The Tesla Secret Team - MareaSistemi

The Tesla Secret Team - MareaSistemi

FREEENERGY GENERATION THANK YOU for allowing us to offer you the perfect solution for a free energy lifestyle. Your choices are valuable to us and yo...

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FREEENERGY GENERATION

THANK YOU for allowing us to offer you the perfect solution for a free energy lifestyle. Your choices are valuable to us and your care for the environment can only bring us Joy. We appreciate your trust in our product and we are confident that you will be more than satisfied. In the next few moments we will introduce you to one of the greatest scientists in history and guide you into building your own Tesla Generator which will change your life forever.

The Tesla Secret Team

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Table of Contents Introduction...................................................................................................................6 Chapter 1.......................................................................................................................8 The Increasing Need for Energy Conservation............................................................8 What Is Energy Conservation?................................................................................8 Burning Fossil Fuels.............................................................................................9 Hydroelectric Energy Generation........................................................................10 Nuclear Power Generation.................................................................................11 Energy Conservation Reduces Power Consumption...............................................13 Alternative Energy Production and Energy Conservation........................................13 Solar Power........................................................................................................14 Wind Power Generation......................................................................................15 Geothermal Power Generation............................................................................16 Ocean Wave Power Generation..........................................................................17 Another Alternative................................................................................................18 Chapter 2.....................................................................................................................19 A Look into the Person of Nikola Tesla......................................................................19 Tesla - The Formation of Genius............................................................................19 Sickness and Disability..........................................................................................20 Further Changes- Life Abroad...............................................................................21 Working with Edison................................................................................................22 Tesla Becomes an American Citizen and the War of Currents...............................23 The Move to Colorado Springs..............................................................................24 The Wardenclyffe Years.........................................................................................25 3

Tesla's Final Years.................................................................................................27 Chapter 3.....................................................................................................................29 Tesla's Inspiration for Radiant Energy Generation.....................................................29 Tesla's Introduction to Radiant Energy...................................................................29 What Did the Blue Spike Phenomenon Mean?.......................................................30 Tesla Begins Experimentation................................................................................31 The Conclusion of Tesla's Experiments..................................................................31 Further Experimentation with Radiant Energy.........................................................32 Chapter 4.....................................................................................................................34 Tesla's Radiant Energy Device.................................................................................34 Defining the Term "Radiant Energy".......................................................................35 How Is Radiant Energy Created?...........................................................................36 The Argument for and Against "Free" Energy.........................................................36 The Argument Against.........................................................................................37 The Argument For..............................................................................................37 How Do You Harness Radiant Energy?..................................................................38 Building the Antenna..............................................................................................38 Safety Precautions.................................................................................................41 Designs..................................................................................................................41 Chapter 5.....................................................................................................................45 The Tesla Coil...........................................................................................................45 What Is a Tesla Coil?.............................................................................................45 How Does the Coil Work In A Self-Sustaining Energy System?..............................47 How to build a real Tesla Coil that can generate lightning..........................................49 The low leakage Capacitor........................................................................................53

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Operating the generator..............................................................................................54 Tuning........................................................................................................................55 Experiments................................................................................................................57 So how does it work?..................................................................................................58 Construction of the capacitor.......................................................................................59 Chapter 6.....................................................................................................................67 The Dynamo-Electric Machine...................................................................................67 What Is the Dynamo-Electric Machine?..................................................................67 Variations on the Faraday Design..........................................................................68 Chapter 7.....................................................................................................................71 The Tesla Turbine..................................................................................................71 Understanding the Differences in Turbine Designs.................................................71 Example of how to build a Tesla Disc Turbine.........................................................76 Making the parts....................................................................................................77 Testing...................................................................................................................81 Conclusion....................................................................................................................88 Appendix......................................................................................................................89 The Tesla Legacy.......................................................................................................107

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Introduction Energy in our lives In the modern world, energy is needed for almost everything. It's almost impossible to imagine life without electric lights, without televisions, cell phones, laptop and desktop computers and more. Energy is consumed by almost every device that makes your life easier and more comfortable. It is also needed by lifesaving devices, such as heart defibrillators, nebulizers and an uncountable host of other things.

Energy is most often used in the context of energy resources, their development, consumption, depletion, and conservation. Since economic activities such as manufacturing and transportation can be energy intensive, energy efficiency, energy dependence, energy security and price are key concerns.

In short, without energy, modern life would be impossible. However, all of that energy comes at a cost. The environment pays dearly for our energy generation, as do the animals and plants that share this world with us. In addition, energy generation comes at a financial cost to you - constantly mounting electric bills are another hallmark of the "modern age."

What if there was a way to offset those costs? What if there was a source of free energy? 6

The words "free energy" have been bandied about so much in recent years that you have every right to look at the subject with some skepticism. However, the fact remains that, thanks to one man's amazing contributions to science and technology, free energy can be a reality for you.

Who was this man? What indention might give you the ability to generate energy at no cost?

The man was NIKOLA TESLA - a name synonymous with electricity, innovation and, yes, eccentricity. His invention, the Tesla generator, has the potential to offer you limitless free energy. This book will explore the subject of free energy at some length, giving you an in-depth look at the device, how it works, and how you might be able to implement it within your home and lifestyle. You will also learn more about the man behind the technology, dispelling some of the myths that have grown up surrounding this inventor and innovator.

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Chapter 1 The Increasing Need for Energy Conservation Before we delve into the character and inventions of Nikola Tesla, a few things need to be said about the importance and increasing need for energy conservation. While this is certainly a hot topic in today's modern world, many people are not fully aware of just how dire the situation truly is. In this chapter, you will learn a bit more about energy conservation, and why it is so important.

What Is Energy Conservation? Conserving energy can be defined as anything that reduces the amount of electricity produced through traditional methods and used by consumers or businesses. The "standard" means of producing electricity are harmful to the environment, use shortlived natural resources that are not replenished and come at a high cost to humankind. There are several ways in which electricity is generated in the modern world.



Burning fossil fuels, such as coal, petroleum or natural gas



Hydroelectric generation systems that harness the power of moving water



Nuclear reactors that create electricity by splitting the atom

Each of these has a considerable number of drawbacks that affect the environment, the quality of life for human beings, and even the sustainability of the technology itself. Below, you will find a few of these drawbacks to help highlight the need for energy conservation.

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Burning Fossil Fuels A wide range of different fossil fuels can be burned in the process of creating electricity. COAL is one of the most common fuels used, though natural gas and petroleum are also used. There are two main problems with these systems. The first problem is the fact that burning these fuels creates an immense amount of pollution. In addition, the harvesting methods used to obtain these fuels from the earth are harmful in and of themselves.

Besides, these are nonrenewable natural resources. The earth possesses only a finite amount of coal, oil and natural gas. When those sources are gone, it will be millions of years before there are any more available. This means that any method of generating electricity that relies on these methods cannot be sustained indefinitely.

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Many people surmise that this is not truly an issue. After all, there should be enough fossil fuels left in the earth that their depletion will be a problem for some future generation, not for the here and now. However, this is misleading. In fact, many scientists are beginning to suspect that we will run out of these resources within the next few decades. That means that many of the people living right now will see the end of these resources.

Hydroelectric Energy Generation Hydroelectric generation practices rely on the power of moving water to turn turbines. This mechanical energy is then turned into electricity. In addition, these are billed as "renewable" sources of energy, because the water is not consumed during energy production, the way fossil fuels are. In addition, they produce no pollution the way that other generation methods do. However, this can be a bit misleading. While hydroelectric generation systems certainly produce less harmful emissions, and do not pollute the environment, they do have a decidedly negative impact on the ecosystems that surround them. In order for a hydroelectric installation to be truly useful, it must be large. This means damming rivers. While damming a river can provide valuable watershed areas behind the installation, it also destroys the ecology that was present in the area before construction.

In addition, the presence of a damn has a distinct effect on the ecology downriver, as well. With the dam in place, vital sediments, nutrients and even animal populations are no longer able to move down the river. This affects animals, plant life, water levels and even the quality of the soil throughout the remainder of the river's course.

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Nuclear Power Generation Nuclear power has been billed as some of the cleanest technology in the world. Proponents of these solutions claim that the only byproduct of nuclear power generation worth noting is steam. However, this is very misleading. The process of creating electricity through nuclear generation creates some very frightening problems, which will last for generations to come. Deuterium

HeNum

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One inescapable fact with nuclear power is that it produces toxic waste. Spent fuel rods, radioactivity and the enormous potential for disaster all loom large here. One needs only recall Three Mile Island or Chernobyl to understand the implications here. Nuclear power does offer an alternative to burning fossil fuels or remaking the landscape to use the power of water. However, it is not necessarily a viable solution. Spent fuel rods alone take many lifetimes to "cool down" to levels where they are not toxic to life.

Viable alternatives still need to be found.

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Energy Conservation Reduces Power Consumption Energy conservation is an essential consideration for anyone living in the modern world. The more energy that can be conserved or produced through alternative, renewable methods, the lower the load placed on traditional electricity generation stations. This means that the more energy that is conserved or created through an alternate method, the less coal, petroleum or oil needs to be burned. The more energy that is conserved, the less need there is for new hydroelectric installations or new nuclear reactors. Energy must be conserved, and new sources of energy generation brought online as quickly as possible. Of course, there are several alternative sources of energy currently available to consumers.

Alternative Energy Production and Energy Conservation Several alternative options exist for those who want to conserve as much energy as possible, or even produce enough electricity to remove themselves from the equation completely. Most of these technologies have been around for a number of years, though they have been refined considerably during that time. These sources include:

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El FREE ENERGY GENERATION



Solar power generation



Wind power generation



Geothermal power generation



Ocean wave power generation

Solar Power Solar solutions have been around for decades. However, they gained a reputation early on for high cost and low efficiency. New methods of design and manufacturing have allowed modern solar panels to be both more affordable and more efficient, though. This means that homeowners can more easily harness the power of the sun and transform that into energy for their home.

However, the problem here is that not all geographic areas are good options for solar energy. Many locales do not receive optimum sunlight throughout the year to make this a feasible choice. Solar power generation can usually be used as a supplement, allowing greater energy conservation, but is not often able to provide a full solution to electricity generation.

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Wind Power Generation Wind power has been in the news quite a bit lately. These solutions use the flow of wind to turn turbines, which then create electricity. Wind is a renewable resource, and there is no pollution from the turbines, other than blocking the view and possibly creating an eyesore. However, the fact that wind power does not create any environmental pollution means that these can be valuable options in the drive for greater energy conservation.

Of course, wind power has its drawbacks as well. Many areas of the world do not have the required wind speeds to produce power on a regular basis. While certain days, weeks or even months might bring gusts of wind that are viable, these are not sustained on a long-term basis. Therefore, wind power is not a good solution for all people, though it can often be used in a supplemental manner, much like solar power.

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Geothermal Power Generation Geothermal power generation relies on the thermal power of the earth. Small installations generally use the constant temperature of the earth to help with home heating and cooling, rather than power generation. Therefore, this should be considered a means of supplementing the electricity needs of a home, rather than a means of providing electricity directly to a home. Larger installations, however, are able to make use of geothermal features like geysers, mud pots and others to create electricity. These installations rely on water in the underground system, or inject water if none is present. The heat in the earth turns the water to steam, which is then used to turn turbines and create electricity.

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Of course, most areas of the globe do not have sufficient geothermal activity for large installations to be viable. Therefore, smaller heating and cooling-related solutions are the most frequently used form of this technology.

Ocean Wave Power Generation The ocean is an incredible source of energy. This technology harnesses the power of waves and tides to create energy without the need for any fuel at all. Wave generators are capable of creating enormous amounts of electricity, enough to sustain entire communities, rather than just individual homes.

However, wave generation is very expensive, and the technology is rather new. This means that these systems are not as efficient as they might be, nor can the average person afford to install one. Of course, the vast majority of the world does not live in close enough proximity to the ocean for this technology to benefit them anyway. 17

Another Alternative As you can see, the need for energy conservation is incredible. While there are numerous alternative energy systems that can be used, few of them are able to provide you with a full solution to your needs. However, there is another alternative available; one that:

• Can offer free energy for your needs • Can be built on your own

This system relies on the principles discovered by Nikola Tesla during his experiments with electricity. In fact, Tesla had a fully developed system for electricity generation during his lifetime - the proof is in his patents The world has waited decades for this information to be brought to light, after having been buried by Tesla's detractors and the decision of world governments to follow a different path, as dictated by their financial strategies.

During his lifetime, Nikola Tesla was an innovator and inventor, a brilliant mind who thought on a different path from others of his time. Many of his devices and inventions were so spectacular that they were beyond his time. In the next chapter, you will learn more about the life and inventions of one of the world's greatest inventors.

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Chapter 2 A Look into the Person of Nikola Tesla In order to understand the Tesla generator, how it can be used in your life and the benefits it offers, you will need to know a bit more about the man behind the machine Nikola Tesla.

Who was this man? Where did he come from? What were his contributions to modern society?

Tesla's story begins quite some years ago, and far from anywhere that most Americans might recognize.

Tesla - The Formation of Genius Looking into the life of Tesla is an essential ingredient to understanding his "free energy" generator. The man was born in 1856, in Smiljan, a village on the Croatian Military Frontier of the Austrian Empire. Tesla was born to two ethnic Serbian parents, in what would today be modern Croatia.

At birth, Nikola was the fourth youngest of five children. He had one older brother, Dane, who was killed when Nikola was 5, during an accident while riding a horse. Nikola had three sisters, named Milka, Angelina and Marica. During his early years, the family moved to Gospic, where Nikola attended Higher Real Gymnasium. He completed a full term of study in just three years, going on to study at the Austrian Polytechnic in Graz. Tesla, for all his brilliance, did not receive a degree from the university. He actually stopped attending school after the first semester of his third year. This also marked the period when he severed all ties with his family, leaving Graz behind. His whereabouts during this time were unknown, and many of his friends believed that he had drowned while swimming in a river. In actuality, Tesla had moved to Maribor, which would become Slovenia at a later date. Here, he worked as an assistant engineer. This portion of Tesla's life was relatively short-lived. He suffered a nervous breakdown during this time, forcing him to quit his job and move once more. Tesla reconnected with his family, and his father convinced him that studying at CharlesFerdinand University in Prague was the best option. Tesla entered the university, but his father's death soon after forced him to leave again after completing just a single term.

Sickness and Disability Throughout his life, Tesla was subjected to various illnesses. He was also prone to suffer from "visions" and "bright lights," which may have been the ocular hallucinations that sometimes accompany migraine headaches. During these episodes, Tesla professed to receive inspiration that supplied him with the answer to a particular problem with which he had been wrestling, or having a fully formed vision in his mind of a particular word or item. Modern synesthetes

suffer similarly. Beginning in early childhood, Tesla was also subjected to flashbacks of previous events that had happened in his life. This was to go on throughout his life, and figured prominently in his later life and eccentricity.

Further Changes - Life Abroad After the death of his father and withdrawal from the university, Tesla moved to Budapest. Here, he worked for a telegraph company, and later went on to be involved to a considerable degree with the National Telephone Company, where he became the engineer for the nation's first telephone system. During this time, he invented a device that might have been a loudspeaker, or might have been a telephone repeater/amplifier (sources are unsure). His stint in Budapest only lasted for two years. In 1882, he moved to France, where he found a job in Paris. The Continental Edison Company was his source of employment, where he worked as a designer, improving equipment based on the ideas of Thomas Edison. He also began working on his rotating magnetic field devices and developed the induction motor at this time, though it was not until 1888 that he received any type of patent. Tesla's mother died shortly after his arrival in Paris (a death he claimed to have experienced in a dream), and Tesla himself became ill once more and spent several weeks recovering in Gospic, where his mother had been born.

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Working with Edison 1884 marked the first time Tesla visited the United States. He arrived in New York City, where he applied to work with Thomas Edison, based on the recommendation of a former employer. He was hired to work in the Edison Machine Works, and the position initially involved electrical engineering. However, Tesla soon progressed to a position of importance, and was responsible for solving a number of serious problems for the company, including redesigning the direct current generators manufactured by Edison. This actually saw the start of a deteriorating relationship between Edison and Tesla, as Tesla claimed Edison offered him the equivalent of $1 million dollars (in today's currency; $50,000 by that year's currency) to redesign the direct current generators. After Tesla had done so, Edison is reported to have broken his word, saying, "Tesla, you don't understand our American humor." Tesla then asked for a raise to $25 per week, but was denied - he resigned from his position immediately. It was after this that Tesla decided to form his own company. The Tesla Electric Light and Manufacturing Company was born in 1886, though Tesla did not head up the company for very long. His initial investors felt that his plans for an alternating current motor were incorrect and relieved him of his duties within a short time. He went on to build a brushless alternating current induction motor in 1887. The same year, he developed the principles of the Tesla coil, and embarked on a new job with George Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company in Pittsburgh. His ideas were well received by Westinghouse, as well.

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Later that same year, Tesla began experimenting with X-rays, via a device of his own invention. This system differed considerably from those of other inventors and researchers, and he even identified the damage caused by X-rays, which was later attributed to Wilhelm Rontgern. However, the fact that Tesla did not make his findings widely known contributed to his not being credited with any important discoveries in the field, at least in period writings. In 1891, Tesla demonstrated another of his inventions, one that would allow the transmission of electricity without the need for conductive wires. This came to be called the Tesla Principle, and has been shown to work very effectively by passing electricity through space and matter, without the need for cumbersome "power lines."

Tesla Becomes an American Citizen The War of Currents Nikola Tesla officially became an American citizen (through naturalization) on July 30, 1891. He was 35 years old at the time. The same year, he started another laboratory, located on South Fifth Avenue in New York City. Another laboratory on East Houston Street followed shortly thereafter. Tesla used these two locations to demonstrate how the Tesla Principle worked, lighting two electric lamps (one in each laboratory) without any wires involved. About this same time, Edison and Westinghouse began what came to be known as the "War of the Currents." Edison was a proponent of DC voltage, while Westinghouse and Tesla preferred the more efficient AC voltage. However, the battle between Westinghouse and Edison left both companies on the brink of ruin and prompted Tesla to release Westinghouse from his contract, eliminating royalty payments for Tesla's work.

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After the conclusion of the War of Currents, Tesla actually filed the first radio patent, and showed a radio-controlled boat to the US military only a year later. A public demonstration of a radio-controlled boat took place in 1898, though the technology did little until it reemerged in the 1960s. Tesla also patented a design for what would later become the standard spark plug used in gasoline engines, as well.

The Move to Colorado Springs In 1899, Tesla moved his base of operations from New York City to Colorado Springs. He felt that the area was better suited to his research in electricity, as well as in wireless telegraphy. At his new lab, Tesla made some of his most astonishing discoveries and created some of his most unique inventions. For instance, he proved that the earth was a conductor, and that it resonated at about 8 Hz. This was confirmed years later, and named the Schumann Resonance, leaving Tesla's contribution out entirely. He also experimented more with the Tesla Principle, using wireless light bulbs of his own design to experiment and refine his technology. Ultimately, while his time in the area produced numerous devices and new technology, the lab was closed and torn down. Tesla's mountain of debt was paid off by selling his equipment. However, this was not the end for Nikola Tesla. He made the move to a new lab and began construction of the Wardenclyffe Tower, with money borrowed from J.P. Morgan. It was also during this time that Tesla demonstrated his bladeless turbine design, with several of the devices operating at very high RPM (up to 5,000 RPM).

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The Wardenclyffe Years Nikola Tesla lived a life filled with invention and controversy, development and disappointment. He was simultaneously immensely successful, yet ignored. No period during his life better embodies this contradiction than the time that he spent at his Wardenclyffe development. This was potentially one of his greatest personal triumphs, yet it ended in failure, to all appearances. Wardenclyffe was a development by James S. Warden, a successful lawyer and banker. He built a resort community in the area, and planned for Tesla's development to be the hub around which it grew. Warden fully believed that Tesla's World System would be the way of the future, and he granted Tesla 200 acres on which to build his tower. Tesla began planning the development in 1898, but construction did not actually begin until 1901. Funding was provided by numerous venture capitalists, though the majority of it was provided by J. P. Morgan, to the tune of $150,000, which would add up to more than $3 million in today's terms. Construction of the facility was sufficiently advanced that Tesla decided to move his laboratory to the site in 1902. He moved all of his equipment from the Houston Street

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laboratory to the new site at this time, though the tower itself did not near completion until a year later, in 1903. However, it was during this same promising period that the inventor met with financial disaster. One of the main purposes of the Wardenclyffe development was to provide wireless transmission of electricity to consumers. The problem was that J.P. Morgan, the principle financier, learned of a rumor stating that this power could not be metered. Morgan, fearing that there would be no financial gain, pulled his funding. Of course, he did much more that eventually led to the ruination of the development. He actively discouraged other investors from putting their money into the project. As Morgan was the financial giant of the day, and possessed enormous influence, this worked to dry up Tesla's funding completely. In addition, the inventor's patents on his A/C generator design expired at the same time. This cut out all funding from royalty payments, further worsening Tesla's financial situation. In 1906, Tesla laid off most of his workers at the site, though he managed to keep some areas in operation. In 1908, the property was foreclosed. The inventor was able to get a new mortgage on the property through George Boldt, but it was not enough. The property remained empty for several years, before finally being fully transferred to Boldt in 1915. Newspapers of the day dubbed the Wardenclyffe project "Tesla's million dollar folly," and it seemed to be true enough. However, it was not for a lack of innovation or quality. Rather, it was pure financial concerns that ended this promising era.

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Tesla's Final Years The final years of Nikola Tesla's life were marked by mounting debt, controversy and battles for patent control. The US government reversed their initial decision concerning Tesla's radio patent, giving it to Marconi, instead. This started a lengthy battle between Tesla and Marconi, which Tesla eventually lost. This also marked the date when the Wardenclyffe Tower property was seized by US marines and demolished (1917), because it was feared the facility could be used by spies of the German government. During these years, Tesla began experimenting with radar, and actually established the first principles for its operation. However, he is most notorious for the "ray gun" systems that he attempted to sell to world governments during this time. No government entered a bid for such a weapon, so it was never constructed (and its operation thus never assessed). It was during these later years that the inventor began suffering from what appeared to be obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, at the time, there was no scientific diagnosis, and the condition was simply believed to be a manifestation of insanity. This was bolstered by Tesla's arguments concerning the work of Albert Einstein, calling it "filled with underlying errors." Tesla died in 1943, of heart failure. He was indebted to a considerable degree, but the US Supreme Court did uphold one of his patents, which became the basis for patented radio technology, at least within the United States. During his life, Nikola Tesla was awarded 111 different patents, and one patent was reissued (Method of Insulating Electric Conductors). He also had patents in Great Britain, in Canada and in Spain. However, while the man contributed immense amounts to science and technology, it is his theoretical and implied inventions that garner the most interest in the modern day. These were all theorized, planned or claimed to have been built by Tesla.

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Thought Camera Antigravity Aircraft Free Energy Earthquake Machine Teleforce Electric Submarine Death Ray Mechanical Oscillator Force Field

Of course, the free energy device is one of the most important on this list. This device worked based on renewable electricity and heat gathered from the surrounding natural world, rather than creating energy from nothing at all. Many are more familiar with this concept as Tesla's Fuel-less Generator, which incorporated two of his more famous inventions - his bladeless turbine and his radiant energy device.

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Chapter 3 Tesla's Inspiration for Radiant Energy Generation In order to understand Tesla's inventions and how the system actually works, it is important to know how he derived his inspiration.

How did Nikola Tesla arrive at the idea of a radiant energy system? What spurred his imagination? What factors influenced his thinking?

In this chapter, you will learn more about the "how" and "why" of Tesla's invention.

Tesla's Introduction to Radiant Energy Interestingly, it was while Tesla was employed by Thomas Edison that he had his first brush with what he would come to call radiant energy. At the time, it was simply referred to as "the blue spike phenomenon." At this time, Edison's DC generators were the only devices capable of providing electricity to homes and businesses. However, the fact that these generators produced direct current was a problem, though Edison refused to admit this.

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Long transmission lines leading to the generators built up an enormous amount of electrical resistance. In order to overcome this, Edison had to build very powerful generators, capable of producing very high voltage. This electricity was then transmitted through the power lines and into the homes and businesses of Edison's customers. The blue spike phenomenon was noticed when the generators were first switched on. When the switch was thrown to send the electricity from the generator through the power lines, blue electrical spikes were noticed along the power line. This lasted only for an instant - once the resistance of the line was overcome, the spikes disappeared. If a particularly strong voltage was released from the generator, the phenomenon was much stronger. A strong "stinging" sensation was noticed in the people nearby. In these instances, Tesla occasionally observed the spike jumping from the power line and grounding itself into the earth. If a worker happened to be in the way, the arc would ground through him, killing him immediately.

What Did the Blue Spike Phenomenon Mean? Tesla was unsure of what caused the blue spike phenomenon, though it greatly piqued his curiosity. He did know that the conclusion others had reached, that electrons caused the phenomenon, was incorrect. In fact, he had a strong suspicion that the phenomenon was related to his current studies on energy. However, other scientists were more interested in finding a means to stop the phenomenon from occurring than in determining the underlying cause of it. This was achieved by using super insulated switches, which seemed to eliminate the blue spikes and excess energy.

Tesla Begins Experimentation His curiosity aroused by the blue spike phenomenon, Tesla began experimenting to determine the source. He started by using highly charged capacitors that were discharged in extremely short intervals. These pulses seemed to duplicate the "stinging" sensation noticed with Edison's generators. Tesla immediately saw the connection between his own experiments and the discharge phenomenon in DC generators, and was able to calculate that the electrical discharge responsible for the stinging sensation and the blue spikes was hundreds of times stronger than the voltage flowing through the power lines. For Tesla, the question was:

Where did the energy come from? What caused it?

Through his ongoing research, he was able to replicate the high voltage Shockwaves at any time. He noted that the sensation happened no matter where he might be in the laboratory - the waves were able to penetrate any substance that might be between him and the capacitor. He decided that he would call this new form radiant energy, as it clearly was not an electromagnetic wave.

The Conclusion of Tesla's Experiments In addition to conducting his own experiments, Nikola Tesla also searched for corresponding evidence in the experiments of other scientists and innovators. He found a few instances where the results of various experiments mirrored his thinking, but no other person had thought to continue investigating.

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In conclusion, he determined that there was a presence of some conductive medium, other than air. He surmised that this medium filled all the space around the earth, pervading everything. In addition, whatever composed this medium had to be smaller than an atom, as it was capable of carrying electricity through solid objects.

Further Experimentation with Radiant Energy In an attempt to further his understanding of radiant energy, Tesla continued experimenting in various ways. One way in which he did this was the development of a charging dynamo to provide power and a magnetic discharger. However, this resulted in yet another discovery. If he placed the magnetic discharger on one side of the dynamo, then the charge was positive. However, if he placed it on the other side of the dynamo, the charge was negative. This showed that the new energy form traveled like a light ray, rather than like an electromagnetic wave. He also found that a chain of electrical pulses with less than 100 microseconds between bursts caused pain in people, and would also cause mechanical pressure. However, if the duration were reduced to less than 100 microseconds, the pain was eliminated and the force did not exert mechanical pressure. In addition, if the pulse duration was 1 microsecond, heat was produced, and even shorter duration pulses could create white light that would illuminate a room. However, it was the discovery that a single-turn copper helix coil placed nearby the device would begin emitting sparks that climbed the coil and discharged from the top that most excited the inventor. This was the earliest form of what would eventually become his Tesla coil. During the course of this experiment, Tesla found that the voltage contained within the coil was far greater than what was being applied to it. This was also interesting because, unlike other structures, the charge did not pass through the coil. Instead, it 32

used it as a pathway for transmission. This unique discovery was the beginning of the inventor's most promising series of discoveries.

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Chapter 4 Tesla's Radiant Energy Device The key to free energy generation seems to be Tesla's radiant energy device. This system allows you to generate an electric charge from what the inventor called "cosmic rays." While, today, we know that there are no cosmic rays that can produce such a charge, we do understand a bit more about how this specific device operates. In fact, many people have been able to build their own radiant energy system.

This chapter will deal with radiant energy, how Tesla managed to harness it and how you can achieve the same results.

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Defining the Term "Radiant Energy" Much of the confusion surrounding Tesla's proposed system of energy generation stems from a misunderstanding of radiant energy. While Tesla called this type of energy "cosmic rays," this term is a bit inaccurate, especially in the light of modern scientific discoveries. However, this simple fact does not devalue Tesla's discovery. Rather, it underscores its value and veracity. In modern parlance, radiant energy refers to the energy of electromagnetic waves. However, this can be a bit misleading, as well. This definition means the frequency of those waves, rather than the waves themselves. Tesla spoke of a definable, measurable source of energy, which would be the actual electromagnetic waves, rather than their frequency. When these electromagnetic waves encounter an object, their energy is dissipated, transmitted to the object. Think of the way that sunlight falling on a stone will heat the stone. The energy of the sun's rays is transferred to the rock in the form of heat. In fact, the analogy of sunlight warming a rock is very apt, as the sun is responsible for creating the radiant energy harvested through Tesla's

system. While the great inventor himself might have mislabeled his discovery, thinking that free energy was flowing through the ether, modern science has shown that his discovery is real. The sun creates energy within the Earth's ionosphere, what Tesla might have referred to as the electrosphere of the planet.

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How Is Radiant Energy Created? Picture the planet earth from space. A black field of space is dotted by stars. Against this backdrop, the blue marble of planet Earth rests. The sun, 93 million miles distant, sends light and warmth to the planet. Now, take a closer look at that image of our planet. How often is the entire planet dark? The answer, of course, is never. The sun always illuminates half of the planet. Therefore, the sun is constantly producing energy within Earth's ionosphere. Because of this constant interaction, there is always an electric charge in the atmosphere. This energy can be harnessed with a simple method, and applied to a variety of different uses, just as Tesla suggested in his research notes. As the sun irradiates Earth's ionosphere, the atmosphere collects a "net positive" charge. The earth itself, however, has a net negative charge. Therefore, with a radiant energy system to "harvest" this energy, you could direct kilowatts of energy from the ionosphere to power another device.

The Argument for and Against "Free" Energy The world of science is full of controversy and disagreement, regardless of what is taught in schools. Even the area of alternative energy and energy preservation can be pocked with pitfalls.

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One of these is the disagreement about the actuality of "free" energy. There are two schools of thought on this topic - one that says there is no such thing as "free" energy, and one that contends it does, indeed, exist.

The Argument Against The argument against "free" energy is a bit surprising. This crowd does not contend that the energy does not exist. They take umbrage at the use of the word "free" being applied to it. The thought here is that this energy exists, has always existed and flows continuously throughout the entire world, powered by the furnace of the sun. Therefore, it is not "free" if it is already present. Harnessing this energy is merely redirecting something that is already present, and there is no act of creation to it. For instance, energy with a cost might be exemplified best by the changing of mechanical energy into electrical energy through a traditional hydroelectric power plant.

The Argument For Proponents of "free" energy cite the fact that the input power needed to create energy through this method is so low that it is negligible. Therefore, it produces more energy than what is required in input energy. In this equation, that equals "free," as in no or low cost to produce electricity. While this may seem mere semantics, it is an important point, particularly if you will be studying other sources on the topic available to you. User forums, in particular, are rife with this sort of argument.

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How Do You Harness Radiant Energy? As you might surmise, in order to harness this free energy, you have to be able to interact with the ionosphere. To do this, you will certainly need an antenna. However, not just any antenna will suffice. You will need a specialized antenna to help you redirect the energy within the Earth's atmosphere. In addition, if you live in a city or within a subdivision with a covenant governing what you can put outside your house or in your yard, you will need to check into the regulations that cover you. Below, you will find a brief outline of how to construct an antenna that will work for your needs.

Building the Antenna Part of the process of building a working antenna is finding the right materials to construct the upper portion - the actual part that will collect the charge and direct it downward to the rest of the system. There are numerous materials that you might use here, but copper works the best. Copper wire has a very long history in the world of electricity, due mostly to its high conductivity, but also to its relative low cost when compared to other good conductors. Gold and silver are also both excellent conductors, but are far, far too expensive for such a task. Aluminum is also a good conductor, though it has only about 60% of copper's conductivity. However, what it lacks in conductivity, it makes up for in lightness. This allows you to create larger antenna arrays. However, for a basic antenna, copper is simply the best possible choice economically, and in terms of conductivity for the price.

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Here are the materials needed for building the antenna. They can be found in most DIY centers, electrical supply stores and more. You might even be able to get them from salvage, which will save you some money. •

50 feet of copper tubing with 3/4 of an inch in diameter



30 feet of fiberglass pipe



4 lengths of steel wires



1 steel plate about 4 feet square



2 lengths of 4-gauge insulated copper wire



600 Volt insulated fused single (or 3-phase) disconnect switch



4 x 500mfd capacitors



1 x 10 K Ohm 10-turn variable resistor



1 transformer

The top side of the antenna: once you have your tubing, you need to wind it in a righthand spiral. Do not close the gaps between the windings, though - you want to leave about an inch of empty space between each spiral of the antenna. There are several ways of winding the copper tube: square, oval and circle. The square one is the most efficient, but the most difficult to shape. However, the others might be just as well. When you are finished winding your antenna, you need to mount it on the pole. For that, use the 30 feet fiberglass pipe which places the top antenna above the ground, and it should be clear of any nearby obstructions. Remember that the higher your antenna pole is, the greater the diameter needs to be to support the antenna. In addition, the height of the antenna is directly proportional to the voltage we want to obtain. You might decide to install 4 guy-wires to ensure that the pole does not fall over in wind or adverse weather conditions. Of course, the antenna is only part of the equation. You need a way to connect that wound copper tubing to the system at the bottom. Again, there are numerous options that you might choose to utilize here.

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However, while other options offer benefits, 4-gauge, insulated copper wire is your best choice. Run a length of this wire from the antenna atop the fiberglass pole to one side of the carbon arc spark gap near the base of the system. From the spark gap, you need to quadruple the 4-gauge, insulated wire down to the ground plate. The ground plate is another area of serious concern when building a radiant energy system. You should use the 4-feet square steel plate, or a large coil of bare braided ground wire that needs to be buried at least three feet underground to ensure that your system is sufficiently grounded. Remember, the earth is the terminal of your conduit. Your spark gap should be set at 1/2 of an inch. From the connection made with the antenna wire and the spark gap, use another length of 4-gauge insulated copper wire through a 600-volt, insulated fused single (or 3-phase) disconnect switch. You should then run the wire into the tank circuit. You will then need to parallel four 500mfd capacitors with a 10 K Ohm 10-turn variable resistor. One side of the tank circuit should be terminated through an insulated disconnect switch. This switch must be connected to a ground rod, which has been driven at least 10 feet into the ground. You have just created a load circuit. Your load should be attached to this circuit before the disconnect. You will also need to run the load through a matching transformer, as this will provide the correct amperage and voltage for the load.

Here is a very simple representation of what you should have created:

Safety Precautions When operating a system such as this, it is important that you always open the disconnect to the ground circuit when you need to shut off the power. You should then open the disconnect before the tank circuit, in order to isolate the voltage control. When the system is off, you will notice that the spark gap occasionally arcs, but this is nothing to fear. It is simply charge buildup in the system. As a note, the closer you can tune the frequencies of the tank circuit and the antenna, the better. The closer the frequencies, the higher the attainable energy you are able to transfer from the antenna to the ground, supplying you with more electricity to power your load.

Designs Here are some of Nikola Tesla's original designs for a radiant energy system. These were his actual illustrations for two of his patents filed with the US government.

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The inclusion of the external radiant energy device indicates that Tesla anticipated using this system with an external source of radiant energy. However, his surviving notes do not explain his ultimate choice, though there is considerable speculation from scientists and amateurs alike. One of the strongest contenders for this is the dynamo/magnetic discharge device that Tesla used when experimenting with ambient energy, which eventually led to the development of his Tesla coil design for power storage and amplification. Of course, Tesla cited in his patent that the external source could be something like a Roentgen tube or an arc lamp, as well.

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Chapter 5 The Tesla Coil In addition to the radiant energy system listed in the previous chapter, you will need to include another device to get the most out of your setup. A Tesla coil offers numerous benefits here. Many people have seen these coils in use before, and many other people have built them at home for entertainment purposes, or for education. However, the coil was developed for neither of these - it was built to store and discharge electricity. Tesla used these devices in a very large number of his experiments.

What Is a Tesla Coil? Nikola Tesla realized that there were several problems with his radiant energy system. One of them was the fact that, while it produces a steady supply of electricity, the voltage is usually very low. This means that in order for the system to be of real use, an amplifier of sorts needed to be developed. The answer to this was the Tesla coil. This 45

device is similar to other types of resonant transformers, but it has some significant differences. Tesla patented this device as his "Coil for Electro-magnets," and it was different from other such coils from the outset. Rather than using a single coil of wire wrapped around a tube, Tesla's design made use of two wires. These were laid next to each other on the tube, but the end of the first wire connected to the beginning of the second wire. What is the purpose of the second wire? Why did Tesla break from traditional coil design in such a fashion? According to the inventor, the addition of the second coil offers several key benefits. One of these is the fact that it allows the coil to store far more energy than a design that uses just a single wire. Another benefit is that that ambient energy does not pass through such a coil. Ambient energy passes through almost any substance, including glass and metal. However, when it encounters a segmented obstacle, it uses it as a conduit, instead. Today, the Tesla coil is used in a number of commercial products, and even in certain types of photography. Of course, they play a role in films and games, as well.

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How Does the Coil Work In A Self-Sustaining Energy System? In order to understand just how such a solution might work, we need to go back to Tesla's theory of how radiant energy was available throughout the world, at all times of the day or night. This is summed up quite well by the inventor's own statement: "This new power for the driving of the world's machinery will be derived from the energy which operates the universe, the cosmic energy, whose central source for the earth is the sun and which is everywhere present in unlimited quantities." Below, you will find an illustration that depicts this theory.

The ionosphere is where the irradiated energy of the sun stays. This area has a positive charge. The earth, at the bottom, has a negative charge. The air between the two other layers acts as an insulator, or buffer, keeping the "circuit" closed.

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However, with a radiant energy system, you are able to connect to the energy circulating around the earth and redirect it. Through circuit loads, you are able to make this energy perform work for you, on its way to the ground. Think of this energy the same way you would the energy created by Tesla's dynamo in his experiments mentioned previously. It is a definite charge, but not necessarily strong enough for all tasks. However, just like in his experiments, you can put a Tesla coil into the equation. The way this works is that the coil is set in operation by an external force. This is always the case with Tesla coils, but in the application being discussed here, the external force is the energy generated by the antenna and copper lines mentioned previously. This power source sets the coil in oscillation at its resonant frequency. Voltage readings across the coil will increase, and the amount of charge it can hold will also increase. The energy the coil takes in through its atomic structure is then reduced into positive and negative current. The load on the coil provides a "drain" on the current. It also creates a magnetic field that will eventually collapse and create the conditions necessary for the next pulse of electricity.

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How to build a real Tesla Coil that can generate lightning A Lightning Generator Capable of generating small miniature lightning bolts up to 24-in. long the device is unusually potent considering its overall simplicity and minimal power requirements. In operation, the Lightning Generator spouts a continuous,crackling discharge of pulsating lightning bolts into the air. These waving fingers of electricity will strike any conducting object that comes within its range. A piece of paper placed on top the discharge terminal will burst into flames after a few seconds of operation and a balloon tossed near the terminal will pop as though shot down by lightning.

WARNING: High voltage is dangerous! Use rubber gloves. If you are not familiar with high voltage rules then do not attempt this project until you educate yourself in the use of HV Capacitors and high voltage safety. See your local library or get a beginners book on electronics. Building the Lightning Generator is relatively simple.

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Start with L2, the secondary coil, which consists of a 36 1/2-in.length of 17/8-in. OD cardboard tubing, wound with a single layer of AWG 30 enameled, copper wire. Choose as perfect a tube as possible and make sure that it is not contaminated with paint or other substances.

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Heat the tube in an oven to drive out moisture and paint it lightly with varnish or plastic spray. The coil can be wound by hand or chucked in a slow-turning lathe.

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Starting 1/4-in. from the end, begin winding clockwise, making all turns as tight and as close together as possible. Avoid kinks and overlapping. Total number of

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turns will be about 3350, but there is no need to keep count since the turns are closely spaced. -

Leave about two feet of wire free at the end. Stop winding 1/4 in. from the opposite end of the tube and run a 3-in. length of the wire through a small hole drilled in the exposed cardboard apparatus. This end will be the top of the secondary.

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Apply several coats of varnish to the windings for protection and insulation.

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To make the discharge electrode, fit the top of the secondary with a porcelain, center-fed insulator of any type (length should not exceed 3 in.).

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Insert a bolt through the center of the insulator and attach the 3-in. coil wire to the bottom end of the bolt. No more than 3/4 in. of the bolt should protrude from the insulator top. Fasten the insulator to the end of the secondary coil with electrical tape or other.

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Make a wood base for L2 by cutting a 10" square from 3/4 " plywood, and fastening a 6-in. long wooden dowel to the center. Use a 3-in. wood screw to attach the dowel, and, or glue it in place. The secondary should fit snugly over the dowel.

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The 2-ft. length of coil wire from L2 can be brought through a 1/4-in. hole drilled in the platform 1 in. from the dowel. Another option for the base L2 would be to use 1/2" to 3/4" clear plastic.

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Primary coil LI. which fits at the base of the secondary, consists of 28 closelyspaced turns of AWG 8 insulated copper wire on a 10 x 5 1/4 in. Quaker Oats box. or use a 4" PVC pipe. In a pinch, ordinary two-conductor line cord can be used, with the ends twisted together to form one conductor. The box should be varnished and it can be reinforced with a few layers of fiberglass cloth and epoxy resin.

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To wind LI, secure the first turn at the bottom of the box with a piece of string, then wind clockwise until 28 turns have been made. Do not wind the entire length of the box, but keep the turns as closely spaced as possible. Secure the last winding with electrical tape.

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Cut a hole in the bottom of the box and slip the completed LI over L2, keeping the secondary centered. The exposed cardboard of the primary can be painted with nonconducting enamel or wound with tape.

This is a Schematic of the entire lightning generator Tesla Coil

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The Low-Leakage Capacitor You can build a larger capacitor or you can build the following. You will need a box about 16 x 20 x 5 in. for capacitor Cl. A box can be made of 1/4- or 1/2-in. plywood and reinforced with fiberglass. Box size is not critical, though the box must be large enough to hold the capacitor about to be described. Glass dielectric for the capacitor consists of eight sheets of 16 % x 12 1/4 x 1/4-in. window glass. Cost should run about $30. Cut out seven sheets of 20- x 9-in. heavy-duty aluminum foil andassemble Cl as follows: lay a sheet of glass in the box and place asheet of 20- x 9-in. aluminum foil on the glass as shown in the drawings. Pour in just enough ASA 30 motor oil to cover the foil. On top of this lay another sheet of glass and aluminum foil, but be sure to reverse the tab or free end of foil to that it protrudes from the opposite side of the glass. Press all air bubbles from between the glass. This done, pour in more oil and continue the process, always alternating each sheet of foil. Bend the foil tabs together on each side of the capacitor in order that wires from the rest of the circuit can be connected to them. About three quarts of oil will be needed for a 16- x 20-in. box. Wooden blocks can be wedged around the plates as a means of keeping them from shifting. There are a number of ways to make the spark gap , but the best arrangement consists of two 1/2-in. diameter conductors adjustable from 1/4- to 1-in. separation or try a spark plug. A simple gap can be made by mounting two 1/2-in. diameter bolts through nuts brazed on 1- x 2-in. metal plates. The plates are mounted on a varnished wood block at least 1 3/4-in. thick to prevent arcing around the gap. Power for the circuit is supplied by a 15,000-volt, 30 mA neonsign transformer. New transformers cost about $120 or more-used ones are considerably less. Wire the circuit with AWG 12 or 14 single-conductor copper wire, as it is stiff enough to be self-supporting. Route all wires separate from each other and other objects, keeping 53

in mind that high voltages will be present throughout most of the circuit. Capacitor Cl is wired into the circuit by atta ching wires directly to the aluminum foil tabs. Place components according to drawings.

Operating the Generator When the circuit is ready for testing, connect the ground wire from the bottom of the secondary to a water pipe or telephone ground.

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Tuning If the spark-gap is operating, but either a weak discharge or none at all appears at the top of L2, the coil will have to be tuned. This is accomplished by varying the number or size of the aluminum foil sheets in Cl and by varying the effective turns on LI. It's easier to begin tuning by varying the exposed area of the top sheet of aluminum foil and by "tapping in" a few turns down from the top of the primary. Maximum discharge generally will be reached with a total variation of no more than two or three turns on coil LI and one full sheet of aluminum foil in Cl. If reducing the number of turns in LI and changing the number of plates in Cl doesn't help, try adding several turns to LI by splicing in additional wire. An additional sheet of foil can be added to the capacitor, but another sheet of glass will be needed also. It is best not to operate the Generator for more than 15 to 20 seconds continuously without an equal time off, as the oil in the capacitor will start to break down, allowing arcing to occur. But if you build our home made HV capacitors or use an old microwave AC or DC capacitor you will get better results. Remember to be careful. High voltage can kill and is much more powerful after it enters a large capacitor, wear rubber gloves.

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Spark Gap using 2 large copper wires and Electrical box fasteners

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You can also use a spark plug or make your own out of wood and 2 separate metals, attach one on top of wood block and one on bottom. Drill 2 holes in each of the metal pieces and place nuts and bolts in them so they can adjust. These are your electrodes.

Experiments Hold a fluorescent light a few feet from the Generator and throw the switch. The light will glow even though not connected to any electrical source. This is because the high voltage is traveling through the air. also large, clear light bulbs held near the coil will glow with weird, flowing colors. Bring a grounded, metal rod within range of the discharge point atop L2 and notice the "bunching" effect as the sparks leave their random pattern and arc to the rod. The discharge will not travel as far to reach a grounded conductor as it will in open air, since the atmosphere itself acts as the opposite electrical pole. A pinwheel rotor about 6 to 8 in. in diameter can be made from AWG 18 or 20 solid wire and fitted atop the discharge terminal so that it can rotate freely. When the Generator is operating, the rotor will turn from the force of the discharge leaving the ends of the wire. Place a piece of paper on the terminal and close the switch. In a few seconds, the paper will burst into flames. Despite the extremely high voltages, the Lightning Generator develops very little current, making a shock from the coil relatively harmless. However, the currents in the rest of the circuit are very dangerous, so they must be treated with respect. The discharge is virtually impossible to contain. Try inverting a glass tumbler over the discharge electrode; the discharge will pass right through, leaving the glass full of ozone. A heavy, waving arc will easily crackle across a distance of a foot or more to reach a metal rod. To capture the lightning on film, use a camera capable of at least l/250th sec. shutter speed and try a variety off-stops. Balloons can be shot down simply by tossing them at the terminal, and sometimes the effective range of the lightning "antiaircraft" is surprising.

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With reasonable maintenance, the Generator will last indefinitely. Research it and you will discover new experiments and gain insight into the fundamentals of tuned circuits, transmit radio waves to any AM radio etc.

So How Does it Work? The primary coil LI and capacitor Cl together form a tuned circuit designed to oscillate at a frequency four times the natural resonant frequency of the secondary coil L2. By inducing current at the base of the secondary L2 equal to a quarter of its natural wavelength, the induced voltage will reach a peak, every half-cycle, at the discharge terminal at the top of L2. The voltage generated is determined by the inductance of LI and how accurately LI is tuned. The spark gap, allows the capacitor to charge to maximum. The spark gap ionizes and the charge stored in the capacitor discharges across the spark gap and most of the charge stored in the electrostatic field of the capacitor becomes energy in the magnetic field that builds up around LI as the discharge current flows through LI. When Cl has discharged to a point where the voltage across Cl will no longer sustain an arc across the spark gap, current stops flowing through LI and the magnetic field therefore starts to collapse. When the magnetic field around LI collapses, it generates a counter EMF (electromotive force) (which also is free energy from a collapsing magnetic field ) or voltage that is almost as great as the voltage from Tl that originally charged Cl. This voltage breaks down the already partially ionized spark gap and Cl begins to charge all over again. Because of the high inductance and low natural resonant frequency of the secondary winding of Tl, this portion of the circuit is effectively nonexistent. Most of the energy pumped into the circuit formed by LI, Cl, and the spark gap remains in that portion of the circuit. The secondary of Tl just adds energy every 1/120th of a second.

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For best results, the oscillation frequency should about 120 kHz. As Cl recharges from the magnetic field around LI, a point is again reached where the spark gap cannot be sustained because all the energy is gone from the winding of LI. This means that the magnetic field has collapsed completely. Once more Cl discharges, and current flow again reverses through the spark gap and a magnetic field builds up around the coil LI. With each cycle of charge and discharge the energy transferred is reduced and would soon die out if energy weren't added by the secondary of Tl. This free energy from a collapsing magnetic field can be used to recharge a battery or capcitor bank. Each buildup and breakdown of the magnetic field induces a voltage in coil L2 which discharges from the tip of L2 in the form of lightning-like flashes and streaks.

Construction Of The Capacitor Aluminum Foil must be taped to the glass, Foil side up. With tabs protruding from the opposite ends. In fig. 1-19 use 8 shts of window glass and seven shts of heavy duty Aluminum foil or roofing foil. Cover each layer with oil. Baby oil, or without.

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A multi-stack HV Capacitor using clear 4 mil mylar

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Tesla Coil using a 4" PVC Pipe

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15,000 volt Neon sign transformer

Relay Switches

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Copper wire Spark Gap

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Chapter 6 The Dynamo-Electric Machine

One of the most famous of Tesla's inventions was his turbine design. In fact, his bladeless turbine is still used in the modern world for many different things. It offers significant advantages, particularly where fluid and semi-fluid substances need to be pumped. The lack of blades on the turbine means that it operates much more effectively than bladed pumps. However, the design for this turbine was not unique to this device - it also turns up in Tesla's design for his Dynamo-Electric Machine.

What Is the Dynamo-Electric Machine? The dynamo device designed by TesIa was much like his bladeless turbine. In fact, the key element that set his turbine apart from others also defined his dynamo. This was the general structure of the two devices - metal disks turning inside a box. Strangely, the dynamo designed by TesIa was somewhat less advanced in design than his alternating current generator design, for which he had become famous. However, he took great pains to explain to the world why he had gone back to such a simple device. The design that TesIa eventually created was based in large part on the original Faraday dynamo.

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Tesla's Turbine Design

Tesla's Dynamo Design

However, the inventor goes into detail concerning the changes that he made to the device to improve its efficiency and power generating capabilities. In fact, he claims that his unipolar dynamo design was capable of creating a self-sustaining current, once activated by an outside source. Below, you will find an image of Tesla's turbine, contrasted with an image of his dynamo design.

Variations on the Faraday Design There were several key ways in which Tesla's design varied from the one developed by Faraday. •

Larger Magnet In Faraday's original design, the magnet used was relatively small when compared to the size of the copper disk. Tesia decided to use a much larger magnet. In fact, it was larger than the copper disk itself, covering the entire structure.

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By using a magnet that completely covered the copper disk, Tesia was able to achieve better results than Faraday. In Faraday's original design, only a small portion of the disk's surface was used for current generation. However, in Tesla's design, the entire surface produced current, which boosted the total output of the device by a considerable amount. However, there was another important advantage here. •

Spiral Sections The second way in which Tesla's design differed is that he segmented his disk with spiraling curves. These started in the center of the disk and radiated outward to the edges. The reason that Tesia used spirals radiating from the center of the disk to the outer edges is that it encouraged the flow of current outward, which enabled him to harness that current much more easily.



Attached Flange In Faraday's device, there was no simple way to utilize the current generated by the dynamo. However, Tesia made an important innovation here. He attached a flange on the outside edge of the dynamo. This allowed him to tap into the current generated by the spinning magnet/copper disk combination quite easily.

Below, you will find an actual illustration of Tesla's Dynamo-Electric Machine, from his patent, No. 359, 748.

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Chapter 7 The Tesla Turbine While the Tesla turbine is not a necessary addition to the radiant energy generator described throughout this book, it can be a valuable addition depending on your needs. This chapter will explore the turbine, what makes it different from other designs and highlight some of the benefits offered by this technology.

Understanding the Differences in Turbine Designs Turbines are used all around the world, in myriad different capacities. The Tesla turbine is one of the most innovative designs, and has lasted longer than many of his other inventions in terms of regular usage. The most important difference between Tesla's design and other turbines is the fact that Tesla's did not use any blades. Instead, it uses a set of smooth disks. This type of design is also known as a boundary layer turbine, or a multiple disk centrifugal pump. Tesla expressly designed this turbine for use in geothermal power applications, where it can be operated by steam quite easily.

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According to Tesla, "This turbine is an efficient self-starting prime mover which may be operated as a steam or mixed fluid turbine at will, without changes in construction and is on this account very convenient. Minor departures from the turbine, as may be dictated by the circumstances in each case, will obviously suggest themselves but if it is carried out on these general lines, it will be found highly profitable to the owners of the steam plant while permitting the use of their old installation. However, the best economic results in the development of power from steam by the Tesla turbine will be obtained in plants especially adapted for the purpose." Below, you will find an image of a typical system.

There are several key advantages to this type of setup. These include the following:

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It is able to start with no other power than the application of steam This is an important consideration, as most other turbines and pumps require the application of another type of motive force, usually electricity. This type of turbine can be installed with an ambient power generator, combined with a source of water to create steam. The steam created will then power the turbine at no cost to the owner of the system.



The disks are adapted to work specially with high-temperature fluids This is an important note, as steam is certainly a high-temperature fluid. However, other types of fluids can also be used with this system. Any fluid that has a very high temperature can be used here, though the spacing between the disks needs to be adapted for different fluid types. For example, if the turbine were designed to work with steam, the gap between the disks would need to be no more or less than 0.4 millimeters apart.



The exhaust heat from the turbine can be used to augment or even create the steam that powers it In a system such as this, once the initial steam power has been generated, the exhaust from the turbine itself can be used to create more steam. This ensures that the turbine has a constant stream of motive force, without the need to use additional energy to boil water and create steam.

Below, you will find another picture of a Tesia turbine. This one clearly shows the disk separation, and was actually built to use steam as a motive force.

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A homemade Tesla Turbine 75

Example of how to build a Tesla Disc Turbine The model described is approximately one half the size of the original Tesla unit, but uses present-day materials and techniques, and is devised so as to be made by the average model engineer, using tools and equipment generally available. Some metalworking experience is assumed, and a basic understanding of drawings. Required machine tools are a lathe, with a 3.5" centre height, ideally with a milling attachment, and circular table, a bench drill, micrometer or vernier, and conventional hand tools. While the drawings define specific dimensions and tolerances, these can be amended to suit the tools available; for example, the threads may be to B.A. or U.N.F. and the toleranced dimensions adjusted, providing that the specified relative clearances are maintained. An air pressure source is required to drive the turbine, capable of supplying 2 bar and 1.5 cu. ft. per minute free air. A propellant may be adapted as an alternative, or a model stationary steam engine boiler could possibly be utilised. Materials required are: -aluminium bar, 85 mm. diameter; -steel bar 12 mm. diameter; -aluminium sheet, ideally Duralumin, hard temper, of 1.25 mm. thickness -and 270 mm. x 360 mm. cut into 90 mm. squares; -a small piece of bronze, 12 mm. diameter; -a 50 mm.length of 100mm. diameter tube; -a small piece of steel or brass plate 4 mm. thick. Some materials may also be needed for jigs and templates, such as: -a square piece of aluminium 80 mm. x 80 mm., and 12 mm. thick; -a piece of silver steel; -a piece of steel plate 1.5 mm. thick for a template.

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These latter items are at the discretion of the model maker, to suit his method of making the discs. Stock items required are: -9 off M4 x 35 bolts; -2 off M3 x 10 screws; -an M8 stiffnut; -9 off M4 hexagon stiffnuts; -3 off aluminium rivets, with countersunk heads and 15mm. long; Loctite Studlock; -a piece of 0.075 mm. thick Mylar film, 180 mm. x 180 mm. for the gaskets, as required.

Making the parts The methods described are intended as a guide, and are similar to those used to make the prototype. Individuals may prefer to use different methods, to suit their own particular skills, and the equipment available. The stator and end covers, items 1, 2 and 3, are turned from aluminum bar, boring and facing the ends, maintaining the concentricities and squareness as shown. The bearing bush, item 6, can be fitted to the end covers while in the lathe; note that the bush has a lead-in chamber. Use a suitable peg to align squarely, and finish, ream or bore to size. The stator has a slot which cuts through the bore. This is cut with an end mill, and may be sized as shown, or left with material on, if experimentation with inlet sizes is required. As the part is cut through, it may be advisable to make a support ring to prevent springback, taking care when sizing to use only a light cut due to the presence of the slot. Finally, drill the flange fixing holes, and tap the inlet adaptor holes.

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The shaft, item 5, is a conventional lathe turning task; note that a trimming allowance is left on, as shown. Cut the keyway using a 2 mm. dia. end mill, keeping central, and in line with the shaft axis.

Complete model disc turbine engine

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Bearing surfaces are polished. Concentricity of the identified dimensions is important, and if possible, these features should be ground. The ten discs, item 4, are probably the most difficult part to make. Ideally, they would be produced by electrochemical machining, but this requires specialised equipment which is not readily available to model engineers. The method described is the process by which the prototypes were made, and is based on the practice used to make P.c. boards. It requires a milling head, and a rotary table, but the item can be made by careful drilling and filing. Hard aluminium is the material used, cut into 90 mm. squares, and a template will be required, as will a template for the spacing portion, and a suitable location peg. More experienced modellers may not need the template. The disc blanks are attached to a similar sized piece of alloy, using suitable screws. The unit is mounted onto a rotary table, and using a 6 mm. diameter end mill, the profile of the spacer and the ports are milled out, with holes drilled for the rivets, as shown. Use a sharp, preferably new, cutter, with fine feed and high speed. Cut the key slot, filing carefully, or slot on the miller. The disc is now rotated, using the same cutter, and the outer diameter cut, leaving four equally spaced nibs to retain the disc in the sheet, with an allowance left on the outer diameter for final finishing to size, as an assembly. The discs may be cut by hand, with the spacer formed separately, leaving a finishing allowance on the outer diameter. The milling head may be traversed axially and longitudinally, thus not requiring a rotary table, the final shapes being made by hand finishing. When completed, the disc can be removed from the support and the nibs cut off. Finally, trim the disc to remove all burrs, noting the remarks regarding square edges. The two bearing bushes, item 6, are turned from a suitable material; bronze is specified as this is probably the easiest to obtain, but for sustained use, a steel or bronze backed lead-tin bearing is preferred. The bore in the housings will require amendment to suit whichever is the chosen type. Refer to the housings for the fitting of the bearings. Ensure the oil holes are aligned before installing. 79

The inlet manifold assembly, item 7, is fabricated from copper tube and a brass or mild steel plate, brazed together. The plate is formed over a mandrel, 84 mm. in diameter, and holes drilled as shown. The connecting pipe is bent up from copper tube; both parts may require annealing to aid forming. Braze the two parts together, using a suitable flux and brazing rod. In the absence of brazing equipment, soft solder may be substituted: a fairly large iron will be needed. Finally, clean up, using emery or an acid dip.

The rotor assembly comprises of the discs, shaft, nut, rivet and a drive key. Assemble the discs to the shaft, using a plain nut to retain, and ensure that the rivet holes are in line, and the rivets enter satisfactorily. Check the overall dimension of the stack, and compare to the relevant dimensions on the stator. Check the clearances between the end cover faces, and the shaft on the bearing bushes. A running clearance is required between the shaft and end of the bushes, with the rotor centralised in the stator. Use a shim between the end covers and stator, to obtain a clearance.Mount the assembly between centers, and at a slow speed rotate the assembly. With a sharp tool, and a very low feed, trim the discs to size, to give a clearance in the bore of between 0.250 and 0.350 mm. on radius. Remove burr, and

check for run-out. If more than 0.05 mm, adjust the side clearance to accommodate. A large slide clearance will not be detrimental to running, but will affect the output performance. Close the rivets, making sure they are flush to under flush. Remove the nut, and replace with a stiff nut. Check for static balance, drilling countersunk holes partially into the end discs until satisfactory. Balance is important as the turbine rotates at high speed. Assemble into the stator and end covers, tightening the fastenings as specified, and build on the intake manifold. Lubricate the bearings copiously, and rotate by hand, checking carefully for any tight spots or apparent foul points. Place between centres and with the housing supported by the cross-slide and at a slow speed, rotate the turbine, gradually increasing speed up to about 1000 RP.M. Watch for any tightness or increase in temperature. Run for 5 minutes, ensuring the bearings are kept well lubricated. Finally, when satisfied, remove from the lathe.

Testing When satisfied that the unit is turning freely, with no tightness or temperature rise, the unit can be tested using compressed air. This should be done initially, regardless of the medium to be used eventually. Using a flexible hose, connect to an air source, attaching the hose to the turbine with a hose clip. Between the turbine and the air supply, close to the turbine, provide an onloff valve, preferably of the ball type; for temporary use only, the hose may be squeezed in a vice, or by clamps. Place a guard over the turbine, and ensure that the exhaust ports are clear of obstruction. Check the air pressure, which must not exceed 2 bar, and slowly open the valve. The turbine will begin to rotate, and as the flow is increased, the speed will build up.

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Run for no more than two minutes, stop, check the housing temperature. If cool to slightly warm, re-open the valve and continue running. At around 1.75 bar and 1.5 dm, the turbine will attain a shaft speed of 20,000 RP.M. At all times ensure a supply of oil to the bearings, and continually monitor the housing temperature. It should be noted that the prototype attained a speed of approximately 50,000 RP.M. under no-load conditions; hence it is advised that a brake or dynometer be provided on the shaft. Upon conclusion of a satisfactory operation on air, an alternative medium can be used to operate the turbine, such as steam from a model boiler. This model is not suitable for use with hot gas, such as is obtained by burning fuel in a suitable combustor. At all times, ensure a suitable guard is in place, and observe sensible precautions when operating in the presence of other people. This is a unique machine, and will provide plenty of scope for experimentation and development by the maker. Below you will find some drawings (reduced from full size originals) to help you better understand the process.

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Here are some other examples of Tesia Disk Turbines

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Conclusion The need for proper energy conservation and alternative energy sources is greater today than at any point in history. Nikola Tesia, a man certainly far before his time, foresaw the need for these changes, and called for a massive restructuring in the way the world generated energy. However, except for only a few instances, many of his most innovative designs were buried by financiers and governments, eager to maintain the status quo. Nevertheless, thanks to this inventor's brilliance, anyone can build their own radiant energy generator. These systems can be as simple or complex as you care to make them. Whether you choose to implement only the radiant energy harvesting system highlighted herein or choose to add other devices invented by Tesia to the system, such as his turbine or a Tesia coil, you can achieve a considerable amount of energy independence.

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Appendix On the following pages, you will find reproductions of Tesla's patents for the devices listed within this book. These can be excellent sources of further information, but they will also give you a glimpse into the mind of the man, himself.

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The Tesla Legacy Free energy for everyone! Nicola Tesla dreamt about it. Do the scientists and electrical engineers have the technical know-how to make Nicola Tesla's dream a realization? The principle of free energy was already given to us by Tesla more than a century ago. It is just a matter of improving it and developing a new electrical distribution system designed for free energy program. Free radiant energy system is a device and technique that could make us harness energy from the sky or from the ground. This free energy could be transformed into usable electricity so that we do not have to pay electricity anymore. The light of human progress is not a dim glow that gradually becomes more luminous with time. The panorama of human evolution is illumined by sudden bursts of dazzling brilliance in intellectual accomplishments that throw their beams far ahead to give us a glimpse of the distant future, that we may more correctly guide our wavering steps today. Tesla, by virtue of the amazing discoveries and inventions which he showered on the world, becomes one of the most resplendent flashes that has ever brightened the scroll of human advancement. Tesla created the modern era; he was unquestionably one of the world's greatest geniuses. At a time when electricity was considered almost an occult force, and was looked upon with terror-stricken awe and respect, Tesla penetrated deeply into its mysteries and performed so many marvelous feats with it that, to the world, he became a master magician with an unlimited repertoire of scientific legerdemain so spectacular that it made the accomplishments of most of the inventors of his day seem like the work of toy-tinkers. Tesla was an inventor, but he was much more than a producer of new devices: he was a discoverer of new principles, opening many new empires of knowledge which even

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today have been only partly explored. In a single mighty burst of invention he created the world of power of today. He brought into being our electrical power era, the rock bottom foundation on which the industrial system of the entire world is built; he gave us our mass-production system, for without his motors and currents it could not exist; he created the race of robots, the electrical mechanical men that are replacing human labor; he gave us every essential of modern radio; he invented the radar forty years before its use in World War II; he gave us our modern neon and other forms of gaseous-tube lighting; he gave us our fluorescent lighting; he gave us the high frequency currents which are performing their electronic wonders throughout the industrial and medical worlds; he gave us remote control by wireless etc. And these discoveries are merely the inventions made by the master mind of Tesla which have thus far been utilized - scores of others remain still unused. Free energy technology is here, now. It offers the world pollution-free, energy abundance for everyone, everywhere. It is up to us to benefit from the rivers of energy that Nikola Tesla was talking about. Accept the challenge to be among the ones who try!

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"Invention is the most important product of man's creative Brain. The ultimate purpose is the complete mastery of mind over the material world, the harnessing of human nature to human needs." Nikola Tesla

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