This Evil Trade: Olaudah Equiano and abolition - Guardian Teacher

This Evil Trade: Olaudah Equiano and abolition - Guardian Teacher

The National Archives’ Education Service This Evil Trade: Olaudah Equiano and abolition Preparation materials for videoconference/virtual classroom (...

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The National Archives’ Education Service

This Evil Trade: Olaudah Equiano and abolition Preparation materials for videoconference/virtual classroom (KS3)

CO 700/BARBADOS9

This evil trade



Preparation materials for videoconference/virtual classroom (KS3)

Contents Teacher’s notes

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Worksheet group 1

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Worksheet group 2

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Worksheet group 3

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Document: ADM 7/830 B

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Six images from 1688 by Jean Barboe of a voyage around the west coast of Equatorial Africa.

Document: CO 116/145

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Two copies of reports from Protectors of Slaves showing punishments given to slaves.

Document: T1/664

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Documents showing value of slaves and percentage losses of slaves shipped and delivered to British West Indies.

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This evil trade



Preparation materials for videoconference/virtual classroom (KS3)

Teacher’s notes This pack of documents will allow you to prepare your students for the videoconference/virtual classroom session. It is vital that all students complete the preparatory work beforehand, so that they are fully prepared for the session. It is 1789 and during this session students will use evidence from original documents to help Olaudah Equiano (played by a costumed interpreter) to construct an argument for the abolition of slavery.

Preparation activity During a preceding lesson, students should be shown The National Archives’ slave trader film clip (07.10). This shows a costumed interpreter in role as a slave trader. He discusses the reasons for the slave trade and justification for its continuation. It would be worth playing this to students twice while they make notes on the arguments that exist for the maintenance of slavery. During the session, students will be questioned by Equiano on the issues raised. youtube.com/watch?v=Uh7k6uJftp0 Please introduce students to all the documents in this pack. Once they are familiar with them, split your class into three groups to study one section of documents in detail. During the session, Equiano will draft a speech to argue for the abolition of slavery. Through close study of the attached documents, students will provide Equiano with the evidence and arguments for his speech. It is therefore important that they have studied these document in detail and come up with examples/evidence and arguments in relation to the following questions: • Group 1: What evidence is there that Africa was civilised before European contact? (Document : ADM 7/830 B – six images from 1688 by Jean Barboe of a voyage around the west coast of Equatorial Africa.) • Group 2: Is there proof that slaves are treated badly? Is there any evidence that slaves are trying to find ways to resist slavery and the conditions they are held in? (Document: CO 116/145 – two copies of reports from Protectors of Slaves showing punishments given to slaves.) • Group 3: Is money made out of slavery? Is this the most effective means of making money from the products of the West Indies? (Document: T1/664 – documents showing the value of slaves and percentage losses of slaves shipped and delivered to British West Indies.)

Background information British slave trading to the Caribbean began in the 1560s. The transatlantic slave trade was essentially a triangular route from Europe to Africa, to the Americas and back to Europe. On the first leg, merchants exported goods to Africa in return for enslaved Africans, gold, ivory and spices. The ships then travelled across the Atlantic to the American colonies where the Africans were sold for sugar, tobacco, cotton and other produce. The Africans were sold as slaves to work on plantations and as domestics. The goods were then transported to Europe. There was also two-way trade between Europe and Africa, Europe and the Americas, and Africa and the Americas.

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Preparation materials for videoconference/virtual classroom (KS3)

Teacher’s notes continued Britain was one of the most successful slave-trading countries. Britain and Portugal accounted for about 70% of all Africans transported to the Americas. Britain was the most dominant between 1640 and 1807 and it is estimated that Britain transported 3.1 million Africans (of whom 2.7 million arrived) to the British colonies in the Caribbean, North and South America and to other countries. The slave trade was carried out from many British ports, but the three most important ports were London (1660–1720s), Bristol (1720s–1740s) and Liverpool (1740s–1807), which became extremely wealthy. Under the 1799 Slave Trade Act, the slave trade was restricted to these three ports. Anti-slavery campaigners lobbied for twenty years to end the trade and the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act was passed in Britain on 25 March 1807. It was declared that from the 1 May 1807: ‘all manner of dealing and reading in the purchase, sale, barter, or transfer of slaves or of persons intending to be sold, transferred, used, or dealt with as slaves, practiced or carried in, at, or from any part of the coast or countries of Africa shall be abolished, prohibited and declared to be unlawful’. Slavery was abolished in 1834 but in reality, for many of those enslaved, it continued until at least 1838 through apprenticehip schemes. Olaudah Equiano (also known by his slave name, Gustavus Vassa) was born in Africa around 1745. As a boy of 11 he was kidnapped and transported to the West Indies to work as a slave. He served with his master in the Royal Navy where he learned to read and write and later saved enough money to purchase his own freedom. In England, he converted to Christianity. He married an English woman from Cambridge and had a family. In 1789 he published his autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African. His autobiography played a significant role in highlighting the inhumanity of slavery and the slave trade.

Useful links Links to all our online resources and research guides connected with slavery: nationalarchives.gov.uk/slavery

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This evil trade



Preparation materials for videoconference/virtual classroom (KS3)

Worksheet group 1 What evidence is there that Africa was civilised before European contact? ADM 7/830 B – six images from 1688 by Jean Barboe of a voyage around the west coast of Equatorial Africa. Please study these images carefully. They are from 1688 and were made by a man called Jean Barboe as he voyaged around the West Coast of Africa. These images are useful for showing us what Africa was like before European slavery. Describe what you see in the pictures (6 images) Think about what you can see, and what this suggests.

What do these pictures tell you about life in Africa before slavery – give examples from the pictures.

Explain how Equiano could use the images as a reason to abolish slavery.

Using argumentative language, write some statements that Equiano could use in a speech to abolish slavery using evidence from these images.

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This evil trade



Preparation materials for videoconference/virtual classroom (KS3)

Worksheet group 2 Is there proof that slaves are treated badly? Is there any evidence that slaves are trying to find ways to resist slavery and the conditions they are held in? CO 116/145 – two copies of reports from Protectors of Slaves showing punishments given to slaves. Please study the two lists showing the types of offences that slaves could be charged with and what punishments were given to slaves. The columns show for each offence how many slaves had committed the offence and what their punishment was. Explain in your own words what information is given in these documents. Which type of offences had most slaves committed? (Perhaps look at the four offences most commonly committed.) Why do you think this was? What would have been the impact of this behaviour?

How were most slaves punished?

What do you think is interesting or surprising about these documents?

Explain how Equiano could use these documents to help abolish slavery.

Using argumentative language, write some statements that Equiano could use in a speech to abolish slavery using evidence from these documents.

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This evil trade



Preparation materials for videoconference/virtual classroom (KS3)

Worksheet group 3 Is money made out of slavery? Is this the most effective means of making money from the products of the West Indies? T1/664 – two documents showing the value of slaves and the percentage losses of slaves shipped and delivered. Please study these two documents. The first shows the number of slaves on each Island in the British West Indies in 1788 with the price of the slaves and the total value of the slaves for each island. The second document is ordered by year and shows the number of ships exporting slaves. For each year the columns show the number of slaves that were shipped and then how many were actually delivered along with the loss percentage.Look at the document showing the value of slaves. Explain in your own words what information is given in this document. What was the price of each slave? What Island has the most slaves?

£40 in 1788 is equivalent to £4,100 today. How much were the slaves worth in Jamaica in total? What does this tell you about the reasons for slavery?

Now look at the second document. In your own words explain what this document shows. In particular what do the last three columns show?

What do you think is interesting or surprising about these documents?

Explain how Equiano could use these documents to help abolish slavery.

Using argumentative language, write some statements that Equiano could use in a speech to abolish slavery using evidence from these documents.

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Preparation materials for videoconference/virtual classroom (KS3)

Document: ADM 7/830 B Six images from 1688 by Jean Barboe of a voyage around the west coast of Equatorial Africa.

8

This evil trade



Preparation materials for videoconference/virtual classroom (KS3)

Document: ADM 7/830 B continued

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This evil trade



Preparation materials for videoconference/virtual classroom (KS3)

Document: ADM 7/830 B continued

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This evil trade



Preparation materials for videoconference/virtual classroom (KS3)

Document: CO 116/145 Two copies of reports from Protectors of Slaves showing punishments given to slaves.

11

This evil trade



Preparation materials for videoconference/virtual classroom (KS3)

Document: CO 116/145 continued

12

This evil trade



Preparation materials for videoconference/virtual classroom (KS3)

Document: T1/664 Documents showing value of slaves and percentage losses of slaves shipped and delivered to British West Indies.

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This evil trade



Preparation materials for videoconference/virtual classroom (KS3)

Document: T1/664 continued

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