of an ordinary

London

square.

cubic contents

Its

would build a city of twenty-two thousand such houses as were above described,

and

laid in a line

of cubic

squares would reach a distance of nearly seventeen

thousand miles, or girdle two-thirds of the earth's

cumference at the equator. construction

required

the

cir-

Herodotus says that continuous

its

labour of

a

hundred thousand men for the space of twenty years, and moderns do not regard iheestimate as exaggerated. The "Great Pyramid" presents, moreover, many other marvels

besides

its

size.

First, there

massiveness of the blocks of which

it

is

is

the

composed.

THE PYRAMID BUILDERS.

76

The basement long by

stones are in

many

cases thirty feet

and four or five wide they must contain from six hundred to seven hundred and fifty cubic feet each, and weigh from forty-six to fiftyseven tons. The granite blocks which roof over the upper sepulchral chamber are nearly nineteen feet long, by two broad and from three to four deep. The relieving stones above the same chamber, and those five

feet high,

:

SECTION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID.

of the entrance passage, are almost equally massive.

Generally the external blocks are of a size with which

modern

builders scarcely ever venture to deal, though

the massiveness

cended.

diminishes

The bulk

comparatively small stones fully

hewn and

as the

of the interior ;

pyramid is,

is

as-

however, of

but even these are care-

squared, so as to

fit

together compactly.

Further, there are the passages, the long gallery,

THE GREAT PYRAMID.

7?

the ventilation shafts, and the sepulchral chambers

them remarkable, and some of them simply The "Great Pyramid" guards three chambers. One lies deep in the rock, about a hundred all

of

astonishing.

and twenty ground, and

king's

feet is

beneath the natural surface of the

placed almost directly below the apex

chamber and chambers of construction, great pyramid.

of the structure. a

It

measures forty-six

feet

by twenty-

The access to it is by long and narrow passage which commences in the

seven, and

is

eleven feet high.

north side of the pyramid, about seventy feet above the original base,

and descends

for forty

the masonry, and then for seventy

yards through

more

in the

same

THE PYRAMID BUILDERS.

J&

through the solid rock,

line

when

changes

it

its

becoming horizontal for nine yards, and so The two oftier chambers entering the chamber itself. reached ascending passage, which branches are by an off from the descending one at the distance of about thirty yards from the entrance, and mounts up through the heart of the pyramid for rather more than forty direction,

yards,

when

it

A

divides into two.

low horizontal

hundred and ten feet long, leads to a chamber which has been called "the Queen's " a room about nineteen feet long by seventeen broad, roofed in with sloping blocks, and having a height of twenty Another longer and much loftier feet in the centre. gallery continues on for a hundred and fifty feet in the line of the ascending passage, and is then connected by a short horizontal passage with the uppermost or "King's Chamber." Here was found a sarcophagus believed to be that of King Khufu, since the name of Khufu was scrawled in more than one place on the chamber walls. gallery, a



The It is

chamber

construction of this

of the whole building



is

— the very kernel

exceedingly remarkable.

a room of thirty-four feet in length, with a width

of seventeen

feet,

and a height of nineteen, composed

wholly of granite blocks of great polished,

and

construction First,

the

fitted

of the

chamber

size,

beautifully

The

together with great care. roof is

is

particularly

covered

in

with

blocks, each nearly nineteen feet long

admirable.

huge

nine

and four

feet

wide, which are laid side by side upon the walls so as to form a complete ceiling. is

Then above

a low chamber similarly covered

in,

these blocks

and

this is

GALLERY IN THE GREAT PYRAMID. repeated

times

four

which there

after

;

is

»1 a

fifth

opening, triangular, and roofed in by a set of huge sloping blocks, which meet at the apex and support

The

each other.

object

is

to

relieve

the chamber

from any superincumbent weight, and prevent being crushed

in

it

from

by the mass of material above

it

;

and this object has been so completely attained that still,

at the expiration

entire

chamber, with

its

of above forty centuries, the elaborate roof, remains intact,

without crack or settlement of any kind. Further, from the great ventilation-shafts, or

air

-

chamber are

carried

passages, northwards

two and

southwards, which open on the outer surface of the

pyramid, and are respectively two hundred and thirtythree and one hundred and ninety-four feet long. These passages are square, or nearly so, and have a diameter varying between six and nine inches. They

give a continual supply of pure air to the chamber,

and keep

it

dry at

The Great

all

Gallery

seasons. is

also of curious construction.

Extending for a distance of one hundred and fifty feet, and rising at an angle of 26 18', it has a width of five The feet at the base and a height of above thirty feet. side walls are formed of seven layers of stone, each proThe gallery jecting a few inches over that below it. thus gradually contracts towards the top, which has a width of four feet only, and is covered in with stones that reach across it, and rest on the walls at either side. The exact object of so lofty a gallery has not been ascertained but it must have helped to keep the air of the interior pure and sweet, by increasing the space through which it had to circulate. ;

THE PYRAMID BUILDERS.

$2

The

"

Pyramid

thr three

who constructed now been described,

Builders," or kings

monuments

that have

unanimous tradition, three conwhose native names are read as Khufu, Shafra, and Menkaura. These kings belonged to Manetho's fourth dynasty and Khufu, the first of the three, seems to have been the immediate successor were, according to a

secutive monarchs,

;

of Sneferu.

Theorists have delighted to indulge

in

speculations as to the objects which the builders had in

view when they raised such magnificent construc-

tions. rate,

One was

holds that the

built to

Great Pyramid, at any

embody cosmic

discoveries, as the

exact length of the earth's diameter and circumference, the length of an arc of the meridian, and the true unit

Another believes the great

of measure.

work of Khufu

have been an observatory, and the ventilating passages to have been designed for " telescopes," through which observations were to be made upon the sun and stars but it has not yet been shown that there is any valid foundation for these fancies, which have been spun with much art out of the delicate fabric of their propounders' brains. The one hard the fact which rests upon abundant evidence is this pyramids were built for tombs, to contain the mummies of deceased Egyptians. The chambers in their to

;



interiors, at the

time of their discovery, held within

them sarcophagi, and in one instance the sarcophagus had within it a coffin. The coffin had an inscription upon it, which showed that it had once contained the body of a king. If anything more is necessary, we may add that every pyramid in Egypt and there are, was built as we have said, more than sixty of them





PYRAMIDS NOT GRADUAL ACCRETIONS. same purpose, and

for the in

that they

necropolis, or

the great

all

8j

occupy

burial-ground

sites

opposite

Memphis, where the inhabitants are known

to

have

laid their dead.

The marvel

how Khufu came suddenly

is,

to have

so magnificent a thought as that of constructing an edifice

double the height of any previously existing,

covering

five

times the area, and containing ten times

Architecture does not generally proceed

the mass.

by " leaps and bounds " but here was a case of a sudden extraordinary advance, such as we shall find difficult to parallel elsewhere. it An attempt has been made to solve the mystery by the supposition that all pyramids were gradual accretions, and that their size marks simply the length of a king's reign, each monarch making his sepulchral chamber, with a small pyramid above it, in his first year, and as his reign went on, adding each year an outer coating so ;

;

that the

number

of these

coatings

of his reign, as the age of a tree

number of

annual rings.

its

is

tells

the length

known from

the

In this case there would

have been nothing ideally great in the conception of Khufu he would simply have happened to erect the



biggest pyramid because longest reign

;

he happened to have the

but, except in the case of the

Pyramid," there

is

"

Third

a unity of design in the structures

which implies that the architect had conceived the whole structure in his mind from the first. The lengths of the several parts are proportioned one to In the " Great Pyramid," the main chamber would not have needed the five relieving chambers above it unless it was known that it would have to be another.

THE PYRAMID BUILDERS.

84 pressed

down by

actually lies to

conceive

upon that

a superincumbent mass, such as it.

in

Moreover,

how

years

the later

is

possible

it

of a decrepid

monarch, the whole of an enormous pyramid could be coated over with huge blocks and the blocks are



largest at the external surface

— the

work requiring

pushed each year with more vigour, as becoming each year greater and more difficult ? Again, what Each pyramid shall we say of the external finish ?

to be

was

smoothed down to a uniform sloping surThis alone must have been a work of years.

finally

face.

Did a pyramid builder leave it to his successor to It is at least doubtful whether finish his pyramid ? any pyramid at all would ever have been finished had he done so. We must hold, therefore, that Khufu did suddenly conceive a design without a parallel

— did

require his

him a tomb, which should put previous monuments, and should with

architect to construct to

shame

difficulty

all

be surpassed, or even equalled.

He

must

have possessed much elevation of thought, and an intense ambition, together with inordinate selfishness,

an overweening pride, and entire callousness to the sufferings of others, before he could have approved the plan which

That

plan,

his

master-builder set before

him.

including the employment of huge blocks a hun-

of stone, their conveyance to the top of a

hill

dred feet high, and their emplacement,

some

in

cases,

further elevation of above 450 feet, involved, under the circumstances of the time, such an amount of human suffering, that no king who had any regard for the happiness of his subjects could have consented

at a

TYRANNY OF THE PYRAMID BUILDERS. to

forced his subjects to labour

Khufu must have

it.

for a

long term of years



8$

— twenty, according

to

Hero-

work which was wholly unproductive, and was carried on amid their sighs and groans for no object but his own glorification, and the supShafra must have posed safe custody of his remains. repute attached an evil Hence same. nearly the done were handed names whose builders, to the pyramid down to posterity as those of evil-minded and impious dotus

kings, their

at a servile

who own

neglected the service of the gods to gratify vanity, and, so long as

themselves, did not care

they could exalt

how much they oppressed

There was not even the poor apology fell on slaves, Egypt was not or foreigners, or prisoners of war. prisoners of war were few, yet a conquering power their people.

for their

conduct that their oppression

;

common. The labourers whom the pyramid builders employed were their own free sub-

slaves not very

jects

whom

they impressed into the heavy service.

by a just Nemesis that the kings have in a great measure failed to secure the ends at which they aimed, and in hope of which they steeled their hearts against their subjects' cries. They have indeed handed down their names to a remote age but it is as tyrants and oppressors. They are world-famous, or rather It is

:

world-infamous.

But that preservation of their cor-

poreal frame which they especially sought,

is

exactly

what they have missed attaining. Let not a monument give you or

me

hopes,

Since not a pinch of dust remains of Chedps,

says the doggerel of the satiric Byron

;

and

it

is

the

THE PYRAMID BUILDERS.

86

absolute fact that while thousands of

common

in

present day,

the

the

very

grandeur

monuments

to

the pyramid

to them, caused

be opened, the sarcophagi to be

and the remains inclosed

rifled,

buried

even to the

of

tombs attracted attention

builders'

mummies

graves remain untouched

them

in

to be dis-

persed to the four winds of heaven. Still, whatever gloomy associations attach to the pyramids in respect of the sufferings caused by their erection, as monuments they must always challenge

a certain amount of admiration.

A great authority de-

No

"

one can possibly examine the interior of the Great Pyramid without being struck with astonishment at the wonderful mechanical skill displayed in its construction. The immense blocks of granite brought from Syene, a distance of five hundred miles, polished like glass, and so fitted that the joints can scarcely be detected Nothing can be more wonderful than the extraordinary amount of knowledge displayed in the construction of the discharging chambers over the clares

:

!

roof of the principal apartment, in the alignment of the sloping galleries, in the provision of the ventilating shafts,

and

structure.

in all the

wonderful contrivances of the

All these, too, are carried out with such

immense superany part can be of an inch. Nothing

precision that, notwithstanding the

incumbent weight, no settlement detected to an appreciable fraction

more

perfect mechanically has ever been erected since

that time."

The

x

architectural effect of the

pyramids 1

in

is

certainly

two greatest of the They do not

magnificent.

Fergusson, "History of Architecture,"

vol.

i.

pp. 91, 92.

*OL sn

loo

^^^3

ijo

SECTION OF THE THIRD PYRAMID, SHOWING PASSAGES.

u TOMB-CHAMBER OF THE THIRD PYRAMID.

IMPRESSIVENESS OF THE PYRAMIDS.

89

greatly impress the beholder at first sight, for a pyramid, by the very law of its formation, never looks as

is— it slopes away from the eye in every and eludes rather than courts observation. But as the spectator gazes, as he prolongs his examination and inspection, the pyramids gain upon him, large as

it

direction,

their

impressiveness increases.

By

the vastness of

their mass, by the impression of solidity and durability which they produce, partly also, perhaps, by

the

symmetry and harmony of

their lines

and

their

and freedom from ornament, they convey to the beholder a sense of grandeur and majesty, they produce within him a feeling of astonishment and awe, such as is scarcely caused by any In all ages travellers other of the erections of man. have felt and expressed the warmest admiration for them. They impressed Herodotus as no works that perfect simplicity

he had seen lonian.

They

elsewhere, except, perhaps, the Baby-

astonished Germanicus, familiar as he

was with the great constructions of Rome. They furnished Napoleon with the telling phrase, " Soldiers, forty centuries look down upon you from the top of Greece and Rome reckoned them the pyramids." among the Seven Wonders of the world. Moderns have doubted whether they could really be the work of human hands. If the)' possess only one of the elements of architectural excellence, they possess that

element to so great an extent that

in

respect of

it

they are unsurpassed, and probably unsurpassable.

These remarks apply especially to the first and The " Third " is not a work of any very extraordinary grandeur. The bulk is not

second pyramids.

THE PYRAMID BUILDERS.

90

greater than that of the chief pyramid of Saccarah,

which has never attracted much attention and the height did not greatly exceed that of the chief Mexican temple-mound.. Moreover, the stones of which the pyramid was composed are not excessively massive. The monument aimed at being beautiful rather ;

than grand.

It

for half its height with

was coated

blocks of pink granite from Syene, bevelled at the edges, which remain still in place on two sides of the structure.

to it, on the north side, was seems to have had a metal orna-

The entrance

conspicuous, and

mentation let into the stone. The sepulchral chamber was beautifully lined and roofed, and the sarcophagus was exquisitively carved. Menkaura, the constructor, was not regarded as a tyrant, or an oppressor, but as a mild and religious monarch, whom the gods ill-used by giving him too short a reign. His religious temper is indicated by the inscription on the coffin which contained his remains: " O Osiris," it reads, " King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Menkaura, living eternally, engendered by the Heaven, born of Nut, substance of Seb, thy mother Nut stretches herself over thee in her name of the abyss of heaven. She renders thee divine by destroying all thy enemies, O King Menkaura, living eternally.'*

The

fashion of burying in pyramids continued to

Manetho's sixth dynasty, but no later the great works of Khufu and of their successors were monutombs The Shafra. ments of a moderate size, involving no oppression of the people, but perhaps rather improving their

the close of

monarchs

rivalled

condition

by causing a

rise

in

the

rate of wages.

1

;

CONDITION OF EGYPT UNDER THEM.

9

Certainly, the native remains of the period give a cheerful representation of the condition of

The

nation

applies

for

itself

to

the

most part enjoys

all classes.

peace,

The wealth

production.

of

and the

nobles increases, and the position of their dependents is

Slaves were few, and there was ample

improved.

labouring classes. We do not see work upon the backs of the labourers in the sculptures of the time they seem to accomplish their various tasks with alacrity and gaiety of heart. They plough, and hoe, and reap drive cattle or asses winnow and store corn gather grapes and tread

employment

for the

the stick at

;

;

;

them, singing

in

chorus as they tread

the winepress or the threshingfloor,

animals tramp out the grain

;

;

cluster round on which the

gather lotuses

;

save

engage in fowling or from the inundation fishing and do all with an apparent readiness and

cattle

;

;

cheerfulness which seems indicative of real content.

There may have been a darker side to the picture, and undoubtedly was while Khufu and Shafra held the throne but kings of a morose and cruel temper seem to have been the exception, rather than the rule, in Egypt and the moral code, which required kindness to be shown to dependents, seems, at this period at any rate, to have had a hold upon the consciences, and to have influenced the conduct, of the mass of the people. "Happy the nation that has no history!" Egypt during this golden age was neither assailed by any aggressive power beyond her borders, nor had ;

;

herself conceived the idea of distant conquest.

An

upon the negroes of the South, or chastisement of the nomades of the East, secured, her occasional

raid

tHE PYRAMID BUILDERS.

92

and prevented her warlike dying out through lack of use. But otherwise tranquillity was undisturbed, and the energies of the nation were directed to increasing its material prosperity, and to progress in the arts. Among the marvels of Egypt perhaps the Sphinx The mysterious being with the is second to none. head of a man and the body of a lion is not at all uncommon in Egyptian architectural adornment, but the one placed before the Second Pyramid (the Pyramid of Shafra), and supposed to be conteminterests in those quarters,

virtues from

by its gigantic It to the Arabs as Abulhol, the father of terror. It measures more than one hundred feet in length, and was partially carved from the rocks of the Lybian hills. Between its outporary with

it,

proportions.

stretched

feet

astonishes the observer is

there

known

stands a chapel, uncovered

in

formed by tablets bearing inscriptions indicative of its use and origin. A small temple behind the great Sphinx, probably also built by Shafra, is formed of great blocks of the hardest red granite, brought from the neighbourhood of Syene and fitted to each other with a nicety astonishing to modern architects, who are unable to imagine what tools could have proved equal to the Mysterious passages pierce difficult achievement. the great Sphinx and connect it with the Second Pyramid, three hundred feet west of it. In the face of this mystery all questions are vain, and yet every visitor adds new queries to those that others have asked before him. 1816, three walls of which

are

THE GREAT SPHINX.

93

Since what unnumbered year Mast thou kept watch and ward, And o'er the buried land of fear

So grimly held thy guard

No

?

slumber snatching, couched in silence brave,

faithless

Still

Like some

fierce

Above her

hound, long watching

master's grave.

.

.

.

Dost thou in anguish thus Still brood o'er CEdipus ? And weave enigmas to mislead anew.

And

stultify the blind

Dull heads of human-kind,

And inly make thy moan, That, mid the hated crew,

Whom

thou so long couldst vex, Bewilder and perplex,

Thou

yet couldst find a subtler than thin.-

iweT

Even now, methinks that those Dark, heavy lips which close In such a stern repose,

Seem burdened with some thought unsaid, And hoard within their portals dread Some fearful secret there, Which

to the listening earth

She may not whisper Not even to the air

Of awful wonders

forth, !

hid

In yonder dread Pyramid,

The home Of chambers

of magic fears

Watched by

the Genii only,

Who

and

:

lonely,

tend their masters' long-forgotten biers

:

And

On

vast

treasures lhat have shone

cavern walls alone,

For thousand, thousand years.

Would Of the

she but

tell.

old Pharaohs;

She knows

— THE PYRAMID BUILDERS.

Q4-

Could count the Ptolemies' long line ; Each mighty myth's original hath seen, Apis, Anubis, ghosts that haunt between



The

and divine, (Such he that sleeps in Philce, he that stands In gloom unworshipped, 'neath his rock-hewn fane,And they who, sitting on Memnonian sands, bestial



Cast their long shadows o'er the desert plain

Hath marked Nitocris And Oxymandyas

pass,

in many a dark Egyptian wile,— The Hebrew boy hath eyed

Deep- versed Cold

to the master's bride

;

And that Medusan stare hath Of all her love and guile, For

And The

whom

frozen the smile

the Ccesar sighed,

the world-loser

died,—

darling of the Nile.

:)



v.

THE RISE OF THEBES TO POWER, AND THE EARLY THEBAN KINGS.

HITHERTO Egypt had been

ruled from

\

site at

the junction of the narrow Nile valley with the broad plain

the

f

o.

the Delta

modern

—a

site sufficiently represented by But now there was a shift of the There is reason to believe that some-

Cairo.

seat of power.

thing like a disruption of

doms took

Egypt

into separate king-

and that for a while several distinct dynasties bore sway in different parts of the country. Disruption was naturally accompanied by weakness and decline. The old order ceased, and opportunity was offered for some new order some new power place,



The

on which it arose was one and fifty miles distant from the ancient capital, or four hundred and more by the river. Here, about lat. 26 the usually narrow valley of the Nile opens into a sort of plain or basin. The mountains on either side of the river recede, as though by common consent, and leave between themselves and the river's bank a broad amphitheatre, which in each case is a rich green plain an alluvium of the most productive character dotted with dom and date palms, sometimes growing single, sometimes collected into to assert itself.

site

three hundred

,





;

THE RISE OF THEBES TO POWER

g6

On

clumps or groves. range gathers

itself

the western side the Libyan

up

into

a

considerable

single

peak, which has an elevation of twelve hundred

On

the east the desert-wall maintains

character, but

coast of the

is

Red

pierced

by

On

feet.

usual level

valleys conducting to the

The

Sea.

able for commerce.

its

situation

was one favour-

the one side was the nearest

route through the sandy desert to the Lesser Oasis, which commanded the trade of the African interior on the other the way led through the valley of Hammamat, rich with breccia verde and other valuable and rare stones, to a district abounding in mines of gold, silver, and lead, and thence to the Red Sea coast, from which, even in very early times, there was communication with the opposite coast of Arabia, the region of gums and spices. In this position there had existed, probably from the very beginnings of Egypt, a provincial city of

some

repute, called

and, with the

by

its

inhabitants

feminine article

Ape

prefixed,

or Apiu, Tape, or

" The city of thrones." Tape " seemed to resemble

Tapiu, which some interpret

To

the Greeks the

their

name

own well-known

"

" Thebai,"

whence they

trans-

ferred the familiar appellation from the Baeotian to

the Mid-Egyptian town, which has thus

known "

to

Thebes."

capital of a "

that

it

come

to

be

Englishmen and Anglo-Americans as Thebes had been from the first the nome."

It

lay so far from the court

acquired a character of

its

own — a

special cast

of religion, manners, speech, nomenclature,



mode

of

and the like which helped to detach it from Lower or Northern Egypt more even than its isola-

writing,

ANTEF tion.

I.,

Still,

THE FIRST KNOWN THEBAN KING. was not

it

until

97

kingdom

the northern

sank into decay' from internal weakness and exhaustion, and disintegration supervened in the Delta and elsewhere, that Thebes resolved to assert herself and

independent sovereignty. Apparently, she achieved her purpose without having recourse to arms. claim

The kingdoms of the north were content to let her They recognized their own weakness, and allowed

go.

the nascent power to develop itself unchecked and

unhindered.

The

first

Antef or

known Theban monarch

is

a

certain

Enantef, whose coffin

was discovered in the year 1827 by some Arabs near Qurnah, to the west of Thebes. The mummy bore the royal diadem, and the epigraph on the lid of the coffin declared the body which it contained to be that of "

Antef, king of the tzvo Egypts."

plied

The phrase

im-

a claim to dominion over the whole country,

but a claim as purely nominal as that of the kings of England from

monarchs

Edward IV.

of France

to

and Navarre.

George

III.

to be

Antcf's rule

may

have reached to Elephantine on the one hand, but is not likely to have extended much beyond

possibly

Coptos on

the

He was

other.

posing as a great sovereign, intention

but

to deceive either his

or posterity.

His name appears

a

local

chieftain

probably with no

own contemporaries in

some of the

later

no monument of his time has come down to us except the one that has Egyptian dynastic

lists

;

but

been mentioned. Antef I. is thought to have been succeeded by Mentu-hotep I., a monarch even more shadowy.

THE RISE OF THEBES TO POWER.

g8

known greater

is

followed by one

amount of substance

—a all

sort



This

who

possesses a Antef-aa, or " Antef

would seem, of the first of Egyptian Nimrod, who delighted

the Great," grandson, as

Antef above

Table of Karnak."

"

to us only from the

prince, however,

it

things in the chase.

Antefaa's sepulchral

monument shows him to us standing in the midst of his dogs, who wear collars, and have their names engraved over them. The dogs are four in number, and are of distinct types. The first, which is called Mahut, or "

Antelope," has drooping ears, and long but somewhat

heavy legs

;

it

resembles a foxhound, and was no doubt

both swift and strong, though

been so swift as

its

namesake.

it

can scarcely have

The second was called

Abakaru, a name of unknown meaning it has pricked up, pointed ears, a pointed nose, and a curly tail. Some have compared it with the German spitz dog, but it seems rather to be the original dog of nature, a near congener of the jackal, and the type to which all dogs revert when allowed to run wild and breed indiscriminately. The third, named Pahats or Kamu, i.e. " Blacky," is a heavy animal, not unlike a mastiff; it has a small, rounded, drooping ear, a square, blunt nose, a deep chest, and thick limbs. The late Dr. Birch supposed that it might have been employed by Antefaa in " the chase of the lion " but ;

;

we should

rather regard

of thieves, and

we

it

as a watch-dog, the terror

suspect that the artist gave

sitting attitude to indicate that its business

hunt, but to keep watch and ward at

The

fourth dog,

who

bears the

walks between his master's

legs,

its

name

it

the

was not

to

master's gate.

of Tekal, and

has ears that seem

ANTEF

II.

AND

DOGS.

II IS

gg

He has been said to resemble to have been cropped. "the Dalmatian hound"; but this is questionable. His peculiarities are not marked but, on the whole, ;

seems most probable that he

it

a pet house-dog "

is "

l

of the terrier class, the special favourite of his master.

Antefaa's dogs had their appointed keeper, the master of his kennel,

who

is

figured on the sepulchral tablet

name of Tekenru. tomb marked only very humble in its

behind the monarch, and bears the

The hunter king was

buried

by a pyramid of unbaked

in

a

brick,

mortuary chapel in which the monument above described was set up. An inscription on the tablet declared that it was erected to the memory of Antef the Great, Son of the Sun, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, in the fiftieth year of his character, but containing a

reign.

Other Mentu-hoteps and other Antefs continued on

Theban kings, reigning quietly and ingloand leaving no mark upon the scroll of time, yet probably advancing the material prosperity of their country, and preparing the way for that rise to greatness which gives Thebes, on the whole, the foremost place in Egyptian history. Useful projects the line of riously,

occupied the attention of these

them sank vide

Hammamat,

water for the caravans which

Coptos and the

Red

Sea.

One

monarchs.

wells in the valley of

plied

Another

of

to pro-

between

established

military posts in the valley to protect the traffic and

Egyptian quarrymen. Later on, a king called Sankh-ka-ra launched a fleet upon the Red Sea waters,

the

1

So Mr. A. D.

Bartlett, F.Z.S., in the

of Biblical Archaeology," vol.

iv. p.

195.

" Transactions

of the Society

THE RISE OF THEBES TO POWER.

100

and opened direct communications with the sacred land of Punt, the region of odoriferous gums and cf strange animals, as giraffes, panthers, hunting leopards, cynoccphalous apes, and long-tailed monkeys. There is some doubt whether " Punt " was Arabia Felix, or the Somauli country. In any case, it lay far down the Gulf, and could only be reached after a voyage of

many

days.

The dynasty

of the Antefs and Mentu-hoteps, which

terminated with Sankh-ka-ra, was followed by one

which the prevailing names were Usurtasen and This dynasty is Manetho's twelfth, and the time of its rule has been characterized as " the happiest age of Egyptian history?" The second phase of Egyptian civilization now set in a phase which is regarded by many as outshining the glories in

Amenemhat.

1



of the

first.

The

first

civilization

had subordinated

the people to the monarch, and had aimed especially

memory and setting forth the power and greatness of king after king. The second had the benefit and advantage of the people for its primary object it was utilitarian, beneficent, appealing less to the eye than to the mind, far-sighted in its aims, and most successful in the results which it effected. The wise rulers of the time devoted their energies and at eternizing the

;

their

resources,

not,

as the

earlier kings,

up undying memorials of themselves of

monuments

that

"

in

to piling

the shape

reached to heaven," but

useful works, to the excavation of wells

to

and reservoirs, the making of roads, the encouragement of commerce, and the development of the vast agricultural wealth 1

R. Stuart Poole, "Cities of Egypt,"

p. 52.

ACCESSION OF AM EN EM HAT of the country.

They

guarded the and checked

also diligently

aggressive

chastised

frontiers,

iol

I.

tribes,

invasion by the establishment of strong fortresses in

They

positions of importance.

ploying themselves

patronized

art,

em-

building temples rather than

in

adorned their temples not only with and statues, but also with the novel architectural embellishment of the obelisk, a delicate form, and one tombs, and reliefs

especially suited to the country.

The founder I.,

of the

"

Amenemhat

twelfth dynasty,"

He

deserves a few words of description.

found

war raged on every side all the traditions of the past were forgotten noble fought against noble the poor were oppressed life and property were alike insecure; "there was Thebes

in a state of

anarchy

;

civil

;

;

;

of fortune neither for the ignorant nor for

stability

the

learned

down

;

One

man."

night,

after

chamber

the clang of arms sounded near at hand.

;

Starting from his couch, he seized his

and struck out in their

offer

he had lain

to sleep, he found himself attacked in his bed-

;

when

lo

own weapons

his assailants fled

!

;

detected

attempt to assassinate him, they dared not

any

resistance, thus

showing themselves

alike

Amenemhat, having once taken arms, did not lay them down till he had defeated every rival, and so fought his way to the crown. Once acknowledged as king, he ruled with treacherous and cowardly.

moderation and equity

made

the

weak

to live

he

;

;

"

:l

gave to the humble, and

he "caused the

afflicted to

cease from their afflictions, and their cries to be heard

no more

;

"

he brought

or thirsted in the land

it ;

to pass that

none hungered

he gave such orders to his

THE RISE OF THEBES TO POWER.

102 servants

continually increased

as

At

people towards him.

He

energetic warrior.

"

love

of his

time, he

was an

the

same

the

stood on the boundaries of

the land, to keep watch on

its

borders," personally

leading his soldiers to battle, armed with the khopesh

He

or falchion.

bowmen

carried

on wars with the

Petti, or

of the Libyan interior, with the

Sakti or

Maxyes or Mazyes of the northand with the Ua-uat and other negro tribes of the south not, however, as it would seem, with any Asiatics, with the

west,

;

making conquests, but simply for the proown frontier. With the same object he

desire of

tection of his

constructed on his north-eastern frontier a wall or fortress " to

keep out the Sakti," who continually

harassed the people of the Eastern Delta by their incursions.

The wars

of

Amenemhat

I.

make

it

evident that by

time Thebes had advanced from the position of a petty kingdom situated in a remote part of Egypt, his

and held the

in

check by two or more

kingdoms

rival

in

lower Nile valley and the Delta, to that of a

power which bore sway over the whole land from " I

Elephantine to

the

Mediterranean.

messengers up to

Abu

(Elephantine) and

down

to

Athu

" (the

coast lakes), says the

his "Instructions" to his son

— the

sent

my

my

couriers

monarch

earliest

in

literary

production from a royal pen that has come down to our days and there is no reason to doubt the truth ;

of his statement.

In the Delta alone could he

come

Mazyes or the Sakti, and Thebes could not hold the Delta without

into contact with either the

a king of

being master also of the lower Nile valley from

I

.

MENEMHA T'S HUNTING PROWESS.

103

Coptos to Memphis. We must regard Egypt, then, under the "twelfth dynast}-," as once more consolidated into a single state

— a state

ruled, however, not

from Memphis, but from Thebes, a decidedly 1" isil

i<

inferior

ui.

Amcncmhat makes

I.

is

a boast of his

the lion," he says,

only Egyptian hunting prowess.

king

the

" I

"and brought back the

who

hunted

crocodile

Lions do not at the present time frequent Egypt, and, indeed, are not found lower down the

a prisoner."

Nile valley than the point where the Great Stream

SPEARING THE CROCODILE.

receives

its last

tributary, the Atbara.

But anciently

they seem to have haunted the entire desert tracts

on either side of the

river.

The Roman Emperor

Hadrian is said to have hunted one near Alexandria, and the monuments represent lions as tamed and used in the chase by the ancient inhabitants. Sometimes they even accompanied their masters to the battlefield.

We

know nothing of Amenemhat's mode may assume that it

of hunting the king of beasts, but

THE RISE 0F THEBES TO POWER.

104

was not very later

date

in

different from that

Assyria.

which prevailed at a

There, dogs and beaters were

employed to rouse the animals from their the king and his fellow- sportsmen either

lairs,

while

plied

them

with flights of arrows, or withstood their onset with

swords and spears. The crocodile was certainly sometimes attacked while he was in the water, the hunters using a boat, and endeavouring to spear him at the point where the head joins the spine but this could not have been the mode adopted by Amenem;

would have resulted in instant death, us that he "brought the crocodile home a prisoner." Possibly, therefore, he employed the method which Herodotus says was in common use in his day. This was to bait a hook with a joint of pork and throw it into the water at a point where the current would carry it out into mid-stream then to take a live pig to the river-side, and belabour him well with a stick till he set up the squeal familiar to most ears. Any crocodile within hearing was sure to come to the sound, and falling in with the pork on the way, would instantly swallow it down. Upon this the hunters hauled at the rope to which the hook was attached, and, notwithstanding his struggles, drew " leviathan " to shore. Amenemhat, having thus " made the crocodile a prisoner," may have carried his captive in triumph to his capital, and exhibited him before the eyes of the people. hat, since

it

whereas he

tells

;

Amenemhat, having reigned years,

was induced

and associate him with himself government of the empire. Usurtasen was a

to the royal dignity, in the

as sole king for twenty

to raise his eldest son, Usurtasen,

REIGN OF USURTASEN prince of

much

promise.

the affairs of his father. fears

;

before

He He

"

brought prosperity

in

to

was, as a god, without

him was never one

skilful in affairs, beneficent

I05

I.

his

like to him.

Most

mandates, both

in

coming in he made Egypt flourish." His courage and his warlike capacity were great. Already, in the lifetime of his father, he had distinguished himself in combats with the Petti and the Sakti. When he was settled upon the throne, he made war upon the Cushite tribes who bordered Egypt upon the south, employing the services of a general named Ameni, but also taking a part perhis

going out and

in

his

sonally in the campaign.

who

in later

The Cushites

to Egypt, were at this early period

After the

ficant.

Ameni was

or Ethiopians,

times became such dangerous neighbours

king had

able with a

weak and

made

his

insigni-

expedition,

mere handful of four hundred

troops to penetrate into their country, to "conduct the golden

treasures"

which

it

contained to the

presence of his master, and to capture and carry off a herd of three thousand cattle. It was through his sculptures and his architectural works that the first Usurtasen made himself chiefly conspicuous. Thebes, Abydos, Heliopolis or On, the Fayoum and the Delta, were equally the scenes of his constructive activity, and still show traces of his

presence.

the

cell,

At Thebes, he

carried to

its

or naos, of the great temple of

later times the

completion

Ammon,

in

innermost sanctuary of the building,

and reckoned so sacred, that when Thothmes III. rebuilt and enlarged the entire edifice he reproduced the structure of Usurtasen, unchanged in form, and

THE RISE OF THEBES TO POWER.

100

from

merely turned

Abydos and other

limestone

cities

into

At

granite.

of Middle Egypt, he con-

structed temples adorned with sculptures, inscriptions,

and

colossal statues.

AtTanis, he

set

up

his

own

exhibiting himself as seated upon his throne.

Fayoum he lies

In the

erected an obelisk forty-one feet high to

Aramon, Phthah, and Mentu, which

the honour of

now

statue,

prone upon the ground near the Arab village

of Begig.

Indications of his ubiquitous activity are

Wady Magharah, in the Sinaitic and at Wady Haifa in Nubia, a little above the Second Cataract but his grandest and most elaborate work was his construction of the great temple of the Sun at Heliopolis, and his best memorial is that tall finger pointing to the sky which greets the traveller approaching Egypt from the east as the first sample of its strange and mystic wonders. This temple the king began in his third year. After a consultation with his lords and counsellors, he issued " It is determined to execute the the solemn decree work his majesty chooses to have it made. Let the superintendent carry it on in the way that is desired let them let all those employed upon it be vigilant let every due see that it is made without weariness ceremony be performed let the beloved place arise." Then the king rose up, wearing a diadem, and holding and all present followed him. The the double pen scribe read the holy book, and extended the measuring cord, and laid the foundations on ths spot which the temple was to occupy. A grand building arose but it has been wholly demolished by the ruthless hand Of all its of time and the barbarity of conquerors. found also at the peninsula,

;

:

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

~-~-^tf*e;*»B I

foil

I

j|;:lfl

llfifji

i'|V

|

II

REIGN OF

SECOND USURTASEN.

now remains

nothing

glories

TtiE

but

the

IOg

one taper

obelisk of pink granite, which rises into the soft sleepy

above the

air

longer tipped

summit the

green with

earliest

and

but

Matariyeh, no

of

cornfields

gold,

catching on

still

its

latest sun-rays, while wild-bees

nestle in the crannies of the weird characters cut into

the stone.

Usurtasen, after reigning ten years

in

conjunction

with his father and thirty-two years alone, associated

Amcnemhat

II., who became sole king about His reign, though long, was undistinguished, and need not occupy our attention. He

his son,

three years later.

followed the example of his predecessors in associating a son in the

and

is

government

known

;

and

son succeeded him,

One

as Usurtasen-II.

alone belongs to this time.

one of

this

It

is

event of interest

the reception by

his great officials of a large family or tribe of

Semitic immigrants from Asia,

who beg

to settle permanently in the fertile

protection of

its

powerful king.

permission

Egypt under the

Thirty-seven

Amu,

men, women, and children, present themselves at the court which the great noble holds near the eastern border, and offer him their homage, while they solicit a favourable

draped

in

hearing.

The men

are

represented

long garments of various colours, and wear-

ing sandals unlike the Egyptian

— more

resembling,

open shoes with many straps. Their arms are bows, arrows, spears, and clubs. One plays on a seven-stringed lyre by means of a plectrum. Four women, wearing fillets round their heads, with garments reaching below the knee, and wearing anklets but no sandals, accompany them. A boy, armed with in

fact,

THE RISE OF THEBES TO POWER,

110

a spear, walks at the side of the

women

and two on the

;

children, seated in a kind of pannier placed

back of an

ass, ride

on

in front.

Another

ass,

a spear, a shield, and a pannier, precedes the plays on the

lyre.

The

great

official,

who

carrying

man who is

named

Khnum-hotep, receives the foreigners, accompanied by an attendant who carries his sandals and a staff, and who is followed by three dogs. A scribe, named before his master a strip of which are inscribed the words, " The sixth year of the reign of King Usurtasen Sha-kheprra account rendered of the Amu who in the lifetime of the chief, Khnum-hotep, brought to him the mineral, mastemut, from the country of Pit-shu they are in

Nefer-hotep, unrolls

papyrus, on

:



all

thirty-seven persons."

The mineral

niastemut

is

thought to be a species of stibium or antimony, used for dying the skin around the eyes, and so increasing Besides this offering, the head of the

their beauty. tribe,

who

is

entitled khak, or " prince/'

and named

Abusha, presents to Khnum-hotep a magnificent wildgoat, of the kind which at the present day frequents the rocky mountain tract of Sinai. He wears a richer dress than his companions, one which is ornamented with a fringe, and has a wavy border round the neck. The scene has been generally recognized as strikingly illustrating the coming of Jacob's family into Egypt (Gen. xlvi. 28-34), an d was at one time thought by

some

to represent that occurrence

Abusha's coming

is

;

but the date of

long anterior to the arrival

number

in

more than half that of the Hebrew immigrants, the names do not accord and it is now agreed on all hands,

Egypt of Jacob's ;

family, the

is

little

AFRICAN CONQUESTS OF USURTASEN that the interest of the representation

is

Ill

III.

confined to

its

illustrative force.

Usurtasen

II.

reigned for nineteen years.

He

does

not seem to have associated a son, but was succeeded

by another Usurtasen, most probably a nephew. The third Usurtasen was a conquering monarch, and advanced the power and glory of Egypt far more than any other ruler belonging to the Old Empire. He began his military operations in his eighth year, and starting from Elephantine in the month Epiphi, or May, moved southward, like another Lord Wolseley, with a fixed intention, which he expressed in writing upon the rocks of the Elephantine island, of permanently reducing to subjection " the miserable land of Cush." His expedition was so far successful that in the same year he established two forts, one on cither side of the Nile, and set up two pillars with inscriptions warning the black races that they were not to proceed further northward, except with the object of importing into

The

Egypt

cattle,

oxen, goats, or

on either bank of the river a little above the Second Cataract, and bear the names of Koommeh and Semneh. They are massive constructions, built of numerous squared asses.

forts are still visible

blocks of granite and sandstone, and perched upon two steep rocks which rise up perpendicularly from the river.

Usurtasen, having

made

this

beginning

proceeded, from his eighth to his sixteenth year, to carry on the war with perseverance and ferocity



in

Red Sea to kill the men, fire the crops, and carry off the women and children, much as recently did the Arab traders whom Baker and Gordon strove to crush. The the district between the Nile and the

THE RISE OF THEBES TO POWER.

112

memory

of his razzias was perpetuated upon stone

columns

set

up

to record his successes.

his nineteenth

year he

made

complete the conquest of

"

a

last

Later on,

in

expedition, to

the miserable Kashi,"

and

recorded his victory at Abydos.

The

of these inroads

was to advance the one hundred and fifty miles to the south, to carry it, in fact, from the First to above the Second Cataract. Usurtasen drew the line between Egypt and Ethiopia at this period, very much where effect

Egyptian

frontier

Government drew it between Egypt and The boundary is a somewhat one, as any boundary must be on the course

the British

the Soudan in 1885. artificial

of a great river

;

but

it

is

probably as convenient a

point as can be found between Assouan (Syene) and

Khartoum.

The conquest was regarded as redoundmade him the Old Empire. Myths gathered about his

ing greatly to Usurtasen's glory, and

hero of the

name, which,

into Sesostris, became a mouths of Egyptian minstrels Usurtasen grew to be a giant

softened

favourite one in the

and minnesingers. more than seven feet high, who conquered, not only his columns all Ethiopia, but also Europe and Asia Asia Minor, were said to be found in Palestine, ;

Scythia, and Thrace

he

;

left

a colony atColchis,the city

he dug all the canals by which Egypt was intersected he invented geometry he set up colossi above fifty feet high he was the greatest monarch that had ruled Egypt since the days of Osiris

of the golden fleece

;

;

;

;

!

No

doubt these

tales were, in the main,

but they marked the fact that military glories of the

in

imaginary

Usurtasen

;

III. the

Old Empire culminated.

VI.

THE GOOD AMENEMHAT AND HIS WORKS.

The at

great river to which

once the source of

danger.

being,

is

Swelling with a uniformity, well calculated

to call forth man's gratitude

from a fixed day steadily

Egypt owes her

her blessings and her chiefest

all

for

and admiration, almost

each year, and continuing to

in

months,

rise

spreads over the

gradually

it

lands, covering the entire soil with a fresh coating of

the richest possible alluvium, and thus

the country a perpetual

Nature's mechanism after

the

is

securing to

and inexhaustible

fertility.

so perfect, that the rise year

foot, and is almost exactly was when the first Pharaoh poured

year scarcely varies a

same now

as

it

his libation to the river-god

from the embankment

but though this which he had made at Memphis uniformity is great, and remarkable, and astonishing, it is not absolute. There are occasions, once in two or three centuries, when the rainfall in Abyssinia is ;

excessive.

The Blue

Nile and the Atbara pour into

White Nile torrents of turbid water for months together. The windows of heaven seem to have been opened, and the rain pours down as if it would never cease. Then the river ot the deep and steady stream of the

the Egyptians assumes a threatening character

;

faster

;

THE GOOD AMENEMHAT AND HIS WORKS.

114

and faster it rises, and higher and higher and further and further it spreads, until it begins to creep up the sides of the two ranges of hills. Calamitous results ;

The mounds

ensue.

erected to protect the

cities,

the

and the pasture lands, arc surmounted, or undermined, or washed away the houses, built often of mud, and seldom of any better material than crude brick, collapse cattle are drowned by hundreds villages,

;

;

human

life is itself

betake

itself to boats,

imperilled

and

;

the population has to

to fly to the desert regions

which enclose the Nile valley to the east and west, regions of frightful sterility, which with difficulty support the few wandering tribes that are their normal inhabitants.

If

the

excessive rise

thousands or millions starve

;

continues long,

passes off rapidly,

if it

then the inhabitants return to find their homes desolated, their cattle drowned, their household goods washed away, and themselves dependent on the few

rich

men who may have

granaries which the penetrate.

ceedingly

stored their corn

Disasters of this rare,

in

stone

waters have not been able

though,

kind

are,

when they

to

however, ex-

occur, their results

are terrible to contemplate.

The more Once

kind.

rainfall

is

usual form of calamity or twice

deficient.

beyond the proper

in

The

date.

is

of the opposite

a century the Abyssinian rise

of the Nile

is

deferred

Anxious eyes gaze daily on

the sluggish stream, or consult the

"

Nilometers

kings and princes have constructed along

its

"

which course

measure the increase of the waters. Hopes and good or bad news reaches the inhabitants of the lower valley from those who dwell

to

fears alternate as

EVILS OF A DEFICIENT INUNDATION.

Each

higher up the stream.

little rise

115

expected to

is

the agony of suspense

herald a greater one, and

is

"hundred days," traditionally assigned to the increase, have gone by, and there is no longer a doubt that the river has begun to fall. Then hope is swallowed up in despair. Only the prolonged

until

the

lands lying nearest to the river have been inundated

those at a greater distance from arid during the entire

it

lie

summer-time, and

fail

to pro-

Famine

duce a single blade of grass or spike of corn. stares the poorer classes in the face,

;

parched and

and unless large

supplies of grain have been laid up in store previously,

or can be readily imported from abroad, the actual starvation of

large

numbers

is

the inevitable

con-

We

have heartrending accounts of such famines. In the year 457 of the Hegira (A.D. 1064) a famine began, which lasted seven years, and was so severe that dogs and cats, and even human flesh, sequence.

were eaten perished,

all

;

and

Another famine Latif,

the horses of the Caliph but three

family

his in

A.D.

an eye-witness,

There

is

in

had to

fly

derangement of

meteoric or atmo-

spheric conditions passed over Abyssinia

Egypt, either

any

Syria.

reason to believe that, under the twelfth

dynasty, some

at

into

recorded by Abd-el-

1199 very similar terms. is

in

and Upper

both the directions above noticed,

rate, in the latter

and more ordinary one.

or,

An

belonging to the later part of this period, in enumerating his merits upon his tomb, tells us, " There was no poverty in my days, no starvation in my time, even when there were years of famine. I ploughed official

all

the fields of Mali to

its

southern and

northern

THE GOOD AMENEMHAT AND HIS WORKS.

Il6

I gave life to no one was starved

boundaries food

;

;

making

inhabitants,

its

in

it.

I

its

gave to the widow

woman." As the late Dr. Birch Egypt was occasionally subject to famines

as to the married

observes,

and

"

;

these, at the time of the twelfth dynasty,

were

so important, that they attracted great attention, and were considered worthy of record by the princes or hereditary lords who were buried at Beni- Hassan.

Under the twelfth dynasty, also, the tombs of Abydos show the creation of superintendents, or storekeepers of the public granaries, a class of functionaries apparently created to meet the contingency."

The

distress of his subjects

*

under these circum-

stances seems to have drawn the thoughts of "the

good Amenemhat " to the devising of some system which should effectually remedy these evils, by preventing their occurrence. In all countries where the supply of water

is

of the life-giving

to be deficient,

liable

utmost importance to

it

fluid,

be

it

more or be

the bounty of nature furnishes.

it

of the

is

utilize to the full that

amount

less,

Rarely,

which

indeed,

is

Mostly she gives far needed, but the improvidence or the

nature absolutely a niggard.

more than

is

apathy of

man

allows

her

gifts

run

to

to

waste.

Careful and provident husbanding of her store

generally

make

it

suffice for all

will

man's needs and

re-

Sometimes this has been effected in a land by conducting all the rills and brooks

quirements. thirsty

that flow from the highlands or hills into subterranean conduits, where they are shielded from the sun's rays,

and prolonging these ducts 1

" Records

for miles

of the Past," vol.

upon

xii. p.

60.

miles,

till

POSSIBLE MODES OF STORIXG WATER. every drop of the precious irrigation.

Persia.

Such

has been utilized for

fluid

the kareez or kanat system

In other places vast efforts have been

to detain the

commonly

abundant supply

of

rain

of

made

which nature

provides in the spring of the year, to store

and prevent

it,

is

IIJ

it

from flowing off down the

courses to the sea, where

river-

For huge reservoirs must be constructed by the hand of man, or else advantage must be taken of some facility which nature offers for storing is

it

absolutely

lost.

this purpose, either

the water in convenient situations.

Valleys

may

be

blocked by massive dams, and millions of gallons thus

imprisoned for future use, as

is

done

in

many

parts of

the North of England, but for manufacturing and not for

irrigation

basins

may

purposes.

Or naturally land-locked

be found, and the overflow of streams at

their flood-time turned into

made

them and

arrested, to be

use of later in the year.

Egypt the one and only valley was that of the and the one and only stream that which had formed it, and flowed along it, at a lower or higher In

Nile,

It might perhaps have been possible Egyptian engineering skill to have blocked the valley at Silsilis, or at the Gebelein, and to have thus turned Upper Egypt into a huge reservoir always full, and always capable of supplying Lower Egypt with enough water to eke out a deficient inundation. But this could only have been done by an enormous work, very difficult to construct, and at the sacrifice of several hundred square miles of fertile territory, thickly inhabited, which would have been covered permanently by the artificial lake. Moreover, the

level, ceaselessly.

for

Il8

THE GOOD AMENEMHAT AND HIS WORKS.

Egyptians would have known that such an embankcan under no circumstances be absolutely secure, and may have foreseen that its rupture would spread destruction over the whole of the lower coun-

ment

try.

Amenemhat,

at

any

rate,

He

adopt so bold a design. depression, and found one

did

not venture to

sought

for a natural

the Libyan

in

range of

hills to the west of the Nile valley, about a degree

south of the latitude of

Memphis— a

depression of

ample expanse, fifty miles or more in length by thirty in breadth, and containing an area of six or seven hundred square miles. It was separated from the Nile valley by a narrow ridge of hills about two hundred feet high, through which ran from south-east to north-west a narrow rocky gorge, giving great depth and of

access to the depression.

It

possible that in very

is

high floods some of the water of the inundation passed

but the basin through this gorge were so or no, it was plain that by the employment of no very large amount of labour a canal or cutting might be carried along the gorge, and the Nile water given free access into the depression, not only in very high floods, but annually when the inundation reached a certain moderate height. naturally

whether

This

is,

into

;

this

accordingly,

what Amenemhat

did.

He dug

a canal from the western branch of the Nile

modern Bahr Yousuf-— leaving

— the

El-Lahoun, carried his canal through the gorge, in places cutting deep into its rocky bottom, and by a system of sluices and flood-gates retained such an absolute control over the water that he could e ther admit or exclude the inundation at his wil,', as it rose and wheo it it

at

;

;

amenemhat's great reservoir. fell,

119

could either allow the water that had flowed

to return, or imprison

it

the gorge he had thus at the invaluable

fluid,

and keep all

it

back.

in

Within

times a copious store of

banked up

to the height of high

and capable of being applied to purposes of cultivation both within and without the depression by the opening and shutting of the sluices. Nile,

So much appears to be certain. The exact size and position of Amenemhat's reservoir within the depression, which a French savant was supposed to have discovered, are now called in question, and must be admitted to be still sub judice. M. Linant dc Bellefonds regarded the reservoir as occupying the south-eastern or upper portion of the depression only, as extending from north to south a distance of four-

teen miles only, and from

east

varying from six to eleven miles. artificially

to

west a distance

He

regarded

it

as

confined towards the west and north by

two long lines of embankment, which he considered that he had traced, and gave the area of the lake as four hundred and five millions of square metres, or about four hundred and eighty millions of square yards. Mr. Cope Whitehouse believes that the water was freely admitted into the whole of the depression, which it filled, with the exception of certain parts, which stood up out of the water as islands, from one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet high. He believes that it was in places three hundred feet deep, and that the circuit of its shores was from three hundred to five hundred miles. It is to be hoped that a scientific expedition will ere long set this dispute at rest, and enable the modern student

120

THE GOOD AMENEMHAT AND HIS WORKS.

and understand the great work of Amenemhat. Whatever may be the truth regarding " Lake Mceris," as this great reservoir was called, it is distinctly to grasp

certain that

it

explicable of

furnished the ancients one of the least the

all

many problems

that the remark-

Herodotus added to the other marvels of the place a story about two sitting statues based upon pyramids, which stood three hundred feet above the level of the lake, and a famous labyrinth, of which we shall soon speak. Whether the reservoir of Amenemhat had the larger able land of the Nile presented to them.

or the smaller dimensions ascribed to

it,

there can be

no doubt that it was a grand construction, undertaken mainly for the benefit of his people, and greatly conducing to their advantage. Even if the reservoir had only the dimensions assigned to fonds,

it

it

by M. de Belle-

would, according to his calculations, have

contained water

sufficient,

not only for irrigating the

northern and western portions of the

Fayoum through-

out the year, but also for the supply of the whole

western bank of the Nile from Beni-Souef to the embouchure at Canopus for six months. This alone would in dry seasons have been a sensible relief to If the dimensions exceeded those of De Bellefonds, the relief would have been proportionately greater. The good king was not, however, content merely to

a large portion of the population.

by increasing the productiveness of Egypt and warding off the calamities that occasionally befell the land he further gave employment to large numbers, which was not of a severe or oppressive kind, but promoted their comfort and welfare. In benefit his people

;

" „,,.

'WlllWHiH^

°"%i

"WBSSwwi NJSSBfiss

h&%i»,

rtsBS^

IftVfy;

*

4 '%»%, #• f S

BENISONEr^A^ '

^^

? .,(1

^Jp.

HIS LABYRINTH.

121

connection with his hydraulic works

in

the

Fayoum

he constructed a novel species of building, which after ages admired

even above the constructions of the

pyramid-builders, and regarded as the most wonderful edifice in all the world.

" I

visited

the place," says

and found it to surpass description for if all the walls and other great works of the Greeks could be put together in one, they would not equal, either for labour or expense, this Labyrinth and yet the temple of Ephesus is a building worthy of note, and so is the temple of Samos. The pyramids likewise surpass description, and are severally equal to a number of the greatest works of the Greeks but the Labyrinth surpasses the pyramids. It has twelve courts, all of them roofed, with gates exactly opposite one another, six looking to the north, and six to the south. A single wall surrounds the whole building. It contains two different sorts of chambers, half of them underground, and half above-ground, the latter built upon the former the whole number is Herodotus,

1

"

;

;

;

;

three thousand, of each kind fifteen hundred.

upper chambers

The

myself passed through and saw, and what I say of them is from my own observation of the underground chambers I can only speak from I

;

report, for the keepers of the building could not be

induced

to

show them, sepulchres

the

said)

of

since they contained (they

the

kings

who

built

the

Labyrinth, and also those of the sacred crocodiles.

Thus them eyes,

it ;

is

from hearsay only that

but the upper chambers

and found them to excel 1

I

all

Euterpe, ch. 148.

I

can speak of

saw with other

my own

human

pro-

122

THE GOOD AMENEMHAT AND HIS WORKS.

ductions

;

for

the passages through the houses, and

the varied windings of the paths across the courts,

excited

in

me

infinite admiration, as

passed from

I

the courts into chambers, and from the chambers into

colonnades, and from the colonnades into fresh houses,

and again from these into courts unseen

before.

roof was, throughout, of stone, like the walls

;

The

and the

walls were carved all over with figures every court was surrounded with a colonnade, which was built ;

of white stones, exquisitely fitted together.

corner of the Labyrinth

stands

a

At

the

pyramid, forty

fathoms high, with large figures engraved upon which is entered by a subterranean passage."

it,

The pyramid intended is probably that examined by Perring and Lepsius, which had a base of three hundred feet, and an elevation, probably, of about one hundred and eighty-five feet. It was built of crude brick mixed with a good deal of straw, and cased with a white silicious limestone. The same material was employed for the greater part of the so-called " Labyrinth," but many of the columns were of red granite, and some perhaps of porphyry. Most likely the edifice was intended as a mausoleum for the sacred crocodiles, and was gradually enlarged for their accommodation Amenemhat, whose prainomen was found on the pyramid, being merely the



first

and

The number of the pillared courts, made the edifice confusing to and got it the name of " The Labyrinth "

founder. their

foreigners,

similarity,

;

but

it is

not likely the designers of the building had

any intention to mislead or to confuse. Amenemhat's praenomen, or throne-name, assumed

HIS

NAME OF

MCERIS.

I23

(according to ordinary custom) on his accession, was

Ra-n-mat, ness."

"

Sun of

The assumption

to leave behind It is

Justice

"

of the

or "

Sun of Righteous-

title

indicates his desire

him a character

for justice

and equity.

name by which which may mean "

perhaps noticeable that the

Greeks knew him was Moeris,

the the

With him closes the first period of Theban A cloud was impending, and darker days about to follow but as yet Egypt enjoyed a time of progressive, and in the main peaceful, development. Commerce, art, religion, agriculture, occupied her. She did not covet other men's lands, nor did other men covet hers. The world beyond her borders knew little of her, except that she was a fertile and wellordered land, whereto, in time of dearth, the needy beloved,"

greatness.

;

of other countries might resort with confidence.

VII.

ABRAHAM

Now

"

there

IN EGYPT.

was a famine

in

the land of

Canaan

;

Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there" Few events in the history of mankind (Gen. xii. io).

and are

more

interesting than the visit which the author

of the Pentateuch thus places before us in less than

a dozen words.

The

" father

of the faithful,"

the

great apostle of Monotheism, the wanderer from the distant

"

Ur

of the Chaldees," familiar with Baby-

lonian greatness, and

Babylonian dissoluteness,

an
Babylonian despotism, having quitted his city homfl and adopted the simple habits of a Syrian nomadic sheikh, finds

himself forced to

make acquaintance

with a second form of civilization, a second great organized monarchy, and to become for a time a sojourner

among

the people

who had

held for cen-

valley of the Nile. He had obeyed the which took him from Ur to Haran, from Haran to Damascus, from Damascus to the hills of Canaan ; he had divorced himself from city life and city usages; he had embraced the delights of that free, wandering existence which has at all times so singular a charm turies the call

for

many, and had dwelt

for

we know not how many

years in different parts of Palestine, the chief of a tribe rich in flocks

and herds, moving with them from

WHY ABRAHAM

VISITED EGYPT.

12$

place to place as the fancy took him. It was assuredly

with

much

reluctance that he quitted the open

downs



and fresh breezes and oak groves of Canaan the land promised to him and to his seed after him, and took his way through the " desert of the south " to the great

kingdom with which he and

his race could

never hope to be on terms of solid friendship. the necessity which constrained

When, from

But

him was imperative.

the want of the ordinary spring rains,

drought and famine

set in

on the Palestinian uplands,

there was in ancient times but one resource.

Egypt

was known as a land of plenty. Whether it were Hebrew nomads, or Hittite warriors, or Phoenician traders that suffered, Egypt was the sole refuge, the There the river gave the plenteous sussole hope. tenance which would be elsewhere sought in vain. There were granaries and storehouses, and an old established system whereby corn was laid up as a reserve in case of need, both by private individuals of There among the wealthier classes and by the kings. the highest officers of state was the " steward of the public granary," whose business it was, when famine pressed, to provide, so far as was possible, both for natives and foreigners, alleviating the distress of all, while safeguarding, of course, the king's interests (Gen. xlvii

13-26).

Abraham, therefore, when he found that "the famine was grievous in the land " of Canaan, did the only thing that it was possible for him to do left Palestine, and wended his way through the desert to the Egyptian frontier. What company he took with him is uncertain. A few years later we find him at the



;

ABRAHAM IN EGYPT.

126

head of a body of three hundred and eighteen men capable of bearing arms " trained servants born in his house " which implies the headship over a tribe of at least twelve hundred persons. He can scarcely have entered Egypt with a much smaller number. It was before his separation from his nephew, Lot, whose





followers were not

much

And

fewer than his own.

to

any of his dependents behind would have been to leave them to starvation. We must suppose a numerous caravan organized, with asses and camels to carry provisions and household stuff, and with the women and the little ones conveyed as we see them leave

in the

sculpture representing the arrival of

Abusha

from the same quarter, albeit with a smaller entourage. The desert journey would be trying, and probably entail

much

loss, especially

of the cattle and beasts

but at length, on the seventh or eighth day, as the

water was getting low in the skins and the camels were beginning to faint and groan with the scant fare and the long travel, a dark low line would appear upon the edge of the horizon in front, and soon the li: e would deepen into a delicate fringe, sparkling here and there as though it were sown with diamonds. 1

Then

it

would be recognized that there lay before

the travellers the fields and gardens and palaces and

obelisks of Egypt, the broad flood and rich plain of

the Nile, and their hearts would leap with joy, and lift

themselves up in thanksgiving to the Most High,

who had brought them through

the great and terrible

wilderness to a land of plenty.

But now a 1

fresh anxiety

fell

upon the

Adapted from Kinglake's " Eothen,"

p.

spirit 20F.

of the

HIS DECEIT RESPECTING SARAH. Tradition

chief.

tells

I27

Babylonia

us that already in

he had had experience of the violence and tyranny of earthly potentates, and

had with difficulty escaped from an attempt which the king of Babylon made

upon

memory

this and what the unbridled licence of irresponsible power might conceive and execute under the circumstances. The Pharaohs

his

life.

Either

recalled

similar dangers, or reason suggested

had,

it

plain, already

is

manners of the

departed

from the simple

when each

earlier times,

prince was

contented with a single wife, and had substituted for

monogamy that corrupt system hareem life which has kept its ground in the East from an ancient date to the present day. Abraham was aware of this, and " as he was come near to enter into Egypt," but was not yet entered, he was seized with a great fear. " Behold," he said to Sarai his wife, " Behold now, I know that thou art a fair woman to look upon therefore it shall come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee, that they shall say, This is and they will kill me, but they will save his wife the primitive law of of

;

:

thee alive."

Under these circumstances Abraham,

with a craft not unnatural

in

an Oriental, but cer-

commendable, resolved to dissemble his relationship towards Sarah, and to represent her as not his wife, but his sister. She was, in point of

tainly far from

he afterwards pleaded to Abimelech (Gen. xx. 12), being the daughter of Terah by a secondary wife, and married to her half-brother. " Say, I pray thee," he said, " thou art my sister, that fact, his half-sister, as

it

may be

shall live

well with

me

for

because of thee."

and my soul Sarah acquiesced ; and

thy sake

;

ABRAHAM IN EGYPT.

128

no doubt the whole the resolution

one

come

tribe to,

was made acquainted with

so that they might

all

be

in

story.

The

We

was then approached.

frontier

learn from

the history of Abusha, as well as from other scattered notices

the papyri,

in

how

carefully

the

eastern

and what precautions apprise the Court when any consider-

border was always guarded,

were taken to

The chief official able body of immigrants arrived. upon the frontier, either Khnumhotep or some one occupying a similar position, would receive the

in-

comers, subject them to interrogation, and cause his secretary to draw up a report, which would be forwarded by courier to the capital. The royal orders would be awaited, and meantime perhaps fresh reports would be sent by other officials of the neighbourhood.

In

the

present instance,

" princes of

beauty of master,

we

are

told

that

several

Pharaoh," having been struck with the Sarah,

who

commended

her to

their

royal

sent for her and had her brought into

his own house. Abraham himself was well received and treated with much distinction " for her sake." According to Eupolemus, he and his were settled in th-=; sa red city of On or Heliopolis and there, in thai seat of learning and religion, the Patriarch, as the ;

same authority

declares,

lived peacefully for

many

years and taught the Egyptians the sciences of as-

tronomy and

arithmetic.

The author

of Genesis says

nothing of the place of his abode, but simply informs

Pharaoh entreated Abram well and he had sheep, and oxen, and for Sarai's sake he-asses, and men-servants, and maid-servants, and us of his well-being. ;

"

HIS DECEIT DISCOVERED.

129

and camels." The collocation of the clauses all these were presents from the king. The pleased monarch lavished on his brother-in-law such gifts of honour as were usual at the time and she-asses,

implies that

suitable to his circumstances.

Abraham became "very

and in gold " (Gen. xiii. 2). He flourished greatly, whether for months or for years the scripture does not say. He was separated from his wife, and she was an inmate of Pharaoh's hareem but he kept his secret, and no one betrayed him. Apparently, he was content. Ere long, however, a discovery was made. Calamity came upon the royal house in some marked way, probably either in the form of sickness or of death. The king became convinced that he was the object of a Divine chastisement, and cast about for a cause to which his sufferings might reasonably be attributed. How had he provoked God's anger ? Either, as Josephus thinks, the priests had by this time found out the truth, and made the suggestion to him, that he was being rich in

cattle,

in

silver,

;

having taken another man's wife into his

punished

for

seraglio

or possibly, as others have surmised, Sarah

;

and made by some means of the case became known and

herself divined the source of the calamities,

confession of the truth.

or other, the facts

At any

rate,

;

the Pharaoh thereupon hastened to set matters right.

Sarah, though an inmate of the hareem, was probably still

in

the

probationary condition,

undergoing the

purification necessary before the final completion of

her nuptials (Esth. intact.

ii.

The Pharaoh

him with

12),

and could thus be restored

sent for

Abraham, reproached

his deceit, pointed out the

ill

consequences

ABRAHAM IN EGYPT.

13°

which had followed, and, doubtless

some

in

displea-

and depart. The famine was at an end, and there was no reason why he should linger. Beyond reproach, however, Pharaoh inflicted no punishment. He " commanded his men concerning Abraham and they sent him away, and his wife, and all that he had." Such is the account which has come down to us of Abraham's sojourn in Egypt. If it be asked, Why sure, required

him

to take his wife

;

is it

Egypt

inserted into the " story of

the reply

must

be, because,

point

" at this

sideration of all the circumstances, chronological other, rally

?

on a dispassionate con-

which attach to the narrative,

it

and

has been gene-

agreed that the event belongs to about this time.

There

no special reign to which

is

assigned

;

but the best

critics

it

can be definitely

acquiesce in the judg-

who

ment of Canon Cook upon the

point,

my own

but certain that Abra-

ham

part,

I

regard

it

as

all

says

:

"

For

Egypt in some reign between the middle of the eleventh and the thirteenth dynasty, and most visited

probably under one of the earliest Pharaohs of the twelfth."

This

is

i

not the only entrance of Hebrews or people

of Semitic race into

Egypt.

Emigrants from

less

favoured countries had frequently looked with interest

hoping that there they might find homes free from the vicissitudes of their own. Previous to this, one Amu had entered Egypt, perhaps from Midian, with his family, counting thirtyseven, the little ones riding upon asses, and had sought to the fertile Delta of the Nile,

the protection of the reigning sovereign. 1

See " Speaker's Commentary,"

vol.

i.

p.

It

447,

was again

col.

i.

OTHER SEMITIC IMMIGRANTS. the experience of

Kgypt

131

to receive emigrants from the

north-east, from Syria or Northern Arabia, at a later period,

when

the

nomads

in

little

those regions looked

over to the south and, by contrast with their over-

peopled country, thought they saw a sort of

" fairy-

and wisdom," which they hoped to enjoy by force and they were not the last We shall soon have to remark to seek asylum there. on the familiar case of the immigration of the sons of land

of wealth,

culture, ;

Jacob with their households. In process of time the Semitic wanderers increased so materially that the population in the eastern half of the Delta became half Asiatic, prepared to submit readily to Asiatic rule and to worship Semitic deities they had already imposed a number of their words upon the language ;

of Egypt.



VIII.



THE GREAT INVASION THE HYK30S OR SHEPHERD KINGS— JOSEPH AND APEPI.

The put

to

shown

prowess of the Egyptians had not yet been They had themselves any severe proof. little

of an aggressive

Attracted by

spirit.

the mineral wealth of the Sinaitic peninsula, they had

indeed

made

settlements in that region, which had

involved them in occasional wars with the natives,

whom

Mena

Menti " and they had had a contest of more importance with the tribes of the south, negro and Ethiopic, in which they had shown a decided superiority over those rude barbarians but, as yet, they had attempted no important conquest, and had been subjected to no they spoke of as

"

"

or

"

;

;

The

upon their borders and from neither the Berber tribes of the northern African coast, nor from the Sinaitic nomads, nor even from the negroes of the

serious

attack.

were but

sparsely

countries

peopled,

south, with their allies

— the

"

miserable Cushites

"

was any dangerous invasion to be apprehended. Egypt had been able to devote herself almost wholly to the cultivation of the arts of peace, and had not been subjected to the severe ordeal, which most nations pass through in their infancy, of a struggle for existence with warlike

and powerful enemies.

Movements in

asia.

133"

The time was now come for a great change. Movements had begun among the populations of Asia which threatened a general disturbance of the peace of the world. Asshur had had to " go forth " out of the land of Shinar, and to make himself a habitation further to the northward, which must have pressed In Elam an aggressive painfully upon other races. spirit had sprung up, and military expeditions had been conducted by Elamitic kings, which started from the shores of the Persian Gulf and terminated in

Southern Syria and Palestine.

The migration

of the

which moved with Terah and Abraham from Ur to Haran, and from Haran to Hebron, is but one of many indications of the restlessness of the The Hittites were growing in power, and period.

tribes

required an enlarged territory for their free expansion.

was now probably that they descended from the hills of Cappadocia upon the region below Taurus and Amanus, where we find them dominant in later ages. Such a movement on their part would displace a large population in Upper Syria, and force it to migrate southwards. There are signs of a pressure upon the north-eastern frontier of Egypt on the part of Asiatics needing a home a,s early as the commencement of the twelfth dynasty and it is probable that, while the dynasty lasted, the pressure was conAsiatics were from time tinually becoming greater. It

;

to time received within the barrier of

some

to sojourn and

Delta was more or

some less

Amenemhat I., The eastern

to dwell.

Asiaticized

;

portion of its inhabitants was inclined further influx from Asia.

and a large welcome a

to

THE GREAT INVASION.

134

We have

one account only of the circumstances of by which Egypt fell under a foreign yoke. It purports to come from the native the

great

invasion

Manetho but by Josephus, who, in his historian,

;

it is

delivered to us directly

reports of what other writers

had narrated, is not always to be implicitly trusted. Manetho, according to him, declared as follows " There was once a king of Egypt named Timaeus, in whose reign the gods being offended, for I know :

not what

cause, with

our

ignoble race, coming from

nation,

men

certain

of

the eastern regions, had

the courage to invade the country, and falling upon it

unawares, conquered

it

easily without

a

battle.

After the submission of the princes, they conducted

themselves in a most barbarous fashion towards the whole ot the inhabitants, slaying some, and reducing to slavery the wives and the children of the others. Moreover they savagely set the cities on fire, and demolished the temples of the gods. At last, they took one of their number called Salatis, and made him king over them. Salatis resided at Memphis;, where he received tribute both from Upper and Lowe.' Egypt, while at the same time he placed garrisons ii; all the most suitable situations. He strongly fortified the frontier, especially on the side of the east, since he foresaw that the Assyrians, who were then exceedingly powerful, might desire to make themHaving found, selves masters of his kingdom. moreover, in the Sethroi'te nomc, to the east of the Bubastite branch of the Nile, a city very favourably situated, and called, on account of an ancient theological tradition, Avaris, he rebuilt it and strengthened

ITS it

OVERWHELMING FORCE.

I35

with walls of great thickness, which he guarded

with a body of two hundred and forty thousand men.

Each summer he

visited the place, to see their sup-

and

plies of corn

measured out

pay delivered

to them, as well as to superintend their

for his soldiers

their

military exercises, in order that foreigners might hold

them

in respect."

The

king, Timaeus, does not appear either in the

Manctho

of

lists

upon the monuments, nor

or

possible to determine the time of the invasion precisely than this

— that

it

fell

tween Manetho's twelfth and

is

it

more

into the interval be-

his eighteenth dynasties.

The

invaders are characterized by the Egyptians as Mcnti or Sati but these terms are used so vaguely that nothing definite can be concluded from them. On the whole, it is perhaps most probable that the invading army, like that of Attila, consisted of a vast ;

variety of

races

— "a

collection of

hordes of Syria and Arabia cause against a foe

known

to

equally desired settlements

most productive

in

the

"

the nomadic

all

— who

made common be wealthy, and who all in

a land

An

East.

reputed the

overwhelming

— a quarter of a million, we may — poured into the land, impetuous, All at once, a danger had come beyond possible previous calculation — a danger from

flood

of

believe

men

if

Manetho

irresistible. all

which there was no escape. northern barbarians swooped less

thousands on

It

was as when the

down

the outlying

in

their count-

provinces of

the

Roman

Empire, or as when the hordes of Jingis Khan overran Kashgar and Kharesm the contest was too



unequal

for

anything that can be called a struggle to

THE GREAT INVASION.

I36

made. Egypt collapsed before Manetho says that there was no battle be

the ;

readily understand that in the divided

invader.

and we can condition of

the country, with two or three subordinate dynasties ruling

parts of the Delta, and another

different

in

dynasty

at

Thebes, no army could be levied which

could dare to meet the

enemy

in

the

The

field.

and endeavoured to defend themselves behind walls but it was in vain. The walls of the Egyptian cities were rather banks to keep out the inundation than ramparts to repel an inhabitants fled to their

cities,

;

In a short time the strongholds that

enemy. sisted

were taken, the male population put to the

sword, the

women and

children enslaved, the houses

burnt, the temples ruthlessly demolished. clastic

re-

spirit

possessed the conquerors.

An

icono-

The gods

and worship of Egypt were hateful to them. Whereever the flood passed, it swept away the existing civilization, deeply impregnated as it was with the ground with the debris of religion it covered temples and shrines, with the fragments of statues ;

and sphinxes and for a time,

it

;

crushed existing religious usages,

would seem, substituted nothing in their place. "A study of the monuments," says M. Francois Lenormant, " attests the reality of the frightful devastations which took place at the first moment as

of the invasion.

it

With

a solitary exception,

all

the

temples anterior to the event have disappeared, and

no traces can be found of them except scattered ruins which bear the marks of a destructive violence. To say what during these centuries Egypt had to endure in the way of upsetting of her past is impos-

LIMITS TO WHICH IT EXTENDED

The only

1 37

which can be stated as certain of this desolate epoch has come down to our days to show us what became of the ancient splendour of Egypt under the Hyksos. We witness under the fifteenth and sixteenth dynasties a fresh shipwreck of Egyptian civilization. Vigorous as it had been, the impulse given to it by the Usurtasens suddenly stops the series of monuinterrupted, ments is and Egypt informs us by her sible.

fact

that not a single

is,

monument

;

very silence of the calamities with which she was smitten."

:

was,

It

not the entire country that

fortunately,

was overrun. So far as appears, the actual occupation of Egypt by the Hyksos was confined to the Delta, to the Lower Nile valley, and to the district of Elephantine, Thebes, Abydos, escaped the Fayoum. the destroyers, and though forced to certain formal acts of submission, to an acknowledgment of the Hyks6s suzerainty, and to the payment of an annual tribute,

Theban

retained

a

the

and twelfth

eleventh

dynasties were undisturbed.

The

independence.

qualified

monuments of

Even

there were structures that suffered

Lower Egypt

in

little

or nothing at

the

conqueror's hands, being too humble to attract

his

attention

or too massive to yield to the

known

of destruction

to him.

scarcely suffered, though

time their sanctity was tents rifled. still

The

it

first

is

Thus

the

means

pyramids

possible that at this

violated and their con-

great obelisk of Usurtasen

I.,

which

stands at Heliopolis, was not overthrown.

The

humbler tombs 1

"Manuel

at Ghizeh, so precious to the antiquary,

d'Histoire Ancienne de l'Orient,

'

voli. p. 360.

THE GREAT INVASION.

I38

Amentmhat's most part untouched. Fayoum may have been damaged, Though Egyptian but they were not demolished. civilization received a rude shock from the invasion, and it was not altogether swallowed up or destroyed when the deluge had passed it emerged once more, and soon reached, and even surpassed, its ancient were

for the

buildings in the

;

glories.

The Hyksos king who any

we

rate,

was brought

are told, either the

Of

Saites.

these

led the invasion, or who, at

to the front in

name

of

two forms the second

to be preferred, since the

first

has

course, bore,

its

Salatis,

in its

is

or that of

undoubtedly

favour only the

single authority of Josephus, while the second

is

sup-

ported by Africanus, Eusebius, George the Syncellus,

and

to

"tablet

a certain extent by the

monuments.

of four hundred years" contains the

The name

have belonged to the Middle Empire, and

who must this name

may

an abbre-

of Sut-Aapehti as that of a king of Egypt

fairly

be regarded as represented

viated form by the Greek

made

" Saites."

in

Saites,

having

Lower Country, Upper Country to become

himself absolute master of the

and forced the king of the

Memphis, at the and garrisoning various

his tributary, fixed his residence at

same time strongly

fortifying

other towns in important positions.

Of

these the

most considerable was the city, called Auaris, or Avaris, in the Sethroi'te nome, which lay east of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, and was probably not far from Pelusium itself, if indeed it was not identical with that Another strong fort, by means of which the city. Delta was held and overawed, seems to have been

DURATION OF THE HVRSOS RULE. Zan or Tanis, now San,

situated on

130

what was called

the Tanitic branch of the Nile, the next most easterly

branch to the Pelusiac. A third was in the Fayoum, on the site now called Mit-Fares. A large body of troops must also have been maintained at Memphis, if

we

the king, as

are told, ordinarily held his court

there.

How

long

the

tyranny of the

The

"

epitomists of

groaned

Egyptians

Shepherds,"

Manetho

it

is

under

difficult

the

to say.

are hopelessly at variance

on the subject, and the monuments are silent, or nearly so. Moderns vary in the time, which they assign to On the the period between two centuries and five. whole, criticism seems to incline towards the shorter term, though

have enlarged is

why Manetho, it,

or his epitomists, should

remains an insoluble problem. There

but one dynasty of" Shepherd Kings

distinct historical substance, or to

"

that has

any

which we can assign

any names. This is a dynasty of six kings only, whose united reigns are not likely to have exceeded two centuries. Nor does it seem possible that, if the duration of the foreign oppression had been much longer, Egypt could have returned, so nearly as she did, to the same manners and customs, the same religious usages, the same rules of art, the same system of government, even the very same proper names, at the end of the period, as had been in use at its begin-

One cannot but think that the bouleversement which Egypt underwent has been somewhat exagge-

ning.

rated effect,

New

by the native historian for the sake of rhetorical to enhance by contrast the splendour of the

Empire.

THE GREAT INVASION.

140

if he has not misrepresented Kings," he has failed to do Shepherd the rule of the He has painted in lurid colours the advent it justice. of the foreign race, the war of extermination in which they engaged, the cruel usage to which they subjected

In another respect, too, "

the conquered people

;

he has represented the

in-

vaders as rude, savage, barbarous, bent on destruction, careless of art, the enemies of progress tion.

He

has neglected

and

civiliza-

to point out, that, as time

The period of came to an end. Peace succeeded to war. In Lower Egypt the "Shepherds" reigned over quiet and unresisting subjects in Upper Egypt they bore rule over submissive tributaries. Under these circumstances a perceptible softening of their manners and general character took place. As the Mongols and the Mandchus in China suffered themselves by degrees to be conquered by the superior went

on, there

was a sensible change.

constant bitter hostilities

;

civilization of the

people

whom

subdued, so the Hyksos yielded

they had overrun and little

by

little

to the

which

surrounded them, and insensibly assimilated themselves to their Egyptian subjects.

influences

They adopted the Egyptian guage, art, mode of writing,

dress, titles, official lan-

architecture.

In Tanis,

were built and sculptures set up Shepherd Kings," differing little in

especially, temples

under the

later "

from those of purely Egyptian monarchs erected their effigies at this site, which were sculptured by native artists according to the customary rules of Egyptian glyptic art, and only differ from those of the earlier native Pharaohs in the head-dress, the expression of the their general character

periods.

The

foreign

BUST OF A SHEPHERD KING.

RELIGION OF THE HYKSOS. countenance, and

A

beard.

a

peculiar

143

arrangement

of

the

friendly intercourse took place during this

period between the kings of the North, established at

Tanis and Memphis, and those of the South, resident frequent embassies were interchanged Thebes

at

;

;

and blocks of granite and syenite were continually floated down the Nile, past Thebes, to be employed by the " Shepherds " in their erections at the southern capitals.

The

"

Shepherds

the worship

"

brought with them into Egypt whom they called Sut or

of a deity,

He Sutckh, and apparently identified with the sun. was described as " the great ruler of heaven," and identified

with Baal

in

later times.

The kings

re-

garded themselves as especially under his protection. &t the time of the invasion, they do not seem to have considered this deity as having any special connection

with any of the Egyptian gods, and they consequently

made war

indiscriminately against the entire Egyptian

Pantheon, plundering and demolishing

all

the temples

But when the first burst of savage hostility was gone by, when more settled times followed, and the manners and temper of the conquerors grew softened by pacific intercourse with their subjects, a likeness came to be seen between Sutekh, their own Set ancestral god, and the " Set " of the Egyptians. in the old Egyptian mythology was recognized as " the patron of foreigners, the power which swept the children of the desert like a sand-storm over the fertile land." He was a representative of physical, but not of moral, evil a strong and powerful deity, worthy of reverence and worship, but less an object of

alike.

;

THE G R EAT INVASION.

144

love than of fear.

The

"

Shepherds " acknowledged in and as they acquired settled

god their Sutekh and assimilated themselves to their subjects, they began to build temples to him, after the Egyptian model, in their principal towns. After the dynasty had this

;

habits,

borne rule

for five reigns, covering the

space perhaps of

one hundred and fifty years, a king came to the throne named Apepi, who has left several monuments, and is

the only one of the

"

Shepherds

"

that stands out

for us in definite historical consistency as a living

breathing person.

Sutekh

Apepi

built

a great

at Zoan, or Tanis, his principal capital,

posed of blocks of red granite, and adorned obelisks and sphinxes.

The

and

temple to

it

comwith

obelisks are said to have

been fourteen in number, and must have been dispersed about the courts, and not, as usual, placed only at the entrance.

The

sphinxes, which differed

from the ordinary Egyptian sphinx

and

seem

in

having a mane

have formed an avenue or vista leading up to the temple from the town. They are in diorite, and have the name of like a lion

also wings,

to

Apepi engraved upon them. The pacific rule of Apepi and his predecessors allowed Thebes to increase in power, and her monuments now recommence. Three kings who bore the family name of Taa, and the throne name of RaSekenen, bore rule capital.

The

third

in succession at the southern of these, Taa-ken, or " Taa the

was contemporary with Apepi, and paid year by year, to his lawful suzerain. He does not seem to have had any desire to provoke war but Apepi probably thought that he Victorious," his tribute

punctually,

;

APE PI AND JOSEPH.

I45

was becoming too powerful, and would, shortly

make an

effort to

He therefore determined and proceeded to send

if unmolested, throw off the Hyksos yoke.

to pick a quarrel with him, to

Thebes a succession of

embassies with continually increasing demands. First of all he required Taa-ken to relinquish the worship of all the Egyptian gods except Amen-Ra, the chief god of Thebes, whom he probably identified with his own Sutekh. It is not quite clear whether Taa-ken consented to this demand, or politely evaded it. At any rate, a second embassy soon followed the first, with a fresh requirement and a third followed the second. The policy was successful, and at last Taaken took up arms. It would seem that he was successful, or was at any rate able to hold his own for he maintained the war till his death, and left it to his ;

;

successor,

Aahmes.

There was an ancient tradition, that the king who made Joseph his prime minister, and committed into his hands the entire administration of Egypt, was Apepi. George the Syncellus says that the synchronism was accepted by all. It is clear that Joseph's arrival did not fall, like Abraham's, into the period of the Old Empire, since under Joseph horses and chariots are in use, as well as wagons or carts, all of which were unknown till after the Hyksos invasion. It is also more natural that Joseph, a foreigner, should have been advanced by a foreign king than by a native one, and the favour shown to his brethren, who were shepherds (Gen. xlvi. 32), is consonant at any rate with the tradition that it was a " Shepherd

King " who held

the throne

at

the

time of their

THE GREAT INVASION.

146 arrival.

A

priest

of

Heliopolis,

moreover, would

scarcely have given Joseph his daughter in marriage unless at a time

when the priesthood was

Add

in a state of

Pharaoh of Joseph is evidently resident in Lower Egypt, not at Thebes, which was the seat of government for many hundred years both before and after the Hyksos rule. If, however, we are to place Joseph under one of the " Shepherd Kings," there can be no reason why we should not accept the tradition which connects him with Apepi. Apepi was dominant over the whole of Egypt, as Joseph's Pharaoh seems to have been. He acknowledged a single god, as did that monarch (Gen. xli. 38, 39). He was a thoroughly Egyptianized king. He had a council of learned scribes, a magnificent court, and a peaceful reign until towards its close. His residence was in the Delta, either at Tanis or Auaris. He was a prince of a strong will, firm and determined one who did not shrink from initiating great changes, and who carried out his resolves in a somewhat arbitrary way. The arguments in favour depression.

to this that the

;

of his identity with Joseph's master are, perhaps, not

but they raise a presumption, wholly conclusive which may well incline us, with most modern historians of Egypt, to assign the touching story of ;

Joseph to the reign of the

last of the

Shepherds.

IX.

HOW THE HYKS6S WERE EXPELLED FROM

At

first

sight

it

seems strange that the

warriors who, under Set or

Sai'tes,

EGYPT. terrible

so easily reduced

and then still further weakened by massacre and oppression, should have been got rid of, after two centuries or two centuries and a half, with such comparative ease. But the rapid deterioration of conquering races under cer-

Egypt

to subjection,

the population

tain circumstances

is

a fact familiar to the historian.

Elamites, Babylonians,

Assyrians,

Medes, Persians,

Greeks, rapidly succeeded each other as the dominant

power in Western Asia, each race growing weaker and becoming exhausted, after a longer or a shorter interval, through nearly the same causes. Nor are the reasons for the deterioration far to seek. Each race when it sets out upon its career of conquest is active, energetic, inured to warlike habits, simple in its it

manners, or at any rate simpler than those which

conquers, and, comparatively speaking, poor.

urged on by the desire of bettering

its

It is

condition.

If

meets with a considerable resistance, if the conquest occupies a long space, and the conquered are with difficulty held under, rebelling from time to time, it

and making

frantic

efforts

to

throw

off the

yoke

HYKSOS EXPELLED FROM EGYPT.

I|8

which galls and Acts them, then the warlike habits of the conquerors are kept up, and their dominion

may is

continue for several centuries.

Or,

if

the nation

very energetic and unresting, not content with

its

upon its oars, but continually seeking out fresh enemies upon its borders, and regarding war as the normal state of its existence, earlier conquests, or willing" to rest

then the centuries

and

it

may

may

decline shows itself

prolonged

be prolonged into millennia,

be long indeed before any tendency to ;

is no very and no very

but, ordinarily, there

resistance on the one side,

A poor and hardy people, having swooped down upon one that is softer and more civilized, easily carries all before it, acquires the wealth and luxury which it desires, and being content with them, seeks for nothing further, but assimilates itself by degrees to the character and condition of the people whom it constant and unresting energy on the other.

A standing army, disposed in camps and garrisons, may be kept up but if there is a cessation of actual war even for a generation, the sevehas conquered.

;

rity of military discipline will

use of arms will

grow

become

relaxed, the

unfamiliar, the physical type

will decline, the belligerent spirit will die

away, and

the conquerors of a century ago will have lost

all

the

which secured them success when they made attack, and have sunk to the level of their sub-

qualities their jects.

When

this point

is

reached, thoughts of rebel-

lion are apt to arise in the hearts of these latter

;

the

which made the conqueror appear irresistible is gone, and is perhaps succeeded by contempt the subjects feel that they have at least the ad van-

old



terror

POSITION OF THEBES UNDER THEM.

I4.9

tage of numbers on their side they have also probably been leading harder and more bracing lives they see that, man for man, they are physically ;

;

their conquerors

stronger than rebel,

and are

Egypt there was,

In

;

and

at

last

they

successful. further, this

peculiarity

— the

conquered people occupied two entirely distinct posiIn the Delta, the Fayoum, and the northern tions. Nile valley, they were completely reduced, and lived intermixed with their conquerors, a despised suffering

more or

less of oppression.

the case was different.

mitted

In

There the people had sub-

a certain sense, acknowledged the

in

monarchs as their suzerains, and indicated jection by the payment of an annual tribute

laws

;

Hyksos

their sub-

but they

;

own adminisand government, their own religion, their own they did not live intermixed with the new

retained their tration

class,

Upper Egypt

comers

;

own

native princes, their

they were not subject to daily insult or

treatment

;

ill-

the fact that they paid a tribute did not

hinder their preserving their self-respect, and conse-

moral nor physical would seem to have been possible for them to engage in wars on their own account with the races living further up the Nile, or with the wild tribes of the desert, and thus to maintain suffered

neither

deterioration.

Further,

it

warlike habits

among

quently

they

Hyksos The Ra-

themselves, while the

were becoming unaccustomed to them. " Sekenens of Thebes, who called themselves "great and " very great," had probably built up a considerable

power in Upper Egypt during the reigns of the later " Shepherd Kings " had improved their military ;

I50

HYKSOS EXPELLED FROM EGYPT.

system by the adoption of the horse and the chariot, which the Hyksos had introduced had practised ;

their people in arms,

and acquired a reputation as

warriors.

More particularly must this have been the case with Ra-Sekenen III., the contemporary of Apepi. RaSekenen the Third called himself " the great victorious Taa." He surrounded himself with acouncil of "mighty chiefs, captains, and expert leaders." He acquired so much repute, that he provoked Apepi's jealousy before he had in any way transgressed the duties which he owed him as a feudatory. In the long negotiation " between the two, of which the " First Sallier Papyrus gives an account, it is evident that, while Ra-Sekenen has committed no act whereof Apepi has any right to complain, he has awoke in him feelings of such hostility, that Apepi will be content with nothing less than either unqualified submission to every demand

war a entrance. Never was a subject monarch more goaded, and driven intc rebellion against his inclination by over-bearing conduct on the part of his suzerain than was Ra-Sekenen by the last " Shepherd King." The disinclination of himself and his court to fight is almost ludicrous they " are silent and in great dismay they know not how to answer the messenger sent to them, good or ill." Ra-Sekenen, powerful as he had become, " victorious " as he may have been against Libyans and negroes, and even Cushites, dreaded exceedingly to engage in a struggle with the redoubted people which, two centuries previously, had shown itself so that he chooses to make, or

:

;

irresistible.

WAR FORCED UPON RA-SEKENEN.

151

It would seem, however, that he was forced to take up arms at last. We have, unfortunately, no description of the war which followed, so far as it was conducted by this monarch. But it is evident that Apepi was completely disappointed in his hope of crushing the rising native power before it had grown too strong. He had in fact delayed too late. RaSekenen, compelled to defend himself against his

aggressive suzerain, raised the standard of national

independence, invited aid from

succeeded the

first

parts of Egypt, and

all

army into the field. At own against Apepi, but do more. The Hyksos,

bringing a large

in

he simply held his

by degrees he was able to who marched against Thebes, found enemies rise up against them in their rear, as first one and then another native chief declared against them in this or that city

;

their difficulties continually increased

;

they had to re-descend the Nile valley and to concen-

home.

trate their forces nearer k>st

First the

ground.

Memphis, then Tanis.

But each year they

Fayoum was yielded, then At last nothing remained to

the invaders but their great fortified camp,

Uar

or

Auaris, which they had established at the time of

and had ever was strongly fortified by walls and moats, and watered by canals derived from the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, they had their arrival

upon the eastern

since kept up.

frontier,

In this district, which

concentrated themselves,

we

are told, to the

number

of 240,000 men, determined to make there a

final

stand against the Egyptians. It was when affairs were in this position that RaSekenen died, and was succeeded by a king of a

HYKSOS EXPELLED FROM EGYPT.

152

monarch of the " Eighteenth Aahmes was a prince of great

different family, the first

Dynasty," Aahmes. force

of character,

brave,

energetic,

active,

He

beloved by his subjects.

liberal,

addressed himself at

once to the task of completing the liberation of his country by dislodging the Hyksos from Auaris, and driving

them beyond

he collected a

force,

With

his borders.

which

is

this object

amounted same time which was of

said to have

to nearly half a million of men, and at the

placed a

flotilla

of ships upon the Nile,

the greatest service

in

his

Auaris

later operations.

was not only defended by broad moats connected with the waters of the Nile, but also bordered upon a lake, or perhaps rather a lagoon, of considerable

dimensions.

Hence

it

was necessary that

should

it

be attacked not only by land, but also by water. Aahmes seems to have commanded the land forces in person, riding in a war-chariot, the

have distinct mention. the

same name

as

his

A

first

of which

favourite officer,

master,

who

we

bore

accompanied

him,

sometimes marching at his side as he rode in his chariot, sometimes taking his place in one of the warvessels, and directing the movements of the fleet. After a time formal siege was laid to Auaris the fleet was ordered to attack the walls on the side of the lagoon, while the land force was engaged in battering the defences elsewhere. Assaults were made day after day with only partial success but at last the defenders were wearied out a panic seized them, and, hastily evacuating the place, they retired towards Syria, the quarter from which they had originally come. Aahmes may have been willing ;

;



A AH MRS TAKES AUARIS.

153

since, if they had been and driven to bay, they might have made a desperate resistance, and caused the Egyptians an enormous loss. He followed, however, upon their footsteps, to make sure that they did not settle anywhere in his neighbourhood, and was not content till they had crossed the desert and entered

they should escape

that

completely blocked

the

hill

country of Palestine.

hung upon

their rear, harassing

their stragglers

Sharuhen

;

in

in

town, took

;

finally,

Even then he still them and cutting off

when they made a stand

Southern Palestine, he it,

at

laid siege to the

and made a great slaughter of the

hapless defenders.

The war did not terminate until the fifth year of Aahmes' reign. Its result was the complete defeat of the invading hordes which had held Lower and Middle Egypt for so long, and their expulsion from Egypt with such ignominy and loss that they made no effort to retaliate or to recover themselves. Vast numbers must have been slain in the battles, or have perished amid the hardships of the retreat; and many thousands were, no doubt, made prisoners and carried back into Egypt as slaves. It is thought that these captives were so numerous as to become an important element in the population of the eastern Delta, and even to modify the character of the Egyptian race in that quarter. The lively imagination of M. Francois Lenormant sees their descendants in the " strange people, with robust limbs, an elongated face, and a severe expression, which to this day inhabits the tract bordering on Lake Menzaleh." r 1

"Manuel

d'Histoire Ancicnne de l'Orient," vol.

i.

p.

368

HYKSOS EXPELLED FROM EGYPT.

154

probable that

Aahmes had

war which adjoined Egypt on the south, and which was continually growIt is

"

with the

Shepherds

ing in power

— the

for allies in his

" the great nation

Kashi,

Cushites, or

Ethiopians.

His wife appears by her features and complexion to have been a Cushite princess, and the marriage is likely to have been less one of inclination than of

The Egyptians admired

policy.

than dark ones, as

is

complexions which the ordinarily assign to

plain

fair

women

rather

from the unduly

light

artists, in their desire to flatter,

women,

as well as from the attrac-

tiveness of Sarah, even in advanced age.

When

a

Theban king contracted marriage with an Ethiopian of ebon blackness, we are entitled to assume a political motive and the most probable political motive under circumstances of the time was the desire for ;

the

Though in the early wars bemilitary assistance. tween the Kashi and the Egyptians the prowess of the former is not represented as great, and the desig"

nation of

miserable Cushites

"

is

evidently used in

depreciation of their warlike qualities, yet the very

use of the epithet implies a feeling of hostility which

could scarcely have been provoked by a weak people.

And

the Cushites certainly advanced in prowess and

vigour as time went on. They formed the most important portion of the Egyptian troops for some centuries at a later period they conquered Egypt, and were the dominant power for a hundred still years further on, they defied the might of Aahmes, in Persia when Egypt succumbed to it. in military

;

;

contracting his marriage with the Ethiopian princess, to

whom

he gave the name of Nefertari-Aahmes

— or

HEAD OK NEFERTARI-AAHMES.

AAHMES HELPED BY THE CUSHITES.

157



"the good companion of Aahmes" was, we may be tolerably sure, bent on obtaining a contingent of those stalwart either

troops

the

whose modern representatives are Soudan or the Gallas of

Blacks of the

The

Shepherds " thus yielded to a combination of the North with the South, of the Egyptians with the Ethiopians, such as in the highlands of Abyssinia.

later

times,

"

on more than one occasion, drove the

Assyrians out of the country.

X.

THOTHMES

I.,

THE FIRST GREAT EGYPTIAN CONQUEROR.

Thothmes

was the grandson of the Aahmes He had thus hereditary claims to valour and military distinction. The Ethiopian blood which flowed in his veins through his grandmother, Nefertari-Aahmes, may have given him an additional touch of audacity, and certainly showed itself in his countenance, where the short depressed nose and the unduly thick lips are of the Cushite rather than of the Egyptian type. His father, Amen-hotep I., was a somewhat undistinguished prince so that here, as so often, where superior talent runs in a family, it seems to have skipped a generation, and to have leapt from the grandsire to the grandson. Thothmes began his military career by an invasion of the countries upon the Upper Nile, which were still in an unsettled state, notwithstanding the campaigns which had been carried on, and the victories which had been gained in them, during the two preceding reigns, by King Aahmes, and by the generals of Amen-hotep. He placed a flotilla of ships upon the Nile above the Second Cataract, and supporting it with his land forces on I.

who drove out

the Hyksos.

;

ACCESSION OF THOTHMES

i59

1.

advanced from Semneh, the boundary established by Usurtasen III., which is in lat. 21° 50' to Tombos, in lat. 19° conquering the tribes, Nubian and Cushite, as he proceeded, and cither side of the river,

from time to time distinguishing himself

combats with

his

enemies.

On one

in

personal

occasion,

we

majesty became more furious than a panther," and placing an arrow on his bowstring, are told,

" his

BUST OF THOTHMES

directed

it

against the

Nubian

I.

chief so surely that

it

struck him, and remained fixed in his knee, where-

upon the chief "fell fainting down before the royal diadem." He was at once seized and made a prisoner and he his followers were defeated and dispersed himself, together with others, was carried off on board the royal ship, hanging with his head downwards, to This victory was the the royal palace at the capital. ;

;

160

THE FIRST GREAT EGYPTIAN CONQUEROR.

precursor of others

were hewed lands,"

till

"

everywhere

;

the Petti of

and scattered

pieces,

in

"their stench

At

the valleys."

filled

Nubia

over their

all

last a

general submission was made, and a large tract of territory

was ceded.

The Egyptian terminus was

pushed on from the twenty-second parallel to the nineteenth, and at Tombos, beyond Dongola, an inscription was set up, at once to mark the new' frontier,

and

hand down

to

of the conquering

remains, and

is

couched

"

The

inscription

in inflated terms,

a departure from the old declares that

the glory

to posterity

monarch.

style.

official

still

which show

Thothmes

he has taken tribute from the nations

of the North, and from the nations of the South, as well as from those of the

of the barbarians

;

zvJiole

earth

he has not

escape his gripe upon their hair

have

fallen

;

he has

;

He

has resembled

possession of his eternal

hold

the Petti of Nubia

;

valleys like a deluge, like waters which

mount.

laid

he has made their he has overflowed their

beneath his blows

waters to flow backwards

;

a single one of them

let

mount and

Horus, when

kingdom

;

all

he took

the countries

included within the circumference of the entire earth

Having effected Thothmes sought to secure it by the pointment of a new officer, who was to govern are prostrate under his feet."

his

conquest,

apthe

newly-annexed country under the title of " Prince of Cush," and was to have his ordinary residence at Semneh. Flushed with his victories in this quarter, and intoxicated with the delight of conquest, Thothmes, on

his return to

Thebes, raised his thoughts to a

still

HOW MOVED

TO INVADE ASIA.

l6l

Egypt grander and more adventurous enterprize. had a great wrong to avenge, a huge disgrace to wipe She had been invaded, conquered, plundered, out. by an enemy aggression

;

whom

she had not provoked by any

she had seen her cities laid

temples torn

down and demolished,

her gods broken to pieces, her children's

blood

in ashes,

her

the images of

dyed with her

soil

she had been trampled under the

;

iron heel of the conqueror for centuries

;

she had been

exhausted by the payment of taxes and tribute she had had to bow the knee, and lick the dust under the conqueror's feet was not retribution needed for all ;



this

?

True, she had at

last

risen

up and expelled

her enemy, she had driven him beyond her borders,

and he seemed content to acquiesce in his defeat, and but was this enough ? Did to trouble her no more not the law of eternal justice require something more ? ;

" Nee

lex justior ulla est,

Quam

Was

it

necis artifices arte perire sua."

not proper,

fitting, requisite for

the honour

of Egypt, that there should be retaliation, that the

aggressor should suffer what he had inflicted, should

be attacked

in his

own

country, should be

made

to feel

the grief, the despair, the rage, the shame, that he had

Egypt to feel for so many years should expiate by a penalty, not only proportioned to the Such thoughts, offence, but its exact counterpart ? we may be sure, burned in the mind of the young warrior, when, having secured Egypt on the south, he turned his attention to the north, and asked himself the question how he should next employ the power forced

his guilt

;

l62

THE FIRST GREAT EGYPTIAN CONQUEROR.

that

he had inherited, and the talents with which

nature had endowed him. It is uncertain what amount of knowledge the Egyptians of the time possessed concerning the internal condition, population, and resources, of the continent which adjoined them on the north-east. We cannot say whether Thothmes and his counsellors could, or. could not, bring before their mind's eye a

view of the general position of Asiatic form a reasonable estimate of the proand

fairly correct affairs,

babilities of success or

discomfiture,

a great ex-

if

pedition were led into the heart of Asia.

may have

Whatever

been their knowledge or ignorance,

it

will

be necessary for the historical student of the present day to have some general ideas on the subject, if he to form an adequate conception either of the dangers which Thothmes affronted, or of the amount of credit due to him for his victories. We propose, therefore, is

the

in

present

to

place,

glance our eye over the

previous history of Western Asia, and to describe, so far

as

is

Thothmes began it is

the time

when

to contemplate the invasion

which

possible,

his great glory to

Western Asia the cradle of the

is

condition

its

at

have accomplished.

generally allowed to have been

human

race.

Its

more

fertile

portions

Monarchy, it is probable, first grew up in Babylonia, towards the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates. But it was not

were thickly peopled at a very early date.

long ere a sister kingdom established

itself in

or Elam, the fertile tract between the

Susiana,

Lower

Tigris

and the Zagros mountains. The ambition of conquest first showed itself in this latter country, whence

STATE OF ASIA AT THE TIME.

163

Kudur-Nakhunta, about B.C. 2300, made an attack on Erech, and Chedor-laomer (about B.C. 2000) established an empire which extended from the Zagros mountains on the one hand to the shores of the Mediterranean on the other (Gen. xiv. 1-4) Shortly after

this,

a third power, that of the Hittites,

grew up towards the north,

chiefly perhaps in

Asia

southward Upper Mesopotamia,

Minor, but with a tendency to project

itself

Mesopotamian region. and Palestine, were at this time inhabited by weak tribes, each under its own chief, with no coThe chief of herence, and no great military spirit. into the

Syria,

these tribes, at the time

when Thothmes I. ascended Rutennu in Syria, and Upper Mesopotamia. The south, Elam and Babylon

the Egyptian throne, were the the Nahari or Nai'ri in

two monarchies of the were not in a flourishing condition, and exercised no They suzerainty beyond their own natural limits. were, in fact, a check upon each other, constantly engaged in feuds and quarrels, which prevented either from maintaining an extended sway for more than a few years. Assyria had not yet acquired any great distinction, though it was probably independent, and ruled by monarchs who dwelt at Asshur (KilehSherghat). The Hittites, about B.C. 1900, had received a severe check from the Babylonian monarch, Sargon, and had withdrawn themselves into their northern fortresses.

Thus

the circumstances of the time were,

on the whole, favourable to the enterprize of Thothmes. No great organized monarchy was likely to take the field

against him, or to regard itself as concerned to

interfere with

the execution of his projects, unless

164

THE FIRST GREAT EGYPTIAN CONQUEROR.

they assumed extraordinary dimensions. he did not proceed further north than cast than

further

So long

as

Taurus, of

Khabour, the great would come into contact he great powers " of the time

the

western

affluent of the Euphrates, he "

with none of the

would have,

at

;

the worst,

to

contend

with loose

confederacies of tribes, distrustful of each other, un-

accustomed

to

together,

act

though

and,

brave,

possessing no discipline or settled military organization.

At

the

same

time, his adversaries

regarded as altogether contemptible.

must not be

The

Philistines

and Canaanites in Palestine, the Arabs of the Sinaitic and Syrian deserts, the Rutennu of the Lebanon and of Upper Syria, the Nai'ri of the western Mesopotamian region, were individually brave men, were inured to warfare, had a strong love of independence, and were likely to resist with energy any attempt to bring them under subjection. They were also, most of them, well acquainted with the value of the horse for military service,

number to their

and could bring into the

field

a

of war-chariots, with riders well accustomed

management.

the horse

to the

list

Egypt had only of

its

recently

added

domesticated animals,

and followed the example of the Asiatics by organizing a chariot force. It was open to doubt Whether this new and almost untried corps would be able to cope with the experienced chariot-troops of Asia.

The country to be carried

also in which military operations were on was a difficult one. It consisted

mainly of alternate mountain and desert. First, the sandy waste called El Tij— the "Wilderness of the

DESCRIPTION OF THE TOPOGRAPHY. Wanderings

''

— had to be passed,

a tract

165

almost wholly

without water, where an army must carry

its

own

Next, the high upland of the Negeb would

supply.

present

itself,

a

region

wherein water

cured from wells, and which

in

may

be pro-

some periods

of the

world's history has been highly cultivated, but which

time of

the

in

Thothmes was probably almost as itself. Then would come

unproductive as the desert the green rounded

gorges of

hills,

the lofty ridges, and the deep

untraversed

Palestine,

by any

road,

in

places thickly wooded, and offering continually greater

obstacles to the advance of an army, as

it

stretched

and further towards the north. From Palestine the Lebanon region would have to be entered on, where, though the Code-Syrian valley presents a further

comparatively easy line of march to the latitude of Antioch, the country on cither side of the valley

almost untraversable, while the valley

many

points where

small force. are difficult

would

be

obstacles. first

it

itself

is

contains

can be easily blocked by a

The Orontes, moreover, and the Litany, to cross, and in the time of Thothmes I. unbridged,

From

the

and

form

no

contemptible

lower valley of the Orontes,

mountains and then a chalky desert had

to be

crossed in order to reach the Euphrates, which could

be passed in boats, or else by swimming. Beyond the Euphrates was another dreary and in-

only

fertile

region, the tract

lost his

How

about Haran, where Crassus

army and his life. far Thothmes and

his counsellors

were aware

of these topographical difficulties, or of the general condition of

Western Asia,

it is,

as already observed, ira-

l66

THE FIRST GREAT EGYPTIAN CONQUEROR. But, on the whole, there are

possible to determine.

reasons

believing that intercourse between nation

foi

and nation was, even in very early times, kept up, and that each important country had its " intelligence department," which was not badly served. Merchants, refugees, spies, adventurers desirous of bettering their

condition, were continually moving, singly or in bodies,

from one land to another, and through them a consi-

mundane affairs The knowledge was,

derable acquaintance with

was spread abroad. very inexact. cities

No

generally of course,

surveys were made, no plans of

or fortresses, no

maps

could be brought into the

the military force that

;

field

was very roughly estimated

;

by the but

several nations

still,

ancient con-

querors did not start off on their expeditions wholly

dark as to the forces which they might have to encounter, or the difficulties which were likely to beset in the

their march.

Thothmes probably set out on his expedition into Asia in about his sixth or seventh year. He was accompanied by two officers, who had served his father and his grandfather, known respectively as " Aahmes, son of Abana," and " Aahmes Pennishem." Both of them had been engaged in the war which he had conducted against the Petti of Nubia and their Ethiopian themselves.

and both had greatly distinguished Aahmes, the son of Abana, boasts that

allies,

he seven times received the prize of valour of gold



for his

conduct

in

the

field

;

— a collar

and Aahmes

Pennishem gives a list of twenty-nine presents given It does to him as military rewards by three kings. not appear that any resistance was offered to the

W7

INVASION OF ASIA. invading force as

it

passed through Palestine

Thothmes engaged

Syria

satisfaction "

the Rutennu, and

;

"

but

in

exacted

from them, probably on account of the

part which they had taken in the

Hyksos struggle fell upon

;

which he crossed the Euphrates and

after

more powerful nation of the NaTri. The NaTri, attacked by the Assyrians, had twenty-three cities, and as many kings they were rich in horses and mules, and had so large a chariot force that we hear of a hundred and twenty chariots being taken from them in a single battle. At this time the number of the chariots was probably much smaller, for each of the two officers named Ahmes takes great credit to the far

when

first

;

himself on account of the capture of one such vehicle. It is

uncertain whether more than a single battle was

we

are told is, that " His Majesty, Naharina " {i.e. the NaTri country), " encountered the enemy, and organized an attack. His Majesty made a great slaughter of them an immense number of live captives was carried off by His Majesty." These words would apply equally to a single battle and to a series of battles. All that can

fought.

All that

having arrived

in

;

be said

is,

that

Thothmes returned

victorious from his

Rutennu and Egypt a goodly

Asiatic expedition, having defeated the

the NaTri, and brought with booty, and a vast

The

him

into

number of Asiatic prisoners. Thothmes I. was satisfied

warlike ambition of

his Nubian and Asiatic victories. On his return Egypt at the close of his Mesopotamian campaign, he engaged in the peaceful work of adorning and beautifying his capital cities. At Thebes he greatly enlarged the temple of Ammon, begun by Amenem-

by

to

THE FIRST GREAT EGYPTIAN CONQUEROR.

l68

I., and continued under his son, the first Usurtasen. by adding to it the cloistered court in front of the central cell a court two hundred and forty feet long by sixty-two broad, surrounded by a colonnade, of which the supports were Osirid pillars, or square piers with a statue of Osiris in front. This is the first known example of the cloistered court, which became afterwards so common though it is possible that constructions of a similar character may have been made by the " Shepherd Kings " at Tanis. Thothmes also adorned this temple with obelisks. In front of the main entrance to his court he erected two vast

hat



;

monoliths of granite, each of them seventy-five feet height,

and bearing dedicatory

inscriptions,

indicated his piety and his devotion to deities of

all

in

which

the chief

Egypt.

Further, at

Memphis he built a new royal palace, " The Abode of Aa-khepr-ka-ra," a

which he called

grand building, afterwards converted into a magazine for the storage of grain.

The

greatness of

Thothmes I. has scarcely been by historians. It may be true

sufficiently recognized

that he did not effect in

a new direction

grand

results.

To him

to be the isolated,

mained

for

;

much

;

but he broke ground

he set an example which led on to

was due that Egypt ceased unaggressive power that she had reit

perhaps ten centuries, that she came boldly

and aspired to bring Asia into subjection. Henceforth she exercised a potent influence beyond her borders an influence which affected, more or less, to the front



all

the western Asiatic powers.

way

She had forced her

into the comity of the great nations.

Henceforth,

GREATNESS OE THOTHMES whether

it

her place

was

for

good or

among them,

reckoned with

her, to

for evil, she

I.

169

had to take

to reckon with them, as they

be a factor

the ages had to work out

in

the problem which

—What should be the general

march of events, and what states and nations should most affect the destiny of the world.

XL QUEEN HATASU AND HER MERCHANT FLEET. was the daughter of the great Thothmes the First, and, according to during his later years, associated with him

HASHEPS,

or Hatasu,

warrior king,

some,

vyas,

in the

government.

An

inscription

is

quoted

in

which

he assigns to her her throne-name of Ra-ma-ka, and calls her " Queen of the South and of the North." But it was not till after the death of her father that she

came prominently forward, and assumed a position not previously held by any female in Egypt, unless it were Net-akret (Nitocris). Women in Egypt had been, it is

true,

from very early times held

in

high estimation,

were their husbands' companions, not their playthings or their slaves, appeared freely in public, and enjoyed

much

liberty of action.

One

of the ancient mythical

monarchs, of the time before Sneferu,

said to have

is

passed a law permitting them to exercise the sovereign authority.

Manetho

Nitocris

of the

ruled, apparently, as sole

sixth

queen

nefru-ra of the twelfth, the wife of

;

dynasty of and Sabak-

Amenemhat

IV.,

reigned for some years conjointly with her husband.

was intermediate between these. Her father had left behind him two sons, as well as a daughter and the elder of these, according to EgypHatasu's

position

;

HEAD OF TIIOTIlMlb

HF.AD OF HATASU

II.

HATASU AS REGENT FOR THOTHMES

II.

I73

He reigned as Thothmesmoderns as Thothmes the Second. He was, however, a mere youth, of a weak and amiable temper while Hatasu, his senior by some years, was a woman of great energy and of a masculine mind, clever, enterprizing, vindictive, and tian

law, succeeded

nefer-shau,

and

is

him.

known

to

;

The

unscrupulous.

contrast of their portrait busts

remarkable, and gives a

fair

is

indication of the character

Thothmes has the appearance of a and yielding boy: he has a languishing eye, a short upper lip, a sensuous mouth and chin. Hatasu looks the Amazon she holds her head erect, has a bold aquiline nose, a firmly-set mouth, and a chin that

of each of them. soft

:

projects considerably, giving her an indescribable air

of vigour and resolution.

The

effect

doubt, by her having attached to

dage of an this,

artificial

beard

;

it

increased,

is

no

the male appen-

but even

apart

from

her face would be a strong one, expressive of

firmness, pride, and decision. It is thought that she contracted a marriage with her brother, such unions

being admissible by the Egyptian marriage law, and not infrequent among the Pharaohs, whether of the earlier or the later dynasties.

In any case,

it is

certain

that she took the direction of affairs under his reign,

reducing him to a cipher, and making her influence

paramomiL

At

in

every department of the government.

this period of her

life

the ambition of

Queen

hand her name down to posterity as a constructor of buildings. She made many additions to the old temple of Ammon at Karnak and she also built at Medinet Abou, in the vicinity of Thebes, a temple of a more elaborate character than any that Hatasu was

to

;

174

QUEEN HATASU AND HER MERCHANT FLEET.

had preceded it, the remains of which are still standing and have attracted much attention from architects, Egyptian temple-architecture is here seen tentatively making almost its first advances from the simple cell of Usurtasen I. towards that richness of complication and multiplicity of parts which it ulti° mately reached. Pylons, courts, corridors supported by columns, pillared apartments, meet us here in (

their

earliest

germ

while there

;

also indica-

are

which show that the builders were aspiring to go beyond previous models. The temple is cruciform in shape, but the two arms In front, two pylons of of the cross are unequal. moderate dimensions, not exceeding twenty-four feet in height, and built with the usual sloping sides and strongly projecting cornice, guarded a doorway which gave entrance into a court, sixty feet long by thirty broad. At the further end of the court stood a porch, thirty feet long and nine deep, supported by four square stone piers, emplaced at equal distances. The porch led into the cell, a long, narrow chamber of tions of constructive weakness,

extreme plainness, about twenty-five wide, with a

doorway

feet

at either end.

long by nine

At

either side

were corridors, supported, like the porch, by square piers, and roofed in by blocks of stone from nine to ten feet long. These blocks have in some of the

cell

instances

shown signs of giving way and, ;

act the tendency, octagonal

duced

at

the

weak

have been

intro-

points, without regard to exact

regularity or correspondence.

chambers for the number, and on

pillars

to counter-

Behind the cell are which are six in

officiating priests,

either

side

of the porch are also



3r

—_4

zi tzf

,/*U

Q

O

l-3

s i

a

©

a i

]rn GROUND-PLAN OF TEMPLE AT MEDINE T-ABOU.

HATASU ACTUAL QUEEN.

lj?

chambers, forming the arms of the cross, but of un-

That on the left is nearly square, by twelve that on the right is oblong, twenty-seven feet by fifteen, and has needed the support of two pillars internally, which seem, however, to have been part of the original design. This chamber equal dimensions.

about

is

fifteen feet

;

open towards the north-east, terminating

in

a porch

of three square piers.

The

joint reign of

Hatasu and Thothmes

not continue for more than a few years. pected that she engaged

in

did

II. is

sus-

a conspiracy against

him

It

which his participation in the sovereignty exercised upon But there is no her, and was privy to his murder. sufficient evidence to substantiate these charges, which have been somewhat recklessly made. All that distinctly appears is, that Thothmes II. died while he was still extremely young, and when he had reigned only a short time, and that after his death Hatasu showed her hostility to his memory by erasing his name wherever it occurred on the monuments, and in order to

rid

substituting for father.

taken

herself of the small

it

either her

She appears also full

restraint

own name

at the

or that of her

same time

to

have

possession of the throne, and to have been

accepted as actual sovereign of the Egyptian people.

She

calls

divine

herself "

gifts,

The

living

Horus, abounding

in

the mistress of diadems, rich in years, the

golden Horus, goddess of diadems, Queen of Upper

and Lower Egypt, daughter of the Sun, consort ot Amnion, living for ever, and daughter of Ammon, Nor was she content dwelling in his heart." with attributes which made acknowledgment of her

178

QUEEN HATASU AND HER MERCHANT FLEET.

She wished to be regarded as a man, assumed male apparel and an artificial beard, and gave herself on many of her monuments the style and title of a king. Her name of Hatasu she changed into HatasuKhnum-Ammon, thus identifying herself with two of the chief Egyptian gods. She often represented herself as crowned with the tall plumes of Ammon. She took the titles of " son of the sun," " the good god" "lord of the two lands," "beloved of Ammon, the sex.

protector of kings."

some of her

A

curious anomaly appears in

where masculine and femimixed up though spoken of consistently as " the king," and not " the queen," yet the personal and possessive pronouns which refer to her are feminine for the most part, while sometimes inscriptions,

nine forms are inextricably

;

such perplexing expressions occur as "le bien aitnie par

The

Ammon,"

legal position

roi qui est or " His Majesty herself."

which Hatasu occupied during

Thothmes was probably that of regent for Thothmes III., his (and her) younger b'other but practically she was full sovereign of Egypt. It was now that she formed her grand schemes of foreign commerce, and had them carried out by her officers. First of all, she caused to be built, in some harbour on the western the sixteen years that followed the death of II.

;

coast of the

fewer than

Red

five,

Sea, a fleet of ships, certainly not each constructed so as to be propelled

both by oars and

sails,

and each capable of accommo-

dating some sixty or seventy passengers.

Of

these

were the rowers, whose long sweeps were to plough the waves, and bring the vessels into port, whether the wind were favourable or no some ten or

thirty

;

THE FLEET SETS twelve formed the crew of men-at-arms, required,

if

whose

;

SAIL.

l8l

and the remainder consisted it was felt, might be

services,

the native tribes were not sufficiently im-

pressed with the advantages of commercial dealings.

An

expedition then started from Thebes under the conduct of a royal ambassador, who was well furnished with gifts for distribution among the barbarian chiefs,

and instructed to proceed with his fleet down the Red Sea to its mouth, or perhaps even further, and open communications with the land of "Punt," which was in this quarter. " Punt " has been generally identified with Southern Arabia, and it is certainly in favour of this view that the chief object of the expedition was to procure incense and spices, which Arabia is known But among to have produced anciently in profusion. the other products of the land mentioned in the inscriptions of Hatasu, there are several which Arabia could not possibly have furnished and the conjecture has therefore been made that Punt, or at any rate the Punt of this expedition, was not the Arabian peninsula, or any part of it, but the African tract outside the Gulf, known to moderns as "the Somauli counHowever this may have been, it is certain that try." the fleet weighed anchor, and sailed down the Red Sea, borne by favourable winds, which were ascribed to the gracious majesty of Ammon, and reached their ;

destination, *

the

Ta-netcr,

or

"

Holy

abode of Athor," and perhaps the

Ammon

himself

The

— without



Land " the original home of

accident or serious

diffi-

gave them a good reception. They were simple folk, living in rounded huts or cabins, which were perched on floors supported by culty.

natives

182

QUEEN HATASU AND HER MERCHANT FLEET.

piles,

probably on account of the marshiness of the

ground, and which had to be entered by means of

Cocoa-nut palms overshadowed the huts,

ladders.

interspersed

with

incense

trees,

while

them

neai

flowed a copious stream, in which were a great variety of fishes.

The principal chief of the country was a cerwho was married to a wife of an extra-

tain Parihu,

ordinary appearance.

drawn

face

and

short,

HOME BUILT ON

A

dwarf, hunchbacked, with a

deformed

PILES IN

legs,

she can scarcely,

THE LAND OF PUNT

one would think, have been a countrywoman

Queen of Sheba.

01 tne

She belonged, more probably,

to

one of the dwarfish tribes of which Africa has so many, as Dokos, Bosjesmen, and others. The royal couple were delighted with their

made

and with them they

visitors,

the presents which they received from

;

acknowledgment of the suzerainty of the Pharaohs, but at the same time stipulated that the peace and liberty of the land of Punt should be rea sort of

FREE TRADE IN THE LAND OF PUNT. spected by the Egyptians.

was

established.

183

Perfect freedom of trade

The Egyptians had

permission to

enter the incense forests, and either to cut trees for the sake of the resin

down

the

which they exuded, or

them up and convey them to the ships. We the trees, or rather bushes, dug up with as much

to dig

see

earth as possible about their roots, then

slung on

poles and carried to the sea-shore, and finally placed

THE QUEEN OF PUNT,

AS SHE APPEARED AT

THE COURT OF HATASU.

upright upon the ships' decks, and screened from the heat of the sun's rays by an awning. Thirty-one

were thus embarked, with the object of transplanting them to Egypt, where it was hoped that they

trees

might grow and flourish. A large quantity of the resin was also collected and packed in sacks, which were tied at the mouth and piled up upon the decks. Various other products and commodities were likewise brought to the beach by the natives, and exchanged

184

QUEEN HATASU AND HER MERCHANT FLEEt.

which the Egyptians had taken care to The most prized were gold, silver, ivory, ebony and other woods, cassia, kohl or stibium, apes, baboons, dogs, slaves, and leopard skins. The utmost friendliness prevailed during the whole period of the Egyptians' stay in the country and at their departure, a number of the natives, of their own free-will, accompanied them to Egypt. Among these would seem to have been the deformed queen and several chiefs. The return journey to Thebes was effected partly by wayof the Nile. No doubt the sea-going ships sailed back to the harbour from which they had started while the incense trees and other commodities were disembarked, and conveyed across the desert tract which borders the Nile valley towards the east but instead of being brought to Thebes by land they were re-shipped on board a number of large Nile boats, and conveyed down the river to the capital. The day of for those

bring with them in their ships' holds.

;

;

;

was made a grand gala-day. All the went out to meet the returning travellers. There was a grand parade of the household troops, and also the of those which had accompanied the expedition their arrival

city

;

incense trees, the strange animals, the

many

products

tame leopard, a band of natives, called Tamahu, engaged in a sort of shamThe misshapen queen and the fight or war-dance. together with a number of Punt, of the land chiefs of region of Chent-hen-nefer, the from Nubian hunters of the Nile, were concourse which lay far up the of the distant country, were exhibited

;

a

with his negro keeper, followed the soldiers

;

ducted to the presence of Hatasu, offered their homage

REJOICINGS ON THE FLEET to her as she sat

with valuable

they

said, "

"

Homage

to thy countenance,"

Queen of Egypt, Sun beaming

sun-disk, Aten. Arabia's mistress."

then

185

upon her throne, and presented her

gifts.

O

RETURN.

S

made by Hatasu

to the

An

was

offering

Ammon

god

like the

;

a bull was

and two vases of the precious frankincense Sacrifice was likewise made and prayers offered to Athor, " Queen of Punt " and " Mistress of Heaven." The incense trees were finally planted in ground prepared for them, and the day concluded with general festivity and rejoicing. The complete success of so important and difficult sacrificed,

presented to him by the queen herself.

an cnterprize might well please even a great queen. Hatasu, delighted with the vent

it

result,

did her best to pre-

away from human remembrance by new temple to Ammon, and representing At Tel-elexpedition upon its walls.

fading

building a

the entire

Bahiri, in the valley of El-Assasif, near Thebes, she

found a convenient

site for

her

new

structure,

which

she imposed upon four steps, and covered internally

with a series of bas-reliefs, highly coloured, depicting the chief scenes of the expedition. seen, even

ancient

at the

representations of sea-going

world contains

Here are

present day, the ships

in

most

ships that

the

— the crews, the incense-trees, the chiefs

and queen of Punt, the native dwellings, the fish

to be

— the

and Thebes

trees

of the land, the arrival of the expedition at

twelve large boats, the prostration of the native

on the occasion, and the offerings made to the gods. It is seldom that any single event of ancient history is so profusely illustrated as this expedition of Queen Hatasu, which

chiefs before Hatasu, the festival held

186 is

QUEEN HATASU AND HER MERCHANT FLEET.

placed before our eyes

from the gathering of the to the return of those

in

fleet

engaged

all

its

various

phases,

on the Red Sea coast in

it,

in

gladness and

triumph, to Thebes.

After exercising fifteen years,

all

the functions of sovereignty for

during which she kept her royal brother

probably became very galling to Hatasu found herself under the necessity of admitting him to a share in the royal authority, and allowed his name to appear on her monuments in a secondary and subordinate position. About this time she was especially engaged in the ornamentation of the old temple of Ammon at Thebes, begun by Usurtasen I., and much augmented by her father, Thcthmes I. The chief of all her works in this quarter were two obelisks of red granite, or syenite, drawn from the quarries of Elephantine, and set up before the entrance, which her father had made in front of These great works are Usurtasen's construction. unexcelled, in form, colour, and beauty of engraving, by any similar productions of Egyptian art, either They measure nearly a hundred feet earlier or later. in height, and are covered with the most delicately On them Hatasu declares finished hieroglyphics. that she "has made two great obelisks for her father, Ammon, from a heart that is full of love for him." in a subjection that

him,

They

are " of hard granite of the South, each of a

any joining or division." The summit of each, or cap of the pyramidion, is " of pure

single stone, without

gold, taken from the chiefs of nations," so that they "

are seen from a distance of

and Lower Egypt

many

leagues

— Upper

are bathed in their splendour "

(!).

death of hatasU.

187

Hatasu reigned conjointly with Thothmes

for

III.

Their common monuments have been found at Thebes, in the Wady Magharah, and elsewhere. It is not probable that the relations the space of seven years.

of the brother and sister during this period were very cordial.

Hatasu

placed her

still

name

claimed the chief authority, and

before that of her brother on

all

She was, as she has been called, " a bold, ambitious woman," and evidently admitted with reluctance any partner of her greatness. Thothmes III., a man of great ambition and no less public documents.

ability, is in

not likely to have acquiesced very willingly

Whether

the secondary position assigned to him.

he openly rebelled against

it,

broke with Hatasu, and

deprived her of the throne, or even put her to death, is

wholly uncertain.

The monuments

hitherto dis-

covered are absolutely silent as to what became of this great

queen.

She may have died a natural death, who must have wished to

opportunely for her brother, find himself

unshackled

;

or she

may have

been the

victim of a conspiracy within the palace walls. that

we know

is

All

that she disappears from history in

about her fortieth year, and that her brother and successor, the third

Thothmes, actuated by a strong and

settled animosity, caused her far as possible,

from

scarcely one on which

of Egyptian queens

sovereigns



is

all it

name

to be erased, as

her monuments.

remains

intact.

There

The

is

greatest



one of the greatest of Egyptian indebted for the continuance of her

memory among mankind

to

the

accident that the

stonemasons employed by Thothmes to carry out his plan of vengeance were too careless or too idle to

l88

QUEEN IIATASU AND HER MERCHANT FLEET.

effect the actual obliteration of the

everywhere marred with their

name, which they

chisels.

Hatred, for

once, though united with absolute power, missed

its

and Hatasu's great constructions, together with her " Merchant Fleet," are among the indisputable facts of history which can never be forgotten.

aim

;

XII.

THOTHMES THE THIRD AND AMENHOTEP THE SEO

No

>ND.

sooner had Thothmes

III.

burst the leading-

had held him for above twenty years, then he showed the metal of which he was made by at once placing himself at the head of Persuaded that his troops, and marching into Asia. the great god, Ammon, had promised him a long career of victory, he lost no time in setting to work Starting from an to accomplish his glorious destiny. Egyptian post on the Eastern frontier, called Garu or

strings in

which

Zalu, in the

his

month

sister

of February, he took his

march

along the ordinary coast route, and

in a short

reached Gaza, the strong Philistine

city,

already a fortress of repute, and regarded as

key of Syria."

The day

time

which was "

the

of his arrival was the anni-

versary of his coronation, and according to his reckonfirst day of his twenty-third year. Gaza made no resistance: its chief was friendly to the Egyptians, and gladly opened his gates to the invading army.

ing the

Having rested at Gaza no more than a single night, Thothmes resumed his march, and continuing to on the eleventh day town called Jaham, probably Jamnia.

skirt the coast, arrived fied

at a forti-

Here he

THOTHMES

igO

was met by that the

III.

his scouts,

enemy was

AND AMENHOTEP who brought

collected

at

11.

the intelligence

Megiddo, on the

edge of the great plain of Esdraelon, the ordinary battle-field

sisted of

of the

" all

Palestinian nations.

They con-

the people dwelling between the river

Egypt on the one hand and the land of Naharain (Mesopotamia) on the other." At their head was the king of Kadesh, a great city on the upper Orontes, which afterwards became one of the chief seats of the Hittite power, but was at this time in the possession of the Rutennu (Syrians). They were strongly posted at the mouth of a narrow pass, behind the ridge of hills which connects Carmel with the Samaritan upland, and Thothmes was advised by his captains to avoid a direct attack, and march against them by a But the circuitous route, which was undefended. " His intrepid warrior scorned this prudent counsel. generals," he said, " might take the roundabout road, lie would follow the straight one." liked if they The event justified his determination. Megiddo was reached in a week without loss or difficulty, and a of

;

great battle was fought

in

the fertile plain to the

which the Egyptian king was completely victorious, and his enemies were The Syrians must scattered like chaff before him. have fled precipitately at the first attack for they north-west of

the

fortress, in

;

no more than eighty-three, and in prisoners no more than two hundred and forty, or according to another account three hundred and forty, while the chariots taken were nine hundred and lost

in

killed

twenty-four, and the captured horses 2,132.

was near

at

Megiddo

hand, and the bulk of the fugitives would

FIRST SYRIAN CAMPAIGN OF THOTHMES.

igi

Others

may

reach

easily the shelter of

have dispersed themselves Syrian

camp

its

among

walls.

the mountains.

The

was, however, taken, together with vast

and gold, lapis lazuli, turquoise, and and the son of the king of Kadesh fell into Thothmes' hands. Megiddo itself, soon afterwards, surrendered, as did the towns of Inunam, Anaugas, and Hurankal or Herinokol. An immense booty in corn and cattle was also carried off. Thothmes returned to Egypt in triumph, and held a prolonged testival to Ammon-Ra in Thebes, accompanied by numerous sacrifices and offerings. Among treasures in silver

alabaster

the last

;

we

find included three of

the cities taken

from the Rutennu, which were assigned to the god in order that they might "supply a yearly contribution to his sacred food." It is

a familiar saying, that " increase of appetite

doth grow by what

it

feeds on."

Thothmes

certainly

found his appetite for conquest whetted, not satiated,

we may trust M. If by his Syrian campaign. Lenormant, he took the field in the very year that followed his victory of Megiddo, and after traversing the whole of Syria, and ravaging the country about Aleppo, proceeded to Carchemish, the great Hittite

town on the Upper Euphrates, and there crossed the river into Naharai'n, or Mesopotamia, whence he carried off a number of prisoners. Two other campaigns, which cannot be traced in detail, belong to the period between his twenty- fourth and his twentyThenceforward to his fortieth year his ninth year. military expeditions scarcely knew any cessation. At one time he would embark his troops on board a fleet,

THOTHMES

I92

III.

AND AMENHOTEP

II.

and make descents upon the coast of Syria, coming as unexpectedly and ravaging as ruthlessly as the Normans of the Middle Ages. He would cut down the fruit trees, carry off the crops, empty the magazines of grain, lay hands upon all valuables that were readily removable, and carry them on board his ships, returning to Egypt with a goodly store of gold and silver, of lapis lazuli and other precious stones, of vases in silver and in bronze, of corn, wine, incense, balsam, honey, iron, lead, emery, and male and female slaves. At another, he would march by land, besiege and take the inland towns, demand and obtain the sons of the chiefs as hostages, exact heavy war contributions, and bring back with him horses and chariots, flocks and herds, strange animals, trees, and plants.

Of

his

all

expeditions,

that

undertaken

in

his

was perhaps the most remarkable. Starting from the country of the Rutennu, he on this occasion directed the main force of his attack upon the Mesopotamian region, which he ravaged far and wide, conquering the towns, and " reducing to a level

thirty-third year

plain

strong places of

the

Nahara'i'n,"

capturing

thirty

the

miserable land of

kings

or

chiefs,

erecting two tablets in the region, to indicate jection/

It is possible that

its

and sub-

he even crossed the Tigris

Adiabene or the Zab country, since he relates town of Ni or Nini, which many of the best historians of Egypt Nineveh was not now (about identify with Nineveh. B.C. 1500) the capital of Assyria, which was lower down the Tigris, at Asshur or Kileh Shcrghat, but into

that on his return he passed through the

THOTHMES INVADES MESOPOTAMIA.

193

was only a provincial town of some magnitude. Still, it was within the dominions of the Assyrian monarch of the time, and any attack upon it would have been an insult and a challenge to the great power of Upper Mesopotamia, which ruled from the alluvium to the mountains.

It is certain that

the king of Assyria did

not accept the challenge, but preferred to avoid an

encounter with the Egyptian troops. time

and

Both

at

this

subsequently he sent envoys with rich

presents to court the favour of Thothmes,

who

ac-

and counted " the chief of Assuru" among his tributaries. Submission was also made to him at the same time by the " prince of Senkara," a name which still exists in the lower Babylonian marsh region. Among the gifts which this prince sent was " lapis lazuli of Babylon." It is an exaggeration to represent the expedition as having resulted in the conquest of the great empires but it is quite true to say of Assyria and Babylon that it startled and shook those empires, that it filled them with a great fear of what might be coming, and cepted the

gifts as " tribute,"

;

brought Egypt into the position of the principal Assyrian influence military power of the time.

was checked and curtailed. There is reason Egyptian remains found at Arban that Thothmes added to the on the Khabour, Egyptian empire the entire region between the Euphrates and its great eastern affluent a broad tract of valuable territory and occupied it with permanent garrisons. The Assyrian monarch bought off the further hostility of his dangerous neighbour by an especially

to believe, from the 1



1



Layard, " Nineveh and Babylon," pp. 280-282.

THOTHMES

194

embassy which conveyed

annual court of cated. silver

AND AMENHOTEP

III.

Among ?),

silver, silver

these

we

find

enumerated gold and

slaves, chariots

adorned with gold and

dishes and silver beaten out into sheeta

trees,

vines,

and

fig

and sycomore wood,

trees, buffaloes, bulls,

It

lapis lazuli.

by and was personal attendance upon the Egyptian monarch. curious episode of the expedition

Amenemheb, an in

the

vases of Assyrian stone

and a gold habergeon with a border of

A

to

lazuli,

incense, wine, honey, ivory, cedar

mulberry

gifts

the Pharaohs, gifts that were not recipro-

ornaments, lapis

(alabaster

rich

II.

appears that

officer

in

is

who accompanied

the time of

related

it,

Thothmcs

III.

the

elephant haunted the woods and jungles of the Meso-

potamian region, as he now does those of the peninThe huge unwieldy beasts were sula of Hindustan. especially abundant in the neighbourhood of Ni or Nini, the country between the middle Tigris and the Zagros range. As Amenemhat I. had delighted in the chase of the lion and the crocodile, so Thothmes III, no sooner found a number of elephants within his reach than he proceeded to hunt and kill them, mainly no doubt for the sport, but partly in order to No fewer than a hundred and obtain their tusks. twenty are said to have been killed or taken. On one occasion, however, the monarch ran a great risk. He was engaged in the pursuit of a herd, when the "rogue," or leading elephant, turned and made a rush at the royal sportsman, who would probably have fallen a victim, gored by a tusk or trampled to death under the huge beast's feet, had not Amenemheb hastened to the rescue, and by wounding the creature's

FURTHER WARS IN SYRIA AND MESOPOTAMIA. trunk

was

drawn

its

then, after

rage

upon

The

himself.

I95

brute

a short struggle, overpowered and

captured.

Further expeditions were led by Thothmes into Asia in his thirty-fourth, thirty-fifth, thirty-eighth, thirty-

and forty-second years but in none of them does he seem to have outdone the exploits The brunt of the great campaign of the year 55. of his attacks at this time fell upon the Zahi, or Tahai, of northern Phoenicia, and upon the Na'iri of the Mesopotamia!! region, who continually rebelled, and had to be reconquered. The Rutennu seem for the most paVt to have paid their tribute without reThis may have sistance and without much difficulty. been partly owing to the judicious system which Thothmes had established among them, whereby each chief was forced to give a son or brother as hostage for his good behaviour, and if the hostage It was certainly died to send another in his place. not because the tribute was light, since it consisted ninth, fortieth,

of a

number of

;

slaves, silver vases of the

weight of

276 head of cattle, hundredweight of iron and lead, 1,622 goats, several " all kinds of good a number of suits of armour, and plants." The Rutennu had also to supply the stations along the military road, whereby Thothmes kept up the communications between Egypt and Mesopopotamia, with bread, wine, dates, incense, honey, and

762 pounds, nineteen

chariots,

figs.

While thus engaged in enlarging the limits of his empire towards the north and the north-east, the careful monarch did not allow the regions brought under

!

THOTHMES

ig6

III.

AND AMENHOTEP

II.

Egyptian influence by former rulers to escape him. took a tribute of gold, spices, male and female slaves, cattle, ivory, ebony, and panther skins from the land of Punt, of cattle and slaves from Cush, and ot Altogether he the same products from the Uauat. is said to have carried off from the subject countries above 11,000 captives, 1,670 chariots, 3,639 horses,

He

4,491

of the larger cattle, more than 35,000 goats,

amount of 3,940 pounds, and gold to the amount of 9,054 pounds. He also conveyed to Egypt from the conquered lands enormous quantities of corn and wine, together with incense, balsam, honey, ivory, ebony and other rare woods, lapis lazuli, fursilver to the

niture, statues, vases, dishes, basins, tent-poles,

habergeons,

fruit

trees,

live

birds,

bows,

and monkeys

a curiosity which was insatiable, he noted all was strange or unusual in the lands which he visited, and sought to introduce the various novelties

With that

into his

own proper

country.

Two unknown

kinds

of birds, and a variety of the goose, which he found

Mesopotamia, and transported from the valley of the Khabour to that of the Nile, are said to have His been "dearer to the king than anything else." artists had instructions to make careful studies of the different objects, and to represent them faithfully on We see on these " water-lilies as his monuments. high as trees, plants of a growth like cactuses, all sorts of trees and shrubs, leaves, flowers, and fruits, including melons and pomegranates oxen and calves also figure, and among them a wonderful animal with three horns. There are likewise herons, sparrow-hawks, geese, and doves. All these objects in

;

AVAL POWER OF THOTHMES.

197

Iff

appear gaily intermixed

the pictures, as suited the

in

simple childlike conception of the

artist."

"

scription tells the intention of the monarch. it

runs, " are all sorts of plants

and

all

An

z

in-

Here,"

sorts of flowers

Holy Land, which the king discovered when he went to the land of Ruten to conquer it. Thus says the king I swear by the sun, and I call to of the



witness

my

there

no trace of deception

What

is

father

Ammon,

I

all

in that

brings forth

the splendid soil

productions,

that

have had portrayed

in

is

in

as a memorial for

Besides

his

all

I

way

the

to

my

it

of

father

times."

army, Thothmes also maintained

naval force, and used

;

relate.

these pictures,

with the intention of offering them

Ammon,

plain truth

which

a

largely in his expeditions.

According to one writer, he placed a fleet on the Euphrates, and in an action which took place with the Assyrians, defeated and chased the enemy for a disHe certainly tance of between seven and eight miles. upon some occasions made his attacks on Syria and nor is it improbable that Phoenicia from the sea his maritime forces reduced Cyprus (which was conquered and held in a much less flourishing period by Amasis) and plundered the coast of Cilicia but a judicious criticism will scarcely extend the voyages of his fleet, as has been done by another writer, to Crete, and the islands of the ALgean, the sea-boards of Greece and Asia Minor, the southern coast of Italy, There is no Algeria, and the waters of the Euxine ;

;

!

evidence

in

any such far-reaching expeditions. 1

Thothmes of The supposed

the historical inscriptions of

Brugsch, " History of Egypt,"

vol.

i.

pp. 367, 368.

;

;

THOTHMES

I98

evidence for them

III.

;;

AND AMENHOTEP

II.

song of victory, put into the mouth of the god, Ammon, and inscribed on one of The song the walls of the great temple of Karnak. is

interesting, but

that have been

is

it

in a

scarcely bears out the deductions

drawn from

it,

as will appear from the

subjoined translation.

(Ammon I I

I

Thou I

loquitur.)

came, and thou smotest the princes of Zahi scattered them under thy feet over all their lands made them regard thy Holiness as the blazing sun shinest in sight of

them

in

my

;

form.

came, and thou smotest them that dwell in Asia

°,

Thou tookest captive the goat-herds of Ruten I made them behold thy Holiness in thy royal adornments, As thou graspest thy weapons in the war-chariot. ;

I

came, and thou smotest the land of the East

;

Thou marchedst against the dwellers in the Holy Land I made them behold thy Holiness as the star Canopus, Which sends forth its heat and disperses the dew.

;

came, and thou smotest the land of the West Kefa and Asebi (i.e. Phoenicia and Cyprus) held thee in fear I made them look upon thy Holiness as a young bull, Courageous, with sharp horns, which none can approach. I

1

came, and thou smotest the subjects of their lords

The land of Mathen trembled for fear of thee ; I made them look upon thy Holiness as upon

a crocodile.

Terrible in the waters, not to be encountered. I

came, and thou smotest them that dwelt

in the

Great Sea

The inhabitants of the isles were afraid of thy war-cry I made them behold thy Holiness as the Avenger,

Who

shews himself

at the

;

back of his victim.

I came, and thou smotest the land of the Tahennu % The people of Uten submitted themselves to thy power I made them see thy Holiness as a lion, fierce of eye,

Who

leaves his den and stalks through the valleys.

;



J

;

Great buildings of thothmes. I came, and thou smotest the hinder

[i.e.

northern) lands

199 ;

The circuit of the Great Sea is bound in thy grasp I made them behold thy Holiness as the hovering hawk, Which seizes with his glance whatever pleases him. ;

I

came, and thou smotest the lands in front that sat upon the sand thou carriedst away captive; made them behold thy Holiness like the jackal of the South,

Those I

Which

(

passes through the lands as a hidden wanderer.

came, and thou smotest the nomad tribes of Nubia, Even to the land of Shut, which thou boldest in thy grasp ; I made them behold thy Holiness like thy pair of brothers, I

Whose hands It is

mes

I

have united to give thee power. 1

impossible to conclude this sketch of Thoth-

III.

without some notice of his buildings.

He

was the greatest of Egyptian conquerors, but he was also one of the greatest of Egyptian builders and patrons of art. The grand temple of Ammon at Thebes was the especial object of his fostering care and he began his career of builder and restorer by repairs and restorations, which much improved and ;

Before the southern propylaea

beautified that edifice.

he re-erected,

in

the

year of his independent

first

Thothmes I., and Amenhotep, which had been thrown the troublous time succeeding Thothmes the

reign, colossal statues of his father, his

grandfather,

down

in

First's

death.

central

He

sanctuary,

proceeded

then the

had probably begun

to

rebuild

work of Usurtasen

to decay,

I.,

the

which

and, recognizing

its

importance as the very penetrale of the temple, he reconstruct

resolved

to

common

stone, that he

1

it

in

granite,

might render

Brugsch, " History of Egypt "

(first

it,

ed., 1879), vol.

instead

of

practically, i.

pp. 371, 372.

THOTHMES

200

III.

AND AMENHUTEP

II.

With a reverence and a self-restrain/ might be wished restorers possessed more commonly, he preserved all the lines and dimensions of the ancient building, merely reproducing in a better imperishable.

that

it

material the

work of

accomplished

his great predecessor.

this pious task,

Having

he gave a vent to

his

constructive ambition by a grand addition to the temple

on

its

Behind the

eastern side.

cell,

at the distance of

he erected a magnichamber, of dimensions prepillared ficent hall, or elsewhere in the world viously unknown in Egypt, or about a hundred and

at the time

fifty feet,

— an oblong square, one hundred and forty-

three feet long

by

fifty-three feet wide, or nearly half

as large again as the nave of Canterbury Cathedral.

The whole

was roofed in with slabs was divided in its longest direction into five avenues or vistas by means of rows of pillars and piers, the former being towards the centre, and of the apartment

of solid stone

;

it

attaining a height of thirty feet, with bell capitals,

and the latter towards the sides, with a height of twenty feet. This arrangement enabled the building

by means of a clerestory, in the manner shown by the accompanying woodcut. In connection

to be lighted

with this noble

hall,

on three sides of

eastwards, and southwards, Thothmes

it,

northwards,

further erected

chambers and corridors, partly open, partly supported by pillars, which might form convenient store-chambers for the vestments of the priests and the offerings of the people.

Thothmes

also

added propylaea to the temple on

the south, and erected in front of the grand entrance

—which

was

(as

usual) between the pylons of the

PILLARED HALL AND OBELISKS.

20I

propylaea, two or perhaps four great obelisks, one of which exists to the present day, and is the largest and most magnificent of all such monuments now extant. It

stands

at

Rome, and has

in front

of the Church of

John Lateran

St.

a height of a hundred and five

feet,

exclusive of the base, with a width diminishing from nine feet six inches to eight feet seven inches. It is

estimated to weigh above four hundred and and is covered with well-cut hieroglyphics.

fifty tons,

obelisk approaches within twelve feet of

elevation,

or within

fifty

tons of

believe an inscription of

its

weight.

Yet,

the pair of obelisks whereof this

III.

spot,

AT KARNAK.

another

his propylaea,

other

we may

was one shrank

insignificance in comparison with

before

if

Thothmes, found on the

SECTION OF PILLARED HALL OF THOTHMES

placed by him

No

its

into

pair, also

the height

of

which was one hundred and eight cubits, or one hundred and sixty-two feet, and their weight consequently from seven hundred to eight hundred tons As no trace has been found of these monsters, and as it seems almost impossible that they should have been removed, and highly improbable that they could have been broken up without leaving some indication of their existence, perhaps we may conclude that they were designed rather than executed, and that the !

THOTHMES

202

III.

AND AMENHOTEP

It.

was set up in anticipation of an achievement contemplated but never effected. Other erections of the Great Thothmes are the enclosure of the famous Temple of the Sun at Heliopolis, the temple of Phthah at Thebes, the small temple inscription

Medinet-Abou, a temple to Kneph adorned with and monuments erected at Ombos, Esneh, Abydos, Coptos, Denderah, Eileithyia, Hermonthis, and Memphis in Egypt, and at Amada, Corte, Talmis, Pselcis, Semneh, Koummeh, and Napata in Nubia. Exten-

at

obelisks at Elephantine, and a series of temples

sive

ruins

of

particularly at

many of these buildings still remain, Koummeh, Semneh, Napata, Denderah,

Altogether, Thothmes III. is proand Ombos. nounced to have left behind him more monuments than any other Pharaoh excepting Rameses II., and though occasionally showing himself, as a builder, somewhat capricious and whimsical, still, on the whole, to have worked in a pure style and proved that he was not deficient in good taste. 1 It has happened, moreover, by a curious train of circumstances, that

Thothmes

III.

is,

of

all

the

Pharaohs, the one whose great works are most widely

and display Egyptian skill and taste to the and in the most important cities, of the modern world. Rome, as we have seen, possesses his grandest obelisk, which is at the same time diffused,

largest populations,

the greatest of

all

extant monoliths.

The

millions

who have flocked to Rome in all ages have learnt the lesson of Egyptian greatness from the monument erected before the Church of St. John Lateran. 1

Wilkinson

in

Rawlinson's " Herodotus,"

vol.

ii.

p. 302.

Con-

THOTHMES COMPARED TO ALEXANDER. stantinople holds an obelisk of is

Thothmes

III.,

placed in the middle of the Atmeidan.

203

which

London

its embankment, half-way between St. and the Palace and Abbey of Westminster, another obelisk of the same monarch, erected originally at Heliopolis, thence removed to Alexandria by Augustus, and now adorning the banks of the Thames, nearly in the centre of the most populous city that the world has ever seen. The companion

has put on Paul's

monument,

after having, similarly, stood at Heliopolis

for

centuries,

fifteen

and then

at

Alexandria

eighteen, has crossed the Atlantic Ocean, and

for

now

teaches the million residents, and the tens of thou-

sands of

visitors,

of

New York

what great things

could be done by the Egyptian engineers and artists of the time of the eighteenth dynasty.

Thothmes III. has been called "the Alexander of Egyptian history." The phrase is at once exaggerated and misleading. It is exaggerated as applied for, though beyond a doubt to his military ability this monarch was by far the greatest of Egyptian conquerors, and possessed considerable military talent, much personal bravery, and an energy that has seldom been exceeded, yet, on the other hand, his task was trivial as compared with that of the Macedonian general, and his achievements insignificant. Instead of plunging with a small force into the midst of populous countries, and contending with armies ten or twenty times as numerous as his own, defeating them, and utterly subduing a vast empire, Thothmes marched at the head of a numerous disciplined army into thinly peopled regions, governed by petty chiefs ;

THOTHMES

204

AND AMENHOTEP

III.

It.

jealous one of another, fought scarcely a single great

and succeeded in conquering two regions of a moderate size, Syria and Upper Mesopotamia, as far Alexander overran and subas the Khabour river. dued the entire tract between the ^Egean and the Sutlej, the Persian Gulf and the Oxus. He conquered and founded a dynasty there Egypt, which endured Thothmes subdued not a for nearly three centuries. tenth part of the space, and the empire which he established did not endure for much more than a century. It is thus absurd to compare Thothmes III. to Alexander the Great as a conqueror. Alexander was, besides, much more than a conqueror he was a first-rate administrator. Had he lived twenty years longer he would probably have built up a universal monarchy, which might have As it was, he so organized lasted for a millenium. battle,

;

the East that

it

continued for nearly three centuries

mainly under Greek

who

are

known

rule, in the "

as his

hands of the monarchs

successors."

on the contrary, organized nothing. quests in such a condition that they,

Thothmes

He all

left his

III.,

con-

of them, re-

His successor had to reconquer had submitted to his father, and to re-establish over them the Egyptian sove-

volted at his death. all

the countries that

reignty.

In person the great

remarkable.

what

He had

Egyptian monarch was not

a long, well-shaped, and some-

delicate nose, which

was almost

in line

with his

forehead, an eye prominent and larger than that of

most Egyptians, a shortish upper lip, a resolute mouth with rather over-full lips, and a rounded, slightly

PERSONAL APPEARANCE OF THOTIIMES. The expression

retreating chin. is

205

of his portrait statues

grave and serious, but lacks strength and determi-

something about the whole womanish, though his character certainly presents no appearance of effemination.

Indeed, there

countenance that

nacy.

He

died

according to his

is

is

a

after

own

little

a

reign

of fifty-four years,

reckoning, having practically

BUST OF THOTHMES

III.

exercised the sovereign power for about thirty-two of the fifty-four.

His age

at

his

death must have

been about sixty.

During these

stirring times,

We

what were the children

have supposed that Joseph was minister of the last of the Shepherd Kings, under whose reign his people had entered upon the peaceful of Israel doing?

THOTHMES

206

III.

AND AMENHOTEP

II.

occupation of the land of Goshen, where they were received with hospitality

by

a population of the

same

and it seems probable that, under Thothmes III., they were increasing abundantly and waxing mighty, and that the land between the Sebennytic and Pelusiac branches of the Nile was gradually being filled by them. Their there period of severe oppression had not yet begun had as yet arisen no sufficient reason for any measures of repression, such as were pursued by the new king who " knew not Joseph." The name and renown of the great minister seems still to have protected his kinsmen in the peaceful enjoyment of their privileges in the land that must by this time have lost for them most of its strangeness. Thothmes III. was succeeded by his son, Amenhotep, whom historians commonly term Amenophis This king was a warrior like his father, the Second. simple pastoral habits with themselves

;

;

and succeeded

in reducing,

much

without

difficulty,

the various nations that had thrown off the authority of

Egypt on receiving the news of

his father's death.

He

even carried his arms, according to some, as far as Nineveh, which he claims to have besieged and taken he does not, however, mention the Assyrians ;

as his opponents.

His contests were with the

Na'i'ri,

the Rutennu, and the Shasu (Arabs) in Asia, with the

Tahennu (Libyans) and Nubians

in

Africa.

On

arms but he stained the fair fame that his victories would have otherwise secured him by barbarous practices, and cruel all

sides victory

crowned

his

;

He tells us that at and unnecessary bloodshed. killed seven kings with he northern Syria in Takhisa

CRUELTIES OF AMENHOTEP. his

own hand, and he

represents himself

destroying them with his war-club, not battle, but after

20J

in

the act of

the heat of

in

they have been taken prisoners.

He

further adds that, after killing them, he suspended their bodies

from the prow of the vessel

in

which he

returned to Egypt, and brought them, as trophies of victory, to Thebes,

where he hung six of the seven

outside the walls of the city, as the Philistines

hung

the bodies of Saul and Jonathan on the wall of Bethshan (i Sam. xxxi. 10, 12) while he had the seventh conveyed to Napata in Nubia, and there similarly exposed, to terrify his enemies in that quarter. It has been said of the Russians not perhaps without some justice " Grattez le Russe et vous trouverez le ;





Tartare

" ;

with

far

greater reason

may we

say of the

ancient Egyptians, that, notwithstanding the veneer

of civilization which they for the most part present to

our observation, there was

in their nature,

even at the

best of times, an underlying ingrained barbarism which

could not be concealed, but was continually showing itself.

Amenophis

II.

his seventh year

appears to have had a short reign is

the

last

;

noted upon his monu-

As a builder he was unenterprizing. One temple at Amada, one hall at Thebes, and his tomb at Abd-el-Qurnah, form almost the whole of his known constructions. None of them is remarkable. Egypt ments.

under

his

sway had a

brief rest before she braced her-

self to fresh efforts, military

and

architectural.

XIII.

AMENHOTEP

III.

AND HIS GREAT WORKS VOCAL MEMNON.

THE

The

fame of Amen-hotep the Third, the grandson of the great Thothmes, rests especially upon his Twin Colossi, the grandest,

if

not actually the largest, that

Imagine sitting figures, formed of a single solid block of sandstone, which have sat on for above three thousand years, mouldering gradually away under the influence of time and weather changes, yet which are still more than sixty feet high, and must originally, when they wore the tall crown of an Egyptian king, have reached very the world has ever beheld.

nearly the height of seventy feet vast, colossal, of

much of

as ten or

Pitt,

Jupiter.

or

twenty

Phidias's

What,

We

!

think a statue

magnificent dimensions,

then,

feet

high

if it

be as

— as Chantrey's statue

chryselephantine

must these

be,

statue

of

which are of a

Let us hear how they impress an eye-witness of world-wide experience. " There they sit," says Harriet Martineau, " together, yet size so vastly greater

?

and vigilant, keeping their untired watch over the lapse of

apart, in the midst of the plain, serene still

ages and the eclipse of Europe.

I

can never believe

that anything else so majestic as this pair has been

TWIN COLOSSI OP AMEM10TEP conceived of by the imagination of certainly,

ably

even

in nature,

ever affected

no thunderstorms

;

my

in

211

III.

Nothing

art.

me

so unspeak-

nor any

childhood,

aspect of Niagara, or the great lakes of America, or the Alps, or the Desert, in pair, sitting

my

To-day,

us every day. to

.

.

The

.

grew more striking

islands of ruins behind them,

up

later years.

alone amid the expanse of verdure, with

them from

for the first time,

to

we looked

The impression of subwhen seen from confirmed by a nearer approach.

their base.

lime tranquillity which they convey points,

distant

is



keeping watch hands on knees, gazing seeming, though so much of the straight forward

There they

sit,

;

face

gone, to be looking over to the

is

monumental

which became gorgeous temples, after these throne-seats were placed here the most immovable thrones that have ever piles

on the other side of the

river,



"

been established on this earth

The

:

!

design of erecting two such colossi must be

attributed to the

monarch

himself,

and we must

esti-

mate, from the magnificence of the design, the gran-

deur of his thoughts and the wonderful depth of his artistic

imagination

genius to express

in

;

but the

skill

to execute, the

stone such dignity, majesty, and

repose as the statues possess, belongs to the first-rate sculptor,

who turned

by the masons

in

the rough blocks of stone,

hewn

a distant quarry, into the glorious

down upon the plain for so The sculptors of Egyptian works are, in general, unknown but, by good fortune, in this particular case, the name of the artist has remained on statues that have looked

many

ages.

;

1

" Eastern Life,"

vol.

i.

pp. 84, 289.

— 212

AMENHOTEP

III.

AND HIS GREAT WORKS.

and he has himself given us an account of them set up in the places where they still remain. The sculptor, who record,

the feelings with which he saw

bore the same

name

as his royal master,

hotep or Amen-hept, declares

in

i.e.

Amen-

the exultation of his

" I immortalized the name of the king, and no one has done the like of me in my works. I executed two portrait-statues of the king, astonishing for their breadth and height their completed form dwarfed the temple tower forty cubits was their measure they were cut in the splnndid sandstone mountain on either side, the eastern and the western. I caused to be built eight ships, whereon the statues were carried up the river they were emplaced in their sublime temple they will last as long as heaven. A joyful event was it when they were landed at Thebes and raised up in their place." A peculiar and curious interest attaches to one the more eastern of the two statues. It was known to the Romans of the early empire as " The Vocal Memnon," and formed one of the chief attractions which drew travellers to Egypt, from the fact, which is quite indisputable, that at that time, for two centuries or perhaps more, it emitted in the early morning a musical sound, which was regarded as a sort of standing miracle. The fact is mentioned by Strabo,

heart

:

;



;

;

;



Pliny the elder, Pausanias, Tacitus, Juvenal, Lucian, Philostratus,

and

others,

and

is

recorded by a

number

of ear- witnesses on the lower part of the colossus

which

itself

may

be seen at the present day. Amenhotep, identified by the idle fancy of some Greek

in inscriptions

or

Roman

scholar with the

Memnon

of Homer, son

THE VOCAL MEM N ON.

213

The Dawn, who led an army of

of Tithonus and

Ethiopians to the assistance of Priam of Troy against the Greeks, was regarded as a god, and to hear the sound was not only to witness a miracle, but to receive an assurance of the god's favourable regard.



For the statue did not emit a sound the god did not every day. Sometimes travellers had to depart disappointed altogether, sometimes they had to make speak



a second, a third, or a fourth

visit

before hearing the

was a frequent phenomenon and a common soldier has recorded the fact on the base of the statue, that he heard it no fewer than thirBut

desired voice.

still it

;

The origin of the sound, the time when began to be heard, and the circumstances under which it ceased, are all more or less doubtful. Some teen times. it

of those exceedingly clever persons

who

find priest-

sound was and explain the satisfaction by "the jug-

craft everywhere, think that the musical

the effect

human

of

whole matter glery of the

contrivance,

to their entire priests."

The

priests

either found

naturally vocal piece of rock, and intentionally

the statue out of

it

;

a

made

or they cunningly introduced a

pipe into the interior of the figure, by which they

could

make

musical notes issue from the

their pleasure.

It

is

against

this

mouth

view that

in

at

the

palmy days of the Egyptian hierarchy, the vocal character of the statue was entirely unknown we ;

have no evidence of the sound having been heard earlier than the time of Strabo (B.C. 25-10), when

Egypt was in the possession of the Romans, and the had little influence. Moreover, the theory is disproved by the fact that, during the two centuries of priests

— AMENHOTEP

214

AND HIS GREAT WORKS.

III.

the continuance of the marvel, there were occasions

when Memnon was

obstinately silent, though the must have been most anxious that he should speak, while there were others when he spoke freely, though they must have been perfectly indifferent. The wife of a prefect of Egypt made two visits to the spot to no purpose and the Empress Sabina, wife of the Emperor Hadrian, was, on her first visit, also disappriests

;

pointed,

so

"

that

her

venerable features were

On the common Roman

in-

flamed with anger."

other hand, as already

mentioned, a

soldier heard the

sound

thirteen times.

With respect to the time when, and the circumstances under which, the phenomenon first showed itself, all that can be said

the fact

is

is,

that the earliest literary witness to

Strabo (about

B.C. 25)

;

that the earliest of the

inscriptions on the base that can be dated belongs to

the reign of Nero, and that

it is

at least questionable

whether the sound ever issued from the stone before B.C. 27. In that year there was an earthquake which wrought great havoc at Thebes and it is an acute ;

was this earthquake which at once shattered the upper part of the colossus, and so affected the remainder of the block of stone that it became vocal then for the first time. For centuries the figure remained a torso, and it was while a torso suggestion, that

that

it

it

emitted the musical tone " Dimidio magicse resonabant

Memnone

chordae."

After a long interval of years, probably about 174, that

which

is

restoration

of the

monument took

to be seen to the present day.

A.D,

place

Five blocks

5

THE VOCAL MEMNON.

21

of stone, rudely shaped into a form like that of the

unharmed

colossus, were emplaced upon the torso, which was thus reconstructed. The intention was to do Memnon honour but the effect was to strike him dumb. The peculiar condition of the stone, which the earthquake had superinduced, and which made it vocal, being changed by the new arrangement, the sound ceased, and has been heard no more. ;

It is

a fact well

present

day,

forth both

known

to scientific persons at the

musical sounds are often

that

given

by natural rocks and by quarried masses

consequence of a sudden change of temBaron Humboldt, writing on the banks of the Oronooko, says " The granite rock on which we lay is one of those where travellers have heard from time to time, towards sunrise, subterraneous sounds, of stone,

in

perature.

:

resembling those of the organ. these stones loxas de musica.

our young Indian

phenomenon

pilot.

.

.

that seems to

*

The

missionaries call

It

witchcraft,' said

is

But the existence of a depend on a certain state .

of the atmosphere cannot be denied.

rock are

full

The

shelves of

of very narrow and deep crevices.

are heated during the day to about 50°

I

their temperature during the night at 39

They

often found It

.

may

easily be conceived that the difference of temperature

between the subterraneous and the external air would its maximum about sunrise." Analogous phe-

attain

nomena occur among

the

sandstone rocks of

El

Arabia Petraea, near Mount Maladetta in the Pyrenees, and (perhaps) in the desert between Palestine and Egypt. "On the fifth day of my journey," says the accomplished author of Eothen,'

Nakous,

in

'



;

AMENHOTEP

2 lb

III.

AND HIS GREAT WORKS.

fiercer, ... as I drooped head under his fire, and closed my eyes against the glare that surrounded me, I slowly fell asleep— for how many minutes or moments I cannot tell

"

the sun growing fiercer and

my

but after a while

church bells

I

was gently awakened by a peal of

— my native

bells

— the

innocent bells of

Marlen that never before sent forth their music beyond My first idea naturally was that the Blagdon hills I I still remained fast under the power of a dream. roused myself, and drew aside the silk that covered my eyes, and plunged my bare face into the light. Then at least I was well enough awakened, but still those old Marlen bells rang on, not ringing for joy, !

but properly, prosily, steadily, merrily

After

church.'

a-

while the sound died

ringing

away

'

for

slowly

it happened that neither I nor any of my party had a watch to measure the exact time of its lasting but it seemed to me that about ten minutes had passed be;

fore the bells ceased."

*

The

gifted writer proceeds

to give a metaphysical explanation of the

but

it

may

phenomena;

be questioned whether he did not hear

by the rocks that lay beneath the sands over which he was moving. actual musical sounds, emitted

And

similar

stones that sent

sounds have been heard when the

them

forth

were quarried blocks, no

by human and employed in architecture. Three members of the French Expedition, MM. Jomard, Jollois, and Devilliers, were together in the granite cell which forms the centre of the palace-temple of Karnak, when, according to their own account, they "heard a

longer

in

a state of nature, but shaped

tools,

Kinglake, "Eothen,"pp. i3S, 189.

— AMENHOTEP'S PALACE-TEMPLES. sound, resembling that of a chord

2IJ

breaking, issue

Exactly the same com-

from the blocks at sunrise."

parison is employed by Pausanias to describe the sound that issued from " the vocal Memnon."

On

the whole,

qualities

we may conclude

that the musical

unknown monument and To them, in its

of his remarkable colossus were

alike to the artist

to the king

who

whom

sculptured the represented.

it

purpose and

object,

wholly to the

sister art of Architecture.

sat at

it

belonged, not to Music, but

"The

Pair"

one extremity of an avenue leading to one

the great palace-temples reared by a palace-temple stone, " a little

which

is

roughness

now in

Amenhotep

of

III.

a mere heap of sand-

The

the plain."

design

of the king was, that this grand edifice should be ap-

proached by a dramas, or paved way, eleven hundred feet long, which should be flanked on either side by nine similar statues, placed at regular intervals along the road, and

all

representing himself.

The egotism

monarch may perhaps be excused on account of the grandeur of his idea, which we nowhere else

of the

find repeated,

avenues of sphinxes being

Egypt, and avenues of sitting not

unknown

human

common

in

life-size figures

to Greece, but the history of art con-

taining no other instance of an avenue of colossi.

Another of Amenhotep's palace-temples has been unkindly treated by fortune than the one just mentioned. The temple of Luxor, or El-Uksur, on the eastern bank of the river, about a mile and a half to the south of the great temple of Karnak, is a magnificent edifice to this day and though some portions of it, and some of its most remarkable less

;

AMENHOTEP

2l8

features, is,

III.

AND HIS GREAT WORKS.

must be assigned

Rameses

to

II.,

yet

still it

the main, a construction of Amenhotep's, and

in

must be regarded as being, even if it stood alone, proof of his eminence as a builder. The length of the entire building is about eight hundred feet, the breadth varying from about one hundred Its general arrangement comfeet to two hundred. prised, first, a great court, at a di/ferent angle from the rest, being turned so as to face Karnak. In front of this stood two colossal statues of the founder, together with two obelisks, one of which has been removed to France, and now adorns the Becentre .of the Place de la Concorde at Paris. hind this was a great pillared hall, of which only the two central ranges of columns are now standing. Still further back were smaller halls and numerous apartments, evidently meant for the king's residence, rather than for a temple or place exclusively devoted to worship. The building is remarkable for its marked sufficient

affectation of irregularity.

"

Not only

is

siderable angle in the direction of the

there a con-

axis of the

building, but the angles of the courtyards are hardly

ever right angles

;

the pillars are variously spaced, and

pains seem to have been gratuitously taken to it

make

as irregular as possible in nearly every respect."

Besides this grand

edifice,

Amenhotep

built

"

two

Ammon and Maut, embellished Ammon there with a new propylon,

temples at Karnak to the old temple of raised temples to

and in

Kneph, or Khnum,

built a shrine to contain his

at

Elephantine

own image

at

Soleb

Nubia, another shrine at Napata, and a third at 1

Fergusson, "

Handbook

of Architecture," vol.

i.

p. 234.

WARS OF AMENHOTEP

He

Sedinga.

left

traces

2ig

III.

of himself at

Semneh,

in

the island of Konosso, on the rocks between Philae

and Assouan, at El-Kaab, at Toora near Memphis, at Silsilis, and at Sarabit-el-Khadim in the Sinaitic Me was, as M. Lenormant remarks, " un peninsula. The scale and prince essentiellement batisseur." number of his works are such as to indicate unremitting attention to sculpture and building during the entire duration of his long reign of thirty-six years.

On

the other hand, as a general he gained

He

distinction.

over Syria and

maintained,

indeed,

the

Western Mesopotamia,

little

dominion which had

been established by Thothmes III., and his cartouche has been found at Arban on the Khabour but there is no appearance of his having made any additional ;

conquests

brought

in

this

quarter.

The

their tribute regularly,

subjected peoples

and the neighbouring

whether Hittites, Assyrians, or Babylonians, gave him no trouble. The dominion of Egypt over Western Asia had become " an accomplished fact," nations,

and was generally recognized by the old native kingdoms. It did not extend, however, beyond Taurus and Niphates towards the north, or beyond the Khabour eastward or southward, but remained fixed within the limits which it had attained under the Third Thothmes. The only quarter in which Amenhotep warred was towards Ethiopia. He conducted in person several expeditions up the valley of the Nile, against the negro tribes of the Soudan. But these attacks were not so much wars as raids, or razzias. They were not made with the object of advancing the

— 220

AMENHOTEP

Egyptian

frontier,

influence,

but

AND HIS GREAT WORKS.

III.

or even of

partly

for

the

extending Egyptian glorification

of

the

monarch, who thus obtained at a cheap rate the credit probably mainly of military successes, and partly for the material gain which resulted from them through



the capture of highly valuable races have always

been

purpose, and were in great

slaves.

especially

The black

sought for this

demand

in the Egyptian were pleased to have for their attendants negro boys, whom they dressed in a fanciful manner; and the court probably indulged in a

slave-market

:

ladies of rank

Amenhotep's aim was certainly rather kill. In one of his most successful raids the slain were only three hundred and twelve, while the captives consisted of two hundred and five men, two hundred and fifty women, and two hundred and eighty-five children, or a total of seven hundred and forty and the proportion in the others was similar. The trade of slave hunting was so lucrative

similar taste.

to capture than to

;

that even a Great tion of

King could not

having a share

resist

the tempta-

in its profits.

When Amenhotep

was not engaged in hunting men was to indulge in the chase of the lion. On one of his scarabsei he states that between his first and his tenth year he slew with his own hand one hundred and ten of these ferocious beasts. Later on in his reign he presented to the priests who had his favourite recreation

:he

charge of the ancient temple of Karnak a number

)f live

which he had probably caught in traps. was an emblem both of Horus and of Turn,

lions,

The

lion

ind

may, when tamed, have been assigned a part in is uncertain what was Amen-

eligious processions. It

HIS LION-HUNTING.

221

but the large number of his makes it probable that the scene of his exploits was Mesopotamia rather than any tract bordering on Egypt since lions have always been scarce animals in North-Eastern Africa, but abounded in Mesopohotep's hunting-ground

;

victims

:

BUST OF AMEMIOTEP

III.

tamia even much later than the time of Amenhotep, and are " not uncommon " there even at the present

We may suppose that he had a hunting pavilion Arban, where one of his scarabs has been found, and from that centre beat the reed-beds and jungles

day. at

of the

Khabour.

AMENHOTEP

222 In

person,

111.

AND HIS GREAT WORKS.

Amenhotep

III.

was not remarkable.

His features were good, except that his nose was somewhat too much rounded at the end his expres;

was pensive, but resolute

sion his

He

;

his

forehead high,

upper lip short, his chin a little too prominent. left behind him a character for affectionateness,

and generosity.

kindliness,

Some historians have much under female

reproached him with being too influence

;

and certainly

in the earlier portion of his

reign he deferred greatly to his mother,

and

in

there

is

no evidence that any

evil

too

much taken

female influence

is

some

it

cases

;

but

for

granted by

corrupting.

No

him

many

number.

but

for good.

writers that

doubt

it

is

so in

should not be forgotten that there

women whom to have known is " a liberal tion." Mutemua and Tii may have been are

;

result followed, or

that these princesses did not influence It is

Mutemua,

the latter portion to his wife, Tii or Taia

educaof the

XIV.

KIIUENATEN AND THE DISK-WORSHIPPERS.

On

the death of

Amenhotep

hotep IV., mounted the throne. the guardianship of his

III. to

of

some

entirely foreign

race,

AmenAmenhotep mother, Tii, who was he embraced a new III., his son,

Left by

form of religion, which she appears to have introduced, and shocked the Egyptians by substituting, so far as he found to be possible, this new creed for the old polytheism of the country. The heresy of Amen"

Disk-worship ;" and he, and the next two or three kings, are known in Egyptian history as "the Disk-worshippers." It is difficult to discover what exactly was the belief professed. hotep IV. has been called

Externally,

it

consisted, primarily, in a

marked

pre-

ference of a single one of the Egyptian gods over

all

the others, and a certain hatred or contempt for the

great bulk of the deities composing the old Pantheon.

Thus last "

resembled the religion which Apepi, the Shepherd King,'' had endeavoured to introduce far

it

;

but the

new

differed

from the old reformation

in

the

matter of the god selected for special honour.

Apepi had sought to turn the Egyptians away from all other worships except the worship of Set Amenhotep ;

desired their universal

adhesion to the worship of

KHUENATEN AND THE DISK-WORSHIPPERS.

224 Aten.

Aten,

Egyptian theology, had

in

hitherto

represented a particular aspect or character of Ra, "

the sun

"

— that

aspect which

phrase, "the solar

expressed by the

is

How

disk."

was possible

it

tc

keep Aten distinct from the other sun-gods, Ra, Khepra, Turn, Shu, Mentu, Osiris, and Horus or Harmachis,

difficulty

Egyptians, to

whom

itself as

moderns

a puzzle to

is

have been a

practically

did not perhaps even present

it

a difficulty at

Disk-worship consisted

all.

undue exaltation of

then, primarily, in an

who was made

but it seems to overcome by the ;

to take the place of

this god,

Ammon-Ra

in

the Pantheon, and was ordinarily represented by a circle

with rays proceeding from

it,

the rays mostly

terminating in hands, which frequently presented the

symbols of

and health and strength to the wor-

life

shipper.

What was it

the inward essence of the religion

simple sun-worship

material sun

power

— the

— considered

in the universe,

Of

life,

proceeded

this

was the most

widely spread.

?

as the ruling

whence heat and

all

Was

and vivifying light, and so

the forms of nature worship

natural,

Men

?

adoration of the visible

and

in the old

world

it

was

adored the orb of day as the

grandest object which nature presented to them, as the great quickencr of

all

things upon the earth, the

cause of germination and growth, of fruitage and har-

man

of ten thousand blessings, and health and happiness. With some the worship was purely and wholly material the sun was viewed as a huge mass of fiery matter, uninformed by any animate life, unintelligent, vest, the

dispenser to

the sustainer of his



life

NATURE OF THE DISK-WORSHIP. impersonal

;

225

but with others, sun-worship was some-

the orb of day was regarded informed as by a good, wise, bright, beneficent Spirit, which lived in it, and worked through it, and was the

thing higher than this

true benefactor of

:

mankind and sustainer of

life

and

KHUF.NATEN WORSHIPPING THE SOLAR DISK.

of the universe.

Sun-worship of

this latter

kind was

If not purged no mean form of natural religion. from the debasing element of materialism, if not incompatible with a certain kind of polytheism, it is

yet consistent with the firmest belief in the absolute

supremacy of one God over

all

others, with the con-

.

226

KHUENATEN AND THE DISK-WORSHIPPERS

ception of that

God

as all-wise, all-powerful, pure,

and with the entire devotion of the Him exclusively. And this latter form

holy, kind, loving,

worshipper to

of sun-worship was, quite conceivably, the religion of

Disk worshippers." " Aten " is probably the same as "Adon," the root of Adonis and Adonai, and has the signification of " Lord " a term implying personality, and when used specially of one Being, implying absolute mastery and lordship, an exclusive the

"



homage, and devotion.

right to worship,

unlikely that the

"

It is not Disk-worshippers " were drawn on

towards their monotheistic creed by the presence

Egypt

the descendants of Joseph and his brethren, this

in

at the time of a large monotheistic population,

who by

time had multiplied greatly, and must have at-

numbers and from the A historian of Egypt curious parallels might be drawn

tracted attention, from their

of their

peculiarity

tenets.

remarks that " between the external forms of the worship of the Israelites in the desert and those set up by the Diskworshippers at Tel-el-Amarna portions of the sacred ;

furniture, as the

the are

Book

of

'

table of shewbread,' described

Exodus

repeated

among

the

objects

worship of Aten, and do not occur of any other epoch."

sentations that

the

in

as placed within the Tabernacle,

commencement

of the

belonging to the

among

He

the repre-

further notes

persecution of the

Egypt coincides nearly with the downfall of the " Disk-worshippers " and the return of the Egyptians to their old creed, as if the captive race had been involved in the discredit and the odium which Israelites in

Amenhotep and his immediate succeson account of their religious reformation.

attached to sors

DISK-WORSHIP A COURT RELIGION.

The

aversion of the

"

Disk-worshippers

"

22?

to the old

was shown (1) in the change of his own name which the new monarch made soon after Amenhotep to Khu-en-Aten, his accession, from whereby he cleared himself from any connection with the old discarded head of the Pantheon, and associated himself with the new supreme god, Aten (2) in the obliteration of the name of Ammon from monuments and (3) in the removal of the seat of government from the site polluted by Ammon-worship and polytheism to a new site at Tel-el-Amarna, where Aten alone was worshipped and alone represented in the temples. The enmity, however, was not indiscriEgyptian

religion

;

;

Amenhotep took

minate. epithet, "

Mi-Harmakhu,"

for one of his titles the or " beloved by Harmachis,"

Harmachis, a and to this god Silsilis. His monumental seems also not to have been

because he could

probably

look

on

purely sun-god, as a form of Aten

he erected an obelisk

war upon the old general, but

at

religion

;

narrowly circumscribed, being,

confined to the erasure of

Ammon's name,

in

fact,

especially

at Thebes,

and the mutilation of

instances

but there does not appear to have been

;

his

form

in

a few

any such general iconoclasm practised by the " Diskworshippers " as by the " Shepherd Kings," or any such absolute requirement that " one god alone should be worshipped in all the land " as was put forth by Apepi.

The

"

Disk-worshippers

"

did

not so

much

attempt to change the religion of Egypt as to establish for themselves a peculiar court-religion of a pure

and elevated character. It has been remarked above that the motive power

KHUENATEN AND THE DISK-WORSHIPPERS.

228

which brought about the religious revolution is probably to be found in the powerful influence and the peculiar

the queen mother,

views of

This princess was of foreign origin

was rosy

Tii

or Taia.

her complexion

her eyes blue, her hair flaxen, her cheeks

fair, ;

;

she probably brought her

her from her

own

"

disk-worship

country, whether

it

"

with

were Syria, or

Already in the lifetime of her husband, Amenhotep III., she had prevailed on him, as his wives prevailed on Solomon (i Kings xi. 4-8), to allow her the free exercise of her own religion, and to provide her with the means of carrying it on with all Arabia, or any other.

proper

pomp and ceremony. At

hotep

III.

her instance,

Amen-

constructed a great lake or basin, more

than a mile long and a thousand feet broad, to be

made

on the queen's was proper on that festival day that " the barge of the most beautiful Disk " should perform a voyage on a sheet of water in the presence of his worshippers a voyage probably representing the course of the sun through the heavens during the year. There is evidence that this festival was kept on the sixteenth day of the month Athor, in the eleventh year of Amenhotep III., and that the king use of for

religious purposes

special festival day.

It



himself took part in

So

it.

Queen Taia succeeded in introducing her At into Egypt while her husband was alive.

far,

religion

his death she

found herself regent

for her son, or, at

any rate, associated with him upon the throne, and saw that a fresh opportunity for pushing her religious Amenhotep IV. was of a most views offered itself. His apextraordinary physique and physiognomy.

Personal appearance of khuenaten.

229

pearancc was rather that of a woman than of a man he had a slanting forehead, a long aquiline nose, a flexible projecting mouth, and a strongly developed chin. His neck, which is represented as most un-

;

usually long, seems scarcely equal to the support of

HEAD OF AMENHOTEP his

head

;

and

his spindle

IV.

(KHUENATEN).

shanks seem

ill

adapted to

sustain the weight of his over-corpulent frame. readily yielded himself to his mother's influence,

He

and completed her work in the manner which has been already described. As Thebes opposed itself to his

230

KHUENATEN AND THE DISK-WORSHIFPERS.

reforms, he deserted

withdrew

it,

his court to Tel-el-

Amarna, and there raised the temples, other monuments, in a " very advanced " which

may be

certain changes

also introduced

the court ceremonial. of

and

style of art,

seen at the present day.

Amenhotep officials

palaces,

foreign

He

race,

into

surrounded himself with probably kinsmen of his

mother, and required from them an open display of

submission and servility which Egyptian courts had not witnessed

An

previously.

was enforced on

all,

prostration

who showered down

courtiers as a benevolent god, his gifts

abject

while the king posed before his

upon them from a superior

sphere, since his

greatness did not permit a closer contact.

himself the

"

He was

Light of the Solar Disk," an apaugasma.

" it behoved him Sun god, and perpetually bestow his gifts on men, but it behoved them to veil their faces from his radiance and receive his bounty prostrate in

or " Light proceeding from Light

;

to imitate the

the dust beneath him.

The

peculiar views of

Khuen-Aten, or Amenhotep

were maintained by the two or three succeeding After kings, who had short and disturbed reigns. them there arose a king called Horus, or Har-emIV.,

hebi,

who

utterly swept

ruined their lated

their

new

monuments, and

religion of the religion, not

away the

Egyptians to

Disk-worshippers,"

restored its

the

ancient

former place as the

only of the people, but of the court.

Henceforth, what was called itself in

"

city, obliterated their names, muti-

the land.

"

heresy

"

ceased to show

XV. BEGINNING OF THE DECLINE OF EGYPT.

THE worship

internal troubles connected with the "

had

for

''

Disk-

about forty years distracted the

attention of the Egyptians from their Asiatic posses-

and this circumstance had favoured the development of a highly important power in Western The Hittites, whose motto was " recuier pou r Asia. mieux sauter," having withdrawn themselves from Syria during the time of the Egyptian attacks, retaining, perhaps, their hold on Carchemish (Jerabus), but sions

;

not seeking to extend themselves further southward,

took heart of grace when the Egyptian expeditions

and descending from their mountain fastnesses to the Syrian plains and vales, rapidly established their dominion over the regions recently conquered by Thothmes I. and Thothmes III. Without absorbing the old native races, they reduced them under their sway, and reigned as lords paramount over the entire region between the Middle Euphrates and the Mediterranean, the Taurus range and the ceased,

borders of Egypt.

The

chief of the subject races

were the Kharu, in the tract bordering upon Egypt the Rutennu, in Central and Northern Palestine and in Southern Ccelesyria, the Amairu or Amorites. The

;

;

232

BEGINNING OF THE DECLINE OF EGYPT

4

Hittites themselves occupied

.

the lower Ccelesyrian

and the tract reaching thence to the Euphrates. They were at this period so far centralized into a nation as to have placed themselves under a single monarch and about the time when Egypt had recovered from the troubles caused by the " Disk-worshippers," and was again at liberty to look abroad, Saplal, Grand-Duke of Khita, a great and puissant

valley,

;

upon the Hittite throne. and his threatening attitude on the north-eastern border of Egypt, drew upon him the jealousy of Ramesses I., father of the great Seti, and sovereign, sat

Saplal's power,

(according to the prevalent tradition) founder of the "

nineteenth dynasty."

To

defend oneself

it

is

often

and Ramesses, taking this view, in his first or second year plunged into the enemy's dominions. He had the piea that Palestine and Syria, and even Western Mesopotamia, belonged of right to Egypt, which had conquered them by a long scries of victories, and had never lost them by any defeat or disaster. His invasion was a challenge to Saplal either to fight for his ill-gotten gains, or to give them The Hittite king accepted the challenge, and up.

best to attack,

a short struggle followed with an indecisive result.

At

its

close peace

alliance

drawn

was made, and a formal treaty of

out.

Its

terms are unknown

;

but

was probably engraved on a silver plate in the languages of the two powers the Egyptian hieroglyphics, and the now well-known Hittite pictureand set up in duplicate at Carchemish and writing

it





Thebes.

A brief

pause followed the conclusion of the

first

War of seti act of the

i.

On

drama.

with the Hittites.

233

the opening of the second act

we find the dramatis persona changed. Saplal and Ramesses have alike descended into the grave, and their thrones arc occupied respectively by the son of the one and the grandson Seti

-

Menephthah

I.,

the

of the other.

Sethos of Manetho, has

succeeded his father, Ramesses

dom, Saplal has

left

his

In Egypt,

I.; in

sceptre

the Hittite kingto

his

grandson

Mautenar, the son of Marasar, who had probably died Two young and inexperienced before his father. princes confront one the other in the two neighbour lands, each distrustful of his rival, each covetous of glory, each hopeful

of success

if

war should break

True, by treaty the two kings were friends and

out. allies

— by

treaty the

abstain from

all

two nations were bound to

aggression by the one upon the other:

bonds are like the " green withes " that bound Samson, when the desire to burst them seizes those upon whom they have been placed. Seti and Mautenar were at war before the latter had been on the throne a year, and their swords were at one but

such

another's throats.

We

find

him

Seti was, apparently, the aggressor.

head of a large army in the heart we could have supposed that he had had

at the

of Syria before

time to settle himself comfortably

in his father's seat.

Mautenar was taken unawares. He had not expected so prompt an attack. He had perhaps been weak enough to count on his adversary's good faith, or, at any rate on his regard for appearances. But Seti, as a god upon earth, could of course do no wrong, and did not allow himself to be trammelled by the moral laws that were binding upon ordinary

234

BEGINNING OF THE DECLINE OF EGYPT.

He boldly rushed into war at the first moment, crossed the frontier, and having chastised the Shasu, who had recently made an invasion of his territory, fell upon the Kharu, or Southern Syrians, and gave them a severe defeat near Jamnia mortals.

possible

in

the Philistine country.

into the country of the

several pitched

He then pressed forward Rutennu, overcame them in

battles, and, assisted

by a son who

fought constantly at his side, slaughtered them almost to extermination.

His victorious progress brought

him, after a time, to the vicinity of Kadesh, the important city on the Orontes which, a century earlier, had been besieged and taken by the Great Thothmes. Kadesh was at this time in possession of the Amorites, who were tributary to the Khita (Hittites) and held the great city as their subject allies. Seti, having carefully concealed his advance, came upon the stronghold suddenly, and took its defenders by surprise. Outside the city peaceful herdsmen were pasturing their cattle under the shade of the trees, when they were startled by the appearance of the Egyptian monarch, mounted on his war-chariot drawn by two prancing steeds. At once all was confusion every one sought to save himself; the herds with their keepers fled in wild panic, while the Egyptians plied them with their arrows. But the garrison of the town resisted bravely a portion sallied from the gates and met Seti in the open field, but were defeated with great slaughter the others defended themselves behind the walls. But all was in vain. The disciplined troops of Egypt stormed the key of Northern Syria, and the whole Orontes valley lay open to the conqueror. :

:

;

TREATY OF PEACE.

235

Hitherto the Hittites had not been engaged

Attacked

struggle.

they had

left their

at

in

the

a disadvantage, unprepared,

subject allies to

make such

resist-

ance as they might find possible, and had reserved themselves for the defence of their

own

country.

Mautenar had, no doubt, made the best preparations he had organized of which circumstances admitted his forces in three bodies, "on foot, on horseback, and in chariots." At the head of them, he gave battle to the invaders so soon as they attacked him in his own proper country, and a desperate fight followed, in which the Egyptians, however, prevailed at last. The Hittites received a " great overthrow." The song of triumph composed for Seti on the occasion declared " Pharaoh is a jackal which rushes leaping through



:

the Hittite land

hidden ways of

he

;

all

a grim

is

regions

a pair of sharpened horns. Asiatics

;

own blood

flame of

The

he

is

He

lion

exploring the

a powerful bull with

has struck

down

the

he has thrown to the ground the Khita

he has slain their princes in their

;

fire

;

;

;

;

he has overwhelmed them

he has passed

among them

as a

he has brought them to nought."

victory thus gained

was followed by a treaty

Mautenar and Seti agreed to be henceforth and allies, Southern Syria being restored to Egypt, and Northern Syria remaining under the dominion of the Hittites, probably as far as the sources of the Orontes river. A line of communication must, however, have been left open between Egypt and Mesopotamia, for Seti still exercised authority over the Nairi, and received tribute from their chiefs. He was also, by the terms of the treaty, at liberty to of peace. friends

;

236

BEGINNING OF THE DECLINE OF EGYPT.

make war on the nations of we find him reducing the

for

Cilicia,

the

Upper Syrian coast, who bordered on

Tahai,

without any disturbance of his relations with

The second act in the war between the Egyptians and the Hittites thus terminated with an advantage to the Egyptians, who recovered most Mautenar.

of their Asiatic

possessions,

and had, besides, the

prestige of a great victory.

The

was deferred for a space of some and fell into the reign of Ramesses Before giving an acII., Seti's son and successor. count of it, we must briefly touch the other wars of Seti, to show how great a warrior he was, and mention one further fact in his warlike policy indicative of third

act

thirty-five years,

the

commencement

of Egypt's decline as a military

had no sooner concluded his peace with the great power of the North, than he turned his arms against the West and South, invading, first of all, "the blue-eyed, fair-skinned nation of the Tahennu," who inhabited the North African coast from the borders of Egypt to about Cyrene, and engaging The Tahennu were in a sharp contest with them. a wild, uncivilized people, dwelling in caves, and having no other arms besides bows and arrows. For dress they wore a long cloak or tunic, open in front and they are distinguished on the Egyptian monuments by wearing two ostrich feathers and having all their hair shaved excepting one large lock, which is power.

Seti, then,

and hangs down on the right side of the head. This unfortunate people could make only a poor resistance to the Egyptian trained infantry and powerful They were completely defeated in a chariot force. plaited

SETfS LONG WALL. pitched battle

;

prisoners, while

numbers of the the

237

chiefs

people generally

where they remained hidden, through fear of the king's majesty." caves,

were made

fled

to

their

" like jackals, Seti,

having

struck terror into their hearts, passed on towards the south,

and

Upper

Nile,

fiercely

chastised

who during

Cushites

the

on the

the war with the Hittitcs

had given trouble, and showed themselves inclined to shake off the Egyptian yoke. Here again he was successful the negroes and Cushites submitted after a short struggle and the Great King returned to his capital victorious on all sides " on the south to the arms of the Winds, and on the north to the Great ;



;

Sea." Seti

was not dazzled with

Notwithstanding his triumphs

his

military successes.

in Syria,

he recognized

Egypt had much to fear from her Asiatic neighbours, and could not hope to maintain the fact that

for

long her aggressive attitude

in that quarter.

With-

out withdrawing from any of the conquered countries,

while

still

claiming their obedience and enforcing the

payment of their tributes, he began for the

to

made preparation

changed circumstances which he anticipated by

commencing the construction of a long

wall on his

north-eastern frontier, as a security against invasion

from Asia.

This wall began at Pelusium, and was

carried across the isthmus in a south-westerly direction

by Migdol

to Pithom, or Heroopolis,

where the

long line of lagoons began, which were connected

Red Sea. It recalls to the mind of the historical student the many ramparts raised by nations, in their decline, against aggressive with the upper end of the

BEGINNING OF THE DECLINE OF EGYPT.

238 foes

— as the Great Wall of China, built to keep off the

the Roman wall between the Rhine and Danube, intended to restrain the advance of the German tribes and the three Roman ramparts in

Tartars

;

;

Great Britain, built to protect the

from

Roman

province

Walls of this kind are always signs of weakness and when Seti began, and Ramesses II. completed, the rampart of Egypt, it was a confession that the palmy days of the empire were past, and that henceforth she must look forward to having to stand, in the main, on the its

savage northern neighbours. ;

defensive.

Before

Ramesses

acquiescing

who,

II.,

wholly

in

conclusion,

this

after reigning conjointly with his

father for several years,

was now

sole king, resolved

on a desperate and prolonged effort to re-assert

for

Egypt that dominant position in Western Asia which she had held and obtained under the third Thothmes. Mautenar, the adversary of Seti, appears to have and his place to have been taken by his brother, KhitaKhita-sir, a brave and enterprizing monarch.

died,

sir,

despite the terms of alliance on which the Hittites

stood with Egypt, had

commenced

a series of intrigues

on Upper Syria, and formed a confederacy which had for its object to resist with

the

nations

bordering

the further progress of the Egyptians, and,

if

possible,

them from Asia. This confederacy embraced the Nai'ri, or people of Western Mesopotamia, reckoned by the Egyptians among their subjects the Airatu the Masu or inhabitants of the or people of Aradus to drive

;

;

Mous Masius

;

the Leka, perhaps Lycians

;

the inhabi-

tants of Carchemish, of Kadesh on the Orontes, o£

H1TTITE WAR OF RAM ESSES Aleppo, Anaukasa, Akarita, &c.



all

II.

239

warlike races,

Khitasir's and accustomed to the use of chariots. known Ramesses, to proceedings, having become afforded ample grounds for a rupture, and quite justified him in pouring his troops into Syria, and doing his best to meet and overcome the danger which threatened Unaware at what point his enemy would elect him. to meet him, he marched forward cautiously, having arranged his troops in four divisions, which might mutually support each other. Entering the Coelesyrian valley from the south, he had proceeded as far as the lake of Hems, and neighbourhood of Kadesh, before

he received any tidings of the position taken up by

There his troops captured two of the enemy's scouts, and on questioning them were told that the Hittite army had been at Kadesh, but had retired on learning the Egyptian's advance and taken up a position near Aleppo, distant nearly a hundred miles to the north-east. Had Ramesses the confederate army.

marched forward carelessly, and probably suffered defeat for the whole confederate army was massed just beyond the lake, and there lay concealed by the believed the scouts, and

he would have

fallen into a trap,

;

embankment which

blocks the lake at

But the Egyptian king was too wary

He

its

lower end.

for his adversary.

ordered the scouts to be examined by scourging,

to see

if

they would persist

in

their tale,

whereupon

down and revealed the true position of the The battle had thus the character of a regular

they broke

army.

pitched engagement, without surprise or other acci-

dent on either

side.

Khitasir, finding himself foiled,

quitted his ambush, and

marched openly against the

24O

BEGINNING OF THE DECLINE OF EGYPT.

Egyptians, with his troops marshalled in exact and orderly array, the Hittite chariots in front with their

and the auxiliaries and irand rear. Of the four divisions of the Egyptian army, one seems to have been absent, lines

carefully dressed,

regulars on the flanks

probably acting as a rear-guard

;

Ramesses, with one.

marched down the left bank of the stream, while the two remaining divisions proceeded along the right bank, a slight interval separating them.

commenced

Khitasir

by a flank movement to the left, which brought him into collision with the extreme Egyptian right, " the brigade of Ra," as it was called, and enabled him to engage that division separately. His assault was irresistible. " Foot and horse of King the fight

gave way before him," the was utterly routed, and either cut to Ramesses, informed pieces or driven from the field. of this disaster, endeavoured to cross the river to the assistance of his beaten troops but, before he could effect his purpose, the enemy had anticipated him, had charged through the Orontes in two lines, Ramesses," we are

"

brigade of

Ra

told, "

"

;

and was upon him. The adverse hosts met. The chariot of Ramesses, skilfully guided by his squire, Menna, seems to have broken through the front line but his brethren in arms of the Hittite chariot force were less fortunate, and Ramesses found himself separated from his army, behind the front line and ;

confronted by the second line of the hostile chariots, in

a position of the greatest possible danger.

Then

began that Homeric combat, which the Egyptians were never tired of celebrating, between a single warrior on the one hand, and the host of the

BATTLE OF KADESH.

2\\

two thousand five hundred which Ramesses, like Diomed or Achilles, carried death and destruction whitherHittites,

chariots,

reckoned

at

on the other,

in

" I

soever he turned himself.

Mentu," he

is

made

my

right hand,

like

Baal

to say

;

became

" I

like the

god

hurled the dart with

my

hand I was had come upon two thousand five hundred pairs of horses I was in the midst of them but they were dashed in pieces before my steeds. Not one of them raised his hand their heart shrank within them to fight their limbs gave way, they could not hurl the dart, nor had they I

fought with

in his fury

against them.

left

;

I

;

;

;

;

As

strength to thrust with the spear. into the water, so

I

made them

fall

;

crocodiles

fall

they tumbled

I killed them at my headlong one over another. pleasure, so that not one of them looked back behind Each fell, and none him, nor did any turn round.

raised himself

up again."

The temporary

isolation of the

the main point of the heroic

poem

monarch, which

is

of Pentaour, and

which Ramesses himself recorded over and over again upon the walls of his magnificent constructions, must no doubt be regarded as a fact but it is not likely to have continued for more than a few minutes. The minutes may have seemed as hours to the king and there may have been time for him to perform several exploits. But we may be sure that, when his companions found that he was lost to their sight, they at once made frantic efforts to recover him, dead or alive they forced openings in the first Hittite chariot line, and sped to the rescue of their sovereign. He had, perhaps, already emptied many chariots of the ;

;

;

242

BEGINNING OF THE DECLINE OF EGYPT,

line, which Mas paralysed by his audacity and his companions found it easy to complete the work which he had begun. The broken second line turned and fled the confusion became general a headlong flight carried the entire host to the banks of the Orontes, into which some precipitated themselves, while others were forced into the water by their pursuers. The king of Khirabu (Aleppo) was among these, and was with great difficulty drawn out by his friends, exhausted and half dead, when he reached the eastern shore. But the great bulk of the Hittite

second

;

;

;

army

perished, either in the battle or

Among

the river.

in

wounded were Grabatasa, the Khitasir Tarakennas, the commander

the killed and

charioteer of

;

of the cavalry; Rabsuna, another general a royal secretary

;

Khirapusar,

and Matsurama, a brother of the

;

Hittite king.

On

the next

day the

battle

was renewed

;

but, after

a short time, Khitasir retired, and sent a humble em-

camp

bassy to the

of his adversary to implore for

Ramesses held a council of war with his generals, and by their advice agreed to accept the peace.

made

submission

to him, and, without entering into

any formal engagement, to withdraw his army and It seems probable that his victory return to Egypt. had cost him dear, and that he was not in a condition to venture further from his resources, or to affront new dangers in a difficult, and to him unknown, region. Experience battle, quite

long war. battle of

tells

us that

it

is

one thing to gain a

another to be successful

in the result of

a

Whatever glory Ramesses obtained by the Kadesh, and the other

victories

which he

;

PEACE MADE WITH THE HITTITES.

won

claims to have

in

Syrian campaigns

the

of

combreak the power of the Hittites, and

several succeeding years, pletely failed to

243

is

it

certain that he

that he was led in course of time to confess his failure,

and to adopt a policy of conciliation towards the people which he found himself unable to subdue. Sixteen years after the battle of Kadesh he concluded a solemn treaty with Khitasir, which was engraved on silver and placed under the most sacred sanctions, whereby an exact equality was established between Each nation bound the high contracting powers. itself under no circumstances to attack the other each promised to give aid to the other, if requested, in case of its ally being attacked each pledged itself to the extradition both of criminals flying from justice and of any other subjects wishing to change their allegiance each stipulated for an amnesty of offences ;

;

in the case of all

persons thus surrendered.

years

conclusion

after

the

Thirteen

of the treaty the close

between the two powers was further cemented by a marriage, which, by giving the two dynasties

alliance

common

interests, greatly

existing bond.

strengthened the previously

Ramesses requested and received

marriage a daughter of Khitasir

in

in

the thirty-fourth

year of his sole reign, when he had borne the royal title for

forty-six years.

He

thus became the son-in-

law of his former adversary, whose daughter was thenceforth recognized as his sole legitimate queen.

A her

considerable change in the relations of Egypt to

still

remaining Asiatic dependencies accompanied

this alteration

in

with the Hittites.

the footing

upon which she stood

"The bonds

of their subjection

244

BEGINNING OF THE DECLINE OF EGYPT.

became much less strict than they had been under Thothmes III. prudential motives constrained the ;

— with

Egyptians to be content with very much less such acknowledgments, in fact, as satisfied vanity,

their

than with the exercise of any real

rather

From and after the conclusion of peace and between Ramesses and Khitasir, Egyptian influence in Asia grew vague, shadowy, and discontinuous. At long intervals monarchs of more enterpower."

alliance

prize than the ordinary run

asserted

success generally crowned their efforts

it,

;

and a

brief

but, speaking

we may say that her Asiatic dominion was and that Egypt became once more an African

broadly, lost,

power, confined within nearly her ancient

limits.

from a military point of view, the decline of Egypt is to be dated from the reigns, partly joint If,

and Ramesses II., from the standmust be pronounced the very The architectural apogee of Egyptian greatness. works of these two monarchs transcend most dereigns, of Seti

I.

point of art the period

cidedly or later.

all

those of

No

all

other Pharaohs, either earlier

single work, indeed, of eithei king equals

in

mass either the First or the Second Pyramid

in

number,

artistic excellence,

messes

is,

only

among Egyptian

or low relief

;

but, apart

works

will

way

from

in

the matter of

of statuary, or of high

this,

challenge

other nations.

all

of course, unapproachable

sculpture, whether in the

tectural

but

the constructions of Seti and Ra-

unequalled, not

are

monuments, but among those of Greece

;

in variety, in beauty, in all that constitutes

Egypt

in

her archi-

comparison with any

country that ever existed, or any people that ever gave

GREAT PILLARED HALL OF itself to

the

SETl.

embodiment of artistic conceptions

24$ in

stone

And

Egyptian architecture culminated under Seti and his son Ramesses. The greatest of all Seti's works was his pillared hall at Karnak, the most splendid single chamber that has ever been built by any architect, and, even in its ruins, one of the grandest sights that the world contains. Seti's hall is three hundred and thirty feet long, by one hundred and seventy feet broad, having thus an internal area of fifty-six thousand square feet, and covers, together with its Willis and pylons, an area of eighty-eight thousand such feet, or a larger space than that covered by or marble.

the

Dom

of Cologne, the largest of

north of the Alps.

It

all

the cathedrals

was supported by one hundred

and sixty-four massive stone columns, which were divided into three groups

— twelve central ones,

each

and thirty-three feet in circumfermain avenue down its midst while on either side, two groups of sixty-one columns, each forty-two feet high and twenty-seven round, supported the huge wings of the chamber, arranged in seven rows of seven each, and two rows of six. The whole was roofed over with solid blocks of stone, the lightsixty-six feet high

ence, formed the

;

ing being, as in the far smaller hall of

by means of a

clerestory.

The

Thothmes

III.,

roof and pillars and

everywhere covered with painted basand hieroglyphics, giving great richness of effect, and constituting the whole building the most magnificent on which the eye of man has ever rested. Fergusson, the best modern authority on architecture, says of it " No language can convey an idea of its beauty, and no artist has yet been able to reproduce walls were reliefs

:

-

BEGINNING OF THE DECLINE OF EGYPT.

246

form so as to convey to those who have not seen an idea of its grandeur. The mass of its central piers, illumined by a flood of light from the clere-

its it

story,

and the smaller

pillars of the

wings gradually

fading into obscurity, are so arranged and lighted as to convey an idea of infinite space

at the

;

same time

of the forms, and the

the beauty and massiveness

combine

brilliancy of their coloured decoration:-;, all

stamp

to

this

as the greatest of

works, but such a one as

reproduce, except vidual style,

As

in

in

mans

would be impossible to

it

such a climate, and

which and

architectural

for

which

in that indi-

was created."

it

most wonderful of

Seti constructed the

all

1

the

which Egypt produced, so he also constructed what is, on the whole, the most wonderful of the tombs. The pyramids impose upon us by their enormity, and astonish by the engineering skill shown palatial buildings

execution but they embody a single simple they have no complication of parts, no elabora-

in their

idea tion

;

;

ornament

of

;

they are taken

in

at a glance

;

they do not gradually untold themselves, or furnish a

But

succession of surprises.

rock-tombs, whereof Seti's

The rock-tombs

are

"

is

the most magnificent.

gorgeous palaces, hewn

the rock, and painted with

could have been seen

in

all

the

palaces."

succession of passages, chambers,

and

pillared halls, each

entrance than the

last,

otherwise with the

it is

and

further all

can; of

decorations that

They

contain a

corridors, staircases,

removed from the

covered with an

infinite

variety of the most finished and brilliant paintings.

The tomb 1

of Seti contains three pillared halls, respec" History of Architecture,"

vol.

i.

pp.

1

19, 120.

— SETfS EXCAVATED TOMB.

247

by twenty-five, twenty-eight by twenty-seven, and forty-three feet by seventeen

tively twenty-seven feet feet

and a half; a large saloon with an arched roof, thirty feet by twenty-seven six smaller chambers of different sizes three staircases, and two long corridors. The whole series of apartments, from end to end of the tomb, is continuously ornamented with painted ;

;

bas-reliefs. "

The

idea

is

that of conducting the king to

The further you advance into the deeper you become involved in endless pro-

the world of death.

tomb, the

cessions of jackal-headed gods, and monstrous forms

of genii, good and evil

and the goddess of Justice, and barges carrying over the sacred lake and and, more than all, everlast-

;

with her single ostrich feather

mummies,

mummies

raised

aloft

themselves

;

;

;

ing convolutions of serpents in every possible form and attitude human-legged, human-headed, crowned, entwining mummies, enwreathing or embraced by processions, extending down whole galleries, so that meeting the head of a serpent at the top of a staircase, you have to descend to its very end before you reach his tail. At last you arrive at the close of all the vaulted hall, in the centre of which lies the immense alabaster sarcophagus, which ought to Here the processions, contain the body of the king. above, below, and around, reach their highest pitch meandering round and round white, and black, and legs and arms and wings spreading in red, and blue enormous forms over the ceilings and below lies the







;

sarcophagus *

itself."

1

Adapted from Dean Stanley's "

p. xl.

Sinai and Palestine," Introduction,

248

BEGINNING OF THE DECLINE OF EGYPT.

The

vanity which

They

Ramesses are of a difand are indicative of that inordinate

greatest of the works of

ferent description, is

the leading feature of his character.

are colossal images of himself.

Four of

these,

each seventy feet in height, form the facade of the marvellous rock-temple of Ipsambul "

—"the of — and constitute finest

class known to exist anywhere one of the most impressive sights which the world has to offer. There stands the Great King, four times its



superhuman with features marked by profound repose and tranquillity, touched

repeated, silent, majestic,

scorn, looking out eternally on Nubian waste, which stretches far away to a dim and distant horizon. Here, as you sit on the deep pure sand, you seem to see the monarch, who did so much, who reigned so long, who covered, not only Egypt, but Nubia and Ethiopia with his memorials. " You can look at his features inch by inch, see them not only magnified to tenfold their original size, so that ear and mouth and nose, and every link of his collar, and every line of his skin, but sinks into you with the weight of a mountain those features are repeated exactly the same three

perhaps with a

little

the grey-white

;

— four times they once were, but the upper gone. Look at them as they emerge — the two northern figures — from the sand times over

part of the fourth statue

is

which reaches up to their throats the southernmost, as he sits unbroken, and revealed from the top of his royal helmet to the toe of his enormous foot." Look at them, and remember that you have here portraitstatues of one of the greatest of the kings of the Old ;

*

1

Stanley,

" Sinai and Palestine,"

p. xlvii.

RAMESSES

II.,

ISRAEL'S OPPRESSOR.

249

World, of the world that was " old " when Greece and Rome were either unborn or in their swaddling clothes

;

portrait-statues, moreover, of the king who,

if either tradition or chronology can be

depended

was the actual great oppressor of Israel

who sought Moses

fled,

the

and

life

until

of Moses

— the

on,

king

— the king from whom

whose death he did not dare

to

return out of the land of Midian.

According to the almost unanimous voice of those most conversant with Egyptian antiquities, the "great oppressor" of the Hebrews was this Ramesses. Seti may have been the originator of the scheme for crushing them by hard usage, but, as the oppression

upon eighty years (Ex. ii. I vii. 7), it must have covered at least two reigns, so that, if it began under Seti, it must have continued under his son and lasted close

successor.

;

The

bricks

found at Tel-el-Maskoutah

main builder of Pithom (Paindicates that he was the main builder of Raamses (Pa-Ramessu). We must thus ascribe to him, at any rate, the great bulk of that severe and cruel affliction, which provoked Moses (Ex. ii. 12), which made Israel "sigh" and "groan" (ib. 23, 24), and on which God looked down with It was he especially who compassion (ib. iii. 7). " made their lives bitter in mortar, and in brick, and service which in all manner of service in the field" was " with rigour." Ramesses was a builder on the most extensive scale. Without producing any single

show Ramesses

as the

Turn), and the very

name



edifice so perfect as the " Pillared

was indefatigable

Hall of Seti," he

in his constructive efforts,

Egyptian king came up to him

and no

in this respect.

The

250

BEGINNING OF THE DECLINE OF EGYPT.

monuments show

that he erected his buildings chiefly

labour, and that those

by forced

employed on them

Some have thought

were chiefly foreigners.

that the

Hebrews are distinctly mentioned as employed by him on his constructions under the term " Aperu," or

HEAD OF

"Aperiu"; but Still, "

the

engaged

this

name the

in

is

view

SETI

is

I.

not generally accepted.

bondsmen work of the Hebrews, and

so often used for foreign

very

especially during the oppression, that to believe

it

to be a general term in

included, though 1

it

it is hard not which they are

does not actually describe them."

Stuart Poole, "

Cities of

Egypt,"

p.

105.

x

BUST OF R A MESSES

II.

2=11

The physiognomies of Seti I. and Ramesses II., as 1 represented on the sculptures, offer a curious con

BUST OF RAMESSES 1

The

mummy

good condition, and

is

II.

It was in has been recently uncovered. said to have revealed a face very closely re-

of Seti

I.

sembling that of Harnesses IT., with fine delicate features, and alto"The nose, mouth, chin, in short all the gether of an elevated type. but in the father they are features," says M. Maspero, "are the same more refined, more intelligent, more spiritual, than when reproduced ;

in the son.

Seti

I. is,

as

it

were, the idealized type of Ramesses II."

The Times of July 23, 1886.) It may perhaps be doubted whether the shrunken mummy, 3300 years old, is better evidence of the living reah ty than the contemporary sculptures (Letter of

M. Maspero

in

BEGINNING OF THE DECLINE OF EGYPT.

252

Seti's face

trast.

is

thoroughly African, strong,

prognathous, with depressed nose, thick

heavy chin.

The

face of

Ramesses

is

fierce,

and a

lips,

Asiatic.

He

has a good forehead, a large, well-formed, slightly nose, a well-shaped mouth, with lips that

aquiline

are not too that

is

full,

a small delicate chin, and an eye

thoughtful and pensive.

We may

conclude

was of the true Egyptian race, with perhaps an admixture of more southern blood while that Seti

;

Ramesses, born of a Semitic mother, inherited through her Asiatic characteristics, and, though less

energy and strength of character than

possessing his father,

had a more sensitive temperament, a wider range of taste, and a greater inclination towards peace and tranquillity. His important wars were all concluded within the limit of his twenty-first year, while his entire fifty

reign

was one of sixty-seven

years,

of which he held the sole sovereignty.

during

Though

the fame of a great warrior behind him, his and truest triumphs seem to have been those of peace the Great Wall for the protection of Egypt towards the east, with its strong fortresses and " storecities," the canal which united the Nile with the Red Sea, and the countless buildings, excavations, obelisks, colossal statues, and other great works, with which he adorned Egypt from one end to the other.

he

left

chief



CHAPTER MENEPHTHAH

THE PHARAOH OF THE EXODUS.

I.,

MENEPHTHAH,

the thirteenth son and immediate

successor of Ramesses

II.,

came

circumstances which might at favourable.

XVI.

to the throne

first

Egypt was on every

her neighbours.

The

sight have

under

seemed

side at peace with

wall of Ramesses, and his treaty

with the Hittites, cemented

as

it

marriage, secured the eastern frontier. attack had ever yet fallen upon

had been by a

No

formidable

Egypt from the west

or from the south,

and so no danger could well be apprehended from those quarters. Internal tranquillity might not be altogether assured, so long as there was within the limits of

Egypt a large subject population, and bitterly discontented with population was quite unwarlike,

suffering oppression

lot. But this and had hitherto passively submitted itself to the will of its rulers, without giving any indication that it might become actively hostile. Menephthah, who was perhaps not more than five and twenty, may have been justified in looking forward to a long, quiet, and uneventful reign, during which he might indulge the natural apathy of his temper, or dream away life, like its

his fabled neighbours, the Lotus-Eaters.

Menephthah's features were

soft

and womanly.

He

MENEPHTHAH

254

I.

had a full but sleepy eye, a slightly aquiline nose, art extremely short upper- lip, a broad cheek, and a rounded chin. In character he was weak, irresolute, wanting

in physical

courage, yet, as so often happens

with weak characters, harsh, oppressive, and treacher-

The monuments

ous.

depict him as neither a soldier

nor an administrator, but as "one whose mind was turned almost exclusively towards the chimeras of sorcery and

magic," which he regarded as of the utmost importance. Still, had the times been quiet, had the prospect of tranquillity which seemed to lie before him on his accession been realized, he might

perhaps have so conducted discredit

nor injury upon

affairs as to

bring neither

country.

his

But

circumstances of the period were against him.

the

The

unclouded prospect of his early years gave place, after a brief interval, to storm and tempest of the most fearful kind a terrible invasion carried fire and sword into the heart of his dominions and he had scarcely ;

;

escaped this danger by meeting

it

in

a

way

not very

honourable to himself, when internal troubles broke out a subject race, highly valued for services which it :

was compelled

render, insisted

to

on quitting the

was incurred in an attempt to compel it to remain then open rebellion broke out and the reign, which had in the weakened state commenced under such fair auspices, terminated in Menephthah was quite calamity and confusion. incompetent to deal with the difficulties and comland

;

a great loss

;

;

plications wherewith he found

he hesitated, temporized, them, and

finally

made

himself surrounded

;

concessions, retracted

conducted Egypt to a catastrophe

from which she did not recover

for a generation.

LIBYAN INVASION OF EGYPT

The

first

255

great trouble which disturbed the tran-

was an invasion of his territories Hitherto, though no serious from the north-west. danger had ever threatened from this quarter, there had been frequent raids into Egypt on the part of the quillity of his reign

native Africans, and most of the

more warlike of the

HEAD OF MENTll'HTHAH.

Egyptian monarchs had regarded it as incumbent on them to lead from time to time expeditions into the region, for the purpose of weakening the wild tribes, Tahennu, Maxyes, and others, and inspiring them with a wholesome dread of the Egyptian power.

Ramesses

II.

had on one occasion warred

in

this

MENEPHTHAH

256

I.

quarter, as already related, and had met with a certain amount of success. But since that time many years had A new generation had grown up, which the passed. Egyptians had allowed to remain unmolested, and

which

no

felt

neighbours.

fear of its quiet, peaceful,

and industrious

Population had probably multiplied

in

the region, and the tribes began to feel stinted for

Above all, new relations had been contracted between the old inhabitants of the tract and some other races, now for the first time heard of in authentic history, who had been brought into contact with them. A league of nations had become possible and the room.

;

must have been considerMight not an actual conquest be effected, and able. the half-starved nomads of Marmarica and the Cyrenaica become the lords and masters of the rich plain, so long coveted, which adjoined upon their eastern force of the united league

frontier

The

?

leading spirit of the combination was a native

African prince, Marmaiu, the son of Deid.

Having

determined on a serious invasion of Eg)'pt, for the purpose of conquest, not of plunder, he first of all

Tahennu, Mashuash, Kahaka, to the number of twenty-five or thirty thousand, and then purchased the services of a collected his native forces, Lubu,

number of to a

auxiliaries,

who

raised his force probably

total of thirty-five or forty

thousand men.

peculiar interest attaches to these auxiliaries.

A

They

from five nations, whose names are read as Akausha, Luku, Tursha, Shartana or Shardana, and Sheklusha. and whom most modern historians of Egypt identify with the Achseans, consisted

of contingents

— THE LIBYAN ALLIES.

2$>/

Laconians, Tyrscnians, Sardinians, and Sicilians. and they are

these identifications are accepted least plausible

Ii



at

— we shall have to suppose that, as early

as the fourteenth century

Europe were so

far

B.C.,

the nations of Southern

advanced as to launch

fleets

upon

the Mediterranean, to enter into a regular league with

an African prince, and

make an

in

conjunction with him to

attack on one of the chief civilized monarchies

of the world, the old

kingdom of the Pharaohs.

We

have to imagine the Achaeans of the Peloponnese, a century before the time of Agamemnon, braving the perils of the Levant in their cockle-shells of ships, and shall

not merely plundering the coasts, but landing large bodies of men on the North African shore to take

We

part in a regular campaign. to ourselves the Laconians

have to picture

shall

— the people of Menelaus Atreus, or his

about the time of his grandfather, Pelops,

great-grandfather,

similarly

employed, and

contending with the Pharaoh of the Exodus on the Nay, we shall have to antedate soil of the Delta. the rise of the Tyrscnians to naval greatness by about seven hundred years, and to suppose that the Sicels and Sardi, whom the Greeks and Romans found living the

they

first

life

of savages

in Sicily

shores,

their

visited

were flourishing peoples and

millennium of the

earlier.

ancient

unlike anything

The

world that

B.C.

750-600,

navigators half a

we

thus obtain

very surprising, and quite

could ;

skilful

picture which

is

literature of the Greeks as beyond the range of

and Sardinia, when

about

but

be it is

gathered

from the

not to be regarded

possibility, since nations are

quite as apt to lapse from civilization into barbarism

MENEPHTHAH

258 as to

emerge out of barbarism

I.

into civilization.

It is

quite conceivable that the nations of South-Eastern

Europe were more advanced

in civilization and the 1400-1300 than they are found to have been six centuries later, the false dawn having been succeeded by a time of darkness before the true dawn came. However this may have been, it is certain that Menephthah, in the fifth year of his reign, had to meet a formidable, and apparently unprovoked, attack from a combination of nations, the like of which we

arts of life

about

B.C.

do not again meet with in Egyptian history, either Marmaiu, son of Deid, led against earlier or later. him a confederate army, consisting of three princi-



Tahennu the Lubu (Libyans), the Mashuash (Maxyes), and the Kahaka together with

pal tribes of the



from five other tribes or peoples, the Akausha, the Luku, the Tursha, the Shartana, and The entire number of the army, as the Sheklusha. auxiliaries

already stated, was

probably not

than

less

forty

and were bronze and cuirasses, arrows, bows and with armed brought and tents, skin They had or copper swords. thousand

;

numerous

they had

chariots,

with them their wives and children, with the intention

Hyksos had done five They had also with them a

of settling in Egypt, as the

hundred years

earlier.

number of cattle, as bulls, oxen, and The chiefs came provided with thrones, and

considerable goats.

both they and their

The

attack was

had numerous drinking and of gold.

officers

vessels of bronze, of silver,

made on

the western side of Egypt,

towards the apex of the Delta.

It

was

at first

com-

PREPARATIONS FOR RESISTANCE. plctcly

The

successful.

taken by assault, and

"

259

small frontier towns

were

turned into heaps of rubbish

;"

the Delta was entered upon, and a position taken up in the nomc of Paari-sheps, or Prosopis, which lay between the Canobic and Sebennytic branches of the

Nile,

commencing

From

Memphis and Heliopolis were menaced. Menephthah hastily fortified these or rather, we must suppose, strengthened their

alike cities,

at

the point of their separation.

position

this

Meanwhile the Libyans and their " The like had not as the native scribe observes, "even in

existing defences. allies

ravaged the open country.

been seen,"

Lower Egypt, when the Hyksos power) was in the land, and the kings of Upper Egypt were unable to drive it out." Egypt was desolated its people " trembled the times of the kings of

plague

(i.e.

the

;

like

geese

" ;

the fertile lands were overrun and wasted

the cities were pillaged

;

even the harbours were

some cases ruined and destroyed.

Menephthah

;

in

for a

time remained on the defensive, shut up within the walls of

Memphis, whose god Phthah he viewed as He made, however, strenuous

his special protector.

to

efforts

gather

together a

powerful force

;

his

captains collected the native troops from the various

provinces of Egypt, while he sent a saries into Asia,

who were

number

of emis-

instructed to raise a large

body of mercenaries in that quarter. At last all was ready, and Menephthah appointed the fourteenth day as that on which he would place himself at the head of his army and lead them in person against the enemy but, before the day came, his courage failed him. He " saw in a dream " at least so he himself ;



;

MENEPHTHAH

260

—"as

I.

were a figure of the god Phthah, prevent his advance " and the figure said to him, " Stay where thou art, and let thy declares

it

standing so as

to

;

So the pious

troops proceed against the enemy."

king, in obedience to this convenient vision,

remained

the walls of Memphis, and sent his and mercenary, into the nome of Prosopis against the Libyans. The two armies joined battle on the 3rd of Epiphi (May 18), and a desperate engagement took place, in which, after six hours of hard fighting, the Egyptians were victorious, and the

secure behind forces, native

confederates suffered a severe defeat.

Menephthah

charges the Libyan chief with cowardice, but only because, after the quitted the

field,

battle

was

lost,

he precipitately

leaving behind him, not only his

camp-equipage, but his throne, the ornaments of his wives,

The Whose conman who fights

bow, his quiver, and his sandals.

his

reproaches uttered recoil upon himself.

duct

is

more cowardly, that of the

the

head of his troops for six hours against an enemy, probably more numerous, certainly better at the

armed and better disciplined, and only quits the field when his forces are utterly overthrown and put to flight

;

or that of one

who

avoids exposing himself to

danger, and lurks behind the walls of a fortress while

wounds and death in the no evidence that Marmaiu, son of Deid, in the battle of Prosopis, conducted himself otherwise than as became a prince and a general there is abundant evidence that Menephthah, son of his soldiers are affronting

There

battlefield

?

Ramesses,

who

is

declined to be present at the engage-

ment, showed the white feather.

BATTLE OF PROSOPIS, AND ITS RESULTS. 261 The

defeat of

Prosopis was decisive.

Marmaiu

between eight thousand and nine thousand of his troops, or, according to another estimate, between twelve thousand and thirteen thousand. lost in slain

Above

nine

thousand were made prisoners.

camp-equipage, and

The

of the enemy.

hands once broke up and

dispersed.

his

tents,

cattle, fell

The expedition at Marmaiu returned into

into the

own

land with

a shattered remnant of his grand army, and devoted

himself to peaceful pursuits, or at any rate abstained

from any further collision with the Egyptians. mercenaries, whatever the

races

to

The

which they

in

by experience the wisdom of leaving the Libyans to fight their own battles, and reality belonged, learned

are

not

again

found

in

alliance

with them.

The

Akaiusha and Luku appear in Egyptian history no more. The Tursha and Sheklusha do not wholly disappear, but receive occasional mention among the races hostile to Egypt. As for the Shartana or Shardana, they were struck with so much admiration of the Egyptian courage and conduct, that they shortly afterwards entered the Egyptian service, and came to hold a place among the most trusted of the Egyptian troops. Despite his cowardice in absenting himself from the battle of Prosopis under the transparent device of a divine vision, Menephthah took to himself the whole credit of the victory, and gloried in it as much as if he had really had a hand in bringing about the result. "The Lubu," he says, "were meditating to do evil in Egypt they were as grasshoppers every road was blocked by their hosts. Then I vowed to lead them ;

;

MENEPHTHAH

262

I.

Lo, I vanquished them I slaughtered them, making a spoil of their country. I made the land of Egypt traversable once more I gave breath to those

captive.

;

;

who were

Roman

the

in

cities."

Egyptian generals,

like

had to content themselves with complaining secretly, " Sic vos non vobis." So far as we can tell, no long period elapsed between the expedition of Marmaiu, son of Deid, and the second great trouble in which Menephthah was involved. Moses must have returned to Egypt from his sojourn in Midian within a year or two of the death of Ramesses II., and cannot have allowed any poets,

very long time to elapse before he proffered

demand make.

which

he was divinely commissioned

the to

was timid, and a somewhat unwilling messenger, he may have delayed both his return and his first address to Pharaoh as long as he dared (Ex. iv. 19) and if the invasion of Marmaiu had begun before he had summoned courage to address Pharaoh a second time, he would then naturally wait until the danger was past, and the king could again be approached without manifest improas he

Still,

;

priety.

In this case, the severe oppression of the

Israelites,

which

Moses (Ex.

v.

followed

5-23)

the

may have

first

application

of

lasted longer than has

and it may not have been Menephthah's sixth or seventh year that the divine messenger became urgent, and began to press his request, and to show the signs and wonders which alone, as he had been told (Ex vii. 2-4), would generally been supposed

;

till

spirit of the king. The signs then followed each other at moderately short intervals, the entire

break the

"

MENEPHTHAH AND MOSES.

263

series of the plagues not covering a longer space than

about six months, from October till April. None of the plagues affected the king greatly except the last,

through which he

ment mentioned

lost his in

own

eldest son, a bereave-

This

an inscription.

loss,

com-

bined with the dread power shown in the infliction

during one night of not

less

than a million of deaths,

produced a complete revolution in the mind of the king, and made him as anxious at the moment to get rid of the Israelites out of his country as he

had previously been anxious to retain them. So he called for Moses and Aaron by night and said, " Rise up, get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel, and go, serve the Lord, as ye have said. Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone and bless me also (Ex. xii. 31, 32). Moses was prepared for the event, and had prepared his people. All were ready, with their loins girded, their sandals on their feet, and their staves in their hands the word was given, and the exodus began. " The children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children and a mixed multitude went up also with them and flocks, and ;

;

;

;

herds, even very

Hereupon the

cattle."

mind underwent another Unstable as water," he was certain not excel." Learning that the Israelites, instead of

change. to "

much

king's

"

marching away into the desert, had after reaching edge turned southward, and were "entangled" in a corner of his territory, between high mountains on the one hand, and on the other the Red Sea, its

MENEPHTHAH

264

I.

which then stretched far further to the north than present, perhaps to Lake Timseh, at any rate

at

"

as far as the

Bitter Lakes," he thought he

saw an

opportunity of following and recovering the fugitives,

whose services

as

bondsmen he highly

valued. Rapidly

calling together such troops as were tolerably near at

hand, he collected a considerable force of infantry and chariots

— of

the latter more than six hundred

— and

following upon the steps of the Hebrews, he caught

them on the western shore of the Red Sea, encamped "between Migdol and the sea, over against BaalZephon."

The exact

spot cannot be fixed, on account

of the alterations in the bed of the

Red

Sea,

and the

uncertainty of the ancient geography of Egypt,

in

which names so often repeat themselves but it was probably some part of the region that is now dry land, between Suez and the southern extremity of ;

Here in high tides the sea and the communicated but on the evening of Menephthah's arrival, an unusual ebb of the tide, co-operating with a " strong east wind " which held back the water the Bitter Lakes. lakes

;

of the Bitter Lakes,

left the bed of the sea bare for a and the Israelites were thus able to cross during the night from one side of the sea to the other. As morning dawned, Menephthah, once more carefully guarding his own person, sent his chariots in pursuit. The force entered on the slippery and dangerous ground, and advanced half-way but its progress was slow the chariot-wheels sank into the soft ooze, the horses slipped and floundered all was disorder and confusion. Before the troops could

certain space

;

;

;

;

extricate themselves,

the waters returned

on either

THE DISASTER IN THE RED SEA. hand

265

a high flow of the tide, the necessary conse-

;

quence of a low ebb, brought in the whelming flood from the south-east a strong wind from the Mediterranean, drove down upon them the pent up ;

waters of the Bitter Lakes from the north-west.

The

became once that had entered it

channel, which had lately been dry land,

more in

and the

sea,

entire

force

of the Israelites perished.

pursuit

Safe on the

opposite shore, the Israelites saw the utter destruction

of their adversaries, whose dead bodies, driven before the gale, were cast up in hundreds upon the coast

where they sate encamped (Ex. xiv. 30). The disaster paralyzed the monarch, and he made no further effort. If the loss was not great numerically, it affected the most important arm of the service, and it was the destruction of the very elite of the Egyptian troops. It was a blow in which the anger of the Egyptian gods may well have been seen by some, while others may have regarded it as a revelaThe blow tion of the incompetence of the monarch. seems to have been followed, within a short time, by revolt. Menephthah's last monumental year is his eighth. A pretender to the crown arose in a certain

Amon-mes, with Seti

or

II.,

establishing

Amon-meses, who contested the throne Menephthah's son, and succeeded in

himself as king

;

but

for

many

years

Egypt, as so often happens when a suddenly weakened, civil war, bloodshed, and

there raged in state

is

confusion.

The two

dynasties that have last occupied us con-

stitute the

most

ture

as Fergusson. the latest historian of archi-

;

for,

brilliant period of

Egyptian architec-

MENEPHTHAH

266 tecture,

I.

has said, the hall of Seti at Karnak

"

is

the

greatest of man's architectural works," the building to

which

it

belongs

"

is

the noblest effort of archi-

produced by the hand of is "the finest of its class known to exist anywhere." Thes^ works combine enormous mass and size with a profusion of elaborate ornamentation. Covering nearly as much ground as the greatest of the pyramids, and tectural magnificence ever

man," and the rock-cut temple of Ipsambul

enormous blocks of

containing equally

Theban palace-temples

stone,

the

unite a wealth of varied orna-

mentation almost unparalleled

among

the

edifices

Here are long avenues of sphinxes and colossi, leading to tall, tapering obelisks which shoot upwards like the pinnacles, towers, and spires of a modern cathedral, while beyond the obelisks are vistas of gateways and courts, of colonnades and pillared halls, that impress the beholder with a deep erected by man.

sense of the constructive imagination of the architect

who

could design them, no

less

than with admiration

of the ruler whose resources were sufficient to

them

make

realities.

Truly the Egyptians were, as Mr. Fergusson enmost essentially a building people of all those we are acquainted with, and the most generally successful in all that they attempted

thusiastically asserts, " the

in this

in

way.

The

Greeks,

it

is

true,

surpassed them

refinement and beauty of detail, and

in

the class

of sculpture with which they ornamented their buildings, while the

Gothic architects far excelled them

constructive cleverness

no other

styles can

;

in

but with these exceptions,

be put into competition

with

ARCHITECTURE AND ART OF THE TIME. them.

At

the

same

267

time, neither Grecian nor Gothic

more perfectly all the gradaand the exact character that should be given to every form and every detail. They understood also better than any other nation, how to use sculpture in combination with architecture, and to make their colossi and avenues of sphinxes group themselves into parts of one great design, and at the architects understood tions of art,

.

same time

to use historical

.

paintings, fading

.

by

in-

sensible degrees into hieroglyphics on the one hand,

and into sculpture on the other, linking the whole together with the highest class of phonetic utterance.

With the most brilliant colouring, they thus harmonized all these arts into one great whole, unsurpassed by anything the world has seen during the thirty centuries of struggle

and aspiration that have

elapsed since the brilliant days of the great

kingdom

of the Pharaohs."

Not only did

architecture and the glyphic art reach

such perfection during this period, but the arts of

life

made considerable progress. The royal costumes became suddenly most elaborate brilliant colours, costly ;

armlets and bracelets, many-hued collars, complicated

head dresses, elegant sandals, jewels of price, gay and wigs with conventional adornment, came

sashes,

into vogue.

Luxury was exhibited

the dwellings of the wealthy

;

in the

designs of

the grounds were laid

out with formal courts and alleys, palms and vines

adorned them, ponds and reservoirs gave freshness to summer temperature, irrigation clothed the lawns with verdure. Inside, there was richly carved furnithe

ture covered

with

cushions

of

delicate stuffs,

and

; ;

MENEPHTHAH

268

adding the harmony of

I.

the

colour to

luxurious

scene.

The

which had been introduced from Asia, helped in the march of extravagance and refinement the chariot took the place of the palanquin, and there horse,

was a new opportunity as

well

as

in

the

for

adornment

construction

of

in the trappings,

light

or

heavy

vehicles.

same time, letters made equal progress wisdom devoted themselves to the preservaof the knowledge of the past, and to the com-

At

men tion

the

;

of

position of original works in history, divinity, poetry,

correspondence, and

practical

philosophy,

for

the

preservation of which a public library was established at

Thebes under a competent

director.

The

highest

the arts of peace seems to

perfection thus reached in have been coincident with an advance in sensualism indecency in apparel was common, polygamy increased, woman lost her former degree of purity

;

and barbarism were more and more common taxation bore heavily and without pity upon the lower orders, and the wretched fcllahin were beaten by the severest of tyrants, the irresponsible tax-gatherer women as well as men were stripped for the indignity and pain of the terrible bastinado and even dead enemies were mutilated for the purpose cruelty in

war

;

;

;

of preserving evidence of their numbers.

XVII.

THE DECLINE OF EGYPT UNDER THE LATER RA MLS SIDESTlIE troublous period which followed the death of Menephthah issued finally in complete anarchy. Egypt broke up into nomes, or cantons, the chiefs of which acknowledged no superior. It was as though in England, after centuries of centralized rule, the Heptarchy

had suddenly returned and re-established

The

even this was not the worst.

itself.

But

suicidal folly of

provokes foreign attack was not long before Aarsu, a Syrian chieftain, took advantage of the state of affairs in Egypt to extend his own dominion over one nome after another, until he had made almost the whole country subject to him. Then, at last, the spirit of patriotism awoke. internal division naturally

and

;

it

Egypt

felt

the

shame of being

ruled by a foreigner of

and a prince was found after a time, a descendant of the Ramesside line, who unfurled the national banner, and commenced a war a race that she despised

of independence.

of Set-nekht, or

some

to

"

This prince, who bore the name is thought by

Set the victorious,"

have been a son of Seti

son of Menephthah establish

;

any such

;

II.,

but the evidence relationship.

and so a grandis

There

insufficient to is

reason to

EGYPT UNDER THE LATER RAMESSIDES.

270

believe that the blood of the nineteenth dynasty, of

ran in his veins; but no any former monarch can be made out. And certainly he owed his crown less to his descent than to his strong arm and his stout heart. It was by dint of severe fighting that he forced his way to the throne, defeating Aarsu, and gradually reducing all Egypt under his power. Set-nekht's reign must have been short. He set himself to " put the whole land in order, to execute the abominables, to set up the temples, and re-estabSeti

and Ramesses

I.

II.,

particular relationship to

lish

the divine offerings for the service of the gods,

But he was unable to much. He could not even discharge properly the main duty of a king towards himself, which was to prepare a fitting receptacle for his remains when he should quit the earth. To excavate a rock-tomb in the style fashionable at the day was a task requiring several years for its due accomplishas their statutes prescribed."

very

effect

ment to

of

;

Set-nekht

many life.

years

felt

that he could not look forward

— perhaps not even

In this difficulty, he

priating to himself a royal

felt

tomb

to

many months

no shame

in



appro-

recently constructed

by a king, named Siphthah, whom he looked upon as a usurper, and therefore as unworthy of consideration. In this sepulchre we see the names of Siphthah and his queen, Taouris, erased by the chisel from their cartouches, and the name of Set-nekht substituted in their place. By one and the same act the king punished an unworthy predecessor, and provided himself dignity.

with

a

ready

-

made

tomb

befitting

his

ACCESSION OF RAM ESSES was

It

also,

III.

2J1

probably, on account of his advanced

age at his accession, that he almost immediately asso-

kingdom

his son Ramesses, a prince of he made " Chief of On," and viceroy over Lower Egypt, with Heliopolis (On) for

ciated in the

much

promise,

whom

Ramesses the Third, as he was one of the most distinguished of Egyptian monarchs, and the last who acquired any his residence is

commonly

and

capital.

called,

we come down to the time of the Shabak and Tirhakah. He reigned as sole monarch for thirty-one years, during the earlier portion of which period he carried on a number of great glory until

Ethiopians,

important wars, while during the later portion

employed himself in the construction of those nificent

mental in

buildings, which

carrying his

in

name down

other works of utility.

last

have been chiefly

instru-

to posterity,

Lenormant

calls

he

mag-

him

"

and the

of the great sovereigns of Egypt," and observes

with reason, that though he never ceased, during the whole time that he occupied the throne, to labour hard to re-establish the integrity of the empire abroad, and the prosperity of the country at home, yet his wars and his conquests had a character essentially defensive

;

his efforts, like those of the Trajans, the

Marcus Aurelius's and the Septimius Scverus's of history, were directed to making head against the ever rising flood of barbarians, which had already before his time burst the dykes that restrained it, and though once driven back, continued to dash

itself

on every

side against the outer borders of the empire,

presage

its

speedy overthrow.

the whole, successful

;

His

efforts

and to

were, on

he was able to uphold and

272

EGYPT UNDER THE LATER RAMESSlDE$.

preserve for

some considerable time longer the

greatness which

torial

terri-

nineteenth dynasty had

the

up a second time. The monumental temple of Medinet-Abou, near Thebes, is the Pantheon erected

built

Every pylon,

Pharaoh.

to the glory of this great

every gateway, every chamber, relates to exploits which

he accomplished.

us

the

Sculptured com-

positions of large dimensions represent his principal battles.

There are times less spirit

in

the world's history

when

a rest-

appears to seize on the populations of large

tracts of country, and, without

any

clear cause that

can be alleged, uneasy movements begin.

mutterings are heard

;

Subdued

a tremor goes through

the air

is rife

;

;

an eruption of greater or tive

flood

overleaps

Carrying devastation another, until

the

coming change stalks abroad with rumours at last there bursts out

nations, expectation of

its

its

less violence

barriers,

and ruin

in

— the

destruc-

and flows forth, one direction or

energies are exhausted, or

its

pro-

by some obstacle that it cannot overcome, and it subsides reluctantly and perforce. Such a time was that on which Ramesses III. was cast. Wars threatened him on every side. On his northgress stopped

eastern frontier the Shasu or Bedouins of the desert

ravaged and plundered, at once harrying the Egyptian

and threatening the mining establishments To the north-west the Libyan tribes, Maxyes, Asbystae, Auseis, and others, were exercising a continuous pressure, to which the Egyptians were forced to yield, and gradually a foreign population was " squatting " on the fertile lands, and territory

of the Sinaitic region.

War of ramesses

with the Libyans.

hi.

driving the former possessors

of

the

and

Mashuash,"

Egypt

;

they

says

took

the

Ramesses, cities

on

"

back upon

soil

more eastern portion of the Delta.

the

273

The Lubu

"

were seated

the western

in

side

from Memphis as far as Karbana, reaching the Great River along its entire course (from Memphis north-

For many Ramesses began his warlike operations by a campaign against the Shasu, whose country he invaded and overran, spoiling and wards), and capturing the city of Kaukut.

years had they been in Egypt."

destroying their cabins, capturing their cattle, slaying all

who resisted him, and carrying back into Egypt a number of prisoners, whom he attached to the

vast

various temples as

"

sacred slaves."

against the Libyans, and

He

then turned

coming upon them unex-

pectedly in the tract between the Sebennytic branch of the Nile and the Canopic, he defeated in a great

Mashuash, Lubu, Merand Bakana, slaughtering them with the utmost fury, and driving them before him across the western branch of the river. " They battle the seven tribes of the basat, Kaikasha, Shai, Hasa,

trembled before him," says the native historian, "as the mountain goats tremble before a bull,

who stamps

with his foot, strikes with his horns, and makes the

mountains shake as he rushes on whoever opposes The Egyptians gave no quarter that memo-

him."

Vengeance had free course the slain heaps upon heaps the chariot wheels passed over them the horses trampled them in the mire. Hundreds were pushed and forced into the marshes and into the river itself, and, if they escaped the flight of missiles which followed, found for the rable day.

Libyans lay

:



in



274

EGYPT UNDER THE LATER RAMESSIDES.

most part a watery grave in the strong current. Ramesses portrays this flight and carnage in the most graphic way. The slain enemy strew the ground, as he advances over them with his prancing steeds and in his rattling war-car, plying them moreover His with his arrows as they vainly seek to escape. chariot force and his infantry have their share in the pursuit, and with sword, or spear, or javelin, strike down alike the resisting and the unresisting. No one seeks to take a prisoner. It is a day of vengeance and of down-treading, of fury allowed to do its worst, of a people drunk with passion that has cast off all self-restraint.

Even passion exhausts

itself at last,

grows weary of slaughtering. revenged

themselves

pursuit that followed

the

in it,

and the arm

Having great

sufficiently

battle,

and the

the Egyptians relaxed some-

They extreme hostility. made a large number of the Libyans prisoners, branded

what from

their policy of

them with a hot iron, as the Persians often did their prisoners, and forced them to join the naval service and serve as mariners on board the Egyptian fleet. The chiefs of greater importance they confined in fortresses. The women and children became the the cattle, " too numerous slaves of the conquerors to count," was presented by Ramesses to the Priest;

College of

Ammon

at

Thebes.

had crowned his arms and it may well be that Ramesses would have been content with the military glory thus acquired, and have abstained from further expeditions, had not he been forced

So

far success

within a few years to take the

;

field

against a powerful

INVASION OF EGYPT BY LAND AND SEA.

2J$

combination of new and partly unheard-of enemies.

The uneasy movement among

the nations, which has been already noticed, had spread further afield, and now agitated at once the coasts and islands of SouthEastern Europe, and the more western portion of Asia Minor. Seven nations banded themselves together, and resolved to unite their forces, both naval and military, against Egypt, and to attack her both

by land and sea, not now on the north-western frontier, where some of them had experienced defeat before, but in exactly the opposite quarter, by way of Syria and Palestine. Of the seven, three had been among her former adversaries in the time of Menephthah, namely, the Sheklusha, the Shartana, and theTursha while four were new antagonists, unknown at any former period. There were, first, the Tanauna, in whom it is usual to see either the Danai of the Peloponnese, so celebrated in Homer, or the Daunii of south-eastern Italy, who bordered on the Iapyges secondly, the Tekaru, or Teucrians, a well-known people of the Troad thirdly, the Uashasha, who are identified with the Oscans or Ausones, neighbours of the Daunians and fourthly, the Purusata, whom some explain as the Pelasgi, and others as the Philistines. The lead in the expedition was taken by these last. At their summons the islands and shores of the Mediterranean gave forth their piratical hordes the sea was covered by their light galleys and swept by their strong oars Tanauna, Shartana, Sheklusha, Tursha, and Uashasha combined their squadrons into a powerful fleet, while Purusata and Tekaru advanced in countless numbers along the land. The Purusata ;

;

;

;





EGYPT UNDER THE LATER RAMESSIDES.

276

were especially bent on effecting a settlement they marched into Northern Syria from Asia Minor accompanied by their wives and children, who were mounted upon carts drawn by oxen, and formed a vast un;

wieldy crowd.

and

The

other nations sent their sailors

their warriors without

any such encumbrances.

Bursting through the passes of Taurus, the combined Purusata and Tekaru spread themselves over Northern Syria, wasting and plundering the entire country of the Khita, and proceeding eastward as far as Carche-

mish "by Euphrates," while the ships of the remaining confederates

Such

coasted

along

resistance as the Hittites

the

Syrian shore.

and Syrians made was

No people stood before their wholly ineffectual. Aradus and Kadesh fell The conquerors arms." pushed on towards Egypt, anticipating an easy vic';

tory.

But

their fond

hopes were doomed to disap-

pointment.

Ramesses had been informed of the designs and approach of the enemy, and had had ample time to make all needful preparations. He had strengthened his frontier, called out all his best-disciplined troops

and placed the mouths of the Nile in a state of defence by means of forts, strong garrisons, and flotillas upon the stream and upon the lakes adjacent. He had selected an eligible position for encountering the advancing hordes on the coast route from Gaza to Egypt, about half-way between Raphia and Pelusium, where a new fort had been built by his orders. At this point he took his stand, and calmly awaited his enemies, not having neglected the precaution to Here, as set an ambush or two in convenient places.

Double defeat of the invaders. he kept his watch, the

first

enemy

to arrive

land host of the Purusata, encumbered with

277

was the long

its

moving bullock-carts, heavily laden Harnesses instantly atwith women and children. tacked them his ambushes rose up out of their and the enemy was beset on places of concealment every side. They made no prolonged resistance. Assaulted by the disciplined and seasoned troops of the Egyptians, the entire confused mass was easily Twelve thousand five hundred men were defeated. the army slain in the fight the camp was taken shattered to pieces. Nothing was open to the survivors but an absolute surrender, by which life was train

of slowly





;

;

saved at the cost of perpetual servitude.

The danger, however, was as yet but half come the snake was scotched but not killed.

over-



For

as yet the fleet remained intact, and might land

thousands on the Egyptian coasts and carry

fire

its

and

The sword over the broad region of the Delta. Tanauna and their confederates Sheklusha, Sharmade rapidly for the nearest tana, and Tursha mouth of the Nile, which was the Pclusiac, and did But the precautions their best to effect a landing. taken by Ramesses, before he set forth on his march, proved sufficient to frustrate their efforts. The Egyptian fleet met the combined squadrons of the enemy in the shallow waters of the Pelusiac lagoon, and contended with them in a fierce battle, which Ramesses





caused

to

sculptures

— the

earliest

representation of a sea-fight that has

come

down

Both sides have ships propelled at once and oars, but furl their sails before engaging

by

to us.

sails

be represented

in

his

278

EGYPT UNDER THE LATER RAMESSIDES.

Each

ship has a single yard, constructed to carry a

and hung across the vessel's mast at a short distance below the top. The mast is crowned by a bell-shaped receptacle, large enough to contain a man, who is generally a slinger

single large square-sail, single

or an archer, placed

there to gall the

enemy with own

stones or arrows, and so to play the part of our

sharpshooters in the main-tops.

The rowers

sixteen to twenty-two in number, besides vessel carries a

number of

shields, spears,

swords, and

promiscuous

melee,

fighting men,

bows.

The

are from

whom

each

armed with fight

is

a

the two fleets being intermixed,

and each ship engaging that next to it, without a thought of combined action or of manoeuvres. One of the enemy's vessels is represented as capsized and sinking the rest continue the engagement. Several are pressing towards the shore of the lagoon, and the men-at-arms on board them are endeavouring to effect a landing but they are met by the land-force under Ramesses himself, who greet them with such a ;

;

hail of

arrows as renders

it

impossible for them to

carry out their purpose.

would seem that Ramesses had no sooner and destroyed the army of the Purusata and Tekaru than he set off in haste for Pelusium, and marched with such speed as to arrive in time to witness the naval engagement, and even to take a certain part in it. The invading fleet was so far successful as to force its way through the opposing vessels of the Egyptians, and to press forward towards the shore but here its further progress was arrested. "A wall of iron," says Ramesses, "shut them in upon It

defeated

;

THE FIRST KNOWN SEA-FIGHT. The

the lake."

best troops of

Egypt

281

banks

lined the

of the lagoon, and wherever the invaders attempted

were

to land they

down at the edge of the "by hundreds of heaps of "The infantry," says the monarch in his

they

water,

Repulsed, dashed to the

foiled.

down

ground, hewn corpses."

were

vainglorious

or shot

slain

inscription,

up

set

memory

in

event, "all the choicest troops of the

of the

army of Egypt,

stood upon the bank, furious as roaring lions chariot

force,

were quickest in

selected

from among the heroes that

was led by

in battle,

The

themselves.

the

;

officers confident

war-steeds quivered

in all their

and burned to trample the nations under their feet I myself was like the god Mentu, the warlike placed myself at their head, and they saw the I achievements of my hands. I, Ramesses the king, behaved as a hero who knows his worth, and who stretches out his arm over his people in the day of combat. The invaders of my territory will gather no more harvests upon the earth, their life is counted to Those that gained the shore, I them as eternity. limbs,

;

.

.

.

caused to

fall

heaps

overturned their vessels

sank

I

;

in

at the water's edge, they lay slain in

the waves."

;

all

their

After a brief combat,

all

goods resist-

ance ceased.

The empty

upon the

still

waters of the lagoon, or stuck fast

the Nile

mud, became the

ships, floating at

random

prize of the victors,

in

and

Thus ended this which nations widely severed scarcely, as one would have

were found to contain a rich booty.

remarkable struggle,

in

and of various bloods thought,

known



to each other,

diversity of interests

— united

in

and separated by a an attack upon the

282

EGYPT UNDER THE LATER RAMESSIDES.

foremost power of the

known

world, traversed several

hundreds of miles of land or sea successfully, neither quarrelling among themselves nor meeting with disaster from without, and reached the country which they had hoped to conquer, but were there completely defeated and repulsed in two engagements one by land, the other partly by land and partly by sea so that "their spirit was annihilated, their soul was taken from them." Henceforth no one of the nations which took part in the combined attack is found in arms against the power that had read them so severe a





lesson. It was not long after repulsing this attack upon the independence of Egypt that Ramesses undertook his

"campaign of revenge." Starting with a fleet and army along the line that his assailants had followed, he traversed Palestine and Syria, hunting the lion in the outskirts of Lebanon, and re-establishing for a time the Egyptian dominion over much of the region which had been formerly held in subjection by the great monarchs of the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties. He claims to have carried his arms to Aleppo and Carchemish, in which case we must suppose that he defeated the

Hittites, or else that they declined to

meet him in the field and he gives a list of thirtyeight conquered countries or tribes, which are thought to belong to Upper Syria, Southern Asia Minor, and ;

Cyprus.

In some of his inscriptions he even speaks

of having recovered Naharaina, Kush, and Punt



;

but

no evidence that he really visited much less conquered these remote regions. The later life of Ramesses III. was, on the whole,

there

is



CLOSING YEARS OF RAMESSES

283

III.

a time of tranquillity and repose.

North

Africa, after

themselves

in

The wild tribes of one further attempt to establish

the western Delta, which wholly failed,

acquiesced in the

lot

which nature seemed to have

assigned them, and, leaving the Egyptians in peace,

contented themselves with the broad tract over which

they were free to rove between the Mediterranean and the Sahara Desert. sign.

On

the south Ethiopia

made no

In the east the Hittites had enough to do to

power which had been greatly shattered by the passage of the hordes of Asia Minor through their territory, on their way to Egypt and on their return from it. The Assyrians had not yet commenced their aggressive wars towards the north and rebuild the

west, having probably

still

a difficulty

in

maintaining

independence against the attacks of Babylon. Egypt was left undisturbed by her neighbours for the space of several generations, and herself refrained from

their

disturbing the peace of the world by foreign expedi-

Ramesses turned his attention to building, commerce, and the planting of Egypt with trees. He constructed and ornamented the beautiful temple of Ammon at Medinct-Abou, built a fleet on the Red Sea and engaged in trade with Punt, dug a great reservoir in the country of Aina (Southern Palestine), and " over the whole land of Egypt planted trees and shrubs, to give the inhabitants rest under their cool tions.

shade."

The

general decline of

Egypt must, however, be

garded as having commenced

in his reign.

conquests were more specious than

nominal rather than a

re-

His Eastern

solid, resulting in

real subjection of Palestine

a

and

EGYPT UNDER THE LATER RAMESSIDES.

284

His subjects grew unaccustomed arms during the last twenty, or five and

Syria to his yoke. to the use of

twenty, years of his

Above

life.

all,

luxury, intrigue,

and superstition invaded the court, where the eunuchs and concubines exercised a pernicious influence. Magic was practised by some of the chief men in the State, and the belief was widely spread that it was possible by charms, incantations, and the use of waxen images, to bewitch men, or paralyse their limbs, or even to cause their deaths. Hags were to be found about the court as wicked as Canidia,

were willing to

sell their skill in

highest bidder.

The

who

the black art to the

actual person of the

monarch

was not sacred from the plottings of this nefarious crew, who planned assassinations and hatched conspiracies

in

the

very purlieus of the royal palace.

Ramesses himself would, apparently, have fallen a victim to a plot of the kind, had not the parties to it been discovered, arrested, tried by a Royal Commission, and promptly executed. The descendants of Ramesses III. occupied the throne from his death (about

Ten

princes of the

name

B.C.

1280) to

B.C.

1100.

of Ramesses, and one called

Meri-Tum, bore sway during this interval, each of them showing, if possible, greater weakness than the last, and all of them sunk in luxury, idle, effeminate, Ramesses III. provoked caricature by his sensual. open exhibition of harem-scenes on the walls of his Medinet-Abou palace. His descendants, content with harem

life,

scarcely cared to quit the precincts of the

royal abode, desisted

the

task

from

of government

all

war, and even devolved

on other shoulders.

The

RAPID DECLINE OF THE ARTS.

285

Pharaohs of the twentieth dynasty bcame absolute and devolved their duties on the high-

faineants,

temple of Ammon at Thebes, who "set themselves to play the same part which at a distant period was played by the Mayors of the Palace under the later French kings of the Meropriests of the great

vingian line."

In an absolute monarchy, the royal authority is the mainspring which controls all movements and all actions in every part of the State. Let this source of energy grow weak, and decline at once shows itself

throughout the entire body

malady

politic.

It

is

as

when a

on the seat of life in an individual instantly evejy member, every tissue, falls away, suffers, shrinks, decays, perishes. Egyptian architecture is simply non-existent from the death of Ramesses III. to the age of Sheshonk the "grand fatal



seizes

;

style " of pictorial art disappears

becomes a wearisome

;

sculpture in relief

repetition of the

typed religious groups

;

same

stereo-

statuary deteriorates and

is

above all, literature declines, undergoing an almost complete eclipse. A galaxy of literary talent had, as we have seen, clustered about the reigns of Ramesses II. and Menephthah, under whose encouragement authors had devoted themselves to rare

;

history, divinity, practical philosophy, poetry, episto-

lary correspondence, novels, travels, legend.

time of Ramesses III.



all is

a blank

:

From

— nay, from the time cf Seti

" the true poetic inspiration

to have vanished," literature

is

almost

dumb

;

the II.

appears instead

of the masterpieces of Pentaour, Kakabu, Nebsenen, Enna, and others, which even moderns can peruse

;

286

EGYPT UNDER THE LATER RAMESSIDES. with

we have only

pleasure,

documents

"

tone

official

which

in

stracts of trials,

dry

the

— ab•

of func-

lists

enumera-

tiresome

tionaries,

"

prevails

tions in the greatest detail of

made

gifts

with

to the gods, together

fulsome

praises

kings, written either selves or

by

others,

of

the

by themwhich we

are half inclined to regret the lapse of ages has spared from

At

destruction.

morals plays

Intrigue

high

in

enters

the

circle of the palace.

arch himself

decent

same time

Sensuality dis-

fall off.

itself

the

places.

charmed The mon-

satirized in in-

is

drawings.

Presently,

whole idea of a divinity hedging in the king departs and a " thieves' society " is the

formed

for

rifling

the

royal

tombs, and tearing the jewels, with which they have been buried,

persons.

from

the

The

monarchs'

king's

life

is

aimed at by conspirators, who do not scruple to use magical arts priests and high judicial ;

functionaries are implicated in

the proceedings.

Altogether,

DECLINE OF MORALS. the old to

be

any

order seems to be upset

;

and

no

changed, the old ideas

new

principles,

vital efficacy, are introduced.

settles

upon

its

lees

;

possessing

Society gradually

and without some violent appli-

cation of force from without, or

some strange upheaval

from within, the nation seems doomed to into decav

287

and dissolution.

fall

rapidly

XVIII.

THE PRIEST-KINGS

— PINETEM

AND SOLOMON.

The

position of the priests in Egypt was, from the one of high dignity and influence. Though not, strictly speaking, a caste, they formed a very distinct order or class, separated by important privileges, and by their habits of life, from the rest of the community, and recruited mainly from among their own sons, and other near relatives. Their independence and freedom was secured by a system of endowments. From a first,

remote antiquity a considerable portion of the land of Egypt perhaps as much as one-third was made





class, large estates

over to the priestly to each temple,

being attached

and held as common property by the

"colleges," which, like the chapters of our cathedrals,

directed the worship of each sacred edifice. priestly estates were,

tion of

any kind

;

we

are told,

These

exempt from taxa-

and they appear

to

have received

continual augmentation from the piety or superstition of

the

kings,

who

constantly

favourite deities fresh fields,"

and even

The kings of

made

over

to their

gardens, orchards, vineyards,

" cities."

lived

awe of the

"

always

priests.

in a considerable

Though claiming

amount

a certain

qualified divinity themselves, they yet could not but

RELATIONS OF THE KINGS AND PRIESTS. 289 be aware that there were divers flaws and imper-

own made

fections in their "

lute

trust

— which to,

or lean

divinity it

" little

upon, entirely.

greater gods than themselves

own



within the

rifts

not quite a safe support to

There were other

— gods from

whom

their

and they could not be was derived certain what power or influence the priests might not have with these superior beings, in whose existence and ability to benefit and injure men they had the divinity

fullest belief.

;

Consequently, the kings are found to

occupy a respectful attitude throughout the whole course and this from first to last especially maintained towards ;

in

whom

towards of

the

Egyptian

respectful

priests history,

attitude

is

the great personages

the hierarchy culminates, the head

officials,

or chief priests, of the temples which are the principal centres of the national worship

— the temple of Ra, or

Turn, at Heliopolis, that of Phthah at Memphis, and that of

Ammon

at

Thebes.

According

to the place

time being, one or other of these three high-priests had the pre-eminence and, in the later period of the Ramessides,

where the capital was fixed

for the

;

Tnebes having enjoyed metropolitan dignity for between five and six centuries, the Theban High-Priest of Ammon was recognized as beyond dispute the chief of the sacerdotal order, and the next person in the kingdom after the king. It had naturally resulted from this high position, and the weight of influence which it enabled its possessor to exercise, that the office had become hereditary. As far back as the reign of Ramesses IX.,

we

find that the holder of the position has

succeeded

THE PRIEST-KINGS

2gO

— PINETEM

AND SOLOMON.

and regards himself as high-priest rather by natural right than by the will of the king. The priest of that time, Amenhotep by name, the

his father

in

it,

son of Ramesses-nekht, undertakes the restoration of

Temple

the

"

motion, its

Ammon

of

strengthens

columns, inserts

at

its

in

doors of acacia wood."

Thebes of

his

walls, builds

gates

its

it

own proper anew, makes

the great folding-

Formerly, the kings were the

and the high-priests carried out their direcand then in the name of the gods gave thanks

builders,

tions

to

the kings

their

for

munificence.

pious

the ninth Ramesses the order it is

who

the king

Priest of

Ammon

testifies his

for the care

was reversed

Under



"

now

gratitude to the High-

bestowed on

his

temple

by the erection of new buildings and the improvement and maintenance of the older ones." The initiative

has passed out of the king's hands into

those of his subject all

the glory

;

he

is

of

in at the close

all,

king

active, the

Amenhotep's

is

;

Under the

Ammon

a

man

at

passive

as an ornamental person,

presence adds a certain dignity to the of

is

;

the king merely comes

final

whose

ceremony.

of the Ramessides the High-Priest Thebes was a certain Her-hor. He was

last

of a pleasing countenance, with features that

were delicate and good, and an expression that was mild and agreeable. He had the art so to ingratiate himself with his sovereign as to obtain at his hands at least five distinct offices of state besides his sacred

He was " Chief of Upper and Lower Egypt," Royal son of Cush," " Fanbearer on the right hand of the King," "Principal Architect," and "Admini-

dignity. '•

strator

of

the

Granaries."

Some

of these offices

HER-HOR. THE EIRST PRIEST-KLXG.

may have

2gi

been honorary; but the duties of others

must have been important, and their proper discharge would have required a vast amount of varied ability. It is

not likely that Herhor possessed

HI-.AL)

all

the needful

OF HKR-HOR.

we

must presume that he appointments in order to accumulate power, so far as was possible, in his own hands, and thereby to be in a better position

qualifications

grasped

;

rather

at the multiplicity of

2^2

THE PRIEST-KINGS

— PINETEM

to seize the royal authority If

Harnesses

have been

had the

III.

to

on the monarch's demise.

died without issue, his task must

facilitated

skill

AND SOLOMON.

at

;

any

accomplish

rate,

he seems to have

without struggle or

it

some suppose, he banished the remaining descendants of Ramesses III. to the Great Oasis, at any rate he did not stain his priestly hands with bloodshed, or force his way to the throne disturbance

and

;

through scenes of

if,

as

riot

and confusion.

Egypt, so

far

and perhaps more governed by a

as appears, quietly acquiesced in his rule, rejoiced

find herself

to

once

prince of a strong and energetic nature.

For some time after he had mounted the throne, Herhor did not abandon his priestly functions. He bore the

title

of High-Priest of

on one he called himself

Ammon

regularly

on the other Her-Hor Si-Ammon," or " Her-

of his royal escutcheons, while

Hor, son

of

former kings,

"

Ammon," following the example who gave themselves out for sons

Ra, or Phthah, or Mentu, or Horus. he surrendered the priestly Piankh, and

no doubt

title

at the

of

of

But ultimately

to his

eldest

son,

same time devolved

upon him the duties which attached to the highThere was something unseemly in a priest being a soldier, and Herhor was smitten with

priestly office.

the ambition of putting himself at the head of an

army, and reasserting the claim of Egypt to a supremacy over Syria. He calls himself " the conqueror

and there

no reason to doubt that in a Syrian campaign, though to what distance he penetrated must remain uncertain. The Egyptian monarchs are not very exact in their of the Ruten,"

he was successful

is

PINETEM

SUCCEEDS HER-HOR.

I.

293

geographical nomenclature, and Hcrhor may have spoken of Ruten, when his adversaries were really the Bedouins of the desert between Egypt and Palestine.

the

The fact that his expedition is unnoticed in Hebrew Scriptures renders it tolerably certain

that he did not effect

any permanent conquest, even

of Palestine.

Herhor's son, Piankh,

who became

High-Priest of

Ammon

on his father's abdication of the office, does not appear to have succeeded him in the kingdom. Perhaps he did not outlive his father. At any rate, the kingly office seems to have passed from Herhoi to his grandson, Pinetem, whe was a monarch of some distinction, and had a reign of at least twenty-five years. Pinetem's right to the crown was disputed by descendants of the Ramesside line of kings and he thought it worth while to strengthen his title by ;

contracting a marriage with a princess of that royal stock, a certain

Ramaka,

or

appears on his monuments.

Rakama, whose name But compromise with

treason has rarely a tranquillizing effect

;

and Pine-

tem's concession to the prejudices which formed the stock-in-trade

of

his

them and urged them

opponents

only

to greater efforts.

exasperated

The

focus

of the conspiracy passed from the Oasis to Thebes,

which had grown disaffected because Pinetem had removed the seat of government to Tanis in the Delta, which was the birthplace of his grandfather, Herhor. So threatening had become the general aspect of affairs, that the king thought it prudent to send his son, Ra-men-khepr or Men-khepr-ra, the existing

high-priest

of the

Temple

of

Ammon

at

294

THE PRIEST-KINGS

— PINETEM

AND SOLOMON.

Thebes, from Tan is to the southern capital, in ordef that he should

make

himself acquainted with

the

and with the designs of the disaffected, and see whether he could not either persuade or It was a curious part for the Priest of coerce them. Ammon to play. Ordinarily an absentee from Thebes and from the duties of his office, he visits the place plenary as Royal Commissioner, entrusted with powers to punish or forgive offenders at his pleasure. His fellow-townsmen are in the main hostile to him but the terror of the king's name is such that they do not dare to offer him any resistance, and he singles out those who appear to him most guilty for punishment, and has them executed, while he grants the royal pardon to others without any let or hindrance on the part of the civic authorities. Finally, having removed all those whom he regarded as really dangerous, he ventured to conclude his commission by granting a general amnesty to all persons implicated in the conspiracy, and allowing the political refugees to return from the Oasis to Thebes and to live there secret strength,

;

unmolested.

He Men-khepr-ra soon afterwards became king. named Hesi-em-Kheb, who is thought to have been a descendant of Seti I., and thus gave an additional legitimacy to the dynasty of Priest-Kings. He also adorned the city of Kheb, the native place married a wife

of

his

nothing

wife, is

with

known

public

buildings

;

but otherwise

of the events of his reign.

general rule, the priest-kings were no

more

As

a

active or

enterprizing than their predecessors, the Ramessides

of the twentieth dynasty.

They were content

to rule

&MP1RL OF DAVID AND SOLOMON. Egypt

in

-!
peace, and enjoy the delights of sovereignty,

without fatiguing themselves either with the construction of great

works or the conduct of military exno history is rightly

If the people that has

peditions.

pronounced happy, Egypt their rule

;

may have

prospered under

but the historian can scarcely be expected

a period which supplies him with no work upon. The inaction of Egypt was favourable to the growth and spread of other kingdoms and empires. Towards the close of the Ramesside period Assyria had greatly increased in power, and extended her authority beyond the Euphrates as far as the Mediterranean. After this, causes that are still obscure had caused her to decline, and, Syria being left to itself, a new power grew up in it. In 'die later half of the eleventh to appreciate

materials to

century, probably during the reign of Men-khepr-ra in Egypt, David began that series of conquests by which he gradually built up an empire, uniting in one all the countries and tribes between the river of Egypt (Wady-el-Arish) and the Euphrates. Egypt

made no attempt to interfere with his proceedings and Assyria, after one defeat (i Chron. xix. 16-19), withdrew from the contest. David's empire was inherited by Solomon (1 Kings iv. 21-24); ar>d Solomon's position was such as naturally brought him into communication with the great powers beyond his borders, among others with Egypt. A brisk trade was carried on between his subjects and the Egyptians, especially in horses and chariots and diplomatic intercourse was no (ib. x. 28, 29) doubt established between the courts of Tanis and ;

:

2g6

THE PRIEST-KINGS— PINETEM AAD SOLOMON.

Jerusalem. prince was incline to

It

a

is

Pinetem

II.,

Men-khepr-ra, and dynasty.

uncertain which Egyptian

little

now upon

the throne

but Egyptologers

;

the second in succession after

the

last

king

one of the

but

The Hebrew monarch having made

tures through

his

ambassador,

this prince,

it

over-

would

and, soon after them favourably Kings iii. i), Solomon took to wife his daughter, an Egyptian princess, receiving with her as a dowry the city and territory of Gezer, which Pinetem had recently taken from its inde-

seem, received

;

his accession (i

The Canaanite inhabitants (ib. ix. 16). new connection had advantages and disadvantages. The excessive polygamy, which had been affected pendent

by the Egyptian monarchs ever since the time of Ramesses II., naturally spread into Judea, and "King Solomon loved many strange women, together with

women

the daughter of Pharaoh,

of the Moabites,

Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites .... and he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines and his wives turned away his heart" (ib. xi. I, 3). On the other hand, commerce was no doubt promoted by the step taken, and much was learnt in the way of art from the Egyptian sculptors and architects. The burst of ;

architectural vigour which

reign

among

those of other

distinguishes

Hebrew

festly the direct result of ideas

Solomon's is mani-

kings,

brought to Jerusalem

from the capital of the Pharaohs. The plan of the Temple, with its open court in front, its porch, its

Holy

Place,

its

was modelled

Holy of

after the

Holies, and

its

Egyptian pattern.

chambers,

The two

EGYPTIAN INFLUENCE ON HEBREW ART. pillars,

Jachin and Boaz, which stood

in front

2yJ

of the

porch, took the place of the twin obelisks, which

in

every finished example of an Egyptian temple stood The lions on just in front of the principal entrance. the steps of the royal throne tions of those

which

in

(ib.

Egypt

were imita-

x. 20)

often supported the

monarch on either side and " the house of the forest of Lebanon " was an attempt to reproseat of the

duce the

;

effect

Something

in

of one

of Egypt's "pillared halls."

the architecture of

learnt from Phoenicia,

and a

Solomon was

clearly

— a very

— may

little

perhaps have been derived from Assyria

;

little

but Egypt

gave at once the impulse and the main bulk of the ideas and forms. The line of priest-kings terminated with Hor-paThey held seb-en-sha, the successor of Pinetem II. the throne for about a century and a quarter and if they cannot be said to have played a very important ;

part in the

"

story of Egypt," or in

increased Egyptian

any way

the reproach, which

rests

have

upon most of the more

distinguished dynasties, of seeking their

modes which caused

to

greatness, yet at least they escape

own

glory

their subjects untold suffering.

in

STh-

XIX. SH1SHAK AND HIS DYNASTY.

The

rise of

the twenty-second resembles in

many

In both

respects that of the twenty-first dynasty.

is to be found in the weakness of the royal house, which rapidly loses its pristine vigour, and is impotent to resist the first Perhaps assault made upon it by a bold aggressor. the wonder is rather that Egyptian dynasties continued so long as they did, than that they were not longer-lived, since there was in almost every instance a rapid decline, alike in the physique and in the mental so that nothing calibre of the holders of sovereignty but a little combined strength and audacity was

cases the cause of the revolution

;

requisite in order to

Shishak was an settled in

bastis

its

push them from their pedestals.

official

of a

made

Egypt, which had residence.

the family had noble

We may

— shall

Semitic family long the town of Bu-

suspect,

we say

if

we

royal

like,

that

?— blood

in

and could trace its descent to dynasties which had ruled at Nineveh or Babylon. The connexion is possible, though scarcely probable, since no its

veins,

attended the first arrival of the Shishak family Egypt, and the family names, though Semitic, are It is decidedly neither Babylonian nor Assyrian.

eclat in

shishak's foreign origin.

299

tempting to adopt the sensational views of writers, who, out of half a dozen names, manufacture an Assyrian conquest of Egypt, and the establishment on the throne of the Pharaohs of a branch derived from one or other of the royal Mesopotamian houses but "facts are stubborn things," and the imagination ;

scarcely entitled to

is

mould them

at its will.

necessary to face the two certain facts



(1)

It is

that no One

of the dynastic names is the natural representative of any name known to have been borne by any Assyrian or Babylonian and (2) that neither Assyria noi Babylonia was at the time in such a position as to ;

effect,

or even

to contemplate,

distant enterprizes.

Babylonia did not attain such a position till the time of Nabopolassar Assyria had enjoyed it about B.C. ;

1

1

50-1 100, but had lost

B.C.

890.

way

to

it,

and did not recover

it til}

Moreover, Solomon's empire blocked the

Egypt against both

be shattered

in

countries,

and required to Meso-

pieces before either of the great

potamian powers could have sent a corps d'ariuce into the land of the Pharaohs.

Sober students of history will therefore regard Shishak (Sheshonk) simply as a member of a family which, though of foreign extraction, had been long settled in Egypt, and had worked its way into a high position under the priest-kings of Herhor's line, retaining a special connection with Bubastis, the place

made

:

home. Shcshonk s grandfather, who bore the same name, had had the honour of intermarrying into the royal house, having which

it

had from the

first

its

taken to wife Meht-en-hont, a princess of the blood,

whose exact parentage

is

unknown

to us.

His

father,

SHISHAK AND HIS DYNASTY.

300

Namrut, had held a high military office, being commander of the Libyan mercenaries, who at this time formed the most important part of the standing army. Sheshonk himself, thus descended, was naturally in When we the front rank of Egyptian court-officials. first hear of him he is called " His Highness," and given the title of " Prince of the princes," which is thought to imply that he enjoyed the first rank among all the chiefs of mercenaries, of whom there were

many.

Thus he held

a position only second to that

occupied by the king, and when his son became a suitor for the hand of a daughter of the reigning sovereign, no one could say that etiquette was infringed, or an ambition displayed that was excessive and unsuitable. The match was consequently allowed to come off, and

Sheshonk became doubly connected with the royal house, through his daughter-in-law and through his

When,

on the death of Hor-pa-seb-en-sha, he assumed the title and functions of king, no opposition was offered the crown

grandmother.

therefore,

:

seemed

to

have passed simply from one member of

the royal family to another.

In monarchies like the Egyptian,

it is

not very

diffi-

an ambitious subject, occupying a certain but it is far from easy position, to seize the throne Unless there is a general imfor him to retain it cult for

;

pression of the usurper's activity, energy, and vigour, his authority

is

at nought.

It

be soon disputed, or even set behoves him to give indications of

liable to

strength and breadth of character, or of a wise, farseeing policy, in order to deter rivals from attempting to undermine his power.

Sheshonk early

let

it

be

JEROBOAM AT

SIIISHAK'S COURT.

30I

seen that he possessed both caution and far-reaching

views by his treatment of a refugee who, shortly after

sought his court.

his accession,

one

of

This was Jeroboam,

the highest officials in the neighbouring king-

of Israel, whom Solomon, the great Israelite monarch, regarded with suspicion and hostility, on

dom

account of a declaration

was

at

some

made by

a prophet that he

future time to be king of

To

Ten Tribes

Jeroboam with favour was necessarily to offend Solomon, and thus to reverse the policy of the preceding dynasty, and pave the way for a rupture with the State which was at this time Egypt's most important neighbour.

out of the Twelve.

receive

Sheshonk, nevertheless, accorded a gracious reception

Jeroboam

and the favour in which he remained Egyptian court was an encouragement to the disaffected among the Israelites, and distinctly foreshadowed a time when an even bolder policy would be adopted, and a strike made for imperial power. The time came at Solomon's demise. Jeroboam was at once allowed to return to Palestine, and to foment the discontent which it was foreseen would terminate in separation. The two kings had, no doubt, laid their plans. Jeroboam was first to see what he could effect unaided, and then, if difficulty supervened, his powerful ally was to come to his assistance. For the monarch Egyptian to have appeared in the first instance would have roused Hebrew patriotism against him. Sheshonk waited till Jeroboam had, to a certain extent, established his kingdom, had set up a new worship blending Hebrew with Egyptian notions, and had sufficiently tested the affection or disaffection

to

at the

;

302

SHISHAK AND HIS DYNASTY,

towards his rule of the various classes of his subjects. He then marched out to his assistance. Levying a

hundred chariots, sixty thousand horse and footmen " without number " (2 Chron. xii. 3), chiefly from the Libyan and Ethiopian mercenaries which now formed the strength of the Egyptian armies, he proceeded into the Holy Land, entering it " in three columns," and so spreading his Retroops far and wide over the southern country. hoboam, Solomon's son and successor, had made such He preparation as was possible against the attack. had anticipated it from the moment of Jeroboam's return, and he had carefully guarded the main routes whereby his country could be approached from the south, fortifying, among other cities, Shoco, Adullam, Azekah, Gath, Mareshah, Ziph, Tekoa, and Hebron But the host of Sheshonk was (2 Chron. xi. 6-10). Never before had the Hebrews met in irresistible.

force of twelve (?

six thousand),

battle the forces of their powerful southern neighbour

— never

before had they been confronted with huge masses of disciplined troops, armed and trained alike, and soldiers by profession. The Jewish levies were a rude and untaught militia, little accustomed to waror even to the use of arms, after forty years of peace, during which " every man had dwelt safely fare,

under the shade of his own vine and his own fig-tree" (1 Kings iv. 25). They must have trembled before the chariots, and cavalry, and trained footmen of Egypt. Accordingly, there seems to have been no battle, and

no regularly organized resistance. As the host of Sheshonk advanced along the chief roads that led to the Jewish capital, the

cities, fortified

with so

much

smsiiAK Invades Care or

by Rchoboam,

fell

cither

after brief sieges (2

jl'dj:a.

opened Chron.

303

their gates to him,

Sheshonk's

xii. 4).

march was a triumphal progress, and short space of time he appeared

in

an incredibly

before Jerusalem,

where Rchoboam and "the princes of Judah tremblingly awaiting his

arrival.

surrendered at discretion

;

entered the

Holy

City,

The son

of

"

were

Solomon

and the Egyptian conqueror stripped the

Temple

of

its

most which Solomon had made for his body-guard, and plundered the royal palace (2 Chron xii. 9). The city generally does not appear to have been sacked nor was there any massacre. Rehoboam's submission was accepted he was maintained in his kingdom but he had to become Sheshonk's "servant" (2 Chron. xii. 8), i.e., he had to accept the position of a tributary prince, owing fealty and obedience to the Egyptian monarch. The objects ot Sheshonk's expedition were not yet half accomplished. By the long inscription which he set up on his return to Egypt, we find that, after having made Judea subject to him, he proceeded with his army into the kingdom of Israel, and there also took a number of towns which were peculiarly circumstanced. The Levites of the northern kingdom had from the first disapproved of the religious changes and the Levitical cities within effected by Jeroboam his dominions were regarded with an unfriendly eye by the Israel ice monarch, who saw in them hotbeds of rebellion. He had not ventured to make a direct attack upon them himself, since he would thereby have lighted the torch of civil war within his own valuable treasures, including the shields of gold

;

;

;

;

SHISHAK AND HIS DYNASTY.

304

borders but, having now an Egyptian army at his beck and call, he used the foreigners as an instrument at once to free him from a danger and to execute his vengeance upon those whom he looked upon as traitors. Sheshonk was directed or encouraged to attack and take the Levitical cities of Rehob, Gibeon, ;

Mahanaim, Beth-horon, Kedemoth, Bileam or Ibleam Alemoth, Taanach, Golan, and Anem, to plunder them and carry off their inhabitants as slaves while he was also persuaded to reduce a certain number of Canaanite towns, which did not yield Jeroboam a s

;

We may trace the march of Sheshonk by Megiddo, Taanach, and Shunem, to Beth-shan,and thence across the Jordan to Mahanaim and Aroer after which, having satisfied his vassal, Jeroboam, he proceeded to make war on his own account with the Arab tribes adjoining on TransJordanic Israel, and subdued the Temanites, the Edomites, and various tribes of the Hagarenes. His dominion was thus established from the borders of Egypt to Galilee, and from the Mediterranean to the

very willing obedience.

;

Great Syrian Desert.

On

return to Egypt from Asia, with his and his treasures, it seemed to the victorious monarch that he might fitly follow the example of the old Pharaohs who had made expeditions into Palestine and Syria, and commemorate his achievements by a sculptured record. So would he best impress the mass of the people with his merits, and induce them to put him on a par with the Thothmeses and the Amenhoteps of former ages. On the southern external wall of the great temple of Karnak, his

prisoners

RECORD OF yVDMA'S CONQUEST. he caused

305

himself to be represented twice

— once as

holding by the hair of their heads thirty-eight captive Asiatics, and threatening them with uplifted mace and a second time as leading captive one hundred and thirty-three cities or tribes, each specified by name and personified in an individual form, the form,

;

however, being incomplete.

Among

these representa-

FIGURE RECORDING THE CONQUEST OF JUDAEA BY SHISHAK.

one which bears the inscription " Yuteh Malek," and which must be regarded as figuring the captive Judaean kingdom. Thus, after nearly a century and a half of repose, tions

is

Egypt appeared once more in Western Asia as a conquering power, desirious of establishing an empire.

The

political edifice raised with

so

much

trouble by

SHISHAK and his dynasty,

306

David, and watched over with such care by Solomon, had been shaken to its base by the rebellion of Jeroboam it was shattered beyond all hope of recovery by Shishak. Never more would the fair fabric of an Israelite empire rear itself up before the eyes of men never more would Jerusalem be the capital of a State as extensive as Assyria or Babylonia, and as populous ;

;

as Egypt.

After seventy years, or

so,

of union, Syria



was broken up the cohesion effected by the warlike might of David and the wisdom of Solomon ceased the ill-assimilated parts fell asunder and once more the broad and fertile tract intervening between Assyria and Egypt became divided among a score of petty States, whose weakness invited a con-



;

queror.

Sheshonk did not live many years to enjoy the glory and honour brought him by his Asiatic successes.

He

died after a reign of twenty-one years, leaving his

crown to

his

second son, Osorkon, who was married Keramat, a daughter of Sheshonk's

to the Princess

The dynasty thus founded continued occupy the Egyptian throne for the space of about two centuries, but produced no other monarch of any remarkable distinction. The Asiatic dominion, which Sheshonk had established, seems to have been maintained for about thirty years, during the reigns of Osorkon I., Sheshonk's son, and Takelut I., his grandson but in the reign of Osorkon II., the son of Takelut, the Jewish monarch of the time, Asa, the grandson of Rehoboam, shook off the Egyptian yoke, re-established Judaean independence, and fortified himself against attack by restoring the defences of all those predecessor.

to

;

JUDJEA REVOLTS UNDER ASA.

307

which Sheshonk had dismantled, and " making about them walls, and towers, gates, and bars" (2 At the same time he placed under Chron. xiv. 7 cities

.

arms the whole male population of his kingdom, which is reckoned by the Jewish historian at 580,000

u *^%4fe

••*-il

HEAD OF SHISHAK.

men.

The

"

men

of Judah

"

bore spears and targets,

men

of Benjamin

"

had and were armed with the bow (ib. ver. 8). "All these," says the historian, "were mighty men of valour." It was not to be supposed that Egypt would bear tamely this defiance, or sub-

or small

round shields

;

shields of a larger size,

the

"

&HIS1IAK

30&

AND HIS DYNASTY.

mit to the entire loss of her Asiatic dominion, which

was necessarily involved

in

without an effort to retain

it.

the

revolt

Osorkon

of

Judaea,

II.,

or who-

ever was king at the time, rose to the occasion.

was

to be a contest of numbers,

If

it

Egypt should show

was certainly not to be outdone numerically more mercenaries than ever before were taken into pay, and an army was levied, which is reckoned at

that she

;

so

"

a thousand

thousand

"

(ib.

ver.

Cushites or Ethiopians, and of

9),

Lubim

consisting of (ib.

xvi.

8),

With

or natives of the North African coast-tract.

these was sent a picked force of three hundred warchariots,

probably Egyptian

;

and the entire host was

command of an Ethiopian general, Zerah. The host set forth from Egypt,

placed under the

who

is

called

confident of victory, and proceeded as far as Mareshah in Southern Judaea, where they were met by the undaunted Jewish king. What force he had brought with him is uncertain, but the number cannot have been

very great.

echoed

Asa had

in later

recourse to prayer, and, in words

days by the great Maccabee

(1

Mac.

18, 19), besought Jehovah to help him against the Egyptian " multitude." Then the two armies joined iii.

and, notwithstanding the disparity of numbers, Zerah was defeated. " The Ethiopians and the Lubim, a huge host, with very many chariots and horsemen " (2 Chron. xvi. 8) fled before Judah they were overthrown that they could not recover themselves, and were destroyed before Jehovah and before His The Jewish troops pursued them host " (ib. xiv. 1 3). battle

;



K(

as far as Gerar, smiting

them with

a great slaughter

taking their camp, and loading themselves with spoil.

DEFEAT OF ZERAI1 — ITS CONSEQUENCES. "What became of Zerah we arc not told. fell in

the battle

;

Perhaps he

perhaps he carried the news of

defeat to his Egyptian master, and warned

any

309

his

him against

further efforts to subdue a people which could

defend

The

itself so effectually.

direct effect of the victory of

an end,

for three centuries, to

Asa was

to put

those dreams of Asiatic

dominion which had so long floated before the eyes of Egyptian kings, and dazzled their imaginations. If a single one of the petty princes between whose rule Syria was divided could defeat and destroy the largest army that Egypt had ever brought into the field, what hope was there of victory over twenty or thirty of such chieftains

?

Henceforth, until the time of the great

revolution brought about in Western Asia through the

Empire by the Medes, the eyes of Egypt were averted from Asia, unless when attack threatened her. She shrank from provoking destruction of the Assyrian

the repetition of such a defeat as Zerah had suffered,

and was

careful to abstain from all interference with

She kingdoms as her bulwarks against attack from the East, and it became an acknowledged part of her policy to support them the

affairs

of Palestine, except on invitation.

learnt to loo!;

upon the two

against Assyrian aggression.

Israelite

If she did

not succeed

rendering them any effective assistance,

it was not She was indeed a " bruised reed " to lean upon, but it was because her strength was inferior to that of the great Mesopotamian power. From the time of Osorkon II., the Sheshonk dy-

in

for

lack of good-will.

nasty rapidly declined

in

power.

A

system of consti-

tuting appanages for the princes of the reigning house

— SHISHAK AND HIS DYNASTY,

310

grew up, and to

in

a short time conducted the country

the verge of dissolution.

"

For the purpose

of

avoiding usurpations analogous to that of the HighPriests of

and

his

Ammon,"

descendants

tions of importance,

says M. Maspero, " Sheshonk made a rule to entrust all posi-

whether

princes of the blood royal.

Pharaoh, most

commonly

civil

A

or military, to the

son of the reigning

his eldest son, held the office

Ammon

and Governor of Thebes another commanded at Sessoun (Hermopolis) another at Hakhensu, others in all the large towns of Each of them had the Delta and of Upper Egypt. with him several battalions of those Libyan soldiers Matsiou and Mashuash who formed at this time the strength of the Egyptian army, and on whose fidelity count. Ere long these comit was always safe to mands became hereditary, and the feudal system, which had anciently prevailed among the chiefs of nomes or cantons, re-established itself for the advantage The Pharaoh of the members of the reigning house. of the time continued to reside at Memphis, or at Bubastis, to receive the taxes, to direct as far as was possible the central administration, and to preside at the grand ceremonies of religion, such as the enthronement or the burial of an Apis-Bull but, in point of fact, Egypt found itself divided into a certain number ot principalities, some of which comprised only a few towns, while others extended over several continuous

of High-Priest of

;

;



;

cantons.

After a time the chiefs of these principali-

were emboldened to reject the sovereignty of the Pharaoh altogether relying on their bands of Libyan

ties

;

mercenaries, they usurped, not only the functions of

DISINTEGRATION OF EGYPT.

311

royalty, but even the title of king, while the legitimate

dynasty, cooped up

in

a coiner of the Delta,

difficulty preserved a certain

Upon

disintegration

with

remnant of authority."

followed, as a natural conse-

and disturbance. In the reign of Takelut II., the grandson of Osorkon II., troubles broke out both in the north and in the south. Takelut's eldest son, Osorkon, who was High-Priest of Ammon, and held the government of Thebes and the other provinces of the south, was only able to maintain the integrity of the kingdom by means of perpetual civil wars. Under his successors, Sheshonk III., Pamai, and Sheshonk IV., the revolts became more and more serious. Rival dynasties established themselves at Thebes, Tanis, Memphis, and elsewhere. Ethiopia grew more powerful as Egypt declined, and quence,

quarrel

threatened

ere

long to establish a preponderating

influence over the entire Nile valley.

But the Egyp-

were too jealous of each other to apprevery ciate the danger which threatened them. and by the epidemic of decentralization set in tian princes

A

;

middle of the eighth century, just

at the

time when

Assyria was uniting together and blending into one

and nations of Western Asia, Egypt suicidally broke itself up into no fewer than twenty governments Such a condition of things was, of course, fatal to Art, as has been said, " did not so literature and art. much decline as disappear." After Sheshonk I. no monarch of the line left any building or sculpture of the slightest importance. The very tombs became unpretentious, and merely repeated antique forms all

the long-divided tribes

!



J

SIIISHAK

12

AND HIS DYNASTY.

without any of the antique had,

Serapeum

solid rock of the

block.

A

and

up

set

tomb at

indeed,

cut for him in the

Memphis, and was

laid

stone sarcophagus, formed of a single

a

to rest in

Each Apis,

spirit.

turn, his arched

in his

moreover, was

stela,

to his

memorials, devoid

memory of

all

:

in

every case inscribed

but the

artistic

were rude tombs and the in-

stela;

taste

;

the

were mere reproductions of old models scriptions were of the dullest and most prosaic kind. Here is one, as a specimen " In the year 2, the month Mechir, on the first day of the month, under the reign of King Pimai, the god Apis was carried to ;

:

his rest in the beautiful region of the west, laid

in

the

grave,

and deposited

and was

in his everlasting

house and his eternal abode. He was born in the year 28, in the time of the deceased king, Sheshonk III. His glory was sought

He was abot.

for in all places of

found after some months

He was

Lower Egypt.

in the city

of Hashed-

solemnly introduced into the temple



Phthah, beside his father die Memphian god Phthah of the south wall by the high-priest in the temple of Phthah, the great prince of the Mashuash, Petise, the son of the high-priest of Memphis and great prince of the Mashuash, Takelut, and of the

of



princess of royal race, Thes-bast-per, in the year 28, in

month of Paophi, on the first day of the month. The full lifetime of this god amounted to twenty-six

the

years."

Such

The only

is

the historical literature of the period.

other kind

of literature belonging

to

it

which has come down to us, consists of what are called " Magical Texts." These are to the following effect " When Horus weeps, the water that falls from his :

DECLINE OF ART AND LITERATURE.

3*3

eyes grows into plants producing a sweet perfume.

When Typhon into plants tine

lets fall blood from his nose, it grows changing to cedars, and produces turpen-

instead of the water.

weep much, and water into plants that

falls

When Shu

and Tefnut eyes, it changes

from their

When

produce incense.

the

Sun

weeps a second time, and lets water fall from his eyes, working bees they work in the it is changed into flowers of each kind, and honey and wax arc produced When the Sun becomes weak, instead of the water. he lets fall the perspiration of his members, and this changes to a liquid." Or again " To make a magic Take two grains of incense, two fumigamixture tions, two jars of cedar-oil, two jars of tas, two jars of Apply it at the wine, two jars of spirits of wine. ;



:

place of thy heart. accidents of

death

;

life

;

Thou

art protected against the

thou art protected against a violent

thou art protected against

ruined on earth, and thou escapest

fire

in

;

thou art not

heaven."

XX. THE LAND SHADOWING WITH WINGS UNDER THE ETHIOPIANS

The name much

— EGYPT

of Ethiopia was applied in ancient times,

Soudan

as the term

applied now, vaguely to

is

the East African interior south of Egypt, from about lat.

24° to about

lat.

9

The

,

tract

was

for the

most

part sandy or rocky desert, interspersed with oases,

but contained along the course of the Nile a valuable while, south and south-east of the strip of territory ;

point where the Nile receives the Atbara,

out into a broad

fertile

region,

it

watered by

spread

many

streams, diversified by mountains and woodlands, rich in minerals,

and of considerable

fertility.

did the whole of this vast tract

—a

At no time

thousand miles



long by eight or nine hundred broad form a single Rather, for the most part, was it state or monarchy. divided

up among an indefinite number of states, some of them herdsmen, others

or rather of tribes,

hunters or fishermen, very jealous of their independence, and

Among

at

the various tribes there

munity of a

war

one with another. was a certain coma resemblance of physical type, and

frequently

race,

similarity

of

Their

language.

Egyptians, included them

all

neighbours,

the

under a single ethnic

EGYPTIAN INFLUENCE IN ETHIOPIA. name, speaking of them as Kashi or Kushi

315

—a

term

manifestly identical with the Cush or Cushi of the

Hebrews. tians,

They were

a race cognate with the Egyp-

but darker in complexion and coarser

— not

by any means negroes, but

allied to the

still

in feature

more nearly

negro than the Egyptians were.

Their

modern times are the purebred Abyssinian tribes, the Gallas, Wolai'tzas, and

best representatives in

the

like,

The

who

arc probably their descendants.

portion of Ethiopia which lay nearest to

Egypt

had been from a very early date penetrated by Wars with "the miserable Egyptian influence. " Kashi began as far back as the time of Usurtasen I.; and Usurtasen III. carried his arms beyond the Second Cataract, and attached the northern portion of

Ethiopia to

The Thothmes

Egypt.

eighteenth dynasty,

great III.,

kings of

Amenhotep

the II.,

and Amenhotep III., proceeded still further southward and the last of these monarchs built a temple to Amnion at Napata, near the modern Gebel Berkal. The Ethiopians of this region, a plastic race, adopted to a considerable extent the Egyptian civilization, worshipped Egyptian gods in Egyptian shrines, and set up inscriptions in the hieroglyphic character and Napata, and th° Nile valley in the Egyptian tongue. both below it and above it, was already half Egyptianized, when, on the establishment of the Sheshonk dynasty in Egypt, the descendants of Herhor resolved to quit their native country, and remove them;

selves into Ethiopia,

where they had reason to expect

They were probably already connected by marriage with some of the leading chiefs of a

welcome.

THE LAND SHADOWING WITH WINGS.

jl6

Napata, and their sacerdotal character gave them a

The

great hold on a peculiarly superstitious people. "

princes of

Noph

"

them with the

received

greatest

favour,

and assigned them the highest position

state.

Retaining their priestly

office,

in the

they became at

once Ethiopian monarchs, and High-Priests of the Temple of Ammon which Amenhotep III. had Napata, under their government, and acquired a considerable archiFresh temples were built, in tectural magnificence. which the worship of Egyptian was combined with erected at Napata. flourished greatly,

that

of

Ethiopian

deities

avenues

;

of

sphinxes

adorned the approaches to these new shrines the practice of burying the members of the royal house in pyramids was reverted to and the necropolis of ;

;

Napata recalled the glories of the old necropolis of Memphis. Napata was also a place of much wealth. The kingdom, whereof it was the capital, reached southward as far as the modern Khartoum, and eastward stretched up to the Abyssinian highlands, including the valleys of the Atbara and its tributaries, together with most of the tract between the Atbara and the Blue Nile. This was a region of great natural wealth, containing many mines of gold, iron, copper, and salt, abundant woods of date-palm, almond - trees, and ilex, some excellent pasture-ground, and much rich meadow-land suitable for the growth of doom and other sorts of grain. Fish of many kinds, and excellent turtle, abounded in the Atbara and the other streams while the geographical position was favourable for commerce with the tribes of the interior, who ;

PI AS Kill

OF NAP AT A AND HIS RIVALS.

31;

were able to furnish an almost inexhaustible supply of ivory, skins, and ostrich feathers.

The first monarch of Napata, whose name has come down to us, is a certain Piankhi, who called himself Mi-Ammon, or Meri- Amnion that is to say, " beloved lie is thought to have been a descenof Ammon."



dant of Herhor, and to have begun to reign about B.C. 755. At this time Egypt had reached the state of extreme disintegration described in the last section.

A

named Tafnekht, probably

prince

ruled in the western Delta,

of Libyan origin,

and held

Sai's

and

Mem-

an Osorkon was king of the eastern Delta, and Petesis was king of held his court at Bubastis phis

;

;

Athribis, near the

apex of the Delta

;

and a prince

named Aupot, or Shupot, ruled in some portion of In Middle Egypt, the tract immethe same region. diately above Memphis formed the kingdom of Pefaabast, who had his residence in Sutensenen, or Heracleopolis Magna, and held the Fayoum under his authority

while further south the Nile valley was in

;

the possession of a certain Namrut, whose capital was

Sesennu, or Hermopolis. Bek-en-nefi, and a Sheshonk, principalities, though in what exact position

had also is

uncertain

;

and various towns, including Mendes,

were under the government of chiefs of mercenaries,

whom

reckoned that there were more than a dozen. Thebes and Southern Egypt from about the latitude of Hermopolis had already been absorbed

of

into the

it

is

kingdom of Napata, and were

by Piankhi. Such being the

state of affairs

ruled directly

when he came

throne, Piankhi contrived between

his

first

to the

and

his

THE LAND SHADOWING WITH WINGS.

Jl8

twenty- first year (about B.C. 755-734) gradually extend his authority over the other kings, and

to

to

reduce them to the position of tributary princes or feudatories.

It

is

uncertain whether he used force

Perhaps the fear of the Assyrians, who, under Tiglath-pileser II., were about this time (B.C. 745-730) making great advances in Syria to effect his purpose.

and

Palestine,

may have been

sufficiently strong to

induce the princes voluntarily to adopt the protection of Piankhi, whom they may have regarded as an

Egyptian rather than a foreigner. do not hear of violence being used

rate,

we

broke

In the twenty-first year of Piankhi, news reached

out.

him

At any

until revolt

Memphis and

that Tafnekht, king of

rebelled, and, not content with

Sa'i's,

throwing off

had

his alle-

had commenced a series of attacks upon the princes that remained faithful to their suzerain, and was endeavouring to make himself master of the whole country. Already had he fallen upon Pafaabast, and forced him to surrender at discretion; he was advancand he ing up the river Namrut had joined him giance,

;

;

would soon threaten Thebes, unless a strenuous rePiankhi seems at first to have sistance were offered. He thought it enough to send despised his enemy. two generals, at the head of a strong body of troops,

down

the Nile, with orders to suppress the revolt, The exhis presence.

and bring the arch -rebel into pedition fell

in

left

On

Thebes.

with the advancing

completely defeated

it.

its

way down

fleet

The

the river,

it

of the enemy, and

rebel chiefs,

who now

included Petesis, Osorkon, and Aupot, as well as Tafnekht, Pefaabast, and Namrut, abandoning Her-

PlANKHl'S

WAR WITH THE PETTY

PRINCES. 319

mopolis and the Middle Nile, fell back upon Sutenscnen or Heraclcopolis Magna, where they concentrated their forces, and awaited a second attack. This Piankhi's fleet and army, was not long delayed. having besieged and taken Hermopolis, descended

the

to

river

Sutensenen,

gave

the

confederates

a

second naval defeat, and disembarking, followed up their success with another great victory on land, com-

and driving them to take in the towns on the river refuge in bank below Heracleopolis. But now a strange reverse Namrut, the Hermopolitan of fortune befell them. monarch, hearing of the occupation of his capital by Piankhi's army, resolved on a bold attempt to retake it and, having collected a number of ships and troops, quitted his confederates, sailed up the Nile, besieged the Ethiopian garrison which had been left to hold the place, overpowered them, and recovered pletely routing the rebels,

Lower Egypt, or

;

his city.

This unexpected blow roused

Having

inaction.

Napata Thebes

Piankhi from

his.

collected a fresh army, he quitted

month of

the year, and reached

in

the

in

the second, where he stopped awhile to

first

perform a number of religious ceremonies at their close, he descended the Nile to Hermopolis, invested ;

and commenced its siege. Moveable towers were brought up against the walls, from which machines threw stones and arrows into the city the defenders suffered terribly, and after a short time insisted on it,

;

a surrender.

Namrut made

his peace with his offended

sovereign through the intercession of his wife with Piankhi's wives, sisters, and daughters, and was allowed

320

THE LAND SHADOWING WITH WINGS.

once more to do homage to his lord

in the temple of one hand and holding a sistrum, the instrument wherewith it was usual to approach a god, in the other. Piankhi entered Hermopolis, and examined the treasury, store - houses, and stables, finding in the last a number of horses, which had been reduced almost to starvation by the

Thoth, leading

siege.

his

war-horse

Either on this

in

account, or for

some other

reason, Piankhi treated the Hermopolitan prince with

PIANKHI RECEIVING THE SUBMISSION OF NAMRUT AND OTHERS.

coldness, and did not for

kingdom. Continuing

some time

reinstate

him

in

his

Piankhi

his triumphal

received

the

march towards the north

submission

of Heracleopolis

the capital of Pefaabast, and of various other cities

on either bank of the Nile, and in a short time appeared before Memphis and summoned it to surrender but his summons was set at nought. ;

Tafnekht had recently visited the city, had strengthened its defences, augmented its supplies, and reinforced its garrison with an addition of eight thousand men, thereby greatly inspiriting them. It was resolved

1

PIANKHI VICTORIOUS. to

resist to

"Then was

His

Majesty Piankhi

them, like a panther."

both by land and water.

fiercely,

mand

So the gates were

the uttermost.

shut,

manned, and Piankhi challenged to do his

the walls worst.

32

furious

attacked

against the city

Taking the com-

of the fleet in person, he sailed

down

the Nile,

and, bringing his vessels close up to the walls and

towers on the riverside,

made

use of the masts and

yards as ladders, and so scaled the fortifications after slaughtering

;

then

thousands on the ramparts, he forced

an entrance into the town,

Memphis, upon

this, sur-

Piankhi entered the town, and sacrificed to

rendered.

the god Phthah

A

number

of the princes, including

Aupot and Merkaneshu, a leader of mercenaries, came in and made their submission but two of the Tafnekht, principal rebels still remained unsubdued the leader of the revolt, and Osorkon, king of Bubastis. ;



Advancing proceeded against the latter. on Meliopolis, instead of resistance he was received with acclamations, the people, priests, and Piankhi

first

soldiery

" Nothing having gone over to his side. Egypt was as prone as other

succeeds like success."

" and Piankhi's " worship the rising sun had by this time marked him out in the eyes of the Egyptians as the favourite of Heaven, their preAccordingly, Heliopolis destined monarch and ruler. received him gladly, hailing him as "the indestructible Horus " he was allowed to bathe in the sacred lake

countries to

;

victories



within the precincts of the great temple, to offer sacrifice to Ra, and to enter through the folding-doors into the central shrine,

boats of

Ra and

Turn.

where were

laid

up the sacred

After this surrender, Osorkon

"

THE LAND SHADOWING WITH WINGS.

322

thought

vain to attempt further resistance.

it

Piankhi, submitted himself and

victorious

At

homage.

his

He

Bubastis, and, seeking the presence of the

quitted

the

same

time,

Petisis,

renewed king of

made his submission. The only prince who still remained unsubdued was

Athribis,

Tafnekht, the original rebel.

Tafnekht had

fled after

fall of Memphis, and had taken refuge either in one of the islands of the Delta, or beyond the seas, in Aradus or Cyprus. But he saw that further resistance was vain and that, if he was to rule an Egyptian principality, it must be as a secondary monarch. Accordingly he, too, submitted himself, and was re-

the

;

stored to his former kingdom.

the Nile to his

own

city of

Piankhi returned up

Napata amid songs and



whether sincere or feigned, who shall say ? His own account of the matter is the following: "When His Majesty sailed up the river, his heart was

rejoicings

glad

;

all

its

banks resounded with music.

The

in-

habitants of the west and of the east betook themselves to

To

making melody

at

His Majesty's approach.

the notes of the music they sang,

O

'

O

king, thou

Thou come and smitten Lower Egypt thou madest the men as women. The heart of the mother rejoices who bare such a son, for he who begat thee dwells in the vale of death. Happiness be to thee, O cow that hast borne the Bull Thou shalt live for ever in after conqueror!

Piankhi, thou conquering king

hast

!

;

!

ages.

Thy

of Thebes

victory shall endure,

O

king and friend

' !

This happy condition of things did not, however, continue long.

Piankhi, soon after his return to his

SHABAK BURNS BEK-EN-RANF. capital, died

without leaving issue

Herhor being now Their choice

who

energy,

fell

and the race of

Ethiopians had

extinct, the

a king from the

elect

;

323

number of

their

on a certain Kashta, a

own man

to

nobles.

of

little

allowed Egypt to throw off the Ethiopian

sovereignty without

making any

effort to prevent

it.

Bek-en-ranf, the son of Tafnekht, was the leader of this successful

over

all

Egypt

wisdom and dition

rebellion, for

justice,

and

is

six years.

said to have reigned

He

got a

name

for

but he could not alter that con-

of affairs which had

been gradually brought

about by the slow working of various more or less occult causes, whereby Ethiopia had increased and

Egypt diminished in power, their relative strength, as compared with former times, having become inverted. Ethiopia, being now the stronger, was sure to reassert herself, and did so in Bek-en-ranf's seventh year. Shabak, the son of Kashta, whose character was cast in a far stronger mould than that of his father, having mounted the Ethiopian throne, lost no time in swooping down upon Egypt from the upper region, and, carrying all before him, besieged and took Sai's, made Bek-en-ranf a prisoner, and barbarously burnt him His fierce and sensuous alive for his rebellion. physiognomy is quite in keeping with this bloody deed, which was well cilculated to strike terror into the Egyptian nation, and to ensure a general submission.

The

was now for some fifty Shabak founded a dynasty

rule of the Ethiopians

years firmly established.

which the Egyptians themselves admitted to be legiand which the historian Manetho declared to

timate,

The land shadowing with wings.

324



have consisted of three kings Sabacos (or Shabak), Sevechus (or Shabatok), and Taracus (or Tehrak), the Hebrew Tirhakah. The extant monuments connames, and order of succession, of these

the

firm

monarchs. than

They were

the native

of a coarser and ruder fibre

Egyptians, but they did not rule

any alien or hostile spirit. On the contrary, they were pious worshippers of the old Egyptian gods they repaired and beautified the old Egyptian

Egypt

in

;

temples

;

and, instead of ruling Egypt, as a conquered

province, from Napata, they resided permanently, or at any rate occasionally, at the Egyptian capitals, Thebes and Memphis. There are certain indications which make it probable that to some extent they pursued the policy of Piankhi, and governed Lower Egypt by means of tributary kings, who held their courts at Sa'i's, Tanis, and perhaps Bubastis. But their they kept a jealous watch over subject princes, and allowed none of them to attain a dangerous pre-

eminence.

By

a curious coincidence the Ethiopic sway, or ex-

tension of influence over

Egypt by the great monarchy

of the south, exactly synchronized with the develop-

ment of Assyrian power in south-western Asia, which and thus were bordered Egypt upon the north brought into hostile collision, the two greatest military powers of the then known world who fought ;

over the prostrate Egypt, like Achilles

over the corpse of Patroclus. the 724.

Lower Nile Exactly

ad

Hector

Shabak's conquest

valley took place about B.C. 725

at that time

of

or

Shalmaneser IV. was pro-

ceeding to extremities against the kingdom of

Israel,

shabak's dealings with hosea.

325

and was thus threatening to sweep away one of the last two feeble barriers which had hitherto been interposed between the Assyrian territory and the Egyptian. Shabak, entreated by Iloshea, the last Israelite monarch, to lend him aid, consented to take the kingdom of Israel under his protection (2 Kings xvii. 4),

HEAD OF SHAliAK

(SABACO).

actuated no doubt by an enlightened view of his

own

But when Samaria was besieged (B.C. 723) and the danger became pressing, he had not the courage to act up to his engagements. The stout resistance offered by the Israelite capital for more interest.

THE LAND SHADOWING WITH WINGS.

326

than two years

ponding

effort

Hoshea was

Kings xvii. 5) drew forth no correson the part of the Ethiopic king.

(2

left

to his

own

and in B.C. His capital was taken

resources,

722 was forced to succumb.

by storm,

its

inhabitants seized and carried off by

the conqueror, the whole territory absorbed into that

and the cities occupied by Assyrian Kings xvii. 24). Assyria was brought one step nearer to Egypt, and it became more than ever evident that contact and collision could not be of

Assyria,

colonists

(2

much longer deferred. The collision came

in

In

720.

B.C.

that

year

and greatest of the Assyrian dynasties, who had succeeded Shalmaneser IV. in B.C. 722, having arranged matters in Samaria and taken Hamath, pressed on against Philistia, the last inhabited country on the route which led to Egypt. Shabak, having made alliance with Hanun, king of Gaza, marched to his aid. The opposing hosts met at Ropeh, the Raphia of the Greeks, on the very borders of the desert. Sargon commanded in person on the one side, Shabak and Hanun on the other. A great battle was fought, which was for a Sargon, the founder of the

long time stoutly contested

last

;

but the strong forms,

the superior arms, and the better discipline of the

Assyrians, prevailed.

Asia proved

herself, as she

generally done, stronger than Africa

;

has

the Egyptians

away in disorder Hanun was Shabak with difficulty escaped. Negotiations appear to have followed, and a convention to have been drawn up, to which the Ethiopian and Assyrian monarchs attached their seals. The

and

Philistines fled

made

a prisoner

;

;

SH ABATOR SUCCEEDS SHABAK.

327

lump of clay which received the impressions was found by Sir A. Layard at Nineveh, and is now in the British Museum. Shortly afterwards, about B.C. 712, Shabak died, and was succeeded in Egypt by his son Shabatok, in Ethiopia by a certain Tehrak, who appears to have been his nephew. Tehrak exercised the paramount authority over the whole realm, but resided at Napata, while Shabatok held his court at

Lower Egypt

Memphis and

as Tehrak's representative.

ruled

Assyrian

SEAL OF SHABAK.

aggression

still continued. In B.C. 711 Sargon took Ashdod, and threatened an invasion of Egypt, which Shabatok averted by sending a submissive embassy

with presents.

Six years

afterwards Sargon

died,

and

his

son,

Sennacherib, mounted the Assyrian throne. At once south-western Asia was in a ferment. The Phoenician

and Philistine kings recently subjected by TiglathPilescr and Sargon, broke out in open revolt. Hezekiah, king of Judah, joined the malcontents. The aid of

Egypt was implored, and

certain promises of

THE LAND SHADOWING WITH WINGS.

328

support and assistance received, in

part

in

part from Tehrak,

from Shabatok and other native rulers of

nomes and cities. Sennacherib, in B.C. 701, led his army into Syria to suppress the rebellion, reduced Ashdod, Ammon, Moab, and Edom took Ascalon, Hazor, and Joppa, and was proceeding against Ekron, when for the first time he encountered an armed force in the field. A large Egyptian and Ethiopian contingent had at last Phoenicia, received the submission of ;

reached

and, having united

Philistia,

itself

with the

Ekronites, stood prepared to give the Assyrians battle

near Eltekeh.

The

force consisted of chariots, horse-

men, and footmen, and was so numerous that Sennait " a multitude that no man could number." Once more, however, Africa had to succumb. Sennacherib at Eltekeh defeated the combined forces of Egypt and Ethiopia with as much ease and complete-

cherib calls

ness as Sargon at Raphia

was

entirely routed,

and

the multitudinous host

;

fled

from the

field,

leaving in

the hands of the victors the greater portion of their

war-chariots and several sons of one of their kings.

After this defeat,

made no

further

it

is

effort.

not surprising that Tehrak

Hezekiah, the

last

rebel

defend himself as he best

unsubdued, was might. The Egyptians retreated to their own borders, and there awaited attack. It seemed as if the triumph left

of Assyria was

to

assured, and

as

if

her yoke must

almost immediately be imposed alike upon Judea,

upon Egypt, and upon the kingdom of Napata but an extraordinary catastrophe averted the immediate danger, and gave to Egypt and Ethiopia a respite of Sennacherib's army, of nearly two thirty-four years. ;

StNNACliERIB, HLZEKiAH,

AM) TIRHAKAH.

329

hundred thousand men, was almost totally destroyed in one night. " The angel of the Lord went forth," says the

contemporary

writer, Isaiah,

"and smote

in

the

camp

of the Assyrians a hundred and fourscore and

five

and when they arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses" (Isa. xxxvii. 36). Whatever the agency employed in this remarkable destruction whether it was caused by a simoon, or a pestilence, or by a direct visitation of the Almighty, thousand

;



HEAD OF TEHRAK (TIRHAKAH). as different writers have explained tain.

Its truth

history,

is

it

— the event

is

cer-

written in the undeniable facts of later

which show us a sudden cessation of Assyrian

kingdom of Judea saved from absorption, and the countries on the banks of the Nile left absolutely unobstructed by Assyria for

attack in this quarter, the

the third part of a century.

As

the destruction hap-

pened on their borders, the Egyptians naturally enough ascribed it to their own gods, and made a boast of it centuries after. Everything marks, as

The land shadowing with wings.

330

one of the most noticeable

facts

in

annihilation of so great a portion of the greatest of

The

all

history,

army

this

of the

the kings of Assyria.

Tirhakah (Tehrak) during this period He was regarded by Judea as its protector, and exercised a certain influence over all Syria as far as Taurus, Amanus, and the reign of

appears to have been glorious.

Euphrates.

In Africa, he brought into subjection the

native tribes of the north coast, carrying his arms,

according to some, as far as the Pillars of Hercules. He is exhibited at Medinet-Abou in the dress of a

mace ten captive foreign princes. He erected monuments in the Egyptian Of all the style at Thebes, Memphis, and Napata. Ethiopian sovereigns of Egypt he was undoubtedly

warrior,

smiting

the greatest

;

with

a

but towards the close of his

life

re-

verses befell him, which require to be treated of in

another section.

XXL THE FIGHT OVER THE CARCASE V.

The

— ETHIOPIA

ASSYRIA.

miraculous destruction of his

army was

ac-

cepted by Sennacherib as a warning to desist from

all

further attempts against the independence of Judea,

and from

all

further efforts to extend his dominions

towards the south-west.

He

survived the destruction

during a period of seventeen years, and was actively

engaged in a number of wars towards the east, the north, and the north-west, but abstained carefully from further contact with either Palestine or Egypt. His son Esarhaddon succeeded him on the throne in B.C. 68 1, and at once, to a certain extent, modified this policy. He re-established the Assyrian dominion over Upper Syria, Phoenicia, and even Edom but ;

during the his

first

nine years of his reign the

father's disaster

Egypt unattacked. encouraged by

his

memory

of

caused him to leave Judea and At last, however, in B.C. 672,

many

military successes,

by the

troubled state of Judea under the idolatrous Manasseh,

who

"

shed innocent blood very

much from one end

of Jerusalem to the other" (2 Kings xxi. 16), and by the advanced age of Tehrak, which seemed to render

him a

less

formidable antagonist

now than

formerly,

THE FIGHT OVER THE CARCASE.

332

he resumed the designs on Egypt which his father and grandfather had entertained, swept Manasseh from his path by seizing him and carrying him off a prisoner to Babylon, marched his troops from Aphek along the coast of Palestine to Raphia. and there

made

the dispositions which seemed to

him best

cal-

culated to effect the conquest of the coveted country.

As Tirhakah, aware all

his available

of his intentions, had collected

force

about Pelusium and

its

upon his north-east frontier, immediate neighbourhood, the

Assyrian monarch took the bold resolution of proceeding southward through the waste the as

Hebrews

tract,

known to way

as " the desert of Shur," in such a

to turn the flank of Tirhakah's army, to reach

Pithom (Heroopolis) and to attack Memphis along The Arab Sheikhs of the the line of the Old Canal. desert were induced to lend him their aid, and facilitate his march by conveying the water necessary for The his army on the backs of their camels in skins. soldiers though the march was thus made in safety, are said to have suffered considerably from fatigue and thirst, and to have been greatly alarmed by the sight of numerous serpents. Tehrak, on his part, did all that was possible. On learning Esarhaddon's change of route, he broke up from Pelusium, and, by a hasty march across the eastern Delta succeeded in interposing his army between Memphis and the host of the Assyrians, which had to follow the line taken by Sir Garnet Wolseley in 1884, and encountered the enemy, 10bably, not far from the spot where the British general completely defeated the troops of Arabi. Here for j

TEHRAK DEFEATED BY ESARHADDON.

2>Z2>

the third time Asia and Africa stood arrayed the one against the other.

Assyria brought into the

a host

field

of probably not fewer than two hundred thousand men, including a strong chariot force, a powerful cavalry, and

an infantry variously armed and appointed

huge

— some with

and covered by almost complete panoplies, others lightly equipped with targe and dart, or even simply with slings. Egypt opposed to her a force, probably, even more numerous, but consisting shields

chiefly of a light-armed infantry, containing a large

proportion of mercenaries whose hearts would not be in the fight, deficient in cavalry, and apt to trust

mainly to

its

chariots.

In the

flat

Egyptian plains

lightly accoutred troops fight at a great disadvantage

against those whose equipment

strength

is

of greater solidity and

cavalry are an important arm, since there

;

nothing to check the impetus of a charge

is

personal strength

is

a most

;

and

important element

in

determining the result of a conflict. The Assyrians were more strongly made than the Egyptians they had probably a better training they certainly wore ;

;

more armour, carried larger shields and longer spears, and were better equipped both for offence and defence. We have, unfortunately, no description of the battle but it is in no way surprising to iearn that ;

the

Assyrians prevailed

;

Tehrak's forces suffered a

complete defeat, were driven from the fusion,

and

Memphis was then The statu

pillage.

field

in

con-

hastily dispersed themselves.

besieged, taken, and given

up to

of the gods, the gold and silver,

the turquoise and lapis lazuli, the vases, censers, jars, goblets, amphorae, the stores of ivory, ebony, cinna-

THE FIGHT OVER THE CARCASE.

334

mon, frankincense,

fine linen, crystal, jasper, alabaster,

embroidery, with which the piety of kings had enriched the temples

Phthah

— during

— especially

fifteen

or

the Great Temple of twenty centuries, were

by the conquerors, who destined adornment of the Ninevite shrines

ruthlessly carried off

them

either for the

or for their

own

private advantage.

Tehrak's wife

and concubines, together with several of his children and numerous officers of his court, left behind in consequence of his hurried flight, fell into the enemy's Tehrak himself escaped, and fled first to hands. while the army of Thebes, and then to Napata Esarhaddon, following closely on his footsteps, advanced up the valley of the Nile, scoured the open country with their cavalry, stormed the smaller towns, ;

some duration took " populous was situate among the rivers, round about it, whose rampart waters had the that " All Egypt was (Nahum iii. 8). was the great deep and

after a siege of

No," or Thebes,

" that

overrun from the Mediterranean to the First Cataract

;

thousands of prisoners were taken and carried away captive the Assyrian monarch was undisputed master ;

of the entire land of Mizrai'm from Migdol to

and from Pelusium

Upon

Syene

to the City of Crocodiles.

conquest followed organization.

The

great

Assyrian was not content merely to overrun Egypt

;

he was bent upon holding it. Acting on the Roman principle, " Divide et impera" he broke up the country into twenty distinct principalities, over each of which he placed a governor, while in the capital of each he put an Assyrian garrison. Of the governors, by the greater number were native Egyptians but ;

far in

EGYPT SUBDUED AXD DIVIDED

UP.

335

one or two instances the command was given to an For the most part, the old divisions of the Assyrian. nomes were kept, but sometimes two or more nomes were thrown together and united under a single governor. Neco, an ancestor of the great Pharaoh who bore the same name (2 Kings xxiii. 29-35), had Sai's, Memphis, and the nomes that lay between them Mentu-em-ankh had Thebes and southern Egypt as ;

far as

Elephantine.

Satisfied with these

arrangements

FIGURE OF ESAR-HADDON AT THE NAHR-EL-KELB.

the conqueror returned to Nineveh, having first, however, sculptured on the rocks at the mouth of the

Nahr-el-Kelb a representation of

his

person and an

account of his conquests.

Egypt

lay at the feet of Assyria for about three or

four years

renewed. that

(B.C.

672-669).

Then

the

struggle was

Tehrak, who had bided his time, learning

Esarhaddon was seized with a mortal malady,

issued

(B.C.

669) from his Ethiopian fastnesses, de-

THE FIGHT OVER THE CARCASE.

336

scended the valley of the Nile, expelled the governors

whom Esarhaddon

had

and possessed himself Thebes received him with

set up,

of the disputed territory.

enthusiasm, as one attached to the worship of Ammon

;

and the priests of Phthah opened to him the gates of Memphis, despite the efforts of Neco and the Assyriangarrison. The religious sympathy between Ethiopia and Egypt was an important factor in the as yet undecided contest, and helped much to further the Ethiopic cause. But in war sentiment can effect but little. Physical force, on the whole, prevaib, unless in the rare instances where miracle intervenes, or where patriotic

enthusiasm

is

exalted to such a pitch as to

strike physical force with

In the conflict that was little

part.

impotency

now

raging patriotism had

Ethiopia and Assyria were contending,

partly for military pre-eminence, partly for the prey



the rich that lay between them, inviting a master and now weak Egyptian kingdom. Tehrak's success, communicated to the Assyrian Court by the dispossessed governors, drew forth almost immediately a counter effort on the part of Assyria, which did not

intend to relinquish without a struggle the important addition that Esarhaddon had

In

B.C.

made

to the empii'2.

668, Asshur-bani-pal, the Sardanapalus of the

Greeks, having

succeeded

his

father

Esarhaddon,

more in motion, and down upon the unhappy swooping Egypt, succeeded in carrying all before him, defeatec Tehrak at Karbanit in the Delta, recovered Memphis and Thebes, forced Tehrak to take refuge at Napata, re-established in power the twenty petty kings, and restored the put the forces of Assyria once

THE STRUGGLE RENEWED AND CONTINUED. ^37 country

In all respects to the condition into which it had been brought four years previously by Esarhaddon. Egypt thus passed under the Assyrians for the second time, Ethiopia relinquishing her hold upon the prey as soon as Assyria firmly grasped it. Still the matter was not yet settled, the conflict was not yet ended. The petty kings themselves began now to coquet with Tehrak, and to invite his co-operation in an attempt, which they promised they would make, to throw off the yoke of the Assyrians. Detected in this intrigue, Neco and two others were arrested by the Assyrian commandants, loaded with chains, and sent as prisoners to Nineveh. But their arrest did not check the movement. On the contrary,

the spirit of revolt spread.

The commandants

tried

extreme severity they sacked the great cities of the Delta Sais, Mendes, and Tarn's or Zoan but all was of no avail. Tehrak stop

to

it

by measures

of

:



;

once more took the Held, descended the Nile valley, Asshurrecovered Thebes, and threatened Memphis. Nineveh from Neco sent bani-pal upon this hastily

head of an Assyrian army to exert his influence on the Assyrian side which he was content to do, since the Ninevite monarch had made him chief of at the



the

petty kings,

and conferred the principality of

Athribis on his son,

Psamatik.

Tehrak,

in

alarm,

retreated from his bold attempt, evacuated Thebes, and returned to his own dominions, where he shortly

afterwards died

(B.C. 667).

might have been expected that the death of the aged warrior-king would have been the signal for Ethiopia to withdraw .from the struggle so long mainIt

fhlE

338 tained,

FIGHT OVER THE CARCASE.

and relinquish Egypt

actual result was

to her rival

the exact contrary.

succeeded at Napata by his step-son,

;

but the

Tehrak was

Rut-Ammon, a

young prince of a bold and warlike temper. Far from recoiling from the enterprize which Tehrak had adjudged hopeless, he threw himself into it with the utmost ardour. Once more an Ethiopian army descended the Nile valley, occupied Thebes, engaged

and defeated a combined Egyptian and Assyrian force near Memphis, took the capital, made its garrison prisoners, and brought under subjection the greater portion of the Delta.

Neco, having

fallen into

the hands of the Ethiopians, was cruelly put to death.

His son, Psamatik, saved himself by a timely flight. History now "repeated itself." In B.C. 666 Asshurbani-pal made, in person, a second expedition into

Egypt, defeated

Rut-Ammon upon

the frontier, re-

covered Memphis, marched upon Thebes,

Rut-Ammon

retiring as he advanced, stormed and sacked the great

wanton injury on its temples, carried and enslaved its population. The triumph of the Assyrian arms was complete. Very inflicted

city,

off

its

shortly

treasures,

all

resistance ceased.

were replaced pal's

in

The

their principalities.

subject

princes

Asshur-bani-

sovereignty was universally acknowledged, and

Ethiopia, apparently, gave

One more power.

On

effort was,

up the

contest.

made by the southern Rut-Ammon, Mi-Ammon-

however,

the death of

Nut, probably a son of Tirhakah's, became king of Ethiopia, and resolved on a renewal of the war. Egyptian disaffection might always be counted on, whichever of the two great powers held temporary

LAST EFFORTS OF ETHIOPIA. of

possession

country

the

;

339

Mi-Ammon-Nut

and

further courted the favour of the Egyptian princes,

and people, by an ostentatious display of zeal Assyria had al loved the temples to fall into decay the statues of the gods had in some instances been cast down, the temple revenues confiscated, the priests restrained in their conduct of priests,

for their religion.

;

Mi-Ammon-Nut

the religious worship.

proclaimed

himself the chosen of Amnion, and the champion of

On

the gods of Egypt.

he was careful to

visit

entering each Egyptian town chief temple, to offer sacri-

its

honour the images and lead them in procession, and to pay all due respect to the college of priests. This prudent policy met with complete success. As he advanced down the Nile valley, he " Go was everywhere received with acclamations. onward in the peace of thy name," they shouted, " go onward in the peace of thy name. Dispense life fices

and

gifts, to

throughout

all

the land

— that

of the gods

may be may

their revenues

up

set

may

temples

the

restored which are hastening to ruin

;

be

that the statues

after their

manner

;

that

be given back to the gods and

goddesses, and the offerings of the dead to the de-

ceased

;

may

that the priest

place,

and

Holy

Ritual."

all

things

In

be

many

intended to oppose his

be established

fulfilled

places where

advance

in

his

according to the in

it

had been

arms, the news

of his pious acts produced a complete revulsion of feeling,

and

"

those whose intention

No

fight

were moved with joy."

until

he had nearly reached the

had been to one opposed him it

northern

Memphis, which was doubtless held

in force

capital,

by the

3

THE FIGHT OVER THE CARCASE.

1-0

Assyrians, to

whom

still faithful.

A battle,

the princes of

the walls, and in this

Lower Egypt were

accordingly, was fought before

Mi-Ammon-Nut was

the Egyptians probably did not fight with

victorious

much

;

zeal,

and the Assyrians, distrusting their subject allies, may well have been dispirited. After the victory, Memphis opened her gates, and soon afterwards the princes of the Delta thought it best to make their submission the Assyrians, we must suppose, retired MiAmmon-Nut's authority was acknowledged, and the princes, having transferred their allegiance to him, were allowed to retain their governments.





The consequences of

Egypt

appear

Ammon-Nut

did

of this last Ethiopian invasion to

not

have live

been

Mi-

transient.

very long to enjoy his

Egypt he had no successor. He was not even recognized by the Egyptians among

conquest, and in

Egypt

their legitimate kings.

at his death reverted

dependence upon Assyria, feeling herself still too weak to stand alone, and perhaps not greatly caring, so that she had peace, which of the two great powers she acknowledged as her suzerain. She had now (about B.C. 650) for above twenty years been fought over by the two chief kingdoms of the earth each of them had traversed with huge armies, as many as five or six times, the the Nile valley from one extremity to the other cities had been half ruined, harvest after harvest destroyed, trees cut down, temples rifled, homesteads burnt, villas plundered. Thebes, the Hundred-gated, probably for many ages quite the most magnificent city in the world, had become a by-word for desolato her previous position of



;

WRETCHED CONDITION OF EGYPT. (Nahum

34*

iii. Memphis, Heliopolis, Tanis, 8, 9) Mcndcs, Bubastis, Hcraclcopolis, Hermopolis, Crocodilopolis, had been taken and retaken repeatedly; the old building's and monuments had been allowed to fell into decay no king had been firmly enough established on his throne to undertake the erection of any but insignificant new ones. Egypt was "fallen, fallen, fallen fallen from her high estate; " an apathy, not unlike the stillness of death, brooded over her literature was silent, art extinct hope of recovery can scarcely have lingered in many bosoms. As events proved, the vital spark was not actually fled but the keenest observer would scarcely have ventured to predict, at any time between B.C. 750 and B.C. 650, such a revival as marked the period between B.C. 650

tion

;

Sals,

;



;

;

;

and

B.C.

530.

XXII.

THE CORPSE COMES TO LIFE AGAIN AND HIS SON NECO.

When

a country has sunk so gradually, so

and

sistently,

now been

for so

sinking,

necessarily rise

— PSAMATIK

per-

long a series of years as Egypt had if

there

come from

without assistance

is

a revival,

The

without.

— the

it

must almost

corpse cannot

expiring patient cannot

cure himself.

All the vital powers being sapped,

the energies

having

Shadow

I.

departed,

the

Valley of

all

the

Death having been entered, nothing can some foreign stock, some blood not yet vitiated, some " saviour " sent by Divine proof

arrest dissolution but

vidence from recall

the

outside

expiring

the nation (Isa. xix.

life,

to

revivify

frame, to infuse fresh energy into

once more

live,

it,

the

and

breathe, act, think, assert

to

20),

paralyzed to

make

itself.

the saviour must not be altogether from without.

it

Yet

He

must not be a conqueror, for conquest necessarily weakens and depresses he must not be too remote in blood, or he will lack the power fully to understand and sympathize with the nation which he is to restore, and without true understanding and true sympathy he can effect nothing he must not be a stranger to ;

;

FokUiGN ORIGIN OP psaMatik the nation's recent history, or he will that will be irremediable.

What

is

I.

343

make mistakes

wanted

is

a scion

of a foreign stock, connected by marriage and other-

wise with well

that he

the nation

acquainted

with

its

position, history, virtues,

new man can answer be found, cipal

men

if

he

is

to regenerate,

is

circumstances,

weaknesses.

No

to these requirements

to be found at

all,

;

among

of the time, whose lot has

for

and

character, entirely

he must the prin-

some con-

siderable period been cast in with the State which

is

to be renovated.

In

Egypt,

at the

time of which we are speaking,

exactly this position was occupied by Psamatik, son of Neco.

He

was, according to

all

appearance, of

was new his name and his father's name are unheard of hitherto in Egyptian and etymologically, they are non-Egyptian history Psamatik has a non-Egyptian countenance. He was probably of the same family as " Inarus the Libyan," whose father was a Psamatik. He belonged thus to a Libyan stock, which had, however, been crossed, more than once, with the blood of the Egyptians. The family was one of those Libyan families which had long been domiciled at Sai's, and had intermarried with the older Saites, who were predominantly EgypHe had also for twenty years or more been an tian. important unit in the Egyptian political system, Libyan origin

;

his stock

;

;

;

having shared the

vici:

situdes of his father's fortunes

672 to B.C. 667, and having then been placed at the head of one of the many principalities into In the same, or the next, which Egypt was divided.

from

B.C.

year he seems to have succeeded his father

:

and he

344

THE CORPSE COMES TO LIFE AGAIN.

had reigned before he

at

felt

Sa'i's

for sixteen

or seventeen

years

himself called upon to take any step

was at all abnormal, or attempt in any way to change his position. Familiar with the politics and institutions of Egypt, yet, as a semi- Libyan, devoid of Egyptian prejudices. that

HEAD OF PSAMATIK

I.

and full of the ambition which naturally inspires young princes of a vigorous stock, Psamatik had at once the desire to shake off the yoke of Assyria, and reunite Egypt under his own sway, and also a willingness to adopt any means, however new and strange, by which such a result might be accomplished. He

PSAMATIK AND GYGES OF LYDIA.

345

had probably long watched for a favourable moment at which to give his ambition vent, and found it at last in the circumstances that ushered in the second half Assyria was, about

of the seventh century.

B.C.

651,

by the revolt of Babylon in alliance with Elam, and was thus quite unable to exercise a strict surveillance over the more distant parts of the Empire. The garrison by which she held Egypt had probably been weakened by the brought into a position of great

difficulty,

withdrawal of troops for the defence of Assyria Proper; at any rate, it could not be relieved or strengthened under the existing circumstances. At the same time a power had grown up in Asia Minor, which was

jealous of Assyria, having lately been

made

to tremble

Gyges of Lydia had, in a moment of difficulty, been induced to acknowledge himself Assyria's subject but he had emerged triumphant from the perils surrounding him, had reasserted his independent authority, and was anxious that the power of Assyria should be, as much as possible, diminished. Psamatik must have been aware of this. for

its

independence.

;

Casting his

eyes

around

the

political

horizon

in

search of any ally at once able and willing to lend

him

aid,

he fixed upon Lydia as likely to be his best and dispatched an embassy into Asia Minor.

auxiliary,

Gyges received his application favourably, and sent him a strong Asiatic contingent, chiefly composed of Ionians and Carians. Both races were at this time warlike, and wore armour of much greater weight and strength than any which the Egyptians were accustomed to carry. It was in reliance, mainly, on these foreigners, that

Psamatik ventured to proclaim him-

THE CORPSE COMES TO LIFE AGAh\.

346 self"

King of the Two Countries," and

gage of defiance at once to

his

to

throw out

a

Assyrian suzerain and

to his nineteen fellow-princes.

in

The gage was not taken up by Assyria. Immersed her own difficulties, threatened in three quarters,

on the south, on the south-east, and on the east by Babylonia, by Elam, and by Media, she had enough to

do

home

at

in

guarding her own

frontiers,

and

seeking to keep under her immediate neighbours, and

was therefore

no condition

engage in distant much what became Thus of a remote and troublesome dependency. Assyria made no sign. But the petty princes took arms at once. To them the matter was one of life or death they must either crush the usurper or be in

to

expeditions, or even to care very

;

So they gathered

themselves swept out of existence.

Pakrur from Pisabtu, and Petubastes from Tan is, and Sheshonk from Busiris, and Tafnekht from Prosopitis, and Bek-en-nefi from Athribis, and Nakh-he from Heracleopolis, and Pimai from Mendes, and Lamentu from Hermopolis, and Mentu-

together in

full force.

em-ankh from Thebes, and other princes from other cities, met and formed their several contingents into a single army, and stood at bay near Momemphis, the modern Menouf, in the western Delta, on the borders of Here a great battle was fought, the Libyan Desert. which was for some time doubtful but the valour of ;

the Greco-Carians, and the superiority of their equip-

ment, prevailed. The victory rested with Psamatik followhis adversaries were defeated and dispersed

;

;

ing up his

first

success, he proceeded to attack city

after city, forcing all to submit,

and determined that

— PSAMATIK SOLE KING OF EGYPT.

347

he would nowhere tolerate even the shadow of a Disintegration had been the curse of

space of above a century

No more

Egypt

rival.

for the

Psamatik put an end to

;

princes of Bubastis, or of Tanis, or of

it.

Sai's,

Thebes No more eikosiarchies, dodecarchies, or heptarchies even Monarchy pure, the absolute rule of one and one only

or of Mcndes, or of Heracleopolis, or of

!

i

sovereign over the whole of Egypt, from the cataracts of Syene to the shores of the Mediterranean, and from

Momemphis and Marea, was and henceforth continued, as long as Egyptian rule endured. The lesson had been learnt at a tremendous cost, but it had now at last been Pelusium and Migdol to

established,

thoroughly learnt, that only

— that the separate sticks

in

unity

is

there strength

of the faggot are impotent

which the collective bundle might without difficulty have defied and scorned. Psamatik had gained the object of his ambition sovereignty over all Egypt he had now to consider how it might best be kept. And first, as that which is won by the sword must be kept by the sword, he made arrangements with the troops sent to his aid by Gyges, that they should take permanent service under his banner, and form the most important element in His native troops were quartered his standing army. in the extreme south, and in Marea Elephantine, at two extremities of the Delta and Daphne, at the to resist the external force

;

towards the west and

east.

The new

accession to his

military strength he stationed at no great distance

from the

capital, settling

them

in

permanent camps on

cither side of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, near

the citv of Bubastis.

We

are told that this exaltation

THE CORPSE COMES TO LIFE

34^

new

of the

ing watch

AGAlti.

corps to the honourable position of keep-

upon the

greatly

capital,

native troops, and induced 200,000 of

Egypt and seek '

offended the

them

to quit

The

service with the Ethiopians.

have probably been exaggerated, for Ethiopia certainly does not gain, or Egypt lose, in strength, facts

either at or after this period.

Psamatik, further, for the better securing of his throne against pretenders, thought tract a marriage with the

held in honour

it

prudent to con-

descendant of a royal stock

by many of his

subjects.

The

princess,

Shepenput, was the daughter of a Piankhi, who claimed descent from the unfortunate Bek-en-ranf, the king

who had

burnt alive by Shabak, and

some

royal

Ethiopian

blood

in

also probably

his veins.

By

his

nuptials with this princess, Psamatik assured to his

crown the legitimacy which Uniting henceforth

in

his

it

had hitherto lacked.

own person

the rights of

the twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth dynasties, those of

the Sai'tes and those of the Ethiopians, he

became

the one and only legal king, and no competitor could

possibly arise with a

title

to sovereignty higher or

better than his own.

Being now personally secure, he could turn

his at-

tention to the restoration and elevation of the nationality of

which he had taken

the direction.

happy Egypt

He

— depressed,

trampled to death

it

upon him

to

assume

could cast his eyes over the un-

down-trodden,

well-nigh

— and give his best consideration to

the question what was to be done to restore her to

There she lay before his eyes All of misery and degradation.

her ancient greatness. in

a deplorable state

;

REVIVAL OF EGYPT UNDER PSAMAT1K. the great

her glory and her boast in former

cities,

more or

days, had suffered

Memphis had been times

349

less in the incessant

wars

;

besieged and pillaged half a dozen

Thebes had been sacked and burnt twice

;

from Syene to Pelusium there was not a town which had not been injured in one or other of the many

The

invasions.

canals and roads, carefully repaired

by Shabak, had since neglect

;

the

his

decease met with entire

cultivable lands

and the whole

population

had been devastated,

decimated

periodically.

Out of the ruins of the old Egypt, Psamatik had to He had to revivify the dead raise up a new Egypt. corpse,

and put a

less limbs.

With

fresh

life

into the stiff

and motion-

great energy and determination he

Applying himwhat was decayed and ruined, he re-established the canals and the roads, encouraged agriculture, favoured the development of The ruined towns were gradually the population. repaired and rebuilt, and vast efforts made everywhere to restore, and even to enlarge and beautify At Memphis, Psamatik built the the sacred edifices. great southern portal which gave completeness to the ancient temple of the god Phthah, and also constructed a grand court for the residence of the Apis-Bulls, surrounded by a colonnade, against the piers of which set himself to self, first

stood

of

all,

colossal

accomplish the task.

to the restoration of

figures

from eighteen to

of Osiris,

twenty feet in height. At Thebes he re-erected the portions of the temple of Karnak, which had been at Sals, Mendes, thrown down by the Assyrians Ileliopolis, and Phila? he undertook extensive works. The entire valley of the Nile became little more than ;

THE CORPSE COMES TO LIFE AGAIN.

35^

one huge workshop, where stone-cutters and masons^ bricklayers and carpenters, laboured incessantly. the liberal encouragement of the king and of Under his chief nobles, the arts recovered themselves and began to flourish anew. The engraving and painting of the hieroglyphics were resumed with success, and carried out with a minuteness and accuracy that provokes the admiration of the beholder.

Bas-reliefs of

extreme beauty and elaboration characterize the period. There rests upon some of them "a gentle and almost feminine tenderness, which has impressed upon the imitations of living creatures the stamp of an incredible delicacy both of conception and execution." Statues and statuettes of merit were at the same time produced in abundance. The " Sai'tie art," as that of the revival under the Psamatiks has been called, is characterized by an extreme neatness of manipulation in the drawings and lines, the fineness of which often reminds us of the performances of a seal-engraver, by grace, softness, tenderness, and elegance. It is

not the broad, but somewhat realistic style of

the Memphitic period,

much

less

the highly imagina-

tive

and vigorous

it is

a style which has quiet merits of

style of the

Ramesside kings its

;

but

own, sweet

and pure, full of refinement and delicacy. Egypt was thus rendered flourishing at home her magnificent temples and other edifices put off their look of neglect her cities were once more busy seats her fields teemed with rich of industry and traffic ;

;

;

her whole aspect But the circumstances of the time led Psamatik to attempt something more. His employ-

harvests

changed.

;

her population increased

;

ENCOURAGEMENT OF FOREIGNERS.

351

Greek and Carian mercenaries naturally led him on into an intimacy with foreigners, and into a regard and consideration for them quite unknown to previous Pharaohs, and in contradiction to ordinary Egyptian prejudices. Egypt was the China of the Old World., and had for ages kept herself as much as merit of

BAb-KELIEFS OF THE TIME OK PSAMAT1K

possible aloof from foreigners,

with aversion. of

I.

and looked upon them

Foreign vessels were, until the time

Psamatik, forbidden to

enter

any of the Nile Psamatik

mouths, or to touch at an Egyptian port.

saw that the new circumstances required an extensive change. The mercenaries, if they were to be content

THE CORPSE COMES TO LIFE AG AW.

352

with their position, must be allowed to communicate freely with the cities and countries from which they

came, and intercourse between Greece and Egypt must be encouraged rather than forbidden. Accordingly the Greeks were invited to

make

settlements in

the Delta, and Naucratis, favourably situated on the

Canopic branch of the Nile, was specially assigned to

them

as a residence.

among

Most of the more enterprizing

the commercial states of the time took advan-

tage of the opening, and Miletus, Phocaea, Rhodes,

Samos, Chios, Mytilene, Halicarnassus, and yEgina established

factories

at

the locality specified, built

temples there to the Greek gods, and sent out a body of colonists.

A

considerable trade grew up between

Egypt and Greece.

The Egyptians

of the higher

and quality Greek wines, which were consequently imported into the country in large quantities. Greek pottery and Greek glyptic art also attracted a certain amount of favour. On her side Egypt exported corn, alum, muslin and linen fabrics, and the excellent classes especially appreciated the flavour

of the

paper which she made from the Cyperus Papyrus. The trade thus established was carried on mainly, not wholly, in Greek bottoms, the Egyptians having a distaste to the sea, and regarding commerce with no Nevertheless, the life and stir which great favour. if

foreign

commerce

introduced

familiarity with strange

among

them,

the

customs and manners, engen-

dered by daily intercourse with the Greeks, the acquisition (on the part of some) of the Greek language, the

Greek modes of worship, of Greek painting and Greek sculpture, the insight into Greek habits of

sight of

VARIOUS CORRUPTING INFLUENCES. thought, which could not but

follow,

35J

produced no

inconsiderable effect upon the national character o( the Egyptians, shaking

them out of

accustomed

their

groove, and awakenjng curiosity and inquiry.

was scarcely

effect

The

Egyptian national

beneficial.

life

had

been eminently conservative and unchanging.

The

introduction of novelty in ten thousand shapes

and disturbed

unsettled

it.

The

old

beliefs

were

shaken, and a multitude of superstitions rushed

The

corruptions introduced by the Greeks were

in.

more

easy of adoption and imitation than the sterling points of their character, their intelligence, their unwearied

Egypt was awakened to by the novel circumstances of the Psamatik but it was a fitful life, unquiet, unnatural,

energy, their love of truth. a

new

period

life ;

feverish.

The

character of the

men

lost

in

dignity

and strength by the discontinuance of military training consequent upon the substitution for a native army of an army of mercenaries. The position of the women sank through the adoption of those ideas concerning them which their contact with orientals had engrained

minds of the Asiatic Greeks. The national the people was sapped by the concentration of the royal favour on a race of foreigners whose manners and customs were abhorrent to them, and whom they regarded with envy and dislike. If some improvement is to be seen on the surface of Egyptian life under the Psamatiks, some greater activity and into the

spirit of

enterprise,

some increased

proved methods

in

art,

intellectual

stir,

some im-

these ameliorations scarcely

compensate for the indications of decline which lie deeper, and which in the sequel determined the actual fate of the nation.

3j4

The

TIIE

CORPSE COMES TO LIFE AG AIM. of the

later years

reign

of Psamatik

were

coincident with a time of extreme trouble and confusion in Asia, in

the course of which

Monarchy came

to

the

Assyrian

an end, and south-western Asia

was partitioned between the Medes and the Babylonians. A tempting field was laid open for an ambitious prince, who might well have dreamt of Syrian or even Mesopotamian conquest, and of recalling the old glories of Seti, Thothmes, and

Amenhotep. Psamatik did go so far as to make an attack upon Philistia, but met with so little success that he was induced to restrain any grander aspirations which he may have cherished, and to leave the Asiatic monarchs to settle Asiatic affairs as it pleased them. Ashdod, we are told, resisted the Egyptian arms for twenty-nine years and though it fell at last, the prospect of half-a-dozen such sieges was not encouraging. Psamatik, moreover, was an old man by the time that the Assyrian Empire fell to pieces, and we can understand his shrinking from a distant and dangerous expedition. He left the field open for his son, Neco, having in no way committed him, but having secured for him a ready entrance into Asia by his conquest of ;

the Philistine fortress.

Neco, the son of Psamatik I., from the moment that he ascended the throne, resolved to make the bold stroke for empire from which his father had held back.

mercenary army as a sufficient land force, he concentrated his energies on the enlargement and improvement of his navy, which was weak in numbers and of antiquated construction. Naval architecture had recently made great strides, first by the

Regarding

his

iXkCO BUILbS

TWO FLEETS.

inventiveness of the Phoenicians, bircme, and then by the

skill

355

who introduced

the

of the Greeks, who, im-

proving on the hint furnished them, constructed the

Neco, by the help of Greek artificers, built two fleets, both composed of triremes, one in the ports which opened on the Red Sea, the other in those upon

trireme.

the Mediterranean.

He

then, with the object of uniting

HEAD

OI-'

NliCO.

the two fleets into one,

when occasion should require, an made attempt to re-open the canal between the Nile and the Red Sea, which had been originally constructed by Seti I. and Ramesses II., but had been allowed to fall into disrepair. The Nile mud and the desert sand had

combined to menced excavations on a large

of the old

cutting,

but

silt

it

up.

Neco com-

scale, following

greatly widening

it,

the line so that

J56

THE CORPSE COMES TO LIFE AGAIN.

triremes might meet in

it

and pass each

other, without

shipping their oars.

After a time, however, he

compelled to

without effecting his purpose,

owing

to

an

desist,

extraordinary

mortality

among

felt

the

According to Herodotus, 120,000 of them At any rate, the suffering and loss of life, perished. probably by epidemics, was such as induced him to relinquish his project, and to turn his thoughts toward gaining his end in another way. Might not Nature have herself established a water communication between the two seas by which Egypt was washed ? It was well known that the Mediterranean and the Red Sea both communicated with an open ocean, and it was the universal teaching of the Greek geographers, that the ocean flowed round the whole earth. Neco determined to try whether Africa was not circumnavigable. Manning some ships with Phoenician mariners, as the boldest and most experienced, accustomed to brave the terrors of the Atlantic outside the Pillars of Hercules, he dispatched them from a port on the Red Sea, with orders to sail southwards, keeping the coast of Africa on their right, and see if they could not return to Egypt by way of the labourers.

Mediterranean.

under the

The

skilful

enterprise succeeded.

The

guidance of the Phoenicians,

pated the feat of Vasco di Storms, and returned by

Gama — rounded

way

the

ships,

antici-

Cape of

of the Atlantic, the Straits

of Gibraltar, and the Mediterranean to the land from which they had set o.it. But they did not reach Egypt The success obtained was thus of till the third year. no practical value, so far as the Pharaoh's warlike projects were concerned. He had to relinquish the

NECO DEFEATS JOSIAH AT MEG ID DO. idea of uniting his

length of the

He

two

way and

in

fleets

357

one, owing to the

the dangers of the navigation.

mind to relinquish his warlike and Palestine were still in an unsettled state, the yoke of Assyria being broken, and that of Babylon not yet firmly fixed on them. Josiah was taking advantage of the opportunity to extend his authority over Samaria. Phoenicia was had, however, no

projects.

Syria, Phoenicia,

hesitating whether to submit to assert her freedom.

ment. ture.

The East

Nabopolassar or to

generally was in a

fer-

Neco in C. 608, determined to make his venAt the head of a large army, consisting mainly 13

of his mercenaries, he took the coast route into Syria,

supported by his Mediterranean

fleet

along the shore,

and proceeding through the low tracts of Philistia and Sharon, prepared to cross the ridge of hills which shuts in on the south the great plain of Esdraelon but here he found his passage barred by an army. Josiah, either because he feared that, if Neco were successful, his own position would be imperilled, or because he had entered into engagements with Nabopolassar. had resolved to oppose the further progress of the Egyptian army, and had occupied a strong position near Megiddo, on the southern verge of the plain. In vain did Neco seek to persuade him to retire, and leave josiah was obstinate, and a battle the passage free, became unavoidable. As was to be expected, the Jewish army suffered complete defeat Neco swept it from his path, and pursued his way, while Josiah, mortally wounded, was conveyed in his reserve chariot to Jerusalem. The triumphant Pharaoh pushed forward into Syria and carried all before him as far as Carche;

;

— THE CORPSE COMES TO LIFE AGAIN.

358

mish on the Euphrates. The whole country submitted to him. After a campaign which lasted three months, Neco returned in triumph to his own land, carrying with him Jehoahaz, the second son of Josiah, as a prisoner,

and leaving Jehoiakim, the eldest son, as

tributary monarch, at Jerusalem.

For three years Egypt enjoyed the sense of triumph, and felt herself once more a conquering power, capable of contending on equal terms with any state or kingdom that the world contained. But then Nemesis swooped down on her. In B.C. 605 Nabopolassar of Babylon woke up to a consciousness of his loss of presToo tige, and determined on an effort to retrieve it. old to undertake a distant campaign in person, he placed his son, Nebuchadnezzar, at the head of his troops, and sent him into Syria to recover the lost Neco met him on the Euphrates. A great provinces. battle was fought at Carchemish between the forces of Egypt and Babylon, in which the former suffered a We have no historical account of it, terrible defeat. but

may

gratefully accept, instead, the prophetic de-

scription of Jeremiah

:

" Order ye the buckler and the shield, and draw ye near to battle

Harness the horses your helmets

;

;

and get up, ye horsemen, and stand forth with

;

Furbish the spears, and put on the brigandines.

Wherefore have

And

their

seen them dismayed, and turned

I

mighty ones are beaten down, and

behind them

away backward?

fled apace,

and look not

;

For fear is round about, saith Jehovah. Let not the swift flee away, nor the mighty men escape ; They shall stumble and fall toward the north by the river Euphrates. Who is this that cometh up as a flood [like the Nile], whose waters are

moved

as the rivers

?

NECO DEFEATED AT CARCHEMISH. Egypt

rises

up

the rivers

And he I

as a flood [like the Nile],

saith, I will

go up, and

up, ye horses

come forth Cush and Phut, the

For this

his waters are

moved

as

;

will destroy the city,

Come

and

359

;

I

will

cover the earth

with

its

and

rage, ye chariots

;

inhabitants. ;

and

let

the mighty

men

;

and Lud

that handle the shield,

that handles

and bends

bow. is

th:

that he

day of the Lord, the Lord of

may

smite his foes

hosts, a

day of vengeance,

;

And

the sword shall devour, and be made satiate and drunk with blood; For the Lord, the Lord of Hosts hath a sacrifice in the north country,

by the river Euphrates.

Go up

into Gilead, and take balm,

In vain shalt thou use

O

many medicines

Egypt

virgin daughter of ;

to thee

no cure

shall

The

!

come.

nations have heard of thy shame, and thy cry hath filled the land For the mighty man has stumbled against the mighty, and both are

:

fallen together."

*

The disaster was



utter,

complete, not to be remedied

the only thing to be done was to

" fly

apace," to put

the desert and the Nile between the vanquished and the

and to deprecate the conqueror's anger by subNeco gave up the contest, evacuated Syria and Palestine, and hastily sought the shelter of his own land, whither Nebuchadnezzar would probably have speedily followed him, had not news arrived of his father's, Navictors,

mission.

To

bopolassar's, death.

secure the succession, he had to

return, as quickly as he could, to Babylon,

and

to allow

the Egyptian monarch, at any rate, a breathing space.

Thus ended the dream of the recovery of an Asiatic Empire, which Psamatik may have cherished, and of which Neco attempted the realization. The defeat of Carchemish shattered the unsubstantial fabric into atoms, and gave a death-blow to hopes which no Pharaoh ever entertained afterwards. 1

Jeremiah

xlvi.

3-12.

XXIII,



THE LATER SAITE KINGS. PSAMATIK AND AMASIS. TlIE Saitic revival

in art

IT.,

and architecture,

APRIES,

in

com-

mercial and general prosperity, which Psamatik the First inaugurated, continued

under

the short reign of Psamatik

II.

his successors.

To

belong a considerable

number of inscriptions, some good bas-reliefs at Abydos and Philae, and a large number of statues.

One

of these, in the collection of

remarkable

and

for its beauty.

the Vatican,

is

Apries erected numerous

one pair of obelisks, wherewith of Neith at Sai's. Amasis afforded great encouragement to art and architecture. He added a court of entrance to the above temple, with propytea of unusual dimensions, adorned the dromos conducting to it with numerous androsphinxes, erected colossal statues within the temple precincts, and conveyed thither from Elephantine a

stelcz,

he adorned

at least

the

Temple

monolithic shrine or chamber of extraordinary dimensions.

found

Traces of his architectural activity are also at

Memphis, Thebes, Abydos, Bubastis, and

Thmui's or Leontopolis.

Even

Statuary flourished during

was attempted and Amasis sent a likeness of himself, painted on

his

reign.

portrait-painting

;

TROUBLES IN SYRIA AND PALESTINE. panel, as a present to the people of Cyrene.

maintained by the Egyptians of a century

36: It

was

later that

the reign of Amasis was the most prosperous time which

Egypt had ever seen, the land being more productive, more numerous, and the entire people more happy than either previously or subsequently. Amasis certainly gave a fresh impulse to commerce, since he held frequent communication with the Greek states the cities

of Asia Minor, as well as with the settlers at Cyrene,

and gave increased privileges to the trading community of Naucratis. Even in a military point of view, there was to some extent a recovery from the disaster ofCarchemish. The Babylonian empire was not sufficiently established or consolidated at the accession of Nebuchadnezzar for that monarch to form at once extensive schemes of conquest. There was much to be done in Elam, in Asia Minor, in Phoenicia, and in Palestine, before his hands could be free to occupy themselves in the subjugation of more distant regions. Within three years after the battle of Carchemish Judaea threw off the yoke of Babylon, and a few years later Phoenicia rebelled under the hegemony of Tyre. Nebuchadnezzar had not much difficulty in crushing the Jewish outbreak but Tyre resisted his arms with extreme obstinacy, and it was not till thirteen years after the revolt took place that Phoenicia was re-conquered. Even then the position of Judaea was insecure she was known to be thoroughly disaffected, and only ;

:

waiting an opportunity to rebel a second time.

Nebuchadnezzar was within his

fully

occupied

own dominions, and

left

with

Thus

troubles

Egypt undis-

— THE LATER SAITE KINGS.

362

turbed to repair her losses, and recover her military prestige, as she best might.

Ngco

outlived his defeat about eight or nine years,

during which he nursed his strength, and abstained

His son, Psamatik II., attack on the Ethiopians, and seems to have penetrated deep into Nubia, where a monument was set up by two of his generals, Apollonius, a Greek, and Amasis, an Egyptian, which may still be seen on the rocks of Abu-Simbel, and is the earliest known Greek inscription. The following is a fac-simile, only reduced from

all

warlike enterprises.

who succeeded him

in size

B.C. 596,

made an

:

TA VTA^r-pAfANToi * VM ^Af^/^ATtXotToi&BoKAof £nA£oh/BA&oNA£K£pKi°fKATvriBDG£vi$oroTAr*o}. AN IB AforAofo^oBXSPOTAftr^ToA jrvPT/o^ /±6At*A}\$ Apries, the son of Neco, brought this war to an end in the first year of his reign (B.C. 590) by the arms of one of his generals and, finding that Nebuchadnezzar was still unable to reduce Phoenicia to subjection, he ventured, in B.C. 588, to conclude a treaty with Zedekiah, king of Judah, and to promise him assistance, if he would join him against the Babylonians. This Zedekiah consented to do, and the war followed which terminated in the capture and destruction of ;

Jerusalem, and the transfer of the Jewish people to Babylonia. It is

war.

uncertain what exact part Apries took in this

We

know

that he called out the full force of

the empire, and marched

into

Palestine,

with the

APRIES OFFENDS NEBUCHADNEZZAR. object of relieving Zedekiah, as soon as he

303

knew

that

was threatened. We know that he marched towards Jerusalem, and took up such a threatening attitude that Nebuchadnezzar at one time actually raised the siege (Jer. xxxvii. 5). We do not know what followed. Whether Apries, on finding that the whole Chaldaean force had broken up from before Jerusalem and was marching against himself, took fright at the danger which he had affronted, and made a sudden inglorious retreat or whether he boldly met the Babylonian host and contended with them in a pitched battle, wherein he was worsted, and from which he was forced to fly into his own land, is uncertain. Josephus positively declares that he took the braver and more honourable course the silence of Scripture as to any battle is thought to imply that he showed the white feather. In cither case, the result was the same. Egypt recoiled before Babylon Palestine was evacuated and Zedekiah was left to himself. In B.C. 586 Jerusalem fell Zedekiah was made a prisoner and cruelly deprived of sight; the Temple and city were burnt, and the bulk of the people carried into captivity. Babylon rounded off her dominion in this quarter by the absorption of the last state upon her southwestern border that had maintained the shadow of independence and the two great powers of these parts, hitherto prevented from coming into contact by the that monarch's

safety

;

:

;

;

;

:

intervention of a sort of political

" buffer,"

became

conterminous, and were thus brought into a position in

for

which it was not possible that a collision should any considerable time be avoided.

364

THE LATER SAITE KINGS.

Recognizing the certainty of the impending colliApries sought to strengthen his power for by attaching to his own empire the resistance

sion,

Phoenician towns of the Syrian coast, whose adhesion would secure him, at any rate, the mari-

to his side

He made

time superiority.

an expedition against

Tyre and Sidon both by land and sea, defeated the combined fleet of Phoenicia and Cyprus in a great engagement, besieged Sidon, and after a time comHe then endeavoured further pelled it to surrender. to strengthen himself on the land side by bringing under subjection the Greek city of Cyrene, which had

now become a flourishing community but here his good fortune forsook him the Cyrenaean forces defeated the army which he sent against them, with and the event brought Apries into great slaughter disfavour with his subjects, who imagined that he ;

;

;

had, of malice prepense, sent his troops into the jaws of destruction.

According to Herodotus, the imrevolt, which cost Apries his

mediate result was a throne, and, within entire narrative of

improbable, and

a short

Herodotus

time, his is in

some recent

life

;

but the

the highest degree

discoveries suggest a

wholly different termination to the reign of this

re-

markable king. It is certain that in B.C.

an expedition into Egypt.

568 Nebuchadnezzar made According to all accounts

Amasis, date fell into the lifetime of Apries. however, the successor of Apries, appears to have this

been Nebuchadnezzar's direct antagonist, and to have resisted him in the field, while Apries remained in the palace at Sal's. The two were joint kings from

NEBUCHADNEZZAR OVERRUNS EGYPT.

365

Nebuchadnezzar, at first, 571 to B.C. 565. neglected Sa'i's, and proceeded, by way of Ileliopolis B.C.

and Bubastis (Ezek. xxx. 171, against the old capitals, Memphis and Thebes. Having taken these, and " de-

made the images to cease," he advanced up the Nile valley to Elephantine, which he took, and then endeavoured to penetrate into Nubia. A check, however, was inflicted on his army by Nes-

stroyed the idols and

Hor, the Governor of the South, whereupon he gave

up

idea of

his

Returning down Egypt which

Nubian conquest.

the valley, he completed that ravage of is

described by Jeremiah and Ezekiel.

that in B.C. 565, three years after his

took

and put the aged Apries

Sai's

It

is

probable

invasion, he

first

Amasis

to death. 1

he allowed still to reign, but only as a tributary king, and thus Egypt became " a base kingdom " (Ezek. xxix.

14),

15), if its

The

"

" the basest of the

kingdoms

" (ibid,

verse

former exaltation were taken into account. base kingdom as ever.

as flourishing foreign attack

"

was,

The

however, materially,

sense of security from

was a great encouragement

to private

The disconcommercial enterprise. tinuances of lavish expenditure on military expeditions improved the state finances, and enabled those industry and

at the

head of the government to employ the money,

that would otherwise have been

ductive undertakings.

The

wasted,

agricultural

in

repro-

system

of

Egypt was never better organized or better managed Nature seemed to conspire with than under Amasis.

man

to

make

the time one of joy and delight, for

the inundation was scarcely ever before so regularly 1

Joscpluis,

Ant.Jud.

x. 9,

97.

THE LATER SAITE KINGS.

366

abundant, nor were the crops ever before so

The " twenty thousand to the time,

may

be a

cities,"

myth

plentiful.

which Herodotus assigns ;

beyond

but,

all

doubt,

the tradition which told of them was based upon the fact of a period of

unexampled

Amasis's

prosperity.

Egyptian should appear once each year before the governor of his canton, and show the means by which he was getting an honest living, may have done something towards making industry general but his example, his active habits, and his encouragement of art and architecture, probably did law, that each

;

His architectural works must have given con-

more. stant

employment

to

large

numbers of persons

as

quarrymen, boatmen, bricklayers, plasterers, masons, his patronage of art carpenters, and master builders ;

not only gave direct occupation to a multitude of artists, but set a fashion to the more wealthy among his subjects by which the demand for objects of art was multiplied a hundredfold. Sculptors and painters had a happy time under a king who wa? always

building temples, erecting colossi, or sending statues or paintings of himself as presents to foreign states

or foreign shrines.

The

external aspect of

Amasis

is

Egypt under the

she ever wore at any former time

mant

reign of

thus as bright and flourishing as that which ;

but, as

M. Lenor-

observes, this apparent prosperity did but

ill

conceal the decay of patriotism and the decline of

all

the institutions of the nation.

The

kings of the

Sai'te

dynasty had thought to re-vivify Egypt, and infuse a little new blood into the old monarchy founded by Menes, by allowing the great stream of liberal ideas,

PROSPERITY UNDER AMASIS, UNREAL.

367

whereof Greece had already made herself the proto expand itself in her midst. Without knowing it, they had by these means introduced on the banks of the Nile a new element of decline.

pagator,

Constructed serving

its

exclusively

own

for

continuance, for pre-

traditions in defiance of the flight of

tain itself

Egypt could only mainby remaining unmoved. From the day on

which

found

centuries, the civilization of

it

itself in

progress, personified in

Greek

contact with the spirit

of

the Grecian civilization and

was under the absolute necessity itself upon a wholly new path, one which was the direct negation of its own genius, nor continue on without change its own existence. Thus, as soon as it began to be penetrated by Greek influence, it fell at once into complete dissolution, and sank into a state of decrepiWe shall see, tude, that already resembled death. in the next section, how suddenly and completely the Egyptian power collapsed when the moment of trial came, and how little support the surface prosperity which marked the reign of Amasis was able to render to the Empire in the hour of need and distress. in

the

of perishing.

race, It

it

could neither launch

;

XXIV. THE PERSIAN CONQUEST.

The

subjection of

menced

in

B.C.

565,

Egypt to Babylon, which comwas of that light and almost

nominal character, which a nation that is not very sensitive, or very jealous of its honour, does not care to shake off. small tribute was probably paid by

A

the subject state to her suzerain, but otherwise the

yoke was

There was no interference with the Egyptians no appointment of Babylonian satraps, or tax-collectors not even, so far as appears, any demands for contingents of troops. Thus, although Nebuchadunfelt.

internal government, or the religion of the

;

nezzar died within seven years of his conquest of

Egypt, and though a time of disturbance and confusion followed his death, four kings occupying the

Babylonian throne within

little

more than

six years,

two of whom met with a violent end, yet Amasis seems to have continued quiescent and contented, in the enjoyment of a life somewhat more merry and amusing than that of most monarchs, without making any effort to throw off the Babylonian supremacy or It was reassert the independence of his country. not till his self-indulgent apathy was intruded upon from without, and he received an appeal from a

RISE OF THE PERSIAN POWER. foreign nation, to which he

369

was compelled

to return

an answer, that he looked the situation in the face,

and came to the conclusion that he might declare himself independent without much risk. He had at this time patiently borne his subject position for the space of above twenty years, though he might easily have reasserted himself at the end of seven. The circumstances under which the appeal was made were the following. A new power had suddenly risen

up

in

Asia.

About

B.C.

558, ten

years after

Nebuchadnezzar's subjection of Egypt, Cyrus, son of Cambyses, the tributary monarch of Persia under the

Medes, assumed an independent position and began a Having made himself master of a large portion of the country of Elam, he assumed the title of " King of Ansan," and engaged in a long war with Astyages (Istivegu), his former suzerain, career of conquest.

(in B.C. 549; in his taking the Median monarch prisoner and succeeding to his dominions. It was at once recognized through Asia that a new The Medes, a mountain people of peril had arisen. great physical strength and remarkable bravery, had for about a century been regarded as the most powerThey had now been ful people of Western Asia. overthrown and conquered by a still more powerful mountain race. That race had at its head an energetic and enterprising prince, who was in the full vigour of youth, and fired evidently with a high His position was naturally felt as a direct ambition. menace by the neighbouring states of Babylon and Lydia, whose royal families were interconnected. Croesus of Lydia was the first to take alarm and to

which terminated

THE PERSIAN CONQUEST.

370

devise measures for his

own

He

security.

formed the

conception of a grand league between the principal

powers

whom

the rise of Persia threatened, for mutual

defence against the

common enemy

ance of this design,

;

sent, in B.C. 547,

and,

in further-

an embassy to

Egypt, and another to Babylon, proposing a close between the three countries. Amasis had to determine whether he would maintain his subjection alliance

to

Babylon and refuse the

offer

;

or,

by accepting

declare himself a wholly independent monarch.

it,

He

he did not know it before, that Nabonadius, the Babylonian monarch, was in difficulties, and could not resent his action. He might probably think that, under the circumstances, Nalearnt

by the embassy,

if

bonadius would regard his joining the league as a

At him on

friendly, rather than an. unfriendly, proceeding.

any

rate,

the balance of advantage seemed to

the side of complying with the request of Crcesus.

Croesus was lord of Asia Minor, and

it was only by and Carian mercenaries, on whom the throne of the Pharaohs now mainly depended, could be recruited and maintained at their proper strength. It would not do to offend so important a personage and accordingly Amasis came into the proposed alliance, and pledged himself to send assistance to whichever of his two confederates

his permission that the Ionian

;

should be

first

attacked.

pledged themselves to him

Conversely, they no doubt ;

but the remote position

Egypt rendered it extremely improbable that they would be called upon to redeem their pledges. Nor was even Amasis called upon actually to redeem the pledges which he had given. In B.C. 546, of

ALLIANCE OF EGYPT, BA&YLON, AND LYDIA. 371 Croesus, without

summoning any contingents from

his allies, precipitated the

war with Persia by crossing

the river Halys, and invading Cappadocia, which was

included

in

the

Having

dominions of Cyrus.

suf-

Cappadocian city, he returned to his capital and hastily sent messengers to Egypt and elsewhere, begging for immediate assistance. What steps Amasis took upon this, or intended to take, is uncertain; but it must have been before any troops could have been dispatched, that news reached Egypt which rendered it useless to send out an expedition. Croesus had scarcely reached his capital when he found himself attacked by Cyrus in his turn fered a severe defeat at Pteria, a

;

his

army

Sardis within

;

suffered a second defeat in the plain before

the

city

fourteen

was besieged, stormed, and taken days.

Croesus

fell,

alive,

into

the

enemy, and was kindly treated but his kingdom had passed away. It was evidently too late for Amasis to attempt to send him succour. The

hands of

his

;

by the force of circumstances, and Amasis was an independent monarch, no longer bound by any engagements.

tripartite alliance had,

come

to an end,

Shortly afterwards,

in

B.C.

538,

the

conquering

monarchy of Persia absorbed another victim. Nawas attacked, Babylon taken, and the Chaldaean monarchy, which had lasted nearly two

bonadius

thousand years, brought to an end. The contest had been prolonged, and in the course of it some disintegration of the empire had taken place. Phoenicia had asserted her independence and Cyprus, which was to a large extent Phoenician, had followed the example of the mother-country Under these cir;

THE PERSIAN CONQUEST.

372

cumstances, Amasis thought he saw an opportunity of gaining

some cheap

laurels,

and accordingly made

a naval expedition against the unfortunate islanders,

who were taken unawares and

forced to become his was unwise of the Egyptian monarch to remind Cyrus that he had still an open enemy un-chastised, one who had entered into a league against him ten years previously, and was now anxious to prevent him from reaping the full benefit of his conquests. We may be sure that the Persian monarch noted and resented the interference with territories which he had some right to consider his own whether he took any steps to revenge himself is doubtful. According to some, he required Amasis to send him one of his daughters as a concubine, an insult which the Egyptian king escaped by finesse tributaries.

It

;

while he appeared to submit to

it.

can only have been on account of the other wars

It

which pressed upon him and occupied him during his remaining years, that Cyrus did not march in person against Amasis. First, the conquest of the nations

between the Caspian and the Indian Ocean detained him and after this, a danger showed itself on his ;

north-eastern frontier which required

and

in

meeting which he

dent tribes beyond the

through

all

lost his

Oxus and

history been an

all his

life.

attention,

The indepen-

the Jaxartes have

annoyance and a

peril to

the power which rules over the Iranian plateau, and in repelling an attack in this quarter that Cyrus Amasis, perhaps, congratulated himself on the but defeat and death of the great warrior king Egypt would, perhaps', have suffered less had the it

was

fell.

;

CAMBYSES PREPARES TO 1XVADE EGYPT. invasion,

j^J

which was sure to come, been conducted by

the noble, magnanimous, and merciful Cyrus, than

she actually endured at the hands of the impulsive, tyrannical,

The

first

his father

under

his

and

half-

mad Cambyses. by Cambyses, who succeeded 529, was to reduce Phoenicia The support of a fleet was of

step taken

Cyrus

in

power.

B.C.

immense importance

to

an

army about

to

attack

Egypt, both for the purpose of conveying water and stores,

and of giving command over the mouths of the

Nile, so that the great cities,

Pelusium, Tanis,

Sa'i's,

Memphis, might be blockaded both by land and water. Persia, up to the accession of Cambyses, had (so to speak) no fleet. Cambyses, by threatening Bubastis,

the Phoenician cities on the land side, succeeded in

inducing them to submit to him aid,

;

he then, with their

detached Cyprus from her Egyptian masters, and

obtained the further assistance of a Cypriote squadron.

Some Greek

ships also gave their services, and the was that he had the entire command of the sea, and was able to hold possession of all the Nile mouths, and to bring his fleet up the river to the very walls of Memphis. Still, there were difficulties to overcome in respect of the passage of an army. Egypt is separated from Palestine by a considerable tract of waterless desert, and it was necessary to convey by sea, or on the result

backs of camels,

all

the water required for the troops,

and for the baggage animals. numerous camel corps was indispensable for the conveyance, and the Persians, though employing camels on their expeditions, are not likely to have for the camp-followers,

A

THE PERSIAN CONQUEST.

374

any very considerable number of these rate, it was extremely convenient to find a fresh and abundant supply of camels on the This good spot, together with abundant water-skins. fortune befell the Persian monarch, who was able to make an alliance with the sheikh of the most powerful Bedouin tribe of the region, who undertook the

possessed

At any

beasts.

entire responsibility of the water supply.

He

thus

crossed the desert without disaster or suffering, and

brought his entire force intact to the Pelusiac branch it poured its waters

of the Nile, near the point where into the Mediterranean Sea.

At

point

this

he found a mixed Egyptian and

army prepared to resist his further Amasis had died about six months pre-

Graeco-Carian progress.

Psamatik the

viously, leaving his throne to his son,

This young prince, notwithstanding his inexperience, had taken all the measures that were Third.

possible to protect his

He had

kingdom from

gathered together his

mercenaries, and having also levied

army, had Pelusium,

posted in

an

the

entire

advantageous

the

invader.

Greek and Carian force

a

large native

not

position.

far

from

On

his

Greeks and Carians he could thoroughly depend, though they had lately seen but little service his native levies, on the contrary, were of scarcely any they were jealous of the mercenaries, who value ;

;

had superseded them as the ordinary land force, and they had had little practice in warfare for the last forty years. At no time, probably, would an Egyptian army composed of native troops have been a match for such soldiers as Cambyses brought with him into

PSA M ATI K

Egypt



Greeks



DEFEATED AT PELUSIUM.

the

in

confident

of

school of Cyrus, inured to

But

victory.

soldiery of the time of Psamatik III.

the average Egyptian type it

had no experience,

it

375

Mardians,

Hyrcanians,

Medcs,

Persians,

trained

arms, and

III.

;

had

it

the

below

far

fell

little

native

patriotism,

was smarting under a sense

of injury and ill-treatment at the hands of the SaTte

The engagement between the two armies at Pelusium was thus not so much a battle as a carnage.

kings.

No

doubt the mercenaries made a stout resistance,

much The Egyptians

but they were vastly outnumbered, and were not better troops than their adversaries.

must have been slaughtered to

Ctesias, fifty

entire loss

According

like sheep.

thousand of them

fell,

whereas the

on the Persian side was only six thousand.

After a short struggle, the troops of Psamatik

and rout.

fled,

in a little time the retreat became a complete The fugitives did not stop till they reached

Memphis, where they shut themselves up within the walls.

the lot of

It is

single battle.

that

Egypt

are strategically

The whole Delta

is

is

have

its

fate decided

no strong

offers

flat,

by man.

by a

positions,

more defensible than

one alluvial

that has not been raised

Nile

to

The country

others.

with no elevation

The

valley of the

so wide as to furnish everywhere an ample

wherein the largest armies may contend without having their movements cramped or hindered. An

plain,

army

that takes to the hills on either side of the

valley since

it

is

not worth following

:

it

is

self-destroyed,

can find no sustenance and no water.

the sole question,

when

Thus

a foreign host invades Egypt,

THE PERSIAN CONQUEST.

376 is

this

:

Can

it,

or can

not, defeat the full force of

it

Egypt

in an open battle ? If it gains one battle, there no reason why it should not gain fifty; and this is so evident, and so well known, that on Egyptian soil one defeat has almost always been accepted as deis

A

supremacy.

cisive of the military

beaten

army

may, of course, protract its resistance behind walls, and honour, fame, patriotism, may seem sometimes to require such a line of conduct

but, unless there

;

is

a

reasonable expectation of relief arriving from without, protracted resistance point

is

useless, and,

from a military

Defeated commanders

of view, indefensible.

have not, however, always seen this, or, seeing it, they have allowed prudence to be overpowered by other considerations.

many

Psamatik, like

Egypt, though defeated

the

in

field,

another ruler of

determined to

defend his capital to the best of his power. himself, with the

remnant of

Memphis, and there stood

his beaten

He

threw

army, into

at bay, awaiting the further

attack of his adversary.

was not long before the Persian army drew up walls, and invested the city by land, while the fleet blockaded the river. A single Greek vessel, It

under the

having received orders to the place to surrender

the town, whereupon

it

summon

the defenders of

had the boldness to enter was set upon by the Egyptians, it,

captured, and destroyed.

Contrarily to the law of

ambassadors and their escort, the crew was torn limb from limb, and an outrage thus committed which Cambyses was justified in nations, which protects

punishing with extreme severity. the city, which followed soon after

Upon its

the

fall

of

investment, the



;

FALL OF MEMPHIS.

377

offended monarch avenged the crime which had been

committed by publicly executing two thousand of the principal citizens, including

(it

is

said) a son of the

The king himself was

at first spared, and might perhaps have been allowed to rule Egypt as a tributary monarch, had he not been detected in a design to rebel and renew the war. For this offence fallen king.

was condemned to death, and executed by Cambyses' order. The defeat had been foretold by the prophet Ezekiel, who had said

he,

too,

:

''

Woe

worth the day For the day is near, Even the day of the Lord is near, a day of clouds !

And

come upon Egypt, and anguish

a sword shall

Ethiopia

When

;

be the time of the heathen.

It shall

be

in

away

her

shall

;

the slain shall

fall

in

Egypt

;

and they

shall take

multitude,

And

her foundations shall be broken down.

Ethiopia and Phut and Lud, and

And

the children of the land that the sword.

I will

And And

1

.

.

all

the mingled people, and Chub, in league, shall fall

is

with them by

.

put a fear in the land of Egypt. will

make Pathros

will set a lire in

desolate,

Zoan, and

will

execute judgments in No.

.

.

.

Sin [Pelusium] shall be in great anguish,

And No

shall

be broken up, and

Noph

shall

have adversaries

in the

daytime.

The young men

And

of

Aven and

At Tehaphnehes also the day

When And

of Pi-beseth shall

fall

by the sword

:

these cities shall go into captivity.

I

shall

shall

withdraw

itself,

break there the yokes of Egypt

the pride of her power shall cease."

'

According to Herodotus, Cambyses was not content with the above-mentioned severities, which were per1

Ezekiel xxx. ;-l8.

;

THE PERSIAN CONQUEST.

378

haps justifiable under the circumstances, but proceeded further to exercise his rights as conqueror in a most violent and tyrannical way. He tore from its tomb the mummy of the late king, Amasis, and subjected it to

He

the grossest indignities.

stabbed

in the thigh

an

Apis-Bull, recently inaugurated at the capital with joyful ceremonies, suspecting that the occasion feigned,

and that the rejoicings were

ill-success

was

really over the

of expeditions carried out by his orders

Ammon, and

against the oasis of

against Ethiopia.

He exhumed numerous mummies for the He entered

pose of examining them.

mere purgrand

the

temple of Phthah at Memphis, and made sport of the image. He burnt the statues of the Cabeiri, which he found

in

who were keeping was,

if

He

another temple.

Apis, and massacred

scourged the priests of

the streets those Egyptians

in

the festival.

Altogether, his object

the informants of Herodotus are to be believed,

to pour religion,

contempt and contumely on the Egyptian and to insult the religious feelings of the

entire people.

On

inscription, that

tian

we learn from a contemporary Cambyses so far conformed to Egyp-

the other hand,

usages as to take a "throne-name," after the

pattern of the ancient Pharaohs

temple of Neith at taken possession of

Sal's it

;

;

that he cleared the

of the foreigners

who had

that he entrusted the care of

the temple to an Egyptian officer of high standing

and that he was actually himself mysteries of the goddess.

initiated into the

Perhaps we ought not to

be greatly surprised at these contradictions. Cambyses had the iconoclastic spirit strong in him, and,

EGYPT UNDEti CAMBYSES AND DARIUS. under excitement, took a pleasure

in

horrence of Egyptian superstitions.

379

showing his abBut he was not



always under excitement he enjoyed lucid intervals, during which he was actuated by the spirit of an administrator and a statesman.

Having

in

many ways

greatly exasperated the Egyptians against his rule,

he thought

it

prudent, ere he quitted the country, to

soothe the feelings which he had so deeply wounded,

and

conciliate the priest-class, to

Hence

such dire offence. public feeling at

Sa'i's,

which he had given

his politic concessions to

his initiation into the mysteries

of Neith, his assumption of a throne-name, and his restoration

And

of the temple of SaTs to religious uses.

the policy of conciliation, which he thus inaugu-

rated,

was continued by

Ammon, in the oasis and made many acknowledgments

built, or repaired, the

of El Khargeh,

Darius

his successor, Darius.

of the deities of

temple of

Egypt

;

when an Apis-Bull

died

early in his reign, he offered a reward of a hundred talents for the discovery of a

new Apis

posed to adorn the temple of

Ammon

a

new

obelisk.

At

the

same

tion he carefully considered

;

at

and he proThebes with

time, in his administra-

the interests of Egypt,

which he entrusted to a certain Aryandes as satrap he re-opened the canal between the Nile and the Red Sea, for the encouragement of Egyptian commerce he kept up the numbers of the Egyptian fleet in his arrangement of the satrapies, he placed no greater burthen on Egypt than it was well able to bear and he seems to have honoured Egypt by his occasional ;

;

;

;

presence.

He

failed,

however, to allay the discontent,

and even hatred, which the outrages of Cambyses had

the Persian conquest.

3 8o

remained indelibly impressed on the Egyptian mind the Persian rule was detested aroused

;

they

still

;

;

and in sullen dissatisfaction the entire nation awaited an opportunity of reclaiming its independence and flinging off the accursed yoke.

XXV. THREE DESPERATE REVOLTS.

The

first

revolt of the

Egyptians against their con-

querors, appears to have been provoked by the

of the battle of Marathon.

news

Egypt

heard, in B.C. 490, of the oppressor, as she ever deter-

that the arms mined to consider Darius, had met with a reverse in European Greece, where 200,000 Medes and Persians had been completely defeated by 20,000 Athenians and Plataeans. Darius, it was understood, had taken greatly to heart this reverse, and was bent on avenging it. The strength of the Persian Empire was about to be employed towards the West, and an excellent opportunity seemed to have arisen for a defection on the South. Accordingly Egypt, after making secret preparations for three years, in B.C. 487 broke out in open revolt. She probably overpowered and massacred the Persian garrison in Memphis, which is said to have numbered 120,000 men, and, proclaiming herself independent, set up a native

sovereign

c

The Egyptian monuments suggest that this monarch He bore the foreign-sounding name of Khabash. fortified the coast

of

Egypt against attempts which it by the Persian fleet, and

might be made upon

THREE DESPERATE REVOLTS.

382

doubtless prepared himself also to resist an invasion

by

But he was quite unable

land.

Though Darius

effectual.

to

do anything

died in the year after the

suppression was immediately undertaken by his son and successor, Xerxes, who invaded Egypt in the next year, easily crushed all revolt, B.C. 486, yet its

and placed the province under a severer any that it had previously experienced. Achaemenes, his brother, was made satrap. Twenty -five years of tranquillity followed, during which the Egyptians were submissive subjects of the Persian crown, and even showed remarkable courage and skill in the Persian military expeditions. Egypt furnished as many as two hundred triremes to the fleet which was brought against Greece by Xerxes, and the squadron particularly distinguished itself in the sea-fights off Artemisium, where they actually captured five Grecian vessels with their crews. Mardonius, moreover, set so high a value on the marines who fought on board the Egyptian ships, that he retained them as land-troops when the Persian fleet returned to Asia after Salamis. resistance,

rule than

No

further defection took place during the reign of

Xerxes

;

but

in

B.C.

occupied for about

460, after the throne five

had been

years by Xerxes' son, Arta-

xerxes, a second rebellion broke out, which led to a

long and terrible struggle.

A

certain

Inarus,

bore rule over some of the African tribes on

western border of Egypt, and

who the

who may have been

a

descendant of the Psamatiks, headed the insurrection, and in conjunction with an Egyptian, named Amyrteeus,

suddenly attacked the Persian garrison stationed

REVOLT OF INARUS.

383

Egypt, the ordinary strength of which was 120,000 A great battle was fought at Papremis, in the Delta, wherein the Persians were completely defeated,

in

men.

and

their

of Inarus

leader,

Achaemenes, perished by the hand Memphis, however, the capital,

himself.

and the struggle thus remained doubtful. and Amyrta^us implored the assistance of Athens, which had the most powerful navy of the time, and could lend most important aid by taking possession of the river. Athens, which was under the influence of the farsighted Pericles, cheerfully responded to the call, and sent two hundred triremes, manned by at least forty thousand men, to assist the rebels, and to do as much injury as possible to the Persians. On sailing up the Nile, the Athenian fleet found a Persian squadron already moored in the Nile waters, but it swept this obstacle from its path without any difficulty. Memphis was then blockaded both by land and water; the city was taken, and only the citadel, LeuconTeichos, or " the White Fortress," held out. A formal siege of the citadel was commenced, and the allies lay before it for months, but without result. Meanwhile, Artaxerxes was not idle. Having collected an army of 300,000 men, he gave the command of it to Megabyzus, one of his best generals, and sent him to Egypt against the rebels. Megabyzus marched upon Memphis, defeated the Egyptians and their allies in a great battle under the walls of the town, relieved the Persian garrison which held the citadel, and recovered possession of the place. The Athenians retreated to still

resisted,

Inarus

the tract called

Prosopitis,

a sort of island in the

Delta, surrounded by two of the branch streams of

THREE DESPERATE REVOLTS.

384

the Nile, which they held with their ships.

Here Megabyzus besieged them without success for eighteen months but at last he bethought himself of a stratagem like that whereby Cyrus is said to have captured Babylon, and adapted it to his purpose. Having blocked the course of one of the branch streams, and diverted its waters into a new channel, he laid bare ;

the river-bed, captured the triremes that were stuck fast in the soft ooze, marched his men into the island, and overwhelmed the unhappy Greeks by sheer force A few only escaped, and made their way of numbers. The entire fleet of two hundred vessels to Cyrene. fell into the hands of the conqueror and fifty others, sent as a reinforcement, having soon afterwards entered the river, were attacked unawares and defeated, with the loss of more than half their number. Inarus, the Libyan monarch, became a fugitive, but was betrayed by some of his followers, surrendered, and crucified. Amyrtaeus, who had been recognized as ;

king of Egypt during the six years that the struggle lasted, took refuge in the Nile marshes, where he dragged out a miserable existence for another term of six years. The Egyptians offered no further resistance and Egypt became once more a Persian satrapy ;

(B.C. 455).

was at about this time that Herodotus, the Greek historian, the Father of History, as he has been called, visited Egypt in pursuance of his It

earliest

plan of gathering information for his great work.

He

was a young man, probably not far from thirty years of age (for he was born between the dates of the battles of Marathon and Thermopylae). He travelled

REVOLT of NEPHERITI3.

385

through the land as far as Elephantine, viewing with his observant eyes the wonders with which the " Story 01 Egypt " has been so much occupied and ;

he described them with the enthusiasm that we have occasionally noted.

He saw

the battle-field on which

Inarus had just been defeated

— the

ground strewn he made acme of its

with the skulls and other bones of the slain his longest stay at

greatness

;

Memphis, then

at the

;

he visited the quarries on the east of the

Nile whence the stone had been

dug

for the

pyramids,

and he gazed upon the great monuments themselves, on the opposite side of the stream. We have seen that he visited Lake Mceris, and examined the famous Labyrinth, which he thought even more wonderful than the pyramids themselves. Finally, he sailed away for Tyre, and Egypt was again closed to travellers from Greece.

A

second period of tranquillity followed, which

covered the space of about half a century.

known

Nothing and it might

is of Egypt during this interval have been thought that she had grown contented with her lot, and that her aspirations after independence were over. For fifty years she had made no sign. Even the troubled time between the death of Artaxerxes I. and the accession of Darius II. had not ;

tempted her

to strike a

blow

But still She was biding

for freedom.

she was, in reality, irreconcilable.

her time, and preparing herself for a last desperate effort.

In

B.C.

406 or 405, towards the close of the reign of

Darius Nothus, the third rebellion of Egypt against Persia broke out.

A

native of Alendes,

by name

THREE DESPERATE REVOLTS.

386

or

Nepheritis,

more properly Nefaa-rut,

raised the

banner of independence, and commenced a war, which must have lasted for some years, but which terminated n the expulsion of the Persian garrison, and the resstablishment of the throne of the Pharaohs.

unfortunate

that

no ancient

account of the struggle. time, the

Persia

We

authority

only

know

It is

gives

any

that, after a

power of Nefaa-rut was established that him in undisturbed possession of Egypt, ;

left

and that he reigned quietly for the space of six years, employing himself in the repair and restoration of the temple of Ammon at Karnak. Nothing that can be called a revival, or renaissance, distinguished his reign;

and we must view

his success rather as the result of

Persian weakness, than of his

however,

inaugurated a

own

period

energy.

of

His

revolt,

independence,

which lasted about sixty years, and which threw over the last years of the doomed monarchy a gleam of sunshine, that for a brief space recalled the glories of earlier

and happier ages.



XXVI. A LAST GLEAM OF SUNSHINE

— NECTANEBO

I.

A TROUBLED time followed the reign of Nefaa-rut. The Greek mercenary soldiery, on whom the monarchs depended, were took offence,

fickle in their

if

temperament, and easily were in any way

their inclinations

Their displeasure commonly led to the dethronement of the king who had provoked it and we have thus, at this period of the history, five reigns No monarch had time to disin twenty-five years. tinguish himself by a re-organization of the kingdom, or even by undertaking buildings on a large scale each was forced to live from hand to mouth, meeting as he best might the immediate difficulties of his position, without providing for a future, which he might never live to see. Fear of re-conquest was also perpetual and the monarchs had therefore constantly to be courting alliances with foreign states, and subjecting themselves thereby to risks which it might have been more prudent to have avoided. With the accession of Nectanebo I. (Nekht-Horheb), about B.C. 385, an improvement in the state of affairs set in. Nekht-hor-heb was a vigorous prince, who held the mercenaries well under control, and, having raised a considerable Egyptian army, set himself to thwarted.

;

;

THE LAST GLEAM OF SUNSHINE.

388 place

Egypt

in

such a state of defence, that she might

confidently rely on her

own

strength,

and be under no

need of entangling herself with foreign alliances. strongly fortified

all

guarding each by two

He

seven mouths of the Nile,

the

forts,

one on either side of each

stream, and establishing a connection between each pair of forts

by a bridge.

At Pelusium, where

the

danger of hostile attack was always the greatest, he multiplied his precautions, guarding it on the side of

by a deep

the east

ditch,

and carefully obstructing

all

the approaches to the town, whether by land or sea,

by

forts

vances water.

and dykes and embankments, and

for

No

contri-

laying the neighbouring territory under

doubt these precautions were taken with

special reference to an expected attack on the part of

which was preparing, about B.C. 376, to make a great effort to bring Egypt once more into subjection. The expected attack came in the next year. Having obtained the services of the Athenian general, Iphicrates, and hired Greek mercenaries to the number of twenty thousand, Artaxerxes Mnemon, in B.C. 375, sent a huge armament against Egypt, consisting of 220,000 men, 500 ships of war, and a countless number of other vessels carrying stores and provisions. Pharnabazus commanded the Persian soldiery, Iphicrates the mercenaries. Having rendezvoused at Acre in the spring of the year, they set out early in the summer, and proceeded in a leisurely manner through Philistia and the desert, the fleet accompanying them along the coast. This rcu.e brought them to Pelusium, which they found so strongly fortified Persia,

that they despaired of being able to force the defences,

NECTANEBO ATTACKED BY PHARNABAZUS. 389 and

felt it

necessary to

their plan of attack.

make

a complete change

in

Putting to sea with a portion of

and with troops to the number of three thousand, and sailing northward till they could no longer be seen from the shore, they then, probably at nightfall, changed their course, and steering southwest, made for the Mendesian mouth of the Nile, which was only guarded by the twin forts with their connecting bridge. Here they landed without oppoThe sition, and proceeded to reconnoitre the forts. garrison gave them battle outside the walls, but was and the forts themselves defeated with great loss were taken. The remainder of the force conveyed by the ships, was then landed without difficulty; and the invaders, having the complete mastery of one of the Nile mouths, had it in their power to direct their attack to any point that might seem to them at once most important and most vulnerable. Under these circumstances the Athenian general, Iphicrates, strongly recommended a dash at Memphis. The main strength of the Egyptian army had been Strong detachments held concentrated at Pelusium. Memphis, he felt sure, the other mouths of the Nile. must be denuded of troops, and could probably be carried by a coup de main ; but the advice of the rapid Greek was little to the taste of the slow-moving and Pharnabazus declined to sanction cautious Persian. he would proceed according to enterprise any rash He had the advantage of numbers — the rules of art. why was he to throw it away? No, a thousand times no. He would wait till his army was once more collected together, and would then inarch on Memthe

fleet,

;



THE LAST GLEAM OF SUNSHINE.

390 phis,

without exposing himself or his troops to any

The

would be sure to fall, and the object In vain of the expedition would be accomplished. did Iphicrates offer to run the whole risk himself to take no troops with him besides his own mercenaries, and attack the city with them. As the Greek grew more hot and reckless, the Persian became more cool and wary. What might not be behind this foolhardiness ? Might it not be possible that the Greek was looking to his own interests, and designing, if he got possession of Memphis, to set himself up as king of Egypt ? There was no knowing what his intention might be and at any rate it was safest to wait the arrival of the troops. So Pharnabazus once more danger.

city



;

coolly declined his subordinate's offer.

Nectanebo, on his garrison

into

side,

having thrown a strong

Memphis, moved

army

his

across the

Delta from the Pelusiac to the Mendesian branch of the Nile, and having concentrated

hood of the captured against the invaders.

forts,

it

in the

proceeded

neighbourto

operate

His troops harassed the enemy

number of petty engagements, and in the course them considerable loss. In this way midsummer was reached the Etesian winds began to in a

of time inflicted on



blow, and the Nile to

stream spread

itself

rise.

Gradually the abounding

over the broad Delta

overflowed, river-courses obliterated military operations

was

;

;

roads were

the season for

There was no Iphicrates and departure amid mutual re-

clearly past.

possible course but to return to Asia.

Pharnabazus took their

criminations, each accusing the other of having caused

the expedition to be a complete failure.

GLORIES

The

NECTANEBU'S LATER YEARS. 39I

01'

repulse of

this

huge host was

felt

by the

Egyptians almost as the repulse of the host of Xerxes was felt by the Greeks. Nectancbo was looked upon

and a demigod his throne was assured it redeemed all the failures of the past, and had restored Egypt to the full possession of all her ancient dignity and glory. Nectanebo continued to rule over "the Two Lands" for nine years as a hero

was

felt

longer

;

in

uninterrupted

During

perity.

;

that he had

this

peace,

time

and

honour,

pros-

he applied himself, with

considerable success, to the revival of Egyptian art

and architecture. At Thebes he made additions to the great temple of Karnak, restored the temple of Khonsu, and adorned with reliefs a shrine originally erected by Ramesses XII. At Memphis he was exhe built a small temple in the neighbourhood of the Serapeum, set up inscriptions in the Apis repository in honour of the sacred bulls, traordinarily active

:

erected two small obelisks in black granite, and his

name

inscribed

more than once

left

in the quarries of

Traces of his activity are also found at Edfu, Abydos, at Bubastis, at Rosetta in the Delta, and

Toora. at

at Tel-el-Maskoutah.

The

art of his

time

is

said to

have all the elegance of that produced under the twenty sixth (Psamatik) dynasty, but to have been somewhat more florid. The two black obelisks abovementioned, which are now

show the admirable

in

the British

Museum,

which prevailed at this Nectanebo prepared sarcophagus which The period. same collection, is also adorns the for himself, which finish

of great beauty.

We

cannot be surprised to

find

that

Nectanebo

392

THE LAST GLEAM OF SUNSHINE.

was worshipped after his death as a divine being. A priesthood was constituted in his honour, which handed down his cult to later times, and bore witness to the impression made on the Egyptian mind by his character and his successes.

XXVII.

THE LIGHT GOES OUT NECTANEBO's nor his energy. Greeks,

who

IN DARKNESS.

successors had neither his foresight

Te-her, the Tachos or Teos of the

followed him on the throne

in

B.C. 366,

wont out of his way to provoke the Persians by fomenting the war of the satraps against Artaxerxes Mnemon, and, having obtained the services of Agesilaiis and Chabrias, even ventured to invade Phoenicia and attempt its reduction. PI is own hold upon Egypt

weak

was, however, far too

ceeding.

to justify so bold a pro-

Scarcely had he reached Syria, when revolt

broke out behind him.

The Regent,

to

whom

he had

entrusted the direction of affairs during his absence,

proved

unfaithful,

and

incited his son, Nekht-ncbf,

become a candidate for the crown, and to take up arms against his father. The young prince was seduced by the offers made him, and Egypt became plunged in a civil war. But for the courage and conto

duct

of

played,

Agesilaus,

which were conspicuously

Tacho would have yielded

to

despair

dis-

and

have given up the contest. In two decisive battles the Spartan general completely defeated the army of the rebels, which far outnumbered that of Tacho, and replaced the king on his tottering throne.

T HE LIGHT GOES

394

However,

it

OUT IN DARKNESS.

was not long before the party of the

rebels recovered from their defeats.

Agesilaiis either

joined them, or withdrew from the struggle, and re-

moving to Cyrene died there at an advanced age. Tacho, deserted by his followers, quitted Egypt and fled

made

Sidon, whence he

to

his

way

desert to the court of the Great King.

had by

this

across the

Ochus,

who

time succeeded Mnemon, received him

favourably, and professed an intention of embracing his cause

good-will.

court

;

but nothing came of this expression

Tacho

lived

of

a considerable time at the

of Ochus, without any steps being taken

to

him to his former position. At last a dysentery carried him off, and legitimated the position of the usurper who had driven him into exile. The end now drew nigh. Nekht-nebf, whom the restore

Greeks called

Nectanebo

II.,

having after a time

upon the throne, and got rid of pretenders, resumed the ambitious policy of his predecessor, and entered into an alliance with the people of Sidon and their neighbours, who were He had the excuse that in revolt against Persia. Ochus, some time previously, had sent an expedition against Egypt, which he had repulsed by the assistance of two Greek generals, Diophantus of Athens and Lamius of Sparta. But this expedition was a thing of the past it had inflicted no injury on Egypt, and it demanded no revenge. Nekht-nebf was in no way called upon to join the rebel confederacy, which (in B.C. 346) raised the flag of revolt from Persia, and

established himself firmly

;

sought to enrol in its ranks as many allies as possibleBut he rashly gave in his name, and sent to Sidon.

GREAT EXPEDITION OE OCHUS.

395

army that was beingGreek mercenaries, under the command of Mentor of Rhodes. With their as his contingent towards the raised, four

thousand of

his

Tennes, the Sidonian king, completely defeated the troops which Ochus had scut against him, and aid,

drove the Persians out of Phoenicia.

The

success, however,

which was thus gained by the

rebels only exasperated the Persian king, and

resolve

all

more on a desperate

the

had gone by, he

felt,

effort.

made him The time

committing wars to satraps,

for

or sending out generals, with a few thousand troops, to

put

down

this

or that troublesome

chieftain.

The

conjuncture called for measures of no ordinary character.

The Great King must conduct an expedition Every sort of preparation must be made

in person.

;

arms and provisions and accumulated

;

stores of all kinds

must be

the best troops must be collected from

a sufficient fleet must be and such an armament must go forth under the royal banner as would crush all opposition. Ochus succeeded in gathering together from the nations under his direct rule 300,000 foot, 30,000 horse, 300 triremes, and 500 transports or provision-ships. He then directed his efforts towards obtaining efficient assistance from the Greeks. Though refused aid by Athens and Sparta, he succeeded in obtaining a thousand Thcban heavy-armed under Lacrates, three thousand Argives under Nicostratus, and six thousand /Eolians, Ionians, and Dorians from the Greek cities of Asia Minor. The assistance thus secured was numerically small, amounting to no more than ten thousand men not a thirtieth part of his native force all

parts of the empire

manned

;

;



;

THE LIGHT GOES OUT IN DARKNESS.

jf)6

but

formed, together with the Greek mercenaries

it





who went over to him afterwards the on which he placed his chief reliance, and to which the ultimate success of his expedition was mainly due. The overwhelming strength of the armament which Ochus had brought w'th him into Syria alarmed the from Egypt force

Tennes, especially, monarch, despaired of a successful resistance, and made up his mind that his only chance of safety lay in his appeasing the anger of Ochus by chiefs of the rebel confederacy.

the

Sidonian

the betrayal of his confederates and followers.

He

Mentor of Rhodes, the commander of the Greek mercenaries furnished by Egypt, and found him quite ready to come into his plans. opened

his designs to

The two hands of

in

conjunction

betrayed

Sidon

into

the

by the admission of a detachment within the walls after which the defence became Persia,

;

impracticable.

The

Sidonians, having experienced

the unrelenting temper and sanguinary spirit of the

Persian king,

hundred of

who had

transfixed with javelins six

their principal citizens,

perate resolution of setting

fire

came

to the des-

to their houses,

and

One is glad Tennes, who had

so destroying themselves with their town. to learn that the

cowardly

traitor,

brought about these terrible calamities, did not derive

any

profit

from them, but was executed by the com-

mand of Ochus, as soon as Sidon had fallen. The reduction of Sidon was followed closely by

the

invasion of Egypt. Ochus, besides his 330,000 Asiatics,

had now a force of 14,000 Greeks, the mercenaries under Mentor having joined him. Marshalling his

army

in

four divisions,

he proceeded

to the attack.

ARRANGEMENT OF THE PERSIAN FORCES. The

first,

397

second, and third divisions contained, each

of them, a contingent of Greeks and a contingent of

commanded respectively by a Greek and a The Greeks of the first division, con-

Asiatics,

Persian leader. sisting

mainly of Boeotians, were under the orders

of Lacrates, a

Thcban of enormous

strength,

who

regarded himself as a second Hercules, and adopted the traditional costume of that hero, a lion's skin and

His Persian colleague was Rhosaces, satrap

a club.

of Ionia and Lydia, of " the Seven

Magi.

In

"

who claimed descent from one down the conspiracy of the

that put

the second

division,

where

the

Argive

mercenaries served, the Greek leader was Nicostratus, the Persian Aristazanes, a court usher, and one of the

most trusted friends of the king. Mentor and the eunuch Bagoas, Ochus's chief minister in his later years, were at the head of the third division, Mentor commanding his own mercenaries, and Bagoas the Greeks whom Ochus had levied in his own dominions, together with a large body of Asiatics. The king himself was sole commander of the fourth division, as well as commander-in-chief of the entire host. Nekhtnebf, on his side, was only able to oppose to this vast array an

army

less

than one-third of the

size.

He

had enrolled as many as sixty thousand of the Egyptian warrior class, and had the services of twenty thousand Greek mercenaries, and of about the same number of Libyan troops. Pelusium, as usual, was the first point of attack. Nekht-nebf had taken advantage of the long delay of Ochus in Syria to see that the defences of Egypt were in good order he had made preparations for ;

398

THE LIGHT GOES OUT IN DARKNESS.

resistance at all the seven mouths of the Nile, and had guarded Pelusium with especial care. Ochus, as he had expected, advanced along the coast route which led to this place. Part of his army traversed the narrow spit of land which separated the Lake Serbonis from the Mediterranean, and in doing so met with a disaster. A strong wind setting in from the north, as the troops were passing, brought the waters

of the Mediterranean over the low strip of sand which is

ordinarily dry,

and confounding sea and shore and

lake together, caused the destruction of a large de-

tachment

;

but the main army, which had probably

kept Lake Serbonis on the right, reached nation

intact.

A

skirmish

Theban troops of the

followed

its

desti-

between

the

under Lacrates and the garrison of Pelusium under Philophron but first

division

;

engagement was without definite result. The two armies lay now for a while on the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, which was well protected by forts, fortified towns, and a network of canals on either side of it. There was every reason to expect that Nekhtnebf, by warily guarding his frontier, and making full use of his resources, might baffle for a considerable But time, if not wholly frustrate, the Persian attack. his combined self-conceit and timidity ruined his cause. Taking the direction of affairs wholly upon himself and asking no advice from his Greek captains, he failed to show any of the qualities of a great commander, and was speedily involved in difficulties with which he was quite incapable of dealing. Having had his first line of defence partially forced by a bold this first

movement on

the part of the Argives under Nicos-

SURREXDER OF PELUSIUM. tratus, instead of trying to

399

redeem the misfortune by

a counter-movement, or a concentration of troops, he hastily

abandoned

to his generals the task

Memphis, concentrated

to

all

his

of con-

and retiring efforts on making

tinuing the resistance on this outer

line,

preparations to resist a siege.

Meantime, the Persians were advancing.

Theban

the

set

himself to

Lacrates

Pelusium,

reduce

and,

having drained dry one of the ditches, brought his military engines

up

to the walls of the place.

vain, however, did he batter

wall

— the

down

In

a portion of the

garrison had erected another wall behind



they had in vain did he advance his towers No movable towers ready prepared to resist him. progress had been made by the besiegers, when on a sudden the resistance of the besieged slackened. Intelligence had reached them of Nekht-nebf's hasty retreat. If the king gave up hope, why should they pour out their blood to no purpose? Accordingly they ma le overtures to Lacrates for a surrender upon terms, and it was agreed that they should be allowed to evacuate the place and return to Greece, with all the goods and chattels that they could carry with them. Bagoas demurred to the terms but Ochus confirmed them, and Pelusium passed into the posit

;

;

session of the Persians without further fighting.

About the same time Mentor had proceeded southlaid siege to Bubastis. Having invested

wards and

the town, he caused intelligence to reach the besieged that

Ochus had determined

to spare

all

who should

surrender their cities to him without resistance, and to treat with the

utmost severity

all

who should

fight

THE LIGHT GOES OUT IN DARKNESS.

400

By

strenuously in their defence.

these

means he

introduced dissension within the walls of the towns, the native Egyptians and

since

their

Greek

allies

naturally distrusted and suspected each other.

Bubastis the Egyptians were the siege had only just to

to

move.

At The

begun when they sent an envoy

Mentor's colleague, Bagoas, to offer to surrender

the town to him. the

first

Greeks,

But

this

who caught

proceeding did not

the

suit

messenger, extracted

from him his message, and then attacked the Egyptian portion of the garrison

of them.

and slew great numbers

The Egyptians, however, though

beaten,

communication with Bagoas, and fixed a day on which they would receive his persisted, established

forces into the town.

Mentor,

who wished

to secure

to himself the credit of the surrender, hereupon ex-

horted his Greek friends to be on the watch, and,

when

the time came, to resist the movement.

This

they did with such success that they not only frus-

Bagoas himself, who Bagoas had to imof his plore the interference colleague on his behalf, and was obliged to promise that henceforth he would attempt nothing without Mentor's knowledge and Mentor gained his ends, had the credit of consent. being the person to whom the town surrendered itself, and at the same time established his ascendancy over Bagoas. It is clear that had the Egyptians possessed an active and able commander, advantage might have been taken of the jealousies which divided the Persian generals from their Greek col-

trated the attempt, but captured

had ventured within the walls.

leagues, to bring the expedition into difficulties.

COMPLETE CONQUEST OF EGYPT.

4OI

Unfortunately, the Egyptian monarch, alike pusilfar from making any was not prepared even to

lanimous and incapable, was so offensive

he

that

effort,

When

defend his capital against the invaders.

he

and Bubastis had both fallen, and that the way lay open for the Persians to march upon Memphis and invest it, he left the city with all the wealth on which he could lay his hands, and that Pelusium

found

away

fled

Ochus did not pursue

Ethiopia.

into

He was

him.

content to have regained a valuable

province, which for above

w

Persian crown,

to the

L

fifty

years had been lost

hout even having had to

b Lie, or to engage in one According to the Greek writers, he showed his contempt of the Egyptian religion after his conquest by stabbing an Apis-Bull, and violating the sanctity of a number of the most holy fight a single

pitched

difficult siege.

shrines

ably a

;

but

fiction,

the

story

and

it

the

of

was

Apis-Bull

to obtain

is

prob-

the plunder of

the temples, not to insult the Egyptian

gods, that

There is no trace of his he violated the shrines. having treated the conquered people with cruelty, or even with severity. Prudence induced him to destroy the walls and other fortifications of the chief Egyptian towns

;

and cupidity

led

him

to carry off into Persia

Nekht-nebf had left behind. Even the sacred books, of which he is said to have robbed the temples, may have been taken on account of their value. We do not hear of his having dragged off any prisoners, or inflicted any punishment on the all

the

treasures that

country for to

its

rebellion.

have been increased.

Even the

tribute

is

not said

THE LIGHT GOES OUT IN DARKNESS.

402

There

is

nothing surprising

once Persia took resolutely

in

the fact that,

when

hand the subjugation of the revolted province, a few months sufficed for its in

The resources of Persia were out comparison with those of Egypt alike in respect of men and of money, there was an extreme disparity. What had protected Egypt so long was the multiaccomplishment. of

all

;

number of wars waged and the want of a

plicity of Persia's enemies, the large

that were continually being

and warlike monarch. As soon as the power of the vast empire of the Achaemenidae was directed against the little country which had detached itself, and pretended to a separate existence, the result was certain. Egypt could no more maintain a struggle bold, energetic,

full

against Persia in

full

force than a lynx could contend

But while all this is indubitably true, the end of Egypt might have been more dignified and more honourable than it was. Nekht-nebf, the last king, was a poor specimen of the Pharaonic type of monarch. He had none of the qualities of a great with a

king.

Had

lion.

He

did not even

know how to

he gathered together

anyhow

muster, and met

fallen fighting for his

Memphis

to the last,

all

fall

with dignity.

the troops that he could

Ochus

in the

open

field,

and

crown, or had he even defended

and only yielded himself when

he could resist no longer, a certain halo of glory would have surrounded him. As it was, Egypt sank ingloriously

at

the last

— her

art,

her

literature,

national spirit decayed and almost extinct



her

paying,

by her early disappearance from among the nations of the earth, the penalty of her extraordinarily precocious greatness.

1

INDEX. Antef Aahtnes

152 •• Aa-khepr-ka-ra, Abode of," 168 '• Abode of Aa-khepr-ka-ra," 168 Abraham, deceit of, 127, 129 Abraham in Egypt, 125 Abyssinia, rainfall in, 13 Alliance with Babylon and Lydia, 371 Ama>is, prosperity under, 367 I.,

1

Amenemhat

I.,

Amenenihat

I.,

of,

101

hunting prowess

103

Amenenihat III., 109 "Amenenihat the Good," 1 16 Amenemhat's Labyrinth, 121 Amenemhat's Reservoir, 1 18

Amenhotep Amenhotep Amenhotep Amenhotep

II.,

conquests

206 207 208

of,

II., cruelty of,

III., colossi of,

III., lion -hunting of,

220

Amenhotep ance

of,

III.,

personal appear-

222

Amenhotep Amenhotep

III.,

wars

of,

IV., accession

219

of,

35o Asa, Judaea revolts under, 307 Asa, victory of, 309 A-ia, invasion of, 167, 195 Asshur-bani-pal, accession of, 336 Asshur-bani-pal, death of, 338 Asshur-bani-pal, defeat of Telirak by, 336 Assyria, 1

Assyrian gifts to Thothmes 194 Athor cow, 33 Auaris, siege of, 152

III.,

B Babylon, revolt

of,

345

Bacis, sacred bull, 32

290 of, 105, 167,

173,

Bahr Yousouf,

pre-

Bastinado, 45 Bek-en-ranf, burning

186

Amon-mes, or Amomneses, tender to crown, 265

Animal worship, 31 Animals, sacred, 31 I., 97

Antef

Apepi and Joseph, 145 Apepi, rule of, 144 Apis, sacred bull, 32 Apries offends Nebuchadnezzar 363 Architecture, 21, 245, 267 Art and literature, decline of, 285, 311 Art and literature, revival of,

223

of,

Amnion, High Priest of, 289 Amnion, restoration of temple Amnion, temple

II. 's dogs, 98 Antiquities of Egypt, 45 Ape, or Apiu, city of, 96

1

of,

323

Builders, the Pyramid, 82

Buildings of Thothmes 201 Bulls, sacred, 32

III., 199,

1

INDEX.

404

Cairo, Modern, 52, 95 Cambyses, indignities by, 378 Campaigns of Thothmes II L, 191

Chaldean Monarchy, end

of,

371

Character, Egyptian, 24 Character, types of, 27 Colossi of Amenhotep III., 208 Condition, social, 60

Corrupting influences, 353 Costume, early, 60 Costume of Women, 62

Egyptian independence re-established, 389 Egyptian myths, 47 Egyptian physique, 25 Egyptians, nature of, 28 Elephant hunting, 194 El-Uksur, temple of, 217

Empire of David and Solomon, 295 Esarhaddon, accession of, 331 Esarhaddon's defeat of Tehrak,

333

Crocodile, mode of hunting, 104 Crcesus, 370 Cushites, the, 154 Cyprus, 197

Ethiopia and between, 337

Cyrene, death of, 394 Cyrus, death of, 372

of, 339 Ethiopian rule firmly established,

Ethiopia,

Darius, death of, 382 Darius, revolt against, 381

in,

Ethiopia, last efforts

.

of,

295 Decline, 244, 269, 2S3 Decline of art and literature, 285,

3ii Decline of morals, 286 Defeat, double, of invaders, 277 Defeat of Neco by Nebuchadnez-

358

Deities, Egyptian, 30 Deities, evil, 36, 37

Delta, the, 1, 95, 102 Disaster of the Red Sea, 264 Disintegration, 311, 317 Disk worship, 223, 225, 230, 231 Drollery, Egyptian, 29 Dynasties, rival, established, 311

E Egypt, monotony of, 19 Egypt, seasons of, 14 Egypt, shape of, 1 Egypt, situation of, 1 Egypt, size of, 9 Egypt, soil of, 10 Egyptian history, happiest age 100

Egyptian influence

315

3?3

zar,

struggles

Ethiopians, cruelty of, 338 Evil deities, 36, 37 Expeditions into Asia, 167, 195

D David and Solomon, empire

Syria,

Famines through

inunda

deficient

tion, 115

Fayoum, Fayoum,

obelisk

at,

106

the, 4, 7

Fellahin, explanation First sea-fight,

of,

45

277

Fleet of Hatasu, 178 Flora of Egypt, 15 Foreigners, encouragement Forests, incense, 183

Free Trade in Punt, 183

Geology of Egypt, 15 Great Pyramid, 72 Greece, trade with, 352 Ghizeh, three Pyramids at, 67 Ghizeh, tombs at, 56, 137 Gyges and Psatnatik, 345 II

of,

of,

Hall at Karnak, 266 Hall of Seti, 245 Handicrafts, Egyptian. 44 Hapi, 32

351

INDEX. Hapi, merchant

K

178

fleet of,

Hapi regnr led as a male, 178 Haoi regent for Thothmes Hapi, Thothmes

III.'s

II.,

animosity

against, 187 Hatasu actual queen, 177 Ilatasu's fleet, return of, 184 Hebrew art, Egyptian influence in,

405

297

Heliopolis, temple at, 106 Her-hor, first high-priest

king,

290 Herodotus, 384 peace with, 242 with, 243 Hittites, war with, 233 Hosea, Shabak's dealings

Kndesh, battle of. 239 Karnak, hall at, 266 Karnak, temple at, 173, 19S, 200, 304, 349, 386 Kbabash, accession of, 381 Khartoum, 8 Khu-en-Aten, 227 Khu-en-Aten, personal appearance of, 229 Khufu, King, 82, 90 King, supposed fust, 49 Kings in awe ol priests, 288

Hittites,

Ilittites, treaty

with,

325 Hostag-, Thothmes III.'s system of, 195 Hyks6s conquered, 151 Hyksds, religion of, 143 Hyksos rule, 139

Legend of

Osiris,

34

Libyan desert, battle in, 346 Libyan invasion, 255 Libyans, defeat of, 273 Libyans, slaughter of, 274 Literature and art, decline 311 Lower Egypt, 96 Lower orders, condition Luxor, temple of, 217

I

Immigrants, Semitic, 109, 130 Immortality of the soul, belief

Labouring class, condition of, 45 Labyrinth, Amenemhat's, 121

of,

of,

45

in,

M

39 Inarus, death of, 384 Inarus, revolt of, 383

Medes, the, 369 Medinet-Abou, temple at, 272 Megiddo, capture of, 191

Incense forests, 183 Industries, revival of,

350

Memphis, 51 Memphis, blockade and

Influences, corrupting, 353 Inundation, 13

famines deficient, Inundation, through, 1 15 Invasion, 396 Invasion by land and sea, 275 Invasion, Libyan, 255 Invasion, the great, 134 Israel's oppressor, 249 J

of,

Memphis taken by Esarhaddon, 333 I., accession of, 253 Menes, King, 50, 52 Men-kau-ra, King, 68, 82, 90 Men-khepr-ra, King, accession,

Menephlhah

of, 294 Mentu-hotep

I.,

97

Mertitefs, wife of Sneferu, 64

Jeroboam

at Shishak's court, 301 Jerusalem, destruction of, 362

Joseph and Apepi, 145 Josiah, defeat of, by Nico, 357 Judaea insecure, 361 Judaea's conquest, record

fall

377, 383

of,

305

Meydoum, pyramid of, 58 Mi-Ammon-Nut, accession

of,

338

Mi-Ammon-Nut, death of, 340 Mi-Ammon-Nut, Submission to, 340

INDEX.

406 Mnevis, sacred bull, 32 Moeris, lake, 120

Pharnabazus, repulse

Monuments, objects Moral standard, 42

Phthah, temple of, 51, 349 Piankhi, king of Napatra, 317 Piankhi, rebellion against, 318 submission Piankhi, of petty princes to, 320 Pinetum I., accession of, 293 Plagues of Egypt, the, 262 Polytheism, 31 Priest, High, of Amnion, 289 Priest-kings, last of the, 297 Priests, kings ia awe of, 288

on, 196

Morality, Egyptian, 41 Morals, decline of, 286 Myth, chief Egyptian, 34

Myths, Egyptian, 47

N Nairi,

war on

the, 167

Napatra, Necropolis at, 316 Natural History of Egypt, 16

Naval power of Thothmes, III. of Nero, 354 Nebuchadnezzar and Neco, 358 Nebuchadnezzar overruns Egypt,

Navy

365 Neco, accession

Neco

of,

354

defeats Josiah, 357

Neco, navy of, 354 Neco, victories of, 358 Nectanebo I., accession of, 387 Nectanebo I., sarcophagus of 391 Nefer-mat, son of Sneferu, 64 Nekht-nebf, accession of, 394 Nile, navigation on, 13 Nile, rising of the, 113 Nile valley, 1, 95, 102, 117 Nineveh, 192

390

Prosopis, battle of, 260 Prosperity under Amasis, 367

Psamatik I. and Gyges, 345 Psamatik L, origin of, 343 Psamatik I., sole king, 347 Psamatik I., marriage of, 348 Psamatik I., victory of, 346 Psamatik II., architectural ac 361

livity of,

Psamatik Psamatik Psamatik

III., accession of,

death

III.,

of,

III., defeat of, Public schools, 45 Punt, free trade in, 183

Punt's,

Queen

of, visit

374

377 375

to Hatasu,

182

Pyramid builders,

Egypt

under

the, 91

Pyramid

builders, the, 82

Pyramid, great, 72

O

Pyramid of Meydoum, 58 Pyramid of Saccarah, 59 Pyramids, Egyptian idea of, 66

Obelisk of Usurtasen I., 137 Objects on monuments, 196 Ochus, expedition of, 394 Osiris, legend of, 34 Osor':on I., accession of, 306

Pyramids, three, at Ghizeh, 67

R Ra-Sekenen lousy

of,

Persian conquest, 368 Persian power, rise of, 369 Persians, revolt against, 382 Pharnabazus, attack by, 388

Apepi's

jea-

III.,

war forced up-

on, 151

399

Persia, third rebellion against,

III.,

150

of,

Ra-Sekenen

Pacis, sacred bull, 32 Parihu, king of Punt, 182 Payment of tribute, 149

Pelusium, surrender

of,

n

Phoenicia,

385

Ramesses Ramesses Ramesses 249 Ramesses Ramesses 283

I.,

232

II., Hittite

II.,

war

of,

III., accession of, III.',

239

Israel's oppressor,

271

closing years

of,

S

INDEX. Ramesses Ramesses

284 temple of, 272 Red Sea. disaster of, 264 Rehoboam, submission of, 303 Religion, 35 41 III., plot to kill, III.,

Reservoir, Amenemhat's, Revival of Arts ami Industries, 350 Revolt against Darius, 381 Revolt against the Persians, 382 Rival dynasties, 311 Rut-Ammon, accession and death 1

1

338

of,

S Saccarah, Great Pyramid of, 59 Sacred animals, 31 Sacred bulls, 32 St. John Lateran, monument of,

202 Sankh-ka-ra, King, 99

407

Shepherds, Egypt under, 139 Sheshonk dynasty, defeat of, 30} Shishak, accession of, 300 Shishak, dominion of, 304 Shishak, foreign origin of, 298 Shishak invades Judaea, 303 Shishak 's reception of Jeroboam, 301 Sidon, capture of, 396 Siege of Memphis, 376 Signs on tombs, 57 Slave-hunting lucrative, 220 Sneferu, first certain king, 54 Social condition, 60 Social ranks, 43 Society, divisions of, 43 Song of Egyptians, 26 Song of victory, 198 Soul, belief in immortality of, 39

Sphinx, the, 92 Standard, moral, 42

Saplal, Hittite king, 232

Sargon, death of, 327 Sargon, founder of last Assyrian dynasty, 326 Schools, public, 45

Suez, Isthmus of, 11 Syria and Ethiopia, struggle be-

tween, 337 Syria evacuated by Neco, 359

Sea; fight, first, 277 Second cataract, 106, ill Semetic immigrants, 130 Sennacherib, accession of, 327 Sennacherib, victories of, 32S Sennacherib's army, destruction of,

329, 331

Egyptian deity, 143 Set the victorious, 269

pal,

Set,

Seti the Great, victories of, Seti the Great, wars of, 236

Seti I.,

head of, 250 images of, 248

Seti

mummy

I.,

of,

336

Tehrak defeated by Esarhaddon, 234

Seti the Great, long wall of, 237 Seti the Great, Pillared Hall, 245 Seti the Great, tomb of, 246

Seti I.,

Tachos, accession of, 393 Taxation, heavy, 45 Tehrak, death of, 337 Tehrak defeated by Asshur-bani-

251

Shabak burns Bek-en-ranf, 323 Shabak, death of, 327 Shabak's conquest of Lower Nile, 3 24 Shabak's dealings with Hosea, 325 Shabatok, accession of, 327 Shafra, King, 82, 90, 92 Shasu, campaign against the, 273

Tel-el-Bahiri, 185

Tel-Mouf, 51

Temple of Ammon,

167, 173, 186,

290

Temple

of Karnak, 19S, 200, 304, 349. 386 Temple of Medinet-Abou, 272 Temple of Phthah, 349 Temple of Tel-el-Bahiri, 185 Theban kings, 99 Thothmes I., accession of, 158 Thothmes I., greatness of, 168

Thothmes Thothmes Thothmes

I.,

victories of, 159

II.,

III.,

Hatasu, 187

death of, 177 animosity against

INDEX.

408 Thothmes

III., buildings of, 199,

201

Thothmes III

Thothmes Thothmes

,

III.,

campaigns conquests

of,

of,

191

Usurtasen Usurtasen Usurtasen

III.,

lost

obelisks

of,

III.,

naval power

of,

197

Thothmes ance

of,

Thothmes

III., personal

V

appear-

Tombs, Tombs,

at

Victoria, lake, 8 Victory, song of, 198

Vocal Memnon,

the,

III., tributes of,

196

Ghizeh, 56, 137

description

of,

57

signs on, 57

Tra le with Greece, 352 Trade with the Jews, 295 Transport, difficulty of, 12 Treaty with the Hittites, 243 Tribute, payment

of,

49

Wady Haifa, 106 Wady Magharah,

54, 106

Water, modes of storing, 1 17 Western Asia, history of, 162 Western A^ia, topography of, 155 " Wi t'ern .ss of the Wanderings," 164

Women, costume

Women

of,

I., I.,

obelisk of, 137 son of Amenemhut,

62

held in high estimation

170

Worship, animal, 31

U Usurtasen Usurtasen 104

212

W

system of tribute,

Tinseus, King, 135

Tombs

III.,

of, 105 109 conquest of, III

204 III.'s

195

Thothmes

II.,

204

201

Thothmes

statue

I.,

Zabara, Mount, 15 Zerah, defeat of, 308

XLhc 5tor£ of tbe Illations. MESSRS. G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS take pleasure in announcing that they have in course of publication, in co-operation with Mr. T. Fisher Unwin, of London, a series

of

historical

studies, intended

to

present in a

graphic manner the stories of the different nations that

have attained prominence in history. In the story form the current of each national life is distinctly indicated, and its picturesque and noteworthy periods and episodes are presented for the reader in their philosophical relation to each other as well as to universal history. It is

the plan of the writers of the different volumes to

enter into the real

life

of the peoples,

and to bring them

before the reader as they actually lived, labored, and

struggled

— as they studied and wrote, and as they amused

In carrying out this plan, the myths, with which the history of all lands begins, will not be overlooked, though these will be carefully distinguished from the actual history, so far as the labors of the accepted

themselves.

historical authorities

The subjects

have resulted in definite conclusions. volumes have been planned

of tbe different

to cover connecting and, as far as possible, consecutive

epochs or periods, so that the set when completed will present in a comprehensive narrative the chief events in

:

STORY OF THE NATIONS

the great

;

but

it is,

of course,

not always practicable to issue the several volumes in their chronological order.

The "Stories" are printed in good readable type, and handsome i2mo form. They are adequately illustrated and furnished with maps and indexes. Price, per vol., in

Half morocco, gilt top, $1.75. The following are now ready

cloth, $1.50.

GREECE.

Prof.

Harri-

Jas. A.

ROME, Arthur Gilman. THE JEWS. Prof. James

K.Hos-

Z. A. Ragozin. S. Baring-Gould.

GERMANY. NORWAY.

Helen

Prof. Alfred

Church.

BARBARY CORSAIRS.

Stanley Lane-Poole.

RUSSIA. W.

R. Morfill.

Boye-

THEJEWS UNDER ROME. W.

Rev. E. E. and Susan

SCOTLAND. John Mackintosh. SWITZERLAND. R. Stead and

Hjalmar H.

D. Morrison.

sen.

SPAIN. Hale.

HUNGARY. Prof. A. Vambery. CARTHAGE. Prof. Alfred J. Church.

THE SARACENS.

Arthur Gil-

Mrs. A. Hug.

PORTUGAL. H. Morse Stevens. THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE. C. W. C. Oman. SICILY.

man.

THE MOORS ley

J.

THE

mer.

CHALDEA.

THE HANSA TOWNS. Zimmern. EARLY BRITAIN.

son.

IN

SPAIN. StanSarah Orne

Jewett.

G. W. Benjamin. ANCIENT EGYPT. Prof. Geo. Rawlinson.

PERSIA.

S.

ALEXANDER'S EMPIRE.

Prof.

POLAND. W.

REPUBLICS.

R. Morfill.

PARTHIA. Gee. Rawlinson. JAPAN. David Murray. THE CHRISTIAN RECOVERY

OF SPAIN.

H.E. Watts.

AUSTRALASIA.

Greville

Tre-

garthen.

P. Mahaffy. ASSYRIA. Z. A. Ragozin. J.

SOUTHERN

THE GOTHS.

Henry Bradley. Hon. Emily Lawless.

IRELAND.

Freeman.

E. A.

TUSCAN

Bella Duffy.

Lane-Poole.

THE NORMANS.

THE

AFRICA. Geo. M.

Theal.

VENICE. AletheaWiel.

TURKEY. Stanley Lane-Poole. MEDIA, BABYLON, AND PER-

THE CRUSADES. T.S.Archer

Z. A. Ragozin.

VEDIC INDIA. Z. A. Ragozin. BOHEMIA. C.E.Maurice. CANADA. J. G. Bourinot. THE BALKAN STATES. Wil-

SIA.

MEDI/EVAL

FRANCE.

Prof.

Custave Masson.

HOLLAND.

Prof.

J.

Thorold

L. Kingsford.

liam Miller.

Rogers.

MEXICO.

and C.

Susan Hale.

PHOENICIA.

Geo. Rawlinson.

BRITISH RULE Wi Frazer.

IN INDIA.

R.

:

Iberoes of tbe Nations. EDITED BY

EVELYN ABBOTT,

A of a

M.A., Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford.

SERIES of biographical studies

number

of the lives

and work about

of representative historical characters

whom

have gathered the great traditions of the Nations who have been accepted, in many instances, as types of the several National ideals. With the life of each typical character will be presented a picture of the National conditions surrounding him during his career. to which they belonged, and

The

narratives are the

work

of writers

nized authorities on their several

who

subjects,

are recog-

and, while

thoroughly trustworthy as history, will present picturesque and dramatic "stories " of the Men and of the events connected with them.

To

the Life of each " Hero " will be given one duo-

decimo volume, handsomely printed in large type, provided with maps and adequately illustrated according to the special requirements of the several subjects. The volumes

will

Cloth extra

be sold separately as follows .

.

.

Half morocco, uncut edges,

.

gilt

.

top

.

.

.

$i

.

.

.

1

50 75

The

following are

now ready

(Sept., 1897):

By W. Clark Nelson, and the Naval Supremacy of England. Russell, author of " The Wreck of the Grosvenor," etc. Gustavus Adolphus, and the Struggle of Protestantism for Existence. By C. R. L. Fletcher, M.A., late Fellow of All Souls College. Pericles, and the Golden Age of Athens. By Evelyn Abbott, M.A. Theodoric the Goth, the Barbarian Champion of Civilisation. By Thomas Hodgkin, author of " Italy and Her Invaders," etc. Sir Philip Sidney, and the Chivalry of England. By H. R. Foxbourne, author of " The Life of John Locke," etc. Julius Csesar, and the Organisation of the Roman Empire. By W. Warde Fowler, M.A., Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. John Wyclif, Last of the Schoolmen and First of the English Reformers. By Lewis Sergeant, author of " New Greece," etc. Napoleon, Warrior and Ruler, and the Military Supremacy of Revolutionary France. By W. O'Connor Morris. Henry of Navarre, and the Huguenots of France. By P. F. Willert, M.A., Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. Cicero, and the Fall of the Roman Republic. By J. L. Strachan Davidson, M.A., Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. Abraham Lincoln, and the Downfall of American Slavery. By Noah Brooks. Prince Henry (of Portugal) the Navigator, and the Age of Discovery. By C. R. Beazley, Fellow of Merton College, Oxford. Julian the Philosopher, and the Last Struggle of Paganism against Christianity. By Alice Gardner. Louis XIV., and the Zenith of the French Monarchy. By Arthur Hassall, M.A., Senior Student of Christ Church College, Oxford. Charles XII., and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire, 1682-1719. By R. Nisbet Bain. Lorenzo de' Medici, and Florence in the 15th Century. By Edward Armstrong, M.A., Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford. Jeanne d'Arc. Her Life and Death. By Mrs. Oliphant. Christopher Columbus. His Life and Voyages. By Washington Irving.

Robert the Bruce, and the Struggle for Scottish Independence. By Sir Herbert Maxwell, M.P. Hannibal, Soldier, Statesman, Patriot and the Crisis of the Struggle between Carthage and Rome. By W. O'Connor Morris, ;

Sometime Scholar

of Oriel College, Oxford.

the Waning of the Crescent in the West. By H. Butler Clarke, Windham College, Oxford. Ulysses S. Grant, and the Period of National Preservation and Reconstruction. By Lieut. -Col. William Conant Church. Robert E. Lee, and the Southern Confederacy, 1 807-1 870. By Prof. Henry Alexander White, of Washington and Lee University.

The Cid Campeador, and

To be followed by : Moltke, and the Military Supremacy of Germany. By SrENCER Wilkinson, University of London. Bismarck. The New German Empire, How it Arose and What it Displaced. By W. J. Headlam, M.A., Fellow of King's College. Judas Maccabseus, the Conflict between Hellenism and Hebraism. By Isaac Abrahams, author of the " Jews in the Middle Ages." Henry V., the English Hero King. By Charles L. Kingsford, jointauthor of the " Story of the Crusades."

NEW YORK

G. P.

PUTNAM'S SONS

LONDON