The survey of western Palestine : memoirs of the topography

The survey of western Palestine : memoirs of the topography

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\Ch\VfcI L I TD lOKSI I I I ]{s Hi i>\I) SlRHvT

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THE

S

U R \^ E Y OF

WESTERN PALESTINE,

N UJ

< 3 a.

THE SURVEY OF

WESTERN

PALESTINE.

MEMOIRS OF TUF,

TOPOGRAPHY, OROGRAPHY, HYDROGRAPHY, AND

ARCHEOLOGY.

\\\

LIEUT.

C.

K.

CUXDER,

AND LIEUT.

R.E.,

VOLUME

II.

SHEETS

II.

II.

KITCIIEXER, R.E.

VII.- XVI.

SAMARIA.

y

EDITED WITH ADDITIONS BV E.

H.

PALMIER,

^LA.,

AND WALTER BESANT,

M.A.,

roK

THE COMMITTEE OF THE PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND, I,

ADAM

STREET, ADELPHI, LONDON, W.C. 1882.

R E F AC

P

The Memoirs volume are

Sheets

for

entirely

The method

of

\'II.

— XXI.

E.

which are contained

in

this

work of Lieutenant (now Captain) Conder. is the same as that adopted for the first

the

division

volume.

The

additions

printed in small

made by

type.

officers,

Editors

are

in

some

cases

seem

to disagree with

Memoirs.

As

in

the case of the

first

either

taken

officers of

the drawings of

Ramleh on

The General Index

Street, Adelphi,

Aftil

isf,

1882.

will

p.

from

the

the

Survey

volume, their production

has been superintended by Professor Hayter Lewis, to

I,

those of

were taken twenty years ago, when some of the ruins

photographs of the Society, or drawn by the

Adam

by being

must be remembered that the observations

were more perfect than they are at present. The illustrations for this volume are all

for the

distinguished

It

made by Guerin, which our

the

whom

are due

273.

appear with the

last

volume of the work. E.

H.

W.

B.

P.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS,

LIST OF ILL USTRA T10N3.

VI

PAGE Beisan, ToNrBs

I



MuGHARET Abu Yaghi JlSR EL MaKtCa



Sculptured Slab and Capital



III,

112 113

Deir Giilzaleh

Kaukab

Khan



Hawa Ahmar

el

el



123 To face page 137 •

Ars6f

Kuryet

ESH ShERIF

.

.

Guest House

Jit,



jACor.'s

Ueir Serur

Well

180, 181, 182, 183 .

.

To faee page 18S 200

KtJLUNSAWEH

El Mejdel Nablus, Gateway of Mosque

202

.

7^0 faee page

203 To faee page 204

Samaritan Inscription ^'lE^v



of old Silver

C ARKET containing Samaritan Pent.v

teuch

To face page 206

Sebustieh, Plan of Colonnade „

To faee page 211 21



Church of



Masons' Marks



Details of Church

St.

Group of Samaritans BURJ EL Maleh. Jebrish Kefr Beita

Umm

el Ikb

212 •

214 To face page 218 •

238 239

.

241

242



.

235



243.

El 'Aneiziveh Kui.at Ras el 'Ain Ludd, Church of St. George Plan of Church „ Ramleh Er

213

.

Yerzeh

TeiasIr

1

To face page 212

Joh Details

Khurbet Khurbet Khurbet Khurbet Raba

184

To face page 1S6

Ebal and Gerizim SA^L\RITAN Place of 'Worship

,,

171

i72> 173. 17s. 177

.

Tombs at



J41

163

'AZZLN

BiR Yakub,

"5 "7 120

Khurbet MALtr

MUGHAR

lO

112

.

244 245

264 266

To face page 267 267 26()

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

THE

SURVEY

01'

WESTERN PALESTINE.

SHEET YIL— SECTION The

Sheet contains 38 square miles of

present

Caesarea.

It is

Orography. Sheet. lilain,

sea-coast near

the

divided into four districts by three perennial streams.

— The slopes of Mount Carmel are immediately east of

(See Sheet VIII.) The northern district of the Sheet cultivated, and having olive groves near the foot of the

bounded on the west by a low range of

The

the sea.

rocks, averaging

Tanturah

is

60

this

a narrow

hills.

It is

feet

above

stony sides of this wall of rock separating the plain from The shore itself is rocky from z i re t e el ti k r south of J

beach are extensively quarried. a n t u r a h as far north as the

the

T

A.

M

;

A

open sandy beach. larger bay to the south and a smaller one to the north of this village break the shore-line. is

a

fine,

The second ground

district

south of

Nahr ed Dufleh

K

the steep cliff of el h a s h m, the south side of this promontory the plain Sheet VIII.) The marsh is bounded by a

Kebarah, Section

/

marshy

B.),

II.

suddenly widens.

dam on

the

north

and on the west the low range of rocks

separates the plain from the beach.

low brushwood. VOL.

consists of

hills, which are here bounded by about 450 feet above the sea. From

extending east to the foot of the

The beach

Is

The

(See (see still

rocks are here covered with

sandy. I

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

2

The

Nahr

third district south of the

Zerka

ez

is

a desert of

sand-dunes and of sandy soil, scattered thinly with low shrubs and dry grasses, with here and there a stunted oak. little corn is cultivated in the part east of Caesarea. rollino-

A

The

sand-hills hide the ruins of Ceesarea,

which

lie

and are only seen when within a mile of the walls. gradually disappears near Csesarea, and the beach cliffs

above

The

low near the shore,

The

chain of rocks

narrower, with low

is

it.

fourth district

and blown sand

hood of S h e

i

The

the interior.

in

He

kh

Hydrography.

similar to the last, with

is

1

where

ii,

cliffs

only cultivation

a litde barley

is

is

above the beach in the

neighbour-

grown.

— The Bedawin obtain water from the pools among the

sand-dunes. The only springs are along the sides of the rivers, which are three, as follows, proceeding from north to south :

Nahr

ed

Dufleh,

On

apparently perennial. springs and

a stream

some

5

yards across, and

lo

to

The stream

either side are marshes.

A

by the drainage of the Carmel slopes. crosses the stream near bdun also

'

Nahr tine.

ez fed

It is

dammed

A

Zerka by

fine

across at the

is

fed

by

small bridge

.

is

one of the most important streams

Ma-mas'Jisr ez Zerka, where springs near

in Pales-

(Sheet VUL), and is it has formed a broad,

Extensive marshes, entirely impassable, exist along the course of the stream on either bank. The water is clear and good. The stream

deep

pool.

Hows

into

to

the sea near

have a strong current

October, 1876.

The

el 5

to

Me

over a stony bed, and was found 10 yards across, and about 2 feet deep, in 1

a

t

ruins of the bridge at this point

show the course

to

southwards since Crusading times. The course of the stream is hidden above the dam by a cane-brake and rushes. The tamarisk grows luxuriandy in the marshes, and the Syrian papyrus was found in the stream, being the only place near the

have altered

coast *

where

Ma-mas

slightly

it

was observed except

is

in the

an ancient Majumas unnoticed

M

Nahr

in history.

el

F

a

1

i

k.

(Sheet X.)

The word has been

a i, a place, and I o u m, water, and applies here to a derived from the Coptic springs. (See Sheet VIII., Section B.)— C. R. C.

doubtfully site with

{SHEET

TOPOGRAPHY.

Vn.\

The Zerka

the ancient Crocodile river (Reland, Pal, also to the Crusaders (I tin. Ric, book iv.). is

was so known dile is

still

on the

3

found here according to

A

N

b u

u

r,

730),

p.

The

croco-

owner of the

the

and mill

river.

Close to this mill a low foot-bridge spans the stream. This, with the viaduct over Jisr ez Zerka, is the only place where the stream can

be crossed, except at the mouth, where

N

ah

r

Me

el

fj

i

r

is

generally fordable.

it is

also apparently a perennial stream.

between high, steep banks, and has marshes

A tract of pasturage exists close to

course.

The

it

at various points

(Dukat en

runs

It

its

along

Nimreh)

fordable at the mouth, and about three-quarters of a mile higher up are remains of an ancient bridge of masonry in hard cement.

stream

is

This stream appears to have been known to the Crusaders as the Dead River (Itin. Ric, book iv.). The river was found full of water in October, 1873, after a dry season but the mouth was then closed by a ;

bar of sand.

Topography.

They belong

— Only

inhabited villages occur

Kadh a H a

to the

Tanturah

four

i

The most

fa.

on

this is

Important



Sheet.

j).— This is a moderate-sized village of cabins, one To the east is a storey high, built of mud, and lying along the beach. square, isolated stone building used as a Medafeh, or 'guest-house,' for (I

There

a well north-east of the village. The population was stated by Consul Rogers in 1859 to be 300 souls, and the amount of land cultivated 25 feddans. The village has a small

passing travellers.

coasting

with

trade

is

and

Jaffa,

boats

sailing

are

anchored

the

off

shore.

Tanturah, or more properly the ruin of Khfirbet Tanturah (see el B u r j, Section B.), is supposed to mark the site of the ancient Dor.

In the

'

Onomasticon

'

this

Caisarea northwards (see Reland, '

Onomasticon,'

s.v.

town p.

is

738

;

placed 9

Smith,

population of Tanturah is given by Guerin as about 1,200. village, 'consisting of a few miserable hovels.' (I

i)

is

a small village of

mud

miles from

Dor

Diet., s.v.

Dora), which agrees with the position of e

The

Kefr Lam

Roman

Bib.

1

B

u

Socin speaks of

r it

j

;

.

as a

hovels crowded within the

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

4

walls of the ancient fort.

Consul

There

Rogers, 1859, to is

(See Section B.) The population was stated by be 120 souls, and the cultivation to be 16 feddans.

a spring west of the village. Gu^rin gives the population as 300.

A

noticed in 1191 a.d. (Itin. Ric, book The distance is given by iv. ch. 12), as between Haifa and Caesarea. as of Tudela 4 parasangs (=120 stadia or 15 Roman Benjamin (i 163 a.d.) place called

is

Capernaum

Kefr Laim

from Haifa.

English miles from Haifa; R. Benjamin also calls the place Khephar Thancum and Meon. This is The fort of probably the fort of Rloen destroyed by Saladin in 1191. in Richard the in ruins same was found by year. Capernaum miles)

Stirafend

— A small

is

mud

14

having ruins to the north. (See Section B.) The population was stated by Consul Rogers in 1S59 at The houses stand on the ridge 150 souls, and the cultivation 16 feddans. (I

i).

village,

between the plain and the beach. Stirafend was visited in 1863 by Guerin,

Sheikh Helu is

not noticed in the

The

site

(II).

—A

official list

who found

place in

its

Palestina

is

King Richard

buildings.

may perhaps be

(Itin.

Ric, book

iv.,

of the

Roads. tracks

— No

made by

road, properly so called, can

is

the ruined

the JNIerla mentioned in ch.

Narrow Ways (D us trey, Sheet River (N a h r e z Z e r k a).

House

It

specially described in

addition which has been identified

only tower of el Mezrah, which the march of

hovels near the Mukain.

of the district.

of the ancient Caesarea

Section B., with the various dates of

The

mud

few

a population not exceeding 300.

12) as

between the

V.) and the Crocodile

be said to

exist, as

only

There was, however, an ancient of which is traced by means of the

the foot are found.

main-road along the coast, the This bridges over the stream.

line

line passes to the east of the village

of

At el B fi r j Tanturah, and also enters Crusading Caesarea on the east. there are nine granite columns placed in line, and perhaps intended to

mark the ninth Roman mile from Caesarea that being the distance from Dor to Caesarea according to the Onomasticon.' The guard-house at the ;

'

pass by which the road crosses through the low ridge of rocks e h). described (Section B., r e h e

D

i

m

is

specially

[SHEET Near

TOPOGRAPHY.

riJ.] '

A y u n H eider ah

S

formed by a wheeled It must be noted vehicle, 3 feet 3 inches apart and some 6 inches wide. used carts to have are known the Crusaders that conveying heavy weights in this part of the

country

tion B., p. 293, \'ol.

I.)

in

there are

1218

a.d.

ruts

(See 'At h lit, Sheet V., Sec-

SHEET

\II.— SECTION

B.

Archeology. 'A b d u n

(I j).

— The

ruin consists of foundations with nothing to inImmediately north on the

Nahred Dufleh

dicate clearly the date.

is a ruined mill, with two small bridges, and a rock- cut channel which is ez r a h traceable northwards about half a mile in the direction of e 1

M

cisterns

and traces of ruins are found beside

'Ayun Heiderah

— Near

:

it.

springs on the road are deep ruts worn in the soft rock by wheels, 3 feet 3 inches apart and about 6 inches wide each.

On

(I j).

either side of the rocky ridge there

Those on the sea with three

loculi,

side

number

eight in

the

a group of rock-hewn tombs, four being square chambers,

is

all,

one on each wall under arcosolia

the

;

fifth

tomb

is

curious,

as containing a locubis opposite the door flanked by two koknn, one each The third koka exists on the side-wall to the right on entering. side.

A

and kokini are unusually short. The sixth tomb chamber 10 feet wide, 5 feet 6 inches high, with a door 4 loaclus

5 feet high.

The

a square

feet broad,

seventh and eighth are merely rude caves, the former

with a square door, the roof,

is

roughly pointed,

measuring 6 paces by 8 paces inside the North of this group of feet from the floor.

latter

is

7

;

tombs are about a dozen small caves.

The

second group of tombs includes seven, all different. The first a square chamber with three loculi; the second is blocked up; the third has its door in the angle and only two loculi ; the fourth has six kokini,

two on each side

;

the

sixth, apparently large,

has a single loculus only 4 feet in length the blocked the seventh has three loculi. rolling

fifth is

;

A

;

stone has fallen before the door (compare S u

r

a

f

e n d).

Over the

sixth

{SHEET

ARCHEOLOGY.

171.]

or principal

tomb there appears

to

have been erected a

The

probably semicircular, and about 8 paces diameter. 2 feet in heip[ht

Birket

by

'A

i

n

3 in breadth.

Umm

cl

sort of tower,

stones measure

8th March, 1873.)

(V^isited

Fahmeh

(III).

—A

cement, measuring 36 feet east and west, by 25 north and south, having corner buttresses, and one in the centre of each side 8

tank of masonry

in

feet broad, 4 feet projection.

4

feet thick.

Hannaneh

The

walls are

Similar reservoirs occur at e

on

this

[?-

1

Sheet and on Sheet V. i.

1

They seem probably of mediaeval date. El Biirj or Khilrbet Tanturah (Ij). The ruins consist of a mound with a tower towards the south, the remains of a harbour, and of



TOWtR TANTURAH

from

nmrn

H

a colonnaded building near it, of a large cistern called el a n n a n e h, and of a causeway leading north and south to the east of the town. Rockcut tombs also

e.xist

north and south of the ruins.

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

8

apparently Crusading work, and stands on a low promontory, the harbour being on the north and a sandy beach and bay on the south. deep moat separated the tower from the town. The height

The Tower

is

A

It appears to be about 40 feet, and the base measures 20 feet by 40. formed the corner of a fortress, and the foundations of another corner

tower are visible near.

The whole

is

built of rubble

and small stones

in

hard cement, and faced with ashlar.

The

rubble contains layers of sea-shells (large bivalves), the mortar is very thickly laid round the stones, and has pieces of red pottery in it. The ashlar is well cut, the stones being on an average 2 feet 6 inches long,

and

foot 6 inches to 2 feet high.

i

The

a coarse sandy lower courses of the

material

is

The limestone from the immediate neighbourhood. ashlar have been removed, and leave the rubble visible, so that the tower Remains of a circular staircase can be seen on is smallest at the base. the south side of the tov/er, and on the east face there

is

a pointed arch

about half-way up.

in the wall

The Mound, representing the site of the town itself, is about 200 yards long, and is covered with broken masonry, and with fragments of pottery and glass. The majority of the fallen blocks have been dug up and

The mound continues as far as removed, but a few pillar-shafts remain. the promontory on which the tower stands, and its top, which is flat, is about 20 to 30 feet above the shore.

above the

The

top of the tower

is

58 '8 feet

sea-level.

The Colonnade

is

on the edge of the mound near the

sea.

The

bases

and ^capitals are of a rude Byzantine character, in imitation of the Ionic order, with large volutes resembling those in the ruins east of Jordan and elsewhere, which are dated as of the shafts

is

3 feet.

The Harboiw

fifth

century.

The diameter

of the

Some rough is

square bases also occur. immediately north of the tower. There are ten columns

lying on the ground about

i

foot 6 inches diameter, with a simple square

base without mouldings, the remains apparently of a building close to the The material is the same coarse limestone found in the tower. water. Just north of these columns and in the

cliff,

there are four rock-cut

tombs, one hdiVing shelf loctili* (one on each of two walls of the chamber), *

By shdf

arcosoliiiin, as

locuhis

in

these

Memoirs

is

intended a kind of rock cut bench under an

though the body or coffin was laid on

it.

They may, however, be unfinished

{SHEET

ARCHEOLOGY.

/7/.1

the second a square chamber, the third

9

and fourth having three

loculi

each.

The

building on the shore consists of three retaining walls, the southern being against the north face of the promontory on which the tower stands. The walls are of fme masonry in coarse limestone, the stones 5 feet 6

total

inches long by

height

is

in alternate

laid

2 feet

about 15

6 inches broad and 2 feet

feet,

and the thickness 6

2

feet.

inches high

;

the

The masonry

is

courses of headers and stretchers, like brickwork, but the

The ashlar was originally faced inside all equal in size. with rubble, remaining in parts to a thickness of 3 feet, the stones 6 inches cube set in a dark-coloured mortar full of shells. stones are not

The

building measured 30 paces north and south, and the side-walls are about 1 1 paces in length, the northern projecting nearly to the water. 1 n front of the space thus enclosed, there was a flat pavement of slabs

equal in size to the stones in the walls, and built small jetty is still visible in the water.

in the

same kind of bond.

A

a curious scarped reef, a passage cut through forming a narrow entrance to the harbour. This passage appears to have been curved, some 50 yards long, and the sides 8 to 10 feet high. The In the sea itself there

is

entrance was probably, as at Tyre, once closed with a chain or boom. The Causeway is traceable east of the ruin for about a quarter of a mile.

On

one

side,

just south of

el

Hannaneh,

are nine granite south of these are three

these are placed touching each other more, also touching the remaining three are fallen and scattered. They are i foot 6 inches in diameter, without base or capital, having only a simple fillet at the upper end of the shaft they are sunk in rubbish to

columns

:

;

;

;

some considerable depth. The arrangement of these shafts resembles that of some of the milestones on the Roman roads, and they may probably have been taken from an older building and utilised to mark the

Roman mile from El Hannaneh is a

ninth

Ceesarea, as noted in Section A.

ruined cistern just east of the causeway it is about 10 paces square, and built of stones 2 feet to 3 feet 6 inches in The interior is lined with rubble coated with hard white cement. lenc^th. ;

tombs, and the bench intended to have been excavated to form the ordinary rock-cnt C. R. C. sarcophagus beneath the arcosolium.



VOL.

II.

2

THE SUR VE Y OF WESTERN PALESTINE. containing fragments of pottery pounded small, and dark red in colour, The mortar behind this cement is thickly bedded, together with ashes.

and contains large bits of pottery. Close to the north wall of the cistern The work resembles that of the is a shallow round well of small ashlar.

and may probably be attributed

walls of CcEsarea,

to

the twelfth

or

thirteenth century.

El

was

Biirj

thought to stand on the

is

of the ancient Dor, which

site

The tombs

are apparently Jewish, but probably, and the tower with a great degree of

in ruins in the fourth century.

most of the buildings may certainty, be attributed to the Crusaders. is

South of the ruin and north of the modern village of Tanturah a tomb marked on the plan. It is a chamber 14 feet 6 inches across and 19 feet 6 inches long, with five

ROCK MEWN TOMB NLAR TANTUR/H

by

3

each on the

feet

left,

kokim

7 feet

three at the

back, and four on the right. In the four corners of the chamber are four small

chambers, seemingly double kokim, for receiving two bodies each. The entrance to the

tomb

by steps

a long passage descending

is

which

to the door,

with an arch above outside. of the passage

by

is

3 feet broad,

is

On

square,

the

left

another koka 7 feet long

which contained a skele-

but this was probably recent, as the koka pointing east and west could be ton

sciL£ 9

,

p

10

15

2 3 FT

;

used by Moslems for interment. Bones ^ and skulls also were found in the tomb

In the double koka at the back on the

itself

left

there

is

a niche

i

foot

6 inches high, 9 inches across, probably for a lamp. Visited 8th March, 1873.

The

Dor

city of

is first

mentioned

again mentioned

of Manasseh.

It is

during his

when

in

Joshua

xii.

23.

It

fell

to the lot of the half tribe

as the seat of

government of Aminadab, (i Kings one of Solomon's twelve officers. In the year B.C. 217 it was besieged, but not taken, by Antiochus. It was again besieged (b.c. 139) by Antiochus VII., after his victory over Maccabees xvi. 13, 14). During the civil war between the two brothers Antiochus Tr)-phon (i and Antiochus of the Gr)-pus Cyzica, city was seized and held by one Zoilus, who held it life,

it fell

iv. 1 1)

into the possession of Alexander Jannreus.

Pompey accorded

the

[SHEET

ARCHEOLOGY.

Vn.] was

It

b.c. 64.

autonomy

city its

by Gabinius

rebuilt

ii

having suffered greatly during

u.c. 56,

the occupation by the Jews. It

of

it

seems

to

have

'memoria

as

(alien into

urbis.'

Koulcher de Chartres

In the

decay after having become an episcopal Oiiomasticon it is said, Ha;c est Dora '

'

calls the

place Pirgul, that is, Ilusyo:, Crusading tower was built upon more ancient foundations.

Dreihemeh

(I j).

— Four

.

.

.

nunc

feet in length

by

3

feet

deserta.'

Probably the

el Piurj.

tombs were here examined,

and second being chambers with doors about measuring within about 6

now

Pliny speaks

city.

'

the

6 inches wide

first

and

3 feet 6 inches in width, thus

The third is merely a double forming a single grave or koka each. loculus in the face of the rock, each grave being about 5 feet 6 inches long.

The

tomb

however, more important, having a sunk court entered from the east and 15 feet broad by 31 feet long north and south. On the north and south are two square chambers, about 10 feet side and fourth

is,

On the entered by two doors, one either side of the court. west side of the court are three chambers, communicating with each other 5 feet high,

by arched doors cut feet,

in

the northern 4

in

the southern 10 feet long, the middle 3 the width east and west being the same (6 feet)

the rock

feet,

:

The most northern communicates now blocked up.

three.

all

north of

it,

The remaining

There

ruins consist of foundations only.

is

a curious

They leading down 6 inches tread, and the breadth of the flight is 7 paces. total rise is i foot 6 inches. No buildinq; now exists near them. to a court west of them.

flight of three rock-cut steps

are about

The

with another chamber

There

is

towers

in

2 feet

also the foundation of a small dry-stone tower, like the vineyard

other parts of Palestine measures 5 feet 2 inches by

three courses remain

:

2

feet,

but

none

of

;

the largest stone

the

stones

are

dressed.

To ruins

on the top of the low ridge, near which the former there are some shafts of columns of dark grey limestone or

the west of

lie,

this,

the largest is about 2 feet in diameter. The preservation base of a column of very simple moulding lies near, and close by is a sunk

marble

in fair

;

court like that before a tomb, with a narrow flight of steps leading down the door of the tomb (if a tomb exist) is hidden by rubbish accumulated ;

in the

A

sunken

area.

Rock-cut Passage exists close to the above ruin, leading to e

1

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

12

R

u

r

j,

through the This

Section A.)

ridore

of low

hills

from the plain on the

east.

the most southern of four passages, but

(See

the only one extensively scarped by human means. It would appear to be of considerable antiquity, because rock tombs with kokwi are cut in the sides. is

is

The average

breadth of the cutting Is 5 paces, its height 10 feet, and about 200 feet in all. The entrance on the east is partly length closed by a buttress of rock projecting from the southern wall, and the rock is cut back for the first twenty paces on the north to a distance of its

seventy paces from the line of the passage

above the

level of the floor of the passage,

;

this part

being raised 3 feet

and the rock wall being

15 feet

Two tombs are here excavated, each having three high on this side. loculi and doors on the south. There are no excavations in the south wall of the passage, but in the northern there are four recesses, possibly intended for guard-houses, cut in like caves to a distance of about 5 paces, and each from 3 to 5 paces broad, measuring east and west. They resemble the cave or guarda k h r li k, house beside the Roman road in the Jordan valley. (See e 1

Sheet XV.) Further west there are two more tombs

M

the passage, which may, however, possibly have existed before the rock was entirely cut through. They contain each nine koknn, and have doors on the south. The kokini in the

in

are remarkable, having the floor raised at the end, thus The other of stone pillow for the head of the corpse.

first

forming a sort chamber is sunk below the level of the ground, and single step.

The

its

floor

reached by a

inches long, 3 feet broad, and 3 feet

kokiiii are 7 feet 6

9 inches high.

Near this passage is another tomb, a chamber 9 feet square, with The roof large kokhn 3 feet 6 inches broad, 7 feet long, 4 feet high. The door is also larger than of the tomb is 5 feet 6 inches from the floor. These tombs are fine specimens of usual, 5 feet broad and 4 feet high. their kind, being cut in soft rock easily quarried.

Visited 7th March, 1873. It is cut in the Guerin speaks of an ancient well here, which he calls B r D r i m e h. He Holes are cut in its wall to permit of descent.' suggests that the rock, and is square. of be a souvenir name D r e h e ni e h, which he spells D r m e h, may Aj-j.ao;, a name '

i

i

i

applied by the Greeks to the whole region round the stone was quarried for the buildings in the city.

Mount Carmel. Here also was

It is here,

he says, that

the cemetery.

'

A

great

[SHEET number

ARCH.EOLOGY.

17/.]

13

of tombs are

are simple

;

still found in good preservation ; all of iheni have been opened. others contain several sepulchral chambers.'

Zerka

Jisr ez

(I

j).

— This

is

properly speaking a

dam

Some

rather

than a bridge, built across the river so as to form a large pool. There is a causeway on the top of the dam the height on the west is 20 feet on the east the level of the water was 3 feet below the roadway. :

;

The masonry

resembles that of the aqueduct fed from the pool. (See The eastern face of the dam is cemented. Kaisarieh Aqueducts below.)

The roadway

Sluices lined with cement are constructed in the dam.

The work appears

feet to 10 feet broad.

El

J

i

1

e

i

meh

(I

j).

— The

to

is

8

be Roman.

ruins here noticed consisted of founda-

tions, with only one or two tombs belonging to the series described at

D re

i

he

meh

.

Kaisarieh

(J k).

building of Cassarea by Herod, at a place before that time called Strato's Tower, is He spent twelve years described by Josephus ('Antiquities,' xv. 9, 6, and B. J. i. 23).

The fully

The

constructions which are mentioned are, first, the sea-mole, built of stones It was built in water 20 fathoms deep, in breadth, and 9 in depth. 18 50 and was 200 feet wide. A wall stood upon part of it, having several towers, the largest of in the work.

feet in length,

There were also arches for the residence of mariners. The entrance to this artificial port was on the north, the mole having a tower at the north end. There were also a temple, a theatre, and an amphitheatre, with a complete system of drainage. The city was called Ka/ffaji/a '^i^aerr;, and sometimes Cssarea Stratonis, or Cassarea Palasstina;, iti iahurrr,. or Kaiauiha Uusay.io;, or Ka^trajsa Pliny calls it Colonia Prima Flavia '

'

which was called Drusus.

;;

dissensions here between the Jews and the Syrians led to a great massacre of the Council former (Tosephus, B. J. ii. 17), which led to the rebellion and the Roman war.

The

A

was held here

shelter in Cresarea

J 15 to 31 S. Christians.

when

when

the city was the seat of an Archbishop. Origen sought he fled from Alexandria. Eusebius was Archbishop from the year

a.d. 93,

in

In A.D. 548 the Jews and Samaritans united in taking up arms against the The city was taken by Abu Obeida in the year 63S. It remained in

It for nearly 500 years, being taken by Baldwin I. in the year 1102. He in the year 1035. describes it as an agreeKhosrau Nassiri the traveller by with date-palms and oranges sweet and irrigated with running water and planted

Mohammedan hands

'

was

visited

able

city,

bitter.

It is

of springs in

We the

must

surrounded by a strong wall pierced by an iron

gate.

Mohammedans

during their

first

own manner.

occupation.

That

The Crusaders settled themselves within made the broad city of gardens and orange-

the place after their is, they Saladin took trees into a small cramped medisval fortress.

was recaptured by the Crusaders was taken again by Bibars in 1265.

It

There are a great number

The

principal mosque is a fine building.' therefore note that there was a wall round the town, either built or restored by

this city.

in

1

191.

The

it

from them in the year 1187.

and the and buildings were then destrojod.

Saint Louis rebuilt the citadel

walls

walls

It

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

14

The

following is an account of the taking of the city by Makrizi, an Arabic historian 'Bibars next directed his course to Kaisariyeh. He arrived under the walls of the place, surprised the inhabitants, who were not expecting the attack, and gave his troops the signal of assault. The people took refuge in the citadel, which bore the name of Khedra (the :

.

.

.

The Francs had transGreen), and was one of the finest and strongest fortresses in Syria. ported to this place columns of granite, which they placed across the walls, so that they had not to fear sapping, 'and could not fall when they should be undermined. '

The

Sultan had established himself on the roof of a church opposite this place. Soon the Mussulmans scaled the ramparts, burned the gates, and entered in crowds above and below the walls. The Sultan advanced to the citadel accompanied by his Emirs. He divided the city between them and the Mamelukes, and began at once to destroy the city. The prince came down with a pick in his hand and worked in person at the demolition. It was nearly completed when he sent away the two Emirs at the head of a body of troops. '

'

'

*

if

'

*

*

#

*

*

^;

The

Sultan caused the city to be so completely destroyed that there remained not the least vestige of it.'

Such (2) the

is

the history of Csesarex We have four periods of construction (i) The Herodian (4) the Crusading period. (3) the first Mohammedan period :

Byzantine

The

was erected by Herod on the u.c. The Crusading walls were

city

finished 13

;

:

;

1 2 18 A.D., repaired by St. Bibars in 1265 a.d.

site of Strato's

Tower, and

by Gautier d'Avesnes, Louis of France, 1251 a.d., and destroyed by built



ist, the Roman town, with walls, existing ruins are of two periods 2nd, the theatre, hippodrome, the mole, the temple, the aqueducts

The

;

Crusading town,

These

harbour.

(i)

with will

walls,

be described

The Roman Enceinte.

;

in other parts

it

is

a northern church,

and

in order.

— The length north

enclosed by the Roman walls is west 900. The line of the w^alls

west end

cathedral,

castle,

and south of the space 1,600 yards, and the breadth east and is

traceable, except towards the south-

represented by a

mound

There is also a sea-wall visible in general level. west corner of the Roman town as far as the harbour.

raised

above the

places from the north-

The

high-level and the enters the town at this low-level some corner, 50 yards aqueduct east, near which, at the point marked (R), are foundations of a tower about

20 to 30

The but

the

square of small masonry. sea-wall is of masonry similar to that of the harbour at e feet

stones of

each course are

stretchers, 2 feet 6 inches long,

laid

alternately,

as

1

B

11

r j,

headers and

and are drafted apparently with a

rustic

ROMAN AND M EDI /EVAL

RUINS

KAISARIKJI Scale ^JfiZe

N

T

iloU

,>f

PiBtu-a

^lUuTvtd ArchWeil

Mole of Fillnra vD^:nn~z^r

^ Church

El KnIaJ,

Stanftn^ GoffP^sUlb^ Imdoru

[SHEET

ARCHEOLOGY.

/7/.1

15

Further south, along- the same line north of the Crusading wall, are remains of a wall, or of a line of towers, but of smaller masonry undrafted and at this point is a narrow channel between two reefs of rock, apparently-

boss.

;

intended as a landing-place.

South of the Crusading town are a row of mounds probably formed by the accumulation of sand blown over the buildings, and extending to the theatre at the south-west corner of the town.

scattered with fragments of masonry and pillarThe well without the walls shafts, cisterns, and corner walls of buildings.

The whole

enceinte

is

apparendy modern, having a pointed arch. The tank west it has of the hippodrome has walls 6 feet thick, and measures 30 feet side el three buttresses on each wall (see above, Birket 'A n

on the north

is

;

i

F

ah

meh

),

and

is

lined with a coat of mortar containing

and a coat of cement n a n e h,

above).

T/ic

(2)

It

the masonry is of fair size (compare el may be ascribed to the mediaeval period.

;

of a

H

a n

-

Roman town appears fortress. The remains con-

Theatre at the south-west corner of the

subsequently to have been converted into a sist

Umm

bits of pottery,

mound and

enclosing an area

in

ditch

reaching to

the beach on either

form of the segment of a

circle.

In the

side,

mound

and is

a

semicircular building of masonry.

The diameter of this construction was chained S50 links (561 feet) the mound at the top has an average thickness of about 150 links (100 The mound has a height of about 20 to 25 feet from the bottom of feet). The ditch is 130 links broad (76 feet). No masonry the trench without. is visible in ditch or mound. The entrance is by a ramp crossing the ;

ditch,

which

would seem

is

58 links (38

feet) broad,

have existed here

and a gate with flanking towers

foundations of a block of masonry, 40 links by 50, having a semicircular projection, perhaps the base of a turret 30 links diameter, still remain. to

;

The all

;

enclosure thus described has an area of not less than 35 acres in and allowing a square yard per man, this would hold in all about 20,000

men if used as a camp. The building in the mound

is

apparently a theatre, and has a diameter

of 285 links (188 feet), and a wall of stones i foot to i foot 6 inches long, which appears to run into the mound to a thickness of 20 to

30

feet,

giving a building about the same size as the

Roman

theatre at

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

i6

Mamas

The whole is much overgrown, and requires (Sheet \'III.). In the hollow which represents the arena are some fallen excavation. column

shafts of granite.

three letters in bold

south of the

mound

A

Roman

fragment of limestone cornice, with two or character, was found lying in the ditch on the

near the beach.

Either end of the

mound

is

marked by a ruined tower above the beach,

but these seem probably more modern. The southern has a wall of stone of some thickness, but of small masonry, standing. A long reef here runs out into the sea. The northern tower also stands on a projecting jut of rock.

Between these towers there

another low projecting reef, and on it is the rock, and the remains of a wall, showing is

a square foundation sunk in that a small building, about 30 feet wide, here projected into the sea. Remains of a paved jetty are visible south of this building, and another

tower stood at this point on the low cliff, and was connected with the south-west corner tower by a wall, traces of which still remain.

On

north side of this central tower the mouths of two drains are

the

debouching on the beach from under the cliff, which is 10 or 12 feet in height. The two drains diverge at an angle, being of rectancross section, and 9 feet 2 inches across, lined with two coats of gular visible,

cement, one dark and mixed with ashes, the second over and finely mixed.

Two visible

it

white and hard,

courses of stones, one of headers, the other of stretchers, are here

on the

cliff,

the stones being

i

foot 7 inches

by

i

foot

by

2 feet in

length.

Further north, and not far from the north-west corner of the mound, are other remains of a wall, and a small drain with a larger one close to it

;

the smaller 2

The

but the site the

lie

feet,

the larger 6 feet high.

enclosure thus described is

is

almost entirely

character

between two projections of the coast and in the side of the ditch shows that a natural

carefully chosen

of the strata visible

artificial in

;

mound

here existed, which was cut into the present form. Josephus (Ant. xv. 9, 6) speaks of a stone theatre, and of an amphitheatre 'capable of containing a great number of men,' situate south of

The

building described seems to answer to this account. The same authority speaks of drains which were cleansed by the admission of sea-water, which would apply to those near the beach.

the port and in view of the sea.

M

E

D

I

KAI SoaZe-,

RUINS SARI Ell

/EVAL

Z5

inche^n

to

n mile.

Sutnfordh Gcog^ £9tah* Zondoii,

Jfotr

The

/It/uyyw rijire.fH7it

htinM^ aho\e

»»'«

It^el

{SHEET

ARCH.EOLOGY.

rjJ.]

17

The

towers and walls, which resemble the masonry of the sea-wall at the north end of the Roman town, are of uncertain date. a sunken level space surrounded by a mound, and situate close to the east wall of the Roman town. It is about 1,600 links (3)

The Hippodrome

is

(1,056 feet) from north to south, by 400 links (264 feet) east and west. The town-wall bounds it on the east, and its lloor is sunk about 20 feet

No masonry

below the top of the mounds.

was

noticed.

In the middle

three blocks of fine red granite of circular cross section, When standing one upon each forming a segment of a truncated cone. the other they formed a conical pillar, 7 feet 6 inches high 5 feet 8 inches

of the arena

lie

diameter at the base, and 4 feet diameter at the top, standing on a square base, also of granite, 7 feet side

Near these

is

another

fine

and

i

foot 6 inches high.

block of red granite, broken Into three, 34

10 inches, into 4 feet cross section. Unsuccessful long by 4 have at some time been or other made to cut the conical blocks attempts

feet

feet

into thinner segments, probably for use as millstones

so hard that the cutting has inches only. (4)

The Mole.

— The

been abandoned

but the granite is after penetrating a few ;

harbour of Caesarea measures

So yards across, 160 yards from the shore.

and on the south a long reef runs into the sea for This appears to be the mole mentioned by Josephus.

i

The

buildings are mostly Crusading (to be described later), but the general plan, half breakwater (n-jooKu/taTia), half occupied by a tower (on the site probably of the

K

ancient Drusus), is still maintained. Under the present tower (el li a h) two columns of red granite lie fallen, 9 feet in length and 4 feet diameter also a fine block of the same stone 6 feet 5 at the base, tapering slightly 1

;

inches by 6 feet 6 inches by 3 feet 3 inches, having a hole 6 inches diameter at each corner. These are possibly remains of the stclcc which stood on the mole.

Beneath the

K

Ci I

a h on the west there was also observed a double

showing two periods of building. The foundation is a stone pavement covered with rubble, and on this white marble tesserae These have been covered later with a thick bed are laid in grey mortar. of mortar mixed with charcoal, on which a layer of cobble stones is laid,

tesselated pavement,

and the second VOL.

11.

floor of tessera; in

white cement stands on

Similar

this. X

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

iS

remains of pavement, covered by 5 feet of accumulated rubbish, are visible near the north-west corner of the Crusading- town. 1

The Temple, built by Herod in honour of Caesar and of Rome, For stood on an eminence near the harbour, and was of white stone. (5)

this reason the ruin close to the

remains of stone, but

this edifice, for the

the

stones

in

this

about

Cathedral appears to be possibly the is all

Crusading masonry building

are

of

brown

lime-

Three courses of course, and varying

white.

height of from I foot to 4 feet 6 inches in length, are visible, and the tops of The accumulation three niches at equal distance apart can be seen. the wall is some of The of rubbish here must be considerable. top

masonry

20

feet

finely dressed,

above the

The

shallow draft.

sea-level.

feet

2

One

of the stones appears to have had a

wall runs approximately north

FA(;ADt OF

traces of another runnino- east

and south

for

30

feet,

THt TEMPLE, C/t3AR£A

and west were observed.

Excavation

is

Between it and the required to determine the character of the building. Their Cathedral are a series of vaults, narrow, and of inferior masonry. date

is

uncertain.

— The

town was supplied with water principally from the two aqueducts, the low-level and high-level. Native traditions relate that these were both made by daughters of a king, for a wager to see who would first carry water to the city. (6) Aqiteditcts.

The LoxiJ-level Aqueduct starts from the Zerka river, close to the Jisr ez Zerka. Not only was the river dammed up to the required height, but a wall was built across the marshes north of the Zerka (see order to collect any leakage and confine the spread of

Kebarah)

in

water on that

side.

This aqueduct has a total length of three miles in a direct course. It starts about \\ miles from the sea, and is here for half a mile rock-cut, the

{SHEET

VI1.\

ARCH.EOLOGY.

< X o u Q

a

X

o

19

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

20

Afterwards it is vaulted with masonry, having channel open at the top. a height of 7 feet to the crown of the arch inside, and an interior breadth of 6 feet 4 inches. The channel is composed of stones averaging i foot The 6 inches in length the arch is semicircular, with a key-stone. channel is lined with a coating of hard dark-coloured cement, and an ;

upper coating of very hard white cement. The lower-level aqueduct crosses beneath the high miles north of Caesarea, entering the town east of it.

level, nearly

two

The High-level Aqiieduct is a more important work, and bears evidence of two periods of construction. It starts from a spring near S u b b a r n i

At Sindianeh (Sheet \TII.) having a total length of over 8 miles. \T it was discovered who broke into the tunnel (Sheet by women, II.) while digging for clay.

The

channel

is first

visible at the springs called

'A

i

n

I

s

ma

i

n

and

]\I e y t e h below S i ndianeh (Sheet VIII.), achannel from From this point to the spring and a bit of the masonry being visible. Caesarea the total length of the course is 6 miles. The aqueduct can be traced from this point to Tvl a a s, where it

'A n el

i

i

i

m

obtained a third supply of water from the clear springs south of the theatre, (See Sheet \'1 1 1.) West of this point it has a rock-cut channel open above

M

about a quarter of a mile, but east of a m a s the pipes were supIt is here connected with the springs by a ported on a rubble wall. for

channel on semicircular arches, 3 feet diameter, of 9 voussoirs each, the stones about i foot 6 inches in length, leading from the water. cistern

A

Caesarea and about the same size exists near, and there are like that four or five broken dams of ashlar and rubble across the stream from the at

springs.

The

Several grey granite columns, one 20 feet long, lie near. aqueduct crosses the Zerka river by a low bridge, and here

becomes double.

Abu Nur sists

Its

(see p.

construction 34).

The

well seen just below the

it

Tahune

t

foundation of the

of two courses of ashlar, the stones laid

resting on rubble-work faced the top of the upper course.

Upon

is

aqueduct here conlengthwise across and

with ashlar so as to give a proper level to This foundation measures 6 feet across.

three courses of stones

are built parallel

to

one another so

as to divide the channel in two (the section given shows only one of the two channels, three pipes out of si.x). Each row consists of stones 3 feet

[SHEET

ARCH.EOLOGY.

/•//.]

high and

3 inches

i

foot broad.

Thus two

=i

clianncls

i

fool 6 inches broad

inches deep are formed, which are Hncd at the bottom by a The sides of the channel tloor of cobble in two courses set in mortar.

and

3

feet

3

and the bottom above cement, and on

this

this

iloor are

lined

with a very fine hard white

the pipes for the water are laid, six in

all,

three in

The reeach channel placed side by side, but not on the same level. maining space above the pipes is filled in with rubble to the level of the and a course of covering stones placed lengthwise across and 3 feet long, resting on the central ashlar rib and on the side stones, comThe rubble above pletes the masonry box in which the pipes were laid. side stones,

the pipes

is

thickness of 2

ness of about

white mortar, containing sea-shells, and has a feet 3 inches, the cement and cobbles below having a thick-

laid

in

fine

5 inches.

The

pipes are of good red earthenware, 6^ inches diameter inside and In one place they were found to be butt-jointed, nearly \ inch thick. one pipe having an internal rim, reducing the clear diameter to 5-^ inches In another part, however, the end of the pipe was found to widen to 8 inches interior measure, as though to allow of the end to prevent leakage.

of the next pipe being fitted into

There are

it.

groups of six to each channel, or two to each pipe. They are formed by earthenware pipes, 7 inches inside diameter and \ inch thick, placed above the pipes, and each row of three air-holes at intervals in

separated by a distance of i foot 3 inches, centre to centre. b u At about a third of a mile west of the T a h u n e t

A

N

u

r,

the

aqueduct enters and crosses a marsh, and the channel is here supported on It seems that the foundations here would not have been sufficiently arches. weight of the structure required for the double channel, and the aqueduct, therefore, is divided into two branches, which the marsh. rejoin after crossing

good

to bear the total

The

left-hand channel leaves at an angle of 49°,

and runs about half a

mile in four bends, being about a third of a mile distant from the righthand channel in the middle of the marsh. It rejoins the latter channel,

The arches resemble those to be at an angle of I05^ or two where one described later places pieces of rock exist, they have been utilised to form buttresses for supporting the piers. The left-hand channel in this part was found to be 4 feet across, which runs straight ;

in

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. measurement the stones of the side wall were i foot 6 inches broad, and the covering stones consequently 7 feet long. At points where streams run through the marsh and a span of 2 or 3 feet interior

required, a flat lintel is used the point where a road is

is

only

;

At

between piers instead of an arch. shown on the map going under the

aqueduct west of the marsh, east of the sea-side ridge, the aqueduct was There is here again a double channel supported on again examined. The arches, the total breadth of the structure being 7 feet 6 inches. arched causeway below

is

1

2 feet

6 inches broad, the arches being

1

2 feet

span and semicircular, with one row of voussoirs i foot 6 inches broad, above which a sort of cornice of simple profile is built. parts the rock has been cut away and left standing in side walls, forming sloping buttresses to the piers, with masonry built in behind.

In

many

Where no

rock exists, masonry sloping buttresses,

3

feet across

at

the

base, are used.

The

aqueduct, which from the point of crossing the Zerka has run due west, now reaches the low limestone ridge separating the plain from the shore, and passes through it in a tunnel now much choked up. Near this point are extensive quarries,

whence the stone

probably obtained. The length of this tunnel and the channel is at its deepest 30 feet or It

is

first

made

Zcriia,

the aqueduct

was

about a quarter of a mile, more beneath the surface.

is

reached at intervals by w'ell-staircases cut

Shaft ui Sea Wall near

for

in

the rock, probably

JUier

to facilitate the cutting of the tunnel,

and afterwards useful

for

drawing water. One of these was a rectangular shaft, 26 feet 8 inches A flight deep, and 10 feet 8 inches by 1 1 feet 3 inches across at the top.

[SHEET

ARCH.EOLOGY.

I'll.]

23

of stairs descends along the sides, and passes round twice, reducing the breadth of the shaft at the bottom to 2 feet 8 inches by 3 feet 8 inches. The flights are 2 feet broad, and the steps about 6 inches rise. The tunnel below

is

must have been

much choked

too

at least 3 feet

to allow of accurate

measurement, but and 2 feet 6 inches broad. high ridge, which is of soft stone easily tunnelled,

After passing through this the aqueduct turns due south, and runs along the shore for rather more than a mile, its course being marked by a ridge of loose sand blown over it

and entirely hiding of Cresarea

enceinte

Near

it.

it

is,

the north-west corner of the

however,

visible,

Roman

and was here also ex-

amined.

The channel

is

here double, and

that the western channel, pleted, for there

is

was

built

the cross

on

section giv^es

a cornice or string-course

evidence

had been com-

after the eastern

on the western or inner side

of the older structure, which projects into the masonry of the additional part. The older channel here measures 2 feet breadth, the newer or western is

3 feet

The

4 inches broad.

height also differs, the older being 3 feet The channels are carried on arches 14 feet

6 inches deep, the newer 3 feet. There span, with piers 3 feet thick.

each arch

i

foot 5 inches thick,

breadth of the structure string course runs just

The aqueduct

is

is only a single ring of voussoirs to voussoirs in each arch. The total 25

17 feet, the total height 18 feet 8 inches.

above the crown of the voussoirs, and

is

The

9 inches deep.

breaks off suddenly near the town.

It seems in parts a later to have been It period, possibly by the Crusaders. dates most probably from the Herodian period, as without it Csesarea would apparently have depended on one well and on cisterns for water.

repaired at

(7)

TJic ]\I cdiccval Jl'alls enclose

broad, east a tenth of

The

and west (30

Roman

acres).

an area 600 yards long by 250 yards less than

Thus Mediaeval Ceesarea was

Co^sarea."'

north wall has a tower in the middle.

The

nine buttresses, a postern, and a main entrance.

east wall has a tower,

There

is

also a gate in

the south wall.

The

walls throughout are built of

white cement, and are 9 feet thick. *

The

small masonry, set in very hard The buttresses are 30 to 50 feet

enclosure within these walls formed, no doubt, the fortress protecting the cathedral, to have extended on the cast beyond the walls. C. R. C.

but the town seems



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

24

long,

and project 20

A

to 26 feet.

sloping scarp has been built against It is not bonded in. The cement used

the wall, having an angle of 60°. differs from that of the wall, being red, from the great quantity of pounded On the north, a pointed arch of jDottery mixed in it, and extremely hard.

a window

is

covered by

this scarp

;

on the south

it

is

built hollow, as

seen

near the gateway, the wall behind being carefully built of rubble, faced with small ashlar, and with well-pointed mortar joints. It is evident, therefore, that the sloping scarp was added at a later period, very possibly at the restoration of 1251 a.d., the wall behind being that built by Gautier d'Avesnes, 12 18 a.d. (Will, of Tyre, lib. xxxi. ch.

13.)

There was a covered way 13 feet wide behind the wall, and loopholes at a height above the revetment suitable for men standing in the covered way two loopholes, also, in the ace of each buttress, and one command;

Under the covered way, on ing the ditch in each flank of the buttress. the north, is a small drain covered with flat roofing stones. The ditch without the walls has a strais^ht revetment to the counterwidth on the

scarp.

Its

and the

relief of the scarp is

and the ditch 4 to 6

feet.

the town.

east,

opposite the curtain,

20

feet.

The

is

65 links (43

counterscarp

is

much

feet),

ruined,

up, so that the general height now appears to be only The revetment is best seen at the south-east corner of

filled

The

width of the ditch, opposite the curtain, is here only 58 links (38 feet), and opposite the corner buttress 51 links {ll\ feet). The northern tower was built behind the wall, probably having a It was two storeys high, a total of 35 feet postern on its eastern side. the above It measures iio links (72^ feet) east and present surface. west outside, and 105 north and south (70 feet). The lower storey con-

sisted of a single room, 62 links (41 feet) side, internal measure, with a doorway on the south 20 links (13 feet) broad, having a slightly pointed The roof was a groined vault, remains of a rib to the groin being arch. visible in

mands

one corner.

A

loophole on the north side of the chamber com-

the ditch.

Immediately west of the tower a wall projects into the ditch 10

feet.

The same arrangement is visible in the gateway on the east side at Kaukab el H a w a. (See Sheet IX.) The tower is built of the same soft sandy limestone used throughout

[SHEET

ARCHAEOLOGY.

VIL]

the Crusading work, of very dark

and averaging

2 feet

long and

i

brown

25

colour, the stones 8 inches high,

foot 4 inches broad.

The

postern in the eastern wall has a passage descending from it into the ditch. It is 4 feet wide and 5 feet 6 inches high, with a vault having a pointed arch rising 2 feet 4 inches.

The

arch has ten voussoirs

i

foot

inches deep, and no keystone. The passage roof descends in a series of steps. The passage was traced 15 feet, and the total descent is 10 feet. 2

The lower end is choked. The main gateway at obliterated.

It

destroyed, the wall being entirely would seem to have been reached by a passage parallel to

the line of the ditch,

this

some 70

point

feet

is

long and 16 feet broad, turning at right

angles towards the gate.

The

southern gateway is perfect, with a jwinted arch that of the postern, has no central keystone. The entrance

A

row

of four loopholes

the gate inside

20

is

is

;

and is

this, like

8 feet wide-

Near and some

visible in the south wall east of the gate.

the only well

now

existing, of fine clear water,

feet deep.

Traces only of the wall are visible on the west side, and the south-west part of the wall has also been almost entirely destroyed.

The

thus described

fortifications

Crusading remains

in Palestine.

The

K

(8)

in

Castle (el

two

ii 1

a h)

are

consists

among

castle appears to

80 links (53 90 links (59

The

feet)

important

rectangular building, a reef, and an outer fortifica-

have been separated from the town by a ditch The outer wall or foundation encloses an area

north and south, by 230 links (142 feet) east and west. is washed by the sea, and is in a good state of prebuilt of grey limestone ashlar; the stones, 2 feet high

north wall of this

servation.

and

feet) broad.

most

of a

storeys, a tower at the end of the

donjon tion on the south.

The

the

It

is

inch broad, the face proIn the second jecting 2^ inches, and bevelled at the draft as shown. and fifth courses, counting from the lowest visible pillar, shafts are 2

to 4 feet in length,

built in as

granite, others of grey II.

1

These project from are found some are of red

thoroughbonds alternating with stones.

Two

the face of the wall.

VOL.

having a draft

;

kinds of pillars and in addition, a few shafts of grey marble occur. :

4

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

26

The

wall

is

therefore evidently built at a late period, older material being

Judging by comparison with other buildings (see Kaukab el Sheet IX. A t h Sheet V., etc.) the ashlar was quarried by t,

used up.

H a w a,

;

the Crusaders for

Roman

the

Section

period.

i

present purpose.

{Compare

A

The columns probably belong to seal on, Sheet XIX.; compare

I.)

foundation stands the donjon, measuring 50 links side {^-i^ interior measurement, with walls 22 links (14!^ The first feet) thick.

Upon feet),

its

1

floor is

40

this

feet

above the sea

;

the top appears to have been nearly 70 feet

above the same.

The

standing to the height of the first floor on three sides. On the south it remains to a further height of 27 feet, and two windows The west are visible. Steps lead up to the first floor on the north. wall

is

window, 4 feet broad, has a flat lintel but the eastern has a pointed arch it is about 4 feet with an even number of voussoirs and no keystone ;

;

6 inches broad.

The

groined roof still remains in the south-west angle, supported on a corbel in the form of a human head. Another rib, suprib of the

ported on a corbel, projects close to the east side of the east window from the south walls.

The masonry west corner

deep. it

a shaft leading

The

a cistern.

A

is

of the tower

shaft

is

down

measures

of

good

size,

undrafted.

to the lower storey,

2 feet

by 4

feet,

and

In the north-

where was probably

is

apparently 25 feet

staircase leads up in the south wall, probably to the roof,

when

e.xisted.

The tower on

almost entirely destroyed. It measured 65 links east and west (43 feet), and loo links north and south (66 feet), interior its

the reef

is

measurement, and had walls 6 feet thick. and the west wall of the donjon

east wall

The is

distance between

246 links (152

feet).

connect the two, and apparently a series of vaults, The foundation here is a flat reef of the date of which is uncertain. _"here

was a wall

The

to

outer fortification on the south has a sea-gate and a curious triangular vault at the junction with the south wall of the donjon. This part appears to be of the same date with the mediaeval walls of rock.

the town.

[SHEET

A

ARCH^.OLOGY.

r//.]

white marble

fine capital in

close to the dotible tessclated

The Cathedral

(9)

The town southern

the

lies fallen in

pavement

Ken

(el

1

27

the vault west of the

donjon

already described.

s e h).

within the mediceval walls stood on two eminences, and on

was

the

w-hilst

cathedral,

CATHtDRAL

KAISABIEH

another building, apparently also a church, stood near the sea on the north. The cathedral consisted of a nave and two aisles,

with three apses on the east. Its bearing is 118° Mg., being 28' out of the east and

west

line.

broad,

the to

The nave aisles

about

is

about

1

7

24

feet

There

feet.

have been an atrium

at the appears west end of the church, and four buttresses are here standing, 18 feet deep, 6 feet

??!*^^tf^£^

The level broad, and about 50 feet high. of the floor of the church was found, and it

consists of white marble set in

»^

. 0/ /I00* 0/ CAinUKAL

ky^'/^' H,

cement

,0

over a grey earthy mortar. ^ Two vaults exist under the church, the one filled up, the other perfect, measuring about 65 feet by about

The

roof a semicircular barrel vault.

Two

sedilia

1

2 feet.

were measured on the

south side of the central apse. On the north side is the piscina, having a pointed arch, with ten voussoirs and no keystone, 3 feet 9 inches span,

The remains

2 feet 5 inches rise.

apse.

The masonry

in

of a

window

the walls of the cathedral

is

are visible in the north beautifully squared,

and

the joints very fine; the stones have the ordinary dressing remarked in other mediaeval churches. The stones are 9 inches to 2 feet long, 6 to 8

inches high, the vertical joints being irregular. One mason's mark was noticed on the walls.

apses are

5

feet

thick.

The

walls of the

Traces of white plaster are visible on the

inside.

The Northern Church standing, the walls some 1 2 to (10)

about 18 feet wide, and two bays are There were ribbed vaults 15 feet high. is

4—2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

28

Starting from corbels which project from a string-course along the walls,

lo feet above the present

level.

The door

is

on the north, having a

The walls are very flat-pointed arch, the crown below the string-course. about 5 feet thick. A curious feature is visible in the sides of the most eastern of the two exterior buttresses on the north wall.

Small arches

are built in at the sides, having a pointed form, and an even number of voussoirs. The masonry of this building resembles that of the town walls.

The

discovery of these small Roman arches in the cathedral and in this chapel is of importance, as showing that this kind of arch w^as used by the Crusading builders.

A

central keystone was, however,

more generally

used by them.

The Harbour

K

flanked by the reef on which the u 1 a h stands to the south, and by a sort of jetty composed mainly of pillar-shafts on the north. Some sixty or seventy of these columns lie side by side in the water, (i i)

is

forming a pier some 200 feet The part nearest the shore is, however, of a double row of flags, long. some 4 feet long (compare el B u r j Harbour). The sea-wall here A lower inner wall of drafted masonry, reappears to be of two dates. varying from

5

feet to

20

feet in length,

sembling that of the Kulah foundations, and an upper wall of smaller The drafted stones are some of stones like that on the east of the town.

The draft 4 inches long, 2 feet high, 2 feet 8 inches broad. Above this is here 3 inches broad, and the face was probably rustic. masonry there is rubble in grey mortar full of shells, with sharp pieces of them

feet

5

limestone some 6 inches cube.

Another

drain, 3

feet wide, lined with

grey mortar, was found here. It is

the

first

occurs

probable that the large drafted ashlar here described belongs to period of building, 12 18 a.d., as similar work of the same date

at 'Athlit.

The

smaller masonry would

belong to the second

period, 1251 a.d.

The

building east of the northern church is a vault in three bays, with The ends of the vault are destroyed. This building a door in each bay. is only remarkable from the fact that the arches have a central keystone

and

The

six voussoirs, the arch

keystone

the arch.

is

being

2

feet

9 inches deep, and cut

rise

and

3 feet 4 inches span.

away beneath to form the point of

[SHEET

ARCH.EOLOGY.

Fir]

29

Ccesarea was visited by the Survey party on the ist, 5th, and 6th of The Plan was made from a traverse of the Crusading walls April, 1873. effected with a chain and 5-inch theodolite, by which the buildings were

The

slopes were taken for contouring with Abney's level, and the whole plotted to the scale of 50 inches per mile and then reduced.

fixed.

Kebarah

(Ij).

— Traces

tomb

of ruins exist here: a cave, and a

with nine kokim, and an ante-chamber and entrance of masonry, with a circular arch of small stones.

Near

this ruin

the wall or dam, built to prevent the spreading northwards of the marsh surrounding the Zerka, will be found marked on the

The masonry resembles that in the Sheet, ending in a knoll on the east. aqueducts at Ccesarea the stones vary in length, averaging about 2 feet, ;

and are

The

about 4 feet thick, with two rows of ashlar, and thoroughbonds, being built in alternate headers and stretchers.

The

set in

cement.

core of the wall

wall

is

of rubble.

is

Visited March, 1873.

Kefr Lam have

to

been

{I

i).

— The

about

between

feet

70

Those on the

angles.

Crusading

towers are about

1

5

appears

village

round

towers

the

at

;

buttresses

The

this

preserved along the wall The about 2 feet thick.

east wall are best

feet diameter.

at

with

square,

towers were six

the

fort

stones are small, about

i

foot

the joints of the masonry fine and regular. long by 6 inches high The mortar is thinly laid, and very dark in colour, and hard in con;

The

sistency.

walls stand

some

12 to 15 feet in height,

and the

fort is

on rising ground, commanding the road.

The

Ku

1

general effect

is

similar to

a h (Sheet XVI.), which

is

that of

the castle at

also attributable to

]\I

i

ne

t

e

1

Crusading times. The and round towers.

twelfth century castles in Syria have similar masonry, The fort at Kefr Lam is called e 1 u s r, the tower.'

K

'

South of the village there are quarries and a group of rock-cut tombs, seventeen

The

in

all.

first

has three

arcosolium cut

from the

floor.

from the

floor,

in

the

cliff

The and

iociili,

5

the second

The

is

simply a locuhis under an

third has three shelf

loctili,

raised

i

foot

fourth has three shelf loaili, raised 2 feet 6 inches feet long.

The

fifth

and sixth have each three

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

30 loculi

the

under arcosolia

The

fifth.

;

the seventh

is

The

blocked.

and sixteenth have

fifteenth

next seven are Hke

five kokini each, 6

feet 3

inches long, 2 feet 5 inches broad, two kokim at the back, two on one side, one on the other. The last tomb has three loculi, with walls in front,

which have been broken by quarrying, and with Visited 8th March, 1873.

Kh

li

r

be

and squared

t

He

stones,

i

de

r

a h

one 10

(

I

j).

— Foundations

feet long,

In the midst of the ruin

arcosolia.

by

3 feet

were

by

3

feet

found

here,

— probably a

a square sunk place, i foot 6 inches deep, and about 6 paces (15 feet) square, on two sides of which there are twelve rectangular recesses, 6 inches square; these recesses are irregularly

lintel.

is

Their object was not arranged, and a second row appears beneath. Some ascertained, but they may have held the ends of joists or rafters. two rude of the buildings have walls standing three or four courses high ;

columns,

i

foot 6 inches in diameter, lie in the ruins.

North of

this

is

a system of five tombs. The first a large chamber cut in the face of the cliff The second has three

with a single lociiliis, the loculi, and the door is constructed for closing with a rolling stone One was found full of skulls, which appear, howremainder are similar. ever, to be modern, and according to the native evidence belonged to ;

persons murdered by the villagers. cut

Remains of a sarcophagus were found near, and a very fine rockThe wine-press with three chambers communicating by spouts. ^^T^

^

ROCK first

and largest about 20

ro feet.

HLWN

WINt

PRCSS

AT

KH.

feSS.

ntlDLRAH

feet square, the ne.\t lowest

15 feet,

the third

[SHEET

ARCH.EOLOGY.

n/.]

There

A

top, cut in rock.

been

left in

some lo

also a shaft here

is

feet deep,

staircase descends the side,

the middle

is

wide

at the

and an arch of rock has

This shaft somewhat resembles

not apparent.

tomb near 'Athlit (Sheet

that of the

feet

In the sides small recesses are

across the shaft.

cut, the object of which

and i6

\'.),

which

is

not improbably of

Phoenician origin. \'isited 7th INIaicli, 1873.

Khurbet Ibreiktas

about

each

feet

1

smallest

cisterns

has

foiu-

arranged for closing with The kokiin have stone.

is

rollinsf

2

The

ruined

5 inches long, and 6 inches broad, one

The second tomb

arched roofs. a

and

two opposite the door,

side,

which a

feet

5 2

— Foundations

and three tombs with koknu.

are found here, kokini,

(II).

ROCK CUT TOMBS NEAR KH IBRElKTAS.

is

chamber, 1 1 feet across, and feet from door to back, with nine

kokiin,

three on each wall, 6 feet 2 feet 3

long by

arched,

is

doorway

inches broad

and

feet

5

6 inches broad, inside which

entrance

2

the

;

is

an

feet across, also arched.

The

third

tomb has two chambers,

one door being blocked, the two communicating by a tunnel 7 feet long and about 3 feet broad. The right-hand chamber has three kokim of unequal length it is 7 feet across, and the kokim are respectively 4 5 feet, and 6 feet 4 inches long.

feet,

;

\'isited 6th

May, 1873.

Tombs and quarries Birket-Belakis.

Khurbet stands

Mansur

el

on the brow, of the

of a series possibly

of vaults,

connected

the

with

southward

e.xtend

'Akab

cliff

called

at

this

ruin

beyond

— This

curious

Khashm.

It

(Ij)el

of which

object the theatre

from

is

not

clear.

Ma-mas

ruin

consists

They

beneath.

are

(See

Sheet VIII.).

Four

vaults remain standing in

all,

directed north and south, closed

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

3-'

by a

wall along their north ends, but opening into a courtyard, about The vaults are lo feet broad each, their walls wide on the south.

12 feet I

foot 6 inches thick

vault.

Three of the

;

the roof, which

is

perfect,

is

a semicircular masonry

vaults are each 45 feet long; the others appear to KH.

MANSUR

EL

have

AKAB

I

i

!

©

(Xatern,

wmmm SC.CTION

A

DDDaDnoDDDcnnDDnc nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnrl

been originally longer. The enclosure was probably entered from the north by a door between the two groups of vaults, which are about 20 feet In the enclosure there is a larce cistern. apart, east and west. The

{SHEET

ARCHEOLOGY.

/'//]

33

the of the sandy limestone, from the ridge near the coast The lloor stones are i foot to i foot 6 inches long, and 8 inches high. is

masonry

;

pavement of small stones (such as that at the Monastery of s u s, Sheet X\T I.), and from this to the crown of the vault is

consists of a

el

INI

e

r

fi

s

S feet.

The most

curious

has

feature

still

to

The

be described.

walls

between the three eastern vaults are pierced by communications. These are 2 feet 4 inches high, and i foot 9 inches broad, and covered with tlat

above which

lintels,

are

windows,

little

8

inches

i

high,

foot

broad.

No

date can be assigned by evidence of the architecture, but the work is apparently earlier than the eleventh century, because of the semicircular vault of ashlar, and the place may be ascribed to Byzantine or

Roman

times.

Visited 7th April, 1873.

El Helat

(Ik).

— There

here of a small tower on

remains

are

the shore, and of foundations and cisterns built of rubble.

Only the

rubble remains in the tower, with hard white mortar, possibly once faced with ashlar. There are remains of the piers of a bridge, just north of the

present

mouth of the

Crusading

El cement,

Z

e

r

k

The work

a.

has

every appearance of

orio-in.

Mezrah like

(1

j).

— There B

that at el

u

r

is

It

j.

here

a ruined tower of

appears probably

rubble in

to be of the

same

date.

Surafend

— North

(I i).

cut tombs, si.xteen in

and

all.

in three cases the

them.

One

of these

of this village there is a system of rockEight have each three locnli under arcosolia,

rolline:

stones which closed the doors

stones was

3

feet

diameter,

and

i

lie

beside

foot

thick,

Five of the tombs are single loculi, the face of the cliff under arcosolia; two of the

weighing probably about 6 cwt.

open in front, cut in tombs have only two

loculi each,

and one

is

blocked up.

This group

presents the best examples found by the Survey party of the rolling stone arrangement for a tomb door. Visited 8th March, 1S73. VOL.

II.

5

THE SURVEY OF WESTERy PALESTINE.

34

Tahunet Abu Nur

near which a curious isolated TEL

—A

modern flour-mill on the It is 4 feet rock was noticed.

(Ik).

BARAK

inches by 12

6

9 feet

bottom, being cut back

Tell Barak

height 4

and scattered with DETACHED ROCK NEAR

One

TAtlUNET

in steps. is

traces

an

arti-

of

ruins

Tombs

sarcophagi.

were

kokini

high, at the

feet

(Ik)

with

mound,

ficial

river,

found

near

the

Tell.

ABU NUR

a good example of a tomb subsequently enlarged, having an outer chamber with kokiin and an inner (or more recent chamber) with loculi. The outer chamber Tomb on tell barak near tahunet abu nur of these

is

measures

,/

.^11

siiehcoi;

being six

ferp"^'' loculi

T

long

3 8"

side,

7

high,

2

fi'gh

Z9'brosd

^

<^''^--'y>L

-I

y--^

3

long,

feet

the middle

9

inches

8

feet

inches

The

first

through arched door.

^

also X"*'^£ ntrs nceY

1

2 feet

The

broad.

from

is

back wall of the

of the

an



'y

^«Sfc^

feet

feet

entrance to the inner chamber

y

outer. "'''-

square, the koknii in number, three on each

12

chamber is approached

ante -chamber

an

with

The ante-chamber

is

square.

South-west

of

this

ruin

mains of a tank, and on the edge of

are

re-

the marsh

near the aqueduct a foundation 24 feet by 27 feet, forming three sides of a rectangle built of stones

arranged

in alternate

headers and stretchers

4 inches broad, would seem to be of the same date with the dam at long,

2

feet

have some connection with the aqueducts

—possibly

2

feet

high.

K e b a r a h, it is

5

feet

This

and

a ruined tank.

to

SHEET There

is

but

little

VII.— SECTION

Ethnology of this Sheet. The indescribed in the Sheet are Moslems. Those

to say as to the

habitants of the four villages of Tanturah are fishers and sailors, and convey

fruit

and vegetables

to

sea.

by There are small encampments

Jafta

C.

of

Arabs who

live

permanently

in the

marshes of the river Zerka.

They are so strongly posted (the intricate marshes the being only known to themselves), that they are way through almost free from contributions to Government. They are known as

'Arab The

el

Ghawarni.

tradition with regard

to the aqueducts of Caesarea

is

given

Section B.

5—:

in

SHEET

VIII.— SECTION A.

— This

Sheet contains 368'6 square miles, including the western part of the Plain of Esdraelon, the hills west of that plain, and It is thus naturally divided into the eastern part of the Plain of Sharon.

Orography.

five districts:

ist.

The

Plain of Esdraelon

The Sheikh Iskander

5rd.

The

Hills; 4th.

;

2nd.

The Belad

Plain of 'Arrabeh

Ruhah 5th. The

er ;

;

Plain of Sharon.

The Plain

of

Esdraelon

measures 14 miles north and south from J e n n to J u n j a r, and 9 miles east and west from L ej j u n to Z e r n (Sheet IX.). It has an average elevation of 200 to 250 feet above sea-level towards its centre, and consists of loose volcanic soil, which is I.

i

'i

very tiring to horses, and therefore unfitted for cavalry evolutions, and The plain collects the drainage from the surrounding in winter bogg)'. 'Afuleh and of Fuleh hills and from the neighbourhood of el (Sheet IX.), and almost as far east as the foot of Tabor (Sheet VI.), the whole of which drainage is carried to the north-west, where a narrow communicates between gorge in the neighbourhood of Tell

Keimun

the Plain of Esdraelon and that of

Akka

(Sheet V.). The watershed west of the plain running in a north-west direction is a continuation of the main watershed of the country (described Sheet XII.),

which bifurcates near the ruin of

Tann

n (Sheet XII.), the eastern fork running on due north to form the Gilboa chain (Sheet IX.), the western running north-west and forming the block of low hills south-east of J e n

i

n

i

.

This western watershed runs through the ruin of el

B

u

t

m

into the Plain of

'Arrabeh

east of

Umm

Khtirbet

K hurbe

t

J

i

n

z

a

r.

here turns due north, running for 2 miles to the neighbourhood of Burkin, where it is again contorted and very narrow, running west to It

[SHEET

TOPOGRAPHY.

VJII.]

37

Sheikh Zeid for 5 miles, and rising to nearly 300 feet above searuns in a curve for 3^ miles to Sheikh level. From Sheikh Zeid Iskander (1699 feet above sea-level). About 2 miles north of this 1

it

only a few hundred yards in width near the 'A n Thence for 8 miles the line continues north-west to the

high point the shed

Ibrahim.

is

Umm

neighbourhood of

i

ez Zeinat, where

it

forms the Carmcl Ridge

(Sheet v.).

The Belad

II.

er Riihah

is

a district of bare chalk downs, with

an average elevation of some Soo feet above sea-level. Though for the most part treeless it is not altogether barren, as there are many springs in its

valleys,

On

and corn

valleys which

is

grown on

its

slopes.

almost separated from the Carmel block by the two ez Zeinat, the broad \V a d y el spring at

the north

is

it

Umm

M Ma

W

h running east to the Kishon near Tell K e m u n, and ad y t a b i n The latter valley running to the Mediterranean by I j z i m the true southern boundary of Carmel. Immediately north of its

i 1

is

i

.

m, about a mile square and apparently at one time a lake, as the volcanic outbreaks round it appear to have been course

is

the

little

plain of

I

j

z

i

formed under water.

On the south the Belad er Ruhah Iskander Hills by the deep and wide

is

divided from the

On

the east the

downs

Wady

valley called

running south-west to the Plain of Sharon. miles along the watershed between these limits.

The

Sheikh

district

'A rah,

measures 8

sink gradually into the Plain of Esdraelon, and

on the west the spurs are gentle and run down to the Plain of Sharon. The average width of the hill district between the two plains is about 1 1

miles.

On the

the

north,

watershed,

a

however,

and terminates

long spur runs in

the

cliff,

westwards

out

el

called

from

K hashm

(Sheet \TI.), forming a projecting bastion, which bounds the Plain of Sharon. North of this bastion the plain is about i^ miles wide.

(See Sheet \\\.)

South of

it

the width

increases

at

once to about

5 miles.

The

western slopes of the

Belad er Ruhah

open woodland of small oaks, which give their S n d i a n e h. i

are clothed with an

name

to

the village of

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

3S

III.

1'

he

Sheikh

I

s

k ande

formation than the chalk downs

Hills

are of an earlier geological of the preceding district, consisting of r

hard crystalline limestone, and densely covered with thickets of lentisk, spurge laurel, dwarf-oak, hawthorn, and other shrubs, which grow most The highest luxuriantly, and in parts form an impenetrable thicket. point,

on which stands the

a volcanic crater,

Sheikh

west, at

little:

chapel of Sheikh Iskander, appears to be friable lava to the north. Further

with an outbreak of

M uhammed

e

t

Te

1 1

u

1

i,

there are other small

cones of basaltic mud.

The main

spur of this ridge runs out westwards to e

The

(1278 feet above sea-level). The width of the block steep, narrow gorges.

maritime plain to that measures 5 miles from

of

Wady

is

another block of

hills

The Plain

mentioned, and

is

of

about

1 1

n n

district

t

a

r

are

miles from the

along the watershed it a d y el 'A s 1, which 'A r a h to Immediately south of the latter valley

W

of about equal elevation, with a ridge or This block consists of soft limestone, and

spur running out westwards. is bare of trees, and less rugged than the IV.

is

M

1

and

Esdraelon,

both flow to the Mediterranean. there

valleys throughout the

hills

'Arrabeh

just described.

lies

south

of

the

hills

last

a continuation of the Plain of Esdraelon, from which

separated only by a low block of downs, some 500 feet higher than the latter plain. broad, open valley (Wady Belameh) forms a comit is

A

munication between the two, and

Wady

S

e

1

h a b runs down from the

neighbourhood of Zebabdeh (Sheet XII.), which is There are thus five thus hardly separated from the 'Arrabeh Plain. small plains in all, near the watershed of this part of Palestine, viz. :

little

plain in the

1.

2.

3.

4. 5.

The Plain of 'Arrabeh (Sheet VHI.) \ draining into the The Plain of Sileh (Sheet XI.) The Plain of Zebabdeh (Sheet XII.) ) Mediterranean. The Merj el Ghuruk (Sheet XL), which has no outlet. The Mukhnah (Sheet XL), draining to Jordan.

These are here distinctly enumerated, because the watershed has been incorrectly drawn on previous maps. The Plain of Arrabeh measures 6 miles east and west, and 2^ miles north and south

;

the average elevation being 700 to 800 feet above the

{SHEET

TOPOGRAPHY.

Vni.]

Thus it is a plateau higlicr than the the downs rise about 500 feet above

sea.

east

near rise

On

Plain of Hsdraelon.

its

the skirts of the Esdraelon

'Arrabch

and about 100 above the

Plain,

39

Plain; the Esdraelon level

The hills being rather less than 400 feet above the sea. some 600 feet above the 'A r r a b e h Plain on the north and on J e n

n

i

On

the south.

the west a sort of

gap occurs

the low

in

hills,

by which

the drainage of the 'Arrabeh plain is carried down to the maritime plain. ii z 1 e t h a a d y el This pass is called k, and runs out north of

W

esh

Sherkiyeh

m

G

(Sheet

N

i

the

XL),

distance

not

being

4

quite

miles.

The Plain

of Sharon.

The

northern portion included on the present Sheet consists of ground partly arable, partly covered with oak woodland, the trees growing to a medium size and with less underY.

wood than

the

in

The sand

woods west of Nazareth (Sheet W).

has

encroached to a distance of 4 miles from the coast east of Ciesarea The oak wood covers an area of about 8 square (Sheet \TI.). miles.

HvDROGRArnv.

— This

of

part

Palestine

is

remarkable

for

its

fine

Along the west side of the Plain of Esdraelon, there were water-supply. more than 50 or 60 springs between Tell K u d e s, and Tell

Abu

K e m u n,

i

They are all fresh and good, The three most remarkable groups Dufleh, and Kireh. In 1872,

a distance of about 10 miles.

i

with running streams in most cases. ed are those of Lejjun,

Wady

September, there was still a considerable stream at Lejjun, and the water is capable of turning mills which exist there. At Kireh also, just before the rains, there was water all along the

after the heat of

bed

valley

;

and

in 1875, in the

month of June, streams were running

all

alonir the feet of the hills.

Kishon (Sheet V.) is fed by these streams, and the Lej j u n stream is sometimes called the head of the Kishon but the real source is M uj a h ye h near K h u r b e t el jNI e z r 'a h and the springs called c A string of pools and springs ('the place of bursting forth of water.')

The

river

;

1

occurs 1872,

Wa

r

all it

alonof the course

was found

aka n V

,

from

difficult to

this head,

and

in the

ford the river in the

where the stream was some

5

i

month of October,

neighbourhood of el

or 6 yards wide.

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

40

The B e course

the

Wady visited

ad e

1

of

F

el in

u

w

These springs were

r,

A

(or

A

course.

valley has a

contains many good springs, especially along esh Shukak, Wady es Sinajak, and

the latter containing a mill. after a dry winter (1872-3). a

Wady Kudran along

Ruhah

Wad y

April

its

r

G hud ran),

little

further south

is

supplied with water all el e y i t e h in this and supplied originally the Caesarea aquealso well

fine spring called

little

'A

i

M

n

i

garden by it, Further west at Ma-mas there are also good duct (Sheet ML). springs which probably gave the place its name (see Ma-mas, Sheet VII.).

These springs

also supplied the aqueduct.

The Sheikh Iskander range

has small springs scattered

all

over

the mountain.

In the Plain of Sharon the water from the

D hru r

ed h

in the

known

springs

as el 'A

rises north of

hills

Tell

y a n, and runs in a quarter of a mile south 1

e

a

i

About is marshy stream called D a r d a r a. K h u d e r a h, also filled with water by springs along its course. These two streams unite to form the N ahr el e f j r (Sheet VII.).

Wady

i

M

Another

group of springs

fine

exists

further

i

north

at

Khiirbet

B a b u n the water from which, with that from M a - m a s, feeds the Z e r k a river. The Plain of 'A r r a b e h contains no springs. The water-supply of The best supplied are J e n n the villages is mentioned under that head. 1

,

i

and

Umm

el

a h m, where the Survey

F"

camps were

fixed.

Topography.— There are 53 inhabited villages on the Sheet, belongKadha Nasi rah, Kadha ing to the Government divisions Haifa, N a h e t J e n n, under the Mutaserrif of Acre and S h 'a r a-



i

i

;

and

wiyetesh Sherkiyeh, under the divisions

Mudir of Nablus.

.)

by two

El 'A wells.

* N.B.

Sh'arawiyet

They

will

Gharbiyeh

be enumerated under these

:

I.

(i

el

— See

f

u

1

e h

This

is

(N

— Kadha Nasirah. —A small of mud village

j).

possibly the

Ophlah of the

in the plain,

lists

of

supplied III.*

Thothmes

the Special Paper on the Topographical Lists of the temple at Kaniak,

giving an account of the conquests of

Thothmes

III.

[SBEET

el

Compare 1

(132

TOPOGRAPHY.

;///.]

A.D.),

Fuleh (Sheet IX.). under the name Afel.

Junjar (M

(2.)

i).

—A

small

supplied by a well.

E

(3.)

1

\V a

r

a k a n y (L

II.

(i.)

Abu Shusheh Ghiizal

'A in

i).

(J j).

is

also

mud

—A

—A

mud

Marino Sanuto

l)y

the foot of the

at

hills,

hamlet close to the Kishon.

Haiia.

little

— A small

mentioned

village

little

— Kadha

(L j).

with a spring to the east. (2.)

It

41

hamlet on the edge of the

mud and

village of

plain,

stone on the

The population is stated at 450 souls, with 35 supplied by a well. feddans of cultivation, by Consul Rogers (1859).

hills,

(3.)

'Ararah (K

k).

—A

village of

moderate

size

on high ground,

with a spring to the east, a second to the west, and a well to the south. There are rock-cut tombs near. The population is stated by Consul

Rogers (1859) (4)

at 400, the cultivation

Bureikeh

the north, and

small village on a hill-top, with a well to country round.

(J j).

wooded

—A

being then 30 feddans.

(5.)

Daliet er Ruhah (K

(6.)

El Fureidis(I

—A

village of moderate size on the west side of the watershed, with a good spring close by on the south. Consul Rogers (1859) gives the population as only 60 souls, with 10 feddans of cultivation.

foot of the

hills,

j).

j).

—A small

with a well to the south.

village of It

mud and

would seem

to

stone at the

have decayed,

Consul Rogers gives the population (1859) as 200 souls, feddans of cultivation. as

(7.)

I

j z

south of a lands are 1000,

i

m

(J

i).

little plain.

fertile.

and the

—A

village of

The houses

Consul

moderate

are of

size

mud and

with

on a low eminence just the surrounding the population at

stone

;

Rogers (1859) estimates 64 feddans. This seems rather high for its The place seems to be an ancient site, having rock-cut

cultivation at

present condition.

tombs. VOL.

II.

18

6

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

42

arah (K j).

J

(8.)

— A small

There are rock-cut tombs,

with four springs below it. seems to be an ancient site. (9.)

J

the plain

eba

(I

i).

on the east side of the watershed,

village

— A small

village in a recess

the houses principally of stone.

;

on the

so that the place

hill-slope close to

has a good olive-yard on the

It

west below the village, in which yard the Survey Camp was placed. The water-supply is from a well on the north-west, which has a wheel and

The

place seems ancient, having rock-cut tombs and caves. The population is stated by Consul Rogers (i
This place seems without doubt to be Geba of Horsemen, mentioned by Josephus with Ptolemais and Caesarea (B. J. ii. 18, i), and again as It is also, perhaps, the Gibea being close to Carmel (B. J. iii. 3, i).

mentioned

"

in the

Kann

Life of Josephus

—A

"

(sect. 24).

of mud, standthe Survey where ing on a low eminence, with flat ground on the south, Camp was established. It has two wells, one to the south, the second (10.)

i

r

(J k).

village of

moderate

size, built

The

population is given by Consul Rogers souls, with 24 feddans of cultivation. to the west.

Kefr Kara (K

—A

1859 as 250

in

good-sized stone village on

high with a well to the and caves. Consul east, ground, Rogers gives the population as 450 souls, and the cultivation as being 32 feddans, in 1859. (11.)

(12.)

Kef rein (K

k).

—A

j).

village of

states the population at (13.)

Kerkur

200

(J k).

souls,

—A

size

on the west side

Consul Rogers, in 1859, the cultivation being then 30 feddans.

on that

of the watershed, with a spring

moderate

little

mud

side.

hamlet

in the plain,

with a well

on the west. (14.)

Khobbeizeh

(Kj).

—A

village

of moderate

size

on high

Consul Rogers, in 1859, ground, with wells in the valley to the south. estimates the population at 270 souls, and the cultivation at 24 feddans. (15.)

Khurbet

ez

Zebadneh

(J k).

—A very small

hamlet near

the edge of the plain, with springs on the north-west. (16.)

K umbazeh

(J i).--

A

small hamlet on high ground.

[SHEET

TOPOGRAPHY.

J-I/l]

M a rah

El

(17.)

with a spring at some

(J j).

with a well to the north. at

100 souls

S

(19.)

;

a n e h

i

village near the

edge of the

\Ami-\,

—A

small village on the edge of a steep hill, Consul Rogers, In 1859, gives the population

the cultivation being

n d

i

— A small

distance to the south.

little

Shefeiya

(18.)

(J k).

4;,

(J j).

1 1

feddans.

— A village of moderate

size

on high ground,

it was here that the tunnel of the with a spring below it, and a cave broken into by women digging for is said been Ccesarea aqueduct to have ;

The population is stated by Consul Rogers (See Sheet \'II.) 1859 at 300 souls, with 22 feddans of cultivation.

clay.

(20.)

Suamir

(I

i).

—A

with a well on the west. at

1

20 souls, with (21.)

S

u b ba

1

r

i

small

mud

village at the

edge of the

Consul Rogers states the population

in

in

plain,

1859

feddans of cultivation.

5

n

(J j).

— A large

village of

mud and

stone houses, on

a slope, with a fine masonry well of unusual size to the west. There is a palm below the village. The well is said to be the head of the Caesarea

(See Sheet VII.)

aqueduct. tion at

600

(22.)

and the cultivation

souls,

Umm

Consul Rogers

esh Shuf (K

j).

in

1859 gives the popula-

at 55 feddans.

— A small

village well supplied with

water from two springs on the north, on which side is a little garden. Consul Rogers in 1859 states the population at 150 souls, and the cultivation at 21 feddans. (23.)

U

mm

to the south.

et

The

Tut

(Jj). is

1859 gives the population

at

ez

hamlet

in the valley,

well supplied with water.

valley

Umm

— A small

60

souls,

Zeinat (K

with caves

Consul Rogers

in

with 10 feddans of land.

—A

good-sized village on a saddle, built principally of stone, with a well on the south. This seems to be an ancient site, having many well-cut rock-tombs. Consul Rogers in 1859 (24.)

states the population at

350

souls, with 25

II.

J

The en in

villages

on

i).

— Nauif.t

this Sheet,

Jf.xin.

belonging to the

are classed as forming the

division, except

feddans of cultivation.

Mukeibileh,

Shefat

el

Ndhiet (or Sanjak) Gharby, or western

which belongs with those on Sheet IX.

6—2

THE SURVEY OF U ESTER N EALESTINE.

44 to the

She

fat

K

el

h

i

I

south of

y,

Wady

Shefat

the

Jalud;

csh Shemaly

These three subdivisions are being north of the same. Belad Karithet collectively called N a w a h y J e n i n, and also esh S he m a1i yeh the Belad Harithet el Kibliyeh being ;

Mesharik el Jerrar (Sheet XL). These divisions of the country are of interest, as they appear to be of some antiquity. the district of

'An

—A

small village on a ridge, partly built of stone, with a small olive grove beneath it on the west, and two wells on that side. It has the appearance of an ancient site, having rock-cut tombs, (i.)

n

i

(L

k).

and a curious channel for water. This place appears to be {s.v. hviip,

Roman

Aniel), 15

The

(See Section B.) the Betoaenca of

the

Onomasticon

'

'

miles from Csesarea, 'in the mountain to

an easterly direction. Jerome adds, where the baths (lavacra) are said to be good.' This place may also perhaps be the Biblical Anem of Manasseh (i Chron. vi. "jt,). the East.'

distance

is

rather over

1

5

English miles,

in

'

(2.)

El 'Arrakah (L

k).

—A

village of

moderate

on a

size

hill-side,

with a well on the south.

and

(3.)

B

(4.)

E z b u b a (M

u

s e

cisterns.

i

e h

1

—A very small hamlet, with —A of mud, of moderate

five springs

(L j). j).

village

stands near the foot of the

It

hills,

and

size, is

below.

with wells

probably an

site, having a sarcophagus, and a wine-press to the south. This place is marked under the name Sububa on the map of Marino

ancient

Sanuto (1322 (5.) is

J e

n

A.D.), i

n

(N

and 1).

identified

— The

by him with Megiddo.

capital of the district, the seat of a

well built of stone.

There are two

families of

Caimacam,

The houses

a town of about 3,000 inhabitants, with a small bazaar.

Roman

are

Catholics; the

A

spring rises east of the town and is conducted to a large masonry reservoir, near the west side, of good squared This reservoir was built by 'A b d stonework, with a long stone trough.

remainder are Moslems.

H a d y,

Mudir of Acre, in the first half of the century. Towards the Ezz ed Din, with a goodnorth of the town is the little mosque of sized dome and a minaret. This may perhaps occupy the site of the

el

'

Christian p. 470).

church mentioned

in

1555 a.d. (see

Pere

Lievin's 'Guide,'

[SHEET

TOPOGRAPHY.

VIII.]

45

Jenin is remarkable for its fine gardens north of the town. They are walled with cactus, and contain palms, oranges, tamarisks, and vegetables. Two small mills, now ruined, communicated with the fountain by an aque-

The

duct on low arches. also olives

;

on the east

is

threshing-floor is to the west, where there are a modern barrack and drill-ground.

Jenin is the En Gannim of the Bible (Josh. xi.x. 21 .\.\i. 29), the Gin;^a of Joscphus (Ant. xx. 6, i B. J. iii. 3, 4). John of Wirtzburg (i 100 a.I).) calls it Major Gallina, Minor Gallina being, according to him, Zer'in or ;

;

Jezreel.

Kefr Ad an (M

(6.)

slope of the

k).

hills, built of stone,

—A

of

village

moderate

size

on

the

with olives below, and a well on the west.

This appears to be the Kefr Outheni of the Talmud, a village on the borders between Samaria and Galilee (IMishnah Gittin, vii. 7). It might, of Haddah Issachar (Josh. xix. 21), from its perhaps, also be En town the En to Gannim, immediately preceding this name proximity

on the

list.

(7.)

El

Mesheirfeh

(Lj).

—A

very small

hamlet

on

high

ofround, with a well to the south. (8.)

M usmus

the south-west (9.)

by

;

(L

k).

—A

little

village

on a

hillside,

with springs to

the houses of stone and mud.

Mukeibileh

(X

k).

—A

mud

village

in

the plain, supplied

cisterns. (10.)

Rummaneh

near the foot of the

hills,

—A

small village of mud and with wells to the west and olives below.

(L

k).

stone,

This village seems to mark the site of Maximianopolis, a town 20 Roman miles from Caesarea (Itin. Hierosol.) and 10 miles from Jezreel (Zer'in), the ancient name of Maximianopolis being, according to Jerome, Hadad Rimmon (Comm. in Zech. xii. 11). is 18 English miles from Caesarea, and ~\ English miles from Zer'in (Jezreel, Sheet IX.).

Rummaneh

(11.)

Salim

(L

k).

— A small

village standing

above the road, with

a well on the north. (12.)

Sily (M

k).

a spring and cisterns. olives and figs round.

—A

good-sized village, well built of stone, with There are rock-cut wine-presses on the west, and

A

palm grows close

to this village.

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIXE.

46

(13.)

Tannuk

(M

k).

—A

sm.ill

south-east side of the q:reat Tell or

which

village,

mound

stands

on

the

same name at the edgfe and wells on the north, and is of the

of the plain. It has olives on the south, There is a white surrounded with cactus hedges.

dome

the village. The rock on the sides of the Tell is quarried in places, the wells are ancient, and rock-cut tombs occur on the north near the foot of the

mound. (14.) in

This place

is

Taanach of the Bible

Dhaheb (M

Tell edh

the plain.

the

j).

in

.\ii.

(Josh.

—A hamlet on an

21).

isolated hillock

has been recently rebuilt by the SursiTik family of Greek

It

There are springs to the west. el Fahm (Lk).— Next to Jenin this is the most (15.) on the Sheet, although a modern village. The village is important place bankers from Beyrout.

Umm

divided into four quarters, each under its el el in, Mejahineh, and

Ma ham

are to

some 80

some 500

The some 20

and the

Christians,

Jebarin,

There population would probably amount

total

el

villagers are very rich in cattle, goats,

or

— el

Akbariyeh.

souls.

more

springs,

lemons, and very large about ^200.

The

own Sheikh

and horses.

and near the

village are

shaddocks.

The

grown

They own

olives, oranges,

taxes amounted in

1S72 to

well built of stone, standing on a sort of saddle, with four springs on the north-east. The Mukam of Sheikh Iskander is on the hill

is

village

The camp was

above.

'

the principal spring, (16.)

A

i

n

Yamon

El

established in 1872 in the low ground, near

B

el

(M

k).

i

r.

—A

large village,

with olives round

it,

This appears to be the standing on high ground, with a well on the east. of the miles south of but the distance Onomasticon,' 3 Janna Legio '

;

does not exactly agree, being 7 English miles.

IV.

(i.)

— Sh'arawiyet

El Barid

(INI

k).

—A

esh Sherkiyeh. hamlet on

small

the

hillside,

with a

well to the west. (2.)

Burkin (M

modern church

for the

1).

—A

Greek

Greek Christians, with a small stands on the side of a white hill.

village of rite.

It

[SHEET

rOrOGRAPHV.

/'///]

47

with a good well below on the north, and olivts near described in Tent Work in Palestine,' Chapter I\'.

The church

it.

is

'

(3).

Kefreirch

—A

(LI).

good-sized village on a

at the

hill

edge

of the Plain of 'Arrabeh, with a well on the east and olives.



Kefr Kud

A good-sized village in a recess among (Ml). It is supplied k h S h b e h. h e S the hills on the slopes of by a good spring well called 'A n el H a s n. (4.)

1

i

i

i

'

This village is the ancient Capercotia of the Peutinger Tables,' 28 Roman miles from Ctesarea and 24 Roman miles from Scythopolis. The true distances are about 20 English miles from Kefr Kud to Kaisarieh

and also

to Beisan

Yabid

by road.

— A good-sized

stone village, with .some Christian families and two factions of Moslems, called respectively the 'Abd el (5.)

(LI).

Hady and the Beni Tokan, living in separate quarters. The villacre stands on a ridge, with a well to the south and small Mukam. separate quarter on the east, in which is a

\ — Sh'ak.vwivet .

(i.)

Ferasin

(K

1).

—A

a small

el Giiarbiveii.

small village on a rocky hillock, with a well

to the south-east. (2.)

Kuffin (K

1).

—A

good-sized

village

on

low

the

of the Plain of Sharon, with a well on the south side.

hills

east

has rock-cut

It

tombs, and a palm grows near the village. (3.)

El

Mesady '

the fine springs of e (4.)

Niizlet

el

1

(J

A

1

1).

e

i

—A

ya n

small

mud

hamlet

in

the

plain,

near

.

M'asfy (K

1).

—A

small village on the low

hills,

with wells. (5.)

Tell edh

Dhriir

(J

1).

—A

little

mud

hamlet

in

the plain,

with springs to the north. In addition to these inhabited places several ruins on the Sheet are identified as below. (i.)

Bileam

(i

Chron.

vi.

70),

was a town of Manasseh, apparently

near Jenin, within the territory of Issachar.

The name

is

perhaps to be

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

48

recognised in Bel am eh, now applied to the valley and well south of It is probable that the Belmaim Jenin, but not apparently to any ruin. or Belmen of Judith (iv. 4 vii. 3) is the same place, being a Samaritan ;

town near Dothaim (Tell a

con,'

Abelmea

called

place

This

Scythopolis.

Do than.

is

In the OnomastiSheet XL). mentioned as between Neapolis and

is

also perhaps

B

e

'

a

1

m e h,

and

worthy of notice with Abelmeholah, which I b e a m {Josh. xvii. 1 1,

Jerome makes Abelmea possibly identical the Syriac reading for the Belmen of Judith.

that is

2

1

i.\. 27) is sometimes supposed to be the same place, but better identified with e b a (Sheet I X.) as proposed

Kings

Y

perhaps Dr.

is

it

1

is

by

Thomson. town of Issachar

a

Haphraim,

(Josh. .\i.\. 19), is identified a place called Affarea, 6 Roman by Eusebius in the Onomasticon with At a distance of 5^ English miles north-west of miles north of Legio. (2.)

'

'

Lejjun

the important ruin of el

is

Farriyeh,

evidently the Affarea

of the fourth century, and possibly the true site of Haphraim. J

(3.)

(vii. 3).

border city of Zebulun (Josh.

a

K e m u n,

Tell The

present

Book

o k n e a m, i

place

which

is

also possibly the

mentioned under

is

its

xi.x.

11),

Cyamon

modern name

in

is

the

of Judith

the Samaritan

John of Wirtzburg (iioo) calls it Cain Mons, 8 miles Marino Sanuto (1321 a.d.) says that Cain fron; Nazareth, near Carmel was here killed by an arrow by Lamech, and marks the place on his map of Joshua.

;

in

Ke

the position of

i

m. u n.

Fetellus

(i

130 a.d.) makes

Kaim Mons

10 miles from Acre, 3 miles from Carmel, and speaks of the fountain at This tradition accounts for its foot as the place where Cain was killed. '

In the Onomasticon it is called Cimona, (See Section B). and placed 6 Roman miles from Legio, on the way to Ptolemais. '

the chapel.

(4.)

present

Kedesh, Tell

a town of Issachar

Abu K

u d e

i

s,

which

(i

Chron.

lies

vi.

72),

is

perhaps the

within the territory of that

tribe. (5.)

(Josh.

Ke

xi.x.

1

t

u n

5)

70 a)' but this (6.)

in

the

i

t

mentioned

h,

may perhaps be site is

in the

Talmud

the ruin of

Ko

t

e

as identical with Kattath i

n e h (Tal. Jer. Megilla,

not suitable for the Biblical Kattath.

— An

important town of the fourth century, mentioned miles west of Nazareth, 6 from 'Onomasticon,' 15 Roman

Legio.

[SnEET

TOPOGRAPHY.

VII/.]

49

Cimona, 6 from Affarea, 3 or 4 from Taanach. The distances, though not quite exact, serve to place the town at Lejj u n. Lejjun is identified by Dr. Robinson with JMcgiddo, but no strongis

argument

support of this view. (See TentWork in Palestine,' In the fourteenth century IMarino Sanuto places Megiddo at

adduced

Chapter IV.) a place called

map

map, evidently Ezbuba. (See above.) mentioned by Marino Sanuto (1321) and marked on

Sububa on

Mesrah,

(7.)

his

'

in

his

K hurbct

the position of

in

Brocardus as Casal Mesra

(ch.

Sarid. — A place on

(8.)

b3tween

Chisloth

The LXX.,

vii.

ez rah,

INI

also noticed

is

the boundary of Zebulun (Josh.

Tabor (Ik sal) and Jokneam (Tell

Roman

name to have been present Tell S h a d ii d,

xi.x.

K

e

reads S for

texts,

suesfests the orioinal

Sadid, in which case

very well be the

in the

Roads.

— The main

Jenin

over the low

Be lam eh the western

by a gentle hills

— The

main

K h. U m m

near

hills

to

fall

by Lejjun

to

main

flat

the

Kann

watershed of the

Wady

el

INIilh

to

telegraph runs beside

From

4th.

Khurbet

valley

Wady

which VOL.

is II.

i

Nablus,

passing

Wady

descends

road

i

in

Sheets

and gradually ascends the a straight line northwards across

1

K e m u n,

described

Baka,

running in Be ad er Ruha r,

where

it

and so descending by The electric joins No. i.

h,

it.

Sharon to Jordan. Sumrah, and ascends by

the Plain of

last at

froni

But m,

main road runs straight the whole way, and enters the pass of e 1 ground

XI. and XI\'. runs north from low downs near

this Sheet,

i

K has hash. (See Sheet V.) Haifa. — The 3rd. Lydda to

to the north in

might

Jenin; thence it runs along the base of K e m u n, almost in a straight line.

— The

to

Jenin

road

el

Nazareth.

2nd.

it

n).

which

Haifa and Acre, with that to Haifa from the Plain however, only broad beaten tracts, not made roads.

Haifa.

to

i,

ii

to

of Sharon. All these are, ist.

10-12)

m

i

required position.

from Egypt to Damascus crosses

line

and the road from Jenin

by

176).

p.

both Alexandrine and

in

el

es

This the

line leaves the

broad and open

'Arab, crossing the watershed at 'A i n Ibrahim, about 1,200 feet above the sea. Thence the road descends, 7

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

so

falling

some 700

feet

in

3

miles to

Lejjun, where

bifurcates,

it

one

branch running' towards Nazareth, and ascending the hills near Tell S h a d u d the second continuing eastwards to e 1 'A f u e h, and thence 1

;

the \^alley of Jezreel. (Sheet IX.) This line, which appears to be ancient, is one of great importance, being one of the easiest across the

down

country,

owing

A

5th.

to the

open character of

branch leaves

this last

Wady

'A

r

a h,

Khurbct

road at

'Arab, running

north-east and rising 400 feet in 5 miles towards the watershed of the Belad er Ruhah. It passes by the old ruined Khan of el

and through Kefrein, descending thence some 500 feet No. i at Tell Aghbariyeh. It was probably the

IMawiyeh in 3

miles to join

old line from Nazareth to Sharon, but the path thence to Nazareth leads

over a bad part of the Kishon, where there are dangerous pools. 6th.

J

Wady of

D6

B t

en in to Sharon. e

ha

1

a

n,

m e h,

— The

road leaves No.

i

and passes along the Plain of 'A

descending by

Wady

Gham

el

i

k.

very easy line for crossing Palestine, as it runs through one pass of about 4 miles, with a fall of less than 100

at the r r

head of

abe h

This

is

north also

a

excepting per mile at most, the highest point being only about 800 feet above the sea-level. This road was probably the one by which the Midianites descended to Egypt with Joseph; but it is not now a main line of communication. Cultivation'.

amount of

— The

Plain of Esdraelon

is

Wheat and

to

be

feet

naturally very

The

cultivation differs in different years.

were estimated by Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake

plains,

fertile,

but the

proportions in 1872

:



barley

.

.

Millet

Sesame, cotton, Fallow land .

castor-oil .

.

.

45

...

35 10

.

10

.

.

.

.

100

The

greater part of the Plain of Sharon

is

uncultivated, except close

to the villages.

Vegetable gardens occur near the springs in the low hills, on which The Plain of 'A r r a b e h produces good crops corn is also grown. of corn.

SHEET

\'1

1 1.

—SECTION

15.

Archaeology.

'Akkddeh 'An

in

(L

(L k).

k).

— Ruined buildings, apparently modern.

— Immediately

north

of the

village

a

is

rock-cut

passage large enough to walk along, extending about 50 feet and lined This leads out on to a with cement it then becomes about a foot high. ;

surface of rock.

flat

It

may have some

connection with the Lavacra of

(See Section A.; see also 'Askar, Sheet rock-cut tombs, now blocked, exist west of this.

Jerome.

Two

XL,

Section B.)

Visited 12th October, 1S72.

Bertah (K

k).

—A

ruined

Arabic village on a high

with a

hill,

spring in the valley to the north 400 feet below.

Besmeh (N k). — Foundations Bir el Belameh (N

of

modern masonry.

1).

regards the identification of this place with Bileam (i Chron. (Judith iv. 4), see Section A., p. 47.

As '

The

well

is

vi.

70),

and Bcmaim

not deep, circular in form, and built of tolerably regular blocks. '



A

little

on another well, called Bir es Senjem apparently that called in the map Bir es is found at the entrance of a souterrain, evidendy ancient, which is 1 1 feet 6 inches Sinjib The vestibule is of masonry, and is surmounted by a semicircular arch then the broad. I entered, and managed souterrain itself begins, cut in the rock, and plunging into the hill. farther



'

;

to advance about 30 paces, but it is at present half filled by an accumulation of rubbish. .... According to the guide the passage goes much farther, rising, in fact, to the middle of the town which once covered the hill, so that in case of necessity the inhabitants could get

down

to the well in the valley,

which was then concealed from an enemy by a

wall.

Climb-

I arrived at a little hill, and getting over several sustaining walls, ing up Here are the remains Kh. Beldmeh. was are called which I told with covered ruins, plateau

the slope of the

of a tower with very thick walls ; it does not appear to be older than the Crusades, but it may have taken the place of a still older fortress, and may have been built of the old materials. Besides the ruins of the town, the plateau is strewn with a mass of stones of different d;men-

7—2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

52 sions

and with innumerable fragments of

ravines, all

it

once served

appearance the

pottery.

Surrounded on three sides by deep

now completely reversed. It is to They camped in the valley near unto

for the site of a small stronghold,

Belmaim

Book of

of the

'

Judith.

and they spread themselves in breadth over Dothaim, even to Belmaim, and in On descendfrom Bethulia unto Cyamon, which is over against Esdraelon' (vii. 3). length small surrounded a I the Kubbeh of a Moslem found enclosure, and A\'aly, by ing again Bethulia,

On sanctuary is entirely constructed of old materials. of stones wall of built and near a regular rectangular form, my passed Like the former well, it is called the Ain or measuring 2 paces in breadth by 4 in length. ' Bir Belameh.' Guerin, Samaria,' i. 341. The

dedicated to Sheikh Hassan. return to the valley

I



El Burcij

-Walls and foundations without any indication

k).-

(I

of date.

B

u

r

Khcil

1

j

(I

plain.

De

i

r

El F

EI

H awa

el

ak h

Fu

i

r

e

re id

h

(L

j).

(I j).

is

Baikch

or

cattle-yard

\\\

the

— Foundations and scattered stones. ruins

and a column

shaft.

— Three

tombs were here examined by CorOne a chamber 9^ feet across, 15 feet to the

F.OCK-HlWN

BPoUcn

—A

— Traces of

(I j).

poral Armstrong, R.E.

jv\

k).

TOMSS near FUREICiS

>

Down

fti^

iions partSy ^^

V

tJie locuius >n

J*.

prossri/axjon.

back, with five koktni on each side wall almost entirely broken up, but one measuring 7 feet 2 inches in length, 2 feet across at the back is a recess ;

[SHEET

ARCILEOLOGY.

V1I1.\

broken down

53

The door has an probably there were kolain here also. archway outside. The second tomb, also much broken up, had three kokim on each side, but the arrany^ement at the back is doubtful. The chamber was lo

The

feet square.

K h urbe by 8^

;

feet,

t

I

b

r

e

i

k

t

a

tomb is very curious, resembling that at (Sheet \T I.) it was a round chamber 9 J feet

third

s-

;

with a door reached by steps and three radiating kokuii about

6 feet long, 2\ feet across.

Ghannam

El

or

Kefr Yarub

(NM).

—A

mound

with traces

of ruins. '

These ruins occupy a plate.iu, surrounded on all sides by cultivated valleys, and consist of numerous piles of stones of large dimensions, eaten away by time, and disposed in circles round artificial caves cut in the rock, some of which were once cisterns, and others subterranean vaults.'



C'lUerin,

'Samaria,'

i.

342.

i).— A tomb was visited to the scarped on the north side, and several steps led down to a cave 8 paces across, 6 paces to the

Ijzim

(J

Round

back.

The

north.

front

was

the cave recesses, forming rude

were scooped, six in all, from 2 to 3 There are several other broken paces deep.

koktiii,

sepulchres near. Two other tombs were planned by Corporal Armstrong. One, a chamber with steps down from the door inside, 5 feet 9 inches wide, by 5 feet to back wall, with a loculns TOMBS AT J Z I

on each of three feet 2 inches,

arcosolia.

loculns

and

walls, 5

The

feet

by

I

M.J

2

deep, with second tomb had a 2 feet

on each side

1

wall, 6 feet 8

The by about 2\ feet. chamber was 7 feet wide, and on the back

inches

wall

were two kokim

5^-

feet

long, 2 feet 4 inches broad, with stone pillows at the further end for the

This

heads.

Sheet

is

also a transition

specimen.

(Compare Sheikh

Ibreik,

\'.)

Visited 28th February, 1873. Here Guerin found an ancient marble column below the

at the

door of a mosque ; in the valley and surmounted by a vaulted

village a large square well, built with regular stones

construction. Near the well a birket, no longer used, and partly filled up, and close at hand the foundations of an ancient tower, measuring 15 paces by 10, and built with large masonry.

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

54

k h ne

I

fi s

i

(M

i).

— Ruins of

Dhahr

a tower built by

el

'Amr

aljout

a century ago (1162 A. 11.). J 'a

rah (K

Jeba

(I

i).

j).

— The rock-cut tombs

—There

at this place arc

blocked up.

are two closed rock tombs in the ledge south

of the village, and a third with a courtyard 14 feet square, sunk 2 feet two doors lead into chambers. One has three locidi, one on each wall

;

;

the other has two locnli and a recess 5 feet 6 inches, with two parallel graves under one arcosoliiuu placed like kokun with the feet to the

This

chamber.

(Compare Sheikh

therefore a transitional example.

is

Ibreik, Sheet V.)

There are several caves north of the at

head

the

of

the valley forming

the

and another tomb

village,

recess

in

which the village

stands.

Visited 14th March, 1873.

El

J a

n

J e J

i

n

we

u

h

meh

(N i

d

r

i

k).



(K k). A mound with scattered stones. For the supposed Roman Camp see Sheet IX.



e h

(M

k).

— Traces of ruins on a mound.

K a u k a b (L — Ruins Kefr Adan (M k). 1).

of

modern houses.

Here Gu^rin remarked a broken column and a appearance.

— Traces of ruins. — Traces of ruins. (K —A 'Abhariyeh (K

Kharrubeh El Khatmiyeh

El

Khfirbet

el

(N

t

of cut stones of ancient

k).

k).

few

k).

springs.

Khurbe

number

certain

Abu 'Amir

(M

k).

stones;

two

— A small building was here found,

on the top of a flat hill, and near it a structure resembling an altar. A road leads up from the south. The walls measured 42 feet north and south,

wide,

and 39 1 1

feet

and west

on the south wall was a doorway 4 feet from the west wall inside. There was another wall running feet east

;

east and west 13^ feet north of the north wall.

A

4 feet 10 on the south a lintel

pillar shaft,

inches in circumference, stands within the building stone lies on the ground. The masonry is well dressed, of good size, not drafted. The largest stones are in the jambs of the doorway. The ;

average

size

is

about

i

foot in height,

by from

i

to 2 feet in length.

ARCIl.EOLOGY.

VIII. \

[SHEET

55

Voussoirs belonging to a circular arch were found .strewn about, and there are remains of foundations, apparently of houses, round the building.

R

-f. (.'..r.





,*=.ketcm

of

Building

STONE, ONE FACE ORNAMENTED

at

khurblt abu

.-~

'amir

FLAT SLAB

There are also cisterns cut in rock, and lined with pink cement full of was ornapowdered pottery mixed in the lime. One of the voussoirs The base of a pillar, i foot 8 inches in low relief mented with mouldings

"*•

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN

5G

diameter,

14

Remains of a

inches

higli,

rALESTJ.\E.

was found, and a

cornice, very clal:ioratcly carved,

capital

much

battered.

and of slabs of stone,

BUILDING AT ABU 'AMIR CAPITAL

Sketch or VOUSSOIR OF ARCM.


East

GENERAL PLAN. PART

also

ornamented,

character.

were

OF

copied.

A

CORNICE

ABOUT

4

FEET

The ornamentation

LONG

is

of

debased

{SHEET

ARCII.EOLOGY.

Vin.\

About lOO yards from

this

57

building to the west

structure which resembles an altar.

appears to be

It

is

solid,

the

masonry

measuring 30

north and south, 35 feet east and west. The masonry is rudely modern tomb squared of stones about 4 feet by 2\ feet by i^ feet. of Sheikh Selameh stands on this platform, which consists of three feet

A

A

courses where complete. To the north-east large tree hangs over it. is a cave, partly natural, with rock-cut steps down to it. The tree leading is

an oak. Visited 21st September, 1S72.

Khurbet Abu Rujman (K — Foundations. Khurbet 'A y Koka (K k). — Foundations, and 1).

1

remains

of

ancient cultivation.

Khurbet 'A n n Khurbet 'Arab i

(L

k).

(K

— Traces of — Traces of

k).

ruins.

ruins on a prominent

mound

with a well.

Khurbet B a b

1

u n

Khurbet Basil a (K Khurbet Beidus (J cistern,

and a

pillar shaft,

— Traces of ruins by — Traces of — Traces of a ruined

(J k).

ruins.

1).

1).

e.xist

fine springs.

here, with a

village,

a cave, a

doorway hewn out of one

piece of stone. •Scale-

Vj.

Bmqe

The about 9 VOL.

total feet. II,

height of this doorway is 8 feet i inch the total breadth mouldThe door is 6 feet high, 4 feet broad in the clear. 8 ;

A

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

58

ing in low relief runs round

low

relief.

There

The whole

bolt.

and

it,

at

one end of the

lintel is

a tablet in

a socket for the pivot of the door, and a hole for a cut out of a block of yellowish hard limestone containis

is

The workmanship is rough, and ing many, fossils, and quarried near. seems unfinished. Some blocks of the wall are visible in situ on the The doorway

right.

faces approximately west (3° 30' true bearing).

It

may have belonged to an early chapel. Visited 9th April, 1873.

Khiirbet Beit Ras (L j). — Mound, with traces of ruins. Khurbet el Biar (K k).— Scattered stones; ruins of a

few

modern houses.

Khurbet B

i

r

I

s

i

r

(K

with cemented troughs round

Khurbet

el

B

Khurbet B u s e

u i

r

1

ak

e h

1).

— Foundations,

cisterns

— Traces of — Foundations

of small masonry, pro-

;

a deep well,

it.

(

K

(L

ruins.

k).

j).

bably modern.

Khurbet D h a h r e

H ammad

t

(

K

k).

—A

hillock strewn with

stones.

— Ruined (K — Evidently

Khurbet ed Dufeis (J Khurbet el Farriyeh steep hillock with traces of ruins,

The

valley.

first

walls.

k).

i).

an ancient site;

and on the north a good spring

tomb was merely a koka,

in

7 feet 3 inches long, 2

a the

feet

The second was rude, and entered inches wide, 3 feet 6 inches high. by a hole above. 1 1 had a loculus at the back, 6 feet 6 inches long a 2

;

second, to the 2 feet

wide.

left,

The

koknn on each

a koka to the right, about 8 feet long, 5 feet long third tomb was a very well cut specimen, with three

wall, nine in

;

all.

across, 8 feet 8 inches to the

The chamber measured

back

;

8 feet 4 inches

the door was 2^ feet wide.

There

was, in addition to these tombs, a curious excavation, presumably also a large tomb, though of unusual shape.

a chamber, measuring 25!- feet to the back wall and 30 feet across, with a door to the north-west, and a side chamber to the right ii|- feet It is

On the left-hand height varies from 8 feet to 5 feet. wall are three recesses sunk a foot below the floor of the chamber. They by 10

feet.

The

[SHEET

ARCHEOLOGY.

VIII.]

59

are in the shape of a half-hive, with a raised slab in front 2 feet high. The total height is about 7 feet, and the depth to the back on the floor

they have arched roofs, and though of unusual form may On the back wall are two recesses, level with the floor perhaps be lociili. of the chamber, of the same shape (a hollow quarter-sphere), rudely cut and 5 feet

6 inches

about equal

;

in size,

about 2\

feet diameter.

across, 15 feet to the back, level with the

wall left of the door

is

There

is

chamber

also a recess 6 feet

On

floor.

the front

a recess 3 feet 4 inches by 4 feet 3 inches (to the

NEAR KHURBET EL FARRIYEH.

In the side chamber, on the back wall, is a back), level with the floor. recess 4 feet 6 inches by 4 feet 8 inches and 5^ feet high, level with the floor,

and

to the left of this another, 3 feet 10 inches across,

to the back, 5 feet 6 inches total height,

In the middle of the chamber

is

and sunk 3J

a shaft

2^^ feet

feet

4 feet 8 inches below the floor.

diameter,

now

full

of

stones.

Visited 13th March, 1S73.

Khiirbet

el

Funeitir (K

k).

— Stones

on

a

mound, with

trees.

Khurbet Hadeithiyeh

(I j).

— Foundations

and a rock-cut

tomb.

Khurbet Hanna

(J

i).

Khurbet Hannaneh

— Foundations and (J j).

walls.

— Walls and caves. 8—2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

6o

— Heaps of stones. — Traces of (Ml).

Khtirbet Ikhrcin (K

Khurbct Jcbjeb

K h rbe Khurbe Li

t

t

Khurbet Khurbet

Khurbet Khurbet Khurbet Khurbet some

antiquity.

1).

ruins.

(L k).— A few scattered stones.

J e r r a r

— Mound, with traces of — Ruined Kefr Basa — Traces of el Kelbi — Traces of Ke a eh — Traces of el Khaneizireh — Walls, cave, and Khud ah — This seems el Khuzneh (L J

i

nz a

(M

r

1).

(J

walls.

1).

ruins.

(J k).

z

z

(I

ruins.

1).

ruins.

(I j).

c

r

i

ruins.

(J j).

cistern.

to

j).

There are foundations of a good-sized

be a

site

of

building, several

A

shafts of columns and portions of broken sarcophagi. broken capital There is a rude cave with rough of Corinthian order was sketched.

and a second cave blocked up close by

locnli,

;

these appear to be

tombs.

A

sculptured block was found which looked like an altar, but the mouldings only run round three sides, and it is more probably a pier,

4

feet 4 inches high, 2 feet

moulding

at the top.

It is

by

2 feet

embedded

inches at the top, with a simple in the rubbish. 2

Visited 20th October, 1872.

Khurbet Kireh

(K

i).

— Evidently an

ancient

site.

There are

and broken pottery on the hill to the north are kokini tombs, caves, and a quarry to the east are other tombs, caves, quarries, el Hash Ci rah. and a rock-cut water channel, There is a in the valley at this point, and a small mill. water of A good supply

traces of ruins

;

;

Umm

colony of Turcomans live

Most of tomb is with

the tombs are rough, of transition character

arched

they pronounce the name J with the doors hewn square.

caves

in the

;

e h.

One

;

roofs

;

on

the

and between them an arched end of

r

on the right side (north) two kokini south two locnli under anosolia, with

three kokim beneath, as at Sheikh Ibreik

at the

i

it

;

recess about

at right angles, also arched.

on the back wall two 3

feet

The

long,

loc7ili,

with a koka

locnli are of

ordinary

[SHEET

ARCII.EOLOGY

/•///.]

6i

those on the south wall are 2\ feet above the level of the chamber, allowing room for the kokiiii below those at the back are level with the

size

;

;

floor.

The water channel

has externally the appearance of a tomb an passage some 20 feet long; in front of ;

entrance, 2

the

J-

feet wide, leading to a

mouth an archway carefully cut. Visited 6th December, 1872.

Khurbe K hurbe K h be fi

r

t

Ko

t

t

el

Kusab

t

K

e

u s

i

i

neh

e h

(J j).

(K

(J

1).

walls.

j).

— Ruined

Khtirbet Mansilrah (K masonry.

— Foundations and — Ruined hamlet and spring.

i).

— Heaps

Apparently an early Christian

Khurbet

el

walls.

(K k).— A

Mawlyeh

of masonry; a cistern

in

ruin.

small

ruined

khan, of no

great antiquity, on the road, near a spring.

Khurbet cut tomb,

el

jNIedekakin (M

whence the place derives

Khurbet Khurbet more ancient

el

Rledineh

el

IMezrah (N

site,

k).

— Traces of ruins and a rock-

name.

its

— Traces of ruins on a mound. — Modern ruins on an apparently

(Lj). i).

broken sarcophagi, and good springs of water.

el Man tar (L — A square tower of drafted — — others more particularly masonry (compare Raba, Sheet XII.) similar

Khurbet

k).

to

described, perhaps of Crusading times.

Khurbet N a d Khurbet N a s

h

il

s

r

(L (J

k).

i).

— Huts

and cave

— Traces of

ruins.

for goat-herds.

THE SUR VEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

62

K h u r b et N e h a K h u r b e en N

1

t

F

see

u

r

e

i

d

K h u rbe

i

i

u

n

(

z

1

K

1).

e h

—-Traces of ruins. — Traces of ruins

(I j).

for

the

tombs

s.

Rase

t

i

s e

h

(I

j).

— Foundations

and

rock-cut

tombs.

Khurbet watch-towers

Rihaneh

cr

in ruins,

Khurbet K hurbe t

S

e s

S

ab

i

r

(J k).

(L

K h u b c She m sin (K Khurbet e s h S h h (I r

t

i

rock 20 feet high, as follow

:— The

full first,

step from the door

arch,

and

slide

back.

in

;

j).

—A

ruined

modern

village,

and

with two springs.

marah

a

(K

1).

1).

— An orchard — Traces of ruins and caves. — Traces of ruins and a

j).

wall.

cistern.

— Ruins of foundations,

with scarps of

of tombs facing westwards. Eight were examined a chamber 6 feet high, reached by the descent of a

the door 2 feet broad, 3 feet high, with an exterior

the side of this a recess 2 teet deep for a rolling stone to There are three locitli measuring 5^ feet to the top of

arcosolmin, 6 feet long, 3 feet broad, raised slightly above the tomb floor, with pillows at the head for the corpses. The second tomb, south, has a

door

in the face of the

stone as before. 5 feet high,

6 feet by

i

clifi,

reached by a step, and an arch, with recess for is reached by a descent of two it is steps

The chamber

;

foot 9 inches broad, 6 feet long, with a loculus each side,

with pillows of stone at the further ends. the ioculi are 6 inches above the tomb floor the door is 2 feet,

;

The bottom 2 feet

of

6 inches

{SHEET

ARCH.EOLOGY.

VIII.\

The

above the door.

and two

tomb has one

third

— one at the

locitli

has no roHing stone

the side

;

having it on the right. The No. I. The seventh also walled,

similar, but

fiftli

but

;

high,

1

the cave

is

visible.

the fourth It

on the

is

hke the

last

;

much choked, and

left,

case the front of the loailiis

The

a rolling stone.

left for

side of the valley.

10 feet high,

was 10 paces

On

There

is

tomb

eighth

long, 3 paces broad, with a

A

the south

down which water

is

a

has worn a

chimney

in the

small recess, about 4 feet 6 inches

4 feet broad, to one side the place is still inhabited at and charcoal being probably stored there. Close to it, on the

5 feet long,

times, tibn

south,

is

in this

blocked up, about 15 feet high.

roof,

;

floor,

the former (No. 3) and sixth tombs have three locuh,

locitliis

These tombs are on the north

;

end

to

has no recess for a stone.

cave, with a scarp in front

groove

at the

is

making a sarcophagus of rock under the arcosolium.

a recess in the door-arch to the is

down from door

step

between the two.

like is

one

side,

a buttress of rock juts out

63

;

a rock-cut cistern, like a tomb, or /oaiiiis, but the water-line

Here

4 feet 3 Inches

more tombs

are two

wide and 3

like the last noticed,

The

feet high.

but with doors

face of the rock

is

here pick-

dressed to a height of 10 to 20 feet in a herring-bone pattern. Another tomb, further south, is a mere loctchis under arcosolium in the face of the the length, 6 feet height from floor to centre of arch, 6 feet breadth of loaibis, 2 feet inside depth, 3 feet covered originally with a slab. South of this, again, is a tomb with kokiDi: the door and one koka cliff

;

;

;

;

;

to the right are partly destroyed

the

;

chamber was

12 feet square, with

nine kokim, three on each of three walls, those at the end 9 feet by 3 left 7 feet, on the right 5 feet long.

feet,

on the

The

tomb are

ruins near this

foundations, with a tank about 8 paces the rock in which the tombs are cut is square, and a bell-mouthed cistern ;

naturally soft, hardening on exposure. Visited ;th March, 1873.

Khurbe K hurbe

t

S

t

e s

i

Khurbet

es

K h urbe

t

c s

Khurbet

et

1 1

Leila

Su

1

e

i

(J k).

man

i

— Foundations and

yeh

(J j).

—Traces of

— See Tell Sum rah — Traces of Su u (L Turm (LI). — Traces of (J k).

r

j

k).

cisterns.

el

ruins.

Asawir.

ruins.

ruins.

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

64

Khurbe K hurbc

Umm

t

Umm

t

Busl

el

— Ruined — Traces of ruins (N

But m

el

walls.

(Ik).

a

Mukam

They

are those

;

1).

with a Cufic inscription. '

These

ruins

lie

on a

]ilateau built

in terraces

up

and

partly cultivated.

of an ancient village, the houses of which were constructed of stones irregularly cut and of moderate dimensions. They are now piled up in circular heaps round cisterns or caves cut in

the

In

rock.

the

centre of the

Towards the south end of the plateau It

is

cut in

the

rock,

now

but

saw an ancient

by 14 broad.

birkct, 17 paces long

up and planted with

half filled

Moslem Wely.

a

near these ruins, stands

plateau, I

vegetables.'

—Gudrin,

'

Samaria,'

K

i.

hu

343. r

be

t

Um

el

ni

H

a

f f

e h

(I\l

1).

— Two

mounds

with traces

of ruins.

Khurbet Khiirbet

Khurbet Khurbet

Umm el Jemal Umm el Kedish Umm el K u u Umm er Rihan t

(J j). (J k).

f

(K (L

—-Foundations.

— Ruined walls and — Ruined — Traces of ruins; walls.

k). k).

West

stones of good sized masonry, with a rustic boss. valley is a ruined watchtower.

Kusabiyeh (J k). — Traces Kusr 'A in esh Sheriah (L El

a well near a good spring.

Kusr Fukkis (K

j).

cisterns.

of

it

drafted in

the

of ruins. k).

— Traces of

— Remains

of a building with

ruins.



The ruins appear to belong to a former (Lj). village, but there are remains of columns, both granite and limestone, There is a small mound or Tell immediately which are earlier.

El

Lejjun

north of the

stream,

on the top of which two

pillar

shafts

remain

erect.

In the southern face of the Tell

a masonry semicircular archway of

is

rough workmanship, and under this an entrance, 2i feet wide, 4 This leads into a chamber under the with a flat lintel stone.

feet high,

Tell, with

This leads again into a second smaller a vaulted roof of pointed section. chamber to the left (on entering the first), and from this a third is reached, south of the other two. vaults,

and the

last is

The two chambers

cemented

inside

north-west and north-east corner.

round

it,

have, like the

and has two rude It

first,

pointed

pilasters in the

had originally a cornice running

and there are traces of red paint on the cement.

[SHEET

ARCHEOLOGY.

vnr.]

Into this chamber, which leads from the west.

The

H

only a few paces square, a water-channel channel is cemented, and large enough to walk is

It is built of masonry, along for 25 paces. very irregularly, for about 20 paces. It turns northwards, and is then rock-cut, becoming gradually

SKETCHES

Water

AT

LLJJUN

runs in the passage. (Compare 'Anin, on this Sheet, and 'Askar, Sheet XI., Section B.) with a base and many shafts. capital was found on the mound,

smaller.

still

A

There are

also foundations of a large building.

Along the stream, south of the mound, there are four small mills, and South of this are remains a good masonry dam is built across the stream. of a good-sized Khan, close to the road. VOL.

II.

9

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

66

The

area occupied by the ruins on the Tell

about loo yards either

is

way. The

place where we hahed, near one of the sources of the Wady Lejjun, was commanded by a hillock called Tell Iskander, on the summit of which I could not observe any ruins. Some distance north-east of this Tell, and on the right bank of the AVady, rises another hill '

much more

considerable than the preceding, called Tell el Mutaselim, the higher plateau and now covered with thorns or cultivated, formerly served for a city long since ruined. There remain at present only heaps of materials scattered about about completely trunks of columns in granite, stone, or marble, the remains of buildings, and innumertwenty

slopes of which,

:

able pieces of pottery. One of the buildings was constructed east and west, as is apparent from the lower courses still in situ. Was this once a church? It is possible; but excavations to be made before the question was answered. Another building, also ornamented with columns, rose at the western extremity of the city, on a little mound which dominates Wady Lejjun. In its side there is found an arched grotto, inhabited by a Mussulman

would have

family,

from which flows a

spring.

At a short distance

to the south are seen the vestiges of



a great Khan, very probably of Arabic origin, almost entirely demolished.' Guerin. It is evident, from the mention made of Legio by Eusebius, that the place, now without

doubt identified with Lejjun, was of considerable importance. For instance, he measures four places, at least, by their distance from Legio. It was also at one time the seat of a is There no record of its destruction. Suffragan Bishop. According to the theory of Robinson, the

name

of Legio replaced that of Megiddo.

Visited 14th October, 1872.

Ludd El

(K

j).

— Traces of near a spring. with a — Foundations and a modern grave. — There are remains place of a Roman

Maiser

M a-m a s

ruins,

pillar-shaft

(J k).

at this

(I k).

converted later into a

fortress,

and of dams

theatre,

stream to lead the water

at the

The theatre has of the springs into the Caesarea high-level aqueduct. of that the The interior been partly destroyed. diameter, arena, appears to

have been 120

feet; the exterior diameter

behind the vomitories, which are destroyed, true bearing of the diameter of the theatre is

is

is

195

1 1

feet in

5° 30'.

entirely destroyed, as well as part of the outer wall.

The passage the clear. The

feet.

The seats have been The masonry is of

sandy limestone the stones about \\ feet in length. Several vaults have been built on in the south-west corner, and here is a small square tower ;

standing on the top of one of the vomitories. The tower measures 19 feet by 22 feet outside; the battlements are 36 feet from the ground; the One of the arches in the additional work is lower storey is 1 5 feet high.

The arch is 5 feet span, keystone. and 2 feet rise to this keystone, with four voussoirs on each side. The

of curious form, having a long

flat

{SHEET

ARCHEOLOGY.

Vni.]

67

those of the tower 3 passages are cemented inside, and in the additional buildings a mortar, like that used at Ca;sarea, is found. walls of the theatre are 5 feet

tliick,

feet.

The

brown hard

ROMAN THEATRE MAMAS

The

ruined

dams

are noticed

on Sheet VII. (Section

B.),

under head

'Kaisarieh High-Level Aqueduct.' Visited and planned 7th April, 1873.

El

I\I

El

Mens

El

INI

El El on

e d h

i

i

a b

(K

(L

j).

1).

—Walls and foundations.

— A small

ruined village, with springs.

— Ruined tank Miindtir (Lj). — Traces of ruins an unfinished Muntar {K — The trigonometrical point was i

s

ka

(K

a large cairn tower.

for irrigation.

k).

capital.

;

established

k).

of

fallen

stones,

perhaps

remains

of

a

vineyard

9—2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

68

About 200 yards

east

another of these towers

is

square, of undressed blocks

4 feet long, roofed in with slabs of stone. the middle of the thickets in this neighbelonging to the same class with those described on Sheet XI. 2 to

There are several others bourhood,

all

in

'Azzun) and Sheet XIV.

(Section B., a s a n).

H

about 30 feet

in ruins,

B.,

(Section

Kurawa Ibn

There are also ancient terraces on this mountain above A r a r a h, and It is evident that the his/i rock-cut tombs near that village, closed up. '

or wild growth, which is here so thick, has covered up ancient cultivation. Visited 2Sth March, 1873.

Mu

r t

e fe h

(L

j).

Er Raseiseh

Ru mm an eh It is

city of

— A ruined — Ruined

vault, apparently

k).

(J

(L

walls.

k).

know whether this village, Hadad-Rimmon, contains any remains important to

There were, however,

modern.

cisterns cut in the rock

identified

by Van de Velde with the ancient Guerin found none.

of ancient buildings.

and a

well.

S al im (L At

this village

k) Guerin remarked

Sheikh Madhy and ancient

The

wells.

verj- distinct traces

(J j).

of ancient buildings.

— Foundations

site is close to

and

S u amir.

caves,

There

is

rough tombs, also a

modern

Mukam.

Sheikh

]\I

Siibbarin

e

i

s

i

(J j).



r



(K 1). Foundations near a modern Mukam. The well mentioned in Section A. is of oval

form, 15 feet longest diameter, 15 feet deep, built of good-sized ashlar, Near it are foundations of a building, of stones about with rock below. 3 feet

by

2 feet

by i^

feet,

Et Taiyibeh (L Tannuk (M k).

k).

with an interior of rubble.

—A modern ruined

village with springs.

the southern sides and the whole upper plateau of the oblong hill on which the were covered with buildings, as is proved by the innumerable fragments of stands village and the materials of every kind which are met with at every pottery scattered on the soil, Below the village is a little the larger stones have been carried away elsewhere. step '

Once

:

mosque, which passes the stones with which

for

an ancient Christian church. is

built

It lies, in fact, east

to early constructions

and

some of them

west,

and

all

are decorated

; belong Farther on in the plain are several cisterns cut in the rock, and a well, with sculptures. Guerin. called Bir Tannuk.'

it



Tarbaneh (M

i).

— Traces of ruins by the springs.

[SHEET

ARCHAEOLOGY.

VI/L]

69

Abu Ha mm ad or K h. Bablun Abu Kudeis (M — An artificial

Tell Tell

j).

and

ruins, scattered pottery,

Tell Afrein Tell

(J

1).

tjlass

Aghbariyeh

c

Asaw

— Traces of

ruins.

mound, with traces of

and on the north side are springs.

;

— Traces of

el

(J k).

(Lj).

ruins.

—A

mound

foundations and

with

caves.

Tell

1

i

r

(J k).

— A mound, apparently

springs.

Dodehan K c m u n (K

Tell ed Tell

i

(L

i).

k).

artificial,

— Traces of ruins on an

near fine

artificial

—A very large and prominent

hillock,

mound. formed

by scarping the outlying tongue of a range of hills. (See Section A., Jokneam and Cain Mons.) It stands 300 feet above the bottom of the The hillock, as now existing, is isolated, and has steep valley north of it. slopes of about 30°.

The

top of the Tell is occupied by a square fort 125 feet side, preel 'A m r in the sumably, from the masonry, that built by

Dhahr

end of the remaining

;

last

century. but the plan is

It still

now

destroyed, only the foundations traceable, with corner towers, one round,

is

two rectangular, and one on the south-west projecting fort had a central courtyard, and chambers round it.

SIDt

stones,

{See next page.)

The a vault of rough masonry, with much mortar. of are walls fort a arch. The of the of rag-work, with pointed

Under is

The

tLEVATION 4

Block of Stone.

roof

irregularly.

this fort is

measuring

2 feet

by i^

feet,

by

i

foot, set in fairly

good mortar.

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.



A

lower

little

down

the Tell are the remauis of a small chapel.

Only

the foundations remain, with one heavy pier in siiu. The diameter of the apse is 15 feet the aisles terminated in square recesses, for altars, not in ;

apses the aisles were 9 feet in the clear. The length of the chapel could not be determined. The bearing is 80° Mag. ;

Near

was a block of

this

stone,

i

foot 9 inches

A corbel lay near

Byzantine capital sculptured at one end.

belonged inches,

A

to the chapel.

was

also

measured

;

stone, 4

by 4

feet

and a curved

by

i

;

with a

feet,

both probably

foot 8 inches

by

i

foot 8

stone, 2 feet 8 inches along the

LNU tLtVATION

CORBLL

inch deep, 3 broad. There are fine springs at the foot of the Tell to the east. (See Traditions as to Keimiin in the Special

arc,

with a draft

i

Paper on Samaritan Topography.) Visited 6th December, 1872.

Tell

el

Mutasellim

(Lj).

—A

long, tlat-topped

mound about

200 yards by 100 (or four acres). Traces of walls seem to be visible, now covered with rubbish, and the surface is covered with broken pottery. The sides are steep on the ;

north-west there are fine springs.

Tell Shad Lid (Mi). — A

good-sized

artificial

mound, with

fine

springs beneath on the south.

Tell Thorah

(Li).

—A

small

(L

—A few mud hovels on the

hovels above springs.

Umm

el

'A b h a

r

k).

artificial

mound, with a few mud

hill-top.

[SHEET

ARCHEOLOGY.

rn/.]

Umm Umm

el

'A

c

B

Umm

el

1

I

a k

e n a d

e

Umm

el

Dc ra Ke a

Umm

e

Tos

Umm

ez

1

t

k

i

i

j

e h

d

— Ruined — Traces of — Traces of (K — Traces of walls.

(J

Buteimdt

Umm

d

(I j).

ruins.

i).

j).

(J

(L

j).

west are rock-cut tombs.

ruins.

ruins.

i).

— Foundations.

— Traces of — South of (K

ruins.

(I j).

Zeinat

71

the \illage and to the southl'"urthest east of the second group are three i).

An archway, 4 feet diameter, 2 feet deep, in all of one kind. of a doorway 2 feet wide a chamber, 6 feet square, with three In the second group, further recesses under arcosoiia, one on each wall. tombs front

;

west, are

two tombs

under

at

some

little

distance apart.

The

three

first, w'ith

arcosoiia, the left-hand locubis

having at its back wall a koka, intended for a child's body. The second 4 probably tomb has an archway 5 feet diameter, a door 2 feet broad, a chamber 13 the chamber is 5 feet high. On feet wide by 8 feet 6 inches to the back under an is a loculus hand the left The back arcosoUiiiu, 5-I feet long. loctiii

feet long, 2 feet wide,

;

wall has a long trough 13 feet in length,

A

and behind

this a koka, 6 feet

4

the trough. On the rightis a loculus, 5^ feet long, under an arcosolium ; from the back level of the top of the loculus (or about 2^ feet from the the at wall In the corner ground) a koka runs in, 5 feet 3 inches long, 2 feet wide.

inches by hand wall

2 feet.

modern skeleton

of the wall, just right of the door,

the

is

lay in

another koka of the same size with

last.

Further west there are six tombs, stopped up, and over the door of one, under the arch, an inscription is rudely cut on rough rock and the letters painted red.

This was copied, but a squeeze could not be taken, as the letters were A second tomb had lines only dimly visible and the rock very rough. of red paint above the doorway, and close by was a tomb full of dead bodies quite recently interred, and another closed with large stones, pottery sticks and lamps laid in front, and a mark over the doorway, and rags,

probably recent.

One

other

tomb was measured.

before a door

inches wide

5 feet

2

An ;

archway, 7 feet wide,

the inner

5 feet

chamber measured

deep,

1 1

feet

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

72

4 inches across. On the left was a koka 6 feet 9 inches long, and a locubis ; on the right a loculiis, 7 feet 3 inches long, 2 feet 8 inches wide, under an arcosolinm like the first, and on the same to the back, 12 feet

On the back wall are four 4 inches. kokivi, of the same size with the last, and with stone head-pillows at the further end. On the front wall left of the door is a koka 5 feet 2 inches wall a koka 6 feet 9 inches

by

by

2 feet

2 feet 2 inches.

There arc foundations and heaps of stones near the eastern tombs. The mi.xture of Icokhn and loadi is a good example of transition which would seem to date the tombs about the Christian era or rather earlier. (See Special Papers on Rock-cut Tombs, and on Architecture in Palestine.) Visited 13th March, 1873.

Wady Matabi n. — Three ancient watch-towers Mun a pare e t

1

exist here.

r.)

— A ruined village with a Zebed (M — Traces of — A small ruined village with a Z e e e h (L — Traces of E Ze ghan yeh — A ruined village on a with a Zimmarin Z ebdah (L

well.

1).

ruins.

k).

1

r

f

i

(I j).

east.

well.

f).

r

(Com-

(I

k).

ruins.

hill,

spring to the

SHEET

VIII.— SECTION

C.

The

only traditions connected with this Sheet relate to Sheikh Iskandcr, or Neby Iskander as he is called by some. The Kady of the village said

was a king of the children of Israel. of Alexander the Great, Iskander el K u

Others make

that Sheikh Iskander it

a

Mukam

Sheikh

r

n c

i

n.

h appears to have been the Emir of that name mentioned by Maundrell in 1697 a.d. The family of the Zeidaniyin (see Sheet V.) ruled the whole of the

Sh b i

district of the

1

e

modern Kada Haifa,

their head-quarters

being

at

'A

t

h

1

i

t

(Sheet v.).

This

on Sheets Y. and

district (including the villages

\'ll.)

had a

population in 1859, according to Consul Rogers, of 23,540 souls, and a cultivation of 1,531 feddans, without including the Arabs in the total

population.

This gives an average of about 500 souls and about 30

feddans per village. The plain of Sharon and the lower slopes cast of it are in winter and spring covered with flocks and herds of Turcomans, who in summer and

autumn inhabit the Merj Ibn 'Amir, or the plain of Esdraelon. They cultivate the soil and pay tithes or Ashr. They arc divided into seven tribes

:

1.

Tawat-hah.

2.

Beni

3.

'Awadin.

4.

Shageizat.

5.

Beni SAidan .

VOL.

11.

Gowa

.

,

,

.

,

(or Bcnihah).

]

>

.

r-i

-i

under one Sheikh.

6.

'Alakmeh

7.

Naghnaghiyeh.

j

10

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

74

There are present Sheet

also three small tribes of Arabs, in the

'Arab

el

whose

territory

Merj Ibn 'Amir. Gharcifiit

,,

es Saideh

,,

el

Kabiyeh

200

is

on the

SHEET

IX.— SECTION

A.

This Sheet contains 262*6 square miles of the country cast of the plain of Esdraelon, and including part of the Jordan valley. Orography. districts

:

— The

Sheet

may be

conveniently divided into four the Gilboa range, the Jordan valley, the valley of Jezreel, the

plateau of Kaukab.

The Gilboa range forms the watershed between and the Jordan valley. The shed runs north from the S

the Kishon basin

saddle at

Wad y

hubash

Madwar

(Sheet XII.) for 4^ miles, and the highest point at Jebel Abu (i64S"5) has an elevation 1,420 feet above the plain, and of

North of this point the watershed 1,520 feet above the Jordan valley. curves until it runs nearly east and west, the ground gradually falling, until at Z e r n, 7 miles from the last point, the elevation is only i

feet

400

above the

isolated hill of

sea.

The water

Neby Duhy

is

still

parting

from

to

this point

lower, being only 260 feet

the

above

the sea.

The western near in

N

u

many

slopes of the range are gradual, but those facing north, and Z e r' n are steep, averaging 25° to 30°, with precipices The eastern slopes places, and the ground is extremely rugged. r

i

s

i

over the Jordan valley are also steep, towards the south. The

in

places precipitous,

especially

Guerin's description of Mount Gilboa lies west-north-west and east-south-east, being about eight miles long by three to five miles in breadth. It is cultivated in parts, and is divided into several plateaux '

following

is

:

This mountain

and summits by

Here and there basaltic stones valleys and ravines of greater or less depth. are found, but limestone predominates. The soil is for the most part of a reddish colour, and is fit for cultivation in many places. Wheat and barley grow on the more gentle slopes and on the plateaux; clumps of olives and

man

has not seized upon the

soil,

figs,

hedges of cactus surrounding gardens, and where

wild grass and brushwood

;

at other points

10

naked rock



2

;

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

76

appearance of this mountain, once the scene of the death of Saul and Jonathan, which David pronounced his malediction.' against such

ia tlic

The Jordan Valley the river to the foot of the

B

northern half of the this part in

the

shows three

e

in this

s

A

a n plain.

distinct levels,

The Z

ist.

This

middle of which the river winds.

narrow necks with

N ahr

forming the section east and west through

south of the

hills,

i

Sheet has a breadth of 6 miles from

6

is

J

r

a

1

u

d,

or depressed bed,

not continuous, and

The depression 2nd. The G h 6 r,

occur between the basins.

cliffs

about 900 feet below the Mediterranean

level.

is

or

Jordan plain, three miles broad, and having here an average depression of It is a flat plain covered with wild growth and 700 feet below the sea. cultivated in parts the torrents run across it, and have formed deep ;

trenches near the

cliffs,

which

rise

from 50 to 100

feet

above the

level of

Z 6 r. 3rd. In the neighbourhood of B e s a n there is a distinct rise from the Ghor level to the next. The step is extremely steep, but on the south the two levels gradually merge into a gentle slope, and the step disthe

i

Tell S

m, whilst northwards the division becomes yet more marked, including the shelf on which B e s a n stands, and rising

appears near

a

r e

i

Kaukab

the plateau of el difference of level between the shelf and the

gradually to

The cliffs above the Zor are precipitous The Zor is in parts \ mile broad, and only water-level, so that

is

it

i

Z6r es S North of N ah r

i

m

Ghor in

At Beisan, the

about 300 feet. places, of soft white marl. is

or 6 feet above the spring In the neighbouroften under water in January.

hood of Tell e d h D h a b \ mile wide extending to the exists at

H a w a.

s

i

m

e

h the

Zor

cliffs

e s

h

5

recede, leaving a plain about a r. S h 6 similar hollow

m

A

further south.

J alti d the Jordan valley narrows suddenly to

an

average breadth of \\ miles, and the shelf as before mentioned rises in steep cliffs of limestone and basalt. After passing Jisrel

Mujamia

the valley is still narrower, and the slopes of the western plateau almost The level of the Zor and Ghor is here the same. reach the river.

The

valley of Jezreel

F

commences

at the

watershed north of Z e

r' i

n,

eh, and runs eastwards for about 10 miles, debouchThe narrowest part is near the head the ing into the Beisan plain. width is 2 miles. The channel of the N a h r J a 1 u d occupies average not far from el

ill

;

the centre and sinks gradually deeper and deeper, until near

Beisan

it

[SHEET forms

OROGRAPHY.

IX.]

77

about 30 feet high, coming out below the Ghcjr level and

cliffs

The valley is open throughout, gradually running down lo the Zor. sloping north and south upwards to the foot of the hills. This

valley,

the identification of

if

called the valley of

The Kaukab and

Megiddo

Ard

part of the

is

in the Bible (2

(at

Mujedda) be

Chron. xxxv.

correct,

is

24).

plateau extends 7 miles northwards to the Sheet edge,

el

Hammeh

terminated by precipices and

is

Megiddo

greatest elevation

is

at

Kaukab

steep el

(Sheet VI.).

On

the east

The

above the Ghur.

slopes

Hawa, 999

above the

feet

it

sea,

and

about 1,850 feet above the Jordan valley. On the west the plateau merges into the plain round Tabor. On the south the rolling downs gradually descend into the valley of Jezreel. stands the isolated hill of e by u h y.

The whole

plateau consists of arable land,

two great watercourses of B i r e h, which are similar burrowing down

At

the south-west corner

D

N

Wady in

el

and

is

'Esh-Sheh

intersected by the

and

Wady

el

on the west and gradually the Ghor level between cliffs

character, rising

eastward, falling rapidly to

which have an elevation near the precipices east of the plateau of about These sides are very steep, having an average slope of 1,500 feet.

and are seamed by innumerable small torrent-beds forming knife-like Kelt (Sheet XVIII.). Both can, ridges, like those above 30°,

Wady

however, be crossed with

difficulty.

The hill of Neby Diihy is a conspicuous feature. It was called Little Hermon by the Crusading chroniclers, a name still known to some of the Nazareth Christians (Jebel Haramun); also Mount Endor (John of Wirtzburg, iiooa.d., and Marino Sanuto, 1322

It

a.d.).

volcanic origin, and the summit is conical, 1,470 feet above the plain. the east there is a small cliff at a rather lower level, called el li

K

is

of

On 1

a h.

The

slopes towards the bottom are gradual, sinking into the plain and Near the summit on the south and east the inclination is from plateau.

The

25° to 30".

above great

Ne

i

n

mound

is

more gradual in approach on this side

northern side

the natural

called

Tell

el

is

'Ajjul

its

The

valley

summit.

The

slope.

to the

on the north

is

a

volcanic

crater.

The plateau,

of this portion of the country, especially on the Kaukab of a rich crumbling volcanic character, and very fertile. This,

soil is

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

78

with the abundance of sprinj^ water, makes the Jezreel valley, the Kaukab The insecurity plateau, and parts of the Jordan valley very productive.

from Bedawin raids and the unhealthiness of the low ground prevent, however, the cultivation from being fully carried out, and the inhabitants are poor.

The

Gilboa

contains good arable land, partly volcanic

district

soil,

near the villages, especially north of J e 1 b 6 n. The northern part of the range is, however, barren and rocky, of white soft limestone (Ras esh

S h

e

b a n)

i

towards the south, the western slopes are clothed with

;

more or

thickets,

dense, of lentisk {^Pistachio Lentiscus), hawthorn,

less

dwarf oaks {Q. Pseiido-Coccifera) and the Arbutus Andrachne. The a n [Potcriuin open spaces, where not cultivated, abound in B e 1

Spinosuvi), with

mint,

thyme,

and

1

roses {Cistiis) between

rock

the

ledges.

The

plough-land is principally cultivated with barley. (See Sheet Olive-groves occur near J e n n and at 'A r r a n e h.

\'I II.)

i

The Jordan

valley

is

cultivated with corn and indigo near Beisan,

Zor the crops were being reaped early

in the

river the soil

scattered

is

trees

covered with gigantic of

thistles,

in April, 1S73.

Near the

10 to 15 feet high. the plain

A

occur along

the

and few near

Zizyplnis genus or and two terebinths {Pistachio Tercbinthus) near the one water, hills. East and south of Beisan stunted palms grow wild, but no In Wady el Bireh oleanders were observed large ones now exist.

The jungle

near the mouth and also higher up the valley.

same

of the Jordan

course, consisting princiiDally of the tamarisk. along {T. Palazii), the acacia {A. Scyal), the Rishrash willow {Agmis Castus), and of reeds and rushes.

is

the

The

all

canals

its

marked on the Sheet

irrigate

the crops

round Beisan

and supply the mills with water. The flocks of the peasantry are pastured in spring on the rich herbage of the Jordan valley.

Hydrography.

— No

less

than 65 springs are marked on the Sheet,

the majority of which are sweet.

There are

also

two perennial streams,

besides the river Jordan. 1st.

The Jordan. — Within

some 190

feet.

The

course

is

the limits of the Sheet, the river

falls

so crooked that whilst the total direct

[SflEET

HYDROGRAPHY.

JX.]

79

about 17 miles, the length along the channel is 27 miles, the At fall is therefore jDrobably about 7 feet in the mile along the stream." ordinary seasons the breadth is 20 to 2fi yards, but in winter the Zor is is

length

overflowed (January and February), and the total width in flood will be \ mile to I mile. The river is here shallower than in the lower part of

Thirty fords were pointed out, though the majority are

course.

its

only found

The most

summer.

in

is

important

Makhadet

'Abara.

Jisr bridge Mujamia. A small island covered with tamarisks and other trees occurs just below this There

a ruined

also

is

at

el

the

point.

The Nahr Jalud

2nd.

At

head are the 'A in

its

was supposed by the with Goliath

J a

1

li

i

early Christians to be the scene of David's batde It

Hierosol.).

(Itin.

fed

by several important .springs. d and 'A n T u b a u n. The former

is

is

'A

called

i

n

J

a

1

vi t,

'Spring of

It comes out from under a cliff Goliath' by Bohaidin (Vita Sal., p. 53). of coarse conglomerate at the foot of Gilboa, and forms a pool about

50 yards long, which

when

rises

it

which,

when

is

is artificially

dammed

and good, but the bottom

fresh

stirred,

April, 1S73, after

in

Tubaiin,

is

is

The

covered with

water

mud,

soft

The edge of the pool The water near the dam is some 6

had a sulphurous

trampled and defiled by cattle. 8 feet deep. Robinson mentions visited

at the further end.

smaller,

a wet

smell.

as

fish

existing in the pool.

The second

winter.

and the water

It

was

It

'A

spring,

reddish in colour.

is

is

is

to

i

n

sur-

rounded with marshy ground, and had a small stream of muddy water. This fountain was known to the Crusaders as T u b a n a (Will, of Tyre), and the name possibly preserves the site of the Talmudic Tubnia (K-iaio) i

in

to

Lower

Galilee (Tosiphta Sheviith, ch.

7).

have been miraculously supplied with

springs (Will. Tyre, * This estim.ite of the

but the

Jisr

el

Mu

x.xii.

fall j

a



The

fish

Christian army is said when camped near these

27).

seems

to agree witli the aneroid readings obtained along Jordan,

m

is

i

'a

made by our

aneroid readings to be

— S45, and

the

mouth of the Yarmuk is The mouth of the S35, giving less than 10 feet fall per mile. Yarmuk is only i,\ miles from the south end of the Sea of Galilee, where the level is 682. This gives a fall of nearly 40 feet per mile to this upper part of the stream. The current in the upper part of Jordan appeared to be more rapid than towards the south end of the Sheet The fall on the next Sheet (XII.) is only 4 or 5 feet per mile, according to the aneroid



readings.

(See the

summary of

levels,

Sheet XVIII.)

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

So

M

eiy 1e Eight other springs feed the river, including the 'A n el n el 'A s y, and others smaller. The first of the above-named i

A

'

a

i

little

below Z e

of small

fish

r

i

were

1

h, is

A

number a clear supply of good water. It comes out of the rock, and is observed in it. n,

and

is

surrounded by blocks of basalt, covered with orange-coloured lichen. The second ('Ain el 'Asy) is one of the finest springs in Palestine, coming out from under a rocky precipice, on the south-east of a pool some 20 feet On the deep, 100 yards east and west, and 20 yards north and south. the cliff is about 8 or 10 feet above the water. north is a shingly beach ;

The water

is

clear

and

The

bottom gravelly.

with a temperature about 80° F. the eastern end of the pool is artificially dammed blue,

;

across.

The stream 12 miles about

960

waterfall about

is

rapid,

feet to join the Jordan.

Under

Beisan. a

by these springs

fed

the middle bridge, called 17 feet high,

and descends

in a

length of

Three bridges span it near Jisr el Khan, there is

and two waterfalls lower down with a

East of Beisan the drop of about 20 feet. This bridge is 39 feet span. river passes through a narrow gorge, and from this point it flows between The gorge is spanned by a bridge, with a steep banks to the Jordan. The course is here surrounded by canes. central arch of 25 feet.

Wady

3rd.

el

Bireh

is

also probably a perennial stream,

from the growth of oleanders, and the

mills

along

its

course.

judging It

was

stream over the pebbles at the mouth of the flowing with a rapid shallow

gorge when visited in April, 1874. Another perennial water-course is the marshy stream of e 1 J z 1, fed by four springs. It forms a sort of swamp, with a cane-brake extending i

Itt

miles,

around

is

i

through which runs a torpid main stream, whilst the ground intersected by numerous rivulets, occupying a breadth of nearly

half a mile.

covered by marsh in the neighbourhood of Beisan The waters of the fine springs which exist on is about i^ square miles. every side are allowed to run to waste, and no attempt at irrigation is

The

total area

made.

season.

Wady

more or

water during the rainy 1873, after a heavy winter, streams were found in

All the torrent beds are

In April, el 'Esh-sheh,

less full of

Wady Umm

Wa

1

h a

n,

Wady

el

HYDROGRArHY.

[SHEET J.\:] 1 1

'A

u i

m r a,

and streams were flowing from the springs south of Bcisan,

M ogh a

el

n

8i

r r

a b eh,

'A

n

i

Umm

Haiyeh,

'A

i

viz.,

Umm

n

Mak-hflz.

These springs are in the Ghor, and slow marshy streams, which, though only a yard or two wide, are impassable from their steep banks and marshy borders, were flowing down in their narrow trenches to the Zor to join the Jordan. Among the remaining springs the following are the most important

Sidreh,

'A

n

i

:

'A

i

Madua

el

n

(Ok).

with a considerable stream

—A

large spring, apparently perennial, shoals of small fish were remarked in it.

;

'A n e s Soda (P k), north of Beisan a very large spring with It appears to be perennial, a considerable stream and a gravelly bed. and its temperature is slightly above that of the air. i

'A

Hawa 'A

;

n

i

brackish

;

i

Mai hah

el

n

;

Helu

el

out of a

—A

large spring beneath a with perennial, temperature 71° F.

(P

(P

j).

— Close

to

the

last.

A

and forming a small pool near the

coming tion on a rock was found cliff,

j).

Kaukab

el

clear cool

spring,

An

inscrip-

last.

(See Kaukab el Hawa, Section B.) It is thought to give fever to those who drink it, and though salt, the prefer the waters of the preceding spring. villagers of here.

Kaukab

'A

i

n el

J e

main (Ok)

is

a small spring of fresh water, with a

two larger ones. The name (' Two considerable Companies') suggests that this may be en Harod, which is said by Josephus to have been near Jordan (Ant. v. 6, 3), and near a river. The spring comes out of a rock, and is noted for excellent water. (Sec stream, between

Judges

The

vii.

i.

)

ruin of

ToFOGRAPiiv. the

]\I

uj e d d a

— The

Sanjak Jenin,

is

also remarkable for

its fine

majority of the villages on this Sheet belong to Flag of Jenin,' or Ndhiet Jen in, Neigh'

'

bourhood of Jcnin, 'also called B el ad Haritheh The Northern Ploughed Country.' This district

esh Shemaliyeh,

'

'Akkeh,

and

a

springs.

Caimacam,

or

is

under the

iNIudir of

lives

at

Beisin. 'Aulam belongs to the Tiberias district (Sheet VL), Fuleh belongs to Nazareth (Sheet Y.), el Miighair and Umm Tut belong to the Mesharik el Jerrar (Sheet XL).

et

VOL.

II.

Lieutenant-Governor,

I I

el

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

82

'A u a 1

these outlying villages

first

Taking

m

(P

corner of the Sheet,

in the north-east

i),

:

is

a place of

made of mud, and surrounded by cactus-garden stands on hedges. rising ground, with a spring on the north-west. The population is stated in 1859 by Consul Rogers to have been moderate

size, the houses It

20 souls, and the cultivation 30 feddans. The place is mentioned under the name of Ulamma in the Onomasticon,' as 12 miles from Diocsesarea 1

'

to the east (s.v. 'onAa/t^d).

El Fiileh (M in the middle.

j).

—A

small

mud

village,

with a few stone houses

stands on a swell of ground, and

It

land, and has marshy ground

to the north.

Round

wells west of the villag-e.

is

surrounded by cornsupply is from

The water

the site are remains of the ancient

stated in 1859 by Consul Rogers to Crusading fosse. The population have been 64 souls, and the cultivation 14 feddans. F Ci 1 e h is apparently the place called Aphla in the Lists of is

This name is repeated again, which is accounted for by of the village 'Afuleh. the proximity The two (See Sheet VIII.) names immediately follow that of Anuheru (en Naurah). Fuleh

Thothmcs

('

III.

Bean') was called Castellum Fabae

a translation of the

modern

title.

It

Bean Castle') by the Crusaders, was the property of the Templars ('

In 1799 Kleber here fought a battle with and Hospitallers conjointly. his held and ground against 25,000 Turks till relieved by 1,500 men,

Napoleon.

El

M

u

water supply and mud.

Umm

(O 1) is a small place on a rocky hill-top. The by means of rain-water cisterns. The houses are of stone

gh is

a

i

r

Tut (N

resembles the

stands amongst dense thickets on the north and west, and has open plough-land on the south.

et

1)

Nahiet

'Arraneh (M

last.

It

JenIn.

—A

small village, principally of mud, with a fewstone houses, standing in the plain, surrounded by olive-yards. It is supkubbeh exists about \ mile north of plied with water from cisterns.^ k).

A

the village.

This place

is

apparently mentioned both

in the

Conquests of

TOPOGRAPHY.

[SHEET IX.] Thothmes

Aaruna

III. as

Records of the

('

83

Past,' vol.

ii.),

on the road to

the south of Megiddo, and within a few hours' march of Kaina (perhaps It is also possible that the place called Rangan by Josephus Kaun). vi.

(Ant.

14),

where the

may be

Gilboa,

Beisan

'A

(P

the Serai

is

site.

A

abundantly supplied with

is

place

cabins, stands

small square tower southor courthouse, the residence of the

corner of the ancient

The

mud

a miserable hamlet of some 60

the houses

of

Caimacam.

encamped before attacking Saul on

a n c h.

r r

k),

in the south-east

east

Philistines

fresh water, three

The houses are built springs existing close to the village on the north. In in irregular blocks, with yards in front, surrounded by mud walls.

A

these the cattle are kept.

main

marshy

rivulet finds

its

way through

the

street.

The

ruins round the village represent the ancient Bethshean

later Scythopolis,

which was a Christian Bishopric

when the See was transferred to Nazareth. The place is referred to as Bethsheal in the

until

and the

Crusading times, '

'

(See Reland, Pal. Illustr.') Travels of a Mohan' (See

'

Special Papers,'

Kad

Beit It

1

p.

70.)

(N

k).

—A

small

village

on a knoll near the

plain.

now broken. The houses are of stone mentioned as B e th A c h a t h in the Ono-

has a large cemented cistern,

and mud.

This place is masticon,' about 15 Roman miles from Legio, which distance, as Mr. Grove

was the

'

first

to point out, applies to the present site.

with 'the Shearing-house,' 2 Kings

De

i

on

hills,

Abu D a

r

rising

i

f

(X

1).

gardens exist on the

Deir Ghuzaleh (N

k).

identifies

it

x. 12.

—A

small village near the edge of the Olivewater supply is from cisterns.

The north. The houses

ground.

Jerome

are of

mud and

— Resembles the

last;

stone.

the ground round

pardy rock, partly arable land.

it is

Denna mud

;

it

is

—A

little village on a slope, pardy of stone, partly of (P j). surrounded by plough land, and has a spring on the west

with a drinkincf-troueh.

E

nd6

hill-side,

r

(O

i).

— A small

south of the houses.

village of

A

mud

cabins, built against a steep

few cactus-hedges exist beneath, and a

small spring on the north. 1 1



2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

S4

Above the

hill,

the village on the east there are some small caves in the side ot which is of soft limestone, in ledges some lo feet high. The

largest cave

excavated

was examined, but did not appear very

at

the

further

ancient, having

end (and probably altogether)

in

been

search of

Several large blocks are arranged in Huwwdrah, a rude circle before the entrance, but appear to be naturally disposed. or soft chalk, for mortar.

The

i Sam. xxviii. caves are quite dry. (Josh. xvii. 1 1 7.) E n d 6 r has been recognised from the fourth century downwards, and ;

by the Crusaders, as well as by the early i^ilgrims, as the Biblical Endor. Fukua (O k). A large village on the top of a spur. It gives its name to the Gilboa range, which is often called Jebel Fukua. It is



surrounded by olive-gardens, and supplied by cisterns east and west of the village. It ajDpears

possible that

Aphek, where the

camped before may be the present l-'ukua (i Sam.

attacking Saul on INIount Gilboa, xxix. i), being near the Rangan of Josephus.

Philistines

(See 'A

r

ran

eh.)

—A

abb ill

small village of mud and stone, on low ground, (P j). kubbeh exists south of the houses. surrounded with plough-land. J

A

J

elameh (M

k).

— Resembles the

rounded with arable land, and on the north side.

is

stands in the plain, surIt has a kubbeh supplied by cisterns. last.

It

m n a of the Lists of This place seems not improbably the K a Thothmes III. (No. 49), mentioned in the same group with Taanach, Anahareth, and other places on the plain. (See Quarterly Statement,' 1

i

i

'

July, 1876, p. 14;.) J c

1

b6n

(O

k).

— A small

remote position on one of the surrounded with plough-land, and built

village in a

It is spurs of the Gilboa range. of mud and stone, and supplied by cisterns. Under the name Gelbus it is noticed in the

'

Onomasticon' as a large

Roman miles from Scythopolis, and supposed to represent the name Gilboa. The mountains north of Jelbon have always been recog-

village, 6

by the early Christians by the mediaeval A pilgrims (Sir J. Maundeville, 1322 a.d.), and by modern scholars. perennial spring-well exists at Jelbon, from which the place receives nised as the Biblical Gilboa

its

name.

;

,

TOPOGRAPHY.

[SHEET 7X.]

85

—A

small village on a hill-top, surrounded by plough-land, with a few olives, built of stone and nuid, with rain-water

Jelkamus

(N

1).

cisterns.

Kaukab

ancient fortress



W awa

The whole area within the w^alls of the (P j). crowded with miserable hovels of nukl. There is fine

el is

The

plough-land on the south, and west.

Mdlhah.

no

The

and the cultivation

souls,

Kaukab

1

M

Kefr

Hawa

el

Fulke about

140 i

at 13 feddans.

the Crusading Belvoir, which was built by King and taken by Saladin in 1S8. (SeeSection 15.) 1

(O

i).

—A

village,

with a spring on the

and inhabited by Egyptians, whence

its

probably modern.

It is

Kum

mud

small

north, standing in plough-land,

name.

i

is

a.d.,

s r

stated

is

population

water sui)ply is from the 'A n in 1S59 by Consul Rogers at

—A

small village, which is very prominent, being situate on a knoll in the middle of the valley, about i^ miles from 'A n i

e h

(O

j).

i

T u b d u n.

The houses

are principally of mud, and the place is surrounded by gardens of prickly pear. The site is rocky, and the name of the place is derived from its position.

Kurye

t

Duhy

e d

(N

j).

—A

little

hamlet of stone cabins, on the

D

saddle west of the conical peak of J e b e 1 e d u h y. Straggling olives exist on the north and west. The water supply is from a well lower down the

hill,

on the north.

El Mazar, mountain.

A

It is

El

or

Wezr

(N

k).

principally built of stone,

The Moslem

few olives surround the houses.

by Derwishes, and

El

—A

is

Murussus

a place of (Pj).

—A

village

on the summit of the

and has a well on the south-east. site is

very rocky.

It is

inhabited

pilgrimage.

small village on high ground, entirely

mud, and standing amid plough-land. The water supply appears come from the valley beneath (W a d y Y c b a).

built of

to

1

En NACirah

— Also

small and built of mud, placed on a with of gentle slope, gardens prickly pear, and plough-land round it. The position fits well for the site of Anahareth (De Saulcy), and also for that of

supposed

(O

j).

Anuheru,

identical

in

the

Lists of

Thothmes

with the Biblical Anahareth.

(Josh.

III., xi.x.

which

19.)

is

The

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

86

town was apparently near Shunem (Solam), and the Egyptian town is noticed with the two Aphlas ('Afuleh and El Fuleh), and with Kaliimna (J e lam eh). The place is well supplied with water Biblical

from springs on the north and

Ne

n (N

i

foot of J

j).

— This D

cbel ed

east.

little

h

li

y,

stands on a small plateau at the It a position elevated above the plain.

village

in

Mukam

and mud, with a little mosque called Sidna on the north. There are numerous traces of ruins extending beyond the boundary of the modern hamlet to the north, showing the place to have been once larger but these ruins have a modern is

'A

of stone

i

s

a

;

There is a small spring north of the village a second, appearance. 'A n el Baz, exists on the west, and beside it are rock-cut tombs, ;

i

much defaced, and a tree. (Cf. Luke vii. ii.) The place has always been recognised as

New

remains of walls or of very ancient buildings were In the Onomasticon Nain is placed two miles from Tabor '

'

noticed. V.

Nain of the

No

Testament.

(s.

the

The

Naim).

village

approached by a path from the valley joined by another path from the west, near is

on the north-west, which is the present entrance between the houses.

Nuris (N

k).

—A

small village

on rocky ground, much

hidden

above the steeper slopes of the Gilboa chain, which face northwards and below the main ridge, and is about 600 feet above the valley.

between the

It

hills.

Er Rihaniyeh

is

situate

(O

k).

—A

small village of mud and stone. on the north there is plough-land.

the south the ground is rocky stands on the foot of the Gilboa slopes. ;

Shu

1 1

a

(O

j).

—A

small village of

mud

On It

hovels on rising ground,

surrounded by hedges of prickly pear and by plough-land. It is supposed by Robinson to be the Biblical Beth-Shittah (Judges vii. 22), but appears to be too far west, and is not well watered.

—A

mud village of moderate size, on flat ground, (P i). with hedges of prickly pear, and a spring on the north and another on The population is stated by Consul Rogers in 1S59 to be the east. S

i

r

i

n

100 souls, and the cultivation 35 feddans. near the spring. (See Section B.)

There are remains of

antiquity

TOPOGRAPHY.

[SHEET JX.] This

87

possibly the place called Sirin in the Samaritan Chronicle, mentioned with 'Afuleh and other places as inhabited by Samaritans in the seventh century. (' Quarterly Statement,' October, 1876, p. is

196.)

—A

Sol am

(N j). large village standing on a slope near the foot of J b c ed U u h y. No special marks of antiquity were observed Part of the except the mounds on which the modern houses are built. ('

village

1

A

of stone.

is

sort of

suburb of

mud

hovels runs out southwards.

Towards the west is a spring, the water being collected in a stone trough. West of this is a shady garden of lemon-trees, through which water was running in September, 1872. The spring has a good supply of clear water, and is perennial. Hedges of cactus surround the village on the east

and south

one or two palms occur

;

in the gardens.

This place has In the Onomasticon

always been recognised as the Biblical Shunem. it is noticed as 5 Roman miles from Tabor. (Cf. Josh. xi.x. 18.) also known to the Crusaders as Suna (Marino Sanuto, 1322 a.d.).

'

'

It

was



(N k). A small village on the edge of the plain, built of stone and mud, supplied by cisterns, and surrounded by plough-land.

Sund

e

1

a

—A

straggling village, of moderate size, lying on flat There is one ground, and containing several good stone houses. in the middle of the village, belonging to the Sheikh, which is larger

Taiyibeh

than the

(O

A

rest.

j).

muddy

A

east of the villafje.

pool was observed near this house, and a spring

few scattered blocks of hewn basaltic stone were

lying here and at the ruin close by (Khiirbet el Haddad), but no The Sheikh's house, which reother signs of antiquity were observed.

sembles a tower,

This place

is

is

mentioned next

not built of very good masonry. perhaps the Tubi of the Lists of .Sarana

to

6 n

(S a

r

(O

i).

.Sheet

a,

VT.),

Thothmes III., name being

the

identical.

Tiret on a

Abu

hill-top,

'A

mran

—A

above a deep gorge.

from the springs This place

in this valley.

Thothmes

named with Abara

Tiberias).

III., ('

Tumrah

is

not

improbably

small village, principally of mud,

The water the (el

A

(O

j).

village

of

a r a

the

Lists

Bireh) and Hammath

Quarterly Statement,' July, 1876,

—A

t

appears to be brought

of middling

p.

of

(near

146.)

size,

perhaps

50 or

70

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

88

It is houses, situate on high ground, and surrounded by plough-land. Ruins built almost entirely of mud, and has a spring to the north-east. exist on the south (see Shu net Tumrah, Section B.), and there is

another spring on this side beneath the

Z

e

r'

n

i

(N

— A village of moderate

k).

among

village,

size, built

the ruins.

of stone, surrounded

by rocky ground and standing on a spur projecting from the Gilboa range. A modern tower or taller house stands in the centre of the village.

On the south the ground very remarkable. slopes gently upwards towards the site, and on the west also the place is On the east occurs a saddle separating the high point on accessible. The

position of Zcr'in

is

which the town stands from the Gilboa chain, and a road here passes beneath On the north the ground is extremely rugged and falls the village. the road ascending from the valley and the neighbourhood of The top of the hill is 284 feet above this spring, which 'A i n J al u d. Thus the site is naturally strong, except on the southbeneath. visible is

rapidly,

It commands a view down the and conspicuous from the plain. valley to Bcisan and the trans-Jordanic ranges, and on the west to Carmel

west,

:

on the south

to the hills near Jenin

;

and on the north, the opposite range

D

u h y is visible, with all the villages at its of J e b e 1 e d The site is well supplied with water from the 'A i n el '

which represents probably the

A

well, called

B

i

r

e s

S

ti

we

i

Fountain

in Jezreel.'

(i

feet.

Me

i

y

i

e h,

t

Sam. xxix.

i.)

also exists north of the town.

d,

mound

of rubbish, and in this a great number of ruined cisterns (Major Wilson estimates them at the high figure of No very ancient buildings appear to exist 300) exist among the houses. The number of the modern houses is, perhaps, 20 or 30 in at present.

The houses

The

all.

stand on a

ancient vineyards of Zer'in ajspear to have been to the east,

where rock-cut wine-presses now

exist.

(Cf.

i

Kings

xxi. i.)

n has always been recognised as the ancient Jezreel, which is 12 Roman miles from Scythopolis placed by the Jerusalem Itinerary e s a n), and by the Onomasticon between this place and Legio (e 1

Z

e

r'

i

'

'

(B

i

Lejjun, Sheet VIII.). The Crusaders also recognised Stradela, Zarzin,

Little Gerin,

Great Gallina, Jenin).

it,

and

and

Middle Ages

was

called

Little Gallina (as distinguished

from

in the

it

[SHEET

BIBLICAL SITES.

IX.]

89

In addition to the above-mentioned inhabited places, the following ruined sites are probably to be identified as beneath :

Biblical Sites.

A da mi

1.

(Q j). would seem

neretha,

Wady

of

el

B

i

r

—A town of to

Naphtali (Joshua xix. 2)o), near Chint d m a h, immediately north

Khurbe

be

e h, which

is

A

thus ver)- probably the natural boundary

between Naphtali and Issachar.

Hebrew

'

(^'jas ""a)

the Arabic

in

The



Bethabara

2.

(O k). The name is supposed House of Crossing Over,' and this title

'Abara.

reading Bethabara

Bethany. The site '

(See is,

Makhadet 'Abara

be

to

the

is preserved on the Sheet.)

however, doubtful, as the oldest

MSS.

read

of interest as the probable one of our Lord's baptism, and as As yet, however, no trace of the name has been recovered, and the arguments on the probable position are far from satisfactorj-. Bethabara is only once mentioned in the New Testament, as the place where John was baptizing soon after, and proof Bethabara

is

such has been eagerly sought

bably at the time of the

commencement of

Christ's ministry.

(John

i.

2S.)

We

learn,

first,

" and, second, probably in the region round about Jordan'' (Matt. iii. 5) : the Ti:iyruioi which is supposed identical with the Ciaar of the Old Testament, a term by which Dean Stanley understands the Zor or lower valley through that

it

was " beyond Jordan

"

(c£;av roa

loibu-.o-S)

;

which the Jordan flows

in the middle of the Ghor or broader depressed plain. " the fact that " Jerusalem and all Juda^ went out to be baptized, Bethabara has been generally located in the southern part of the valley near to the traditional site of the '

From

baptism, and in explaining the topography of the flight of Midian, and the slaughter of Oreb and Zeeb, I have had occasion to point out that such a site would best fit the Bethabara of the Book of Judges— the ford held by the men of Ephraim, and generally thought to be identical with the Xew Testament Bethabara. The word Bethabara (" House of the Crossing Over " or " Ford ") is one ver>' likely to be In the south it would have a special applicable to many points on the course of the Jordan. '

application,

and might be considered

"crossing over"

as traditionally

preserving — the passage of the Jordan by the children of

the memor}- of the great

Israel

under Joshux

It

would

seem probable that the Bethabara, or House of the Ford, was a small hamlet or group of houses in the immediate vicinity, and it that part was west, part east of the even be

may

supposed

thus explaining the qualification of "Bethabara beyond Jordan." This is rendered yet more probable if the nsiiyy^o; be properly equivalent with the Ciccar, as in this case the site of Bethabara is limited to a distance of about half a mile from the water. river,

'

Curiously enough the oldest manuscripts read Bethany instead of Bethabara, but the reading is not admitted, nor would the Judxan Bethany be a fit place for baptism, or in any way to be described as in the region of Jordan. Bethabara is mentioned as a known place by Eusebius, but he seems evidently to refer to the modern traditional site. In the absence

VOL.

II.

12

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

yo

of more cx.ict information, it lias been generally identified with Bethnimrah, which has been fixed at the modern Nimn'n. This identification rests solely on the fact that Eusebius describes Ns^f a as a large village in Katariia, and called 'Abara. ' It seems, however, to have escaped notice that there is a serious objection to placing Bethabara so far south. Our Lord descended from Galilee to Jordan, and to Galilee he

returned after the baptism and temptation. In the chapter which relates the testimony of " John the Baptist to Christ, and which contains the passage, these things were done in

we learn, in continuation (verse43,) "the day following Jesus would go forth into Galilee," and the next chapter commences, "and on the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee," at which Christ was present. (John ii. i.) Bethabara, beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing,"

'

It

seems

me, therefore, that the search

to

for this site

should be confined to the immedi-

neighbourhood of Jordan, within 30 miles of the site of Cana of Galilee (the present Khurbet Kana), and it is precisely in such a position, one mile north of the mouth of Wady

ate

Jalud, within an easy two days' journey (25 miles) of Nazareth principal fords, that we have found the name.

and Cana, and

at

one of the

The fords of Jordan, some shifting and insignificant, but others permanent and lying on ^^e were careful to collect every one we principal roads, have as yet been very little known, It was no slight task, as our sketch of the could, and to verify the names and positions. river now shows upwards of fifty, of which eight only are to be seen on Murray's map lately '

published.

The

rewarded by

labour of this part of the Survey was very trying, but

this

simple discovery

if

we should be

sufficiently

generally accepted.

The ford in question is called Makhadet 'Abara, or the " Ford of the Crossing Over," name is derived from the Arabic root, 'Abr, having the meaning of crossing and thus, though the second a is an akpli, and would not occur in the Hebrew Beth'abara, the Arabic root and the Hebrew root, and consequently the meaning of the name in both languages, is '

for the

;

identical.

Makhadet 'Abara is one of the principal northern fords the great road descending Wady Jalud on its northern side, and leading to Gilead and the south of the Hauran, passes '

:

The situation is well fitted for the site of the baptism, not only on account of its over by it. nearness to Galilee and Nazareth, but also because the river-bed is here more open, the steep banks of the upper valley or Ghor lesser and farther retired, thus leaving a broader space for the collection of the great crowd which had followed John the Baptist into the wilderness. ' As regards the village itself, no traces seem now to exist. In the valley of Jordan there were scarcely any ruins, and those round Jericho all date seemingly in Christian times. AVere the former villages similar to the miserable it

would, however, be quite possible

mud

hovels of Jericho, Scythopolis, and Delhemiyeh, have vanished of the hamlet here standing

for all traces to

The position on a principal road would in any case make the promost probable for a hamlet, and it seems unlikely that any more important posed have been situate so near to the banks of the river.' Lieutenant Conder, Quarwould place

eighteen centuries ago. site

that



'

terly Statement,' 1875, p. 72.

3.

M egiddo. — The The

site of

of

Megiddo is generally placed at Khurbet Mujeddd, near Beisan, fits

site

Lejjiin.

well the

(Sheet V^III.) requirements of the Egyptian accounts, and the Biblical account of the

Tabor (Judges iv.), when the kings are said to have fought Taanach by the waters of Mcgiddo,' and again (Psa. Ixxxiii. 9) to have

battle of '

in

[SHEET

BIBLICAL SITES.

IX.]

'

perished

Megiddo

91

Several

Endor.'

other passages of the Bible connect with the neighbourhood of Jezreel and Bethshean. The identiin

Ibleam (2 Kings ix. 27) at Yebla, and of Gur at Khurbet Kara, both in the present Sheet, also agrees with the view that Megiddo should be placed at Khurbet Mujedda. fication of

— There are few places

in Palestine which possess more general interest for students of the Bible than does the ancient Canaanite city of Megiddo. It was here that the death of Josiah, King of Judah, and ruler, apparently, of the greater part of Palestine, closed the history of the Jewish monarchy, being immediately followed by the defeat, at Carchemish, of the '

I.

victorious

Necho, the siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar

(2

Chron. xxxv.,

To the student of prophecy, again, it captivity of the children of Judah. " " in called the Hebrew tongue Armageddon identical with the place

xxxvi.),

and the

of importance as (hill of Megiddo).

is

xvi. 16.) It is curious to find that so important a site has been identified by Dr. Robinson on such apparently insufficient evidence. Megiddo will be found on the map placed about 4 miles north of Taanuk, the ancient Taanach, at the large ruin of Lejjun, on the western edge of the great plain of Esdraelon.

(Rev. '

Lejjun is undoubtedly the ancient Legio, a place well known in the fourth centur)', and mentioned by Jerome as being 4 miles north of Taanach. There is, however, nothing to connect Legio with the Biblical Megiddo. '

The arguments

'

ist

in favour of the site are three

That Megiddo

therefore probably near

'2nd. That in

we

mentioned

is

in

many

:

passages in connection with Taanach, and was

it.

find, in

"

Taanach, by [Heb. A/, 3rd In Zechariah xii. '

v. 19, the expression, "then fought the kings of Canaan the waters of to the same connection. Megiddo," pointing over"] " 1 1, we read, the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of

Judges

This word is taken by Jerome to be the name of a town, and he identifies it as the called in his time Maximianopolis, " in Campo Magiddo." The distances place being given by the Bordeaux Pilgrim sen-e to fix Maximianopolis at or near the present village of

Megiddon."

Rummaneh, near Taanach, as discovered by Vandevelde, whence the identification made by Jerome; and hence Jerome's supposition that the "plain of Legio" (the modern Merj Ibn " " comes to be accepted. 'Amir) is equivalent to the valley of Megiddon It will be noticed that none of these arguments fix Megiddo at Lejjun, which is only adopted as the most important site near both Taanach and the Hadadrimmon of Jerome, in a place well supplied with water, and which in the fourth century gave its name to the great '

arguments evidently are, they have been pretty generally accepted, and in consequence of the very scanty information as to any the position of Megiddo which can be gleaned from the historical books of the Bible. 'There are, however, at the outset, objections even to these arguments which may be plain.

Insufficient as these

in default of

stated as follows '

ist

better proposition,

:

Megiddo

is

often

mentioned in connection with places farther east

in the

Jordan

valley.

2nd The battle in which Sisera was defeated was not fought at Taanach or Megiddo, Mount Tabor. This is to be gathered from the Biblical account (Judges iv.), and it Sisera met them, clearly stated by Joseph us that Barak camped "at Mount Tabor. '

but near is

and pitched not

.

far

from the enemy" (Antiq.

v.

5, 3)

;

an account

.

.

in strict

accordance with I

2

2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

92

the expression, "And I will draw unto thee to the river Kishon Sisera" (Judges iv. 7), for the sources of the Kishon are at the place called el Mujahiych, or " the springhead," where is to be found an extensive chain of pools and springs, about 3 miles west of the foot of Mount Tabor.

Thus the site of this famous battle is almost identical with that of Napoleon's battle of Mount Tabor, and the advantage obtained by Barak in his impetuous descent from the '

mountain on the enemy in the plain is evident. Had the battle taken place at Taanach, he would have had to come the whole width of the great plain, and would have attacked from low ground the enemy on the spurs of the hills far away from the main bed of the Kishon. The words "/« Taanach," therefore, mentioned in connection with the " waters of Megiddo," over which the kings fought, must either be taken to be a district name applying to all the " plain, of which Taanach was the capital, or it must be translated to its meaning, sandy soil."

This term in

soil

its

is

evidendy derived,

neighbourhood

in the case of the

and the same

;

soil

is

town of Taanach, from the loose basaltic all over the great plain and in the

found

immediate neighbourhood of Tabor. 3rd. As regards Hadadrimmon, it is sufficient to remark that Jerome's identifications are often extremely misleading, that Megiddo was evidently unknown at his time, that it is doubtful whether Hadadrimmon was the name of a town or of a pagan deity, and that the Hebrew word Bikah, rendered " valley," is not properly applicable (judging by other instances) to a broad plain like that of Esdraelon, but rather to a great valley such as that leading down '

to the '

Jordan

at Beisan.

The

discovery that there is an important ruin in the neighbourhood of Beisan, called Mujedd'a, led me to re-examine the question with the view of seeing whether the site would fit the various requisites of the case, and the arguments appear to me sufficiently favourable to bear discussion. '

II.

— Megiddo occurs Joshua

xii.

in

connection with other towns in the following passages

20, 21.

Shimron Meron (in Upper Achshaph (near Accho). Taanach (west of the great

Galilee).

plain).

Megiddo. Kedesh.

Jokneam Again

:

Joshua

(west of the great plain).

xvii. 1 1.

Bethshean

(in the

Ibleam (probably

Jordan in the

valley).

same

direction).

Dor.

Endor (near the Jordan valley). Taanach (west of the great plain). Megiddo.

Again

:

Judges

i.

27.

Bethshean.

Taanach. Dor.

Ibleam.

Megiddo.

:

BIBLICAL SITES.

[SHEET /.v.] Again

:

i

Chron.

vii.

93

29.

Bethshean.

Taanach.

Megiddo. Dor. Lastly:

i

iv.

Kings

12,

Solomon's

fifth district

included.

Taanach.

Megiddo. Bethshean.

Zartanah (below Jezrcel). '

It

is

Megiddo

evident that a position near Beisan

is

not at variance with the various notices of

in these passages.

'

"

"

Megiddon becomes the great valley waters of Megiddo " the strong stream of leading down from Jezreel to Bethshean, and the the Nahr Jalud, which receives a considerable supply from numerous large springs round the Placing

Megiddo

in

this

position, the

valley of "

called Mujedd'a. We are thus brought much closer to the neighbourhood of Tabor, where the battle was fought by the " kings of Canaan " against Barak nor is the distance from Taanach itself very great, as it is situate 14^ English miles west of the proposed site at site,

;

Mujedd'a.

'Two other passages remain in which Megiddo is mentioned: ist, the account of Aniariah's flight from Jehu ; and, 2nd, the battle of Megiddo, in which Josiah lost his life. Amariah fl}'ing from Jehu " by the way of the Garden-house " (Beth-hag-Genn) was smitten '

"by Ibleam. And he

fled to

Megiddo, and died there."

(2

Kings

ix.

27.)

The town

of Jenin

generally supposed to represent the Garden-house, but the explanation of the topography on this supposition is extremely confused, as it obliges us to trace the flight southwards from

is

Jezreel,

of

site

and afterwards back northwards

Megiddo

(that

is

to say, ffway/r^;// Jerusalem) to the

supposed

at Lejjun.

" however, we suppose the Beth-hag-Genn, or Garden-house," to be the modern Beit Jenn, the flight of Amariah was directed northwards and there exists in a position intermediate between Jezreel and Beit Jenn a site called Bel'ameh, which may very probably '

If,

;

represent Ibleam. In this case the King of Judah by a detour would have reached Megiddo, lying on his route toiuards Jerusalem along the Jordan valley, and it is worthy of notice that all the district thus supposed to have been traversed is suitable for the passage of a wheeled vehicle.

As regards the make it pretty clear '

battle of

Megiddo

there

is

but

little

to

be

said.

that the route across Palestine, usually followed

The Eg}ptian records by the Eg)ptian armies,

was the same as that by which the Midianites descended into Egypt with Joseph. Following the great plain northwards until the high Judean watershed and the great Samaritan chains were passed, it struck across the lower hills and emerged into the plains near Dothan. Thence along the great plain of Esdraelon

Bethshean

to the fords of

plain below the plateau of

Jordan

Mount

it

led towards the valley of Jezreel, and descended by Makhadet 'Abara. Here the road crossed into the

at the

Gilead,

and so continued eastwards towards the empire of

Ass}Tia. '

There can be but little doubt that and easiest which he could choose

shortest

this

was the route pursued by Necho, being the

in crossing Palestine

;

and on

this

route

we

find

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

94

Still further, the ruin of Mujedd'a, whilst Lcjjun lies some miles to the north of the line. there is no point at which the King of Judah would be more likely to intercept the advance of the Egyptians. To toil over the mountains of Judea, to pass the hostile district of Samaria,

to camp at a spot north of the enemy's line of march, and thus to cut himself from his own base of operations, would have been a dangerous and difficult, and, yet further, an extremely improbable course for Hezckiah to pursue but an advance along the highway of the Jordan valley into a strong position on the flank of the enemy, threatening them in their attempt to ;

cross the river,

reader

who will

Bethshean, '

As

there '

is fair

III.

a natural place of meeting for the Egyptian

is

far,

would have been an easy and, strategically, a probable proceeding. Any take the trouble to look for a moment at the map will see that Mujedd'a, near

and Jewish armies.

then, as the scanty indications obtainable from Biblical accounts are concerned,

reason for identifying Megiddo with the present Mujedd'a. three ancient Egyptian documents, Megiddo is mentioned in connection with

— In

other towns, namely: ist, in the history of Thothmes III., especially in the document called " " " Battle of the Megiddo ;" 2nd, in the Travels of a Mohar ;" and, 3rd, in the Geographical List of Shishak."

With regard to the last, it is sufficient to remark, that though Taanach occurs in the same list it is separated by ten other names from M'akedau, which is supposed to represent Megiddo. In the same way, in the lists of Thothmes III., Megiddo stands first, as being the '

objective of the campaign; but Taanach, in company with other places in the great plain, to be found in the third group as No. 42 on the list. '

remains to see

It

arise in

how

the other documents

fit

with the

new

site, for

is

the difficulties which

endeavouring to reconcile these with the generally accepted position

at

Lejjun are very

considerable.

The Egyptian advance

'

is

described with considerable minuteness from the " fortress of

The advice of the allied chiefs, with " Records of the Past," vol. i. p. 39)

the land of Sharuana," where the troops assembled.

regard to the line of march,

is

given as follows (see

:

LINE.

say in reply to his Majesty what is it like going on which leads along so narrow The enemy were standing at the main roads

26.

They

.

27. 31.

.

this

road

.

Now as to the course of the main roads. of Aaaruna they -will not fight. us roads it leads of the One 33. 34. of the land Aanaka the other leads to 32.

.

.

.

.

.

Let us proceed to the north of Maketa. our mighty Lord march on (the way in triumph there).

35.

the north road of Geuta.

36.

How

will

.

Let

his

Majesty

make us to go on that secret road. " I will go on this road This advice was, however, rejected by the king with contempt. " if there be on a and march over difficult country of Aaruna," said Thothmes, it," any going 37.

'

followed, the third fragment

commencing

as follows

:

LINE.

2.

Aaruna the powerful troops of his Majesty followed Aaruna the van coming forth to the valley.

3.

They

1.

filled

the gap of that valley.

to

[SHEET I

J.

(It

BIBLICAL SITES.

IX.]

noon when

his Majesty reached the south of Makela on the shore being the seventh hour from noon liis Majesty pitched south horn of the army of his Majesty was at the shore of Kaina the northern

was the time

of)

of the waters of Kaina

The

14.

95

it

.

.

.

horn to the north-west of Maketa. '

In previously discussing the question of tliis march, I found considerable difficulty in As I liad then occasion to reconciling these details with the position of Mcgiddo at Lejjun. explain, the site of

Araneh would

be reconciled with the

fit

well with the

Aaruna of the

List of Shishak, but could not

be correctly identified. (See Quarterly Statement," April, 1876, pp. 90, 91.) In the same way we are obliged to seek for Kaina south of Megiddo, and this identification is easily made with the important ruin of Ka'un in the Jordan valley, sujjposing

Megiddo

i)resent account, sujiposing

to

"

'

Megiddo to be at the newly proposed site. The route may probably be traced as follows The main road from Jenin towards Eg)-pt passes, as I have had occasion to the easiest route then follows one of viously, along the plain north of Dothan '

:

'

;

explain prethe spurs to

the north of 'Arrabeh, and descends by the villages of Kefr Ra'i, 'Ellar, and 'Atlil, to the little to the north is the plain of Sharon. strong site called Jett, which would seem to be the Geuta or Gethuna of Thothmes.

A

'A second road passing through Jett leads across more open country to the neighbourhood of Lejjun, and thence descends by Jezreel into the Jordan valley north of Mujedd'a. This is probably the route which the allied chiefs proposed to follow, and though longer it is undoubtedly easier than the former. The valley of Aaruna, first reached by the troops of Thothmes, is probably the plain of It does not appear clearly whether Esdraelon, in which 'Araneh now stands. they attacked a town of that name, but we understand that they advanced to Kaina, south of Maketa, and consequently we must suppose the main body at least to follow the line of the Roman road '

eastwards from Jenin to the site of Ka'un, in the Jordan valley, 4 Roman miles south of The northern horn, which was on the next day to the north-west of Maketa, may Mujedd'a. very possibly have taken a more direct route by the old road through 'Araneh across Mount Gilboa.

As regards the time required for these operations. From the plain of Sharon to Jenin a distance of 15 Roman miles, which might probably be traversed in five hours, and from '

is

Jenin to Mujedd'a, or to Ka'un, is some 10 miles farther, or three hours. Thus, leaving the neighbourhood of Geuta at 4 a.m., Thothmes might easily have arrived by noon at the " " shores or border of Kaina. '

of

This explanation of the topography is not only consistent serves to confirm the identifications proposed by

Megiddo

in itself, but the

me

new

position

for several places in the

Thus Nos. 9 and 10, Geographical List (See "Quarterly Statement," July, 1876, p. 146.) Raba and Tutina (Raba and et Tut), are now on the line of march, and Nos. 14, 15, Atara and Abara (et Tireh and el Bireh), in the Jordan valley, are a little to the north of the

Umm

new '

site for

Megiddo. Turning to the journey of the Mohar, we find the new

site for

Megiddo

also presents less

In this document (See "Quarterly Statement," April, 1876, p. 81.) Megiddo appears in company with Beithsheal (Beisan), Rohob (Sheikh Arehab), and the fords of Jelden (Wady Jaliid), and it would seem to be close to the latter, if we accept the most

difficulty than the old.

simple rendering of the words

:

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

96

'"The

fords of Jelden,

how docs one

cross

them?

let

me know

the passage to enter

Mageddo." 'The difficult country of which the Mohar is warned lay apparently west of Mageddo, and to avoid it he makes a detour. This is easily explained if we accept the new site for Megiddo at the foot of Gilboa, and suppose the Mohar to follow that same north road along the valley of Jezreel, which was recommended by the allied chiefs to Thothmes, and which necessitates a considerable detour before joining the direct road to Egypt.

As far, then, as this document is concerned, the site is possible, and, indeed, fits in a remarkable manner. Thus not only do the lists of the Old Testament and those of Thothmes and of Shishak all allow of the proiiosed identification, but the site allows us to trace in a satis'



manner the routes pursued by successive expeditions in various directions, namely, Thothmes advancing from the south-west, that of the Mohar reaching Megiddo from the north, and that of Pharaoh Necho in his direct advance on Carchemish. IV. It only remains to investigate the relations between the Hebrew and Arabic words, and to describe the site. 'The Hebrew word Megiddo is apparently derived from the root Jcded (to cut down). It factory

that of



'

is

certain that the translators

Greek reading

who rendered

Zech.

xii.

1 1

regarded

in this passage has 'ExxoTro'.asKo;, \s-here the English has

it

in that light, for the

Megiddon.

This

root,

synonymous in its meanings with another Hebrew root, Jcd'a, with the guttural Ain, In Arabic, however, the root Jed'i only has this meaning, also meaning "to cut down." " to cut down ;" thus the Arabic derivative, Afujedd'a, is the equivalent in meaning of the Hebrew Megiddo and the fact that the Arabic xoot,/edd, has no connection with the Hebrew Jeded, but means "to be large or great," explains in a satisfactory manner the existence of the guttural in the Arabic which is not found in the Hebrew.

Jeded,

is

;

'

"

Mujedd'a means the grazing place," or place cut down by sheep. may be the original meaning of the name Megiddo, as the site

that this

It is is

not improbable

situate in a part of

the country where a plentiful sui)ply of water produces a large crop of herbage during the greater part of the year. '

As regards

the site

itself, it

resembles most of the more ancient

cities

of Palestine in pre-

nothing beyond huge mounds

of debris, with traces of ruins rendered indistinguishable senting It has of by age. having been at one time a place of importance, and no every appearance less than four springs exist close to it, the water being clear and good, and a considerable The distance from Jenin is stream flowing north-east from the ruins to join the Nahr Jalud.

Roman

miles, and from Beisan about four. These notes may perhaps serve to show that a place of great importance, jireviously The name identified on very insufficient grounds, has been recovered by the Survey party. Lieutenant Conder, Quarterly StateIMujedd'a will, however, be found on Murray's map.'

10

'



ment,' 1877, '

p.

'

13.

In the modern

name

of the river Kishon,

Nahr

el

Mukutta,

may

there not be a trace

of the ancient Megiddo, which no doubt stood on its banks ? It is true that the meaning of the modern name is the River of Slaughter, and the fitness of that meaning to the history connected with the ancient name may account for the substitution. There are numerous instances of alterations of the '

Dr.

Robinson

remarkable Tell

el

same kind,

as Cape Sanjak, for Cape St. Jacques. In all probability the with Megiddo Lejjun, the ancient Legio. of both or fortress or was the ark cities, but while Mutsellim, Mutasellim,

identified

BIBLICAL SITES.

{SHEET /A'.] Lejjun on the south of of the city of Mogiddo

tlie

97

Tell doubtless represents Legio,

it

may be

suggested that the

site

indicated by the remains extending northward and westward from the Tell, including el Medineh, or "the City." Lieutenant \'andevelde places Megiddo on the Tell itself, but Robinson affirms that there is no trace of any kind to show that a city ever

stood there.

appears to be quite impossible to separate Mcgiddo from the Kishon or Condor proposes. The alluring resemblance to the ancient name in

It

Mukutta

as Lieutenant

Khfirbet

el

Mujcdd'a

eastern foot of

is

is

Mount

too heavily counterpoised by its situation in the Jordan valley, at tlic and south of Bcisdn ; a situation not only too far apart from

Gilboa,

Taanach and the Kishon, but

also divided from them by the bold heights of Gilboa. 'In connection with Megiddo, Dr. Robinson has contended against identifying Legio with In Dr. Maximianopolis, which was said by Jerome to be a later name of Hadadrimmon.

Robinson's opinion, this place had a more southerly site, and the suggestion has been confirmed by Lieutenant Vandevelde (i. 355), who claims Rummaneh near Tannuk as still retaining the essential part of the old

Robinson

in

Statement,' 18S0,

p.

against

name Hadadrimmon

but he

with

Van Rourmcr

agrees — Trelawney Saunders, 'Quarterly

;

connecting Legio with ]Ma.\imianopolis.' 223.

'

Lieutenant Conder proposes to locate Megiddo by the Jordan in the plain of Beisan, where the name Mujedd'a yet remains. In his " Handbook " he says, " Egyptian and Assyrian records do not as yet cast much light on the subject." There is one passage of interest which confirms his conjecture. It is given in Brugsch's "Egj^pt" (English edition), ii. p. 106, in a " poem of Pentaur, of the time of Rameses II. It reads as there given, Describe Bethsheal,

Teach me to know the passage in order to Thargaal, the Ford of Jirduna how it is cursed. enter into the city of Jilakitha, which lies in front of it." This, if correctly rendered, seems conclusive.'

— Rev. A.

'The suggestion

Henderson, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1880,

that the

objection that only the

M

is

name

p.

224.

may be a corruption of Megiddo is open to the two names, and, which is more important, that the or strong t, which is not interchangeable with the Daleih.

Mtikutta!

common

to the

the Arabic word is the Hebrew 13 Mr. Trelawney Saunders also follows Robinson in an assumption which seems to be conthat the stream which springs near Lejjun trar)' to two passages in Scripture, viz., in supposing T'va.

'

is

of

and thus unconsciously begs the question of the identity of the "Waters with the river Kishon.

the ancient Kishon,

Megiddo

"

'Now Barak encamped on Tabor Canaanites advanced on that

position.

before defeating Sisera (Judges iv. 12), and the " " I will draw unto thee to the river Kishon Sisera

In the Psalms also (Psalm Ixxxiii. 9) we read, "as to Sisera, as to Jabin, at the brook of Kishon which perished at Endor," which is close to Tabor on the soutli. It thus seems clear that the name Kishon applied not to the affluent from Lejjun, but to

(verse 7).

:

'

The Place of Bursting Forth ") west of Tabor. Mr. Saunders says, " it seems impossible to separate Megiddo from the Kishon." If this were the case, then the site of Lejjun could not be that of Megiddo according to the Biblical definition of the Kishon. 'Robinson's identification of Megiddo with Lejjun rests mainly on the proximity of the stream from the springs of el Mujahiyeh (" '

It cannot be too clearly stated Taanach, a town often mentioned with Megiddo in the Bible. and between the names Legio (LejjQn) Megiddo is found in Jerome's " Campus Legionis." Megiddo is mentioned paraphrase of the term Bikath Megiddon by the with Bethshean, Jezreel and other places in the Jordan valley (separate towns of the tribe of

that the only connection

VOL.

II.

13

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

98

Manasseli) as well as with Taanach, and there is no real foundation for the assumption that " " in the valley of Megiddon was the plain of Esdraelon, for the term Bikath (rendered valley xii. and Zech. the xxxiv. Bible of in the A. is also used the 3 ; ii), Jordan valley (Dcut. V.)

on the edge of the broad Bikath of Bethshean the important ruin of Mujedd'a with its springs and streams now stands. Mr. Henderson has quoted in defence of my theory the translation given by Brugsch of '

" " Travels of a Mohar (for the quotation of the poem of Pentaur as including a passage in the The Pentaur the statement that Megiddo was near Bethshean appears to be an oversight.

This translation is more refers to the wars of Rameses Miamun against the Hittites). favourable than that of Chabas, and was not previously known to me. In support of the Mujedd'a site, another argument may be drawn from the account of the " " he fled in the direction of Beth-hag-gan and flight of Ahaziah from Jezreel (2 Kings ix. 27), wassmitten at "MaalehGur, which is by(ornear)Ibleam,and he fled to Megiddo and died there.''

Epic '

Dr. Thomson many years since proposed to recognise Ibleam in the ruined site of Yebla which gives its name to a long valley south-east of Tabor. On the plain east of Tabor also, 15 miles from Jezreel, is the ruined village of Beit Jenn ("House of the Garden"), exactly " " Garden-house in the A. V., and the road representing the Hebrew Beth-hag-gan, rendered '

from Jezreel past Tabor and past the head of AVady Yebla, towards Beit Jenn, leads over a After crossing the bed of the Jezreel rolling plateau where a chariot might easily be driven. or ascent valley it ascends gradually towards en N'aurah (Anaharath), and on this Maalch stands the ruin Kara, a word derived from the root Kih\ which is cognate to Jur or Gur, all " having the meaning of hollow." This ruin, possibly representing Gur, is 2\ miles north-east

from Jezreel, and 5 miles west of the ruin Yebla. We thus appear to recover the names Gur, Ibleam and Beth-hag-gan in connection with some other north-east of Jezreel, and this is much in favour of the Mujedd'a site, because an easy chariot road leads from Kara south-east, crossing the upper part of Wady JalCid, and thence skirting the foot of Gilboa to Mujedd'a. I have hazarded the suggestion that the Kings of Judah used the Jordan valley as their '

over the hostile mountains of E])hraim they monarchs by the chariot road from Jericho, and advanced to oppose Necho by the same route. Megiddo would thus seem to have been their outpost on this route, and Ahaziah's retreat to it is intelligible, whereas the reason of his flying first south to Jenin, and then back north to Lejjun, has never appeared intelligible. In order to render this interesting subject more clear, the following points are recapitulated as those which seem most to require consideration. I. There is no known connection between the ruin Lejjun (Legio) and the site of

highway to the north

marched up

;

that, instead of toiling

to assist the Israelite

'

'

Megiddo, either by name, by measured distance, or by tradition. 2. It is purely an assumption that the plain of Esdraelon is the valley of Megiddon. '3. It is an assumption which contradicts Scripture that the stream from Lejjun is the '

ancient Kishon. '

4.

It is

a pure assuinption (and a very misleading one) that the

were the Kishon '

5.

of

Taanach

in

6.

and other places

(See "Quarterly Statement," January, 1877,

The Egyptian

Mujedd'a

site.

"

connection with Megiddo should not outweigh the notice

of Bethshean, Ibleam, Endor, Zartanah, '

Waters of Megiddo

river.

The mention

Megiddo.

'"

records, so

far

east of Jezreel, also

p.

as they elucidate

mentioned with

16.)

the subject, are favourable to the

{SHEET '

7.

road '

;

BIBLICAL SITES.

/.v.]

99

The riiin Mujedd'a is ancient, well watered, situated in a plain on an important highand here only has a name closely approaching to the Hebrew Megiddo been found. The topography

8.

of Ahaziah's

flight

explained in easy accordance with the

may be

situation of Mujedd'a.

'I am far from supposing has claims to attention which

this

question to be settled, but

recommend

it

to

such careful

it

seems

that the

critics as

Mujedd'a site Mr. Henderson has

proved himself to be ; and that it should not be condemned merely because the assumptions The Lejjun site of Ur. Robinson are taken as of equal value with his sounder arguments. rests on a more flimsy argument than perhaps that which fixes any other important Biblical site, for

we have

positively not a single statement of the identity of Legio with

any ancient authority.

It is

a vague conjecture, and not an identification at

Conder, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1S81, 4.

Zartanah

(i

Kings

p.

iv.

all.'

Megiddo by

— Lieutenant

86.

12) (PI).

es Sarem, which name approaches



Is possibly ihc

closely to the

present

LXX.

Tell

rendering,

radicals of the Hebrew. 2inpn/t (Alex. MS.), and contains the two first The place was beneath Jezreel,' and is mentioned in connection with '

A

Bethshean.

place

named Succoth

is

noticed (i Kings

46) with S h 6 k, near

vii.

This may, perhaps, be the present Tell esh Reland derives the later name of es Sarem.

Zarthan.

Tell

Bethshean

(Scythopolis) from Succoth, 'a booth.' vii. 46) is mentioned as being below Jezreel, and near Beisan. (i Kings iv. 12 and Succoth were the clay grounds in \vhich Solomon cast the brass utensils for The reading of the Hitherto no trace of the name has been found. the temple services. Here we have 2/aj«,a, Alexandrine Codex seems, however, to throw a light on the subject.

'Zarthan

Between

;

it

a very conspicuous and unusually large mound 3 miles south of Beisan, called Tell es Sarem, a name identical with that in the Greek text. There is a good deal of clay to be

and there

is

found also between

this place

and Dabbet Sakut, which may,

I think,

be accepted as Succoth.

Zarthan is also mentioned (Joshua iil 16) as near the city Adam ; the proper rendering here is, " and the waters which came down from above rose up upon a heap very far off by Adam, the " Bible The meaning of Dictionary," sec v., x\dam). Adam is red earth. Near Tell es Sarem, one mile to the south, is Khiirbet el Hamreth, the Red The colour of the soil in Ruin, which may not impossibly be a translation of the old name. this district is also pointed out by the name of a ford near Dabbet Sakfit— this is Makhddet city

which

is

beside Zarthan

"

(see

It has been suggested that the waters of the Jordan were suddenly earth). a landslip or similar convulsion ; the adherents of this theory might perhaps of the banks and the curious bends of the river near this point to the present appearance Lieutenant Conder, Quarterly Statement,' 1875, p. 31. place in support of their idea.'—

el

Imghar (red

dammed up by

'

Non-Biblical Sites.

Ablra

(Pi), mentioned in the Lists of Thothmes III. (Xo. 15), Birch, next to Atira (el Tireh), is possibly the ruined village of c I.

1

near the other

site.

(See 'Quarterly Statement,' July, 1876,

p.

146.)

13—2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

100

Arbcl

2.

9

miles from

'A

r r

(Ok), mentioned

('Apj3j)X")

Anion

(AuAwr),

a

L ej j

mentioned

district

H

included Scythopolis, Bethaula ('A n e the Jordan valley from Tiberias to Engedi. i

B

4.

next to

a

(P

1

Ka

1

i

i

k),

noticed

m

a,

Yebla, which

n

Roob

6.

and near

(msp)

Berachoth, 31 «) as ruined village of

K

(P

the 7\

we

I

r

u

in h,

'

the

Under

refer

to

Onomasticon,'

Sheet XII.), and

III.

(No.

all

50),

possibly the present ruin of

;

in

(P

j),

Lower

noticed

Galilee,

'Talmud' (Tal. Bab. supposed by Neubauer to be the the

in

is

e f r a h.

1),

mentioned

the

in

'

Onomasticon

'

as

4

Roman

A

r e h a b. Scythopolis, is the present ruin at Sheikh the form o h ob the same place appears also to be mentioned in

from

miles

as

n.

Thothmes

Lists of

nu h e

il

'

possibly the Biblical Ibleam.

is

Kefrah

5.

in

Onomasticon

This may possibly

Legio in the great plain. u b 6 n e h, lo English miles from el

3.

'

the

in

R

the 'Travels of an Egyptian.' (See Quarterly Statement,' April, 1876, Bethshean in the geographical List of It is next also noticed p. 81.) '

Sesostris.

Roads.

— The principal roads on the Sheet

are the two

Roman

roads

in the Jordan valley. The western Wady Shubash, ascends the Kaukab plateau and runs northwards to Tiberias on the high

of these,

from

The eastern continues along the valley towards the shore of the sea. The construction is specially noticed at K h u r b e t F u s a The two roads join at Beisan, and a main line leads down (Sheet XII.) ground.

i I.

the valley.

An J e

n

i

n,

ancient road leads over Gilboa by

but

it

is

now very rugged and

Fukiia

ruinous.

from

Beisan

Along the ridge of

to

Ras

S h e b a n there are a series of ancient watch-towers (see Sheikh B a r k a n. Section B.), which may have had some connection with this i

route.

The remaining

roads are mere paths, only distinguishable in the hills by a slightly browner colour of the stones. el 'A m d a n arc not improbably milestones of The pillars at U

mm

the

Roman

road in the Jordan valley.

SHEET

IX.— SECTION

B.

Arcii.eology.

•A in

Jalud

(Nj).

from which the fountain springs has been artificially hollowed and that the pool was formerly paved. Lieutenant Conder suggests 'Ain el Jemain for the Well of Harod. (Judges vii. i.) Dean Stanley, followed by Guerin, would put the Well of Harod at 'Ain Jalud, the story of Goliath (Jalud) having displaced in some way the Guerin

states that the rock

into a cavern,

recollection of the former

Arub6neh

name.

(N

k).

Guerin remarked, south of this does not appear to have examined.

village,



are

EI 'Afulch. The moat The masonry, standing.

wedged

is

the foundation of an ancient building, which he

112 feet wide.

Some

50 yards of wall

rudely dressed, of stones 2^ by 2 feet, ruined chapel in with smaller, has no appearance of antiquity.

A

exists south of the place.

EI

'A k u

d.

— See below,

Beisan.

Beisan

(P k). Before proceeding to Lieutenant Conder's detailed account of the ruins,

it

seems well

to

quote the more general description given by preceding travellers. Among them, the followto give the best resume ing, quoted from Dr. Robinson's Biblical Researches (p. 326), appears '

of

its

ancient history

and present apj^earance.

'

Another excellent description of the

city

may

be found in Guerin, 'Samaria' (vol. i. p. 284 ct seq."). 'The village and ruins of Beisan are situated on the brow, just where the great valley or plain of Jezreel drops down by a rather steep descent some 300 feet to the level of the

This plain

Ghor.

is

here from 2 to 3 miles broad, between the northern hills and The northern hills reach quite down to the Ghor, and

the mountains of Gilboa on the south. are tame.

The southern mountains do not extend so far down along their eastern base, there forming

east

;

and a

strip

of the plain of

a higher plateau along the Ghor. These mountains are bold and picturesque, and sweep off southwards in a graceful cun-e ;

Jezreel runs

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

I02

The

forming no projecting corner or angle where the valley meets the Ghor. ruins are near the northern hills.

village

and

'Through the great valley comes down the stream Jfilud, which has its sources at 'Ain Jalfid and around Zer'in. Just here it flows under the northern hills, and breaks down by a This ravine

ravine to the Ghor.

Between the two,

is

joined by another,

much

at the point of jimction, rises the steep

broader, from the south-west. Tell, directly north of

and sombre

is a low open tract in the last-mentioned valley, in which are Between this low tract and the other ravine, there is on the west of the Tell a low saddle, which serves to isolate the Tell. On this also are important ruins. Going southwards from the low tract around the Tell, one ascends to the level of the great plain and

the village.

many

South of the Tell

ruins.

;

here are other ruins and the

above the

feet

300

alone,

is

modern

level of the

Ghor.

visible for a great distance

The

village.

The

site in

this part is

not

much

less

than

somewhat higher and standing out and west. We. had formerly seen it from

Tell rises

towards the east

;

Zer'in.

Not

'

less

than four large brooks of water pass by or through the

and northernmost Tell

;

water

its

is

site

The

of Beisan.

first

the Jdlud, coming from Zer'in, and washing the northern base of the brackish and bad. The other three come from the south-west, in which is

and perhaps ponds. One flows through the side Wady another passes just on the south of the village and descends the slope eastward to the Ghor, where we ascended ; while the third rushes down the same declivity still farther south. Halfway down it has a perpendicular fall of some 25 feet, direction there seems to be a marsh, into the Jalud just at the Tell

;

and turns a mill. The water of both these southernmost streams has a slightly darkish tinge, and an odour of sulphur. This would seem to indicate a different source from that of the brook in the side Wady otherwise it would be easy to suppose that they originally flowed down the same Wady, and were turned into their present channels for the purposes of ;

irrigation.

'The whole region here is volcanic, like that around and above the lake of Tiberias. All and stones round about, as also the stones of the ruins, are black and basaltic in their character. The Tell, too, is black and apparently volcanic it resembles much in its form and loose texture the cone of a crater. The most important ruins are near the Tell but the ancient city evidently extended up the rocks

;

'

;

towards the south, and included the tract around the present village. Its circumference could not have been less than 2 or 3 miles. The whole brow round about the village is covered with ruins, interspersed with Near by is the Kusr, so fragments of columns. There is also a deserted mosque and called, which is merely a ruined Moslem fort. minaret.

ScythopoHs must have been a city of temples. One or more stood on the saddle on the south-west of the Tell here I counted eight columns still standing together. Another temple was in the low area south of the Tell ; and the traces of several are seen in various direc'

;

tions.

There remain standing some 20 or 30 columns

apparently built

of

black

basaltic

stones,

except

the

in

all.

columns.

All 'W'c

the

edifices

were

saw no bevelled

stones.

The most perfect of the ruins is the amphitheatre. It is south of the Tell, near the It is opposite side of the low area, and in this fertile soil is overgrown with rank weeds. built of the black stones, and measures across the front of the semicircle about iSo feet. '

All the interior passages

and vomitories are

in

almost perfect preservation.

It

has one

[SHEET peculiarity,

ARCHJiOLOGY.

IX.]

which Vitruvius says was found

in

103

few of the ancient theatres,

viz.,

oval recesses

half-way up, intended to contain brass sounding-tubes. 'Over the chasm of the Jalud, just below the Tell and the junction of the other stream, is thrown a fine Roman arch, with a smaller one on each side, resting upon an artificial mound.

The middle arch is too high mound and arch though

Possibly the city wall was carried over upon It would seem also appears too high. quite problematical whether the wall ever crossed the stream. The ascent to the Tell is from the saddle on the west, from which an easy path leads to

the

;

for a bridge. for that, too,

it

'

are seen traces of the thick walls which once surrounded the summit, a level The heavy portal is still half standing. Connected with it are plot of considerable extent. some quite large blocks of limestone, and also a beautiful Corinthian capital, built in among the top.

Here

common

the

From

'

One

black stones.

the Tell there

Jezrcel to Zer'in, with

is

of the large blocks is bevelled. On the west it includes the whole great valley of on the northern hills. In the plain, west by north, we noticed

a wide view.

Kumieh

a bridge with Roman arches over the Jalud; and beyond it, according to Irby and Mangles, may be seen the paved way which once led to 'Akka. Just beyond the stream, and northwest from the Tell, is a large Khan on the road to Nazareth. Towards the east the eye takes in the whole breadth of the Ghor, including Sakut and the various Tells as also the eastern mountains, which we had just visited; on which the Kul'at er Rubiid forms here too a con;

spicuous object Beyond the stream, and north-east from the Tell, in the face of the northern just there is high and steep, are the excavated sepulchres of the ancient city. '

hill,

which

They were some of them also

examined by Irby and Mangles, who found sarcophagi remaining in niches of a triangular shape for lamps, and some of the doors still hanging on the ancient ;

hinges of stone, in remarkable preservation. 'The site of the ancient city, as of the area of plain is

and mountain,

no doubt but

in the

modern village, was a splendid one, in this vast midst of abundant waters and of exuberant fertility. There

that the present Beisan represents the

Bethshean or Bethshan of the Old

Testament, a city which lay within the borders of Issachar, but belonged to Manasseh, though not at first subdued. After the catastrophe of Saul, when he and his three sons were

upon the adjacent mountains of Gilboa, their bodies were fastened by the Philistines to Thence they were taken by the men of Jabesh-gilead, who " went all night," and carried away the bodies to their own city, and burned them and buried their Bethshan is further mentioned in Scripture only as a part of the district of one of bones.

slain

the wall of Bethshan.

Solomon's purveyors. After the exile, under the Greek dominion, the city received the Greek name of Scytho" The origin of polis, City of the Scythians," by which it was known for several centuries. '

name has

not yet been satisfactorily accounted for. Many suppose that a colony of had of the and for the name. so occasion Herodotus Scythians actually possession gave place, indeed relates, that during the reign of Psammetichus, the cotemporary of Josiah, the this

Near the close of the eighth Scythians made an incursion through Palestine into Egj'pt. century, the historian George Syncellus also writes that the Scythians entered Palestine and took possession of Bethshan, which they called Scythopolis. But this is very late authority for so definite a fact, and looks much more like an hypothesis to account for the name. Hence Reland and others regard Scythopolis rather as a compound from the name Succoth, as if for But it is hardly probable that the most important place in the region would Succothopolis.

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

I04

name from one comparatively unknown nor was it the habit of the Greeks to engraft into their compound words without translation. The Greek and Latin name for foreign Succoth was Scenre and the composite name thence resulting would have been Scenopolis.

take

its

;

names

;

Perhaps, after

the term Scythians

all,

put

is

here to be taken, not in its literal application, but as In this sense it might well be applied to the

any rude people, barbarians.

generally for

wild nomadic tribes

who

of old, as now, appear to have inhabited the

Ghor and seem often and to have made it their chief seat. However this may be, the city was known as ScythopoUs as early as the times of Judas Maccabreus, and was then not a Jewish city. Jews indeed dwelt there, but not as citizens ; and they are expressly distinguished from the inhabitants proper. Indeed, this held true at a to have

had possession of

;

this city,

'

and even during the Roman wars the Jews sacked Scythopolis ; while, not ; inhabitants the treacherously massacred the Jewish residents to the number of long Hence it was not unnatural for the Talmudists to speak of 13,000, according to Josephus. Bethshan or Scythopolis as not a Jewish, but a heathen city ; which their fathers did not

much

later period

after,

after their return from the Babylonish exile. According to Josephus, Scythopolis was on or near the southern border of

subdue '

Galilee.

It

was the largest city of the Decapolis, and the only city of that district lying on the west of Here Alexander Janna^us had his interview with Cleopatra. Pompey took the Jordan. Pella and Scythopolis in his way, on his march from Damascus into Judea; and he subseThe city was quently restored Scythopolis and several other cities to their own inhabitants. It was long after this time, under Florus, the last Roman rebuilt and fortified by Gabinius. procurator, about .\.d. 65, that the massacre of the Jews above referred to took place. ' In the fourth century Scythopolis is mentioned by Eusebius and Jerome as still a "noble" It was already the seat of a Christian bishop ; and the name of Patrophilus, its earliest city.

recorded bishop, appears at the Council in Palestine in a.d. 318 ; and again in the first Nicene It was reckoned to Paljestina Secunda, of which it Council, A.D. 325, as well as elsewhere.

became the chief see ; and the names of several of its bishops are preserved. One or more convents had also been established, with many monks and continued to flourish for several centuries. The monks of Scythopolis were represented in the Council held at Constantinople, ;

A.D. 536.

the latter

The city was the birthplace of Basilides and Cyril, each surnamed Scythopolitanus, known as the author of a life of St. Sabas, and also of St. Euthymius, in whose

monastery he resided, between Jerusalem and Jericho. According to the historian Sozomen, this region in the The monks here trees, of which there is now not a trace. '

St.

Sabas) were accustomed to weave

also into baskets

and fancy

fans,

fifth

century was

full

of palm-

(as well as in the monastery of the palm-leaves into cowls and habits for themselves, as

which were sold

at

Damascus.

It is city was known both as Scythopolis and Bethshan. described as a small place, with extensive ruins of former edifices and many marble remains. The Franks transferred the episcopal see, as an archbishopric, to Nazareth ; which thus first '

In the time of the Crusades the

seat of a bishop. Beisan, though weak, was gallantly defended by its inhabitants against Saladin in 11S2 ; although the very next year it was deserted on his approach, and, It is subsequently mentioned by after being plundered by him, was consigned to the flames.

became the

other writers

But

;

and R. Parchi resided there

for several years, early in the fourteenth century.

seems not again to have been visited by travellers, excursion hither from Jenin, and Burckhardt in 1S12 took it

as Salt'

until Seetzen in it

in his

1806 made an

way from Nazareth to

^.

[SHEET

ARCHEOLOGY.

IX.]

105

ill u d, in a situaplaced on the south side of the N ah r extraordinarily well supplied with water, and on a low table-land

The tion

city

is

|

above the Jordan valley. The ruins are divided the two streams, the southern, from the 'A n i

IMclab, joining the northern, called ed east corner of the okl town, above the Jisr

el

southern

contains

section

theatre, the ruined

Tell

fortress,

Mai hah

Duwaich,

Mak

cl

the

village,

mosque, and ancient exterior

includes the

division

modern

the

into three sections

by

'A

i

n

at the north(i)

The

hippodrome,

the

walls.

Hosn,

cl

and

t

u

a.

The

(2)

central

and numerous

ruins.

The

northern section beyond the stream, but within the walls, includes (3) the church, the tombs, the fort called Tell el Mast a bah, and the

H

mma

u

cemetery

The

m.

bridges on the north-east and

to the south of the town,

must

finally

north-west, and the

be noticed.

The Walls

include an area of rather over a third (jV) of a square the east a bastion is thrown out, flanking the road over the

On On bridge. mile.

the west an ancient gateway was remarked.

Interior walls

The

are also marked, dividing the town into at least three parts. of the walls is marked by heaps of scattered stones and

course

foundations.

They resemble in structure those of Tell el Hosn. The Modern Village is composed entirely of mud except the Serai, or court-house. The small mosque, 'A a m e d D n, as well 1

as that

by the tree south of the

The

mosque (Tristram

large

Church),

ami

J

a

corner.

lated as follows

states

i

is

modern.

have been originally a Greek

to

it

Arbain Ghuzawi,

el

built of black basalt,

south-east

Serai,

in ruins,

is

also

in

ruins.

It

is

but of inferior masonry, with a ruined tower in the Over the mihrab is a rudely cut inscription, trans-

by Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake

:

name of God .... through God, when the end of the was accomplished by the ransom [this word is doubtful] of Akka, building the blessing of God be perfected and prayers in it upon '

In

the

....

And

Muhammed. one hundred

Another

the completion

was

in

the year

.

.

and ninety and

'

(a.d. 806).

inscription

near the Serai;

it

has

was

seen

by Mr.

now disappeared

It

Tyrwhitt Drake in 1872 was cut on a block of lime-

stone.

T he H VOL.

Ti.

i

ppod

r

o

me

is

almost entirely covered up.

It is

280

14

feet

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

io6

from east to west,

and

and

north

measured within It was enclosed by a bank 9 feet thiclc, and the broad and i^- feet high, surrounded the area on all feet

152

south,

the area of the seats. seats, in tiers 2 feet

They are of white marble. The number of tiers is not j^lainly discoverable. The form appears to have been that of an oblong 152 feet lonosides.

by 138

feet broad, with a circle of

The

76 feet radius at each end.

entrance

Prv babU Enirctnc^

•'tt-iioiitumiui

The ashlar is backed with rubble appears to have been on the east. The natives in which chips of basalt are inserted, as in the theatre. Of this state that vaults exist below. some

indication

sinking L-tse of WesI'

2

.

B^od^r^

the

of

was

west

possibly giv'en by the Towards the ground.

is

found

sort

of

pillar

base,

Possibly the base of one

diameter above, 3 feet 6 inches below.

feet

a

of the goals. It will

be observed on the Plan that the interior walls

of the ruins

have a batter

and a well or shaft

exists

The Theatre work

in

Western

The

diameter

el

like those of

on the

Ak

il

d

Te

1 1

e

1

H o s n,

in this section

with buttresses,

wall. is

the best-preserved specimen of

Roman

Palestine.

197 feet, true bearing 265°; there were 9, and possibly The building faces north, originally 11, double vomitories 50 feet long. the wall on that side being 60 feet north of the centre of the circle forming is

the cord to an arc of 120°, so that the building was originally ^ more

3

$tf:-

< CO UJ

_

ri

-C

Q Z < C a

O a.

o <

*^

E P

[S/JEET

ARCH.EOLOGY.

IX.]

From

than a semicircle. at

vomitory a passage

eacli

an angle to a cage with a domed roof

The

On

icy

like part of a

greatest height of the cage is 6 feet. the Plan the cage is about f of a

circle of 8 feet diameter.

The

RcstrrcJ

wide leads

feet

2,V

hollow sphere.

See£u>n, arvA

D

.

vomitories

are built in black basalt blocks about

2 feet

to 3 feet long, with tunnel vaults sloping

down from

the outside, semicircular,

of

good ashlar, the keystone narrower than the haunchstones. The tunnels support the seats built of black basalt ashlar in

apparently 12 in all, each 2^ feet wide by I5 feet high. This ashlar rests on a good rubble bed (above the vaulting) of hard cement mixed with chips of tiers,

black basalt.

In the arena

of limestone

blocks

which

or

is

a wall of

marble,

one of

6 feet 9 inches long by 4 feet This was perhaps a portion of broad. the base of the water-tank used in the is

""

""

The theatre might easily be filled from the stream, which one time dammed up. The modern name simply means vaults,

naumachia.

was

at

'

but the spring called 'A i n el ]\I e 1 a b, Spring of the Playhouse,' shows the ancient use of the building to be still traditionally known. The marks of sockets for bars are observable in the caches where the '

wild beasts were no doubt placed.

A

remarkable feature in the theatre

son, who, however, does not

seem

to

is one noticed by Irby and Mangles, and by Robinhave himself observed it, namely, the oval recesses '

half-way up,' intended to contain brass sounding-tubes. Gue'rin

They

are

thus

referred

to

by

:

observed, here and there, certain low and narrow passages, into which a man might penetrate by bending down, a peculiarity observed in a very small number of ancient theatres. Their object was probably to increase by repercussion the voice of the actors. In the place '

I

of the seats, which have been taken away, of the divisions into stages, and the staircases which divided them into wedge-shaped compartments, grow bushes and grass.'

The

street of

columns of the

Tell

el

1 1

o

s

n extends across the

stream east of the theatre. 14-

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

io8

Tell

H

el

o

'The

s n,

P'ortress,'

a

natural

mound

artificially-

The shape is trapezoidal. The wall strengthened by scarping the side. is of black basaltic ashlar, very thick, having buttresses at intervals of two of these project 15 feet from the wall (in the ravelin). The sides of the Tell have a slope of about 30°. A keep or tower, nearly A gate exists on the north-west where square, stood within the trapezoid. perhaps 8

feet

;

the path leads up.

On

Pi^ar Stam^tnn

c:^

the east, at a lower level,

is

a ravelin or outwork of

C

triangular shape, measuring about 170 feet along the perpendicular of the

those of the main fortress, have a slight batter. Only the foundations of the central tower remain. Two walls were noted within the enceinte. The gate is decidedly of late construction, as several triangle.

shafts of

Its walls, like

resembles that fine

masonry. The rubble-work some buildings known to be of Crusading origin. A

columns and bases are in

Corinthian capital

is

built into its

built into

it.

ARCHAEOLOGY.

{SHEET AV.]

109

The

Tell appears to have been surrounded, at least on west and with The columns shown are a colonnade apparently rectangular. south, in situ, and about 2 feet diameter. One of them on the west has a sort

of tablet on the shaft, as though for fixing notices upon, perhaps in connection with the theatre.

There

a long row of columns, of which 9 remain, 1 feet apart, 3 feet diameter, true bearing 125°, south of the Tell. There are also remains of niches just appearing above the surface, as is

1

though a considerable amount of rubbish existed here. placed in a line bearing 42°

— deep 2

On

semicircular.

the central recess

is

9 feet

a smaller niche 3 feet across by i foot hollow of the roof of the niche is distinctly seen

The

inches deep.

;

These niches are across and 4 feet

either side

is

curving inwards beneath the present surface. There are three pieces of stone with mouldings on them

These may

Mugharet

ct

two

built into

the third in the side niche appears to be be remains of a small chapel.

the central niche are not in situ in situ.

;

Tell

is

;

a fine vault

of black basalt,

H-shaped,

with a semicircular tunnel roof apparently of Roman workmanship. The eastern vault is 40 feet 9 inches

The cross passage is blocked long by 7 feet wide. on the west; it is 10 feet 6 inches broad. The vault

is

entered from

base,

5

feet

found lying

The

the

A

south.

very large 6 inches square at the bottom, was

HcLSf

tywf n^ar IdugKartl

cl TeJb

in this vault.

small

Rlukam

of

Sh

e

i

kh

el

H

a

1

e b

i,

west of the Tell,

is

The ruins north and west of it are confused heaps apparently modern. of stone, of which no plan could be made. The Church will be found marked as a ruin south-west of the

Tawahin the

el

Wady,

The apses The central

main stream.

pointing eastward. in diameter. It

on the north side of

is

built

only

remain,

is 27 feet limestone of large

apse

ashlar.

A

capital

of

Byzantine type,

similar

to

those dating from the fifth century found in the Hauran, was sketched near this building.

Captial n^ar Sfu^^'-et
1

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

10

On Tell

Mastabah

stands apparently the ruin of a fort, at the north-east corner of the town, guarding the approach by the causeway el

M ak

This roadway leads down by the hollow banked from El H u m m a m, and up in parts to the level of the Tell el Mastabah llanks it, and the ruins of the wall pass bridge.

across the J

el

s r

i

t il a.

is

across

it.

H m m a m,

El

The Hot

'

li

Bath,'

is

a reservoir which was originally

by the aqueduct called Kanat el Hakeimiyeh, The Wiseman's Aqueduct,' which takes the water of the Nahr Jalud from the pool '

filled

below the western bridge. This reservoir measures 2\\ feet east and Tt is well built, and west, 26 feet north and south, and is 12 feet deep. Three coats of cement were the interior covered with a hard cement. used

:

the

contains large pieces of red pottery imbedded and carefully the second coat, grey cement mixed with ashes the third, red,

first

arranged with fine ground pottery, very hard. ;

tunnel vault,

now

;

The

reservoir

was covered with a

appears to have been surrounded by a of which remain in sitit on the south side, being

fallen

It

in.

colonnade, the pillars 2 feet diameter of shaft and 10 feet 6 inches intercolumniation. possibly not part of the original structure, which would been a public bath.

is

The

Tombs

shown immediately south-east of this are

covered with domes.

They resemble

the

monument

at

The

seem

to

roof

have

structural

Te

i

as

i

r

and (see

Sheet VIII.), but are of much ruder workmanship. A sarcophagus lies The graves themselves are subterranean, and near them on the hill-side. the structural

chamber

is

domes have

fallen

They

in.

are built in basalt.

The

6 feet 9 inches square, with three loculi, one on each side, 2 feet 4 inches broad under arcosolia. The chamber

1^.

dome like that of a modern The dome is broken in, but the top Syrian house. was about 8 feet from the ground. The crown of is

covered with a vaulted

the arch of each m-cosolium

is

4

feet

from the southern tomb to the entrance-door

is

little

A

covered way led The ruined building south of it.

from the ground.

a square block of black basalt.

The Mugharet Abu Yaghi,

or

'Cave of Graves,'

is

another

ARCHAEOLOGY.

[SHEET /.v.]

cemetery, dating probably from the Roman period, as the lociili are all Three tombs in all were placed parallel with the sides of the chamber.

here found, the largest being to the west. tomb, having two doors on the

This

is

properly a double

south and a communication be-

tween the two

parallel

chambers

broken throug-h the back of the

The

locnh.

south,

entrance

the

north

feet

9.V feet

by

chamber ana

eastern

measures 00

east

being

and west, 3

feet

8

inches wide by 4 feet high. It is closed by a door still in situ,

a block of black basalt, 7 inches against a rebate in the doorway, and fastened by thick,

a

fitting

bolt, now The door swung on

wooden or metal

removed.

pivots fitting in sockets cut in

the

rock.

The chamber

has

five

recesses

or

loculi

on either

side,

5^ feet north and south, and 7 feet east and recesses have flat roofs rather lower than the chamber, the

each measuring about west.

The

roof of which has a slight arch, and is 5 feet 7 inches from the floor in the Two other loculi occur at the north end of the chamber the centre. ;

with sarcophagi of white stone, some of which still remain, but they have been pulled out of place and rifled, the lids lying beside them. As one of these measures 6 feet and another 5 feet recesses

seem

to

have been

filled

length, they must have been recesses, thus lying east and west.

9 inches in

The western chamber

of this

tomb

is

placed side by side in the

similar to the eastern, with only

same form and dimensions. The chamber arch the chamber measures 26 feet 4 inches feet 6 inches east and west. Its south entrance

four recesses each side, of the

roof has also a slight north and south, by 7 is

3

feet broad,

chamber.

and

;

in the

face

of the

cliff

west of that to the

first

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

112

The second tomb south,

feet

by 9

'---'v.'^w

measuring 13 feet 4 inches north and 9 inches east and west, having three loculi on either side and two at the end, their dimensions being is

smaller,

about

equal to those entrance on the south

the

in is

first

feet 8

2

The

tomb. inches

broad, with an outer approach 3 feet 8 inches broad, in which are two steps leading down towards the door,

which

is

slightly arched outside.

The third tomb to and much destroyed.

the east of the last It is

is

rougher

a cavern about 20 feet

north and south by 14 feet east and west, having three loculi on each V.^^^v, There is also a lower side and two at the end. story with three loculi either side and one at the end, the chambers being only about 6 feet broad.

In the south-east corner of the cavern

entrance to a chamber 8 feet

is

a narrow

inches east and

2

west by 7 feet 7 inches north and south, having a A similar small door on the south blocked up.

chamber now destroyed existed

in

the south-west

corner of the cavern.

This cemetery

lies

without the walls

north bank of the river, in a steep cliff of soft white rock. The Jisr el Khan, or 'Bridge of the Hostel,'

Khan

el

Ha mar

is

(cf. s.v.),

on the

named from

a fine arch of basaltic ashlar.

the It

is

remarkable as being a skew bridge, but built as though a straight one. The roadway, which has no parapet, is skewed, having a base equal to one-third of the breadth of the roadway the voussoir joints are perpendi:

cular to this line, but the haunches of the arch are parallel to the sides of

the stream.

The

arch

is

39

feet

span, 14 feet

rise in clear,

3^ feet thickness of

masonry. el

Jisr bridge,

work.

M ak

t II

a,

of limestone, and

is

It

seems

period.

The

lighten

their

to

the is

lower or

eastern

apparently mediaeval at a later

have been repaired

piers are pierced with arches to It consisted of a construction.

[^SHEET

ARCH.EOLOGY.

IX.\

1,3

now broken down (whence

the name), to the lc;vel of which a raised causeway led. The span of this arch is 25 feet the roadway is 50 feet above the stream and 26 feet wide. The south buttress is pierced single arch,

;

by an arch 26

feet span, 12 feet rise,

and

its

crown

is

27 feet above the

ground.

There appears about

mile distant,

I

On

remam.

have been another cemetery south of the town, where one or two sarcophagi still ._-^— -r-

to

beyond the

this side also,

walls, several

pieces of ornamental work, a fine capital, and a slab with lion's head enclosed in a wreath, were found.

at

'-;;^I^iio\."^^;^

' rrf)

-

v

''i?^

-

i-<^"'ii^^"?-^^^j^

Thirteen mills are marked on the plan, of which ten s^!et>«-^ st^ r^^^ ^^ c^irp are in working order. These, with the aqueducts leading to them, are of Arabic workmanship. They may in some cases date back to the limes

D hahr

of

el 'A

m

r,

who

constructed a great

number

in Galilee.

The marsh formed by system from the many fine

the decay of the irrigating springs west of Beisan, has -^piu^VX^o^ s^z,.^

gradually encroached until on the south Serai, within the ancient walls.

it

has reached almost to the

'

There is perhaps no corner of Palestine where the events of Bible history crowd so thick upon one another as in that portion which we have just completed. On the north, the sea of on the west, Tabor and the hill Moreh, the valley of Galilee, with its sacred memories Jezreel, and the chain of Gilboa ; on the south, Succoth ; and on the east, the winding But perhaps the history most fully illustrated by our present survey is that of Jordan. ;

Gideon's victory over Midian, and subsequent pursuit. (Judges vii. ) The nomadic hordes of the Midianites had, like the modern Beni Suggar and Ghazawiyeh Arabs, come up the broad

and

their encampment lay, as the black Arab tents do now in Moreh (Neby Dahy), opposite to the high limestone knoll on which Jezreel (Zer'in) stands. As on the first night of our camping at Sulem (Shunem), when six horsemen and fifteen foot of the Bedouin came down on the village and retreated, fertile

valley of Jezreel,

and

spring, at the foot of the hill

and a cow, followed by the fellahin with shouts and a dropping fire, so Gideon's time the settled Jewish inhabitants assembled to drive back the marauders. The well Harod, where occurred the trial which separated 300 men of endurance from the worth-

after stealing a horse

in

was no doubt the 'Ain Jalud, a

fine spring at the foot of Gilboa, issuing blue and and forming a pool with rushy banks and a pebbly bottom more than 100 yards in length. The water is sweet, and there is ample space for the gathering of a It has, however, like most of the neighbouring springs, a slightly great number of men. sulphurous taste, and a soft deep mud covers the middle of the basin below the less rabble,

clear from a cavern,

surface.

'The graphic description of the midnight attack, when, no doubt concealed by the folds " in the of the rolling ground, the 300 crept down to the Midianitc camp valley beneath," and VOL.

II,

i;

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

114

burst on the sleeping host with a sudden

tlie concealed lamps, can be most readily nomadic horde is most easily traced on the " " The host fled to Beth-shittah in Zererath, and to the border of Abel-meholah (vii. 22), map. a course directly down the main road to Jordan and to Beisan. Beth-shittah may perhaps be identified with the modern village of Shatta, and Abelmea (as it was called in Jerome's time) with Wady Maleh. Zererath would appear to be a district name, and is generally connected with the Zerthan and Zeretan of other passages of the Old Testament. It is known to have " can that the name and near Beisan. I we scarce doubt been below Jezreel," think, therefore, Thus still exists in the Arabic 'Ain Zahrah and Tullul Zahrah, 3 miles west of Beisan. the immediate pursuit drove the enemy some 10 or 15 miles towards the Jordan banks. A systematic advance immediately followed. Messengers went south two days' journey to Mount Ephraim, and the Jews descended to the lower fords of Jordan at Bethbarah, which

realised

on the

The immediate

spot.

fliclvcr

flight

of

of the

has been supposed identical with the Bethabara of the New Testament, and which was in all the pilgrims' bathing-place near Kiisr el Yehiid, east

probability situate at the traditional site



of Jericho. Meantime Gideon, having cleared the Bethshan valley of the Midianites, crossed by the fords near Succoth at its southern extremity (the modern Makhadet Abu Sus), and

The

continued the pursuit along the east bank of the Jordan. cut

They appear

off.

some

(or at least

southwards towards Midian, intending, no

Midianites were thus entirely

part of the host) to have followed the right bank But they were here doubt, to cross near Jericho.

met by the men of Ephraim, and

their leaders, Oreb and Zeeb, executed on that side of Jordan, their heads being subsequently carried to Gideon, "on the other side." This confirms positively the theory which I offered somewhat cautiously in a former report, and makes " " the identification of the Raven's Peak and the " Wolfs Den " with the 'Ash el Ghor'ab and

Tuweil el Dhiab a natural and probable one. The sharp peak overlooking the broad plain north of Jericho would indeed form a natural place for a public execution, which would be visible to the whole multitude beneath. 'Additional interest attaches to the identification of Zererath or Zerthan, for it points to the locality where the Jordan was miraculously blocked during the passage of the Israelites. The Ghor or Lower Jordan valley is not continuous here ; in parts the cliffs are closely approached, and a blockage of the river at one of these narrow places would leave its bed dry

would gradually form in the wider basins above, and a with a width of nearly a mile, could be obtained in place of a river some 20 yards in breadth. Such a blockage might any day be occasioned by one of those shocks of earthquake which from the earliest historical period down to the present day have for a very considerable time, as a lake

rise of

more than 50

feet,

been constantly felt in the Jordan valley, and which point to the volcanic nature of the agency which has caused this extraordinary depression.' Lieutenant Conder, Quarterly Statement,'



1874,

p.

'

182.

El B

i

r

e

h (P

j).

— Ruins of an ordinary

villacre.

village, whose houses were built for the most part of basaltic stones. It replaced an ancient township, to which belongs an edifice now completely destroyed, of which there yet remain several basaltic columns and a mutilated capital.'^ '

The

Arab

ruins are those of a large

Gue'rin, 'Samaria,'

Dab mosque.

II

i.

(O

129. j).

— Ruins

of

an

ordinary

village

and

of

a

small

Dc villacfe,

ARCHEOLOGY.

J X.]

[SHEET i

r

G

h u

/.

a

1

c h

(ruin near)

on the side of the

hill,

is

(O

1).

— About

a drv^stone

i

mile south-east of the

monument

of

hard crystalline limestone blocks, very rudely hewn, if at all. The longest side lies at about 292°. The building

was a rectangle of 15 other.

about

are

I

In

the

perpendicularly, 3

feet

bedded

rently ancient.

round

^.

-%_

by 14 the ^^^KO^[\j'^p "•" On the east side a long stone, 6 feet 9 inches by foot cross section, lies upon two smaller; the remaining stones

smaller.

firmly

^

its

feet

in this direction

centre high,

of

the

rectangle

6 inches thick, and

stands 2

feet

a

slab

broad.

placed It

is

which contains fragments of pottery, appaThe stone seems to have been packed with smaller ones

into the earth,

base to keep

it

in position, as

found by excavation.

The

stones are

very heavy, and the construction of this monument must have been a considerable labour. It somewhat resembles the vinevard towers existing

15—2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

n6

other parts of Palestine but fallen stones sufficient for such a structure were not observed, and there is no reason to suppose it to have ever con-

in

;

sisted of

more than two courses.

Dcir

Sudan

— Heaps

of masonry exist here, and traces of the foundations of a large building, apparently a monastery.

es

El Fiilch (N

j).

(O

1).

— The

modern

is

village

surrounded by a ruined

fosse, and remains of a wall are traceable in one part.

H u m m a m. — See End or (Oj). E

Beisan.

1

Half the houses have fallen Gu^rin says that this village is in great part overthrown. down, and the remaining half are ready to fall. A great many caverns, silos, and cisterns Here he also observed a number of ancient cut in the rock attest its ancient importance.

A

tombs surmounted by vaulted arcosoUa. bottom of a cavern and emerges by a little

fountain called 'Ain

canal.

September, for which reason the former inhabitants cut the

n

J e

i

n.^

Endor

This spring partially

flows

fails

along the

August and

cisterns.

— On

covered with

in

the top of the hill, south of the village, cairns consisting of small stones, arid each

is

a plateau

cairn about

50 to So feet diameter these occur within an oblong enclosure, and it has been suggested that they represent the remains of a Roman ;

encampment.

Jisr el J

i

s r e

1

Khan. — See

Mu

a

j

m

Beisan.

a (O

i

j).

—A bridge of

near it passable vaults with beneath, large square building three small ones,

is

still

;

is

one large pointed arch and a ruined Khan, or hostel,' a

still

'

in a

good

state of preser-

vation.

Jisr el

t Li

a.

— See

Beisan.

H a k e m y e h. — See Beisan. Kanat es Sokhni (P k). — An aqueduct leading from the stream d to the mills called T a w a h n el W a d y. the N a h r J a is

Kana

of

M ak

t

el

i

i

1 11

excavated

i

1 1

and probably of the same date with the

in the earth,

Kanat U m m H e

i

1

(O

k).

— A canal made apparently

mills.

for

purposes

of irrigation, and not lined with masonry.

Kanat

el

W6k

like the above noted.

i

f

(Q

k).

— A canal dug

in the

ground

for irrigation,

{sheet

K

1

ARCH.EOLOGY.

/.v.]

Kan

t

a

r

'

a h,

The Arch' (P

by which an aqueduct crosses not of great antiquity.

Kaukab

el

II

Wady

k).

el

—A

117 bridi^^c

Kan

t

a

r

a

with pointed arches, h.

It is

apparently

The aqueduct resembles those above noted. aw a (Q j). The modern mud village stands



within the crusading fortress. This fortress is sur(See Section A.) a wall of black rounded by basalt, and by a ditch on three sides, strong

on the east

The west wall overhangs the Jordan valley. At the north-west corner is a (true bearing i;;') measures 322 feet. tower 36 feet square, projecting 15 feet from this wall and 20 from the whilst

north wall.

A

it

postern led out

:^iL< <^^^i^^^^ii^:*&^a2.^_

the northern ditch.

At

of

it,

and a causewav from

it

crossed

...^;S.Cii^i^!a.^^si:i.:-=Ui^iii><^ik£

the distance of 161

feet

from the north-west

corner another tower projects 20 feet from the west wall it is 30 feet north and south, and a small sally-port or postern leads by a sloping ascent from the ditch to the interior. At the south-west corner is a ;

tower 12 ditch

feet long, projecting

on the south

side.

The

about 20 feet; and steps lead up from the south wall has also two corner towers and

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

ii8

one about the centre, the south-west being 25 feet long, the central one 38 feet, and the south-east 50 feet, all projecting about 20 feet from the The total length on this side is 381 feet. wall.

The main

entrance was on the east, but approached by a causeway On the cast, therefore, there is an leading through the southern wall. The interior wall, and the space between the two was arched over.

A

vaulting remains perfect to the north of the gateway. long buttress wall south of the feet from the inner so as to form a 20 gate, projects

narrow passage

The

before arriving at the gateway itself

2 feet across,

entrance

is

thus, as in

most crusading

fortresses,

very carefully has a 12 feet and 12 feet arch, pointed span guarded. It is constructed with a groove 2 feet broad, so deep. arranged that the It leads into a portcullis could be drawn up through the archway. vaulted passage 1 2 feet broad, and there is on the south a side chamber

The gateway

itself

postern opened into the main archway. eastern outer fortification is very much ruined, and the wall has

from which apparently a

The

little

There are traces of an outwork on The east wall runs north this side 70 feet from the face of the main wall. at right angles to the southern for 238 feet, and is here bent north-northwest in the direction 165°, extending for about 90 feet. At the obtuse entirely disappeared in

some

places.

formed on the east are traces of another doorway. The eastern wall was loopholed, and could be defended from the vaulted salient angle thus

passage between

it

and the inner eastern

This passage

wall.

is

about

22 feet across.

The

northern wall runs at right angles to the second direction of the Thus at the northeastern wall for 35 feet, when it recedes 17 feet.

formed, giving a certain amount of flank defence The north wall then slopes to the to the northern ditch and its postern.

east a tower or bastion

is

south for about half

length,

west

wall.

A

its

and the remainder

central tower or buttress exists at

side of the north-east tower

;

it

projects 20 feet,

is i

and

at right angles to the "jO is

feet

30

from the west

feet broad.

An

inner vaulted gallery, 1 7 feet broad, ran along the north side. The fortress may be described generally as a rectangle of 330 feet by 380, with a bastion in the north-east corner, and an inner wall on the east

22 feet from the outer.

The

ditch on the north, south,

and west

is

about 50

feet broad, the

[SHEEl'

ARCff.£OLOGY.

JX.]

119

It is probable that counter-scarp rudely hewn in tlie black basalt. formed the quarry from which the stones of the wall were taken.

The masonry

it

hewn black

basalt ashlar, the stones being from 2 to 3 feet long, with a broad boldly cut marginal draft, and a central rustic boss to each stone. It resembles the masonry at 'Athlit and is

finely

other Crusading sites. 9 feet thick at the top.

The

wall has throughout a slight batter,

and

is

It is probable that a gallery was built within the wall on every side, and the ditch thus defended through loopholes. The masonry of the east gate is not drafted, but is \-ery carefull\dressed, and many of the stones are of great size.

The

vaulting

is

of rag-work,

the ordinary barrel vault seen in

all

Crusading buildings. In the middle of the fortress are other vaults of similar character, forming probably the foundations of the keep, which has now disappeared. Their direction

A

small

is

not parallel to the outer walls.

modern building stands over these

vaults,

and

is

constructed

The remaining huts are of mud. The partly of ancient materials. ditch is now about 10 feet deep, but is probably much filled up with rubbish.

South of the

fortress there are traces of ancient

garden

walls, but with-

out any indication of date.

There

an Arabic inscription beneath the fortress on the south. is

lower spring ('A in el H e 1 u) almost entirely illegible, cut on a

at the It is

piece of basaltic rock, but according to Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake the finding or digging of the spring by a certain Emir. 500 yards from the fortress.

it

It

refers is

to

about

Kef rah

Dr. (P j) is a ruined village with traces of antiquity. Tristram mentions it as inhabited in 1866, and containing drafted masonry, but the ruins do not appear important. (See Kefrah, Section A.)

Khan

el

The

hostels.

the east.

It

and

Ah mar

—A

specimen of the Saracenic walls are standing throughout, and the vaulting is entire on measures 270 feet east and west by 235 north and south {P

k).

fine

wrought ashlar of moderate dimensions, in alternate courses of white limestone and black basalt. The main entrance is on the north, a gateway with pointed arch on either side is a staircase outside,

is

built of finely

;

THE SURVEY OF UESTERN PALESTINE.

I20

That on the left (west) is circular. (See Plan.) leading to the roof. The galleries on each wall are ^y feet broad, the tunnel- vaulting being Four marble shafts stand in the centre of rag-work with pointed arches.

These columns are of the yard, once supporting a dome over a fountain. The lintel within the pointed arch of the north door1 8 inches diameter.

way

is

5 feet 6

1

the side door

inches long, 2 feet wide, 3 feet high.

Another

lintel to

6 feet by i foot 10 inches by i foot 4 inches, dressed to The represent a stone with two bosses and a draft 3 inches broad. whole is dressed smooth, and the separation is shown by a groove cut in is

the face. apparently the place described by Guerin under the name of a Mussulman Khan.' His description, written ten years ago, differs in some important respects from that of Lieu-

This

'

is

tenant Conder.

It is as follows

:

The walls building measures 100 paces on each side, and forms a perfect square. which surround the enclosure are 3 feet 6 inches in thickness. The south face is in great part '

The

The remaining faces are better overthrown, as well as the gate which opened on this side. It is built of good cut stones, which doubtless is that of the north preserved nearly perfect. came from the ruins of Bethshean, and is pierced by a door constructed of superb blocks, :

alternately black

and white, very

door, which corresponds crowned by a magnificent

to

regularly dressed

on the south

that

which

and of considerable dimensions.

side,

now

destroyed, rests in

surmounted by an ogival

This

two abutments

arch. It opens upon a vestibule formerly closed by an interior door. Within the rectangle of the enceinte there formerly ran four ogival galleries they have been replaced by miserable Arab erections, lintel,

.

.

.

is

itself

ARCHAEOLOGY.

[SHEET IX.] now

in

In the middle of the

ruins.

A

upright

fourth

Kh urbe

three monolithic shafts in grey granite are

still

overturned.'

is

'Aba (N 1).

t

Khan

121

— Remains of a small ruined

village, apparently

modern. Here was formerly a township of some importance, now completely destroyed. There remain nothing but the foundations of old walls, numerous heaps of stones, time-eaten and rudely cut, the greater part disposed in circles, some cisterns and several caverns or tombs '

cut in the rock.

One

of these tombs contains three arcosolia in a mutilated condition, under

each of which must have been laid sarcophagi long since carried away.' i-

337-

Admah

Khiirbet character.

A

North of the lies at

sarcophagus

divisions.

A spring

(Q site

j).

is

the foot of

e.\:ists

— Foundations

'A

i

n

it.

Haiych

el

(0

parently modern.

There are

in

Beit

I 1

the ruins

of

on the south, and two others on the north-west.

Barghashah

K h u r b et

Samaria,'

apparently modern a square chamber. of consisting The ruin is of some e.xtent, in two

(Q

apparently modern.

Khtirbet

'

tomb

a

(See Adamah, Section A.)

Khiirbet

—Guerin,

fa

(P

many

k).

1).

j).

— Foundations

— Foundations

of buildings,

of buildings, ap-

— Foundations of buildings and

walls.

stones well dressed, and apparently older

than the Arabic work. This place was proposed by Schultz for the lost Bethulia ot the Book 01 Judith, but its site nor its surroundings seem to agree with the story. It is, however, an ancient

neither

site. Guerin found, a little to the right of the ruined and abandoned village, numerous heaps of stones, the greater part of fair dimensions, and dispersed in the midst of high thornbushes. Among these remains were noted also two ancient sarcophagi, each measuring 9 feet

10 inches long by 3 feet 3 inches broad, decorated by rare ornaments. that ot sarcophagi lay still on the ground nearly uninjured

of these

;

The the

lid

of one

second was

broken.

K h u r b et B e d r

i

j).

— Foundations of buildings, apparently

—A

mound, with no perceptible ruins nor

y e h (O

modern.

Khurbet Beka

(O

j).

any indication of date.

Khurbet no indications of

Khurbet

Bir Tibas (N

j).

— Only traces

of ruins remain, with

date.

el

'Esh-sheh (Q

k).

— Foundations of buildings, appa-

rently modern.

VOL.

II.

16

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIAE.

122

Kh u rbe of

Ta

No

i

y

i

be

its

date, but

modern deserted houses— a

No

mill.

P

(

j).

— A small

it

is

H

el

u

(Q

small deserted

m ra

ruin close to the village

hewn masonry and

stones.

ap^jarently unimportant.

Hakeimiyeh

el

Khurbet

d

a d d a

consisting of heaps of roughly

h,

indication of

Khurbet

H

el

t

(P

1).

k).

— Ruined

walls

and a few

villaq-e.

—A few walls standing and a ruined

indications of antiquity exist.

Khurbet

el

heaps of stones.

It

Judeideh may

(Ok).

— Foundations

possibly be an ancient

Khtirbet Kara (O

site.

of ruined

consists

j)

of buildings and

Near

walls.

it

is

a

trough or grave cut in the rock, apparently a tomb, resembling those at S e f f u r e h. i

Khurbet Kummil (P Khurbet el M u g h a

j).

— Traces of — Traces (O

ruins.

of ruins only exist, and It is apparently an ancient site. a few ancient rock-cut cisterns. It takes its name from the village \\ miles west of it. i

Khurbet mound

upon a site

and

el

r

Mujedda

of ddbris

;

1).

— Traces

of ruins

only remain but the place has the appearance of an ancient

(PI).

fine springs.

Guerin's journey through this part of the country cannot be followed on the map. Either the Tells which he observed are not placed on the map, or, which is more likely, they He says, starting with Tellul eth Thum ('Samaria,' are noted under different names. '

i.

Here

are two Tells, close together.

They are oblong; the higher is about 9 metres is covered with debris of pottery and surface Their upper building materials. plain. we the site of an abandoned an hour of north-north-west, later, passed travelling quarter

282)

:

above the

A

place called Khurbet Feraj.

There are heaps of scattered stones and a quantity of silos, the we had on our right the Tell el Asar, which is

Fi\-e minutes later greater part covered up. covered with pottery and building materials.

2

Ten minutes brought

covered with black stones of basaltic appearance. kilometres to north-north-west, we found ruins called Khurbet

which

is

On el

our

us to Tell Ferwana, at a distance of

left,

Miijedd'a.

We then directed

our steps east-north-east, and pass on our left, at the distance of 2 kilometres to the westThis place does not appear on the map, but its posinorth-west, a Tell, called Tell R'aian.' We were now approaching the tion seems to correspond with that of Tell esh Shcmdin. '

lower valley of the Ghor, riding through bushes and tall grass, and crossing several streams At our right, in the lower valley, rose the Tell el Jizil ; and

which flow into the Jordan.

farther on, to the north, the Tell el

called Tell Balah. arrived at Beisan.'

Menshiyeh

;

AVe changed our direction

and ten minutes to

later, to

the north,

is

a Tell

north-west, then to west-north-west, and

AKCILEOLOGY.

[SHEET IX.]

Khurbct

modern

parently a

Khurbct

S

(N

Khurbct ruins

alone

ancient

a b

i

K i

r

h u

r

S

c s

r

(P

k).

and

b e

t

a

m

r

i

The

remain.

site,

1).

— Foundations

of

ap-

buildings,

ruin.

— Heaps of stones only remain, and there

no indication of the date of the

is

5

en Nejjdr

123

ruin.

y eh

(P

1).

— Ruined

place has, however,

and traces of

walls

of an

the appearance

well supplied with water.

is

]\I

a

1

u f

(O

j).

— Resembles

in

character

K

h u

r

be

t

e h.

an ancient cemetery marked on the Sheet near this ruin. The tombs are cut in hard crystalline limestone. No. i, the most northern, is a square chamber of the usual dimensions, having one lociilus about

There

is

6 feet long under an arcosoliuvi on either side of the chamber, and a third

end opposite the door, which is on the south. The bottom of each locnlus is level with the floor.

at the

left

to

a heicrht of about

2],

feet

in

The

rock has been

front, so as to

form a hollow sarcophagus, which was covered with flat slabs, leaving an alcove above between these and

.

,

,.,,>...,

.

pti^^^i^*

lif

ifer "

the roof of the arcosoliuvi, which

is

rounded towards

doorway

entrance

is

perfect,

square, and 2 feet

is

'

'

the back in cross section.

The

'

'jn'^'^ jjii;__ '

and was closed by a rolling-stone. In front of this wide by 3 feet high.

The is

an

arched recess 5 feet 9 inches high, and extending about 2 feet either side of the door. This is continued on the left side in a groove about 9 inches 9 inches high. In this groove, which reaches back about 4 feet from the side of the door, a cylindrical rolling-stone of 3.^ feet The groove held it upright when it diarneter was originally placed.

broad and

was

5 feet

in front

entrance.

of the door, and

The marks

it

could be rolled back in

it

to

open the

of the grinding of the stone against the face of

the rock remain. a shallow trough or birkeh, about 15 feet by 20 feet, and another trough or sarcophagus attached to the rock on the similar sarcophagus, cut out of the rock (to south-east of the birkeh. In front of the

doorway

is

A

which one end

is

attached),

is

placed on the

left

of the tomb, where the 16



2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

124

rock

the scarped north and south at right angles to the face containing at a lower level. It rock in the cistern exists close to this, cut

is

A

door. is

of the bodies before possible that these were intended for the washing

sepulture.

The second tomb

is

similar to the

and two steps lead to the similar in

construction

to

floor of

the

first,

the

but the door

tomb

is

within.

at a higher level,

The

entrance

In the locnli raised

first.

is

are

rollers

The three loctili measure 6 feet the neck of the corpse. inside. on the breadth in length by 2 feet 9 inches curious mark, about 4 or^ 5 inches long, is scratched on the door-

observable to

fit

,

A

of this tomb, and would appear to be recent, as it is not equally It exactly resembles that noted by w-eathered with the rest of the rock.

way

M. Clermont Ganneau on

Mount

the osteophagi discovered on the

of

Olives.

up the hill and south of the last, is blocked Three more occur in a group below this, resembling with rubbish. those already described, except that the loctdi are merely shallow graves beneath the arcosolia, and not deep sarcophagi. Two more, south of this, resemble number one in all respects, making a total of eight tombs

The

third tomb, higher

visited.

Three large sarcophagi lie on the hill-side south of the tombs. Another was also noticed further off, east of K h u r b c t Sire h. These therefore, entirely to the second class of sepulchres,

tombs belong, koki))i

appear

to exist

and no

at this site.

Khiirbet Sireh

(Oj).

— The

ruins appear to

have been exten-

now indistinguishable. Heaps though the plan of the buildings The foundation of a corner of stones and blocks of flint lie in confusion. is

sive,

remains standing, of stones about 2 feet long, one of which has a broad and deep-cut draft, the central boss of the stone being left only roughly hewn. This resembles the Crusading masonry of K a u k a b el H a w a.

The

stone forms, apparently, the jamb of a doorway, and a channel h u above, along the middle of the wall, similar to that described at

K

D

e

i

r

S

e r u

r

r

cut

bc

t

(Sheet XI.).

Khiirbet es Sufsafeh (O able buildings.

is

j).

— A few

stones.

No

distinguish-

[SHEET

ARCH.EOLOGY.

IX.]

K h urbe

e

t

T

t

a k a h

(O j).

125

— Foundations of buildings, apparently

modern.

Khurbct Tubaun (Ok). — Traces of ruins. K h u r b c Tunis (P k). — Traces of ruins. K h u r b e U m m el A a k (O j). — Foundations t

'

t

apparently modern.

Kh urbe

Umm G

t

h a

wad

dressed stones, traces of a large

K

h u

r

b

e

of

1

Umm

t

S

(X

y

j).

— Foundations,

buildings,

a few well-

site.

a b 6 n

(O

j).

— Foundations of

buildings, ap-

parently modern.

Khurbet Yebla

{P

k).

— Heaps

No

of stones.

indications of

date.

Khurbet

ez

Zawiyan

(Q

j).

— Foundations

of buildings, ap-

parently modern.

El Mobarah, 'The large quarry of basalt

Cutting,' or

'The Quarry' (O

on the face of the

The

chips and fragments.

cliff,

filled

basaltic buildings of

k).

— This

is

a

beneath with large

Beisan

are probably

of stones obtained here.

Mugharet Abu Yaghi

Mun

EI

t

Tel

et

Miigharet a r

(

P

1).

1.

(Q

k).

— See Beisan.

— See Beisan.

—A

pile of

unhewn

stones upon a

commanding

point, apparently ancient.

— A mound of earth. Abeid (PI). — In the marshes.

El Miintar (Q

Muntar

el

j).

Miintar ez Azrak El

Mu

Ne

i

origin.

n

t

e

1 1

(O

y (O

j).

k).

(PI).

— In the marshes.

— Foundations of buildings, apparently modern.

— Rock-sunk

tombs

exist

here,

probably of Christian

(See Section A, for further information.)

Nuris (N This place

is

k).

prob.ib!y an ancient

site.

Gu^rin ascertained the existence of rock-cut caves.

At the distance of half a mile from the village he found a sarcoph.igus much defaced and close by the ruins of an ancient building, apparently a tower.

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

126

Es Se.bain (N

]).

Sheikh A rehab

—A

modern

ruin.

—A

ruined IVIukam or small mosque, (PI). traces of ruins, without indication of date. (See

apparently modern, and Rohob and Roob, Section A.)

Sheikh Barkan Between

this

and the

(Ok).

—A

village

ruined

El

of

Mukam,

apparently modern. are four small ruined

Mazar

towers, apparently watch-towers, on the old road. in the south (Sheets XL, XIV., etc.), but there

They resemble towers no indication of their

is

date.

Muhammed

Sheikh

Kabil

el

(Q

1).

— Ruins

of

a

small

mosque, apparendy of no great antiquity.

Sheikh S e m a d Shun

e

(O

Tumrah

t

Shutta

1).

— Small ruined Mukam of modern masonry.

(O

j).

—A

little

tower, half ruinous, for storino-

(Oj).



Guerin inclines to Robinson's view that this place is the old Beth Shettah the Home of of Judges vii. 22 ; but the meaning of the modern word in the name lists is given Acacia the " river bank " he does not meet the objection offered by Mr. Grove and as probably a '



'

'

'

:

not sufficiently watered. Gudrin gives the name with a spelling As spelt by him it may mean different from that proposed by Lieutenant Conder's scribe. Guerin found here a good many silos cut in the ground and the village of 'division.'

Lieutenant Conder that

it is

to the families of the village. The women have to go for serving as underground granaries marked on the map as the Wady Jalud. water to the canal of 'Ain Jalud '

'

S

i

r

i

n

(P

j).



— By the spring are two

and a piece of a

cornice.

fallen blocks,

apparently

lintels,

They have the appearance of Byzantine

work.

Et Taiyibeh (O

j).

is now nothing but a wretched relic of an important city, hill whose summit a was surrounded by a fortress. of situated on the slope This was formerly cut fine basaltic and dressed with care ; a ditch cut in the rock of constructed blocks, very '

This

village,

poor and miserable,

and now three-fourths

filled

up surrounded

it,

at least

on the south and

west.

There remain

of this stronghold several thick parts of the wall, and within vaulted magazines which now serve the fellahin for refuge rude dwelling-houses have also been built within the inclosure. :

One

of these houses,

basaltic stones taken

more considerable than

from the ruins of the

regard as ancient, although allowing that

it

may

the others,

and

partly constructed of

good

occupies the top of the acropolis, which I have received attention from the Mohammedans

fort,

[SHEET

ARCHAEOLOGY.

JX.]

As

or the Crusaders.

which extended

for the city,

now, with the exception of a few courses GutJrin, 'Samaria,'

Tell

still

to the north

and

east of the castle,

upright, presents nothing but a heap of ruins.'

it



126.

i.

Abu Fa raj

(Q

1).

—A

Ma

mound, apparently

large

Mukam

Ruins of houses and of a small water from 'A

127

A

on the north-east,

artificial.

stream of

h a h exists on the north, and another spring, It will be noted that this is the case with giving a good supply of water. all the inic Tells on this Sheet.

Tell and

by

in a

n

Abu

Wady Tell

i

J e

'1

1

me

Bireh.

el

Basha

el

(O

1

1).

— Supplied with

an

artificial

mound.

— An

artificial

mound.

It is

(O

j).

water by the Jordan

Water

exists close

stream coming from the Biisset-ed-Diwan.

Tell

Far (N

el

j).

— An

ancient

mound,

apparently

artificial,

with traces of masonry on the top. el

Ferr (O

Tell

el

Hosn

Tell

el

Jisr (P

Tell

el

Jizil

Tell

—A small

k).

artificial

mound, close

Xahr

to the

Jalud.

excavated holes for

Tell

Tell

— A small — A mound,

artificial

k).

(O

1).

Malhah

el

M as

el

i

t

n

(0 el

1).

I\I

abah

by the aqueduct.

cut

apparently natural

full

is

it

;

of

e

— An i

y

i

t

artificial

mound,

situate

close

to

e h.

(O k).— See Beisan.

Menshiyeh

el

mound

storing: efrain.

the spring called 'A

Tell

(P k).— See Beisdn.

(0

1).

— An

ancient

artificial

mound, with

a spring on the south side.

Tell N m i

r

11

d

(O

1).

Tell er Raian (0 S u fsafeh)

exists

— An — An

artificial

1).

mound.

artificial

mound;

a spring ('A

on the north, and water from the 'A n el i

i

n

es

Malhah

on the south.

Tell es

Sarem

spring on the south

side.

—A

very large artificial (See Zartanah, Section A.)

(PI).

mound,

with

a

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

128

Tell csh Shukf water on the north

(PI).

mound, with a stream of

artificial

side.

Shemdin

Tell esh

— An

(Southern) (P

1).

— An

artificial

mound, with

a stream of water on either side.

Shemdin (Northern) (Q Tell esh Shok (Southern) (PI)- — An Tell esh

j).

— An

artificial

artificial

mound.

earthen

mound,

with water on either side.

Shok

Tell esh near Jordan

;

(Northern) (Q a spring also exists about

Tell esh Sheikh ruined

Mukam

of

Daud

(0

modern masonry

Tell esh Sheikh

j).

— Possibly

exists near

Hasan

artificial

earthen

mound

mile to the west.

i

1).

— An

(Ok).

mound; a

a natural

it.

— An

artificial

mound, with

The masonry is well-dressed, of foundations of buildings on the top. and some of the stones have a marginal draft and a moderate proportions, rustic boss like those at

Khurbet Maluf.

The

ruins are not,

how-

It is close to a spring. ever, apparently of remote antiquity. 'The ruins cover the slopes and summit of a Tell whose highest point seems to have been crowned by a tower measuring 12 paces on each side and built of good-sized blocks. Some At the foot of the hill, lying about the plain, are building foundations are still visible. Under one of the sedermaterials of small dimensions, and innumerable remains of pottery. trees

is

ruins.'

a

little

Mussulman Wely dedicated

to the

— Guerin.

Tell esh .Sheikh K

a

s

i

m

Sheikh Hasan, whose name

(O

j).

— A very large

near Jordan.

Tell

esh Sheikh

Semad

(P

k).



Artificial

is

given to these

artificial

mound

mound, with a

stream of water.

Tell ez Zanbakiyeh (O a spring exists about

i

j).

—An

artificial

mound near Jordan

;

mile to the west.

Farwanah (P — Small mounds, apparently Tellul eth T h m (PI). — Artificial mounds; a Telltll

1).

artificial.

stream

of

a spring. mounds, which were

first

11

water to the north.

Tellul ez Zahrah 'Attention was

first

drawn

(P

k).



Artificial

mounds near

to the great interest of these curious

excavated at the same time by Captain Warren,

who supposes them

to

have been

fortifications.

[SHEET

ARCH.EOl. OGY.

/.v.]

1

29

" " In a subsequent number of the Quarterly Statement it was pointed out that similar mounds are in process of formation at the present day both in Eg)pt and in India, being made by the

accumulating refuse of sun-dried bricks which are picked on these heajjs, those which arc spoilt serving as a sort of platform on which others are baked ; thus gradually a mound accumulates, and would,

The

when deserted and overgrown,

present exactly the appearance of a

and in that of Acca, near the Kishon, but more especially in the Jordan valley. Near Bcisan, and in the plain south of it, there are twenty true Tells, apparently of the same character with those at Jericho, besides other mounds formed of crumbled ruins to which the name Tell is also applied. In confirmation

Tell.

Tells are found in the Plain of Esdraelon,

of the latter theor>' of their formation I would call attention to one or two points. First, they occur invariably in the immediate vicinity of water, generally at a spring or beside a running stream.

Second, they are always found

in alluvial

plains

and

in places

where clay may be

Beisun they are found in the "clay lands" between Succoth (generally supposed to be S'akut) and Zerthan, which was below Jezreel, where Solomon cast the brass-work for the temple service. Third, they are known, at least at

expected to exist

;

thus, for instance, at

Jericho, to consist of sun-dried bricks.

It

has been remarked that they occur at the mouths I may remark that this is hardly a rule, as

of passes which they were supposed to defend, but

are placed in positions which can have no military significance, whilst the Wadies at whose mouths they are placed always contain water. Neither can they be held to defend the \\'here they do occur along Jordan fords, for many important fords have no Tell near them. Jordan it is in places where springs or tributary streams flow down to the river. Their great antiquity is shown first by their being mentioned in the Bible at an early period (Geliloth)

many

;

secondly, by their having been subsequently built upon in a few cases in Roman times. None of the true Tells have, however, been identified with Biblical sites, unless, indeed, we e.xcept those at 'Ain es Sultan.

The shape and appearance of the true Tells would also point to the same e.xplanation of They are evidently accumulations. Often two occur close together of different

'

their origin.

or two or

size,

more small Tells spring on a platform formed by a large one sometimes a mound, as though only lately commenced. Will be found at the foot of a very ;

small subsidiary large one.

The interest and importance of such remains can hardly be over-estimated. They form a key to the understanding of all the more ancient ruins in Palestine. Nothing is more natural and probable than that the Jews who in Egypt, as we know, were employed in the manufacture of bricks, and whose first possessions in the country were in the plains, should have resorted to this material for the rapid construction of towns, necessitated by the total '

destruction of the Canaanite

cities.

The method

in

which

this destruction

was made,

its

completeness and rapidity, seem to show that these cities themselves were of no great strength, and it is even possible that the brick -making may be carried back to Canaanite times. Of architecture as a fine art there seems

good reason to suppose the Jews were ignorant, nor is there anything in the Bible or in the country to indicate that the towns of the early Biblical In the time of period were better built or more important than the present Syrian villages.

we find the people dwelling in caves, and there is much evidence which points to the old inhabitants of Palestine having been much addicted to such a practice. Even at the the as natural used caves are and stables. and tombs present day dwelling-places larger Saul

'

the

In modern Damascus we have an instance of a city mainly built of sun-dried brick, and chopped straw in its clay calls to mind the bondage of the Egyptian brickfields. Wood

VOL.

II.

17

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

I30

hardened mud, and may have been

in the early Jewish towns it must be than now. At the same time, recognised plentiful that stone-quarr)'ing was very extensively undertaken at some period of Jewish history, as is evidenced at the present day in every part of Palestine, though the period it is almost imposis

used

at

a time

in

combination with

when

it

In the

sible to decide.

that of brick.

collections of

So now

mud

this

was more

country the use of stone must naturally have been greater than and those in the plains mere

hill

in Palestine the hill villages are of stone,

huts.

is very great in explaining how it occurs that the more ancient mere mounds in which the presence of stone is scarcely discernible, Were brick supposed to have and the grey colour of the mass alone distinguishes the site. been extensively used, this peculiarity of the ruins of Palestine would be easily accounted

'The

interest of the inquiry

ruins of the country are

for.'

— Lieutenant Conder,

'

Quarterly Statement,' 1874,

Tireh el Kharbeh T u m r a h (O

(P

j).

p.

— A ruined

180.

village,

apparently modern.

i).

This village has taken the place of an ancient town which formerly rose in an amphitheatre around an abundant spring, whose waters are received in a rectangular basin formerly '

Everywhere considerable piles of stones, for the most part basaltic the remains of In the midst of these confused' ruins I overthrown houses strew the slopes of the hill. a the of small church the near remarked, spring, vestiges lying east and west and divided into vaulted.

;

three naves.

It

was ornamented with columns, of which several trunks yet remain. In the still distinguished the remains of a second church, almost entirely

higher part of the city are

destroyed, which was paved with mosaic, as

— Guerin, ground.'

'Samaria,'

i.

is

proved by the

little

cubes lying about on the

124.

Guerin also mentions a ruin called Kh. Marah, and a spring, 'Ain Marah, near which are not on the map.

Umm

'

el

Amdan

(O

lykig in the vvater by the road.

this place,

— Several

fragments of rude pillars, They seem probably to be Roman mile-

1).

stones.

Z a

t

Z

b a (P

e

e ra

h

(N k).

Zer'in (N

1).

— Modern foundatiorts.

— Heaps of — See Section A. stones.

k).

In addition to the

mound, with

its

numerous

cisterns, there are scattered cisterns, sarcophagi, and, on the east, wine-presses round the village. our left Mount Gilboa grew gradually lower. Presently we climbed the slopes, partly a plateau scarped to east and north, but on the west and south of small elevation of rocky, and nearly on a level with the surrounding plain. These slopes, like those on the north, are '

On

pierced by numerous excavations ; some are ancient tombs and others old quarries ; some of them were for a refuge for the shepherds and their flocks. On arriving at the plateau we proceeded to examine the western side on the way I remarked a certain number of ancient ;

cisterns cut in the rock,

and some small enclosures crowned by a

girdle of cactus.

passed the village of Zer'in, the miserable remains of Jezreel, which formerly in

all

We

then

probability

{SHEET IX

ARCH.EOLOG Y.

]

131

occupied the whole of the jilateau whicli I have just mentioned. At present it is nothing but a confused heap of poor houses which cover the western part of the [ilateau on the side by

which it slopes by a gentle incline to the plain. Almost in the middle of the village, on a small hillock, rises a house of square form, like a tower the residence of the Sheikh. It is but it very ruinous, like most of the other houses, and appears to be of Arab origin





have replaced an older tower.

...

tent lower

may

down, west of the village, close to put up my a little shallow birket, not built, but consisting of a simple depression in the soil. Near it I found an ancient sarcophagus of white marble. It was 3 feet 3 inches broad and 7 feet 6 inches long. The four sides were decorated with sculptured ornaments, which have suffered from time and the hand of man.

I

The

lid

was wanting.'

— Gudrin,

'Samaria,'

i.

31

1.

SHEET

IX.— SECTION

C.

inhabitants of the villages marked on this Sheet are all Mohammetans and natives of Palestine, with the exception of those of B e i s a n

The

K efr M

and

s

i

who

r,

are of Egyptian origin, settled there by Ibrahim

Pacha.

Maza

El

The S

u k

r

r

inhabited entirely by religious Derwishes.

is

Gh uzzaw

and

i

y e h are true Bedowin belonging to

from the east of Jordan but the Beshutwi are a mixed race, being recruited from the runaway negroes who take refuge in the Ghor. u k a m S i d n a 'A s a, a large block A tradition attaches to the

tribes

;

M

i

Neby Diihy

of basalt standing on the side of the being a place where Christ sat and taught.

Sheikh of the J

i

s r

to take in

el

its

little INI

mosque of

uj a

m

name from

'

i

A,

Palestine,' p. 105.)

It

believed

the

of the Place of Gathering,'

a contest of forty

is,

Arab

Arab maiden.

poets,

who this

is

said

here contended

(See Finn's

however, noticeable that

'

By-ways in name may have

Bridge of the Gatherer,' over which the dead to pass, as noticed in the Zend Avesta,

some connection with the Persians

Neby D u h y.

The Bridge

verse for the love of an

(see Map), as This was collected from the hill

'

the origin of the later Moslem legend of the Bridge es Sirat. The saint at el Wezr) is said to (apparently called have been one of the sons of Jacob.

which

is

Wezr

Neby

or Duheiyeh has his dog buried with him. dog brought his bones from the river Kishon to the present tomb.

NebyDiihy

The

SHEET X.— SECTION Orography.

A.

— The

present Sheet contains 103 "3 square miles of the Mediterranean coast north of 'A r s u f. The whole extent is a flat plain

about 150 to 200 feet above the sea, and terminated by rolling downs on the west. Beyond these downs are the dunes of blown sand above cliffs

from 100

200

which reach

along the shore except in the neighbourhood of the two perennial streams, where the shore is open. In those parts where the cliffs are low, or do not exist, the sand to

feet high,

dunes have encroached inland.

all

Thus immediately north

Iskanderuneh el 'A

r

the blown sand reaches inland 2^ miles. f the dunes are a mile wide, and north of the

cliffs

ah

shore beneath

is

The

cliffs,

r

Near Tell

Nahr Falik

tongue of sand extends inland 2 miles. great extent prevented the encroachment

The

N

of the

a

however, have to a

other parts. a narrow beach strewn with fragments from the in

above.

HvDROGRAPHV. — Two perennial streams cross the Sheet. The northern It is called is the largest, and rises near the foot of the hills. (Sheet XI.) Nahr Iskanderuneh, and is a sluggish stream some 1 5 yards across, with marshes on either side, in which are numerous springs, which feed the stream.

The

river

is

fordable near

its

mouth.

This stream

is

called

'the Salt River' by Geoffrey de Vinsauf in 1191 (Itin. Ric, ch. xv.). The second stream, called Falik, is of artificial origin.

Nahr

A

on the large marsh formed inland, and confined by the range of downs An artificial west, is fed from various large springs rising in the plains. cutting through the rock drains this water to the sea, the stream being In October, 1873, the stream was dry at the only about a mile in length. but the bed point where the road crosses, immediately west of the cutting,

was

full

of luxuriant Syrian papyrus.

This river was called Rochetaillie

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

134 in the

Middle Ages

similar

meaning

Ric, ch.

(I tin.

xvi.),

and

modern name has a

tlae

('cloven').

Some 'A

Z

of the water from the plain rises on the shore under the cliffs at Tubch, Bir el Yezek, Bir el Beleikeh, and Bir

n

i

e

i

but the water

d,

A

large

is

very brackish.

marsh (Bah ret

Katurieh)

also artificially drained

is

by This

a rock-cut tunnel 535 feet in length, having a shaft near the middle. tunnel is now choked up.

Topography. to the district of

moderate

B

e n

Haram

El

1.

—There are eight inhabited places on Sab, under

i

Ibn

'A y 1

A

1

Sheet belonging

Mudir of Nablus.

the '

this

e

i

m

on high ground, with springs This building was erected, it

size

(Ho).

—A

to the north,

mud

village of

and on the west

a mosque. is said, by Melek ed Dhahr Bibars in honour of 'Aly Ibn 'Aleim, who is said to have defended the town when attacked by that Sultan but the town in question was probably r s u f. the adjacent ;

'

A

Kefr Saba

2.

the east.

Bab.

village of

moderate

size,

with

it

mud-

i

Niddah, 61 a\

Josephus (Ant.

xvi. 5, 2).

The ground round

day.

— A mud

and good water in the wells of N e b y Y e m n, to This place is the Caphar Saba of the Talmud (Sheet XI.)

ponds round (Tal.

(J o).

good-sized trees at

N

e

Demoi, ii. 2), also mentioned by shows no marks of antiquity at the present is sandy, with a few cactus hedges and some Tal.

Jer.

It it

by

Ye m

i

n.

There are

olives to the north

and

south. '

This

is

a village of

800 inhabitants, situated on a low hill the houses are built of sunPalm-trees lift their heads in the midst of the streets. of stones, which are larger and better cut than those used for the ;

dried bricks or of small stones.

There

is

houses.'

a mosque built

— Gudrin.

The question of the site of Antipatris will be found treated in Sheet XIII., under the head of Ras el 'Ain.' It is sufficient to point out here that nothing whatever has been found at Kefr Saba to support the theory that here was once a great town. As regards anti'

quities,

Lieutenant Conder passes the place over altogether (Sheet

Gu^rin could find nothing but two ancient columns built of old blocks.

An

in the

X,

Section B.); and

mosque, and outside the

village

a

man

of the neighbouring village of Jiljulieh told Drake that the name of the place was Antifatrus, but as this statement has never been confirmed by any other traveller, it may be considered of litde value. Nothing is more probable than that,

mosque

as in the case of

been forgotten.

old

most names imposed by the Romans, the name of Antipatris has long since

[SHEET 3.

K

TOPOGRAPHY.

X.]

h u

4.

hovels 5.

c

t

as an 'A z b c h, flocks sent

—A

few mud hovels, occupied ]\ y u s c h (II n). or summer residence for those in charge of the herds and

bc

r

135

down

1

on the

to graze

It

plain.

had a cistern

Khurbet esh Sheikh Mu hammed

to the north.

(II).

—A

mud

few

ruins.

among

Miskeh

(I o).

—A

mud

village of small size, with olives to the

north and south, and a well to the south. Gucrin gives the population of Miskeh as 300. 'In the court of the mcdhajch I saw a column and a marble chapter, apparently of Byzantine work. Round the houses are gardens, planted principally with fig-trees, among which here and there rise palms.' 6.

M

El

water supply

II

is

—A

small mud hamlet, with caves. m). from springs a mile to the west.

g hair

(I

The

—A

small mud village, with ruins, and a m). .sacred place to the south. On the east is a good masonry well, with and a wheel for raising the water. Near this the Survey Cam[) troughs 7.

was

]\I

uk ha

fixed.

I

i

d

(H

There are

also cisterns,

and a pond with mud banks.

very sandy. The place is famous water melons, which arc shipped at the little harbour called n c t Z a b II r a.

are cornfields to the east, but the soil for its

Abu 8.

There

is

M

Tabsor (H

o).

—A

mud

hamlet of moderate

size,

i

with a well

to the north.

The

only ancient site on this Sheet which has been identified is the This is the ancient Apollonia (Josephus, fortified town of Arsiif. Ant. .xiii. 15, 4), said by Pliny (Lib. v. 13) to be between Ceesarea and Joppa. In the Peutinger Tables it but without any distance marked.

The Crusaders

is

shown (393

a.d.) as

between the two,

considered Arsuf to be the ancient Antipatris (Will.

Marino Sanuto). On the map of Marino Sanuto he identifies it wrongly with Dora. it is marked as Arsur Fouchcr de it was Chartres (about 1 100 a.d.), says that ignorantly supposed to be knew. site of which he the real Azotus, Tyre, Jacob of

\'itriaco, ;

— Corn

and

with various vegetables, arc grown round the villages, but the greater part of the plain is uncultivated. Near the shore, and along the line of downs, the soil is bare and sandy, with

Cultivation.

scattered bushes.

olives,

The neighbourhood

of the marshes

is

in

spring well

136

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

The country south-west of Mukhalid is an open supplied with pasturage. woodland of oak, the trees attaining a fair size. This is the Crusading Forest of Assur (Geoffrey de Vinsauf Itin. Ric. cap. xvi.), between the Salt

River and Rochetaillic.

retain a relic of this

name.

Possibly the ruin of

Umm

Su

r

may

SHEET X.— SECTION Arsuf (H fort

— The

remains of the Crusading town, with its inner and harbour, were surveyed in May, 1S74, with a chain and compass.

The

total

1,452 feet.

40

B.

feet,

o).

22 acres, or 660 feet by ditch has an average width of

area included inside the ditch

The form

is

irregular.

but on the south side

it is

The

is

rock-cut and 100 feet wide.

Very little remains above the surface, and the site presents dusty mounds which cover the foundations. There are remains of a postern on on the south, close to the east, with projecting piers for a drawbridge ;

the sea,

is

a spring, to which a small path leads

wall projects at right angles to the south wall, part of the ditch,

where

it is

deeper and wider.

down from

a postern.

A

and enfilades the western

There are several

cisterns

near the western wall above the beach.

The

inner keep stands directly over the harbour in the north-west corner of the place, and has on that side a batter wall some 50 feet high ;

remains of vaults are visible here sides about 100 feet wide,

also.

The keep had

a ditch round three

and a ramp and drawbridge communicated with

the outer part of the fortress. The keep has an area of about half an acre. The level of the bottom of the fosse is about 50 feet above the beach.

The harbour measured and west. entrance

is

A

100 yards north and south, by 40 yards east well-built jetty runs out on the south, and a narrow

here made, behind a reef of rock, the entrance being barely 30

feet wide.

The masonry

at

ever, earlier than

The

1

Arsuf resembles that

at Ascalon.

The work

is,

how-

190 a.d.

ancient history and Phcenician associations of Arsuf

may be gathered from the folThe name of ApoUonia, it has been suggested, may lowing tract by M. Clermont-Ganneau. have been conferred upon the city by Apollonius, son of Thraseas, who governed Coele Syria for Seleucus Antipater.

VOL.

II,

It is

mentioned by Josephus

as

one of the places which had

18

for-

1

THE

38

OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

S UR VEY

The Peutinger Tables give its position accurately as merly belonged to the Phcenicians. 22 miles from Cresarea. It was in ruins in the year b.c. 57, when the Romans rebuilt it. It is then neglected by history for a thousand years, when we find it a fortified stronghold. Raymond of Toulouse besieged it, but failed to take it, and retired jealously, sending a message In fact, Godfrey met to the garrison that they need not be afraid of the King of Jerusalem. with so stubborn a resistance that he too had to raise the siege, and turned his arms in revenge The place, however, was afterwards taken by Baldwin I., who gave the upon

Raymond.

Richard Coeur de Lion defeated Saladin beneath inhabitants permission to retire to Ascalon. Louis IX. in 1251 restored the fortificathe walls of ArsCif in 1191, and regained the place. tions; but in 1265 the Sultan Eibars, after an obstinate defence, took the city, massacred the Arsuf has since remained uninhabited. inhabitants, and destroyed the fortress and walls.

The town

shown byM.Clermont-Ganneau to be intimately connected with St. George and the Dragon, and the story of treats the subject in a pamphlet called Horus et Saint Georges The following extract will show the line of research which he

of Arsuf has been

the legends of the

'

Combat

of Horus,' that of

He

Perseus and Andromeda.

{Rtroue Arch'eologique, 1877).

has followed

Une

'

'

'

:

base essentielle sur laquelle je

me

suis,

en dehors de I'iconographie, constamment

fable etrangement deformee et transformee, c'est la apjjuye pour essayer de reconstruire cette il localisation geographique y a a observer, dans le developpement semitique de cette legende, une veritable unit^ de lieux pretant aux identifications obtenues une solidite qu'on ;

ne saurait demander aux rapprochements purement philologiques. Tout se joue sur un theatre parfaitement circonscrit la scene peut etre representee par un triangle dont les sommets sont les trois villcs de Palestine Arsouf, Lydda et Asdoud, et '

:

:

grand cote est le rivage de la Mediterranee au nord et au sud de Jaffa. Le culte de saint Georges, qui s'est de bonne heure etendu sur toute I'Egypte, a pris un caractere special et a regu un developpement considerable en Syrie, ou il a eu pour centre

dont

le

'

principal Lydda, la Diospolis des Gre'co-Romains. '

La

s'eleva,

sous Justinien au plus tard, une superbe basilique contenant, disait-on, les

reliques du tribun militaire decapite sous Diocletien. 'Dans les listes episcopales, Lydda porte le nom de kyioyeuiyiowoXii en un seul mot. Lydda passait pour la patrie du saint ou celle de sa mere, pour le lieu de son martyre, etc. les habitants y montrent encore la maison de Khidhr, nom arabe de saint Georges. Une tradition, attributie a Mahomet par d'anciens commentateurs du Goran, dit que '

'

Jesus tuera FAnkchrist sur la porte de Lydda, ou

meme

sur la porte de riglise de Lydda.

L'Antechrist, appele par les musulmans Dadjdjal, est ddcrit comme un monstre et appele la bete de la terre. Ce hadith bizarre a incontestablement pour origine ^interpretation, plus ou

moins

arbitraire,

En

basilique ou etait figure le combat de saint temps, que Jesus tuera aussi le sanglier, et Ton

d"un bas-relief du portail de

effet, I'on ajoute,

en

meme

la

Georges. place quelquefois le lieu de cet evenement sur I'une des portes de Jerusalem ; or Ton connait par I'histoire I'existence d'un bas-relief, representant le sanglier de la A' legion, qui etait encastrd au-dessus de la porte d'Aelia Capitolina.

L'explication apocalyptique de ce sujet adoptee par les musulmans se justifie par des analogies reelles qui ont deja ete signalees entre le role militant de saint Georges et celui de I'archange Michel et des divers cavaliers de I'Apocalypse. '

'

Certaines traditions sont

qu'il s'agit

bien dans

le

memes

hadilh d'un

plus explicites encore et montrent jusqu'k I'evidence

monument

figure, et

particulicrement du combat du

[S//EET

ARCHAEOLOGY.

X.]

EUes disent, en effet, que Jesus, coiff^ d'un turban vert (khadhra), main une lance (harbc), monte siir unejiiment (faras), potirsuivra

cavalier contre le dragon. ceint d'une epee, tenant

139

la

!i

DadjJjal jusqu'a ce qu'il Pattcignc a la porie dc Lydda, oh il le ttiera. Mais d'un autre cot^ le mot arabe dadjjAl me jiarait I'exact Equivalent phon^tique du mot hebreu Dagon, le dieu ampliibie adore par Ics Philistins spdcialemcnt .\ Echdod (Esdoud).

le

'

etc rapprochtJ avec raison

Or Dagon a

du Set egyptien

;

son adversairo,

le

Isa ou Jesus des

recouvre, s'identifieraient done

et le saint

musulmans, Georges syrien (ju'il dcj;\ par simple et iiiant Typhon. symetrie avec Horus a clui'al, poursuivani Le souvenir de Dagon semble s'C-tre d'ailleurs conserve d'une faron encore plus directe h. Lydda d'anciens gdographes arabes nous parlent formellement d'une parte de Dadjoun \ '

:

jusqu'ici avec Dtuijoiin,

que

Yabne

"

et

I'Onomasticon

le village j'ai

"

signale un Caphcr Dagon qu'on identifiait de Beth Dadjan mais je crois que c'est un lieu appele encore retrouve en 1874; Dadjoun repond beaucoup mieux, en effet, aux indica-

Lydda; entre Lydda

;

se peut que le village se soit deplace et ait Ete transporte de de Dadjoun h. Beit Dadjan dans ce cas nous aurions une l)reuve periinente extremement solide de la transition phonetiquc de Dadjoun a Dadjdjal, Dadjan fournissant un i^tat intermediaire du mot. La forme archaique Dadjoun se serait, comme de coutume, conserviJe dans le nom de I'emplacement ancien. A ce compte, il

tions de "I'Onomasticon."

II

I'endroit aujourd'hui inhabite

;

" dans Dadjoun, non-seulement le Capher Dagon de rOnomasticon," mais aussi le Beth Dagon mentionnd par le livre de Josue dans le territoire de Juda. L'histoire de Persee et d'Andromfede, dont les affinitds avec I'histoire lEgendaire de saint

faudrait

voir

'

Georges ont ett^ depuis longtemps remarqu&s, est localisee expresse'ment par beaucoup d'auteurs classiques twn loin de Lydda, sur la cote de Syric, a Jaffa, c'est-^-dire toujours dans g^ographique dt^termin^e plus haut 'Tout s'accorde a preter ^ cet episode,

I'aire

origine orientale.

intercali^

dans

le

Les noms de plusieurs des personnages qui

explicables par les langues sEmitiques

:

du Persee hellcnique, une

cycle

Cepheus, Belos, /ope

s'y

(cf.

montrent sont aisement

Kassiope, Kassiopa, Kas-

siepeia), etc. '

Des

traits

non douteux

achfevent

Persee est surtout

phenicienne.

le

p^re de Phcenix, Kilix et Cadmus, l)henicien; le roi

de

de donner

.'i

ce personnage une couleur franchement

a pour pere Agenor ; et Agc*nor, ; or Argos i I'etat fabuleux, I'clement incontestablement, repr&ente

h^ros d'Argos

Jaffa lui-meme, le

p^re d'Androml-de, Kepheus, est parfois d&igne

meme rang que les trois freres. La gen(5alogie de Persee, qui le fait remonter jusqu'^ lo, lui prete entre autres ancetres Belos et Aigyptos, le rattachant ainsi h la fois k la Phenicie et il I'Egypte. Mais il y a plus. Je puis demontrer que Persee correspond d'une fa^on directe a un dieu phenieien Reseph {^= flamme) dont les inscriptions de Chypre nous ont revele I'existence comme Jils

d' Agenor,

ce qui

le

met sur

le

'

:

noms Reseph =

des Perseus qui a probablement determine I'attraction ; la deux mots trouve sa contre-partie dans la Icgende inter\-ersion diffe'rencie les simple qui culte de Persee. un fait de des de lilc grecque qui Seripho principaux lieux de l'histoire et du c'est I'analogie

'

mais

Je ne veux pas dire que le inythe de Persia ne soit pas hellenique dans son ensemble, a au moins subi, comme on le presje desire etablir, par des arguments decisifs, qu'il

sentait dcjcl,

une addition

phcniciinne.

pas besoin, pour cela, de revendiquer comme ph^nicien le nom meme de Persee; un simple rapprochement entre Reseph et Perseus est suffisant Ce rapprochement n'a rien Je me contenterai d'invoquer d'in\Taisemblable, et il serait aise d'en montrer d'analogues. '

Je

n'ai

18



2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

I40

un

cxemple, qui a I'avantage do nous ramener en mC-me temps au occur de

seul

la

question.

La dcesse phenicienne Anat (n^y), FAnaitis assyro-chaldeenne, d'ordinaire identifiee avec Artemis, Test aussi avec Minerve, par exemple dans une inscription bilinguc de Chypre. Pourquoi ? Parce que Ton a\ait c^de au desir de rapprocher les deux mots Anat, ou Anata, '

Athaiia

et

(

= 'A('?iva,

nous

'A^iji'>j);

voilh.

en face d'une transposition absolument semblable

permis de passer de Reseph h Perseus. 'La parfedre feminine de Reseph est precisement cette deesse Aiiaf,

h.

celle qui a

les

monuments

comme

le

prouvent

figures egyptiens.

Cela pose, rappelons que les mythologues les plus autorises ont demontn? le caractere profondement appollonicn de Persee or Reseph para'it avoir en pour Equivalent general Apollon. L'assimilation de sa paredre Anat \ Artemis pouvait dejil le faire pressentir mais on a '

:

'

;

des inscriptions grecques de Chypre mentionnent plus que de simples inductions a ce sujet au Reseph Mikel ou Mekil d'inscriptions pheniet Ton a ce dieu Apollon-AmyJilaios, compare ciennes originaires du menie endroit. :

'

nom

Ce

qui n'etait qu'une pre'somption devient un

nioderne de

la ville 6!Arsouf, situee

au nord

fait

certain par Fobscrvation suivante

et tout pres de [affa, est

:

le

forme regulierement

le nom du dieu Reseph; c'est la ville de Reseph; or les Grecs I'avaient appelde Apollonia, exactement comme, en Egypte, Edfou, centre principal du culte iHHorus, avait fte nomm^e par eux Apollonopolis, parce que Horus correspondait dans leur Pantheon h Apollon.

avec

'

Reseph '

est

done Apollon au meine

Ce terme de comparaison

litre gu' Horus.

et

Horus, i^quivalant respectivement equivalents enlre eux ; or nous avons vu que spdciale d' Apollon ; de I'autre, se rattachait en

Reseph

h.

Reseph

nous voila amenes

:

meme

permet du

hellenique nous

coup de conclure que

Apollon, sont, dans une certaine mesure, Persi^e, d'un cot^, etait une forme secondaire, "k

partie, phonetiquement et mythologiquement, rapprocher directement Persee d'Horus, et il faut confesser

h,

qu'h.un autre point de vue ces deux personnages, compares immediatement Fun a I'autre, dans leur role de vainqueur du crocodile ou du dragon, offrent d'incontestables analogies.'

Ed Dusiikiyeh looks like an ancient

Kan Khurbet El

t

promontory

u

r

as an

i^i

r

be

t

'Azbeh.

Khurbet tombs

:

cisterns

— Traces of ruins n).

Madd

Ma

1

Deir

ed

cemented

and a wall;

the place

—A

;

a

modern graveyard.

ruined village, standing on a

e

i

ka

(I

m).

(I n).

— Modern houses,

(See Section A., Khiarbet el

Mun

t

a

r

Sabieh

(1

— Part of a ruined

vault, with

inside.

(H

o).

some with kokim, some with

Khurbet ancient.

o).

Jczireh (H

a cistern to the south,

Kh

— Rock

marsh.

in the

Khixrbet

m).

site.

(H

el

(I

o).

el

inhabited in summer,

Jiyuseh.)

— There are here some 40 rock-cut

loculi.

— Foundations,

apparently

not

very

[SHEET

ARCH.EOLOGY.

X.]

K hurbe

Z

ez

t

e bab d

t:

h

(H

141

n).

—A

small

modern ruined

V illaee.

Khurbet tion of date. A

ez

Zerkiyeh (H

n).

— Heaps

same name

spring of the

Mugharet Abu Semaha (H

of stones

no indica-

;

close by.

— A cave

m).

exists here

;

some

rock-cut tombs, like those next to be described, and a large and deep cistern or shaft. It is some 12 to 15 feet in diameter, and 40 or 50 feet

a channel, 5 or 6 feet wide, leads from

it westwards. This would works those which have been another of are described irrigatory appear in A. B a h r e t K a t u r e Section head (under h)

deep

;

to

i

Mughar esh Shcrif

(H

m).

—A

cemetery of tombs cut all were examined. No.

Fourteen tombs in the soft rock facing east. a square chamber 1 1 feet side, 6 or 7 feet high the left hand, above the door, is a design cut in

No.

;

:

2 is

closed, but

in i,

on

a cross and

circle 18 inches high.

No.

3,

close to the last,

No, 4 has a door

is

a loailus only, under arcosolutni. 4 feet high, and three loculi,

3 feet wide,

with their floors level with that of the chamber. in front

of the door

is

The archway

6 feet diameter, 8 feet high, and a step of 9 inches

leads to the floor on the inside.

a chamber ^\ feet broad, 13J feet to the back. It has on either side-wall five kokiiii, each 6 feet by 2 feet, by 3 feet in height. At the back is a recess, raised 3 feet from the floor, 1 1 feet 6 inches by 5 feet

No.

5 is

6 inches, with a grave sunk in it parallel with the back wall of the tomb chamber the grave, 6 feet 8 inches long, 2 feet 3 inches wide. lamp recess is cut above the grave on the back wall.

A

:

Nos. 6 and 7 are like No.

No.

4.

8, in

a cave of round shape, about

10 feet diameter, and 7 feet high. No. 9 is also round, entered by a passage, on the left side of which is a locnlits raised 3 feet above the floor. Nine radiating kokim run in from the circumference of the cave. The

whole

is very rudely cut. This kind of circular tomb

far

el

as

found

Fureidis, No. 10

is

(See Sheet

yet.

VH

is

peculiar to the plain of Sharon,

Khurbet Ibreiktas,

Sheet VII.,

as

and

I.)

merely a rude cave.

No.

1

1

resembles No. 4

;

the loculi

THE SURVEY OF IVESTERN PALEST/yE.

142

are well cut, and measure 5^ feet by 4 feet, with arcosolia ; the lloors are level with that of the chamber, which measures 8^ feet either way.

broken away. The interior is lined with good brown cement, and was once painted, remains of patterns being still visible. (Compare IMokata 'A b u d. Sheet XIV. Section B.) The lociili are three in all, on three walls, measuring 5^ feet

No.

I

2 is

the principal

tomb

the door

;

is

by 4 feet, being unusually wide. No. 13 is a large kokhn tomb, the chamber \2\ feet koMm on each wall 7 feet long, 2\ feet wide, 3 feet high

There

7 feet high.

few instances

in

is

side, ;

the

with three

chamber

is

a recess at the door for a rolling-stone— one of the

which a rolling-stone occurs with kokiin.

Khiirbet Ibreiktas,

.Sheet

Section

VII.,

(Compare

The archway

B.)

in

10 feet high, 8 feet diameter, and cut back 3 feet. These tombs face east. On the opposite side of the low ridge was

front of the door

is

another tomb and a cistern.

The

latter

was 6

10 feet deep, 35 feet diameter at the top. by a door 4 feet wide. It measures 21

On

back.

the

left

diameter at the bottom, tomb is a chamber, entered

feet

The

feet across,

and 15

feet

to the

a recess 14 feet by 7^ feet, with a floor at a higher chamber. At the back a recess with three lociili

level than that of the

on

three walls, each measuring Z\ feet by 4

its

feet.

On

the right another

with two loculi measuring 6^ feet by 3 feet. This last recess or side-chamber appears to be unfinished. The height of the central

recess,

chamber

^\ feet. Visited and planned 29th April, 1873. is

el

Mtighr

Ababsheh

(H

— There

are a great number ot In 70 or 80 in all, with loculi. o).

rock-cut tombs at this place, some one of these there are remains of a tesselated

Khurbe be

t

M

i

d e i

h.

M ukhalid (H m). — The M e d n e Abu A b. i

Remains of

mule

to,

(Compare

old

name was

stated

by the peasantry

to

t

a ruined vaulted building exist here.

formed one side of a small origin.

pavement.

Sheet XIV., Section B.)

fortress,

It

appears to have

and may perhaps be of Crusading

A

stone ring was found in the north wall for tying a horse or which suggests that this wall was in the interior, and that the

vault ran round a central area. inside, the walls 5 feet thick.

The

A

vault

is

82 feet long by 22 feet wide and a door

loophole 18 inches wide,

ARCILEOLOGY.

[SHEET X.]

143

closed and 3^ feet wide, exist in the south or outer wall. wall

In

tlie

north

a similar loophole, stopped up, and a door 7 feet wide. In the south-west corner are remains of a small tower 21 feet square is

inside

originally

projects 5 feet

north wall of this

the

;

broken down.

is

beyond the south wall, and has on two loopholes above.

The tower

that side an entrance

7 feet wide, with

The door

the north wall of the vault has an arch, with a very

in

point, 8 feet diameter, 3 feet high.

The

roof of the vault

is

llat

also pointed,

used

at Caesarea. and covered with hard brownish cement, like that This extends down to the springing- of the vault arch. (Sheet VII.) The pointed arches of the windows and doors are also comparatively flat.

The masonry and

of stones 8 inches to 9 inches square, roughly dressed carefully coursed, like the masonry at Caesarea. In the north-west corner a staircase In the roof are square manholes. .

8 feet wide leads

The 1

is

2 feet

total

high.

up

parallel to the north wall

;

seven steps remain.

the doorways are some height of the vault is over 20 feet There are remains of an upper story. The stone used is ;

the soft friable sandstone of the neighbourhood. The well below is fairly well built (B i y a r e similar to that of the tower,

and a trough or

The

cistern

1

5

K a w r k) of masonry t and has some large slabs of stone lying near, this is well cemented feet square attached i

;

from a spring beneath. Between the ruin and the well, on the side of the

inside.

supply

is

hill,

are six circular

rock-cut granaries (like Metamir), 5 feet diameter, 6 to 10 feet deep. There is also a circular cistern 12 feet diameter, of small masonry, like that of the ruin.

Visited 28th April, 1873.

Tabsor (H

o).

— Immediately west of the

building In one are fragments of tesselated pavement. ;

village

is

a small ruined

two small chambers cemented inside with hard brown cement.

The

building resembled a

cistern.

Tell

Umm

el

I

Su

fs

h a

r

r

(J

m).

(I

m).

— A small mound, apparently

— The

ruined village, but in the middle

artificial.

remains appear to belong to a modern is

a ruined wall of solid construction like

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

144

the foundation of a tower, the stones being from i foot to 2 feet in length. The mortar is soft, and a great deal of red sand and chopped straw is used in

it.

This looks as

if

wall and this runs south

the

work were modern.

and

is

To

S feet high in places.

the west It

another

is

seems

to

have

enclosed a square area of about 100 yards side, and in the south-east corner a mound and foundations of a wall, running west, were found.

There are several holes (probably

INI

e

t

a

m

i

r""')

cut in the hard red sand,

5 or 6 feet deep, outside the ruin.

East of these remains there walls

2)\ feet thick

and about

is

a

little

square building, 25 feet

5 feet high, of stones 2 feet

side,

foot

by by i brown and hard, with i

with irregular vertical joints. The mortar is much pottery in it, and the joints are roughly pointed with brown mortar. foot,

On

these walls

is

a layer of rubble, of stones 3 inches to 5 inches side, in There are several fine oak-trees round this ruin.

hard brown mortar. Visited 5th

*A Matmur

May, 1873. {pi.

Met amir)

is

a round well-like excavation with a

domed

roof, cut

up with masonry. It is used for the storage of corn. In some villages these granaries are merely dug in the earth and lined with mud. They serve to conceal the village stores from thieves. C. R. C. in rock or built



SHEET X.— SECTION North

C.

'Arab el now numerous,

of IMukhalid the country belongs to the

whose chief one time

to

is

an Emir.

The

tribe is not

have ruled from Tiberias

to

Ha w a

r

i

t

h,

but claims at

Caesarea and from 'Akka to

Beisan.

Immediately south of Cjesarea are the Arabs, also small

in the

VOL.

II.

1

k h a h and

I\I

u

s

a

i

tribes.

South of Mukhalid are the

roam

Dama

Nefeiat

or club-bearing Arabs,

marshes and oak woods.

19

who

SHEET XL— SECTION Orography.

— 3697 square miles

of the Samaritan

divisions

The hills north of Wady Shair 2nd. The hills 3rd. The plain to the west. Northern Hills. The valley of Wady Shair is en-

of the country, viz. south of Wady Shair :

The

and of the plain

hills

There are three natural

to the west are contained in this Sheet.

I.

A.

ist.

;

;

closed on the north by a chain of

the watershed of which

hills,

is

twisted,

running northwards from the great outpost of Mount Ebal, 3,077 feet above the sea, as far as Y a s d, rather over 4 miles, where the i

elevation to

is

only

Sheikh Beiyazid

saddle in the ridge) the plain.

The

Thence

feet.

2,240

1,675

2,375 and ^^^^>

a

Bir

whence

it

range runs nearly due west 'A s u r {west of a pass or gradually descends towards

theatre consists of spurs from the main a valley comes down from a s d at the foot

country within this

hill

Y

chain and open valley of the chain of Sheikh ;

i

Beiyazid, and becomes flat and open in the neighbourhood of Sebustieh (Samaria), which stands on a knoll south of it, joined only by a low saddle on the east to a spur which runs out northwest from Mount Ebal. This valley joins the main line of Wady Shair, which runs north-west from Nablus, at Ram in, and thence enters the maritime plain by a narrow pass. The watershed is considerably contorted north of

Yasid.

It

runs

curve round to the neighbourhood of Sanur the sea, leaving on village and Jeba it is only about 1,200 feet above

and between that

in a

the

east

the curious basin called

Drowning'),

which has no oudet.

Merj

el

Ghuruk

From Sanur

it

rises

of ridge, 1,768 feet above the sea, in the neighbourhood e s e u b a t e h and open valleys on the east, near

K

i

M

('Meadow Z

1

i

a

of

into a long vv

e h.

i

e h, with

[SffEE T

This

OROGRAPH Y.

AV. ]

line is not,

runs further east.

however,

this

is

wliich

range, which has steep slopes a small open plain, above which stands

Beiyazid is

'Ajjeh on the north and 'A n it

main backbone of the country,

tlie

(Sheet XII.)

North of the Sheikh both north and south, there north shuts

147

z

towards the

a

A

east.

ridge on the

Batn en N u ry {1,660 culminating in a conspicuous position. On the west a in

in,

Ram eh,

A

feet),

and on

block of very

s r range and rugged high-ground curves round to meet the B i r terminates this small plain (which measures 3 miles east and west, by i^ north and south) near 'Attara; the drainage of the plain passes by a narrow gorge down ady a s s n. '

W

M

i*i

i

The north portion of the Sheet is occupied by a block of hills about 1,100 feet above the sea, reaching the plain near Zeita and Baka, where the elevation is about 350 feet. Mount Ebal

itself

the

is

most remarkable feature on the Sheet,

and a conspicuous object from the which runs north.wards, called

Wady

'Askar and

joins the great gorge consists of precipitous

above them 1,400

The whole (Sheet XII.) with the steep slopes of Ebal rising Farih.

Wady cliffs,

On the east is a deep gorge Beidan; this valley rises near

plains.

feet high.

On

the south-east the open plain (S a h e forms the northern portion of the

'Askar) beneath Ebal

1

Mukhnah

XIV.), and

(Sheet

is

about i^ miles broad, east and west, the drainage being into the Jordan valley.

The Vale

\ mile to \ mile broad, separates Ebal from Gerizim, the summits of the two being 2 miles apart the watershed between the two runs close to the barracks in the vale, being east of the of Shechem, about

;

double theatre in the 1,600 feet

Mount Ebal and south.

Zawata

hills

about to be described

;

the ground here

is

some

above the Mediterranean.

On

a dome-shaped mountain, its summit elongated north the west a spur runs out, gradually losing in height, till at is

only 1,554 feet; 3 miles west of the main a d )-, summit, on the east slope of a knoll of this spur, called R a s el The southern slopes of stands the sacred place 'A mad ed Din. the elevation

is

K

Ebal are extremely steep, and there

is

a low ridge of

cliff

near the summit. 1

9



2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

148

East of Nablus, due south of the summit, there is a recess in the mountain forming a sort of natural theatre about \ mile in diameter.

A corresponding 'A m u d is of about

hollow

in the side of

Gerizim near the

J a ni

a

i

el

equal size, the plain between being rather more than mile and north south. The recess in Ebal is backed by a cliff on the \ north,

and the slope behind the

e.xtremely steep. The whole of

little

Mount Ebal has

mosque,

at the foot of Gerizim, is

a very desolate appearance.

It is

bare

and very rocky, the upper part of grey nummulitic limestone, with white chalk beneath. There are no trees on it, and only here and there a little corn-land, lower down, and extensive cactus gardens on the lower slopes of

the mountain near the City of

Shechem.

Gerizim

is

equally stony and

desolate in appearance, except In the neighbourhood of Ras el 'Ain, where the beautiful gardens of the vale climb up the lower slopes of the mounOn the east side there is a considerable thickness of white chalk tain. visible

below the grey

II.

(or almost blue) numm.ulitic limestone.

The Southern

south-east.

This mountain

Hills. is

These culminate

in

Gerizim on the

inferior In height to Ebal,

being only 2,849 It consists of a ridge running north and south, feet at Its highest point. A low saddle on the a small the at plateau \ mile in length. top forming south connects this block of mountain with the range of Sheikh SelPs. Ixviii. el Far si, supposed to be Mount Salmon (Judg. ix. 48

man

;

A

above the sea. spur runs out north from the plateau and of encloses on the east the recess above noticed. the on Gerizim, top Another spur runs out west, corresponding to the Ras el Kady on Ebal, feet 14), 2,641

and descends

to

Sheikh

es Sireh, which

is

about 2,000

feet

above

the sea.

The

northern slopes of Gerizim are steep in all parts, and south of Nablus there are vertical cliffs near the base of the mountain.

Sheikh

es Sireh a ridge runs out a d y S h d r. from Gerizim north-west, forming the southern limit of to for about miles Beit which reaches has an It elevation 1,370 Lid, 7 feet above the sea, and thence to Kefr el Lebad, forming a barrier between the plain and the valley of Wady Shdir below Nablus. In continuation of the spur of

W

i

confused block of spurs runs down westwards from the watershed, and resembles in character the northern district of Sheet XIV.

South of

this a

[SHEET

OROGRAPHY.

XI.]

149

(See Section A.) They are bounded by the plain on the west, where they average about 500 feet in height, the slope being very regular and gradual

from about 2,600 at the watershed, a

fall

of over 2,000 feet in a distance

of 12 to 14 miles.

The

Plain.

bounded on the east by the main road at the foot of the hills. The great valley which forms the Nahr Iskanderuneh (Sheet X.) runs northwards up this plain, and collects the III.

entire drainage of the

This

Wady

is

Shair or Samaria basin, and that of the

hill-country immediately south of

Rameh M f a

is

carried

down

it.

Wady

The

drainage of the plain below

el

Mai eh

to

Nahr

the

el

A

low shed running north(Sheet VII.). the Iskanderuneh basin from that of Nahr Tireh, separates el Falik (Sheet X.), which receives the drainage of Wady Sir and of the hills south of the spur on which stand e f r Z b a d and R a k a B c n i

north of the

r,

j

last river

west, near

K

i

i

Sab.

The main

Nahr Iskanderuneh

has a course of

on the present Sheet.

12 miles

The

valley to the

hill-country consists almost entirely of soft white chalk,

capped

at

Nablus by the nummulitic limestone of Ebal and Gerizim, and overlying The hills are sparsely covered with scrub, and corn

harder formations.

terraces artificially cut in the sides, especially in the lower spurs of the Wady Shair basin and near the plain. is

grown upon

and extensive olive-groves surround the villages. Barley is in all the valleys, and especially in the small plains. The grown country is far more open and less than that the to south rugged (Sheet XIV.), Beautiful

and the

well-built, flourishing villages

Shechem

is

fruit-tree

known

especially well watered

Maritime Plain

in Palestine

is

show

it

to be fertile.

The Vale

of

and productive, and every species of

found there.

A

large proportion of the

uncultivated, resembling the western portion (Sheet X.), but fine crops of barley are grown upon it, the fields belonging to villages

low

in the

on the

hills.

is

This

cultivation,

however,

differs annually,

and depends

tranquillity of the country.

HvDROGR,\PHV.

— First

This

district,

wells

and wells of

District,

consisting of porous

soil, is

the

Northern

principally supplied

Hills. by spring-

living water dug down to the harder strata beneath.

1

THE S UK VEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

5o

The

south slope of Ebal also formation of the mountain.

The

basin of

water near the

Sheikh B e

ya

z

i

destitute of springs,

owing

to the geological

well supplied with small springs of clear At the foot of the as mentioned with them.

Shair

Wady

villages,

i

is

d range,

is

to

there are also

the north,

These

springs of good water, especially near J eba.

many

fine

are noticed with the

villages.

The most remarkable

feature in the district

is

the

]\I

e

rj

el

G h u r u k,

It becomes, like the Buttauf a plain the water of which has no outlet. in and when visited in the end of lake winter, (Sheet VI.), a marshy

was covered with a sheet of water extending 3 miles east and west, and about i mile north and south, but apparently not of great In the end of August, 1872, it was, however, quite dry, and depth. April, 1874,

it

The

covered with stubble.

down water

winter into

in

it,

valleys in the low hills surrounding

it

bring

but no springs exist near.

Second District, Southern

Hills.

The

district

is

again

and contains no springs except along the supplied by Nablus boasts northern slopes of Gerizim, and in the Vale of Shechem. in of fresh water its of twenty-two springs neighbourhood, and most of wells and cisterns,

these are south of the town and on the sides of Gerizim. are as follows 1.

Ras

The

principal

:

el

'A

in.

— An

abundant perennial supply of cold clear August, from which a stream is conducted in

water forming a pool even in The water issues from a masonry a small channel to gardens below. structure which has in it a small recess, as at 'Ain es Sultan. (Sheet XVIII.)-"2.

'Ain

Sarin a.

— East

of the mountain.

cavity of the mountain, also perennial, with a 3.

'Ain

Balata.

— By

the village of the

running stream of very clear water even 4.

at

'A

i

n

little

D u f n a. — A spring

in late

A

smaller spring in a natural basin.

same name, which has summer.

a

over which the modern Turkish barracks

* These small apses above the springs do not appear to be Christian in origin, as the one Ras el 'Ain points south, that at 'Ain es Sultan west. They seem more probably

Roman

work, niches for a figure of the genius of the spring.

— C.

R. C.

[SHEET

HYDROGRAPHY.

X/.]

151

are built, also clear and abundant, with a running stream.

name

'

'

'A

5.

Yak

from

buried i

b mosque

ii

1. '

K

'A

7.

'A n

Fuad.

8.

'A in

esh S

'A n

Beit

i

n

el

i

its

— On the

west of the town, near the

hill-side

H

i

z

n

the honey-spring.'

:

6.

takes

subterranean position.

its

n el 'A s

It

u

s

a

b.

-

r

i

s h.

Ilmch.

town

the valley, beside which also Khusfy, a spring well.

is

in

\ h e

All near one another west of the

)

— A very

el

supply of good water beside the road, forming a clear pool, and issuing from an ancient building. It sends a good stream down the valley. 9.

i

The Well)

is

fine

extraordinary fact of a well dug close to these springs (Jacob's worthy of notice. The well is specially described in Section B.

Third

the

District,

Plain.

— The

perennial streams of which occur about four

Sheet X. are fed by groups of fine springs, Thus Wady Maleh is fed by the springs called miles from the hills. el 'Ayun Jennahat, which form a long pool in the valley. The

D

a )•, 'A y u n el J e h a s h, 'A y u n e z three groups, 'Ayun e d Z u t i y e h, are all abundant, and form marshy streams surrounded with

long grass.

They

feed the

N

1

ah

r

I

s

k a nde

H

u ne

r

h.

Further south

are the small springs called 'A y u n el u f i y r, the largest of which comes up in a pit cut or dug in the ground, some 10 feet across the i

;

'Ayun Kufy E.xcepting these springs, the plain is unsupplied with water, and towards the south artificial ponds occur for supply of the villages. are of similar character.

el

Topography. Sheet,

and

a

— There are seven Government Divisions on the present of

total

enumerated according

99 inhabited towns and

villages,

which are

beginning with the most northern. All the districts belong to the IMutaserriflik of Nablus.

— SriAfUVWIVET EL (K m). —A considerable I.

I.

'At til

to the districts,

GlIARBIVEH. village,

on a

hill

at the

edge of

the plain, with open ground to the north and a broad valley to the south. It has round it a small olive-grov-e, and is supplied by cisterns.

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

152

Baka

2.

el

Gharbiych (K

1).

—A

of

village

moderate

size

on the plain it is very white and conspicuous, of stone and mud, with a few olives, and an orchard to the south several wells and springs west ;

;

The main

and north.

north road passes through

Baka esh Sherkiyeh (K

3.

with

high ground,

Mukam

olives.

to the north

It

1).

—A

has a well

to

and a

south

the

on

hamlet

small

very

scattered olives surround

;

it.

little

and there are two or

it,

A

three palms close by. few houses stand separate, on the south-east, near a second Mukam, called a r (' Father of Fire ').

Dc

4.

r

i

Abu N Ghusun (Km). — A

el

with a well (B

hill,

el

r

i

'Akaribeh)

village of

moderate

On

to the west.

size,

the north

It is surrounded with magnificent groves of low ground. occupying an area of about three square miles towards the south.

ojDen

J el

5.

am eh

(J 1).

—A

mud

small

on

hamlet

on a

the

is

olives,

of

side

a

knoll. J e

6.

1 1

(J

1).

— Evidently

an ancient

site

;

a moderate-sized village

mud and

stone on a high mound at the edge of the plain. It stands beside the main road to the north, near the junction with that from Shechem, and about 2^ miles north of the road throusfh 'Attil to the ereat

of

The

(Sheet VIII.)

plain.

village

is

and has a

few-

to the north (see Section B.),

and

surrounded with

There are caves

on the west.

olives

wells,

springs about a mile to the north-west. This place is perhaps Gitta, the native place of Simon Magus, a Samaritan town. (Reland Pal., p. 813.) It may also perhaps be the Jethu, or Gath, of Thothmes III., a place north of the road which he pursued to

Megiddo. (See 'Quarterly Statement,' April, 1876, mentioned apparently in the Samaritan Chronicle.'

p.

'

ment,' 1876, p. 196.)

Kakon

m).

—A

large modern, having been built up by a 7.

villages,

The

(J

round the

fine

village,

which

('

is,

89.)

It

is

also

Quarterly State-

however,

quite

mixed population coming from the hiil central tower (see Section B.), which is ancient.

very conspicuous, though the ground to the north is rather The houses are of stone and mud, the water supply from

place

is

higher. the neighbourhood round is arable land. wells This place is noticed by Benjamin of Tudela, ;

who

identifies

it

with

TOPOGRAPHY.

{SHEET AV]

'DJ

Marino Sanuto shows it on his map under the Keilah (1160 a.d.). Caconanatat, and in his text gives it as Kakon-el-Anatah.

Nuzlet esh Sherkiyeh (K

S.

a well on the south, and a few olives.

has a palm-tree near.

Nuzlet

9.

Tinat (K

et

a well to the west on low ground.

It

—A

very small hamlet, with stands on high ground, and

It

—A

1).

1).

title

little

hamlet with

fig-trees,

has caves opposite to

it

and

on the

south.

Xuzlet

10.

few

Wusta

el

(K

1).

— Yet

smaller,

on a spur with a

trees. 11.

Shellalif

12.

Shuweikeh

(I

m). (J

—A few mud hovels near springs. —A good-sized on high m). village

near the plain, with wells to the west. Chronicle,'

and

its

It is

mentioned

in the

'

ground Samaritan

Samaritan name given as Suchah.

Guerin calls attention to the fact that the antiquity of this site is proved by the existence of old cisterns cut in the rock, and that the name is a diminutive form of the Hebrew Shocoh or Socoh, a name home by two towns in the tribe of Judah. He suggests that here

was another town that bore the same name.

Zeita (K

13.

edge of the the south.

1).

It

plain. It

is

good-sized village on high ground at the surrounded with fig-gardens, and has olives to

be an ancient place, having tombs to the principally from wells, but there is a small spring

would appear

to

The supply is in esh Shabutbut)on

east.

('A

—A

The camp was pitched among olives. Two sacred

the south-west.

on high ground, south-east of the

village,

places exist to the south side of the village. '

used

Here

I

for the

found, just as at Jett, an ancient capital hollowed out to make a mortar, and same purpose. very good well, constructed of cut stone, seems ancient.'



A

'

Guerin,

14.

Samaria,'

i.

340.

Zelefeh

(II).

—A

very small

hamlet,

with

springs

to

the

south.

— SlIARAWIVET ESH ShERKIVEH. — of small but of (L m). A II.

I.

'Ajjeh

VOL.

II.

size,

village

ance, perched on the edge of a below. It has a cistern on the

hill,

and

ancient appear-

built of stone, with olive

south-east.

20

groves

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

154

2.

'Arrabeh

(LI).

—A

very large village on the south slope of

a ridge, the northern houses on high ground. There is a small mosque in the centre, and one or two large buildings, including the Sheikh's The water supply is entirely from wells within the village, and house.

on the road-side towards the north. There is a ridge of very barren rock between the village on the south and the plain (M e r j 'Arrabeh) on the north. Scattered olives grow round the village, but the immediate very bare. The villagers are turbulent and rich, owning very fine lands in the northern plain. This town is situated on a plateau. ... It is divided into three quarters, one of which

neighbourhood

is

'

was once surrounded by a wall flanked with small towers. This wall is now in great part destroyed, having been overthrown in a siege sustained some years ago during a revolt against the

Caimacam

of Nablus.

'Arrabeh has certainly succeeded an ancient town of which no mention is anywhere made. Probably it bore the name of the present town. There still remain cisterns cut in the rock, and a great many cut stones built up in modern houses. Before the Mohammedan conquest '

This is now, a church stood here, from the materials of which a mosque has been erected. We remarked above the entrance a beautiful monolithic lintel in its turn, falling into ruins.

middle of which was formerly engraved a cross with equal branches, which the Moslems have chipped out. It occupied the middle of a rectangle flanked by two The lintel triangles, one on either side, all three framed in a kind of rectangular cartouche. The church is alone sufficient to fix the date of the church at the period assigned by me. was decorated internally with columns having Corinthian capitals, and fluting half spiral, half in white marble, in the

Some

vertical.

fragments of the shafts

remain

still

piece of frieze formerly sculptured with interlaced

in the

links.'

mosque, together — Guerin, 'Samaria,'

with a beautiful ii.

218.



'At tar a (L m). A small stone village on a spur of mountain, with a few olives and a well on the west. 3.

This place city of

is

mentioned

in the

'

Onomasticon

'

Ephraim, north of Sebaste, and 4 miles from

(s.

v.

Atharoth) as a

The

it.

distance

is

exact. 4.

and

'Ellar (K

5.

hill

The name

wells.

Manasseh

good 7.

(i

Chron.

Fahmeh

suggests

vi.

village its

t

(L m).

r

n e n

Ram eh

hill,

with olives

identity with Aner, a Levitical city of

—A small mud hamlet on

a saddle beneath the

has a well and a fig-garden towards the north.

olives to the south,

E

on the side of a

70).

N u r y). It Kefr Raay (L m). — A

(B a 6.

— A small

m).

and two

— (L m). A

large

village

on high ground,

with

wells.

conspicuous

village

on

a

hilly

knoll

[SHEET

TOPOGRAPHY.

X/.]

above the small

155

plain, with a hij^h central house.

The

with olives below.

This place appears

sides of the

to

hill

It is

of moderate size,

are steep.

be Remcth of Issachar (Joshua

Section C. for traditions as to

Neby Hazkin

xi.x.

21).

(See

at this village.)

1).— A small village, with a well on the east on the It has a few trees to the east. back of a lonof and bare ridge.

Saida (K

8.

Dhahr

edh

Silct

—A

good-sized and flourishing with village, built on a hill slope, many good stone houses. It is surrounded by fine groves of olives, and owns good lands in the plain. The principal water supply is from a good spring of clear water, which appears 9.

(L m).

This comes out of the chalk rock on the slope of the It is called hill by the main road above the village on the north-cast. The name of the 'A n S i 1 e h, and is half-a-mile from the houses. to

be perennial.

i

sacred place opposite the village on the north is of special interest Neby This title in the Samaritan Levite Prophet.' Lawin, signifying the Book of Joshua is applied to Sanballat, the enemy of Nehemiah. (See :

'

Section C.) III.

— Mesharik

el Jekrar.

—A

village of ancient appearance on a hill perched m). It above the plain, the houses descending the slope on the south-east. has two wells down the hill and a good olive grove near the road on the

'A n

1.

a

(M

The houses

south. 2.

z

'Asiret

are of stone.

el

Hatab

with olive groves on every

(1\I

n).

— A large

village

This would appear to be an ancient Asor, been found to agree with its position, unless Judith 3.

the

on a round

knoll,

side.

but it

be

no notice has the

Esora

of

(iv. 4).

F

e n d a k

ii

m

i

y eh

(L m).— A very small

village

on the slope of

A

with three springs to the south-west, small and marshy. sacred cave exists above it on the south. (See Section B.) The name of this hill,

seems

village

to

be a corruption of the Greek Pentecomias (compare

Terkumieh, Sheet XXL), perhaps referring in its vicinity. 4.

J

eba

(M

m).

—A flourishing

village

to the

group of

'five villages'

on the

hill-side.

The houses 20



2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

156

fine olive groves, and has established on the west on open arable ground, close to one well which has a Shaduf, or long pole with a There is potters' clay close by, and a weight for drawing up water.

well built of stone.

It

surrounded with •

is

The camp was

several wells.

K

The

'

u r s i, or throne of the famous place is the It is apparently an ancient Jerrar family, once governors of this district. There is a rock-cut tomb on the east. This place seems to be the site. Gabe of the Onomasticon,' 16 miles east of Csesarea (s. v. Gabathon), the village.

in

pottery

'

'

although the distance

not exact; also probably the

is

10).

(iii.

5.

few

Judeideh (N

n).

—A

good-sized village on

Geba

tlat

of Judith

ground, with a

olives. 6.

J

urba (M

1).

— A small village on the side of a slope,

with olives

to the south. 7.

Kubatieh (M

small plain which

is

—A

large stone village on a slope, east of a It has a sacred place on the south of olives.

1).

full

(Sheikh Theljy), and a good orange garden near the

village.

\Yhose sides are pierced by numerous cisterns of ancient origin, some of ^Yhich are partly filled up and in bad repair ; others are still used by the people. The latter are closed at the mouth by great round stones in form of a mill'

Kubatieh stands upon a rocky

hill,

This second opening is itself closed by another stone, which is taken away when the water is drawn. This system of closed wells and cisterns by means of a stone is of extreme antiquity. It is found in many parts of Palestine, and was in use before stone, pierced in the centre.

the

Hebrew 8.

INI

conquest.'

e

i

mud, with a

t

h a

1

— Guerin, 11

n

(M

'

Samaria,'

m).

—A

i.

343.

village of

moderate

size,

well to the north, situate at the foot of a high

of stones and

hill,

with a few

olives in the plain. 9.

10.

INI

e

r

k

e h

(M

1).

— A hamlet on the side of a bare

Meselieh (M

1).

— A small

hill.

with a detached portion to to the south, and surrounded

village,

the north, and placed on a slope, with a

hill

by good olive-groves, with an open valley called Wady el Melek (' the The water-supply is from wells, some of King's Valley') on the north. which have an ancient appearance.

They

are mainly supplied with rain-

water. 'In 1876

I

proposed to identify the village of Meselieh, or Mithilia, south of Jenin, with for B, of which there are Book of Judith, supposing the substitution of

M

the Bethulia of the

occasional instances in Syrian nomenclature.

The

indications of the site given in the

TOPOGRAPHY.

[SHEET XL]

157

Bethulia stood on a hill, but not apparently on the top, Apocr)^pha are tolerably distinct which is mentioned separately (Judith vi. 12). There were springs or wells beneath the

town (verse

11),

and the houses were above these

(verse 13).

The

city stood in the hill-

The country not far from the plain (verse 11), and apparently near Dothan (Judith iv. 6). army of Holofernes was visible when encamped near Dothan (Judith vii. 3, 4), by the spring in the valley near Bethulia (verses 3-7). '

The

is





supposed to represent Bethulia namely, the strong village of Sanur these various requisites ; but the topography of the Book of Judith, as a whole, so consistent and easily understood, that it seems probable that Bethulia was an actual site.

does not

site usually

fulfil

V'isiting Mithilia

on our way

to

Shechem

ruinous village on the slope of the

hill.

(see Sheet XI. of the Survey), we found a small it are ancient wells, and above it a rounded

Beneath

commanding a tolerably extensive view. The north-east part of the great plain, Gilboa, Tabor, and Nazareth, are clearly seen. West of these a neighbouring hill hides Jenin and Wady Bel'ameh (the Belmaim, probably, of the narrative) ; but further west Carmel hill-top,

appears behind the ridge of Sheikh Iskandcr, and part of the plain of 'Arrabeh, close to " The Dothan, is seen. A broad corn-vale, called King's Valley," extends north-west from Meselieh towards Dothan, a distance of only 3 miles. There is a low shed formed by rising

two

hills, separating this valley from the Dothain plain ; and at the latter beside which, probably, the Assyrian army is supposed by the old Jewish novelist to have encamped. In imagination one might see the stately Judith walking through

ground

bet\\-een

site is the spring

the down-trodden corn-fields " men of the

and shady

olive-groves, while

on the rugged

hillside

above the

her until she was gone down the mountain, and till she had city C. R. C, 'Quarterly passed the valley, and could see her no more'" (Judith x. 10).

looked

after

Statement,' July, 18S1.

II.

Sanur (M

m).



—A

small

fortified

village,

in

a very strong

guarding a pass into the plain east of it. The village is placed on the top of an isolated hill, joined only by a low rocky ledge on the northwest to the main chain.

position,

Portions of a surrounding wall are still visible, and the place has the The houses are high and well built, especially appearance of a fortress. the Sheikh's palace.

The the chief town of one branch of the Jerrar family. place was formerly fortified, and sustained a siege of six months from In 1830 it was taken by 'Abdallah Jezzar Pacha without being taken. This

Pacha

is still

months' siege, the Sheikh having followed the 'Amr in declaring himself independent.

after three or four

example of Dhahr el The place was ruined from the bombardment

1S40, having been the Jerrar has never

in

The fortress built by destroyed by Ibrahim Pacha. been restored, but the place now has a population of perhaps 200 or 300 souls.

The importance

of Sanur

and afterwards by other

lies in

travellers

the fact that

and

it

has been identified

first

by \'on Raumer,

writers, including Guerin, with the Bethulia of the

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

15S



Book

of Judith. The requirements of the site that it was a stony place, that it was near Dothaim, that it overlooked the plain of Esdraelon— arc all satisfied by the position of Sanur,

as

may be

seen by reference to the map.

The

hill

on which the modern

village stands

is

described by Guerin as nearly circular in form, rising as if by successive terraces ; the slopes are steep, and pierced by numerous cisterns hollowed in the rock. The hill is completely isolated on three sides ; on the fourth, by means of a long tongue of rock, lower than the It seems to have been plateau on which the village stands, it is attached to other hills. walled enclosure, flanked by towers, predestined to serve as the site of a stronghold. formerly surmounted the summit ; it is now in part over the town. great number of houses '

A

A

That of the Sheikh, which

are also demolished or partly rebuilt. fort."

— Guerin,

'Samaria,'

i.

I visited, is

like a

small

45.

As

regards the name of Bethulia, which is nowhere else mentioned, we may argue that even if the story be apocr)-phal, there is no reason to suppose that the writer invented the

name, any more than the names of Dothaim and Esdraelon, also found

name

now

has

"

in the passage.

The again alluded to in three or four other passages of the same book. That of Sanur may mean an entirely perished, so far as we know.

Besides, the place

is

'

'"

aqueduct (Name Lists, p. igr). The other sites which have been proposed are the Frank Mountain and Beit-Oula, which are in the south of Palestine ; Safed, which is and Beit Elfa, also too far from these very far from Dothaim and the plain of Esdraelon ;

places.

12.

S

i

r

s

i

(N

— A small —A (M

m).

Tulluza

village in a valley, with olives.

good-sized village, well built, with a central Sheikh's house. It stands on a knoll, with a very steep descent on the east, and the sides of the hill are covered with beautiful groves of 13.

To

olives.

n).

the east

it

commands

a \iew

down \\' a d y F The women of

a r a h,

and

to

the village go the west over the broad spurs from Ebal. down to the fine springs on the east, about a mile distant, where is a

The place perennial supply of good water. Maundeville in 1322 a.d. as Deluze. 14.

few

Yasid (M

m).

—A

village of

mentioned by Sir John

is

moderate

size

on a

knoll,

with a

trees. 15.

Ez Zawieh

the west.

seems

It

(INI

to take its

near the place. IV. I.

'A n e b

olives round

and a tank. course.

t

it.

a

(K It

There

—A

m).

m).

hamlet on a

name from

—Wady

with a well to

the sudden twist in the road

esh Shair.

— A village of moderate

appears to be an ancient is

hill-side,

with

having rock-cut tombs one of several along its

site,

also a mill in the valley,

size in the valley,

[SHEET

TOPOGRAPHY.

XI.]

Imrin

Beit

2.

and west.

Be

i

village of

vaz

i

moderate

d chain.

1 1

is

size in

i

in

Lid

t

(L

n).

—A

llic

valley

built of stone,

the valley to the south, and olives round Some of the inhabitants are Greek Christians.

has a spring

3.

n).— A

(I.

Sheikh B e

at the foot of the

159

village of small size, built

it

and

on the east

on a

hill

rising

above the valley south of it. The houses are of stone, and A few olives growsupplied by a well on the south-east, lower down. round the village. 600

feet

Bel ah

—A

good-sized village on very high ground, with magnificent groves of olives to the west, and supplied by cisterns. It is apparently an ancient site, having rock-cut tombs. The name with a in its town the half western of Manasseh Bileam, suggests identity 4.

(i

Chron.

vi.

(K

m).

70).

—A

El Bizarieh (L Some springs to the east.

small hamlet on high ground, with m). of the sons of Jacob are said to be buried here.

5.



(L m). A large stone village on a terrace, with a good grove of olives and two springs to the west, and well to the south. The There are cactus hedges road ascends the pass through the village.

Burka

6.,

round the gardens north of the village, and a large threshing-floor in the middle of the place^ which is built in a straggling manner along the hill-

Some

side.

of

inhabitants are

its

Deir Sheraf

7.

Above

(L

n).

Greek

—A

Christians.

village

beside the road on the east,

of small

size,

situate

in

a

a good spring, apparently perennial, and round this are vegetable gardens irrigated with its waters. Figs and olives also grow in the vicinity. hollow.

it,

is

Dennabeh (Km). — A

good-sized village of on high ground, with a few trees and a well to the west. 8.

9.

round 10.

Jennesinia (M

n).

stone

small hamlet in a valley, with olives

it.

Kefr

el

Lebad (Km). — A

ground, with a few olives. with water in spring. 11.

—A

mud and

Kefr

Rum man

The (K

small

stone

village

on high

valley to the north, near 'Anebta, flows

m).

—A small

mountain, with a well to the north and olives.

hamlet on the side of the

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

i6o

K use in

12.

(L

n).

—A

on the side of a

village

ridge, apparentlywater of the the on the which has a Howing north, supplied by valley stream. spring exists about three-quarters of a mile south-east in the

A

viilley.



En Nakurah

(L n). A small stone village on the slope of the hill. It has olives, which appear to grow half wild, and a spring of good water, apparently perennial, in the valley to the north, near which 13.

A

are vegetable gardens.

Mukam

small

stands above the village, on the

south.

N usf

14.

J

ebi

(M

1

n).

— A small Some

a spring to the east and olives.

village in an

valley, with

open

of the inhabitants are

Greek

Christians.

Here Guerin found an ancient sarcophagus serving as a trough. cover of one stone, shaped en dos d'ane.

second knoll to

lay its

former

(L m).— A village of moderate size, on a hill, with a the east, whence its name. It has a few olives beneath it.

Sebustieh

16.

also

it

Ram in

15.

and mud

stone

Beside

Section

B.)

(L

n).

—A

on the

houses,

The

position

large of

hill is

a

and the

very

flourishing

Samaria.

ancient fine

one

village,

;

the

of

(See rises

hill

above the open valley on the north, and is isolated on all sides but the east, where a narrow saddle exists some 200 feet lower There is a flat plateau on the top, on the east than the top of the hill.

some 400

to

500

end of which the

feet

village stands, the plateau extending

westwards

for

over

A

higher knoll rises from the plateau, west of the village, from which a fine view is obtained as far as the Mediterranean Sea. The

half a mile.

On the soil, and is terraced to the very top. and a with few olives a sort of and bare north white, steep slopes, the lower recess exists on this side, which is all plough-land, in whole

hill

consists of soft

it is

;

whifl^tand

On

the south a beautiful olive-grove, rising in terrace above terrace, completely covers the sides of the hill, and a small extent of open terraced-land, for growing barley, exists towards the west and at the top.

columns.

The

village itself

is

ill-built,

church

ofNeby Yahyah

west.

(See Section B.)

and modern, with ruins of a Crusading

(St.

John the

Baptist),

towards the north-

Samaria commands two main roads, that from Shechem,

to the

north.

\_SHEET

TOPOGRAPHY.

XI.']

which passes beneath which runs west of it,

A

on the

it

east,

in the valley,

i6t

and that

to the plain

from Shechem,

about two miles distant.

by the road on the north-east, but no rock-cut tombs have as yet been noticed on the hill, though possibly hidden beneath the present plough-land. There is a large cemetery of rock-cut tombs

sarcophagus

lies

to the north,

on the other side of the

The neighbourhood

of Samaria

is

valley.

well supplied with water.

In the

months of July and August a stream was found (in 1872) in the valley south of the hill, coming from the spring (A n Harun), which has a good supply of drinkable water, and a conduit leading from it to a small i

Vegetable gardens exist below the spring. the east is a second spring called 'A n K e f r

ruined

mill.

To

i

Rum

a,

and the

valley here also flows with water during part of the year, other springs

existing further

The

up

it.

threshing-floors of the village are on the plateau north-west of the The inhabitants are somewhat turbulent in character, and appear

houses.

to be rich, possessing

however, non-resident

some are Greek

supplied by

n).

—A

cisterns, with a

Shiifeh (K

18.

;

There

is

Christians.

Sefarin (K

17.

a Greek Bishop, who is, the majority of the inhabitants are JNIoslems, but

very good lands.

small village

on a

knoll,

upon

a

ridge,

few olive-trees.

—A

small

stone village, in

a

strong position It is supplied by a well in north and south. with steep slopes ridge, A good view is obtained from the village, and has a few olives below it. it over the plain, and the country north and south, as well as to the range n).

on a

north of S e b u

s

t

i

e h.

Keram

—A

long straggling village, on high ground above the plain and surrounded with arable land and rock. On the west is a small garden of figs, beside which are the threshing-floors

Till

19.

There

(J ni).

a second well on the north in the valley. There are several good-sized houses in the \'illage, and huge heaps of rubbish beneath the houses, which are principally of stone.

and a

well.

The

is

rock-cut tombs have been evidently an ancient site discovered on the north, half hidden by the plough-soil, and a winepress place

is

;

near them. VOL.

11.

21

1

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIXE.

62

Till

Keram

mentioned

is

'

'

in the

Samaritan Chronicle

October 1876, p. 186), and there given as Santo Karimathah.

Zawa ta

20.

(M

n).

—A

moderate

village of

Quarterly

name

ancient Samaritan

its

Statement,'

'

(see

on a

size,

is

with

hill,

springs in the valley to the north.

V. 1.

A matin

the slope of the 2.

Matein) (L

(or

El 'Arak (M ;

'Amra.

o).

—A

o). is

it



Is

named from

the

cliff

on which

'Asiret

Kibliyeh (Mo) —-A

el

low ground, with a well to the south-east.

on

stands,

on

The head

Shechem, and the

name

is

of

with two

olives are

;

village of

passes close to it on the north, from which fact nected with Asher-ham-Michmethah (Josh. xvii. sight of

it

of moderate size and built of stone,

springs beneath in the valley, one north, one south on the hill facing the village towards the north. 3.

size

moderate

village of

with a few olives.

hill,

a sjDur of Gerlzim

— Jurat

moderate

grown size

on

Wady Kan

a h

might be thought con-

it

7), but the place is not in not properly speaking a representative

of the Hebrew. 4.

Beit

with olives

;

n).^A village of moderate size in low ground, is of mud and stone, with a good spring ('A n e s S u b a n) The olive groves in the valley are very fine and ancient

I

it

i

to the north.

Beit

is

a small

mill,

and

Udhen (Uden

smaller than the

last, lies

and a spring on the 6.

i

;

here and there 5.

b a (L

Burin (M

in

or

spring a stream of water.

Uzen) (M

on the slope above

it

;

n). it

—A

village

rather

has a well on the east

hill-side to the west. o).

the middle and a few

—A

large village

in

a valley,

with

a

spring

in

olives.



(L o). A small village of ancient appearance, standing on a Tell or mound, with a rock-cut tomb to the south, and a sacred Mukam to the east. It is mentioned in the fourteenth century by its present name, and has been thought to be the ancient Pirathon, but 7.

Ferata

the Samaritan Chronicle (dating from the twelfth century), gives its ancient name as Ophrah, which suggests its being Ophrah of Abiezer

[sheet

vi.

(Judges

ii).

Fer on,

also

8.

TOPOGRAPHY.

ay.]

(See 'Quarterly Statement,' October 1876, next district (Beni Sab).

Jineid (M n).— A few

Kcfr

Kaddum

with wells and olives rising over

it

on the

it

;

east,

houses round a ruined town on a

and

n).

is

supplied by wells

Ku

(or

is

mentioned

house

it,

1)

small

village

at

the

it

it

;



;

has a well to the west

this part of the

by

i

the houses are of stone.

Jit (L n). A well-built stone village with a high standing on a knoll by the main road, surrounded with olives

111 it

1

;

— (Mo). A

'

Kuryct in

hill,

stands higher than the main road. Samaritan Chronicle. (See Quarterly State-

in the

ment,' October, 1876, p. 196.) 11.

See

—A

foot of Gerizim, with a spring in

This place

197.)

good-sized village on low ground, has a watch-tower on the side of the chalk hill

(L

Kcfr Kullin

10.

p.

6^

in the

with a spring to the south. 9.

1

;

-1

H'.iU>l

,

the inhabitants are remarkable for their courtesy, all the district west of it being little visited

country and

tourists. 12.

Madema

13.

Rafidia (M

(M

o). n).

—A small hamlet

—A

in a valley.

good-sized village on a

hill-side,

with a

The spring above it to the north-east, and vegetable gardens below. inhabitants are Greek Christians, and are said by Robinson to have numbered 500. Protestant school is conspicuous in the middle of

A

the village. 21-

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

^^4



(L n). A small villat^c the south-east, surrounded by olives. 14.

Surra

15.

Till (L

o).

—A

a hollow, with a spring on

in

of moderate size on low ground, with a on the south it has a well and a few trees, and on villag-e

high mound behind it the west a pool in winter

;

the hills to the north are bare and white, but

;

terraced to the very top.

VI.— Beni

Sab.



'Azzijn (K o). A small village lying low on several wells and olives on every side. The population is 1.

son at 290 males, with one Christian family

Bdka

2.

(Beni

(K

Sab)

o).

—A

(in 1848).

a hiil-sidc, with

stated

by Robin-

(See Section B.)

well-built stone village in a con-

spicuous position on a bare ridge, with a few olives, and a well to the north it is a small A high house on the north side formed a place. ;

trigonometrical station in 1873. 3. it

Fe

I

a

m

appears to be 4.

F

e r '6

n

i

e h (J n).

—A small hamlet on low ground, near the plain

;

an ancient place, having cisterns and rock-cut tombs. (J n).

—A

small village on a slope, at the edge of the The inhabitants are all east.

plain, with a few trees and a well to the

Greek

The place is shown by Marino Sanuto on his map as The name means Pharaoh but may perhaps be a corruption

Christians.

Farona.

'

'

of Pharathoni or Pirathon.

(Judges

xii.

15

;

i

Mace.

ix.

50.)



(L o). A small poor village by the main road, with wells to the north and two sacred places it stands on high ground it is probably the Talmudic Fondeka, a Samaritan village. (Tal. Jer. 5.

E

Funduk

1

;

Demoi, 6.

ii.

i.)

Furdisia

(J n).

—A

small village near

remarkable only from a palm growing

at

;

the edge of the

hills,

it.



m). A small village on a knoll in the plain, with A few olives to the north. The wells and cisterns, and a Mukam. 7.

Irtah

(J

houses are stone and mud. the Lists of 8.

J

i

Thothmes

nsafut (L

III.,

o).

Perhaps the place called Irtah (No. 60), which appears to have been north of Jaffa.

in

on high ground, with wells

to

—A small

the north, and a few olives.

village

[SHEET 9.

TOPOGRAPHY.

XI.']

Jiyus

(Jo).

—A

moderate-sized

with olives to the south-east.

It

165

stone

an ancient

to be

appears

on

village

a

ridge,

site,

having

rock-cut tombs and ancient wells.



A large somewhat straggling village, (lo). The houses are with cisterns to the north and a pool on the south-west. This appears to be the Galgula of the 'Onomasticon,' 6 miles badly built. from Antipatris to the north. (See Antipatris,' Sheet XIII., Section A.) Kalkilieh

10.

'

Kcfr 'Abbush (K

11.

a steep round

ground 12.

is

hill,

n).

—A

with a few olives.

very rugged near

Kcfr Jcmmal

stone village of moderate It

is

size,

supplied by cisterns.

on

The

it.

(J n).

—A

small stone village on a knoll, with

cisterns. 13. 14.

K e fr L a k K e fr S u r

i

f

(K

(K

n).

o).

— Resembles the

last.

— A small stone village on a

knoll, supplied

by

cisterns. 15.

Kefr Zibad (K

n).

—A

village of

moderate

size

on a small

A

on the north of it. It is of stone. plateau, overhanging the valley steep ascent, with a cistern on the north, on the south a fig-garden, and beyond this a few olives, where the tents of the Survey party were pitched.

The water

Near them was a rock-cut tomb. 16.

Kulunsaweh

(J

n).

The houses

of a Caimacam.

—A

village

supply

is

from cisterns.

of moderate

size,

the

seat

and surround the

are

principally mud, in the centre (Section B.) by the former is a hall and tower Crusading very The water supply is from wells and from tall palm, and another shorter. K u f) on the west. This place is, perhaps. the springs ('A y u n e ;

1

Plans in the plain, mentioned as a place where the Templars built a castle in A.D.

1191 (Geoffry de Vinsauf), which was destroyed in the same year

by Saladin, and apparently I

;.

Kur

(K

n).

—A

rebuilt.

stone village in a strong position on a ridge, It is of moderate size, well-built of stone,

with a steep slope to the east.

and supplied by

K urs

cisterns.

Traces of an ancient road

e.xist

near

it.

It is

or seat of a famous native family (Beit J y u s i). It is, perhaps, worthy of notice that the name resembles the Corea of Josephus, About a mile north of near which was a fortress called Alexandrium. the

i,

i

1

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

66

Kur

Khurbet Iskander (Ruin of Alexander) the position, however, does not seem to agree with the account of Josephus. (See Kuriut, is

;

Sheet XIV.)

K urye

i8.

H aj

t

supplied by wells.

It

A

a (L o).— good-sized village on high ground, has a rock-cut tomb on the west, and appears to j

be an ancient place.

It

is

('Quarterly Statement,' 1876,

Er Ras (K

19.

n).

—A

mentioned p.

'

the

in

Samaritan

Chronicle.'

196.)

hamlet on a high

small

knoll,

supplied

by cisterns, with olives below on the north.

E

20.

t

Ta

i

y

i

bc h

(J n.)

—A large

a slope, principally built of stone. rounded with olives.

E

21.

t

T

r

i

surrounded by

h

(I n).

of the

is

— A conspicuous

olives, with a well

Bet-thar

the

e

It

straggling village on the end of

supplied by cisterns and sur-

village

on the west

Itineraries,

on a knoll

in the plain,

This appears to be and Ca;sarea.

side.

between Antipatris

(See Antipatris, Sheet XIII.)

Nablus (M of

Section B.,

springs

H

Neapolis,

is

the capital

(For the description of the town see

is

supply

extremely abundant, including the following

:

'A

1.

Shechem and

p. 203.)

The water

of

the ancient

n),

the districts on the Sheet.

all

i

n

el

'A

s

1

('

Spring of Honey').

— In the gardens just south

5.

Y a k u b. Ti n e h. 'A n K a r y u n. — In the town, near J a m a e 'A n H use in. — Near Jamia el B e k. A n el J a m a. — In the great mosque courtyard. 'A n el Kas Spring of the Cup').

6.

'A

i

7.

'A

i

n

cs

Sekkayeh. — Near

i

n

es

Sitt

2.

3.

i

z

n

i

t

i

i

i

'

4.

i

i

A

'

8.

9.

i

('

n es

'A n i

There are I.

e s

Sikr

S b i

('Springof the Dam').

a

(' t.

the great

mosque on the

Spring of the Lady').

— Near

Jamia en N

also three principal wells

Bir ed

— West of the great mosque.

Dcbaghah

u

:

('Well of Tanning').

s

r.

cast.

{SHEET

TOPOGRAPHY.

A7.]

T c ni a Bir cd Dihib B

2.

3.

i

c

r

t

11

i

167

r.

('Well of Plane Trees').

— In

the cast part of

the town.

and wells outside the town, 'A in D u f n a on the east beneath the barracks, which have recently been completed 'A n

There are

also springs

i

;

el

K

li

a

s

and the

on the west,

b,

Ras

beautiful

in the valley

el 'A '

others are supplied.

A

n

i

below the town, amid the gardens

n on the south, from which

K

el

many

b there are mills

s a

;

of the

the valley. Water seems to run everywhere, the sound of the streams below in the valley being audible late in summer. Small mills exist all along the course of

el

Wady I\I

e

The most famous

Shair.

u s r

r

li

By

i

or

s a,

'

There

part of the

spring

is

Ras

el 'A

i

in

n,

called also

as cold as lead,' equivalent to icy cold.

The town resembles Hebron walls.

li

in

having

city gates

but

no fortress

however, low walls of small modern masonry round

are,

city.

Large ash-heaps have accumtilated on the north, the east, and the west near the latter is a IMoslem cemetery. On the north-east there is :

also a large

over them.

cemetery with two conspicuous tombs, having domed buildings These graves are close to some of the old rock cut tombs on

the lower slopes of Ebal.

A

few palms grow

The

small

among

mosque

A

long olive grove stretches east of the town. the houses. On the west there are also olives.

called

Jamia

(or

Rijal) el 'A

m u d,

at the

perhaps (as believed by the modern Samaritans) the site of the 'pillar that was in Shechem.' (Judges i.x. 6 Joshua xxiv. 27). The town is surrounded with beautiful orchards and vegetable gardens, foot of Gerizim,

is

;

which are specially luxuriant on the lower slopes of Mount Gerizim south, and in the valley to the west. Among these are to be found

to the olives,

and vines, with a few figs, walnuts, apricots, mulberries, pomegranates, Cactus hedges surround the gardens. The smooth-leaved Indian palms. fig

was

also

West

grown to feed cochineal insects, but town is an open place called e

of the

Camping Ground,' beneath which

are

this speculation failed. s

Suwe

i

t

e r a h,

'

The

gardens of walnut and white

mulberry trees beside running water.

The ruins

by

points of interest at Jacob's Well and Joseph's

on Ebal and Gerizim, are noticed

the Arabic names.

in

Section

B.,

Tomb, with

the

under those heads,

THE SURVEY OF WESTERLY PALESTINE.

i(3S

The

mad

]\Iukdm of 'A

stands,

it

Ras

The

d Din,'

on Mount Ebal

represents Joshua's altar

which

c

e

K a d y,

1

is

;

Pillar of the Faith,'

and the name of the

perhaps hill on

probably connected with the Cru-

sading identification of that mountain with Dan, where the Golden Calf was set up, as mentioned by John of Wirtzburg, iioo A.n., Fetellus, 1150A.D., and IVIarino Sanuto, 1320 a.d.

October, 1S76, There is a

p. 167.)

German missionary and

who have

the town,

(See 'Quarterly Statement,'

church has been built

a native Protestant missionary in

established schools for children, and a in the

town, and was nearly complete

Protestant

in 18S1.

The remaining three villarres belong: to the district called M e s h a r k Nablus, which lies principally on Sheet XII. They are as follows 1. 'Askar (N o). A small hamlet of mud and stones on the i

:



has a spring, 'A n 'A s k a r, on the hillside lower down, and near this remains of ancient sepulchres. slope of Ebal.

It

i

This place appears to be the Sychar, one Roman mile from Shechem, mentioned by the Bordeaux Pilgrim {333 a.d.) and by Jerome (Onom.,

There

s.v. Sichar).

the Gospels (John

name and

is

The

5).

name given

Statement,' July, 1S77, 2.

every reason to suppose

it

to

be the Sychar of

difficulty as to the initial guttural in the

removed by the Samaritan Chronicle, old

its

is

iv.

in

which the place

as Iskar, without the guttural.

is

noticed

'

Quarterly

(See

p. 149.)

Balata (No).

— This

is

hamlet

also a small

in

the valley, of

low hovels, near a beautiful spring. On the east are figs and mulberries. The place is mentioned in the Samaritan Book of Joshua (see Quarterly Statement,' 1876, p. 190) by its present name. '

The name

contains the radicals of the Aramaic word for

'

oak,'

and

the place seems to be that mentioned as Balanus (translated 'oak') in the Onomasticon,' which is noticed as close to Joseph's tomb, and identified '

with the

'

Oak

of Shechem.'

Tabah and Shejr

el

Kheir

('

ix.

(Judges

Holy

6.)

The oak

is

called

Elonah

Oak') in the Samaritan Chronicle.

(See

'

Quarterly Statement,' July, 1877, 3.

Rujib (N

plain so

o).

—A

p.

149.)

village of

moderate

named, with a few olives round

it.

size to the east of

the

[sheet

topography.

ay.]

169

In addition to these places, several ruins arc identified with ancient sites, as follows :

'Askar (L from

distinct

o).

—A

Iskar,

Kh may Bethel (N o). perhaps be

Gerlzim, and

second place called Kirjath Askur, apparendy in the Samaritan Chronicle. This

mentioned

is

u

r

be

ska

'A

t

— The

Samaritans

mentioned under

it is

near I-\mduk.

r,

hold

old

its

that

town stood on

this

name Luz

in the Chronicle,

and

the Arabic translation gives Lozeh. This accounts for the existence of the name h ii r b e t Lozeh, applied to the heaps of stones round the Samaritan place of sacrifice on Gerizim. The name is generally

K

known

mentioned by Jerome (' Onomasticon,' s. v. Luza). The Crusaders held this to be the Bethel where one of the Golden Calves was il

;

is

also

Dan, a m.ountain west of Ebal (Marino Sanuto Fetellus), evidendy the modern Ras el Kady, which means Judge,' which is also the meaning of Dan.

erected, the other being in

and

'

Beth Bezzin

(L

o).

apparendy near Shechem



Is

is

it

;

mentioned

in the

Samaritan Chronicle as

probably the ruin

Beit

Bezzin.

(See

'

Quarterly Statement,' October, 1876,

Do than (M

— Was m).

exist,

S

eb us

t

one called B

Mohnah

(N

r

i

e

o).

1

known

in the fourth

'

e h.

i

196.)

century as 12 Roman This agrees with Tell Dothan 10 English miles The name means Two Wells two such wells

miles north of Sebasti.

north of

p.

;'

H

u

f

i

r

e h, or

— Mentioned

in

'

Well of the

M

Shechem.

(Joshua

(See Section B.)

the Samaritan Chronicle as a town

(see 'Quarterly Statement,' October, i8;6, p. 196) li k h n a h in the plain of that name. village of plain represents the Biblical

Pit.'

;

is

probably the ruined

It is

possible that this

Asher-ham-Michmethah, east of

xvii. 7.)

'

(or

before

')



Soz

u ra (or Sorucis or Sozuris) (L n). An Episcopal town of Palestine in the fifth century (see Reland, Palestine,' ii., 102 1), is shown on '

an old

map by

Carolo A. Sancto Paulo (Amsterdam, Kh rbc

position of the important ruined town called

Tiphsah

(2

Kings

and not improbably

vol..

II.

xv. 16) (Lo)

seems

i:'i

to

1704), about t

Dc

i

r

S

e ru

the r.

have been near Shechem,

identical with the present Khiirbet Tafsah.

22

SHEET XL— SECTION

B.

Arch.eology. 'A n

Beit lima

— There

a building of

is

good squared a with round arched vault over the masonry spring, seemingly Roman or Byzantine work. plain cornice runs along the wall on the interior. i

(INI o).

A

'Amad ed Din (M Mills's

Samaritans

'

The

'

n).

'

:

(p. 7)

southern chamber



is

— This

is

building

24 feet by

2

i

feet,

described as follows in

with a

dome and fragments

of a mosaic flooring, red, blue, and white. The second chamber to the north is 24 feet by io|- feet. On the north-west is a courtyard 40 feet square, and in

a rock-hewn well 18 feet square and deep (a cistern), with 10 steps descending under a pointed arch.' The place is said by the native Christians to have been a church. it

The masonry

The Mukam

has quite a modern apjoearance.

on the side of a steep slope and close to the road. attached to the place see Section C. 'A n e b

t

a

(K

'Askar (N

m).

r).

For the

is

built

traditions

— Rock-cut tombs and a tank of good masonry.

— The

tombs near

it

have

loculi at the sides;

the

spring of the village has a rock-cut tunnel, and a reservoir with steps. The spring comes from a cave which is thus described by Mills

— 'The

deep, 3 feet wide, and extends 60 feet channel 6 inches deep, i foot wide westwards this ends at the distance above given, but the tunnel extends 15 feet (p.

11):

;

in

cave

is

the floor

The whole

feet

7

is

a

:

There are three pointed vault. grottoes at the ends, with arched entrances that to the southern grotto is not pointed.' further.

extent has

a

;

Similar tunnels occur at

E

1

Lejj

11

n and 'A n

i

n.

(See Sheet \T

II.)

[sheet

ARCH.EOLOGY.

A'/.]

'Azzun (K

o).

— Near

this village are

some

RR

B

towers (two marked about a mile north by finest of these, west of the road from K c f r Z is

ba

i

e s

Ruj u

The

m).

d,

square outside, with a door to the west broad, 3 feet high, the top a single lintel,

feet

rudely squared,

both

six or seven drystone r

feet

15

2^

i

with sunk recess,

on the inside of

and jambs 4 inches broad. The tower is feet high, and has on one side an internal

lintel

some

7

buttress, also of drystone,

2\

feet wide,

3I

feet

long

;

supporting the roof of the tower, which slabs of stone. The corner stones of the

this assists in is

of

flat

tower arc blocks 4 to

Six courses are

feet long.

5

standing, and a good part of the

The

roof.

wall

is

Vlan Uvttrd lu<£j siuw fvnf

thus a slab about 7 feet long rests on 2\ the south wall and on the end of the buttress, and the remaining roof slabs are placed across this line above, being about 4 feet long. feet thick

;

The antiquity of such towers is indicated by the great size and weight of the stones used in them, which far surpasses that of the small round watch-towers

now

in

use

in the vineyards.

The

stones of the lintels and

jambs are generally dressed roughly the towers occur by rock-cut winepresses in some instances, and very often in wild country now uncultivated. These towers are marked as square buildings (R) on the plan. ;

The

natives state

them

to

be ancient vineyard towers.

(See Sheet XIV.,

Kurd w a Ibn Hasan). Visited and sketched.

Baka (K

May

1).



this name one Baka esh Sherkiyeh.

There are two places of to the south-cast, called

13th, iS 73.

called

Baka

el

Gharbiyeh, and the other

The former was

visited

by Guerin,

who

i

i

miles

describes

as a considerable collection of badly built houses standing on a low hill. With the exception of a few wells and cisterns, which are evidently ancient, the rest has a modern appearance.

it

Beit Bezzin (L

— Traces

of ruins and small scattered stones, a broken beehive cistern, 10 or 12 feet deep, and rude caves, one of which

may

On

o).

The rock is escarped towards the west. probably have been a tomb. is K h a 1 le t el u s r, a dell east of K e f r K a d d u m,

K

the west

a watch-tower, drystone, of blocks in some instances 5 feet long the door is perfect, 2 feet wide outside, and cut back 6 inches inside

and

in

it

;

(total 3 feet),

with a single

lintel

stone above.

This tower,

like those

near

THE SURVEY OF UESTERX EALESTINE.

172

'A

z z

u n and

K u r A \v a

antiquity.

Visited

May, 1873.

Beit Jiffa (K tombs

B

e

an ancient

;

1

I.b n

Hasan

has an appearance of considerable

(See Section A., Beth Bezzin).

^h

(K

o).

site,

m).

—Walls,

with a

—A

tomb was broken

the time of the Survey visit. locnlus on each of three walls.

ornamentation.

The

cisterns, a ruined

dome, rude rock-cut

modern ruined hamlet on

near this village about consisted of a single chamber with a

It

into

The door was an

inscription

it.

was

as below

in.scribed slab, with

rude

:

El2eE O2

MO

NOS Mr Eic

^ioi; [lovac,



'

one

God

Tyrwhitt Drake to form a would be 332 A.D.

Bir 'Asiir (L

The

were supposed by Mr. date, which, reckoning by the Alexandrian Era, alone.'

last letters

— The trigonometrical

point on this mountain is a remarkable square monument rudely piled up, of good-sized blocks, the stones not hewn, the whole pile some 4 or 5 feet high, and solid.

m).

>^

J.\COBS WELL.

Bir diameter.

Yd k Lib, The

Jacob's

shaft

is

Well— The

well

75 feet deep and 7^ feet cylindrical and lined with fair masonry in the is

[sheet

ARCn.EOLOGY.

XT.']

173

upper part, the stones carefully cut on their faces to the required arcs to form the circle the lower part is cut through a soft bed of limestone, ;

O

and the well appears vault over the well

is

to

20

be feet

through the strata. The long east and west, by 10 broad the masonry

filled

by

infiltration

;

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIAE.

174

built

and the arch (which is broken through on the north-east) is rudely and pointed, the lower part of the walls of the vault is cemented.

The

floor

is

rude,

is

covered with

fallen

masonry

Access

blocks.

to the well

obtained from the surface through the roof of the vault, which about 6 feet high.

On

the north-west side of the vault

is

is

is

only

the entrance to a second, at

now walled

In this the bases of two granite columns are up. right angles, the shafts stick out through the said to be visible on a floor of tesserce ;

roof of the second vault, and are visible

These

among

dust-heaps and fallen blocks

shown

to be comparatively modern, work. Another similar shaft of and seem to be Crusading grey granite lies beside the road to B a 1 a t a they would appear to have belonged to the ancient cruciform Church noticed by Arculphus

of masonry.

vaults are thus

at the earliest

;

and by Jerome as standing in 404 a.d., but apparently deThe well is said to contain living the Crusading period. before stroyed Maundrell in 1697 found 15 feet of water, and in water at certain times. (700

A.D.),

1839 (according to Robinson) there was 10 to 12 feet in 1S66 Captain Anderson found it dry, but with an unbroken earthen pitcher at the ;

appeared to contain water in May, 1881, it was dry. It seems possible that the water supply may be connected with the stream As late as 1555 a.d. there was an altar in the of 'Ain Balata close by.

bottom

vault,

;

in

1875

it

;

where mass was said annually.

disuse in the seventeenth century

;

This custom

but the well

still

fell,

however, into

belongs to the Greek

Church.

A

rude stone wall 4 or 5 feet high surrounds the patch of ground in which is the vault. The area enclosed is about 60 yards square. loth June, 1875, and 20th May, 1881. the spot where the Vale of Shechem merges into the Plain ot Jacob's Well is situated at Mukhnah, and the site is acknowledged by Jews, Moslems, and Christians. The existence Visited July, 1872

;

'

el

of a well sunk to a great depth in a place where water-springs on the surface are abundant is well a peculiar history. It is remarkably characteristic of sufficiently remarkable to give this the prudence and forethought of the great Patriarch, who, having purchased a parcel of ground at the entrance of the vale, secured on his own property, by dint of great toil, a perennial supply of water at a time when the adjacent water-springs were in the hands of unfriendly, if

not actually hostile, neighbours. In the midst of a mass of ruined stones, among which .are two or three columns still standing, is a vaulted chamber about 1 5 feet square ; and in the floor of the chamber are two The other opening is openings 4 feet apart, one of which is the proper mouth of the well. '

either an accidental breach, or has

been designedly made

in a

rough and ready way

for the

\SrfEET AY.]

ARCHEOLOGY.

175

convenience of having two mouths, by which pitchers could be lowered into the well simulThe true mouth of the well has a narrow opening just wide enough to allow the taneously.

body of a man 4

feet long,

to pass through with arms ujilifted and this narrow neck, which is about opens out into the well itself, which is cylindrically shaped and about 7 feet ;

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

176

6 inches in diameter. The mouth and upper part of the well is built of masonry, and the well appears to have been sunk through a mixture of alluvial soil and limestone fragments till a compact bed of mountain limestone was reached, having horizontal strata which could be easily

worked

and the

;

interior of the well presents the

appearance of being lined throughout

with rough masonry. '

The well, when examined in iS66, was only 75 feet deep, but there can be no doubt that the original depth was much greater, as quantities of rubbish have fallen into the well from the ruins of the buildings that formerly covered it, and passers-by for many centuries have probably thrown stones into

Robinson

1S38 was 105 feet deep, depth of 30 feet has accumulated in thirty-eight years. In 1S75 the depth was found by Lieutenant Conder to be 75 feet, the same as in 1866The well was undoubtedly sunk to a great depth for the purpose of securing, even in excep-

and

if

his

measurement

is

it.

states that the well in

correct, debris to a

tionally dry seasons, a supply of water,

which

at great

depths would always be

the sides of the well and would collect at the bottom. well was dry

;

When examined

filtering

through

in April, 1866, the

but an earthenware pitcher was found at the bottom of the well and not broken,

which would indicate that water have been broken had

still

collects in the well at

some

seasons, as the pitcher

would

upon the stones. 'The vaulted chamber over the well might possibly be the crypt of the church built over the well about the fourth century. Arculphus, one of the early travellers in Palestine, deit

scribes the church in the

fallen

form of a cross and the well in the middle

Crusaders the church was destroyed, and subsequent travellers

who

;

but by the time of the

visited the well

mention

only the ruins around it. It would be a matter of the greatest interest if the Committee were enabled, not only to clear out the well, but to excavate and disclose to view the foundations of one of the earliest It would then be for consideration how to give effect to the proposal and protect the well with stonework. The accompanying woodcut illustrates the state of the vault as it appeared nine years ago, but since then many of the stones composing it, and probably all the well-cut stones in the adjacent ruins, have been removed to supply materials for the new Turkish barrack,

cruciform churches. to surround '

situated half a mile distant in the direction of Nablus.'

Statement,' 1877,

p.

— Major Anderson, R.E.,

'

Quarterly

72.

Well is doubdess well known to the majority of your readers, even It has again and again been have not themselves visited the Holy Land. to those who their disappointment all have mentioned writers on and the described by Palestine, many that instead of finding any semblance to a well, or anything which could recall the interview '

The

state of Jacob's

Lord with the woman of Samaria, they have merely found a dark irregular hole amid I have shared this in a vaulted chamber beneath the surface of the ground. a and visits to on Nablus, as, fortnight ago, we stood again many previous disappointment

of our a

mass of ruins

beside the spot, it was with great regret that we Avere so utterly unable to picture before us the had clambered down into the vault, and scene so graphically described by the Evangelist.

We

were vainly attempting to peer into the dark hole amid the heaps of stones and rubbish, when we chanced to notice, a few feet from the opening, a dark crack between the stones. Fancying that possibly it might be another opening of the well, we removed some stones and earth, and soon were able to trace part of a carved aperture in a large slab of stone. Deeply interested at finding this,

we cleared away more

earth

and

stones,

and soon distinguished the

circular

[SHEET mouth

ARCHEOLOGY.

A"/.]

177

was blocked by an immense mass of stone. Calling to aid two with considerable labour we at length managed to remove it, and looking on, the opening of the well was clear. It is impossible to describe our feelings as we gazed down the open well, and sat on that ledge on which, doubtless, the Saviour rested, and felt with our of the well,

though

it

men who were

fingers

The

Ac

grooves

following

stone caused by the ropes by which the water-pots were drawn u]x to completely excavating round the opening of the well, and

in the

day we devoted

laying bare the massive stone which forms

its

mouth.

This consists of the hard white lime-

stone of the country, and is in fair preservation, though parts are broken away here and there. The annexed rude sketch gives some idea of its appearance. The exact measurements I also give :

FT.

Length Breadth

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

Thickness

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

i

Height above the pavement Breadth of aperture of the well

Depth Width

-

-

i

-

-

-

-



-

-

-

-

-

-

.......

of the well

-

-

3

IN.

9 7

6

Si

67 7

We let a boy down to the bottom, but found nothing of any interest, though evidently there a large accumulation of rubbish. I trust that a stone of such intense interest may long ' remain uninjured now that it has been exposed to light.' Rev. C. ^V. Barclay, Quarterly is



Statement,' 1881,

p.

The Rev. John p.

45

212.

Mill, in his

'Three Months' Residence

states, in reference to Jacob's Well, that

measured

VOL.

it

II.

as carefully as

we

could, and found

'in 1855, it

at Nablus,'

when we

first

published in 1864, at visited this place,

to be 9 feet in diameter,

and a

little

23

we

more

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

178

than 70 feet deep. But older travellers found it much deeper. On my second the mouth of the well was filled so that it was with difficulty i860, completely up, .

identify the spot

where

it

Nor could

was.

I

how

learn

.

had occurred.

this

visit,

.

1

Some

in

could of

my

Nablus thought that the torrents during the rains of the previous winter were the cause ; but others believed that it was done by the inhabitants of the little village The well, howclose by, on account of the well being bought by the Greek Church. friends at

ever,

was completely hid from

sight, to the great

disappointment of

many

travellers beside

myself.

'On

further inquiry, I learnt from the

Greek

priest that their

Church had

actually

bought

the well from the Turkish Government, including a plot of ground surrounding it, of 229 feet For this they had paid, he told me, 70,000 piastres; but another friend, beby iSo feet.

longing to the same community, told me it was at least 100,000.' Mr. Mill also mentions that the Christians call it Beer SamariycJi, the

Samaritan Well ;' Beer Jacub, or 'Jacob's Well.' He also points out a well of living water, but a Ber (1x3), a cistern to hold rain-

while the Samaritans themselves call that

not an 'Ain

is

it

(|<;?),

'

it

water.

B



Remains of a tower, apparently part of a m). Crusading castle. The wall remaining measures 30 feet east and west, and on the inside, towards the north, is a vault 25 feet long (north and u

'A

el

rj

t

6

t

(I

This is about 20 feet high. The wall on the south) and 1 2 feet broad. south reaches up to a height of 40 to 45 feet, and has inside it a buttress dividing the buildincr into two

aisles,

The

north and south.

walls of the

a small archway about 3 feet vault are 5 high, the arch pointed with two rings of voussoirs, five in the inner, seven in the outer, the keystones cut away to form the point of the arch. In feet

thick

;

in

the west wall

is

the south wall, high up, is a loophole window wide inside, and about 6 inches wide outside. wall

is

it

is

8

feet thick,

built of

some 4

The

high and 3 feet

feet

direction of the south

very hard

limestone, rudely dressed with soft white mortar and a packing of small stones 3 inches to 104°

;

The ashlar measures i foot by \\ feet, to 2 feet by i^ feet 4 inches side. the arches seen were all pointed, the arch of the vault a tunnel-vaulting The masonry is laid in courses of smaller stones than those in the walls.

;

The

with the vertical joints carefully broken.

place

is

inhabited by a

peasant family. Visited 5th

May, 1873.

B

n).

u

r

i

n

This place

(J is

— Traces of ruins on an

sometimes identified with the

artificial

Mu

t

a

t

i

o

mound. B

c

1 1

ha

r

of the

Bordeaux

He places it 10 miles from Antipatris and 16 from Cassarea, distances which Pilgrim. These distances, however, do not agree with those agree with Kefr Seba and Kaisuriyeh. given by Antoninus.

[sheet

ARCH.EOLOGY.

XlP\



D a we r tall as

i79

This name was given l)y the peasants (Mo). some ruins where a small excavation was made in

applying to

1S72.

Three large columns of syenite were here found, two having a

the third at a

line,

were 16

pillars

to

fallen in

distance, only half the shaft remaining

little

;

the

feet long, 2 feet diameter at the centre, tapering slightly

each end, with a

double at one end, single at the These three, with two at Jacob's Well, one near Balata, and one

other.

in

fillet

near Joseph's tomb, probably over the well.

low

relief,

all

belonged

to the

church (see Bir Yakub)

The

excavation brought to light remains of tesselated pavement in about 2 feet below the arable land. A rubble wall was also uncovered.

situ,

The pavement was smashed through by two kinds, one much rougher than the

the

fall

of the columns

it

;

was of

other, the cubes hardly squared

The Tessera; of glass were also turned up. finer pavement (cubes i| inch side) had a pattern on it representing lozenges and leaves, the colours white, chocolate, red, pink, yellow, and at

and rudely

all

set.

indigo.

work

In

This might, perhaps, be the ruin of the monastery which existed

in

Similar pavements and glass mosaics are found in Crusading Palestine.

.

1555 near Jacob's Well, but another possible site is a similar tesselated pavement, west of Joseph's tomb. (See Pere Lievin's Guide,' p. 401.) The mosaic is said by the peasantry to occupy a space some 50 yards '

wide. Visited 3rd August, 1872.

Deir A ban (K

n).

— Foundations

and cisterns;

traces of

ruins

to the north-west.

Deir

'A

s f

i

n

(I

n).

— Foundations,

heaps of stones, ruined

cisterns,

fragments of tesselated pavement.

Deir

el

B

u n d u k.

—A

large

mound on

narrow lane immediately west of Nablus

some

feet cube,

rudely squared Marked of white marble. diameter,

Ain

3

el

;

;

also

R

the

south

side

of a

foundations, remains of stones,

two on

pillar-shafts

about

2

plan, west of Nablus,

Kusab.

2;— 2

feet

near

I

THE sun VE Y OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

So

Dcir Serur (K ing position on a bare

n).

— An

hill.

The

important ruined town in a commandruins occupy an area of 600 feet east Probable Approach,

oChStcrrv

ScqLc

iTeo

JSISSSSS8S0

and west by 450 north and south. A wall appears to have surrounded the site, with a tower (the base rock-cut) on the south-west, and a second on the north, whilst on the north-east is a doorway or gate. On the east a large building stands on a terrace, sunk to a level. On the west a second building exists. Between these are remains of houses and cisterns, ruined These may be described in order. walls, and a small tower.

The Eastern Building

has a direction 104° true north along its length, and measures 65 feet ex43^ feet ternally on this line, and

a

external

6

feet

south

high,

2

feet

broad

(north

inches

2

6 feet

was on are

The

breadth.

the

7

where

standing upright,

and south),

i

foot

The

inches.

west,

10

north

the

thick,

9

wall

east

inches

and

entrance

two

feet

is

4

stones inches

thick.

A

[sheet cross

ARCHEOLOGY.

ay.]

wall

feet

2

3

inches

thick

the end of the south wall,

The

two jamb-stones

and

have

10

exists

in

bases

this

i8i

10

feet

inches

east

of

an entrance 6h feet wide.

is

ornamented with

a

semi -classic

lie

outside the

The

base of the

moLildincr.

Two

stumps of pillar- shafts about 2 on the south, and a lintel-stone

building-,

is

jamb-stones

whence

The

it

feet

4

feet 1 1

diameter

feet long.

lower than the entrance through the cross wall,

appears that steps probably led up to the interior of the building.

length of the

lintel-stone

api)ears

to

three aisles to the

indicate

building.

The masonry

is

well-dressed, smooth,

and not

drafted.

One

of the

corner-stones measured 7 feet in length and i foot 8 inches in height. The horizontal course is broken in one place, two stones here having

square set-backs, thus keying the courses together. tesselated pavement covered apparently the whole

A

part of the outer wall stands to the height of four courses.

in

pilaster

On

on the south.

low

relief;

the

shaft

either face 3

feet

is

;

5 feet

a

long and

One inches high. it i inch of the capitals is i foot high, and projects has a debased sculpture, of apparently Byzantine 14 inches broad

A block

and about the same thickness,

long, 2 feet broad, exists outside

A good

interior.

the bases

5

;

^

This block would have formed the jamb of a small door, or more probably of a window, seven holes as though to hold the ends of iron horizontal bars being cut character.

in the sides of the stone.

This building might possibly have been a church, but had no apses on the east.

The

variation of the orientation

is

not greater than in

some

of

the Crusading churches of Palestine. Near this building are two tanks, the northern about 23 feet square, In the first is the southern 18 feet by 28 feet; the walls 4 feet thick. visible a drafted stone, with a rustic boss projecting

draft

is

irregular,

averaging 2^ inches

in breadth.

i

to 3 inches.

The

In the second tank

is

a stone 4 feet 10 inches by i foot 10 inches, i foot 9 inches high, with a The stones in the draft 3 inches wide. rustic boss projecting 2o inches ;

this

tank are

all laid

endwise

in

the walls.

THE SURVEY OF WESTERX PALESTIXE.

iS-

Just west of this tank is a lintel-stone 9 feet 5 inches long, i foot 6 inches broad, 2 feet 9 inches high, resembling those common in ruined monasteries. The jambs beneath this lintel had capitals with rude mouldinsrs.

The

great building stood in a sunk courtyard 4S feet broad on the and This seems to have about the same on the north and west. south, had a fine wall of good masonrx^ round it, and on the east is a confused

heap of fallen ashlar blocks. than on the inside.

The ground

The Western Building

outside the south wall

is

lower

faces exactly to the cardinal points.

The building standing in parts to a height of 23 feet. feet 6 inches the north S inches feet wall, 105 along rectangle. 93 On the north it had a fine arched entrance, on the along the west wall. It had a central corridor running north and south south a small door. north wall

Its

is

was a

about 30 feet wide, and rooms on either side, those to the east being now buried under a mound of rubbish which reaches to the springing of the entrance archway, four courses higher than the north-west angle of the building.

The

north wall

is

the best preserved portion of the building.

On

the

^^r^-r JA ti* Lw»

uudaua of Civsm

the archway, 14 feet span, semi-circular, with 13 voussoirs 3 feet 5 inches thick. The height of the courses and size of the stones differ in a ver)- re-

east

is

markable manner.

Some

fine

blocks were measured near the north-west

a second 3 feet 4 inches thick by 3 feet 5 inches in height, and 5 feet 3 inches long. There are smaller stones built in irregularly, and the fifth course from the bottom

corner

:

one was 4

feet 3 inches

by

i

foot

1 1

inches

;

was remarkably shallow. The corner-stones had a very shallow draft 3^ inches broad, almost A stone 3 feet 5 inches high and only i foot worn away by age.

[^SHEET

ARCH.EOLOGY.

Xl.'\

6 inches broad was obscr\-cd.

The

183

drafting

carefully executed

is

and

regular.

The inside, is

3

south wall has a small door

Hanked

broad outside and

13 inches broad projecting

Iiy jiilastcrs

inches

2

feet

5 feet

The

thick.

i

5 feet 8 inches

The

inch.

wall

pilasters

have simple bases.

Only two courses are the stones not drafted, and the

standing whilst upper course 2 feet 3 inches high the right-hand (east) jamb is of a stone :

;

sDoor.vBu.idmg

A

channel 8 inches square is cut along the midtlle 4 feet 9 inches high. of the top course on the left, as is frequently the case in Uyzantine in Palestine. The stones are not drafted. here buildings

The west stone in

it

wall of the corridor

had a draft i\ inches broad.

top 6 feet 10 inches from the ground

broad and about

A

central door leads

is

a small

There it

;

is

One

height.

a corbel on the wall, the

projects 3 inches, and

is

18 inches

2 feet high.

10 feet wide, and had a

door

some

also standing to

is

window

westwards lintel, i

to a large

now

foot

7

chamber

fallen beside

it.

;

it

just north of this

inches broad and about

was once spanned by a lintel 4 feet 4 inches and as broad as the thickness of the wall (2

long,

i

was apparently 5 feet

high

;

it

foot 10 inches deep,

feet 10 inches).

A

second

window (north-west corner) has small sunk sockets for iron bars. The room west of the corridor is 57^ feet long, and leads into a second to the north

broad, and

The

43^

feet long, the wall

between i^

feet thick, 3 feet 8 inches

5^ feet from the floor in the clear. south door has a sunk recess in one jamb for a its lintel

bolt.

The

build-

have been much shaken by earthquake. ing appears Between the two buildings thus described are numerous foundations of good masonry, remains of a street and small chambers, a large cistern to

once covered with

flat slabs of stone, a small square tower with stones 10 feet long in the foundation. There is another building of size equal to the last described, and of in it are remains of a recess now much choked irregular plan it is ;

;

entered from the east and

and 2\

feet

moulding.

broad,

with a

is

5

flat

high, and about 18 inches deep, roof supported on corbels with a rude feet

THE SURVEY OF ]VESTERN PALESTINE.

iS4

One by

stone of the tower measured lo feet

7 inches,

by

10 inches,

2 feet

foot 9 inches high.

I

A

small Vaults are said by the peasantry to exist under these ruins. copper coin with a defaced head, and the letters S.C. with a wreath on the

Two columns about reverse was picked up. down into the recess above mentioned.

2

feet

diameter had fallen

Comparison with buildings found later (see Deir el Kulah, Sheet XIV'.), and with Justinian's work on Gerizim, leads to the conclusion that this work is Byzantine of fourth to sixth century date. The principal indications are the semicircular archway, the

flat lintels,

the drafting of the

corner stones of the exterior, the style of the capital on the attached pilaster, the dimensions of the masonry, the tesselated pavement.

This conclusion agrees with the proposed with S o z u z a. (See Section A.)

identification of the place

The

necropolis of the town is on the opposite side of a stony valley on the east (Ras Abu Luka), which possibly retains the Christian name of

Luke.

Two

tombs were here measured, the square, with three lociili under anosolia,

first

3 feet

door Depth oC Loevdi.

U,ui)a of

.

ilrch.

1

o

W

a chamber 10 feet 6 inches

is

5

The

7 feet.

by

entrance

inches broad and

feet 6

high, 2 feet 2 inches thick outside is an arch 8 feet high, 7 feet 6 inches

K

;

broad, 4 feet 8 inches thick. is

There

a stone seat either side of this

arch,

and two

circles

are cut over

the small door outside by way of ornament. The arch of the arco-

solium

is

6 feet 8 inches from the floor; the loculi are

i

foot 10 inches

high.

The second tomb I

k sal cemetery.

a trough and loculus sunk in the rock as in the (Sheet \TII.) The loc^dus is 5 feet 9 inches long, and is

jT'^^rr. "

Jff|

•^•cCj ^"^"^

^ -

'

^-^

'£J1«I

-j

"--'-

i

5p^z^

3 feet broad

the shaft 2 feet broad and equal '" length, and 3 feet deep the locnbts 2 feet lower the whole was roofed in with slabs ;

;

;

it is,

in fact,

;

one of the tombs often used by

Christians, but with only one locidus instead of two.

[sheet

Three

other

were seen

up, is

ARCH.EOLOGY.

XI.']

of

one has two

;

as

interest

resembling the

tombs,

circles

first

above

externally,

its

tomb

rock -sunk

the

giving

185

door. close

but blocked

This cemetery the

to

locnins

tomb. Visited and surveyed, 17th I\Iay, 1S73.

Feldmieh

De

S

r

i

Fe

e r

(J

n).

— Rock-cut

tombs, three

in

number,

like those at

li r.

n dak

m



There is a sacred cave on the hill above y e h (L m). the village to the south it is of moderate size, with entrance on the north and two recesses on the east. There is a detached block like II

i

;

an altar before the recesses.

It

seems probably an ancient rock-cut

chapel.

Ferata (L

o).

A

few cisterns and the remains of a sarcophagus were all the relics of antiquity obser\-ed here by Gutfrin. The place is the old Pirathon of Judges xii. 15. It was first mentioned by the traveller, Hap. visited,

Parchi,

in

the fourteenth century, and was seen,

but apparently not

in 1S52.

by Robinson,



Hizn Yikub

('The Wailing of Jacob,' see Section C.) (M n). A small ancient chapel of St. George. The building measures 28 paces It is built in three bays, with groined roof and pointed by 10 paces.

A

small Gothic capital elaborately arches, resembling Crusading work. carved is placed on the right side of the Mihrab. The whole interior is

whitewashed and painted. modern tombs are built

On

the north-west side

close

by.

On

the

is

west

a tank is

several

;

minaret

the

(apparently Arab work), in the east wall of which is built in a stone with a Samaritan inscription, said to contain the Ten Commandments.

Other small inscribed stones once existed here, but were taken by Jacob esh Shellaby and sold to travellers. (Photograph No. 129.) The Samaritans say that this was formerly the site of their synagogue, which is probably true

;

but

the

existing

building

dates

probably

from

the

twelfth

or

thirteenth centur)-.

Iktaba (K comes down horses.

in

n).

—A

which a certain

spring, a sort of 'A z b e

h,

Efendi

of

Nablus

or spring grazing-place for

(Section C.)

Jebd (Mm). — East VOL.

place to

II.

of the village

is

a tomb,

very rudely cut

24

in

1

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

86

white

The

soft rock.

entrance on the north-east leads to an ante-chamber

with two coats of plaster on the walls the inner chamber has three kokim the door between is a rude arch of small masonry. ;

Jebel Eslamiyeh (M

n)

— Mount

Ebal.

— El

Kulah

;

on the

top of the mountain is a large building of stones of moderate size, built up without mortar the stones have the appearance of being rudely ;

squared, but as the limestone here splits naturally into cubes, and as they show no tool-marks, they are more probably not artificially dressed at all. Similar masonry exists on the south slope of Gerizim. (See Palestine It measures 92 feet square Exploration Fund Photographs Nos. 88, 92.) Several chambers 10 feet square exist externally, with walls 20 feet thick.

the thickness of the wall, and a projection 4 feet broad is built at the The walls are packed inside with small stones, ends, as if for defence. in

and are entirely without mortar. They resemble in construction the walls now made to support terraces and enclose gardens on the lower slopes of Mount Ebal. The whole of the plateau on the summit of the mountain is All these covered with similar masonry, walls, terraces, and enclosures. The scattered ruins about a remains have a very rude appearance.

quarter-mile east

Kuneisa. ('church'), but

of

el

Kulah are

called

Khurbet Kuleisa,

This name has been confused with the term is

spelt quite differently in Arabic,

a church — no apses,



or

Keniseh

and no remains resembling

exist here. There are two long pillars, or capitals walls radiating south-west and south-east from the summit of Ebal, like El Kiilih was thought by Mr. Tyrwhitt the enclosure walls lower down.

Drake

to

be an ancient

but the ruins are more probably conThe Samaritans say it is an decayed.

cattle-fold,

nected with old orchards

now

ancient village. Visited July, 1872, and

May, 1881.

The summit of Ebal is a comparatively level plateau of some extent. There is no actual peak, but the ground rises towards the west, and attains its greatest elevation near a small The view from this point is a perfect panorama, and one of the finest and pile of stones. most extensive in the country, embracing Safed, Jebel Jermuk, and Hermon on the north ; '

Ramleh, and the maritime plain on the west the heights above Beitin (Bethel) on the The upper strata of the nummulitic hmestone, south ; and the Hauran plateau on the east. are so which is cracked and broken, apparently by the action of the mountain of composed,

Jaffa,

;

weather, that the surface of the plateau, at first sight, looks as if it were covered by a rude pavement ; and it was some time before we realised that it was quite natural. Towards the " east end of the plateau is the remarkable ruin called by the Arabs Khurbet Kneeseh."

31

-

I

'l

>•i«I

I'"-

^A

[sheet It consists

ARCHAEOLOGY.

XI.'\

187

of an enclosure 92 feet square, with walls 20 feet thick, built of selected unhewn In the thickness of the wall are the remains of several chambers, each

stones, without mortar.

and at two opposite ends there is a projection of 4 feet, as if for defenThere is a cistern within the building, and round it are several heaps of stones and ruins. Excavations were made, but without result. It is not easy to form an opinion on the object of this building it is too small for a fortified camp, and though the

about 10

feet square,

sive purposes.

;

chambers are somewhat is

square,

similar to those in the fortified churches, the interior space, 50 feet

There was no

too restricted to have held a church.

nothing that

would enable us

to

connect

it

trace of any plaster,

and

with the altar said to have been erected by Joshua

on Mount Ebal. '

The

contrast between the rich vegetation

frequently been commented upon by

on Gerizim and the barrenness of Ebal has

This arises from the structure of the rock, the strata dipping towards the north across the valley, and thus preventing the existence of The mountain, however, is by no means so sterile as springs on the southern slope of Ebal.

has been supposed

;

travellers.

for a considerable height

fully cultivated in terraces,

and above

it

is

clothed with luxuriant cacti gardens caresummit, rise a succession of terraces

these, to the very

well supplied with cisterns, that speak of a careful system of cultivation and irrigation at a Many of these terraces are well preserved, and planted in spring-time The northern slope of is as fine and healthy-looking as any on Gerizim.

former period. with corn, which

Ebal

is

rich in springs,

and almost

as well supplied with water as the northern

slope of

Gerizim. '

At the foot of Ebal there is a modern Moslem cemetery, and scattered amongst the cactiColonel Sir Charles gardens, and over the southern slope, are numerous rock-hewn tombs.'



Wilson, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1873, p. 66.

et

Jebel kinds

Tor (M

o)

— Mount

Gerizim.

— the Samaritan and the Christian.

Samaritan

Ruins.

— The

ruins are of

two

— On the spur which runs out west from the main Khurbet

ruins known as Lozeh, (See Luz, Section A.) these ruins that the Passover is by yearly sacrificed they are merely scattered stones and drystone walls surrounding the site connected

summit are the It is

;

with the stands

in

a large rough stone, on which the high priest of the congregation, and the trench (T a n n 1j r) in

sacrifice,

front

viz.,

which the sheep are roasted, with the hole where the water is boiled on a fire of briers, and the shallow trench where the sheep are fleeced

and the Passover eaten.

(See Palestine Exploration

Fund Photographs,

No. 220.)

Ez Sakhrah. — 'The

Samaritans,

supposed

to

Rock' is the sacred praying place of the mark the place where the Tabernacle was

It is merely a flat sloping erected by Joshua, according to their belief. stratum of limestone dipping towards the north-west, at which end is a deep

24



2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

iSS

cistern, traditionally the

rock

and

cave over which the Tabernacle was

built.

The

surrounded by rough blocks of stone (see Photograph No. 89), which is half full of stones, is a rude pave-

is

to the west of the cistern,

The rock measures about 50 feet either way, and is of irregular The existence of a sacred cave at this spot is an interesting feature

ment. shape. of the

site.

The Place where Abraham offered the tradition of the Samaritans,

is

a

little

Isaac, according

to

rock-sunk trench at the south-

It resembles the on the summit of Gerizim. trough used for the Passover feast, and measures about 8 feet by 5 feet. A semicircular flight of seven steps (traditionally called the Seven

east corner of the plateau,

Steps of

Adam

out of Paradise) leads

down

in

this direction

from the

west.

The Twelve

have come from Jordan, form a corner of a platform (see Photograph No. 127); they were excavated by Captain Anderson in 1 866. They are large masses of rock, quite unhewn, and appear natural, but underneath them are two other courses of stones

Stones,

traditionally said to

The upper course of the three thus rudely dressed and not squared. formed has a height 2 feet 2 inches, and the length of the stones varies from size.

foot 10 inches to 2 feet 8 inches.

I

It

seemed

excavation

in

are not of very great

1875 to be certain whether there were twelve north-west corner of the platform was laid bare by the

difficult in

The

or thirteen.

Thus they

1876.

The neighbourhood

of the stones and of the Sakhrah

is

covered with

small drystone enclosures and cisterns filled with rubbish, of which there East of the castle are rude paved terraces on the edge are half a dozen. hill. modern of the paved footpath, resting near the twelve stones on

A

ddbris containing Cufic coins, runs thence towards the Sakhrah and the There are three or four paved platforms for place of Abraham's sacrifice.

praying on near the Sakhrah. Human bones were found buried

in

1866

in

an enclosure immediately

south of the Sakhrah.

The

platforms, including the twelve stones

and those on the

east,

may

perhaps have formed part of the temj^le on Gerizim said to have been built by Sanballat. North of the Kulah there are also remains of walls and fallen

i?.^'!*!!

a. UJ

O

o o' O —

" tn

re

u-

a.

a:

O

a c

O

CO

<

z.

< 1—

cr

< 5 <

05

[sheet

ARCHAEOLOGY.

X/.]

189

masonry, and south of the main plateau, on the top of the hill, are other ruins, one being- a wall of rudely squared stones set without mortar, Siich resembling the remains on l-^lxil. (See Photograph No. 88.)

any date the masonry is not large, and has been the modern drystone walls of the vineyards in some parts of

structures might be of built

up

like

;

the country.

The

knoll north of the

by a deep

main plateau of the summit

The mound

ditch.

appears partly

divided off

is

artificial

;

there are

traces of steps on each of its four sides, and on the summit foundations of a building 53 feet square, the wall very thick, and on the north some rock-sunk hollows. No. 126.) This might perhaps be the

(Photograph

place where, according to the Samaritan version, soldiers were stationed to prevent the Samaritans ascending the mountain to sacrifice under Justinian.

Christian Ruin s.

— These

surrounded by a rectangular fortress with corner towers, and with a large tank on the north. The church is an octagon, with an apse to the east and consist of a church

small side chapels except on the west and north, where were appaAn inner line of eight rently entrances only the foundations remain. ;

pilasters divided a

surrounding corridor from the central area, which was

probably surmounted by a dome. The church measures 70 feet across inside, east and west (inscribed feet diameter.

The

side-chapels are 27 feet long inside, with apses 9 feet diameter walls are thinner than those of the church.

their

circle of the internal octagon).

This church

related

is

Emperor Zeno not

The

east apse

by Procopius

earlier than

474

a.d.,

is

1

5

;

have been erected by the and to have been dedicated to to

the Virgin.

The surrounding

Kulah) measures 180 feet north and south by 230 feet east and west, with walls about 9 feet thick. There are four corner towers, and one central on the south wall they are about 30 feet fortress (el

;

The north-east corner entered from the inner court. square outside tower has been rebuilt in later times with a rude modern dome, and is ;

G

han sacred spot dedicated to Sheikh Samaritans, the tomb of Shechem Ben Hamor.

now a

i

A

the roof.

m,

or,

according to the

flight of steps leads to

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

19°

The

court has a eate lO feet lO inches wide on the north, and the

whole seems once

have been surrounded by small chambers built against feet 9 inches by one of which measured internally

the wall inside,

to

1

This

14 feet 4 inches along the line of the wall. Outside on the north are modern walls.

This exterior wall tinian (after

529

art

Byzantine

is

in

just east of the gate.

by Procopius to have been built by Justhus one of the most valuable monuments of

related It is

a.d.).

is

1

Palestine, as being dated,

and the masonry deserves

special attention.

The

exterior stones of the walls are drafted with a broad and very

irregular draft, the boss rudely hammer-dressed,

Crusading masonry.

The

draft

is

and not

somewhat more

left rustic,

as in

carefully dressed with

a toothed instrument, but not in a regular line, as in Crusading work. The stones vary considerably in length. One was 2 feet 2 inches high,

and

2 feet 3

inches long

;

the boss

was

i

inches long, the draft Another stone was 4 feet

foot 8

inches broad and about 2 inches deep. 2 inches long, 2 feet 2 inches high, with two bosses

3-^

—one

i

foot 2 inches

the draft 3 inches above and below^ long, the other i foot S inches 4 inches at one end, 6 inches between the stones and at the other end. ;

The shape

of the bosses

is

somewhat

irregular,

the draft being badly

cut.

The drafted.

masonry and that of the church is better dressed, and not The work is finished with a blunt-pointed chisel used at right

interior

angles to the stone, forming a mottled surface, instead of made by the toothed instrument.

The

lines,

such as are

great reservoir north of the Kulah measures 120 feet east and

west by 60 north and south, and is lined with similar drafted masonry. Such reservoirs occur in most of the great ruined monasteries of the Byzantine period.

A cross is cut over the entrance of one chamber on the east wall. There was a debased Corinthian capital found in 1866. The flooring of the church was then found to be partly of marble, partly of tiles, on a The walls of the church have been entirely platform of rough masonry. demolished, but five or six courses of the outer fortress wall remain in sitti. (See Photograph No. 91.) Visited July 24th, 1872

;

June loth, 1875.

[Sffi:ET '

ARCH.EOLOGY.

X/.']

191

Immediately above Nablus there are several stone quarries, and in places the limestone bold clifTs, which seem to overhang the town and form a peculiar feature

strata stand out in

in the view from the opposite ridge, at tiie point where the road to Samaria crosses it. From the top of one of these, whence escape to the mountain behind would be easy, it is natural to

(Judges ix. 7-21.) delivering his striking parable. the summit of the mountain, by the road from tlie fountain of Ras el 'Ain, reaching On a long narrow shoulder is seen stretching eastward to the Samaritan [ilace of sacrifice. the north the ground descends abruptly to the vale of Nablus, and on the south there is a picture '

Jotham

On

East of the place of sacrifice rises slope, with no water and sparse cultivation. the true peak of Gerizim, crowned with the well-known ruins, and forming the eastern exFrom this point a spur stretches out northwards, and partly encloses tremity of the ridge. the natural amphitheatre mentioned above. The mountain is almost entirely composed of

more gradual

nummulitic limestone.

The summit of Gerizim is a small level plateau, having its largest The northern end is occupied by the ruins of a castle

dimension nearly north and south.

and church, the southern by smaller remains, principally low and irregularly built walls. In the midst of the latter is a sloping rock, which is regarded by the Samaritans with much veneration ; it is said to be the site of the altar of their temple, and they remove their shoes when approaching it. At the eastern edge of the plateau a small cavity in the rock is shown as the West of the castle, and a short distance down place on which Abraham offered up Isaac " " twelve stones which were set up the hill, some massive foundations are pointed out as the after the reading of the Law. Considerable excavations were made under the superintendence of Lieutenant Anderson, and plan made of the ruins. The casde is rectangular, with flanking towers at each

by Joshua '

its angles ; on the eastern side are the remains of several chambers, and over the door The walls are built of well-dressed stones, which have of one of them is a Greek cross.

of

marginal

drafts,

and are

set

without mortar

;

many

of

them appear

to

have been taken from

earlier buildings.

On the eastern side is an apse, on the northern the main octagonal. sides there are small chapels, and on the eighth side there was probably a ; sixth chapel, but this could not be ascertained, as the foundations had been almost entirely removed. There is an inner octagon, which gives the plan some resemblance to that of the " Dome of the Rock " at Jerusalem. The flooring is partly of marble, partly of tiles, and below this a platform of rough masonry was found ; in the intervening rubbish a very early 'The church is entrance on five

Cufic coin was turned up, which had apparently slipped down through the joints of the tiles. The church is believed to only capital uncovered was of a debased Corinthian order.

The

have been '

built by Justinian, area a.d. 533. South of the castle there are no massive foundations, but numerous small

walls,

and

amongst these are several cisterns half-filled with rubbish. A pathway of late date runs along " twe/re stones," where for some the crest of the hill from south to north, passing in front of the which some Cufic copper coins in distance it rests on a mass of loose stones and rubbish,

The " holy place" of the Samaritans is a portion of the natural rock dipping to the north-west, and draining into a cistern half full of stones ; an excavation in an adjoining enclosure uncovered a mass of human bones lying on a thin layer of some dark substance, were found

which had stained the rock beneath to a dark burnt-umber colour. The Amran said they were the bodies of priests anointed with consecrated oil but they seemed rather to be hasty interments, such as would be made in time of war. ;

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

192 '

There are several platforms of unhewn stone, somewhat similar to the praying-places in at Jerusalem and one of these, near the place at which Abraham is said to have

Haram

the

;

approached by a curious flight of circular steps. The ^'twelve stones''' form part of a solid platform of unhewn masonry there arc four courses of stones, and the upper, shown as the "twelve stones," is set back 8 inches two of offered

up

Isaac,

is

'

;

;

The stone the stones were turned over, but no trace of an inscription was found on them. when exposed to the air is of a dark blueish-grey colour, but when newly broken it has a cream-coloured appearance. East of the castle are the remains of three platforms, and below them, on the slope of the hill, are broken terraces. The platforms have evidently been built to support some '

building on the top of the hill, and add to its appearance ; and they, as well as the stones" may not improbably have formed part of the substructure of the Samaritan

"

twelve

Temple

the temple itself there is nothing left, but, to judge from the appearance and construction of the platforms, it probably stood on the site now occupied by the ruins of the church and castle ; if it were south of the castle, every stone must have been removed, as the

Of

ground was

carefully examined,

and no

trace of the foundations of any large building

was

found.

North of the casde is a large pool, and below this and surrounding the hill on are the ruins of a considerable town, to which no distinctive name could be obtained. '

ruins are

most marked on the southern

slope,

all

sides

These where a portion of the enclosing town wall, and

the walls and divisions of several of the houses, can be seen.

The

walls

are of

unhewn

stone, set without mortar.

Near the Samaritan place of sacrifice, at the western foot of the peak, are some inconsiderable ruins, to which everyone we asked gave the name which M. de Saulcy heard Khurbet Luzah. This Dean Stanley identifies with the second Luz, founded by the inhabitants '



when expelled by the Ephraimites from Bethel. At the extremity of the arm mentioned above as running northwards from the castle is There are traces of a mound, partly artificial, and isolated from the ridge by a deep ditch. which was the on the four sides to the summit of mound, occupied by a building steps leading were Some excavations feet walls of thickness. made, but, with the 53 square, having great Below the mound, on the was found. a few Roman of interest of coins, nothing exception of Luz '

north, are

some excavations

'Scene

of

tlie

mentioned as existing

in the rock, apparently for

Reading

of the

at the water-parting

Law.

holding water.

— The natural amphitheatre

previously near the eastern end of the vale of Nablus was,

It may be remembered probably, the scene of the events described in Joshua viii. 30-35. that, in accordance with the commands of Moses, the Israelites were, after their entrance in " " the promised land, to put the curse on Mount Ebal, and the blessing on Mount Gerizim. " This was to be accomplished by a ceremoniuil in which half the tribes stood on the one

mount and on Ebal

half

curses, as

the interval."

those on Gerizim responding to and affirming blessings, those pronounced by the Levites, who remained with the ark in the centre of

on the other

It is

;

hardly too

much

to say of this natural amphitheatre that there is

no other

assembly of an immense body of men within the limits voice could reach, and where at the same time each individual would be

place in Palestine so suitable for the to

which a human

able to see what was being done. The recesses in the two mountains, which form the amphitheatre, are exactly opposite to each other ; and the limestone strata, running up to the very summits in a succession of ledges, present the appearance of a series of regular benches.

A

[sheet

ARCHAEOLOGY.

X/.']

i93

grander sight can scarcely be imagined than that which the reading of the Law must liave the ark, borne by the Levites, on the gentle elevation which sciiarates the waters presented of the Mediterranean from those of the Dead Sea, and " all Israel and their elders, and :

and their judges" on this side and on that, "half of them over against Mount and half of them over against Mount Ebal," covering the bare hillsides from head Gerizim, officers,

to foot.

Two

questions have been raised in connection with the reading of the Law the it read, and the possibility of assembling the twelve tribes on the ground :

possibility of hearing

same

Of

there can be no doubt

the valley has no peculiar acoustic so clear that the voice can be easily heard at distances which would seem impossible in England ; and as a case in point it may be mentioned that during the excavations on Mount Gerizim the Arab workmen were on more than one occasion at the

time.

the

first

properties, but the air in Palestine

:

is

men passing along the valley below. It is not, however, necessary to suppose that every word of the Law was heard by the spectators the blessings and cursings were in all probability as familiar to the Israelites as the Litany or Ten Commandments arc heard conversing with

;

and the responses would be taken up as soon as the voice of the reader of the Law With regard to the second point. Lieutenant Anderson's jjlan of Ebal and Gerizim a gives good representation of the ground and the principal distances ; but without making a minute contoured plan of the mountain-sides (a work of great labour), it is not possible to to us,

ceased.

form a correct estimate of the number of persons who could be assembled within the amphiThere are, however, few localities which afford so large an amount of standing

theatre.

ground on the same area, or give such facilities for the assembly of a great multitude. At the foot of the northern slope of Gerizim is one of the prettiest cemeteries '

and

in the

masonry tombs, one of which was We were not allowed to examine the tombs, but were much struck with the care bestowed on the trees and garden within the enclosure. The place is called El Amud (" The Column "), and the Rev. George Williams has, with much " the probability, identified it with pillar that was in Shechem," where Abimelech was made ix. and with the Oak of Moreh, near which Abraham built his first altar to king (Judges 6) country, consisting of a courtyard with a well said to be that of Sheikh Jusuf (Joseph).

several

;

the Lord after entering the promised land,

— Lieutenant-Colonel Jett

(J

1).

and Joshua

set

up a great stone (Joshua

— In

the

mound on which

the village stands are several

rough caves and a vault of good masonry, seemingly Byzantine work. Two bronze

xxiv. 26).

Sir Charles Wilson, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1873, p. 67.

Roman

or early

Roman lamps were found at Jett in 1874, each having One of these is in the form of a bull lying double wick.

two spouts for a down, with the tail curled round the hind leg the .spouts are formed by the fore-legs and hoofs of the animal, and there is a square hole in the back for pouring in the oil. These lamps were purchased by Rev. J. ;

Elkarey, of Nablus. '

The

Several ancient cisterns are scattered about on the rocky plateau upon which stands Jett. houses are rudely built. In the midst of the small materials of which they are principally

constructed

one house

I

VOL. n.

I

obser\-ed a certain

number of

cut stones of ancient date.

In the courtyard of

found an old capital of white marble hollowed to serve as a mortar, and now

25

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

94 used to grind

cofTee.

Gu^rin, 'Samaria,' i

J

i.

At the

foot of the hill

is

a well, which probably

is

of ancient date.'



345.

neid (M

n).

Here

are the ruins of a fortress, found by Gucrin, of which the casing has been entirely In the centre of this stronghold is a little ^\'ely, removed, only the rubble being left.

consecrated to the Sheikh Jineid.

Maktabah

Jisr el feet,

— Ruins

of a

modern bridge

built

It

was 29

width

m).

had three arches, the distance between the piers being The the pier 6 feet 8 inches thick, giving a total of 68 feet.

by a Pacha. 18

(I

The

feet.

piers

had starlings projecting 5^

feet

up

stream.

Kabr Yusef, An

modern.

Tomb (M

— The

building is quite open courtyard surrounds the tomb, with plastered walls This enclosure was rebuilt by Consul Rogei-s, as stated in Joseph's

10 feet high. the following inscription on the south wall

n).

:

This building surrounding and covering the tomb of the Patriarch Joseph was entirely rebuilt at the expense of Mr. E. T. Rogers, H.B.M.'s '

Consul at Damascus, January, 1868.'

The tomb

is

not in line with the walls of the courtyard, which have a is it in the middle of the enclosure, being nearest to

bearing of 202°, nor the west wall.

The tomb

rudely shaped, with a ridge along its length at the It is 3 feet high, 6 feet long, and 4 feet top, and has a bearing 227°. sort of There is a broad. pillar, also covered with plaster, at the head, and another at the foot of the tomb, with a cup-shaped hollow in the top itself is

of each, where oil-lamps are lighted and incense burnt by the Jews and the Samaritans.

The 7 inches

pillars

high

;

are

2

1

inches in diameter.

That on the south

2

feet

that on the north 3 feet 9 inches.

The walls courtyard measures 18 feet 7 inches square inside. is a 2 the south On feet diameter, foot 9 inches thick. Mihrab,

The are

i

and 6

feet

3

inches

high.

Above

it

are two

Hebrew

inscriptions,

a passage in the floor of the enclosure, both apparently modern 4 feet wide, has a level 6 inches lower than the side Diwans or raised ;

platforms.

entrance to the courtyard is from the north, through the ruin of a about 22 feet either way. square building, with a dome measuring

The little

ARCHAEOLOGY.

ISIfEET XL] or equal to the the courtyard.

new

courtyard.

There

is

'95

a vine on the north-east angle of

Visited July, 1872; June, 1875; May, 1881.

Kakon

m).

(J

— In

the middle of the town

a square tower of some of the arches arc is

One or two stones are drafted small masonry. mortar is white, and laid thick the the masonry is of soft limepointed staircase leads up to the roof. The stone, the walls 15 feet thick. ;

;

;

A

place resembles generally the tower of Kiilunsaweh square, and between 40 and 50 Visited 22nd March, 1873.

The

small castle whose

ruins

it

;

is

about 60 feet

feet high.

arc

still

standing at

Kakon

is

mentioned by several

Burchard, who identifies it with Michmethah (Joshua xvi. 5, 6, Crusading chronicles. and xvii. 7), says that the castle was erected by the Saracens, contra Castrum Peregrin'

Ricold (thirteenth century) mentions it as a castle 20 miles from Athlit. Marino it Caco-Manatat. Michmethah was a city in the possession of Ephraim and Manasseh.

oruni.'

Sanuto

calls

Keffa (K

m).

—Wells

and

cisterns, a

mound

(apparently

artificial),

and traces of ruins.

Kefr Here Guerin.

Lebad

(K

n).

are ruins covering the plateau of a hill. They were visited and described by He says, 'They are the ruins of an ancient town, which is nowhere mentioned, at

under

least

el

this

name,

in the sacred books.

Important remains

still exist,

such as the lower

courses of several buildings of cut stone, lying, with much regularity and without cement, upon each other. One of these, of rectangular form, and built east and west, measures 22 paces in length and 15 in breadth.

The door was ornamented

with monolith pilasters,

Another similar building belonging to this is somewhat smaller, but at a little standing. distance is found a third more considerable, and built north and south, 50 paces long by 25

still

broad.

There

are two entrances,

one on the north, with a

circular arch,

and the other on

the south, rectangular. AVithin the enclcsure, entirely constructed of cut stone of good dressing, and not cemented, runs a long court, with several parallel halls, whose partition

show the same character as the wall of the external enclosure. Other and partly overthrown, strew the soil with materials scattered or Here and there are cisterns cut in the rock.' 'Samaria,' iL 212.

walls

in cut stone,

to



Kefr S a

(J n).

be an ancient

site.

— Foundations,

cisterns,

heaps of stones; appears

Khurbet Abu Kemeish (Km). — Foundations stones

;

rock-cut tombs opposite,

Khurbet

el

'A k

i

1

(L

now choked.

n).

— Traces of

buildings, also

lying in heaps.

ruins.

and heaps of

THE SURVF.Y OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

196

Khu '

The

r

be

t

'A k u d

el

(N

n).

—A small ruined

Khan.

ruins of Khiirbet Akiid consist of three magazines side by side

and

The

parallel.

vaults are slightly pointed. They appear to have belonged to an old Khan. Near them lies a heap of building materials from houses now demolished.' Gutfrin, Samaria,' i. 448.



'

Khurbet 'Asafch (L n.) — Traces of ruins. K h u r b e 'Ask ar (L o). — Walls and cisterns. K h r b e 'A u f a r (INI o). — Traces of ruins. Khurbet Beit S a m a (K — A tomb is here t

t

II

1).

an ornamental sculpture over the door in a with two rows apparently of ears of corn in low relief. up, with

are

flat

To

found blocked arc of a circle,

the north-west

two ancient watch-towers.

Kh fir bet Kh be

Beit Sellum (L

n).

— Traces of

ruins.

m (M m). — Traces of ruins. Khurbet Deideban (M m). — Remains of masonry. Khurbet e d D e r (L n). — Ruins of a small convent. Khurbet F a h a s (K n). — Ruined watch-tower, like that described i^i

r

t

el

B

u

h

s

i

at 'Azzun.

Khurbet el H a j Rah-hal (Ml). — Traces of ruins. Khurbet Hamarah (Km). — Foundations. Khurbet el Hawa (N n). — Traces of ruins. Khurbet H u s e n (K m). — Foundations. Khiirbet Ibn H aj Ham mad (K n). — A ruined i

apparently modern

Khurbet Ibreikeh close to

Neby

village

of

times. (I o).

— A mound

covered with vegetation, perhaps covers over a

Shem'on, with a well on the south



ruined tank.

Kh

II

r

be

t

I

b t h a n (K m).

— Traces of

Khi^irbet

Ifka s.

KhCirbet

Iskander

fallen

sions.

masonry,

and

— Traces of ruins and a

cisterns.

well.

ruins.



(K n). A good-sized The masonry is of

ruin,

with

much

ordinary dimen-

[S/fHET

K

h u

ARCHAEOLOGY.

X/.l r

bc

t

J d fa

side of a valley.

K

h u

r

b e

t

Khurbet

It

(M

m).

— Terraced

197

hill,

wiih traces of ruins, on the

has a very ancient appearance.

el

— Heaps of stones. — Walls and e lam eh

u n

J a fr

J

(L

o).

(J

n).

weathered, having an ancient appearance.

A small

foundations,

domed

much

building stands

in the ruins,

Khurbet Jureiban (L m). — Traces of ruins. Khurbet K a b u bah L n). — Traces of ruins. Khurbet K e f r u (

r.

This place does not appear in the Survey map. It was found by Gucrin to the west of el Arak (Mo), between that and Fri.ita. He describes it as a confused place assemblage of small houses, the vaults of which are broken down and the walls partly destroyed. Many of them contain cisterns cut in the rock and apparently of much greater antiquity than the Arab houses which formerly covered them. '.Samaria,' ii. 178.



Khiirbet

el

Keisumeh

Khurbet

el

Keriim (L

Khiirbet

el

(J t).

n).

Khareijeh

— Traces of

ruins.

— Traces of — Traces

ruins.

(J o).

of

ruins,

caves,

cisterns.

Khurbet el Kharjeh (Mm). — Traces of ruins. Khurbet el Kuferat (L n). — Traces of ruins. Khurbet el Kumkum (K n). — Heaps of stones. Khurbet Kefr Kus (N n). — A heap of stones,

with a spring

below.

Khi^irbet Kurkilf (L

n).

Khiirbet K

n).

11

s

e

i

n

(L

— Traces of — Traces of

ruins. ruins.

Khurbet K use in et Tahta (L n). — Traces of ruins. Khurbet el Kuweib (L m). — Traces of ruins. Khurbet L 6 z e h (M o). — See Jebel et Tor. Khurbet el MaghazCln (I o). — A mound, with tree

above two sacred

Khurbet mound.

el

a large ancient

sites.

Malakah

(J

n).

— Traces

of ruins on an

artificial

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

'9S

Khurbct Mass in (K in ruins, of soft

monastery, mortar has disappeared.

and partly cut

A

m).

— Large

and small rooms, as of a

much crumbled with age. The now dry a large vault of masonry,

white stone, deej? well,

;

a large circular clump of terebinths. By The walls are standing a few courses high. The place was said to be a e r, or monastery.

D

in

the rock.

it

is

i

Visited August, 1872.

Khurbet stone

roller lies

Mudahderah

el

(K

o).

— Stones

and

cisterns.

A

on the ground.

K h r b e M u k h n a h (M o). — A ruined village. K h r b e el M n a r ah (M o). — Ruined watch-tower. Khurbet en Neirabeh (Km). — Foundations; has the appearfi

t

iTi

t

li

ance of an ancient

Khurbet N an ancient

t

site.

e sh a

(J n).

— Traces of ruins

and cisterns

;

looks like

site.

Khurbet Nib (M n). — Traces of ruins, Khurbet Rash in (L m). — Heaps of stones. Khurbet e r R u z z a z e h (Jo). — Foundations, evidently modern. Khurbet Sir (K o). — Two rock-cut tombs, a large mound with terraces cut in the sides, a

ancient

good

well

below

;

has every appearance of an

site.

Visited 13th

May, 1S73.

Khurbet Sebata (M m). — Heaps of stones. Khurbet S e y a d (M n). — Traces of ruins. Khurbet e s h S h u r e m (M n). — Traces of ruins. KhUrbet Tafsah (L o). — Small ruined village in gardens; i

i

to

be modern.

(See Section A., Tiphsah.)

appears

Khurbet T e y a h (K m). —Walls and heaps of stones. Khurbet U m m G h a n m e h (L n). — Fallen pillar shafts. Khurbet Wuseil (K m). —Walls and foundations, apparently i

not very ancient.

Khurbet Yehuda Khiirbet Yaubek

(N

— Traces of — Foundations and

n).

(J n).

ruins,

cisterns.

{SHEET

XI.']

Khurbet

Z ah run

ARCH.EOLOGY.

i99

— Heaps

of stones and ruins, appa-

(K

rently modern.

Khurbet

Z

e

i

t

a

(M

m).

m).

— Traces of

ruins.

Here are the remains of an ancient church, now divided into some high, inhabited by several families. The church lies east and '

to St.

George

its

;

vaults were slightly pointed.

are in general regular

some blocks

;

The

materials

K viz.,

li

li

1

n

s

'Samaria,'

a

weh

a tower and a

employed

in its

construction

A

and now belonging to two proprietors, who appearance, and dates from a period anterior, apparently, ii.

low,

and was consecrated

long magazine, with a semicircular each occupy a part, presents a more regular

are embossed.

vault,

— Guerin, spoken.'

some

ten chambers, west,

to the

church of which

I

have just

1S2.

(J n).

— In

this village are

two

fine

Crusading

ruins,

hall.

The Tower

41 feet 6 inches high to the highest part, and 40 feet square, with walls 6 feet 6 inches thick. The original vaulting of the In the lower courses of the walls the stones are 2 feet roof is destroyed.

long and

i

good hard limestone.

foot 6 inches high, of

The

corner stones

A

great part of the upper portion of the tower is modern. drafts are roughly cut by eye, the mortar is soft, with but little

are drafted.

The

is

earthenware.

The Hall

east of the tower, with walls

is

vaults below the

main

These

floor.

some 20

and

feet high

vaults are of rude stones (a kind of

The hall measures 55 feet east and west by rag work) tunnel-shaped. feet north and south externally the south wall is 7 feet 9 inches thick, 70 the others 4 feet. The north-west part of the building is destroyed the ;

;

vaults beneath are supported

on buttresses, two rows of three bays each,

north and south, the buttresses 5 feet square. On these stand the piers of the upper story, 4 feet broad, 5 feet long. There would seem to have

been a

fine

double window on the north, with a central

The

^oillar

foot

i

lying outside in the street, and is well cut in white marble, with an imitation of Corinthian mouldings, as often

8 inches diameter.

is

capital

occurs in other Crusading buildings [e.g., Beit J b r i n. Sheet XX.) There is a large window on the south wall, 6 feet broad, and beneath i

an entrance to the vaults

both have pointed arches, with a keystone cut away below to form the point the upper arch is filled in with masonry, keyed together by zig-zag joints (see Sketch), resting on a lintel. The

this

;

;

stones in the lower part of the south wall are drafted irregularly, as though the cut by eye, the draft 3 inches to 5^ inches broad, and 2 inches deep ;

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

2O0

face of the boss

is

dressed,

and not

rustic.

The

joints are beautifully cut,

and the stones average from 2 feet to 3^ feet in length. A sketch of some of the courses towards the west, round the staircase loophole, was made. The staircase to an upper stor}- starts from the west side of the great south window, and ascends in the thickness of the wall in two

flicfhts

round the south-west corner, with a loophole in the south wall and another It is 2^ feet broad, and reaches up by 19 in the west wall. steps 11

Entrance to IhuUs cuB

^V—

ARCHEOLOGY.

[SHEET XI.] The west wall had

also a

window

in

-oi

and the masonry here

it,

is

extremely

This, with the lessened thickirregular, though the stones are well cut. ness of the wall and the less careful work of the higher courses of the the building had been hastily finished. The pier on the inside of the wall (A) has a corbel of beautiful workmanship, from which the vaulting of the roof must have sprung, but the

south wall, looks as

if

vaulting has been entirely destroyed. None of the masonry of the interior

is

drafted

;

all is

Mason's marks were observed on the

preserved.

very well cut and stones

interior

of

forms similar to those found in the Muristan work at Jerusalem, dating For 1130-40, and one of them in the Muristan at Jerusalem (1150-80). the possible history of this building see Section A. Visited and planned loth April, 1873. This describes '

I

hall it

appears

to

be the ruin mentioned by

He

Gudrin as a church.

thus

:

next examined the remains of a beautiful church, built east and west, and divided into e.ist in three apses. It was formerly constructed of good cut

three naves, terminating to the

some of which were

slightly embossed, as is proved by the portions still standing. separated one from the other by monolithic columns, only the positions of which can be traced. They were probably crowned by Corinthian capitals, for I found one

stones,

The naves were

mortar by the inhabitants, who told me they brought other capitals and shafts had disappeared. Probably more ancient building. An elegant door, with pointed arch, is still

in a house, of white marble, cut into a it

from the

they

site

of the church.

The

came from some Under the nave runs

standing.

which serve as a shelter for as '

Two good The

village. •>•

many

now

divided into several compartments,

families.

seem ancient. One of these is near the church ; the other below the and surmounted by a vaulted arcade in cut stones.' 'Samaria,'

walls



latter is large,

351-

Kur

a vaulted crj-pt,

(K

n).

— A ruined watchtower,

like the

one described

at 'Azzun,

exists north-east of this place.

K ury e

t

Jit (L

n).

Here Gu^rin observed among the houses a

On

certain

number of cut

stones of apparent

of the houses are in a ruinous condition, others are completely destroyed. the north-west side of the hill he found a great well, into which one descends by fifteen

Many

antiquity.

The place is fallen to pieces. It gives a supply of water which never fails. as and Eusebius the the old Gitta mentioned by Justin Martyr birthplace of Simon probably the Magician. stejis,

now

KClsein.

— The

ruin

shown near

this

place

is

merely a heap of

stones.

El VOL.

M ah II.

r

il

na h

(M

1).

— Appears

to

be a ruined beacon

station.

26

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

Me

El

j

traces of a

d e

1

(J n).

—A large

ruin north-west of

Fe

1

a

m

i

e h.

Walls,

and cisterns here exist and rock-cut tombs, of which three were measured one of them is the ordinary rock-sunk double tomb,

considerable town, a tank,

caves,

;

the shaft 2 feet broad,

beneath

loculi

stone over the shaft

is

feet long, 3 feet

deep

;

the

The great long under arcosolia. feet 7 inches broad, 6 feet 6 inches long, i foot

feet broad,

3

<-^\

2

5^

feet

8 inches high.

The second tomb

is

a

chamber with kokim

the entrance

;

arched doorway 5 feet broad, 5^ feet deep, with a door

feet

2

is

an

square.

/or«7i Arched, pnbabiy .1 wi eaxn

Door

10 thick i^ki' aboLut' 4

hal/"

htuTud up

inujii

rujti

ascertaui coi-rcci hfiffAt 'Oo,.

Enlrcaice Archedb Cha/nber StXocali flat roofecb

4 feet high.

The

was lying by. The on the right two koJcim,

slab closing this, lo inches thick,

chamber is lo feet to the back and 8 feet wide on the left four, much broken, at the back three, one broken ;

next

into the

one

they are 7 feet long, 2 feet 2 inches broad. The third tomb has an arched doorway 4 feet 4 inches deep, with a door at the end 4 feet 4 inches broad. There is a recess on the left for it

;

closing the door

chamber within

10 feet to the back, 15 feet broad on the right two kokiin irregularly placed, 7 feet long, 2 feet 8 inches broad on the left three, placed at angles rudely cut at the back two ;

the

is

;

;

;

6 feet 4 inches long, 2 feet 5 inches broad, and to the right of them a loculus the kokiiii are only 2 feet o inches 8 feet long, 2,\ feet broad, 4 feet high cut than those at the sides. of the last two are better walls To the hieh 1

;

;

the

left

2 feet 2

of the door, inside the chamber,

inches deep.

The kokim

Visited and planned, 21st

is

in this

May, 1873.

a recess

2 feet 2

tomb have

flat

inches broad,

tops.

Si

<

a o

>

< I—

< ID

[SffEEr

ARCH.EOLOGY.

X/.]

Mugharah ^M — Ruins M ughare H a K h u t

I

j

Nablus (M

n).

— The

modern houses.

of

1).

1

i

207,

(J n).

— A ruined house, modern.

modern town

narrow and long in shape, The houses arc of stone, many

following the formation of the ground.

is

them large and well-built. A new street down the centre of the town was opened in 1875, and is a considerable improvement. The bazaars are fairly good, and the place is the market for the wool and cotton of of

The

The soap manufactories also are numerous. surrounding districts. town has nine entrance gates on all sides. population of Nablus was stated in

The

i^.']^

at 13,000, of

whom

135 In 1S81

were Samaritans (So men), 600 Christians, and the rest Moslems. the population was computed by ]\Ir. Falsher, the missionary, at 20,760 souls, including 160 Samaritans (98 males) and 606 Christians and Jews.

The

principal buildings in the

largest (J

ami

a

el

Kebir)

an ancient church.

is

Of

town are the mosques.

these the

stands in the

It

eastern part of the town, at the junction of two streets, where is a fine Gothic portal belonging to the surrounding enclosure and facing east.

This gateway is painted red, blue, and white. (See Photograph No. 94.) The church within is probably one of those erected by Justinian. (See Section B.)

The remaining mosques are seven in number J a m a en N u s r of the victory of Omar Ibn Khatab), (the Mosque of Victory,' in memory i

:

'

near the centre of the town ;Jamia el Beik, near the south wall, named

from the Beiks of the Tokan family, whose house

Yasm

i

n e h, north of the last

ing (also called el west.

when

Kh

ii

d

r),

;

is

near

it

Jamia Hizn Yakub,

;

J a

m

i

a

el

a small build-

immediately outside the town on the south-

was

originally a chapel, traditionally the site of Jacob's mourning Close by is a tall minaret the coat of Joseph was brought him. It

This tower the Samaritans say once The .southern mosque is called a synagogue of their own.

with a Samaritan

belonged to Jamid et

inscription.

Tineh,

north-east corner of the town,

appears to be the

site

N us The ne.\t, in the Jamia Oulad YakCib el'Asherah,

south of

J

mentioned

m

a

in

i

a

en

r.

the journey of Sta.

Acts taining the tombs of the sons of Jacob. (Compare the of is Jamii el Hanabileh, north-west J a

m

The town

is

divided into seven quarters

:

i.

vii. i

a

Paula as con-

The

16.)

en

N us

last r.

Haret elHableh, 26 —

2

or

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

204 '

Division of the Terrace,' on

tlie

H are H arc

2.

north-east;

on the south-west, named from the mosque 3. the south-east of the last, named from the spring 14. s a r y e h, in the south-east corner of the town 5. H a ;

i

;

of the Samaritans

('

which

is

'),

;

7.

Haret

el

The remaining buildings

m

T

r

e

i

n e h

Karyu n

el

t

H

Yasm

a

r

t

e s

e

t

el

Sa

K

on e

i-

marah

the south-west corner round the synagogue,

in

Haret

not far from the tower mentioned above ;6.

on the west

el

t

Hanabileh, include e d

near the

De rw

i

s

h

i

el

Gharb,

last.

ye

h,

a small

mosque

n e h, and a building called Sheikh B a d r a n, a e t J a in the centre of the town, north of the Serai. (See Sections B. and C.)

near the

i

i

The Samaritan synagogue

a poor whitewashed room with a dome, u s b a h, where the ancient having skylights above, and a recess called MSS. are kept. There is a Latin monastery immediately outside the is

M

town, on the north-west, and a Greek convent in the interior, west of the

The governor's house (e s S e r a i) is in the centre of the great mosque. town. Near it, on the south, is the palace of the Beikof the Tokan family, the largest building in Nablus, and said to be capable of conOther large houses taining 1,000 soldiers, with stables for their horses. and Kasim families are to be tbund in the same of the 'Abd el Hadi

which

is

quarter (Haret el Yasmineh). In the north-east angle of the town J

ami

now

a el

Mesakin, 'Mosque

the ruined building called of the Poor,' or of the lepers. It is is

inhabited by the lepers of the town, and shows remains of a large roof. This is perhaps the Crusading hos-

Gothic building with a vaulted pital.

in the '

for

There

is

also a

Khan (Khan et Tujjar,

i.e.,

'of Merchants')

town, towards the middle of the main northern street.

This spot, the

site

of the ancient Shechem, the City of Refuge, is unrivalled in Palestine There are two mountains parallel to each other, almost meeting

beauty and luxuriance.

at their bases,

but \\ miles apart

at their

summits.

They

inclose a beautiful

little

valley be-

tween them, not more than 100 yards wide at the narrowest part, and widening out in both The town of Nablus is situated at the narrowest part of the vale. The mountain directions. on the north is Ebal, that on the south Gerizim, and the vale lies east and west. The site of the town

is

admirably chosen

—on the watershed,

in the

middle of the

pass, easy of access

on the west. The whole of Mount Gerizim was thoroughly examined, and the plan of Justinian's church disclosed by excavation. It had been built upon older foundations, probably those of the old Samaritan temple. An e.xcursion was made to the summit of Mount Ebal, 1,200 feet above the vale. The summit to the Jordan country eastwards,

is

and

to the sea-coast

rocky and bare, and there are no ruins on the mountain-top, except a curious square enJubt below the summit there is a break in tlie regular

closure with very thick rude walls.

CO

< Z o a:

o z

a:

<

<

.*

ARCHEOLOGY.

[SHEET XL]

205

and a small but steep valley comes up from the vale below almost to the Immea vast natural amphitheatre, in height equal to that of the mountain. summit, forming is similarly broken Mount Gerizim a of this the to steep slope by valley diately opposite In these two lateral forming a second natural amphitheatre of equal beauty and grandeur. slope of the

hill,



on Gerizim, and and the blessings and (Joshua viii. 32-35 and compare Deut. cursings were read before the whole congregation. in the natural is xxvii. II.) wanting beauty of the site to add to the solemnity and Nothing a scene. The best view of the town of Nablus is from Ebal. It seems such of impressiveness to repose so snugly in the little vale, and while the houses seem to shrink from the base of the Ebal slope, they cling to and attempt to climb the slope of Gerizim, the mountain of

valleys six

were assembled the twelve

on Ebal.

The

tribes of Israel

under Joshua

six tribes

Levites and the ark were in the strip of the vale,

;

At the edge of the plain of Mukhnah (Moreh), ij miles east of the town, is Jacob's Not far from the well is on the Well, piece of ground he purchased from the Shechemites. The identity of the well has never been disputed. Christians, the site of Joseph's Tomb. blessings.

Tews, Moslems, and Samaritans all acknowledge it, and the existence of a well in a place where water-springs are abundant is sufficiently remarkable to give this well a peculiar history.'



'

Recover)' of Jerusalem,'

p.

464, 465.

The

history of Shechem, apart from its Biblical associations, may be related very briefly. the invasion of Alexander, the Samaritans represented themselves to be Jews, in order to On the other hand, in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, they receive the same privileges.

On

themselves out to be Sidonians, and not Jews at all, and obtained permission to conseon Mount Gerizim to Zeus. This request was granted. In the year 132 John Hyrcanus took possession of Shechem and destroyed the temple, after it had

made

crate their temple B.C.

stood for two hundred years. In the time of Josephus the

name of Shechem had already been changed to that of It was also called Flavia Neapolis, after the Flavian family, to which Vespasian belonged. a Medals of name of which no trace was found the the Mabortha, surveyors. by people by Antoninus Pius exist, struck at Neapolis, which represent the temple of Gerizim approached by great

stairs cut in the

In the time Justin Mart)T was born at Neapolis. a.d. there the tombs of the Patriarchs. In the year 490 the

mountain-side.

of Jerome they still showed Samaritans rose and massacred the Christians on the

Day of Pentecost, while they were at with The the loss of his service. Bishop, escaping fingers, took refuge with the Emperor the Samaritans from who Zeno, expelled Neapolis, and assigned Mount Gerizim to the These built a chapel on the summit, and surrounded it with a wall. In the reign of Anastasius the Samaritans again rose in revolt and murdered the Christians who attempted to defend the church. The murderers were put to death, and Justinian surChristians.

rounded the church with a strong wall. He also punished the Samaritans, who had murdered the Bishop of Neapolis, cut to pieces several priests, and destroyed five churches. ANTien the Crusaders took possession of the country, Tancred received the submission of The place was visited by Benjamin of Tudela. He says that^it contained 100 Nablus. Cuthites, called Samaritans,

Gerizim upon an

altar

who have

priests of Aaron's house,

formed of the stones which the

and

Israelites

offer sacrifices

on Mount

took out of the bed of the

JordaiL

The city was sacked by Saracens in 1154 ; again in 1187, after the battle of Hattin. It was shaken by an earthquake in 1202. It was retaken by the Christians in 1242, but soon

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

2o6

fell

again inlu the liands of the Mussulmans.

Ibrahim Pasha, and

The \'aults

it

Nablus extend

ruins of

Six

hundred years

later

it

was sacked by

was nearly destroyed by the great earthquake of 1837.

were excavated

in

for

some distance

east of the

modern town.

digoring the foundations of the barracks,

and

have tide-deeds of buildings and shops in the persons same direction. A long mound with traces of a rude wall exists between Balata and 'Askar, and there is a tesselated pavement just east of in the city claim to

Joseph's Tomb, in which neighbourhood ruins are mentioned in the fourteenth century, and were supposed to be those of Ancient Thebez (Marino Sanuto).

The

'A

i

n

D u f n a, size — an

ashlar of

under the barracks, is surrounded with remains of old building which once surrounded the spring.

good There was also once a round tower west of it, and a small aqueduct leads from it. The spring had been enclosed in 1881 in a newly-constructed tank, with steps leading

down.

North of the town wine-presses near

Two

is

the rock-hewn

cemetery,

and some rock-cut

it.

of tombs were

groups included three tombs.

examined, east and west.

The

first

chamber with three locnli, each 7 feet 6 inches long, 2\ feet broad, the chamber 6 feet 6 inches high; the entrance door 3 feet wide, with an arch 5 feet wide, 3 feet deep, and the loculi bottoms are 6 inches above the floor of 5 feet high before it the tomb, the avcosolia above 6 feet from the floor, the loaili themselves No.

i

a

;

In front of the archway is a platform of rock. No. 2 is only a loculus cut in the face of the rock, 6 feet long, 2J feet broad, resembling in other respects those above noticed in front of it is a step 2 feet

deep.

;

I

No.

foot high, i^ feet broad.

3

is

a large

tomb with three chambers,

opening on a central court cut back 15 feet, and 2,S'k f'^et broad. There is one chamber in the right wall of this court, and two at the back the former has a breadth 9 feet 9 inches, and a loculus each side. The ;

main chamber

at the

back has a door with a

flat

top 6 feet 6 inches broad,

inside this a small door. The chamber is 7 feet deep, 7 feet high with three arcosolia, 7 feet by 6 feet deep, each having square and high,

5 feet

;

originally

Abreik, high

;

its

two kokim under Sheet V.)

it

— the transition

The chamber

to

the

(Compare

style. left

is

9

Sheikh

feet square,

entrance 5 feet broad, opening from the court.

Pillars

7

feet

probably

^x

^"^-.x

^

•:/:'>}

.'hm/jra^- IT.

VIEW OF OLD

SILVER

CASE CONTAINING

THE.

SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH.

'-^

Z:'!-''

[SHEET

ARCHEOLOGY.

XI.]

once stood

in front of the court;

207

the base of one 3 feet 6 inches diameter

remains.

The second cave

feet

15

No.

high.

No.

is

I,

open.

4

some

further cast, about

2,

iS

No.

feet

No. i a group, further west, includes a dozen tombs. square, 7 feet high, with a door 8 feet wide, 6 feet

feet

by 9

further

4,

No.

high.

5

is

feet,

west,

10

and 6 15

feet

by

5

with

feet high,

feet

square,

a very large cave, On the north side

No.

feet.

100

feet

west of

front entirely

its

door 8

the

3,

feet

by 50

wide,

and

feet,

length being east and west) is a recess 10 feet above the ground, with steps leading up the recess 10 feet long, 5 feet broad, 6 feet high. The cave appears feet

15

whether the

but

natural,

high.

which

recess,

is

(its

artificial,

was a tomb

is

doubtful.

No. 6 (proceeding rather further west) is choked. No. 7 is 13 feet feet its door from the left-hand broad, 15 corner, 5 feet broad, 3 feet long,

and

Near

a tank 10 feet square, sunk in rock this have been covered by an arch of small rough masonry,

3 feet high.

appears to cemented. No. 8

No.

in

;

feet

broad

;

in the left-

No. 9 is high beside the door. a chamber 10 feet square, with a court 20 feet

5 feet square, 3 feet 10,

not roofed, but sunk in the top and face of the rock. 7 feet high, with a loculns at the

a chamber 20 feet square,

II,

back 10

front,

is

20 feet square, with a door 3

is

hand corner a recess 12 feet square. No. square

this

feet long, 4 feet w^ide, 5

feet high.

No. 12

is

10 feet square,

with an arched entrance 4 feet broad, ^^ feet deep, 7 feet high. the left wall a locuhts 3 feet broad, 73- feet long. The chamber

On is

7

feet high.

These tombs, from No. 6 westwards, are in the side of a little valley, and face south-west opposite them on the west is a group of caves, some with well-cut doors and arched rock entrances. There are also some small caves east of the rock cemetery. Other rock-cut tombs of ;

similar character occur beside the road to

the

hill,

and also further

east,

'Amad ed

Din, near the foot of

near the road leading to 'Askar. the heads 'A

The remaining ruins near Nablus are noticed under Beit lima, Bir Yakub, Dawertah, Deir

Hizn Yakub, Jebel Eslamiyeh, Jebel

Y

fi

s

e

f,

and

Ras

'

el

A

i

n.

et

i

n

Bunduk, Tor, Kabr

el

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

2oS

Inside the town

is

by Major Wilson, R.E., '

The

interior

is

the in

Jamia

el

Keb

i

r,

which

is

thus described

iS66:

irregular,

and shows several additions and rebuild-

the western portion seems to be a remnant of the old basilica, as all ings the columns except one at that end have Corinthian capitals of perhaps a ;

earlier date than the

little

one found

in

the

church on Gerizim

;

the

columns are of marble and serpentine one capital has long lotus-shaped leaves which give it an Egyptian look. The eastern portion of the ;

mosque

is

irregular in shape,

and

in

addition to the piers there are several

columns without capitals, and some small columns with capitals of a later date at the eastern end is a handsome gateway built by the Crusaders, ;

which seems to have opened into a courtyard surrounding the church

;

Over the present it is now closed, except a small opening in the middle. entrance to the mosque facing the street (on the north), but half-covered with mortar, is the old lintel of the basilica there are numbers of stones ;

the Corinthian with marginal drafts built into the walls of the mosque capitals in the Turkish bath close by are the same age as those in the ;

mosque.' The mosque was visited by Lieutenant Conder, R.E., in 1881. It has two small courtyards, one leading from the Gothic portal on the

by a spring the other narrow and long, There are three also with a tank leading from the street on the north. 2 feet in diameter, basilica the about of the old on the west, pillars bays east,

and

and 20

this

in

feet

is

a tank fed

from centre to centre.

semble those of the

basilica at

;

The

Bethlehem

capitals ;

on

five of the shafts re-

the sixth has long narrow lotus

These capitals have been painted red and green. a capital with drilled work, like the Byzantine work of the The eastern portion would seem to have been sixth or seventh century. leaves and no volutes.

Further east

is

by the Crusaders, who found the basilica in have been arranged in clusters of two, some without rebuilt

The

ruins. capitals.

old shafts

In one case a

double marble capital cut out of one block, with details of Gothic character, has been placed above two shafts standing close together north and south. The rough whitewashed piers probably conceal similar double pillars in

The

apses have been destroyed, and an open entrance thus obtained from the east court and the Gothic gateway.

other cases.

This east gateway to the court is now painted columns being ornamented with bands of white,

is

in various colours, the

blue,

and

red.

Four

[SHEET XJ.]

ARCHEOLOGY.

209

clustered columns each side, of slender dimensions, support the pointed

The

archway.

general effect of the work

is

similar to that of the

Holy

The top of the archway is filled in Sepulchre doorway at Jerusalem. with masonry keyed with curved and zigzag joints (as at K Ci u n s a w c h). wall (See Palestine Exploration Fund Photograph, No. 94.) On the outer 1

here two masons' marks were observed

i^ Both of these occur

The second il

80

a.d.;

in

the

very common, e.g. Muristan, 11 30- 11 40.

The church was

,<

church

is

:

St.

of the

Virgin's

Anne, 1103

a.d.;

Tomb, 1105 Scbastieh,

a.d. 1

1

so-

by the Canons of the Holy Sepulchre, and was dedicated to the Passion and Resurrection

rebuilt

finished in 1167 a.d.

It

of Christ.

Not

from the great mosque is a building containing the cenotaph of Sheikh Bad ran, otherwise called Sheikh Bedr er Rafid, far

'Amad cd Din.

contains four granite columns with The early Byzantine capitals, and was evidently once a small chapel. walls are now plastered and whitewashed. father of Sheikh

It

In the street north of the great fallen It

on

its side.

The

mosque

is

a fine shaft of red granite

building above the 'Ain Karyun

consists of an apse about 20

is

also of interest.

domed

feet in diameter, with a

roof (a

of good masonry, the stones in the apse wall being large. simple series of mouldings runs round the apse beThe spring, neath the dome, and also round the arch of the dome itself.

quarter of a hollow sphere),

all

A

which the

is

very clear and abundant, comes out of a small masonry trough

floor.

The

has been cut

in

in

apse is directed south-west, so that a Mihrab or niche the back wall towards the left. There are many drafted

stones with well-dressed bosses in the walls of houses near the spring. One of these has a broken winged tablet in low relief, but without any inscription.

A small

by on the north. The apse above described resembles that of one of the temples at Rukhleh on Hermon, and seems to have belonged to a heathen shrine but it should

mosque of Sheikh Beiyazid

exists close

;

not be forgotten that churches of the fourth and are not always oriented. VOL.

II.

fifth

centuries in Palestine

27

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

2 10

Khan Ezbib

('

In the north-east angle of Nablus is a ruin called The Raisin INIart'). It has on its south side a fine pointed archway, the

well worked. keystone and voussoirs of stones carefully drafted, the bosses It looks like Crusading work, but has neither masons' marks nor the diswith a toothed adze). tinctive mediseval (the stones being finished

dressing

The of

wall

is

of

similar to that of the arch, perhaps a fine

masonry

specimen

Arab work. Immediately south of

Oulad Yak lib

on the other side of the

this,

is

street,

the

Section C), apparently quite modern, a small The northern with two chambers, and a court on the north-east. (see

mosque chamber contains a

large cenotaph.

some small containing the name of

the courtyard are

In

one with an Arab inscription and the date 622 a.h. (thirteenth century).

marble

pillar-shafts,

King Omar to be the tomb

This place seems

of the sons of Jacob, mentioned by St. Jerome.

(See

Section A.)

A

little

further south

is

the

Jamia

Mesakiii,

el

a vault about

Three bays 25 feet wide north and south, and with walls 12 feet thick. in all, the roof and all the walls but that on the east remain, about 75 feet

On the east the building is broken down, and remaining almost perfect. The roof is groined, with pointed appears to have extended further. arches.

stones in the walls have rustic bosses.

Many

The

building looks

Crusading structure the lepers' houses are built in and around This possibly was the site of the Hospital of the Templars.

like a

;

Visited July, 1872

N N

e by

u

E

s f J e

1

ya

b

i

1

Rafidia (M

s

(K n).

;

June, 1875; June, 1S81.

—Walls and — Foundations on

wells,

(J o). n).

a

with a ruined kubbeh. hill.

— Foundations of a wall of good

not drafted, visible from the road, south of the

Er Ras (K

n).

— Seven

village within about a mile. '

A z z u n, Ras

which el

it.

ruins are

They

squared masonry,

villao-e. o

shown on the plan north

of this

are ancient watch-towers, like those at

see.

'A in

n).— A

wall of small

masonry and

rubble, with a niche pointing south behind the spring two aqueducts, partly rock-cut, The work looks partly of small masonry, the upper one only in use. like the Roman work of the at el Kufar (Sheet (j\l

;

Kan

XVII.),



^.i-i

I

r" 5<*

.^ .r

I

ARCHEOLOGY.

{SHEET AY.] and that

at

'A

i

Sultan

es

n

211

(See Hydrography,

(Sheet X\'III.).

Section A.)

Sebustieh Section A.

Colonnade

;

(L

(Samaria)

n).

— The

The important ruins are 2. The Crusading Church.

site

itself

is

of two dates,

described under i.

viz.,

Herod's

The Colonnade

appears to have surrounded the hill with a cloister Temple at Jerusalem, situate on a level terrace with

not unlike that of the

a higher knoll rising in the middle.

The remains

are most perfect on the

where some eighty columns are standing the width of the was 60 feet, the pillars 16 feet high, 2 feet diameter, and about 6 feet apart. On the south it extended about 32 chains, or 2,100 feet, and remains of a gate were pointed out, and rude rock

south,

;

cloister

cuttings

in

the

south-west

corner,

apparently

the

foundations

of

two

gate

towers.

Josephus (Ant. xv.

more than 10,000 that the estimate

makes the

circumference

20

furlongs,

The

real circuit is probably some 6,000 double the actual length. nearly

feet. is

8)

feet,

or so

The columns

are principally monolithic. There are others, also without capitals, on the north-east of the hill, near the village, in a line running

north and south, where also there seems to have been a gate. threshing-floor is close to them.

A

street of similar

columns leads up the

flat

The

slope of the

hill

present

on the

This was possibly a hippodrome, or else an approach to the north. north-east gate, being directed on the north-east corner of the upper colonnade. 27-

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

212

The Church,

a

place of burial of St.

between

mere the

1

150 and

shell,

crypt a

1

Crusading structure, over the traditional John Baptist, is supposed to have been erected fine

180 a.u.

'

(Du Vogilc

built.

a

piers gone, and over

the greater part of the roof and aisle

modern kubbeh has been

now

It is

Eglise.s,' p. 361).

The

interior

length

is

158 feet, the breadth 74 feet the west wall is 10 feet thick, the north ;

rian, of Plet S'-

huJ>

1

wall

8

the south wall 4 feet.

feet,

There were

which the

six bays, of

second from the east

is

larger, pro-

On

bably once supporting a dome. I the east are

three apses to and aisles, the central apse feet in diameter, equal to the

of the nave.

The

piers

nave is

30

width

had four

columns attached, one each side on the west was a doorway and two windows on the south four windows remain, and on the north three. ;

;

CuCuUluiq ouXsuie. apso ScaJAVtS

Corrucc iri aisie Scale.

W

Bns^-.

of colli frtn

SaeUaniOirtnigK i^ufaf I

wt cu^sle ,tl5

The nave had clerestory lights. The the rest. The bearing is due east and

sixth

west.

bay

is

slightly

C '

f^

narrower than

•%i^

\^:^f^:

,rt\

.'^1

(''

a:

< < X o -3

<

X

o a.

X

o

^-iii


?m-'-r'

-'

[SHEET XL The

ARCIEEOL OG Y.

]

213

those of French tvvelfth century churches, of semi-classic style, like that of the N a b 1 u s fortress appears to have been attached to the

resemble

capitals

but the cornice above

is

A sort of gateway. church on the north, flanked by square towers. The tomb by 31 shown.

the centre

in

a

is

small

and here the graves of

steps,

The masonry

of the church

is

rock-hewn chamber, reached and Obadiah are also

Elisha

and perfect

beautifully fine

high and

;

the stones

size (about 1-^ feet feet long), and are a but not dressed with toothed instrument, regularly always in the same direction. The masonry of the northern building is rougher, and drafted

are

moderate

of

on the north

Between the south windows on the outside are

wall.

buttresses 5 feet

2

by 2\

feet.

The west door a higher level,

The leaves,

has a simple pointed arch, but the windows, though at have round arches.



designs on the capitals differ considerably smooth leaves, palm Corinthian volutes, etc. This is the case also at Ramlch.

(See

Sheet XIII.)

mam

is

apse beneath.

The

groined,

vaulting over

with

pointed

the

arches

1(4

\ij^i

PkAA

K QD G ® D MR5e/'l

'^-^

There are a few crosses scratched on the A" "^ ^ ''""' ""^ walls, and some masons' marks were collected. For purposes of comparison they are here printed with others collected by Colonel Wilson. With regard to these marks, it is curious that

^

one,

)\,,

the rest,

'

which recurs several times, is very much more boldly cut than and generally larger, being on some stones about 2 inches

long.

Of viz.

this

collection

some

Muristan

The marks I

found

are

in

other

dated

buildino-s,

:

100

A.D. to

Tombs.

I

130-40),

150 or

Lydda

(i

Tomb

of Virgin (11 03).

are thus in

180

(i

later),

instances extended over a period from

many

A.D.

There are rock-cut tombs on the

side of the valley,

west of

B

e

i

t

I

mr

i

n.

north, on the opposite are of the so-called

Some

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

214

with heavy stones above; others are mere caves, the doorway in some cases artificially shaped, as at Nablus. Visited July, 1S72 June, 1875.

'rock-sunk'

style,

;

(See Palestine Exploration

Fund Photographs, Nos.

83, 84, 85). Excavations were carried on simultaneously at Sebustiyeh and Gcrizim. At the former some excavations were made at the Church of St. John and two of the temples. A plan was made of the church and the grotto, which seems to be of masonry of a much older date than '

There are

the church.

two tiers of three each, and small pigeon-holes are left at the loculi are wholly of masonry. The northern side and ; north-west tower are of older date than the Crusades— I think early Saracenic ; in the latter six loculi, in

the ends for visitors to look in

there

is

a peculiarly arched passage. The church is on the site of an old city gate, from " street of columns started and ran round the hill eastwards. The old city was

which the "

Plans were

easily traced.

made

of the temples

covered with rubbish from 10 to 12

;

they are

remove which with Arab labour would take some three or four months. Anderson took charge of the Gerizim excavations, and opened out the foundations of Justinian's Church within the castle in many places but one or two courses of stone are left. The church is octagonal on the eastern side an apse on five sides small chapels on one a door feet deep, to

;

:



;

;

sixth chapel.

much

destroyed to make out, probably a There was an inner octagon, and the building

the eighth side too

without the chapels must have been a miniature " Dome of the Rock." A few Roman coins were found. The southern Section

o/i

CD

Samtdccr.

portion of the crest has been excavated in several places, but no trace of any large foundations found. In an enclosure

about 4 feet from the Holy Rock of the Samaritans a great number of human remains were dug up, but nothing to tell their age or nationality we have since filled in the place

n fl

;

The Amran says they are the bodies of those priests who were anointed with consecrated oil, but may more probably have been bodies purposely buried there to defile the temple, or An excavation was made at the " hvelve rudely thrown in and co\-ered up in time of war. and covered them up

stones,"

Saulcy

again.

M. de which appear to form portion of a massive foundation of unhewn stone. quite right about the name of Luzah being applied to the ruins near the place

is

where the Samaritans camp for the Passover. They are not of any great extent ; by far the most important remains are on the southern slope of the peak, where a portion of the city Whatever its name or date, wall can still be seen and the divisions of many of the houses. there was certainly at one time a large town surrounding the platform on which the wely and castle

A

now

stand.'

door of

— Captain Wilson's

basalt, similar to the

brought from the Hauran. '

little

— Ed.

Letters, p. 35.

door figured above,

is

in the British

Museum.

It

was

At the western extremity of the monument

rises a Mussuhnan sanctuary crowned by a which a feeble light into the crypt which it with narrow admit windows, cupola pierced

covers.

This crypt probably belongs to the ancient

basilica,

which was replaced by the

edifice

ARCHEOLOGY.

[SHEET XI.]

215

now itself in ruins. Descent is managed by a staircase of fifteen steps ; then, after crossing a landing once closed by a monolithic door, you go down two steps, and find yourself in a crypt formerly paved with small slabs of marble in different colours, forming a sort of mosaic Here

lies

the door of which

have just spoken

I

:

mouldings divide

it

into

compartments

;

it

provided with hinges worked in the thickness of the block which composes the stone. This crypt, of small extent, contains a sepulchral chamber divided into three parallel arched is

with cut stones regularly worked between them. They are only seen by introducing a across three small in the wall of the chamber. light According to an ancient traopenings dition, one of these compartments is the tomb of St. John the Baptist, and the others those

loaili,

of the prophets Obadiah and Elisha.'

Sheikh 'A Sheikh S a (J

o).

11

c

r

t

e

1

(I

i

n

(L

1).

n).

Dothan (M

Tell

be the ancient

189.

ii.

— (L m). A ruined kubbeh. — A ruined house. ah — Heaps of stones. The place

antiquity.

Es S

'Samaria,'

a

s

i

Sufin

— Guerin,

1).

— ^Modern watch-towers a vineyard. — There a large mound, which appears in

is

South of

the town.

site of

has an appearance of

is

it

to

modern cactus hedge, where

a well with

masonry, and a spring ('A in el H Ci f r e h) near a is a drinkintr-trough. There is also a modern INIoslem building and a few terebinths near the ruins. i

'

Tell

Dothan stands

close by two wells

;

one of them

is

ancient,

The

and the other modern.

slopes of the Tell and its summit are strewn with materials and numerous fragments of Guerin, 'Samaria,' 219. pottery, the sole remains of an ancient city entirely destroyed.'



This place was discovered by Van de Velde, and identified by liim with Dothaim of an identification which seems generally admitted. The name agrees

Genesis xxxvii. 17



with the old one, and the situation accords, as Guerin carefully points out, not only with the requirements of the narrative in the Book of Genesis, but also with those of 2 Kings vi. 13 et seq.,

and the two passages

Tel Ishkaf

(I

in the

Book of

— An m).

Judith.

ancient

artificial

mound, with springs

to

the north and south.

Tell

Kheibar" (M

Tell

building, perhaps a fort,

50

feet square, with

now is

—Apparently — Remains of a m).

Kezaay (M

el

m).

is

on the top of the mound or

a natural feature.

town and of a square

The

fort is

about

an entrance on the south, once spanned by a

lintel,

Tell.

Two

or three courses of the walls are standing. The masonry of stones about 2 feet high and of square proportions on some there fallen.

;

The walls are about 4 feet thick, the centre of over 8 feet long. Round this fort, lower down, are remains of other buildings on the north and west. .Some 50 yards west

are remains of drafting. rubble.

The

lintel is

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

2i6

a cutting in the rock about 9 feet wide, as though a path to and still lower down a small cistern lined with hard cement

of the fort

is

a gate lower a larger one north of this the foundation of a small round tower. The masonry of the fort resembles most closely the early Byzantine work. ;

;

;

For

traditions see Section C.

Visited 26th August, 1S72.

M ana

Tell

on a high

dry,

s

i

f

(J o).

— Scattered stones and rock-cut

cisterns, now-

hill.

Tell Subih

n).

(I

— A mound, apparently

artificial,

with a pool on

the north side.

Tubras Tu uza 1

1

(L

1).^

(N

— Heaps of stones,

a well, and two sacred places.

n).

The identification of Tulluza with Tirzah was first made by Dr. Robinson (but see p. 228), The town is of some size, and tolerably and Van de Velde. The former thus describes it We saw no remains of anticjuity, except a few sepulchral excavations and some well built. We were admitted to the top of a Sheikh's house, in order to take bearings. The cisterns. '

:

house was a stone

round a small

built

staircase led

which

court, in

to the roof of the

up

rooms

south-east corners, were high single

cattle

and horses were

house proper, on like

towers, with

Thence

stabled.

whicli, at the north-west

and

a staircase inside leading to

the top.

In my former work the question was suggested whether perhaps this Tulluza may not be the representative of the ancient Tirzah, the seat of a Canaanitish king, and afterwards the residence of the kings of Israel, from Jeroboam to Omri, who transferred the seat of the '

kingdom

to Samaria.

softened, especially in

The change of r into / is very common, the harder letter being The place lies in a the later Hebrew books and the kindred dialects.

and commanding position though the change of beautiful and not distant Samaria would be very natural. sightly

;



royal residence to the

On

the whole, I

am

still

more

disposed to

especially as there is no other name in all the region regard Tulliaza as the ancient Tirzah resemblance to the latter. the which bears This, also, is doubtless the place which slightest

Brocardus speaks of as

been

visited

El

by no

W

i

r

i

traveller.'

a

(L



if,

indeed,

— Robinson,

n).

'

— Traces

it

had then taken

Biblical Researches,'

of ruins and

though modern, is built over a more ancient site. 20 feet east and west by 15 north and south. Mihrab or prayer-apse, with a jDillar-shaft each In the north-west corner

the north. single

/co/ca

tine type

is

running

in

He probably Tulluza has since

3 leagues or hours east of Samaria.

T/iersa, situated

/ recognised the change from r to

is

a sunk

p.

place.

302.

a sacred

On side.

tomb

eastwards under the building.

in

A

which,

place,

This building

is

about

the south wall a

The door

is

on

the corner, with a capital of

placed on the lloor of the chamber, and on

it

a

Byzan-

beam was

ARCHAEOLOGY.

[^SIIEET X/?\

On

resting. lines

On

the west

is

a

window with

intended for ornament,

the north-east

modern stone

wall,

is

huilt

217

a marbles Hntel

;

and a stone, with on the west.

into the wall outside,

and a sunk court 50 feet by 40 feet, with a exists on the west and north, outside which are founda-

is

a well

;

tions of a tower 6 feet diameter, with remains of an entrance

and small

Both the tower and the building are of poor masonry, but the windows. A large heaja of stones former may perhaps have been a small minaret. exists

on the north-west.

The

ruin stands in the centre oi a field, the soil

perhaps indicates former ruins.

The name

indicati^s

which

is

grey, and

that a fire

was once

(if

lighted here.

VOL.

II.

28

SHEET XI.— SECTION

C.

The

population of the districts in this Sheet has never been properly It is one ascertained, for the Government returns are not at all reliable. of the most prosperous parts of the country, and most of the villages are In i860 Consul Finn obtained a return of 85,000 souls for the large.

M lidirat.

The

inhabitants are mostly Moslems. The villages in which Christians are found are noticed in Section A. The Samaritans

Nablus

are also enumerated under

Nablus '

the Samaritans will be found in

Tent

A

in that section.

Work

full

account of

in Palestine,' chap.

Samaritan Tradition s. — The

ii.

following information was obtained as to Samaritan traditions from Yakub esh Shellaby, the Samaritan,

London

in 1877, in

(26th October) the son of Nun, and Caleb son of Jefunneh, are buried at Kefr Joshua Haris, south of Shechem.

Eleazar the priest

'Azeir.

:

is

buried some

little

way west

of 'Awertah

e

(at

1

See Sheet XIV.)

Phinehas

is

buried close to 'Awertah

(at

el

'A

z e

i

r

a

t)

;

Abishuah (who wrote the famous MS.) and Ithamar. The place el 'A m u d is that where Joshua convened the

by him tribes

lie

and

made a compact with them that they should serve God. The cave where the five kings were hidden (Makkedah) is on Gerizim, It is now closed up. between Ras el 'Ain and the place of sacrifice. The sites 'A s h e r a h O u a d Yakub and 'A m ad e d Din are not reverenced by the Samaritans the latter is in honour of a Moslem in the time of el Melek ed Dhahr (that is, any time about the conquest by the Moslems of Palestine). The ruin on Ebal (K h. K u e s a) is that of an ancient village. The following statements were made by the High Priest Jacob at 1

;

1

Nablus, 2nd June, 1S81:

i

<

< s <

O Q.

o o

[sheet

SAMARITAN TRADITIONS.

A7.]

219

Joshua was buried at Kcfr Nemara (sec the Samaritan Chronicle), a place not certainly known, but thought to be 'Awertah. (See Samaritan Book of Joshua.) Kifil or Caleb was buried at Kefr Haris. (See Sheet XIV., The site of Hizn Yakiib is not regarded as scripturally Section A.)

The seventy

certain.

Ncby Book

The

elders were buried at 'Awertah.

so-called

'Osha, east of Jordan, is really the tomb of Nablh. (See Samaritan of Joshua.) The sons of Jacob were buried as follows: Reuben at

Neby Rubin (Sheet X.)

;

at el

Judah

(Sheet X\T.) Simeon at Neby Shem'on, near Kefr Saba Levi at Neby Lawin, near Silet edh Dhahr (Sheet XI.) Yehudiyeh (Sheet XIII.); Zebulon in the north probably ;

;



Neby Sebelan (Sheet II.) Issachar at Neby Hazkil or Ilazkin (Ezekiel), near Rameh (Sheet XI.) Dan at Ncby Danian (Sheet XIII.) Asher at Toba at Tubas (Sheet XII.); Joseph at Shechem (Sheet XI.). Neby ;

;

;

Benjamin, Gad, and Naphtali he did not remember. now Moslem Rlukams.

The Samaritans have increased in numbers in The younger men are very tall, 135 to 160 souls.

All these sites are

the last ten years from strong,

and handsome.

Before the time of Ibrahim Pasha they are said to have held a special firman entitling them to exclusive employment in Syria as scribes, being

Many traditions known to unusually clever as writers and arithmeticians. the former High Priest, 'Amram, are now forgotten, and many Christian and Moslem traditionary as,



accepted by the Samaritans as genuine for instance, the mediaeval site of Dothan at Khan Jubb Yusef Samaritan tradition was related, by Rev. J. Elkarey, of the 'A n sites are

A

i

Sarin, which appears

Samaritan to mean

in

'

Spring of Judgment.'

It

a version of the story of Susannah, the elders being represented by two hermits who lived on Gerizim, and falsely accused a certain nun, also is

living there,

whom

The judgment took they had been unable to corrupt. and resulted in the punishment of the elders, con-

place at 'Ain Sarin, victed by the

same means used by Daniel

in the story of

The

only traditions of interest on this Sheet u s and Tell The names h e i b a r.

N ab mad ed Khurbe 1

'A

t

them.

The

K

Din, L6 z e h

traditions of

Joseph's coat was brought

all

of

connected el

'A

mud

with

and

Jacob's Well, Joseph's Tomb, and known to the peasantry and reverenced by

the sites are

are

Susanna.

of

Hizn Y a k u to Jacob,

b,

and of

as

his

being the place where

mourning, and that of the

2S— 2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

--°

A s h e r a h O u la d Yak u b,

or ten sons of Jacob supposed to be buried the north of Nablus, are interesting, but possibly of Christian origin :

an ancient church, the second noticed by Jerome as existing in his Both arc, however, now credited by some of the Samaritans. day. According to the Sheikh of the mosque of the O u a d Y a k u b, or first

1

Sons of Jacob,' three only, and not ten of them, are there buried. He gave their names as ReiyaRin, Sah-yun (Sion), and Busherah (Asher). Other sons of Jacob are said to be buried at Bizarieh (north-west '

of Nablus), and at 'Asireh (on the north-east of the

The

site

Khe

Tell

of

i

ba

r

is

city).

connected with a tradition of a

His Jewish king, who is said by the peasantry to have lived in Sanur. daughter had her summer residence near the Tell in the INIerj el Ghiiriik.

Another instance of the preservation of medieeval Christian tradition exists in the I\I u k a m en N e b y A h a (or Y a h y a h), place of St. '

i

John,' venerated

by the Moslems

in the

Church of

St.

John Baptist

at

Samaria. the T o k a n, Three famous native families belong to this Sheet whose head (the Bey or Beik) lives in Nablus; the Jerrar, whose Kursi or 'throne' is Jeba, with another branch at Sanur, and the :

both once governing the surrounding districts. A fourth ad great family had its capital at 'Arrabeh namely, the 'A b d el J

i

y

ii

s

i

at

Ku

r,



H

i

house.

The 'A

mad

e d

D

i

n

is

said to be

named from

a Sheikh

who

years ago, according to others in the time of

to

lived,

Omar.

some, 500 was a Sultan, and struck coins which are still to be found at he say His father was Sheikh Badran, whose tomb is shown in the Nablus. town. The Christians, both Greeks and Latins, say that the place was according

Some

that

where John

Baptist's

head was buried, and that

was

it

originally a

church.

The S

E

m

a cave and ruined building

the saint was a to have been are said whose bones woman, transported through the air from Damascus. According to others, she fled from Egypt, and tore open She is said to have had a brother named Selim. the rock to hide in it. Vows are offered and lamps lighted at the cave. i

1 1

s

1

a

i

a

is

:

SHEET Orographv.

XII.— SECTION

A.

— The

present Sheet contains 2 56 -9 square miles of the Jordan valley and of the hill country to the west. The two great valleys a d y ]\I a 1 e h and a d y F a r a h divide this area into three dis-

W

W

tricts. I

St.

North

o

f

W ady

northwards from

runs

jNI

a

1

e h.

— The main watershed of Palestine

Mount Ebal (Sheet XI.) towards

barren

the

It rounded top called Ras el 'Akra (2,230 feet above the sea). round north-west from R a b a towards and a curves Tannin, again

bold spur runs out east from the conspicuous hill called Jebel Hazkin, which is covered with brushwood,

above the

feet

Ma

1

e h.

M

as the

little

open valley of

Te

i

a

s

i

r,

Ras and

I

b

z

rises

near the head of

i

k,

or

1,400

Wady

This curving watershed shuts in on the east the plain known e r j el G h u r u k, and the second shed on the west, de-

scribed in Sheet XI., also bounds this plain, which is thus seen to be a crater of about five miles diameter east and west, without any outlet for its

waters.

The

crater

is

about 1,200 feet above the

sea,

and the

hills

are 200 to 300 feet higher. North of this crater a valley, the head of which is at Ras el 'Akra, runs down north-west towards the j^lain

round

it

'Arrdbeh.

This valley (Wddy es Selhab) is (Sheet VIII.) flat and open, forming a sort of narrow plain of good arable soil, flanked by low hills about 200 feet high, on which stands the village of

of

Zebabdeh. The

twist in the watershed, near to

Ra

b

followed by a straight ridge running to Jelkamus (Sheet IX.), whence the line continues at R a b a is (after another sharp bend east) along the top of Gilboa K 11 Shubdsh also the head of the great valley (or bash) draining a,

is

;

and the shed

is

drainage has been represented

in

into the Jordan,

here so narrow that

in

an erroneous manner.

former maps the

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

222

Ras

Ibzik,

Raba,

south of

is

the

highest point run from it in a between Ebal and Gilboa the valleys draining to Jordan north-cast direction, and the fall is regular, being about 2,600 feet in jusc

rising

;

6 miles.

el

There are two

principal valleys

K h a s h n e h,

up which the Roman road passes, and

The its

first is

course

;

Wady

on the east of the watershed.

Wady

Ma

1

e h.

remarkable for the wild olives ('Azzun) which grow along they are rare in Palestine, but here clothe the hills thickly for

2 or 3 miles. The Ret em broom, the hawthorn (Zarur), the wild almond (Asaf), the caper plant, the locust tree (Kharrubeh), and the S a r r s bush (a kind of lentisk), are found on the hills in this part, i

the district being quite uncultivated. INIaleh runs north from

Wady

Tubas towards

Te

i

as

i

r,

when

it

its

head, which

is

in

the plain of

curves round and descends south-

east, forming an open valley between the long spur of Ras (2,326 feet above the sea) and the prominent hill called Ras el

Four miles from (1,750 feet) to the north. a narrow commanded enters by the B u gorge Ras

el

from the basaltic outbreak on

its

on the north,

is

a spur of

Teiasir r

j

Bedd known

el as

Ma Ras

it 1

J a

d

i

r

Bedd

turns east, and

e h, above which, e

r

Rumma

1

y,

The

valley becomes rather more open below the hot salt spring ('A n Mai eh), and turns north, running between rolling hills to the Jordan valley, where It again turns east, and the water here has a sudden fall at the little cliff ofesh Sherar some sides. i

30

feet high.

Wady Mai eh

thus bounds the plain of Beisan (Sheet IX.) on its course the Ghor has a width of about the south. 4 miles, and an average depression of 600 to Soo feet below the Mediterranean. The Z6r or lower Jordan channel is continuous, with steep marl banks

North of

The narrowest part of the Zor is just north of the 50 to 100 feet high. K a a u n, north of Tell er Ridhghah, valley which runs from K h .

where there

Is

a conspicuous

cliff

of white marl over the river.

It is

Abu

the neighbourhood of Tell S u s, where the low ground is about a mile across from the river to the upper part of the This is cultivated land, and the Tell stands Isolated among Ghor.

broadest

In

barley fields. 2nd. Between

Wady Mai eh

and

Wady Fa rah

the

con-

[sheet

orography.

XIIP[

formation

is

Two

slightly different.

223

parallel

spurs,

each having

the

appearance of an isolated mountain, run out in a south-easterly direction The northern or higher is called Ras J ad r, from the main watershed. about 3 miles long, south-east, rising about 1,000 feet above the low ground i

is

and the second, called

between

it

directly over the

F

which

lies

On the saddle Tubas, and from

a

rah

Tammun,

which

valley.

between it

Jebel

Ras Jadir

and the main shed stands

a valley runs south to the

Fa rah.

Thus

the

ground, between the spurs above noticed and the watershed, is occupied by low shapeless hills and by the open low ground which drains into the

Farah. East of the two spurs of Jadir and T a m m u n there is a plateau The northern part consists of a extending eastwards some 5 miles. series of rolling

hills,

something

west of the Dead Sea, unculti-

like those

vated, and separated by a perfect net-work of sm;;ll deep valleys draining eh. The average elevation is some 500 feet above into W'ady

Mai

sea level, or 1,800 feet below the

Jordan.

The

Ras

Jadir, and 1,000

southern half of the plateau

W

feet

above

a level plain of arable land, a d y el Bukeia, which rises is

draining into the Jordan viilley by the below Ras Jadir, and runs south-east parallel to the Farah. The plain, which is called el Bukeia, is from i mile to i^ miles broad and miles long, in a south-easterly direction, at which end there is a most curious feature in the sudden twist of the draining valley through a narrow gorge before reaching the Jordan valley. The plateau here ends 7

in

low precipices and steep slopes 1,200

On down

feet

above the Jordan.

the south-west of this plain there are low

into the

Farah

valley,

which

is

with valleys running one of the main features of Paleshills

and may be described as follows Wady Farah is formed by the junction of two water-courses, one The first comes from Tiibas, the running south, the other north.

tine,

:

second from the neighbourhood of 'Askar, under the eastern slope of This second head, called Ebal. Beiddn, is a (Sheet XL)

Wddy

deep and rugged gorge, with precipices on either side, which rise on the east 1,800 feet to the summit of the chain of Neby Bel an, which is thus entirely cut off from the watershed. The junction of these two heads is 4 miles south of

Tubas,

in

a

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

"4

north and south, and about on the same jjlateau (500 feet above the sea), the spur of Jebel Tammiln separating the two basins. The Far^h runs from this junction in a tolerably straight course south-

broad

valley, a mile across,

llat

level with the

Bukcia

on the north by Jebel T a m m u n, and the spurs rising south-east from it, and on the south by a parallel range from N e b y B e a n, which receives the name Jebel el Kebir. The two ranges

east, flanked

1

have their summits about four miles

apart,

and there

a band of

is

cliff

on

miles apart, and the valley itself may be said to be over a mile wide to the foot of the hills. The stream runs nearest the northern

each side about

2

range, almost at the foot of the slopes, and long flat spurs run out from the southern range with a slope of 5° or 10°, terminating in rocks above the stream.

This general character

continued for 8 miles from the junction to Deijah, where there is a flat plain (as the name

ed

the place called

is

miles across, principally south of the stream. The fall from the head springs of the valley to this point is over 900 feet, or 100 signifies)

about

feet per mile.

i:^

The

chain on the south

and on the north 1,100 Mediterranean level. Arrived

feet.

at this point the

is

The stream

2,300 feet above the valley, is

now 400

feet

below the

Farah

passes through a narrow gorge for on either side it then opens into a

about a quarter of a mile, with cliffs flat plain, over a mile wide. (See Sheet XV.) The whole district passed through is uncultivated. ;

The

hills

are bare

and rocky, but the valley is covered spring with luxuriant herbage and Tall canes grow in the stream, and oleander bushes flourish flowers. in

by

There

a line of mills along the course on either side, supplied by channels connected with the stream. The Jordan valley east of the central district of the Sheet is very

the water.

narrow.

From

the

is

cliffs

which terminate the B u k e d i

to the water

is

an average distance of about a mile, but east of the river the Ghor is The Zor is now continuous, though narrow about double this breadth. in places, and though there is not always a very distinct fall from one level

ground is much cut up into hillocks, isolated and worn away by the torrents, which conformation has caused the name U m m e d Deraj (' Mother of Steps') to be applied to the whole of this district. to the other, as the

\_SIIEE T A"//.]

The Ghor do

river

is

//

}

-DROGRATH Y.

very bare, and only

trees exist,

the immediate neighbourhood of the

in

Jordan jungle, as described on other

tlie

forming

2^5

Sheets.

South of

\V a d y F a r a h the country consists of one long spur running south-east, and draining on the north to the Fdrah, on the west towards the ]\I u k h n a h plain (Sheets XI. and XIV.), on the south 3rd.

\V a d y F u sail. (Sheet X\'.) This block is only joined to the main It watershed by the low saddle near Tana, and is practically isolated. begins on the north-east at Neby Belan (2,509 feet above the sea), to

rises to the highest point at J e

Kam

to S h e k h i

S

u

r

t

i

1

(1,920

be

el

1

and

feet),

K is

b

(2,610 feet), thence falls joined by a narrow neck to the e

i

r

u b e h block.

On

the south-west there are five villages on the slopes, with open but on the Jordan valley side the hills are rough and barren. arable land ;

The ground between Beit Furlk Salim and Beit Dejan is a mile across and 4 miles branch of the Mukhnah plain, measuring about i

south-east.

— The

Jordan valley was surveyed in early spring (March and April), after an exceptionally wet winter (1S73-74). The water supply was consequently at its fullest.

Hydrggrapiiy.

Wady

Farah

has a perennial llow of water, even in August. The springs at the two heads, near the B u r j el Farah and the Sahel ct Teireh, were full of beautifully clear cool water running itself

surrounded with oleanders, the neighbouring ground places with turf. The southern group of springs is called

in a rapid current,

being covered

Ras

in

Farah. The whole course el

of springs, of which the principal are 'A n s k y and 'A n S h b e h. There are also springs on the southern hill-slopes 'A in el ]\I e y t e h and 'A n e d a b b u r. Thus this valley is one of the richest spots in Palestine, and the current in spring forms the most important western affluent of the Jordan,

M

i

of the valley

1

i

i

i

is full



i

i

D

i

only passable at certain fords.

The River Jordan There are seven small

Abu

el

VOL.

Hashish, II.

islets

the present Sheet winds considerably. in the river, the largest, opposite 'Arak

in

being about 200 yards long.

The

fall

of the river

29

2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIAE.

26

is

There are rapids where but between the Sciidiyeh and Sidreh

more gradual than near the Sea of Gahlee.

Wady M al e h fords there

The

a

is

river

near Beisan.

joins,

fall

Umm

of only 40 feet in 9 miles of direct course.

tolerably uniform in width throughout,

is

and deeper than

Si.xteen fords were found along the course. (Sheet IX.) a 1 e h has in spring a considerable current of water along course near the spring, and when visited there was water all

M

\V a d y

the part of its The head spring is 'A n aleh, which has a the distance to Jordan. temperature of 100° Fahr. (Robinson, 98° Fahr.), and comes out in a

M

i

This spring is surrounded rocky basin, forming a pool about 2 feet deep. is too salt to be drunk. odour it and has a with black mud, sulphurous The stream is about So° Fahr. for half a mile down, and very turbid. The ;

presence of a large basaltic outbreak just below the B u r j el no doubt connected with the thermal character of the spring.

Above 'A n i

called 'A

i

n el

Ma eh M e y eh

is

1

i

i

t

another spring, with but ('

Dead

Spring').

i

called 'A

i

n

'

so salt as the

H

el

A

i

n

e

1

M

1

e h

is

water, thence

Lower down

Tell Abu S f r y, there are also springs. An comes down a narrow rocky valley from the south. at

little

Ma

the valley, affluent to the stream

The

spring here is being supposed drinkable; but, though not a 1 e h, it is also brackish.

w e h,

There are three other springs in the valley itself before it reaches the Ghor, at which point another affluent joins it from the 'A n esh S h u k k, so called because it comes out of clefts in a cliff, and flows down This spring is also warm and brackish. into the valley below. i

Reaching the Ghor, the stream is again supplied by two springs close These are tosrether, wellinsf out of soft soil, and surrounded with rushes. called

'A in el

Spring

s.

Helweh

and 'A

i

Habus.

n

— In addition to the springs above noticed there are several

of importance in the Jordan valley.

To

Tell er Ridhghah,

the north there

is

a group of seven

with streams running to Jordan, and coming out in marshy ground surrounded with rushes. The spring at e d D e r flows down a little valley full of brambles, and was found springs near

all

i

have a temperature of 78° Fahr. Beida is a large spring which irrigates the neighbouring land and is surrounded with cucumber-gardens. Close to the hills there are three good springs one at K a a u n, one

by Captain Warren The 'A in el

to



ISNEET Be

at

r

TOPOGRAPHY.

A'//.]

d c e 1

h,

227



and largest at T e el PI ti m m c h each a is in stream down into the and used Ghur, spring

and the

of which sends in

third

1

1

irrigation.

One S

ak u

t,

other spring

remains to

be

noticed

this

in

which comes out of the side of a heap oi

'A

plain,

n

es

and has a tem-

ruins,

The water is pure, and pours out perature about 80° Fahr. stream surrounded with fig-trees apparently wild.

narrow

in a

No

springs occur in the hills which rccjuire special notice supply the villages are noticed with them.

— There are

i

such as

;

inhabited villages in the hills, which belong to two divisions of the Nablus Mudirat, the main portions of the

ToPOGRAriiv.

districts beino: '£3

fifteen

on Sheet XI.

Mesharik el Jerrar.

'Akabeh (O m). — A the Ras el 'Akra. It

good-sized village on the northern slope is surrounded with brushwood on the hills,

1.

of

but has arable land below. 2.

Rerdeleh

3.

Khurbet 'Atuf

(P m), though ruined, is inhabited in .spring by the peasants from the hill villages, who descend to find pasture and to cultivate melons and other vegetables round the springs.

older 4.

with

site,

(P

— This

and supplied by wells and

Khurbet Kaaun mud

n).

hovels

among

(P m)

ruins,

is

mud

a

village

built

on an

cisterns. is

a place

and caves

of the

same

the appearance of an ancient site and a fine spring.

It

character,

The

also inhabited.

place has

may perhaps be

'Records the site called Kaina in the inscription of Thothmes of the Past,' ii. 42), which was a place with water and south of Megiddo, occupied by the southern wing of Thothmes' army advancing from III. (.see

Aaruna (perhaps 'Arraneh, Sheet agree with

the

supposition

Khurbet Mujedda. —A 5. Riba (O m).

that

the

IX.).

These two

Megiddo

of

this

identifications

inscription

is

stone village of moderate size at the head of

a valley, surrounded with scrub and having arable land to the north. 29



2

2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

28

The water

supply appears to be

west

the ruins.

among

cisterns existing to the north-

artificial,

This place may perhaps be Rabbith of Issachar. (Joshua xix. 20.) The remote position on the hills has prevented its previous discovery, and It may also perhaps be the R a b a it is not marked on former maps. (n a) of the Lists of

Thothmes

III.,

the na being an

acknowledged Egyptian

suffix.

—A

small village on a knoll amid brushwood, with a m). large house on the west.

Sir (N

6.

T am m u n

7.

tain,

(O

with open ground

n).

—A good-sized

to the north.

village at the foot of the

The

moun-

village stands high, with olives

to the south.

This name seems which

Nab 8.

described

is

u

1

by Marino

m).

pearance of antiquity.

—A

apparently as

It

small village which

north-east

e,

of

however, an aj)has caves and tombs under the present houses

sides in great numbers.

all

valley, with

trees

Sanuto

pn

s.

Teiasir (O

and on

Terra T a m

preserve the Crusading

to

good

soil

It lies in

and arable land

;

a secluded

is

and

fertile

good and ancient

there are

near the houses on the south, where

has,

open olive-

a curious monument.

(See There are many cisterns, and a place sacred to the Prophet Section B.) T 6 b a. An ancient main road from Shechem to Beisan passes through there is no spring nearer than the Farah valley. The inthe village ;

habitants cultivate the ground as far east as

near

soil

This with

Wady

Maleh, and have good

Yerzeh. village has in

its

name

an inversion of the

last

all

the radical letters of the

syllable,

which

is

name

Tirzah,

common among the we have

Of peasantry. Robinson suggests its identity with Tiilluza, no indication in Scripture. which name has not a single letter identical with those in the name the position of Tirzah, once the capital of Israel,

Tirzah.

Brocardus (1283) speaks of Thirsa as three hours (9 or 10 English Tulluza is barely 6 miles, but Teiasir is about miles) east of Samaria ;

1

2

miles, so that

Tirzah. position of

it

fits

fairly

with the only

known

indication as to the

{sheet

TOPOGRAPHY.

A'//.]

Tubas (On)

229

The houses the largest village on the Sheet. stand high to the west of a basin, and are surrounded with olive-trees and 9.

is

corn land.

Both the

villages, but

no churches.

and the corn of Tubas

held in special estimation. The place has no natural water supply, but has cisterns for rain water. There are a few Christians both here and also in the neighbouring '

Byeways,'

p. 92),

oil

were

is

The

inhabitants, as late as 1867 (see Finn's divided into factions, the names of which arc still

known.

(See Section C.) Tiibas is identified with the ancient Thebez (Judges ix. 50 2 Samuel xi. 21), though the names are not as close in Arabic and Hebrew as they In the Onomasticon the distance from appear to be in English. ;

'

'

is said to be on the main road to Scythopolis, as miles Roman the distance from 13 given about 10 English miles by road. The tomb of Neby Toba

Neapolis to Thebez (which as

is

to

Tubas

Tubas) is

Asher

('

is

Blessed').

Zebabdeh

10.

Nablus

believed by the Samaritans to be that of Asher, son of meaning of the modern name being allied to that of the ancient

at this place

Jacob; the



is

(X

m).

—A

moderate-sized

village

at

the south

Wady

es Selhab, supplied by a well edge of the arable plain called a hill covered with with low on the east, brushwood on the south.

Mesharik Nablus. 1.

'Azmiit (N

with

hill,

2.

cliffs

o).

—A

small village, standing on the slope of the

on the west.

Beit Dejan (O

o).

—A small

village, evidently

with rock-cut tombs and wells to the east.

end of the

plain

which runs below Salim.

surrounded with olive-trees

;

it is,

It

Dagon

like the last,

of the

'

is

Samaritan (See

Beit Furik (N o).— A

3.

the plain of Salim. Ferka in the

called

been

site,

the eastern

inhabited in the seventh century by the Samaritans. Quarterly Statement,' October, 1876, p. 196.)

Chronicle,' '

stands at

This place,

perhaps, the

an ancient

in

Samaria.

small village in a nook of the hills near It has a well to the east. This is perhaps the place

Talmud (Neubauer,

It is also

which appears to have Samaritan Chronicle.'

p. 275),

noticed in the

'

THE SURVEY OF JVESTERy PALESTIXE.

23°

De

4.

i

Ha

el

r

to the south, standing

Salim (N

t

ab

(N

on the

o).

hill

— A small

—A small

village,

with olives and a well

slope.

o). village, resembling the rest, but evidently rock-cut Olive-trees surround tombs, cisterns, and a tank. ancient, having on the north are two springs about f mile from the village. it This place is perhaps the Caphar Shalem of the Talmud, which was 5.

;

near

En Kushi

Zara,

(perhaps

Kefr K

11

s,

Sheet XL).

(Tal. Jer.

Abodah

v. 4.)

In

the 'Samaritan Chronicle'

it

is

'Salem the Great'

called

(see

and the Samaritans under-

'Quarterly Statement,' October, 1876, p. 196), stand this to be mentioned in Gen. xxxiii. 18.

Salim

is

also possibly the

Caphar Salama of i Mace. vii. 31, which seems to have been in Samaria. There is a question whether this place is the Salim of the Gospel. The name 'Ainun is identical with ^non and Salim with Salim they are 7 miles apart, and the plentiful springs and waters (John iii. 23) ;

of the

F

a

r

a h valley

lie

between, affording an explanation of the

'

much

water.'

was shown 8 miles south of Beisan Onomasticon '), and supposed to be the town of Melchizedek. A Salim also marked in this position on the map of Marino Sanuto. The In the

('

is

fourth century Salim

measurement brings us

De

ed

to the place called

the remains pror, in a the of of which there are seven monastery, neighbourhood bably ruins. extensive About a and mile to the north is Tell er springs

with another spring, and

Ridhghah,

Vandevelde obtained the

Survey

party in

covering this

1874 and again

name

in the

name Sheikh S

a

1

i

ruins a kubbeh, to i

m.

The

which

inquiries of the

1877 did not prove successful in reReport by C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake, Quarterly in

'

(see

Statement,' January, 1875, p. 32), but there can be little doubt that it was once known, as it was apparently also recovered by Robinson in 1856, and

there seems every probability that this was the accepted site in the fourth century, though the absence of the name ^non and of any marks of great antiquity

seem

to

make

it

doubtful whether

it

is

to

be held the true

site.

AXCIEXT

\_SIJEET XIL'\

sites.

231

In addition to the inhabited places a few ruined sites of interest are identified as follows

:

Abel Meholah

'

identified in the

Onomasticon

'

with a place 10 miles south of Scythopolis, called Bethaula (BjjO/jaifAa). The distance brings us to 'A i n (Q m), the name of which contains the proper radicals, and the position seems not discordant with the notice in is

Helweh

the Bible.

B

(Judges

ad a

xii.

22.)

— A place where the congregation purified

n.

itself after

Jordan and before going up to Gerizim, according to Samaritan (See Juynboll's 'Samaritan Book of Joshua,' note p. 314.)

have

(N

hesitation

little

with

o),

Gerizim from

the

recognising

this

name

in

Wady

We

can

Be dan i

Far ah)

on the high road to Hauran, where the tribes are supposed to have

fine

its

in

passing

tradition.

el

(Ras

spring

assembled.

Beth She mesh. — A nected

with

(Joshua

.\i.\.

'A n i

place in Issachar.

may perhaps be

It

esh Shemsiyeh (Q m)

in

the

Jordan

con-

valley.

22.)

Bezek. — A place

Samuel xi. 8), a Onomasticon' two places called

in the central part of Palestine (i

march from Jabesh Gilead. In the Bezec are said to have existed close together 17 miles from Neapolis, on This site is evidently K h u r b e t the road going down to Scythopolis. '

day's

Ibzik (O m), 14 English miles from Nablus, on the road in question. Choba. Mentioned in Judith iv. 4 xv. 4, 5 the name is derived



by Gesenius from a root meaning Coabis of the

Roman of

II

Peutinger Tables,

is

the cave called

Mekhubb

main

line of

Su

It

'hiding.'

by Reland

is

supposed to be the

('Palestine,'

p.

721),

12

At the distance miles from Scythopolis and 12 from Archelais. English miles from the former, and about 14 from the latter

(Kurawa), el

;

;

o

y,

names

'Arak

el

K hubby

radically identical

(O m) and the ruin with Choba, and close to the

advance from Scythopolis into Samaria. h

— Robinson

has proposed to place this at SakOt, but Mr. Grove argues that it should be sought east of Jordan. The name S i k (i t is radically different from Succoth. c c

t

(Gen. xxxiii.

1

7).

In the fourteenth century Marino Sanuto marks Succoth on his just

where SakClt now

exists.

map

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

232

Taana to 7

t

h

Sh

(Y a n u

Janohah

o h (Joshua xvi.

1

i

— A place next on the boundary

This would seem

n).

English miles from Nablus and

speaks of a place called Thena, lo

Tana

6).

miles north of

2

Roman

T a n a,

be the ruin of

to

Yanun.

Eusebius

miles east of Neapolis, which

is

and Ptolemy mentions Thena as a Samaritan

probably (O o) town. Palestine,' Reland, (See ;

'

— There

Roads.

are

1034.)

p.

ancient

six

on

communication

of

lines

this

Sheet. 1.

The Jordan

remarkable. still

It

traceable in 2.

The

keeps near the foot of the western

pillars,

Far

ah

;

Tiberias, which

H

'A in

Nablus

Wady

Beisan, through

to

is

not

and the paving

hills,

places, as, for instance, south of

many

road from

(where are of the

valley road, from Jericho to

is

w e h. Beidan e

1

perhaps Roman milestones) and by the head springs thence up the open valley to Tuba s, and hence

T

ei as gradually falling to branch, following the line of

The

r.

i

Wady

road then bifurcates the northern

el

Khashneh

to the

Ghor, being

the direct route, and marked by three fallen Roman milestones at the point where the view of Beisan and of the plain is first obtained. The

number

of stones seems in

some instances

(Compare K h li r b e t T a n would count from Coabis (el

t

u

r a,

to give the

Sheet VII.)

Mekhubby). i

of miles.

In this case the 3 miles The road keeps close to

the edge of the hills from this point to Beisan. e a The southern branch runs east from

T

number

(Sheet IX.) s

i

r

(where there

is

a

Male h, and is marked in places by side milestone) down walls. At 'Ain Maleh it gradually turns north-east, and joins the Jordan u e h, running at a higher level as road east of T e 1 el valley far as the R a s el u e y r, where it gradually descends. Roman

Wady

H mm

1

H m

3.

The main

i

i

Damieh

road to the

ford of Jordan

from

Nablus

Farah spring head, and at the side of the north descends that valley on the stream, until it arrives at B u s e 1 y e h, where is a ford, by which it crosses to the south.

Wady

branches off from the Beisan road

i

4.

i

An

ancient road from

and bifurcates

Dejan,

at

Beit F

runs along

Nablus u

r

i

k.

the ridge to

and then descends rapidly

into the

runs along the plain of Salim, The north branch, passing Beit

Muntdr Farah

el

Beneik

(Sheet XV.),

valley, a drop of nearly 2,000

{sheet

u sa 5.

233

The

'Aid.

southern

branch leads

to

(Sheet XV.)

i 1.

A

Abu

Talat

by the

feet,

F

cultivation.

.v//.]

communication exists

cross

from

the

large

ruins

in

Wady

XV.) to Tubas. Ascending the hill at road is banked up, it passes round the eastern B use y e h, where the T a m m il n, and runs over the plateau past 'A n il n, foot of J e b e (the sides marked with remains of a stone fence,) under the south-west

Farah

(Archelais, see Sheet

i 1 i

1

side of

Ras

A

6.

J a

cross

i

d

i

r.

communication from the

(IMakhddet ez Zakkumeh), e

r

Rub

li

d,

ascends by the

N

li

Farah

valley

to

the

ford

leading over to 'Ajlun and Kulat k b el 'A r a s, and crosses the last i

The ruin at this noticed road just at the edge of the B u k e a plain. place (Khiirbet el Jurein) has the appearance of a small Roman station on the roads. The road is marked with side walls in places. i

CuLTlVATiox.

—The

principal

cultivated district

is

the Bukeia corn

which belong principally to Tubas, together with the vegetable gardens in the Ghor. The cultivation round the villages is noted under that head. The hills near the watershed are overrun with

plateau, the lands of

The

valley of the Jordan is for the most part uncultivated, though near the hills there are gardens, and in the Zor barley and simsim are

copse.

The Ghor

with rank herbage, and mallows (Khobbeizeh) grow luxuriantly, concealing the ruins. The wild fig and The ebk bramble grow near the springs, especially near e d e i r.

grown.

is

covered

in spring

D

tree also

is

Retem

found scattered {Zizyphus Lotus)

broom

(the juniper of Scripture)

;

is

and on the very

N

hill

slopes the

common;

the alcali

common, and canes, hemlock, and blackberries near the waters. plant el Khashneh have The wild olives, and other vegetation of is

also

Wady

been already noted, WMth the oleanders of the Farah, and the Jordan jungle as described on other Sheets.

VOL.

II.

30

SHEET

XII.— SECTION

B.

ArCII/EOLOGY.

'A

n u n

i

(O

— See

n).

The

Salim, Section A.

probable identification under the head ruins are those of an ordinary village, apparently the

modern, standing on a small

hillock.

A

a large village, now completely overthrown. great number of rock-cut cisterns are observed on the site ; most of them are filled up with materials belonging to demolished houses. little Burj of Mussulman appearance, and constructed of stones of '

Here was once

A

medium

size

after the

taken from the ruins of the ancient town, show that

Arab

'A n i

invasion.'

es

— Guerin,

Sak

il t

it

ceased to be inhabited

'

Samaria,'

(O m).

i.

362.

—There

here heaps of stones and

are

foundations round the spring, and wild fig-trees. The site is close to the The place Zor, on a sort of promontory, with the spring lower down. seems once to have been a small village. (See Succoth, Section A.) Visited

March

31st, 1874.

'Arkan en Nimr(0 Beit

Dejan

(O

o).

o).

— A ruined

— The

ruin

on the cast

apparently ancient near the village are and rock- cut tombs. ;

Burj knoll,

el

Farah

(O

n).

—A

fold.

cisterns

is

a

watch-tower,

and heaps of stones,

square tower of

small

size,

probably built as a guard-house, and not older than

on a

Saracenic

times.

Of the fountain and ruins here, Gu6rin thus speaks The spring gushes from the ground, and forms immediately ;

'

I

climbed on foot a small

hill,

the Tell

el Fera'a, rising

a

little

a very abundant stream.

.

.

,

about 150 feet but in present cultivated

to the south

The slopes and the summit are at level of the valley. ; the midst of the flowers, the corn, and the grass which cover it, one comes continually upon The ruins extend to the stones of all sizes, the remains of buildings completely overthrown. above the

base of the Tell, as far as the edge of the Wady. The Mussulmans had built a with ancient blocks, but this is now almost destroyed.

little

sanctuary

[sheet '

On

ARCH.EOLOG Y.

XII.']

the other side of the

Wady,

235

to the north-west, I visited another oblong

hill,

also

shown by the ancient materials scattered about in the midst of the corn. At its eastern extremity, on the highest point, is a great square tower, measuring 20 paces on each side. That of the east, which is the best preserved, the larger are placed at the angles. is built of fine blocks, some of which are embossed The other sides, and especially that on the west, are much more ruinous. Whether this tower

cultivated.

It

was once covered with buildings, as

is

;

ancient in

is

its

lower courses, or whether

is

it

built of old materials,

it

appears to have been

by the Mussulmans. Beside the Burj I saw a good birket cut in the rock, and measuring 25 paces long by to broad. Near it are a good many cisterns, also cut in the rock.

in either case altered '

'

All these ruins tend to prove that at the spring of 'Ain el Fera'a there formerly stood a I am inclined strong.

town of considerable importance, the position of which would be very to think that this

Samaria,'

i.

Burj

Wady

is

the site of the ancient city of

25S.

el

Mai eh

Maleh, and placed

(P

n).

in a

—A

En Tappuah

fortress

(Joshua

commanding

xvii.

7).'

— Gucrin.

the road

down

very strong position, with a fine view of the

Scaie of Vefi-

Jordan valley and part of the Sea of Galilee, with a precipitous descent on the south-west. The area is included between a long curve on one side, and a wall with a slight salient angle on the south, the width north

and south being 70 feet, and east and west at the greatest length 320 feet. The main entrance was to the north by a door with a pointed arch, and vaults of irregular plan appear to have been built against the outer wall on every side. The outer walls are 8 feet to 10 feet 1

thick, but those of the vaults

been a large tank a

window

and

in

from 3

feet to 5 feet.

the centre of the enclosure.

There seems

On

to

have

the east there

is

in the outer wall.

The masonry of the building is not of great size, and is rudely squared The corner stones in the walls are drafted with a rustic ill-dressed.

30—2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

Z36

boss

one stone was

10 inches long, i foot 7 inches high, the draft 7 inches broad one side, 5^ inches the other, 3 inches above and below; the boss projected 2 inches to 3 inches. second stone was 2 feet 3 inches long, i foot 2 inches high, the draft 2\ inches wide at top and ;

2 feet

A

A

third bottom, 4^ inches at one side, and 2\ inches on the other. draft sides on three stone had a only. The roofs of the vaults are of rag-work, and the arch of the door-

way

also of undressed stones.

is

Some

of the roofs are almost triangular

in cross-sections, with a

sharp point. This building would seem to be one of the later Crusading structures, and most resembles the fortress atTalatcd Dumm. (Sheet XVIII. See Section B., el Hathrurah.)

Khan

Visited and planned, April 2nd, 1874.

Buseiliyeh (P The name was a small

o).

—A

also obtained to a

where

valley,

are

with heaps of stones and a well. site on the opposite side of

hillock,

traces

second of

ruins

about half a mile to the

south. '

The

ruins of this

name extend from

gradually to the south-west

and

the

north-east.

Wady The

over a plain, and upon the hills which rise town whose ruins these are is now

little

Not

a trace of the surrounding wall is visible ; not a building remains with grass, flowers, and young seder, is scattered over with the over grown upright. remains of pottery and materials of all kinds, the ruins of houses completely destroyed. Some cisterns cut in the rock are alone remaining in preservation. I observed also the lower

completely destroyed.

The

site,

courses of a wall determining a rectangle 58 paces long and 33 broad. This wall, 3 feet Small stones, with earth in place thick, was constructed of pretty large well-squared blocks.

A

narrow ditch ran outside the southern of cement, are inserted between the larger ones. little enclosure, which the Arabs still call the Serai ("The Palace"), and which, except on the north side, where it rises to the height of 3 feet g inches, is elsewhere either

face of this

It was divided into two unequal compartments, one razed entirely or buried beneath earth. of which encloses a sort of subterranean magazine with semicircular vaulting. The other

buildings which formerly stood within this wall are so entirely destroyed that not a trace

remains

visible.'

—Guerin, 'Samaria,'

Ed D e

i.

251.



a h (P o). Foundations of an ancient watch-tower or small fort remain here in the valley.

Ed D e Ed D e

i

j

i

r

i

r

— Heaps of stones and foundations. — by the seven (O m). The northern

(O

n).

springs in the applied to a ruined wall by the spring. The d a n. el 'A

Jordan valley. This name is real site seems to be at U m m

site

m

\_SnEEr

ARCHAEOLOGY.

X//.']

D hah ret Ilomsah

(P

— An

o).

237

unhewn

ancient watch-tower of

stone remains on this ridge.

Hum m a m

El

(P

n).

—Just above

buildings, once considerable,

'A

i

stones

the

n

INI

a

e h are traces of

1

and

well-cut,

in

some

two

cases

An ancient aqueduct channel is visible close by, probably 4 feet long. used for irrigation. The name of the place signifies that a lialli of some kind was erected by

Hiltet

Saduneh

the hot spring.

(Po).

— Foundations and

a ruined tank.

Nothing

which indicates the date.

exists

El

K u fc

cut cisterns

i

r

(O

m).

— Ruins of an ordinary '

and 'rock-sunk

K hurbe

t

Khurbet Khiirbet

Khurbet

tombs, as at

I

village, with 8 or

ksal.

9 rock-

(Sheet VIII.)

— Ruined house. — Heaps of stones. el 'Akabeh (P 'Arkan es Sakhur (O — Traces of — A modern 'A u stands (P Abu

'A

1

y (N

n).

n).

ruins.

o).

f t on the old n). village which of consist caves and cisterns. There are wells ruins, foundations, and cisterns, but no tombs were found, and there is no spring at the place,

which seems a strong objection with

an identification (proposed by Robinson) a word with which the name has only one letter in

En Tappuah,

to

common.

Khurbet Beit F a r

(O

o).

—Walls

and foundations, apparently

modern, with caves and a spring.

Khurbet Bir esh Shucihch

(O

o).

—Traces

of ruins and a

well.

Khurbet F c r w c h

(N

n).

— Fallen columns, possibly Roman mile-

stones.

Khurbet H

a

i

y e h (N

Khurbet Ibzik of ruins, cisterns

kubbeh

(O

o).

m).

— Evidently

and caves, as

in the ruins

sacred to

(See Bezek, Section A.)

— Traces of

at

ruins.

an ancient

site,

Khurbet Y e r z e h.

Sheikh Hazkin,

with traces

There

is

a

apparently Ezekiel.

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

238

K hurbe

t

a portion of

J e

b

r

i

s

h

(P m).

— Walls, A

tesselated pavement.

foundations,

lintel

pillar

stone, 5 feet long,

shafts, i

foot

9 inches high, 10 inches thick, was found, with a design of three wreaths. column much worn had a capital of rude Ionic style (apparently Byzanand the capital 11 inches high. One shaft was tine), 16 inches diameter,

A

5 feet

6 inches long,

1

7 inches diameter.

There was

also

an attached

Liniel of Door Lenqth 5 feeV Breadth 1 3 ThickJiess W^

DutJiiV JG

BrutJcet or CaiitelioJx

semi-pillar,

i

foot

high, projecting

i

inch diameter, and a small bracket of stone, 10 Inches foot 8 inches. This place seems to have been probably i

a monastery of the resemble that at e 1

or sixth century. u k h u b b y.

fifth

M

The

towers marked near

it

Visited 3rd April, 1874.

Khurbet

— Traces of — (Sec Section (P m).

ruins.

Juleijil (No).

Khiirbet Kaiiin

and the place appears to have been an

There are caves, A.) ancient site, perhaps Cola.

(Judith XV. 4.)

Khurbet cisterns.

Roman stone

el

K irur

(O

o).

— Foundations, tombs with koknn and

The enclosures marked near the Evidently an ancient site. road east of this ruin are apparently old folds, with walls of dry-

some

2 feet

square.

Visited iith March, 1874.

K h urbc

I

Kashdeh

(O

n).

— Traces of

ruins.

{sheet

K hurbc is

ARCH.EOLOGY.

A'//.]

Ke

t

1"

r

L!

c

t

i

a

(N

o).

— Foundations and

tomb with an ornamental

here a

239

facade

and with

cisterns.

There

koktm.

The

facade has two wreaths sculptured on it, tlanked by pitchers like those at Seilun,

(Sheet XI.), perhaps representing the second tomb has three pot of manna.

A

wreaths above

door

and side

cornice

simple is

and a third

it,

A

choked.

has

pilasters

a

the

;

column ap-

central

have supported the cornice, now broken away except the top part of This tomb the shaft, which remains hanging.

pears

to

with the principal

tomb

K hurbe

at

is

K u r k u s h.

t

about the same size (Sheet XIV.)

do-

Kh

Dukk

bc

t

Ke

f r

K hurbe

t

el

Ma

11

r

1

Khurbet Mofia pearance of an old

masonry, called

t

h (P

(Q

o).

On

site.

Mun

e

a

r

(O m). n).

— Traces of a ruined hamlet.

— Foundations and heaps of stones.

— Ruined walls

the north

Mofia,

is

and

has the apa ruined watch-tower of good cisterns

apparently ancient.

;

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTEYE.

240

Nahm

Khiirbet en

K hurbe K h rbe li

t

'O d h

f

t

R

ed

This

cut tombs.

s

fi

c

r

(N m).— Traces

(O

D

n).

a

i

r

of ruins.

— Traces of — Foundations, (O ruins.

wells,

o).

and rock-

forms part of that of Beit Dejan.

site

Khiirbet Safiriyeh (N m).— Foundations. Khurbet es Sefeirah (P n). Traces of ruins.



Khurbet A

Selhab (O

es

m).

— Traces of

ruins.

sides are pierced by numerous with confused materials, the remains occupied of demolished dwellings, and disposed for the most part in circular heaps round silos or subterranean magazines cut in the rock.' Guerin, 'Samaria,' i. 355. '

little

now

town,

The

cisterns.

destroyed, on a

place which

is

it

hill

whose rocky

now covered



Khurbet es Serb (N n). — Traces Khurbet Sheilch Nasr Allah

of ruins.

(No).

— Cisterns, tombs, and

a tank.

Khurbet

Sinia.

Gucrin, whose account of his journey in this district cannot be followed on the map, speaks of a Khurbet Sinia, which he found immediately west of Teiasir.' He had been visiting '

Khiirbet Yerzeh, whose ruins, covered over with grass and undergrowth, were not examined by him. He then struck south, and in 40 minutes passed Teiasir on his left. This is impossible according to the map, in which it will be found that Teiasir is north-west of Khurbet

The confusion need

Yerzeh.

Khurbet

Sinia,

not have been noticed but for the existence of this

which he describes

as exactly east

of Tulas.

The

he

ruin,

ruin,

says, consists

It is completely destroyed except the of the remains of an ancient village on a rocky hill. numerous cisterns and ancient caves cut in the rock, round which are semicircular heaps of

stones belonging to overthrown houses, and thus disposed by Arab shepherds, enclosures for folds and the caves for dwelling-places.

Khijrbet esh Sherarbeh (No).

Khurbet

S

es

me

i

t

(O

with a kubbeh, perhaps an old Probably

this ruin is the

same

n).

site.

— Traces of

— Ruined A

pillar

Khurbet Khurbet cut

es

'

by Gucrin Khurbet Asir, the remains of a also a kubbeh surrounded by a small wall of

Neby

Sumra (P n). — Ruined walls. Suweideh (O n). — A ruined

h

Li

r

be

t

Te

1

f

i

t

Smeit.'

village with a rocka large watch-tower of solid masonry.

(Compare Raba.)

K

ruins.

as that called

es tomb and sarcophagus, and

use these

walls, seemingly modern, with fluted shaft.

small village completely destroyed. Here is by the Fcllahin as sacred to a santon called

enclosure, revered

who

(O m). —Modern masonry.

[sheet

K

h

Ci

ARCILEOLOGY.

A'//.]

r

bc

Tell

t

c

ok h a

!"

1

r

(O

o).

241

— Traces of

ruins.

T h a a h (P o). — Traces of ruins. U ni m Harraz (Q o). — Heaps of stones. U m m e \\ a s n (P n). — leaps of stones.

K h urbe Khurbet K h urbc Khurbet

t

1

t

I

1

Umni

el

Ilosr (P

n).

— Heaps

Rock-cut

of stones.

tomb.

Khurbet

Umm

K

Umm



Ikba

el

Foundations, (P n). chambers. with three one tomb cisterns, square

h u

r

be

t

o be a station

el

J

u

r

e

There

for guards.

i

n is

(P

o).

— On the

a ruined cistern,

A

square foundation of stones, roughly dressed, and a platform within, some 15 feet square.

tombs, and

main road, appears which has fallen in.

2 feet to 3 feet in

length,

Visited 23rd March, 1874.

Khurbet Khurbet

Umm el Kasim (N — Traces of ruins. Umm Keismeh (P — Foundations n).

n).

and

two

cisterns.

He found here a large this place was called also Khurbet Mekeismeh. Round each of these caves of cisterns and subterranean magazines cut in the rock. he remarked a small enclosure in stones more or less squared, and generally of large dimensions. Guerin says that

number

These

stones, blackened

by time and tossed together

of overthrown houses built each over

Khurbet

Umm

el

its

in confusion,

he thinks were the remains

own underground magazine.

Kotn

(P

n).

— Foundations

and heaps of

— W'alls

and heaps of

stones.

Khurbet U m m

el

K

u be

i

s

h

(O

n).

stones.

VOL.

II.

^

I

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

242

Kh

LI

r

bc

t

r

b

t

Umm

c

s

S h

h

e

b

i

i

k

(P

n).

— Heaps

of stones and

cisterns.

Khu from T e

i

(J

as

i

Yerzeh r,

(P

n).

— This

place, reached

by an ancient road

has evidently once been of some importance. The ruins of a village lie on the Hat g-round, and there are caves

and tombs, with well-cut entrances, one having koknn within, rudely cut.

The tombs chambers at Ycrzcli.

V'oiissoir

;

the

for

most

part very

rude

but the doors well-cut, with

inside,

arches

cular

are

in

one case the arch

cir-

structural.

is

Another of the tombs here has an illegible Greek inscription over the door.

This tomb

There

is

is

lar^e, with three

rude

lociili

within.

also a lintel-stone 7 feet long, 3 feet high, with sculptured

designs representing three medallions and a vine-bough pilasters, and surmounted with a cornice projecting 6 inches.

There were two

about

2

feet diameter,

flanked

one 8

feet

by

long and fragments of a simple moulding, with the base of a small attached pilaster,

pillar-shafts

;

were found.

The ruin is extensive, and the tombs and caves number 20 or 30. The masonry is, as a rule, roughly hewn, all but a few stones dressed with a very well cut Viis edge

flat, (.s-

broad

draft.

in

/^.i/.

V

cut

These stones average about 2 feet length, and are now used up in en-

closures probably not connected with

the original situations. tions are visible.

There

is

A

few founda-

also a well, or birkeh, with

jS*3^?^St^^^^5;p?^?5^^5'

length of

24

feet

flight,

by

a flight of 15 rock steps, iS feet total The birkeh measures 4 feet breadth, and 14 feet height.

12 feet, being 14 feet deep,

rectangular shaft, in the middle

of which the flight of steps descends. The character of the lintel seems, possibly, earlier than the Christian times of building, approaching to the style of the synagogues and this, ;

with the existence of a koki/n tomb, seems to point to the antiquity of the site.

Visited 2nd April, 1874.

[sheet

K

El

ARCILEOLOGY.

A'//.]

uf e

ir

243

(N

m). marked on the map are probably those referred to by Guerin as He says it is an abandoned village, whose houses were built by having been found there. Arabs of old materials, and whose antiquity is proved by the existence of the rock-cut

The tombs and

cisterns

cisterns.

M



g h a r e t I' m m c 'A m u d (P o). A cave artificially excavated The pkice is not far from R ti s c tombs, now blocked up. y e h. El I\Iuk hubby (O m). A ruined tower of good masonry beside ii

1

;

i

1

i



the

Roman

and well

K

h u

r

and

cut,

be

Mun

t

Raba On

Road. J e b

t

a

r

is

r

e s

a very substantial building, the masonry large Other towers like it occur at possibly Roman work. It

i

s h,

is

two miles further

h S h u kk

east.

(See Choba, Section A.)

— (O m). Traces of

ruins on a high hillock.

— (O m). There are ruins on every side of

the north-east

is

the

modern

village.

a small ruined tower with two courses of masonry

12 feet in extent, standing; the south-west angle only remains. One wall, There is a stone, which seems to have formed part of a is directed if.

door, lying south-east of the tower, high, lock.

and about the same

Three

in width,

i

foot 6 inches thick, 2

with three recesses, as

shafts lie fallen near, about 2 feet diameter.

outer wall ran round the tower.

No

cisterns e.xist near.

if

feet 7 inches

for bars or

A

a

terrace or

The

corner-

one stone measured 3 feet in length, i foot 10 inches in height, the draft 3^ inches broad, and the boss rudely dressed, projecting about the same. stones are drafted

;

THE SURVF.Y OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

244

South-west of the village

is

another

ruin,

which seems

to

be a chapel,

The foundations only remain, the not facing directly to the east. length direction being 19°, and the apse at the north-east end 10 feet 4 inches diameter. The total interior length is 9 feet, plus 5 feet 2 inches but

is

The wall is 5 feet thick, of the radius of the apse, or 14 feet 2 inches. two courses of ashlar, with a core of rubble in soft white mortar. The stones in the ashlar are

Several flagstones

lie

2

feet long,

about.

The

i

foot thick,

stone

is

hard

and i^ ;

feet in height.

the masonry

is

not

drafted.

north of this chapel and west of the village. This includes a second ruined tower of larger size, called Kiisr Sheikh one or two courses of the foundation remain, the building Ra b a.

The

third ruin

is

Only

being 29 feet square outside, and the foundation almost solid. The stones are large one was found bearing of one wall is 42°. :

The 5 feet

4 inches long, i foot 2 inches high. Some of the blocks are drafted with a draft 3^ inches broad, the boss left rustic. Near this tower there are

and a small cave, with other traces of ruins. There would appear to have been a Christian site here, and the

five rock-cut cisterns

dressing of the stones suggests Crusading work. Visited 23rd September, 1872.

Salim (N

o).

— Near

this

village are traces

ruined tank, and a cemetery of rock-cut tombs.

of ruins,

cisterns,

a

CD

< > lJ

03

S o

\_SffEET

Sir (N ancient

among

ARCHAEOLOGY.

.\7/.]

245

— The ruin west

of the village has the appearance of an Foundations, cisterns cut in the rock, and heaps of stones

m).

site.

bushes.

Kh

S u f y el

11

r

e

i

b

li t

(P

n).

— Ruined

T a n a (O o). — Foundations, caves, Tannin O m). — Traces of ruins.

walls.

cisterns,

and rock-cut tombs.

(



Caves and tombs like those at Khurbet (O m). undermine the village, and there are many rock-cut cisterns.

Teiasir

Yerzeh The

entrances to the caves are well cut, but the inside

is

rough.

South of the village is the building called c K li s r, which appears be a tomb resembling somewhat the structural tomb (K 11 sr ez Z i r) 1

to

i'oriivits of

I'Uaster

F..

SiUf

Spctton.

near

Mali'il.

(Sheet

\'.)

tine Exploration I-'und,

The

iinUdiUuurc

The No.

of Door

r.Uvahoip N. Face'.



building was photographed in 1866.

(Pales-

97.)

The door is on the northbuilding is 25 feet square outside. east, and the wall at right angles to that in which it is has a true bearing 209°. Inside the building there is a chamber 10 feet square, with a recess

THE SUR VE Y OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

24
each lo feet long and 4 feet to the back wall. Over each of these four recesses is an arch, and the roof of the building

on each of the four

sides,

appears to have been groined, or perhaps domed, with groins beneath, as

modern buildings in B e sa n. Sheet IX.)

in

Palestine.

(Compare

also the structural

tomb

at

i

A

1

It is stylobate runs round the outside of the base of the building. foot II inches high, and has a total projection of 10^ inches, with a

^\ inches

at the top projecting

moulding

in

On

and 8 inches high.

all,

this stylobate stand pilasters, four at the corners and two intermediate on each wall they project 2 inches, and are about 2 feet broad their bases ;

;

have the mouldings of the stylobate, and the stylobate below projects 2 inches further for a breadth of 4 feet under each pilaster.

The door

of the building has a flat lintel, with mouldings running up the profile is something like that of the the jambs and across the top en curious door at the (Sheet XIV.) the ;

Mukam

door

is

feet

i\

wide and

5 feet

Neby Yahyah

high in the clear

are narrower than the rest, 14^ inches diameter.

building seems to have been about

The masonry

is

1

;

;

the flanking pilasters total height of the

The

2 feet.

good, well-dressed, and the joints fine

;

some of the

stones are 4 feet long some are drafted. Fragments of cornice with near. were found classic elaborate lying designs Visited and planned, 2nd April, 1874. ;

on the

(P

o).

— An

artificial

mound, with foundations

Sid re h (Q

o).

— An

artificial

mound, now occupied by

Abu Rumh

Tell top.

Tell

Abu

an Arab graveyard.

Tell

Abu Sus

(O

m).

—A

isolated near Jordan.

Tell

Dablakah

(P m).

very large

artificial

— A conspicuous red

mound, standing

hillock; appears to

be a natural feature.

Jem el (P n). — An artificial mound. H m m e h (P m). — A large artificial mound

Tell Pass

el

Tell

li

el

sp ring.

Tell

el

Tell

el

K a b r (O m). — A small mound with Arab K a d h y e h (O o).— A mound of earth. il

i

near a good

graves.

ARCH.EOLOGY.

\_SIIEET Xn.']

247

—A

Tell cr Rid hg hah (Q

low mound, apparently artificial. m). On the north a good spring and a few ruined houses, with the little ruined dome of S h e k h S a m. 1

i

Tell Wady

S

e s

This name

a

i

f r a.

not on the map.

is

The summit, he

Far'ah.

Gucrin gives it to a Tell about a quarter of an hour up the says, is covered with a confused mass of stones of middle

and of blocks more considerable

size

in size,

came upon

paces further to the west he

a

Two hundred belonging to ancient buildings. ruin, which he calls Khurbet Alia

more important

(The name is not on the map.) They crown a rocky hill easily accessible

Kelum. '

to the east, but very abrupt to the west and enormous blocks of rock, and commands the W.kly el Fera'a at a height of about 115 feet. I found on the summit the remains of a great wall of enclosure built of large stones, some very well cut, and others hardly squared. They must

On

north-west.

this side

it

bristles with

have been taken from the sides of the

hill.

the foot of the

is

the

soil is

to the north-west,

hill,

covered with materials, some

Several rock-cut cisterns are partly filled up. At a fertile plain, and on the right bank of the Wady of which are of considerable size, the confused re-

mains of numerous houses now destroyed.'

Tell

Tubas '

This

meh

Zak ku

e z

(N

m).

— (See

— 'Samaria,'

(O m).

—A

i.

253.

little

mound, apparently

natural.

also Section A.)

important town is situated on the slopes and the summit of a hill whose sides are pierced with numerous cisterns, some still in use, and others half filled up. Hundreds of the people live underground, in caves cut in the rock. These are certainly of very great I examined some of them, in which several families were installed. Outside the antiquity. town I also examined several ancient tombs cut in the flanks of the neighbouring hills. They still

.

are found

on every

but

side,

all

Some have

violated.

in order to give shelter to the cattle, sheep,

Guerin, 'Samaria,'

Umm

siderable ruin

'Am dan ;

(O m).

others widened,

and goats owned by the people of Tubas.'

— Scattered stones and The

several fallen pillar shafts.

with mallows and other flowers

Umm

;

.



357.

i.

el

their entrance closed

.

R

u

man

when

place

traces of a con-

was

all

covered

visited.



(O o). Heaps of stones. The Valley of the Jorda n. — It is impossible to follow e

r

j

Guerin along the valley of the Jordan, as there

and those on the map. direction, in 25 minutes

He

is

crossed the AVady

came upon a

the route described by no resemblance between the names he gives

Abu

Sidreh (P

o),

and, taking a northerly

large square enclosure built of great blocks, 100 i)aces

on each

This may be the Khurbet el Kasur, or side, called the Khurbet es Sireh. one of the two on the map east of the Roman enclosures marked likely square road (Q n). This is the more probable because Guerin in a quarter of an hour later comes upon another similar enclosure, which he calls the Siret el Ma'azeb. Immediately north of this enclosure is a Wady, nameless on the map, which Guerin calls the Wddy el Eurkan.' Another Wddy follows on the north, which Guerin calls the Wady in length

more

'

it

is

'

THE SUR VE V OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

248

Others succeed, nameless on the map, which ho calls the Abu Sihban,' the Wady Asbcrra,' and the Wady Nekeb.'

ez Zarha.' '

Wady

'

Wady

Kefr Anjda,' the

'

'

He then comes to a circular enclosure built of great blocks, called Haush ez Zakkum.' Two hundred paces to the north he observed foundations of ancient construction. Then the '

'

valley narrows

He

Sekaah.'

more and more is

now

in the

it is cut ; transversely by a deep ravine called the Wady es narrow part of the valley indicated on the map (Q m). He enters

that part at 9.30 a.m.

'At 9.34

ruins,

which seem those of a

little

tower, stand

on the borders of another Wady.

They are called the Khiirbet el Brijeh, after the name of the Wady. At 9.45 we leave on our left, on the side of a hill, a cavern, which the Bedawin believe haunted by a redoubtable At 9.50, at 10, and at magician, and call the "Sat-h el Ghuleh,"* i.e., Sat-h, the Demon. small Wadies. The second is called we three the ^Vady es Seder. 10.7 pass successively

The

valley continues uncultivated, although the bushes which grow in carpet of grass studded with flowers, prove the natural fertility of the soil.

it,

and

its

beautiful

At 10.30 the valley showing here and

becomes once more broken and hilly several ravines break in upon it, numerous mamelons. One of these ravines is called the Wady Ghuzal. At 10.40 we cross the Wady Marmy Faiadh then, in 15 minutes more, another Wady, whose name the ;

there

;

guide did not know. '

.Samaria,'

i.

The

valley of the

Jordan

at

this

point

is

very narrow.'

268.

* This

is

probably Satih,

who

is

celebrated in Arabic legend as a diviner.

— Gucrin,

SHEET

XII.— SECTION

C.

The Bukeia and the ground in Wady Mai eh, with that round Berdelah and Kaiun, is cultivated by the peasantry from T lib as and Teiasir.

The

rest of the valley

belongs to the Mesaid Arabs.

There are a few scattered Christians of the Greek

The three factions at Tilbds (see Section A.) meh, Sawaftah and F o k h a h. The Arab tribes near Wady INIaleh are called

are

rite in

the villages.

named Deragh-

-

Faheilat,

and come from the east of Jordan.

Neby Belan the

Muedhcn

VOL.

Belauny, Sardiyeh, and

II.

is

identified

by the natives with Belal Ibn Rubah,

of the Prophet.

32

SHEET Orography.

XIII.— SECTION A.

—The

present Sheet contains 189-5 square miles of the Plain of Sharon, being almost entirely corn-land, with the exception of the tract of blown sand averaging about three miles in width, extending

from Jaffa southward. The shore north of Jaffa is bounded by low sandy The plain is almost a dead level, extending to cliffs, about 100 feet high. the low hills on the east (Sheet XIV.) which have an average of about feet in height.

500

On

the north of the Sheet

the south, the

mouth of

Kin ah

Wady Abu

and

country to the former

the river

river,

Lejja) bring being dry

Jaffa,

Ramleh and Lydda

is

The

the River 'A u j e h,

Two

Rubin.

occasional pools along their course.

near

is

in

large valleys drainage of

the

and on

(Wady the

hill

summer, with exception of

special cultivation of the plain

noticed

under the names of those

towns.

Water Sup pi y. — The only important spring on Ras el A n. The villages are dependent mainly '

at

i

the Sheet

is

that

on the wells and

ponds with mud banks. Jaffa is supplied by wells, and Ramleh by cisterns and wells. To the south the 'A y u n K a r a give a little water oozing out on sandy soil. artificial

The springs at Ras el 'A n are among the The water wells up round the mound principally on i

finest in the country.

the north, being clear

and good, of a dark blue in the pools, and surrounded by willows, rushes, and canes. The stream flows thence at its full size with a somewhat

To

rapid current.

the south especially, the plain

hundred yards with green

The

is

covered for several

grass.

autumn of 1874 a bar of sand closed its mouth. In May of the same year (which was a very dry one), the stream was fordable near Khurbet Had rah, where it was some river

is

perennial, but in the

[SHEET

TOPOGRAPHY.

XIJI.]

251

4 feet in depth, and about 10 yards across, flowing with a good current between steep banks of red consoHdated sand. In October, 1875, the 'ACljeh was flowing into the sea, and was only fordable by horsemen with difficulty this year was a wet one. Several mills exist alonqf the course of the stream. ;

TorOGRAriiv.

— The

villages

on the Sheet belong

Government

to the

Kada Yafa under the Mutaserrif of Jerusalem. The Yafa is a C a m a c a m (locum tenens) and has under him

division of the

governor of a

Wak

i

1

at

i

The

Ramleh.

villages

may be ennumerated

in alphabetical

order. 1.

Beit is

size;

Dejan (H

held to be Beth

q).

— An

Dagon

of Judah.

apparently too far north to be the

The

present village

2.

Bir 'Adas

is

—An

of moderate

village

(Joshua xv. 41.)

It

however, Caphar Dagon of the 'Onomasticon'

surrounded by

(I p).

mud

ordinary

is,

olives.

mud

ordinary

with a well to the

village,

east. 3.

4. 5.

— A small mud — A few mud huts near the Ferrikhiyeh(I — An ordinary mud Ibn Ibrak (H Fijja

village.

(I p).

p).

river.

village.

q).

by Vandevelde with Bene Berakof Dan.

The 'Onomasticon'

It

identified

The

(Joshua xix. 46.)

town

is

position

Bareca (see Burkah, Sheet XVI.), but this is out of the territory of Dan. The Bombra of the Crusaders is probably the same place as Ibn Ibrak. is

very

6.

suitable.

El Jelil (H

a second to the north.

p).

—A

mud

places this

at

a well to the south and

village, w'ith '

G

e very probably the by the sea,' forming the boundary of one of the divisions of Samaria in the third century, ('Samaritan Chronicle,' p. 440.) This agrees with the fact that Antiixatris

was on the

It is

(See Ras

Jew-ish frontier.

el 'Ain.)

A

1

i

1

small olive-grove exists

to the south-east. 7.

It

palm.

—A

very small has a well (S d k a) and a mill.

Jerisheh (H J

9.

K e fr

mud

village, with

olives

and a

i

ind^s

8.

p).

(I

r).

'A n a

—A very small hamlet of mud. —A mud

(I q).

village.

It is identified

by Vandevelde .i2— 2

THE SURVEY OE WESTERN PALESTINE.

252

Ono

with

of Benjamin. palms and other trees in north. 10.

Liidd

(I

r).

Chron.

(i

viii.

gardens, and

—A

small

town,

It

12.)

surrounded with

is

has a well

standing

(S c b

among

i

the

to

1)

enclosures

of

prickly pear, and

having fine olive groves round it, especially to the minaret of the mosque is a very conspicuous object over the

The

south.

place

is

The

inhabitants are principally Moslem, though the The Crusading the seat of a Greek bishop resident in Jerusalem.

whole of the

plain.

church has lately been restored, and is used by the Greeks. Wells are L u d d is the Old Testament Lod, the New found in the gardens. Testament Lydda. The church appears to date about 1150 a.d. (See

The mosque and minaret are noticed by Mejr ed The houses are principally of mud. There Is a palm-tree

Section B.)

1495

A.D.

the church, and 11.

cultivated.* figs are also

El MIrr

or

El

Mahmudiyeh

(I p).

—A

small

Din,

near

mud

vil-

the river. lage, with mill close to 12.

Mu

13.

Neby Danlal

1

eb b

I

s

(I p).

— A similar mud hamlet, with a — A small settlement round

well.

(J

the sacred

r).

The tomb of shrine of the Prophet, with a well to the west. shown here, and Is believed by the Samaritans to be the true site. 14.

R anil eh

(I

r).— A

of which (Professor Socin),

Dan

Is

town containing about 3,000 Inhabitants

number more than two-thirds

* Pere Lievin gives the population of

Ludd

in

Catholics...

Greeks

('

Guide,'

p.

55 1,940

Protestants

Moslems

1S69 as follows

are Moslems.f

...

5

4,850

Total... 6,850

Ramleh as follows Moslems ... 3,000

t Pere Lit^vin gives the population of

Greeks Catholics...

400 60

Total... 3,460

('

Guide,'

p.

35)

:

32)

:

[SHEET

TOPOGRAPHY.

X///.]

253

The

majority of the houses arc of mud, but the remains of fine buildin gs exist among the cabins. There are three mosques, the largest (J a a el e b r), is a Crusading church the second is near the Greek monastery

m

K

i

i

;

the third,

J a m

i

a el

Ab

;

a d or

i

Arba

M eghaz

n

i

i,

west of

in ruins

The

other principal buildings arc the Serai, or Government House, the Greek monastery and the Latin monastery of Terra Santa,

the town.

and

lastly a small

The town

is

German

Ramleh

is

orchards and olive-groves, enclosed in Palms also exist, especially towards the cast. On

surrounded by

hedges of prickly pear. this side is the

inn. fine

Moslem cemetery. by Abulfcda

stated

(see Section

B., p. I'll) to

have been

founded by the Caliph Suleiman, son of Abd el Melik, early eighth century, and is not found noticed in earlier travels.

in It

the

was

Late traditions 'sandy' nature of the soil round it. and Arimathaea, but there is no good identify it with Ramathaim Zophim ancient be an reason to suppose it to site, as the position is not a strong

named from

the

one, the water supply almost entirely artificial, and the buildings not older Wells of sweet than the twelfth century, as far as their dates are known.

water are found

There

is

in the

gardens. a bazaar in the town, but

and many of the houses are

prosperity has

its

much decayed,

falling into ruins, including the Serai.

(See

Section B.)

Ran tie h

15.

Ran

t

i

q).

—A

mud

small

'

e h would seem to be the place

Diospolis,'

with

(I

which

is

identified

Ramathaim Zophim

village

in the

by Eusebius

('

and Arimathaea.

Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake gives a lower estimate

in

1872

:

Moslems

...

2,000

Catholics

...

40

Armenians..

12

Greeks

500

Monks

30

Jews Total...

2

2,584

on

the

region of

main

road.

Thamna, near

Onomasticon,'

s.v.

Ap|Haflf/i)

THE SURVEY OF WESTERY PALESTINE.

254

Sifiriyeh

i6.

i

h u

r

i

yah

(M

i

r).

— A mud

Talmud

of the

Siphilriah S p

(I

d

as h

r

(Tal. Jer.

1}

k

i

place

is

It is

probably the

Kidushim,

a Rabba, ch.

r

plain of Judah (Neub,, Geog. Tal., of the village.

The same

village.

also probably intended in the

446) by Kefr Siporiah, mentioned Samaritan town in the seventh century.

in

'

15),

in the

Samaritan Chronicle

'

connection with Ramleh as a

i

18.

Beth

olives to the south

Sik a (I q). — An ordinary mud village, with a well Selmeh (H q). — An ordinary mud village, with

17.

Cap bar

and

which were

xxii.),

There are

p. 81).

(p.

iii.

to the south.

gardens and

wells.

Muann

19.

Sheikh

20.

Summeil

(H

p).

Surafend (H

21.

i

s

(H

— An

r).

p).

— An ordinary mud

ordinary

— Also

a

mud

small

village.

village.

mud

Isaac Chclo

village.

The The

(1334 AD.) speaks of this place as the Saraj^hin of the Talmud.

gardens of Seriphin are noticed in the Mishnah (Menachoth, village stands on risinsf ground, with a few olives.

Yafa

22.

(G

q).

— The

ancient Joppa, the

The houses

;

and a (S d k n c h) exist on the land side, The surrounding gardens are also famous.

2).

of Jerusalem; a

port

town standing on a high round hill, close to the sea. a wall surrounds the town. stone, and well built

vi.

are of

Various suburbs

German colony

is

settled near.

have a population of about 8,000 souls (Professor the majority are Moslems, but Greeks, Latins, Armenians, Socin) The place has a INIaronites, Protestants, and Jews are found there.* Jaffa

is

said to

;

trade with *

Egypt and the north

in silk, oranges,

sesame,

Professor Socin gives the population from Turkish sources

Moslems

865

Greeks Greek Catholics

135



70



Latins

50



6



Armenians

5



.

.

1.

The

annual

130) as follows in 1S76

families.

^Maronites

Total

(p.

etc.

131 families, giving about S,ooo souls.

:

TOPOGRAPHY.

{SHEET Xll/.] value of the

tVuit

is

said to be ;^io,ooo.

255 '

(See

Quarterly Statement,'

April, 1872, p. 35).

The town

rises

in

terraces from the water

;

it

is

surrounded on

all

by the wall and ditch, which are decaying rapidly. The port is the ordinary entrance is through a narrow reef, but in stormy vcr)- bad weather the boats go out by a passage on the north side. The bazaars

sides

;

are

among

The

the best in Palestine.

principal buildings in the

town are

the Latin Hospice, the Serai in the centre of the town, the mosque towards The quarantine is outside the walls on the south, and the the north.

Greek monastery on the east, on which The wall is here pulled down.

side a

new gate was made

in 1869.

a suburb (Saknet el Musriych) of low mud cabins, extending along the shore, and inhabited by Egyptians the other small hamlets in the gardens are of similar character.

Immediately to the north

is

;

North of the town

a garden belonging to the Latin monastery, and the sandhills are here covered with low vines trailinof on the ground is

Just south of this is the settlement founded by the American colony, now The houses are well built of inhabited by the German Temple Colony. stone,

and include a good

hotel.

The

gardens of Jaffa, surrounded with stone walls and cactus hedges, stretch inland about \\ miles, and are over 2 miles in extent north and south.

grown

Palms, oranges, lemons, pomegranates, figs, bananas, etc., are profusion, water being found beneath the sand, which overlies a

in

by means of numerous masonry wells. The gardens are skirted by vineyards on the south. On the southeast is the land belonging to the Mikveh Israel, or Jewish Agricultural

rich

soil.

The

supply

P^re Lievin ('Guide,'

is

p. 21), in

1869, states the population thus Latins 350 Catholic Greeks

.

Maronites

Orthodox Greeks Armenians

Moslems

must be added

50 700 10

4,300

Total

colonists

375

400

Jews

The German

:

:

6,185

100 men, 70 women, 35 children, in 1872.

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

256

Alliance, 780 acres in

all,

of which a third

is

reclaimed land.

This work

employs about 100 of the natives cf the village of Yazilr and other villages.

'Most tourists who pass through Jafta doubtless know that a German colony flourishes there, and many may have seen the Jewish Agricultural School, 2\ miles south-east of the town on the Jerusalem road. Few, in all likelihood, will have had time or opportunity to I have therefore collected information learn more than some main facts regarding them. This being derived from all sources, frethink, prove generally interesting. as each native interested in the matter most decided the contained contradictions, quently found by carefully sifting the evidence. be the truth could to and his own it, only colouring gave

which

I

will, I

must take

this

opportunity of thanking M. Netter for the great courtesy and openness with me with information on the subject.

which he supplied

The

'

"

Mikveh

Israel," as the Agricultural Institution of the Universal Israelitish Alliance i pic = dillem= 1,600 square pics 076 metres), or has been and of this one-third newly brought under the

has been named, covers 2,600 dillem

(i

316 hectares, which equal 7S1 acres, This land is to be held free plough.

for ten years,

;

and

after that to

pay a quit-rent of ^70

Before the land was granted by the Sultan for the purpose of Turkish, or ^68 sterling. founding an agricultural school, it was cultivated by the villagers of Yazur ; and though the land belongs to Government, the Fellahin, from long usage, have got to look upon it as In this case the men of their own, and resent its occupation by any other person. virtually

—a



mixed population well meriting the bad reputation it enjoys were had for a long time been their custom to plant gardens on the extreme edge of the land they cultivated, and then sell them to the people of Jaffa, in this way Thus cut off, by the interpolation of the disposing of crown land for their own benefit. Yazur

village with a

particularly enraged, as

it

Jewish colony, from a source of large revenue, they naturally became bitter opponents of the Agricultural School, which at this moment, however, employs from 80 to 100 Fellahin, who are chiefly from Yazur, a small number being from Selameh, Beit Dejan, and the neighbouring

A larger

villages.

dishonest that 'x\fter

it

some

proportion of Yazur

was necessary

men was

formerly employed, but they were found so

to discharge them.

delay, 1,600 dillem were allotted to the village of Yaziir from the Beit

Dejan

very large, as compensation for what had been taken away on the other Still the Fellahin complain that they were not paid for land which they own to be side. I can only say that it would be a most excellent thing if the GovernGovernment property

territory,

which

is

!

ment

set aside its dislike to selling

tion of this

country would

With proper guarantees a large proporand then the present Fellah would be either

land to foreigners.

find a ready market,

eliminated or converted into a useful

member

of society, while the increase of revenue to the

Turkish Government would be very considerable. The men of Yazur vow that they are completely ruined, but they were '

(Headman) jMahmud, is villagers who work on the

course of

life

;

to teach

able,

some

estate,

sterling) for

and receive from 3^

diem, are content with the arrangement. The object of the Agricultural School '

still

4,000 dillem of land which the piastres (;^S2o to the south of their village. One party, led by the Mukhtar a violent opponent to the institution ; but a large section of the

months ago, to offer 65,000 Government wished to dispose of

three

to 5 piastres (75 cents to

i

franc) per

is to train up children to a useful and industrious them market-gardening rather than farming, as the former is always

{SHEET

TOPOGRAPHY.

A///.]

257

a profitable pursuit in the ncighbourliood ol" towns, and the latter, owing to restrictions imA of the I'^llahin, is very precarious. posed by the Turkish Government, and jealousy will doubtless obtain Governand be will also of taught, land-measuring practical knowledge

ment employment for some of the pupils, native surveyors being generally incompetent and are found to have their disadvantages. always open to a douceur, both of which qualities 'The school has been opened since July, 1870, and now has twelve pupils viz., one accountant, three shoemakers, one farrier, four gardeners, two carpenters, and one agriculturist ; but it is hoped that sufficient buildings will be ready to receive twenty-eight more at



At present all the pupils are Jews, but, according to the agreement and Moslems are to be admitted on payment. One primary both Christians with the Sultan, is the establishment of a common language, without which it overcome now being difficulty the end of the summer.

would be impossible to enter upon any course of instruction, as some spoke Spanish, others German, Polish, or Russian. French is the language adopted, and with success. It is hoped, when funds permit, to increase the number of pupils to one hundred, and to establish a school for the same number of girls. It is proposed to cultivate fruits and vegetables of many kinds, will doubdcss find a ready market at Jaffa, especially during the tourist season ; at Port Said, where the rapidly increasing number of vessels passing through the Suez Canal will ensure a constant demand ; at Jerusalem, where there is a large resident European body

which

of consuls, clergy, etc. j and, to some extent, at Beyrout. Twelve steamers belonging to three companies touch monthly at Jaffa, and might be looked to not only as a means of transport,

but as consumers.

'Trees are to be cultivated, and iSL Netter tells me that the nursery already contains more As than 100,000 plants of different kinds, and that half a million of vines are also planted. the land borders on the sandhills, which are rapidly advancing in a north-east direction, it is

proposed to plant a belt of pinus marilima along the edge of the dunes. In some places, already covered with sand, it is found to be no more than i metre in depth ; in time it is intended to clear this away. The rate at which the sandhills advance is, of course, very difficult to determine, but it seems to be about 2 to 3 yards per annum, judging by the rate at which

overwhelming a garden to the south of this village, computed by a comparison of several independent testimonies. At the Jewish colony, however, the rate would not be nearly so it is

great. '

It is also

proposed to cultivate flowers for making scents, to make olive-oil and soap, and which are e.xported raw at a low price, and brought back again as costly

to tan the skins, leather.

means it is hoped not only to make the Agricultural Institute a means of the condition of the Palestine Jews, but also a successful mercantile operation. bettering Whether the latter comes to pass or not, the former consideration is enough to recommend it '

By

these

to the attention of those

Jews

in

Europe who are

— C.

of their co-religionists in Palestine.'

really an.xious to

improve the degraded

state

F. Tyrwhitt Drake, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1872, p. 80.

About \\ miles north-cast of the town belonging also to the Temple Colony.

is

the settlement called

It

Sa

r

6na

includes 10 houses, and the

There are 13 surrounding ground is specially cultivated with vines. houses in the part of the colony obtained from the Americans, including the hotel and schools. VOL.

II.

The Sarona houses have been

built since 1869.

33

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

25 S

There

a lighthouse near the custom-house of the town, and near this a Httle mosque, said to mark the site of the Crusading Church of St. is

The

Peter.

principal bazaar

in the north-east

is

The

outside the original land gate.

corner of the town, just from the end of the

walls date

eighteenth century, at which period the town was re-built, having been almost entirely destroyed in the fifteenth century. They were commenced

by the English, and continued by the Turks

after the

storming by Kleber

in 1799. Miss Arnott's schools, which now accommodate 60 boarders and 1 60 day scholars, have They stand at the top of the hill, and command a very fine view. lately been established. Beneath them are the so-called Pools of Solomon, into which the timber for Solomon's '

now (March,

is said to have been brought. There is water in them land between them and the sea is said to be flooded in winter.'

Temple

— H.

Yazur (H

q).

—A

with a kiibbeh, which

is

El Yehudiyeh

mud

18S1),

and the

L.

with gardens and wells, and said to have been once a church. small

(1

q).

village,

— A large

mud

Mr. Drake

and surrounded by palm-trees. Robinson identifies 1,000 souls.

by a pond, 800 to

village, supplied

states the population at

with Jehud of

Dan

(Joshua xi.x. 45). According to the Samaritans, Judah (Neby Hudah) was buried here.

The places

it

following ruined sites have also been identified with ancient

:

I.

Antipatris.

—A

— Biblical

frontier

Sites.

town of Judea on the north

Talmud

It appears from the Sanhed, 94 b). from Caphar Saba. (See Neubauer, Geog. Tal,

to

(Tal.

Bab.

be a place distinct

p. 87.)

Josephus places

In another the plain of Caphar Saba (Ant. xvi. 5, 2). Antipatris passage he seems to make the two identical (Ant. xiii. 15, i).* el 'A i n as the site of Antipatris. Mr. Finn, in 1850, proposed in

Ras

Byeways of Palestine,' p. 133.) This view is taken by INIajor (See Wilson. ('Quarterly Statement,' July, 1S74, p. 192.) The following distances serve to confirm the identification they are '

:

*

The

article ri; agrees with

teS/c.;

in Ant. xvi. 5,

2,

not with

c(,/.;v.

BIBLICAL SITES.

[SHEET A'///]

taken from the Antoninc and Statement,' January, 1S76,

p.

259

Jerusalem Itineraries.

(Sec 'Quarterly

13.)

Actual distance.

^''"•J^''-

to Antipatris

-

-

-

Lydda tBether(Tireh) c

10

28 Ant. — Ca:sarea Onomasticon — Galgula (Kalkilieh) 6 -

Itin.

-

To Ras

10 R.M.

el

'Ain

[

R.M.





,,

,,

30^

,,

,,



6J

,,

9]

-

-

1 1



'

'

The

description of Antipatris given by Josephus (Ant. xvi. 5, 2) is borne out. The name has suffered the fate of all the foreign names of towns in Palestine, and is no longer recoverable at the site. '

In 1S66, when making an excursion to Caisarea and Athlit with Captain Anderson, R.E., I stayed for two days at the large fountain of Ras el 'Ain, and came to

and Dr. Sandreczky,

the conclusion that the artificial

mound above

Crusaders' castle of Mirabel, marks the

it,

which

is

now crowned by

the ruins of the

of the town of Antipatris, at which St. Paul rested on his journey from Jerusalem to CKsarea. Antipatris has generally been identified with the modern village of Kefr Saba, some distance to the north of Ras el 'Ain on the Maritime Plain, site

but there are good grounds for doubting the correctness of this identification. I had hoped before discussing this question to have been able to consult Lieutenant Conder's survey of this portion of the plain

;

but as

my

friend Dr. Sandreczky,

who independently came

to the

same conclusion

as myself with regard to the position of Antipatris, has recently published a the subject in the Ausland, it may interest the subscribers to the Fund to know the

paper on grounds upon which our opinion has been formed, without waiting for the arrival of the map, especially as Lieutenant Conder has adopted the same identification after a careful survey of the ground. Our information relating to Antipatris is obtained from the Bible, Josephus, the Talmud, and early itineraries. In the Bible we are told (Acts xxiii. 31, 32) that "the soldiers, as it '

was commanded them, took Paul, and brought him by night to Antipatris. On the morrow they left the horsemen to go with him, and returned to the castle ;" whilst we gather from verse 23 that they were to start at the third hour of the night. 'Josephus (Ant. xiii. 15, i) states that Alexander Jannsus, in order to prevent the march of Antiochus from Syria southwards along the Maritime Plain, " dug a deep ditch, beginnin<'

now

called Antipatris, to the Sea of Jopi)a, on which part only his He also raised a wall and erected wooden towers, and intermediate redoubts for 150 furlongs in length, and there expected the coming of Antiochus ; but he soon burnt them all, and made his army pass by that way into Arabia." The parallel at

Chabarzaba, which

is

army could be brought

against him.

passage in the "Wars," i. 4, 7, informs us that Alexander "cut a deep trench between Antiwhich was near the mountains, and the shores of Joppa ; he also erected a high wall

patris,

before the trench, and built

wooden

towers, in order to hinder any

he was not able to e.xclude Antiochus, and marched on with his army." In Ant.

still

for

sudden approaches. But he burnt the towers, and filled up the trenches,

xvi. 5, 2,

we

are told that

Herod

"

erected another

Capharsaba, where he chose out a fit place, both for plenty of water and proper for the production of what was there planted ; where a river

city in the plain, called

and goodness of soil, encompassed the city

itself,

and a grove of the best

trees for

magnitude was round about

it.

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

26o

"

This he named Antipatris, from his father Antipater. And in the "Wars," i. 21, 9, that Herod " in built a city the finest plain that was in his kingdom, and which had rivers and trees in

abundance, and named it Antipatris." 'In describing the march of Vespasian from Cxsarea, Josephus says ("Wars," iv. 8, i) that he led his army to Antipatris, and after remaining there two days marched on, laying waste the places about the toparchy of Thamnas, and proceeded to Lydda and Jamnia. The Jerusalem Itinerary gives the following distances Lydda to Antipatris, 10 miles; Antipatris :

to Betthar, 10 miles; Betthar to Cassarea, 16 miles;

and Eusebius and Jerome make Anti-

the Antonine Itinerary makes Betthar iS miles from Ctesarea and 22 from Lydda, or 40 from Lydda to Caesarea in one itinerary, and in another 31 from Neubauer informs us (" La Geographic Cassarea and 28 from Lydda, or a total of 59 miles. patris 6 miles south of Gilgal

;

du Talmud," pp. 86-89) that the names Kefr Saba and Antipatris are both found in the Talmud, and he infers from the manner in which they are mentioned by the different writers In one passage the coasts of Antipatris are that they were two separate and distinct places. mentioned in connection with those of Yischoub, possibly Arsuf, and from this it has sometimes been assumed that Antipatris was a coast town an opinion held by William of Tyre and other writers of the Middle Ages, who identified it with Arsuf It is, however, impossible



any position on the coast with the notices in the Bible and Josephus, and we can only suggest that the exj^ression arose either from the establishment of a district of Antipatris, which reached to the seashore, or from the use of the river Aujeh as a means of transport by to reconcile

In the eighth century boats, which would make Antipatris in a certain manner a seaport. there was a large Christian community at Antipatris, and Theophanes alludes to a massacre of them by the Arabs in 744 a.d. '

From

the Bible

with Caesarea, and

we gather that Antipatris was on the military road connecting Jerusalem whence it was convenient for the guard of horsemen to continue

at a point

the journey without the foot-soldiers ; from Josephus, that the town was in the plain, yet near " the mountains {rroipopiov) ; that it was abundantly supplied with water rivers in abundance;"



was

and

was a point

defence taken up by Alexander Maritime Plain. in one the across Josephus, passage, tells us that the line of fortiJannreus " fication began at Chabarzaba, which is now called Antipatris ;" and in another that Anti" in the plain called Capharsaba," at a place where there was plenty of water. patris was built that the soil

fertile

;

that

it

in the line of

These two passages are somewhat at variance, and the latter would almost lead us to infer a view supported by Neubauer's reading that Antipatris and Capharsaba were distinct places of the Talmud. Let us now see how the two sites, Ras el 'Ain and Kefr Saba respectively, meet the reAt Ras el 'Ain there is a large mound, apparently artificial, covered with quired conditions. old foundations, broken columns, etc., and evidently the site of a place of some importance. On its summit is a large mediaeval casde, built, at least in part, on the foundations of a much



'

and at its foot are the largest springs, without exception, in all Palestine, far exceeding in volume those of the Jordan at Tell el Kady. A small river rises at once from the ground, and flows off noiselessly, through marshy ground, to the sea. The springs are the " Deaf Fountains " of the Crusaders only ones in the neighbourhood, and are probably the the castle being Mirabel, a name which still lingers at the mills of El Mir lower down the older building

;

;

stream.

Ras

el

'Ain

is

rich portion of the plain,

sufl5ciently close to the

mountains

to

be called

and conveniently situated with reference

Jerusalem, which strikes the plain immediately to the east of

it.

to the

-Trapopiov

Roman

Kefr Saba

lies

;

it is

on a

road from

on a mound

[SHEET

BIBLICAL SITES.

Xl/L]

261

composed of rubbish there are fragments of columns and old foundations in the village, on some small mounds to the east, where traces may still be seen of the Roman road to Cffisarcx There is no running water, and no spring, the villagers deriving their of water from two deep wells, and rain-water which collects in winter in two hollows. supply partly

and

The

;

also

Saba out

position of Kcfr

in the open plain cannot be said to be near the mountains, 8 miles from the point at which the Roman road from Jerusalem to Cresarea left the mountains, it can scarcely be considered a suitable place for changing the guard from foot to horse soldiers. The name is certainly identical with the Capharsaba of

and

as

it is

some

7 or

Josephus, but, as we have previously shown, there are some grounds for believing that Kefr Saba and Antipatris were distinct places. We may now turn to the military aspect of the question, and ask what would be the best line of defence for an army to take up on the plain to prevent the march of a force southward. To this there can be but one answer the line



of the Nahr Aujeh. able for several

From

months

the fountains at

and has

in the year,

Ras

el

'Ain to the sea the river

in several places

is

marshy banks.

deep, unfordIt must thus

have always presented a serious obstacle to the advance of an army, and one which no soldier Between Ras el 'Ain and the foot of acting on the defensive would neglect to make use of the mountains there

is but a comparatively narrow strip of level ground, forming a pass, which force through any adv^ancing southwards must march, and one that could be easily closed by towers and a ditch. That the Crusaders were not ignorant of the military value of

apparent from the ruins of the castles of Mirabel and Mejdel Yaba, guarding each flank of the pass ; and if Antipatris were at Ras el 'Ain, Herod, in selecting the site, was no doubt influenced by military considerations. Any line of defence from Kefr Saba to the this feature is

sea would be almost useless,

of this kind.

The

and the

features of the

ground do not lend themselves

distances in the itineraries differ considerably,

and

to a

work

until Betthar, the inter-

mediate station between Antipatris and C^sarea, can be identified, it is difficult to draw any inference from them. In the Jerusalem Itinerary 10 miles have been lost, apparently, between Betthar and Csesarea. Jerome, however, states that Gilgal was 6 miles north of Antipatris, and there can be scarcely a doubt that the former place is represented either by the modern Jiljuliyeh, which lies south of Kefr Saba, but some 3J miles north of Ras el 'Ain ; or by Kalkilieh, which is nearly due east of Kefr Saba, and about 6 Roman miles north of Ras el 'Aia The distance from Lydda to Ras el 'Ain is iii Roman miles, which agrees fairly with that given by the Jerusalem Itinerar}' between Lydda and Antipatris, viz., 10 miles.'



Sir Charles AVilson, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1874, p. 192. '

it

question of most interest in this part of the work is that of the site of Antipatris, and me that a very slight investigation of the ground is sufficient to decide the matter.

The

seems to

built by Herod bearing this name in honour of his father was on the site of the Kaphar Saba, the name of which still lingers at the village where our camp is now

The town ancient

Th€

pitched.

however, few. more than 14.

its identity, further than the preservation of the name, are, Kefr Saba is rather Antipatris was 150 stadia, or about 16 miles, from Jaffx 26 miles from Caesarea, lying Again, it was, according to the Onomasticon,'

points in favour of

'

On the other about 25 Roman miles from Csesarea. is about it is said but Kefr Saba to have been 6 of miles south hand, by Jerome Galgula ; miles west of north-west of which due is in and the 3 Jiljulieh, nearly possibly place question, between

it

and Lyddx

Kefr Saba

is

Kalkilieh, which might perhaps be identified with Galgula. '

Antipatris was protected on the south by a ditch and wooden rampart, with towers constructed by Alexander Balas as a defence against the advance of Antiochus from the south.

THE SURVEY OF WESTERX PALESTEXE.

262

The Roman road from Jerusalem by a river and by

wooded

fertile

to Csesarea led through Antipatris,

countrj',

and

requisites are quite inconsistent with the Kcfr

which was surrounded

situate close to a hilly ridge.

Saba

No Roman

site.

All these latter

road leads to

it

from

found, the water being from a couple of wells ; no trees or ruins of a large town exist. The indication of direction is also a very important point (although slighted by Dr. Robinson), as it is far less likely to have become corrupted in copying than the the

hills

;

no

river

is

numbers which indicate distances would be. It would seem, therefore, wandered from some other site in the neighbourhood, and become affixed to '

It

remains, therefore, to

find in

the vicinity a site which shall

that the this

fulfil

name has

modern

village.

the requisites

enumerated, and form a natural position for one of those noble towns which sprung up in Such a site has been already Palestine during the prosperous times of Herod the Great. shell of the fine old castle of Mirabel stands ruined the where Riis el at 'Ain, suggested " " above the wonderfully beautiful springs of the Aujeh river. The fine Roman road which traced step by step to from Jerusalem to Jifneh, and thence to Tibneh, descends the It was by this road, as is now generally steep hills and runs down straight to Ras el 'Ain. allowed, that St. Paul was hurried by night to Antipatris, whence he proceeded to Ctesarea.

we have

Roman

marked in one place by a milestone, leads along the It is the main road from foot of the hills to Jiljulieh and Kalkilieh, and thence to Kaisarieh. Ramleh through Lydda, and Ras el 'Ain thus lies exactly between Lydda and Csesarea, which

From Ras

el

'Ain another

cannot be said of Kefr Saba

from

Jiljulieh

;

road,

still

further,

it

and about 6 from Kalkilieh.

is

south of the

To

Jaffa

site

of Galgula, being 3^ miles

11 miles; to Ctesarea, 30

is

Roman

These numbers, though less exact than in the former case, are yet approximately But what is more important correct in comparison with the words of Josephus and Jerome. The to observe is that Ras el 'Ain is the natural site for a town in the neighbourhood. The hilly streams which burst out round the mound are the surrounding river of Josephus. The trees, indeed, are no more, having shared the fate of the great ridge rises just behind. oak forest, the stumps of whose trees cover the sandhills from Mukhalid to Jaffa but there can have been no spot so likely to be fertile in the plain of Sharon as the sources of the miles.

;

It would be interesting to find the ditch which was dug by Alexander Balas, and which was no doubt filled with water from the Aujeh, and intended as a more direct line of

Aujeh.

Mr. Drake informs me that a ditch defence than that of the winding Wady bed. exists near the feet wide but this is some 5 or 6 miles from Ras 15 bridge,

some

directed south-east.

has no doubt been

wooden

wall

and

The filled

of water

el 'Ain,

and

trench reached the " Sea of Joppa," according to Josephus, and in by the light soil of the plain, and left no more trace than its

At Kefr Saba no

towers.

full

signs of a trench are visible, nor

is

there any

Thus balancing the evidence as a whole, we arrive at the pretty supply of water to fill it. safe conclusion that the Antipatris of Herod was, like his Jericho, built at the source of one

A visit to the site, with its mound occupied on the west by the Kala'at, and presenting in other parts an appearance similar to that of the ruins of Roman Ctesarea heaps of broken stone and occasional large blocks overgrown with the serves to strengthen this impresyellow composite flowers which invariably mark such spots

of the finest springs in the country.



sion.'

— C.

R. Conder,



'

Quarterly Statement,' 1S74,

The Crusading head.

site

p.

of Antipatris at

1S4.

Arsiif

is

noticed under that

(Sheet X.)

Rakkon. — A

town of Dan (Joshua

xi.\.

46),

apparently close

to

[SHEET Jaffa,

NON-BIBLICAL SITES.

XI//.]

may

Tell

be

e

Rekkeit,

r

close

to

zes

the

'Aujeh, which

is

generally held to be the Mejarkon (' Yellow Water '), in connection with which it occurs. The water of the 'Aujeh is very turbid, carrying down much sand. The present site is covered with blown sand, no ruins being

though said

visible,

to exist beneath.

2.

Geneth after Jaffa p.

I\I

is

i

r

occurs in the

1.

Lists of

Thothmcs

III.,

immediately

'

i

—A

apparently that at

—A

Sites.

(See Quarterly Statement,' July, 1876, for Kefr J n n s. stand possibly

may

a be

Ro.\DS.

Karnak

and before Lydda.

It

147.)

— Nox-BiBLiCAL

castle

Ras

i

mentioned by William of Tyre

in the Jaffa plain,

el 'Ain.

a very bad state of repair leads Jerusalem, and is flanked by modern

modern-paved road

through Ramleh from Jaffa to

in

watch-towers.

The

ancient road from Jaffa to Jerusalem leads through Lydda, but shows no signs of antiquity in the plain, being simply a broad beaten track.

The

ancient north road by Antipatris and

Lydda

to Caesarea passes

Jibrin), by Ramleh. The the small bridge of one arch (J s r e s S 11 d a h),

southward towards Eleutheropolis (Beit only sign of antiquity

which

is

possibly

The The remaining

is

i

Roman.

roads from Jerusalem to Antipatris are described roads are mere tracks.

in

Sheet XIV.

SHEET

XIII.— SECTION

B.

Arch/eology.

El 'Aneiziyeh

(I

r.)

— These

vaults

(commonly called the The masonry is small

Cistern of Helena') measure S^ feet by 74 feet. the vaulting has a pointed cross Scale As ;

-^'"'"'

section.

The

cisterns

were

full

above the crown of the arch in

There

January 1874.

is

an

in-

scription in Cufic

on the plaster

of the interior.

The

mentioned

as

and seems time

of

cistern

early as

to

the

1566,

the

to

belong

is

re-building

of

Ramleh.

Ed Dekakin Ancient

tombs

in

close to the shore. is

a rude cave

;

(G r).— the

rock,

The northern

the southern a

kokim tomb with two entrances.

The chamber is 15 feet square, inches broad, 6 feet long, three at the back, three on the right, two on the left. The third koka, near the door on the left, is made into a sort of narrow South of this is a third tomb, passage. the

kokim

2 feet 2

choked with sand, the kokim not visible. A cistern tombs. The whole cut in soft sandy limestone.

Jisr Jindas

(I r).

— This bridge has on

it

exists east of the

the representation of two

[SHEET

low

lions in

ARCILEOLOGY.

XIII.]

and an Arabic

relief,

265 It

inscription.

appears to be Saracenic

work.

Ke El

i

b

a

li t

Ken

i

— Traces of ruins

(I p).

se h

K c fr

and

J

i

n n

i

s

onl)-. (I r).

— The building

is

apparently

the relic of a Crusading tower. The walls are of coursed rubble faced with small ashlar, stones large and small being used, laid in thick beds of mortar. The vaults were cemented, the arches pointed. Part of the walls are standing

The tower

feet.

30

on the

and south, in places to a height of have been about 30 feet square, and the

east, north,

appears to

walls were originally faced with ashlar.

The

ruins of

Kefr Jinnis

amongst hedges of prickly

Jerisheh (H

p).

In the south-east corner

is

a well.

a former village

are apparently those of

pear.

— South-east of the village are the ruins of a Khan,

a graveyard, and some caves, also a masonry

dam and

a small bridge,

apparently Saracenic.

Kefr Ana '

Near the

winter rains.

(I q).

village are two shallow basins hollowed in rock, not built up, which receive the Several wells are here as well, which permit the gardens to be irrigated. By

the side of one of these wells I observed trunks of columns which

seemed

ancient.'

— Gucrin,

'

Juda;a,'

i.

320.

El K

hu

r

ab

(j q).

Khurbet Abiar

—Traces of ruins and a el

Leimun (H

square tanks of rubble masonry.

Khurbet ed Dubbeh This

(G

r).

r).

— South

well.

— Traces

of the

INI

cisterns,

with

domed

Shells are used in the mortar.

KuUh.

roofs of rubble set in a

The work

It is levelled

There are

reddish cement.

resembles that at

Minet

apparently modern.

(J

r).

— Foundations of

buildings,

Ruined kubbeh.

Khurbet el Furn (H r). — Traces of ruins. Khurbet Hadrah(Hp). — Traces of ruins. Khurbet el Haiyeh(I p). — A mound of stones

overgrown with

vegetation. II.

el

(Sheet XVI.)

Khurbet edh Dhaheriyeh

VOL.

and

inet Rubin.

apparently a mediaeval tower on a sandy promontory. to the foundations. The masonry is small, set in cement. is

several

ruins

of

34

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

j66

K hurbe

t

Lu

1

i

e h

(H

Khiirbct cr RAs

(I

Khurbet Shaireh surrounded with traces of

— Traces of — Traces of — A rock-cut

ruins.

r).

r).

ruins.

tank or birkeh exists here,

{I q).

ruins.

Khurbet e s S u a m y e h (I p). — Traces of ruins only. Khurbet Sura fend (H r). — A tank or birkeh of rubble 1

i

i

cement, resembling those at Ramleh, here

in

exists,

with traces of other

ruins,

fragments of pottery.

ruins.

Khurbet Wabsah(H It

has been ploughed over, but

Kulat Ras

el

'A n i

r).

— Traces of

is

not apparently a very ancient

(J p).

—A

mediaeval

castle,

site.

standing on a

Scale It)

A-

'otc

i^^

Iff

•^o

.yn

'fit

JiV UKt

'A"-'A;Tyt;"',^'.'VV ^^"V'-' -^

Th^ Castle standi ana mound- inetj£unnq 1000 fci:t£& Kby^Si tietlf&S.

mound above a shell,

the fine springs of the 'A ilj eh. the outer walls being very perfect.

The building The masonry is

is

merely

small and

< Q Q >

O o

X

o cr

I

o

[SHEET

ARCILEOLOG Y.

A'///.]

267

Kulah (Sheet XVI.), and the plan of the castle is the same, having a tower, one of which is The castle measures about 280 feet north and octaeonal, at each corner. The entrance was on the west; south, by about 260 feet east and west. at regular, in hard mortar, resembling that

Minet

el

the towers are about 36 feet square. This castle is supposed to be the Crusading Mirabel.*

(See 'Quarterly The mound below consists of ruins Statement,' July, 1S74, p. 195.) When visited in 1S74, they were much of probably an earlier period. and nothing could be plainly distinguished. (See Section A.

overgrown,

Antipatris.)

The

principal spring

is

north of the mound, but there are

The castle stands small springs on the south. above the level of the plain at this point. '

is

The

walls,

now

pierced with several breaches, are crenelated.

partly destroyed.

more

That which remains proves

regular stones than the rest of the fortress.

this cornice

reconstruction of the castle. (I r).

It

— The

small side church of St.

(\

now

that It

it

was

The

feet to

40

feet

gate of this enclosure more care and with

built with

was surmounted by a cornice, and above

gone, which gave the date of the foundation or iL 369. appears to be of Mussulman origin.' Gucrin, Samaria,'

was once a marble

Liidd

some 30

slab,



'

Crusading church of St. George, with the The nave and James, have been partly rebuilt. fine

Co.

268

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN EALESTIXE.

the remainder

is

now used

The

as the court of a mosque.

south aisle

is

This aisle measured destroyed, but the base of one cokimn is still visible. 21 feet 7 inches across, and the nave 36 feet, giving a total of 79 feet. 50 feet. (See Du Vogiie, Eglises de Terre Plan and the M. le The southern Sainte,' p. 363, by Comte.) chapel of It was planned St. James is now a mosque. by M. le Comte for M. Clermont Ganneau in 1874.

The

about

total length is

'

1

The true bearing of the church is 90°. The church dates from about 1150 a.d., and the

tomb

of St.

George

is

The

contains a crypt where

shown.

very marked on the bases of the pilasters. diagonal dressing Visited January i8th, 1874. is

According to ancient tradition, St. George was born at Lydda Nicomedia, and his remains were carried to his native town, where

;

he suffered martyrdom at head still rests beneath

his



Several of the early pilgrims the altar of the great church consecrated to him. Antoninus and Willibald of speak Lydda as the place where St. George is buried. Martyr, Adamnanus,



Bernard speaks of the "Monastery of

St.

George" as near Ramleh.

Now

there was a

monastery of St. George at Lydda itself, and where there was a monastery there would be a church. It is therefore most probable that the tradition is true which represents a church to It is said to have been destroyed by Hakem by King Stephen of Hungary, destroyed again by the Mahommedans at the invasion of the Crusaders, and rebuilt by them with much magnificence. It seems to have been finally destroyed, until its partial restoration in late years, by Saladin ; the story

have been

built

on

this spot in very early ages.

in the year loio, rebuilt

it was rebuilt by Richard being impossible. In the year 1863 the discovery of a tomb was made here. and seems never to have been followed up

that

It is

reported by M. Guerin,

:

'

I

have heard

that,

a

month before my

arrival,

a peasant had

made an

interesting dis-

While digging an excavation for some purpose he soiitcrrain of a to the entrance enclosing two sepulchral chambers, which conlight brought tained some thirty small coffins, whose length was not more than 2 feet 3 inches. They were each covered with a slab, and were still full of bones, but not one head was found among them. covery in a field quite close to the town.

In the midst of one of these chambers was found a large stone sarcophagus 6 feet 6 inches long, in proportion, in which lay a skeleton, not broken but at full length, and also

and broad

On

without the head.

the front face of the sarcophagus was engraved a cross with equal

branches, accompanying a Latin inscription.' The place had been closed by order of the authorities, and Guerin could not effect an entrance. It would be interesting to make a further examination of this tomb with its headless occupants.

M

i

n e

t

R

11

b n i

(G

r).

— The

ancient harbour of Jamnia, situated

The port seems to have been immediately south of N a h r R 11 b n. narrow The double, and entered by passages, as at Tyre and Jaffa. northern bay is some 400 paces across (north and south), flanked with a i

ARCH.EOLOGY.

[SHEET A'///]

269

The southern bay is larger, and on the rocky promontory on either side. promontory south of it are the ruins ofEdDubbch. A large reef is visible

the central

An

beneath the water.

outside,

The beach

promontory.

isolated rock

stands opposite

slopes gently, and low sandhills

except at the point, where are the caves called Ed Dekakln, other cliffs appear to where is a sandy cliff some 10 feet to 20 feet flank

it,

;

There are signs of former

the north.

mulberry trees are growing wild

cultivation,

vines and a few

for

the sand, which cannot probably be

in

very deep. V^isited

May

N

Rub

berry

e by trees.

6th, 1S75. i

It is

n (G

r).

— A chapel

in

a courtyard,

mentioned by Mcjr cd Din

in

of very fine mul-

full

1495 as a place of

pil-

grmiage.

Neby here

Kifil

— Scattered

stones, a wall, a

birkeh or tank,

e.xist.

Neby T a E as

(Jq).

r

Ram

marked on

1

r

i

(J q).

c h

(1 r).

— Ruined foundations of houses. — Traces of the original extent of the town

the map, also two fine

monuments,

ist.

The

exist,

church,

now

j,»..

=1

a mosque

(J

am id

el

Arbdin Meghazi).

Keb

i

r).

2nd.

The White Mosque

(J

a

m

i

a el

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN FALESTIAE.

27°

The Church.

It

and two

consists of a nave

with three

aisles,

The nave has a clerestory, as at L u d d. The length apses at the end. the breadth is 150 feet, 75, almost the same as in the church at L u d d. There are height of the centre of the nave roof is about 40 feet. seven bays of columns. The span of the arches is irregular, being from ihrab made in The interior has been plastered, and a 12 to 14 feet.

The

M

the south wall.

the original one. l)lastered over.

The

The roof appears to be has a bearing 104°. masons' marks were found, as they have been

The church

No

L

piers are similar to those at

li

d

d,

about

5 feet 8

and the

pointed,

clerestory

windows

have also pointed arches. The capitals were sketched. One is peculiar as

im MtuJv

inches square, arches arc

The

including the attached semi-columns, iS inches diameter.

being unsymmetrical. They are much effaced by the whitewash.

cffacedU

The church

from the

entered

is

north, but had a fine west door, with mouldings resembling those of the

west door of the church is

now blocked

The

minaret

door ^>^.^>T

at

This

Gaza.

up.

was the

probably

rXrunl

belfry

;

on the east

staircase door,

the roof,

is

a

side,

above the

which leads out on lintel,

with

a

to

beautiful

representing two conventionally represented animals. This has been sketched by M. le Comte.

bas

relief,

This church

and Capttui'i.ChnrrJit Riujnich.

The White Mosque.

best

perhaps the

preserved

Crusading work

The

is

finest

specimen

of

in Palestine.

enclosure measures about 300 feet

The fine minaret, commonly north and south, by 280 feet east and west. called Tower of the Forty Martyrs by Christians, is in the centre of the '

'

along the south wall is a double colonnade with pointed Beneath the surface are i h r a b in the south wall. There is a

north side arches.

;

M

[SHEET

ARCILEOLOGY.

XIII.']

271

To one of three vaults, running cast and west, with pointed arches. these the title Arbain Meghazi, 'Forty Champions (companions This vault is full of e s h a h e d, or cairns, of the Prophet), applies. '

M

erected by pilgrims. centre of the court.

A

small

ruined building or chapel stood in the

minaret has a winding staircase and \vere observed Masons' marks (N

The

WN^Z)

steps,

which

were

churches, destroyed

has

probably taken before the

building

core

on the

one of of the

the

of masonry.

slabs

tenth

mosque.

used

throughout. Near the

southern arcade

is

for

century

The tower

The height is 120 severely shaken by earthquake. The masonry is remarkably base is 26 feet square.

been

and the

from

solid

feet,

fine

a long block of grey marble having

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

272

an Arabic inscription,

Drake

was thus translated by

which

]\Ir.

Tyrwhitt

:

of God, the merciful, the compassionate. None restores the mosques of God but he who believes in God and in the last day. And God, whose majesty be exalted, allowed the issuing of the mandate '

name

In the

because of the knowledge which he had before permitted His servant, the poor one who relies on Him and turns to Him in all his deeds, who is zealous in His ways, Prophet, and the

Nasr ed Din,

Defender of the Faith and His

....

of his friend, the most majestic Sultan, the Wise, the Crescentator, the Preserver, the Fortifier, the Defender of the Faith, in this world

and the

next, the Sultan of Islam

and of the Moslems,

Bibars, Ibn Abdallah Kasi m, Commander of the Faithful, may God spare him to us. And he sallied forth with his victorious army on the loth of Rejeb el Ahed from Egypt, in order to go on a holy war and a raid on the men of sin and obstinacy and he halted at the fort of Yafa ;

the beginning of the day, and he conquered it by the permission of God at 3 o'clock (9. a.m.) of the same day. Then he ordered that this h li 1 i 1 dome should be begun over the lanthorn by the hand of

in

....

Ibn D

h

the year

VI

r

six

.

.

.

.

May God pardon

and sixty and

six

his son

and

his parents

K ....

in

and on the

hundred

Moslems. Bibars took Jaffa and Ramleh

in

1268 from the Christians, according

to William of Tyre. Over the door of the

718

A.H.,

mosque is another inscription, with the date the same given by Mejr ed Din (see Rob., iii. 38,) for the

completion of the mosque. The inscription gives the name of the founder as 'Abu '1 Fath, son of our Lord the Sultan, the martyr el Melek The latter is the title of the Sultan Kala'un by el Mansur.

whose

Nasr Muhammed, the mosque was founded, according to Fath Muhammed Ibn Mejr ed Din. His full title was Nasr Abu son,

'1

Kala'Cln.

There are remains of chambers, probably occupied by the ministers of the mosque, along the west wall. All the arches are pointed, the roofs are groined, the masonry

is

small.

In the centre of the area

is

a square building about 26 feet wide.

In

ARCHAEOLOGY.

[SHEET X//7.]

273

kubbeh of Sheikh S ill eh. There is a gate on the north and another on the east, also remains of a central colonnade running east and west. corner

north-west

the

is

the

Visited 17th January, 1874. The White Mosque (Jami'a el Abiad) This

has large remains of a cloistered court, on one side

is

a large minaret.

is

of very unusual design for such a inirpose, being a square tower, with buttresses

of which

at

little

each angle for more than half Above the buttresses are two

its

height.

stories,

each having a

triple-light

window on each

face of

The details show the tower. Arab characteristics, and the whole

edifice,

was

cloisters,

including

the

evidently

exe-

cuted by Arab workmen, from the designs of a European architect.

The masonry the

is

of about that of

same character as

our thirteenth centur)' work, and the date may be that of Bibars

Sultan

somewhat

(1260-70),

or

stated

by

as

later,

Dr. Porter (Murray,

p. 112),

in

1318.

The church, now is

more

still

string

a mosque,

curious.

\>;^//'' '

The

'/'/i

under

window

of Side [Aisles

dimensions have been given It by Lieutenant Conder.

THE GREATER FART OF THE CAPITALS ARE FORMED OF ROiMANESQUE FOLIAGE.

Column

to

window

ill

Tower

iCoIumn White Mosque at

Churcli at Ramleh

Ramleh

iio« iii9d

II k Mfltqua

consists of nave, with apse and aisles, the piers between being formed of three-quarter columns attached to the sides of a square pier. The nave is vaulted with a barrel-roof of There is a clerestory, but no triforium. The stone ribs. which is carried on

strong

stone,

VOL.

If,

35

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

274

mouldings of string courses, the carvings of capitals, etc., are Romanesque, and the whole design and details are strikingly like those of many churches in the south of France



Seen from a level, or at a distance, this and other towers in Carcassonne, for example. Palestine appear to be flat-roofed, there being scarcely any appearance of a roof above the But seen from a height, each house is shown to be arched, groined or domed, all parapets. of stone.

—T. H. L.

The following are Robinson's remarks on the history of this place The name er Ramleh signifies " the Sandy ;" and the place is first mentioned under this name by the monk Bernard about 870 a.d. Adamnanus, about 697 a.d., makes no allusion :

'

he speaks of the memorials of St. George at Lydda. All this tallies well it, although with the account of Abulfeda, drawn from earlier Arabian writers, that Ramleh is not an ancient city, but was founded by Suleiman, son of the Khalif 'Abd el Melek, in the

to

he had destroyed Ludd. A palace of 'Abd el Melek William of Tyre and Marino Sanuto give the same testimony. Edrisi, about flourishing, and is celebrated by Arabian writers.

early part of the eighth century, after

had already occupied the The place soon became

spot.

1150 A.D., calls Ramleh and Jerusalem the two principal cities of Palestine, and describes Before the former as pleasant and well peopled, with markets and commerce and revenue. the time of the Crusades it was surrounded by a wall, with a castle and twelve gates ; and with each of the four principal gates, towards Yafa, Ascalon, Jerusalem, and Nablus, there were connected markets and a mosque. '

The Crusaders

in 1099 a.d., on their march from Antioch to Jerusalem, having celebrated of at C?esarea, directed their course to Lydda, where they found the Pentecost Day tomb and church of St. George. Count Robert of Flanders, with five hundred splendid was sent forward to reconnoitre the knights, neighbouring Ramleh, and found the gates open

the

and the

city deserted of inhabitants.

quarters in

Ramleh

which the inhabitants had George, stalled

who had

him

The

host of Crusaders followed, and took

left

already aided

as their patron saint.

them

in the battle near Antioch,

His tomb

at

bishopric in Palestine; and Robert, a priest appointed bishop, and received tithes from the cities of

up

their

themselves with the abundance of provisions behind in their flight. Here they celebrated a festival to St.

for three days, recruiting

Ramleh and Lydda and

and with due formality

in-

Lydda was made the scat of the first Latin from Rouen in Normandy, was on the spot The new see was endowed with the pilgrims.

the lands belonging to them.

On

the fourth day the

army

proceeded towards Jerusalem. From its position between Jerusalem and the coast, Ramleh formed an important post for the Crusaders, and continued generally in their hands while they held possession of the '

and long afterwards. About 11 77 a.d. the place was burned by the renegade In 11 78 a.d. Saladin was totally defeated in the vicinity by the Christians under King Baldwin IV.; but in 1187, after the decisive battle of Hattin, the whole plain, with On the approach of Richard of Yafa, Ascalon, and also Jerusalem, fell into his hands. Holy

City,

Ivelin.

England

in 1191 a.d., Saladin

caused the

fortifications of

Ascalon to be dismantled, and the

Ramleh and the church of Lydda, as well as other castles in the plain, to be razed. In the truce made between Richard and Saladin in the following year, it was stipulated that the plain and coast from Tyre to Yafa, including the half of Ramleh and Lydda, should remain in the hands of the Christians. In 1204 a.d. Ramleh was wholly given up to them, and appears to have continued chiefly in their possession until 1266 a.d., when it was finally taken from them by the Sultan Bibars. In the subsequent centuries it is often mentioned as fortress of

[SHEET

ARCHEOLOGY.

X/IL]

275

the resting-place of pilgrims and travellers on their way between Ycifa and Jerusalem. About 1547 Belon found it almost deserted, scarcely twelve houses being inhabited, and the fields

mosdy '

untilled.

With the history of

Ranilch the tower on the west of the town stands

Mohammedan

This structure has long been a stone of stumbling to travellers, who have mostly been content to follow in this case, as in so many others, an indefinite In all Frank writers, down to the middle of the sixteenth century, I monastic tradition.

in

connection.

close

At that time, about 1555, Bonifacius of Ragusa speaks of it as find no allusion to the spot. the site of a former Christian church, dedicated to the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste in Armenia. This is repeated by Zuallardo and Cotovicus, cited with approbation by Quaresmius, and folIn the beginning of the eighteenth century we begin to find lowed by most other travellers. In the present century it has become fashionable it regarded as one of Helena's churches. to refer these ruins to the time of the Crusades, as having been a convent and church erected

by the Knights Templars, and dedicated to the Forty Martyrs. The tower church. usually been held to have belonged, as a belfry, to the ancient

— Traces of Rckkeit (H — Cisterns

Er Reseim Tell er to exist

E

(I

in

question has

ruins.

p).

p).

and traces of ruins are said

under the sand.

S

s

ak

i

y e h (H p).— Ruined water-wheels for irrigation.

Saruna (H

near this settlement. (i).— Ruins of a farm exist

Section A.)

E s Sir

(I

Sheikh Su

m ni e

Su

r

p).

u an n

]\I

i

1

— Ruins of a

(H

a fe n d

p)

(H

.

i

s

(H

(See

fold.

p).

— Ruins of a house near the kubbeh.

— Large well and a cave.

r).

Guerin found here cut stones belonging to some old buildings, and two cisterns, apparently The site is probably that of an old city called Sariphaia, mentioned as having been ancient. the seat of a bishop, and having been destroyed by the Arabs in 797. One of its bishops took The old Sariphcea, however, may be the part in the Council of Jerusalem of the year 636. adjoining village of Safiriyeh.

Reland conjectures that Surafend

is

the

Tsar

i

ph

i

n of the

Talmud.

Yafa (G q).— The

cemetery of Jaffa was discovered by M. Clermont Ganneau (see below) on the north-west side of the town, Numerous Greek extendine as far as the Saknet Abu K e b r. In the here been excavated. inscriptions, with Jewish emblems, have ancient

i

kubbeh of S h e k h M Cl r a d a bas relief, representing a mitred abbot, or bishop, was found, and is in possession of one of the vendors of It has been described by M. Clermont Ganneau, in his letter antiquities. i

35—2

2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

76

publibhed

the

in

The is

Quarterly Statement

'

Mukam,

with the date 736

a.ii.

An

of 1874.

name Jemal ed Din Ibn

back gives the of this

'

s

I

h e

inscription i

on the

k as the founder

(1335).

history of Jaffa, after the events which connect

it

with the Old and

New

Testaments,

A\'hen the revolt of the Jews broke out, the place was attacked by sea and land, It then became a nest of pirates, who were attacked 8,400 of the people lost their lives.

stormy.

and and mostly destroyed by Vespasian, who formed a camp in the place and garrisoned it. Later on it became the seat of a bishopric, which lasted until the Arab invasion of the year 636. It was taken without a siege by the Crusaders in 1099. Godfrey de Bouillon fortified it. In 1115 and again in 1122 the people Baldwin I. rebuilt and embellished the city in 1103. of Ascalon, aided by an Egyptian fleet, besieged it without success; in T187 it surrendered to Mclek Adel, brother of Saladin, and was destroyed by the Saracens; in 1191 its walls were by Richard Cceur de Lion. It was here that Queen Berengaria rejoined her husband, whose army was encamped in the gardens without the city. It was besieged by Saladin, and would have been taken, but for timely relief, in 1192. In 1197 it was again taken by Mclek Adel in the following year it was retaken by the Germans, whose garrison was surprised and massacred; in 1204 it was restored to the Christians in 1267 it was taken by Bibars, whose He took the Jaffa road, laid siege to the town, and carried siege is thus described by Anija rebuilt

;

;

'

:

it

the

same

The

day.

citadel also

fell

He made

into his hands.

all

the people

come

out of

The wood and marble heplaced on board ship and the place, and completely destroyed it. sent them to Cairo, where the wood was used for making the Maksurah of the Mosque Daheri, situated in the Haramieh quarter, and the marble served to construct the Mihrab.' Then

hundred years the place has no history. In the seventeenth century it conand a few small houses. In 1722 it was pillaged by in the Mamelouks in Arabs; 1778, by ; 1799, by Bonaparte's army; and after his attempt on Acre its walls were blown up. for four

sisted of nothing but a little fortress

The

the ancient cemetery was discovered by M. Clermont Ganneau in the year thus describes his archseological work in the place I took advantage of our short stay at Jaffa to make some examination of the city and its I believe I have succeeded in environs. settling a point which has for a long time engaged site of

He

1874.

:

'

and



of great importance for the history of Jaffa and ulterior researches I observed a circle, which extends in namely, the situation of the ancient cemetery of Jaffa. the great gardens outside Jaffa, bounded by a little hamlet called Abu Kebir, and by the well

my

of

attention,

Abu

Nabbut.

cut in the tufa,

is

This

circle, called

Ardh

and exposed every day

(or Jebel) Dhabitha, contains a quantity of

tombs

had the good fortune by of a peasant, a small slab of marble, with an inscription that I to the light

the fellaheen.

I

on the very spot, think to be extremely curious. It is the epitaph, in Greek, of a Jewish personage, with the of the seven-branched candlestick and the funeral palm.' representation to purchase

I had already, during my first stay in Palestine, remarked at Jaffo, in an Arab house belonging to M. Damiani, the French Consular Agent of Ramleh, a fragment of bas-relief in marble fitted in the pavement. The first thing I did was to go and examine this. M. Lecomte '

made

a very pretty drawing of

of these

letters.

The

bas-relief

and broken below the nose

;

which you will get by the next mail, with other illustrations from Caesarea represents a tragic mask a great deal mutilated

it,

the head

is

in fairly

good

style,

and may belong

to the best part

ARCILEOLOGY.

[SHEETXIJL]

277

of the Greco-Roman period. Judging by the arrangement of the hair, the disposition of the of the features, the mask must belong to a woman's head ; the eyes fillet, and the ensemble

and the mouth, in great part gone, must have been open for the classical fragment of ringlet on the left, and a bit of wing on the right of the head, seem to and other particulars tend to show that the indicate that it formed part of a decoration whole was to be looked at from beneath, and formed part, perhaps, of a frieze rather than

are deeply sunk

;

A

rictus.

;

tlie

decoration of a sarcophagus.

Cxsarea '

made

I

May we

recognise here a piece of the

Roman

Theatre of

?

the tour of the city walls, trying to pick out the portions that are ancient, I observed, esi)ccially towards the north and on the

whether of construction or of material. seaward

they were brought here from Ca;sarea and

St.

of the place told me that Along the wall may be very

The people

side, a considerable quantity of fine blocks.

Jean d'Acre.

distinguished from place to place, in front of the actual wall, old foundations at present I ran along the south part of the wall which separates the city from the under water. partly sea in a boat. Starting from the advanced bastion, above which rise the lighthouse and the jilainly

house of St. Peter, extends a basin of water of very small depth, the boat touching This sea-basin is surrounded by a reef of rocks, and bears the the bottom every moment. name of Birkel el Kamar (" The Basin of the Moon "). All this place, and that portion of The coast here is covered with the site which adjoins it, deserve to be minutely explored.

traditional

ruins, apparently ancient. '

There

living at Jaffa a certain

is

Mussulman named

'Ali Sida,

This man,

master mason.

now

of advanced age, has directed all the constructions ordered at the commencement of the It would be interesting to collect century by the legendary Abu Nabbut, Governor of Jaffa.

from him and on the spot every kind of information on the considerable changes that Jaffa underwent at that time. An extremely intelligent Arab, living at Jaffa, spoke to me of an amphora handle found '

gardens of

in the

As

self.

far as I

inscription

himJaffa, and bearing characters of which he showed me a copy made by could judge by this reproduction, simple enough, but seriously meant, the

Greek, and gives the

is

name

of the potter.

I will try to see the original

on

my

journey to Jaffa.

first

On leaving Jaffa to go to Jerusalem, I wished to verify an important point, which it is the has engaged me a long time, and I think that I have positively arrived at it site of the ancient cemetery of the city. With this object, on leaving the gate of the city, '



in place of following the ordinary road, I directed

north, across the gardens

hamlet named Suktieh

which surround

Abu

Jaffa

our

on

little

all

Kebir, where I spoke to

caravan to the

We

sides.

some of the

left



soon arrived fellaheen.

/.f.,

One

to the

a small

at

of them

led us a few steps farther in the interior of certain gardens very little cultivated, when I ascertained the presence of numerous recent excavations designed to get building-stones.

These excavations have brought to light at several points sepulchral chambers cut in the Such tombs are found, it ajipears, from the hamlet of Abu Kebir as far as the limestone. Jewish Agricultural Institute on the other side of the road, and to the present Catholic Cemetery. The peasants assured me that they had found in these tombs lamps and vases At my request one of them went to get such a in terra-cotta, and stones with inscriptions. stone it is the same of which I in my first note from Ramlch. I bought it for the spoke ;

Society.

of

I

examined

a Jewish

it

personage,

at leisure at

designated

Jerusalem, and find as

it

to

be an epitaph

*PONTICTHC AAE3ANAPIAC.

in

Greek

The mention

TEE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTn\E.

27S

of this function occupied by him at Alexandria gives this inscription a great historic value. propose to send you by the first opportunity a facsimile and an interpretation.' '

During the heavy winter

rains there are formed, close to the gardens of Jaffa

The

west, real lakes of considerable e.xtent.

and

road,

is

As

called by the

name

largest of these

marshy ponds

lies

and

1

to the

south of the

of Bassa, a word applied in other parts of Syria to similar

word in Arabic, nothing more satisfactory can be found than that of firebrand^ lighted wood. The same word, on the other hand, is found in the Bible (Bissa), used to signify a lake or tiia?-sli. "Can," asks Bildad (Job viii. ii) "the pools.

rush

for the signification of the

mire

grow up without

"Behemoth

?

can

the

flag

grow

up without

water ?"

And

further

und fens." (Job 2i), And the word is also found in Ezekiel xlvii. ii, "The miry places thereof and the marshes Commentators and lexicographers thereof shall not be healed; they shall be given to salt." derive this Aramaic a and word from Gesenius root, l^;3^ to which, reFiirst) hypothetical {cf. " oi et emaiiavif aqua." the Arabic the on biidlidlia, Jl/ixit they give paulatim meaning lying The supposition appears to me entirely gratuitous in fact, the existence of the Bassa at xl.

lieth

under the shady

trees, in the covert of the reed

;

and other places proves that Bassa, shine. The origin of the word shows

Jaffa io

or glittering in the sun. meaning of firebrand.

A

Hebrew and Arabic has moved from each other. same primitive

El

in the sense of

pond, "

is

allied with the

Arabic bassa,

"

meaning pond is connected with shining It is exactly the same idea which has given the similar word its similar reasoning could be extended to the word ain, which in that the

the double meaning of an eye and a fountain, surely far enough reThe meaning in both cases has been borrowed from one and the

sense.'

Yehudiyeh

the village. Here Gue'rin found an

(I q).

— There

is

a ruined tank or birkeh south of

ancient sarcophagus serving as a trough for water, and two shallow basins formed by a depression of the ground serving to collect the rain.

SHEET

XIII.— SECTION

Traditions and Ethnology. are

Moslems and

all

C.

— The natives of the villages on

this

Sheet

Syrians, except those in the Egyptian Colony at

Jaffa.

The

of the

statistics

German colony

at Jaffa,

founded 1869, arc

fully

given by Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake, as also the account of the Jewish Agricultural Alliance.

The which

it

(See p. 256.) of village Neby Ddnial includes the Mukam of Neby Dan, from is said by the natives to take its name, and not from Danial.

The seems

ancient

at

Ganneau's

name

one time '

reports,

'Guide Indicateur,'

An An

annual feast

to

official

said

to

have been

have contained a church. p. 5

;

Adaliah.

It

(See M. Clermont and Pere Li^vin's

p. 28.) is

held at is still

Ramleh on 25th April at the White Mosque. made to the Neby Rubin.

return of 1851 gives the following statistics of the popula-

tion of the district

Lydda

is

Quarterly Statement,' 1874,

annual pilgrimage

The

of YazCir

.

:

SHEET XIV.— SECTION

A.



Orography. This Sheet contains 3707 square miles of the mountain country between Bethel (B e t n) on the south, and 'Awertah, near Nablus on the north, S e li n (Shiloh) on the east, and M e j d e Y a b a, i

i

i

1

1

on the edge of the plain of Sharon, on the west.

The great

valley called

Wady

De

i

r

B

a

1

1

11 1,

runs across the Sheet

from east to west, forming a natural division which appears to have been that between Judaea and Samaria, as the Judaean towns of Shiloh, Lebonah, Beth Rima, and Antipatris (see Sheet XIII.), are south of the valley, while Berkit, on the main road, marks probably the site of Borceos, placed by Josephus (B. J. iii. 3, 5) on the border. The northern district is called

Bel ad

el

J e

ma

i

The

n.

southern

which may be grouped as Judeean

is

divided into six small

districts,

hills.

a d el J e m a n. The watershed is formed by a very narrow spur running north-west and south-east in the corner of the Sheet from Khurbet Jerr'a towards the ruin of Ras (

I

Northern District, B e

.)

Da

i

1

The Gerizim

block projects from this ridge on the north-east (See Sheet XI.) And to the east of this again is the southern portion u w a r a h, near the foot of the u k h n a h plain extending to of the ed

r,

M

H

mountain, and draining to the Jordan valley. The chain is about 1,900 feet above sea-level, along the ridge, and the u k h n ah has a mean level of about 1,600 feet.

M

From

the watershed

long spurs

of

mountain extend

westwards,

W

i st. ady separated by deep valleys, of which the principal ones are ah (supposed by Robinson to be the 'Brook Kanah,' Joshua xvi. 8 :

Kan

xvii. 9),

;

which

rises, in

Sheet XL, near Burin, just south of Gerizim.

The sides of this valley are very steep throughout, and with exceptions of ad y e r B a 1 1 u t, it is the most important natural feature on the

W

D

i

[SHEET Sheet.

281

Wady

2nd.

The

to the last.

Dh

OROGRAPHY.

XIV.]

el 'A y il n, rising near Serta, and flowing parallel sides are very steep, and in places (as at S h u k i f e d h

b b a n) precipitous. 3rd. The great valley, which, rising south-east of 'A k r a b e h, joins the great branch called S e 1 il n at K h u r b e t i

Wady

Kc and BalHt in i

i

forms the longer affluent and true head of

s,

Wady Deir

Sheet XII.

Th-e country between these valleys consists of flat hills or sloping plateaux, which gradually descend towards the plain from an elevation of

The

slope east and knolls, except towards the

1,900 feet to one of about 450 feet above the sea.

west

is

gradual, and only broken by isolated

D

c r B a 1 u t, where there is a sudden south in the neighbourhood of descent of about 300 feet from the mountain on which stands Deir

Ku

1

1

i

a h to the plain east of the last-named village

of the mountain above precipices.

Wady

The ground

falls

Deir B a

the southern slopes

:

have a series of rugged again westwards from the village Deir 1 1

u

t

gradually towards the plain. An open vale enclosed between mountains extends from

Balliit

the neighbourhood of S a

high rugged

w

hills,

which the main road crosses

and

its

from

its

;

extent northwards

Seilun comes

about

i,;oo

into

is it

above the

feet

hemmed

Lubban

to

on the east and west by and on the north and south by the two passes over e h.

i

It is

in

southern boundary is at a little under 3 miles.

on the south-east sea, the

;

K h a n L u b b a n,

The broad valley the average elevation is

round being nearly 900

hills

feet

higher.

The mountains

are

much more rugged near

F

u

r

and

B

i

the watershed than

k h a h they are especially steep and stony, the strata showing in steps which have peculiar contorThe country is extensively covered with scrub, in which clearings tions. The olive groves are unusually fine on the are made for the barley fields. towards the west

;

in the

neighbourhood of

western slopes, especially round S e

(2.)

1

f

i

t

Southern District, Judcean

point of the main watershed

(supposed by

De

The summit

is

is

d e i

h.

Hills.

The culminating Tell 'A s u r

the high mountain called

Saulcy and others to be Baal Hazor,

3,316 feet

above the

sea, the

2

Sam.

point in

xiii.

23).

Central

highest Palestine being only equalled on the north by Jebel Jermuk (Sheet IV.), VOL. II. 36

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

282

and on the south than

Mount

at

E

r

R a m e h,

and being more than 200

feet higher

Ebal.

This mountain forms the highest point of a curving chain, which shuts on the east the narrow pass of 'A n el Haramiyeh. On the

in

i

north of the pass an open plain, draining to the Mediterranean, extends eastwards from Sinjil and north of Turmus 'Ay a to the neighbourhood of Kefr I stun a (Sheet XV.), being about i^ miles east

and west by f mile north and south.

This plain

is

Mer

called

j

el

'Aid

Meadow

of the Feast'), possibly in connection with the yearly feast once held at Shiloh. (Judges xxi. 19.) The block of hills in which Shiloh ('

stands bounds the plain to the north. The whole district west of the Tell 'A

range consists of extremely rugged mountains and deep valleys, the sides of which are 500 to 600 feet high. The pass at 'A n el Haramiyeh is over 1,000 feet u

s

r

i

below the

el

Burj

The same

Lisaneh,

step or

sudden

to the east of fall

it.

which was remarked near

Ball At

occurs in this southern division, and the line extending from near 'A b u d and the

neifjhbourhood points the elevation

of is

De

i

r

about

hills fall

De

i

r

rapidly in the

DeirAbu Meshal, and in Kudd To the east of these

el

i

s.

1,300 to 1,500

feet,

but in the distance

of a mile west of the last-named village the elevation d 1 i n.

is

400

feet

less— at

N

The

lower

hills

(or

Sh

ep h e

1

a h) extend westwards to the neigh-

and Tireh, sloping gradually from 800 feet above sea-level to about 500 feet close to the plain. These lower hills are of soft limestone, and less rugged in outline, with open bourhood of

Mejdel Yaba, Kuleh,

valleys between.

The

so intricate throughout the part which is occupied by the higher hills that it is impossible to give a more detailed description. It proved to be the most difficult to survey south of Upper Galilee, in

country

is

consequence of the great depth of the valleys and the steep, precipitous The hills are terraced, slopes of the mountains, which are very rocky. and figs, vines, and olives are grown round the villages near Jufna and Bir ez Zeit.

Towards the west the scrub

is

very thick in places.

T

The

i b n e h is neighbourhood of 'A b ti d and specially desolate and rough, the hills being almost impassable for horses in parts. long spur runs

A

HYDROGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY.

{SHEET XIV.\

Tell 'Asur

out of the

283

Beitin

block south-west, and on this stands

This part of the country consists of grey rocks, and (Bethel). The ridge is traced further south on Sheet XVII. bare of trees.

HYDROGRAriiv.

numerous mountain

— No

occurs

on

this

Sheet,

very

but

occur in the beds of the valleys throughout the

fine springs

The low

district.

stream

perennial

is

hills

Shephelah)

(or

consist of a porous

chalk, and

they are supplied by wells and cisterns, the water sinking and through appearing again in the plain, as at the R a s el 'A n springs (Sheet XIII.), which receive the whole drainage from numerous springs i

Widy

along the course of the

De

i

r

Ball

u

t.

probably those at Khan L u b b a n, where a small stream of fresh water comes out at the foot of the mountain, and

The

finest springs are

None of the springs, supplies the neighbourhood throughout the year. are to however, sufficiently important require very special description, small between the rocks, from which a stream being principally pools

The names

trickles.

Topography. this Sheet.

ment

of 36 in

occur on the plan.

all

— loS inhabited villages are included within the be enumerated

They may

in order,

according to the

limits of

Govern-

divisions.

I.

1.

— Belad

Ain

'A

el JemaIn, under the Mutaserrif of Nablus.

bus

(M

spur of the mountain,

p).

—A

with

a

small

spring

village to

the

conspicuous on a low west and olives to the

south.

a

mur

2.

'A

3.

Her akin

spur,

with

i

a

e h

(]\1

q).— A

(Lq). steep

—A

slope

springs just below the houses.

small village on high ground.

moderate-sized to

the

On

valley

village

beneath,

on the end of in

which

are

the south arc caves, on the north

olives. 4.

Bidieh (K

cipally of stone.

It

p). is

—A

village of

moderate size, the houses prinsurrounded with beautiful groves of very fine old

36—2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

2^4

olives. is

evidently an ancient

It is

from rock-cut

Deir Estia

5.

site.

(See Section B.)

(L

p).

—A

Deir Ballut (K

q).

on high ground, sur-

large village

rounded with olive-groves, and supplied by 6.

The water supply

cisterns.

—A

cisterns.

snuill

evidently once a place of greater importance, with rock-cut tombs. huts arc {Drincipally of stone. The water supply is from wells (B

Mesa 7.

f).

Furkhah

on a steep

(L

q).

The

hill-top.

'

i

The i

r

el

—An

ancient village in a very strong position houses are of stone, and there are three sacred

Haram

tombs, including tain of A n Y a

but

partly ruinous,

village,

en N

m b u a,

Shit, on

e b y

th-i

The

south.

foun-

gives a supply of fine water, and

in the valley,

there are two other springs east of the village. The place is evidently an The hills around it are very steep and rocky. ancient site. 8.

site,

H ab

1

eh

(J p).

—A

village of

moderate

size,

evidently an ancient

The ground is The houses tombs.

surrounded with cisterns and tombs.

presses cut in the rock exist near the The water supply from cisterns. of stone. 9.

Haris

(L

p).-

—A

medium

on high ground built has rock-cut tombs and is probably

;

Huwarah

11.

Iskaka (M

are principally

sized village

of stone, and supplied by cisterns. It an ancient site there are fine olive groves round 10.

Wine

rocky.

it.

—A

straggling village of stone and mud at It has an appearance of the foot of Gerizim, just over the main road. antiquity, and covers a considerable extent of ground.

(N

p).

p).

—A

small

village,

with

ruined

towers

rock-cut tombs, surrounded by olives and standing on high ground.

water supply 12.

J

is

from a

p).-

— The

El

The water

supply

is

village.

Kefr (K

q).

and apparently an ancient 14.

on high from a pool

largest village in the district,

ground, surrounded with olive groves.

13.

The

well.

em mi in (M

and a well east of the

and

Kefr Haris

—A

site,

(L

village of

moderate

size

having rock-cut tombs

p).

ground, with olive groves to the

—A east.

hillside,

to the east.

somewhat small It

on the

village

on

has three sacred places,

high

Neby

TOPOGRAPHY.

[SHEET Xn:]

K

i

f

Ncby Nun,

1,

noticed in

that

Ncby Lush

and

Itineraries

the Jewish

285

This place

a.

is

apparently

under the name Caphar Cheres

(R. Jacob of Paris, 125S a.d.) and said to contain the tombs of Joshua, Marino Sanuto shows a place called Tapni son of Nun, and Caleb. Atzare on his map, apparently in this direction, and places the tomb of Lush a probably represents the traditional tomb at it.

Neby

Joshua

In the account given by Jerome of Sta. Paula's journey, the The modern site of Timnath Heres seems to be placed at Kefr Haris. Samaritans say that Nun and Caleb (Neby Kill) were buried with Kill u n and Joshua, in accordance with which we find of Joshua.

Neby N

Neby

at this site. 15.

Kefr Kasim

of mud, on a low

hill in

p).— A

(j

moderate

village of

open ground.

A

rock-cut

tomb

size,

e.\ists

principally

south of the

village.

Ke

—A small

16.

Khurbe

17.

Khurbet Kefr Thilth

t

ground, with two wells.

i

(M

s

It

q).

was

in

(K

p).

village

on the

hillside.

—A

ruins in

small village on high 1852, but has now a few

rough and uncultivated. The name is the identity of the equivalent to the Hebrew Shalisha, and this suggests which appears to have been in place with Baal-Shalisha (2 Kings iv. 42), inhabitants, the

ground round

this part of the country. further on.) 18.

Kireh (M

19.

Kuril wa

is

(See

Beth Sarisa

in the

present section,

—A

moderate village on high ground, with a after the Virgin Mary, chapel venerated by the Moslems, but named The water supply is from a pool. p).

Ibn

Hasan

(L p).— A

village

partly ruinous,

but evidently at one time a place of great importance (see Section B.), with ancient tombs, one of great beauty (see Dcir ed Derb, Section B.), Its ancient name is given by the natives as and rude stone towers. et Tawil. The litde mosque of Sheikh 'A 1 y el 'A m a n a t

Sham

stands apparendy over the apse of a church. wells

and

supply of water

p).

from

valley, supplied

by

—A

small village at the foot of the hills in an In the Samaritan Chronicle a well on the east. '

open

is

cisterns.

KCizah (M

20.

The

'

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

286

noticed (see 'Quarterly Statement,' October, 1876, p. 196), and its ancient name given as Kirjath Tzekathah. It is possibly the Chusi of is

it

Judith

(vii.

18).

Lubban (M

21.

q).

—A

village perched

on a terrace on the

hill,

with badly-built houses, half ruinous, and rock-cut tombs on the southwest. These tombs are little more than rude caves. There are five pillar

mosque, and one doorway had designs in The white colour of medallions on the arch, but looked like Arab work. It has an appearance of the cliff accounts for its name, 'Milk-White.' shafts standing near the

little



the fine spring great antiquity, but the water supply is at some distance is in the ruins of L u b b a n. The place recognised as the ancient Lebonah (Judges xxi. 19), and it is probably the Beth Laban of the

Khan

Talmud, from which wine was brought to Jerusalem. (Mishnah Menachoth ix. 7.) Marino Sanuto mentions it as Casale Lepna. 22.

the

Lubban Rent is

Roman

q).

—A

small village on a knoll beside

road.

Yaba

Mejdel

23.

(K

q).

(J

—A

large

and

important

village,

evidently an ancient site, having ancient tombs and remains of a church. It stands on high ground above the plain, and contains a house or palace

of large size for the Sheikh the neighbourhood.

and

it

;

was the

(See Section C.)

famous family who ruled The water supply is from wells

seat of a

cisterns.

Merdah (M

—A

village of moderate size on low ground surrounded by olives. This place is noticed by its present name in the Samaritan Chronicle.' (See Quarterly Statement,' October, 1876, p. 196.) 24.

p).

'

'

25.

Mes-ha (K p).— A

house, but partly ruinous.

It is

with

a

high central supplied by cisterns, and the houses are

good-sized

village,

of stone. 26.

Ra-fat (K

q).

—A

semi-ruinous

stone

village

on

a

ridge,

apparently an ancient site, with a very conspicuous Mukam on a piece of rock west of the village, and rock-cut tombs. The water supply is from wells

and

27.

cisterns.

Rent is

(K

q).

—A

village,

rounded by open ground and a few

principally

olives.

It is

mud, on a slope

sur-

supplied by cisterns, and

TOPOGRAPHY.

{SHEET X/F.] is

evidently an ancient

287

having- rock-cut tombs.

site,

to be the place called

would appear

Remphtis (P£/
district of Diospolis,'

pare Rentieh, Sheet XIII.)

Es Sawieh (N

28.

Tliis

'

p).

—A

little

village

on a

hill

'in the

(Com-

overhanging

the road.

S el

29.

fit

(M

olive-groves round site,

—A

p).

large village,

on high ground,

with

fine

and a pool

it,

with rock-cut tombs.

to the east. It is apparently an ancient has two springs to the west at a little

It

distance.

Sen rich (K

30.

i

p).

—A

rounded with olives supplied by 31.

S

32.

Tell (N

e r

t

a

(K

small

— Resembles the — A very small hamlet,

village,

on

a

ridge,

sur-

last.

p).

q).

stone

cisterns.

on the

hill-side

above the

road, with ruins.

'Urif (M

2)1-

olives 34.

—A

stone village, on high ground, with supplied by wells and with a small spring to the east ('Ain

;

p).

Yasuf (M

p).

—An

a

few

el Jor).

ancient village, in a valley, with a

good

A

beautiful garden of pomegranates spring in the village, and olives. The water comes out of a cleft in a cliff, near exists north of the spring.

which

an ancient well with

There

a sacred place, with a large oak (Sindian), and a ruined shrine, south-west of the village, near 'Ain er There are drafted stones in many houses, and remains of well-built Raja. is

enclosures,

now

ruined.

steps.

Many

well-cut rock

is

tombs are also found on either

This place is noticed by its present name in the (See Section B.) Samaritan Book of Joshua (' Quarterly Statement,' October, 1876, pp. 190 196), and in the 'Samaritan Chronicle' the ancient name is given

side.



as Jusepheh. 35.

round 36.

Yet ma (N

—A

little

village,

on high ground, with olives

it.

Zawieh (K

an ancient l"].

p).

place,

p).

—A

village of stone of

moderate

size,

probably

having rock-cut tombs to the south.

Zeita (M

p).

—A

small stone village, on high ground, with a

well to the west, and olive-groves.

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

288

The second Government

District

to the east of the last, also

is

under

the Mutascrrif of Nablus, and called

— Mesharik el Beitawv. —A small hamlet, on the low —A on the slopes

II.

All del ah (N

1.

Mukhnah 2.

p).

plain.

'Awertah (N

east of

village,

p).

hills east

of the

the plain,

with springs to the east, and olive-groves. It is built of mud and stone, is of moderate size. This place is very important in the Samaritan and is in called the Chronicle Abearthah, and in the Samaritan records,

and

'

'

Book

of Joshua Kefr 'Aweirah, or Ghuweirah. Quarterly State(See It contains the tombs of Phinehas and ment, October, 1876, p. 196.) '

Eleazar, and in

being

may possibly be Mount Ephraim.

Section B.)

Beita (N

the Biblical Gibeah Phineas (Joshua xxiv. 33),

(See

el

'A

z e

i

and

r

el

'Azeirat,

—A

large village, with a kind of suburb to the and It is supplied by wells, south, near which are ancient tombs. It stands upon the hills east of the Milkhnah surrounded by olives. 3.

plain, 4.

and

is

p).

the capital of the district

Kuriyut (N

named from

it.

—A

small village, on the top of a high chain, and the ruin of S e 1 u n. This place, being at

q).

with a spring between it the head of Wady Fiisail, seems to have given rise to the mediaeval identification of that valley as the Brook Cherith (mentioned by Marino i

Sanuto

in

1321). is

Kuriyut (Ant. 4.

.\iv.

3, 4),

supposed by Robinson to be the Corea of on the boundary of Judea.

Kubalan

with olives round 5.

Tel

fit

called 'A in

(N it,

(N

p).

and p).

—A

village of

moderate

size,

Josephus

on high ground,

wells.

— Resembles

the

last.

It

is

supplied

by a well

Tel fit. III.— Beni Sab.

Jiljulieh

(J

p).

—A

large

ruined mosque, and a ruined Khan.

mud

village in the plain, with a fine

It is supialied

by a well on the west.

TOPOGRAPHY.

[SHEET XIV.] This place

289

'

perhaps Gilgal of Nations' (Joshua the maritime plain.

apparently in

is

The remaining

xii.

23),

a place

divisions belong to the INIutasseritlik of Jerusalem.

IV.

— Beni

Zeid,

including the following places.

'A b u d

1.

(K

q).

—A

and

nourishing Christian village, marked with the Cross in red paint.

large

of

It the houses nearly all contains a Greek church, 30 feet broad, and about 45 feet long, with a

stone,

porch on the west consisted in

the interior carefully whitewashed. 1873 of 400 Greek Christians, and 100 ;

church was said to be old cross

a vine was trained over

;

was shown sculptured on the

its

The

population

Moslems.

A

porch.

The

Maltese

face of a stone, built into a dry-stone

A

place dedicated to Saint Barbara e.xists near, and a very large u d for the (See Barbara, Section B. See also I\I o k a t a 'A b

wall.

pool.

The water supply ancient tombs, Section B.) The Roman road passes by the place. 'A b

2.

we

in

(M

q).

—A

south, and olive-trees beneath

'A Jul

3.

(M

q).

—A

village it

'Arara (K

5.

'At tar a

from the great pool.

hill-slope,

with a well to the

on the north.

village

on high ground, with olives round leads towards it on the south. 4.

on a

is

of moderate it,

size,

with a well.

and ancient tombs.

An

It

is

ancient road

—A

small village on high ground, remarkable as having five sacred places on the west side. The name recalls the Aroura of Josephus. (Ant. vi. 12, 4.) p).

(INI

q).

spicuous position on a that mentioned in the

of the

the

'

name

—A

with olives round

existed near Jerusalem

Onomasticon

'

it.

This place

is

perhaps Onomasticon,' Jerome remarking that two places

hill, '

large village, seemingly ancient, in a con-

(s.v. 'Arapwfl).

It is also identified in

a town of Joseph, meant. (See Sheet XVH., Section A.,

with Archiataroth

(s.v. 'Ap)(^iarapa/0),

by which probably Ataroth Adar is Ataroth Adar; also 'Attara. Sheets XI. and X\TI.) VOL.

II.

n

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

29°

6.

Rima

Beit

(L

with wells to the west. choth,

ix.

q).



small village on the summit of a mentioned in the Talmud (Mishnah

-x^

It is

town whence wine was brought

7) as a

ridge

Mena-

and was

to Jerusalem,

consequently within the bounds of Judea. 7.

Deir Abu

Meshal (K

r).

—A

and

small

ruinous

partly

For the antiquities stone village in a very strong position on a lofty hill. see Section B. pool exists on the south side of the village, which supplies the place with water.

A

8.

in the valley

beneath 9.



A village on a ridge, with springs (L q). of moderate size, built of stone, and has olives

Deir Ghiissaneh below.

It is

it,

Deir en Nidham

with olives round

q).

It is just

it.

obtained from the 'A

n

i

(L

Jibia (L

—A

q).

small hamlet on a high point,

above the ruins of Tibneh, and water

q).

well to the west, on the slope of a 11.

—A

is

Tibneh.

Deir es Sudan

10.

(L

small

—A

hill,

moderate

village of

size,

with olive-groves round

village

on

high

ground,

with a

it.

with olives

This place appears to be the Geba noticed in the Onomasticon below. (s.v. Gebin) as 5 Roman miles from Gophna (Jufna) towards Neapolis.

'

'

—A

large village on the top of a high hill, with a well to the south, and a few olives. The ridge is arable land.

Jiljilia (M

12.

The name

q).

its

suggests

identity with Gilgal, a

town

in

the mountains near

This Gilgal (2 Kings ii. i) is mentioned as though above Bethel (verse 2), which does not agree exactly with the position of Jiljilia (2,441 feet above the sea), and of Beitin (2,890), but the descent into the great Bethel.

Wady

valley,

el

may

account for the expression,

n

(L

—A small hamlet

n,

in the valley south-west.

Jib,

'went down to

Bethel."

Kefr

13.

the

A 14. 15.

i

n

Ma

'A t

r

i

u

q).

K h r b e B u r h a m (M — A Kubar (L — A small village li

t

r).

r).

tombs, cisterns, and olives.



on a

hill-slope,

few houses on high ground.

on

a

hill-top,

with

(L q). A small village on a ancient tombs, and a tank, surrounded with olives. 16.

Kurawa Ibn Zeid

supplied by

rock-cut

knoll, with

[SHEET

Mez

17.

TOPOGRAPHY.

XIV.] r

a h

(L

q).

— A moderate-sized

(L q).— A with a small mosque and a well

Neby Salch

18.

291

.

on high ground.

village

village of

on a ridge, spring exists about

moderate

A

to the south.

size

three-quarters of a mile east.

wad

19.

S el

20.

Umm

village),

some

to

(N

r).

— On a

Suffah (L

q),

hill,

with ancient tombs and fine springs.

also called

Kcfr Ishwah

(Joshua's

has been supposed by probably because near Tibneh, which be Timnath Heres.— A village on high ground on the Roman It contains a small mosque or Moslem chapel, and has

road to Antipatris.

a well to the north.

The name would seem

to

connect

noticed in the

'

it

with an ancient

Samaritan Chronicle'

one IMaspha, or Mizpeh, perhaps the under the name Kirjath ham-Misphat as a place inhabited by Samaritans in

the seventeenth century.

y.

— Bexi

Murrah.

Sinia (M r).— A

small village, undoubtedly of antiquity. It is of moderate size, and lies in a valley surrounded with olive and figthere are also gardens of vegetables, and a terraces which cover the hill

'A in

1.

;

The houses

o-ood spring north-east.

are half ruinous, but

some

are of very

good masonr)'. There appears to have been a small Crusading fort in A doorway, with an arch, ornamented with crosses, etc., in the place. medallions, exists in the village, and is said to be ancient, but looks like

Arab

A

Christian work.

tomb with

a

Hebrew

was

inscription

dis-

The name and position suggests covered by the Survey Party in 1S72. the identity of the place with Jeshanah, a town noticed as taken from Jeroboam, together with Bethel and Ephraim (2 Chron. xiii. 19). main roads are here walled with drystone walls on cither side. village

'A

2.

of a

commands one

hill,

i

n

of the ancient main roads to Jerusalem.

Yebrud (M

well built,

The The

—A

village of moderate size on the top with fine groves of olives, with a well on surrounded r).

the north-east. 3.

tombs side.

Dar Jerir to

(N

r).

—A

village

the south, and a spring

According

to

another

list

of moderate

to the west

this

;

size,

with

ancient

a few olives on the

same

belongs to the Beni Salim District.

37—2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

292

MezrAt esh Sherkiyeh (N

4.

top, the hill-sides

The houses

covered with vineyards

q). ;

—A

large village

on a

there are also olives and

hill-

ligs.

are of stone and mud.

—A

moderate

straggling along the hill-side, with several houses of two storeys, on the slope of the hill, This It has a well on the south-west. with fine fig gardens below. place is apparently the Saint Gilles mentioned by Fetellus between

Sinjil (N

5.

q).

village of

size,

Jerusalem and Sychem. (See Quarterly Statement,' April, 1877, p. 88.) It obtained its name from Raymond de St. Gilles, fourth Count of '



Toulouse.

Turmus

6.

'Ay a (N

q).

—A

village

on a low

knoll,

in

a

fertile

The village is of moderate size, and with a spring to the south. On the south at the foot of the mound is the surrounded by fruit trees. plain,

conspicuous white

dome

This appears to be the (See Neubauer, Geog. Tal, p. 279.)

of the sacred place.

Thormasia of the Talmud.

Yebrud (M

7.

r).

—A

and extensive fig-gardens or terraces

The

roads are here walled

Khijrbet

ground, with ruins, 2.

Kefr

to the east,

with a well

hill,

and olives

to the west.

in.

VI.

1.

on a

village of small size

— Beni

Abu Felah

Salim.

(N

q).

—A

small

hamlet on

high

(See Section B.)

Malik

(N

r).

—A

village

of

moderate

size

on high

ground, probably Caphar Melich of the Cartulary of Holy Sepulchre. (See 'Quarterly Statement,' July, 1874, p. 162.) 3.

Rummun

(N

r).

—A

village

of

moderate

size,

with

cisterns

and caves, evidendy an ancient site. On the north-east is a deep rockcut tank, and south of it a rock-cut tomb. The houses stand on a barren conical point of rock

north of a rough valley, and are built in terraces. The site is peculiar, being at the end of a plateau of arable soil extending southwards from Taiyibeh. The view is extensive towards the south-east,

but bounded by the Taiyibeh range on the north.

There are numerous

TOPOGRAPHY.

{SHEET XIV.'X

Ashkaf

caves in the rocky sides of the hill called further west (A s h k a f Da u d).

This place

is

held to be the

Taiyibch

4.

(N

r).

—A

Rock Rimmon.

hill

The view

A

on either side are olive and

;

J

1

i

j

a

1,

as well as

(Judges xx. 45.)

large Christian village

position, with well-built stone houses.

of the

293

a conspicuous central tower stands on the top

fig

in

the low ground.

in

gardens

A

extensive on cither side.

ruined church of St. George exists near, and there are remains of a ruined caslle in the village. The is

inhabitants are

Greek

Christians.

from

This place is, which Jerome states

to

its

distance, supposed to be

have been

Roman

5

view gains some probability from the

fact

Ophrah of Benjamin,

miles east of Bethel.

This

Zeboim

that the valley of

is

Taiyibeh, for the name means valley of the Hyena, and WSdy Taiyibeh debouches at S h u k h e d h li b a, Hyena's Lair.' of The towards the wilderness, Zeboim, looking (Sheet XVni.) valley

very possibly

'

Wady

D

is

mentioned

Ophrah.

(i

in

connection with and

Samuel

MI.

xiii.

may

hav^e

'

been

in

the vicinity of

17.)

— Be.m

Haritii esh SiiemalIyeii.

1.

Abu Kush

2.

Abu Shukheidim

(M r).— A

very small hamlet, with a well on the north, on an ancient road, with a few olives near.

by

the 3.

among

same

(L

r).

— Resembles

the

last,

and

is

supplied

well.

Beit Ello (L

r).

olives, with a well

north-east below

el

— A village

of moderate size on high ground,

on the south-east, and a spring and tank on the

Yasireh.

The

position near

Belain (perhaps

Baalath) and Tibneh (perhaps Timnah), towns of Dan, suggests its identity with Elon, a town of Dan (Joshua xix. 43) occurring next Timnah. 4.

Bir ez Zeit (M

taining a

r).

— A Christian

village of

Greek Church and a Latin Church, with a

olives round

it.

The

moderate

size,

well to the north,

and

Church, on the top of the This place is probably the

red-tiled roof of the Latin

is a conspicuous object in the village. Bethzetho or Berzetha of Josephus, which was north of Jerusalem.

ridge,

'

con-

Quarterly Statement,' January,

1877,

p.

24.)

It

might

also

(See be the

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

294

Azotus of the corresponding passage in Maccabees, (i Mace. place is close to one of the main roads from the north by 'Ain

De

5.

i

r

'A

mmar

(L

r).

—A

medium

of

village

Tlie

ix. 4.)

Sinia.

on a

size

hill,

with a well about \ mile to the west.

Durah (M

6.

r).

—A

springs on the south, and

Janieh (L Mukams and a well 7.

r).

small village on the

of a valley, with

side

olives.

—A

small

on the east

;

on

village

on the north

a

is

two

with

high ground,

modern graveyard.

Olives exist round. 8.

Jemmala

(L

high ground. 9.

Jufna (M

r).

r).

— A very small village,

— An

with a

Christian

important

little

village,

mosque on

with

a

Latin

(M a r Y s e f), on the ancient road from the The octagonal apse of the Latin Church, with

church and Latin convent north to Jerusalem. coloured glass in its east

li

window and

a red-tiled pointed roof, form conseen from the south. It is situate in a spicuous features of the village small plain, and on the south, higher up, is a spring called 'A i n

The

road crosses the valley-bed by a small foot-bridge (now broken), with an inscription in Arabic, and on the south of this is a Greek Church of St. George, with a fine walnut-tree and two Meis-trees. There

J e

azu

1

n.

are ruins of a tower in the village, and pillar shafts, as east of the Latin monastery. olives, vines,

stated by

The

pear, apricot,

figs,

Robinson

at

200,

of a former chapel and valley are cultivated with

hills

and pomegranate.

some

if

The

population

some Greeks.

Latins,

Jufna

is

is

the"

Gophna of Josephus, 16 Roman miles from Jerusalem according The place was supposed in the fourth century to the Peutinger Tables. ancient

to

be the Valley, of

Eshcol,

from

its

plentiful

(For the

vineyards.

Section B.) antiquities at the Greek Church see 10. size,

Khurbetha Ibn Harith

(K

r).

—A

village

with a well on the west, standing on high ground among

11.

Mezeirat

low ground, among 12.

Er Ras

el

Kibliyeh

(L

r).

—A

of

medium

olive-trees.

good-sized village

on

olives.

or

position, with a spring

Ras Kerker below

it

(L

p).

on the north.

—A

small village in a lofty In the middle of the village

TOPOGRAPHY.

[SHEET XIV.]

295

The place was the seat of the a fortress built about 50 years since. S m h a n. great native family of the B e n

is

i

i

Surdah (M

—A

small village on a hillside, with a garden to the south of it, and the spring 'Ain Jelazun on the east. The name suggests its identity with Zereda, the native town of Jeroboam, 13.

(i

Kings

xi.

r).

26.)

\Tn.

1.

Kanieh

'Ain

— Bfxi (L

r).

Hakitii el KiblIveii.

—A

village

of moderate size on a

ridge.

This would seem to be the place called En Gannim by Eusebius, and spoken of as a village near Bethel. (' Onomasticon,' s. v.)



(L r). A village of moderate with a well to the west, and surrounded by olives. 2.

Deir Ibzia

3.

Kefr

Namah

(L

the south, on the side of a

One

r).

— A village

hill,

village belongs to the

of smaller

size,

size,

on a

ridge,

with a well to

with olives.

Jebel Kuds namely

:

BEITIN (M

r).— This village, the ancient Bethel, is built on the On the south-east side of a flat spur which rises slightly on the north. is a flat dell, with good fig and pomegranate gardens, and there are other The cottages have a fig-trees round the village and among the houses.

There is one square white ruinous appearance, with rough stone walls. The ground house in two stories, which is visible from a great distance. is the village slopes down gradually very open, and the slopes gende ;

south-east.

The surrounding ground

is

quite bare of trees, of white chalk,

very barren and stony on the south of hard limestone cropping up on The contrast of the north the fields divided off by low drystone walls. ;

;

the grey rocks, the red ploughland and the dark green figs is very striking. The remains of a good-sized tower exist towards the north, and on the

south the walls of a church of Crusading date, once dedicated to Joseph.

The in

The place

population is

is

stated at 400.

supplied from a

a circular basin.

The

St.

fine

spring

is

spring on the south, which wells up double, and was surrounded with a

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

296

large reservoir, 314 feet long north-west and south-east, by 217 feet; of massive stones. The eastern and southern walls are standing about

The spring is perennial. 10 feet high. One of the most peculiar features about Beitin

is the group of rocks of acres north the town. two or three Although these seem to covering have been hewn in some places, there is no reason to suppose them to

A

be other than natural features. the country round the village

group occurs further exceptionally stony and barren.

is

similar

east,

and

In the valley, by the reservoir of the spring, there are several rockcut tombs, as also further west. second (See Bur] Beitin, Section B.)

A

spring of good water ('Ain es Sultan) exists on the slope of the hill, and a third, 'Ain el K u s s i s, again further south near the road. fourth h a h r a h, is about half a mile to the north on the hisrh crround. 'Ain

A

D

Thus, water.

in spite

of

its

very barren appearance, the

The neighbourhood

of

Beitin

supplied with extensive views the

site is well

commands

;

modern suburbs of Jerusalem are distinctly seen. Neby Samwil also appears, and the hills of Ras Sherifeh, west of Bethlehem, and of Neby Lut, east of Hebron, are seen.

The remaining

villages belong to the district called

and are under the Governor of Jerusalem. 1.

They

are as follows

Bel ain (K

r).

—A

who

is

e n

i

Huma

r,

under the Mutaserrif of

:

village

on a

hill-side.

The

position

is

town of Dan, mentioned (Joshua xlx. 44) with place, Jchud Beneberak and Gibbcthon.

suitable for Baalath, a

towns which

little

Jafta,

B

exist west of this

(See Sheet XIII., Section A.) 2.

Beit Nebala

(J

with a well to the east.

It

r).

—A

is

village

of moderate

at

the

size.

edge of the plain, This is the probable

of Neballat (Neh. xi. 34), a place mentioned with which are south-west of the present site. (Compare also

site

Sheet 3.

'A

1

y)

B

i

r

Nebala,

XV 11.) Bud

has near

It

Lod and Ono,

r

u it

s

—A

small village, with olive-groves and cisterns. two sacred places, and a graveyard near one (J

on the west.

r).

(Imam

This

which was apparently Demoi, chap, i.)

in

perhaps the place called Patris in the Talmud, the plain not far from Antipatris. (Tosiphta

is

[sheet

Deir

4.

ToroGRAniY.

A'//:]

cl

Kuddis

(K

r).

297

— A small

hamlet on a

hii^h

hill-top,

with gardens to the north, and a ruined monastery and cave near. There is a well on the east. The name intimates that a convent once existed here.

Deir Tureif

5.

(J

r).

— A very small

hamlet

plain. ticon,'

at the

in

'

the

Onomas-

near Diospolis (Ludd).

Haditheh

6.

edge of the

at the

This would seem to be the place called Betariph

mouth of a

(J

r).

—A

moderate-sized village on a terraced Tell a well on the east.

valley at the foot of the hills, with

There are remains of a considerable town round it, tombs and quarries e.xist and the mound on which the village stands is covered with pottery. ;

This would appear to be the town of Hadid mentioned with Lod and Ono. Neh. vii. i"], .\i. 34.) In the Onomasticon it is called (Ezra ii. 12, '

'

\

Aditha, and placed east of Lydda. The name cannot apply to position on a 'sharp ridge, but might perhaps be better rendered boundary.' It is possible that this is intended by Adida (i ]\Iacc. xii. 3S), as that place was an eminence in the Shephelah. '

'

7.

J

i

mzu

of a low

hill,

(J r).

—A

of

village

mud

of moderate size, on

just at the entrance into the plain.

It is

the side

surrounded with

and cactus hedges. On the east are cisterns, and on the west a well by the road. This is the Gimzo of the Bible (2 Chron. xxviii. iS).

olives

Kibbieh (K

8.

The Beit Likia) suggests

high ground. (if

—A

very small hamlet with olive-trees, on situation near Baalath (if at B e a n) and Eltekeh r).

of Dan.

(Joshua

Ku

e h

1

that this

may perhaps

i

represent Gibbethon

xix. 44.)

—A

village of moderate size on a slope at the of the The modern houses are principally mud, but the place edge plain. has remains of mediaeval date. There are wells on the (See Section B.) 9.

1

(J q).

north-west. 10. hills,

El Mezeirah

near the

11.

peculiar.

q).

—A

mud

(J

r).

the west

from the spur of

— The

is

position

a broad

Sheikh

el

ir.

of

and open

this

on the edge of the

village

is

somewhat

valley, separating the village

Gharbawy. On

and joins a larger valley north of the town. VOL,

village

last.

INIidieh

On

(J

This gradually deepens the south the

same ,8

Aalley

THE SURVEY OF irESTER.V PALESTL\E.

298

separates the site from higlier ground, which has been quarried, and contains rock tombs. The village is of good size, of mud and stone houses, a small olive grove, on The most peculiar feature, however, is a high conical knoll, with traces of ruins, a Mukam, and a few trees, the sides of

supplied by cisterns the south a tank.

;

beneath

the knoll sloping regularly, as

it,

on the north,

if artificially

cut

is

;

and

tombs and a birkeh below, with cisterns above. It is Modin. IMidieh would appear to be the ancient Bartenora (commenting on Hagiga iii. from Jerusalem. It is also mentioned

and

called

by

N'alin (K

The

'

large village on

25.)

high

distance from

ground, surrounded

cisterns.

r).

—A

(K

p).

—A

q).

—A

Shebtin (K

small village in a valley, with a well to It ajjpears to be an ancient site, and has rock-cut tombs south

the east.

of

—A

and supplied by

olives, 13.

r).

xiii.

5) speaks of the place as 15 miles in the Mishna (Pesachim i.\. 2).

is

12.

er Ras.

Mace.

(i

Onomasticon near Lydda. placed in the the main road is 18 English miles. Jerusalem along '

this are rock-cut

in

it.

14.

Shukba

small village on high ground, surrounded

with trees. 15.

T

i

r

eh

(J

mud

village

moderate

of

size,

with

the edge of the plain, the hills rising behind west, by the high road, is a good well, with remains of masonry.

hedges, situate

at

cactus

;

on the

In addition to the above inhabited places, the following ruined sites

on the Sheet are proposed as identical with the places enumerated. It is remarkable, however, here as in other Sheets, how few ruins are identified as

compared with inhabited

places.

Biblical Sites.

Baal Hazor(2 Samuel has therefore proposed

Tell

xiii. '

23).

Asur

—Was

(2

Kings

Shalisha and not far from Gilgal

iv.

by Ephraim.'

Saulcy

as being near Taiyibeh, which

generally supposed to be the city Ephraim.

Baal Shalisha

De

'

42).

(Jiljilia).

— Probably The

place

in is

the

also

land

is

of

mentioned

{sheet in

Talmud

the

and

TOrOGRAPHY.

AV/'.]

in the

Targum

extending as

Bab. Sanhed.,

(Tal. '

'

far as

of Jonathan

it

apparendy in low country, rendered by Daroma (a district as

no) is

Pesachim,

Lydda.

299

v.

3.)

The

land of Shalisha

was apparently near Mount Ephraim. (i Samuel ix. 4.) These indications point to the country north-east of Lydda, where Jerome places the site. (See Beth Sarisa further we have the names, K h u r b e t K e f r T h also

i

Shilta,

name

the low

in

all

1

1

towards the west, and

hills

On

on.)

S

h,

all

e

this 1

t

i

Sheet

and

a,

approaching the

Shalisha.

Chephar Haamonai

xviii.

(Joshua

This place

Kefr 'Ana, north of Bethel.

the ruin

24) (.M



Is

probably

also possibly the

(See Neubauer's Geog.

Anath of the Talmud, north of Jerusalem. Tal.. p. 154.)

Kan ah

is

r).

— Robinson

proposes the Kanah, an important feature, rising at Gerizim. It present will be observed that the Arabic name is not identical with the Hebrew. (Brook, Joshua xvi.

xvii.

8,

9).

Wady

Sh

oh

1

i

(Judges

xxi.

19).

— The undoubted

site is the ruin of Seililn.

(See Section B.)

Non-Biblical Sites.

A at

a

i

a

o

1

n.

—Jerome places of

distance

He

'Alia.

Emmaus, he makes

3

Aijalon of

on the way

it

Dan

Sarisa. — A

Beth

town

Onomasticon,'

s.

is

('

Garob. — Is

3 miles

Tham 'Wars,'

i

1

u

n a

h

t

The

The

n. a.

road from

3,

5

;

Lydda

in

Pliny,

calls Alus. district,

(Sheet

the

Talmud is

is

14.')

R.M.

(Tal. Bab. Sanhed, 103 a) as

called

Wady

is

3

miles

Gharib.

capital of a toparchy (Josephus,

Hist. Nat.,' v. 14), It

XVH.)

Serisia.

Khurbet Ghiirabeh

valley beneath

near

near the Thamnitic

about 15 miles from Lydda.

ruin,

to Jerusalem.

at Aialon,

Jerusalem (Yalo), which place

Lydda

— An important town, '

iii.

to

the present ruin,

mentioned

from Shiloh.

west of S e

v.),

in the

it

Jews placed

(Joshua xix. 43), and

from Lydda, north-east,

region

miles.

allows, however, that the

miles from

2

Joshua x. 1 2), east of Bethel, This brings us to K h u r b e t

this site (Ajalon,

Roman

is

placed by Jerome on the

the present ruin Tibneh, which

38—2

is

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

300

(See Kefr Haris, Sheet XIV., by some with Tininath Heres. Section A.) Tibneh might also be Timnah of Dan (Joshua xix. 43), as that place is mentioned with Elon (perhaps Beit Ello), and Eltekeh

identified

(perhaps

Beit L

Roads.

— The

i

k

i

ei).

main

communication are those between and and Nablus, Jerusalem Jerusalem and Antipatris. The Nablus road ascends to the plateau south-west of Beitin, and is lines

of

here divided into three parallel branches.

down

to the

which

it

open and cultivated

follows.

Haramiyeh.

line passes closer. to

'Ain

Y e b r u d. The

most eastern

third or

Beitin, and rejoins the second

at

Kefr

'Ana.

half-a-mile further on, the united course rapidly descends into a

narrow gorge, commanded by the Burj Bardawil at and here, under the cliff of the 'Ain Haramiyeh, lane with drystone

walls.

Hence ascending

gradually,

south entrance,

its it

a narrow stony reaches the open

is

it

Turmus

'Aya, and leaves it on the east. Beyond Sinjil it graduascends a stony ridge, and here there are unmistakable signs of the

plain of ally

passes

which are Jufna and 'Ain Sinia, A path leads thence over the hill to the 'A in el The central line runs along the watershed, and

gradually descends towards

About

The most western

valley, in

antiquity of the

highway

in the side walls

and the cuttings

in the rock.

Crossing the pass, a sharp descent brings it to the ruined Khan, with a There is also a more gradual descent fine spring (K h a n Lubban). on the west, which appears to be the older course of the road. Passing thence beneath Lubban, the road continues through a flat open valley until at Sawieh it ascends to a saddle, where are ruins of a Khan (Khan Sawieh, with a spring beside an oak tree east of the path).

A

steep descent and another very steep ascent with traces of the ancient side walls of the Roman causeway, leads the road across the \'alley, west of Yetma, to the ridge south of the INIukhnah Plain. Another but less precipitous descent leads down from the

hill,

whence

seen plainly, to the open plain (Sahel Mukhnah), and to the village Huwarah, where the path ascends slightly and runs along In this part the soft rock the lower slopes of Gerizim, above the plain. first

Gerizim

is

places to broaden the highway. From Jufna an ancient road leads down to the plain the preceding, is marked on the Peutinger Tables. is

cut

away

in

many

;

this, as

The

well as

task

of

[sheet

TOPOGRArilY.

X/V.']

3°i

engineering this second line was far less difficult, as it docs not lie across the direction of the main valleys. Thus, it follows a ridge graduallymilestone between Umni Suffa and Neby and marked a descending by passes the ruin of T b n e h, where are remains of its ancient It thence continues to the village of 'A b u d, wlu re it divides pavement.

Saleh

it

;

i

great reservoir at IJarbara. northern branch descends with an even gradient of about .V ^Y ^^^

into

in

two branches close

which are the

which

it

the

to

tombs

fine

neighbourhood of

lost in the

down an extremely rugged

Ras

leaves

the

northern

road

at

;

ej d c

el 'A

valley to

which gives a gentler gradient

M

it

he

'^''**'

'Aliud), to the low plateau,

(Mokata

follows to the plain south of

'1

i

Ren

I

n.

Yaba, where it becomes The second branch passes

by a considerable detour, here strikes upon a branch which t

i

s

Lubban (Rent is), D

and

is

directed

At e r 'Alia the ancient south-west to Tireh and thence to Lydda. pavement of the road is distinct, and milestones are here visible, fallen i

beside

it

in

two

places.

SHEET XIV.— SECTION

B.

Arcileologv. 'A n c i

Haramiyeh (M

1

r).

water of the

spring comes also a rock-cut

the rock. There is artificially scooped and on the south a square tank of good-sized masonry, the corner

from a hollow cistern,

— The

in

On

stones drafted with a rustic boss.

The tank

are rock-cut tombs.

is

the east side, a

cemented

little

further south,

and has a vault groined

inside,

This shows the work to be most probably of the with pointed arches. Crusading period. There are other tombs further west. Visited June 8th, 1875. Not far from the spring is a great ruined cistern, formerly surmounted by a rectangular there remain at present some of the tower measuring 18 paces in length by 10 in breadth This tower commanded the passage of the valley, which in lower courses in great blocks. A little farther on, towards the south, are the remains of a this place is extremely narrow. '

:

It large birket 46 paces long by 28 broad. walls measure 4 feet 4 inches in thickness.'

was

'A

i

n S

i

n

i

a

(M

r).

and

built of irregular

— Gu^rin,

large blocks,

and the

'

Samaria,'

ii.

36.

— There are numerous rock-cut tombs here;

one was discovered by C. F. T. Drake,

in

1872, a

Hebrew

over

inscription

The plainly legible, but so roughly cut that a squeeze was impossible. name of Hananiah, son of Eleazar, is found on it. The tomb within Osteophagi had been found her by the peasantry glass and broken pottery, bones, and a skeleton with three olive stones in the skull were found. is

a rude cave with a lociilus on the north side. ;

'A

bud (K

though said

q).

— The

by the

priest

present to

church has a

be very ancient.

It

modern appearance, is

evident

that

an

{sheet

ARCH.EOLOG Y.

AVr.]

303

church stood here, from the inscription found on a is as follows village by Major Wilson, R.E., which

in

the

Barbara

and

older

lintel

:

APTYPIONTOYAriOY— Evidently part of Mrioriioioi'

'Memorial

roil

....

(lyiou

church) of the Holy b u d in this Section.)

(or

Mokata A '

.'

(See also

Guerin, after describing the cliurch mentioned in Section A. lour ancient churches which he found outside the village, viz.: 1.

hill

One

called Barbara el

Kcniseh

situated 12 minutes west of

:

(p.

289), goes

on

to

speak of

a simple chapel which crowned the summit of a rocky '

Abud.

(See p. 305, Barbara.') 2. A It was built of irregular blocks, had three large church called Ueir Nestasieh. naves, though only 18 paces in length by 8 broad, and was preceded by a vestibule. 3. To the east of the village are traces of a church called Mar Thodriis. 4.

On

the north of the village a small chapel called a tomb, was under the altar.

may have been

'Arara (K

p).

Mar

A

Abadia.

hollow place, which

— Ruined walls of good masonry.

The foundations of a large number of houses are visible ; they appear to have been constructed for the most part of great blocks more or less squared, resting upon each other without cement Many of the stones are basaltic' Gudrin, 'Samaria,' ii. 157. '



A r u ra

(L

p).

Guerin observed fragments of columns and other indications of an ancient town There are also threshing-floors which appeared to him ancient. place.

Arnutieh (M

r).

— Walls

with

drafted

masonry; appears

in this

be

to

a Crusadinof & ruin.

El 'Azeir (N

p).

— The

tomb of Eleasar

rectangular structure with a pointed roof,

at

'Awertah

and measures 18

is

a modern

feet 3 inches

15 feet 4 inches,

by 4 feet 8 inches in height. It stands in a courta small yard by mosque, which has a Samaritan inscription, dating by

iiSoA.H. traditional

A

fine terebinth

grows

in

This place

the courtyard.

is

the

tomb of Eleasar the son of Aaron.

\'isited July 24th, 1872.

El 'Azeirat (N the village of

p).

'Awertah

— The and

plaster structure, like the last,

companion tomb

traditionally that

measuring

14 feet

to

the

last,

of Phinehas.

by

east of It

7 feet 6 inches,

is

a

and

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

304

stands in a courtyard of good masonry 26 feet small mosque is attached to this enclosure on the north-

7 feet 8 inches high.

by 19^

feet.

A

It

EL

east

;

the entrance

is

AZr.lR.

at the opposite end.

The

interior

is

paved with

EL AZEIRAT.

square walls,

flags.

Pilasters with a slight projection are built

and from these spring

round arches.

A

on the enclosure

wooden

trellis

above

I—

<

o a:

4

ARCILEOLOG Y.

{SHEET XIV.'\

305

This building appears to be of some antiquity. supports a grape-vine. The tombs of Abishuah and Ithamar are supposed to exist near. Visited July 24th, 1872.

'Azzun Ibn 'Atmeh (K

p).

— A ruined

Here Guerin remarked, near the mosque, a column slabs which belonged to some ancient building.

Barbara (K

village,

lying

—A small ruined chapel

apparently modern.

on the ground and several large

still a place of pilgrimage of good masonry, the foundations only remaining, measuring about 10 feet across inside, and 22 feet in length east and west. Between the chapel and the village of 'A b u d is a fine pool lined with

for Christians.

It

q).

;

is

masonry, which was

when

full

Visited 5th June, 1873.

Bahret Kufah

(I

r).

visited.

—A

dam

good masonry packed with

of

smaller stones.

Batn Harasheh (L tions near Sheikh 'A s a. i

r).

— The

There

ruins

merely founda-

here are

tdso a cave with a central

is

column

of rock.

Beit in (M

r).

— (See

north of the birkeh.

east,

The church

Section A.) It

measures 108

feet

walls are very thick, the side walls being 10 feet.

is

on the south-

by 47 feet outside; the There is an apse on

the east 16 feet diameter.

The masonry

is

of moderate size

;

several bossed stones occur in the

angle outside are some long stones, 4 feet or more by I foot in height, the drafts being rude and the bosses rustic. simple of the roof. runs at the The round the apse apse moulding springing walls

;

in the north-east

A

dome

of unsquared stones, rudely bedded in mortar. door on the north show diagonal dressing on the stones. is

Remains of a

side

A fig-tree grows

The west end of the church is almost entirely destroyed. bases are lying about, one at the spring, south of the church. pillar east wall of the birkeh, surrounding this spring, is of polygonal blocks

in the nave.

Several

The

faced and set in mortar.

The

south wall

is

of squared stones.

At 15 minutes' distance south-west of Beitin, Guerin remarked a large excavation in the In the village itself he found the remains of hill-side which collected the waters of a spring. two towers, a Christian church, and a birkeh. The identity of Beitin with Bethel has never been disputed. The ruins of an ancient church at Burj Beitin may be those of the church mentioned by Jerome as built on the spot where Jacob slept. It may, however, have been the church described by Lieutenant Conder.

VOL.

II.

39

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

;o6

Kufah

Beit B

e ru k

An

ancient

i

n

(J

(K

r).

— Walls

and foundations, apparently modern.

p).

Here Gu^rin found a large number of cut stones in the houses, and an ancient tomb near the village with two sepulchral chambers. site.

Beit Nibala

(I q).

This place (perhaps the Neballat of Neh.

and

large cut stones attest

B

e r

II

k

i

n

(K

its

xi.

34)

is

on the

of an old locality.

site

(K

The

rock

caves.

p).

p). is

Cisterns

antiquity.

Guerin found here a large number of cut stones belonging to ancient buildings. the village is a rock-cut tomb with two sepulchral chambers.

Bidieh

modern

walls of

— Rock-cut quarried

in

tombs

many

exist

here,

Close to

principally

rude

South of the village

places.

is

a

birkeh about 30 feet by 20 feet, with a flight of 12 steps, leading down about 10 feet. It is made of rudely-squared stones, about i foot to i^ feet in length, which are covered again with a well-made rubble almost

resembling a tesselated pavement, and this again is covered with a soft white cement, containing large pieces of pottery and small stones.

on each side of the pool (north and south) a semicircular stone this perhaps indicates buttress, 2 feet diameter, on a base about 4 feet that the birkeh was roofed in.

There

is

;

South-west of Bidieh

May

is

an ancient ruined watch-tower.

26th, 1873.

Bardawil

Burj (M

q).

steep

—A

hill '

pass of

m

i

y

The

e

h

plan

fortress

on a

commanding

A

n el

i

on is

the

the

H a r asouth.

irregular, with

the entrance-gate on the west, and a courtyard sur-

rounded by vaulted chambers. The east and south walls are arranged so as to give flank defence. The

masonry \i..\

r f ? r r



is

very rough

;

the vaults are tunnel vaults

ARCHAEOLOGY.

[SHEET XJV.]

307

The place of rubble (or rag-work), and are of pointed cross section. resembles the Burj el Mai eh (Sheet XII.), and might be of the same

date.

Visited June 8th, 1875.

E

B u r j (M q). The tower is

1

tombs.

—A

ruined tower, heaps of stones, and rock-cut not earlier than the Crusading period, and perhaps

not so old.

Beitin

Burj

(M

r).

— This

into a monastery and subsequently converted

The

fortress.

been

have

to

appears

place

a

ruins consist

of a square area about 160 feet

by 100

having chambers

feet,

along the

good and

is

plain, without drafts;

at the corner

tower

The masonry

wall.

is

about

a small feet

50

modern .square.

Into the walls of this are built Ucu^^s Du,j

n,-,i,.v

character, 2 feet 9 inches wide,

^

foot 8 inches

i

of

capital

heavy Byzantine which originally sur-

tall,

a lintel stone 5^ feet long, with two a square pier of masonry rosettes and a central design of a cross in a circle and lozenge and a bit

mounted

;

;

of cornice in low relief representing vine-leaves and 'A bud); this last is 18 inches high, and

Mokata

grapes (compare is

built

vertically

plan of the church itself was not distinguishable the character of the lintel would lead to the conclusion that the building

The

into the wall.

whence

it

;

was taken was of the Early Byzantine There are remains of a vault, now choked

period,

fifth

The

or sixth

walls are of

up. century. of rubble. core The the ashlar ashlar of inferior within, outside, good mortar is soft and brownish, the joints laid with much mortar and a pack-

ing of small chips spot,

which

is

in parts.

The Jordan

probably a traditional



Bethel.

valley

site

is

plainly visible from this

of Abraham's altar,

east

of

10.) (Gen. xii. 8, xiii. 3 Visited 24th January, 1874.

Burj

el

Haniyeh

(J

q).

— Foundations

of a

tower, apparently

not ancient.

Burj

el

Lisaneh (N

r).

— Apparently

an

important

position,

39—2

THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE.

3o8

inaccessible from north anel west, because of the precipices

of the

The

down

the side

reached by a goat-track from the east. hill-top is round, and is covered with ruined walls, the ashlar being It is

hill.

of large size and in some cases drafted. There are cisterns of great size, bell-mouthed, and cut in rock. In the middle of the ruins are foundations of a building about 32 feet 8 inches by 43 feet 9 inches. It had a tunnel vault. The sides of the doorway are of stones carefully drafted the door is 5 feet 2 inches high by 3 feet 2 inches broad, and is to the east. It ;

appears to have been barred across, the sockets remaining.

The

lintel is

6 feet 3 inches long, 2 feet 3 inches high. Some of the stones of the building have rustic bosses; others are rudely dressed (as at the church at u r y e t el 'A n a b), the joints being

K

packed with smaller stones. The drafts average 4 inches irregular

;

in

width and

7I

inch in depth, but are

the bosses are dressed in the case of the lintel and

jamb

stones,

The jamb stones appear except one on the south jamb, which is rustic. A small chamber is formed inside the tower, of to have been rinsed. The

walls of the tower are 6^ feet thick, and are The vault is broken in. standing from 7 feet to 13 feet high. of On the south is an enclosure rougher masonry, probably not so

modern masonry.

ancient,

The

more rudely is

;

A

is

tower are

— one large

foot 10 inches

by end, and measured height.

The

is

An

outer gate appears to have e.xisted hard and white. The corner-stones of the

not bonded

The mortar used

here.

The

and not bonded into the walls of the tower.

about 50 feet by 44 feet the walls are 4^ feet thick, and similar wall runs in continuation of the north wall of feet high.

interior

6 or 7 the tower, and

1

built

in.

drafted on both faces measured 4 feet 3 inches

2 feet

4 inches

in

a second

was drafted

by

at the

height 4 inches by 15 inches by i foot 8 inches in drafts were roughly made, 4 inches wide, J, inch deep. 3

;

feet

other stones are 14 inches to 21 inches in height by 6 inches to

3 feet.

This tower seems

to

be of Crusading origin

the masonry being The better (Sheet XVII.) :

exactly similar to that at Kuryet el Anab. drafted stones of the doorway probably, however, belonged to an earlier building, as described below.

Some 50

yards west of the tower are remains of a colonnaded building.

[SHEET

Two

ARCH.EOLOGY.

XIV.]

bases are in

situ,

but not

in

Six

line.

309

north and

pillar shafts lie

south in no regular order. They are 7 feet 10 inches long, 21 inches in East of these are foundations diameter, with a double fillet at either end. of a recess, well-built of

wide

wall, 3 feet

Khurbet

and 4

feet 7 inches

deep to the back

feet 7 inches at entrance

its

;

side

resembles the side chapel at the end of an aisle Mukatir, or Seffurieh, Sheet V.), and the colonnade was

walls being set back. (see

modern masonry, 4

at the back,

el

It

The length of the nave seems to have been probably part of a church. and the direction about 1 2° true 30 feet, bearing. INIany good blocks of ashlar are built into terrace-walls on the hill, or lie on the ground. There 1

are remains of outer walls, enclosing the tower and the church also of rockcut cistens. Some of the stones have simple moulding on their faces. Revisited June 16, iSSi. ;

'

The

piece of difficult countr)' near this place, in the middle of which is the spring aptly " '.\in el Haramiyeh, the Thieves' Fountain," seems always to have been

enough termed

regarded as the key of the road between Jerusalem and Nablus, for on the hill opposite to Burj Bardawil, and east of 'Ain el Haramiyeh, I found the ruins of an Important fort, Burj el " the Tower of the Lisaneh, Tongue," probably so called from the spur which it occupies.

The

most commanding, being, with the exception of Tell 'Asur, which rises to the most elev.ited hill-top in this region. The ascent is by a difficult goat track from near Selwad, or the round-about road from Mezra'a el Sherkiyeh. From the north and west it is almost inaccessible, there being about halfway down the hill one of those situation

some 3,100

is

feet,

precipices of

smooth

rock,

The summit

bourhood.

is

some 20

feet to

nearly circular,

30 feet and