This is not an electronic publication of the First Global Integrated

This is not an electronic publication of the First Global Integrated

NOTE: This is not an electronic publication of the First Global Integrated Marine Assessment, it is a compilation of the Assessment's individual conte...

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NOTE: This is not an electronic publication of the First Global Integrated Marine Assessment, it is a compilation of the Assessment's individual content files which are available on www.un.org/Depts/los/woa and is provided for ease of reference.

The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment World Ocean Assessment I

by the Group of Experts of the Regular Process Lorna Inniss and Alan Simcock (Joint Coordinators) Amanuel Yoanes Ajawin, Angel C. Alcala, Patricio Bernal, Hilconida P. Calumpong, Peyman Eghtesadi Araghi, Sean O. Green, Peter Harris, Osman Keh Kamara, Kunio Kohata, Enrique Marschoff, Georg Martin, Beatrice Padovani Ferreira, Chul Park, Rolph Antoine Payet, Jake Rice, Andrew Rosenberg, Renison Ruwa, Joshua T. Tuhumwire, Saskia Van Gaever, Juying Wang, Jan Marcin Węsławski

under the auspices of the United Nations General Assembly and its Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects

© 2016 United Nations

Disclaimer The designations and the presentation of the materials used in this publication, including their respective citations, maps and bibliography, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Also, the boundaries and names shown and the designations used in this publication do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Any information that may be contained in this publication emanating from actions and decisions taken by States does not imply recognition by the United Nations of the validity of the actions and decisions in question and is included without prejudice to the position of any Member State of the United Nations. The contributions of the members of the Group of Experts and the Pool of Experts, who participated in the writing of the first global integrated marine assessment, were made in their personal capacity. The members of the Group and the Pool are not representatives of any Government or any other authority or organization.

Table of Contents Disclaimer Acronyms Foreword by the Secretary General Preface by the Joint Coordinators of the Group of Experts of the Regular Process Part I Summary Part II The context of the assessment Chapter 1: Introduction – Planet, oceans and life Chapter 2: Mandate, information sources and method of work Part III Assessment of major ecosystem services from the marine environment (other than provisioning services) Chapter 3: Scientific understanding of ecosystem services Chapter 4: The ocean’s role in the hydrological cycle Chapter 5: Sea-Air Interaction Chapter 6: Primary production, cycling of nutrients, surface layer and plankton Chapter 7: Calcium carbonate production and contribution to coastal sediments Chapter 8: Aesthetic, cultural, religious and spiritual ecosystem services derived from the marine environment Chapter 9: Conclusions on major ecosystem services other than provisioning services Part IV Assessment of the cross-cutting issues: food security and food safety Chapter 10: The oceans and seas as sources of food Chapter 11: Capture fisheries Chapter 12: Aquaculture Chapter 13: Fish stock propagation Chapter 14: Seaweeds Chapter 15: Social and economic aspects of sea-based food and fisheries Chapter 16: Synthesis of Part IV: Food security and safety Part V Assessment of other human activities and the marine environment Chapter 17: Shipping Chapter 18: Ports

Chapter 19: Submarine cables and pipelines Chapter 20: Coastal, riverine and atmospheric inputs from land Chapter 21: Offshore hydrocarbon industries Chapter 22: Other marine-based energy industries Chapter 23: Offshore mining industries Chapter 24: Solid waste disposal Chapter 25: Marine debris Chapter 26: Land-sea physical interaction Chapter 27: Tourism and recreation Chapter 28: Desalinization Chapter 29: Use of marine genetic resources Chapter 30: Marine scientific research Chapter 31: Conclusions on other human activities Chapter 32: Capacity-building in relation to human activities affecting the marine environment Part VI Assessment of marine biological diversity and habitats Chapter 33: Introduction Section A — Overview of marine biological diversity Chapter 34: Global patterns in marine biodiversity Chapter 35: Extent of assessment of marine biological diversity Chapter 36: Overall status of major groups of species and habitats Chapter 36A: North Atlantic Ocean Chapter 36B: South Atlantic Ocean Chapter 36C: North Pacific Ocean Chapter 36D: South Pacific Ocean Chapter 36E: Indian Ocean Chapter 36F: Open ocean deep sea Chapter 36G: Arctic Ocean Chapter 36H: Southern Ocean Section B — Marine ecosystems, species and habitats scientifically identified as threatened, declining or otherwise in need of special attention or protection I. Marine species Chapter 37: Marine Mammals Chapter 38: Seabirds Chapter 39: Marine Reptiles Chapter 40: Sharks and other elasmobranchs Chapter 41: Tunas and billfishes

II. Marine ecosystems and habitats Chapter 42: Cold-water corals Chapter 43: Tropical and sub-tropical coral reefs Chapter 44: Estuaries and deltas Chapter 45: Hydrothermal vents and cold seeps Chapter 46: High-latitude ice and the biodiversity dependent on it Chapter 47: Kelp forests and seagrass meadows Chapter 48: Mangroves Chapter 49: Salt Marshes Chapter 50: Sargasso Sea Chapter 51: Biological communities on seamounts and other submarine features potentially threatened by disturbance Section C — Environmental, economic and/or social aspects of the conservation of marine species and habitats and capacity-building needs Chapter 52: Synthesis of Part VI: Marine biological diversity and habitats Chapter 53: Capacity-building needs in relation to the status of species and habitats Part VII Overall assessment Chapter 54: Overall assessment of human impact on the oceans Chapter 55: Overall value of the oceans to humans Glosssary List of Contributors and Commentators

Acronyms

AATAMS

Australian Animal Tracking and Monitoring System

ABA

Arctic Biodiversity Assessment

ABNJ

areas beyond national jurisdiction

ACAP

Agreement on the Conservation of Albatross and Petrels

ACC

Antarctic Circumpolar Current

ACIA

Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

ADCP

Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers

AEWA

Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds

AEWA

Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds

AGGRA

Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment

AHWGW

Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole

AIATSIS

Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Straits Islanders Studies

AIMS

Australian Institute of Marine Science

ALA

Australian Lawyers Alliance

AMAP

Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program

AMLC

Association of Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean

Anammox

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation

ANAO

Australian National Audit Office

ANDEEP

ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity

ANZECC

Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council

AoA

Assessment of Assessments

© 2016 United Nations

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APIS

Antarctic Pack Ice Seals International Programme

ArcOD

Arctic Ocean Diversity project

ARGO

Program of autonomous profiling instruments

AUNAP

Colombian National Authority for Aquaculture and Fisheries

AUV

autonomous underwater vehicle

BAP

Biologically active Phorphorus

BATS

Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study

BENTANTAR Antarctic Benthos BGS

British Geological Survey

BLM

Bureau of Land Management

BMAPA

British Marine Aggregate Producers Association

BOEM

United States Bureau of Ocean Energy Management

BON

biodiversity observation network

BRDs

by-catch reduction devices

CAFF

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna

CALCOFI

California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations program

CAML

Census of Antarctic Marine Life

CARICOMP

Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Programme

CARSEA

Caribbean Sea Ecosystem Assessment

CBD

Convention on Biological Diversity

CBMP

Arctic Council Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program

CCAMLR

Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources

CCD

Carbonate Compensation Depth

CCE LTER

California Current Ecosystem Long Term Ecological Research

© 2016 United Nations

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CCSBT

Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna

CCYIA

China Cruise and Yacht Industry Association

CFCs

chlorofluorocarbons

CHONe

Canadian Healthy Oceans Network

CICES

Common International Classification of Ecosystem Goods and Services

CIRVA

Comité Internacional para la Recuperación de la Vaquita

CITES

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

CLIVAR

Climate Variability and Predictability programme

CLME

Caribbean Large Marine Ecosystem Project

CMFRI

Indian Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute

CMS

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals

CNKI

China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database

CNRS

Chize British Antarctic Survey

COBSEA

Coordinating Body on the Seas of East Asia

CoML

Census of Marine Life

CORDIO

Coral Reef Degradation in the Indian Ocean

COSEWIC

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada

COTS

Crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci

CPR

Continuous Plankton Recorder

CPUE

catch per unit effort

CSP

central subarctic Pacific

CTD

Conductivity, Temperature and Depth

CTI-CFF

Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security

© 2016 United Nations

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CTO

Caribbean Tourist Organization

DEFRA

United Kingdom, Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

DFID

United Kingdom, Department for International Development

DFO

Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada

DfT

United Kingdom, Department for Transport

DPSER

Drivers, Pressures, States, Ecosystem Services, Responses

DPSIR

Driver Pressure State Impact Response

DUML

Duke University Marine Laboratory

DWT

Dead-weight tonnage

EAC

environmental assessment criteria

EASIZ

Ecology of the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone

EBAs

ecosystem-based approaches

EBSAs

Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas

EBVs

Essential Biodiversity Variables

EcoQOs

ecological quality objectives

ED

electro-dialysis

EDI

electro-de-ionization

EEA

European Environment Agency

EEZs

exclusive economic zones

EFH

Essential Fish Habitat

EIA

United States Energy Information Administration

EIA

Environmental Impact Assessments

ENSO

El Niño/Southern Oscillation.

EPOS

European Polarstern Study

© 2016 United Nations

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ERCCIS

Environment Records Centre for Cornwall

ESCWA

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia

ESP

Ecosystem Service Partnership

ESP

eastern subarctic Pacific

EVOLANTA

Evolution in the Antarctic

FESS

Foundation for Environmental Security and Sustainability

FGGE

First GARP Global Experiment

FIPE

Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas

FMAP

Future of Marine Animal Populations

FOODBANCS Food for Benthos on the Antarctic Continental Shelf GARP

Global Atmosphere Research Programme

GBIF

Global Biodiversity Information Facility

GBRMPA

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Australia

GCC

Gulf Cooperation Council

GCN

Global Core Network

GCOS

Global Climate Observing System

GCRMN

Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network

GEMS

Global Environment Monitoring System

GEO BON

Global Biodiversity Observation Network

GEOHAB

Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms

GEOSECS

Geochemical Ocean Sections Study

GESAMP

Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection

GIS

geographic information system

© 2016 United Nations

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GLOBEC

Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics

GLOSS

Global Sea Level Observing System

GMAD

Global Marine Aquarium Database

GODAE

Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment

GODP

Global Ocean Drifter Program

GoMA

Gulf of Maine Area project

GoMRI

Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative

GOOS

Global Ocean Observing System

GOSR

Global Ocean Science Report

GPP

Gross primary production

GPS

global positioning systems

GTN-R

Global Terrestrial Network for River Discharge

GTS

WMO’s Global Telecommunications System

GWI

Global Water Intelligence

HABs

Harmful Algal Blooms

HAPCs

Habitat Areas of Particular Concern

HBS

Hawaii Biological Survey

HELCOM

Helsinki Commission

HLPE

High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security

HNLC

High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll zones

HOTO

Health of the Ocean

IAA

Indo-Australian Arc

IAATO

International Association of Antarctic Tourism Operators

© 2016 United Nations

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IACS

International Association of Classification Societies

IATTC

Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission

IBA

International Marine Important Bird Areas

IBAMA

Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis

ICCAT

International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas

ICES

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

ICMBIO

Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade

ICRI

International Coral Reef Initiative

ICS

International Chamber of Shipping

ICSICH

Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage

ICSU

International Council of Scientific Unions

ICZM

Integrated coastal zone management

IDH

intermediate disturbance hypothesis

IEA

International Energy Agency

IFAW

International Fund for Animal Welfare

IGBP

International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme

IGOSS

IOC/WMO Integrated Global Ocean Services System

IGY

International Geophysical Year (1957-58)

IIOE

International Indian Ocean Expedition

IMA

Institute of Marine Affairs in Jamaica

IMARPE

Instituto del Mar del Peru

IMBER

Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research

IMMS

International Marine Minerals Society

© 2016 United Nations

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IMO

International Maritime Organization

IMOS

Integrated Marine Observing System

IMR

Norwegian Institute of Marine Research

INVEMAR

Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras, Colombia

IOC/UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO IOCARIBE

International Oceanographic Commission-Caribe

IOCAS

Chinese Academy of Sciences - Institute of Oceanology

IOCoML

Census of Marine Life Programme

IODP

International Ocean Discovery Programme

IOPCF

International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds

IOSEA

Indian Ocean-Southeast Asia Marine Turtle Memorandum of Understanding

IOTC

Indian Ocean Tuna Commission

IPBES

Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IRVSI

University of Delaware, International Research Vessels Schedules and Information

ISA

International Seabed Authority

ISC

International Scientific Committee for Tuna and Tuna-like Species in the North Pacific Ocean

ISME

International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems

ISSF

International Seafood Sustainability Foundation

ITCZ

Intertropical Convergence Zone

ITF

International Transport Workers Federation

ITOPF

International Tanker Owners Federation

© 2016 United Nations

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IUCN

International Union for the Conservation of Nature

IUU

illegal, unreported and unregulated (fishing)

IWC

International Waterbird Census

IWC

International Whaling Commission

JaLTER

Japan Long-term Ecological Research Network

JBON

Japan Biodiversity Observation Network

JCOMM

WMO-IOC Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology

JGOFS

Joint Global Ocean Flux Study

JNCC

Joint Nature Conservation Committee

JNREG

Joint Norwegian-Russian Expert Group

LC-LP

London Convention and London Protocol

LGP

Latitudinal Gradient Project

LLDCs

Group of Landlocked developing Countries

LMEs

Large Marine Ecosystems

LMR

Living Marine Resources

MAB

UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme

MALSF

Marine Aggregate Levy Sustainability Fund

MAP

Mangrove Action Project

MARAD

United States Department of Transportation, United States Maritime Administration

MAR-ECO

Mid-Atlantic Ridge Ecosystem

MARMAP

Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction

MARPOL

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships

MCES

marine and coastal ecosystem services

© 2016 United Nations

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MCS

monitoring, control and surveillance

MEA

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

MED

Multiple-Effect-Distillation

MEPC

IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee

MESP

Marine Ecosystems Services Programme.

MFF

Mangrove Alliance, Mangroves for the Future

MGR

marine genetic resources

MIZ

marginal ice zone

MMA

Brazilian Ministry of Environment

MMC

United States Marine Mammal Commission

MMS

Minerals Management Service

MOC

meridional overturning circulation

MPA

Mineral Products Association

MPA

Marine Protected Area

MPMMG

Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group

MSF

Multi-Stage-Flash

MSFD

Marine Strategy Framework Directive

MSR

Marine Scientific Research

MTSG

Marine Turtle Specialist Group

MTSG

Marine Turtle Specialist Group of IUCN

NAFO

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization

NaGISA

Natural Geography of Inshore Areas

NAMMCO

North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission

NANI

Net anthropogenic nitrogen input

© 2016 United Nations

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NAPAs

National Adaptation Programmes of Action

NBSC

National Bureau of Statistic of China

NEAFC

North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission

NEAFC

North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission

NIOP

Netherlands Indian Ocean Programme

NIWA

National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand

NMFS

USA National Marine Fisheries Service

NMMA

National Marine Manufacturers Association

Norad

Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation

NOWPAP

North-West Pacific Action Plan

NPFC

North Pacific Fisheries Commission

NPP

Net primary production

NPTZ

North Pacific Transition Zone

NRC

United States National Research Council

NRSMPA

Australia’s National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas

NZ EPA

New Zealand Environmental Protection Authority

OA

Ocean Acidification

OBG

Oxford Business Group

OBIS

Ocean Biogeographic Information System

OBIS

Ocean Biodiversity Information System

OBIS-SEAMAP Ocean Biogeographic Information System Spatial Ecological Analysis of Megavertebrate Populations OCSEAP

MMS Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program Minerals Management Service

OHI

Ocean Health Index

© 2016 United Nations

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OMZs

oxygen minimum zones

OSPAR

Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the NorthEast Atlantic, formerly the Oslo-Paris Convention

OUC

Ocean University of China

PAR

photosynthetically active radiation

pCO 2

Measurements of the "partial pressure of CO 2 "

PDO

Pacific decadal oscillation

PIPA

Phoenix Islands Protected Area

PMI

IUCN’s Pacific mangrove initiative

POC

particulate organic carbon

POST

Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking

PSP

paralytic shellfish poisoning

PW

produced water

PUB

Singapore Public Utilities Board

REDD+ programme - Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation Redfield Ratio a C:N:P ratio of 106:16:1 (Redfield et al., 1963) REMPEC

Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean

RES

relative environmental suitability

RESA

rapid ecosystem service assessment

RFMO/As

regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements

RFMOs

fisheries management organizations

RMUs

regional management units

RNSIIPG

Peru’s Guano Islands, Islets and Capes National Reserve System

© 2016 United Nations

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RO

Reverse osmosis

ROS

reactive oxygen species

ROVs

remotely operated vehicles

RSMAS

Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences of the University of Miami

RSPB

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds

RSPB

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds

SAB

South Atlantic Bight

SAFARI

Societal Applications in Fisheries and Aquaculture using Remotely-Sensed Imagery

SAIAB

South African Institute of Aquatic Biodiversity

SARCE

South American Research Group in Coastal Ecosystems

SCAR

Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research

SCD

Supply Chain Digest

SCSIOCAS

South China Sea Institute of Oceanology

SEAFO

Southeast Atlantic Fisheries Organization

SEAMAP

Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program

SEEA

System of Environmental-Economic Accounting.

SEEF

Seamount Ecosystem Evaluation Framework

SGIMC Effects

Study Group on Integrated Monitoring of Contaminants and Biological

SIDS

small island developing States

SIMAC

Sistema Nacional de Monitoreo de Arrecifes Coralinos en Colombia

SIOFA

Southern Indian Ocean Fisheries Agreement

SLR

sea-level rise

© 2016 United Nations

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SMOL

Seamounts Online

SOA

State Oceanic Administration of the People’s Republic of China

SOOP

Ship-of-Opportunity Programme

SOOPIP

Ship-of-Opportunity Programme and its Implementation Panel

SOTO

Canada’s State of the Oceans Report

SPAW

Caribbean Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife to the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment in the Wider Caribbean Region

SPC

Secretariat of the Pacific Community

SPRFMO

South Pacific Fisheries Management Organization

SRREN

Special report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation

SST

Sea-surface temperature

SWEC

South-West Economy Centre, University of Plymouth

SWIOFC

South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission

SWIOFC

Southwest Indian Ocean Fisheries Commission

TAC

total allowable catch

TAC

total allowable catches

TAO

Tropical Atmosphere Ocean project

Tbps

Terabits per second

TC/OPC

Technical Committee for Ocean Processes and Climate

TEEB

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity

TNC

the Nature Conservancy

TOGA

Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Study

TOPP

Tagging of Pacific Pelagics

© 2016 United Nations

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TRB

Transportation Research Board

TRL

Technological Readiness Level

TSG

ThermoSalinoGraphs

TZCF

transition-zone chlorophyll front

UKHO

United Kingdom Hydrographic Office

UKTAG Directive

United Kingdom Technical Advisory Group on the Water Framework

UNCTAD

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNEP/GEMS United Nations Environment Programme, Global Environment Monitoring System UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNGA

United Nations General Assembly

UNSC

United Nations Security Council

UNSCEAR

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation

UOHC

upper ocean heat content

USCG

United States Coast Guard

USGS

United States Geological Survey

USMA

United States Maritime Administration

UWI

University of the West Indies

VC

vapour compression

VMEs

Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems

WAVES

Wealth Accounting and the Valuation of Ecosystem Services

WCPFC

Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission

WCPFC

Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission

WCRP

World Climate Research Programme

© 2016 United Nations

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WHO

World Health Organization

WIDECAST

Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network

WISE

World Information System on Energy

WNA

World Nuclear Association

WOA

World Ocean Assessment

WOCE

World Ocean Circulation Experiment

WOD

World Ocean Database

WOMARS

Worldwide marine radioactivity studies

WRI

World Resources Institute

WSP

western subarctic Pacific

WSSD

World Summit on Sustainable Development

XBT

Expendable Bathythermograph

XCTD

expendable disposable conductivity, temperature and depth

© 2016 United Nations

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Foreword by the Secretary-General of the United Nations The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment, also known as the “World Ocean Assessment I”, is the outcome of the first cycle of the Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects. Hundreds of scientists from many countries, representing various disciplines and steered by a 22-member Group of Experts, examined the state of knowledge of the world’s oceans and the ways in which humans benefit from and affect them. Their findings indicate that the oceans’ carrying capacity is near or at its limit. It is clear that urgent action on a global scale is needed to protect the world’s oceans from the many pressures they face. The first World Ocean Assessment provides an important scientific basis for the consideration of ocean issues by Governments, intergovernmental processes, and all policy-makers and others involved in ocean affairs. The Assessment reinforces the science-policy interface and establishes the basis for future assessments. Together with future assessments and related initiatives, it will help in the implementation of the recently adopted 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, particularly its oceanrelated goals. I thank the Group of Experts and all others whose dedication produced this Assessment, including the Co-Chairs, the Bureau of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole of the Regular Process and its secretariat. I would also like to acknowledge the significant scientific, technical and financial assistance to the Regular Process provided by the European Union, the United Nations Environment Programme, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and other relevant intergovernmental organizations. I look forward to working with all partners to ensure that the world’s oceans, which are so essential for human well-being and prosperity, are healthy, productive and resilient for today’s and future generations.

Preface As we seek to pursue sustainable development, we all need an understanding of the ways – environmental, social and economic – in which we humans interact with the world around us. Globally, the drive towards sustainable development cannot ignore the seven-tenths of the planet covered by the ocean. Such thoughts led to the recommendation of the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development, that there should be a regular process for the global reporting and assessment of the state of the marine environment, including socioeconomic aspects. We need to understand the overall benefits of the ocean to us humans, and the overall impacts of humans on the ocean. In September 2015, the United Nations adopted the Sustainable Development Goals, including SDG 14 (“Conserve and sustainably use oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development”). It is therefore timely that the work put in hand by the Johannesburg Summit has now produced The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment – World Ocean Assessment I under the auspices of the United Nations General Assembly. The General Assembly considered and endorsed not only its Outline, but also the terms of reference and working methods of the Group of Experts and the guidance to contributors. The approach to the assessment has therefore been carefully considered at the global level. Implementing the approach has been a major task, relying essentially on voluntary efforts from hundreds of experts in many fields. We and our colleagues in the Group of Experts of the Regular Process have been privileged to organize, contribute to, and produce the final version of, this Assessment. Crucial support has been provided by the secretariat of the Regular Process in the United Nations Secretariat, the Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea of the Office of Legal Affairs, by several international organizations and by a number of United Nations Member States, as detailed in Chapter 2 (Mandate, information sources and method of work). The full draft assessment was reviewed by United Nations Member States. Under the terms of reference and working methods, the Group of Experts is collectively responsible for the final text. The Regular Process was tasked with providing a first Assessment that could serve as a baseline for future cycles of the process. The vast scale of the ocean and the complexities of its many facets are revealed again and again throughout this first Assessment. Likewise, the challenges that must be faced are presented. We have also sought to identify the main gaps in knowledge and in capacity-building that hinder the responses to these challenges. These elements are all summarized in Part I of the Assessment – Summary – under ten themes: climate change, overexploitation of marine living resources, the significance of food security and food safety, patterns of biodiversity and the changes in them, the pressures from increased uses of ocean space, the threats from increased pollution, the effects of cumulative impacts, the inequalities in the distribution of benefits from the ocean, the importance of coherent management of human impacts on the ocean, and the problems of delay in implementing known solutions.

The General Assembly decided that the Assessment should not undertake policy analysis. We have therefore not ranked these themes in order of importance. Similarly, recommendations for action were not sought. It therefore remains for national governments and the competent international authorities to decide what action to take in the light of the Assessment.

LORNA INNISS

ALAN SIMCOCK

Joint Coordinators of the Group of Experts of the Regular Process

Summary of the First Global Integrated Marine Assessment Introduction 1

I.

Let us consider how dependent on the ocean we are. The ocean is vast: it covers seven tenths of the planet, is on average about 4,000 metres deep and contains 1.3 billion cubic kilometres of water (97 per cent of all the water on the surface of the Earth). There are, however, 7 billion people on Earth. This means that each one of us has just one fifth of a cubic kilometre of ocean as our portion to provide us with all the services that we get from the ocean. That small, one fifth of a cubic kilometre portion generates half of the annual production of the oxygen that each of us breathes, and all of the sea fish and other seafood that each of us eats. It is the ultimate source of all the freshwater that each of us will drink in our lifetimes. The ocean is a highway for ships that carry the goods that we produce and consume. The seabed and the strata beneath it hold minerals and oil and gas deposits that we increasingly need to use. Submarine cables across the ocean floor carry 90 per cent of the electronic traffic of communications, financial transactions and information exchange. Our energy supply will increasingly rely on sea-based wind turbines and wave and tidal power from the ocean. Large numbers of us take our holidays by the sea. The seabed is a rich repository for archaeology. That one fifth of a cubic kilometre also suffers from the sewage, garbage, spilled oil and industrial waste which we collectively allow to go into the ocean every day. Demands on the ocean continue to rise together with the world’s population. By the year 2050, it is estimated that there will be 10 billion people on Earth. Our portion, or our children’s portion, of the ocean will then have shrunk to one eighth of a cubic kilometre. That reduced portion will still have to provide each of us with oxygen, food and water, while still suffering from the pollution and waste that we allow to enter the ocean. The ocean is also home to a rich diversity of animals, plants, seaweeds and microbes, from the largest animal on the planet (the blue whale) to plankton and bacteria that can only be seen with powerful microscopes. We use some of those directly, and many more contribute indirectly to the benefits that we derive from the ocean. Even those organisms without any apparent connection with humans are part of the biodiversity whose value we have belatedly recognized. However, our relationship with the ocean and its creatures works both ways. We intentionally exploit many components of that rich biodiversity and increase the mortality of other components, even though we are not deliberately harvesting them. Carelessly (for example, through the input of waste material) or because of an initial lack of knowledge (for example, through the ocean acidification from increased emissions of carbon dioxide), we are altering the environment in which those organisms live. All those actions are affecting their ability to thrive and, sometimes, even to survive. The impacts of humanity on the ocean are parts of our inheritance and future. They have helped to shape our present and will shape not only the future of the ocean and its biodiversity as an integral physical and biological system, but also the ability of the ocean to provide the services that we use now, that we will increasingly need to use in the future and that are vital to each of us and to human well-being overall. Managing our uses of the ocean is therefore vital. The successful management of any activity, however, requires an adequate understanding of the activity and of the context in which it takes place. Such an understanding is needed even more when management 1

In the present summary, the chapters referred to in footnotes are chapters of parts II to VII of the first global integrated marine assessment. When placed at the end of a paragraph, such footnotes apply to all preceding paragraphs up to the previous such footnote.

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tasks are split among many players: unless each knows how the part they play fits into the overall pattern, there are risks of confusion, contradictory actions and failure to act. Managing the human uses of the ocean has inevitably to be divided among many players. In the course of their activities, individuals and commercial enterprises that use the ocean on a constant basis take decisions that affect the human impacts on the 2 ocean. 3

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea establishes the legal framework within which all activities in the oceans and seas must be carried out. National Governments and regional and global intergovernmental organizations all have their parts to play in regulating those activities. However, each of those many players tends to have a limited view of the ocean that is focused on their own sectoral interests. Without a sound framework in which to work, they may well fail to take into account the ways in which their decisions and actions interact with those of others. Such failures can add to the complexity of the manifold problems that exist. It is therefore not surprising that, in 2002, the World Summit on Sustainable Development recommended that there be a regular process for global reporting and assessment of the state of the marine environment, including socioeconomic aspects, or that the General Assembly accepted that recommendation. In its resolution 64/71, the Assembly adopted the recommendation that the Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects should review the state of the marine environment, including socioeconomic aspects, on a continual and systematic basis by providing regular assessments at the global and supraregional levels and an integrated view of environmental, economic and social aspects. Those regular reviews of the state of the ocean, the way in which the many dynamics of the ocean interact and the ways in which humans are using it should enable the many people and institutions involved in human uses to position their decisions more effectively in the overall context of the ocean. The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment, also known as the first World Ocean Assessment, is the first outcome of the Regular Process. It is divided into seven parts, which are described in detail below. The present part (part I, the summary) provides: (a) a summary of the organization of the Process and the Assessment; (b) a short description of the 10 main themes that have been identified; (c) a more detailed description of each of those themes, based on the content of parts II to VII; and (d) indications of the most serious gaps in our knowledge of the ocean and related human activities, as well as in the capacities to engage in some 4 activities and to assess them all, drawing on the content of parts III to VII.

II.

Background to the Assessment: the ocean around us The starting point is the four main ocean basins of our planet: the Arctic Ocean, the 5 Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Even though they have different names, they form one single interconnected ocean system. The basins have been created over geological times by the movement of the tectonic plates across the Earth’s mantle. The tectonic plates have differing forms at their edges, giving broad or narrow continental shelves and varying profiles to the continental slopes leading down to the continental rises and the abyssal plains. Geomorphic activity in the abyssal plains between the continents gives rise to abyssal ridges, volcanic islands, seamounts, guyots (plateau-like seamounts), rift-valley segments and trenches. Erosion and sedimentation (either submarine or riverine, when the sea level was lower during the ice ages) have 2 3 4 5

See chaps. 1 and 3. United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1833, No. 31363. See chaps. 1 and 2. The Southern Ocean is formed by the southernmost parts of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean basins. The first World Ocean Assessment does not consider enclosed seas, such as the Caspian Sea or the Dead Sea.

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created submarine canyons, glacial troughs, sills, fans and escarpments. Around the ocean basins, there are marginal seas, more or less separated from the main ocean basins by islands, archipelagos or peninsulas, or bounded by submarine ridges and 6 formed by various processes. The water of the ocean mixes and circulates within those geological structures. Although the proportion of the different chemical components dissolved in seawater is essentially constant over time, that water is not uniform: there are very important physical and chemical variations within the seawater. Salinity varies according to the relative balance between inputs of freshwater and evaporation. Differences in salinity and temperature of water masses can cause seawater to be stratified into separate layers. Such stratification can lead to variations in the distribution of both oxygen and nutrients, with an obvious variety of consequences in both cases for the biotas sensitive to those factors. A further variation is in the penetration of light, which controls where the photosynthesis on which nearly all ocean life depends can take place. Below a few tens of metres at the coastal level or a few hundred meters in the clearer open ocean, 7 the ocean becomes dark and there is no photosynthesis. Superimposed on all this is a change in the acidity of the ocean. The ocean absorbs annually about 26 per cent of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. That gas reacts with the seawater to form carbonic acid, which is making the ocean more acid. The ocean is strongly coupled with the atmosphere, mutually transferring substances (mostly gases), heat and momentum at its surface, forming a single coupled system. That system is influenced by the seasonal changes caused by the Earth’s tilted rotation with respect to the sun. Variations in sea-surface temperature among different parts of the ocean are important in creating winds, areas of high and low air pressure and storms (including the highly damaging hurricanes, typhoons and cyclones). In their turn, winds help to shape the surface currents of the ocean, which transport heat from the tropics towards the poles. The ocean surface water arriving in the cold polar regions partly freezes, rendering the remainder more saline and thus heavier. That more saline water sinks to the bottom and flows towards the equator, starting a return flow to the tropics: the meridional overturning circulation, also called the thermohaline circulation. A further overall forcing factor is the movements generated by the tidal system, 8 predominantly driven by the gravitational effect of the moon and sun. The movements of seawater help to control the distribution of nutrients in the ocean. The ocean enjoys both a steady (and, in some places, excessive) input from land of inorganic nutrients needed for plant growth (especially nitrogen, phosphorus and their compounds, but also lesser amounts of other vital nutrients) and a continuous recycling of all the nutrients already in the ocean through biogeochemical processes, including bacterial action. Areas of upwelling, where nutrient-rich water is brought to the surface, are particularly important, because they result in a high level of primary production from photosynthesis by phytoplankton in the zone of light penetration, combining carbon from atmospheric carbon dioxide with the other nutrients, and releasing oxygen back into the atmosphere. Whether in the water column or when it sinks to the seabed, that primary production constitutes the basis on which the oceanic food web is built, through each successive layer up to the top predators (large fish, marine mammals, 9 marine reptiles, seabirds and, through capture fisheries, humans). The distribution of living marine resources around the world is the outcome of that complex interplay of geological forms, ocean currents, nutrient fluxes, weather, seasons and sunlight. Not surprisingly, the resulting distribution of living resources reflects that complexity. Because some ocean areas have high levels of primary production, the density of living marine resources in those areas and the contiguous areas to which 6 7 8 9

See See See See

chap. 1. chaps. 1 and 4. chaps. 1 and 5. chaps. 1 and 6.

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currents carry that production is also high. Some of those areas of dense living marine resources are also areas of high biological diversity. The general level of biological diversity in the ocean is also high. For example, just under half of the world’s animal phyla are found only in the ocean, compared to one single phylum found only on land. Human uses of the ocean are shaped not only by the complex patterns of the physical characteristics of the ocean, of its currents and of the distribution of marine life, but also by the terrestrial conditions that have influenced the locations of human settlements, by economic pressures and by the social rules that have developed to control human activities — including national legislation, the law of the sea, international agreements on particular human uses of the sea and broader international 10 agreements that apply to both land and sea.

III.

Carrying out the Assessment

A.

Organization To carry out the complex task of assessing the environmental, social and economic aspects of the ocean, the General Assembly has established arrangements capable of bringing to bear the many different skills needed. After the holding of two international workshops to consider modalities for the Regular Process, the Assembly started the first phase in 2006, the Assessment of Assessments. This examined more than 1,200 ocean assessments — some regional, others global, some as thematically restricted as the status and trend of a single fish stock or pollutant in a specific area, others as broad as integrated assessments of entire marine ecosystems. The Assessment of Assessments resulted in conclusions on good practice in that field and in recommendations on how the task of carrying out fully integrated assessments might be approached. The General Assembly set up an Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole, which examined those conclusions and recommendations and put proposals to the Assembly. In 2009, the Assembly approved the framework for the Regular Process developed in that way. The framework consists of: (a) the overall objective for the Regular Process; (b) a description of the scope of the Regular Process; (c) a set of principles to guide its establishment and operation; and (d) best practices on key design features for the Regular Process, as identified in the Assessment of Assessments. The framework also provided that capacity-building, the sharing of data and information and the transfer of technology would be crucial elements. Between 2009 and 2011, the General Assembly set up, on the recommendation of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole, the main institutional arrangements for the Regular Process, namely: (a) The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole of the General Assembly on the Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects, which has overseen and guided the Process, meeting at least once a year. In 2011, the Working Group established a Bureau to put its decisions into practice during intersessional periods; (b) The Group of Experts of the Regular Process, which has the task of carrying out assessments within the framework of the Regular Process at the request of the Assembly and under the supervision of the Working Group. The Group of Experts is collectively responsible for its work on the Assessment. It consists of 22 members, for a maximum possible membership of 25, who are appointed through the regional groups within the Assembly. The work of the Group members has been either voluntary or supported by their parent institutions; (c) The Pool of Experts, which provides a pool of skilled support to assist with the wide range of issues that an assessment of the ocean, integrated across ecosystem 10

See chaps. 33 and 34.

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components, sectors and environmental, social and economic aspects, has to cover. The members of the Pool have been nominated by States through the chairs of the regional groups within the Assembly and are allocated tasks by the Bureau on the recommendations of the Group of Experts. The work of the Pool members has been either voluntary or supported by their parent institutions; (d) The secretariat of the Regular Process, which has been provided by the Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea of the United Nations. No additional staff were recruited specifically for this work, as it was to be carried out within the overall resource level of the Division; (e) Technical and scientific support for the Regular Process, which has been available, as a result of invitations from the Assembly, from the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the International Maritime Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the International Atomic Energy Agency; (f) Workshops, which have been held as forums where experts could make an input to the planning and development of the Assessment. Eight workshops have been held around the world to consider the scope and methods of the Assessment, the information available in the region where each was held and capacity-building needs in that region; (g) A website (www.worldoceanassessment.org), which has been established to make information about the Assessment available and to provide a means of communication among members of the Group of Experts and of the Pool of Experts. In its resolution 68/70 adopted on 9 December 2013, the General Assembly took note of the guidance to contributors adopted by the Bureau of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole (A/68/82 and Corr.1, annex II). In that guidance, it is stated that contributors are expected to act in their personal capacity as independent experts, and not as representatives of any Government or any other authority or organization. They should neither seek nor accept instructions from outside the Regular Process regarding their work on the preparation of the Assessment, although they are free to consult widely with other experts and with government officials, in order to ensure that their contributions are credible, legitimate and relevant. The Group of Experts proposed a draft outline for the first global integrated assessment of the marine environment. After detailed dialogue, revision and consideration by the Working Group, the outline was submitted in the report on the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole (A/67/87, annex II)and adopted by the General Assembly on 11 December 2012 in its resolution 67/78. On 29 December 2014, the Assembly took note in its resolution 69/245 of the updated outline contained in annex II to A/69/77. The chapters have been prepared by writing teams of one or more members. Conveners from the Group of Experts or the Pool of Experts have led those teams. One or more lead members from the Group of Experts has overseen the preparation of (or, in some cases, prepared) each draft chapter. In some cases, the draft chapters have been reviewed by one or more commentators and, in all cases, by the Group of Experts as a whole. Synthesis chapters (drawing together the main points from each part) and the present summary have been prepared by members of the Group of Experts. Notwithstanding the generous support of the hosts of the workshops and other support described in chapter 2, the production of the first World Ocean Assessment has been constrained by lack of resources. Apart from the costs of the workshops met by host States, support for the website from Australia and Norway and support by Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, the Republic of Korea, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America for the travel costs of the members of the Group of Experts from those countries, outgoings have been met from a voluntary trust fund set up by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Donations to that trust fund from Belgium, China, Côte d’Ivoire, Iceland, Ireland, Jamaica, New

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Zealand, Norway, Portugal, and the Republic of Korea have amounted to $315,000. Generous support to the Regular Process has also been provided, financially and technically, by the European Union, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission 11 and UNEP.

B.

Structure of the Assessment The Assessment is divided into the seven parts described below. Part I: summary The summary describes how the Assessment has been carried out, the overall assessment of the scale of human impact on the ocean, the overall value of the ocean to humans and the main pressures on the marine environment and human economic and social well-being. As guides for future action, it also sets out the gaps (general or partial) in knowledge and in capacity-building. Part II: context of the Assessment Chapter 1 is a broad, introductory survey of the role played by the ocean in the life of the planet, the ways in which the ocean functions, and humans’ relationships to the ocean. Chapter 2 explains in more detail the rationale for the Assessment and how it has been produced. Part III: assessment of major ecosystem services from the marine environment (other than provisioning services) Ecosystem services are those processes, products and features of natural ecosystems that support human well-being. Some (fish, hydrocarbons or minerals) are part of the market economy. Others are not marketed. Part III looks at the non-marketed ecosystem services that the ocean provides to the planet. It considers, first, the scientific understanding of those ecosystem services and then the Earth’s hydrological cycle, interactions between air and sea, primary production and oceanbased carbonate production. Finally, it looks at aesthetic, cultural, religious and spiritual ecosystem services (including some cultural objects that are in trade). Where relevant, it draws heavily on the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, with the aim of using the work of the Panel, not of duplicating or challenging it. Part IV: assessment of the cross-cutting issues of food security and food safety Part IV, which covers the one cross-cutting theme selected for examination, examines all aspects of the vital function of the ocean in providing food for humans. It draws substantially on information collected by FAO. The economic significance of employment in fisheries and aquaculture and the relationship those industries have with coastal communities are addressed, including gaps in capacity-building for developing countries. Part V: assessment of other human activities and the marine environment All other human activities that can impact on the ocean (other than those relating to food production) are covered in part V of the Assessment. To the extent that the available information allows, each chapter describes the location and scale of the activity, the economic benefits, employment and social role, environmental consequences (where appropriate), links to other activities and gaps in knowledge and capacity-building. Part VI: assessment of marine biological diversity and habitats 11

See chap. 2.

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Part VI: (a) gives an overview of marine biological diversity and what is known about it; (b) reviews the status and trends of, and pressures on, marine ecosystems, species and habitats that have been scientifically identified as threatened, declining or otherwise in need of special attention or protection; (c) examines the significant environmental, economic and social aspects of the conservation of marine species and habitats; and (d) identifies gaps in capacity to identify marine species and habitats that are recognized as threatened, declining or otherwise in need of special attention or protection, and to assess the environmental, social and economic aspects of the conservation of marine species and habitats. Part VII: overall assessment Finally, part VII considers the overall way in which the various human impacts cumulatively affect the ocean, and the overall benefits that humans draw from the 12 ocean.

IV.

Ten main themes Ten main themes emerge from the detailed examination set out in parts III to VI of the first World Ocean Assessment. The order in which they are presented does not reflect any assessment of the order of importance for action. The present Assessment has been prepared on the basis of the outline, in which it is stated that the First Global Integrated Marine Assessment will not include any analysis of policies. In the light of the dialogue in the Working Group, that limitation has been understood to include the prioritization of actions or the making of recommendations (A/69/77, annex II). Theme A Climate change and related changes in the atmosphere have serious implications for the ocean, including rises in sea level, higher levels of acidity in the ocean, the reduced mixing of ocean water and increasing deoxygenation. There are many uncertainties here, but the consensus is that increases in global temperature, in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and in the radiation from the sun that reaches the ocean have already had an impact on some aspects of the ocean and will produce further significant incremental changes over time. The basic mechanisms of change are understood but the ability to predict the detail of changes is limited. In many cases, the direction of change is known, but uncertainty remains about the timing and rate of 13 change, as well as its magnitude and spatial pattern. Theme B The exploitation of living marine resources has exceeded sustainable levels in many regions. In some jurisdictions, various combinations of management measures, positive incentives and changes to governance have allowed those historical trends to be reversed, but they persist in others. Where fisheries have imposed levels of mortality on fish stocks and wildlife populations above sustainable levels for some considerable time, those stocks have become depleted. Overexploitation has also brought about changes to ecosystems (for example, overfishing of herbivorous fish in parts of the Caribbean has led to the smothering of corals by algae). Overexploitation can also make fish stocks less productive by reducing the numbers of spawning fish, with adverse effects often amplified by the removal of the larger, older fish, which produce disproportionately more eggs of higher quality than younger, smaller individuals. At the same time, reproductive success is also being reduced by pollution, loss of habitat and other forms of disturbance, including climate change. All those factors result, more generally, in

12 13

See chap. 1. See also paras. 44-72 below.

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declining biological resources with important implications for food security and 14 biodiversity. Theme C With regard to the cross-cutting issue of food security and food safety (part IV), fish products are the major source of animal protein for a significant fraction of the world’s population, particularly in countries where hunger is widespread. Globally, the current mix of the global capture fisheries is near the ocean’s productive capacity, with catches on the order of 80 million tons. Ending overfishing (including illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing) and rebuilding depleted resources could result in a potential increase of as much as 20 per cent in yield, but this would require addressing the transitional costs (especially the social and economic costs) of rebuilding depleted stocks. In some areas, pollution and dead zones are also depressing the production of food from the sea. Smallscale fisheries are often also a critical source of livelihoods, as well as of food, for many poor residents in coastal areas. Rebuilding the resources on which they depend and moving to sustainable exploitation will potentially have important benefits for food security. The contribution of aquaculture to food security is growing rapidly and has greater potential for growth than capture fisheries, but it brings with it new or increased 15 pressures on marine ecosystems. Theme D There are clear patterns in biodiversity around the world. The pressures on marine biodiversity are increasing, particularly near large population centres and in areas, such as the open ocean, that have so far suffered only limited impacts. Crucial areas for biodiversity, the so-called biodiversity hotspots, often overlap with the areas critical for the provision of ecosystem services by the ocean. In some of those hotspots, the ecosystem services create the conditions for high biodiversity, while in others, both the rich biodiversity and the ecosystem services result independently from the local physical and oceanographic conditions. In both cases, many of those hotspots have become magnets for human uses, in order to take advantage of the economic and social benefits 16 that they offer. This creates enhanced potential for conflicting pressures. Theme E Increased use of ocean space, especially in coastal areas, create conflicting demands for dedicated marine space. This arises both from the expansion of long-standing uses of the ocean (such as fishing and shipping) and from newly developing uses (such as hydrocarbon extraction, mining and the generation of renewable energy conducted offshore). In most cases, those various activities are increasing without any clear overarching management system or a thorough evaluation of their cumulative impacts on the ocean environment, thus increasing the potential for conflicting and cumulative 17 pressures. Theme F The current, and growing, levels of population and industrial and agricultural production result in increasing inputs of harmful material and excess nutrients into the ocean. Growing concentrations of population can impose, and in many areas are imposing, levels of sewage discharge that are beyond the local carrying capacity and which cause harm to human health. Even if discharges of industrial effluents and emissions were restrained to the lowest levels in proportion to production that are currently practicable, continuing growth in production would result in increased inputs to the ocean. The growing use of plastics that degrade very slowly result in increased quantities reaching the ocean and have many adverse effects, including the creation of 14 15 16 17

See See See See

also also also also

paras. paras. paras. paras.

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large quantities of marine debris in the ocean, and negative impacts on marine life and on the aesthetic aspects of many ocean areas, and thus consequent socioeconomic 18 effects. Theme G Adverse impacts on marine ecosystems come from the cumulative impacts of a number of human activities. Ecosystems, and their biodiversity, that might be resilient to one form or intensity of impact can be much more severely affected by a combination of impacts: the total impact of several pressures on the same ecosystem often being much larger than the sum of the individual impacts. Where biodiversity has been altered, the resilience of ecosystems to other impacts, including climate change, is often reduced. Thus the cumulative impacts of activities that, in the past, seemed to be sustainable are resulting in major changes to some ecosystems and in a reduction in the ecosystem 19 services that they provide. Theme H The distribution around the world of the benefits drawn from the ocean is still very uneven. In some fields, this unevenness is due to the natural distribution of resources in areas under the jurisdiction of the various States (for example, hydrocarbons, minerals and some fish stocks). The distribution of some benefits is becoming less skewed: for example, the consumption of fish per capita in some developing countries is growing; the balance between cargoes loaded and unloaded in the ports of developing countries is moving closer to those in developed countries in tonnage terms. In many fields, however, including some forms of tourism and the general trade in fish, an imbalance remains between the developed and developing parts of the world. Significant differences in capacities to manage sewage, pollution and habitats also create inequities. Gaps in capacity-building hamper less developed countries in taking advantage of what the ocean can offer them, as well as reduce their capability to 20 address the factors that degrade the ocean. Theme I The sustainable use of the ocean cannot be achieved unless the management of all sectors of human activities affecting the ocean is coherent. Human impacts on the sea are no longer minor in relation to the overall scale of the ocean. A coherent overall approach is needed. This requires taking into account the effects on ecosystems of each of the many pressures, what is being done in other sectors and the way that they interact. As the brief summary above of the many processes at work in the ocean demonstrates, the ocean is a complex set of systems that are all interconnected. In all sectors, albeit unevenly, there has been a progressive, continuing development of management: from no regulation to the regulation of specific impacts, to the regulation of sector-wide impacts and finally to regulation taking account of aspects of all relevant sectors. Such a coherent approach to management requires a wider range of knowledge about the ocean. Many of the gaps in the knowledge that such an integrated approach requires are identified in the present Assessment. There are also widespread gaps in the skills needed to assess the ocean with respect to some aspects (for example, the integration of environmental, social and economic aspects). In many cases, there are gaps in the resources needed for the successful application of such knowledge and skills. Gaps in capacity-building are identified briefly at the end of the present summary, 21 and in more detail in parts III to VI.

18 19 20 21

See See See See

also also also also

paras. paras. paras. paras.

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123-151 152-166 167-186 187-196

below. below. below. below.

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Theme J There is the delay in implementing known solutions to problems that have already been identified as threatening to degrade the ocean further. In many fields, it has been shown that there are practicable, known measures to address many of the pressures described above. Such pressures are continuously degrading the ocean, thereby causing social and economic problems. Delays in implementing such measures, even if they are only partial and will leave more to be done, mean that we are unnecessarily incurring 22 those environmental, social and economic costs. Conclusion The 10 themes are described in more detail in section V below. As explained above, the order in which the themes are presented does not represent any judgement on their priority. Elements in those themes overlap, and the same issue may be relevant to more than one theme. The identification of knowledge gaps and capacity-building gaps follows in the final two sections of the summary.

V.

Further details on the 10 main themes

A.

Impacts of climate change and related changes in the atmosphere Changes Major features of the ocean are changing significantly as a result of climate change and related changes in the atmosphere. The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has been used, where climate is concerned, as the basis of the present assessment, as required in the outline (A/69/77, annex II). Sea-surface temperature The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has reaffirmed in its fifth report its conclusion that global sea-surface temperatures have increased since the late nineteenth century. Upper-ocean temperature (and hence its heat content) varies over multiple time scales, including seasonal, inter-annual (for example, those associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation), decadal and centennial periods. Depth-averaged ocean-temperature trends from 1971 to 2010 are positive (that is, they show warming) over most of the globe. The warming is more prominent in the northern hemisphere, especially in the North Atlantic. Zonally averaged upper-ocean temperature trends show warming at nearly all latitudes and depths. However, the greater volume of the ocean in the southern hemisphere increases the contribution of its warming to the global heat content. The ocean’s large mass and high heat capacity enable it to store huge amounts of energy, more than 1,000 times than that found in the atmosphere for an equivalent increase in temperature. The earth is absorbing more heat than it is emitting back into space, and nearly all that excess heat is entering the ocean and being stored there. The ocean has absorbed about 93 per cent of the combined extra heat stored by warmed air, sea, land, and melted ice between 1971 and 2010. During the past three decades, approximately 70 per cent of the world’s coastline has experienced significant increases in sea-surface temperature. This has been accompanied by an increase in the yearly number of extremely hot days along 38 per cent of the world’s coastline. Warming has also been occurring at a significantly earlier date in the year along approximately 36 per cent of the world’s temperate coastal areas (between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres). That warming is resulting in an increasingly poleward distribution of 23 many marine species.

22 23

See also paras. 197-202 below. See chap. 5.

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Sea-level rise It is very likely that extreme sea-level maxima have already increased globally since the 1970s, mainly as a result of global mean sea-level rise. That rise is due in part to anthropogenic warming, causing ocean thermal expansion and the melting of glaciers and of the polar continental ice sheets. Globally averaged sea level has thus risen by 3.2 mm a year for the past two decades, of which about a third is derived from thermal expansion. Some of the remainder is due to fluxes of freshwater from the continents, which have increased as a result of the melting of continental glaciers and ice sheets. Finally, regional and local sea-level changes are also influenced by natural factors, such as regional variability in winds and ocean currents, vertical movements of the land, isostatic adjustment of the levels of land in response to changes in physical pressures on it and coastal erosion, combined with human perturbations by change in land use and coastal development. As a result, sea levels will rise more than the global mean in some regions, and will actually fall in others. A 4°C warming by 2100 (which is predicted in the high-end emissions scenario in the report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) would lead, by the end of that period, to a median sea-level rise of nearly 1 24 metre above the 1980 to 1999 levels. Ocean acidification Rising concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are resulting in increased uptake of that gas by the ocean. There is no doubt that the ocean is absorbing more and more of it: about 26 per cent of the increasing emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide is absorbed by the ocean, where it reacts with seawater to form carbonic acid. The resulting acidification of the ocean is occurring at different rates around the seas, but is generally decreasing the levels of calcium carbonate dissolved in seawater, thus lowering the availability of carbonate ions, which are needed for the formation by marine species of shells and skeletons. In some areas, this could affect species that are 25 important for capture fisheries. Salinity Alongside broad-scale ocean warming, shifts in ocean salinity (salt content) have also occurred. The variations in the salinity of the ocean around the world result from differences in the balance between freshwater inflows (from rivers and glacier and icecap melt), rainfall and evaporation, all of which are affected by climate change. The shifts in salinity, which are calculated from a sparse historical observing system, suggest that at the surface, high-salinity subtropical ocean regions and the entire Atlantic basin have become more saline, while low-salinity regions, such as the western Pacific Warm Pool, and high-latitude regions have become even less saline. Since variations in salinity are one of the drivers of ocean currents, those changes can have an effect on the circulation of seawater and on stratification, as well as having a direct effect on the lives 26 of plants and animals by changing their environment. Stratification Differences in salinity and temperature among different bodies of seawater result in stratification, in which the seawater forms layers, with limited exchanges between them. Increases in the degree of stratification have been noted around the world, particularly in the North Pacific and, more generally, north of 40ºS. Increased stratification brings with it a decrease in vertical mixing in the ocean water column. This decreased mixing, in turn, reduces oxygen content and the extent to which the ocean is able to absorb heat and carbon dioxide, because less water from the lower layers is brought up to the surface, where such absorption takes place. Reductions in vertical 24 25 26

See chap. 4. See chaps. 5-7. See chaps. 4 and 5.

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mixing also impact the amount of nutrients brought up from lower levels into the zone 27 that sunlight penetrates, with consequent reductions in ecosystem productivity. Ocean circulation The intensified study of the ocean as part of the study of climate change has led to a much clearer understanding of the mechanisms of ocean circulation and its annual and decadal variations. As a result of changes in the heating of different parts of the ocean, patterns of variation in heat distribution across the ocean (such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation) are also changing. Those changes in patterns result in significant changes in weather patterns on land. Water masses are also moving differently in areas over continental shelves, with consequent effects on the distribution of species. There is evidence that the global circulation through the open ocean may also be changing, which might lead, over time, to reductions in the transfer of heat from the equatorial regions to the poles and into the ocean depths. Storms and other extreme weather events Increasing seawater temperatures provide more energy for storms that develop at sea. The scientific consensus is that this will lead to fewer but more intense tropical cyclones globally. Evidence exists that the observed expansion of the tropics since approximately 1979 is accompanied by a pronounced poleward migration of the latitude at which the maximum intensities of storms occur. This will certainly affect coastal areas that have 28 not been exposed previously to the dangers caused by tropical cyclones. Ultraviolet radiation and the ozone layer The ultraviolet (UV) radiation emitted by the sun in the UV-B range (280-315 nanometres wavelength) has a wide range of potentially harmful effects, including the inhibition of primary production by phytoplankton and cyanobacteria, changes in the structure and function of plankton communities and alterations of the nitrogen cycle. The ozone layer in the Earth’s stratosphere blocks most UV-B from reaching the ocean’s surface. Consequently, stratospheric ozone depletion since the 1970s has been a concern. International action (under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete 29 the Ozone Layer) to address that depletion has been taken, and the situation appears to have stabilized, although with some variation from year to year. Given those developments and the variations in the water depths to which UV-B penetrates, a consensus on the magnitude of the ozone-depletion effect on net primary production and nutrient cycling has yet to be reached. There is, however, a potential effect of 30 ultraviolet on nanoparticles. Implications for human well-being and biodiversity Changes in seasonal life cycles in the ocean It has been predicted under some climate change scenarios that up to 60 per cent of the current biomass in the ocean could be affected, either positively or negatively, resulting in disruptions to many existing ecosystem services. For example, modelling studies of species with strong temperature preferences, such as skipjack and bluefin tuna, predict 31 major changes in range and/or decreases in productivity. The effects are found in all regions. For example, in the North-West Atlantic, the combination of changes in feeding patterns triggered by overfishing and changes in climate formed the primary pressures thought to have brought about shifts in species composition amounting to a full regime change, from one dominated by cod to one 27 28 29 30 31

See chaps. 1 and 4-6. See chap. 5. United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1522, No. 26369. See theme F above and chap. 6. See chaps. 42 and 52.

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dominated by crustacea. Even in the open ocean, climate warming will increase ocean stratification in some broad areas, reduce primary production and/or result in a shift in productivity to smaller species (from diatoms of 2-200 microns to picoplankton of 0.2-2 microns) of phytoplankton. This has the effect of changing the efficiency of the transfer of energy to other parts of the food web, causing biotic changes over major regions of 32 the open ocean, such as the equatorial Pacific. Loss of sea ice in high latitudes and associated ecosystems The high-latitude ice-covered ecosystems host globally significant arrays of biodiversity, and the size and nature of those ecosystems make them critically important to the biological, chemical and physical balance of the biosphere. Biodiversity in those systems has developed remarkable adaptations to survive both extreme cold and highly variable climatic conditions. High-latitude seas are relatively low in biological productivity, and ice algal communities, unique to those latitudes, play a particularly important role in system dynamics. Ice algae are estimated to contribute more than 50 per cent of the primary production in the permanently ice-covered central Arctic. As sea-ice cover declines, this productivity may decline and open water species may increase. The high-latitude ecosystems are undergoing change at a rate more rapid than in other places on earth. In the past 100 years, average Arctic temperatures have increased at almost twice the average global rate. Reduced sea ice, especially a shift towards less multi-year sea ice, will affect a wide range of species in those waters. For example, owing to low reproductive rates and long lifetimes, some iconic species (including the polar bear) will be challenged to adapt to the current fast warming of the Arctic and 33 may be extirpated from portions of their range within the next 100 years. Plankton Phytoplankton and marine bacteria carry out most of the primary production on which food webs depend. The climate-driven increases in the temperature of the upper ocean that had been predicted are now causing shifts in phytoplankton communities. This may have profound effects on net primary production and nutrient cycles over the next 100 years. In general, when smaller plankton account for most net primary production, as is typically the case in oligotrophic open-ocean waters (that is, areas where levels of nutrients are low), net primary production is lower and the microbial food web dominates energy flows and nutrient cycles. Under such conditions, the carrying capacity for currently harvestable fish stocks is lower and exports of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus to the deep sea may be smaller. On the other hand, as the upper ocean warms, the geographic range of nitrogen-fixing plankton (diazotrophs) will expand. This could enhance the fixation of nitrogen by as much as 35-65 per cent by 2100. This would lead to an increase in net primary production, and therefore an increase in carbon uptake, and some species of a higher trophic level may become more productive. The balance between those two changes is unclear. A shift towards less primary production would have serious implications for human food security and the support of 34 marine biodiversity. Fish stock distribution As seawater temperatures increase, the distribution of many fish stocks and the fisheries that depend upon them is shifting. While the broad pattern is one of stocks moving poleward and deeper in order to stay within waters that meet their temperature preference, the picture is by no means uniform, nor are those shifts happening in 32 33 34

See chaps. 6 and 36A. See chaps. 36G, 36H and 37. See chap. 6.

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concert for the various species. Increasing water temperatures will also increase metabolic rates and, in some cases, the range and productivity of some stocks. The result is changes in ecosystems occurring at various rates ranging from near zero to very rapid. Research on those effects is scattered, with diverse results, but as ocean climate continues to change, those considerations are of increasing concern for food production. Greater uncertainty for fisheries results in social, economic and food 35 security impacts, complicating sustainable management. Seaweeds and seagrasses Cold-water seaweeds, in particular kelps, have reproductive regimes that are temperature-sensitive. Increase in seawater temperature affects their reproduction and survival, which will consequently affect their population distribution and harvest. Kelp die-offs have already been reported along the coasts of Europe, and changes in species distribution have been noted in Northern Europe, Southern Africa and Southern Australia, with warm-water-tolerant species replacing those that are intolerant of warmer water. The diminished kelp harvest reduces what is available for human food and the supply of substances derived from kelp that are used in industry and pharmaceutical and food preparation. Communities with kelp-based livelihoods and economies will be affected. For seagrasses, increased seawater temperatures have been implicated in the occurrence of a wasting disease that decimated seagrass meadows in the north-eastern and northwestern parts of the United States. Changes in species distribution and the loss of kelp forest and seagrass beds have resulted in changes in the ways that those two ecosystems provide food, habitats and nursery areas for fish and shellfish, with 36 repercussions on fishing yields and livelihoods. Shellfish productivity Because of the acidification of the ocean, impacts on the production by shellfish of their calcium carbonate shells has already been observed periodically at aquaculture facilities, hindering production. As acidification intensifies, this problem will become more widespread, and occur in wild, as well as in cultured, stocks. However, like all other ocean properties, acidification is not evenly distributed, so that the effects will not be uniform across areas and there will be substantial variation over small spatial scales. In addition, temperature, salinity and other changes will also change shellfish distributions and productivity, positively or negatively in different areas. As with fishing, the course of those changes is highly uncertain and may be disruptive to existing 37 shellfish fisheries and aquaculture. Low-lying coasts Sea-level rise, due to ocean warming and the melting of land ice, poses a significant threat to coastal systems and low-lying areas around the world, through inundations, the erosion of coastlines and the contamination of freshwater reserves and food crops. To a large extent, such effects are inevitable, as they are the consequences of conditions already in place, but they could have devastating effects if mitigation options are not pursued. Entire communities on low-lying islands (including States such as Kiribati, Maldives and Tuvalu) have nowhere to retreat to within their islands and have therefore no alternative but to abandon their homes entirely, at a cost they are often ill-placed to bear. Coastal regions, particularly some low-lying river deltas, have very high population densities. Over 150 million people are estimated to live on land that is no more than 1 metre above today’s high-tide levels, and 250 million at elevations within five metres of that level. Because of their high population densities, coastal cities are particularly

35 36 37

See chaps. 36A-H and 52. See chaps. 14 and 47. See chaps. 5, 11 and 52.

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vulnerable to sea-level rise in concert with other effects of climate change, such as 38 changes in storm patterns. Coral reefs Corals are subject to “bleaching” when the seawater temperature is too high: they lose the symbiotic algae that give coral its colour and part of its nutrients. Coral bleaching was a relatively unknown phenomenon until the early 1980s, when a series of local bleaching events occurred, principally in the eastern tropical Pacific and Wider Caribbean regions. Severe, prolonged or repeated bleaching can lead to the death of coral colonies. An increase of only 1°C to 2°C above the normal local seasonal maximum can induce bleaching. Although most coral species are susceptible to bleaching, their thermal tolerance varies. Many heat-stressed or bleached corals subsequently die from coral diseases. Rising temperatures have accelerated bleaching and mass mortality during the past 25 years. The bleaching events in 1998 and 2005 caused high coral mortality at many reefs, with little sign of recovery. Global analysis shows that this widespread threat has significantly damaged most coral reefs around the world. Where recovery has taken place, it has been strongest on reefs that were highly protected from human pressures. However, a comparison of the recent and accelerating thermal stress events with the slow recovery rate of most reefs suggests that temperature increase is outpacing recovery. Losses of coral reefs can have negative effects on fish production and fisheries, coastal protection, ecotourism and other community uses of coral reefs. Current scientific data and modelling predict that most of the world’s tropical and subtropical coral reefs, particularly those in shallow waters, will suffer from annual bleaching by 2050, and will eventually become functionally extinct as sources of goods and services. This will have not only profound effects on small island developing States and subsistence fishermen in low-latitude coastal areas, but also locally significant effects even in major 39 economies, such as that of the United States. Submarine cables Submarine cables have always been at risk of breaks from submarine landslides, mainly at the edge of the continental shelf. As the pattern of cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons changes, submarine areas that have so far been stable may become less so and thus produce submarine landslides and consequent cable breaks. With the increasing dependence of world trade on the Internet, such breaks (in addition to breaks from other causes, such as ship anchors and bottom trawling) could delay or interrupt 40 communications vital to that trade. Eutrophication problems Where there are narrow continental shelves, some wind conditions can bring nutrientrich, oxygen-poor water up into coastal waters, and produce hypoxic (low-oxygen) or even anoxic conditions (the implications of which are described under theme F). Changes in ocean circulation appear to be enhancing those effects. Examples of this can be found on the western coasts of the American continent immediately north and south of the equator, the western coast of sub-Saharan Africa and the western coast of the 41 Indian subcontinent. Opening of Arctic shipping routes Although the number of ships transiting Arctic waters is currently low, it has been escalating for the past decade, and the retreat of the polar sea ice as a result of 38 39 40 41

See See See See

chap. 4. chaps. 34, 36D and 43. chap. 19. chaps. 6 and 20.

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planetary warming means that there are increasing possibilities for shipping traffic between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans around the north of the American and Eurasian continents during the northern summer. The movement of species between the Pacific and the Atlantic demonstrates the scale of the potential impact. Those routes are shorter and may be more economic, but shipping brings with it increased risks of marine pollution both from acute disasters and chronic pollution and the potential introduction of invasive non-native species. The very low rate at which bacteria can break down spilled oil in polar conditions and the general low recovery rate of polar ecosystems mean that damage from such pollution would be very serious. Furthermore, the response and clear-up infrastructure found in other ocean basins is largely lacking today around the Arctic Ocean. Those factors would make such problems even worse. Over time, the increased commercial shipping traffic through the Arctic Ocean and the noise 42 disturbance it creates may also displace marine mammals away from critical habitats.

B.

Higher mortality and less successful reproduction of marine biotas Captures of fish stocks at levels above maximum sustainable yield Globally, the levels of capture fisheries are near the ocean’s productive capacity, with catches on the order of 80 million tons. Exploitation inevitably reduces total population biomass through removals. As long as the fish stock can compensate through increased productivity because the remaining individuals face less competition for access to food and therefore grow faster and produce more progeny, then fishing can be sustained. However, when the rate of exploitation becomes faster than the stock can compensate through increasing growth and reproduction, the removal level becomes unsustainable and the stock declines. The concept of “maximum sustainable yield”, entrenched in international legal instruments such as the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and 43 Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, is based on the inherent trade-off between increasing harvests and decreasing the ability of a smaller resulting population to compensate for the removals. At present, about one quarter of all assessed fish stocks are being overfished and more are still recovering from past overfishing. This is undermining the contribution that they could make to food security. Ending overfishing is a precondition for allowing stocks to rebuild. Other stocks may still be categorized as “fully exploited” despite being on the borderline of overfishing. Those could produce greater yields if effectively managed. There are only a few means available to increase yields. Ending overfishing, eliminating illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, bringing all fishery yields under effective management and rebuilding depleted resources may result in an increase of as much as 20 per cent in potential yield, provided that the transitional economic and social costs of rebuilding depleted stocks can be addressed. Overfishing can also undermine the biodiversity needed to sustain marine ecosystems. Without careful management, such impacts on biodiversity will endanger some of the most vulnerable human populations and marine habitats around the world, as well as threaten food security and other important socioeconomic aspects (such as 44 livelihoods).

42 43 44

See chaps. 20 and 36G. United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 2167, No. 37924. See chaps. 10, 11 and 15.

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Impacts of changes in breeding and nursery areas Changes in breeding and nursery areas are best documented for the larger marine predators. For seabirds, globally, the greatest pressure is caused by invasive species (mainly rats and other predators acting at breeding sites). That pressure potentially affects 73 threatened seabird species — 75 per cent of the total and nearly twice as many as any other single threat. The remaining most significant pressures are fairly evenly divided between those faced mainly at breeding sites, namely problematic native species, human disturbance and the loss of historical breeding and nursery sites to urban development (commercial, residential or infrastructural), and those faced mainly at sea, particularly by-catch in longlines, gillnets and trawl fisheries, when birds are foraging or moulting, migrating or in aggregations. The ingestion of marine plastic debris is also significant. For marine reptiles, decades of overharvesting of marine turtle eggs on nesting beaches have driven the long-term decline of some breeding populations. In some areas, tourist development has also affected reproductive success at historical turtle nesting beaches. All this has rendered them more vulnerable to fishery by-catch 45 and other threats. Similar pressures apply to marine mammals. Levels of by-catch (non-target fish, marine mammals, reptiles and seabirds), discards and waste Current estimates of the number of overfished stocks do not take into account the broader effects of fishing on marine ecosystems and their productivity. In the past, large numbers of dolphins drowned in fishing nets. This mortality greatly reduced the abundance of several dolphin species in the latter half of the twentieth century. Thanks to international efforts, fishing methods have changed and the by-catch has been reduced significantly. Commercial fisheries are the most serious pressure at sea that the world’s seabirds face, although there is evidence of some reductions of by-catch in some key fisheries. Each year, incidental by-catch in longline fisheries is estimated to kill at least 160,000 albatrosses and petrels, mainly in the southern hemisphere. For marine reptiles, a threat assessment scored fishery by-catch as the highest threat across marine turtle subpopulations, followed by harvesting (that is, for human consumption) and coastal development. The mitigation of those causes of mortality can be effective, even though the lack of reliable data can hamper the targeting of mitigation measures. Depending on the particular species and fishery methods, mitigation may include the use of acoustic deterrents, gear modifications, time or area closures and gear switching (for example, from gillnets to hooks and lines). In particular, the global moratorium on all large-scale pelagic drift-net fishing called for by the General Assembly in 1991 was a major step in limiting the by-catch of several marine mammal and seabird species that were especially 46 vulnerable to entanglement. Impact of hazardous substances and eutrophication problems on reproduction and survival Each of the reviews of regional biodiversity in part VI of the present Assessment reported at least some instances of threats from hazardous substances. To give some examples, in the South Pacific, localized declines in species densities, assemblages and spatial distributions are being observed, particularly in areas close to population centres where overfishing, pollution from terrestrial run-off and sewage and damage from coastal developments are occurring. In the North Atlantic, impacts on the benthos have been particularly well documented, although their nature depends on the type, intensity and duration of the pollution or nutrient input. Persistent pressures of that type have been documented to alter greatly the species composition and biomass of the benthos directly and indirectly, through processes such as the formation of dead zones and hypoxic zones as a result of eutrophication problems and seawater circulation 45 46

See chaps. 28 and 37-39. See chaps. 11 and 37-39.

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changes driven by climate change. Even in the open ocean, evidence is increasing for chemical contamination of deep-pelagic animals. Although the pathways for such contaminations are not well known, high concentrations of heavy metals and persistent 47 organic pollutants have been reported. Impacts of disturbance from noise Anthropogenic noise in the ocean increased in the last half of the past century. Commercial shipping is the main source, and the noise that it produces is often in frequency bands used by many marine mammals for communication. Many other types of marine biotas have also been shown to be affected by anthropogenic noise. Other significant sources of noise are seismic exploration for the offshore hydrocarbon industry and sonar. The impact of noise can be both to disrupt communication among animals and to displace them from their preferred breeding, nursery or feeding grounds, 48 with consequent potential effects on their breeding success and survival. Impacts of recreational fishing Recreational fishing is a popular activity in many industrialized countries, in which up to 10 per cent of the adult population may participate. The impact of that type of fishing is only sometimes taken into account in fishery management, although the quantities caught can be significant for the management of stocks experiencing overfishing. In several countries, there is a substantial industry supporting the recreational catching of sport fish (including trophy fish, such as marlins, swordfish and sailfish), but catch 49 statistics are generally not available. Implications for human well-being and biodiversity Food resources The overfishing of some fish stocks is reducing the yield realized from those stocks. Such reductions in yield are likely to undermine food security. The role of fisheries in food 50 security is further considered below. Species structure of highly productive sea areas Many human activities have been documented to have impacts on marine life living on the seabed (benthic communities). The adverse effects of mobile bottom-contacting fishing gear on coastal and shelf benthic communities have been documented essentially everywhere that such gear has been used. Bottom trawling has caused the destruction of a number of long-lived cold-water coral and sponge communities that are unlikely to recover before at least a century. Many reviews show that, locally, the nature of those impacts and their duration depend on the type of substrate and frequency of 51 trawling. Those effects have been found in all the regional assessments. With regard to fish and pelagic invertebrate communities, much effort has been devoted to teasing apart the influences of exploitation and of environmental conditions as drivers of change in fish populations and communities, but definitive answers are elusive. Most studies devote attention to explaining variation among coastal fishcommunity properties in terms of features of the physical and chemical habitats (including temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrient levels, clarity of, and pollutants in, the water column) and of depth, sediment types, benthic communities, contaminant levels, oxygen levels and disturbance of the sea floor. All of those factors have been shown to influence fish-community composition and structure in at least some coastal areas of each ocean basin. 47 48 49 50 51

See See See See See

chaps. 36A-H. chaps. 17, 21 and 37. chaps. 28, 40 and 41. chap. 11. chaps. 36A-H, 42, 51 and 52.

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The scale at which a fish-community structure is determined and its variation is documented can be even more local, because some important drivers of change in coastal fish communities are themselves very local in scale, such as coastal infrastructure development. Other obvious patterns are recurrent, such as increasing mortality rates (whether from exploitation or coastal pollution) leading both to fish communities with fewer large fish and to an increase in species with naturally high turnover rates. However, some highly publicized projections of the loss of all commercial fisheries or of all large predatory fish by the middle of the current century 52 have not withstood critical review.

C.

Food security and food safety Seafood products, including finfish, invertebrates and seaweeds, are a major component of food security around the world. They are the major source of protein for a significant fraction of the global population, in particular in countries where hunger is widespread. Even in the most developed countries, the consumption of fish is increasing both per 53 capita and in absolute terms, with implications for both global food security and trade. Fisheries and aquaculture are a major employer and source of livelihoods in coastal States. Significant economic and social benefits result from those activities, including the provision of a key source of subsistence food and much-needed cash for many of the world’s poorest peoples. As a mainstay of many coastal communities, fisheries and aquaculture play an important role in the social fabric of many areas. Small-scale fisheries, particularly those that provide subsistence in many poor communities, are often particularly important. Many such coastal fisheries are under threat because of overexploitation, conflict with larger fishing operations and a loss of productivity in coastal ecosystems caused by a variety of other impacts. Those include habitat loss, pollution and climate change, as well as the loss of access to space as coastal economies 54 and uses of the sea diversify. Capture fisheries Globally, capture fisheries are near the ocean’s productive capacity, with catches on the order of 80 million metric tons. Only a few means to increase yield are available. Addressing sustainability concerns more effectively (including ending overfishing, eliminating illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, rebuilding depleted resources and reducing the broader ecosystem impacts of fisheries and the adverse impacts of pollution) is an important aspect of improving fishery yields and, therefore, food security. For example, ending overfishing and rebuilding depleted resources may result in an increase of as much as 20 per cent in potential yield, provided that the transitional 55 costs of rebuilding depleted stocks can be addressed. In 2012, more than one quarter of fish stocks worldwide were classified by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations as overfished. Although those stocks will clearly benefit from rebuilding once overfishing has ended, other stocks may still be categorized as fully exploited despite being on the borderline of overfishing. Such stocks could yield more if effective governance mechanisms were in place. Current estimates of the number of overfished stocks do not take into account the broader effects of fishing on marine ecosystems and their productivity. Those impacts, including by-catch, habitat modification and effects on the food web, significantly affect the ocean’s capacity to continue to produce food sustainably and must be carefully

52 53 54 55

See See See See

chaps. 10, 11, 15, 34, 36A-H and 52. chap. 10. chap. 15. chaps. 11, 13, 36A-H and 52.

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managed. Fish stock propagation may provide a tool to help to rebuild depleted fishery 56 resources in some instances. Fishing efforts are subsidized by many mechanisms around the world, and many of those subsidies undermine the net economic benefits to States. Subsidies that encourage overcapacity and overfishing result in losses for States, and those losses are often borne by communities dependent on fishery resources for their livelihood and 57 food security. Aquaculture Aquaculture production, including seaweed culture, is increasing more rapidly than any other source of food production in the world. Such growth is expected to continue. Aquaculture, not including the culture of seaweeds, now provides half of the fish products covered in global statistics. Aquaculture and capture fisheries are codependent in some ways, as feed for cultured fish is in part provided by capture fisheries, but they are competitors for space in coastal areas, markets and, potentially, other resources. Significant progress has been made in replacing feed sources from capture fisheries with agricultural production. Aquaculture itself poses some environmental challenges, including potential pollution, competition with wild fishery resources, potential contamination of gene pools, disease problems and loss of habitat. Examples of those 58 challenges, and measures that can mitigate them, have been observed worldwide. Social issues In both capture fisheries and aquaculture, gender and other equity issues arise. A significant number of women are employed in both types of activities, either directly or in related activities along the value chain. Women are particularly prominent in product processing, but often their labour is not equitably compensated and working conditions do not meet basic standards. Poor communities are often subject to poorer market 59 access, unsafe working conditions and other inequitable practices. Food safety Food safety is a key worldwide challenge for all food production and delivery sectors, including all parts of the seafood industry, from capture or culture to retail marketing. That challenge is of course also faced by subsistence fisheries. In the food chain for fishery products, potential problems need to be assessed, managed and communicated to ensure that they can be addressed. The goal of most food safety systems is to avoid risk and prevent problems at the source. The risks come from contamination from pathogens (particularly from discharges of untreated sewage and animal waste) and toxins (often from algal blooms). The severity of the risk also depends on individual health, consumption levels and susceptibility. There are international guidelines to address those risks but substantial resources are required in order to continue to build the capacity to implement and monitor safety protocols from the water to the consumer.

D.

Patterns of biodiversity A basic, but key, conclusion of the present Assessment is that there are clear patterns of biodiversity, both globally and regionally. A key question is whether there are consistent large-scale patterns of biodiversity, governed by underlying factors that constrain the distribution of the wide range of marine life across the wide variety of habitats. Globalscale studies to explore this question began long ago and have grown substantially in the past decade. The enormous amounts of data collected and compiled by the Census 56 57 58 59

See See See See

chap. chap. chap. chap.

13. 15. 12. 15.

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of Marine Life enable exploration and the mapping of patterns across more taxonomic groups than ever before, thus facilitating an understanding of the consistency of patterns of biodiversity. Perhaps the most common large-scale biodiversity pattern on the planet is the “latitudinal gradient”, typically expressed as a decline in the variety of species from the equator to the poles. Adherence to that pattern varies among marine taxa. Although coastal species generally peak in abundance near the equator and decline towards the poles, seals show the opposite pattern. Furthermore, strong longitudinal gradients (east-west) complicate patterns, with hotspots of biodiversity across multiple species groups in the coral triangle of the Indo-Pacific, in the Caribbean and elsewhere. Oceanic organisms, such as whales, differ in pattern entirely, with species numbers consistently peaking at mid-latitudes between the equator and the poles. This pattern defies the common equator-pole gradient, suggesting that different factors are at play. Various processes may also control the difference in species richness between the oceanic and coastal environments (for example, in terms of dispersal, mobility or habitat structure), but general patterns appear to be reasonably consistent within each group. However, across all groups studied, ocean temperature is consistently related to species diversity, making the effects of climate change likely to be felt as a restructuring factor of marine community diversity. Although the patterns above hold for the species studied, numerous groups and regions have not yet been examined. For example, global-scale patterns of diversity in the deep sea remain largely unknown. Knowledge of diversity and distribution is biased towards large, charismatic species (for example, whales) or economically valuable species (for example, tuna). Our knowledge of patterns in microbial organisms remains particularly limited relative to the considerable biodiversity of those species. Enormous challenges remain even to measure this. Viruses remain another critical part of the oceanic system of which we lack any global-scale biodiversity knowledge. Patterns of global marine biodiversity, other than species richness, are only just beginning to be explored. For example, investigations suggest that, globally, the higher the latitude at which a reef is located, the greater the evenness in the number of individuals of each species tend to be in that reef. Such a pattern, in turn, affects functional richness, which relates to the diversity of function in reef fish, a potentially important component of ecosystem productivity, resilience and provision of goods and 60 services. Implications Location of biodiversity hotspots and their relationship to the location of high levels of ecosystem services Although marine life is found everywhere in the ocean, biodiversity hotspots exist where the number of species and the concentration of biotas are consistently high relative to adjacent areas. Some are subregional, such as the coral triangle in the IndoPacific, the coral reefs in the Caribbean, the cold-water corals in the Mediterranean and the Sargasso Sea. Some are more local and associated with specific physical conditions, such as biodiversity-rich habitat types. Key drivers of biodiversity are complex threedimensional physical structures that create a diversity of physical habitats (associated with rocky sea floors), dynamic oceanographic conditions causing higher bottom-up productivity, effects of land-based inputs extending far out to sea (such as the inputs from the River Amazon) and special vegetation features creating unique and productive habitats near the shore. Those complex habitats, however, are often highly vulnerable to disturbance.

60

See chaps. 34, 35 and 36A-H.

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The high relative and absolute biodiversity of those hotspots often directly supports the extractive benefits of fishing and other harvests, providing a direct link between biodiversity and the provision of services by the ocean. The areas supporting high relative and absolute levels of biodiversity not only harbour unique species adapted to their special features, but also often serve as centres for essential life-history stages of species with wider distributions. For example, essentially all the biodiversity hotspots that have been identified have also been found to harbour juvenile fish, which are important for fisheries in adjacent areas. Hotspots for primary productivity are necessarily also hotspots for production of oxygen as a direct result of photosynthesis. Furthermore, underlying the high biodiversity is often a high structural complexity of the habitats that support it. That structure often contributes other services, such as coastal protection and regeneration. In addition, it is the concentrated presence of iconic species in an area which adds to aesthetic services 61 (supporting tourism and recreation) and spiritual and cultural services. Biodiversity and economic activity Sometimes, because of the special physical features that contribute to high biodiversity, and sometimes because of the concentration of biodiversity itself, many societies and industries are most active in areas that are also biodiversity hotspots. As on land, humanity has found the greatest social and economic benefits in the places in the ocean that are highly productive and structurally complex. For example, 22 of the 32 largest cities in the world are located on estuaries; mangroves and coral reefs support smallscale (artisanal) fisheries in developing countries. Biodiversity hotspots tend to attract human uses and become socioeconomic hotspots. Hence biodiversity-rich areas have a disproportionately high representation of ports and coastal infrastructure, other intensive coastal land uses, fishing activities and aquaculture. This is one of the major 62 challenges to the sustainable use of marine biodiversity. Some marine features, such as seamounts, often found in areas beyond national jurisdiction, have high levels of biodiversity, frequently characterized by the presence of many species not found elsewhere. Significant numbers of the species mature late, and therefore reproduce slowly. High levels of fishing have rapidly undermined the biodiversity of many such features, and risk continuing to do so in the absence of careful 63 management. New forms of economic activity in the open ocean, such as seabed mining, and the expansion of existing forms of activity, such as hydrocarbon extraction, have the potential to have major impacts on its biodiversity, which is to date poorly known. Without careful management of those activities, there is a risk that the biodiversity of 64 areas affected could be destroyed before it is properly understood.

E.

Increased use of ocean space The world is seeing a greatly intensified use of ocean space. Since around the middle of the nineteenth century, there has been a great growth in the range of human activities in the ocean, each demanding its share of ocean space. At the same time, and in consequence, the regulation of activities in the ocean has increased. In a campaign to draw attention to this, the fishermen of the Netherlands coined the slogan “Fishing on a postage stamp”, arguing that, by the time that all the other uses of the exclusive economic zone of the Netherlands (shipping lanes, offshore oil and gas extraction, sand and gravel extraction, dumping of dredged material, offshore wind-power installations, submarine cables and pipelines, etc.) had been allocated their spaces, not much space 61 62 63 64

See See See See

chaps. chaps. chaps. chaps.

8, 34, 36A-H and 52. 26, 34 and 36A-H. 36F and 51. 21-23 and 36F.

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was left for their traditional fishing activities. Whether or not their activities were actually restricted, their slogan drew attention to a challenge faced all around the world as increasing demands are made for space for ocean-based activities. Not all the uses of ocean space within national jurisdictions have the same implications. Some uses effectively exclude most other concurrent uses, for example where fishing rights for benthic species (such as oysters) in areas of national jurisdiction have been allocated to individual proprietors, where tourism would be hampered by other developments or where “no-take” marine protected areas have been created. Others may have a global distribution, but may have a lesser impact, such as shipping lanes and submarine cables. Yet others have, at least so far, only localized impacts, usually determined by the availability of some local resource. Those are likely to be intensive, limiting other uses in the areas where they occur, for example aquaculture, offshore oil and gas extraction, sand and gravel extraction and offshore wind-power installations. Those differing implications of the developments in human uses of the ocean are important for policy decisions on how, and at what level (national, regional, global), 65 activities should be best managed. Increased coastal population and urbanization (including tourism) A large proportion of humans live in the coastal zone: 38 per cent of the world’s population live within 100 km of the shore, 44 per cent within 150 km, 50 per cent within 200 km, and 67 per cent within 400 km. This proportion is steadily increasing. Consequently, there are growing demands for land in the coastal zone. Land reclamation has therefore been taking place on a large scale in many countries, particularly by reclaiming salt marshes, intertidal flats and mangroves. At the same time, where coastal land is threatened by erosion, large stretches of natural coastline have been replaced by “armoured”, artificial coastal structures. Those can significantly affect coastal currents and the ability of marine biotas to use the coast as part of their habitat. Tourist developments have also significantly increased the lengths of artificial coastline. Changes in river management, such as the construction of dams, and the building of coastal infrastructures, such as ports, can significantly change the sedimentation pattern along coasts. Such changes can increase coastal erosion and promote other coastal changes, sometimes with the effect that coastal land is lost for its current use, 66 producing demands for replacement space. Aquaculture and marine ranching Increases in aquaculture, which is growing rapidly, and in marine ranching, which has substantial growth potential, require extensive ocean space as well as clean waters and, often, the dedicated use of an unpolluted seabed. Those requirements can result in conflicts with other uses, including, in some cases, the aesthetic or cultural values of sea areas. Similar demands for ocean space are also made by industries concerned with the production of cultural goods, such as pearls. Problems will result if management of such expansion is not integrated with that of other sectors. Shipping routes and ports World shipping has been growing consistently for the past three decades. Between 1980 and 2013, the annual tonnage carried in the five main shipping trades increased by 158 per cent. Although the use of ocean space by a ship is not continuous, on the more densely trafficked routes, shipping lanes cannot be used safely for other activities, even where those activities themselves are intermittent. Some of the ranges of the largest populations of seabirds in the northern hemisphere are intersected by major shipping routes, with consequent risk of disturbance to the wildlife and mortality from chronic or catastrophic oil and other spills. 65 66

See chaps. 12, 17, 19, 21-24 and 28. See chaps. 18, 26, 28, 48 and 49.

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The fundamental change in general cargo shipping (from loose bulk to containerized) has also produced a total change in the nature of the ports that act as terminals for that traffic, as large areas of flat land are needed for handling containers, both on departure and arrival. That land has, in many cases, been provided by means of land reclamation. As shipping traffic continues to grow, further substantial areas of land will be required. Dredging to create ports and to maintain navigation channels produces large amounts of dredged material that has to be disposed of. Most of that material is dumped at sea, 67 where it smothers any biota on the seabed. Submarine cables and pipelines The vital role that submarine cables now play in all forms of communication through the Internet — whether for academic, commercial, governmental or recreational purposes — means that there will continue to be a demand for more capacity, and hence for more submarine cables. Although submarine cables (and any protective corridors around them) cover only very narrow strips of seabed, they introduce a line break across the seabed that prevents other activities from spreading across it. Submarine cables will therefore continue to neutralize increasing segments of the seabed for any purpose that impinges on the seabed. Submarine pipelines are unlikely ever to venture into the open-ocean areas where many submarine cables have to be laid, but they have a growing role for transporting oil and gas through coastal zones and between continents and their adjacent islands. In some ways, therefore, their increased demand 68 for seabed space is likely to be in areas where there are demands from other uses. Offshore hydrocarbon industries The growth of the offshore oil and gas industry has increased the demand by that sector for access to ocean space within areas under national jurisdiction (including space for pipelines to bring the hydrocarbon products ashore). More than 620,000 km² (almost 9 per cent) of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of Australia is subject to oil and gas leases. In the United States, about 550,000 km² of the whole EEZ is subject to current oil and gas leases, including 470,000 km² in the Gulf of Mexico, representing 66 per cent of the EEZ of the United States in that area. When such significant proportions of the ocean areas under national jurisdiction are thus subject to such prior claims, overlaps in sectoral interests become inevitable. Offshore mining Offshore mining is currently confined to shallow-water coastal regions, although growing exploration activity is focused on deep-sea minerals. About 75 per cent of the world’s tin, 11 per cent of gold, and 13 per cent of platinum are extracted from the placer deposits near the surface of the coastal seabed, where they have been concentrated by waves and currents. Diamonds are also an important mining target. Aggregates (sand, coral, gravel and seashells) are also important: the United Kingdom, the world’s largest producer of marine aggregates, currently extracts approximately 20 million tons of marine aggregate per year, meeting around 20 per cent of its demand. Those activities are all concentrated in coastal waters, where other demands for space are high. Deep-water deposits that have generated continuing interest, but are not currently mined, include ferromanganese nodules and crusts, polymetallic sulphides, phosphorites, and methane hydrates. Demands for deep-sea space are likely to develop 69 in the future. Offshore renewable energy Offshore renewable energy generation is still in its early stages, although substantial offshore wind farms have been installed in some parts of the world. Most forms of 67 68 69

See chaps. 17 and 18. See chap. 19. See chap. 22.

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marine-based renewable energy require ocean space, and wind farms already cover significant areas in the coastal North Sea. Wave and tidal energy will make equal, if not larger, demands. The location of wind, wave and tidal installations can have significant effects on marine biotas. Special care is needed in siting installations that can affect migration routes or feeding, breeding or nursery areas. This is therefore a field in which the requirements of the new energy sources for ocean space could be important competitors with other, longer-established uses or with the need to conserve marine 70 biodiversity. Fishery management areas Capture fisheries have a very long history, predating newer ocean uses, such as aquaculture, offshore energy infrastructure, submarine cables, pipelines or tourism. The fishermen exploiting those long-practised fisheries usually have a feeling of “ownership”, even though they rarely have had any established legal rights to exclude others from their customary fishing grounds. There is a growing trend, however, as part of fishery management within national jurisdictions, for fishing enterprises or fishing communities (including indigenous fishing communities) to be recognized as having some form of rights to fish to a defined extent in a defined area. Those benefiting from such rights frequently see constraints on fishing from other activities in those defined areas as invasions of what they consider as entitlements. This is the “front line” of conflicts in uses. If it is not directly addressed, some ocean uses will find it difficult to 71 thrive. Marine protected areas The Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development 72 adopted in 2002, called for the (Johannesburg Plan of Implementation), implementation of marine protected areas. Although a marine protected area does not necessarily imply an area in which all human activities are excluded, in many cases it does imply that some, or most, such activities will be at least controlled or regulated. The commitment made by many States to a target for such protected areas of at least 10 73 per cent of the areas under their jurisdiction will be a factor in future use of ocean space, given that, at present, marine protected areas represent a much smaller part of the ocean area under national jurisdiction. Implications of demands for ocean space That long list of types of human activity shows there are simply too many demands for all to be accommodated in a way that will not constrain some aspect of their operation. The allocation of ocean space is a much more complex task than that of land-use planning onshore. In the first place, the ocean is three-dimensional. Some uses can be in the same area but vertically separated, thus ships, for example, can pass over submarine cables without any problem, except in shallow water. Secondly, some uses are transient: ships and fishing vessels in particular pass and repass, and other uses may take place in the intervals between them. Thirdly, there is no general tradition of permanent rights of private ownership, even in areas under national jurisdiction. However, the more intense the shipping or fishing, the more difficult it is for other uses to be accommodated. Developing effective ways of organizing the allocation of ocean space is not an easy task, given the wide range of interests that need to be considered and reconciled.

70 71 72

73

See chap. 23. See chaps. 11 and 15. Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August-4 September 2002 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.03.II.A.1 and corrigendum), chap. I, resolution 2, annex, para. 32 (c). See United Nations Environment Programme, document UNEP/CBD/COP/10/27, annex, decision X/2, sect. IV, target 11.

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F.

Increasing inputs of harmful material Land-based inputs The agricultural and industrial achievements of the past two centuries in feeding, clothing and housing the world’s population have been at the price of seriously degrading important parts of the planet, including much of the marine environment, especially near the coast. Urban growth, unaccompanied in much of the world by adequate disposal of human bodily wastes, has also imposed major pressures on the ocean. Land-based inputs to the ocean have thus contributed much to the degradation of the marine environment. The Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities of 1995 highlighted the need for action to deal with sewage (including industrial wastes that are mixed with human bodily wastes) in developing countries. Although much has been done to implement national plans adopted under the Programme, particularly in South America, the lack of sewage systems and wastewater treatment plants is still a major threat to the ocean. This is 74 particularly the case for very large urban settlements. Several aspects have to be considered in relation to the increasing inputs of harmful material from the land into the ocean. Heavy metals and other hazardous substances From the point of view of industrial development, many industrial processes have brought with them serious environmental damage, especially when the concentration of industries have led to intense levels of inputs to the sea of wastes which could not be assimilated. That damage is largely caused by heavy metals (especially lead, mercury, copper and zinc). With the development of organic chemistry, new substances have been created to provide important services in managing electricity (for example, polychlorinated biphenyls) and as pesticides. Chlorine has also been widely used in many industrial processes (such as pulp and paper production), producing hazardous byproducts. Many of those chemical products and processes have proved to have a wide range of hazardous side-effects. There are also problems from imperfectly controlled incineration, which can produce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and, where plastics are involved, dioxins and furans. All those substances have adverse effects on the marine environment. As well as the long-known hazardous substances, there is evidence that some substances (often called endocrine disruptors), which do not reach the levels of toxicity, persistence and 75 bioaccumulation in the accepted definitions of hazardous substances, can disrupt the endocrine systems of humans and animals, with adverse effects on their reproductive success. Action is already being taken on several of those, but more testing is needed to clarify whether action is needed on others. Over time, steps have been taken to reduce or, where possible, eliminate many of the impacts of heavy metals and hazardous substances. In some parts of the world, the efforts of the past 40 years have been successful, and concentrations in the ocean of many of the most seriously damaging heavy metals and other hazardous substances are now diminishing, for example in the North-East Atlantic, even though problems persist in some local areas. New technologies and processes have also been widely developed that have the ability to avoid those problems, but there are gaps in the capacities to apply those newer processes, often because of the costs involved. The differential growth in industrial production between countries bordering the North Atlantic, on the one hand, and those bordering the South Atlantic, the Indian Ocean and the Pacific, on the other hand, means that much of that growth is now taking place in parts of the world that had not previously had to deal with industrial discharges on the 74 75

See chap. 20. Bioaccumulation is the process whereby substances are ingested by animals and other organisms, but not broken down or excreted, and thus build up in their bodies.

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current scale. In the past, industrial production had been dominated by the countries around the North Atlantic basin and its adjacent seas, as well as Japan. Over the past 25 years, the rapid growth of industries along the rest of the western Pacific rim and around the Indian Ocean has dramatically changed that situation. The world’s industrial production and the associated waste discharges are rapidly growing in the South Atlantic, the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. Even if the best practicable means are used to deal with heavy metals and hazardous substances in the waste streams from those growing industries, the growth in output and consequent discharges will increase the inputs of heavy metals and other hazardous substances into the ocean. It is therefore urgent to apply new less-polluting technologies, where they exist, and means of removing heavy metals and other hazardous substances from discharges, if the level of contamination of the ocean, particularly in coastal areas, is not to increase. Frameworks have also emerged at the international level for addressing some of the problems caused by heavy metals and hazardous substances. In particular, the 76 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants and the Minamata Convention 77 on Mercury provide agreed international frameworks for the States party to them to address the issues that they cover. Implementing them, however, will require much 78 capacity-building. Oil Although pollution from oil and other hydrocarbons is most obviously linked to offshore production and their maritime transport, substantial inputs of hydrocarbons occur from land-based sources, particularly oil refineries. In some parts of the world, it has proved 79 possible to reduce such pressures on the marine environment substantially. Agricultural inputs The agricultural revolution of the last part of the twentieth century, which has largely enabled the world to feed its rapidly growing population, has also brought with it problems for the ocean in the form of enhanced run-off of both agricultural nutrients and pesticides, as well as the airborne and waterborne inputs of nutrients from waste from agricultural stock. In the case of fertilizers, their use is rapidly growing in parts of the world where only limited use had occurred in the past. That growth has the potential to lead to increased nutrient run-off to the ocean if the increased use of fertilizers is not managed well. There are therefore challenges in educating farmers, promoting good husbandry practices that cause less nutrient run-off and monitoring what is happening to agricultural run-off alongside sewage discharges. In the case of pesticides, the issues are analogous to those of industrial development. Newer pesticides are less polluting than older ones, but there are gaps in the capacity to ensure that these less-polluting pesticides are used, in terms of educating farmers, enabling them to afford the newer pesticides, supervising the distribution systems and monitoring what is happening in the ocean. Eutrophication Eutrophication resulting from excess inputs of nutrients from both agriculture and sewage causes algal blooms. Those can generate toxins that can make fish and other seafood unfit for human consumption. Algal blooms can also lead to anoxic areas (i.e. dead zones) and hypoxic zones. Such zones have serious consequences from environmental, economic and social aspects. The anoxic and hypoxic zones drive fish away and kill the benthic wildlife. Where those zones are seasonal, any regeneration that happens is usually at a lower trophic level, and the ecosystems are therefore 76 77 78 79

United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 2256, No. 40214. United Nations Environment Programme, document UNEP(DTIE)/Hg/CONF/4, annex II. See chap. 20. See chap. 20.

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degraded. This seriously affects the maritime economy, both for fishermen and, where tourism depends on the attractiveness of the ecosystem (for example, around coral reefs), for the tourist industry. Social consequences are then easy to see, both through the economic effects on the fishing and tourist industries and in depriving the local 80 human populations of food. Radioactive substances In the case of radioactive discharges into the ocean, there have been, in the past, human activities that have given rise to concern, but responses to those concerns, and the actions taken, have largely removed the underlying problems, even though there is a continuing task to monitor what is happening to radioactivity in the ocean. In particular, the ending of atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons and, more recently, the improvements made in the controls on discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants have ended or reduced the main sources of concern. What remains is the risk voiced in the Global Programme of Action that public reaction to concerns about marine radioactivity could result in the rejection of fish as a food source, with consequent harm to countries that have a large fishery sector and damage to the world’s ability to use the 81 important food resources provided by the marine environment. Solid waste disposal The dumping of waste at sea was the first activity capable of causing marine pollution to be brought under global regulation, in the form of the Convention on the Prevention of 82 Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, 1972 (the London Convention), regulating the dumping of wastes and other matter at sea from ships, aircraft and man-made structures. The controls under that agreement have been progressively strengthened, particularly in the 1996 Protocol to the Convention on the 83 Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, 1972 which introduced the approach of a total ban on dumping, subject to limited exemptions. If the Convention or the Protocol were effectively and consistently implemented, that source of inputs of harmful substances would be satisfactorily controlled. However, there are gaps in knowledge about their implementation. Over half of the States party to the London Convention and the Protocol thereto do not submit reports on dumping under their control. This may mean that there is no such dumping, but it may also mean that the picture presented by the reports that are submitted is incomplete. Some of the world’s largest economies have not become party to either agreement, and nothing is known of what is happening with respect to dumping under their control. The reported dumping is very largely of dredged material, most of it from the creation or maintenance of ports. Clear guidance under the London Convention lays down the conditions under which that material may be dumped. To the extent that that guidance is followed, there should be no significant impact on the marine environment, except for the smothering of the seabed, and to the extent that the dump sites are in areas with dynamic tidal activity, even that impact will be limited. There is also some evidence that illegal dumping is taking place, including that of radioactive waste, but complete proof 84 of this has not been obtained. Marine debris Marine debris is present in all marine habitats, from densely populated regions to remote points far from human activities, from beaches and shallow waters to the deepest ocean trenches. It has been estimated that the average density of marine debris varies between 13,000 and 18,000 pieces per square kilometre. However, data on plastic accumulation in the North Atlantic and Caribbean from 1986 to 2008 showed 80 81 82 83 84

See chap. 20. See chap. 20. United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1046, No. 15749. International Maritime Organization, document IMO/LC.2/Circ.380. See chap. 24.

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that the highest concentrations (more than 200,000 pieces per square kilometre) occurred in the convergence zones between two or more ocean currents. Computer model simulations, based on data from about 12,000 satellite-tracked floats deployed since the early 1990s as part of the Global Ocean Drifter Program, confirm that debris will be transported by ocean currents and will tend to accumulate in a limited number of subtropical convergence zones or gyres. Plastics are by far the most prevalent debris item recorded, contributing an estimated 60 to 80 per cent of all marine debris. Plastic debris continues to accumulate in the marine environment. The density of microplastics within the North Pacific Central Gyre has increased by two orders of magnitude in the past four decades. Marine debris commonly stems from shoreline and recreational activities, commercial shipping and fishing, and dumping at sea. The majority of marine debris (approximately 80 per cent) 85 entering the sea is considered to originate from land-based sources. Nanoparticles are a form of marine debris, the significance of which is emerging only now. They are minuscule particles with dimensions of 1 to 100 nanometres (a nanometre is one millionth of a millimetre). A large proportion of the nanoparticles found in the ocean are of natural origin. It is the anthropogenic nanoparticles that are of concern. Those come from two sources: on the one hand, from the use of nanoparticles created for use in various industrial processes and cosmetics and, on the other hand, from the breakdown of plastics in marine debris, from fragments of artificial fabrics discharged in urban wastewater, and from leaching from land-based waste sites. Recent scientific research has highlighted the potential environmental impacts of plastic nanoparticles: they appear to reduce the primary production and the uptake of food by zooplankton and filter-feeders. Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide, which is widely used in paints and metal coatings and in cosmetics, are of particular concern. When nanoparticles of titanium dioxide are exposed to ultraviolet radiation from the sun, they transform into a disinfectant and have been shown to kill phytoplankton, which are the basis of primary production. The scale of the threats from nanoparticles is unknown, 86 and further research is required. Shipping Pollution from ships takes the form of both catastrophic events (shipwrecks, collisions and groundings) and chronic pollution from regular operational discharges. Good progress has been made over the past 40 years in reducing both. There have been large increases in the global tonnage of cargo carried by sea and in the distances over which those cargoes are carried. There have also been steady increases in the number of passengers carried on cruise ships and ferries. In spite of this, the absolute number of ship losses has steadily decreased. Between 2002 and 2013, the number of losses of ships of over 1,000 gross tonnage thus dropped by 45 per cent to 94. This is largely due to efforts under the three main international maritime safety conventions: the 87 International Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea, dealing with ship construction and navigation, the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and 88 Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, dealing with crew, and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL). Pollution from oil has been the most significant type of marine pollution from ships. The number of spills exceeding 7 tons has dropped steadily, in spite of the growth in the quantity carried and the length of voyages, from over 100 spills in 1974 to under five in 2012. The total quantity of oil released in those spills has also been reduced by an even greater factor. Progress has also been made in improving response capabilities, though much remains to be done, especially as coastal States have to bear the capital cost of acquiring the necessary equipment. Reductions in oil pollution have resulted from more 85 86 87 88

See chap. 25. See chaps. 6 and 25. United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1184, No. 18961. United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1361, No. 23001.

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effective enforcement of the MARPOL requirements, particularly in western Europe. The changes in arrangements for reparation for any damage caused by oil pollution from ships have improved the economic position of those affected. In spite of all that progress, oil discharges from ships remain an environmental problem, for example, around the southern tip of Africa and in the North-West Atlantic. Off the coast of Argentina, however, a solution to the impact of those discharges on penguin colonies seems to have been found by rerouting coastal shipping. The likely opening of shipping routes through the Arctic between the Atlantic and the Pacific risks introducing that form of pollution into a sea area where response infrastructure is lacking, oil recovery in freezing conditions is difficult and the icy water temperature inhibits the 89 microbial breakdown of the oil. Pollution from cargoes of hazardous and noxious substances appears to be a much smaller problem, even though there are clearly problems with misdescriptions of the contents of containers. Losses of containers, however, appear to be relatively small: in 2011, the losses were estimated at 650 containers out of about 100 million carried in that year. Sewage pollution from ships is mainly a problem with cruise ships: with up to 7,000 passengers and crew, they are the equivalent of a small town and can contribute to local eutrophication problems. The local conditions around the ship are significant for the impact of any sewage discharges. The increased requirements under MARPOL on the discharges of ship sewage near the shore are likely to reduce the problems, but the identification of the cases where ships have contributed to eutrophication problems will remain difficult. The dumping of garbage from ships is a serious element of the problem of marine debris. In 2013, new, more stringent controls under MARPOL came into force. Steps are being taken to improve the enforcement of those requirements. For example, the World Bank has helped several small Caribbean States to set up port waste-reception facilities, which has made it possible for the Wider Caribbean to be declared a special area under annex V of the Convention, under which stricter requirements apply. Other States (for example the Member States of the European Union) have introduced requirements for the delivery of waste ashore before a ship leaves port and have removed economic incentives to avoid doing so. It is, however, too early to judge how far those various 90 developments have succeeded in reducing the problem. Offshore hydrocarbon industries Major disasters in the offshore oil and gas industry have a global, historical recurrence of one about every 17 years. The most recent is the Deepwater Horizon blowout of 2010, which spilled 4.4 million barrels (about 600,000 tons) of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The other main harmful inputs from that sector are drilling cuttings (contaminated with drilling muds) resulting from the drilling of exploration and production wells, “produced water” (the water contaminated with hydrocarbons that comes up from wells, either of natural origin or through having been injected to enhance hydrocarbon recovery), and various chemicals that are used and discharged offshore in the course of exploration and exploitation. Those materials can be harmful to marine life under certain circumstances. However, it is possible to take precautions to avoid such harm, for example by prohibiting the use of the most harmful drilling muds, by limiting the proportion of oil in the produced water that is discharged or by controlling which chemicals can be used offshore. Such regulation has been successfully introduced in a number of jurisdictions. Nonetheless, given the growth in exploration and offshore production, there is no doubt that those inputs are increasing over time, even though exact figures are not available globally.

89 90

See chap. 17. See chaps. 17 and 25.

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Produced water, in particular, increases in quantity with the age of the field being 91 exploited. Offshore mining The environmental impacts of near-shore mining are similar to those of dredging operations. They include the destruction of the benthic environment, increased turbidity, changes in hydrodynamic processes, underwater noise and the potential for 92 marine fauna to collide with vessels or become entangled in operating gear. Implications for human well-being and biodiversity Human health, food security and food safety Marine biotas are under many different pressures from hazardous substances on reproductive success. Dead zones and low-oxygen zones resulting from eutrophication and climate change can lead to systematic changes in the species structure at established fishing grounds. Either can reduce the extent to which fish and other species used as seafood will continue to reproduce at their historical rates. When those effects are combined with those of excessive fishing on specific stocks, there are risks that the traditional levels of the provision of food from the sea will not be maintained. In addition, heavy metals and other hazardous substances represent a direct threat to human health, particularly through the ingestion of contaminated food from the sea. The episode of mercury poisoning at Minamata, in Japan, is probably the most widely known event of that kind, and the reason why the global convention to address such problems is named after the town. There are places around the world where local action has been taken to prevent or discourage the consumption of contaminated fish and other seafood. In other places, monitoring suggests that levels of contamination dangerous for human health are being reached. In yet other places, there are inadequate monitoring systems to check on risks of that kind. Ensuring linkages between adequate systems for controlling the discharge and emissions of hazardous substances and the systems for controlling the quality of fish and other seafood available for human consumption is therefore an important issue. In the case of subsistence fishing, the most effective approach is to ensure that contamination does not occur in the first place. The lack of proper management of wastewater and human bodily wastes causes problems for human health, both directly through contact with water containing pathogens and through bacteriological contamination of food from the sea, and indirectly by creating the conditions in which algal blooms can produce toxins that infect seafood. Those problems are particularly significant in and near large and growing conurbations without proper sewage treatment systems, such as found in many places 93 in developing countries. Impacts on marine biodiversity Part of the standard definition of hazardous substances in the context of marine pollution is that they are bioaccumulative — that is, once they are taken into an organism, they are not broken down or expelled, and continue to accumulate in it. Because of that characteristic, they also are accumulated more in the higher levels of the food web. As creatures at the lower levels are eaten by those at higher levels, the hazardous substances in the former are retained and accumulated by the latter. Some of those substances affect the reproductive success of the biota in which they have accumulated. There are also some effects on immune systems, with the result that individuals and populations become less resistant to outbreaks of disease. The deaths of many seals in the North-East Atlantic in the 1990s from the phocine distemper virus 91 92 93

See chap. 21. See chap. 23. See chaps. 4-6, 10-12, 15 and 20.

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have thus been linked to impaired immune systems. Likewise, improvements in a fishhealth index in the same area in the 2000s have been attributed to reductions in the local concentrations of various hazardous substances. The combined effects of hazardous substances, marine debris, oil and eutrophication (including the large and growing number of dead zones) resulting from the input of harmful material, waste and excessive amounts of nutrients into the ocean therefore 94 represent a significant pressure on marine biodiversity.

G.

Cumulative impacts of human activities on marine biodiversity When the many pressures described above, from fishing and other types of marine harvesting to demand for ocean space and inputs of harmful materials, are brought together, the result is a complex but dangerous mix of threats to marine biodiversity. To those threats must be added several other significant factors. Those arise from a number of separate sources, including noise from ships and seismic exploration and the introduction of competing non-native species by aquaculture and long-distance shipping (and their further distribution by recreational boats). Taken altogether, those factors 95 represent a massive set of pressures on marine biodiversity. Implications for marine biodiversity Such cumulative impacts of human uses are reported in all the regional biodiversity assessments in part VI of the present Assessment. There are indeed well-documented examples of cases where habitats, lower-trophic-level productivity, benthic communities, fish communities and seabird or marine mammal populations have been severely altered by pressures from a specific activity or factors (such as overfishing, pollution, nutrient loading, physical disturbance or the introduction of non-native species). However, many impacts on biodiversity, particularly at larger scales, are the result of the cumulative and interactive effects of multiple pressures from multiple drivers. It has repeatedly proved difficult to disentangle the effects of the individual 96 pressures, which impedes the ability to address the individual causes. Even in the Arctic Ocean, where human settlements are relatively few and small, the potentially synergistic effects of multiple stressors come together. Furthermore, those stressors operate against a background of pressures from a changing climate and increasing human maritime activity, primarily related to hydrocarbon and mineral development and to the opening of shipping routes. Those changes bring risks of direct mortality, displacement from critical habitats, noise disturbance and increased exposure to hunting, which are superimposed on high levels of contaminants, notably organochlorines and heavy metals, as a result of the presence of those substances in the 97 Arctic food web. In the open ocean (remote from land-based inputs), shifts in bottom-up forcing (that is, primary productivity) and competitive or top-down forcing (that is, by large predators) will also produce complex and indirect effects on ecosystem services. The stress imposed by low oxygen, low pH (that is, higher acidity) or elevated temperatures can reduce the resilience of individual species and ecosystems through shifts in organism tolerance and community interactions. Where this happens, it retards recovery from disturbances caused by human activities, such as oil spills, trawling and (potentially in the future) seabed mining. Slower growth of carbonate skeletons due to increased ocean acidification, delayed development under hypoxic conditions and increased respiratory demands with declining food availability illustrate how climate change could

94 95 96 97

See See See See

chaps. 4-6, 20, 21, 25, 36A-H and 52. chaps. 11, 12, 17-23 and 25-27. chaps. 36A-H and 53. chap. 36G.

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exacerbate anthropogenic impacts and compromise deep-sea ecosystem structures and 98 functions, and ultimately its benefits to human welfare. Those multiple pressures interact in ways that are poorly understood but that can amplify the effects expected from each pressure separately. The North Atlantic has been, comparatively, the subject of much scientific research. It has many long-term ocean-monitoring programmes and a scientific organization that has functioned for over a century to promote and coordinate scientific and technical cooperation among the countries around the North Atlantic. Even there, however, experts are commonly unable to disentangle consistently the causation of unsustainable uses of, and impacts on, marine biodiversity. This may initially seem to be discouraging. Nevertheless, welldocumented examples exist of the benefits that can follow from actions to address past unsustainable practices, even if other perturbations are also occurring in the same 99 area. Marine mammals, marine reptiles, seabirds, sharks, tuna and billfish Cumulative effects are comparatively well documented for species groups of the top predators in the ocean, including marine mammals, seabirds and marine reptiles. Many of those species tend to be highly mobile and some migrate across multiple ecosystems and even entire ocean basins, so that they can be exposed to many threats in their annual cycle. Some of those species are the subject of direct harvesting, particularly some pinnipeds (seals and related species) and seabirds, and by-catch in fisheries can be a significant mortality source for many species. However, in addition to having to sustain the impact of those direct deaths, all of those species suffer from varying levels of exposure to pollution from land-based sources and increasing levels of noise in the ocean. Land-nesting seabirds, marine turtles and pinnipeds also face habitat disturbance, such as through the introduction of invasive predators on isolated breeding islands, the disturbance of beaches where eggs are laid or direct human disturbance 100 from tourism, including ecotourism. Some global measures have been helpful in addressing specific sources of mortality, such as the global moratorium on all large-scale pelagic drift-net fishing called for by the General Assembly in 1991, which was a major step in limiting the by-catch of several marine mammal and seabird species that were especially vulnerable to entanglement. However, for seabirds alone, at least 10 different pressures have been identified that can affect a single population throughout its annual cycle, with efforts to mitigate one pressure sometimes increasing vulnerability to others. Because of the complexity of those issues, conservation and management must therefore be approached with care and alertness to the nature of the interactions among the many human interests, the 101 needs of the animals and their role in marine ecosystems. Ecosystems and habitats identified for special attention Just as species can face the effects of multiple pressures over their annual cycle as they migrate (sometimes around an entire ocean basin), habitats can integrate the effects of multiple pressures across the interacting species that use them. Many cases are presented in the chapters on specialized habitats, which are often sites of concentrated human activities. For example, warm-water corals face major threats, such as extractive activities, sewage and other pollution, sedimentation, physical destruction and the effects of anthropogenic climate change, including increased coral bleaching. Such stressors often interact synergistically with one another and with natural stressors, such as storms. Likewise, cold-water corals are often challenged by the synergistic effects of

98 99 100 101

See See See See

chaps. 4-6, 11, 17, 20, 36F, 37-39 and 52. chap. 36A. chaps. 27, 37-39 and 52. chaps. 11 and 38.

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low oxygen and increasing acidification, as well as by physical damage from fishing 102 practices. All coastal habitats, including kelp forests, seagrass beds and mangroves, face multiple interacting threats from land-based sources, species invasions and direct anthropogenic pressures. For example, mangroves may face the aggregate effects of coastal and urban development, sewage and other pollutants, solid waste disposal, damage from extreme events, such as hurricanes, as well as conversion to aquaculture or agriculture and climate change. Each of the chapters on specific habitats presents similar lists of pressures, often present on the same sites. Although protection from direct human uses of areas where habitats occur (such as bans on converting mangroves to aquaculture or port facilities) can often produce immediate benefits, pressures such as land-based runoff, diseases and invasive species require coordinated efforts far beyond the specific 103 habitats for which the protection is intended. Considering specific types of important marine and coastal habitats, estuaries and deltas are categorized globally as in poor overall condition, based on published assessments of them for 101 regions. In 66 per cent of cases, their condition has worsened in recent years. There are around 4,500 large estuaries and deltas worldwide, of which about 10 per cent benefit from some level of environmental protection. About 0.4 per cent is protected as strict nature reserves or wilderness areas (categories Ia and Ib of the categories of protected areas as defined by the International Union for 104 Conservation of Nature). Mangroves are being lost at the mean global rate of 1-2 per cent a year, although losses can be as high as 8 per cent a year in some countries. While the primary threat to mangroves is overexploitation of resources and the conversion of mangrove areas to other land uses, climate-change-induced sea-level rise is now identified as a global threat to them, especially in areas of growing human settlements and coastal 105 development. Kelp and seagrass habitats are declining worldwide for different reasons. The overfishing of dominant predators and climate change have reportedly caused changes in kelp community structures and distribution over time. Kelp forests are more affected by temperature changes owing to the narrow range in which their sexual reproduction can occur. Seagrass meadows are more affected by anthropogenic activities, such as 106 siltation, pollution and reclamation. Fishing on seamounts has targeted fish aggregations to depths of 1,500 m. Aggregations on spatially limited topographic features are highly vulnerable, and many target species are slow-growing and long-lived, therefore exhibiting little resilience to disturbance. Furthermore, most fisheries use bottom trawls, gear that is highly destructive to benthic communities. Little recolonization is observed years after closure to fishing. Most sites of deep-water bottom fisheries have been overfished in the past, but there are now increased efforts to seek to regulate their use and to protect deep-water benthic 107 habitats.

102 103 104 105 106 107

See See See See See See

chaps. 42-51. chaps. 43, 44 and 47-49. chap. 44. chap. 48. chap. 47. chaps. 36F and 51.

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Tourism and aesthetic, cultural, religious and spiritual marine ecosystem services The changes in marine biodiversity can have consequential effects on the ecosystem services that humans obtain from the ocean. Particularly important is the link between the health of warm-water corals and tourism. Warm-water corals represent a major component of the attractiveness of many tourist resorts in the Caribbean, the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia, and that attractiveness will be seriously undermined if tourists can no longer enjoy the corals. The same applies to other resorts (even in cold-water areas) where one of the attractions is scuba-diving to enjoy the marine wildlife. A different linkage is that to recreational fishing, where a significant industry relies on the availability of large sport fish such as marlins, swordfish and sailfish. In that case, there is a lack of information on which estimates of fish stocks and, 108 consequently, judgements on the sustainable scale of the activity can be based. The disappearance or, more commonly, the reduction in numbers of iconic species can likewise adversely affect traditional practices. For example, native people on the NorthEast Pacific coast have seen their traditional whale-hunting halted because of the past overharvesting of grey whales carried out by other people. That hunting was an integral part of their cultural heritage and the affected tribes consider the cultural loss to be very serious. Pollution can have similar effects. For example, the Faroese authorities (Denmark) are taking measures to control the traditional food obtained in the islands from pilot whales because of the high levels of pollutants accumulated in their 109 tissues.

H.

Distribution of ocean benefits and disbenefits In assessing the social and economic aspects of the ocean, it is necessary to consider how different parts of the world, different States and different parts of society are gaining benefits (or suffering disbenefits) as a result of the ways in which human activities linked to the oceans are changing. Changes in the universal ecosystem services from the ocean The most obvious distributional effects of climate change relate to the rise in sea level. Some small island States are predicted to become submerged completely and some heavily populated deltas and other low-lying areas also risk inundation. Another important distributional effect is the poleward extension of major areas of storms, which is likely to lead to cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons in areas previously not seriously affected by them. Changes in patterns of variability of oscillations (such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation) will bring climatic changes to many places and affect new 110 areas, with consequent effects on agriculture and agricultural earnings. The changes in ocean conditions will affect many other ecosystem services indirectly. For example, some models predict that the warming ocean will increase the fish biomass available for harvesting in higher latitudes and decrease it in equatorial zones. This will shift provisioning services to benefit the middle and moderately high latitudes (which are often highly developed) at the expense of low latitudes, where small-scale 111 (subsistence) fishing is often important for food security. Developments in fish and seafood consumption The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that total fish consumption, including all aquaculture and inland and marine capture fisheries, has been rising from 9.9 kg per capita in the 1960s to 19.2 kg per capita in 2012 — an average increase of 3.2 per cent a year over half a century. The distribution of 108 109 110 111

See See See See

chaps. chaps. chaps. chaps.

27, 41 and 43. 8 and 20. 4 and 5. 11 and 15.

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consumption per capita varies considerably, from Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean (9.7 kg) to Asia (21.6 kg), North America (21.8), Europe (22.0 kg) and Oceania (25.4 kg). Marine capture fisheries represent 51 per cent and marine aquaculture 13 per cent of the total production of fish (154 million tons), of which 85 per cent is used for food. The annual consumption of fishery products per capita has grown steadily in developing regions (from 5.2 kg in 1961 to 17.0 kg in 2009) and low-income food-deficit countries (from 4.9 kg in 1961 to 10.1 kg in 2009). This is still considerably lower than in more developed regions, even though the gap is narrowing. A sizeable share of fish consumed in developed countries consists of imports and, owing to steady demand and declining domestic fishery production (down 22 per cent in the period 1992-2012), their dependence on imports, in particular from developing countries, is projected to grow. FAO estimates indicate that small-scale fisheries contribute about half of global fish catches. When considering catches destined for direct human consumption, the share contributed by the subsector increases, as small-scale fisheries generally make broader direct and indirect contributions to food security (through affordable fish) and employment for populations in developing countries. As well as direct consumption, many small-scale fishermen sell or barter their catch. It is doubtful that much of that trade is covered by official statistics. However, studies have shown that selling or trading even a portion of their catch represents as much as one third of the total income of subsistence fishermen in some low-income countries. Thus an increase in imports of fish by more developed countries from less developed countries has the potential to increase inequities in food security and nutrition, unless those considerations are taken 112 into account in global trade arrangements. Developments in employment and income from fisheries and aquaculture The global harvest of marine capture fisheries has expanded rapidly since the early 1950s and is currently estimated to be about 80 million tons a year. That harvest is estimated to have a first (gross) value on the order of 113 billion dollars. Although it is difficult to produce accurate employment statistics, estimates using a fairly narrow definition of employment have put the figure of those employed in fisheries and aquaculture at 58.3 million people (4.4 per cent of the estimated total of economically active people), of which 84 per cent are in Asia and 10 per cent in Africa. Women are estimated to account for more than 15 per cent of people employed in the fishery sector. Other estimates, probably taking into account a wider definition of employment, suggest that capture fisheries provide direct and indirect employment for at least 120 million persons worldwide. Small-scale fisheries employ more than 90 per cent of the world’s capture fishermen and fish workers, about half of whom are women. When all dependants of those taking full- or part-time employment in the full value chain and support industries (boatbuilding, gear construction, etc.) of fisheries and aquaculture are included, one estimate concludes that between 660 and 820 million persons have some economic or livelihood dependence on fish capture and culture and the subsequent direct value chain. No sound information appears to be available on the levels of death and injury of those engaged in capture fishing or aquaculture, but capture fishing is commonly characterized as a dangerous occupation. Over time, a striking shift has occurred in the operation and location of capture fisheries. In the 1950s, capture fisheries were largely undertaken by developed fishing States. Since then, developing countries have increased their share. As a broad illustration, in the 1950s, the southern hemisphere accounted for no more than 8 per cent of landed values. By the last decade, the southern hemisphere’s share had risen to 20 per cent. In 2012, international trade represented 37 per cent of the total fish

112

See chaps. 10, 11 and 15.

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production in value, with a total export value of 129 billion dollars, of which 70 billion 113 dollars (58 per cent) was exports by developing countries. Aquaculture is responsible for the bulk of the production of seaweeds. Worldwide, reports show that 24.9 million tons was produced in 2012, valued at about 6 billion dollars. In addition, about 1 million tons of wild seaweed were harvested. Few data were found on international trade in seaweeds, but their culture is concentrated in 114 countries where consumption of seaweeds is high. Developments in maritime transport All sectors of maritime transport (cargo trades, passenger and vehicle ferries and cruise ships) are growing in line with the world economy. It is not possible to estimate the earnings from those activities, as the structure of the companies owning many of the ships involved is opaque. It seems likely that many of the major cargo-carrying operators were making a loss in 2012, as a result of overcapacity resulting from the general economic recession. On the other hand, cruise operators reported profits. According to estimates by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, owners from five countries (China, Germany, Greece, Japan and the Republic of Korea) together accounted for 53 per cent of the world tonnage in 2013. It seems likely that profits and losses are broadly proportional to ownership. Among the top 35 ship-owning countries and territories, 17 are in Asia, 14 in Europe and 4 in the Americas. Worldwide, there are just over 1.25 million seafarers, only about 2 per cent of whom are women, mainly in the ferry and cruise-ship sectors. The crews are predominantly from countries members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and Eastern Europe (49 per cent of the officers and 34 per cent of the ratings) and from Eastern and Southern Asia (43 per cent of the officers and 51 per cent of the ratings). Africa and Latin America are noticeably underrepresented, providing only 8 per cent of the officers and 15 per cent of the ratings. Pay levels of officers differ noticeably according to their origin, with masters and chief officers from Western Europe receiving on average a fifth or a quarter, respectively, more than those from Eastern Europe or Asia, while pay levels for engineer officers are more in line with one another. The recent entry into force of the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 should be noted in the context of the social conditions of seafarers. Statistics on the deaths of and injuries to seafarers are unreliable, and the SecretaryGeneral of the International Maritime Organization has called for efforts to improve them. In general, it would appear that the levels of death and injury are worse than for many land-based industries. Over the past three decades, piracy and armed robbery have re-emerged as a serious risk to seafarers. Much attention has been focused on such attacks on ships in waters off Eastern Africa, but reports show that the problem is more widespread. In the past three years, action against attacks off Eastern Africa appears to have had some success, but attacks elsewhere are also of concern, especially in the South China Sea, the location of over half the incidents reported in 2013, and 115 West Africa. Developments in offshore energy businesses Global offshore oil production in mid-2014 was about 28 million barrels per day, which was worth about 3.2 billion dollars per day, and the industry directly employs about 200,000 people globally, mostly in the Gulf of Mexico (where about 60 per cent of the industry is located) and the North Sea. In the same year, the industry accounted for about 1.5 per cent of the gross domestic product (GDP) of the United States, 3.5 per cent of the GDP of the United Kingdom, 21 per cent of the GDP of Norway and 35 per cent of the GDP of Nigeria. The large majority of offshore hydrocarbon production is in the hands of international corporations or national companies usually working in 113 114 115

See chaps. 11 and 15. See chap. 14. See chap. 17.

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partnership with them. This makes the tracking of the distribution of benefits from this 116 sector, other than direct employment in extraction and processing, very difficult. Developments in offshore mining There is limited information about the value of the offshore mining industry and the number of people it employs, but it is unlikely to be significant at present in comparison with terrestrial mining. For example, in the United Kingdom, which is the world’s largest producer of marine aggregates, the industry directly employs approximately 400 117 people. Developments in tourism Tourism has generally been increasing fairly steadily for the past 40 years (with occasional setbacks or slowing down during global recessions). In 2012, international tourism expenditure exceeded 1 billion dollars for the first time. Total expenditure on tourism, domestic as well as international, is several times that amount. The direct turnover of tourism contributed 2.9 per cent of gross world product in 2013, rising to 8.9 per cent when the multiplier effect on the rest of the economy is taken into account. The Middle East is the region where tourism plays the smallest part in the economy (6.4 per cent of GDP, including the multiplier effect), and the Caribbean is the region where it plays the largest part (13.9 per cent of GDP, including the multiplier effect). Most reports of tourism revenues do not differentiate revenues from tourism directly related to the sea and the coast from other types of tourism. Even where tourism in the coastal zone can be separated from tourism inland, it may be generated by the attractions of the sea and coast or its maritime history, as it may be based on other attractions not linked to the marine environment. Consequently, the value of oceanrelated tourism is a matter of inference. However, coastal tourism is a major component of tourism everywhere. In small island and coastal States, coastal tourism is usually predominant because it can only take place in the coastal zone in those countries. Particularly noteworthy is the way in which international tourism is increasing in Asia and the Pacific, both in absolute terms and as a proportion of world tourism. This implies that pressures from tourism are becoming of significantly more concern in those regions. Tourism is also a significant component of employment. Globally, it is estimated that, in 2013, tourism provided 3.3 per cent of employment, when looking at the number of people directly employed in the tourism industry, and 8.9 per cent when the multiplier effect is taken into account. In the different regions, the proportion of employment supported by tourism is approximately the same as the share of GDP contributed by tourism, although, again, what proportion is based on the attractions of the sea and 118 coast is not well known. Use of marine genetic material The commercial exploitation of marine genetic resources had very modest beginnings in the twentieth century, particularly when measured against some estimates of the potential of the great diversity of species and biomolecules in the sea. Since 2000, the first drugs derived from marine organisms have been put into commerce (although, using the United States Food and Drug Administration approvals as a measure, only seven have so far received that approval). There has also been considerable growth in the use of marine natural products as food supplements and for other non-medical purposes. Economic and social aspects of the use of marine genetic material are 119 therefore only just beginning to develop. 116 117 118 119

See See See See

chap. chap. chap. chap.

21. 23. 27. 29.

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Satellite national accounts Information on the distribution of economic benefits from the ocean is hard to compile from current information sources. The work of the United Nations Statistics Division in developing a System of Environmental-Economic Accounting and an Experimental Ecosystem Accounting System seems likely to help to fill that information gap. In the same way, national satellite accounts dealing with tourism and fisheries should help to 120 fill information gaps in those fields.

I.

Integrated management of human activities affecting the ocean The Regular Process is to provide an assessment of all the aspects of the marine environment relevant to sustainable development: environmental, economic and social. Even though the marine environment covers seven tenths of the planet, it is still only one component of the overall Earth system. As far as environmental aspects are concerned, major drivers of the pressures producing change in the ocean are to be found outside the marine environment. In particular, most of the major drivers of anthropogenic climate change are land-based. Likewise, the main drivers of increased pressures on marine biodiversity and marine environmental quality include the demand for food for terrestrial populations, international trade in products from land-based agriculture and industries and coastal degradation from land-based development and land-based sources. Thus, as far as social and economic aspects of the marine environment are concerned, many of the most significant drivers are outside the scope of the present Assessment. For example, the levels of cargo shipping are driven mainly by world trade, which is determined by demand and supply for raw materials and finished products. The extent of cruising and other types of tourism is determined by the levels around the world of disposable income and leisure time. The patterns of trade in fish and other seafood and in cultural goods from the ocean are set by the location of supply and demand and the relative purchasing power of local markets as compared with international ones, modified by national and international rules on the exploitation of those resources. A wide range of factors outside the marine environment are thus relevant to policymaking for the marine environment. The present Assessment of the marine environment cannot therefore reach conclusions on some of the main drivers affecting the marine environment without stepping well outside the marine environment and the competences of those carrying out the Assessment. It is essential to note, however, that the successful management of human activities affecting the marine environment will require the consideration of the full range of factors relating to human activities affecting the ocean. Even within the scope of what has been requested, it has not proved possible to come to conclusions on one important aspect: a quantitative picture of the extent of many of the non-marketed ecosystem services provided by the ocean. Quantitative information is simply insufficient to enable an assessment of the way in which different regions of the world benefit from those services. Nor do current data-collection programmes appear to make robust regional assessments of ocean ecosystem services likely in the 121 near future, especially for the less developed parts of the planet. The assessment of what is happening to aesthetic, cultural, religious and spiritual values is also very difficult. In essentially every coastal or island culture, the indigenous peoples have spiritual links to the sea. They often also have links with species or places, or both, that have high iconic values. The spiritual significance of those marine species and places may be part of their self-identification and reflects their beliefs about the origins of their culture. That is particularly true of island cultures, which are often intimately bound to the sea. Expressions of loss of, or threats to, such cultures and 120 121

See chaps. 3 and 9. See chaps. 54 and 55.

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identities are readily found, but the marine component is not easily separated. Even populations that are economically fully developed with largely urbanized lifestyles still look to the ocean for spiritual and cultural benefits that have proven hard to value 122 monetarily. Nevertheless, there is an overall message that the world has reached the end of the period when human impacts on the sea were minor in relation to the overall scale of the ocean. Human activities now have so many and such great impacts on the ocean that the limits of its carrying capacity are being (or, in some cases, have been) reached. It is instructive to look at the ways in which this has happened in one specific sector: fisheries. In the late nineteenth century, the regulation of fisheries was regarded by many as unnecessary: Thomas Huxley, the great defender of Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection and a leading marine biologist, speaking at the London Fisheries Exhibition, in 1883, said: “In relation to our present modes of fishing, a number of the most important sea fisheries ... are inexhaustible. … [The] multitude of those fishes is so inconceivably great that the number that we catch is relatively insignificant; and secondly, … the magnitude of the destructive agencies at work on them is so prodigious, that the destruction effected by the fisherman cannot sensibly increase the death rate”. In less than 50 years, his qualification “in relation to our present modes of fishing” proved to be prophetic. Modes of fishing had changed to such an extent that international efforts were under way to regulate individual fisheries. We now know that those efforts were even then overdue. Furthermore, experience thereafter showed that the successful management of fisheries required a much broader approach. First to be acknowledged was the need for a multispecies approach: it was necessary to regulate the fisheries not only for each target species individually, but also to take into account the species on which the target species preyed and the species that preyed on it. In the 1990s, it became clear that the effects of fisheries on other biotas made an ecosystem approach to fishery management necessary, taking into account how a fishery might directly kill other species through by-catches, alter habitats and change relationships in the food web. Since then, the increasing use of the ocean has shown how fisheries managers need to work with other sectors to manage their effects on each other and, collectively, on the ocean that they share. When various conclusions in parts III to VI of the present Assessment are linked together, they clearly show that a similar broadening of the context of management decisions will produce similar benefits in and among other sectors of human activities that affect the ocean. Examples of such interactions of pressures on the environment include: (a) The lack of adequate sewage treatment in many large coastal conurbations, especially in developing countries, and other excessive inputs of nutrients (especially nitrogen) are producing direct adverse impacts on human health through microbial diseases as well as eutrophication problems. In many cases, they are creating harmful algal blooms, which are not only disrupting ecosystems, but also, as a consequence, damaging fisheries, especially small-scale fisheries and the related livelihoods and, in 123 some cases, poisoning humans through algal toxins; (b) Plastic marine debris results from the poor management of waste streams on land and at sea. There is a clear impact of such debris in its original form on megafauna (fish caught in “ghost” nets, seabirds with plastic bags around their necks, etc.) and on the aesthetic appearance of coasts (with potential impacts on tourism). Less obviously, impacts on zooplankton and filter-feeding species have also been demonstrated from the nanoparticles into which those plastics break down, with potentially serious effects all the way up the food web. Likewise, nanoparticles from titanium dioxide (the base of

122 123

See chap. 8. See chap. 20.

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white pigments found in many waste streams) have been shown to react with the 124 ultraviolet component of sunlight and to kill phytoplankton; (c) Although much is being done to reduce pollution from ships, there is scope for more attention to the routes that ships choose and the effects of those routes in 125 terms of noise, chronic oil pollution and operational discharges; (d) The cumulative effects of excessive nutrient inputs from sewage and agriculture and the removal of herbivorous fish by overfishing can lead to excessive algal growth on coral reefs. Where coral reefs are a tourist attraction, such damage can 126 undermine the tourist business; (e) The ocean is acidifying rapidly and at an unprecedented rate in the Earth’s history. The impact of ocean acidification on marine species and food webs will affect major economic interests and could increasingly put food security at risk, particularly in 127 regions especially dependent on seafood protein. Better integrated management of human activities affecting the ocean can, in many cases, be achieved with existing knowledge. However, application of that knowledge in many countries requires improvements in the skills of those involved. The last section of the present summary deals with the gaps that have been identified in capacity-building. Furthermore, in many cases, better information is required. Significant knowledge gaps that would need to be filled in order to achieve more general improved and integrated management of human activities affecting the ocean are set out in the penultimate section of the summary.

J.

Urgency of addressing threats to the ocean The greatest threat to the ocean comes from a failure to deal quickly with the manifold problems that have been described above. Many parts of the ocean have been seriously degraded. If the problems are not addressed, there is a major risk that they will combine to produce a destructive cycle of degradation in which the ocean can no longer provide many of the benefits that humans currently enjoy from it. In particular, the cumulative impact of many of the problems described in the present Assessment must be considered. As always, addressing one aspect of a challenge without considering the other factors involved risks undermining what can be achieved. This means that addressing some challenges may require also addressing the problems of fragmented data collection, which makes it difficult to obtain a clear picture of the overall problem, and uncoordinated action in different fields (in either geographic or thematic terms). On the other hand, the Assessment contains many examples of efforts made to address individual problems that have resulted in improved ecosystems, economic benefits and improved livelihoods, even though other pressures could not be addressed at the same time. Feasible sectoral improvements do not need to be delayed until the benefits of integrated planning and management can be achieved. They can even facilitate action to address other pressures, either by demonstrating the gains from investing in improved management, or through bringing into clearer focus the costs imposed by other 128 pressures. Some of the specific threats (such as the intensification of typhoons and hurricanes and changes in the stratification of seawater) are inextricably bound with the problems of climate change and acidification and can only be addressed as part of those issues.

124 125 126 127 128

See chaps. 6 and 25. See chap. 17. See chaps. 27 and 43. See chaps. 4, 5, 10 and 52. See, for example, chap. 36A.

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However, many other threats derive from problems that are more local and constitute global problems simply because the same type of problem and threat occurs in many places. For most of those problems, techniques have been developed that can successfully address them. Implementing them successfully is then a question of building the capacities in infrastructure resources, organizational arrangements and technical skills. Problems of that kind that can be addressed include: (a) Reducing inputs of hazardous substances, waterborne pathogens and 129 nutrients; (b) Preventing maritime disasters due to the collision, foundering and sinking of ships, and implementing and enforcing international agreements on preventing adverse 130 environmental impacts from ships; (c)

Improving fishery management;

(d)

Managing aquaculture;

131

132

(e) Controlling tourism developments that will have adverse impacts on the 133 future of the tourism industry in the locality where they occur; (f) Controlling solid waste disposal that can reach and affect the marine 134 environment; (g) Improving the control of offshore hydrocarbon industries and offshore 135 mining; (h)

VI.

Establishing and maintaining marine protected areas.

136

Knowledge gaps Humans have been exploring the three tenths of the planet that is land for millennia. Serious scientific examination of the land and its plants and animals has been in progress for at least 500 years. Although humans have been using the ocean for millennia, it is only in the past 120 years or so that serious exploration of the seven tenths of the planet covered by the sea (other than charting coasts) has been in progress. It is therefore not surprising that our knowledge of the ocean is much more limited than our knowledge of the land. As the chapters of the present Assessment demonstrate, much is known about much of the ocean, but nowhere do we have the detailed knowledge desirable for the effective future management of human use of the ocean. In some parts of the world, we do not even have sufficient knowledge to apply properly the techniques that have been successfully developed elsewhere. We have a basic framework of understanding, but there are many gaps to be filled in. The information that we need to understand the ocean can be divided into four main categories: (a) the physical structure of the ocean; (b) the composition and movement of the ocean’s waters; (c) the biotas of the ocean; and (d) the ways in which humans interact with the ocean. The identification of the gaps in that knowledge is best based on a survey of the gaps revealed in the chapters of the Assessment. In general, we know least about the Arctic Ocean and the Indian Ocean. The parts of the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean in the northern hemisphere are better studied than those in the

129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136

See See See See See See See See

chap. 20. chap. 17. chap. 11. chap. 12. chap. 27. chaps. 24 and 25. chaps. 21 and 23. chap. 44.

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southern hemisphere and, again in general, the North Atlantic and its adjacent seas are 137 probably the most thoroughly studied — and even there major gaps remain. Physical structure of the ocean Chapter 1 (Planet, ocean and life) of the Assessment includes a map characterizing the geomorphic features of the ocean. The detail summarized in that map has been greatly enriched over the past quarter century by local and global studies. Although charting the oceans has been in progress for more than seven centuries in coastal waters and for 250 years along the main routes across the open ocean, many features still require more detailed examination. The designation of exclusive economic zones (EEZs) has led many countries to carry out more detailed surveys as a basis for managing their activities in those zones. Ideally, all coastal States would have such detailed surveys as a basis for their EEZ management. Because of the significance of ocean acidification for carbonate formation, better information on the formation and fate of reef islands and shell beaches is desirable. It is possible to characterize the physical structure of the ocean in areas beyond national jurisdictions, but the reliability and detail of such characterizations varies considerably among different parts of the ocean: improvements in information of that kind are highly desirable to understand the interaction between the physical structure and the biotas, both in terms of conserving biodiversity and in terms of managing living marine 138 resources. Waters of the ocean Gaps persist in understanding sea temperature (both at the surface and at depth), sealevel rise, salinity distribution, carbon dioxide absorption, and nutrient distribution and cycling. The atmosphere and the ocean form a single linked system. Much of the information needed to understand the ocean is therefore also needed to understand climate change. Research promoted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change will look at many of those questions. It will thus be important to ensure that oceanic and atmospheric research is coordinated. Ocean acidification is a consequence of carbon dioxide absorption, but understanding the implications for the ocean requires more than just a general understanding of how carbon dioxide is being absorbed, as the degree of acidification varies locally. The causes and implications of those variations are important for understanding the impact on the marine biotas. In order to track primary production (on which the overwhelming majority of the ocean food web relies), routine and sustained measurements are highly desirable across all parts of the ocean of chlorophyll a (as an important marker of primary production), dissolved nitrogen and biologically active dissolved phosphorus (as the latter two are 139 frequent limiting factors of primary production or causes of algal blooms). Biotas of the ocean The Census of Marine Life has been an essential tool for ocean research in clarifying the biodiversity of the ocean and the number and distribution of species. Like all censuses, its value will decrease as time passes until it becomes a snapshot of a particular point in time, and less of an up-to-date picture of what is currently happening. It will be important for the Census to be regularly updated and improved. Improvement is particularly desirable for areas around and between Africa and Central and South 140 America, across the Indian Ocean and in the South Pacific.

137 138 139 140

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chap. chap. chap. chap.

30. 9. 9. 35.

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Plankton are fundamental to life in the ocean. Information on their diversity and abundance is important for many purposes. Such information has been collected for over 70 years in some parts of the ocean (such as the North Atlantic) through continuous plankton recorder surveys. Nine organizations currently collaborate in extending such surveys, but the desirable comprehensive global coverage has not yet been achieved. As well as information on biodiversity in the ocean and the number and distribution of the many marine species, information is also highly desirable on the health and reproductive success of separate populations. Many species contain separate populations that have limited interconnections. It is therefore important to understand how the local influences specific to each population are affecting them. As the regional surveys in part VI show, much is already known about the population health and reproductive success of many species, but there are also large gaps in knowledge, 141 particularly in the southern hemisphere. Fish stock assessments are essential to the proper management of fisheries. A good proportion of the fish stocks fished in large-scale fisheries are the object of regular stock assessments. However, many important fish stocks of that kind are still not regularly assessed. More significantly, stocks important for small-scale fisheries are often not assessed, which has adverse effects in ensuring the continued availability of fish for such fisheries. This is an important knowledge gap to fill. Likewise, there are gaps in information about the interactions between large-scale and small-scale fisheries for stocks over which their interests overlap, and between recreational fishing and other fisheries for some species, such as some trophy fish (marlins, sailfish and others) and 142 other smaller species. The present Assessment sets out the main specific issues for which there are gaps in our knowledge of marine biotas, in particular of all the species and habitats that have been scientifically identified as threatened, declining or otherwise in need of special attention or protection. Those species include, with some indications of important issues identified in part VI: marine mammals, sea turtles, seabirds (particularly migration routes), sharks and other elasmobranchs (especially the lesser-known species and certain tropical areas), tuna and billfish (particularly the non-principally marketed species), cold-water corals (especially where they are found in the Indian Ocean), warmwater corals (particularly at locations in deeper water), estuaries and deltas (particularly integrated assessments of them), high-latitude ice, hydrothermal vents (especially the extent to which they are found in the Indian Ocean), kelp forests and seagrass beds (especially the degree of loss of kelp and the pathology of the diseases affecting them), mangroves (especially the taxonomy of associated species and their interactions with salt marshes), salt marshes (especially the ecosystem services that they provide) and 143 the Sargasso Sea (especially the links with distant ecosystems). Ways in which humans interact with the ocean Some of the issues relating to the ocean and to the ocean biotas (for example, ocean acidification and fish stock assessments) are linked to the way in which humans affect some aspects of the ocean (for example, through carbon-dioxide emissions or fisheries). However, there are many more areas in which we do not yet know enough about human activities that affect or interact with the ocean to enable us to manage those activities sustainably. For shipping, much information is available about where ships go, their cargo and the economics of their operations. However, important gaps remain in our knowledge about how their routes and operations affect the marine environment. Those issues include primarily the noise that they make, chronic discharges of oil and the extent to which non-native invasive species are being transported. Other information gaps relate to the 141 142 143

See chaps. 36A-H. See chaps. 11 and 27. See chaps. 42 to 51.

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social aspects of shipping: in particular, little is known about the levels of death and injury of seafarers, an issue recently raised by the Secretary-General of the International 144 Maritime Organization. Land-based inputs to the ocean have serious implications for both human health and the proper functioning of marine ecosystems. In some parts of the world, those have been studied carefully for over 40 years. In others, little systematic information is found. There are two important gaps in current knowledge. The first is how to link different ways of measuring discharges and emissions. Much information is available from local studies about inputs, but those are frequently measured and analysed in different ways, thereby making comparison difficult or impossible. There are sometimes good reasons for using different techniques, but ways of improving the ability to achieve standardized results and to make comparisons are essential to give a full global view. Secondly, different regions of the world have developed different systems for assessing the overall quality of their local waters. Again, good reasons for such differences almost certainly exist, but knowledge of how to compare the different results would be helpful, 145 particularly in assessing priorities among different areas. Another area where there are important gaps in knowledge is the extent to which people are suffering from diseases that are either the direct result of inputs of waterborne pathogens or toxic substances, or the indirect result of toxins from algal blooms generated by excessive levels of nutrients. As well as gaps in information on the effects of such health hazards, there are also large gaps in knowledge of their economic effects. The offshore hydrocarbon industries in some parts of the world collect and publish wide-ranging information on how their activities are affecting the local marine environment. In other parts of the world, little or no such information is found. Because the processes are very similar in most areas, filling the gaps in knowledge in what is happening around the world would be helpful. The existing offshore mining industries are very diverse and, consequently, their impacts on the marine environment do not have much in common. Where they occur in the coastal zone, it is important that those responsible for integrated coastal zone management have good information on what is happening, particularly in relation to discharges of tailings and other disturbances of the marine environment. As offshore mining expands into deeper waters and areas beyond national jurisdiction, it will be important to ensure that information about their impacts on the marine environment is 146 collected and published. Information on the disposal of solid waste at sea (dumping) is very patchy. Where reports under the London Convention and the Protocol thereto are not submitted, it is not clear whether dumping does not occur or occurs but is not reported. This represents an important gap in knowledge. The absence of information on dumping, if any, in other jurisdictions also impedes the understanding of the impact on the marine environment 147 of that form of waste disposal. Our knowledge of marine debris has many gaps. Unless we understand better the sources, fates, and impacts of marine debris, we shall not be able to tackle the problems that it raises. Although the monitoring of marine debris is currently carried out in several countries around the world, the protocols used tend to be very different, preventing comparisons and the harmonization of data. Because marine debris is so mobile, the result is a significant gap in knowledge. There is also a gap in information for evaluating the impacts of marine debris on coastal and marine species, habitats, economic well-being, human health and safety, and social values. Because of their ability to enter into marine food chains, with a potential impact on human health, more 144 145 146 147

See See See See

chap. chap. chap. chap.

17. 20. 23. 24.

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information on the origin, fate and effects of plastic microparticles and nanoparticles is highly desirable. Likewise, because of their potential effects on phytoplankton, there is a 148 gap in knowledge about titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Many aspects of integrated coastal zone management still present important knowledge gaps. Those responsible for managing coastal areas need information on, at least, coastal erosion, land reclamation from the sea, changes in sedimentation as a result of coastal works and changes in river regimes (such as damming rivers or increased water abstraction), the ways in which the local ports are working and dredging is taking place and the ways in which tourist activity is developing (and is planned to develop), and the impacts that those developments and plans are likely to have on the local marine ecosystem (and, for that matter, the local terrestrial ecosystems). It will help the development and effectiveness of integrated coastal management if recognized standards are set and followed for all such information, so that systematic best practices 149 can be developed. The aesthetic, cultural, religious and spiritual ways in which humans relate to the ocean are also linked to some gaps in our knowledge. Over the centuries, many cultures have built up broad traditional knowledge of the ocean. Such knowledge is often under pressure and will be lost if it is not recorded. For example, Polynesian traditional navigational knowledge was disappearing fast and has been recorded only just in time. Cultural practices (such as traditional Chinese and Iranian boatbuilding) are also 150 disappearing and risk being lost for future generations. Our knowledge of human interaction with the ocean is also very partial in terms of the ways in which we benefit from it. As has been noted above, it is not yet possible to place a value on the non-marketed ecosystem services derived from the ocean. There are many gaps in the information needed for such an exercise. Information on the effects of changes in the ways in which the planetary ecosystem works needs to be collected and evaluated, in order to permit an economic valuation of the choices for action that may have repercussions on non-marketed ecosystem services. The areas where such information seems particularly closely related to management decisions are integrated coastal zone management (including marine spatial management), offshore hydrocarbon exploitation, offshore mining, shipping routes, port development and 151 waste disposal. Even with market-related ecosystem services and human activities, there are major information gaps. Such gaps include consistent definitions of what the ecosystem services and human activities cover, how to estimate the value of services and activities that are on the margins of the markets and, even more, the capture of the related data. Gaining a good understanding of the true overall economic situation of such activities as 152 fishing, shipping and tourism would help to improve decision-making in those fields. Closing those gaps in our knowledge would amount to an ambitious programme of research. Research is already taking place on many more issues on which more information is desirable (for example, on how the genetic resources of the ocean can be used and what the practical possibilities are for seabed mining). Collaboration and 153 sharing will be important for making the best uses of scarce research resources.

VII. Capacity-building gaps The knowledge gaps identified in the present Assessment all point to gaps in the capacities needed to fill them and to apply the resulting knowledge. On the basis of the 148 149 150 151 152 153

See See See See See See

chaps. 6 and 25. chaps. 4, 18 and 27. chap. 8. chap. 55. chaps. 3, 9 and 55. chap. 30.

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information currently available, it is impossible to say what gaps currently exist in arrangements to build such capacities. Conclusions on where the capacity-building gaps exist could only be reached by conducting a survey, country by country, of the capacitybuilding arrangements that currently exist and of how suitable they are for each 154 country’s needs. The preliminary inventory of capacity-building for assessments compiled by the Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea as part of the Regular Process provides some initial information on which to base such a survey, but it would take a much more detailed study than has been possible in the first cycle of the Regular Process to match that information with the needs of each country. The present section therefore looks at the capacities that are desirable, rather than the gaps in capacities for building them. The outline for the First Global Integrated Marine Assessment requires that capacities be identified to assess the status of the marine environment and to benefit from the various human activities that take place in the marine environment. Certain capacities are desirable for multiple purposes. The most obvious of that kind of capacity is marine research vessels. Such vessels can provide multipurpose platforms capable of supporting geological and biota surveys, habitat mapping and similar tasks. The present Assessment reviews the current distribution of research vessels around the world. Such vessels may be run by Governments, government institutes, universities, independent research institutes or commercial enterprises. Shared use, for example at a 155 regional level, may be feasible. Turning from those points to the elements identified as knowledge gaps, the following are the main desirable capacity-building activities. Physical structure of the ocean Surveys of the physical structure of the ocean require both sea-going survey capacities and the laboratory and technical staff capabilities to analyse and interpret the resulting data. Both are essential to fill knowledge gaps about the physical structure of the ocean within and beyond national jurisdictions. Waters of the ocean Understanding the water column requires capacities to sample, analyse and interpret the ocean in terms of temperature, salinity, stratification, chemical composition and acidity. Much of that can be gathered by autonomous floating devices, such as the floats used by the Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography, which are described in the present Assessment. Understanding primary production and the implications of sea-level rise requires information on sea levels and chlorophyll a. Such information is most effectively gathered from satellite sensors. Much of it is already available through the Internet, but the equipment and skills needed to access and interpret it are needed to be able to investigate local situations. Ocean biotas Better understanding of the ocean biotas demands capacities to organize the regular collection of sampling data on their number, distribution, health and reproductive success, to compile such data into databases (at the national or regional level), to analyse and interpret the data (for instance, taxonomic expertise is required to identify species) and to carry out assessments based on that information. Capacity to carry out marine scientific research is also highly desirable to improve the scientific understanding on which such monitoring is based.

154 155

See A/66/189, annex V, and A/67/87, annex V. See chap. 30.

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The capacity to manage fisheries effectively requires ships, equipment and skills to monitor and assess fish stocks. Based on those assessments, capacities are then required to develop, apply and enforce appropriate fishery management policies. Such capacities are likely to include fishery protection vessels to monitor what is happening at sea, access to satellite data to monitor the movements of fishing vessels through transponders, institutional structures to regulate markets in fish and other seafood (including their freedom from contaminants and pathogens) and the necessary enforcement mechanisms at all stages from ocean to table. Ways in which humans interact with the ocean Many human activities affecting the oceans are carried out by commercial enterprises. Those can be expected to develop the capacities to generate the knowledge and infrastructure that they need to run their businesses and to comply with relevant regulations. For public authorities, however, capacities will be needed to ensure that they can create appropriate regulations to safeguard social and environmental interests and that they can deal effectively with such commercial enterprises (many of which are international companies). This may be particularly difficult when the public authority concerned is relatively local. In developing ecosystem-based approaches to the management of human activities affecting the ocean (in parallel to those being developed for fisheries), capacities are necessary to gather and process information relating to the activity and to all the facets of the ocean ecosystems with which the activity in question interacts. The precise information required will vary from activity to activity. Examples of capacities likely to be needed in some specific human activities are those required in order to: (a) Identify when ship-routing measures are needed to protect the marine environment, specify them and implement such measures; (b) Plan and implement emergency response plans for maritime disasters. Such plans are likely to require significant capital investment in ships, aircraft, machinery and supplies; (c) Develop and manage ports capable of handling international maritime traffic. Currently, many such port developments are being carried out and managed by commercial enterprises, in which case the proper regulation of those undertakings will be required; (d) Ensure adequate port waste-reception facilities to enable ships to discharge their waste without being delayed; (e) Carry out port State inspections of vessels and follow up any shortcomings detected; (f) Sample, analyse and interpret land-based inputs to the ocean. Those capabilities need to be able to cover liquid and semi-liquid discharges by pipelines directly into the sea, discharges of liquids and suspended solids to rivers and the water quality of rivers at their mouths, and emissions into the air that may reach and affect the sea. In the case of emissions into the air, it is also desirable to be able to distinguish anthropogenic inputs from natural emissions; (g) Ensure that new, cleaner technologies are applied to chemical and other production processes, so as to reduce the discharges and emissions of heavy metals and other hazardous substances; (h) Manage solid waste placed in landfills, so as to prevent the leaching of heavy metals or other hazardous substances that can reach and affect the sea, and manage the incineration of waste to minimize emissions of heavy metals and other hazardous substances in the exhaust gases; (i) Provide the necessary infrastructure and equipment for the proper handling of land-based industrial discharges, emissions and sewage, so as to minimize the

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content of heavy metals and other hazardous substances, to remove waterborne pathogens where they could pollute bathing waters and contaminate seafood and to prevent excessive nutrient discharges; (j) Promote the proper handling of agricultural waste and slurry and the proper use of agricultural fertilizers and pesticides; (k) Deliver the organization, equipment and skills to monitor and control other human activities that impact on the marine environment; (l) Manage the coastal zone in an integrated way. Where tourism is significant, those capacities need to include the ability to monitor and regulate tourist developments and activities, so as to keep them within acceptable limits in relation to the carrying capacities of the local ecosystems. A general gap exists in capacities for an integrated assessment of the marine environment. An integrated assessment needs to bring together: (a) environmental, social and economic aspects; (b) all the relevant sectors of human activities; and (c) all the components (fixed and living) of the relevant ecosystems. The idea of an integrated assessment in that sense is relatively recent. It presents a challenging requirement, which requires specialists in many different fields to work together. In building capacities for integrated assessments, it is necessary to think further about the concept of an integrated marine assessment. The present assessment is the first global integrated assessment of the marine environment. The Group of Experts who are collectively responsible for it are convinced that the further development and refinement of techniques for making integrated assessments are needed.

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Part II The Context of the Assessment Chapter 1. Introduction – Planet, Oceans and Life Contributors: Peter Harris (Lead member and Convenor), Joshua Tuhumwire (CoLead member) 1. Why the ocean matters Consider how dependent upon the ocean we are. The ocean is vast – it covers seven-tenths of the planet. On average, it is about 4,000 metres deep. It contains 1.3 billion cubic kilometres of water (97 per cent of all water on Earth). But there are now about seven billion people on Earth. So we each have just one-fifth of a cubic kilometre of ocean to provide us with all the services that we get from the ocean. That small, one-fifth of a cubic kilometre share produces half of the oxygen each of us breathes, all of the sea fish and other seafood that each of us eats. It is the ultimate source of all the freshwater that each of us will drink in our lifetimes. The ocean is a highway for ships that carry across the globe the exports and imports that we produce and consume. It contains the oil and gas deposits and minerals on and beneath the seafloor that we increasingly need to use. The submarine cables across the ocean floor carry 90 per cent of the electronic traffic on which our communications rely. Our energy supply will increasingly rely on wind, wave and tide power from the ocean. Large numbers of us take our holidays by the sea. That onefifth of a cubic kilometre will also suffer from the share of the sewage, garbage, spilled oil and industrial waste which we produce and which is put into the ocean every day. Demands on the ocean continue to rise: by the year 2050 it is estimated that there will be 10 billion people on Earth. So our share (or our children’s share) of the ocean will have shrunk to one-eighth of a cubic kilometre. That reduced share will still have to provide each of us with sufficient amounts of oxygen, food and water, while still receiving the pollution and waste for which we are all responsible. The ocean is also home to a rich diversity of plants and animals of all sizes – from the largest animals on the planet (the blue whales) to plankton that can only be seen with powerful microscopes. We use some of these directly, and many more contribute indirectly to our benefits from the ocean. Even those which have no connection whatever with us humans are part of the biodiversity whose value we have belatedly recognized. However, the relationships are reciprocal. We intentionally exploit many components of this biodiverse richness. Carelessly (for example, through inputs of waste) or unknowingly (for example, through ocean acidification from increased emissions of carbon dioxide), we are altering the circumstances in which these plants and animals live. All this is affecting their ability to thrive and, sometimes, even to survive. These impacts of humanity on the oceans © 2016 United Nations

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are part of our legacy and our future. They will shape the future of the ocean and its biodiversity as an integral physical-biological system, and the ability of the ocean to provide the services which we use now and will increasingly need to use in the future. The ocean is vital to each of us and to human well-being overall. Looking in more detail at the services that the ocean provides, we can break them down into three main categories. First, there are the economic activities in providing goods and services which are often marketed (fisheries, shipping, communications, tourism and recreation, and so on). Secondly, there are the other tangible ecosystem services which are not part of a market, but which are vital to human life. For example, marine plants (mainly tiny floating diatoms) produce about 50 per cent of atmospheric oxygen. Mangroves, salt marshes and sea grasses are also natural carbon sinks. Coastal habitats, including coral reefs, protect homes, communities and businesses from storm surges and wave attack. Thirdly, there are the intangible ecosystem services. We know that the ocean means far more to us than just merely the functional or practical services that it provides. Humans value the ocean in many other ways: for aesthetic, cultural or religious reasons, and for just being there in all its diversity – giving us a “sense of place” (Halpern et al., 2012). Not surprisingly, given the resources that the ocean provides, human settlements have grown up very much near the shore: 38 per cent of the world’s population live within 100 km of the shore, 44 per cent within 150 km, 50 per cent within 200 km, and 67 per cent within 400 km (Small et al 2004). All these marine ecosystem services have substantial economic value. While there is much debate about valuation methods (and whether some ecosystem services can be valued) and about exact figures, attempts to estimate the value of marine ecosystem services have found such values to be on the order of trillions of US dollars annually (Costanza, et al., 1997). Nearly three-quarters of this value resides in coastal zones (Martínez, et al., 2007). The point is not so much the monetary figure that can be estimated for non-marketed ecosystem services, but rather the fact that people do not need to pay anything for them – these services are nature’s gift to humanity. But we take these services for granted at our peril, because the cost of replacing them, if it were possible to do so, would be immense and in many cases, incalculable. There are therefore very many good reasons why we each need to take very good care of our-fifth of a cubic kilometre share of the ocean! 2. Structure of this Assessment It is this significance of the ocean as a whole, and the relatively fragmented way in which it is studied and in which human activities impacting upon it are managed, that led in 2002 the World Summit on Sustainable Development to recommend (WSSD 2002), and the United Nations General Assembly to agree (UNGA 2002), that there should be a regular process for the global reporting and assessment of the marine environment, including socioeconomic aspects. Under the arrangements © 2016 United Nations

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developed for this purpose, this Assessment is the first global integrated assessment of the marine environment (see further in Chapter 2). Three possible focuses exist for structuring this Assessment: the ecosystem services (market and non-marketed, tangible and intangible) that the marine environment provides; the habitats that exist within the marine environment, and the pressures that human activities exert on the marine environment. All three have advantages and disadvantages. Using ecosystem services as the basis for structuring the Assessment would follow the approach of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). This has the advantage of broad acceptance in environmental reporting. It would cover provisioning services (food, construction materials, renewable energy, coastal protection), while highlighting regulating services and quality-of-life services that are not captured using a pressures or habitats approach to structuring the Assessment. It would have the disadvantage that some important human activities using the ocean (for example, shipping, ports and minerals extraction) would be covered only incidentally. Using marine habitats as the basis for structuring the Assessment would have the advantage that habitats are the property that inherently integrates many ecosystem features, including species at higher and lower trophic levels, water quality, oceanographic conditions and many types of anthropogenic pressures (AoA, 2009). The cumulative aspect of multiple pressures affecting the same habitat, that is often lost in sector-based environmental reporting (Halpern et al., 2008), is captured by using habitats as reporting units. It would have the disadvantage that consideration of human activities would be fragmented between the many different types of habitats. Using pressures as the basis for structuring the Assessment would have the advantage that the associated human activities are commonly linked with data collection and reporting structures for regulatory compliance purposes. For instance, permits that are issued for offshore oil and gas development require specific monitoring and reporting obligations to be met by operators. It would have the disadvantage that many important ecosystem services would only be covered in relation to the impacts of the human activities. Given that all three approaches have their own particular advantages and disadvantages, the United Nations General Assembly endorsed a structure for this Assessment that combined all three approaches, thereby structuring the World Ocean Assessment into seven main Parts, as follows. Part I. Summary The Summary is intended to bring out the way in which the assessment has been carried out, the overall assessment of the scale of human impact on the oceans and the overall value of the oceans to humans, and the main threats to the marine environment and human economic and social well-being. As guides for future action it also describes the gaps in capacity-building and in knowledge. © 2016 United Nations

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Part II. The context of the Assessment This chapter is intended as a broad, introductory survey of the role played by the ocean in the life of the planet, the way in which they function, and humans’ relationships to them. Chapter 2 explains in more detail the rationale for the Assessment and how it has been produced. Part III. Assessment of major ecosystem services from the marine environment (other than provisioning services) Part III looks at the non-marketed ecosystem services provided to the planet by the ocean. It considers, first, the scientific understanding of such ecosystem services and then looks at the earth’s hydrological cycle, air/sea interactions, primary production and ocean-based carbonate production. Finally it looks at aesthetic, cultural, religious and spiritual ecosystem services (including some cultural objects which are traded). Where relevant, it draws heavily on the work of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) – the aim is to use the work of the IPCC, not to duplicate or challenge it. Part IV. Assessment of the cross-cutting issues: food security and food safety The aim of Part IV is to look at all aspects of the vital function of the ocean in providing food for humans. It draws substantially on information collected by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The economic significance of employment in fisheries and aquaculture and the relationship these industries have with coastal communities are addressed, including gaps in capacitybuilding for developing countries. Part V. Assessment of other human activities and the marine environment All human activities that can impact on the oceans (other than those relating to food) are covered in Part V of the assessment. Each chapter describes the location and scale of activity, the economic benefits, employment and social role, environmental consequences, links to other activities and capacity-building gaps. Part VI. Assessment of marine biological diversity and habitats The aim of Part VI is: (a) to give an overview of marine biological diversity and what is known about it; (b) to review the status and trends of, and threats to, marine ecosystems, species and habitats that have been scientifically identified as threatened, declining or otherwise in need of special attention or protection; (c) to review the significant environmental, economic and/or social aspects in relation to the conservation of marine species and habitats; and (d) to find gaps in capacity to identify marine species and habitats that are viewed as threatened, declining or otherwise in need of special attention or protection and to assess the © 2016 United Nations

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environmental, social and economic aspects of the conservation of marine species and habitats. Part VII. Overall assessment Part VII finally looks at the overall impact of humans on the ocean, and the overall benefit of the ocean for humans. 3. The physical structure of the ocean Looking at a globe of the earth one thing that can be easily seen is that, although different names appear in different places for different ocean areas, these areas are all linked together: there is really only one world ocean. The seafloor beneath the ocean has long remained a mystery, but in recent decades our understanding of the ocean floor has improved. The publication of the first comprehensive, global map of seafloor physiography by Bruce Heezen and Marie Tharp in 1977 provided a pseudothree-dimensional image of the ocean that has influenced a long line of scholars. That image has been refined in recent years by new bathymetric maps (Smith and Sandwell, 1997) which are used to illustrate globes, web sites and the maps on many in-flight TV screens when flying over the ocean. A new digital, global seafloor geomorphic features map has been built (especially to assist the World Ocean Assessment) using a combination of manual and ArcGIS methods based on the analysis and interpretation of the latest global bathymetry grid (Harris et al., 2014; Figure 1). The new map includes global spatial data layers for 29 categories of geomorphic features, defined by the International Hydrographic Organization and other authoritative sources. The new map shows the way in which the ocean consists of four main basins (the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean) between the tectonic plates that form the continents. The tectonic plates have differing forms at their edges, giving broad or narrow continental shelves and varying profiles of the continental rises and continental slopes leading from the abyssal plain to the continental shelf. Geomorphic activity in the abyssal plains between the continents gives rise to abyssal ridges, volcanic islands, seamounts, guyots (plateau-like seamounts), rift valley segments and trenches. Erosion and sedimentation (either submarine or riverine when the sea level was lower during the ice ages) has created submarine canyons, glacial troughs, sills, fans and escarpments. Around the ocean basins there are marginal seas, partially separated by islands, archipelagos or peninsulas, or bounded by submarine ridges. These marginal seas have sometimes been formed in many ways: for example, some result from the interaction between tectonic plates (for example the Mediterranean), others from the sinking of former dry land as a result of isostatic changes from the removal of the weight of the ice cover in the ice ages (for example, the North Sea). The water of the ocean circulates within these geological structures. This water is not uniform: there are very important physical and chemical variations within the © 2016 United Nations

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sea water. Salinity varies according to the relativity between inputs of freshwater and evaporation. Sea areas such as the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea, with large amounts of freshwater coming from rivers and relatively low evaporation have low salinity – 8 parts per thousand and 16 parts per thousand, respectively, as compared with the global average of 35 parts per thousand (HELCOM 2010, Black Sea Commission 2008). The Red Sea, in contrast, with low riverine input and high insolation, and therefore high evaporation, has a mean surface salinity as high as 42.5 parts per thousand (Heilman et al 2009). Seawater can also be stratified into separate layers, with different salinities and different temperatures. Such stratification can lead to variations in both the oxygen content and nutrient content, with critical consequences in both cases for the biota dependent on them. A further variation is in the penetration of light. Sunlight is essential for photosynthesis of inorganic carbon (mainly CO2) into the organic carbon of plants and mixotrophic species 1. Even clear water reduces the level of light that can penetrate by about 90 per cent for every 75 metres of depth. Below 200 metres depth, there is not enough light for photosynthesis (Widder 2014). The upper 200 metres of the ocean are therefore where most photosynthesis takes place (the euphotic zone). Variations in light level in the water column and on the sea bed are caused by seasonal fluctuation in sunlight, cloud cover, tidal variations in water depth and (most significantly, where it occurs) turbidity in the water, caused, for example, by resuspension of sediment by tides or storms or by coastal erosion. Where turbidity occurs, it can reduce the penetration of light by up to 95 per cent, and thus reduce the level of photosynthesis which can take place (Anthony 2004).

The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

1

That is, plankton species that both photosynthesize and consume other biota.

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Figure 1. Geomorphic features map of the world’s oceans (after Harris et al., 2014). Dotted black lines mark boundaries between major ocean regions. Basins are not shown.

The new map provides the basis for global estimates of physiographic statistics (area, number, mean size, etc.): for example, it can be estimated that the global ocean covers 362 million square kilometres and the ocean floor contains: 9,951 seamounts covering 8.1 million square kilometres; 9,477 submarine canyons covering 4.4 million square kilometres; and the mid-ocean spreading ridges cover 6.7 million square kilometres with an additional 710,000 square kilometres of rift valleys where hydrothermal vent communities occur (Harris et al., 2014). There is an important distinction to be made between the terminology used in scientific description of the ocean and the legal terminology used to describe States’ rights and obligations in the ocean. Some important terms that will be used throughout this Assessment include the “continental shelf”, “open ocean” and “deep sea”. Unless stated otherwise, “continental shelf” in this Assessment refers to the geomorphic continental shelf (as shown in Figure 1) and not to the continental shelf as defined by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The geomorphic continental shelf is usually defined in terms of the submarine extension of a continent or island as far as the point where there is a marked discontinuity in the slope and the continental slope begins its fall down to the continental rise or the abyssal plain (Hobbs 2003). In total, continental shelves cover an area of 32 million square kilometres (out of a total ocean area of 362 million square kilometres). The term “open ocean” in this Assessment refers to the water column of deep-water areas that are beyond (that is, seawards of) the geomorphic continental shelf. It is the pelagic zone that lies in deep water (generally >200 m water depth). The term “deep sea” in this Assessment refers to the sea floor of deep-water areas that are beyond (that is, seawards of) the geomorphic continental shelf. It is the benthic zone that lies in deep water (generally >200 m water depth). 4. Seawater and the ocean/climate interaction The Earth’s ocean and atmosphere are parts of a single, interactive system that controls the global climate. The ocean plays a major role in this control, particularly in the dispersal of heat from the equator towards the poles through ocean currents. The heat transfer through the ocean is possible because of the larger heat-capacity of water compared with that of air: there is more heat stored in the upper 3 metres of the global ocean than in the entire atmosphere of the Earth. Put another way, the oceans hold more than 1,000 times more heat than the atmosphere. Heat transported by the major ocean currents dramatically affects regional climate: for example, Europe would be much colder than it is without the warmth brought by the Gulf Stream current. The great ocean boundary currents transport heat from the equator to the polar seas (and cold from the polar seas towards the equator), along © 2016 United Nations

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the margins of the continents. Examples include: the Kuroshio Current in the northwest Pacific, the Humboldt (Peru) Current in the southeast Pacific, the Benguela Current in the southeast Atlantic and the Agulhas Current in the western Indian Ocean. The mightiest ocean current of all is the Circumpolar Current which flows from west to east encircling the continent of Antarctica and transporting more than 100 Sverdrups (100 million cubic meters per second) of ocean water (Rintoul and Sokolov, 2001). As well as the boundary currents, there are five major gyres of rotating currents: two in the Atlantic and two in the Pacific (in each case one north and one south of the equator) and one in the Indian Ocean. The winds in the atmosphere are the main drivers of these ocean surface currents. The interface between the ocean and the atmosphere and the effect of the winds also allows for the ocean to absorb oxygen and, more importantly, carbon dioxide from the air. Annually, the ocean absorbs 2,300 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (IPCC, 2005; see Chapter 5). In addition to this vast surface ocean current system, there is the ocean thermohaline circulation (ocean conveyor) system (Figure 3). Instead of being driven by winds and the temperature difference between the equator and the poles (as are the surface ocean currents), this current system is driven by differences in water density. The most dense ocean water is cold and salty which sinks beneath warm and fresh seawater that stays near the surface. Cold-salty water is produced in sea ice “factories” of the polar seas: when seawater freezes, the salt is rejected (the ice is mostly fresh water), which makes the remaining liquid seawater saltier. This cold saltier water sinks into the deepest ocean basins, bringing oxygen into the deep ocean and thus enabling aerobic life to exist.

The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

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Figure 2. The global ocean “conveyor” thermohaline circulation (Broecker, 1991). Bottom water is formed in the polar seas via sea-ice formation in winter, which rejects cold, salty (dense) water. This sinks to the ocean floor and flows into the Indian and North Pacific Oceans before returning to complete the loop in the North Atlantic. Numbers indicate estimated volumes of bottom water 3 production in “Sverdrups” (1 Sverdrup = 1 million m /s), which may be reduced by global warming because less sea ice will be formed during winter. Blue indicates cold currents and red indicates warm currents. The black question marks indicate sites long the Antarctic margin where bottom water may be formed but of unknown volumes. The question mark after the “5” indicates that this value is certain.

Wind-driven mixing affects only the surface of the ocean, mainly the upper 200 metres or so, and rarely deeper than about 1,000 metres. Without the ocean’s thermohaline circulation system, the bottom waters of the ocean would soon be depleted of oxygen, and aerobic life there would cease to exist. Superimposed on all these processes, there is the twice-daily ebb and flow of the tide. This is, of course, most significant in coastal seas. The tidal range varies according to local geography: the largest mean tidal ranges (around 11.7 metres) are found in the Bay of Fundy, on the Atlantic coast of Canada, but ranges only slightly less are also found in the Bristol Channel in the United Kingdom, on the northern coast of France, and on the coasts of Alaska, Argentina and Chile (NOAA 2014). Global warming is likely to affect many aspects of ocean processes. Changes in seasurface temperature, sea level and other primary impacts will lead, among other things, to increases in the frequency of major tropical storms (cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons) bigger ocean swell waves and reduced polar ice formation. Each of these consequences has its own consequences, and so on (Harley et al., 2006; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, 2007). For example, reduced sea ice production in the polar seas will mean less bottom water is produced (Broecker, 1997) and hence less oxygen delivered to the deep ocean (Shaffer et al., 2009). 5. The ocean and life The complex system of the atmosphere and ocean currents is also crucial to the distribution of life in the ocean, since it regulates, among other factors, (as said above) temperature, salinity, oxygen content, absorption of carbon dioxide and the penetration of light and (in addition to these) the distribution of nutrients. The distribution of nutrients throughout the ocean is the result of the interaction of a number of different processes. Nutrients are introduced to the ocean from the land through riverine discharges, through inputs direct from pipelines and through airborne inputs (see Chapter 20). Within the ocean, these external inputs of nutrients suffer various fates and are cycled. Nutrients that are adsorbed onto the surface of particles are likely to fall into sediments, from where they may either be remobilised by water movement or settle permanently. Nutrients that are taken up by plants and mixotrophic biota for photosynthesis will also eventually sink towards the seabed as the plants or biota die; en route or when they reach the seabed, they © 2016 United Nations

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will be broken up by bacteria and the nutrients released. As a result of these processes, the water in lower levels of the ocean is richer in nutrients. Upwelling of these nutrient-rich waters is caused by the interaction of currents and wind stress. In simple terms, along coasts (especially west-facing coasts with narrow continental shelves), coastal, longshore wind stress results in rapid upwelling; further out to sea, wind-stress produces a slower, but still significant, upwelling (Rykaczewski et al., 2008). Upwelled, nutrient-rich water is brought up to the euphotic zone (see previous section), where most photosynthesis takes place (see Chapter 6). The reality is far more complex, and upwelling is influenced by numerous other factors such as stratification of the water column and the influence of coastal and seafloor geomorphology, such as shelf-incising submarine canyons (Sobarzo et al., 2001). Other important factors are river plumes and whether the upwelling delivers the nutrient that is the local limiting factor for primary productivity (for example, nitrogen or iron; Kudela et al., 2008). Ocean upwelling zones commonly control primary productivity hotspots and their associated, highly productive fisheries, such as the anchoveta fishery off the coast of Peru. The Peruvian upwelling varies from year to year, resulting in significant fluctuations in productivity and fisheries yields. The major factor producing these variations is the El Niño Southern Oscillation, which is the best studied of the recurring variations in large-scale circulation, and its disruptive effects on coastal weather and fisheries are wellknown (Barber and Chavez, 1983). The major ocean currents connect geographic regions and also exert control on ocean life in other ways. Currents form natural boundaries that help define distinct habitats. Such boundaries may isolate different genetic strains of the same species as well as different species. Many marine animals (for example, salmon and squid) have migration patterns that rely upon transport in major ocean current systems, and other species rely on currents to distribute their larvae to new habitats. Populations of ocean species naturally fluctuate from year to year, and ocean currents often play a significant role. The survival of plankton, for example, is affected by where the currents carry them. Food supply varies as changing circulation and upwelling patterns lead to higher or lower nutrient concentrations. The heterogeneity of the oceans, its water masses, currents, ecological processes, geological history and seafloor morphology, have resulted in great variations in the spatial distribution of life. In short, biodiversity is not uniformly distributed across the oceans: there are local and regional biodiversity “hotspots” (see Chapters 33 and 35). Figure 3 shows a way in which the diversity of species is consequently distributed around the world. Various classification systems have been devised to systematize this variety, including the European Nature Information System (EUNIS) (Davies and Moss, 1999; Connor et al., 2004) and the Global Open Ocean and Deep Sea-habitats (GOODS) classification and its refinements (Agnostini 2008; Rice et al 2011)). Part VI (Assessment of marine biodiversity and habitats) describes in more detail the diversity that is found across the ocean, and the way in which it is being affected by human activities.

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The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Figure 3. Distribution of biodiversity in the oceans. Biodiversity data: Tittensor et al., 2010. Human impact data: Halpern et al., 2008, Map: Census of Marine Life, 2010; Ausubel et al., 2010; National Geographic Society, 2010).

6. Human uses of the ocean Humans depend upon the ocean in many ways and our ocean-based industries have had impacts on ocean ecosystems from local to global spatial scales. In the large majority of ocean ecosystems, humans play a major role in determining crucial features of the way in which the ecosystems are developing. The impacts of climate change and acidification are pervasive through most ocean ecosystems. These, and related impacts, are discussed in Part III (Assessment of major ecosystem services from the marine environment (other than provisioning services)), together with the non-marketed ecosystem services that we enjoy from the ocean and the ways in which these may be affected by the pervasive impacts of human activities. For wide swathes of the Earth’s population, fish and other sea-derived food is a provisioning ecosystem of the highest importance. Part IV (Assessment of the crosscutting issues: food security and food safety) examines the extent to which humans rely on the ocean for their food, the ways in which capturing, growing and marketing that food is impacting on ecosystems and the social and economic position of those engaged in these activities and the health risks to everyone who enjoys this food. The wide range of other human activities is examined in Part V (Assessment of human activities and the marine environment): these activities include the growing importance of worldwide transport in the world economy; the major role of the © 2016 United Nations

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seabed in providing oil and gas and other minerals; the non-consumptive uses of the ocean to provide renewable energy; the potential for non-consumptive use of marine genetic resources; the uses of seawater to supplement freshwater resources; and the vital role of the ocean in tourism and recreation. In addition, it is necessary to consider the way in which human activities that produce waste can affect the marine environment as the wastes are discharged, emitted or dumped into the marine environment, and the effects of reclaiming land from the sea and seeking to change the natural processes of erosion and sedimentation. Finally, we need to consider the marine scientific research that is the foundation of all our attempts to understand the ocean and to manage the human activities that affect it. 7. Conclusion Our planet is seven-tenths ocean. From space, the blue of the ocean is the predominant colour. This Assessment is an attempt to produce a 360º review of where the ocean stands, what the range of natural variability underlies its future development and what are the pressures (and their drivers) that are likely to influence that development. As the description of the task set out in Chapter 2 (Mandate, information sources and method of work) shows, the Assessment does not attempt to make recommendations or analyse the success (or otherwise) of current policies. Its task is to provide a factual basis for the relevant authorities in reaching their decisions. The aim is that a comprehensive, consistent Assessment will provide a better basis for those decisions.

References Agnostini, V., Escobar-Briones, E., Cresswell, I., Gjerde, K., Niewijk, D.J.A., Polacheck, A., Raymond, B., Rice, J., Roff, J.C., Scanlon, K.M., Spalding, M., Vierros, M., Watling, L. (2008). Global Open Oceans and Deep Sea-habitats (GOODS) bioregional classification, in: Vierros, M., Cresswell, I., Escobar-Briones, E., Rice, J., Ardron, J. (Eds.). United Nations Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), p. 94. Anthony, K.R.N., Ridd, P.V., Orpin, A.R., Larcombe, P. and Lough, J. (2004). Temporal Variation of Light Availability in Coastal Benthic Habitats: Effects of Clouds, Turbidity, and Tides. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 49, No. 6. Ausubel, J.H., Crist, D.T., Waggoner, P.E. (Eds.) (2010). First census of marine life 2010: highlights of a decade of discovery. Census of Marine Life, Washington DC. Barber, R.T., Chavez, F.P. (1983). Biological Consequences of El Niño. Science 222, 1203-1210. © 2016 United Nations

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Black Sea Commission (2008). Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution, State of Environment Report 2001 - 2006/7, Istanbul. (ISBN 978-9944-245-33-3). Broecker, W.S. (1991). The great ocean conveyor. Oceanography 4, 79-89. Broecker, W.S. (1997). Thermohaline circulation, the Achilles Heel of our climate system: will man-made CO2 upset the current balance? Science 278, 15821588. Census of Marine Life (2010). Ocean Life: Past, Present, and Future http://comlmaps.org/oceanlifemap/past-present-future. Connor, D.W., Allen, J.H., Golding, N., Howell, K.L., Lieberknecht, L.M., Northen, K.O., Reker, J.B. (2004). Marine habitat classification for Britain and Ireland Version 04.05. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough UK. Costanza, R., d'Arge, R., de Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O'Neill, R.V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R.G., Sutton, P., van den Belt, M. (1997). The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387, 253-260. Davies, C.E., Moss, D. (1999). The EUNIS classification. European Environment Agency, 124 pp. Halpern, B.S., Walbridge, S., Selkoe, K.A., Kappel, C.V., Micheli, F., D'Agrosa, C., Bruno, J.F., Casey, K.S., Ebert, C., Fox, H.E., Fujita, R., Heinemann, D., Lenihan, H.S., Madin, E. M.P., Perry, M.T., Selig, E.R., Spalding, M., Steneck, R. and Watson, R. (2008). A Global Map of Human Impact on Marine Ecosystems. Science. 319, 948–952. Halpern, B.S., Longo, C., Hardy, D., McLeod, K.L., Samhouri, J.F., Katona, S.K., Kleisner, K., Lester, S.E., O'Leary, J., Ranelletti, M., Rosenberg, A.A., Scarborough, C., Selig, E.R., Best, B.D., Brumbaugh, D.R., Chapin, F.S., Crowder, L.B., Daly, K.L., Doney, S.C., Elfes, C., Fogarty, M.J., Gaines, S.D., Jacobsen, K.I., Karrer, L.B., Leslie, H.M., Neeley, E., Pauly, D., Polasky, S., Ris, B., St Martin, K., Stone, G.S., Sumaila, U.R., Zeller, D. (2012). An index to assess the health and benefits of the global ocean. Nature 488, 615–620. Harley, C.D.G., Hughes, A.R., Hultgren, K.M., Miner, B.G., Sorte, C.J.B., Thornber, C.S., Rodriguez, L.F., Tomanek, L., Williams, S.L. (2006). The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems. Ecology Letters 9, 228–241. Harris, P.T., MacMillan-Lawler, M., Rupp, J., Baker, E.K. (2014). Geomorphology of the oceans. Marine Geology 352, 4-24. Heezen, B.C., Tharp, M. (1977). World Ocean Floor Panorama, New York, In full color, painted by H. Berann, Mercator Projection, scale 1:23,230,300, 1168 x 1930 mm. Heilman et al (2009). S Heilman and N Mistafa, Red Sea, in United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP Large Marine Ecosystems Report, Nairobi 2009 (ISBN 978-92080702773-9). © 2016 United Nations

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HELCOM (2010). Helsinki Commission, Ecosystem Health of the Baltic Sea 2003– 2007: HELCOM Initial Holistic Assessment, Helsinki (ISSN 0357 – 2994). Hobbs, Carl III (2003). Article “Continental Shelf” in Encyclopedia of Geomorphology, ed Andrew Goudie, Routledge, London and New York. IPCC (2005) Caldeira, K., Akai, M., Ocean Storage in IPCC Special Report on Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage, pp 277-318. https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/specialreports/srccs/SRCCS_Chapter6.pdf Kudela, R.M., Banas, N.S., Barth, J.A., Frame, E.R., Jay, D.A., Largier, J.L., Lessard, E.J., Peterson, T.D., Vander Woude, A.J. (2008). New Insights into the controls and mechanisms of plankton productivity in coastal upwelling waters of the northern California current system. Oceanography 21, 46-59. Martínez, M.L., Intralawan, A., Vázquez, G., Pérez-Maqueo, O., Sutton, P., Landgrave, R. (2007). The coasts of our world: Ecological, economic and social importance. Ecological Economics 63, 254-272. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC., 155 p. National Geographic Society (2010). Ocean Life (poster). National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C. NOAA (2014). USA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Tide Predictions and Data (http://www.co-ops.nos.noaa.gov/faq2.html#26 accessed 15 Oc tober 2014). Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A. (2007). Global change and marine communities: Alien species and climate change. Marine Pollution Bulletin 55, 342-352. Rice, J., Gjerde, K.M., Ardron, J., Arico, S., Cresswell, I., Escobar, E., Grant, S., Vierros, M. (2011). Policy relevance of biogeographic classification for conservation and management of marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction, and the GOODS biogeographic classification. Ocean & Coastal Management 54, 110-122. Rintoul, S.R., and Sokolov, S. (2001). Baroclinic transport variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current south of Australia (WOCE repeat section SR3). Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 106, 2815-2832. Rykaczewski, Ryan R., and Checkley Jr., D.M. (2008). Influence of Ocean Winds on the Pelagic Ecosystem in Upwelling Regions, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 105, No. 6. Shaffer, G., Olsen, S.M., Pedersen, J.O.P. (2009). Long-term ocean oxygen depletion in response to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels. Nature Geoscience, 2, 105-109. Small, Christopher and Cohen, J.E. (2004). Continental Physiography, Climate, and the Global Distribution of Human Population, Current Anthropology Vol. 45, No. 2. Smith, W.H., Sandwell, D.T. (1997). Global Sea Floor Topography from Satellite © 2016 United Nations

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Altimetry and Ship Depth Soundings. Science Magazine 277, 1956-1962. Sobarzo, M., Figueroa, M., Djurfeldt, L. (2001). Upwelling of subsurface water into the rim of the Biobío submarine canyon as a response to surface winds. Continental Shelf Research 21, 279-299. Tittensor, D.P., Mora, C., Jetz, W., et al. (2010). Global patterns and predictors of marine biodiversity across taxa. Nature 466:1098–1101. doi: 10.1038/nature09329. UNEP, IOC-UNESCO (2009). An Assessment of Assessments, findings of the Group of Experts. Start-up phase of the Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment including Socio-economic aspects. UNEP and IOC/UNESCO, Malta. UNGA (2002). United Nations General Assembly, Resolution 57/141 (Oceans and the Law of the Sea), paragraph 45. Widder (2014). Edith Widder, Deep Light in US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Ocean Explorer (http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/04deepscope/background/dee plight/deeplight.htm accessed 15 October 2014). WSSD (2002). Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August-4 September 2002 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.03.II.A.1 and corrigendum), chap. I, resolution 2, annex, para. 36 (b).

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Chapter 2. Mandate, Information Sources and Method of Work Contributors: Alan Simcock (Lead member and Convenor), Amanuel Ajawin, Beatrice Ferreira, Sean Green, Peter Harris, Jake Rice, Andy Rosenberg, and Juying Wang (Co-lead members). The World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2002, recommended that there should be established a Regular Process for the Global Reporting and Assessment of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects (WSSD, 2002). This recommendation was endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in 2002 (UNGA, 2002). After considerable preparatory work, including as a first phase the production of the assessment of assessments (AoA, 2009), the United Nations General Assembly approved in 2009 the framework for the Regular Process developed by its Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole. This framework for the Regular Process consisted of: (a) the overall objective for the Regular Process, (b) a description of the scope of the Regular Process, (c) a set of principles to guide its establishment and operation and (d) the best practices on key design features for the Regular Process as identified by the group of experts established for the assessment of assessments (see below). The framework further provided that capacity-building, sharing of data, information and transfer of technology would be crucial elements of the framework. The following paragraphs set out these elements in the terms approved by the General Assembly (AHWGW, 2009; UNGA, 2009). 1. Overall objective The Regular Process, under the United Nations, would be recognized as the global mechanism for reviewing the state of the marine environment, including socioeconomic aspects, on a continual and systematic basis by providing regular assessments at the global and supraregional levels and an integrated view of environmental, economic and social aspects. Such assessments would support informed decision-making and thus contribute to managing in a sustainable manner human activities that affect the oceans and seas, in accordance with international law, including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1 and other applicable international instruments and initiatives. The Regular Process would facilitate the identification of trends and enable appropriate responses by States and competent regional and international organizations. The Regular Process would promote and facilitate the full participation of developing countries in all of its activities. 1

United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1833, No. 31363.

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Ecosystem approaches would be recognized as a useful framework for conducting fully integrated assessments. 2. Capacity-building and technology transfer The Regular Process would promote, facilitate and ensure capacity-building and transfer of technology, including marine technology, in accordance with international law, including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and other applicable international instruments and initiatives, for developing and other States, taking into account the criteria and guidelines on the transfer of marine technology of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. The Regular Process would promote technical cooperation, including South-South cooperation. States and global and regional organizations would be invited to cooperate with each other to identify gaps and shared priorities as a basis for developing a coherent programme to support capacity-building in marine monitoring and assessment. The value of large-scale and comprehensive assessments, notably in the Global Environment Facility’s international waters large-marine ecosystems initiatives, in identifying and concentrating on capacity-building priorities would be recognized. Opportunities for capacity-building would be identified, in particular on the basis of existing capacity-building arrangements and the identified capacity-building priorities, needs and requests of developing countries. States and relevant international organizations, bodies and institutions would be invited to cooperate in building the capacity of developing countries in marine science, monitoring and assessment, including through workshops, training programmes and materials and fellowships. Quality assurance procedures and guidance would be developed to assist Governments and international organizations to improve the quality and comparability of data. 3. Scope The scope of the Regular Process is global and supraregional, encompassing the state of the marine environment, including socioeconomic aspects, both current and foreseeable. In the first cycle, the scope of the Regular Process would focus on establishing a baseline. In subsequent cycles, the scope of the Regular Process would extend to evaluating trends. The scope of individual assessments under the Regular Process would be identified by Member States in terms of, inter alia, geographic coverage, an appropriate analytical framework, considerations of sustainability, issues of vulnerability and © 2016 United Nations

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future scenarios that may have implications for policymakers. 4. Principles The Regular Process would be guided by international law, including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and other applicable international instruments and initiatives, and would include reference to the following principles: (a)

Viewing the oceans as part of the whole Earth system;

(b)

Regular evaluation by Member States of assessment products and the regular process itself to support adaptive management;

(c)

Use of sound science and the promotion of scientific excellence;

(d)

Regular analysis to ensure that emerging issues, significant changes and gaps in knowledge are detected at an early stage;

(e)

Continual improvement in scientific and assessment capacity, including the promotion and development of capacity-building activities and transfer of technology;

(f)

Effective links with policymakers and other users;

(g)

Inclusiveness with respect to communication and engagement with all stakeholders through appropriate means for their participation, including appropriate representation and regional balance at all levels;

(h)

Recognition and utilization of traditional and indigenous knowledge and principles;

(i)

Transparency and accountability for the regular process and its products;

(j)

Exchange of information at all levels;

(k)

Effective links with, and building on, existing assessment processes, in particular at the regional and national levels;

(l)

Adherence to equitable geographical representation in all activities of the regular process.

5. Reasons for these decisions This framework largely reflected the recommendations of a group of experts, established by the General Assembly in 2005 (UNGA, 2005) and in place by the end of 2006, to carry out (under the guidance of an ad hoc steering group and with the assistance of the lead agencies, United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (IOC-UNESCO)) an “assessment of assessments”, reviewing the way in which past assessments, particularly of the marine environment at global and regional levels, had been carried out, in order to establish © 2016 United Nations

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the approaches which could ensure that assessments under the Regular Process would be relevant, legitimate and credible – the three necessary conditions for an influential assessment. The report of the assessment of assessments (AoA, 2009) summarised the justification for the Regular Process as follows: “5.1 Marine ecosystems provide essential support to human well-being. However, they are undergoing unprecedented environmental changes, driven by human activities, and becoming depleted and disrupted... Keeping the world’s oceans and seas under continuing review will help to improve the responses from national governments and the international community to the challenges posed by these changes. Reviews based on sound science can help the world as a whole understand better what is happening, what is causing it, [and] what the impacts are.”

The report saw an urgent need for a more integrated approach, at the global level as well as at the regional and sub-regional levels. It indicated that such an integrated approach was feasible, and would help to develop a more coherent overview of the state of the global marine environment and its interactions with the world economy and human society. A better understanding is needed of how human activities themselves interact and cumulatively affect different parts of marine ecosystems. Baselines, reference points and reference values would also be needed as a basis for evaluating status and trends over time. More consistent information, both in coverage and quality, and integrated analyses would improve understanding of the rapid changes that are occurring in the oceans and their possible causes. The resulting knowledge would facilitate decisions to manage in a sustainable manner human activities affecting the oceans. Assessment is a necessary, integral part of the cycle of adaptive management of human activities that affect the oceans. The report went on to explain the benefits from a Regular Process that could be a means for integrating existing information from different disciplines to show new and emerging patterns and to stimulate further development of the information base. The elements relevant to the framework established by the General Assembly include actions to: (a)

Demonstrate the importance of oceans to human life and as a component of the planet;

(b)

Integrate, analyze and assess environmental, social and economic aspects of all oceans components and interactions among all sectors of human activity affecting them; it could thus support sustainable, ecosystem-based management throughout the oceans;

(c)

Promote well-designed assessment processes, conducted to the highest standards and fully documented by those responsible for them;

(d)

Promote international collaboration to build capacity;

(e)

Improve the quality, availability, accessibility, interoperability and usefulness of information for ocean assessment; it would also increase consistency in the selection and use of indicators, reference points and reference values;

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(f)

Support better policy and management at the appropriate scale by providing sound and integrated scientific analyses for decision-making by the relevant authorities;

(g)

Build on existing assessment frameworks, processes and institutions and thus provide a base for cooperation among governments and at the level of international institutions.

The essential features which differentiate this assessment from earlier assessments are that it is global in scope, that it is to integrate the different sectors that are involved with the ocean and that it is to integrate environmental, social and economic aspects of the ocean. This is an ambitious project, and it has been clear from the outset that the first assessment of this kind would be breaking new ground, and that there would therefore be scope for improvement in future cycles of the Regular Process. 6. Timing In 2009, the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole recommended that the Regular Process should involve a series of cycles and that the first cycle of the Regular Process should cover the five years from 2010 to 2014. This was endorsed by the General Assembly in 2009, on the basis that there would be two phases of the first cycle, the first phase up to the end of 2012 to agree the issues to be covered and the second phase from 2013 to 2014 to produce the first assessment (AHWGW, 2009; UNGA, 2009). 7. Modalities In 2010, the General Assembly endorsed a series of recommendations from the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole on the modalities for the way in which the work of the Regular Process should be organized and implemented (AHWGW, 2009; AHWGW, 2010; UNGA, 2010). The modalities, consisting of key features, capacitybuilding and institutional arrangements, were developed further in a series of decisions of the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendation of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole of the General Assembly (AHWGW, 2011a; UNGA, 2011a; AHWGW, 2011b; UNGA, 2011b; AHWGW, 2012; UNGA, 2012; AHWGW, 2013; UNGA, 2013; AHWGW, 2014; UNGA, 2014), informed, among other things, by material prepared by the initial group of experts appointed in 2009. The arrangements for the Group of Experts of the Regular Process were set out in the Terms of Reference and Working Methods (AHWGW, 2012; UNGA, 2012), and various paragraphs of the relevant General Assembly resolutions. The main institutional arrangements thus established are as follows: (a)

The Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole on the Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects:

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The Regular Process is to be overseen and guided by an Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole of the General Assembly comprised of representatives of Member States. Relevant intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations with consultative status recognized by the Economic and Social Council are to be invited to participate in the meetings of the Ad Hoc Working Group. Relevant scientific institutions and major groups identified in Agenda 21 may request an invitation to participate in the meetings of the Ad Hoc Working Group. In 2011, the Ad Hoc Working Group agreed on the establishment of a Bureau to put in practice its decisions and guidance during the intersessional period (AHWGW, 2011b; UNGA, 2011b). (b)

The Group of Experts of the Regular Process: The general task of the Group of Experts, as set out in the Terms of Reference and Working Methods approved by the General Assembly, is “to carry out any assessments within the framework of the Regular Process at the request of the General Assembly under the supervision of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole”. It was noted that an assessment would only be carried out at the request of the General Assembly. Within this general task, the Group of Experts were to draw up a draft implementation plan and timetable, a draft outline of the assessment, proposals for writing teams for each chapter and proposals for independent peer review. Lead Members for each chapter, drawn from the Group of Experts, are to have a general task of managing each chapter, and a convenor of the writing team from the chapter (who might also be the Lead Member) is to be responsible for ensuring the proper development of the chapter. The Terms of Reference and Working Methods make clear that the Group of Experts is collectively responsible for the Assessment, and was to agree on a final text of any assessment for submission through the Bureau to the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole, and to present that text to the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole. The Group of Experts, originally appointed in 2009 to develop thinking on the “basic building blocks” identified by the Assessment of Assessments, were invited to continue for the first cycle of the Regular Process pursuant to a series of decisions of the General Assembly. The Group could be constituted of a maximum of 25 members, five appointed by each regional group within the General Assembly. One regional group only made two appointments, and therefore the full membership of the Group has been 22. In accordance with the Terms of Reference and Working Methods, the Group appointed two coordinators from within its membership, one from a developed country and one from a developing country. The members of the Group of Experts are volunteers or are supported by their parent institutions.

(c)

The Pool of Experts: The General Assembly approved criteria for the appointment of experts to a Pool of Experts to assist in the preparation of the first assessment and to cover the wide range of issues that an assessment of the ocean integrated across sectors and across

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environmental, social and economic aspects would have to address. This assistance would include several distinct potential roles: convenors and members of the writing teams, commentators to enable expertise about parts of the world not covered by the writing teams to be brought in to the Assessment without making writing teams unmanageably large, and peer reviewers to review the complete draft of the Assessment. These experts have been nominated by States through the chairs of the regional groups of the United Nations. In addition, members of the Group of Experts and writing teams could consult widely with relevant experts. (d)

Secretariat: On the recommendation of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to designate the Division of Ocean Affairs and Law of the Sea as the secretariat of the Regular Process. Since no additional staff was allocated specifically for this work, the secretariat function has been provided by the existing staff.

(e)

Technical and Scientific Support: Technical and scientific support for the Regular Process has been available from the IOC-UNESCO, UNEP, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These agencies were invited by the General Assembly, together with other competent United Nations specialized agencies, to provide such support as appropriate. A dedicated web-based platform was set up to make information about this Assessment available and to provide a means of communication between members of the Group of Experts and the members of the Pool of Experts. Agreement was reached between Australia, Norway and the United Nations Environment Programme to host such a website at GRID/Arendal in Norway.

(e)

Workshops: In addition to the Pool of Experts, steps were taken to convene workshops as forums where experts (including government officials) could make an input to the planning and development of the Assessment. The General Assembly approved guidelines for these workshops, which were held in Santiago in September 2011 (at the invitation of the Government of Chile), in Sanya in February 2012 (at the invitation of the Government of China), in Brussels in June 2012 (at the invitation of the Government of Belgium, supported by the European Union), in Miami in November 2012 (at the invitation of the Government of the United States of America), in Maputo in December 2012 (at the invitation of the Government of Mozambique), in Brisbane in February 2013 (at the invitation of the Government of Australia), in Grand Bassam in October 2013 (at the invitation of the Government of Côte d’Ivoire) and in Chennai in January 2014 (at the invitation of the Government of India). The workshops were open to representatives of all States, although participation was mainly from experts in the respective regions. Each workshop aimed to consider the scope and methods of this

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Assessment, the information available in the region where it was held, and capacity-building needs in that region. Reports of each workshop were made available on the website of the Division of Ocean Affairs and Law of the Sea and on the website of the first Assessment. 8. Finance The General Assembly decided that the costs of the first cycle of the Regular Process should be financed from a voluntary trust fund, and invited the Secretary-General to establish such a fund for the purpose of supporting the operations of the first fiveyear cycle of the Regular Process, including for the provision of assistance to members of the Group of Experts from developing countries. The Trust Fund is managed and administered by the Division of Ocean Affairs and Law of the Sea. Contributions to this fund have been made by Belgium, China, Côte d’Ivoire, Iceland, Ireland, Jamaica, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal and the Republic of Korea. In addition, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, China, Côte d’Ivoire, India, Mozambique, the Republic of Korea, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America have supported workshops in the region and/or the travel and accommodation costs of members of the Group of Experts from their countries. Generous support to the Regular Process has also been provided, financially and technically, by the European Union, IOC-UNESCO and UNEP. 9. Guidance On the advice of the Group of Experts, the Ad Hoc Working Group decided that there should be comprehensive guidance for the Regular Process. Accordingly it prepared such guidance, covering the responsibilities of the Group of Experts, the members of the Pool of Experts, the writing teams and their convenors, the commentators and the peer reviewers, the approaches to achieve integration and to deal with uncertainty, risk, ethical questions and style. This was approved by the General Assembly (UNGA, 2012), and can be found in AHWGW, 2012. 10. Collection of information When the methods of work were being developed, it was thought that there would be time for a number of working papers to bring together detailed information and thus to serve as the basis for the preparation of this Assessment. In practice, the time available has not proved sufficient to adopt this approach generally. In some cases, detailed background information has been included in appendices to the relevant chapter.

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11. Development of the first World Ocean Assessment The starting point for each substantive chapter has been the outline developed by the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole, on the basis of proposals from the Group of Experts, approved by the General Assembly (AHWGW, 2012; UNGA, 2012) and slightly amended by the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole in 2014 (AHWGW, 2014). The writing teams, constituted as described above, elaborated this outline and, in some cases, assigned drafting duties within the Group. A draft chapter was prepared, reviewed by the Lead Member (where not part of the writing team), by other members of the Group of Experts to ensure consistency among chapters, and (in some cases) by a panel of commentators chosen from the Pool of Experts, but not otherwise part of the writing team. The writing teams responded as necessary to comments from these reviews and prepared a consensus draft chapter. The consensus draft was submitted to the Group of Experts and secretariat. The Group of Experts collectively reviewed all these consensus draft chapters, in order to ensure consistency and to prepare the synthesis chapters for each Part of this Assessment and Part I (the summary). An editor overseen by the secretariat reviewed each chapter for format and consistency, raising questions for clarification with the writing team where necessary. After any concerns raised by the copy editor had been addressed, the secretariat circulated the entire draft of the first Assessment for review by States, by a team of peer reviewers assigned by the Bureau of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole, on a proposal from the Group of Experts and by intergovernmental organizations. In March 2015, close to 5000 comments were received. The Group of Experts and the writing teams then proceeded to respond to the comments and revise the draft chapters accordingly. At the end of April 2015, the Group of Experts met again in New York to discuss the finalization of the responses and the revision of the chapters. Following a review by the secretariat of the responses and revisions, all chapters of the Assessment were ready for submission to the Bureau by mid-July. The Assessment, including its summary 2 is to be considered by the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole in September 2015.

References AHWGW (2009). Report on the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole to recommend a course of action to the General Assembly on the regular process for global reporting and assessment of the state of the marine environment, including socio-economic aspects, United Nations General Assembly document A/64/347. 2

See A/70/112.

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AHWGW (2010). Report on the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole on the Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socio-Economic Aspects, United Nations General Assembly document A/65/358. AHWGW (2011a). Report on the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole on the Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socio-Economic Aspects, United Nations General Assembly document A/65/759. AHWGW (2011b). Report on the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole on the Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socio-Economic Aspects, United Nations General Assembly document A/66/189. AHWGW (2012). Report on the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole on the Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socio-Economic Aspects, United Nations General Assembly document A/67/87. AHWGW 2013). Report on the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole on the Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects, United Nations General Assembly document A/68/82. AHWGW (2014). Report on the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole on the Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects, United Nations General Assembly document A/69/77. AoA (2009). UNEP and IOC-UNESCO, An Assessment of Assessments, Findings of the Group of Experts. Start-up Phase of a Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment including Socioeconomic Aspects. (ISBN 978-92-807-2976-4). UNGA (2002). United Nations General Assembly, Resolution 57/141 (Oceans and the Law of the Sea), paragraph 45. UNGA (2005). United Nations General Assembly, Resolution 60/30 (Oceans and the Law of the Sea), paragraph 91. UNGA (2009). United Nations General Assembly, Resolution 64/71 (Oceans and the Law of the Sea). UNGA (2010). United Nations General Assembly, Resolution 65/37 A (Oceans and the Law of the Sea). UNGA (2011a). United Nations General Assembly, Resolution 65/37 B (Oceans and the Law of the Sea). UNGA (2011b). United Nations General Assembly, Resolution 66/231 (Oceans and the Law of the Sea). © 2016 United Nations

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UNGA (2012). United Nations General Assembly, Resolution 67/78 (Oceans and the Law of the Sea). UNGA (2013). United Nations General Assembly, Resolution 68/70 (Oceans and the Law of the Sea). UNGA (2014). United Nations General Assembly, Resolution 69/245 (Oceans and the Law of the Sea). WSSD (2002). Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August-4 September 2002 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.03.II.A.1 and corrigendum), chap. I, resolution 2, annex, para. 36 (b).

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Part III Assessment of Major Ecosystem Services from the Marine Environment (Other than Provisioning Services) Chapter 3. Scientific Understanding of Ecosystem Services Contributors: Marjan van den Belt (Lead author and Convenor), Elise Granek, Françoise Gaill, Benjamin Halpern, Michael Thorndyke, Patricio Bernal (Lead member) 1. Introduction to the concept of ecosystem services from oceans Humanity has always drawn sustenance from the ocean through fishing, harvesting and trade. Today 44 per cent of the world's population lives on or within 150 kilometres from the coast (United Nations Atlas of Oceans). However this fundamental connection between nature and people has only very recently been incorporated into trans-disciplinary thinking on how we manage and account for the human benefits we get from nature. Today, when a product taken from an ecosystem1, for example, fibres, timber or fish, enters the economic cycle (i.e., a part of the human system), it receives a monetary value that accounts at least for the costs associated with its extraction and mobilization. If that natural product is the result of cultivation, as in the case of agriculture, forestry and aquaculture, the monetary value also includes the production costs. However, the extraction of natural products and other human benefits from ecosystems has implicit costs of production and other ancillary costs associated with preserving the integrity of the natural production system itself. Traditionally these benefits and costs have been hidden within the “natural system,” and are not accounted for financially; such hidden costs and benefits are considered “externalities” by neoclassical economists. While the neoclassical economic toolbox includes non-market valuation approaches, an ecosystem services approach emphasizes that ‘price’ is not equal to “value” and highlights human well-being, as a normative goal. The emergence and evolution of the ecosystem services concept offers an explicit attempt to better capture and reflect these hidden or unaccounted benefits and associated costs when the natural “production” system is negatively affected by human activities. The ecosystem services approach has proven to be very useful in the management of multi-sector processes and already informs many management and regulatory processes around the world (e.g. United Kingdom National Ecosystem Assessment, 2011). Ecosystems, including marine ecosystems, provide services to people, which are lifesustaining and contribute to human health and well-being (Millennium Ecosystem 1

Synonyms for ‘ecosystems’ in the literature are: natural systems, natural capital, nature, natural assets, ecological resources, natural resources, ecological infrastructure.

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Assessment, 2005; de Groot, 2011). The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment defines an ecosystem as “a dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit” and goes on to define ecosystem services as “the benefits that humans obtain from ecosystems” (p. 27). This definition encompasses both the benefits people perceive and those benefits that are not perceived (van den Belt et al., 2011b). In other words, a benefit from ecosystems does not need to be explicitly perceived (or empirically quantified) to be considered relevant in an ecosystem services approach. Similarly, ecosystems and their processes and functions can be described in biophysical (and other) relationships whether or not humans benefit from them. Ecosystem services reflect the influence of these processes on society’s wellbeing; including people’s physical and mental well-being. While ecosystems provide services not only to people, the evaluations of services are, by definition anthropocentric. The deliberate interlinking between human and natural systems is not new, but over the past few decades interest in “ecosystem services” as a concept has surged, with research and activities involving natural and social scientists, governments and businesses alike (Costanza et al., 1997; Daily, 1997; Braat and de Groot, 2012). This interest is in part driven by the growing recognition that the collective impact of humans on the earth is pushing against the biophysical limits of many ecosystems to sustain the well-being of humankind. Such pressures are well recognized (e.g., Halpern et al., 2008; Rockstrom et al., 2009) and are felt by pelagic, coastal, and intertidal ecosystems. The human system – comprising built, human and social capital2 –ultimately is fully dependent on natural capital. Ecosystems can exist without humans in them, but humans cannot survive without ecosystems. Therefore, the human system can usefully be considered as a sub-system of natural capital. An ecosystem services approach then becomes an organizing principle to make visible the relative contribution of natural capital toward the goal of human well-being. The use of such an organizing principle can be the basis for investments to maintain and enhance natural capital to ensure a flow of ecosystem services (Costanza et al., 2014). Natural capital is the natural equivalent of the human-made agricultural and aquaculture production systems mentioned above (Daly and Cobb, 1989). In essence, natural capital refers to ecosystems (i.e., coastal shelves, kelp forests, mangroves, coral reefs and wetlands) as a network of natural production systems in the most fundamental sense. Humans with our many production systems are part of this natural capital and collectively have much to gain or lose from maintaining or neglecting, respectively, its sustainability. The normative goal underpinning the ecosystem services concept is to maintain long-term sustainability, as well as local and immediate enhancement of human well-being within the carrying capacity of the biophysical system. To continue 2

Built Capital refers to human-made infrastructure. Human Capital refers to the ability to deal with complex societal challenges, including education, institutions and health. Social Capital refers to the networks of relationships among people who live and work in a particular society, enabling that society to function effectively.

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receiving a sustainable flow of ecosystem services, it is crucial to manage the scale of the human system relative to its natural capital base (Rockstrom et al., 2009). The ecosystem services approach acknowledges natural capital as the paradigm in which the human subsystem exists, highlighting (but not limiting to) the anthropocentric aspect of this concept (Costanza et al., 2014). At the same time the ecosystem services approach draws into decision-making the less visible aspects of sustainable development, such as supporting, regulating and cultural services. Through an ecosystem services approach, people, governments and businesses are increasingly using this approach as an organizing principle for finding new ways to invest their human, social and built capital in this common goal (Döring and Egelkraut, 2008). The magnitude of human pressures on the earth’s natural systems and acknowledgement of the interconnectedness between ecosystems and human subsystems has revealed a need to transition from an emphasis on single-species or single-sector management to multi-sector, ecosystem-based management (TEEB, 2010a; Kelble et al., 2013) across multiple geographic (Costanza, 2008) and temporal (Shaw and Wlodarz, 2013) dimensions. Intensification of use of natural capital increases interactions between sectors and production systems that in turn increase the number of mutual impacts (i.e., externalities). This requires accountability among tradeoffs in a way that was, perhaps, not as necessary when the use of natural capital was less intense. On land, negative impacts can be partially managed or contained in space. However, in the ocean, due to its fluid nature, impacts may broadcast far from their site of origin and are more difficult to contain and manage. For example, there is only one Ocean when considering its role in climate change through the ecosystem service of “gas regulation”. An ecosystem services approach supports assessment and decision-making across land and seascapes; i.e., to consider benefits from ecosystems in natural, urban, rural, agricultural, coastal and marine environments in an integrated way, and ultimately to understand the potential and nature of tradeoffs among services given different management actions. An example derived from Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) states that 50 billion United States dollars is lost annually from global income derived from marine fisheries, compared to a more sustainable fishing, due to fish stocks over-exploitation, when viewed through an ecosystem services lens (FAO, 2012). Principles for sustainable governance of oceans3 are straightforward (Costanza et al., 1998; Crowder et al., 2008,), but use of an ecosystem services approach has the potential to provide a basis for collaborative investments (in monetary or governance efforts), based on common ground and shared values. In other words, 3

‘Lisbon’ Principles for Sustainable Development of Oceans: 1) Responsibility: ability to respond to social and ecological goals. 2) Scale-matching: ensuring flow of ecological and social information allows for timely and appropriate action across scales. 3) Precaution: in the face of uncertainty about potentially irreversible ecological impacts, decisions about natural capital err on the side of precaution. The burden of proof shifts to those whose activities potentially damage natural capital. 4) Adaptive management: decision-makers collect and integrate socio-cultural-economic-ecological information, adapting their decisions accordingly. 5) Full-cost accounting: where appropriate, external costs allow markets to reflect full costs.6) Participation: foster stakeholder awareness and collaboration.

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the ecosystem services approach has the potential to provide a new “currency” or organizing principle to consider multi-scale and cross-sectoral synergies and tradeoffs. Several recently developed and evolving frameworks outline an ecosystem services approach and its underlying connection between natural and human systems. Although the essence of the ecosystem services concept is the dependence of human well-being on ecosystems, there are diverse definitions of the concept, reflecting differing worldviews on how human systems relate to ecosystems. For example, ecological economists emphasize that human societies are a sub-set of ecosystems and as a consequence assume limited substitutability between built/manufactured and natural capital (Daly and Farley, 2004; van den Belt 2011a; Braat and de Groot, 2012; Farley, 2012). Some definitions of ecosystem services emphasize the functional aspects of ecosystems from which people derive benefits (Costanza et al., 1997; Daily, 1997) and others put more exphasis on their utilitarian aspects and seek conformity with economic accounting (Boyd and Banzhaf, 2007; United Nations Statistics Division, 2013). Still others emphasize human health and well-being (Fisher et al., 2009) and values (TEEB, 2010a). The ecosystem services approach aims to address and make explicit the inherent complexity of the coupling between biophysical and human systems. For example, it allows regulating ecosystem services at a global scale, such as climate regulation and sea level rise, to be integrated into local decision-making (Berry and Bendor, 2015). An important point here is that though climate change is perceived as a broadly global phenomenon, its impacts will be local, depending on a host of local/regional drivers that will interact with global climate changes. This means that assessments of natural capital and ecosystem services are best done at multiple scales. At the same time, integration across and between regions is essential to ensure shared best practices, agreed protocols and data-access policies, etc. This is an important function for governance at the global level. The ecosystem services approach has been embraced by different fields and perspectives. For example, those concerned with biodiversity (e.g., TEEB, 2009; TEEB, 2010a; TEEB, 2010b; TEEB, 2010c; Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services-IPBES) and climate change (e.g., Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change-IPCC) have generally aligned themselves with this approach. Many international organizations (e.g., United Nations, World Bank, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), The Nature Conservancy, International Union for the Conservation of Nature(IUCN), FAO), governments (e.g., European Union, United Kingdom, United States of America), and increasingly companies (e.g., Dow Chemical and potentially those connected to the World Oceans Council) are collaborating to explore the potential for efficient and effective decision-making offered by an ecosystem services approach. An example of intergovernmental collaboration on ecosystem services is the Group on Earth Observations (GEO)4 and particularly GEO’s Biodiversity Network (GEO BON), a voluntary partnership among intergovernmental, non-governmental and governmental organizations (www.earthobservations.org/geobon). The 4

GEO, the Group on Earth Observations has today 89 member states and the European Commission.

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Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) enhances this integration effort at sub-regional, regional and global levels (Larigauderie and Mooney, 2010; www.ipbes.net). Although the concept has achieved broad acceptance, caution is needed in implementing ecosystem services approaches to avoid a simplistic or biased commodification of ecosystems that prioritizes some elements of nature that are economically useful to the detriment of overall ongoing preservation of those ecosystems for their intrinsic value. An unbalanced approach focused primarily on assigning monetary values can exacerbate power asymmetries and increase socioecological conflicts (e.g., Beymer-Farris and Bassett, 2012). Giving equal focus to non-market/non-use services within the ecosystem services framework is both a desirable approach and a strength of this method for decision-making (Chan et al., 2012). When ecosystem services are approached as an organizing principle, this includes the development of common units of measurement for decision support, beyond application of existing tools in the natural and social science toolboxes. It needs to be acknowledged that we don’t, and may never, fully understand socialecological systems to the point that people can confidently predict changes and impact or ‘optimize’ these systems. A precautionary stance regarding management and governance for maintenance of resilience of social-ecological systems is highlighted (Bigagli, 2015). The ecosystem services approach gained momentum in the late 1990s, when monetary values associated with ecosystem services from natural capital were conservatively estimated (at a rate double that of global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to highlight the potential economic and societal value of previously unvalued ecosystem services (Costanza et al., 1997). These values were globally expressed with a single spatial dimension, a snapshot of which is shown in Figure 1. These values only provided a starting point of a necessary debate, as they relied on many and generally conservative assumptions about how to, in a broader sense, value services globally. Although they expressed these services in monetary values, the authors did not claim that these services were suitable for exchange in the market system (Costanza et al., 1997). A recent re-assessment of these global values indicated that the values of global ecosystem services have increased with additional studies on ecosystem services, but these values simultaneously have decreased where natural capital has been converted to other types of capital (Costanza et al., 2014).

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The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Figure 1. Global map of values of estimated ecosystem services in 1997. Source: Costanza et al., 1997.

An ecosystem services approach certainly isn’t without controversy and critique is offered by neoclassical economists and ecologists (McCauley, 2006), albeit for different reasons. Some critiques of an ecosystem services approach are highlighting the utilitarian manner in which this approach has been implemented (Wegner and Pascual, 2011; Bscher et al., 2012). Ecosystem services, or "nature's benefits" provide a strengths-based, organizing principle to more deliberately and systematically consider the contributions biophysical communities (including biodiversity and habitat) provide to human well-being (including health). A weak application of an ecosystem services approach builds on traditional natural resource management tools by considering a broader appreciation of the advantages provided by natural systems to include social, economic, health and ecological benefits. This approach is then used to analyze, in more detail, aspects of ecosystem services currently considered externalities and builds upon natural resource management strategies of the 20th century. This may incrementally expand the quality and quantity of relevant indicators considered when making decisions about tradeoffs. In a strong application of an ecosystem services approach, it can be used to synthesize systemic aspects of managing the human sub-system within an ecosystem. A strong application of an ecosystem services approach requires the design of tools and skill sets suitable to support multi-faceted management and governance strategies fit for the 21st century. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) classified ecosystem services as: provisioning services (e.g., food – including food traded in formal markets and subsistence trade and barter -, pharmaceutical compounds, building material); regulating services (e.g., climate regulation, moderation of extreme events, waste treatment, erosion protection, maintaining populations of species); supporting © 2016 United Nations

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services (e.g., nutrient cycling, primary production) and cultural services (e.g., spiritual experience, recreation, information for cognitive development, aesthetics). Supporting services are often considered at an ‘intermediate’ level as support functions toward “final ecosystem services” (Landers and Nahlik, 2013). While the intermediate nature of supporting services makes accounting more challenging, i.e. avoiding double counting, it is also important to acknowledge the “unaccountable”’ characteristics of ecosystems for three reasons. First, the complexity of ecosystems is such that applying accounting practices modelled in accordance with traditional economic accounting is often both impossible and inappropriate. In other words, while economic activities can be aggregated to a certain extent5, attributes of ecosystems and their functions do not lend themselves well to aggregation. Second, supporting services or support functions underlie all other services (e.g., provisioning and cultural services are made available in part by supporting services). Third, supporting services are often considered to be most important from cultural and spiritual perspectives, which have their own specific value (Chan et al 2012). Scientific publications concerning ecosystem services have grown exponentially since the late 1990s. As shown in Figure 2, the marine and coastal ecosystem services (MCES) literature is no exception. Liquete et al. (2013) recently categorized 145 articles on the current status of MCES.

Figure 2. Data and analysis from 145 MCES assessments by Liquete et al. (2013). A. Number of publications per year. *The year 2012 covers 1 January to 4 April. B. Number of studies per type of analysis. C. Number of papers per type of environment analyzed. D. Number of publications per scientific discipline.

The analysis by Liquete et al. (2013) found that most of the MCES case studies they reviewed: 1) were concentrated in Europe and North America; 2) did not cover the 5

The System of National Accounts does not account for everything either.

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area beyond the continental shelf edge, with benthic habitats generally lacking, and 3) focused on mangroves for supporting and provisioning services and on coastal wetlands for regulating and supporting services. A primary focus on local or regional geographic location raises a concern for MCES, as biophysical events and conditions are generated further afield. For example, patterns of upwelling and migratory species will be influenced by benthic and oceanic conditions that might occur at some distance from the affected region and thus will be difficult to predict. As in other domains, decision-makers have to make decisions under conditions of high uncertainty with limited ability to conclusively consider all risks. An ecosystem services approach has the advantage of making visible the non-linear behaviour6 of ecosystems and draw attention in decision-making to fundamentally different alternatives (Barbier et al., 2008). Such alternatives may lead to synergies (i.e., shared values across sectors as a basis for social-ecological enterprises and poverty alleviation) or to difficult trade-offs between different uses or user groups. A valuation spectrum should include “all that is important to people”, whether the people themselves perceive this or not (van den Belt et al., 2011b) and regardless of whether the value is monetary, spiritual, cultural, or otherwise. 2. Evolving ecosystem services frameworks, principles and methods An overview follows of accepted typologies, principles and methods currently used for assessing and measuring ecosystem services in the rapidly growing international literature. Although concepts and methodologies show a consistent pattern in local applications, no generally accepted classification of ecosystem goods and services for global accounting purposes exists (Haines-Young and Potschin, 2010; BöhnkeHenrichs et al., 2013). The complexity of such a task requires a pluralistic approach across temporal and spatial scales to make ecosystem services visible in decisionmaking processes and to decision-makers. Capabilities for temporal and spatial analyses are evolving rapidly (e.g. Altman et al., 2014). These now enable decision support and the use of an ecosystem services approach at local, regional, national and global scales (e.g. Zurlini et al., 2014). However, consistency across scales and across terrestrial and marine environments has not been achieved. This is often highlighted as a research, policy and management priority (Braat and de Groot, 2012). For example, the Ecosystem Service Partnership (ESP) (www.espartnership.org) attracts scientists and practitioners working with the ecosystem services concept in a self-organizing manner. The ESP website allows the assessment of ecosystem services through the various themes, geographic locations and biomes. The themes (Table 1) provide a good overview of the variety of methods and tools and required skills through which the ecosystem services concept can be viewed. Associated with ESP, the Marine Ecosystem Services Partnership (http://marineecosystemservices.org/) features a library of valuation-oriented literature, organized by ecosystem, on the delivery of ecosystem services and offering interconnection with other databases (see Appendix 2 for an overview of 6

Non-linear behaviour refers to the characteristic of complex systems where effects are not proportional to their causes.

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relevant databases). Currently organized by country, further analyses of scale addressed by the valuation studies included may help progress toward a multi-scale approach. For example, completion of Table 1 for marine ecosystem services could be very useful for a future second United Nations World Ocean Assessment. Table 1. Overview of thematic working groups of the Ecosystem Service Partnership (ESP), which would be useful to complete for a subsequent World Oceans Assessment. Thematic working groups of ESP

Biomes

Scale

1. Ecosystem services assessment frameworks and typologies 2. Biodiversity and ecosystem services 3. Ecosystem service indicators 4. Mapping ecosystem services 5. Modeling ecosystem services 6. Valuation of ecosystem services 6A. Cultural services and values 6B. Ecosystem services and public health 6C. Economic and monetary valuation 6D. Value integration 7. Ecosystem services in trade-off analysis and project evaluation 8. Ecosystem services and disaster-risk reduction 9. Application of ecosystem services in planning and management 9A. Restoring ecosystems and their services 10. Co-investment and reward mechanisms for ecosystem services 10A. Ecosystem services and poverty alleviation 11. Ecosystem service accounting and greening the economy 12. Governance and institutional aspects

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) started as a UNEP project (2007 – 2010) initiated by the G8. This resulted in the promotion of steps toward the management of values that people derive from ecosystems (Figure 3). In essence, the TEEB framework clusters and links the ESP themes into a process suitable for decision support for projects, governments and businesses (TEEB, 2010b). This process is then ideally implemented systemically, with appropriate feedback mechanisms for on-going assessments of all aspects involved at multiple scales.

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Figure 3. Process of ecosystem service assessments based on TEEB, redrawn after Hendriks et al., 2012.

2.1

The flow of ecosystem services

For this introductory chapter on ecosystem services, however, we elaborate on the cascading Haines-Young and Potschin (2010) framework. This framework is relevant because of its close alignment with the evolving United Nations System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (United Nations Statistics Division, 2013) and its effort to seek a consistent classification system and set of accounting principles (Boyd and Banzhaf, 2007; Landers and Nahlik, 2013). Conceptual models, such as the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Goods and Services (CICES) (Haines-Young and Potschin, 2010), enable practitioners to differentiate between natural capital, i.e., the natural resources or ecological infrastructure, and the services that are derived from that infrastructure. This is presented in a framework cascading from biome to function/process, service, benefit and value (Figure 4). This framework is influenced by two perspectives: 1) the desire to account for ecosystem services and avoid double counting by economists and 2) an opportunity for natural scientists to rapidly communicate the value of particular ecological structures and processes. When applying this framework, supporting and cultural ecosystem services are easily ignored, as non-market7 values are at best considered at the end of the cascade and more often are not considered at all; and the flow of ecosystem services is portrayed as linear or unidirectional, mimicking a production chain, and implies a “trickling down” from natural capital to value for people, whose task it is to perceive this value. Appreciated for its simplicity, this framework relies, in theory, on coherent and collective policy action to correct cumulative pressures when values are perceived. This feedback requires active 7

In a weak application of an ecosystem services approach, cultural services are often limited to a monetary equivalent of 'recreation'. In a stronger application of this approach spiritual connections, sense of place and mental well-being are recognized. Social sciences contribute a myriad of tools to appreciate such values (e.g. (Pike et al.,, 2014).

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management to allow natural capital to function and provide essential services and benefits, whether people perceive such values or not. This framework shows similarities to the DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response8) framework. In comparison, the U.S. EPA draft classification system for Final Ecosystem Goods and Services (FEGS-CS) attempts to provide a categorization of beneficiaries and assist in tracking changes in ecosystem services upon those beneficiaries (Landers and Nahlik, 2013). Economists often use the term ‘ecosystem goods and services’, in part to seek comparability and consistency with the System of National Accounting (United Nations Statistics Division, 2013). It is important to recognize that the provision of ecosystem goods and services relies on the integrity of ecosystem processes and functions, referred to as regulating and supporting ecosystem services, with characteristics that make them less than suitable for rigorous accounting (Farley, 2012). Disparate disciplinary perspectives occur in the context of applying an ecosystem services approach; e.g., economists appreciate an ability to account for outputs and optimization of the ‘production process’, whether it is human- or nature-made, whereas ecologists tend to resist such a linear accounting of ecosystems as inaccurate because ecosystems are ‘complex systems’, with highly non-linear behaviours, and simplifying these complexities can lead to misrepresentation of management needs required to maintain valued services. Following the steps of this cascading framework, marine ecological infrastructure includes (but are not limited to) biophysical structures, e.g., the open ocean, continental shelves, coral reefs, kelp forests, seagrass beds, mangroves, salt marshes, rocky intertidal and subtidal zones, sand dunes and beaches. These are ecological systems and the associated structures created by biological and physical processes, e.g., primary production, wave generation, and decomposition of organic matter. Ecosystem functions and processes emphasize the potential capacity of natural capital to deliver an ecosystem service, which includes resource functions (e.g., mineral deposits and deep-sea fish), sink capacity (e.g., the ability to absorb, dilute or keep out of sight unwanted by-products) and service functions (e.g., habitat to support biodiversity, wave attenuation, degradation of organic matter). 9 This flow from biophysical structures to functions and processes to ecosystem services is labelled the “supply of ecosystem services” (Figure 4). Ecosystem services also provide benefits (such as, air to breathe, water to drink, fish to eat, sustenance of marine life, energy to harness from wave/wind/tidal/thermal power, health, safety and increased human well-being). Because these benefits are essential for

8

DPSIR: Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response generally focusses on impacts as in costs rather than on the benefits people derive from ecosystems. Another difference is that the ‘State’ in DPSIR has a biophysical focus, whereas in the ES framework, the ‘State’ of the human dimension is equally important. (Kelble et al., 2013). 9 Some scholars (e.g., Aronson et al., 2007) separate natural capital into renewable natural capital (living species and ecosystems); non-renewable natural capital (subsoil assets, e.g., petroleum, coal, diamonds); replenishable natural capital (e.g., the atmosphere); and cultivated natural capital (e.g., aquaculture).

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human well-being, a market or non-market value10 can, in some cases, be placed on these ecosystem services. This is part of the cascade labelled ‘demand for ecosystem services’.

Figure 4. The flow of ecosystem services at multiple scales. Adapted from Haines-Young and Potschin (2010. While not a part of the original model, we added and highlight the ‘supply of and demand for ecosystem services’ and the gap between ‘supply and demand’, signalling a shortage or abundance of ecosystem services. This is one basis for establishing ‘value’ in a broader sense.

In essence, the flow diagram has two fundamental purposes: (1) identifying the ecological processes required to attain ecosystem services; and (2) developing the ability to account more rigorously for this natural ‘production system’, particularly at a global level. At this analytical level, the ecosystem services concept effectively reveals and communicates the ‘invisible’ biophysical processes and functions and thereby broadens, guides and informs local decision alternatives and scenarios. This is not a uni-directional flow - the ‘cascading production chain’ (as shown in Figure 4) also requires attention for reverse processes taking ‘values’ in a broad pluralistic sense, as a starting point, to collectively develop solutions (Haines-Young and Potschin, 2010; van den Belt, 2014; Maes et al., 2012; Tallis et al., 2012). Understanding this flow of ecosystem services at multiple scales, top-down and bottom-up, facilitates practical local solution-oriented responses, enabled by global guidance. Sometimes a limited set of ecosystem services can be locally managed for short-term benefits, whereas other ecosystem services have globalized characteristics and/or 10

Market and non-market values are sometimes also referred to as use or non-use values or as instrumental and intrinsic values.

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have longer-term benefits. Therefore, this approach has the potential to effectively connect mutual or competing interests at local to global scales and facilitate cohesive decision support. Given that the ecosystem services approach is an inherently anthropocentric concept and is context-dependent, any value attributed to ecosystem services is not absolute and depends on the supply of (i.e., how much of a service is available, if it is limiting) and demand for the service (i.e., how much people need or want a service). A ‘gap’ between supply and demand of ecosystem services indicates a shortage or abundance (Figure 4). The gap varies temporally and spatially, per societal sector, and by the political scale of the perspective (i.e., local, regional, or global). When an abundant supply of ecosystem services exists relative to demand, the governance or management requirement is primarily one of monitoring. A shortage of supply of ecosystem services, relative to demand, makes the necessity of effective governance and management more acute (see also ‘time preference’ below) - quality and efficiency of delivery of ecosystem service need to be considered. Supply and demand are dynamically interconnected and therefore employment of methodologies beyond market-based theories is crucial. 2.2

Biophysical supply of ecosystem services

Any assessment of ecosystem services must begin with natural capital. The natural system encompasses species present, the flows of matter and energy to which these species contribute, their functional attributes, and the interactions with the physical environment that serve to enhance or dampen the functional attributes and processes. This may require principles and practical guidelines codifying simplification schemes (e.g., Townsend et al., 2011), as science will not be able to provide all of the answers in the time needed to develop management responses. An assessment of natural capital in marine systems should include the distribution and level of ecosystem services in relation to space and time, so that changes in ecosystem services may be better understood following different management practices and proximity to tipping points of marine ecosystems (MacDiarmid et al, 2013; Townsend and Thrush, 2010). Assessing the supply of ecosystem services in practice requires a process similar to the generic TEEB approach highlighted in Figure 3. First, one must define, as specifically as possible, how an ecosystem function or process of interest connects to specific human benefits of interest and exactly which aspects of a species or ecosystem structure are connected to that function. Developing such a conceptual model following ecological principles (Foley et al., 2010) is important because, for example, a single species can provide more than one function, and different attributes or processes of the species may be more or less important for (a) particular service(s) of interest. For example, mangrove forests provide coastal protection, carbon storage, nursery habitat, and wood, among other services, and these services are provided primarily by the density of above-ground biomass, below-ground biomass, submerged root structures, and the absolute amount of above-water/ground biomass, respectively. Mangroves can provide bundles of ecosystem services, which are inter-related to each other. Measurements require knowledge of such bundles and how they occur at multiple spatial scales over which their benefits are conferred (Costanza, 2008). © 2016 United Nations

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The second step is to develop a model describing how the biophysical system produces or inhibits production of the metric of interest, and which key drivers modify that production. This step corresponds to step 1 in Figure 3. In the mangrove example above, if we are interested in the coastal protection function of mangrove forests and thus the above-ground density of the woody biomass, we ideally would have or develop a mangrove growth model that could predict how wave height and intensity, sunlight, rainfall, sedimentation, etc., affect production, and especially the inter-plant density, of the woody biomass. In order to do this modelling, for all potential functions (and services) of interest, one can draw on or develop speciesspecific population models coupled with ecosystem dynamics models, although the parameters of the model may vary spatially and temporally. Once in place, these models then permit relatively simple sensitivity analyses that identify key drivers of change in the metric of interest. Such models are always challenged by the availability of data, particularly in many developing countries. Thus, model development must proceed hand-in-hand with data discovery and, where possible, data-gap filling, so that models are tailored to the scale, resolution, and complexity of the data available for a region (Figure 5). Typically useful data include physical data on sea level, pH, temperature and wave height and intensity, and biological data on the demographics, densities, dispersal, and trophic dynamics of species. Although the data needs are similar at a global level across the major oceans, these data will vary by locale and temporally (sometimes seasonally). Availability of data and scientific understanding to properly paramatize such models in particular, depends on scale and differs between regions. Local/regional data for marine ecosystem services assessments are generally much more available for counties including, but not limited to Europe, North America, Australia/New Zealand, and Japan, and are very poor in most of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. A complete world assessment of ecosystem services is beyond the scope of this Assessment, but would ideally be undertaken for a future assessment. The final step in the process of assessing the supply of ecosystem services is to map and monitor the modelled or empirically derived values for the metrics of interest (step 2 in Figure 3) and the communication thereof (step 3 in Figure 3). Mapping and modelling are inherently constrained by the spatial resolution of the input data for the models described above. Without such maps, one cannot say from where within a region of interest the supply of and demand for the service is actually coming, and thus managers are left to make decisions about how to maintain or improve the supply, in order to meet demand, at the coarsest scale of assessment (for example, for an entire country). Such coarse-scale decision-making may be appropriate, and in fact is often all that is needed for many decision contexts that occur at a scoping level. Scoping is the process used to identify the key issues of concern at an early stage in any planning process. Scoping should be carried out at an early stage to facilitate strategic planning and reporting. However, when management is using an ecosystem services framework to make smaller-scale decisions, such as designation of Marine Protected Areas, issuing permits for offshore mining, oil or wind-energy installations, and offshore aquaculture installations, then more detailed maps of service supply are critical.

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Numerous examples of both types of decision-making exist. On the one hand is the more general, coarse-scale, often data-poor heuristic assessment, where decisionmakers are primarily interested in whether service supply will go up, stay constant, or decline under a given management action. For example, model-building, including indigenous stakeholders, can be used to scope for changes over time in ecosystem service values in a non-spatial manner (van den Belt et al., 2012). On the other hand, more specific, finer-scale, often data-rich quantitative scenario development requires detailed assessments of who wins and loses under a given management action, and by how much, when and where. Examples include decisions on wave energy (Kim et al., 2012) and offshore aquaculture facility locations (Buck et al., 2004), considering specific tradeoffs. At local and regional scales, often considerable but incomplete data are available, to make visible the biophysical supply of ecosystem services. Fundamental to such efforts are sufficient data to map the location and interaction of key biophysical attributes (such as wave energy, ocean temperature, species density and composition, quality and health of those species, etc.), and for some places around the world such data exist. However, for many regions of the world such data do not exist or are extremely limited, constraining the ability to produce precise global, regional and local estimates of the supply of and demand for ecosystem services. A detailed assessment of the most limiting data gaps between regions is a highly desirable study to be conducted before a second United Nations World Ocean Assessment. The ability to map and monitor key areas for ecosystem service supply is crucial for the development of scenarios and strategies to ensure future supply (Burkhard et al., 2012; Maes et al., 2012a; Maes et al., 2012b; Martinez-Harms and Balvanera, 2012). Furthermore, more complete data sets can be achieved through complementary strategies including baseline assessments in key ecosystems and/or in-depth pilot research efforts that can support model development for extrapolation to similar habitats/ecosystems. The provisioning of ecosystem services depends not only on the presence of biophysical structure and processes, but the condition (intact vs. degraded) and, in some cases, temporal variability (e.g., seasonal variability in the density or height of seagrasses or kelps, or variability in storm-driven waves). To determine the quantity of an ecosystem service, one must identify the spatial scale (local, regional, global) and temporal scale (short- to long-term) of both supply and demand (also illustrated in Figure 4). A mismatch often exists between the data available on supply versus demand due to the variability in spatial provisioning and jurisdictional disconnects between supply and demand and the corresponding data available. For example, global studies often draw on low-resolution, remotely sensed data on a global scale, whereas local studies draw on higher-resolution data on a smaller spatial scale. This difference in data quality and spatial extent can lead to different conclusions on the quantity and quality of service provisioning available and the need to handle differences and uncertainty with care. Nevertheless, considering this ‘mismatch’ of data and information available to assess a gap between supply and demand of ecosystem services is an important move toward broadening the notion of value away from narrow commodification of ecosystem services.

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Of particular importance is the multi-scale aspect of the ecosystem services approach, as it provides an invitation to consider a connection between local and global scales at different temporal/seasonal intervals (Costanza, 2008). Some ecosystem services are produced and consumed in situ (e.g., coastal protection), whereas others have clear global aspects (e.g., carbon sequestration, climate regulation, biodiversity, global fisheries and mineral extraction). Certain services are primarily seasonal (e.g., coastal protection), and others are provided or utilized yearround (e.g., food provision). 2.3

Demand for ecosystem services

The ‘Benefits’ and “Value’ steps in the cascading framework (Figure 4) represent the ‘demand for ecosystem services’ and indicate where drivers of management and decision-making can be incorporated. The perception of values and benefits sets the context when determining the ‘supply of ecosystem services’. Therefore, it is important to consider demand for ecosystem services through at least two lenses: (1) demand, as identified by market-based, economic sectors (as defined in the United Nations System of National Accounts); and (2) demand from non-market sectors or societal groups, including ‘needs’ and ‘wants’, whether perceived by people or not. Therefore, value statements, if perceived, are bi-directional and can be viewed as “trickling down” through Total Economic Values and/or “trickling up” through participatory involvement of local communities. Although the biophysical knowledge of the supply of ecosystems services is progressing, the understanding and visibility of socio-cultural-health-economic benefits from ecosystems (i.e., the understanding of the demand for ecosystem benefits) remain fragmented and are lagging behind, especially for oceans. One difficulty in profiling demand is partly due to the vast geographic scope and overall invisibility of supporting and regulating ecosystem services. Demand for ecosystem services is frequently assessed based on diverse rationales, such as risk reduction, revealed preferences, direct use or consumption of goods and services (Wolff et al, 2015). Also, the relative importance of these ecosystem services is often locally perceived by non-market sectors, especially through diverse cultural perspectives. As a result, management and decision-making frequently prioritize quantifiable ecosystem services (e.g., provisioning services). This prioritization of provisioning services often occurs to the exclusion or detriment of supporting and regulating services. On the other hand, cultural services are frequently highlighted together with provisioning services, as indigenous livelihoods are often tightly coupled to provisioning services as part of cultural services. As a consequence, in any comprehensive process of ecosystem services valuation, it will be necessary to utilize both monetary and non-monetary valuations, as befits the spatial and temporal characteristics of each ecosystem service. When classical economic theory addresses “market failures”, it resorts to the following distinctions: •

A rival good declines in abundance as it is consumed or used, e.g., when one fishing boat catches a fish, the same fish cannot be caught be another boat.

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• • •

Non-rival goods can be used by many without being ‘used up’, e.g., one and the same fish can be admired by multiple divers, or clean coastal waters can be available. A good is excludable if the use of it can be prevented, e.g., one needs permission to drill for minerals in the Exclusive Economic Zone. A non-excludable good is freely accessible to all, e.g. Storm protection provided by mangroves, seagrasses and reefs and dunes.

Most provisioning goods are ‘rival and excludable’ and therefore more suitable for valuation through markets, (e.g., fisheries in an Exclusive Economic Zone). However, some provisioning services are ‘rival but non-excludable’ (e.g., fisheries outside of Exclusive Economic Zones). Depending on place, some non-rival, excludable goods can be enjoyed by those who can afford them; these include some recreational and research services. Most regulatory and cultural services are non-rival and nonexcludable, such as the existence of diverse marine life or practically, whalewatching from shores. Based on these characteristics, it is generally inappropriate and unconventional to value non-rival and/or non-excludable ecosystem services using market mechanisms. Even non-market valuation approaches have severe limitations in this realm, which requires socio-political and institutional considerations. Hence, processes to support “trickling up” of local demand for ecosystem services become increasingly important, preferably supported by appropriate data and an ability to integrate and make these data visible. Some basic global data is available that can be used for the socio-economic component of assessments based on ecosystem services, such as revenue from coastal and marine related economic sectors. Jobs related to coastal and marine related economic sectors - and cultural values related to culturally important species - may be available at regional level in some places, but are less available in other places. Until the multiple ecosystem services, their interconnections and tradeoffs between different sectors are more accurately recognized and at least semiquantified in the decision-making sphere, full inclusion of all available global databases is beyond the scope of this first assessment. However, the distinction between markets and other interests, resolution, geographic spread and ease of access are important characteristics of any evolving framework of data sets. ‘Scale’ sets the direct context for any situation where an ecosystem services approach is envisioned, used and under improvement. The ecosystem services approach has the ability to effectively communicate land-sea connectivity and tradeoffs associated with a variety of ocean- and land-based human uses, economic sectors, stakeholders and governance (Butler et al., 2013). In such an analysis, costs (e.g., due to a loss of ecosystem services, often expressed in indirect values) and benefits (e.g., due to a monetary or non-monetary gain in direct or indirect values) are incurred by different groups over different time scales. Data on ecosystem services and their valuation for specific case studies are often reused for similar case studies in different locations, because local data collection and analysis are expensive and require specific skills in non-market analysis. Such ‘benefits transfer’ approaches to valuation can be controversial because they require assumptions about similarities among regions that are often inaccurate, but they remain a powerful and necessary approach to filling data gaps, when used with © 2016 United Nations

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caution. Table 2 provides a sample of references to local case studies of ecosystem services and their values associated with a sample of particular marine ecosystems. The development of such matrices is often referred to as a ‘rapid ecosystem service assessment (RESA)’ to identify where ecosystem services and valuation data are available and where data gaps exist. The 17 per cent of boxes that are grey and have no studies referenced represent ecosystem services provided by a particular ecosystem for which insufficient studies have been conducted.

Rocky intertidal

22,29,6 2

12,36, 37 15,39,4 8

3,20,33

16,17, 41

4,23, 47

6,30, 61

Seagrass beds

16,17, 19, 27, 41

16,17, 41

1,34, 52

6,30

Coral reefs

21,28, 42

9,16, 17,41

Kelp forests

32,54

24,43, 55,56

Sand dunes Open ocean*

Shoreline stabilization, Erosion control

13,45, 50

Salt marshes Mangrove forests

Recreation and Tourism

Protection against storm surges, wind damage

Pollution buffering and water quality

Pharmaceuticals

Marine ecosystems

Fisheries production

Aquaculture production

Selected ecosystem services

Carbon sequestration, climate regulation

Table 2. Each marine ecosystem provides a suite of ecosystem services, a subset of which are identified; policy and management decisions result in tradeoffs among ecosystem services. * Open ocean may include benthic and pelagic systems. Grey boxes indicate services provided by the ecosystem on the left. Numbers are examples of studies of the ecosystem service in that particular ecosystem. The numbers in table 2 correspond to the case studies listed in Appendix 1. (expanded from Granek et al. 2010).

9,61

10,49,6 1

6,30, 61

9,11, 13,25

30

2,38, 62 13,51, 57

7,8,26

18,31, 59

44,53, 60

61

5,35, 40

14,46, 58

Because it is both essential and expensive to initiate studies of local ecosystem services, various databases have been developed to extract relevant information from site-specific case studies and ‘transfer’ such knowledge to similar sites. The ‘benefit transfer’ approach also comes with severe limitations and risk of propagation of errors (Liu et al., 2011). Appendix 2 provides a limited overview of © 2016 United Nations

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publicly searchable databases that can assist decision-makers in populating matrices suitable to their region, following the exemplified structure of Table 2. The selection of data bases in Appendix 2 was based on explicit reference to an ‘ecosystem services’ approach, and does not provide an exhaustive list of databases that could be used when applying an ecosystem services approach. 2.4

Managing gaps, tradeoffs, and values across multiple spatial scales

Managing tradeoffs, for example between prioritizing fish-protein production from coastal waters versus coastal protection (Maes et al., 2012b), recreational use (Ghermandi et al., 2011) or cultural considerations (Chan et al., 2012), can lead to difficult decisions for managers and policy-makers. Fairness of distribution and environmental justice beyond direct costs and benefits for user groups need to be considered. The supply of ecosystem services is affected by decision-making that may favour production or provisioning of one service over others. For example, if kelp harvest is a favoured service that is managed, associated “costs” may be a reduction in fish protein, as fish habitat is reduced, and/or a reduction in recreational diving, as the kelp forest is extracted from the ocean (Menzel et al., 2013). Poor decision-making often results in benefits to some users (i.e., those who harvest kelp) and costs to other users (i.e., those who fish for animals that live in kelp, recreational divers, etc.). To achieve equitable distributions via policy-making, it is necessary to consider who wins (i.e., gains, benefits) and who loses (i.e., suffers a cost or loss), directly and indirectly as well as now and in the future. In the absence of regulation or when decision-making fails to consider the suite of services provided by an ecosystem and the range of users of those services, decisions on how best to manage a marine ecosystem may lead to unintended consequences (e.g., costs to recreational divers and fishing communities). In decision making, stakeholders or managers often choose a set of possible actions to take and then assess the tradeoffs that exist among the identified options. One strength of an inclusive ecosystem services assessment is that it allows exploration of a broader set of possible actions and outcomes and distributive impacts, often identifying and highlighting true ‘win-win’ solutions (e.g., Lester et al., 2012; White et al., 2012). Decision-makers are faced with the challenge of considering the spatial and temporal distribution of these services, which directly affects the flow of services. Certain services may be provisioned in close proximity to local communities, but utilized by both local users and others that live far from the location of provisioning. For example, coral reefs may provide protein and coastal protection to local community members on an island, and recreational opportunities, as well as some protein, to outsiders who visit the location as tourists. Even within the local community, individuals residing along the coast may prioritize the coastal protection service of the reefs or mangroves, whereas residents who live inland or upland may prioritize the provisioning of marine protein. The ecosystem services framework, when systematically applied, allows for considerations of multiple ecosystems services over time and space and thus, in this example, highlighting regulating and

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supporting services, such as habitat needed for spawning to ensure long term provisioning of protein. Decisions on how best to manage marine resources frequently require consideration of the tradeoffs among a suite of possible scenarios. These tradeoffs generally entail values gained or lost with each scenario. Most commonly such values assigned are monetary. Historically, this has led to consideration of values that can be given a monetary worth, whereas services that are difficult to measure and value are often excluded from the decision-making process (TEEB, 2010a). Rodriguez et al. (2006) found that provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services are generally traded off in this respective order. This approach results in a focus on one or a few ecosystem services and in decisions that have an unequal distribution of costs and benefits across sectors of the population. Failure to include supporting and cultural services, specifically on par with provisioning services, may have unintended consequences. In other words, understanding the flow of production (i.e., supply) and consumption (i.e., demand) of ecosystem services is complex, leaves room for cultural interpretation (Chan et al., 2012), and has distributive implications (Rodríguez et al., 2006; Halpern et al., 2011). However, tools are available - ranging from simple (for scoping purposes or in the face of poor data) to complex (for management purposes and when adequate data are available) - to assist in the development of scenarios and decision-support for this purpose. 2.5

Time preferences

Just as spatial analysis at multiple scales is crucial in understanding the supply of ecosystem services, the understanding of time scales and time preferences are important in assessing tradeoffs, especially with regard to the demand for ecosystem services. The perception of time is often culturally defined. Indigenous peoples often think in terms of multiple generations and time can have a spiritual element. For a market-oriented investor or government, time is captured in a ‘discount rate’. In essence, a high discount rate reflects a desire to consume resources now rather than later. From an economic perspective, this choice also determines how quickly an investment returns a profit. Long-term planning to safeguard the benefits of less visible, non-provisioning ecosystem services requires low or even negative discount rates (Carpenter et al., 2007). For investments in natural capital and for people to receive ecosystem services and benefits, multiple discount rates are required. Such ecological discount rates may be place-based (e.g., when considering in situ ecosystem services) or universal (e.g., when ecological infrastructure is providing global ecosystem services) and should also reflect the (often slow) recovery time of ecosystems. This would apply to most supporting, regulatory and cultural services, as they are ‘non-rival, non-excludable’ services. In addition, certain ecosystem services may be provisioned (e.g., coastal protection when seagrass beds are dense enough to attenuate waves) or utilized (intertidal or inshore fisheries during seasons when ocean conditions do not permit offshore fishery) seasonally, highlighting the importance of managing for time frames that reflect seasonal availability of or access to a service (TEEB, 2010a). © 2016 United Nations

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2.6

The challenge of multi-scale integrated assessments for ecosystem services

There are indicators that allow us to reflect on the health of oceans, e.g., the Ocean Health Index (Halpern et al., 2012) and retrospectively how ocean health is changing. A general indicator for ecosystem services from oceans is not available, nor may it be desirable as one indicator. Such an indicator would require integration across biophysical and human dimensions, with relevance across multiple scales and developing a transparent ability to consider tradeoffs with a forward perspective. This requires the gathering of data at local, regional, national and global scales, and in principle with three dimensions: space, time and values. Although not unique to the ecosystem services concept, the need to connect local to global scales through bottom-up and top-down governance is paramount. Database management and modeling capacity are increasingly important to support decision-making at multiple levels of scale. This capacity needs to be ‘fit for purpose’ (i.e., it needs to answer specific questions by decision-makers in a timely fashion), as well as contribute to the development of knowledge across scales (i.e., be relevant beyond the boundary of an individual decision-maker). Currently several tools are available, each emphasizing particular strengths, such as the ability to: (1) communicate effectively with local stakeholders (e.g., Rapid Ecosystem Service Assessments (RESA), Seasketch (McClintock et al., 2012); (2) illustrate spatial aspects (e.g., InVEST (Lester et al., 2012; White et al., 2012); and (3) consider scenarios and changes over time, e.g., Mediated Modeling at the scoping (van den Belt et al., 2012), research, and MIMES/MIDAS (Altman et al., 2014) at management levels. Table 3 illustrates some tools with differing strengths and weaknesses. A comprehensive overview of all tools is beyond the scope of this assessment. Table 3. A subset of tools that can be included in an ecosystem services valuation ‘toolbox’. The tools range from crude conversation starters (e.g. RESA) to spatially dynamic decision support frameworks (e.g. MIMES). Dimension

Rapid Ecosystem Service Assessment (RESA)

SeaSketch

InVEST

Mediated Modeling

MIMES

Context

Social / values

Possible

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Content

Spatial

Limited

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Dynamic/ changes over time

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Ecological

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Economic

Yes

Limited

Yes, where benefits are perceived

Yes, where benefits are not perceived

Yes, where benefits are not perceived

Adaptive

Scoping

Scoping

Research

Scoping

Management

Process

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These tools draw on local ‘small data’ and global ‘big data’ to various extents. Each case study has the potential to be used in education and add to the collective building of knowledge on ecosystem services. As discussed, multiple databases on ecosystem services and their values are already available (Appendix 1), many of which feature ecosystem-based management tools (e.g., http://ebmtoolsdatabase.org). Newly initiated local case studies, as well as the output from modelling tools and applications of TEEB-like processes, add to this body of knowledge, and draw on ‘big data’ sets. Bringing together the various databases, tools and knowledge gained from various applications is a top priority for multiple stakeholders, such as policy makers, industry and non-governmental organizations. The iMarine infrastructure is one example of an emerging "Community Cloud" platform which offers Virtual Research Environments that integrate a broad range of data services with scientific data and advanced analysis. Such scenarios then result in new datasets. This could be expanded to include protocols for an ecosystem services approach. Figure 5 illustrates a connection between: (1) ‘big data’, primarily spatial information relevant to the supply of ecosystem service and (2) ‘small data’, the transferable insights that can be gained from local case studies. These data are brought together in (modeling) tools, evolving (1) from scoping to management level and (2) from static to dynamic tools. In the same way, but with a much more “bottom-up” and integrated emphasis, the European Marine Biodiversity Observation System (EMBOS: http://www.embos.eu/) offers the advantages of scale and expert identification of relevant organisms (taxonomy). This holistic approach is important since marine biodiversity provides many ecosystem services. However, biodiversity is undergoing profound changes, due to anthropogenic pressures, climatic warming and natural variation. Proper understanding of biodiversity patterns and ongoing changes is needed to assess consequences for ecosystem integrity, in order to be in a position to manage the natural resources. SMALL DATA on human dimensions Socio-Cultural-Health-Economic: e.g. Bottom up, participatory, community-based value studies, original Total Economic Valuation studies, Surveys Data Bases: e.g. Ecosystem Service Valuation Tool SMALL DATA on biophysical dimensions - new ecosystem knowledge relevant with transferability potential

Benefit Transfer tools: e.g. RESA, SERVES, TEEB, InVest, Seasketch

Scoping Models: e.g. Mediated Modeling

BIG DATA, Specialized models, aggregated socio-economic information: e.g. Remote sensing, Geographic Information Systems, weather data, components of well-being

Research/Management Models: e.g. MIMES

Figure 5. Evolution of ecosystem services knowledge. Adapted from van den Belt et al., 2013.

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3. Capacity-building and knowledge gaps This section highlights knowledge gaps regarding the application of ecosystem services and discusses opportunities for capacity development. This concerns ‘human capital’, often interpreted as the ‘ability to deal with complex societal challenges’. In the context of marine ecosystem services, this is reflected in the capacity to collect and use available data to make visible ‘the benefits that people derive from ecosystems’ relevant for effective decision-making at multiple scales. This includes effective global policies and agreements, education and awareness programmes. Assessing governance and institutional changes that are required at multiple scales is beyond the scope of this chapter, although it should be noted that a feedback to this effect is included in all of the ecosystem services frameworks. There is a gap in social sciences and economics’ ability to support ecosystem-based science. Application of an ecosystem services approach emphasizes the need for human dimensions of well-being, bridging natural and social sciences. Such integrative approach requires capability building in skills beyond existing disciplines. Generic skills that are needed to work within an ES framework, include: technical (e.g. modellers) and specialists (including scientists in specific disciplines), integrators (to make links between the parts), translators (to change policy questions into assumptions) and interpreters (who can communicate complex issues in simple terms). The multi-scale and process-oriented aspects of an ecosystem services approach provide both a challenge and an opportunity for capacity development in understanding and capturing value regarding the supply of and demand for ecosystem services. Table 4 attempts to relate the scale of the demand for and supply of ecosystem services with data gaps and capacity to interlink/disseminate data for decision-support. Table 4. Gaps regarding data and ability to interlink data for decision-support at multiple scales, coherent across marine and terrestrial systems. Supply of ecosystem services

Local

National

Global

Need = high resolution data and ability to interlink data for decision-support in the short term.

Need = mixed resolution data and ability to interlink data for decision-support in the short and long term.

Need = low resolution data and high ability to interlink and disseminate data for decision-support in the long term.

Available = Mixed data and multiple tools; sufficient for scoping purposes in developed countries. Insufficient for management in developed countries.

Available = Multiple databases often organized per country and multiple tools.

Available = Sufficient data for scoping, insufficient ability to interlink.

Insufficient for scoping or management in developing countries.

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Demand for ecosystem services

Need = high ability for recognizing market and nonmarket sectors in managing tradeoffs. Available = Market-based information often available through the system of national accounting. Non-market-based information depends on local governance and community involvement.

Gap

Matching data between supply and demand of ecosystem services and ability to interconnect with regional/global scales.

Need = ability for recognizing market and supporting nonmarket sectors in managing tradeoffs in the short and long term. Available = market-based information and some sociocultural information depending on country.

Examples of ecosystem services supply; demand-side lagging. Interconnections among ecosystem services and between local and global scales elusive.

Need = ability to support all sectors with understanding of global ecosystem services and humanity’s long-term, collective needs. Available = market-based information and some socio-cultural information. Shortage in some global ecosystem services. Interlinkages among global ecosystem services elusive.

The following are important capacity-development needs: Data availability and resolution at different scales and geographic spread: Here the most important action item will be to map key areas, identify existing gaps and put in place mechanisms for filling those gaps in a coordinated and strategic way. For example, in the developing world data gaps complicate even rapid ecosystem service assessments at the scoping level. Although other areas have access to data for scoping purposes, crucial knowledge is lacking to use such data through an ecosystem services approach for management purposes. The ability to use data in an integrated manner, both for ‘trickling down’ accounting, as well as for “trickling up” community empowerment and participatory purposes: This is exacerbated by the severe lack of local empowerment and understanding of the ecosystem services concept and by the fact that it is a multi-factoral and transregional, trans-national issue. This can be addressed by coordinated knowledge transfer and information exchange at the global level, for example, in coordination with IPBES. Capabilities to undertake heuristic/participatory processes: Once again, this should be approached in a regional to global dimension, albeit for enhancement of specific purposes at each level. Heuristics approaches to problem solving can be used in the domains of natural science and social science and refers to 'operating under less than perfect circumstances to arrive at a way forward’. Perhaps most important will be to encourage, facilitate, collate and promote understanding of regional differences in valuation of ecosystem services according to culture and history. The first step in capacity-building and filling in knowledge gaps will be to empower local stakeholder communities and enable them to understand the impact that ecosystem services have on their lives and well-being. Empowerment and enablement are key concepts in the social sciences and if we are to improve and develop an ecosystem services approach, it will be vital to equip communities, from the bottom up, to develop a stronger sense of ownership and responsibility for the protection and © 2016 United Nations

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sustainability of their local and global ecosystems and resultant services. However, collectively, it is crucial for people to understand that ecosystem services do not respect national and international boundaries, necessitating an integrated approach and a trading off with adjacent regions. If not accomplished in a transparent manner, this approach is likely to exacerbate regional conflicts. A simple example is the need for an understanding of ecosystem life-processes by the community at large and the interdependence and cascading links between individual ecosystem services. Furthermore, it is vital to understand how this varies region-to-region and culture-toculture. Relevance and capacity for different regions, specifically for marine ecosystem services: Human capacity-building (e.g. technology training/education) and the associated physical infrastructure (e.g., coastal marine laboratories and institutes, marine observatories/observations, oceanographic fleets, together with appropriate and robust technology/instrumentation) are important to understand marine biomes as natural capital. This is expensive infrastructure and it is often lacking or operating at a low level in developing countries. Marine research stations are scattered worldwide, are often long established, and can act as important focal points for community-wide understanding and appreciation of marine/coastal ecosystem services. However, they lack capacity to recognize and value ecosystem services or use this approach as an organizing principle. Yet, these infrastructures have the potential to underpin the ecosystem services approach and facilitate gap-filling, e.g., by collecting data relevant to different sea-users and providing avenues to educate local communities. Improvement in these domains requires appropriate national policies in science and significant institutional strengthening. Education and training are vital to share best practices, data and experience and to create a truly global approach. Good examples of the human capital that is available but is, as yet, fragmented, in terms of supporting the development and understanding of ecosystem services, are the various networks of marine infrastructures exemplified by MARS (http://www.marsnetwork.org) in Europe and NAML (http://www.naml.org/) in the USA, together with smaller Japanese and Australian counterparts. Recently a global initiative has been launched with the help of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, i.e., the World Association of Marine Stations (WAMS) (http://www.marsnetwork.org/world-association-marine-stationswams), with the mission to unite and integrate their strategies from training, education, and outreach to best practice and shared research agendas. New initiatives emerging from the EMBRC consortium ( http://www.embrc.eu) and Euromarine (www.euromarinenetwork.eu) are acting as vibrant platforms bringing together all actors in the marine sphere. An important development recently available is The European Marine Training Portal (http://www.marinetraining.eu/). The European Marine Training portal is a centralized access point for education and training in the field of marine sciences. It will help European scientists, technicians and other stakeholders to navigate in the jungle of courses and training opportunities. Marinetraining.eu offers a variety of services to both training organizers and trainees.

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Databases and tools available to Marine Stations and Meteorological Centres need to integrate and share data/tools/strategy. Time series are vital for biological/chemical/physical/geological datasets. As original local studies of ecosystem services are expensive, guidance is needed for local stakeholders and decision-makers to progress from scoping to management tools. This includes a continuum of multiple discount rates relevant to the various ecosystem services (TEEB, 2010a). The network of existing marine research stations and institutes can play a central and coordinating role in providing relevant information and assist in preparation of options to consider bundles of ecosystem services. Many marine stations have historical data sets that, if properly digitized and shared, could help to fill gaps. Many are still locally collecting biogeochemical, biophysical and biodiversity data and recording their changes. These are powerful tools but tend to be restricted to local or regional databases. Although generally not private, they are often not widely known; this is where the United Nations Member States could come together to identify all sources and repositories of knowledge and data and bring them together to benefit the global community. Indeed this is one of the key missions of WAMS, supported by UNESCO-IOC. Whereas this is well recognized in Europe, North America and Australia, for example, an urgent need exists to embrace and empower other less well-supported regions, including but not limited to Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and the Polar regions. 4. Conclusion Many fundamental Earth system processes are approaching or have crossed safe boundaries for their continued sustainability. Oceans play a crucial role in these Earth systems. After two decades of development, the ecosystem services approach has made good progress in making more visible the benefits people derive from ecosystems, which are often taken for granted. The ecosystem services approach outlined above provides an organizing methodology to assess and analyze the supply of and demand for ecosystem services and to connect across multiple geographic and temporal scales. However, this chapter does not fully outline the necessary steps to determine the potential supply and tradeoffs of ecosystem services for a region. The trans-disciplinary nature of an ecosystem services approach is complex and goes well beyond a mechanical application of both natural and social science, including decision making. The definitions of ecosystem services are multiple and broad and leave room for interpretation. A strong application of the ecosystem services concept can have a transformational impact, shift paradigms and provide new organizing principles advancing sustainability. A weak application of this concept may provide justification for business-as-usual. For example, a robust and strategic application has the potential to create a collaborative space to address fundamental challenges facing humanity; a weak application may address scattered local challenges at best or justify undesirable outcomes at worst. Establishing principles, approaches and consistent terminology and guidelines for use of marine ecosystem services are needed. Linkages to people are often missing and more data and knowledge on attitudes, perceptions and beliefs of resource © 2016 United Nations

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users and resource dependents is key. Several networks (e.g., MEA, GEO-BON, IPBES, TEEB, Lisbon Principles) have developed and are further developing such principles and guides. A significant development in Europe is EMBOS (http://www.embos.eu/). This has a focus on observation systems for marine biodiversity. This represents a significant challenge since biodiversity varies over large scales of time and space, and requires research strategies beyond the tradition and capabilities of classic research. Research that covers these scales requires a permanent international network of observation stations with an optimized and standardized methodology. In this way, we recognize that it is increasingly important to develop ‘frameworks of frameworks’ and understand the underlying purpose and worldview of each contributing framework in order to unify instead of divide the potential support for an ecosystem services approach, especially for oceans. Developing overarching principles, creating consistency in reporting, and generating relevant shared data and information, as well as the capacity to use such information, are creating an exciting opportunity for the United Nations and its members. The ecosystem services approach has the potential to support a variety of management frameworks, including Marine Spatial Planning and tools for coordinating national and international sustainable marine resource management. Marine laboratories and fleets provide much of the needed data and human capital to better understand the supply of ecosystem services. Opportunities to fill data gaps exist (especially in developing countries), as well as developing capability to make available data suitable for use in ecosystem services approaches. These opportunities should be identified and acted upon with some urgency. An increasing amount of spatial data/information is readily available/accessible. However, global data are often too coarse in resolution to make accurate estimates for certain regions and the capacity to access and use global data is limited and often lacking in developing countries and even developed countries. In addition, local or fine resolution spatial data and information are often unavailable and expensive. Also, nomenclatures and protocols should be standardized to enable meaningful integration, comparison and shared analyses. Perhaps the most important gap in knowledge is understanding and integration of an ecosystem services ethos. This can be remedied by initiating a global approach with coordinated knowledge and education transfer amongst both developed and developing nations. Marine ecosystems exist regardless of the status of development of nations, but their integrity is certainly dependent on anthropogenic effects of all kinds under the influence of cultures around the globe. Thus, the ecosystem services approach must be multi-scalar in all facets. A thematic link with IPBES for oceans could address this. Numerous methodologies have been developed to guide the ecosystem services approach; these range from scoping to highly advanced research and management approaches. Some methodologies provide static ‘snapshots,’ and others provide a spatially dynamic framework highlighting inter-linkages between bundles of ecosystem services and their changes over time. The top-down progression of the cascading model (Figure 4) reflects steps involved in scoping the provision and value of ecosystem services. Inclusive, participatory © 2016 United Nations

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approaches are important if we are to enhance ecosystem service models with bottom-up considerations to incorporate non-market and monetary values. The incorporation of local or bottom-up perspectives provides the opportunity to better integrate the distribution of costs and benefits and thereby enhance the fairness of decision-making. When a participatory, bottom-up approach to ecosystem service valuation is taken, the ‘gap’ between ‘supply of’ and ‘demand for’ ecosystem services can more accurately define and measure ‘value’; either there is an abundance, a sufficiency, or a shortage in time and space, applying both market and non-market perspectives. Mapping such gaps and how they change over time and space can be used to identify ‘hotspots’ for prioritization of management actions at multiple scales. Increasingly, marine ecosystem services are used in marine spatial planning (White et al., 2012; Altman et al., 2014). It is important that the ecosystem services approach is used to influence beyond the immediate jurisdiction of those undertaking or sponsoring an ecosystem services assessment. Marine ecosystems function independently of national boundaries and Exclusive Economic Zones and so require an integrated global approach, if humanity wants to receive ecosystem services. When local biophysical data are not available, more heuristic methods can still guide conversations among multiple stakeholders to consider options to govern, manage and sustain the ‘benefits people derive from ecosystems’. At a global level, assessment of slow-moving biophysical processes (e.g., climate regulation, ocean acidification) need to be interpreted in terms of ecosystem services for their relevance to and impact on bundles of local ecosystem service in case studies. In order to facilitate and enable the use of an ecosystem services approach, agreement on a global nomenclature and resulting classification would be useful. However, such a classification ought to be flexible enough to allow for local variability in applications. Therefore, the design of nomenclature, principles, and data management needs to be transparent and display characteristics appropriate to scale and purpose. In addition to multiple scales, comparability between locations and case studies and over time is important. Some databases go to great lengths to encourage long-term comparability, e.g., Marine Ecosystem Service Partnership and Ecosystem Valuation Tool at Earth Economics. Comparability and transferability apply not only to datagathering and -formatting, but also to the human component of socializing; using/interlinking such data is equally important (e.g., exchanges and collaborative opportunities). The available ecosystem services frameworks emphasize that this is an iterative, evolving process and therefore needs an adaptive programme of strategic assessment.

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Townsend, M., Thrush, S. F. and Carbines, M. J. (2011). Simplifying the complex: An 'Ecosystem principles approach' to goods and services management in marine coastal ecosystems. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 434, 291-301. United Nations Atlas of Oceans, www.oceansatlas.org, accessed on 16 April, 2015 United Nations Statistics Division. (2013). System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012: Experimental Ecosystem Accounting. European Commission, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, United Nations, World Bank. UK National Ecosystem Assessment. (2011). The UK National Ecosystem Assessment: Synthesis of the Key Findings. Cambridge: UNEP-WCMC. van den Belt, M. (2011a). Ecological Economics of Estuaries and Coasts. In: Wolanski, E. and McClusky, D.S. (eds.) Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science. Burlington MA: Academic Press. van den Belt, M., Forgie, V.E. and Farley, J. (2011b). Valuation of Coastal Ecosystem Services. In: Wolanski, E. and D.S., M. (eds.) Ecological Economics of Estuaries and Coasts. Burlington MA: Elsevier. van den Belt, M., McCallion, A., Wairepo, S., Hardy, D., Hale, L. and Berry, M. (2012). Mediated Modelling of Coastal Ecosystem Services: A case study of Te Awanui Tauranga Harbour, Manaaki Taho Moana project. van den Belt, M. (2013, August 26-30). Integrating Ecosystem Services Valuation Case Studies, Valuation Databases and Ecosystem Services Modeling, Proceedings of the 6th Annual International Ecosystem Services Partnership Conference, Bali, Indonesia. van den Belt, M. and Cole, A.O. (2014). Ecosystem Services of Marine Protected Areas. Wellington, NZ: Department of Conservation. Wegner, G., and Pascual, U. (2011). Cost-benefit analysis in the context of ecosystem services for human well-being: A multidisciplinary critique. Global Environmental Change, 21(2), 492-504. White, C., Halpern, B.S. and Kappel, C.V. (2012). Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 4696-4701. DOI 10.1073/pnas.1114215109. Wolff, S., Schulp, C.J.E. and Verburg, P.H. ( 2015). Mapping ecosystem services demand: A review of current research and future perspectives. Ecological Indicators, 55, 159-171. Available: DOI 10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.03.016. Zurlini, G., Petrosillo, I., Aretano, R., Castorini, I., D'Arpa, S., De Marco, A., Pasimeni, M. R., Semeraro, T. and Zaccarelli, N. ( 2014). Key fundamental aspects for mapping and assessing ecosystem services: Predictability of ecosystem service providers at scales from local to global. Annali di Botanica, 4, 53-63. Available: DOI 10.4462/annbotrm-11754.

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Chapter 3 Appendix 1. Case studies and references related to Tables 2 and 3. 1. Abu-Hilal, A.H. (1994). Effect of Depositional Environment and Sources of Pollution on Uranium Concentration in Sediment, Coral, Algae and Seagrass Species from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 28, 81-88. 2. Airoldi, L., Balata, D. and Beck, M.W. (2008). The Gray Zone: Relationships between habitat loss and marine diversity and their applications in conservation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 8. Available: DOI 10.1016/j.jembe.2008.07.034. 3. Alongi, D.M. (2012). Carbon sequestration in mangrove forests. Carbon Management, 3, 313-322. 4. Alongi, D. M., Chong, V. C., Dixon, P., Sasekumar, A. and Tirendi, F. (2003). The influence of fish cage aquaculture on pelagic carbon flow and water chemistry in tidally dominated mangrove estuaries of peninsular Malaysia. Marine Environmental Research, 55, 313-333. 5. Avis, A.M. (1989) A review of coastal dune stabilization in the Cape Province of South Africa. Landscape and Urban Planning, 18, 55-68. Available: DOI 10.1016/01692046(89)90055-8. 6. Barbier, E.B., Hacker, S.D., Kennedy, C., Koch, E.W., Stier, A.C. and Silliman, B.R. (2011). The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. Ecological Monographs, 169. 7. Bridger, C.J. and Costa-Pierce, B.A. (eds.) (2003). Open Ocean Aquacutlure: From Research to Commercial Reality. Baton Rouge, LA: The World Aquaculture Society. 8. Buck, B.H., Krause, G. and Rosenthal, H. (2004). Extensive open ocean aquaculture development within wind farms in Germany: the prospect of offshore comanagement and legal constraints. Ocean and Coastal Management, 47, 95. 9. Burke, L. and Maidens, J. (2004). Reefs at risk in the Caribbean. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. Report number: 97815697356711569735670. 10. Carleton, J.M. (1974). Land-building and Stabilization by Mangroves. Environmental Conservation, 1, 285. 11. Cesar, H., Burke, L. and Pet-Soede, L. 2003. The economics of worldwide coral reef degradation. 12. Chmura, G.L., Anisfeld, S.C., Cahoon, D.R. and Lynch, J.C. (2003). Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17, n/a. 13. Davenport, J. and Davenport, J.L. (2006). The impact of tourism and personal leisure transport on coastal environments: A review. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 280. Available: DOI 10.1016/j.ecss.2005.11.026. 14. Davis, D., Banks, S., Birtles, A., Valentine, P. and Cuthill, M. (1997). Whale sharks in Ningaloo Marine Park: managing tourism in an Australian marine protected area. Tourism Management (United Kingdom). 15. DeWalt, B.R., Vergne, P. and Hardin, M. (1996). Shrimp aquaculture development and the environment : people, mangroves and fisheries on the Gulf of Fonseca, Honduras. World development : the multi-disciplinary international journal devoted to the study and promotion of world development, 24, 1193-1208.

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16. Dorenbosch, M., Grol, M.G.G., Christianen, M.J.A., Nagelkerken, I. and van der Velde, G. (2005). Indo-Pacific seagrass beds and mangroves contribute to fish density and diversity on adjacent coral reefs. Marine Ecology - Progress Series, 302, 63-76. 17. Dorenbosch, M., van Riel, M.C., Nagelkerken, I. and van der Velde, G. (2004). The relationship of reef fish densities to the proximity of mangrove and seagrass nurseries. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 60, 37. Available: DOI 10.1016/j.ecss.2003.11.018. 18. Falkowski, P., Scholes, R.J., Boyle, E., Canadell, J., Canfield, D., Elser, J., Gruber, N., Hibbard, K., Hogberg, P., Linder, S., Mackenzie, F. T., Moore, B., III, Pedersen, T., Rosenthal, Y., Seitzinger, S., Smetacek, V. and Steffen, W. (2000). The Global Carbon Cycle: A Test of Our Knowledge of Earth as a System. Science. 19. Fourqurean, J.W., Duarte, C.M., Kennedy, H., Marbà, N., Holmer, M., Mateo, M.A., Apostolaki, E.T., Kendrick, G.A., Krause-Jensen, D., McGlathery, K.J. and Serrano, O. (2012). Seagrass ecosystems as a globally significant carbon stock. 20. Fujimoto, K. (2004). Below-ground carbon sequestration of mangrove forests in the Asia-Pacific region. In: Vannucci, M. (ed.) Mangrove management and conservation workshop. Okinawa, Japan. 21. Gattuso, J.P., Frankignoulle, M. and Wollast, R. (1998). Carbon and Carbonate Metabolism in Coastal Aquatic Ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 29, 405. 22. Gedan, K.B., Kirwan, M.L., Wolanski, E., Barbier, E.B. and Silliman, B.R. (2011). The present and future role of coastal wetland vegetation in protecting shorelines: answering recent challenges to the paradigm. Climatic Change, 7. 23. Harbison, P. (1986). Mangrove muds--a sink and a source for trace metals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 17, 246. 24. Harrold, C. and Reed, D.C. (1985). Food Availability, Sea Urchin Grazing, and Kelp Forest Community Structure. Ecology, 1160. Available: DOI 10.2307/1939168. 25. Hawkins, J.P. and Roberts, C.M. (1994). The Growth of Coastal Tourism in the Red Sea: Present and Future Effects on Coral Reefs. Ambio, 503. Available: DOI 10.2307/4314268. 26. Hoagland, P., Jin, D. and Kite-Powell, H. (2003). The optimal allocation of ocean space: aquaculture and wild-harvest fisheries. Marine Resource Economics, 129. 27. Kennedy, H., Beggins, J., Duane, C.M., Fourqurean, J.W., Holmer, M., Marbà, N. and Middelburg, J. J. (2010). Seagrass sediments as a global carbon sink: Isotopic constraints. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, 1. 28. Kinsey, D.W. and Hopley, D. (1991). Research paper: The significance of coral reefs as global carbon sinks— response to Greenhouse. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 89, 363-377. Available: DOI 10.1016/00310182(91)90172-n. 29. Knutson, P., Brochu, R., Seelig, W. and Inskeep, M. (1982). Wave damping in Spartina alterniflora marshes. Wetlands, 2, 87. 30. Koch, E.W., Barbier, E.B., Silliman, B.R., Reed, D.J., Perillo, G.M.E., Hacker, S.D., Granek, E.F., Primavera, J.H., Muthiga, N., Polasky, S., Halpern, B.S., Kennedy, C.J., Kappel, C.V. and Wolanski, E. (2009). Non-Linearity in Ecosystem Services: Temporal and Spatial Variability in Coastal Protection. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 29. Available: DOI 10.2307/25595035.

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31. Kuhlbusch, T.A.J. (1998). Enhanced: Black Carbon and the Carbon Cycle Science, 280, 1903-1904. Available: DOI DOI:10.1126/science.280.5371.1903. 32. Laffoley, D. and Grimsditch, G.D. (eds.) (2009). The management of natural coastal carbon sinks. Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 33. Lal, R. (2005). Forest soils and carbon sequestration. Forest Ecology and Management. Elsevier. 34. Lemmens, J.W.T.J., Clapin, G., Lavery, P. and Cary, J. (1996). Filtering capacity of seagrass meadows and other habitats of Cockburn Sound, Western Australia. MARINE ECOLOGY- PROGRESS SERIES, 143, 187-200. 35. Levin, N. and Ben-Dor, E. (2004) Monitoring sand dune stabilization along the coastal dunes of Ashdod-Nizanim, Israel, 1945–1999. Journal of Arid Environments, 58, 335355. Available: DOI 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2003.08.007. 36. Li, Y.-L., Wang, L., Zhang, W.-Q., Zhang, S.-P., Wang, H.-L., Fu, X.-H. and Le, Y.-Q. (2010). Variability of soil carbon sequestration capability and microbial activity of different types of salt marsh soils at Chongming Dongtan. Ecological Engineering, 1754. Available: DOI 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.07.029. 37. McLeod, E., Chmura, G.L., Bouillon, S., Salm, R., Björk, M., Duarte, C.M., Lovelock, C. E., Schlesinger, W.H. and Silliman, B. R. (2011). A blueprint for blue carbon: toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO2. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 9, 552. 38. Menzel, S., Kappel, C.V., Broitman, B.R., Micheli, F. and Rosenberg, A.A. (2013). Linking human activity and ecosystem condition to inform marine ecosystem based management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 506. 39. Minh, T., Yakuitiyage, A., and Macintosh, D.J. (2001). Management of the integrated mangrove-aquaculture farming systems in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Pathumthani, Thailand Integrated Tropical Coastal Zone Management, School of Environment, Resources, and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, . 40. Moreno-Casasola, P. (1986). Sand Movement as a Factor in the Distribution of Plant Communities in a Coastal Dune System. Vegetatio, 67. Available: DOI 10.2307/20037269. 41. Nagelkerken, I., Velde, G.v.d., Gorissen, M.W., Meijer, G.J., Hof, T.V.t. and Hartog, C.d. (2000). Regular Article: Importance of Mangroves, Seagrass Beds and the Shallow Coral Reef as a Nursery for Important Coral Reef Fishes, Using a Visual Census Technique. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 51, 31-44. Available: DOI 10.1006/ecss.2000.0617. 42. Ohde, S. and van Woesik, R. (1999). Carbon dioxide flux and metabolic processes of a coral reef, Okinawa. Bulletin of Marine Science, 65, 559-576. 43. Paddack, M.J. and Estes, J.A. (2000). Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California. Ecological Applications, 855. 44. Pauly, D. and Christensen, V. (1995). Primary production required to sustain global fisheries. Nature, 255. 45. Pinn, E.H. and Rodgers, M. (2005). The influence of visitors on intertidal biodiversity. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 85, 263. 46. Quiors, A. (2005). Whale shark "ecotourism" in the Philippines and Belize: evaluating conservation and community benefits. Tropical Resources: Bulletin of the Yale Tropical Resources Institute, 24, 42-48.

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47. Robertson, A.I. and Phillips, M.J. (1995). Mangroves as filters of shrimp pond effluent: predictions and biogeochemical research needs. Hydrobiologia, 295, 311. 48. Ronnback, P. (1999). The Ecological Basis for Economic Value of Seafood Production Supported by Mangrove Ecosystems. Ecological Economics, 29, 235-252. Available: DOI http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09218009. 49. Sathirathai, S. and Barbier, E.B. (2001). Valuing Mangrove Conservation in Southern Thailand. Contemporary Economic Policy, 19, 109-122. Available: DOI http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/%28ISSN%291465-7287. 50. Schiel, D.R. and Taylor, D.I. (1999). Effects of trampling on a rocky intertidal algal assemblage in southern New Zealand. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 235, 213-235. Available: DOI 10.1016/s0022-0981(98)00170-1. 51. Schlacher, T.A., de Jager, R. and Nielsen, T. (2011). Vegetation and ghost crabs in coastal dunes as indicators of putative stressors from tourism. Ecological Indicators, 11, 284-294. Available: DOI 10.1016/j.ecolind.2010.05.006. 52. Short, F.T. and Short, C.A. (1984). The seagrass filter: purification of estuarine and coastal waters. In: Kennedy, V. S. (ed.) The estuary as a filter. Orlando: Academic Press. 53. Siegfried, W.R., Crawford, R.J.M., Shannon, L.V., Pollock, D.E., Payne, A.I.L. and Krohn, R. G. (1990). Scenarios for global-warming induced change in the open-ocean environment and selected fisheries of the west coast of Southern Africa. South African Journal of Science, 281-285. 54. Smith, S. V. (1981). Marine macrophytes as global carbon sink. Science, 838. 55. Steneck, R.S., Graham, M.H., Bourque, B.J., Corbett, D., Erlandson, J.M., Estes, J.A. and Tegner, M.J. 2002. Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and the future. Environmental Conservation, 29, 436-459. 56. Tegner, M.J. and Dayton, P.K. (2000). Ecosystem effects of fishing in kelp forest communities. ICES Journal of Marine Science / Journal du Conseil, 57, 579. 57. van der Meulen, F. and Salman, A.H.P M. Management of Mediterranean coastal dunes. Ocean and Coastal Management, 30, 177-195. Available: DOI 10.1016/09645691(95)00060-7. 58. Vianna, G.M.S., Meekan, M.G., Pannell, D.J., Marsh, S.P. and Meeuwig, J.J. (2012). Socio-economic value and community benefits from shark-diving tourism in Palau: A sustainable use of reef shark populations. Biological Conservation, 267. Available: DOI 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.11.022. 59. Walsh, J.J., Rowe, G.T., Iverson, R.L. and McRoy, C.P. (1981). Biological export of shelf carbon is a sink of the global CO2 cycle. Nature, 291, 196. 60. Ward, P. and Myers, R. A. (2005). Shifts in Open-Ocean Fish Communities Coinciding with the Commencement of Commercial Fishing. Ecology, 835. Available: DOI 10.2307/3450838. 61. Wells, S., Ravilious, C. and Corcoran, E. (2006). In the front line. Shoreline protection and other ecosystem services from mangroves and coral reefs. UNEP-WCMC Biodiversity Series 24. UNEP-WCMC 2006. [Accessed 20130927]. 62. Woodhouse, W.W., Broome, S.W., Seneca, E.D., Center, C.E.R. and University., N.C.S. (1974). Propagation of Spartina alterniflora for substrate stabilization and salt marsh development / by W.W. Woodhouse, Jr., E.D. Seneca, and S.W. Broome. Fort Belvoir, Va. :, Coastal Engineering Research Center. Available: DOI 10.5962/bhl.title.47587.

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Chapter 3 Appendix 2. Overview of databases available to support ecosystem services assessments. Sources of information for ecosystem services approaches: from biomes to case studies and tradeoffs CBD: Convention on www.cbd.int , www.cbd.int/ebsa Biological Diversity Conservation http://www.conservation.org International CICES: Common http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/ International Classification of ES UNEP: United Nations www.unep.org Environment Programme EMBOS: European Marine Biodiversity Observation System : http://www.embos.eu EEA: European environment agency GEF: Global Envirinment Facility International Waters Learning Exchange & Resource Network

www.eea.europa.eu http://iwlearn.net

TEEB: The Economics of Ecosystems & Biodiversity Earth Economics GEOBON NCEAS: National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis

www.teebweb.org/

Ocean Health Index MESP: marine ecosystem services partnership

http://www.oceanhealthindex.org/

Additional databases /Biomes Ocean all biomes NatureServe: Tools for EBM of Coastal and Marine Environments

www.eartheconomics.org www.earthobservations.org/geobon.shtml www.nceas.ucsb.edu/ebm

http://marineecosystemservices.org/explore http://www.oceanhealthindex.org/ www.teebweb.org www.natureserve.org http://ebmtoolsdatabase.org/

Case studies MAES: Mapping & EU http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/knowledge/ Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services http://www.gifsproject.eu/en/toolkit GIFS: The Geography North Sea of Inshore Fishing and Sustainability Global Socioeconomic Monitoring Initiative for Coastal Management (SocMon) www.socmon.org Regional cases

EU Integrated Maritime Policy Marine protected areas MPAs+MCZs+SACs MPA

Mediterranean Sea

http://planbleu.org/en/ressources-donnees/simedd

UK California, US

http://uknea.unep-wcmc.org/ http://www.dfg.ca.gov/mlpa

HELCOM Baltic Rhode Island US Oregon US ESP: Ecosystem west pacific/ Services Partnership Philipines EBM Arctic Arctic http://www.abds.is/ Tradeoffs and decision support InVEST: Integration Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs

www.helcom.fi www.seagrant.gso.uri.edu http://www.oregon.gov/LCD/OCMP/ http://www.es-partnership.org

www.naturalcapitalproject.org/InVEST.html

MIMES: Multi-scale Integrated Model of Ecosystem Services & Natural Capital

http://www.afordablefutures.com

SoLVES: Social Values for Ecosystem Services

http://solves.cr.usgs.gov

iMarine

https://portal.i-marine.d4science.org

FSD: Foundation for Sustainable Development

http://www.fsd.nl

Chapter 4. The Ocean’s Role in the Hydrological Cycle Contributors: Deirdre Byrne and Carlos Garcia-Soto (Convenors), Gordon Hamilton, Eric Leuliette, LisanYu, Edmo Campos, Paul J. Durack, Giuseppe M.R. Manzella, Kazuaki Tadokoro, Raymond W. Schmitt, Phillip Arkin, Harry Bryden, Leonard Nurse, John Milliman, Lorna Inniss (Lead Member), Patricio Bernal (Co-Lead Member) 1. The interactions between the seawater and freshwater segments of the hydrological cycle The global ocean covers 71 per cent of the Earth’s surface, and contains 97 per cent of all the surface water on Earth (Costello et al., 2010). Freshwater fluxes into the ocean include: direct runoff from continental rivers and lakes; seepage from groundwater; runoff, submarine melting and iceberg calving from the polar ice sheets; melting of sea ice; and direct precipitation that is mostly rainfall but also includes snowfall. Evaporation removes freshwater from the ocean. Of these processes, evaporation, precipitation and runoff are the most significant at the present time. Using current best estimates, 85 per cent of surface evaporation and 77 per cent of surface rainfall occur over the oceans (Trenberth et al., 2007; Schanze et al., 2010). Consequently, the ocean dominates the global hydrological cycle. Water leaving the ocean by evaporation condenses in the atmosphere and falls as precipitation, completing the cycle. Hydrological processes can also vary in time, and these temporal variations can manifest themselves as changes in global sea level if the net freshwater content of the ocean is altered. Precipitation results from the condensation of atmospheric water vapour, and is the single largest source of freshwater entering the ocean (~530,000 km3/yr). The source of water vapour is surface evaporation, which has a maximum over the subtropical oceans in the trade wind regions (Yu, 2007). The equatorward trade winds carry the water vapour evaporated in the subtropics to the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) near the equator, where the intense surface heating by the sun causes the warm moist air to rise, producing frequent convective thunderstorms and copious rain (Xie and Arkin, 1997). The high rainfall and the high temperature support and affect life in the tropical rainforest (Malhi and Wright, 2011). Evaporation is enhanced as global mean temperature rises (Yu, 2007). The waterholding capacity of the atmosphere increases by 7 per cent for every degree Celsius of warming, as per the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. The increased atmospheric moisture content causes precipitation events to change in intensity, frequency, and duration (Trenberth, 1999) and causes the global precipitation to increase by 2-3 per cent for every degree Celsius of warming (Held and Soden, 2006).

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Direct runoff from the continents supplies about 40,000 km3/yr of freshwater to the ocean. Runoff is the sum of all upstream sources of water, including continental precipitation, fluxes from lakes and aquifers, seasonal snow melt, and melting of mountain glaciers and ice caps. River discharge also carries a tremendous amount of solid sediments and dissolved nutrients to the continental shelves. The polar ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica are the largest reservoirs of freshwater on the planet, holding 7 m and 58 m of the sea-level equivalent, respectively (Vaughan et al., 2013). The net growth or shrinkage of such an ice sheet is a balance between the net accumulation of snow at the surface, the loss from meltwater runoff, and the calving of icebergs and submarine melting at tidewater margins, collectively known as marine ice loss. There is some debate about the relative importance of these in the case of Greenland. Van den Broeke et al. (2009), show the volume transport to the ocean is almost evenly split between runoff of surface meltwater and marine ice loss. In a more recent work, Box and Colgan (2013) estimate marine ice loss at about twice the volume of meltwater (see Figure 5 in that article), with both marine ice loss and particularly runoff increasing rapidly since the late 1990s. According to the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP, 2011), the annual mass of freshwater being added at the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet (the surface mass balance) has decreased since 1990. Model reconstructions suggest a 40% decrease from 350 Gt/y (1970 - 2000) to 200 Gt/y in 2007. Accelerating ice discharge from outlet glaciers since 1995 - 2002 is widespread and has gradually moved further northward along the west coast of Greenland with global warming. According to AMAP (2011), the ice discharge has increased from the pre-1990 value of 300 Gt/y to 400 Gt/y in 2005. Antarctica’s climate is much colder, hence surface meltwater contributions are negligible and mass loss is dominated by submarine melting and ice flow across the grounding line where this ice meets the ocean floor (Rignot and Thomas, 2002). Freshwater fluxes from ice sheets differ from continental river runoff in two important respects. First, large fractions of both Antarctic ice sheets are grounded well below sea level in deep fjords or continental shelf embayments; therefore freshwater is injected not at the surface of the ocean but at several hundred meters water depth. This deep injection of freshwater enhances ocean stratification which, in turn, plays a role in ecosystem structure. Second, unlike rivers, which act as a point source for freshwater entering the ocean, icebergs calved at the grounding line constitute a distributed source of freshwater as they drift and melt in adjacent ocean basins (Bigg et al., 1997; Enderlin and Hamilton, 2014). Sea ice is one of the smallest reservoirs of freshwater by volume, but it exhibits enormous seasonal variability in spatial extent as it waxes and wanes over the polar oceans. By acting as a rigid cap, sea ice modulates the fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum between the atmosphere and the ocean. Summertime melting of Arctic sea ice is an important source of freshwater flux into the North Atlantic, and episodes of enhanced sea ice export to warmer latitudes farther south give rise to rapid freshening episodes, such as the Great Salinity Anomaly of the late 1960s (Gelderloos et al., 2012).

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The spatial distributions of these freshwater fluxes drive important patterns in regional and global ocean circulation, which are discussed in Chapter 5. The Southern Ocean (defined as all ocean area south of 60°S) deserves special mention due to its role in the storage of heat (and carbon) for the entire planet. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) connects the three major southern ocean basins (South Atlantic, South Pacific and Indian) and is the largest current by volume in the world. The ACC flows eastward, circling the globe in a clockwise direction as viewed from the South Pole. In addition to providing a lateral connection between the major ocean basins (Atlantic, Indian, Pacific), the Southern Ocean also connects the shallow and deep parts of the ocean through a mechanism known as the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) (Gordon, 1986; Schmitz, 1996, see Figures I-90 and I-91). Because of its capacity to bring deep water closer to the surface, and surface water to depths, the Southern Ocean forms an important pathway in the global transport of heat. Although there is no observational evidence at present, (WG II AR5, 30.3.1, Hoegh-Guldberg, 2014) model studies indicate with a high degree of confidence that the Southern Ocean will become more stratified, weakening the surface-to-bottom connection that is the hallmark of present-day Southern Ocean circulation (WG I AR5 12.7.4.3, Collins et al., 2013). A similar change is anticipated in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas (WG I AR5 12.7.4.3, Collins et al., 2013), another region with this type of vertical connection between ocean levels (Wüst, 1928). These changes will result in fresher, warmer surface ocean waters in the polar and subpolar regions (WGII AR5 30.3.1, Hoegh-Guldberg, 2014; WG I AR5 12.7.4.3, Collins et al., 2013), significantly altering their chemistry and ecosystems. Imbalances in the freshwater cycle manifest themselves as changes in global sea level. Changes in global mean sea level are largely caused by a combination of changes in ocean heat content and exchanges of freshwater between the ocean and continents. When water is added to the ocean, global sea level adjusts, rapidly resulting in a relatively uniform spatial pattern for the seasonal ocean mass balance, as compared to the seasonal steric signal, which has very large regional amplitudes (Chambers, 2006). ‘Steric’ refers to density changes in seawater due to changes in heat content and salinity. On annual scales, the maximum exchange of freshwater from land to ocean occurs in the late Northern Hemisphere summer, and therefore the seasonal ocean mass signal is in phase with total sea level with an amplitude of about 7 mm (Chambers et al., 2004). Because most of the ocean is in the Southern Hemisphere, the seasonal maximum in the steric component occurs in the late Southern Hemisphere summer, when heat storage in the majority of the ocean peaks (Leuliette and Willis, 2011). Because globally averaged sea level variations due to heat content changes largely cancel out between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the size of the steric signal, globally averaged, is only 4 mm. Globally averaged sea level has risen at 3.2 mm/yr for the past two decades (Church et al., 2011), of which about a third comes from thermal expansion. The remainder is due to fluxes of freshwater from the continents, which have increased as the melting of continental glaciers and ice sheets responds to higher temperatures. Multi-decadal fluctuations in equatorial and mid-latitude winds (Merrifield et al., 2012; Moon et al., © 2016 United Nations

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2013) cause regional patterns in sea-level trends which are reflected in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) indices in the Pacific (Merrifield et al., 2012; Zhang and Church, 2012) and northern Australia (White et al., 2014). Interannual changes in global mean sea level relative to the observed trend are largely linked to exchanges of water with the continents due to changes in precipitation patterns associated largely with the ENSO; this includes a drop of 5 mm during 2010-11 and rapid rebound in 2012-13 (Boening et al., 2012; Fasullo et al., 2013). Some key alterations are anticipated in the hydrological cycle due to global warming and climate change. Changes that have been identified include shifts in the seasonal distribution and amount of precipitation, an increase in extreme precipitation events, changes in the balance between snow and rain, accelerated melting of glacial ice, and of course sea-level rise. Although a global phenomenon, it is the impact of sea-level rise along the world’s coastlines that has major societal implications. The impacts of these changes are discussed in the next Section. Changes in the rates of freshwater exchange between the ocean, atmosphere and continents have additional significant impacts. For example, spatial variations in the distribution of evaporation and precipitation create gradients in salinity and heat that in turn drive ocean circulation; ocean freshening also affects ecosystem structure. These aspects and their impacts are discussed in Sections 3 and 4. Another factor potentially contributing to regional changes in the hydrological cycle are changes in ocean surface currents. For example, the warm surface temperatures of the large surface currents flowing at the western boundaries of the ocean basins (the Agulhas, Brazil, East Australian, Gulf Stream, and Kuroshio Currents) provide significant amounts of heat and moisture to the atmosphere, with a profound impact on the regional hydrological cycle (e.g., Rouault et al., 2002). Ocean surface currents like these are forced by atmospheric winds and sensitive to changes in them - stronger winds can mean stronger currents and an intensification of their effects (WGII AR5 30.3.1, HoeghGuldberg, 2014), as well as faster evaporation rates. Shifts in the location of winds can also alter these currents, for example causing the transport of anomalously warm waters (e.g., Rouault, 2009). However, despite a well-documented increase in global wind speeds in the 1990s (Yu, 2007), the overall effect of climate change on winds is complex, and difficult to differentiate observationally from decadal-scale variability, and thus the ultimate effects of these currents on the hydrological cycle are difficult to predict with any high degree of confidence (WGII AR5 30.3.1, Hoegh-Guldberg, 2014). 2. Environmental, economic and social implications of ocean warming As a consequence of changes in the hydrological cycle, increases in runoff, flooding, and sea-level rise are expected, and their potential impacts on society and natural environment are among the most serious issues confronting humankind, according to the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on © 2016 United Nations

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Climate Change (IPCC). This report indicates that it is very likely that extreme sea levels have increased globally since the 1970s, mainly as a result of global mean sea-level rise due in part to anthropogenic warming causing ocean thermal expansion and glacier melting (WGI AR5 3.7.5, 3.7.6; WGI AR5 10.4.3). In addition, local sea-level changes are also influenced by several natural factors, such as regional variability in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, subsidence, isostatic adjustment, and coastal erosion, among others; combined with human perturbations by land-use change and coastal development (WGI AR5 5.3.2). A 4°C warming by 2100 (Betts et al., 2011; predicted by the high-end emissions scenario RPC8.5 in WGI AR5 FAQ12.1) leads to a median sealevel rise of nearly 1 m above 1980-1999 levels (Schaeffer et al., 2012). The vulnerability of human systems to sea-level rise is strongly influenced by economic, social, political, environmental, institutional and cultural factors; such factors in turn will vary significantly in each specific region of the world, making quantification a challenging task (Nicholls et al., 2007; 2009; Mimura, 2013). Three classes of vulnerability are identified: (i) early impacts (low-lying island states, e.g., Kiribati, Maldives, Tuvalu, etc.); (ii) physically and economically vulnerable coastal communities (e.g., Bangladesh); and (iii) physically vulnerable but economically "rich" coastal communities (e.g., Sydney, New York). Table 1 outlines the main effects of relative sealevel rise on the natural system and provides examples of socio-economic system adaptations. It is widely accepted that relative trends in sea-level rise pose a significant threat to coastal systems and low-lying areas around the world, due to inundation and erosion of coastlines and contamination of freshwater reserves and food crops (Nicholls, 2010); it is also likely that sea-level effects will be most pronounced during extreme episodes, such as coastal flooding arising from severe storm-induced surges, wave overtopping and rainfall runoff, and increases in sea level during ENSO events. An increase in global temperature of 4°C is anticipated to have significant socio-economic effects as sea-level rise, in combination with increasingly frequent severe storms, will displace populations (Field et al., 2012). These processes will also place pressure on existing freshwater resources through saltwater contamination (Nicholls and Cazenave, 2010). Figure 1 outlines in more detail the effects of sea-level rise on water resources of low-lying coastal areas. Small island countries, such as Kiribati, Maldives and Tuvalu, are particularly vulnerable. Beyond this, entire identifiable coherent communities also face risk (e.g., Torres Strait Islanders; Green, 2006). These populations have nowhere to retreat to within their country and thus have no alternative other than to abandon their country entirely. The low level of economic activity also makes it difficult for these communities to bear the costs of adaptation. A shortage of data and local expertise required to assess risks related to sea-level rise further complicate their situation. Indeed the response of the island structure to sea-level rise is likely to be complex (Webb and Kench, 2010). Traditional customs are likely to be at risk and poorly understood by outside agencies. Yet traditional knowledge is an additional resource that may aid adaptation in such settings and should be carefully evaluated within adaptation planning. A significant part © 2016 United Nations

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of the economy of many island nations is based on tourism; this too will be affected by sea-level rise through its direct effects on infrastructure and possibly also indirectly by the reduced availability of financial resources in the market (Scott et al., 2012). Coastal regions, particularly some low-lying river deltas, have very high population densities. It is estimated that over 150 million people live within 1 metre of the high-tide level, and 250 million within 5 metres of high tide. Because of these high population densities (often combined with a lack of long-range urban planning), coastal cities in developing regions are particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise in concert with other effects of climate change (World Bank, 2012). Table 1. The main effects of relative sea-level rise on the natural system, interacting factors, and examples of socio-economic system adaptations. Some interacting factors (for example, sediment supply) appear twice as they can be influenced both by climate and non-climate factors. Adaptation strategies: P = Protection; A = Accommodation; R = Retreat. Source: based on Nicholls and Tol, 2006.

Effects of sea-level rise are projected to be asymmetrical even within regions and countries. Nicholls and Tol (2006), extending the global vulnerability analysis of Hoozemans et al. (1993) on the impacts of and responses to sea-level rise with storm surges over the 21st century, show East Africa (including small island States and countries with extensive coastal deltas) as one of the problematic regions that could experience major land loss. Dasgupta et al. (2009) undertook a comparative study on the impacts of sea-level rise with intensified storm surges on developing countries globally in terms of its impacts on land area, population, agriculture, urban extent, © 2016 United Nations

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major cities, wetlands, and local economies. They based their work on a 10 per cent future intensification of storm surges with respect to current 1-in-100-year storm-surge predictions. They found that Sub-Saharan African countries will suffer considerably from the impacts. The study estimated that Mozambique, along with Madagascar, Mauritania and Nigeria account for more than half (9,600 km2) of the total increase in the region’s storm-surge zones. Of the impacts projected for 31 developing countries, just ten cities account for twothirds of the total exposure to extreme floods. Highly vulnerable cities are found in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mexico, Mozambique, the Philippines, Venezuela and Viet Nam (Brecht et al., 2012). Because of the small population of small islands and potential problems with implementing adaptations, Nicholls et al. (2011) conclude that forced abandonment of these islands seems to be a possible outcome even for small changes in sea level. Similarly, Barnett and Adger (2003) point out that physical impact might breach a threshold that pushes social systems into complete abandonment, as institutions that could facilitate adaptation collapse.

Figure 1. Effects of sea-level rise on water resources of small islands and low-lying coastal areas. Source: Based on Oude Essink et al. (1993); Hay and Mimura (2006).

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Impacts of climate change on the hydrological cycle, and notably on the availability of freshwater resources, have been observed on all continents and many islands. Glaciers continue to shrink worldwide, affecting runoff and water resources downstream. Figure 2 shows the changes anticipated by the late 21st century in water runoff into rivers and streams. Climate change is the main driver of permafrost warming and thawing in both high-latitude and high-elevation mountain regions (IPCC WGII AR518.3.1, 18.5). This thawing has negative implications for the stability of infrastructure in areas now covered with permafrost. Projected heat extremes and changes in the hydrological cycle will in turn affect ecosystems and agriculture (World Bank, 2012). Tropical and subtropical ecoregions in Sub-Saharan Africa are particularly vulnerable to ecosystem damage (Beaumont et al., 2011). For example, with global warming of 4°C (predicted by the high-end emissions scenario RPC8.5 in WGI AR5 FAQ 12.1), between 25 per cent and 42 per cent of 5,197 African plant species studied are projected to lose all their suitable range by 2085 (Midgley and Thuiller, 2011). Ecosystem damage would have the follow-on effect of reducing the ecosystem services available to human populations. The Mediterranean basin is another area that has received a lot of attention in regard to the potential impacts of climate change on it. Several modelling groups are taking part in the MedCORDEX (www.medcordex.eu) international effort, in order to better simulate the Mediterranean hydrological cycle, to improve the modelling tools available, and to produce new climate impact scenarios. Hydrological model schemes must be improved to meet the specific requirements of semi-arid climates, accounting in particular for the related seasonal soil water dynamics and the complex surfacesubsurface interactions in such regions (European Climate Research Alliance, 2011). Even the most economically resilient of States will be affected by sea-level rise, as adaptation measures will need to keep pace with ongoing sea-level rise (Kates et al., 2012). As a consequence, the impacts of sea-level rise will also be redistributed through the global economic markets as insurance rates increase or become unviable and these costs are passed on to other sectors of the economy (Abel et al., 2011).

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The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Figure 2. Changes in water runoff into rivers and streams are another anticipated consequence of climate change by the late 21st Century. This map shows predicted increases in runoff in blue, and decreases in brown and red. (Map by Robert Simmon, using data from Milly et al., 2005; Graham et al., 2010; NASA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory.)

3. Chemical composition of seawater 3.1

Salinity

Surface salinity integrates the signals of freshwater sources and sinks for the ocean, and if long-term (decadal to centennial) changes in salinity are considered, this provides a way to investigate associated changes in the hydrological cycle. Many studies have assessed changes to ocean salinity over the long term; of these, four have considered changes on a global scale from the near-surface to the sub-surface ocean (Boyer et al., 2005; Hosoda et al., 2009; Durack and Wijffels, 2010; Good et al., 2013). These studies independently concluded that alongside broad-scale ocean warming associated with climate change, shifts in ocean salinities have also occurred. These shifts, which are calculated using methods such as objective analysis from the sparse historical observing system, suggest that at the surface, high-salinity subtropical ocean regions and the entire Atlantic basin have become more saline, and low-salinity regions, such as the western Pacific Warm Pool, and high-latitude regions have become even fresher over the period of analysis (Figure 3). Significant regional-scale differences may be ascribed to the paucity of observational data, particularly in the pre-Argo era, the difference in temporal period over which each analysis was conducted, and differences in methodology and data selection criteria.

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Despite regional differences, the broad-scale patterns of change suggest that long-term, coherent changes in salinity have occurred over the observed record, and this conclusion is also supported by shifts in salinity apparent in the subsurface ocean (Figure 4). These subsurface changes also show that spatial gradients of salinity within the ocean interior have intensified, and that at depth, salinity-minimum (intermediate) waters have become fresher, and salinity-maximum waters have become saltier (Durack and Wijffels, 2010; Helm et al., 2010; Skliris et al., 2014). Taken together, this evidence suggests intensification of the global hydrological cycle; this is consistent with what is expected from global warming (see Section 1). Actual changes in the hydrological cycle may be even more intense than indicated by patterns of surface salinity anomalies, as these may be spread out and reduced in intensity by being transported (advected) by ocean currents. For example, the work of Hosoda et al. (2009) and Nagano et al. (2014) indicates that large (ENSO-scale) salinity anomalies are rapidly transported from the central Pacific to the northwestern North Pacific (the Kuroshio Extension region).

The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Figure 3. Four long-term estimates of global sea-surface salinity (SSS) change according to (A) Durack and Wijffels (2010; ©American Meteorological Society. Used with permission.), analysis period 19502008; (B) Boyer et al. (2005), analysis period 1955-1998; (C) Hosoda et al. (2009), analysis period 1975-2005; and (D) Good et al. (2013), analysis period 1950-2012; all are scaled to represent -1 equivalent magnitude changes over a 50-year period (PSS-78 50-year ). Black contours show the associated climatological mean SSS for the analysis period. Broad-scale similarities exist between each independent analysis of long-term change, and suggest an increase in spatial gradients of salinity has occurred over the period of analysis. However, regional-scale differences are due to differences in data sources, temporal periods of analysis, and analytical methodologies.

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The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Figure 4. Three long-term estimates of global zonal mean subsurface salinity changes according to (A) Durack and Wijffels (2010; ©American Meteorological Society. Used with permission.), analysis period 1950-2008; (B) Boyer et al. (2005), analysis period 1955-1998; and (C) Good et al. (2013),analysis period 1950-2012; all scaled to represent equivalent magnitude changes over a 50-1 year period (PSS-78 50-year ). Black contours show the associated climatological mean subsurface salinity for the analysis period. Broad-scale similarities also exist in the subsurface salinity changes, which suggest a decreasing salinity in ocean waters fresher than the global average, and an increasing salinity in waters saltier than the global average. However, regional differences, particularly in the high-latitude regions, are due to limited data sources, different temporal periods of analysis and different analytical methodologies.

3.2

Nutrients

Many different nutrients are required as essential chemical elements that organisms need to survive and reproduce in the ocean. Macronutrients, needed in large quantities, include calcium, carbon, nitrogen, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, silicon and sulphur; micronutrients like iron, copper and zinc are needed in lesser quantities (Smith and Smith, 1998). Macronutrients provide the bulk energy for an organism's metabolic system to function, and micronutrients provide the necessary co-factors for metabolism to be carried out. In aquatic systems, nitrogen and phosphorus are the two nutrients that most commonly limit the maximum biomass, or growth, of algae and aquatic plants (United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) Water Programme, 2008). Nitrate is the most common form of nitrogen and phosphate is the most common form of phosphorus found in natural waters. On the other hand, one of arguably the most important groups of marine phytoplankton is the diatom. Recent studies, for example, Brzezinski et al., (2011), show that marine diatoms are significantly limited by iron and silicic acid. About 40 per cent of the world’s population lives within a narrow fringe of coastal land (about 7.6 per cent of the Earth’s total land area; United Nations Environment Programme, 2006). Land-based activities are the dominant source of marine nutrients,

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especially for fixed nitrogen, and include: agricultural runoff (fertilizer), atmospheric releases from fossil-fuel combustion, and, to a lesser extent, from agricultural fertilizers, manure, sewage and industrial discharges (Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection, 2001; Figure 5). An imbalance in the nutrient input and uptake of an aquatic ecosystem changes its structure and functions (e.g., Arrigo, 2005). Excessive nutrient input can seriously impact the productivity and biodiversity of a marine area (e.g., Tilman et al., 2001); conversely, a large reduction in natural inputs of nutrients (caused by, e.g., damming rivers) can also adversely affect the productivity of coastal waters. Nutrient enrichment between 1960-1980 in the developed regions of Europe, North America, Asia and Oceania has resulted in major changes in adjacent coastal ecosystems. Nitrogen flow into the ocean is a good illustration of the magnitude of changes in anthropogenic nutrient inputs since the industrial revolution. These flows have increased 15-fold in North Sea watersheds, 11-fold in the North Eastern USA, 10-fold in the Yellow River basin, 5.7-fold in the Mississippi River basin, 5-fold in the Baltic Sea watersheds, 4.1-fold in the Great Lakes/St Lawrence River basin, and 3.7-fold in SouthWestern Europe (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). It is expected that global nitrogen exports by rivers to the oceans will continue to rise. Projections for 2030 show an increase of 14 per cent compared to 1995. By 2030, global nitrogen exports by rivers are projected to be 49.7 Tg/yr; natural sources will contribute 57 per cent of the total, agriculture 34 per cent, and sewage 9 per cent (Bouwman et al., 2005). An example of this is discussed in Box 1. Box 1: Example – Nutrients in the Pacific region The Pacific Ocean basins form the largest of the mid-latitude oceans. In addition, the subarctic North Pacific Ocean is one of the most nutrient-rich areas of the world ocean; in 2013, the most recent year for which statistics have been compiled, the North Pacific (north of 40° N) provided 30% of the world's capture, by weight, of ocean fish (FAO, 2015). Many oceanographic experiments have been carried out over the last half century in the North Pacific Ocean; studies based on these datasets reveal the decadal-scale variation of nutrient concentrations in the surface and subsurface (intermediate) layers, as seen in Figure 6. A linearly increasing trend of nutrient concentrations (nitrate and phosphate) has been observed in the intermediate waters in a broad area of the North Pacific (Figure 6b); Ono et al., 2001; Watanabe et al., 2003; 2008; Tadokoro et al., 2009; Guo et al., 2012; Whitney et al., 2013). Conversely, the concentration of nutrients in the surface layer has decreased (Figure 6a; Freeland, 1997; Ono et al., 2002; 2008; Watanabe et al., 2005; 2008; Aoyama et al., 2008, Tadokoro et al., 2009; Whitney,

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2011). Surface nutrients are primarily supplied by the subsurface ocean through a process known as "vertical mixing", an exchange between surface and subsurface waters. Vertical mixing is partly dependent on the differences in density between adjacent ocean layers: layers closer to one another in density mix more easily. A significant increase in temperature and a corresponding decrease in salinity (see above) have been observed during the last half-century in the upper layer of the North Pacific (IPCC, 2013, WG1 AR5). These changes are in the direction of increased stratification in the upper ocean and thus it is possible that this increased stratification has caused a corresponding decrease in the vertical mixing rate. Superimposed on the linear trends, nutrient concentrations in the ocean have also exhibited decadal-scale variability, which is evident in both surface and subsurface waters (Figure 6c). Unlike the linear trends, the decadal-scale variability appeared synchronized between the surface and subsurface layers in the western North Pacific (Tadokoro et al., 2009). These relationships suggest that the mechanisms producing the trends and more cyclical variability are different. 4. Environmental, economic and social implications of changes in salinity and nutrient content 4.1

Salinity

Although changes to ocean salinity do not directly affect humanity, changes in the hydrological cycle that are recorded in the changing patterns of ocean salinity certainly do. Due to the scarcity of hydrological cycle observations over the ocean, and the uncertainties associated with these measurements, numerous studies have linked salinity changes to the global hydrological cycle by using climate models (Durack et al., 2012; 2013; Terray et al., 2012) or reanalysis products (Skliris et al., 2014). However, these studies only considered long-term salinity changes, and not changes that occur on interannual to decadal time-scales. These latter scales are strongly affected by climatic variability (Yu, 2011; Vinogradova and Ponte, 2013). As mentioned in Section 3, these studies collectively conclude that changes to the patterns of ocean salinity are likely due to the intensification of the hydrological cycle, in particular patterns of evaporation and rainfall at the ocean surface. This result concurs well with the “rich-get-richer” mechanism proposed in earlier studies, suggesting that terrestrial “dry” zones will become dryer and terrestrial “wet” zones will become wetter due to ongoing climate change (Chou and Neelin, 2004; Held and Soden, 2006).

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4.2

Nutrients

Marine environments are unsteady systems, whose response to climate-induced or anthropogenic changes is difficult to predict. As a result, no published studies quantify long-term trends in ocean nutrient concentrations. However, it is well understood that imbalances in nutrient concentration cause widespread changes in the structure and functioning of ecosystems, which, in turn, have generally negative impacts on habitats, food webs and species diversity, including economically important ones; such adverse effects include: general degradation of habitats, destruction of coral reefs and sea-grass beds; alteration of marine food-webs, including damage to larval or other life stages; mass mortality of wild and/or farmed fish and shellfish, and of mammals, seabirds and other organisms. Among the effects of nutrient inputs into the marine environment it is important to mention the link with marine pH. The production of excess algae from increased nutrients has the effect, inter alia, to release CO2 from decaying organic matter deriving from eutrophication (Hutchins et al., 2009; Sunda and Cai, 2012). The effects of these acidification processes, combined with those deriving from increasing atmospheric CO2, can reduce the time available to coastal managers to adopt approaches to avoid or minimize harmful effects on critical ecosystem services, such as fisheries and tourism. Globally, the manufacture of nitrogen fertilizers has continued to increase (Galloway et al., 2008) accompanied by increasing eutrophication of coastal waters and degradation of coastal ecosystems (Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008; Seitzinger et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2011), and amplification of CO2 drawdown (Borges and Gypens, 2010; Provoost et al., 2010). In addition, atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic fixed nitrogen may now account for up to about 3 per cent of oceanic new production, and this nutrient source is projected to increase (Duce et al., 2008). Figure 5 (a)

Figure 5 (b)

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Figure 5 (a) Trends in annual rates of application of nitrogenous fertilizer (N) expressed as mass of N, and of phosphate fertilizer (P) expressed as mass of P2O5, for all States of the world except for many of the countries belonging to the United Nations regional group of Eastern European States and the 6 former USSR (scale on the left in 10 metric tons), and trends in global total area of irrigated crop land (H2O) (scale on the right in 109 hectares ). Source: Tilman et al., 2001. Figure 5 (b) Estimated growth in fertilizer use, 1960-2020. From GESAMP (2001). Source: Bumb and Baanante, 1996.

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The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Figure 6. Synthesis of the decadal-scale change in nutrient concentrations in the North Pacific Ocean in the last fifty years. (a) The blue area shows the waters for which a decreasing trend in nutrient concentrations was reported in the surface layer. (b) The pink area shows the waters for which an increasing trend in nutrient concentrations was reported in the subsurface. (c) Example of the nutrient change in the North Pacific Ocean. Five-year running mean of the annual mean -3 concentration (mmol m ) of Phosphate concentration in the surface and North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) of the Oyashio and Kuroshio-Oyashio transition waters from the mid-1950s to early 2010. (Time series from Tadokoro et al., 2009). Blue broken lines indicate statistically significant trends of PO4. Thin green broken lines represent the index of diurnal tidal strength represented by * the sine curve of the 18.6-yr cycle. The numbers following each area name indicate the referenced literature: (1) Freeland et al., (1997); (2) Ono et al., (2008); (3) Whitney (2011); (4) Ono et al., (2002); (5) Tadokoro et al., (2009); (6) Watanabe et al., (2005); (7) Aoyama et al., (2008); (8) Watanabe et al., (2008); (9) Ono et al., (2001); (10) Watanabe et al., (2003); (11) Guo et al., (2012).

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Vinogradova, N.T. and Ponte, R.M. (2013). Clarifying the link between surface salinity and freshwater fluxes on monthly to inter-annual timescales. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108 (6), pp 3190-3201, doi: 10.1002/jgrc.20200. Watanabe, Y.W., Wakita, M., Maeda, N., Ono, T., and Gamo, T. (2003). Synchronous bidecadal periodic changes of oxygen, phosphate and temperature between the Japan Sea deep water and the North Pacific intermediate water, Geophysical Research Letters, 30(24), 2273, doi:10.1029/2003GL018338. Watanabe, Y.W., Ishida, H., Nakano, T., and Nagai, N. (2005) Spatiotemporal Decreases of Nutrients and Chlorophyll-a in the Surface Mixed Layer of the Western North Pacific from 1971 to 2000. Journal of Oceanography, 61, 1011-16. Watanabe, Y.W., Shigemitsu, M., and Tadokoro, K. (2008). Evidence of a change in oceanic fixed nitrogen with decadal climate change in the North Pacific subpolar region, Geophysical Research Letters, 35(1), L01602, doi:10.1029/2007GL032188. Webb, A.P. and Kench, P.S. (2010). The dynamic response of reef islands to sea-level rise: Evidence from multi-decadal analysis of island change in the Central Pacific, Global and Planetary Change, 72: 234-246. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.05.003. White, N.J., Haigh, I.D., Church, J.A., Koen, T., Watson, C.S., Pritchard, T.R., Watson, P.J., Burgette, R.J., McInnes, K.L., You, Z.-J., Zhang, X., Tregoning, P. (2014). Australian sea levels—Trends, regional variability and influencing factors. Earth-Science Reviews, 136, 155–74, doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2014.05.011. Whitney, F.A. (2011) Nutrient variability in the mixed layer of the subarctic Pacific Ocean, 1987–2010, Journal of Oceanography., 67, 481–92, doi:10.1007/s10872011-0051-2. Whitney, F.A., Bograd, S.J., and Ono, T. (2013) Nutrient enrichment of the subarctic Pacific Ocean pycnocline, Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 2200–2205, doi:10.1002/grl.50439. World Bank. (2012). Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4 °C Warmer World must be Avoided (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics). http://www.worldbank.org/content/dam/Worldbank/document/Full_Report_Vo l_2_Turn_Down_The_Heat_%20Climate_Extremes_Regional_Impacts_Case_for_ Resilience_Print%20version_FINAL.pdf, last accessed on 2014-07-18. Wüst, G. (1928). Der Ursprung der Atlantischen Tiefenwassar. Jubiläums’ Sonderband. Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde. Xie, P., and Arkin, P.A. (1997). Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 78(11), 2539-2558. Yu, L., (2007). Global variations in oceanic evaporation (1958-2005): The role of the changing wind speed. Journal of Climate, 20(21), 5376-90.

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Yu, L. (2011). A global relationship between the ocean water cycle and near-surface salinity. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116 (C10), C10025. doi: 10.1029/2010JC006937 Zhang, X., and J.A. Church, (2012). Sea level trends, interannual and decadal variability in the Pacific Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(21), L21701. doi:10.1029/2012GL053240.

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Chapter 5. Sea-Air Interactions Contributors: Jeremy T. Mathis (Convenor), Jose Santos, Renzo Mosetti, Alberto Mavume, Craig Stevens, Regina Rodrigues, Alberto Piola, Chris Reason, Patricio A. Bernal (Co-Lead member), Lorna Inniss (Co-Lead member) 1. Introduction From the physical point of view, the interaction between these two turbulent fluids, the ocean and the atmosphere, is a complex, highly nonlinear process, fundamental to the motions of both. The winds blowing over the surface of the ocean transfer momentum and mechanical energy to the water, generating waves and currents. The ocean in turn gives off energy as heat, by the emission of electromagnetic radiation, by conduction, and, in latent form, by evaporation. The heat flux from the ocean provides one of the main energy sources for atmospheric motions. This source of energy for the atmosphere is affected by the turbulence at the air/sea interface, and by the spatial distribution of the centres of high and low energy transfer affected by the ocean currents. This coupling takes place through processes that fundamentally occur at small scales. The strength of this coupling depends on airsea differences in several factors and therefore has geographic and temporal scales over a broad range. At these small scales on the sea-surface interface itself, waves, winds, water temperature and salinity, bubbles, spray and variations in the amount of solar radiation that reaches the ocean surface, and other factors, affect the transfer of properties and energy. In the long term, the convergence and divergence of oceanic heat transport provide sources and sinks of heat for the atmosphere and partly shape the mean climate of the earth. Analyzing whether these processes are changing due to anthropogenic influences and the potential impact of these changes is the subject of this chapter. Following guidance from the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Whole, much of the information presented here is based on or derives from the very thorough analysis conducted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for its recent Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). The atmosphere and the ocean form a coupled system, exchanging at the air-sea interface gases, water (and water vapour), particles, momentum and energy. These exchanges affect the biology, the chemistry and the physics of the ocean and influence its biogeochemical processes, weather and climate (exchanges affecting the water cycle are addressed in Chapter 4). From a biogeochemical point of view, gas and chemical exchanges between the oceans and the atmosphere are important to life processes. Half of the Global Net Primary Production of the world is by phytoplankton and other marine plants, uptaking CO2 and releasing oxygen (Field et al., 1998; Falkowski and Raven, 1997). Phytoplankton is © 2016 United Nations

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therefore also responsible for half of the annual production of oxygen by plants and, through the generation of organic matter, is at the basis of most marine food webs in the ocean. Oxygen production by plants is a critical ecosystem service that keeps atmospheric oxygen from otherwise declining. However, in many regions of the ocean, phytoplankton growth is limited by a deficit of iron in seawater. Most of the iron alleviating this limitation reaches the ocean through wind-borne dust from the deserts of the world. Gas and chemical exchanges between the atmosphere and ocean are also important to climate change processes. For example, marine phytoplankton produces dimethyl sulphide (DMS), the most abundant biological sulphur compound emitted to the atmosphere (Kiene et al., 1996). DMS is oxidized in the marine atmosphere to form various sulphur-containing compounds, including sulphuric acid, which influence the formation of clouds. Through this interaction with cloud formation, the massive production of atmospheric DMS over the ocean may have an impact on the earth's climate. The absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere at the sea surface is responsible for the fundamental role of the ocean as a carbon sink (see section 3 below). 2. Heat flux and temperature 2.1

Sea-Surface Temperature

Sea-surface temperature (SST) has been measured in surface waters by a variety of methods that have changed significantly over time. Furthermore the spatial patterns of SST change are difficult to interpret. Nevertheless a robust trend emerges from these historical series after careful inspection and analysis of the datasets. Figure 1 shows the historical SST trend instrumentally observed using the best datasets of spatially interpolated products, contrasted against the 1961 – 1990 climatology. Changes in SST are reported in this section and in Chapter 2 of the IPCC (Hartmann et al., 2013). The IPCC in AR5 concluded that ‘recent’ warming (since the 1950s) is strongly evident in SST at all latitudes of each ocean. Prominent spatio-temporal structures, including the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), decadal variability patterns in the Pacific Ocean, and a hemispheric asymmetry in the Atlantic Ocean, were highlighted as contributors to the regional differences in surface warming rates, which in turn affect atmospheric circulation (Hartmann et al., 2013).

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Figure 1. Global annual average sea surface temperature (SST) and Night Marine Air Temperature (NMAT) relative to a 1961–1990 climatology from state of the art data sets. Spatially interpolated products are shown by solid lines; non-interpolated products by dashed lines. From Hartmann et al. 2013, Fig. 2.18.

“It is certain that global average sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have increased since the beginning of the 20th century. (…) Intercomparisons of new SST data records obtained by different measurement methods, including satellite data, have resulted in better understanding of uncertainties and biases in the records. Although these innovations have helped highlight and quantify uncertainties and affect our understanding of the character of changes since the mid-20th century, they do not alter the conclusion that global SSTs have increased both since the 1950s and since the late 19th century.” (Hartmann et al., 2013). 2.2

Changes in sea-surface temperature (SST) as inferred from subsurface measurements.

Upper ocean temperature (hence heat content) varies over multiple time scales, including seasonal, interannual (e.g., associated with El Niño), decadal and centennial (Rhein et al., 2013). Depth-averaged (0 to 700 m) ocean-temperature trends from 1971 to 2010 are positive over most of the globe. The warming is more prominent in the Northern Hemisphere, especially in the North Atlantic. This result holds true in different analyses, using different time periods, bias corrections and data sources (e.g., with or without XBT or MBT data 1 ) (Rhein et al. 2013). Zonally averaged upper-ocean temperature trends show warming at nearly all latitudes and depths (Figure 2a). However, the greater volume of the Southern Hemisphere ocean increases the contribution of its warming to the global heat content (Rhein et al., 2013). Strongest warming is found closest to the sea surface, and the near-surface trends are consistent 1

XBT are expendable bathythermographs, probes that using electronic solid-state transducers register temperature and pressure while they free fall through the water column. MBT are their mechanical predecessors, that lowered on a wire suspended from a ship, used a metallic thermocouple as transducer.

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with independently measured SST (Hartmann et al., 2013). The global average warming over this period is 0.11 [0.09 to 0.13] °C per decade in the upper 75 m, decreasing to 0.015°C per decade by 700 m (Figure 2c) (Rhein et al 2013). The globally averaged temperature difference between the ocean surface and 200 m increased by about 0.25oC from 1971 to 2010. This change, which corresponds to a 4 per cent increase in density stratification, is widespread in all the oceans north of about 40°S. Increased stratification will potentially diminish the exchanges between the interior and the surface layers of the ocean; this will limit, for example, the input of nutrients from below into the illuminated surface layer and of oxygen from above into the deeper layers. These changes might in turn result in reduced productivity and increased anoxic waters in many regions of the world ocean (Capotondi et al., 2012).

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The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Figure 2. (a) Depth-averaged (0 to 700) m ocean-temperature trend for 1971-2010 (longitude vs. latitude, colours and grey contours in degrees Celsius per decade); (b) Zonally averaged temperature trends (latitude vs. depth, colours and grey contours in degree Celsius per decade) for 1971-2010 with zonally averaged mean temperature over-plotted (black contours in degrees Celsius). Both North (25-65ºN) and o South (south of 30 S), the zonally averaged warming signals extend to 700 m and are consistent with poleward displacement of the mean temperature field. Zonally averaged upper-ocean temperature trends show warming at nearly all latitudes and depths (Figure 2 (b). A relative maximum in warming appears south of 30°S. (c) Globally averaged temperature anomaly (time vs. depth, colours and grey contours in degrees Celsius) relative to the 1971–2010 mean; (d) Globally averaged temperature difference between the ocean surface and 200 m depth (black: annual values, red: 5-year running mean). All panels are constructed from an update of the annual analysis of Levitus et al. (2009). From Rhein et al. (2013) Fig 3.1.

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2.3

Upper Ocean Heat Content (UOHC)

The ocean’s large mass and high heat capacity allow it to store huge amounts of energy: more than 1000 times that found in the atmosphere for an equivalent increase in temperature. The earth is absorbing more heat than it is emitting back into space, and nearly all this excess heat is entering the ocean and being stored there. The upper ocean (0 to 700 m) heat content increased during the 40-year period from 1971 to 2010. Published rates range from 74 TW to 137 TW (1 TW = 1012 watts), while an estimate of global upper (0 to 700 m depth) ocean heat content change, using ocean statistics to extrapolate to sparsely sampled regions and estimate uncertainties (Domingues et al., 2008), gives a rate of increase of global upper ocean heat content of 137 TW (Rhein, et al. 2013). Warming of the ocean accounts for about 93 per cent of the increase in the Earth’s energy inventory between 1971 and 2010 (high confidence), Melting ice (including Arctic sea ice, ice sheets and glaciers) and warming of the continents and atmosphere account for the remainder of the change in energy (Rhein et al. 2013). Global integrals of 0 to 700 m upper ocean heat content (UOHC) (Figure 3.) estimated from ocean temperature measurements all show a gain from 1971 to 2010 (Rhein et al. 2013).

Year Figure 3. Observation-based estimates of annual global mean upper (0 to 700 m) ocean heat content in ZJ 21 (1 ZJ = 10 Joules) updated from (see legend): Levitus et al. (2012), Ishii and Kimoto (2009), Domingues et al. (2008), Palmer et al. (2009; ©American Meteorological Society. Used with permission.) and Smith and Murphy (2007). Uncertainties are shaded and plotted as published (at the one standard error level, other than one standard deviation for Levitus, with no uncertainties provided for Smith). Estimates are shifted to align for 2006-2010, 5 years that are well measured by the ARGO Program of autonomous profiling floats, and then plotted relative to the resulting mean of all curves for 1971, the starting year for trend calculations.

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2.4

The ocean’s role in heat transport

Solar energy is unevenly distributed over the earth’s surface, leading to excess heat reaching the tropics and a heat deficit in latitudes poleward of about 40o in each hemisphere. The heat balance, and therefore a relatively stable climate, is maintained through the meridional redistribution, or flux, of heat by the atmosphere and the ocean. Quantification and understanding of this heat content and its redistribution have been achieved through diverse methods, including international programmes maintaining instrumented moorings, transoceanic lines of XBTs, satellite observations, numerical modelling and, more recently, the ARGO Program of autonomous profiling instruments (Abraham et al., 2013; von Schuckmann and Le Traon, 2011). In the latitude band between 25°N and 25°S, the atmospheric and oceanic contributions to the meridional heat fluxes are similar, and the atmosphere dominates at higher latitudes. In the ocean, the heat flux is accomplished by contributions from the winddriven circulation in the upper ocean, by turbulent eddies, and by the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). The MOC is a component of ocean circulation that is driven by density contrasts, rather than by winds or tides, and one which exhibits a pronounced vertical component, with dense water sinking at high latitudes, offset by broadly distributed upwelling at lower ones. As distinct circulation patterns characterize each of the ocean basins, their individual contributions to the meridional heat flux differ significantly. Estimates indicate that, on a yearly average, the global oceans carry 1-2 PW (1PW=1015W) of heat from the tropics to higher latitudes, with somewhat higher transports to the northern hemisphere (Fasullo and Trenberth, 2008). Most of the heat excess due to increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases goes into the ocean (IPCC, 2013). Although all ocean basins have warmed during the last decades, the increase in heat content is not uniform; the increase in heat content in the Atlantic during the last four decades exceeds that of the Pacific and Indian Oceans combined (Levitus et al., 2009; Palmer and Haines, 2009). Enhanced northward heat flux in the subtropical South Atlantic, which includes heat driven from the subtropical Indian Ocean through the Agulhas Retroflection, may have contributed to the larger increase in heat content in the Atlantic Ocean compared with other basins (Abraham et al., 2013; Lee et al., 2011). Numerical simulations also indicate that changes in ocean heat fluxes are the main mechanism responsible for the observed temperature fluctuations in the subtropical and subpolar North Atlantic (Grist et al., 2010). Meridional heat flux estimates inferred from the residual of heat content variations suggest that the heat transferred northward throughout the Atlantic is transferred to the atmosphere in the subtropical North Atlantic (Kelly et al., 2014). Observations from the Rapid/Mocha instrument array at 26°N in the North Atlantic indicate that the mean Atlantic meridional heat flux at this latitude is 1.33 PW, with substantial variability due to changes in the strength of the MOC (Cunningham et al., 2007; Kanzow et al., 2007; Johns et al., 2011; McCarthy et al., 2012). Moreover, recent studies show that interannual changes in the MOC (and the associated heat flux measured at 26°N) lead to temperature anomalies in the subtropical North Atlantic which, in turn, can have a © 2016 United Nations

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strong impact on the northern hemisphere climate (Cunningham et al., 2013; Buchan et al., 2014). 2.5

Air-sea Heat fluxes

Heat uptake by the ocean can be substantially altered by natural oscillations in the earth’s ocean and atmosphere. The effects of these large-scale climate oscillations are often felt around the world, leading to the rearrangement of wind and precipitation patterns, which in turn substantially affect regional weather, sometimes with devastating consequences. The ENSO is the most prominent of these oscillations and is characterized by an anomalous warming and cooling of the central-eastern equatorial Pacific. The warm phase is called El Niño and the cold, La Niña. During El Niño events, a weakening of the Pacific trade winds decreases the upwelling of cold waters in the eastern equatorial Pacific and allows warm surface water that generally accumulates in the western Pacific to flow east. As a consequence, El Niños release heat into the atmosphere, causing an increase in globally averaged air temperature. However, the “recharge oscillator theory” (Ren and Jin, 2013) indicates that a buildup of upper-ocean heat content is a necessary precondition for the development of El Niño events. La Niñas are associated with a strengthening of the trade winds, which leads to a strong upwelling of cold subsurface water in the eastern Pacific. In this case, the ocean uptake of heat from the atmosphere is enhanced, causing the global average surface temperature to decrease (Roemmich and Gilson, 2011). The cycling of ENSO between El Niño and La Niña is irregular. In some decades El Niño has dominated and in other decades La Niña has been more frequent, also seen in phase shifts of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (Meehl et al., 2013), which is related to build up and release of heat. A strengthening of the Pacific trade winds in the past two decades has led to a more frequent occurrence of La Niñas (England et al., 2014). Consequently, the heat uptake by the subsurface ocean was enhanced, leading to a slowdown of the surface warming (Kosaka and Xie, 2013). This is one of the factors affecting the global mean temperature, expected to increase by 0.21°C per decade from 1998 to 2012, but which instead warmed by just 0.04°C (the so-called recent warming hiatus, IPCC, 2013). Although there are several hypotheses on the cause of the global warming hiatus, the role of ocean circulation in this negative feedback is certain. Drijfhout et al. (2014) have shown that the North Atlantic, Southern Ocean and Tropical Pacific all play significant roles in the ocean heat uptake associated with the warming hiatus. Chen and Tung (2014) analyzed the historical and recent record of sea surface temperature and Ocean Heat Content (OHC), and found distinct patterns at the surface and in deeper layers. On the surface, the patterns conform to the El Niño/La Niña patterns, with the Pacific Ocean playing a dominant role by releasing heat during an El Niño (or capturing heat during La Niña). At depth, the dominant pattern shows heating © 2016 United Nations

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taking place in the Atlantic Ocean and in the Circumpolar Current region. Coinciding in time, changes in OHC could help to explain the observed slowdown in global warming. It is anticipated that the mechanisms involved may at some point reverse, releasing large amounts of heat to the atmosphere and accelerating global warming (e.g., Levermann, et al., 2012). Many other naturally occurring ocean-atmosphere oscillations in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans have also been recognized and named. The ENSO as a global phenomenon, has an expression in the Atlantic basin called the Atlantic Niño. In the last six decades, this mode has weakened, leading to a warming of the equatorial eastern Atlantic of up to 1.5°C (Tokinaga and Xie, 2011). Although the role of the Atlantic Niño on the global heat budget is not significant, this Atlantic warming trend has led to an increase in precipitation over the equatorial Amazon, Northeast South America, Equatorial West Africa and the Guinea coast, and a decrease in rainfall over the Sahel (Gianinni et al., 2003; Tokinaga and Xie, 2011; Marengo et al., 2011; Rodrigues et al., 2011). Moreover, recent studies have shown that the Atlantic Niño can have an effect on ENSO (Rodriguez-Fonseca et al., 2009; Keenlyside et al., 2013). In the Indian Ocean, the dominant basin-wide oscillation is the Indian Dipole Mode (Saji et al., 1999). A positive phase is characterized by cool surface-temperature anomalies in the eastern Indian Ocean, warm-temperature anomalies in the western Indian Ocean, and easterly wind-stress anomalies along the equator. Similarly to ENSO, meridional heat transport and the associated buildup of upper-ocean heat content are a possible precondition for the development of the Indian Ocean Dipole event (McPhaden and Nagura, 2014). The warm surface temperatures in the western Indian Ocean are associated with an increase in subsurface heat content and vice-versa for the east (Feng et al. 2001; Rao et al., 2002). This zonal contrast of ocean heat content is induced by anomalies of zonal wind along the equator and the resulting variability in zonal mass and heat transport (Nagura and McPhaden 2010). The warm surface temperatures in the western Indian Ocean are associated with an increase in subsurface heat content and vice-versa for the east; the positive dipole causes above-average rainfall in eastern Africa and droughts in Indonesia and Australia (Behera et al., 2005; Yamagata et al., 2004; Ummenhofer et al., 2009; Cai et al., 2011; Section 5 below). Although the phenomena discussed here are global, many of the most significant impacts are on the coastal environment (see following Section). 2.6

Environmental, economic and social impacts of changes in ocean temperature and of major ocean temperature events

Coastal waters are valuable both ecologically and economically because they support a high level of biodiversity. They act as nursery areas for many commercially important fish species, and are the marine areas most accessible to the public. Because inshore habitats are shallow, water temperatures in coastal areas are closely linked to the regional climate and its seasonal and long-term fluctuations. Coastal waters also host some of the most vulnerable marine habitats, because they are intensively exploited by (including, but not limited to) the fishing industry and recreational craft, and because of © 2016 United Nations

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their proximity to outlets of pollution, such as rivers and sewage outfalls. Coastal development and the threat of rising sea level may also impinge upon these valuable habitats (Halpern et al., 2008). Ecological degradation can lower the socio-economic value of coastal regions, with negative impacts on commercial fisheries, aquaculture facilities, damage to coastal infrastructure, problems with power-station cooling, and exert a dampening effect on coastal tourism from degraded ecological services. It has been recently shown that when compared with estimates for the global ocean, decadal rates of SST change are higher at the coast. During the last three decades, approximately 70 per cent of the world’s coastline has experienced significant increases in SST (Lima and Wethey, 2012). This has been accompanied by an increase in the number of yearly extremely hot days along 38 per cent of the world’s coastline, and warming has been occurring significantly earlier in the year along approximately 36 per cent of the world’s temperate coastal areas (defined as those between latitudes 30° and 60° in both hemispheres) at an average rate of 6.1 ± 3.2 days per decade (Lima and Wethey, 2012). The warming of coastal waters can have many serious consequences for the ecological system (Harley et al., 2006). This can include changes in the distribution of important commercial fish and shellfish species, particularly the movement of species to higher latitudes due to thermal stress (Perry et al., 2005). Warming of coastal waters also can lead to more favourable conditions for many organisms, among them marine invasive species that can devastate commercial fisheries and destroy marine ecosystem dynamics (Occhipinti-Ambrogi, 2007). Water quality might also be impacted by higher temperatures that can increase the severity of local outbreaks by pathogenic bacteria or the occurrence of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). These in turn would cause harm to seafood, consumers and marine organisms (Bresnan et al., 2013). Increased coral reef bleaching and mortality from warming seas (combined with ocean acidification, see next sections) will lead to the loss of important marine habitats and associated biodiversity. Changes in ocean temperatures have global impacts. As ocean temperatures warm, species that prefer specific temperature ranges may relocate – as has been observed, for instance, in copepod assemblages in the North Atlantic (Hays et al., 2005). Some organisms, like corals, are sedentary and cannot relocate with changing temperatures. If the water becomes too warm, they may experience a bleaching event. Higher sea level and warmer ocean temperatures can alter ocean circulation and current flow and increase the frequency and intensity of storms, leading to changes in the habitat of many species worldwide. Changes in ocean temperatures affect not only marine ecosystems, but also the climate over land, with devastating economic and social implications. Many natural oceanic oscillations are known to have an impact on (terrestrial) climate, but these oscillations and the response of the climate to them are also changing during recent decades. For instance, an El Niño phase of ENSO (see previous Section for more details on ENSO) displaces great amounts of warm water from the western to the eastern Pacific, leading to more evaporation over the latter. As a consequence, western and southern South America and parts of North America experience wetter conditions. At the same time, Australia, Brazil, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, parts of Africa and the United States © 2016 United Nations

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of America suffer droughts. La Niña events usually cause the opposite patterns. However, in the last several decades, ENSO events have changed their spatial and temporal characteristics (Yeh et al., 2009; McPhaden, 2012). During recent decades, the warm waters of El Niño events have been displaced to the central Pacific instead of to the eastern Pacific. It is not clear yet whether these changes are linked to anthropogenic climate change or natural variability (Yeh et al., 2011). In any case, the effects on climate of an ENSO event centred in the central Pacific (a central Pacific ENSO) are in sharp contrast to that associated with one centred in the eastern Pacific. For instance, northeastern and southeastern Australia experience a reduction in rainfall during the eastern Pacific El Niños and there is a decrease in rainfall over northwestern and northern Australia during central Pacific events (Taschetto and England, 2009; Taschetto et al., 2009). The Indian monsoon fails during eastern Pacific El Niños, but is enhanced during central Pacific El Niños (Kumar et al., 2006). Over the semi-arid region of northeast Brazil, eastern Pacific El Niños/La Niñas cause dry/wet conditions; central Pacific El Niños have the opposite effect, with the worst drought in the last 50 years associated with the strong 2011/12 La Niña and not with El Niños as in the past (Rodrigues et al., 2011; Rodrigues and McPhaden, 2014). This drought caused the displacement of 10 million people and economic losses on the order of 3 billion United States dollars in relation to agriculture and cattle raising alone. In contrast to drought in Brazil, the 2011/12 La Niña caused floods across southeastern Australia. In other ocean basins, changes in oceanic oscillations and temperatures have also had an impact on climate. For instance, in the Indian Ocean, a positive phase of the Indian Dipole Mode (warm/cold temperatures in the western/eastern equatorial Indian Ocean) leads to flooding in east Africa and droughts in Indonesia, Australia, and India (Saji et al., 1999; Ashok et al., 2001; Gadgil et al., 2004; Yamagata et al., 2004; Behera et al., 2005; Ummenhofer et al., 2009; Cai et al., 2011). The counterpart of ENSO in the Atlantic (Atlantic Niño) has weakened during the last six decades, leading to an increase in SST in the eastern equatorial Atlantic. As a consequence, rainfall has been enhanced over the equatorial Amazon and West Africa (Tokinaga and Xie, 2011). On the other hand, an unusual warming of the tropical North Atlantic in 2005 was responsible for one of the worst droughts in the Amazon River basin and a record Atlantic hurricane season. Hurricanes Rita and Katrina caused the loss of almost 2000 lives and an estimated economic toll of 150 billion —135 billion US dollars from Katrina and 15 billion US dollars from Rita. (http://www.datacenterresearch.org/data-resources/katrina/factsfor-impact/). Anomalous warm conditions also occurred in the tropical North Atlantic in 2010 leading to two once-in-a-century droughts in less than five years in the Amazon River basin (Marengo et al., 2011). Ocean warming will stress species both through thermic changes in their environmental envelope and through increased interspecies competition. These shifts become all the more important in shelf seas once they reach terrestrial boundaries, i.e., the shifting species runs out of shelf. For example, changes in the coastal currents in south-eastern Australia cause changes to primary production through to fisheries productivity. This then feeds through to local and regional socio-economic impacts (Suthers et al., 2011). © 2016 United Nations

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The IPCC AR5 concluded that “it is unlikely that annual numbers of tropical storms, hurricanes and major hurricanes counts have increased over the past 100 years in the North Atlantic basin. Evidence, however, is for a virtually certain increase in the frequency and intensity of the strongest tropical cyclones since the 1970s in that region” (Hartmann et al. 2013, Section 2.6.3). Moreover, the IPCC AR5 states that “it is difficult to draw firm conclusions with respect to the confidence levels associated with observed trends prior to the satellite era and in ocean basins outside of the North Atlantic” (Hartmann et al. 2013, Section 2.6.3). Although a strong scientific consensus on the matter does not exist, there is some evidence supporting the hypothesis that global warming might lead to fewer but more intense tropical cyclones globally (Knutson et al., 2010). Evidence exists that the observed expansion of the tropics since approximately 1979 is accompanied by a pronounced poleward migration of the latitude at which the maximum intensities of storms occur at a rate of 1° of latitude per decade (Kossin et al., 2014; Hartmann et al., 2013; Seidel et al., 2008). If this trend is confirmed, it would increase the frequency of events in coastal areas that are not exposed regularly to the dangers caused by cyclones. Hurricane Sandy in 2012 may be an example of this (Woodruff et al., 2013). 3. Water flux and salinity 3.1

Regional patterns of salinity, and changes in salinity 2 and freshwater content

The ocean plays a pivotal role in the global water cycle: about 85 per cent of the evaporation and 77 per cent of the precipitation occur over the ocean (Schmitt, 2008). The horizontal salinity distribution of the upper ocean largely reflects this exchange of freshwater: high surface salinity is generally found in regions where evaporation exceeds precipitation, and low salinity is found in regions of excess precipitation and runoff. Ocean circulation also affects the regional distribution of surface salinity. The Earth’s water cycle involves evaporation and precipitation of moisture at the Earth’s surface. Changes in the atmosphere’s water vapour content provide strong evidence that the water cycle is already responding to a warming climate. Further evidence comes from changes in the distribution of ocean salinity (Rhein et al. 2013; FAQ. 3.2). Diagnosis and understanding of ocean salinity trends are also important, because salinity changes, like temperature changes, affect circulation and stratification, and therefore the ocean’s capacity to store heat and carbon as well as to change biological productivity. Seawater contains both salt and fresh water, and its salinity is a function of the weight of dissolved salts it contains. Because the total amount of salt does not change over 2

‘Salinity’ refers to the weight of dissolved salts in a kilogram of seawater. Because the total amount of salt in the ocean does not change, the salinity of seawater can be changed only by addition or removal of fresh water.

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human time scales, seawater’s salinity can only be altered—over days or centuries—by the addition or removal of fresh water. The water cycle is expected to intensify in a warmer climate. Observations since the 1970s show increases in surface and lower atmospheric water vapour (Figure 4a), at a rate consistent with observed warming. Moreover, evaporation and precipitation are projected to intensify in a warmer climate. Recorded changes in ocean salinity in the last 50 years support that projection (Rhein et al. 2013; FAQ. 3.2). The atmosphere connects the ocean’s regions of net fresh water loss to those of fresh water gain by moving evaporated water vapour from one place to another. The distribution of salinity at the ocean surface largely reflects the spatial pattern of evaporation minus precipitation (Figure 4b), runoff from land, and sea ice processes. There is some shifting of the patterns relative to each other, because of the ocean’s currents. Ocean salinity acts as a sensitive and effective rain gauge over the ocean. It naturally reflects and smoothes out the difference between water gained by the ocean from precipitation, and water lost by the ocean through evaporation, both of which are very patchy and episodic (Rhein et al. 2013; FAQ. 3.2). Data from the past 50 years show widespread salinity changes in the upper ocean, which are indicative of systematic changes in precipitation and runoff minus evaporation. (Figure 4b). Subtropical waters are highly saline, because evaporation exceeds rainfall, whereas seawater at high latitudes and in the tropics—where more rain falls than evaporates—is less so. The Atlantic, the saltiest ocean basin, loses more freshwater through evaporation than it gains from precipitation, while the Pacific is nearly neutral, i.e., precipitation gain nearly balances evaporation loss, and the Southern Ocean is dominated by precipitation. (Figure 4b; Rhein et al. 2013; FAQ. 3.2). Changes in surface salinity and in the upper ocean have reinforced the mean salinity pattern (4c). The evaporation-dominated subtropical regions have become saltier, while the precipitation-dominated subpolar and tropical regions have become fresher. When changes over the top 500 m are considered, the evaporation-dominated Atlantic has become saltier, while the nearly neutral Pacific and precipitation-dominated Southern Ocean have become fresher (Figure 4d; Rhein et al. 2013; FAQ. 3.2). Observed surface salinity changes also suggest a change in the global water cycle has occurred (Chapter 4). The long-term trends show a strong positive correlation between the mean climate of the surface salinity and the temporal changes in surface salinity from 1950 to 2000. This correlation shows an enhancement of the climatological salinity pattern: fresh areas have become fresher and salty areas saltier. Ocean salinity is also affected by water runoff from the continents, and by the melting and freezing of sea ice or floating glacial ice. Fresh water added by melting ice on land will change global-averaged salinity, but changes to date are too small to observe (Rhein et al. 2013; FAQ. 3.2).

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The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Figure 4. Changes in sea surface salinity are related to the atmospheric patterns of evaporation minus precipitation (E – P) and trends in total precipitable water: (a) Linear trend (1988–2010) in total precipitable water (water vapour integrated from the Earth’s surface up through the entire atmosphere) (kg m–2 per decade) from satellite observations (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) (after Wentz et al., 2007) (blues: wetter; yellows: drier). (b) The 1979–2005 climatological mean net E –P (cm yr–1) from meteorological reanalysis (National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research; Kalnay et al., 1996) (reds: net evaporation; blues: net precipitation). (c) Trend (1950–2000) in surface salinity (PSS78 per 50 years) (after Durack and Wijffels, 2010) (blues freshening; yellows-reds saltier). (d) The climatological-mean surface salinity (PSS78) (blues: <35; yellows–reds: >35). From Rhein et al. 2013; FAQ. 3.2. Fig 1.

In conclusion, according to the last IPCC AR5, “It is very likely that regional trends have enhanced the mean geographical contrasts in sea surface salinity since the 1950s: saline © 2016 United Nations

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surface waters in the evaporation-dominated mid-latitudes have become more saline, while relatively fresh surface waters in rainfall-dominated tropical and polar regions have become fresher” (Stocker et al., 2013). “The mean contrast between high- and low-salinity regions increased by 0.13 [0.08 to 0.17] from 1950 to 2008. It is very likely that the inter-basin contrast in freshwater content has increased: the Atlantic has become saltier and the Pacific and Southern Oceans have freshened. Although similar conclusions were reached in AR4, recent studies based on expanded data sets and new analysis approaches provide high confidence in this assessment” (Stocker et al., 2013). “The spatial patterns of the salinity trends, mean salinity and the mean distribution of evaporation minus precipitation are all similar. These similarities provide indirect evidence that the pattern of evaporation minus precipitation over the oceans has been enhanced since the 1950s (medium confidence)” Stocker et al., (2013). “Uncertainties in currently available surface fluxes prevent the flux products from being reliably used to identify trends in the regional or global distribution of evaporation or precipitation over the oceans on the time scale of the observed salinity changes since the 1950s” (Stocker et al., 2013). 4. Carbon dioxide flux and ocean acidification 4.1

Carbon dioxide emissions from anthropogenic activities

Since the start of Industrial Revolution, human activities have been releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. As a result, atmospheric CO2 has increased from a glacial to interglacial cycle of 180-280 ppm to about 395 ppm in 2013 (Dlugokencky and Tans, 2014). Until around 1920, the primary source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere was from deforestation and other land-use change activities (Ciais et al., 2013). Since the end of World War II, anthropogenic emissions of CO2 have been increasing steadily. Data from 2004 to 2013 show that human activities (fossil fuel combustion and cement production) are now responsible for about 91 per cent of the total CO2 emissions (Le Quéré et al. 2014). CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption can be estimated from the energy data that are available from the United Nations Statistics Division and the BP Annual Energy Review. Data in 2013 suggests that about 43 per cent of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions were produced from coal, 33 per cent from oil and 18 per cent from gas, and 6 per cent from cement production (Figure 5).

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Figure 5. CO2 emissions from different sources from 1958 to 2013 (Le Quéré et al. 2014).

Coal is an important and, recently, growing proportion of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. From 2012 to 2013, CO2 emissions from coal increased 3.0 per cent, compared to the increase rate of 1.4 per cent for oil and gas (Le Quéré et al. 2014). Coal accounted for about 60 per cent of the CO2 emission growth in the same period. This is largely because many large economies of the world have recently resorted to using coal as an energy source for a wide variety of industrial processes, instead of oil, gas and other energy sources. 4.2

The ocean as a sink for atmospheric CO2

The global oceans serve as a major sink of atmospheric CO2. The oceans take up carbon dioxide through mainly two processes: physical air-sea flux of atmospheric CO2 at the ocean surface, the so called “solubility pump” and through the active biological uptake of CO2 into the biomass and skeletons of plankters the so-called “biological pump”. Colder water can take up CO2 more than warm water, and if this cold, denser water sinks to form intermediate, deep, or bottom water, there is transport of carbon away from the surface ocean and thus from the atmosphere into the ocean interior. This "solubility pump" helps to keep the surface waters of the ocean on average lower in CO2 than the deep water, a condition that promotes the flux of the gas from the atmosphere into the ocean. Phytoplankton take up CO2 from the water in the process of photosynthesis, some of which sinks to the bottom in the form of particles or is mixed into the deeper waters as dissolved organic or inorganic carbon. Part of this carbon is permanently buried in the sediments and other part enters into the slower circulation of the deep ocean. This "biological pump" serves to maintain the gradient in CO2 concentration between the surface and deep waters.

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The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Figure 6. Anthropogenic CO2 distributions along representative meridional sections in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans for the mid-1990s (Sabine et al. 2004).

Because the ocean mixes slowly, about half of the anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) stored in the ocean is found in the upper 10 per cent of the ocean (Figure 6.). On average, the penetration depth is about 1000 meters and about 50 per cent of the anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean is shallower than 400 meters. Globally, the ocean shows large spatial variations in terms of its role as a sink of atmospheric CO2 (Takahashi et al. 2009). Over the past 200 years the oceans have absorbed 525 billion tons of CO2 from the atmosphere, or nearly half of the fossil fuel emissions over the period (Feely et al. 2009). The oceanic sink of atmospheric CO2 has increased from 4.0 ± 1.8 GtCO2 (1 GtCO2 = 109 tons of carbon dioxide) per year in the 1960s to 9.5 ± 1.8 GtCO2 per year during 2004-2013. During the same period, the estimated annual atmospheric CO2 captured by the ocean was 2.6 ±0.5 Gt of CO2 compared with around 1.9 Gt of CO2 during the sixties (Le Queré et al., 2014). However, due to the decreased buffering capacity, caused by this CO2 uptake, the proportion of anthropogenic carbon dioxide that goes into the ocean has been decreasing. Estimates of the global inventory of anthropogenic carbon, Cant (including marginal seas) have a mean value of 118 PgC and a range of 93 to 137 PgC in 1994 and a mean of 160 PgC and range of 134 to 186 PgC in 2010 (Rhein et al 2013). When combined with model results Khatiwala et al. (2013) arrive at a “best” estimate of the global ocean inventory (including marginal seas) of anthropogenic carbon from 1750 to 2010 of 155 PgC with an uncertainty of ±20 per cent (Rhein et al 2013). © 2016 United Nations

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The storage rate of anthropogenic CO2 is assessed by calculating the change in Cant concentrations between two time periods. Regional observations of the storage rate are in general agreement with that expected from the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations and with the tracer-based estimates. However, there are significant spatial and temporal variations in the degree to which the inventory of Cant tracks changes in the atmosphere (Figure 7, Rhein et al 2013).

The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

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Figure 7. Maps of storage rate distribution of Cant in (mol m yr averaged over 1980-2005 for the three ocean basins (left to right: Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean). From Khatiwala et al 2009, a slightly different colour scale is used for each basin.

Comprehensive evaluation of available data shows that in the context of the global carbon cycle, it is only the ocean that has acted as a net sink of carbon from the atmosphere. The land was a source early in the industrial age, and since about 1950 has trended toward a sink, but it is not yet clearly a net sink. (Ciais et al. 2013 and Khatiwala et al. 2009, Khatiwala et al. 2013). Latest data from 2004 to 2013 show that the global oceans take up about one-fourth (26 per cent, Le Quéré, 2014) of the total annual anthropogenic emissions of CO2. This is a very important physical and ecological service that the ocean has performed in the past and performs today, that underpins all strategies to mitigate the negative impacts of global warming. 4.3

Ocean acidification

As already seen in the previous section, the global oceans serve as an important sink of atmospheric CO2, effectively slowing down global climate change. However, this benefit comes with a steep bio-ecological cost. When CO2 reacts with water, it forms carbonic acid, which then dissociates and produces hydrogen ions. The extra hydrogen ions consume carbonate ions (CO32-) to form bicarbonate (HCO3-). In this process, the pH and concentrations of carbonate ions (CO32-) are decreasing. As a result, the carbonate mineral saturation states are also decreasing. Due to the increasing acidity, this process is commonly referred to as “ocean acidification (OA)”. According to the IPCC AR 4 and 5, “Ocean acidification refers to a reduction in pH of the ocean over an extended period, typically decades or longer, caused primarily by the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere.” (…)” Anthropogenic ocean acidification refers to the component of pH reduction that is caused by human activity” (Rhein et al. 2013).

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Although the average oceanic pH can vary on interglacial time scales, the changes are usually on the order of ~0.002 units per 100 years; however, the current observed rate of change is ~0.1 units per 100 years, or roughly 50 times faster. Regional factors, such as coastal upwelling, changes in riverine and glacial discharge rates, and sea-ice loss have created “OA hotspots” where changes are occurring at even faster rates. Although OA is a global phenomenon that will likely have far-reaching implications for many marine organisms, some areas will be affected sooner and to a greater degree. Recent observations show that one such area in particular is the cold, highly productive region of the sub-arctic Pacific and western Arctic Ocean, where unique biogeochemical processes create an environment that is both sensitive and particularly susceptible to accelerated reductions in pH and carbonate mineral concentrations. The OA phenomenon can cause waters to become undersaturated in carbonate minerals and thereby affect extensive and diverse populations of marine calcifiers. 4.4

The CO2 problem

Based on the most recent data of 2004 to 2013, 35.7 GtCO2 (1 GtCO2 = 109 tons of carbon dioxide) of anthropogenic CO2 are released into the atmosphere every year (Le Quéré et al. 2014). Of this, approximately 32.4 GtCO2 come directly from the burning of fossil fuels and other industrial processes that emit CO2. The remaining 3.3 GtCO2 are due to changes in land-use practices, such as deforestation and urbanization. Of this 35.7 GtCO2 of anthropogenically produced CO2 emitted annually, approximately 10.6 GtCO2 (or 29 per cent) are incorporated into terrestrial plant matter. Another 15.8 GtCO2 (or 46 per cent) are retained in the atmosphere, which has led to some planetary warming. The remaining 9.5 GtCO2 (or 26 per cent) are absorbed by the world’s oceans (Le Quéré et al. 2014). As the hydrogen ions produced by the increased CO2 dissolution take carbonate ions out of seawater, the rate of calcification of shell-building organisms is affected; they are confronted with additional physiological challenges to maintain their shells. Although alteration of the carbonate equilibrium system in the ocean reducing carbonate ion concentration, and saturation states of calcium carbonate minerals will play a role imposing an additional energy cost to calcifier organisms, such as corals and shellbearing plankton, this is by no means the sole impact of OA. 4.5

What are the impacts of a more acidic ocean?

Throughout the last 25 million years, the average pH of the ocean has remained fairly constant between 8.0 and 8.2. However, in the last three decades, a fast drop has begun to occur, and if CO2 emissions are left unchecked, the average pH could fall below 7.8 by the end of this century (Rhein, et al. 2013). This is well outside the range of pH change of any other time in recent geological history. Calcifying organisms in particular, such as corals, crabs, clams, oysters and the tiny free-swimming pteropods that form calcium carbonate shells, could be particularly vulnerable, especially during the larval stage. Many of the processes that cause OA have © 2016 United Nations

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long been recognized, but the ecological implications of the associated chemical changes have only recently been investigated. OA may have important ecological and socioeconomic consequences by impacting directly the physiology of all organisms in the ocean. The altered environment is imposing an extra energy cost for the acid-base regulation of their internal body milieu. Through biological and evolutionary adaptation this process might have a huge variation of expression among different types of organisms, a subject that only recently has become the focus of intense scientific research. Calcification is an internal process that in its vast majority does not depends directly on seawater carbonate content, since most organism use bicarbonate, that is increasing under acidification scenarios, or CO2 originating in their internal metabolism. It has been demonstrated in the laboratory and in the field that some calcifiers can compensate and thrive in acidification conditions. OA is not a simple phenomenon nor will it have a simple unidirectional effect on organisms. The abundance and composition of species may be changed, due to OA with the potential to affect ecosystem function at all trophic levels, and consequential changes in ocean chemistry could occur as well. Some species may also be better able than others to adapt to changing pH levels due to their exposure to environments where pH naturally varies over a wide range. However, at this point, it is still very uncertain what the ecological and societal consequences will be from any potential losses of keystone species. 4.6

Socioeconomic impacts of ocean acidification

Some examples of economic disruptions due to OA have been reported. The most visible case is the harvest failure in the oyster hatcheries along the Pacific Northwest coast of the USA. Hatcheries that supply the majority of the oyster spat to farms nearly went out of business as they unknowingly pumped low pH water, apparently corrosive to oyster larvae, into their operation. Although intense upwelling that could have brought low oxygen water to hatcheries might also be a factor in these massive mortalities, low pH, “corrosive water” tends to recur seasonally in this region. Innovations and interactions with scientists allowed these hatcheries to monitor the presence of corrosive incoming waters and adopt preventive measures. Economic studies have shown that potential losses at local and regional scales may have negative impacts for communities and national economies that depend on fisheries. For example, Cooley and Doney (2009) using data from 2007, found that of the 4 billion dollars in annual domestic sales, Alaska and the New England states likely to be affected by hotspots of OA, contributed the most at 1.5 billion dollars and 750 million dollars, respectively. These numbers clearly show that any disruption in the commercial fisheries in these regions due to OA could have a cascading effect on the local as well as on the national economy.

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Chapter 6. Primary Production, Cycling of Nutrients, Surface Layer and Plankton Writing team: Thomas Malone (Convenor), Maurizio Azzaro, Antonio Bode, Euan Brown, Robert Duce, Dan Kamykowski, Sung Ho Kang, Yin Kedong, Michael Thorndyke, and Jinhui Wang, Chul Park (Lead member); Hilconida Calumpong and Peyman Eghtesadi (Co-Lead members) 1. Primary Production 1 1.1

Definition and ecological significance

Gross primary production (GPP) is the rate at which photosynthetic plants and bacteria use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) and water to the high-energy organic carbon compounds used to fuel growth. Free oxygen (O2) is released during the process. Net primary production (NPP) is GPP less the respiratory release of CO2 by photosynthetic organisms, i.e., the net photosynthetic fixation of inorganic carbon into autotrophic biomass. NPP supports most life on Earth; it fuels global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients and is an important parameter of atmospheric CO2 and O2 levels (and, therefore, of anthropogenic climate change). Global NPP is estimated to be ~105 Pg C yr-1, about half of which is by marine plants (Field et al., 1998; Falkowski and Raven, 1997; Westberry et al., 2008). 2 Within the euphotic zone of the upper ocean, 3 phytoplankton and macrophytes 4 respectively account for ~94 per cent (~50 ± 28 Pg C yr-1) and ~6 per cent (~3.0 Pg C yr-1) of NPP (Falkowski et al., 2004; Duarte et al., 2005; Carr et al., 2006; Schneider et al., 2008; Chavez et al., 2011; Ma et al., 2014; Rousseaux and Gregg, 2014). All NPP is not equal in terms of its fate. Marine macrophytes play an important role as carbon sinks in the global carbon cycle, provide habitat for a diversity of animal species, and food for marine and terrestrial consumers (Smith, 1981; Twilley et al., 1992; Duarte et al., 2005; Duarte et al., 2010; Heck et al., 2008; Nellemann et al., 2009; McLeod et al., 2011, Fourqurean et al., 2012). Phytoplankton NPP fuels the marine food webs upon which marine fisheries depend (Pauly and Christensen, 1995; Chassot et al., 2010) and the 1

Microbenthic, epiphytic and symbiotic algae can be locally important in shallow waters and corals, but are not addressed here. Chemosynthetic primary production is addressed elsewhere. 2 15 1 Pg = 10 g 3 Defined here to include the epipelagic (0-200 m) and mesopelagic (200 – -1000 m) zones. The euphotic zone lies within the epipelagic zone. 4 Macrophytes include sea grasses, macroalgae, salt marsh plants and mangroves. Phytoplankton are single -celled, photosynthetic prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms growing in the euphotic zone (the layer between the ocean’s surface and the depth at which photosynthetically active radiation [PAR] is 1 per cent of surface intensity). Most phytoplankton species are > 1 µm and < 1 mm in equivalent spherical diameter (cf. Ward et al., 2012).

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“biological pump” which transports 2-12 Pg C yr-1 of organic carbon to the deep sea (Falkowski et al., 1998; Muller-Karger et al., 2005; Emerson and Hedges, 2008; Doney, 2010; Passow and Carlson, 2012), where it is sequestered from the atmospheric pool of carbon for 200-1500 years (Craig, 1957; Schlitzer et al., 2003; Primeau and Holzer, 2006; Buesseler, et al., 2007). Changes in the size structure of phytoplankton communities influence the fate of NPP (Malone, 1980; Legendre and Rassoulzadegan, 1996; Pomeroy et al., 2007; Marañón, 2009). In general, small cells (picophytoplankton with equivalent spherical diameters < 2 µm) account for most NPP in subtropical, oligotrophic (< 0.3 mg chlorophyll-a m-3), nutrient-poor (nitrate + nitrite < 1 µM), warm (> 20°C) waters. Under these conditions, the flow of organic carbon to harvestable fisheries and the biological pump are relatively small. In contrast, larger cells (microphytoplankton > 20 μm) account for > 90 per cent of NPP in more eutrophic (> 5 mg chlorophyll-a m-3), nutrient-rich (nitrate + nitrite >10 µM), cold (< 15°C) waters (Kamykowski, 1987; Agawin et al., 2000; Buitenhuis et al., 2012). Under these conditions, diatoms5 account for most NPP during spring blooms at high latitudes and periods of coastal upwelling when NPP is high and nutrients are not limiting (Malone, 1980). The flow of organic carbon to fisheries and the biological pump is higher when larger cells account for most NPP (Laws et al., 2000; Finkel et al., 2010). 1.2

Methods of measuring net primary production (NPP)

1.2.1 Phytoplankton Net Primary Production Phytoplankton (NPP) has been estimated using a variety of in situ and remote sensing methods (Platt and Sathyendranath, 1993; Geider et al., 2001; Marra, 2002; Carr et al., 2006; Vernet and Smith, 2007; Cullen, 2008a; Cloern et al., 2013). Multiplatform (e.g., ships, moorings, drifters, gliders, aircraft, and satellites) sampling strategies that utilize both approaches are needed to effectively detect changes in NPP on ecosystem to global scales (UNESCO-IOC, 2012). On small spatial and temporal scales (meters-kilometres, hours-days), several techniques have been used including oxygen production and the incorporation of 13C and 14C labelled bicarbonate (Cullen, 2008a). The most widely used and standard method against which other methods are compared or calibrated is based on the incorporation of 14C-bicarbonate into phytoplankton biomass (Steeman-Nielsen, 1963; Marra, 1995; Marra, 2002; Vernet and Smith, 2007; Cullen, 2008a). On large spatial scales (Large Marine Ecosystems 6 to the global ocean), the most effective way to detect space-time variability is via satellite-based measurements of water-leaving radiance combined with diagnostic models of depth-integrated NPP as a function of depth5

Diatom growth accounts for roughly half of marine NPP and therefore for about a quarter of global photosynthetic production (Smetacek, 1999). 6 2 Large marine ecosystems (200,000 km or larger) are coastal ecosystems characterized by their distinct bathymetry, hydrography, productivity and food webs (Sherman et al., 1993).

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integrated chlorophyll-a concentration (Ψ Chl), photosynthetically active solar radiation, and temperature (Antoine and Morel, 1996; Perry, 1986; Morel and Berthon, 1989; Platt and Sathyendranath, 1993; Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997; Sathyendranath, 2000; Gregg et al., 2003; Behrenfeld et al., 2006; Carr et al., 2006; Arrigo et al., 2008; Bissinger et al., 2008; McClain, 2009; Westberry et al., 2008; Cullen et al., 2012; Siegel et al., 2013). An overview of the latest satellite based models may be found at the Ocean Productivity website. 7 Satellite ocean-colour radiometry (OCR) data have been used to estimate surface chlorophyll-a fields and NPP since the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) mission (19781986). Uninterrupted OCR measurements began with the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission (1997-2010) (Hu et al., 2012). A full accounting of current polar orbiting and geostationary ocean-colour sensors with their capabilities (swath width, spatial resolution, spectral coverage) can be found on the web site of the International OceanColour Coordinating Group. 8 The skill of model-based estimates of NPP has been improving (O’Reilly et al., 1998; Lee, 2006; Friedrichs et al., 2009; Saba et al., 2010; Saba et al., 2011; Mustapha et al., 2012), but further improvements are needed through more accurate estimates of Ψ Chl. Chlorophyll-a fields can be estimated more accurately by blending data from remote sensing and in situ measurements, especially in regions where in situ measurements are sparse and in turbid, coastal ecosystems (Conkright and Gregg, 2003; Gregg et al., 2003; Onabid, 2011). An empirical approach has been developed for ocean-colour remote sensing called Empirical Satellite Radiance-In situ Data (ESRID) algorithm (Gregg et al., 2009). 1.2.2 Macrophyte Net Primary Production The NPP of macroalgae, sea grasses, salt marsh plants and mangroves can be estimated by sequentially (e.g., monthly during the growing season) measuring increases in biomass (including leaf litter in salt marshes and mangrove forests) using a combination of in situ techniques (e.g., Mann, 1972; Cousens, 1984; Dame and Kenny, 1986; Amarasinghe and Balasubramaniam, 1992; Long et al., 1992; Day et al., 1996; Ross et al., 2001; Curcó et al., 2002; Morris, 2007) and satellite-based multispectral imagery (e.g., Gross et al., 1990; Zhang et al., 1997; Kovacs et al., 2001; Gitelson, 2004; Liu et al., 2008; Kovacs et al., 2009; Heumann, 2011; Mishra et al., 2012; Son and Chen, 2013). For remote sensing, accurate in situ measurements are critical for validating models used to map these habitats and estimate NPP (Gross et al., 1990; Kovacs et al., 2009; Roelfsema et al., 2009; Mishra et al., 2012; Jia et al., 2013; Trilla et al., 2013). These include shootor leaf-tagging techniques, measurements of 14C incorporation into leaves, and measurements of dissolved O2 production during the growing season (Bittaker and

7 8

http://www.science.oregonstate.edu/ocean.productivity/. http://www.ioccg.org/sensors/current.html.

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Iverson, 1976; Kemp et al., 1986; Duarte, 1989; Kaldy and Dunton, 2000; Duarte and Kirkman, 2001; Plus et al., 2001, Silva et al., 2009). 1.2.3 The Phenology 9 of Phytoplankton Annual Cycles The timing of seasonal increases in phytoplankton NPP is determined by environmental parameters, including day length, temperature, changes in vertical stratification, and the timing of seasonal sea-ice retreat in polar waters. All but day length are affected by climate change. Thus, phytoplankton phenology provides an important tool for detecting climate-driven decadal variability and secular trends. Phenological metrics to be monitored are the time of bloom initiation, bloom duration and time of maximum amplitude (Siegel et al., 2002; Platt et al., 2009). 1.3

Spatial patterns and temporal trends

Marine NPP varies over a broad spectrum of time scales from tidal, daily and seasonal cycles to low-frequency basin-scale oscillations and multi-decade secular trends (Malone, 1971; Pingree et al., 1975; Steele, 1985; Cloern, 1987; Cloern, 2001; Cloern et al., 2013; Duarte, 1989; Powell, 1989; Malone et al., 1996; Henson and Thomas, 2007; Vantrepotte and Mélin, 2009; Cloern and Jassby, 2010; Bode et al., 2011; Chavez et al., 2011). Our focus here is on low-frequency cycles and multi-decade trends. 1.3.1 Phytoplankton NPP For the most part, the global pattern of phytoplankton NPP (Figure 1) reflects the pattern of deep-water nutrient inputs to the euphotic zone associated with winter mixing and thermocline erosion at higher latitudes, thermocline shoaling at lower latitudes, and upwelling along the eastern boundaries of the ocean basins and the equator (Wollast, 1998; Pennington et al., 2006; Chavez et al., 2011; Ward et al., 2012). The global distribution of phytoplankton NPP is also influenced by iron limitation and grazing by microzooplankton in so-called High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) zones which account for ~20 per cent of the global ocean, e.g., oceanic waters of the subarctic north Pacific, subtropical equatorial Pacific, and Southern Ocean (Martin et al., 1994; Landry et al., 1997; Edwards et al., 2004). Nutrient inputs associated with river runoff enhance NPP in coastal waters during the growing season (Seitzinger et al., 2005; Seitzinger et al., 2010). Annual cycles of NPP associated with patterns of nutrient supply and seasonal variations in sunlight tend to increase in amplitude and decrease in duration with increasing latitude. Seasonal increases in NPP generally follow winter mixing when nutrient concentrations are high, the seasonal thermocline sets up, and day length increases. Annual cycles are also more pronounced in coastal waters subject to seasonal upwelling. 9

Phenology is the study of the timing and duration of cyclic and seasonal natural phenomena (e.g., spring phytoplankton blooms, seasonal cycles of zooplankton reproduction), especially in relation to climate and plant and animal life cycles.

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The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Figure 1. Climatological map Distribution of annual marine NPP for (a) NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model and (b) Vertically-Integrated Production Model (VGPM) for the period from September 1998 to 2011 -2 -2 -2 -2 (Rousseaux – August 1999 (Blue < 100 g C m , Green > 110 g C m and < 400 g C m , Red > 400 g C m ) (Rutgers Institute of Marine and Gregg, 2014). Globally, diatoms accounted for about 50 per cent of NPP while coccolithophores, chlorophytes and cyanobacteria accounted for about 20 per cent, 20 per cent and 10 per cent, respectively. Diatom NPP was highest at high latitudes and in equatorial and eastern boundary upwelling systems. Coastal Sciences, http://marine.rutgers.edu/opp/). Coastal ecosystems (red – green) and the permanently stratified subtropical waters of the central gyres (blue) each account for ~30 per cent of the ocean’s NPP, whereas the former accounts for only ~8 per cent of the ocean’s surface area compared to ~60 per cent for the open ocean waters of the subtropics (Geider et al., 2001; Marañón et al., 2003; Muller-Karger et al., 2005).

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The global distribution of annual NPP in the ocean can be partitioned into broad provinces with eastern boundary upwelling systems and estuaries exhibiting the highest rates and subtropical central gyres the lowest rates (Figure 1, Table 1). Table 1. Ranges of phytoplankton mean daily NPP and annual NPP reported for different marine provinces. Estimates are based on in situ measurements and models using satellite-based observations of chlorophyll-a fields. Western boundaries of the ocean basins generally feature broad continental shelves and eastern boundaries tend to have narrow shelves with coastal upwelling. (Data sources: Malone et al., 1983; O’Reilly and Busch, 1983; Pennock and Sharp, 1986; Cloern, 1987; Malone, 1991; Barber et al., 1996; Karl et al., 1996; Malone et al., 1996; Pilskaln et 173 al., 1996; Smith and DeMaster, 1996; Lohrenz et al., 1997; Cloern, 2001; Smith et al., 2001; Steinberg et al., 2001; Marañón et al., 2003; Sakshaug, 2004; PICES, 2004; Teira et al., 2005; Tian et al., 2005; Pennington et al., 2006; Subramanian et al., 2008; Vernet et al., 2008; Bidigare et al., 2009; Sherman and Hempel, 2009; Chavez et al., 2010; 176 Saba et al., 2011; Brown and Arrigo, 2012; Cloern et al., 2013; Lomas et al., 2013).

Province

-2

mg C m d

-1

-2

g C m yr

-1

Subtropical Central Gyres

20 – 1,040

150 – 170

Western Boundaries

10 – 3,500

200 – 470

Eastern Boundaries

30 – 7,300

460 – 1,250

Equatorial Upwelling

640 – 900

240

Arctic Ocean

3 – 1,100

5 – 400

Southern Ocean

290 – 370

50 – 450

Coastal Seas

100 – 1,400

40 – 600

Estuaries & Coastal Plumes

100 – 8,000

70 – 1,890

Interannual variability and multi-decadal trends in phytoplankton NPP on regional to global scales are primarily driven by: (1) climate change (e.g., basin-scale oscillations and decadal trends, including loss of polar ice cover, upper ocean warming, and changes in the hydrological cycle); (2) land-based, anthropogenic nutrient loading; and (3) pelagic and benthic primary consumers. Global-scale trends in phytoplankton NPP remain controversial (Boyce et al., 2010; Boyce et al., 2014; Mackas, 2011; Rykaczewski and Dunne, 2011; McQuatters‐Gollop et al., 2011; Dave and Lozier, 2013; Wernand et al., 2013).). Remote sensing (sea-surface temperature and chlorophyll fields), model simulations and marine sediment records suggest that global phytoplankton NPP may have increased over the last century as a consequence of basin-scale climate forcing that promotes episodic and seasonal nutrient enrichment of the euphotic zone through vertical mixing and upwelling (McGregor et al., 2007; Bidigare et al., 2009; Chavez et al., 2011; Zhai et al., 2013). In contrast, global analyses of changes in chlorophyll distribution over time suggest that annual NPP in the global ocean has declined over the © 2016 United Nations

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last 100 years (Gregg et al., 2003; Boyce et al., 2014). A decadal scale decline is consistent with model simulations indicating that both NPP and the biological pump have decreased by ~7 per cent and 8 per cent, respectively, over the last five decades (Laufkötter et al., 2013), trends that are likely to continue through the end of this century (Steinacher et al., 2010). Given uncertainties concerning global trends, long-term impacts of secular changes in phytoplankton NPP on food security and climate change cannot be assessed at this time with any certainty. Resolving this controversy and predicting future trends will require sustained, multi-decadal observations and modelling of phytoplankton NPP and key environmental parameters (e.g., upper ocean temperature, pCO2, pH, depth of the aragonite saturation horizon, vertical stratification and nutrient concentrations) on regional and global scales – observations that may have to be sustained for at least another 40-50 years (Henson et al., 2010). 1.3.2 Macrophyte NPP Marine macrophyte NPP, which is limited to tidal and relatively shallow waters in coastal ecosystems, varies from 30-1,200 g C m-2 yr-1 (Smith, 1981; Charpy-Roubaoud and Sournia, 1990; Geider et al., 2001; Duarte et al., 2005; Duarte et al., 2010; Fourqurean et al., 2012; Ducklow et al., 2013). In contrast to the uncertainty of decadal trends in phytoplankton NPP, decadal declines in the spatial extent and biomass of macrophytes (a proxy for NPP) over the last 50-100 years are relatively well documented. Macrophyte habitats are being lost and modified (e.g., fragmented) at alarming rates (Duke et al., 2007; Valiela et al., 2009; Waycott et al., 2009; Wernberg et al., 2011), i.e., 2 per cent for macrophytes as a group, with total areal losses to date of 29 per cent for seagrasses, 50 per cent for salt marshes and 35 per cent for mangrove forests (Valiela et al., 2001; Hassan et al., 2005; Orth et al., 2006; Waycott et al., 2009; Fourqurean et al., 2012). As a whole, the world is losing its macrophyte ecosystems in coastal waters four times faster than its rain forests (Duarte et al., 2008), and the rate of loss is accelerating (Waycott et al., 2009). 2. Nutrient Cycles Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are major nutrients required for the growth of all organisms, and NPP is the primary engine that drives the cycles of N and P in the oceans. The cycles of C, N, P and O2 are coupled in the marine environment (Gruber, 2008). As discussed in section 6.1.3, the global pattern of phytoplankton NPP reflects the pattern of dissolved inorganic N and P inputs to the euphotic zone from the deep ocean (Figure 1). Superimposed on this pattern are nutrient inputs associated with N fixation, atmospheric deposition, river discharge and submarine ground water discharge. In regard to the latter, ground water discharge may be a significant source of N locally in some parts of Southeast Asia, North and Central America, and Europe, but on the scale of ocean basins and the global ocean, ground water discharge of N has been estimated © 2016 United Nations

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to be on the order of 2-4 per cent of river discharge (Beusen et al., 2013). Given this, and challenges of quantifying ground water inputs on ocean basin to global scales (NRC, 2004), this source is not considered herein. 2.1

Nitrogen

The ocean's nitrogen cycle is driven by complex microbial transformations, including N fixation, assimilation, nitrification, anammox and denitrification (Voss et al., 2013) (Figure 2). NPP depends on the supply of reactive N (Nr) 10 to the euphotic zone. Although most dissolved chemical forms of Nr can be assimilated by primary producers, the most abundant chemical form, dissolved dinitrogen gas (N2), can only be assimilated by marine diazotrophs. 11 Nr inputs to the euphotic zone occur via fluxes of nitrate from deep water (vertical mixing and upwelling), marine N2 fixation, river discharge, and atmospheric deposition. 12 Nr is removed from the marine N inventory through denitrification and anammox 13 with subsequent efflux of N2 and N2O to the atmosphere (Thamdrup et al., 2006; Capone, 2008; Naqvi et al., 2008; Ward et al., 2009; Ward, 2013). Although there is no agreement concerning the oxygen threshold that defines the geographic extent of denitrification and anammox (Paulmier and Ruiz-Pino, 2009), these processes are limited to suboxic waters with very low oxygen concentrations (< 22 µM).

10

Reactive or fixed N forms include dissolved inorganic nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and organic N compounds, such as urea and free amino acids. 11 Prokaryotic, free -living and symbiotic bacteria, cyanobacteria and archaea. 12 River discharge and atmospheric deposition include nitrate from fossil fuel burning and fixed N in synthetic fertilizer produced by the Haber-Bosch process for industrial nitrogen fixation. 13 Anaerobic ammonium oxidation.

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Figure 2. The biological nitrogen cycle showing the main inorganic forms in which nitrogen occurs in the ocean (PON-pariculate organic nitrogen) (adapted from Ward, 2012).

Variations in the ocean’s inventory of Nr have driven changes in marine NPP and atmospheric CO2 throughout the Earth’s geological history (Falkowski, 1997; Gruber, 2004; Arrigo, 2005). Marine N2 fixation provides a source of “new” N and NPP that fuel marine food webs and the biological pump. Thus, the rate of N2 fixation can affect atmospheric levels of CO2 on time-scales of decades (variability in upper ocean nutrient cycles) to millennia (changes in the Nr inventory of the deep sea). This makes the balance between the conversion of N2 to biomass (N2 fixation) and the production of N2 (reduction of nitrate and nitrite by denitrification and anammox) particularly important processes in the N cycle that govern the marine inventory of Nr and sustain life in the oceans (Karl et al., 2002; Ward et al., 2007; Gruber, 2008; Ward, 2012). 2.1.1 The Marine Nitrogen Budget Estimates of global sources and sinks of Nr vary widely (Table 2). Marine biological N2 fixation accounts for ~50 per cent of N2 fixation globally (Ward, 2012). Most marine N2 fixation occurs in the euphotic zone of warm (> 20°C), oligotrophic waters between 30° N and 30° S (Karl et al., 2002; Mahaffey et al., 2005; Stal, 2009; Sohm et al., 2011). Denitrification and anammox in benthic sediments and mid-water oxygen minimum

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zones (OMZs) account for most losses of N from the marine Nr inventory (Ulloa et al., 2012; Ward, 2013). -1

Table 2. Summary of estimated sources and sinks (Tg N yr ) in the global marine nitrogen budget. (Data sources: Codispoti et al., 2001; Gruber and Sarmiento, 2002; Karl et al., 2002; Galloway et al., 2004; Mahaffey et al., 2005; Seitzinger et al., 2005; Boyer et al., 2006; Moore et al., 2006; Deutsch et al., 2007; Duce et al., 2008; DeVries et al., 2012; Grosskopf et al., 2012; Luo et al., 2012; Naqvi, 2012.)

Sources N fixation

Sinks

60-200

Rivers

35-80

Atmosphere

38-96

TOTAL

133-376

Denitrification & anammox

120-450

Sedimentation

25

N2O loss

4-7

TOTAL

149-482

Assuming a C:N:P ratio of 106:16:1 (the Redfield Ratio, Redfield et al., 1963), the quantity of Nr needed to support NPP globally is ~8800 Tg N yr-1. Given current estimates, inputs of Nr from river discharge and atmospheric deposition support 2-4 per cent of NPP annually, i.e., most NPP is supported by recycled nitrate from deep waters (cf. Okin et al., 2011). Although the N2O flux is a small term in the marine N budget (Table 2), it is a significant input to the global atmospheric N2O pool. Given a total input of 17.7 Tg N yr-1 (Freing et al., 2012), marine sources may account for 20-40 per cent of N2O inputs to the atmosphere. As N2O is 200-300 times more effective than CO2 as a greenhouse gas, increases in N2O from the ocean may contribute to both global warming and the destruction of stratospheric ozone. We note that although global estimates for anammox have yet to be made, this anaerobic process may be responsible for most N2 production in some oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) (Strous et al., 2006; Hamersley et al., 2007; Lama et al., 2009; Koeve and Kähler, 2010; Ulloa et al., 2012). The accounting in Table 2 suggests that total sinks may exceed total sources, but the difference is not significant. Many scientists believe that biological N2 fixation is underestimated or the combined rates of denitrification and anammox are overestimated (Capone, 2008). On average, the Redfield Ratio approximates the C:N:P ratio of phytoplankton biomass, and the distribution of deviations from the Redfield Ratio (Martiny et al., 2013) suggests that: sources exceed sinks in the subtropical gyres; sources and sinks are roughly equal in upwelling systems (including their OMZs); and sources tend to be less than sinks at high latitudes. This pattern is consistent with the © 2016 United Nations

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known distribution of marine diazotrophs and the observation that most marine N2 fixation occurs in warm, oligotrophic waters between 30° N and 30° S (Mahaffey et al., 2005; Stal, 2009; Sohm et al., 2011). However, given the wide and overlapping ranges of current estimates of Nr sources and sinks (Table 2), the extent to which the two are in steady state remains controversial. Atmospheric deposition of iron to the oceans via airborne dust may ultimately control the rate of N2 fixation in the global ocean and may account for the relatively high rate of N2 fixation in the subtropical central gyres (Karl et al., 2002). Fe II is required for photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport, nitrate and nitrite reduction, and N2 fixation. The large dust plume that extends from North Africa over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean dominates the global dust field (Stier et al., 2005). Consequently, iron deposition is particularly high in this region (Mahowald et al., 2005) where it may increase phytoplankton NPP by stimulating N2 fixation (Mahowald et al., 2005; Krishnamurthy et al., 2009; Okin et al., 2011). Model simulations indicate that the distribution and rate of N2 fixation may also be influenced by non-Redfield uptake of N and P by non-N2 fixing phytoplankton (Mills and Arrigo, 2010). In these simulations, N2 fixation in ecosystems dominated by phytoplankton with N:P ratios < Redfield is lower than expected when estimated rates are based on Redfield stoicheiometry. In contrast, in systems dominated by phytoplankton with N:P ratios > Redfield, N2 fixation is higher than expected based on Redfield stoicheiometry. 2.1.2 Time-Space Coupling of N2 Fixation and Denitrification/Anammox Early measurements of N2 fixation and the geographic distribution of in situ deviations from the Redfield Ratio suggest that the dominant sites of N2 fixation and denitrification are geographically separated and coupled on the time scales of ocean circulation (Capone et al., 2008 and references therein). In this scenario, the ocean oscillates between being a net source and a net sink of Nr on time scales of hundreds to thousands of years (Naqvi, 2012). However, there is also evidence that N2 fixation is closely coupled with denitrification/anammox in upwelling-OMZ systems 14, i.e., rates of N2 fixation are high downstream from OMZs where denitrification/anammox is high (Deutsch et al., 2007). Their findings indicate that N2 fixation and denitrification are in steady state on a global scale. Results from 3-D inverse modelling (DeVries et al., 2013) and observations that the marine Nr inventory has been relatively stable over the last several thousand years (Gruber, 2004; Altabet, 2007) support the hypothesis that rates of N2 fixation and denitrification/anammox are closely coupled in time and space. At the same time, global biogeochemical modelling suggests that the negative feedbacks stabilizing the Nr inventory cannot persist in an ocean where N2 fixation and denitrification/anammox are closely coupled, i.e., spatial separation, rather than spatial proximity, promoted negative feedbacks that stabilized the marine N inventory and 14

Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are oxygen-deficient layers in the ocean's water column (Paulmier and Ruiz-Pino, 2009).

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sustained a balanced N budget (Landolfi et al., 2013). If the coupling is close as argued above, the budget may not be in steady state. In this scenario, increases in vertical stratification of the upper ocean and expansion of OMZs associated with ocean warming (Keeling et al., 2010) could lead to closer spatial coupling of N2 fixation and denitrification, a net loss of N from the marine Nr inventory, and declines in NPP and CO2 sequestration during this century. 2.2

Phosphorus

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient utilized by all organisms for energy transport and growth. The primary inputs of P occur via river discharge and atmospheric deposition (Table 3). Biologically active P (BAP) in natural waters usually occurs as phosphate (PO43 ), which may be in dissolved inorganic forms (including orthophosphates and polyphosphates) or organic forms (organically bound phosphates). Natural inputs of BAP begin with chemical weathering of rocks followed by complex biogeochemical interactions, whose time scales are much longer than anthropogenic P inputs (BenitezNelson, 2000). Primary anthropogenic sources of BAP are industrial fertilizer, sewage and animal wastes. The Marine Phosphorus Budget: River discharge of P into the coastal ocean accounts for most P input to the ocean (Table 3). However, most riverine P is sequestered in continental shelf sediments (Paytan and McLaughlin, 2007) so that only ~25 per cent of the riverine input enters the NPP-driven marine P cycle. Estimates of BAP reaching the open ocean from rivers range from a few tenths to perhaps 1 Tg P yr-1 (Seitzinger et al., 2005; Meybeck, 1982; Sharpies et al., 2013). Mahowald et al., (2008) estimated that atmospheric inputs of BAP are ~0.1 Tg P yr-1. Together these inputs would support ~0.1 per cent of NPP annually. Thus, like Nr, virtually all NPP is supported by BAP recycled within the ocean on a global scale. Table 3. Summary of estimated sources and sinks (Tg P yr-1) in the global marine phosphorus budget. (Data sources: Filippelli and Delaney, 1996; Howarth et al., 1996; Benitez-Nelson, 2000; Compton et al., 2000; Ruttenberg, 2004; Seitzinger et al., 2005; Paytan and McLaughlin, 2007; Mahowald et al., 2008; Harrison et al., 2010; Krishnamurthy et al., 2010.)

Sources River discharge Atmospheric deposition Sinks

10.79 – 31.00 0.54 – 1.05

TOTAL

11.33 – 32.05

Open ocean sedimentation

1.30 – 10.57

The primary source of P in the atmosphere is mineral dust, accounting for approximately 80 per cent of atmospheric P. Other important sources include biogenic particles, biomass burning, fossil-fuel combustion, and biofuels. The P in mineral particles is not © 2016 United Nations

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very soluble, and most of it is found downwind of desert and arid regions. Only ~0.1 Tg P yr-1 of BAP appears to enter the oceans via atmospheric deposition (Mahowald et al., 2008). Although a small term in the P budget (Table 3), atmospheric deposition appears to be the main external source of BAP in the oligotrophic waters of the subtropical gyres and the Mediterranean Sea (Paytan and McLaughlin, 2007; Krishnamurthy et al., 2010). Burial in continental shelf and deep-sea sediments is the primary sink, with most riverine input being removed from the marine P cycle by rapid sedimentation of particulate inorganic (non-reactive mineral lattices) P in coastal waters (Paytan and McLaughlin, 2007). Burial in deep-sea sediments occurs after transformations from dissolved to particulate forms in the water column. Of the riverine input, 60-85 per cent is buried in continental shelf sediments (Slomp, 2011). Assuming that inputs from river discharge and atmospheric deposition are, respectively, ~15 Tg P yr-1 and 1 Tg P yr-1, and that 11 Tg P yr-1 and 5 Tg P yr-1, respectively, are buried in shelf and open-ocean sediments, the P budget appears to be roughly balanced on the scale of P turnover times in the ocean (~1500 years, Paytan and McLaughlin, 2007). 3. Variability and Resilience of Marine Ecosystems 3.1

Phytoplankton species diversity and resilience

Biodiversity enhances resilience by increasing the range of possible responses to perturbations and the likelihood that species will functionally compensate for one another following disturbance (functional redundancy) (McCann, 2000; Walker et al., 2004; Hooper et al., 2005; Haddad et al., 2011; Appeltans et al., 2012; Cleland, 2011). Annually averaged phytoplankton species diversity of the upper ocean tends to be lowest in polar and subpolar waters, where fast-growing (opportunistic) species account for most NPP, and highest in tropical and subtropical waters, where small phytoplankton (< 10 µm) account for most NPP (Barton et al., 2010). Phytoplankton species diversity is also a unimodal function of phytoplankton NPP, with maximum diversity at intermediate levels of NPP and minimum diversity associated with blooms of diatoms, dinoflagellates, Phaeocystis sp., and coccolithophores (Irigoien et al., 2004). This suggests that pelagic marine food webs may be most resilient to climate and anthropogenic forcings at intermediate levels of annual phytoplankton NPP. 3.2

Events, phenomena and processes of special interest

Zooplankton grazing: Zooplankton populations play key roles in both microbial food webs 15 supported by small phytoplankton (< 10 µm) and metazoan food webs 16 15

The microbial food web (or microbial loop) consists of small phytoplankton (mean spherical diameter < 10 µm), heterotrophic bacteria, archaea and protozoa (flagellates and ciliates).

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supported by large phytoplankton (> 20 µm). As such, they are critical links in nutrient cycles and the transfer of NPP to higher trophic levels of metazoan consumers. They fuel the biological pump and they limit excessive increases in NPP (e.g., Corten and Linley, 2003; Greene and Pershing, 2004; Steinberg et al., 2012). Microbial food webs dominate the biological cycles of C, N and P in the upper ocean and feed into metazoan food webs involving zooplankton, planktivorous fish, and their predators (Pomeroy et al., 2007; Moloney et al., 2011; Ward et al., 2012). Zooplankton in microbial food webs are typically dominated by heterotrophic and mixotrophic flagellates and ciliates. Metazoan food webs dominate the flow of energy and nutrients to harvestable fish stocks and to the deep sea (carbon sequestration). Zooplankton in metazoan food webs are typically dominated by crustaceans (e.g., copepods, krill and shrimp) and are part of relatively short, efficient, and nutritionally rich food webs supporting large numbers of planktivorous and piscivorous fish, seabirds, and marine mammals (Richardson, 2008; Barnes et al., 2010; Barnes et al., 2011). Microbial food webs support less zooplankton biomass than do metazoan food webs, and a recent analysis suggests that zooplankton/phytoplankton ratios range from a low of ~0.1 in the oligotrophic subtropical gyres to a high of ~10 in upwelling systems and subpolar regions (Ward et al., 2012). Such a gradient is consistent with a shift from “bottom-up”, nutrient-limited NPP in the oligotrophic gyres, where microflagellates are the primary consumers of NPP (Calbet, 2008), to “top-down”, grazing control of NPP by zooplankton in more productive high-latitude and upwelling ecosystems, where planktonic crustaceans are the primary grazers of NPP (Ward et al., 2012). Thus, zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton is an important parameter of spatial patterns and temporal trends in NPP, particularly at high latitudes and in coastal upwelling systems (section 6.1.4). 3.2.1 NPP and Fisheries Fish production depends to a large extent on NPP but the relationship between NPP and fish landings is complex. For instance, Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) of the coastal ocean account for ~30 per cent of marine phytoplankton NPP and ~80 per cent of marine fish landings globally (Sherman and Hempel, 2009). They are also “proving grounds” for the development of ecosystem-based approaches (EBAs) to fisheries management (McLeod and Leslie, 2009; Sherman and Hempel, 2009; Malone et al., 2014b). EBAs are guided in part by the recognition that the flow of energy and nutrients from NPP through marine food webs ultimately limits annual fish landings (Pauly and Christensen, 1995; Pikitch et al., 2004). Both mean annual and maximum fish landings have been shown to be related to NPP on regional scales, with increases in potential landings at high latitudes (> 30 per cent) and decreases at low latitudes (up to 40 per cent) (Pauly and Christensen, 1995; Ware, 2000; 16

The so-called “classical” food web is dominated by larger phytoplankton, metazoan zooplankton and nekton.

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Ware and Thomson, 2005; Frank et al., 2006; Chassot et al., 2007; Sherman and Hempel, 2009; Blanchard et al., 2012). However, the NPP required to support annual fish landings (PPR) varies among LMEs, e.g., fisheries relying on NPP at the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems require substantially higher levels of NPP than elsewhere (Chassot et al., 2010). Variations in PPR/NPP are related to a number of factors, including the relative importance of microbial and metazoan food webs and differences in the efficiencies of growth and transfer efficiencies among trophic levels. The level of exploitation (PPR/NPP) increased by over 10 per cent from 2000 to 2004, and the NPP appropriated by current global fisheries is 17-112 per cent higher than that appropriated by sustainable fisheries. Temporal and spatial variations in PPR/NPP call into question the usefulness of global NPP per se as a predictor of global fish landings (Friedland et al., 2012). Friedland et al. (2012) found that NPP is a poor predictor of fish landings across 52 LMEs, with most variability in fish landings across LMEs accounted for by chlorophyll-a concentration, the fraction of NPP exported to deep water, and the ratio of secondary production to NPP. Given these considerations and uncertainties concerning the effects of climate change on fluxes of nutrients to the euphotic zone, it is not surprising that there is considerable uncertainty associated with projections of how changes in NPP will affect fish landings over the next few decades. 3.2.2 NPP Fisheries and zooplankton Zooplankton is a critical link between NPP and fish production (Cushing, 1990; Richardson, 2008). Efficient transfer of phytoplankton NPP to higher trophic levels ultimately depends on the relative importance of microbial and metazoan foods webs and the coherence between the timing of phytoplankton blooms (initiation, amplitude, duration) and the reproductive cycles of zooplankton and planktivorous fish (Cushing, 1990; Platt et al., 2003; Koeller et al., 2009; Jansen et al., 2012). Energy transfer to higher trophic levels via microbial food webs is less efficient than for metazoan food webs (e.g., Barnes et al., 2010; Barnes et al., 2011; Suikkanen et al., 2013). Coherence in time and space is especially important in higher-latitude ecosystems (Sherman et al., 1984; Edwards and Richardson, 2004; Richardson, 2008; Ohashia et al., 2013), where seasonal variations in NPP are most pronounced and successful fish recruitment is most dependent on synchronized production across trophic levels (Cushing, 1990; Beaugrand et al., 2003). The phenological response to ocean warming differs among functional groups of plankton, resulting in predator-prey mismatches that may influence PPR/NPP in marine ecosystems. For example, phytoplankton blooms in the North Atlantic begin earlier south of 40°N (autumn – winter) and in spring north of 40°N (Siegel et al., 2002; Ueyama and Monger, 2005; Vargas et al., 2009). Likewise, a 44-year time series (19582002) revealed progressively earlier peaks in abundance of dinoflagellates (23 days), diatoms (22 days) and copepods (10 days) under stratified summer conditions in the North Sea (Edwards and Richardson, 2004). Such differential responses in phytoplankton and zooplankton phenology lead to mismatches between successive trophic levels and, therefore, a decline in PPR/NPP, i.e., a decrease in carrying capacity for harvestable fish stocks. © 2016 United Nations

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3.2.3 Coastal Eutrophication and “Dead Zones” Excess phytoplankton NPP in coastal ecosystems can lead to accumulations of phytoplankton biomass and eutrophication. Anthropogenic N and P loading to estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems has more than doubled in the last 100 years (Seitzinger et al., 2010; Howarth et al., 2012), 17 leading to a global spread of coastal eutrophication and associated increases in the number of oxygen-depleted “dead zones” (Duarte, 1995; Malone et al., 1999; Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008; Kemp et al., 2009), loss of sea grass beds (Dennison et al., 1993; Kemp et al., 2004; Schmidt et al., 2012), and increases in the occurrence of toxic phytoplankton blooms (see below). Current global trends in coastal eutrophication and the occurrence of “dead zones” and toxic algal events indicate that phytoplankton NPP is increasing in many coastal ecosystems, a trend that is also likely to exacerbate future impacts of over-fishing, sea-level rise, and coastal development on ecosystem services (Dayton et al., 2005; Koch et al., 2009; Waycott et al., 2009). 3.2.4 Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) OMZs, which occur at midwater depths (200-1000 m) in association with eastern boundary upwelling systems, are expanding globally as the solubility of dissolved O2 decreases and vertical stratification increases due to upper ocean warming (Chan et al., 2008; Capotondi et al., 2012; Bijma et al., 2013). Currently, the total surface area of OMZs is estimated to be ~30 x 106 km2 (~8 per cent of the ocean’s surface area) with a volume of ~10 x 106 km3 (~0.1 per cent of the ocean’s volume). It is expected that the spatial extent of OMZs will continue to increase (Oschlies et al., 2008), a trend that is likely to affect nutrient cycles and fisheries – especially when combined with the spread of coastal dead zones associated with coastal eutrophication. 3.2.5 Toxic Algal Blooms Toxin-producing algae are a diverse group of phytoplankton species with only two characteristics in common: (1) they harm people and ecosystems; and (2) their initiation, development and dissipation are governed by species-specific population dynamics and oceanographic conditions (Cullen, 2008b). Negative impacts of algal toxins include illness and death in humans who consume contaminated fish and shellfish or are exposed to toxins via direct contact (swimming, inhaling noxious aerosols); mass mortalities of wild and farmed fish, marine mammals and birds; and declines in the capacity of ecosystems to support goods and services (Cullen, 2008b; Walsh et al., 2008). Impacts associated with toxic algal blooms are global and appear to be increasing in severity and extent in coastal ecosystems as a consequence of anthropogenic nutrients, introductions of non-native toxic species with ballast water from ships, and climate-driven increases in water temperature and vertical stratification of the upper ocean (Glibert et al., 2005; Glibert and Bouwman, 2012; Cullen, 2008b; Franks, 2008; Malone, 2008; Hallegraeff, 2010; Moore et al., 2008, Babin et al., 2008). 17

Primarily due to the rapid rise in fertilizer use in agriculture, production of manure from farm animals, domestic sewage, and atmospheric deposition associated with fossil-fuel combustion.

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3.2.6 Nanoparticles Nanoparticles have dimensions of 1-100 nm and are produced both naturally and anthropogenically. Of concern here are anthropogenic nanoparticles, such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) 18 and nanoplastics 19 . Nanoparticulate TiO2 is highly photoactive and generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) when exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV). Consequently, TiO2 has been used for antibacterial applications, such as wastewater treatment. It also has the potential to affect NPP. For example, it has been found that ambient levels of UV from the sun can cause TiO2 nanoparticles suspended in seawater to kill phytoplankton, perhaps through the generation of ROS (Miller et al., 2012). Recent work has also highlighted the potential environmental impacts of microplastics (cf. Depledge et al., 2013; Wright et al., 2013). Experimental evidence suggests that nanoplastics may reduce grazing pressure on phytoplankton and perturb nutrient cycles. For example, Wegner et al., (2012) found that mussels (Mytilus edulis) exposed to nanoplastics consume less phytoplankton and grow slower than mussels that have not been exposed. In addition, microplastics contain persistent organic pollutants, and both mathematical models and experimental data have demonstrated the transfer of pollutants from plastic to organisms (Teuten et al., 2009). Understanding the ecotoxicology of anthropogenic nanoparticles in the marine environment is an important challenge, but as of this writing there is no clear consensus on environmental impacts in situ (cf. Handy et al., 2008). We know so little about the persistence and physical behaviour of anthropogenic nanoparticles in situ that extrapolating experimental results, such as those given above, to the natural marine environment would be premature. We urgently need to develop the means to reliably and routinely monitor nanoparticles of anthropogenic origin and their impacts on production and fate of phytoplankton biomass. A first step towards risk assessment would be to establish and set limits based on their intrinsic toxicity to phytoplankton and the consumers of plankton biomass. The provision of such information is part of the mission of Working Group 40 of the Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP). WG 40 was established to assess the sources, fate and effects of micro-plastics in the marine environment globally. 20 3.2.7 Ultraviolet Radiation and the Ozone Layer The Sun emits ultraviolet radiation (UV, 400-700 nanometers), with UV-B (280-315 nm) having a wide range of potentially harmful effects, including inhibition of primary 18

The world production of nanoparticulate TiO2 is an order of magnitude greater than the next most widely produced nanomaterial, ZnO. About 70 per cent of all pigments use TiO2, and it is a common ingredient in products such as sunscreen and food colouring. Titanium dioxide is therefore likely to enter estuaries and oceans, for example, from industrial discharge. 19 Plastic nanoparticles are released when plastic debris decomposes in seawater. Nanoparticles are also released from cosmetics and from clothes in the wash, and enter sewage systems where they are discharged into the sea. 20 http://www.gesamp.org/work-programme/workgroups/working-group-40.

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production by phytoplankton and cyanobacteria (Häder et al., 2007; Villar-Argaiz et al., 2009; Ha et al., 2012), changes in the structure and function of plankton communities (Ferreyra et al., 2006; Häder et al., 2007; Fricke et al., 2011; Guidi et al., 2011; Santos et al., 2012a; Ha et al., 2014), and alterations of the N cycle (Goes et al., 1995; Jiang and Qiu, 2011). The ozone layer in the Earth’s stratosphere blocks most UV-B from reaching the ocean’s surface. Consequently, stratospheric ozone depletion since the 1970s has been a concern, especially over the South Pole, where a so-called ozone hole has developed.21 However, the average size of the ozone hole declined by ~2 per cent between 2006 and 2013 and appears to have stabilized, with variation from year to year driven by changing meteorological conditions. 22 It has even been predicted that there will be a gradual recovery of ozone concentrations by ~2050 (Taalas et al., 2000). Given these observations and variations in the depths to which UV-B penetrates in the ocean (~1-10 m), a consensus on the magnitude of the ozone-depletion effect on NPP and nutrient cycling has yet to be reached. 4. Socioeconomic importance Marine NPP supports a broad range of ecosystem services valued by society and required for sustainable development (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005; Worm et al., 2006; Conservation International, 2008; Perrings et al., 2010; Schlitzer et al., 2012; Malone et al., 2014b; Chapter 3 in this assessment). These include: (1)

food security through the production of harvestable fish, shellfish and macroalgae (Sherman and Hempel, 2009; Chassot et al., 2010; Barbier et al., 2011);

(2)

climate regulation through carbon sequestration (Twilley et al., 1992; Cebrian, 2002; Schlitzer et al., 2003; Duarte et al., 2005; Bouillon et al., 2008; Mitsch and Gosselink, 2008; Schneider et al., 2008; Subramaniam et al., 2008; Laffoley and Grimsditch, 2009; Nellemann et al., 2009; Chavez et al., 2011; Crooks et al., 2011; Henson et al., 2012);

(3)

maintenance of water quality through nutrient recycling and water filtration (Falkowski et al., 1998; Geider et al., 2001; Dayton et al., 2005; Howarth et al., 2011);

(4)

protection from coastal erosion and flooding through the growth of macrophyte habitats (Danielsen et al., 2005; UNEP-WCMC, 2006; Davidson and Malone,

21

Ozone can be destroyed by reactions with by-products of man-made chemicals, such as chlorine from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Increases in the concentrations of these chemicals have led to ozone depletion. 22 http://www.nasa.gov/content/.

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2006/2007; Braatz et al., 2007; Koch et al., 2009; Titus et al., 2009; Barbier et al., 2011), and (5)

development of biofuels and discovery of pharmaceuticals through the maintenance of biodiversity (Chynoweth et al., 2001; Orhan et al., 2006; Han et al., 2006; Yusuf, 2007; Negreanu-Pîrjol et al., 2011; Vonthron-Sénécheau et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2012; Sharma et al., 2012).

On a global scale, the value of these services in coastal marine and estuarine ecosystems has been estimated to be > 25 trillion United States dollars annually, making the coastal zone among the most economically valuable regions on Earth (Costanza et al., 1997; Martínez et al., 2007). The global loss of macrophyte ecosystems threatens the ocean’s capacity to sequester carbon from the atmosphere (climate control), support biodiversity (Part V of this Assessment) and living marine resources (Part IV of this Assessment), maintain water quality, and protect against coastal erosion and flooding (Boesch and Turner, 1984; Dennison et al., 1993; Duarte, 1995; CENR, 2003; Scavia and Bricker, 2006; Davidson and Malone, 2006/07; Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008; MacKenzie and Dionne, 2008; Nellemann et al., 2009). Estimates of the value of these services by Koch et al., (2009) and Barbier et al., (2011) suggest that the socioeconomic impact of the degradation of marine macrophyte ecosystems is on the order of billions of US dollars per year. 5. Anthropogenic Impacts on Upper Ocean Plankton and Nutrient Cycles 5.1

Nitrogen loading

The rate of industrial Nitrogen gas (N2) fixation increased rapidly during the 20th century and is now about equal to the rate of biological N2 fixation, resulting in a two- to threefold increase in the global inventory of Reactive nitrogen (Nr) (Galloway et al., 2004; Howarth, 2008), a trend that has accelerated the global N cycle (Gruber and Galloway 2008). Today, anthropogenic Nr inputs to surface waters via atmospheric deposition and river discharge are now roughly equivalent to marine N2 fixation (Table 2) and are expected to exceed marine N2 fixation in the near future as a result of increases in emissions from combustion of fossil fuels and use of synthetic fertilizers. This trend is expected to continue (Duce et al., 2008; Seitzinger et al., 2010). Atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic Nr increased by an order of magnitude during the 20th century to ~54 Tg N y−1 (80 per cent of total deposition), an amount that could increase NPP by ~0.06 per cent. Estimates of anthropogenic emissions for 2030 indicate a 4-fold increase in total atmospheric Nr deposition to the ocean and an 11-fold increase in AAN deposition (Duce et al., 2008). However, Lamarque et al., (2013) suggest that oxidized Nr may decrease later this century because of increased control of the emission of oxidized N compounds. At the same time, the geographic distribution of atmospheric deposition has also changed (Suntharalingam et al., 2012). In the late 1800s, © 2016 United Nations

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atmospheric deposition over most of the ocean is estimated to have been < 50 mg N m−2 y−1. By 2000, deposition over large ocean areas exceeded 200 mg N m−2 y−1 with intense deposition plumes (> 700 mg N m−2 y−1) extending downwind from Asia, India, North and South America, Europe and West Africa. Predictions for 2030 indicate similar patterns, but with higher deposition rates extending farther offshore into the oligotrophic, subtropical central gyres. Likewise, marine N2O production has increased compared to pre-industrial times downwind of continental population centres (in coastal and inland seas by 15-30 per cent, in oligotrophic regions of the North Atlantic and Pacific by 5-20 per cent, and in the northern Indian Ocean by up to 50 per cent). These regional patterns reflect a combination of high Nr deposition and enhanced N2O production in suboxic zones. The major pathway of anthropogenic Nr loading to the oceans is river runoff. Anthropogenic Nr input to the coastal ocean via river discharge more than doubled during the 20th century due to increases in fossil-fuel combustion, discharges of human and animal wastes, and the use of industrial fertilizers in coastal watersheds (Peierls et al., 1991; Galloway et al., 2004; Seitzinger et al., 2010). Riverine input of Nr to the coastal ocean is correlated with human population density in and net anthropogenic inputs (NANI) 23 to coastal watersheds (Howarth et al., 2012). NPP in coastal marine and estuarine ecosystems increases with increasing riverine inputs of Nr (Nixon, 1992). Given predicted increases in population density in coastal watersheds and climate-driven changes in the hydrological cycle, global nutrient-export models predict that riverine inputs of Nr to coastal waters will double again by 2050 (Seitzinger et al., 2010). In this context, it is noteworthy that anthropogenic perturbations of the N-cycle caused by NANI already exceed the estimated “planetary boundary” (35 x 103 kg yr-1) within which sustainable development is possible (Rockstram et al., 2009). Ocean warming and associated increases in vertical stratification are likely to exacerbate the effects of increases in NANI on phytoplankton NPP in coastal waters (Rabalais et al., 2009). As a consequence, excess NPP and the global extent of coastal eutrophication are likely to continue increasing, especially in coastal waters near large watersheds, population centres and areas of industrial agriculture (Kroeze and Seitzinger, 1998; Dayton et al., 2005; Seitzinger et al., 2005; UNESCO, 2008; Kemp et al., 2009; Rabalais et al., 2009; Sherman and Hempel, 2009). 5.2

Ocean warming

5.2.1 Global impacts on NPP Henson et al., (2013) used the results of six global biogeochemical models to project the effects of upper ocean warming on the amplitude and timing of seasonal peaks in 23

Net anthropogenic nitrogen input (NANI) is the sum of synthetic N fertilizer used, N fixation associated with agricultural crops, atmospheric deposition of oxidized N, and the net movement of N into or out of the region in human food and animal feed.

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phytoplankton NPP. Amplitude decreased by 1-2 per cent over most of the ocean, except in the Arctic, where an increase of 1 per cent by 2100 is projected. These results are supported by the response of phytoplankton and zooplankton to global climatechange projections carried out with the IPSL Earth System Model (Chust et al., 2014). Projected upper ocean warming by the turn of the century led to reductions in phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass of 6 per cent and 11 per cent, respectively. Simulations suggest such declines are the predominant response over nearly 50 per cent of the ocean and prevail in the tropical and subtropical oceans while increasing trends prevail in the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. These results suggest that the capacity of the oceans to regulate climate through the biological carbon pump may decrease over the course of this century. The model runs also indicate that, on average, a 30-40 year time series of observations will be needed to validate model results. Regardless of the direction of global trends in NPP, climate change may be causing shifts in phytoplankton community size spectra toward smaller cells which, if confirmed, will have profound effects on the fate of NPP and nutrient cycling during this century (Polovina and Woodworth, 2012). The size spectrum of phytoplankton communities in the upper ocean’s euphotic zone largely determines the trophic organization of pelagic ecosystems and, therefore, the efficiency with which NPP is channelled to higher trophic levels, is exported to the deep ocean, or is metabolized in the upper ocean (Malone, 1980; Azam et al., 1983; Cushing, 1990; Kiørboe, 1993; Legendre and Rassoulzadegan, 1996; Shurin et al., 2006; Pomeroy et al., 2007; Marañón, 2009; Barnes et al., 2010; Finkel et al., 2010; Suikkanen et al., 2013; and section 6.3.2). In today’s ocean, the proportion of NPP accounted for by small phytoplankton (cells with an equivalent spherical diameter < 10 µm) generally increases with increasing water temperature in the ocean (Atkinson et al., 2003; Daufresne et al., 2009; Marañón, 2009; Huete-Ortega et al., 2010; Morán et al., 2010; Hilligsøe et al., 2011) and with increasing vertical stratification of the euphotic zone (Margalef, 1978; Malone, 1980; Kiørboe, 1993). Small cells also have a competitive advantage over large cells in nutrient-poor environments (Malone, 1980a; Chisholm, 1992; Kiørboe, 1993; Raven, 1998; Marañón, 2009). Thus, as the upper ocean warms and becomes more stratified, it is likely that the small phytoplankton species will account for an increasingly large fraction of NPP (Morán et al., 2010) resulting in increases in energy flow through microbial food webs and decreases in fish stocks and organic carbon export to the deep sea (see section 6.1.1 and references therein). This trend may be exacerbated by increases in temperature that are likely to stimulate plankton metabolism, enhancing both NPP and microbial respiration. Recent studies (Montoya and Raffaelli, 2010; Sarmento et al., 2010; Behrenfeld, 2011; Taucher and Oschlies, 2011; Taucher et al., 2012) suggest that predicted climate-driven increases in the temperature of the upper ocean will stimulate the NPP of smaller picophytoplankton cells (equivalent spherical diameter < 2µm), despite predicted decreases in nutrient inputs to the euphotic zone from the deep sea in permanently stratified regions of the ocean (e.g., the oligotrophic, subtropical central gyres). © 2016 United Nations

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However, if this does occur, it will not result in an increase in fishery production or in the ocean’s uptake of atmospheric CO2, because increases in picophytoplankton NPP will be accompanied by equivalent increases in the respiratory release of CO2 by bacterioplankton and other heterotrophic microbial consumers in the upper ocean (Sarmento et al., 2010; Behrenfeld, 2011). 5.2.2 Regional impacts on NPP Regional trends in phytoplankton NPP are less controversial. The area of low NPP in the subtropical central gyres increased by 1-4 per cent yr-1 from 1998 through 2006 (Polovina et al., 2008; Vantrepotte and Mélin, 2009), a trend that is likely to continue through this century (Polovina et al., 2011). Decreasing NPP has been attributed to climate-driven (ocean warming) increases in vertical stratification and associated decreases in nutrient fluxes from deep water to the euphotic zone in the permanently stratified subtropical gyres (Rost et al., 2008; Jang et al., 2011; Polovina et al., 2011; Capotondi et al., 2012; Moore et al., 2013). In the North Atlantic, upper ocean warming and increases in stratification have been accompanied by decreasing NPP in waters south of ~50°N, whereas warming and increases in stratification to the north have been accompanied by increasing NPP (Richardson and Shoeman, 2004; Bode et al., 2011). These divergent responses to stratification reflect increases in the availability of sunlight in nutrient-rich, well-mixed subpolar waters and increases in nutrient limitation in nutrient-poor, permanently stratified 24 subtropical waters (Richardson and Shoeman, 2004; Steinacher et al., 2010; Bode et al., 2011; Capotondi et al., 2012). Polar ecosystems are particularly sensitive to climate change (Smith et al., 2001; Anisimov et al., 2007; Bode et al., 2011; Doney et al., 2012; Engel et al., 2013), and the impacts of shrinking ice cover on NPP are expected to be especially significant in the Arctic Ocean (Wang and Overland, 2009). Loss of Arctic sea ice has accelerated in recent years (with a record low in 2012), 25 a trend that is correlated with an increase in annual NPP by an average of 27.5 Tg C yr-1 since 2003, with an overall increase of 20 per cent from 1998 to 2010 (Arrigo et al., 2008; Arrigo and van Dijken, 2011; Brown and Arrigo, 2012). Of this increase, 30 per cent has been attributed to a decrease in the spatial extent of summer ice and 70 per cent to a longer growing season (the spring bloom is occurring earlier). The change in NPP is not spatially homogeneous. Positive trends are most pronounced in seasonally ice-free regions, including the eastern Barents shelf, Siberian shelves (Kara and east Siberian seas), western Mackenzie shelf, and the Bering Strait. NPP is expected to continue increasing during this century due to continued seaice retreat and the associated increase in available sunlight. However, this trend may be short-lived if nitrate supplies from deep water are insufficient (Tremblay and Gagnon, 2009). Neglecting the latter, Arrigo and van Dijken (2011) project a > 60 per cent increase in NPP for a summer ice-free Arctic using a linear extrapolation of the historical 24

The permanent or main thermocline extends from ~50° N to ~50° S. North Atlantic Deep Water and Antarctic Bottom Water formation take place at higher latitudes. 25 http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews//.

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trend. Should these trends continue, additional loss of ice during Arctic spring could boost NPP more than three-fold above 1998-2002 levels and alter marine ecosystem structure and the degree of pelagic-benthic coupling. However, predictions of future trends in Arctic NPP are uncertain, given the possibility of nitrate limitation (Vancoppenolle et al., 2013). Reducing uncertainty for both nitrate fields and rates of biogeochemical processes in the sea-ice zone should improve the skill of projected changes in NPP needed to anticipate the impact of climate change on Arctic food webs and the carbon cycle. The coastal marine ecosystem of the West Antarctic Peninsula supports massive springsummer phytoplankton blooms upon which the production of Antarctic krill depends. NPP associated with these blooms is correlated with the spatial and temporal extent of ice cover during the previous winter. Air temperatures over the West Antarctic Peninsula have warmed by 7°C since the 1970s, resulting in a 40 per cent decline in winter sea-ice cover and a decrease in phytoplankton NPP (Flores et al., 2012; Ducklow et al., 2013; Henley, 2013). Continued declines in the extent of winter sea-ice cover is likely to drive decadal-scale reductions in NPP and the production of krill, reducing the food supply for their predators (marine mammals, seabirds and people). 5.2.3 Distribution and abundance of toxic phytoplankton species The socioeconomic impacts of toxic dinoflagellate species are increasing globally (Van Dolah, 2000; Glibert et al., 2005; Hoagland and Scatasta, 2006; Babin et al., 2008; UNESCO, 2012), and their distribution and abundance are sensitive indicators of the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient inputs and climate-driven increases in water temperature and vertical stratification on ecosystem services (see section 6.3.2). Alexandrium tamarense represents a group of species that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) (Alexandrium catenella, A. fundyense, Pyrodinium bahamense and Gymnodinium catenatum) globally (Boesch et al., 1997). Since the 1970s, PSP episodes have spread from coastal waters of Europe, North America and Japan to coastal waters of South America, South Africa, Australia, the Pacific Islands, India, all of Asia and the Mediterranean (Lilly et al., 2007). Climate-driven shifts in the geographic ranges of Ceratium furca and Dinophysis spp. in the NE Atlantic have also occurred (Edwards et al., 2006), and the abundance of dinoflagellates in the North Sea have been positively correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and sea surface temperature (Edwards et al., 2001). 5.2.4 Distribution and abundance of indicator zooplankton species The distribution and abundance of calanoid copepods are also sensitive indicators of climate-driven increases in upper ocean temperature and basin-scale oscillations (Hays et al., 2005; Burkill and Reid, 2010; Edwards et al., 2010) including poleward shifts in species distributions (Beaugrand et al., 2002; Beaugrand et al., 2003; Cheung et al., 2010; Chust et al., 2014), decreases in size, and higher growth rates (e.g., Beaugrand et al., 2002; Richardson, 2008; Mackas and Beaugrand, 2010). There have also been phenological changes, with the seasonal peak in abundance advancing to earlier in the © 2016 United Nations

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year for some species and being delayed for others (Edwards and Richardson, 2004, section 6.3.2). In the North Pacific, there is a strong correlation between sea-surface temperature in the spring and the latitude at which subtropical species reach their seasonal peak in abundance. 26 Water temperature also influences the annual cycle of Neocalanus plumchrus biomass in the Northeast Pacific, where decadal-scale variations include a shift to an earlier occurrence of the seasonal biomass peak, as well as a decrease in the duration of the bloom under warm ocean conditions (Mackas et al., 2007; Batten and Mackas, 2009). The frequency and magnitude of gelatinous zooplankton blooms may be important indicators of the status and performance of marine ecosystems (Hay, 2006; Graham et al., 2014). Both predators (medusa and ctenophores) and herbivores (tunicates) can affect the fate of NPP (Pitt et al., 2009; Lebrato and Jones, 2011). Predators disrupt metazoan food webs by consuming copepods and small fish (Richardson et al., 2009). Tunicates reduce the transfer of NPP to upper trophic levels and to the deep sea as their gelatinous remains are degraded via microbial food webs (Lebrato and Jones, 2011). Although, there is no evidence for an increase in the frequency and magnitude of gelatinous zooplankton on a global scale (Condon et al., 2012), decadal scale increases have been reported in several coastal marine ecosystems (Brodeur et al., 2002; Kideys, 2002; Lynam et al., 2006; Uye, 2008; Licandro et al., 2010). A rigorous analysis of multidecadal (using a 1950 baseline) abundance data for 45 Large Marine Ecosystems, Brotz et al., 2012 found that 28 (62 per cent) exhibited increasing trends while 3 (7 per cent) exhibited decreasing trends. Thus, while increases of jellyfish populations may not be globally universal, they are both numerous and widespread. The most likely causes of these trends include ocean warming, overfishing, coastal eutrophication, habitat modification, aquaculture, and introductions of non-indigenous gelatinous species (Brotz et al., 2012; Purcell, 2012). While direct evidence is lacking for most of these pressures, jellyfish tend to be most abundant in warm waters with low forage fish populations, and it is likely that ocean warming will provide a rising baseline of abundance leading to increases in the magnitude of jellyfish blooms and associated impacts on ecosystem services (Graham et al., 2014). 5.3

Ocean acidification

The oceans are becoming more acidic due to increases in uptake of atmospheric CO2 (Calderia and Wickett, 2003; Calderia and Wickett, 2005; Doney et al., 2009; Beardall et al., 2009), and most of the upper ocean is projected to be undersaturated with respect to aragonite within 4-7 decades (Orr et al., 2005) with undersaturation expected to occur earliest at high latitudes (> 40°) and in upwelling systems where the aragonite saturation horizon is expected to shoal most rapidly (Feely et al., 2009, Gruber et al., 2009). These chemical changes in turn affect marine plankton via several mechanisms 26

http://www.pices.int/publications/pices_press/volume16/v16_n2/pp_19-21_CPR_f.pdf.

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including the following: (1) decreases in the degree of aragonite saturation makes it harder for calcifying organisms (e.g., coccolithophores, foraminifera, and pteropods) to precipitate their mineral structures; (2) decreases in pH alters the bioavailability of essential algal nutrients such as iron and zinc; and (3) increases in CO2 decrease the energy requirements for photosynthetic organisms to synthesize biomass. Such biological effects are likely to perturb marine biogeochemical cycles including carbon export to the deep sea via the biological pump which may have a positive feedback on the buildup of CO2 in the upper ocean and atmosphere. However, assessments of the impacts of ocean acidification on NPP and nutrient cycling remain controversial and are a subject of much research (cf., Delille et al., 2005; Doney et al., 2009; Shi et al., 2009; Shi et al.,2010; Shi et al., 2012; Moy et al., 2009; Kristy et al., 2010). For example, increases in CO2 may stimulate N2 and carbon fixation by colonial cyanobacterial diazotrophs (Barcelos e Ramos et al., 2007). In addition, as the upper ocean warms, the geographic range of diazotrophs will expand. These effects may combine to enhance N2 fixation by as much as 35-65 per cent by the end of this century (Hutchins et al., 2009). It is noteworthy interesting that projected increases in N2 fixation are about the same magnitude as increases in denitrification projected by Oschlies et al., (2008). Although both of these estimates have large uncertainties, if input and output fluxes accelerate at about the same rate, the ocean’s global inventory of Nr would not change, whereas NPP could increase (Sarmento et al., 2010; Behrenfeld, 2011). In regard to macrophytes, photosynthetic rates of calcifying macroalgae do not appear to be stimulated by elevated CO2 conditions, i.e., the majority of studies to date have shown a decrease or no change in photosynthetic rates under elevated CO2 conditions (Hofmann and Bischof, 2014). On the other hand, there is clear evidence that ocean acidification (higher pCO2) stimulates seagrass NPP resulting in increases in above- and below-ground biomass suggesting that the capacity of seagrasses to sequester carbon may be significantly increased (Garrard and Beaumont, 2014). 5.4

Sea-level rise, coastal development and macrophyte NPP

Sea levels have increased globally since the 1970s, mainly as a result of global mean sealevel rise due in part to anthropogenic warming causing ocean thermal expansion and glacier melting (Chapter 4 of this Assessment). Sea-level rise will not be uniform globally. Regional differences in sea-level trends will be related to changes in prevailing winds, ocean circulation, gravitational pull of polar ice sheets, and subsidence, so that sea-level rise will exceed the global mean in some regions and will actually fall in others. 27 To date, the global decline in macrophyte habitats has been primarily due to coastal development, artificially hardened shorelines, aquaculture operations, dredging and eutrophication. This will change with sea-level rise (Short and Neckles, 1999; Nicholls 27

http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/sltrends//.

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and Cazenave, 2010). Macrophyte habitats are projected to be negatively affected by sea-level rise and subsidence, especially where distributions are constrained on their landward side by geomorphology and human activities along the shoreline (Pernetta, 1993; Short and Neckles, 1999; Orth et al., 2006; Alongi, 2008; Gilman et al., 2008; Silliman et al., 2009; Waycott et al., 2009; Donato et al., 2011). Together, sea-level rise, subsidence, coastal development and aquaculture operations are destroying mangrove forests, tidal marshes and seagrass beds at an alarming rate. The combination of sealevel rise and the loss of these coastal habitats will decrease the capacity of coastal ecosystems to provide services, including climate regulation (carbon sequestration), protection against coastal flooding and erosion, and the capacity to support biodiversity and living marine resources. 5.5

Regions of special interest

5.5.1 Coastal river plumes Increases in land-based anthropogenic inputs of N and P to coastal waters is driving increases in annual phytoplankton NPP in estuaries and coastal marine ecosystems near population centres and areas of industrial agriculture in large river basins (sections 6.2.1 and 6.2.2). This may lead to further increases in the spatial extent and/or number of coastal ecosystems experiencing eutrophication and oxygen-depleted dead zones associated with the coastal plumes of major river-coastal systems, including the Yangtze (E. China Sea), Mekong (S. China Sea), Niger (Gulf of Guinea), Nile (Mediterranean Sea), Parana (Atlantic Ocean), Mississippi (Gulf of Mexico), and Rhine (North Sea) (UNESCO, 2012). 5.5.2 Polar waters and subtropical gyres Ocean warming appears to be driving opposing trends in phytoplankton NPP in polar waters (interannual increases in NPP) and subtropical gyres (interannual decreases in NPP) and a global expansion of oxygen minimum zones associated with upwelling systems. Regions of special interest include the Arctic Ocean, coastal waters of the western Antarctic Peninsula, permanently stratified subtropical gyres of the North Pacific and North Atlantic, and major coastal upwelling centers (Cariaco Basin and California, Humboldt, Canary, Benguela and Somali Currents). 5.5.3 Subpolar waters Early expressions of the impacts of ocean acidification on upper ocean plankton are most likely to occur at high latitudes. Pteropods and foraminifera (dominated by Globigerina bulloides) are most abundant at high latitudes (> 40°N) in surface waters of the North Atlantic (Barnard et al., 2004; Fraile et al., 2008; Bednaršek et al., 2012), whereas the coccolithophore E. huxleyi is most abundant in the

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“Great Southern Coccolithophore Belt” of the Southern Ocean 28 and at high latitudes in the NE Atlantic (Barnard et al., 2004; Balch et al., 2011; Sadeghi et al., 2012). If the abundance of these functional groups declines in these regions, likely impacts will be to reduce the capacity of the oceans to take up CO2, export carbon to the deep sea, and support fisheries (Cooley et al., 2009). 6. Information needs As shown above, anthropogenic nutrient-loading of coastal waters and climate-change pressures on marine ecosystems (ocean warming and acidification, sea-level rise) are driving changes in NPP and nutrient cycles that are affecting the provision of ecosystem services and, therefore, sustainable development. However, although changes in macrophyte NPP and their impacts are relatively well documented (and must continue to be), a consensus on the magnitude of changes and even the direction of change in phytoplankton NPP and upper ocean nutrient cycles has yet to be reached. Documenting spatial patterns and temporal trends in NPP and nutrient cycles (and their causes and socioeconomic consequences) will rely heavily on the accuracy and frequency with which changes in NPP and nutrient cycling can be detected over a broad range of scales (cf. deYoung et al., 2004; UNESCO, 2012; Mathis and Feeley, 2013). Given the importance of marine NPP and the species diversity of primary producers to sustaining ecosystem services, rapid detection of changes in time-space patterns of marine NPP and in the diversity of primary producers that contribute to NPP is an important dimension of the Regular Process29 for global reporting and assessment of the state of the marine environment, including socioeconomic aspects. Data requirements for the Regular Process have been used to help guide the development of the Global Ocean Observing System and an implementation strategy for its coastal module (UNESCO, 2012; Malone et al., 2014a; Malone et al., 2014b). The essential variables required to compute key indicators of ecosystem health include species richness, chlorophyll-a, dissolved Nr, and dissolved BAP (UNESCO, 2012). Routine and sustained measurements of these variables over a range of temporal and spatial scales are required for rapid and timely detection of changes in NPP and nutrient cycles and the impacts of these changes on ecosystem services on regional (e.g., Large Marine Ecosystems) to global scales. Although satellite imagery, limited in situ measurements and numerical models are making it possible to detect interannual and decadal changes in NPP on these scales, the same cannot be said for observations of species richness and nutrient distributions (UNESCO, 2012). 28

2

The belt is centered around the sub-Antarctic front and has a spatial extent of 88 x 106 km (~25 per cent of the global ocean). 29 http://www.un.org/Depts/los/global_reporting/global_reporting.htm.

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6.1

Net primary production

Sustained observations of chlorophyll, irradiance and temperature fields are required for model-based estimates of phytoplankton NPP (see section 6.1.2). An integrated approach using long term data streams from both remote sensing and frequent in situ observations is needed to capture the dynamics of marine phytoplankton NPP and to detect decadal trends. Remote sensing provides a cost-effective means to observe physical and biological variables synoptically in time and space with sufficient resolution to elucidate linkages between climate-driven changes in the NPP of ecosystems and the dynamic relationship between phytoplankton NPP and the provision of ecosystem services (Platt et al., 2008; Forget et al., 2009). For details on requirements, advantages and limitations of satellite-based remote sensing of ocean colour, see IOCCG (1998), Sathyendranath (2000), and UNESCO (2006, 2012). Two related activities, both contributions to the Global Ocean Observing System, provide the core of an integrated observing system needed to provide data required to assess the state of the marine environment in terms of both time-space variations in phytoplankton NPP and the impacts of these variations on ecosystem services: the Chlorophyll Global Integrated Network (ChloroGIN) 30 (Sathyendranath et al., 2010) and Societal Applications in Fisheries and Aquaculture using Remotely-Sensed Imagery (SAFARI) (Forget et al., 2010). FARO (Fisheries Applications of Remotely Sensed Ocean Colour) has recently been initiated to coordinate the development of ChloroGIN and SAFARI for the provision of ocean-colour data and data products for use in fisheries research and ecosystem-based management of living marine resources. 31 Likewise, the GEO Biodiversity Observation Network, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), and the Ocean Biogeographical Information System (UNESCO, 2012) provide data and information on the species richness of marine primary producers. 6.2

Nitrogen and phosphorus cycles

The N cycle is more dynamic 32 and less well understood than previously thought (Codispoti et al., 2001; Capone and Knapp, 2007; Zehr and Kudela, 2011; Landolfi et al., 2013; Voss et al., 2013). Major impediments to detecting and understanding decadal changes in the marine N cycle are: current uncertainties about the rates (undersampling); distribution and coupling of sources and sinks; sensitivity of N2 fixation, denitrification, and anammox to anthropogenic inputs of Nr; and changes in the marine environment associated with climate change (warming and increases in stratification of the upper ocean, ocean acidification, oxygen depletion, and sea-level rise). 30

http://www.chlorogin.org/. http://www.faro-project.org/index.html. 32 Estimates of turnover times of Nr have decreased from 10,000 years to 1,500 years (Codispoti et al., 2001). 31

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Quantifying inputs of N and P to coastal ecosystems and the open ocean requires a network of coordinated and sustained observations on local to global scales. For atmospheric deposition, monitoring should focus on regions that have intense deposition plumes downwind of major population centres in West Africa, East Asia, Europe, India, North and South America (section 6.2.1 and Schulz et al., 2012). This is a major goal of the SOLAS programme 33 . Shipboard time-series observations of biogeochemical variables that are being established globally34 should provide deposition data for these plumes. For riverine inputs, rivers that are part of the Global Terrestrial Network for River Discharge (GTN-R) 35 and that represent a broad range of volume discharges and catchment-basin population densities are high priorities for monitoring land-based inputs and associated land-cover/land-use practices in their watersheds (UNESCO, 2012). All global ocean biogeochemistry models require oceanographic data on physical and chemical variables, including temperature, salinity, mixed-layer depth, and the concentration of macro-nutrients (N, P, Si) (Le Quéré et al., 2010). Over the last decade, autonomous technologies for measuring essential physical variables (including temperature, salinity and mixed-layer depth) have revolutionized our ability to observe the sea surface and the ocean’s interior. By integrating data from both remote sensing (satellite-based sensors and land-based HF radar) and in situ measurements (from ships of opportunity, research vessels and automated moorings, profiling floats, gliders, surface drifters and large pelagic predators), observations of atmospheric and upper ocean geophysics are now made continuously in four dimensions; data are transmitted to data assembly centers in near-real time via satellites, fiber-optic cables, and the internet; and predictions (nowcasts and forecasts) of atmospheric and upper ocean “weather” are made routinely using data assimilation techniques and coupled atmospheric-hydrodynamic models (Hall et al., 2010). Over the last decade, autonomous technologies have revolutionized our ability to measure nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and reactive phosphate in situ (Johnson and Coletti, 2002; ACT, 2003; Sakamoto et al., 2004; Adornato et al., 2010). Efforts are also underway to expand sampling programmes such Repeat Hyrdrography (Hood 2009), Argo (Rudnick et al., 2004; Testor et al., 2010), and OceanSites36 to incorporate in situ nutrient sensors.

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http://www.solas-int.org/. e.g., For example, http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/ioc-oceans/sections-andprogrammes/ocean-sciences/biogeochemical-time-series/. 35 http://www.fao.org/gtos/gt-netRIV.html; http://gtn-r.bafg.de, http://www.bafg.de/GRDC/EN/Home/homepage_node.html. 36 http://www.whoi.edu/virtual/oceansites/ 34

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6.3

Plankton species diversity

Sustaining marine species richness 37 is the single most important indicator of the capacity of ecosystems to support services valued by society (Worm et al., 2006). A biodiversity observation network (GEO BON) 38 has been established to document changes in species biodiversity, and the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) 39 documents the species diversity, distribution and abundance of life in the oceans. Both are contributions to GEOSS.40 A set of sentinel sites should be targeted for sustained observations of species richness including Large Marine Ecosystems and the emerging network of marine protected areas that is nested within them (Malone et al., 2014a). As a group, these sites represent a broad range of species diversity, climaterelated changes in the marine environment, and anthropogenic nutrient inputs. Here we underscore the importance of rapid detection of changes in plankton diversity and early warnings of impacts on marine ecosystem services.

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Chapter 7. Calcium Carbonate Production and Contribution to Coastal Sediments Contributors: Colin D. Woodroffe, Frank R. Hall, John W. Farrell and Peter T. Harris (Lead member) 1. Calcium carbonate production in coastal environments Biological production of calcium carbonate in the oceans is an important process. Although carbonate is produced in the open ocean (pelagic, see Chapter 5), this chapter concentrates on production in coastal waters (neritic) because this contributes sediment to the coast through skeletal breakdown producing sand and gravel deposits on beaches, across continental shelves, and within reefs. Marine organisms with hard body parts precipitate calcium carbonate as the minerals calcite or aragonite. Corals, molluscs, foraminifera, bryozoans, red algae (for example the algal rims that characterize reef crests on Indo-Pacific reefs) are particularly productive, as well as some species of green algae (especially Halimeda). Upon death, these calcareous organisms break down by physical, chemical, and biological erosion processes through a series of discrete sediment sizes (Perry et al., 2011). Neritic carbonate production has been estimated to be approximately 2.5 Gt year-1 (Milliman and Droxler, 1995; Heap et al., 2009). The greatest contributors are coral reefs that form complex structures covering a total area of more than 250,000 km2 (Spalding and Grenfell, 1997; Vecsei, 2004), but other organisms, such as oysters, may also form smaller reef structures. Global climate change will affect carbonate production and breakdown in the ocean, which will have implications for coastal sediment budgets. Rising sea level will displace many beaches landwards (Nicholls et al., 2007). Low-lying reef islands called sand cays, formed over the past few millennia on the rim of atolls, are particularly vulnerable, together with the communities that live on them. Rising sea level can also result in further reef growth and sediment production where there are healthy coral reefs (Buddemeier and Hopley, 1988). In areas where corals have already been killed or damaged by human activities, however, reefs may not be able to keep pace with the rising sea level in which case wave energy will be able to propagate more freely across the reef crest thereby exposing shorelines to higher levels of wave energy (Storlazzi et al., 2011; see also Chapter 43). Reefs have experienced episodes of coral bleaching and mortality in recent years caused by unusually warm waters. Increased carbon dioxide concentrations are also causing ocean waters to become more acidic, which may affect the biological production and supply of carbonate sand. Bleaching and acidification can reduce coral growth and limit the ability of reef-building corals and other organisms to produce calcium carbonate (Kroeker et al., 2010). In some cases, ocean acidification may lead to a reduced supply of carbonate sand to beaches, increasing the potential for erosion (Hamylton, 2014).

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1.1

Global distribution of carbonate beaches

Beaches are accumulations of sediment on the shoreline. Carbonate organisms, particularly shells that lived in the sand, together with dead shells reworked from shallow marine or adjacent rocky shores, can contribute to beach sediments. Dissolution and re-precipitation of carbonate can cement sediments forming beachrock, or shelly deposits called coquina. On many arid coasts and islands lacking river input of sediment to the coast, biological production of carbonate is the dominant source of sand and gravel. Over geological time (thousands of years) this biological source of carbonate sediment may have formed beaches that are composed entirely, or nearly entirely, of calcium carbonate. Where large rivers discharge sediment to the coast, or along coasts covered in deposits of glacial till deposited during the last ice age, beaches are dominated by sediment derived from terrigenous (derived from continental rocks) sources. Carbonate sediments comprise a smaller proportion of these beach sediments (Pilkey et al., 2011). Sand blown inland from carbonate beaches forms dunes and these may be extensive and can become lithified into substantial deposits of carbonate eolianite (windblown) deposits. Significant deposits of eolianite are found in the Mediterranean, Africa, Australia, and some parts of the Caribbean (for example most of the islands of the Bahamas). The occurrence of carbonate eolianites is therefore a useful proxy for mapping the occurrence of carbonate beaches (Brooke, 2001). Carbonate beaches may be composed of shells produced by tropical to sub-polar species, so their occurrence is not limited by latitude, although carbonate production on polar shelves has received little attention (Frank et al., 2014). For example, Ritchie and Mather (1984) reported that over 50 beaches in Scotland are composed almost entirely of shelly carbonate sand. There is an increase in carbonate content towards the south along the east coast of Florida (Houston and Dean, 2014). Carbonate beaches, comprising 60-80 per cent carbonate on average, extend for over 6000 km along the temperate southern coast of Australia, derived from organisms that lived in adjacent shallow-marine environments (James et al., 1999; Short, 2006). Calcareous biota have also contributed along much of the western coast of Australia; carbonate contents average 50-70 per cent, backed by substantial eolianite cliffs composed of similar sediments along this arid coast (Short, 2010). Similar non-tropical carbonate production occurs off the northern coast of New Zealand (Nelson, 1988) and eastern Brazil (Carannante et al., 1988), as well as around the Mediterranean Sea, Gulf of California, North-West Europe, Canada, Japan and around the northern South China Sea (James and Bone, 2011). On large carbonate banks, biogenic carbonate is supplemented by precipitation of inorganic carbonate, including pellets and grapestone deposits (Scoffin, 1987). Ball (1967) identified marine sand belts, tidal bars, eolian ridges, and platform interior sand blankets comprising carbonate sand bodies present in Florida and the Bahamas. This is also one of the locations where ooids (oolites) form through the concentric precipitation of carbonate on spherical grains. Inorganic precipitation in the Persian Gulf, including the shallow waters of the Trucial Coast, reflects higher water temperature and salinity (Purser, 1973; Brewer and Dyrssen, 1985).

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1.2

Global distribution of atolls

The most significant social and economic impact of a possible reduction in carbonate sand production is the potential decrease in supply of sand to currently inhabited, low-lying sand islands on remote reefs, particularly atolls. Atolls occur in the warm waters of the tropics and subtropics. These low-lying and vulnerable landforms owe their origin to reef-building corals (see Chapter 43 which discusses warm-water corals in contrast to cold-water corals dealt with in Chapter 42). The origin of atolls was explained by Charles Darwin as the result of subsidence (sinking) of a volcanic island. Following an initial eruptive phase, volcanic islands are eroded by waves and by slumping, and gradually subside, as the underlying lithosphere cools and contracts. In tropical waters, fringing coral reefs grow around the volcanic peak. As the volcano subsides the reef grows vertically upwards until eventually the summit of the volcano becomes submerged and only the ring of coral reef (i.e., an atoll) is left behind. The gradual subsidence can be understood in the context of plate tectonics and mantle “hot spots”. Many oceanic volcanoes occur in linear chains (such as the Hawaiian Islands and Society Islands) with successive islands being older along the chain and moving into deeper water as the plate cools and contracts (Ramalho et al., 2013). Most atolls are in the Pacific Ocean (in archipelagoes in the Tuamotu Islands, Caroline Islands, Marshall Islands, and the island groups of Kiribati, Tuvalu and Tokelau) and Indian Ocean (the Maldives, the Laccadive Islands, the Chagos Archipelago and the Outer Islands of the Seychelles). The Atlantic Ocean has fewer atolls than either the Pacific or Indian Oceans, with several in the Caribbean (Vecsei, 2003; 2004). The northernmost atoll in the world is Kure Atoll at 28°24' N, along with other atolls of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands in the North Pacific Ocean. The southernmost are the atoll-like Elizabeth (29°58' S) and Middleton (29°29' S) Reefs in the Tasman Sea, South Pacific Ocean (Woodroffe et al., 2004). The occurrence of seamounts (submarine volcanoes) is two times higher in the Pacific than in the Atlantic or Indian Oceans, explaining the greater frequency of atolls. Corals, which produce aragonite, are the principal reef-builders that shape and vertically raise the reef deposit, and there are secondary contributions from other aragonitic organisms, particularly molluscs, as well as coralline algae, bryozoans and foraminifera which are predominantly made of calcite. Carbonate sand and gravel is derived from the breakdown of the reef. Bioerosion is an important process in reefs, with bioeroders, such as algae, sponges, polychaete worms, crustaceans, sea urchins, and boring molluscs (e.g., Lithophaga) reducing the strength of the framework and producing sediment that infiltrates and accumulates in the porous reef limestone (Perry et al., 2012). Erosion rates by sea urchins have been reported to exceed 20 kg CaCO3 m−2 year−1 in some reefs, and parrotfish may produce 9 kg CaCO3 m−2 year−1 (Glynn, 1996). Over time, cementation lithifies the reef. Whereas the reef itself is the main feature produced by these calcifying reef organisms, loose carbonate sediment is also transported from its site of production. Transported sediment can be deposited, building sand cays. Broken coral or larger boulders eroded from the reef by storms form coarser islands (termed motu in the Pacific). Sand and gravel can be carried across the reef and deposited together with finer mud filling in the lagoon (Purdy and Gischler, 2005). © 2016 United Nations

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Carbonate production on reefs has been measured by at least three different approaches; hydrochemical analysis of changes in alkalinity of water moving across a section of reef, radiometric dating of accretion rates in reef cores, and census-based approaches that quantify relative contributions made by different biota (including destruction by bioeroders). These approaches indicate relatively consistent rates of ~10 kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1 on flourishing reef fronts, ~4 kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1 on reef crests, and <1 kg CaCO3 m-2 year-1 in lagoonal areas (Hopley et al., 2007; Montaggioni and Braithwaite, 2009; Perry et al., 2012; Leon and Woodroffe, 2013). These rates have been described in greater detail in specific studies (Harney and Fletcher, 2003; Hart and Kench, 2007), and have been used to produce regional extrapolations of net production (Vecsei, 2001, 2004). 2. Changes known and foreseen –sea-level rise and ocean acidification. Several climate change and oceanographic drivers threaten the integrity of fragile carbonate coastal ecosystems. Anticipated sea-level rise will have an impact on the majority of coasts around the world. In addition, carbonate production is likely to be affected by changes in other climate drivers, including warming and acidification. Tropical and subtropical reefs would appear to be some of the worst affected systems. However, it is also apparent that already many degraded systems can be attributed to impacts from social and economic drivers of change; pollution, overfishing and coastal development have deteriorated reef systems and many severely eroded beaches can be attributed to poor coastal management practices. 2.1

Potential impacts of sea-level rise on beaches

Sea-level rise poses threats to many coasts. Between 1950 and 2010, global sea level has risen at an average rate of 1.8 ± 0.3 mm year−1; approximately 10 cm of anthropogenic global sea-level rise is therefore inferred since 1950. Over the next century, the mean projected sea-level rise for 2081-2100 is in the range 0.26-0.54 m relative to 1986-2005, for the low-emission scenario (RCP 2.6). The rate of rise is anticipated to increase from ~3.1 mm year−1 indicated by satellite altimetry to 7-15 mm year−1 by the end of the century (Church et al., 2013). The rate experienced on any particular coast is likely to differ from the global mean trend as a result of local and regional factors, such as rates of vertical land movement or subsidence. Beach systems can be expected to respond to this gradual change in sea level, and the lowlying reef islands on atolls appear to be some of the most vulnerable coastal systems (Nicholls et al., 2007). Based on predictions from the Bruun Rule, a simple heuristic that uses slope of the foreshore and conservation of mass, sea-level rise will cause erosion and net recession landwards for many beaches (Bruun, 1962). Although this approach has been widely applied, it has been criticized as unrealistic for many reasons, including that it does not adequately incorporate consideration of site-specific sediment

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budgets (Cooper and Pilkey, 2004). Few analyses consider the contribution of biogenic carbonate and none foreshadow the consequences of any reduction in supply of carbonate sand. This is partly because of time lags between production of carbonate and its incorporation into beach deposits, which is poorly constrained in process studies and which is subject to great variability between different coastal settings, ranging from years to centuries (Anderson et al., 2015). In view of uncertainties in rates of sediment supply and transport, probabilistic modeling of shoreline behavior may be a more effective way of simulating possible responses, including potential accretion where sediment supply is sufficient (Cowell et al., 2006). 2.2

Potential impacts of sea-level rise on reef islands

Small reef islands on the rim of atolls appear to be some of the most vulnerable of coastal environments; they are threatened by exacerbated coastal erosion, inundation of low-lying island interiors, and saline intrusion into freshwater lenses upon which production of crops, such as taro, depends (Mimura, 1999). Sand cays, on atolls as well as on other reefs, have accumulated incrementally over recent millennia because reefs attenuate wave energy sufficiently to create physically favourable conditions for deposition of sand islands (Woodroffe et al., 2007), as well as enabling growth of sediment-stabilizing seagrasses and mangrove ecosystems (Birkeland, 1996). Sand cays are particularly low-lying, rarely rising more than a few metres above sea level; for example, <8 per cent of the land area of Tuvalu and Kiribati is above 3 m above mean sea level, and in the Maldives only around 1 per cent, reaches this elevation (Woodroffe, 2008). This has led to dramatic warnings in popular media and inferences in the scientific literature that anthropogenic climate change may lead to reef islands on atolls submerging beneath the rising ocean, with catastrophic social and economic implications for populations of these atoll nations (Barnett and Adger, 2003; Farbotko and Lazrus, 2012). However, reef islands may be more resilient than implied in these dire warnings (Webb and Kench, 2010). Unlike the majority of temperate beaches that have a finite volume of sediment available, biogenic production of carbonate sediments means that there may be an ongoing supply of sediment to these islands. Although coral is a major contributor, it is not necessarily the principal constituent of beaches; large benthic foraminifera (particularly Calcarina, Amphistegina and Baculogypsina) contribute more than 50 per cent of sediment volume on many islands on Pacific atolls (Woodroffe and Morrison, 2001; Fujita et al., 2009). One survey of Pacific coral islands (Webb and Kench, 2010) reported that 86 per cent of islands had remained stable or increased in area over recent decades, and only 14 per cent of islands exhibited a net reduction in area; however, the greatest increases in area resulted from artificial reclamation (Biribo and Woodroffe, 2013). Further studies of shoreline changes on atoll reef islands using multi-temporal aerial photography and satellite imagery indicate accretion on some shorelines and erosion on others, but with the most pronounced changes associated with human occupation and impacts (Rankey, 2011; Ford, 2012; Ford 2013; Hamylton and East, 2012; Yates et al., 2013).

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The impacts of future sea-level rise on individual atolls remain unclear (Donner, 2012). Healthy reef systems may be capable of keeping pace with rates of sea-level rise. There is evidence that reefs have coped with much more rapid rates of rise during postglacial melt of major ice sheets than are occurring now or anticipated in this century. Reefs have responded by keeping up, catching up, or in cases of very rapid rise giving up, often to backstep and occupy more landward locations (Neumann and Macintyre, 1985; Woodroffe and Webster, 2014). Geological evidence suggests that healthy coral reefs have exhibited accretion rates in the Holocene of 3 to 9 mm year−1 (e.g., Perry and Smithers, 2011), comparable to projected rates of sea-level rise for the 21st century. However, reef growth is likely to lag behind sea-level rise in many cases resulting in larger waves occurring over the reef flat and affecting the shoreline (Storlazzi et al., 2011; Grady et al., 2013). It is unclear whether these larger waves, and the increased wave run-up that is likely, will erode reef-island beaches, overtopping some and inundating island interiors, or whether they will more effectively move sediments shoreward and build ridge crests higher (Gourlay and Hacker, 1991; Smithers et al., 2007). Dickinson (2009) inferred that reef islands on atolls will ultimately be unable to survive because once sea level rises above their solid reef-limestone foundations, which formed during the midHolocene sea-level highstand 4,000 to 2,000 years ago, formerly stable reef islands will be subject to erosion by waves. 2.3

Impact of climate change and ocean acidification on production

The impact of climate change on the rate of biogenic production of carbonate sediment is also little understood, but it seems likely to have negative consequences. Although increased temperatures may lead to greater productivity in some cases, for example by extending the latitudinal limit to coral-reef formation, ocean warming has already been recognised to have caused widespread bleaching and death of corals (Hoegh-Guldberg, 1999; Hoegh-Guldberg, 2004; Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2007). Ocean acidification will have further impacts, and may inhibit some organisms from secreting carbonate shells; for example reduction in production of the Pacific oyster has been linked to acidification (Barton et al., 2012). Decreased seawater pH increases the sensitivity of reef calcifiers to thermal stress and bleaching (Anthony et al., 2008). Based on the density of coral skeleton in >300 long-lived Porites corals from across the Great Barrier Reef, De’ath et al. (2009) inferred that a decline in calcification of ~14 per cent had occurred since 1990 manifested as a reduction in the extension rate at which coral grows, which they attributed to temperature stress and declining saturation state of seawater aragonite (which is related to a decrease in pH). However, this extent of the apparent decline has been questioned because of inclusion of many young corals (Ridd et al., 2013); it is not observed in corals collected more recently from inshore (D’Olivo et al., 2013). There has been some debate about the role of carbonate sediments acting as a chemical buffer against ocean acidification; in this scenario, dissolution of metastable carbonate mineral phases produces sufficient alkalinity to buffer pH and carbonate saturation state of shallow-water environments. However, it is apparent that dissolution rates are slow compared with shelf water-mass mixing processes, such that carbonate dissolution has no discernable impact on pH in shallow waters © 2016 United Nations

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that are connected to deep-water, oceanic environments (Andersson and Mckenzie, 2012). The seawater chemistry within a reef system can be significantly different from that in the open ocean, perhaps partially offsetting the more extreme effects (Andersson et al., 2013; Andersson and Gledhill, 2013). Corals have the ability to modulate pH at the site of calcification (Trotter et al. 2011; Venn et al. 2011; Falter et al., 2013). Internal pH in both tropical and temperate coral is generally 0.4 to 1.0 units higher than in the ambient seawater, whereas foraminifera exhibit no elevation in internal pH (McCulloch et al., 2012). Changes in the severity of storms will affect coral reefs; storms erode some island shorelines, but also provide inputs of broken coral to extend other islands (Maragos et al., 1973; Woodroffe, 2008). Alterations in ultra-violet radiation may also have an impact, as UV has been linked to coral bleaching. Furthermore, if reefs are not in a healthy condition due to thermal stress (bleaching) coupled with acidification and other anthropogenic stresses (pollution, overfishing, etc.), then reef growth and carbonate production may not keep pace with sea-level rise. This could, in the longterm, reduce carbonate sand supply to reef islands causing further erosion, although ongoing erosion of cemented reef substrate is also a source of sediment on reefs, indicating that supply of carbonate sand to beaches is dependent upon several interrelated environmental processes. Disruption of any one (or combination) of the controlling processes (carbonate production, reef growth, biological stabilization, bioerosion, physical erosion and transport) may result in reduction of carbonate sand supply to beaches. 3. Economic and social implications of carbonate sand production. More than 90 per cent of the population of atolls in the Maldives, Marshall Islands, and Tuvalu, as well many in the Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos (which all have populations of less than 100,000), live at an elevation <10 m above sea level and appear vulnerable to rising sea level, coastal erosion and inundation (McGranahan et al., 2007). The social disruption caused by relocating displaced people to different islands or even to other countries is a problem of major concern to many countries (Farbotko and Lazrus, 2012, see also Chapter 26). Beach aggregate mining is a smallscale industry on many Pacific and Caribbean islands employing local peoples (McKenzie et al., 2006), but mining causes environmental damage when practised on an industrial scale (Charlier, 2002; Pilkey et al., 2011, see also Chapter 23). In the Caribbean, illegal beach mining is widespread but there is little information on what proportion is carbonate (Cambers, 2009). Beach erosion reduces the potential opportunities associated with tourism (see Chapter 27), and decreases habitat for shorebirds and turtles (Fish et al., 2005; Mazaris et al., 2009). Without coral reefs producing sand and gravel for beach nourishment and protecting the shoreline from currents, waves, and storms, erosion and loss of land are more likely (see also Chapter 39). In Indonesia, Cesar (1996) estimated that the loss due to decreased coastal protection was between 820 United States dollars (for remote areas) and 1,000,000 dollars per kilometre of coastline (in areas of major tourist infrastructure) as a consequence of coral destruction (based on lateral erosion rates © 2016 United Nations

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of 0.2 m year−1, and a 10 per cent discount rate [similar to an interest rate] over a 25-year period). In the Maldives, mining of coral for construction has had severe impacts (Brown and Dunne, 1988), resulting in the need for an artificial substitute breakwater around Malé at a construction cost of around 12,000,000 dollars (Moberg and Folke, 1999). 4. Conclusions, Synthesis and Knowledge Gaps There has been relatively little study of rates of carbonate production, and further research is needed on the supply of biogenic sand and gravel to coastal ecosystems. Most beaches have some calcareous biogenic material within them; carbonate is an important component of the shoreline behind coral-reef systems, with reef islands on atolls entirely composed of skeletal carbonate. The sediment budgets of these systems need to be better understood; direct observations and monitoring of key variables, such as rates of calcification, would be very useful. Not only is little known about the variability in carbonate production in shallow-marine systems, but their response to changing climate and oceanographic drivers is also poorly understood. In the case of reef systems, bleaching as a result of elevated sea temperatures and reduced calcification as a consequence of ocean acidification seem likely to reduce coral cover and production of skeletal material. Longer-term implications for the sustainability of reefs and supply of sediment to reef islands would appear to decrease resilience of these shorelines, although alternative interpretations suggest an increased supply of sediment, either because reef flats that are currently exposed at low tide and therefore devoid of coral, may be re-colonized by coral under higher sea level, or because the disintegration of dead stands of coral may augment the supply of sediment. Determining the trend in shoreline change, on beaches in temperate settings and on reef islands on atolls or other reef systems, requires monitoring of beach volumes at representative sites. This has rarely been undertaken over long enough time periods, or with sufficient attention to other relevant environmental factors, to discern a pattern or assign causes to inferred trends. Although climate and oceanographic drivers threaten such systems, the most drastic erosion appears to be the result of more direct anthropogenic stressors, such as beach mining, or the construction of infrastructure or coastal protection works that interrupt sediment pathways and disrupt natural patterns of erosion and deposition.

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Short, A.D., (2006). Australian beach systems‚ nature and distribution. Journal of Coastal Research 22, 11-27. Short, A.D., (2010). Sediment transport around Australia - sources, mechanisms, rates and barrier forms. Journal of Coastal Research 26, 395-402. Smithers, S.G., Harvey, N., Hopley, D. and Woodroffe, C.D., (2007). Vulnerability of geomorphological features in the Great Barrier Reef to climate change. In Johnson J.E., Marshall, P.A. (Editors) in Climate Change and the Great Barrier Reef. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and Australian Greenhouse Office, Australia, pp. 667-716. Spalding, M.D. and Grenfell, A.M., (1997). New estimates of global and regional coral reef areas. Coral Reefs 16, 225-230. Storlazzi, C.D., Elias, E., Field, M.E. and Presto, M.K., (2011). Numerical modeling of the impact of sea-level rise on fringing coral reef hydrodynamics and sediment transport. Coral Reefs 30, 83-96. Trotter, J., Montagna, P., McCulloch, M., Silenzi, S., Reynaud, S., Mortimer, G., Martin, S., Ferrier-Pages, C., Gattuso, J-P., Rodolfo-Metalpa, R., (2011). Quantifying the pH ’vital effect‘ in the temperate zooxanthellate coral Cladocora caespitosa: Validation of the boron seawater pH proxy. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 303, 163–173. Vecsei, A., (2001). Fore-reef carbonate production: development of a regional census-based method and first estimates. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 175, 185-200. Vecsei, A., (2003). Systematic yet enigmatic depth distribution of the world's modern warm-water carbonate platforms: the ‘depth window’. Terra Nova 15, 170175. Vecsei, A., (2004). A new estimate of global reefal carbonate production including the forereefs. Global and Planetary Change 43, 1-18. Venn, A., Tambutté, E., Holcomb, M., Allemand, D., Tambutté, S., (2011). Live tissue imaging shows reef corals elevate pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater. PLoS One 6, e20013. Webb, A.P., Kench, P., (2010). The Dynamic Response of Reef Islands to Sea Level Rise: Evidence from Multi-Decadal Analysis of Island Change in the Central Pacific. Global and Planetary Change 72, 234-246 Woodroffe, C.D., (2008). Reef-island topography and the vulnerability of atolls to sea-level rise. Global and Planetary Change 62, 77-96. Woodroffe, C.D., Morrison, R.J., (2001). Reef-island accretion and soil development, Makin Island, Kiribati, central Pacific. Catena 44, 245-261. Woodroffe, C.D., Kennedy, D.M., Jones, B.G., Phipps, C.V.G. (2004). Geomorphology and Late Quaternary development of Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs. Coral Reefs 23, 249262. Woodroffe, C.D., Samosorn, B., Hua, Q., Hart, D.E., (2007). Incremental accretion of a sandy

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reef island over the past 3000 years indicated by component-specific radiocarbon dating, Geophysical Research Letters 34, L03602, doi:10.1029/2006GL028875. Woodroffe, C.D., Webster, J.M., (2014). Coral reefs and sea-level change. Marine Geology doi 10.1016/j.margeo.2013.12.006. Yates, M.L., Le Cozannet, G., Garcin, M., Salai, E., Walker, P., (2013). Multidecadal atoll shoreline change on Manihi and Manuae, French Polynesia. Journal of Coastal Research 29 870-882.

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Chapter 8. Aesthetic, Cultural, Religious and Spiritual Ecosystem Services Derived from the Marine Environment Contributor: Alan Simcock (Lead Member) 1. Introduction At least since the ancestors of the Australian aboriginal people crossed what are now the Timor and Arafura Seas to reach Australia about 40,000 years ago (Lourandos, 1997), the ocean has been part of the development of human society. It is not surprising that human interaction with the ocean over this long period profoundly influenced the development of culture. Within “culture” it is convenient to include the other elements – aesthetic, religious and spiritual – that are regarded as aspects of the non-physical ecosystem services that humans derive from the environment around them. This is not to decry the difference between all these aspects, but rather to define a convenient umbrella term to encompass them all. On this basis, this chapter looks at the present-day implications of the interactions between human culture and the ocean under the headings of cultural products, cultural practices and cultural influences. 2. Cultural products No clear-cut distinction exists between objects which have a utilitarian value (because they are put to a use) and objects which have a cultural value (because they are seen as beautiful or sacred or prized for some other non-utilitarian reason). The two categories can easily overlap. Furthermore, the value assigned to an object may change: something produced primarily for the use to which it can be put may become prized, either by the society that produces it or by some other society, for other reasons (Hawkes, 1955). In looking at products from the ocean as cultural ecosystem services, the focus is upon objects valued for non-utilitarian reasons. The value assigned to them will be affected by many factors: primarily their aesthetic or religious significance, their rarity and the difficulty of obtaining them from the ocean. The example of large numbers of beads made from marine shells found in the burial mounds dating from the first half of the first millennium CE of the Mound People in Iowa, United States of America, 1,650 kilometres from the sea, shows how exotic marine products can be given a cultural value (Alex, 2010). Another good – albeit now purely historical – example is the purple dye derived from marine shellfish of the family Muricidae, often known as Tyrian purple. In the Mediterranean area, this purple dye was very highly valued, and from an early date (around 1800-1500 BCE) it was produced in semi-industrial fashion in Crete and later elsewhere. Its cost was high because large numbers of shellfish were required to produce small amounts of the dye. Because of this, its use became restricted to the elite. Under the Roman republic, the togas of members of the Senate were © 2016 United Nations

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distinguished by a border of this colour, and under the Roman empire it became the mark of the emperors (Stieglitz, 1994). This usage has produced a whole cultural structure revolving around the colour purple and spreading out into a range of metaphors and ideas: for example, the concept of the “purple patch,” an elaborate passage in writing, first used by the Roman poet Horace (Horatius). Goods derived from marine ecosystems that are given a cultural value because of their appearance and/or rarity include pearls, mother-of-pearl, coral and tortoiseshell. In the case of coral, as well as its long-standing uses as a semi-precious item of jewellery and inlay on other items, a more recent use in aquariums has developed. 2.1

Pearls and mother-of-pearl

Pearls and mother-of-pearl are a primary example of a marine product used for cultural purposes. Many species of molluscs line their shells with nacre – a lustrous material consisting of platelets of aragonite (a form of calcium carbonate (see Chapter 7)) in a matrix of various organic substances (Nudelman et al., 2006). The shells with this lining give mother-of-pearl. Pearls themselves are formed of layers of nacre secreted by various species of oyster and mussel around some foreign body which has worked its way into the shell (Bondad-Reantaso et al., 2007). Archaeological evidence shows that pearls were already being used as jewellery in the 6th millennium BCE (Charpentier et al., 2012). By the time of the Romans, they could be described as “holding the first place among things of value” (Pliny). For the ancient world, the main source was the shellfish beds along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf, with Bahrain as the main centre. The pearl fishery in the Persian Gulf maintained itself as the major source of pearls throughout most of the first two millennia CE, and by the 18th century was sufficiently profitable to support the founding of many of the present Gulf States. It developed further in the 19th century, and by the start of the 20th century the Persian Gulf pearl trade reached a short-lived peak in value at about 160 million United States dollars a year, and was the mainstay of the economies of the Gulf States (Carter, 2005). During the 20th century, however, the Persian Gulf pearl trade declined steadily, due substantially to competition from the Japanese cultured pearl industry and general economic conditions. With the emergence of the Gulf States as important oil producers, the economic significance of the pearl trade for the area declined. The Kuwait pearl market closed in 2000, and with its closure the Persian Gulf pearl fishery ceased to be of economic importance (Al-Shamlan, 2000). However, some pearling still continues as a tourist attraction and, with Japanese support, an attempt has been made to establish a cultivated pearl farm in Ras Al Kaimah (OBG, 2013). Other traditional areas for the harvesting of natural pearls include the Gulf of Cutch and the Gulf of Mannar in India, Halong Bay in Viet Nam and the Islas de las Perlas in Panama (CMFRI, 1991; Southgate, 2007). The great transformation of the pearl industry came with the success of Japanese firms in applying the technique developed in Australia by an Englishman, William Saville-Kent. The technique required the insertion of a nucleus into the pearl oyster © 2016 United Nations

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in order to provoke the formation of a pearl. Using the oyster species from the Persian Gulf, this meant that, instead of the three or four pearls that could be found in a thousand wild oysters, a high percentage of the farmed oysters would deliver pearls. The Japanese industry started in about 1916. By 1938, there were about 360 pearl farms in Japanese waters, producing more than 10 million pearls a year (15 tons). Production continued to increase after World War II and reached a peak of 230 tons in 1966, from 4,700 farms. Pollution and disease in the oyster, however, rapidly caused the industry to contract. By 1977, only about 1,000 farms remained, producing about 35 tons of pearls. Competition from Chinese cultured freshwater pearls and an oyster epidemic in 1996 reduced the Japanese industry to the production of less than 25 tons a year. Nevertheless, this industry was still worth about 130 million dollars a year. From the 1970s, other Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean areas were developing cultured pearl industries based on the traditional pearl oyster species: in India and in Viet Nam in the traditional pearling regions, and in Australia, China, the Republic of Korea and Venezuela. Apart from China, where production had reached 9-10 tons a year, these are relatively small; the largest is apparently in Viet Nam, which produces about 1 ton a year (Southgate, 2007). At the same time, new forms of the industry developed, based on other oyster species. The two main branches are the “white South Sea” and “black South Sea” pearl industries, based on Pinctada maxima and Pinctada margaritefera, respectively. “Black” pearls are a range of colours from pale purple to true black. Australia (from 1950) and Indonesia (from the 1970s) developed substantial industries for “white South Sea” pearls, earning around 100 million dollars a year each. Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea and the Philippines have smaller industries. The black “South Sea” pearl industry is centred in French Polynesia, particularly in the Gambier and Tuamotu archipelagos. The industry in French Polynesia was worth 173 million dollars in 2007 (SPC, 2011). The Cook Islands, building on a long-standing mother-of-pearl industry, started a cultured-pearl industry in 1972, which grew to a value of 9 million dollars by 2000. However, in that year poor farm hygiene and consequent mass mortality of the oysters led to a collapse to less than a quarter of that value by 2005. The trade has recovered somewhat since then, largely due to increased sales to tourists in the islands. Small “black South Sea” pearl industries also exist in the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, the Marshall Islands and Tonga. Small pearl industries based on the oyster species Pterea penguin and Pterea sterna exist in Australia, China, Japan, Mexico and Thailand (SPC, 2011; Southgate, 2007). Reliable information on the cultured pearl industries is not easy to obtain: for example, significant divergences exist between the statistics for the Pintada margaritifera industry in the FAO Fisheries Global Information System database and those reported by the South Pacific Secretariat in their newsletters (SPC, 2011). The FAO itself noted the lack of global statistics on pearls (FAO, 2012). However, all sources suggest that the various industries suffered severe set-backs in 2009-2012 from a combination of the global economic crisis and overproduction. It is also clear that, apart from local sales to tourists, the bulk of all production passes through auctions in Hong Kong, China, and Japan.

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Mother-of-pearl is produced mainly from the shells of pearl oysters, but other molluscs, such as abalone, may also be used. In the 19th century it was much used as a material for buttons and for decorating small metal objects and furniture. In many of these uses it has been superseded by plastics. It developed as an important industry in the islands around the Sulu Sea and the Celebes Sea, but substantial industries also existed in western Australia (now overtaken by the cultured-pearl industry), the Cook Islands and elsewhere (Southgate 2007). It remains important in the Philippines, which still produces several thousand tons a year (FAO, 2012). 2.2

Tortoiseshell

For several centuries, material from the shells of sea turtles was used both as a decorative inlay on high-quality wooden furniture and for the manufacture of small items such as combs, spectacle frames and so on. The lavish use of tortoiseshell was a particular feature of the work of André Charles Boulle, cabinetmaker to successive 18th century French kings. This established a pattern which was widely imitated (Penderel-Brodhurst, 1910). The shells of hawksbills turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata), in particular, were used for this purpose. The demand for the shells of hawksbill turtles produced an enormous and enduring effect on hawksbill populations around the world. Within the last 100 years, millions of hawksbills were killed for the tortoiseshell markets of Asia, Europe and the United States (NMFS, 2013). The species has been included in the most threatened category of the IUCN’s Red List since the creation of the list in 1968, and since 1977 in the listing of all hawksbill populations on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora 1 (CITES) (trade prohibited unless not detrimental to the survival of the species). Some production of objects with tortoiseshell continues (particularly in Japan), but on a very much reduced scale. 2.3

Coral (and reef fish)

The Mediterranean red coral (Corallium rubrum), was used from a very early date for decoration and as a protective charm. In the 1st century, Pliny the Elder records both its use a charm to protect children and its scarcity as a result of its export to India (Pliny). As late as the second half of the 19th century, teething-rings were still being made with coral (Denhams, 2014). It is now principally used for jewellery. The Mediterranean red coral is still harvested. Similar genera/species from the western Pacific near Japan, Hawaii, and some Pacific seamounts are also harvested. The global harvest reached a short-lived peak at about 450 tons a year in 1986, as a result of the exploitation of some recently discovered beds on the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific. It has fallen back to around 50 tons a year, primarily from the Mediterranean and adjoining parts of the Atlantic (CITES, 2010). This trade in the hard coral stone is estimated to be worth around 200 million dollars a year (FT, 2012), although another estimate places it at nearer 300 million dollars) (Tsounis, 2010). Despite proposals in 2007 and 2010, these corals are not listed under the CITES. 1

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Other corals of cultural interest, on the other hand, have been listed under CITES. The cultural use made of these genera and species is very different. The main use is inclusion in aquariums. Some experimental evidence exists that the ability to watch fish in aquariums has a soothing effect on humans (especially when suffering from dementia) (for example, Edwards et al., 2002). For similar reasons, many homes, offices, surgeries and hospitals have installed such aquariums. Suitable pieces of coral, either alive or dead, are seen as attractive parts of such aquarium scenes. The demand for coral for this purpose is substantial. International trade in coral skeletons for decorative purposes began in the 1950s. Until 1977 the source was largely the Philippines. In that year a national ban on export was introduced, and by 1993 the ban was fully effective. The main source then became Indonesia. Until the 1990s, the trade was mainly in dead corals for curios and aquarium decoration. Developments in the technology of handling live coral led to a big increase in the trade in live coral. CITES lists 60 genera of hard corals in Appendix II; hence their export is permitted only if the specimens have been legally acquired and export will not be detrimental to the survival of the species or its role in the ecosystem. For coral rock, the trade averaged about 2,000 tons a year in the decade 2000-2010, although declining slightly towards the end of the decade. Fiji (with 60 per cent) and Indonesia (with 11 per cent) were the major suppliers over this decade. Other countries supplying coral rock included Haiti, the Marshall Islands, Mozambique, Tonga, Vanuatu and Viet Nam, although the last five introduced bans towards the end of this period. The major importers were the United States (78 per cent) and the European Union (12 per cent). For live coral, the picture was slightly different: over the same decade, the number of pieces of live coral traded rose from some 700,000 to some 1,200,000. Of these, Indonesia supplied an average of about 70 per cent, with other important suppliers including Fiji (10 per cent), Tonga (5 per cent), Australia (5 per cent) and the Solomon Islands (4 per cent). The United States accounted for an average of 61 per cent of the imports, and the European Union took 31 per cent. For some species of coral, mariculture is possible, and by 2010 pieces produced by mariculture accounted for 20 per cent of the trade (Wood et al., 2012). An aquarium would not be complete without fish, and this need has produced another major global trade: in reef fish. Because few marine ornamental fish species have been listed under CITES, a dearth of accurate information on the precise details of the trade exists. The FAO noted the lack of global statistics on the catches of, and trade in, ornamental fish in its 2012 Report on the State of the World’s Fisheries and Aquaculture (FAO, 2012). The late Director of the trade association Ornamental Fish International, Dr. Ploeg, likewise lamented the lack of data (Ploeg, 2004). One estimate puts the scale of the trade in ornamental fish (freshwater and marine) at 15 billion dollars. In 2000 to 2004 an attempt was made to set up in UNEP/WCMC a Global Marine Aquarium Database (GMAD), drawing not only on official trade records, but also on information supplied by trade associations. This provides some interesting, albeit now dated, information, but it has not been kept up-to-date because of lack of funding. One of the most notable features was that the number of fish reported as imported was some 22 per cent more than the number reported as exported (Wabnitz et al., 2003). The need for better information is a matter of

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on-going debate; the European Union has conducted a consultation exercise in 20082010 (EC, 2008). The GMAD data suggested that some 3.5-4.3 million fish a year, from nearly 1,500 different species, were being traded worldwide. The main sources of fish (in order of size of exports) were the Philippines, Indonesia, the Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Australia, Fiji, the Maldives and Palau. These countries accounted for 98 per cent of the recorded trade, with the Philippines and Indonesia together accounting for nearly 70 per cent. The main destinations of the fish were the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, France and Germany, which accounted for 99 per cent of the recorded trade; the United States accounted for nearly 70 per cent. These figures probably do not include re-exports to other countries. It was estimated that the value of the trade in 2003 was 1 million to 300 million dollars (Wabnitz et al., 2003). From the social perspective, the number of people depending on the trade is relatively small. A workshop organized by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community in 2008 showed that some 1,472 people in 12 Pacific island countries and territories depended on the trade in ornamental fish for their livelihoods (Kinch et al., 2010). GMAD reported an estimate of 7,000 collectors providing marine ornamental fish in the Philippines (Wabnitz et al., 2003). It also reported a much higher estimate of some 50,000 people in Sri Lanka being involved with the export of marine ornamentals, but this probably reflects the large, long-standing trade based on the aquaculture of ornamental freshwater fish. 2.4

Culinary and medicinal cultural products

Items of food, and specific ways of preparing dishes from them, can be very distinctive features of cultures. Products derived from marine ecosystems often play a significant role. One almost universal feature is salt. For millennia, salt was vital in much of the world for the preservation of meat and fish through the winter months. Although nowadays salt is mainly obtained from rock-salt and brine deposits in the ground, salt is still widely prepared by the evaporation of seawater, especially in those coastal areas where the heat of the sun can be used to drive the evaporation. Although statistics for the production of salt often do not differentiate between the sources for salt production, countries such as Brazil, India and Spain are recorded as producing many millions of tons of salt from the sea (BGS, 2014). A further common preparation used in many forms of cooking is a sauce derived from fermenting or otherwise processing small fish and shellfish. Such sauces are recorded as garum and liquamen among the Romans from as long ago as the 1st century (Pliny). They are also crucial ingredients in the cuisines of many east Asian countries – China, Republic of Korea, Thailand, Viet Nam – and other fish-based sauces are found in many western cuisines, for example, colatura de alici (anchovy sauce) and Worcestershire sauce. Cultural pressures can interact with the sustainable use of products derived from marine ecosystem services. Just as the demand for tortoiseshell inlay and objects was driven by desire to emulate the élite in both Asia and Europe, and affected the © 2016 United Nations

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hawksbill turtle, other species of marine turtle were also affected by the status of turtle soup as a prestige dish. In Europe, soup made from green turtles (Chelonia mydas) became a prestige dish when the turtles were brought back by European trading ships passing through the tropics. It was served lavishly at formal dinners – in the mid-19th century, a report of a routine large dinner refers to “four hundred tureens of turtle, each containing five pints” – that is, 1,136 litres in total (Thackeray, 1869). Large amounts were also commercialized in tins. In spite of growing conservation concerns, it was still seen as appropriate for inclusion in the dinner to welcome the victorious General Eisenhower back to the United States in 1945 (WAA, 1945). The dish has disappeared from menus since the green turtle was listed under Appendix I to CITES in 1981, except in areas where turtles are farmed or where freshwater species are used. Another group of species where cultural forces create pressures for excessive harvesting is the sharks (see also chapter 40). Shark’s fin soup is a prestige dish in much of eastern Asia, especially among Chinese-speaking communities. Prices for shark’s fins are very high (hundreds of dollars per kilogramme). As shown in Figure 1, the trade in shark fins peaked in 2003-2004 and has subsequently levelled out at quantities 17-18 per cent lower (2008-2011). The statistics are subject to many qualifications, but trade in shark fins through Hong Kong, China (generally regarded as the largest trade centre in the world) rose by 10 per cent in 2011, but fell by 22 per cent in 2012. The FAO report from which the figure is drawn suggests that a number of factors, including new regulations by China on government officials’ expenditures, consumer backlash against artificial shark fin products, increased regulation of finning (the practice of cutting fins of shark carcasses and discarding the rest), other trade bans and curbs, and a growing conservation awareness, may have contributed to the downturn. At the same time, new figures suggest the shark fin markets in Japan, Malaysia and Thailand, though focused on small, low-value fins, may be among the world’s largest (FAO, 2014a).

Figure 1. Source: FAO, 2014a.

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Similar cultural pressures exist in relation to other aspects of marine ecosystems. Traditional medicine in eastern Asia, for example, uses dried seahorses for a range of illnesses. Most dried seahorses (caught when they are about 12-16 cm in size) are exported to China. The value in 2008 was 100-300 dollars per kilogramme, depending on the size and species; the larger animals are the most valuable. Production is said to be more than 20 million sea horses (70 tons) a year. Viet Nam and China are the major producers; Viet Nam has developed its seahorse aquaculture since 2006. This trade is seen as a significant pressure on the conservation status of several species of seahorse (FAO, 2014b). Not all consequences of the cultural uses of the ocean’s ecosystem services in relation to food are necessarily negative. The Mediterranean diet, with its substantial component of fish and shellfish, was inscribed in 2013 on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity (UNESCO, 2014). 3. Cultural practices 3.1

Cultural practices that enable use of the sea

Humans interact with the ocean in a large number of ways, and many of these lead to cultural practices which enrich human life in aesthetic, religious or spiritual ways, as well as in purely practical matters. Such practices are beginning to be inscribed in the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Those listed so far include a practice in Belgium of fishing for shrimp on horse-back: twice a week, except in winter months, riders on strong Brabant horses walk breastdeep in the surf, parallel to the coastline, pulling funnel-shaped nets held open by two wooden boards. A chain dragged over the sand creates vibrations, causing the shrimp to jump into the net. Shrimpers place the catch (which is later cooked and eaten) in baskets hanging at the horses’ sides. In approving the inscription, the Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICSICH) noted that it would promote awareness of the importance of small, very local traditions, underline the close relations between humans, animals and nature, and promote respect for sustainable development and human creativity (UNESCO, 2014).c Similarly, the Chinese tradition of building junks with separate water-tight bulkheads has been recognized as a cultural heritage that urgently needs protection. The ICSICH noted that, despite the historical importance of this shipbuilding technology, its continuity and viability are today at great risk because wooden ships are replaced by steel-hulled vessels, and the timber for their construction is in increasingly short supply; apprentices are reluctant to devote the time necessary to master the trade and craftspeople have not managed to find supplementary uses for their carpentry skills. Furthermore, the ICSICH noted that safeguarding measures designed to sustain the shipbuilding tradition are underway, including State financial assistance to master builders, educational programmes to make it possible for them to transmit their traditional knowledge to young people, and the reconstruction of historical

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junks as a means to stimulate public awareness and provide employment (UNESCO, 2014). Another cultural tradition linked to the sea is that of the lenj boats in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Lenj vessels are traditionally hand-built and are used by inhabitants of the northern coast of the Persian Gulf for sea journeys, trading, fishing and pearl diving. The traditional knowledge surrounding lenjes includes oral literature, performing arts and festivals, in addition to the sailing and navigation techniques, terminology and weather forecasting that are closely associated with sailing, and the skills of wooden boat-building itself. This tradition is also under threat, and the Islamic Republic of Iran has proposed a wide range of measures to safeguard it (UNESCO, 2014). Along the north-east Pacific coast, sea-going canoes were one of the three major forms of monumental art among the Canadian First Nations and United States Native Americans, along with plank houses and totem poles. These canoes came to represent whole clans and communities and were a valuable trade item in the past, especially for the Haida, Tlingit and Nuu-Chah-Nulth. Recently, there has been a revival in the craft of making and sailing them, and they are capable of bringing prestige to communities (SFU, 2015). Similar important navigational traditions survive in Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Using a combination of observations of stars, the shape of the waves, the interference patterns of sea swells, phosphorescence and wildlife, the Pacific Islanders have been able to cross vast distances at sea and make landfall on small islands. Although now largely being replaced by modern navigational aids, the Pacific navigational tradition shows how many aspects of the marine ecosystems can be welded together to provide results that at first sight seem impossible. Since the 1970s the tradition has been undergoing a renaissance (Lewis, 1994). Apart from the practical cultural practices linked to the sea that support navigation, cultural practices in many parts of the world reflect the dangers of the ocean and the hope of seafarers to gain whatever supernatural help might be available. The fishing fleet is blessed throughout the Roman Catholic world, usually on 15 August, the Feast of the Assumption. This dates back to at least the 17th century in Liguria in Italy (Acta Sanctae Sedis, 1891). It spread generally around the Mediterranean, and was then taken by Italian, Portuguese and Spanish fishermen when they emigrated, and has been adopted in many countries, even those without a Roman Catholic tradition. In many places in China and in the cultural zone influenced by China, a comparable festival is held on the festival of Mazu, also known (especially in Hong Kong, China) as Tian Hou (Queen of Heaven). According to legend, she was a fisherman’s daughter from Fujian who intervened miraculously to save her father and/or her brothers and consequently became revered by fishermen, and was promoted by the Chinese Empire as part of their policy of unifying devotions. The main festival takes place on the 23rd day of the 3rd lunar month (late April/early May). A tradition of visiting a local shrine before a fishing voyage also continues in some places (Liu, 2003).

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Miura, on the approaches to Tokyo Bay in Japan, developed as a military port and a harbour providing shelter to passing ships. Drawing on dances from other cities demonstrated to them by visiting sailors, the people of Miura began the tradition of Chakkirako to celebrate the New Year and bring fortune and a bountiful catch of fish in the months to come. By the mid-eighteenth century, the ceremony had taken its current form as a showcase for the talent of local girls. The dancers perform face-toface in two lines or in a circle, holding fans before their faces in some pieces and clapping thin bamboo sticks together in others, whose sound gives its name to the ceremony. Now included in the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, the ceremony is intended to demonstrate cultural continuity (UNESCO, 2014). A specific cultural practice that acknowledges the importance of sea trade is the “Marriage of the Sea” (Sposalizio del Mare) in Venice, Italy. This takes the form of a boat procession from the centre of city to the open water, where the civic head (originally the Doge, now the Sindaco) throws a wedding ring into the sea. In 1177, Venice had successfully established its independence from the Emperor and Patriarch in Constantinople (Istanbul), from the Pope in Rome and from the Holy Roman Emperor, by using its leverage to reconcile the two latter powers, and had become the great entrepôt between the eastern and western Mediterranean. Pope Alexander III acknowledged this by giving the Doge a ring. Henceforth, annually on Ascension Day, the Doge would “wed” the sea to demonstrate Venice’s control of the Adriatic (Myers et al., 1971). Abolished when Napoleon dissolved the Venetian Republic, the ritual has been revived since 1965 as a tourist attraction (Veneziaunica, 2015). 3.2

Cultural practices that react to the sea

A verse in the Hebrew psalms speaks of the people “that go down to the sea in ships and...see...the wonders of the deep” (Psalm 107(106)/23, 24). A similar sense of awe at the sea appears in the Quran (Sura 2:164). This sense of awe at the ocean is widespread throughout the world. In many places it leads to a special sense of place with religious or spiritual connotations, which lead to special ways of behaving: in other words, to religious or spiritual ecosystem services from the ocean. A reductionist approach can see no more in such ways of behaviour than bases for prudential conduct: for example, fishing may be halted in some area at a specific time of year, which coincides with the spawning of a particular fish population, thus promoting the fish stock recruitment. But such a reductionist approach is not necessary, and can undermine a genuine sense of religious or spiritual reaction to the sea. The risk exists that such reductionist approaches will be seen as the natural interpretation of ritual or religious practices. In a survey of the environmental history of the Pacific Islands, McNeill writes that “Lagoons and reefs probably felt the human touch even less [than the islands], although they made a large contribution to island sustenance...human cultural constraints often operated to preserve them. Pacific islanders moderated their impact on many ecosystems through restraints and restrictions on resource use. In many societies taboos or other prohibitions limited © 2016 United Nations

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the exploitation of reefs, lagoons, and the sea. These taboos often had social or political purposes, but among their effects was a reduction in pressures on local ecosystems. Decisions about when and where harvesting might take place were made by men who had encyclopaedic knowledge of the local marine biota” (McNeill, 1994). This clearly sets out the external (“etic”) view of the system of taboos and beliefs, i.e., the view that can be taken by an outside, dispassionate observer. It does not allow for the internal (“emic”) view as seen by someone who is born, brought up and educated within that system. It is important to understand this distinction and allow for the way in which the insider will have a different frame of reference from the outsider. Good examples of the way in which such an insider’s religious or spiritual reactions can underpin a whole system of community feeling can be found among the First Nations of the Pacific seaboard of Canada. A member of the Huu-ay-aht First Nation, a tribe within the Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Group in this area, describes their traditional approach to whaling as follows: “Whaling within Nuu chah nulth society was the foundation of our economic structure. It provided valuable products to sell, trade and barter. In essence it was our national bank... Whaling [however, also] strengthened, maintained and preserved our cultural practices, unwritten tribal laws, ceremonies, principles and teachings. All of these elements were practiced throughout the preparations, the hunt and the following celebrations. Whaling strengthened and preserved our spirituality and is clearly illustrated through the discipline that the Nuu chah nulth hereditary whaling chiefs exemplified in their months of bathing, praying and fasting in preparation for the hunt. The whale strengthened our relationships with other nations and communities. People came from great distances and often resulted in intertribal alliances, relationships and marriages. The whale strengthened the relationships between families because everyone was involved in the processing of the whale, the celebrations, the feasting, and the carving of the artefacts that can still be seen today in many museums around the world. The whale strengthened the relationships between family members since everyone shared in the bounty of the whale. And the whale strengthened our people spiritually, psychologically and physically” (Happynook, 2001). Because of the restrictions imposed to respond to the crises in the whale population caused by commercial whaling, the Nuu-chah-nulth are not permitted to undertake whaling, and the related peoples further south in Washington State, United States, need to obtain special authorization (a request for which has been under consideration since 2005), and feel that part of their cultural heritage has been taken away from them. As the draft evaluation of the Makah request to resume whalehunting puts it, with no authorization this element of their culture would remain a connection to the past without any present reinforcement. In effect, a cultural ecosystem service would be lost (NOAA, 2015).

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3.3

Cultural practices tied to a specific sea area

Not all interactions between communities with traditions based on their longstanding uses of the ocean result in such clashes between opposing points of view. In Brazil, for example, the concept has been introduced of the Marine Extractive Reserve (Reserva Extrativista Marinha). These are defined areas of coast and coastal sea which aim to allow the long-standing inhabitants to continue to benefit from the resources of the reserve, applying their traditional knowledge and practices, while protecting the area against non-traditional, new exploitation, and protecting the environment (Chamy, 2002). Six such reserves have been created, and a further 12 are in the process of designation and organization (IBAMA, 2014). In Australia, before colonization, the coastal clans of indigenous peoples regarded their territories as including both land and sea. The ocean, or “saltwater country”, was not additional to a clan estate on land: it was inseparable from it. As on land, saltwater country contained evidence of the Dreamtime events by which all geographic features, animals, plants and people were created. It contained sacred sites, often related to these creation events, and it contained tracks, or Songlines, along which mythological beings travelled during the Dreamtime. Mountains, rivers, waterholes, animal and plant species, and other cultural resources came into being as a result of events which took place during these Dreamtime journeys. The sea, like the land, was integral to the identity of each clan, and clan members had a kin relationship to the important marine animals, plants, tides and currents. Many of these land features and heritage sites of cultural significance found within landscapes today have associations marked by physical, historical, ceremonial, religious and ritual manifestations located within the indigenous people’s cultural beliefs and customary law. The Commonwealth and State Governments in Australia are now developing ways in which the groups of indigenous people can take a full part in managing the large marine reserves which have been, or are being, created, in line with their traditional culture. The techniques being used must vary, because they must take account of other vested rights and Australia’s obligations under international law (AIATSIS, 2006). Madagascar provides an interesting example of the way in which traditional beliefs can influence decisions on sea use. On the west coast of the northern tip of the island, a well-established shrimp-fishing industry is largely, but not entirely, undertaken by a local tribal group, the Antankarana. This group has a traditional set of beliefs, including in the existence of a set of spirits – the antandrano – who represent ancestors drowned in the sea centuries ago in an attempt to escape a local opposing tribal group, the Merina. These spirits are honoured by an annual ceremony focused on a particular rock in the sea in the shrimp fishery area. A proposal was made to create a shrimp aquaculture farm, which would have severely reduced the scope of the shrimp fishery. The Antankarana leader successfully invoked against this proposal reports from local mediums participating in the annual ceremony that the antandrano spirits would oppose the aquaculture proposal (which might well have been under Merina control). Thus a religious ecosystem service from the sea was deployed to defend a provisioning ecosystem service (Gezon, 1999).

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At a global level, specific marine sites were inscribed by UNESCO in the World Heritage List, and thus brought under certain commitments and controls to safeguard them. So far 42 marine or coastal sites have been designated on the basis of their natural interest: (a)

22 “contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance”;

(b)

12 are “outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history, including the record of life, significant ongoing geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features”;

(c)

14 are “outstanding examples representing significant ongoing ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals”; and

(d)

29 “contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation”.

(Sites can qualify under more than one criterion.) Fifteen are islands. Three have been declared to be in danger: the Belize barrier reef (the largest in the northern hemisphere), which is threatened by mangrove cutting and excessive development (2009); the Florida Everglades in the United States, which have suffered a 60 per cent reduction in water flow and are threatened by eutrophication (2010); and East Rennell in the Solomon Islands, which is threatened by logging (2013). In addition, four marine or coastal sites have been inscribed in the World Heritage List because of their mixed cultural and natural interest – the island of St Kilda in the United Kingdom (for centuries a very remote inhabited settlement, featuring some of the highest cliffs in Europe); the island of Ibiza in Spain (a combination of prehistoric archaeological sites, fortifications influential in fortress design and the interaction of marine and coastal ecosystems); the Rock Islands Southern Lagoon (Ngerukewid Islands National Wildlife Preserve) in Palau (a combination of neolithic villages and the largest group of saltwater lakes in the world); and Papahānaumokuākea (a chain of low-lying islands and atolls with deep cosmological and traditional significance for living native Hawaiian culture, as an ancestral environment, as an embodiment of the Hawaiian concept of kinship between people and the natural world, and as the place where it is believed that life originates and where the spirits return after death) (UNESCO, 2014). Other marine sites of cultural interest are those which offer the possibility of learning more about their past through underwater archaeology. Underwater archaeology draws on submerged sites, artefacts, human remains and landscapes to explain the origin and development of civilizations, and to help understand culture, history and climate change. Three million shipwrecks and sunken ruins and cities, like the remains of the Pharos of Alexandria, Egypt – one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World - and thousands of submerged prehistoric sites, including ports © 2016 United Nations

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and methods of marine exploitation, such as fish traps, are estimated to exist worldwide. Material here is often better preserved than on land because of the different environmental conditions. In addition, shipwrecks can throw important light on ancient trade patterns; for example, the Uluburun shipwreck off the southern coast of Turkey, which illuminated the whole pattern of trade in the Middle East in the Bronze Age in the second millennium BCE (Aruz et al., 2008). Shipwrecks can also yield valuable information about the sociocultural, historical, economic, and political contexts at various scales of reference (local, regional, global) between the date of the vessel's construction (e.g. hull design, rig, materials used, its purpose, etc.) and its eventual demise in the sea (e.g. due to warfare, piracy/privateering, intentional abandonment, natural weather events, etc.) (Gould, 1983). Many national administrations pursue policies to ensure that underwater archaeological sites within their jurisdictions are properly treated. At the global level, the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage (2001) 2 entered into force in 2009, and provides a framework for cooperation in this field and a widely recognized set of practical rules for the treatment and research of underwater cultural heritage. Where such approaches are not applied, there are risks that irreplaceable sources of knowledge about the past will be destroyed. Bottom-trawling is a specific threat to underwater archaeological sites, with implications for the coordination of fisheries and marine archaeological site management. Questions also arise over archaeological sites outside national jurisdictions (mainly those of shipwrecks). Cultural practices related to the sea, coastal sites of cultural interest (such as the UNESCO World Heritage Sites) and underwater archaeological sites form important elements for ocean-related tourism, which is discussed in Chapter 27 (Tourism and recreation). In particular, shipwrecks provide attractions for divers. Special problems arise over recent shipwrecks where close relatives of people who died in the shipwreck are still living, particularly where the wreck occurred in wartime. Where the wrecks are in waters within national jurisdiction, many States have declared such sites to be protected, and (where appropriate) as war graves. As underwater exploration techniques improve, the possibility of exploring such wrecks in water beyond national jurisdiction increases, and this gives rise to sharp controversies. Even without special remains or outstanding features, the ocean can provide an ecosystem service by giving onlookers a sense of place. The sense of openness and exposure to the elements that is given by the ocean can be very important to those who live by the sea, or visit it as tourists (see also Chapter 27). Even where the landward view has been spoiled by development, the seaward view may still be important. This is well demonstrated by a recent legal case in England, seeking to quash an approval for an offshore wind-farm at Redcar. Redcar is a seaside town with a large steel plant and much industrialization visible in its immediate hinterland. The beach and its view to the south-east are, however, described as spectacular. The court had to decide whether construction of the wind-farm about 1.5 kilometres offshore would introduce such a major new industrial element into the 2

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seascape/landscape as to undermine efforts to regenerate the seaside part of the town. The court decided that the ministry was justified in its approval, but the case underlines the importance of the aesthetic ecosystem service that the sea can provide (Redcar, 2008). As described in Chapter 27 (Tourism and recreation), over the past 200 years there has been a growing cultural practice worldwide of taking recreation in coastal areas and at sea. Some evidence is emerging of positive links between human health and the enjoyment of the coastal and marine environment (Depledge et al., 2009; Wyles et al., 2014; Sandifer et al., 2015). 4. Cultural influences Art reflects the society in which it is produced, and is influenced by that society’s interests. The relationship between a society and the ocean is therefore likely to be reflected in its art. Much visual art therefore reflects the sense of place that is predominant in the society that generates it. The sense of place in societies that are much concerned with the sea reflects the aesthetic ecosystem services provided by the sea, hence the visual arts are also likely to reflect the same service. Examples of the way in which this occurs are not difficult to find. The Dutch painting school of the 17th century developed the seascape – ships battling the elements at sea – just at the period when the Dutch merchant ships and Dutch naval vessels were the dominant forces on the local ocean. The French impressionists of the second half of the 19th century took to painting coastal and beach scenes in Normandy just at the period when the railways had enabled the Parisian élite – their most likely patrons – to escape to the newly developed seaside resorts on the coast of the English Channel. Similarly, Hokusai’s The Great Wave at Kanagawa is focused on a distant view of Mount Fuji rather than on the ocean – not surprising given that it was painted at a time when shipping in Japan was predominantly coastal. Today, the advances in cameras capable of operating under water, and the availability of easily managed breathing gear and protective clothing, result in the most stunning pictures of submarine life. This reflection of the aspects of the aesthetic ecosystem services from the ocean that preoccupy the society contemporaneously with the work of the artist can also be found in literature and music. Camões’s great epic The Lusiads appears just at the time when Portugal was leading the world in navigation and exploration. In the same period, Chinese literature saw the emergence of both fictional and non-fictional works based on the seven voyages of Admiral Zheng He in the south-east Asian seas and the Indian Ocean. It is with the emergence in the 19th century of widespread trading voyages by American and British ships that authors like Conrad, Kipling and Melville bring nautical novels into favour. Likewise, the impressionist seascapes in visual art are paralleled by impressionist music such as Debussy’s La mer.

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5. The ultimate ecosystem service for humans Burial at sea has long been practiced as a matter of necessity during long voyages. It was specifically provided for in 1662 in the English Book of Common Prayer (BCP, 1662). Both the London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, 1972 3 and its Protocol 4 (see chapter 24), which regulate the dumping of waste and other matter at sea, are careful to leave open the possibility of the burial of human remains at sea. Western European States regularly authorize a small number of such disposals every year (LC-LP, 2014). The United States authorities have issued a general permit for burial at sea of human remains, including cremated and non-cremated remains, under certain conditions (USA-ECFR, 2015). In Japan, increasing prices for burial plots and concerns about the expanding use of land for cemeteries have led to a growing pattern of cremation followed by the scattering of the cremated remains, often at sea. The practice started in 1991, when the law on the disposal of corpses was relaxed, and has become more popular following such funeral arrangements for a number of prominent people (Kawano, 2004). 6. Conclusions and identification of knowledge and capacity-building gaps This chapter set out to review the ways in which ecosystem services from the sea interrelate with human aesthetic, cultural, religious and spiritual desires and needs. Five main conclusions emerge: (a)

Several goods produced by the ocean have been taken up as élite goods, that is, goods that can be used for conspicuous consumption or to demonstrate status in some other way. When that happens, a high risk exists that the pressures generated to acquire such élite goods, whether for display or consumption, will disrupt marine ecosystems, especially when the demand comes from relatively well-off consumers and the supply is provided by relatively poor producers. The development of the market in shark’s fin is a good example of this (although signs exist that that particular situation has stopped getting worse).

(b)

Some producers could be helped by a better understanding of the techniques and precautions needed to avoid ruining the production. As well as better knowledge, they may also need improved skills, equipment and/or machinery to implement that better understanding. The production of cultured pearls in the Cook Islands is a good example.

(c)

Some élite goods pass through a number of hands between the original producer and the ultimate consumer. There appears to be a gap in capacity-building to safeguard producers and ensure more equitable

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profit-sharing in the supply chain. cultured pearls is an example.

The case of small producers of

(d)

Very different perceptions of marine ecosystem services and how humans relate to them can exist between different groups in society, even when such groups are co-located. Understanding on all sides of the reasons for those differences is a prerequisite for effective management of the ecosystem services.

(e)

Aspects of the marine environment that are valued as cultural assets of humanity need constant consideration; they cannot just be left to fend for themselves. Where technology or social change has overtaken human skills that are still seen as valuable to preserve, conditions need to be created in which people want to learn those skills and are able to deploy them. Where an area of coast or sea is seen as a cultural asset of humanity, the knowledge is needed of how it can be maintained in the condition which gives it that value.

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Chapter 9. Conclusions on Major Ecosystem Services Other than Provisioning Services Contributor: Patricio A. Bernal (Lead Member) 1. Introduction The ecosystem services assessed in Part III are large-scale; some of them are planetary in nature and provide human benefits through the normal functioning of the natural systems in the ocean, without human intervention. This makes them intrinsically difficult to value. However, some of these same ecosystem services in turn sustain provisioning services that generate human benefits through the active intervention of humans. This is the case, for example, for the global ecosystem service provided by primary production by marine plants, which by synthesizing organic matter from CO2 and water, provide the base of nearly all food chains in the ocean (except the chemosynthetic ones), and provide the food for animal consumers that in turn sustain important provisioning ecosystem services from which humans benefit, such as fisheries. The services in Part III are not the only ones provided by the ocean. Many other ecosystem services are directly or indirectly referred to in Parts IV to VI of this Assessment. The provisioning ecosystem services related to food security are addressed in Part IV, Assessment of Cross-Cutting Issues: Food Security And Food Safety (Chapters 10 through 16); those related to coastal protection are referred to in Part VI, Assessment of Marine Biological Diversity and Habitats, in Warm Water Corals (Chapter 43), Mangroves (Chapter 48), and in Aquaculture (Chapter 12), Estuaries and Deltas (Chapter 44), Kelp Forests and Seagrass Meadows (Chapter 47) and Salt Marshes (Chapter 49); the maintenance of special habitats are addressed in Chapters on Open Ocean Deep-sea Biomass (Chapter 36F); Cold Water Corals (Chapter 42) and Warm Water Corals (Chapter 43), Hydrothermal Vents and Cold Seeps (Chapter 45), High-Latitude Ice (46) and Seamounts and Other Submarine Geological Features Potentially Threatened by Disturbance (Chapter 51); the sequestration of carbon in coastal sediments, the so-called blue carbon, is addressed in Chapters on Mangroves (Chapter 48), Estuaries and Deltas (Chapter 44) and Salt Marshes (Chapter 49); the cycling of nutrients is covered in Estuaries and Deltas (Chapter 44) and Salt Marshes (Chapter 49, but also Chapter 6). Because of the very large scale of the services analysed in Part III, although they are influenced by human activities, they cannot be easily managed, and in certain cases they cannot be managed at all. The uptake of atmospheric CO2 (Chapter 5) and the role of the ocean in the hydrological cycle (Chapter 4) are two examples of regulatory ecosystem services that cannot be managed or valued easily.

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2. Accounting for the human benefits obtained from nature Ecosystems can exist without humans in them, but humans cannot survive without ecosystems. Throughout history, humanity has made use of nature for food, shelter, protection and engaging in cultural activities. The intensity of humanity’s use of nature has changed with the evolution of society and reached high levels with the introduction of modern technologies and industrial systems. Today, at a planetary scale, including the deepest ocean, no natural or pristine systems are found without people or unaffected by the impact of human activities; nor do social systems exist that can thrive without the support of nature. Social and ecological systems are truly interdependent and constantly co-evolving. This fundamental connection between humans and nature has received different levels of recognition with regard to how we deal with the benefits humans extract from nature in economic terms. Extractive activities, e.g., of minerals, or of living natural resources, such as fibre, timber and fish, raise the issues of irreplaceability and sustainability. The use of nature is multifaceted and, as a norm, a given ecosystem can provide many goods and several services at the same time. For example, a mangrove ecosystem provides wood fibre, fuel, and nursery habitat for numerous species (provisioning services); it detoxifies and sequesters pollutants coming from upstream sources, stores carbon, traps sediment, and thus protects downstream coral reefs, and buffers shores from tsunamis and storms (regulating services); it provides beautiful places to fish or snorkel (cultural services); and it recycles nutrients and fixes carbon (supporting services; Lubchenco and Petes, 2010). When humans convert a natural ecosystem to another use, some ecosystem services may be lost and others services gained. Such a process gives rise to tradeoffs between natural services and between these and services not derived from natural capital. For example, when mangroves are converted to shrimp ponds, airports, shopping malls, agricultural lands, or residential areas, new services are obtained: food production, space for commerce, transportation, and housing, but the original natural services are lost (Lubchenco and Petes, 2010). Therefore, human benefits can be derived from a series of different activities that simultaneously affect the same ecosystem, but that are not necessarily connected with their harvesting or production processes. Sustainability requires that users take only a fraction of the resources, preserving in this way the natural capability of the ecosystem to regenerate the same resources, making them available for use by future generations. The appropriate spatial scale and the time sufficient to recover are part of the sustainability requirement. To extract anchovies (Engraulis spp.) or sardines (Sardinops spp.) that can regenerate their populations in three to eight years has different implications than to extract orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) from the top of seamounts that needs 100 to 150 years or more to recover.

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3. The evolution of management tools The increase in “the magnitude of human pressures on the natural system has caused a transition from single-species or single-sector management to multi-sector, ecosystem-based management across multiple geographic and temporal dimensions. (…) Intensification of use of ecosystems increases interactions between sectors and production systems that in turn increase the number of mutual negative impacts (i.e., externalities)” (Chapter 3). Because all these processes take place in an integrated socio-ecological system, we have seen an expansion of scope in the decision-making process, incorporating the simultaneous consideration of several uses or industries at the same time and the livelihoods and other social aspects connected with this ensemble of activities. These approaches enable the consideration of tradeoffs among different uses and beneficiaries, enlarging the range of policy options. Only recently have regulatory instruments for better accounting for the indirect and cumulative impacts on natural systems of these multiple uses been incorporated into the management and regulation of human activities. Mobilized by a series of high-level World Conferences addressing these issues, in Stockholm 1972, Rio de Janeiro 1992, Johannesburg 2002, and Rio de Janeiro 2012, the international community has acted to advance and implement this enlarged scope of decision-making across all societies. Assigning value to the human benefits obtained from nature is more easily done when the goods and services obtained are traded, thereby becoming part of commerce. Prices in different markets are readily available and comparisons are possible. It is not that simple, however, for certain types of benefits, for example, when subsistence livelihoods that do not enter into trade are concerned, or other intangible cultural, recreational, religious or spiritual benefits are involved. However, the extraction of natural products and other human benefits from wild ecosystems can affect other processes inside the ecosystems that provide valuable permanent services to humanity that are not part of commerce. Examples include the production of organic matter and oxygen through primary production in the ocean, the protection of the coast by mangrove forests, the re-mineralization of decaying organic matter at the coastal fringes, and the absorption of heat and CO2 by the ocean that has delayed the impacts of global warming. Furthermore, fluctuations in the provision of these natural services can have significant impacts on those natural products that are in commerce. Climate patterns drive the magnitude and variability of the circulation and heat storage capacity of the surface layers of the ocean, as described in Chapters 4 and 5. The displacement of warm and cold water pools on the surface of the ocean feeds into the dynamics of the atmosphere, generating enormous transient fluctuations in weather patterns, such as the El Niño and La Niña cycles, that cascade down affecting the production of a series of goods and services, not only in the ocean, but most notably also on land. For example, El Niño adversely affects the availability and price of fishmeal and fish oil, also key components of the diet of carnivorous species in aquaculture (see Chapter 12). © 2016 United Nations

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4. Scientific understanding of ecosystem services The fundamental connection between humans and nature has received uneven levels of recognition in how we deal in economic terms with the benefits humans extract from nature. Humans derive many benefits from all aspects of the natural world. Some of these benefits are provided by nature without human intervention and some require human inputs, often with substantial labour and economic investment. The features and functions of nature which provide these services can be regarded as “natural capital”, and the way in which this natural capital is organized and how it functions in delivering benefits to humans, has led to these types of benefits being described as “ecosystem services”. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment characterizes ecosystem services as: provisioning services (e.g., food, pharmaceutical compounds, building material); regulating services (e.g., climate regulation, moderation of extreme events, waste treatment, erosion protection, maintaining populations of species); supporting services (e.g., nutrient cycling, primary production); and cultural services (e.g., spiritual experience, recreation, information for cognitive development, aesthetics). The rent for land or the royalties on mineral extraction are examples of longestablished approaches adopted to account for uses of nature. They are based on a one-to-one relationship between one activity or industry and one natural source of the goods or services. The effect of other industries on the same ecosystem is not considered; neither are the impacts on other members of the social system affected by these industries. To comprehensively account for human benefits and costs, “natural capital” needs to be considered alongside the assets that humans have themselves developed, whether in the form of individual skills (“human capital”), the social structures they have created (“social capital”) or the physical assets that they have developed (“built capital”). Managing the scale of the human efforts in using natural capital is crucial. The ecosystem-services approach allows decision-making to be integrated across land, sea and the atmosphere and enables an understanding of the potential and nature of trade-offs among services given different management actions. The increasing magnitude of human pressures on the natural system has caused a transition from an emphasis on single-species or single-sector management to multisector, ecosystem-based management and hence to the explicit incorporation of human actions in socio-ecological systems management. A number of variants of the ecosystem-services approach exist. Some emphasize the functional aspects of ecosystems from which people derive benefits. Others put more emphasis on their utilitarian aspects and seek to apply mainstream economic accounting methods, assigning them monetary values obtained in the market or using non-market methodologies. Yet others emphasize human well-being and ethical values. Looking at ecosystem services requires consideration of a wide range of scales, from the completely global (for example, the role of the oceans in distributing heat around the world; Chapter 5) to the very local (for example, the © 2016 United Nations

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protection offered by coral reefs to low-lying islands; Chapter 42). Most studies conducted on marine and coastal ecosystem services have been focused locally and, in general, have not taken into account benefits generated further afield. An ecosystem-services approach can help with decision-making under conditions of uncertainty, and can bring to light important synergies and trade-offs between different uses of the ocean. However, attempting to assess the relationship between the operation of ecosystem services and the interests of humans requires a much broader management approach and an understanding that many aspects of the ocean have non-linear behaviour and responses. One difficulty is that to date no generally agreed classification of goods and services derived from natural capital exists that could facilitate the task. Another obstacle is that the range of factors involved at all levels might require the consideration of their interaction at the relevant scale, making their treatment very complex. Some ecosystem services are more visible and easily understood than others. There is a risk that the less visible an ecosystem service is, the less it will be taken into account in decision-making. There is also a risk that ecosystem services that can be valued in monetary terms will be understood more easily than others, thus distorting decisions. Likewise, the time scales over which some ecosystem services will be affected by decisions will be much longer than others, which an approach with traditionally used discount rates would completely dismiss. 4.1

Information gaps

Describing and mapping the full range of ecosystem services at different scales requires much data on the underlying functions and structure of the way in which ecosystems operate. Although much work has been done, mostly on terrestrial ecosystems, this assessment draws attention in its various chapters to the gaps in the information needed to understand the way in which individual ecosystem services operate in the ocean and along the coasts. In addition to these specific gaps, a more general, overarching gap exists in understanding how all the individual ecosystem services fit together. 4.2

Capacity-building gaps

Many skills have yet to be developed that should integrate an understanding of the operation of ecosystems: knowledge is currently too fragmented between different specialisms. Even in cases where the appropriate skills exist, some parts of the world lack institutions with the status, resources and commitment to make the necessary inputs into decision-making that will affect a range of ecosystem services from the oceans. The many institutions that already exist to study the ocean also require new or enhanced abilities and connections, but can be expected to work together. Some international networks already exist to facilitate this. More are needed.

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5. The ocean’s role in the hydrological cycle Water is essential for life and the existence of water in a liquid state on the surface of the earth is probably a critical reason why life is found on this planet and not on others. The presence of water on the surface of the earth is the combined result of the cosmic and geological history of the planet during its 4.5 billion years of existence. These processes, at human time-scales of thousands of years, can be considered as quasi-stable. The ocean dominates the hydrological cycle. The great majority of the water on the surface of the planet, 97 per cent, is stored in the ocean. Only 2.5 per cent of the global balance of water is fresh water, of which approximately 69 per cent is permanent ice or snow and 30 per cent is ground water. The remainder 1 per cent is available in soil, lakes, rivers, swamps, etc. (Trenberth et al., 2007). Water evaporates from the planet’s surface, is transported through the atmosphere and falls as rain or snow. Rain is the largest source of fresh water entering the ocean (~530,000 km3 yr-1). At the ocean-atmosphere interface, 85 per cent of surface evaporation and 77 per cent of surface rainfall occur (Trenberth et al., 2007; Schanze et al., 2010). The residence time of all water in the atmosphere is only seven days. It is fair to say that “all atmospheric water is on a short-term loan from the ocean”. However, as with many other cycles, the water cycle is a dynamic system in a quasi steady-state condition. This steady-state condition can be altered if the factors controlling the cycle change. The great glaciations, or ice ages, are processes in which, due to interplanetary and planetary changes, huge amounts of water pass from the liquid to the solid state, altering the availability of liquid water on the surface of the earth and dramatically changing the sea level. As a consequence of the change in sea level, the shape of world coastlines and the amount of emerged (or submerged) land is drastically changed. Changes are occurring today at an unprecedentedly fast but still uncertain rate. A warmer ocean expands and, being contained by rigid basins, the only surface that can move is the free surface in contact with the atmosphere, raising sea level. In addition, the melting of ice due to a warmer atmosphere and a warmer ocean is increasing the volume of the ocean and in the long run will dominate the amount of total change in sea level. As the ocean warms, evaporation will increase, and global precipitation patterns will change. The IPCC assess (AR 3, 2001; AR 4, 2007; and AR 5, 2013 and 2014) that the dynamic system of water on earth, driven by global warming, is changing sea level at a mean rate of 1.7 [1.5 to 1.9] mm yr–1 between 1901 and 2010, increased to 3.2 [2.8 to 3.6] mm yr–1 between 1993 and 2010 and, due to the changes in climate, will also change the patterns of rain on land. Warming affects the polar ice caps, and changes in their melting affect the salinity of the ocean. This in turn can affect the ocean circulation, especially the thermohaline vertical circulation, also known as the “conveyor belt” (Chapter 5) and the operation of associated ecosystem services. © 2016 United Nations

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Due to the concentration of human population and built infrastructure in the coastal zone, sea level rise will seriously affect the way in which humans operate. The effects of sea-level rise will vary widely between regions and areas, with some of the regions most affected least able to manage a response. Changes in water run-off will affect both land and sea. Salinity in the different parts of the ocean has changed over time, but is now changing more rapidly. Gradients in salinity are becoming more marked. Because the distribution of marine biota is affected by the salinity of the water that they inhabit, changes in the distribution of salinity are likely to result in changes in distribution of the biota. Changes in run-off from land are affecting the input of nutrients to the ocean. These changes will also affect marine ecosystems, due to increases in the acidity of the ocean. The warming of the ocean is not uniform. It is modulated by oscillations such as El Niño. These oscillations cause significant transient changes to the climate and ecosystems, both on land and at sea, and have serious economic effects. The variations in ocean warming will affect the interaction with the atmosphere and affect the intensity and distribution of tropical storms. 5.1

Information gaps

The sheer scale of the changes that are happening to the ocean makes present knowledge inadequate to understand all the implications. There are gaps in understanding sea-level rise, and interior temperature, salinity, nutrient and carbon distributions. Many of these gaps are being addressed as part of the world climate change agenda, but more detail about ocean conditions is needed for regional and local management decisions. The information gaps are particularly serious in some of the areas most seriously affected (e.g., the inter-tropical band). 5.2

Capacity-building gaps

Parts of the water cycle are still subject to uncertainties due to insufficient in situ measurements and observations. This is particularly true for surface water fluxes at the regional meso-scale. Because changes in the ocean's role on the hydrological cycle will be pervasive, all parts of the world need to have access to, and the ability to interpret, these changes. People and institutions with the necessary skills exist in many countries, but in many others they lack the status and resources to make the necessary input to decision-making. 6. Sea-Air Interaction Most of the heat excess due to increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases is absorbed by the ocean. All ocean basins have warmed during recent decades, but the increase in heat content is not uniform; the increase in heat content in the © 2016 United Nations

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Atlantic during the last four decades exceeds that of the Pacific and Indian Oceans combined. ‘Recent’ warming (since the 1950s) is strongly evident in sea surface temperatures at all latitudes in all part of the ocean. Prominent structures that change over time and space, including the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), decadal variability patterns in the Pacific Ocean, and a hemispheric asymmetry in the Atlantic Ocean, have been highlighted as contributors to the regional differences in surface warming rates, which in turn affect atmospheric circulation. The effects of these large-scale climate oscillations are often felt around the world, leading to the rearrangement of wind and precipitation patterns, which in turn substantially affect regional weather, sometimes with devastating consequences. Compared with estimates for the global ocean, coastal waters are warming faster: during the last three decades, approximately 70 per cent of the world’s coastline has experienced significant increases in sea surface temperature. Such coastal warming can have many serious consequences for the ecological system, including species relocation. These changes are also affecting the salinity of the ocean: saline surface waters in the evaporation-dominated mid-latitudes have become more saline, while relatively fresh surface waters in rainfall-dominated tropical and polar regions have become fresher. Approximately 83 per cent of global CO2 increase is currently generated from the burning of fossil fuels and industrial activity. Forests and grasslands that usually absorb CO2 from the atmosphere are being removed, causing even more CO2 to be absorbed by the ocean. The ocean thus serves as an important sink of atmospheric CO2, effectively slowing down global climate change. However, this benefit comes with a steep bio-ecological cost. When CO2 reacts with water, it forms carbonic acid, leading to the ocean becoming more acid – referred to as “ocean acidification”. Through various routes, this imposes an additional energy cost to calcifier organisms, such as corals and shell-bearing plankton, although this is by no means the sole impact of ocean acidification (OA). OA is not a simple phenomenon nor will it have a simple unidirectional effect on organisms. Calcification is an internal process that in the vast majority of cases does not depend directly on seawater carbonate content, since most organism use bicarbonate, which is increasing under acidification scenarios, or CO2 originating in their internal metabolism. It has been demonstrated in the laboratory and in the field that some calcifiers can compensate and thrive in acidification conditions. Without significant intervention to reduce CO2 emissions, by the end of this century, average surface ocean pH is expected to be below 7.8, an unprecedented level in recent geological history. These changes will be recorded first at the ocean’s surface, where the highest biodiversity and productivity occur. The abundance and composition of species may be changed, due to OA, with the potential to affect ecosystem function at all trophic levels. Consequential changes in ocean chemistry could occur as well. Economic studies have shown that potential losses at local and regional scales may be catastrophic for communities and national © 2016 United Nations

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economies that depend on fisheries. 6.1

Information Gaps

Regular monitoring of relevant fluxes across the ocean-atmosphere interface needs to be maintained, including the regular assessment of the accumulation of heat and CO2 (changes in alkalinity) in the surface layers of the ocean. The state of knowledge regarding OA is only currently moving beyond the nascent stage. Therefore several major information gaps are yet to be filled. Neither all areas of the globe nor all potentially affected animal and plant groups have yet been covered in terms of research. The full range of response and adaptation of organisms, although an active field of research, is very seldom known. Additional information is required around the effects of mean changes in OA versus changes in variability and extremes; as well as multi-generational effects and adaptive potential of different organisms (Riebesell and Gattuso, 2015; Sunday et al., 2014). The tolerance level by individual organisms to changes in pH must be understood in situ rather than exclusively in laboratory conditions, along with the possible consequential changes in competition by organisms for resources. The effects of potential loss of keystone species within ecosystems are not yet clear, neither are the chemical changes due to pH. The future agenda of research in OA should include integrating knowledge on multiple stressors, competitive and trophic interactions, and adaptation through evolution and moving from single-species to community assessments (Sunday et al., 2014). Future economic impacts of OA are being studied but much more needs to be done. Monitoring and management strategies for maintaining the marine economy will also be needed. In this regard, it has been suggested that future OA research could focus on species related to ecosystem services in anticipation that these case studies might be most useful for modellers and managers (Sunday et al. 2014). 6.2

Capacity-Building Gaps

OA was put in evidence only through long-term observational programmes coordinated by the international research community. To monitor OA on a regular basis, these international efforts need to be continued and institutionally consolidated. OA adaptation is a demanding field of research that requires significant infrastructure (i.e. mesocosm experimental facilities) and highly qualified human resources. These are not readily available in all regions of the world. Further understanding of the scope of adaptation capabilities to OA by plants and animals, the application of mitigation strategies, or the successful management of productive systems cultivating organisms with calcareous exo-skeletons that are regularly exposed to corrosive waters sources, require the existence of these capabilities in place.

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7. Primary Production, Cycling of Nutrients, Surface Layer and Plankton “Marine primary production” is the photosynthesis of plant life in the ocean to produce organic matter, using the energy from sunlight, and carbon dioxide and nutrients dissolved in seawater. Carbon dioxide dissolved in seawater is drawn from the atmosphere. Oxygen is produced as a by-product of photosynthesis both on land and in the ocean. Of the total annual oxygen production from photosynthesis on land and ocean, approximately half originates in marine plants. The plants involved in this process range from the microscopic phytoplankton to giant seaweeds. On land, the other 50 per cent of the world’s oxygen originates in the photosynthesis from all plants and forests. Present-day animals and bacteria rely on present-day oxygen production by plants on land and in the ocean as a critical ecosystem service that keeps atmospheric oxygen from otherwise declining. Marine primary production, as the primary source of organic matter in the ocean, is the basis of nearly all life in the oceans, playing an important role in the global cycling of carbon. Phytoplankton absorbs about 50 billion tons of carbon a year, and large seaweeds and other marine plants (macrophytes) about 3 billion tons. At a planetary level, this ecological function plays an important role in removing CO2 – one of the significant greenhouse gases – from the atmosphere. Total annual anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are estimated at 49.5 billion tons, one-third of which is taken up by the ocean. This ecological service provided by the ocean has so far prevented warming of the planet above 2o C. Marine primary production also plays a major role in the cycling of nitrogen around the world. A moderate level of uncertainty exists about the extent to which the ocean is currently a net absorber or releaser of nitrogen. Anthropogenic nutrient loading in coastal waters, ocean warming, ocean acidification, and sea-level rise are driving changes in the phenology (see below) and spatial pattern of phytoplankton and in net primary production as well as in nutrient cycles. These changes are threatening the provision of several ecosystem services at different scales (local, regional). Changes in macrophyte net primary production and their impacts (losses of habitat and of carbon sinks) are also well documented. Changes in net primary production by phytoplankton or in the nutrient cycles in the upper levels of the world ocean have been the subject of recent debate. Some analyses suggested a diminishing trend in world primary production (Boyce et al., 2010). However, this result was challenged by Rykaczewski and Dunne (2011) and finally reviewed by the original authors (Boyce, et al., 2014). After recalibration of the datasets, despite an overall decline of chlorophyll concentration over 62 per cent of the global ocean with sufficient observations, they describe a more balanced picture between regional increases and decreases of primary production, without an overall globally pervasive negative trend. The wider consequences of this long-term trend are presently unresolved. The efficient use of primary production to support animals at higher levels in the food web depends on a good relationship between the timing of bursts of primary © 2016 United Nations

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production and breeding periods of zooplankton and planktivorous fish. The phenology of species, i.e., the timing of events in the life cycle of species, plays a significant role here. Changes in the phenology of plankton species and planktivorous fish due to ocean warming is starting to produce significant mismatches and could produce many more, affecting the local level of production in the ocean. Warming of the upper ocean and associated increases in vertical stratification may lead to a major decrease in the proportion of primary production going to zooplankton and planktivorous fish, and an increase in the proportion of phytoplankton being broken down by microbes without first entering the higher levels of the food web. Such a trend would reduce the carrying capacity of the oceans for fisheries and the capacity of the oceans to mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic climate change. Coastal eutrophication (see Chapter 20) is likely to lead to an increase in the numbers and area of dead zones and toxic phytoplankton blooms. Both can have serious effects on the supply to humans of food from the sea. Nanoparticles (microscopic fragments of plastic and other anthropogenic substances) pose a potential serious threat to plankton and the vast numbers of marine biota which depend on them. Increases in nitrogen inputs to the ocean and in sea temperatures may have serious impacts on the type (species, size) and amount of marine primary production, although much debate still occurs about the scale of this phenomenon. Different responses are likely to be found in different regions. This may be particularly significant in the Southern Ocean, where a major drop in primary production has been forecast. 7.1

Information gaps

Completing a worldwide observing system for the biology and water quality of the ocean that could provide cost-effectively improved information to future assessments under the Regular Process is seen as an important gap. Routine and sustained measurements across all parts of the ocean are needed on planktonic species diversity, chlorophyll a, dissolved nitrogen and dissolved biologically active phosphorus. Due to their ability to enter into marine food chains, with a potential impact on both marine organism and human health, plastic microparticles need to be systematically monitored. Without this additional information, it will not be possible to understand or predict the changes that will occur due to the accumulated and combined effect of several drivers. Some information can be derived from satellite remote sensing, but in situ observations at the surface and especially at sub-surface levels are irreplaceable, given the fact that the ocean is essentially opaque to electromagnetic radiation, the medium par excellence of remote sensing.

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7.2

Capacity-building gaps

The gathering of such information requires a worldwide network for data collection. Both a Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and a Global Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) are currently being developed to collect biological and ecologically relevant information that, if completed, would fill in some of the information gaps described above. The capacities to participate in these systems need to be extended worldwide. It is also important to develop the skills to explain to decision-makers and the general public the importance of plankton and its significance for the ecosystem services provided by the ocean. 8. Ocean-sourced carbonate production Many marine organisms secrete calcium carbonate to produce a hard skeleton. These vary in size from the microscopic plankton, through corals, to large mollusc shells. Carbonate production by corals is particularly important, because the reefs that they form are fundamental to the existence of many islands and some entire States. Sand beaches are also often formed by the fragmented shells of marine biota. Beaches are dynamic structures, under constant change from the effects of the oceans; hence a constant supply of new sand of this kind is needed to sustain them. Sea-level rise will particularly affect beaches, causing them to move inland. In the case of small islands, this may diminish the already limited inhabitable area. Such changes may also be affected by the availability of new supplies of sand. Such changes could be very serious for States or parts of States comprised of atolls. The impact of climate change on the rate of biogenic production of carbonate sediment is also little understood, but it seems likely to have negative consequences. Ocean warming has already led to the death (bleaching) of some coral reefs or parts of them. The acidification of the ocean may lead to significant changes in the biogenic production of calcium carbonate, with implications for the future of coral reefs and shell beaches. 8.1

Knowledge gaps

Long-term data are lacking on the formation and fate of reef islands and shell beaches. Information is particularly lacking on the links between the physical structures and the environmental circumstances that may affect changes in these structures. 8.2

Capacity-building gaps

A gap often exists in the capacities of people living on atolls and in countries depending heavily on tourism from shell beaches to understand the drivers that © 2016 United Nations

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shape the development of these structures. Without such capacities it is impossible to bring the factors affecting the future of these structures into the making of decisions which can fundamentally affect them. 9. Aesthetic, cultural, religious and spiritual ecosystem services derived from the marine environment The development of human culture over the centuries has been influenced by the ocean, through transport of cultural aspects across the seas, the acquisition of cultural objects from the sea, the development of culture to manage human activities at sea, and the interaction of cultural activities with the sea. The ocean has been and continues to be the source of prized materials for cultural use, for example: pearls, mother-of-pearl, coral, and tortoise-shell. Some marine foodstuffs are also ingredients in culturally significant dishes. The high value given to many of these culturally significant objects can lead to their over-exploitation and the long-term damage of the ecosystems that supply them. The sea is an important element in many sites of cultural significance. Forty-six marine and coastal sites are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Even where sites do not reach this high threshold of cultural significance, great aesthetic and economic importance may be attached to preserving the seascape and coastal views. This concern should also be extended to the tangible cultural heritage of past human interaction with the sea and of past human activities in periods of low sea levels. This can be particularly significant in making decisions about the location of new offshore installations. The intangible cultural heritage of human interaction with the sea is also important. Ten per cent of the items on the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding involve the ocean. Important cultural areas are derived from the need of humans to operate on the ocean, leading to skills such as navigation, hydrography, naval architecture, chronometry and many other techniques. The need is increasingly being recognised to understand the knowledge systems developed by many indigenous peoples to understand and manage their interactions with the marine environment. 9.1

Knowledge gaps

In the current fast-changing world, it is important to record much traditional knowledge before it is lost. 9.2

Capacity-building gaps

For cultural goods derived from the sea, a gap exists in many parts of the world for the skills needed to identify and implement potential opportunities to turn local marine objects to good account. Means to support traditional cultural practices so © 2016 United Nations

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that they endure for future generations need to be provided, and anthropological skills to record and interpret them are also important. 10. The ecosystem services concept and the United Nations and other systems of environmental-economic accounting As can be seen from the foregoing, there is a general need to bring together information about ecosystem services, in a way which allows judgments to be made about trade-offs. In 1992, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) called for the implementation of integrated environmentaleconomic accounting in countries, to complement national accounts by accounting for environmental losses and gains. As a consequence, the United Nations Statistics Division (in charge of maintaining the framework as well as the world standards for the System of National Accounts) led the development of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) under the auspices of the United Nations Committee of Experts on Environmental-Economic Accounting (UNCEEA). The SEEA Central Framework was adopted as an international standard by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its 43rd Session in 2012 and the SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting was endorsed by the same commission at its 44th session in 2013 (http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/seea.asp). Both the SEEA Central Framework and SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting use the accounting concepts, structures and principles of the System of National Accounts (SNA). The SSEA provides a way of organizing information in both “physical terms” and “monetary terms” using consistent definitions, concepts and classifications. Physical measures and valuation of ecosystem services and ecosystem assets are discussed in the SEEA Experimental Ecosystem Accounting. Those ecosystem services and ecosystem assets are not typically traded on markets, as explained in Chapter 3, and are difficult to measure because observed prices cannot be used to measure these assets and services as in standard economic accounting (Statistics Division of the United Nations, 2012). Although concepts and methods are still experimental, many United Nations Member States have engaged in ambitious programmes to apply these new concepts (Figure 1).

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Figure 1. Countries of the world implementing natural capital accounting programmes. The map is provided by the United Nations Statistics Division.

Simplified ecosystem capital accounts are currently being implemented in Europe by the European Environment Agency, in cooperation with Eurostat, as one of the responses to recurrent policy demands in Europe for accounting for ecosystems and biodiversity (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity:TEEB). The European Union has developed the MAES programme, for Mapping and Assessment of Ecological Services in the 27 countries of the European Union (http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/an-experimental-framework-forecosystem). The United Kingdom Government has recently completed a national ecosystem assessment (UK National Ecosystem Assessment, 2011) and, building on this report, has made a commitment to include the value of natural capital and ecosystems fully into the United Kingdom environmental accounts by 2020. 11. Conclusions Long-established approaches adopted to account for uses of nature, like rent or royalties, are based on a one-to-one relationship between one activity or industry and one natural source of the goods or services. The effect of other industries on the © 2016 United Nations

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same natural source is not considered; neither are the impacts on other members of the social system affected by these industries. Traditionally these invisible benefits and costs are mostly hidden in the “natural system”, and usually are not accounted for at all in economic terms. The emergence and evolution of the concept of ecosystem services is an explicit attempt to better capture and reflect these hidden or unaccounted benefits and costs, expanding the scope of policy options already available in integrated management approaches through the consideration of the trade-offs among different uses and beneficiaries. The ecosystem services approach has proven to be very useful in the management of multi-sector processes and is informing today many management and regulatory processes around the world, especially on land. However, the methodologies and different approaches to assess and measure ecosystem services, or to assign them value, as presented in Chapter 3, are far from benefiting from a common set of standards and a consensual framework for their application. Furthermore, as stated in Chapter 3, “On land, negative impacts can be partially managed or contained in space. However, in the ocean, due to its fluid nature, impacts may broadcast far from their site of origin and are more difficult to contain and manage. For example, there is only one Ocean when considering its role in climate change through the ecosystem service of “gas regulation”. In Chapters 4 to 8, the ecosystems services analyzed are provided on different spatial and temporal scales. Most of those ecosystems are described only on large to very large scales, many of them, indeed, at the planetary scale. In contrast, much of the work on valuing ecosystem services in the ocean has focused on smaller systems, for example, on assessing and valuing the services provided by marine parks, marine reserves and marine protected areas, in order to enable local judgments (including such elements as making local planning decisions or establishing fees to charge to visitors). Despite a significant amount of work on ecosystem-services valuation for the ocean and coasts, as reported in Chapter 3, evidence of its broader application in decision-making at the larger scales is still very limited.

References Boyce, D.G., Lewis, M. R. and Worm, B., (2010). Global phytoplankton decline over the past century. Nature, 466: 591-596. Boyce D.G., Dowd M, Lewis MR, Worm, B., (2014). Estimating global chlorophyll changes over the past century. Progress in Oceanography 122:163–173 Lubchenco, J., Petes, L.E., (2010). The interconnected biosphere: science at the ocean's tipping points. Oceanography 23 (2), 115–129. Riebesell, U. and Gattuso J.-P., (2015). Lessons learned from ocean acidification research. Nature Climate Change 5:12-14.

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Rykaczewski, R.R. and Dunne, J.P. (2011). A measured look at ocean chlorophyll trends. Nature 472, E5-6. Schanze, J. J., Schmitt, R. W. and Yu, L.L. (2010). The global oceanic freshwater cycle: A state-of-the-art quantification. Journal of Marine Research 68, 569–595. Sunday, J.M., P. Calosi, T. Reusch, S. Dupont, P. Munday, J. Stillman, (2014). Evolution in an acidifying ocean. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 29(2): 117125. Trenberth, K.E., Smith, L., Qian, T., Dai, A., and Fasullo, J. (2007). Estimates of the Global Water Budget and Its Annual Cycle Using Observational and Model Data. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 8: 758 – 769. United Nations Statistics Division (2012). The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) Experimental Ecosystem Accounting. (http://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/eea_white_cover.pdf). United Kingdom National Ecosystem Assessment (2011). The UK National Ecosystem Assessment: Synthesis of the Key Findings. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.

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Part IV Assessment of Marine Biological Diversity and Habitats One of the main services provided by the oceans is food for human consumption, resulting in benefits for human health and nutrition, economic returns, and employment. These benefits can be enjoyed sustainably, but only if the intensity and nature of harvesting and culture are appropriately planned and managed, and access to the potential benefits is made available. Part IV of the WOA reviews these issues under the headings of the Ocean as a source of food (Chapter 10), Capture fisheries (Chapter 11), Aquaculture (12), Fish stock propagation (13), Specialized marine food sources (14), and Social and economic aspects of fisheries (15). Chapter 10 summarizes the contributions of seafood 1 to human nutrition and alleviation of hunger, discussing both patterns at regional and sub-regional scales and their trends over time. Chapter 11 looks in more detail at capture fisheries, presenting trends over time both globally and regionally in overall harvest levels and fishing gear used. It also looks at major species harvested at these scales, and the sustainability of use of the harvested species. It also looks at the ecosystem effects of fishing, considering the nature, levels, and, where information is available, trends, in effects on bycatch species, marine food webs, and habitats. Chapter 12 reviews the same types of information for aquaculture, considering overall production and production of key species at global and regional scales, and, with regard to ecosystem effects, considers issues such as introduction of alien species, local degradation and conversion of habitats, use of antibodies, genetic manipulations, and other similar factors in this form of production. Chapters 13 and 14 address focused issues of artificial propagation of fish and use of marine plants and species other than fish and invertebrates as food. Chapter 15 then assesses the magnitude of economic and social benefits from fisheries and aquaculture. The assessment again looks at trends both globally and regionally, and in addition at differences in the nature, scales, and distribution of social and economic benefits of large-scale and small-scale fisheries. The role of trade, hunger, poverty, worker safety and related issues are all addressed, with particular attention to the interactions of trade, hunger, and poverty alleviation in how benefits may be taken and distributed. The synthesis in Chapter 16 brings these aspects of the ocean as a source of food together. It integrates the perspectives of the sustainability of harvested and cultured stocks and the impacts on marine ecosystems from fishing and aquaculture, with the perspectives of economic benefits and social / livelihoods benefits. 1

Both the terms “seafood” and “fish” are used to include a variety of marine sources of food, depending on the source being consulted. In Part IV both terms are used generically to refer to all types of fish (including both bony and cartilaginous species) and invertebrates consumed as food. When information is presented on a subset of these taxa, the text is explicit about the intended group of species.

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Chapter 10. The Oceans as a Source of Food Contributors: Beatrice Ferreira (Co-Lead member), Jake Rice (Lead member), Andy Rosenberg (Co-Lead member) 1. Introduction One of the main services provided by the oceans to human societies is the provisioning service of food from capture fisheries and culturing operations. This includes fish, invertebrates, plants, and for some cultures, marine mammals and seabirds for direct consumption or as feed for aquaculture or agriculture. These ocean-based sources of food have large-scale benefits for human health and nutrition, economic returns, and employment. A major challenge around the globe is to obtain these benefits without compromising the ability of the ocean to continue to provide such benefits for future generations, that is, to manage human use of the ocean for sustainability. In effect, this means that capture fisheries and aquaculture facilities must ensure that the supporting stocks are not overharvested and the ecosystem impacts of the harvesting or aquaculture facilities do not undermine the capacity of a given ocean area to continue to provide food and other benefits to society (see Chapter 3). Further, the social and economic goals of the fisheries and aquaculture should fully consider sustainable use in order to safeguard future benefits. 2. Dimensionality of the oceans as a source of food Capture fisheries and aquaculture operate at many geographical scales, and vary in how they use marine resources for food production. Here, “small-scale” refers to operations that are generally low capital investment but high labour activities, relatively low production, and often family or community-based with a part of the catch being consumed by the producers (Béné et al., 2007; Garcia et al., 2008). Large-scale operations require significantly more capital equipment and expenditure, are more highly mechanized and their businesses are more vertically integrated, with generally global market access rather than focused on local consumption. These descriptions are at the ends of a spectrum continuum of scales with enormous variation in between. The geography of harvesting and food production from the sea is also important. Williams (1996) documents that until the mid-1980s, developed countries dominated both harvesting and aquaculture, but thereafter developing countries became

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dominant, first in capture fisheries and later in mariculture. A general division of largescale fisheries and mariculture in the developed world and small-scale operations in the developing world was never absolute. Small-scale operations were present in all areas, but highly mobile large-scale fisheries are increasingly operating around the globe (Beddington et al., 2007; World Bank/FAO, 2012), and large aquaculture facilities for export products are increasing in the developing world (Beveridge et al., 2010; Hall et al., 2011). 3. Trends in capture fisheries and aquaculture According to FAO statistics reported by member States, production of fish from capture fisheries and aquaculture for human consumption and industrial purposes has grown at an annual rate of 3.4 per cent for the past half century from about 20 to above 162 mmt by 2013 (FAO, 2014a; FAO, 2015). Over the last two decades though, almost all of this growth has come from increases in aquaculture production. Chapters 11 and 12 of this Assessment describe the time course of capture fisheries and aquaculture development over the last several decades. Globally aquaculture production has increased at approximately 8.6 per cent per year since 1980, to reach an estimated 67 mmt in 2012, although the rate of growth has slowed slightly in recent years. Of that total, however, more than 60 per cent is from freshwater aquaculture. In addition nearly 24 million tons of aquatic plants (mostly seaweeds) were cultured on 2012. Total marine aquaculture production is growing slightly faster than freshwater aquaculture in all regions, but, like freshwater aquaculture, over 80 per cent of production is concentrated in a few countries, particularly China, as well as some other east and south Asian countries (FAO, 2014a). Some of the fish taken in capture fisheries are used as feed in aquaculture, fishmeal, fish oil and other non-human consumption uses. Thus the total harvest from capture fisheries and production from mariculture is not all available for human consumption. This use of fish is debated with regard to the best use of production from capture fisheries (Naylor et al., 2009; Pikitch et al., 2012). The total amount of fish used for purposes other than direct consumption has been declining slowly since the early 2000s from about 30 per cent to just over 20 per cent of total capture fishery harvest in 2012 (FAO 2014a). Consequently, fish for human consumption has been increasing slightly faster than the human population, increasing the importance of fish in meeting food security needs (HLPE, 2014). Finally, fishing is also undertaken for recreational, cultural and spiritual reasons. Even though fish taken for these purposes may be consumed, they are addressed in chapters 8 and 27, and will not be considered further here.

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4. Value of marine fisheries and mariculture Fish harvested or cultured from the sea provide three classes of benefits to humanity: food and nutrition, commerce and trade, and employment and livelihoods (see Chapter 15 for additional detail). All three classes of benefits are significant for the world. 4.1

Food and nutrition

According to FAO (2014a) estimates, fish and marine invertebrates provide 17 per cent of animal protein to the world population, and provide more than 20 per cent of the animal protein to over 3 million people, predominantly in parts of the world where hunger is most widespread. Asia accounts for 2/3 of the total consumption of fish. However, when population is taken into account, Oceania has the highest per capita consumption (approximately 25 kg per year), with North America, Europe, South America and Asia all consuming over 20 kg per capita, and Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean are around 10 kg per capita. Per capita consumption does not capture the full importance of the marine food sources to food security, however. Many of the 29 countries where these sources constitute more than a third of animal protein consumed are in Africa and Asia. Of these, the United Nations has identified 18 as low-income, food deficient economies (Karawazuka Béné, 2011, FAO, 2014b). Thus fish and invertebrates, usually from the ocean, are most important where food is needed most.

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Table 1. Total and per capita food fish supply by continent and economic grouping in 2011

Total food supply (million tonnes live weight equivalent) World

Per capita food supply (kg/year)

132.2

18.9

World (excluding China)

86.3

15.3

Africa

11.0

10.4

North America

7.6

21.7

Latin America and the Caribbean

5.9

9.8

Asia

90.3

21.5

Europe

16.4

22.1

Oceania

0.9

25.0

26.4

27.0

Other developed countries

5.6

13.7

Least-developed countries

10.3

12.1

Other developing countries

89.9

18.9

LIFDCs2

21.2

8.6

Industrialized countries

1

Preliminary data

2

Low-income food-deficit countries.

Source: FAO Information and Statistics Branch, Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, 2015.

Not only are marine food sources important for overall food security, fish are rich in essential micronutrients, particularly when compared to micronutrients available when meeting human protein needs from consumption of grains (WHO 1985). Compared to protein from livestock and poultry, fish protein is much richer in poly-unsaturated fatty acids and several vitamins and minerals (Roos et al., 2007, Bonhan et al., 2007). Correspondingly, direct health benefits relative to reducing risk of obesity, heart disease, and high blood pressure have been linked to diets rich in fish (Allison et al., 2013). It should be noted, however, that there are also potential health risks from consumption of seafood, particularly as fish at higher trophic levels may concentrate environmental contaminants, and there are occasional outbreaks of toxins in shellfish. Substantial effort is invested in monitoring for these risks, and avoiding the conditions where probability of toxin outbreaks may increase. More broadly, food safety is a key worldwide challenge facing all food production and delivery sectors including all parts of the seafood industry from capture or culture to retail marketing. This challenge of

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course faces subsistence fisheries as well. In the food chain for fishery products, risk of problems needs to be assessed, managed and communicated to ensure problems can be addressed. The goal of most food safety systems is to avoid risk and prevent problems at the source. The risks come from contamination from toxins or pathogens and the severity of the risk also depends on individual health, consumption levels and susceptibility. There are international guidelines to address these risks but substantial resources are required in order to continue to build the capacity to implement and monitor safety protocols from the water to the consumer. Because of the several limiting factors affecting wild fish catch today (see Chapter 11), it is forecasted that aquaculture production will supply all of the increase in fish consumption in the immediate future. Production is projected to rise to 100 million tons by 2030 (Hall et al., 2011) and to 140 million tons by 2050, if growth continues at the same rate. Estimates by the World Resources Institute (Waite et al., 2014), assuming (a) the same mix of fish species, (b) that all aquaculture will go to human consumption and (c) that there will be a 10 per cent decrease in wild fish capture for food, indicate that the growth in aquaculture production cited above would boost fish protein supply to 20.2 million tons, or 8.7 million tons above 2006 levels. This increase would meet 17 per cent of the increase in global animal protein consumption required by 9.6 billion people for 2050 (Waite et al. 2014). 4.2

Commerce and trade

The total value of world fish production from capture fisheries and marine and freshwater aquaculture was estimated to be 252 billion USD in 2012, with the “firstsale” value of fish from capture fisheries at approximately 45 per cent of that value (FAO 2014a). Consistent accounting for “value” has been elusive, providing alternative value estimates that are as much as 15-20 per cent greater (e.g., Dyck and Sumalia, 2010). The different possible accounting schemes make it correspondingly difficult to estimate the growth rate of economic value of fisheries, but all approaches project the value to have increased consistently for decades and likely to continue to increase. This increase in economic value is attributable to several factors, including increased production (primarily from aquaculture), an increasing proportion of catches directed to human consumption, improvements in processing and transportation technologies that add to the product’s value, and changing consumer demand (Delgado et al 2003). Several factors contribute to increasing consumer demand. The factors include increasing awareness of health benefits of eating fish, increasing economic consumer power in developed and developing economies, and market measures such a certification of sustainably harvested fish and aquaculture products (FAO 2014a). Just as total per capita consumption of fish underestimates the importance of fish to food security in many food-deficit countries, the total economic value of fish sales underrepresents the value of fish sales to low-income parts of the world. There is a

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“cash crop” value to fish catches of even small-scale subsistence fishers. Most of this “value” is not captured in the formal economic statistics of countries, and probably varies locally and seasonally (Dey et al., 2005). However studies have shown that the selling or trading of even a portion of their catch represents as much as a third of the total income of subsistence fishers in some low income countries (Béné et al., 2009). 4.3

Employment and livelihoods

These differences between large-scale and small scale fishers are particularly important in considering employment benefits from food from the ocean. Estimates of full-time or part-time jobs derived from fishing, vary widely, with numbers ranging from 58 million to over 120 million jobs being available (BNP 2009, FAO 2014a). All sources agree that over 90 per cent are employed in small-scale fisheries. This includes jobs in the processing and trading sectors, where opportunities for employment of women are particularly important (BNP 2009). The value-chain jobs are considered to nearly triple the employment benefits from fishing and mariculture, compared to direct employment from harvesting (World Bank 2012). All sources report that more than 85 per cent of the employment opportunities are in Asia and a further 8 per cent in Africa, largely in income-deficit countries or areas. It is even harder to track direct and value-chain employment from small-scale aquaculture production and break out the portion that is derived from marine aquaculture (Beveridge et al., 2010), but recent estimates for employment from aquaculture exceed 38 million persons (Phillips et al., 2013). Of the 58.3 million people estimated to be employed in fisheries and aquaculture (4.4 per cent of total estimated economically active people), 84 per cent were in Asia and 10 per cent in Africa. Women are estimated to account for more than 15 per cent of people employed in the fisheries sector (FAO, 2014). When full- or part-time participants in the full value-chain and support industries (boatbuilding, gear construction, etc.) of fisheries and aquaculture and their dependents are included, FAO estimated that between 660 and 820 million persons derive some economic and/or livelihood benefits (FAO 2012, Allison 2013). Direct employment in fishing is also growing over 2 per cent per year, generally faster than human population growth (Allison, 2013). However, there has been a shift from 87 per cent in capture fisheries and the rest in aquaculture (primarily freshwater) in 1990, to approximately a 70:30 division in 2010, with slightly faster growth in employment in mariculture than in freshwater aquaculture (FAO, 2012). Trade in fishery products further complicates efforts to evaluate trends in the contribution of the oceans to human well-being. Fish is one of the most heavily traded food commodities on the planet, with an estimated 38 per cent of fishery production by 2010, up from 25 per cent in 1976 (FAO, 2012). This represents about 10 per cent of international agricultural exports. The direct value of international exports was over 136 billion USD in 2012, up 102 per cent in just 10 years (FAO, 2014a. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4136e.pdf); European Union (EU) countries alone imported

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more than 514 billion in fish products in 2013, although slightly over half of that was from trade among EU Member States (http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4136e.pdf). Fish trade is truly global, with FAO recording fish and fishery products exported by 197 countries, led by China, which contributes 14 per cent of the total exports. Developing countries contribute over 60 per cent by volume and over 50 per cent by value of exports of fish and fish products. Although this trade generates significant revenues for developing countries, through sales, taxation, license fees, and payment for access to fish by distant water fleets, there is a growing debate about the true benefits to the inhabitants of these countries from these revenue sources (Bostock et al., 2004; World Bank 2012). The debate centres on whether poor fishers would benefit more from personal or community consumption of the fish than from sales of the fish to obtain cash or credit. The issue is complicated by the leasing of access rights for foreign vessels which may compete for resources with coastal small scale fishers. With smallscale and large-scale fisheries each harvesting about half of the world’s fish, resolving the relative importance of large-scale and small-scale fisheries to food security, in an increasingly globalized economy, is complex. Reviews found the issue to be polarized in the early 2000s (FAO 2003; Kurien, 2004), and there has been little convergence of views over the ensuing decade (HLPE, 2014). 5. Impacts of fisheries and mariculture, on marine ecosystems Harvesting or culturing marine fish, invertebrates or plants necessarily has at least direct and immediate, and often indirect and longer-term impacts on marine ecosystems. For over a century fisheries experts have sought ways to evaluate the short-term and longterm sustainability of varying levels of fish harvests (Smith 1994), and to manage fisheries to keep these harvests within sustainable bounds (Garcia et al., 2014). Assessing and managing the wider ecosystem impacts of fisheries and aquaculture is even more challenging (Garcia et al., 2014). These impacts may range from loss of habitat due to destructive fishing practices to impacts on the structure of marine food webs by selectively harvesting some species that play a key role in the integrity of a given ecosystem. The fact that these effects may be difficult to quantify in no way diminishes their importance in sustaining the capacity of the oceans to provide food and other benefits to human society. Moreover, the scope of assessments of impacts continues to expand, as life cycle analyses are introduced into fisheries (Avadí and Fréon, 2013). Results indicate that, for example, the carbon footprint of a kg of fish at market depends greatly on modes of capture and transport. However, the carbon footprint is often substantially lower than the footprint of a kg of poultry or livestock (Mogensen et al., 2012). Other chapters in this Assessment, primarily in Part VI, consider a broad range of impacts on the ocean of human activities. Since food production from the ocean is such an important benefit, particular care must be taken to ensure that sustained capacity to produce food from fisheries and aquaculture is not diminished.

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6. Conclusions This chapter sets the stage for assessing the role of the oceans as a source of food. The chapters to follow will assess in depth the ways that food is taken from the sea. Each chapter will consider the trends in yields, resources, economic benefits, employment, and livelihoods, the interactions among the trends, and their main drivers, on global and regional scales as appropriate. They will also look at the main impacts of the various food-related uses of the ocean on biodiversity – both species and habitats. Some of these interactions will also be considered, from the perspective of the affected components of biodiversity, in Part VI of the World Ocean Assessment. Each chapter will also consider the main factors that affect the trends in benefits, resources used and impacts. Together a picture will emerge of the importance of the ocean as a source of food, and of fisheries and mariculture as sources of commerce, wealth, and livelihoods for humankind, with a particular focus on the world’s coastal peoples.

References Allison, E.H., Delaporte, A., and Hellebrandt de Silva, D. (2013). Integrating fisheries management and aquaculture development with food security and livelihoods for the poor. Report submitted to the Rockefeller Foundation, School of International Development, University of East Anglia Norwich, 124 p. Avadí, A., and Fréon, P. (2013) Life cycle assessment of fisheries: A review for fisheries scientists and managers. Fisheries Research 143: 21-38. Beddington, J.R., Agnew, D.J., and Clark, C.W. (2007). Current problems in the management of marine fisheries. Science 316(5832): 1713–1716. Béné, C., Macfadyen, G., and Allison, E. (2007). Increasing the contribution of small-scale fisheries to poverty alleviation and food security. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 481. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 125 p. Béné, C., Belal, E., Baba, M.O., Ovie, S., Raji, A., Malasha, I., Njaya, F., Na Andi, M., Russell, A., and Neiland, A. (2009). Power Struggle, Dispute and Alliance over Local Resources: Analyzing ‘Democratic’ Decentralization of Natural Resources through the Lenses of Africa Inland Fisheries. World Development 37: 1935– 1950. Beveridge M., Phillips, M., Dugan, P., and Brummett, R. (2010). Barriers to Aquaculture Development as a Pathway to Poverty Alleviation and Food Security: Policy

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Coherence and the Roles and Responsibilities of Development Agencies. OECD Workshop, Paris, France, 12–16 April 2010. BNP (2009). Big Number Program. Intermediate report. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization and WorldFish Center. Bonham, M.P., Duffy, E.M., Robson, P.J., Wallace, J.M., Myers, G.J., Davidson, P.W., Clarkson, T.W., Shamlaye, C.F., Strain, J., and Livingstone, M.B.E. (2009). Contribution of fish to intakes of micronutrients important for foetal development: a dietary survey of pregnant women in the Republic of Seychelles. Public Health Nutrition 12(9):1312–1320. Bostock, T., Greenhalgh, P., and Kleih, U. (2004). Policy Research: Implications of Liberalization of Fish Trade for Developing Countries. Synthesis report. Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, UK, 68 p. Delgado, C., Wada, N., Rosegrant, M.W., Meijer, S., and Ahmed, M. (2003). Fish to 2020: Supply and Demand in Changing Global Markets. International Food Policy Research Institute. Washington, DC and WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia. Dey, M.M., Mohammed, R.A., Paraguas, F.J., Somying, P., Bhatta, R., Ferdous, M.A., and Ahmed, M. (2005). Fish consumption and food security: a disaggregated analysis by types of fish and classes of consumers in selected Asian countries. Aquaculture Economics and Management 9: 89–111. Dyck, A.J., and Sumaila, U.R. (2010). Economic impact of ocean fish populations in the global fishery. Journal of Bioeconomics 12: 227–243. FAO (2003). Report of the expert consultation on international fish trade and food security. FAO Fisheries Report. No.708. Rome. FAO (2012). The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture. FAO Rome. 209 pp. FAO (2014a). The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture. FAO Rome. 239 pp. FAO (2014b). Low-Income Food-Deficit Countries (LIFDC) – List for 2014. http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/lifdc/en/. Garcia S., Allison, E.H, Andrew, N., Béné, C., Bianchi, G., de Graaf, G., Kalikoski, D., Mahon, R., and Orensanz, L.. (2008). Towards integrated assessment and advice in small-scale fisheries: Principles and Processes. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No.515. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 84 p. Garcia, S.M., Rice, J., and Charles, A.T. (eds). (2014). Governance of Marine Fisheries and Biodiversity Conservation: Interaction and Co-evolution. Wiley Interscience. London. 486 pp. Hall, S.J., Delaporte A., Phillips M.J., Beveridge M., O’Keefe M. (2011). Blue Frontiers: Managing the Environmental Costs of Aquaculture. The WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia.

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HLPE, (2014). Sustainable fisheries and aquaculture for food security and nutrition. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security, Rome. Kawarazuka, N., and Béné, C. (2011). The potential role of small fish species in improving micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries: building evidence. Public Health Nutrition 14: 1927–1938. Kawarazuka, N., and Béné C. (2010). Linking small-scale fisheries and aquaculture to household nutritional security: a review of the literature. Food Security 2: 343– 357. Kurien, J. (2004). Fish trade for the people: Toward Understanding the Relationship between International Fish Trade and Food Security. Report of the Study on the impact of international trade in fishery products on food security, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Mogensen,L., Hermansen, J.E., Halberg, N., Dalgaard, R., Vis, R.C., and Smith, B.G. (2012). Life Cycle Assessment Across the Food Supply Chain. In: Baldwin, C., editor. Sustainability in the Food Industry. Wiley, London. pp. 115-144. Naylor, R.L., Hardy, R.W., Bureau, D.P., Chiu, A., Elliott, M., Farrell, A.P., Forster, I., Gatlin, D.M., Goldburg, R.J., Hua, K., and Nichols, P.D. (2009). Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106: 18040. Phillips, M., Van, N.T., and Subasinghe, R. (2013). Aquaculture Big Numbers. Working Paper. 12 June 2012. WorldFish and FAO. Pikitch, E., Boersma, P.D., Boyd, I.L., Conover, D.O., Cury, P., Essington, T., Heppell, S.S., Houde, E.D., Mangel, M., Pauly, D., Plagányi, É., Sainsbury, K., and Steneck, R.S. (2012). Little Fish, Big Impact: Managing a Crucial Link in Ocean Food Webs. p. 108. Lenfest Ocean Program. Washington, DC. Roos, N., Wahab, M.A., Chamnan, C, and Thilsted, S.H. (2007). The role of fish in foodbased strategies to combat Vitamin A and mineral deficiencies in developing countries. Journal of Nutrition 137: 1106–1109. Smith, T.D. (1994). Scaling Fisheries: The Science of Measuring the Effects of Fishing 1855-1955. Cambridge Studies in Applied Ecology and Resource Management. Cambridge, 384 pp. WHO (1985). Energy and protein requirements. World Health Organization, Geneva. Williams, M.J. (1996). The transition in the contribution of living aquatic resources to food security. International Food Policy Research Institute: Food Agriculture and the Environment Discussion Paper No. 13: 41pp. Waite, R. et al. 2014. Improving Productivity and Environmental Performance of Aquaculture. © 2016 United Nations

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Working Paper, Installment 5 of Creating a Sustainable Food Future. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Accessible at http://www.worldresourcesreport.org. World Bank/FAO/WorldFish (2012). Hidden Harvest: The Global Contribution of Capture Fisheries. World Bank, Report No. 66469-GLB, Washington, DC. 69 pp.

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Chapter 11. Capture Fisheries Writing team: Fábio Hazin, Enrique Marschoff (Co-Lead member), Beatrice Padovani Ferreira (Co-Lead member), Jake Rice (Co-Lead member), Andrew Rosenberg (Co-Lead member) 1. Present status and trends of commercially exploited fish and shellfish stocks Production of fish from capture fisheries (Figure 1) and aquaculture for human consumption and industrial purposes has grown at the rate of 3.2 per cent for the past half century from about 20 to nearly 160 million mt by 2012 (FAO 2014).

Figure 1. Evolution of world’s capture of marine species. From SOFIA (FAO 2014).

Globally, marine capture fisheries produced 82.6 million mt in 2011 and 79.7 million mt in 2012. The relatively small year-to-year variations largely reflect changes in the catch of Peruvian anchoveta, which can vary from about 4 to 8 million tons per annum. In 2011 and 2012, 18 countries accounted for more than 76 per cent of global marine harvests in marine capture fisheries (Table 1). Eleven of these countries are in Asia.

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Table 1. Marine capture fisheries production per country. From SOFIA (FAO, 2014).

In 2011-2012, the top ten species (by tonnage) in marine global landings were Peruvian anchoveta, Alaska pollock, skipjack tuna, various sardine species, Atlantic herring, chub mackerel, scads, yellowfin tuna, Japanese anchovy and largehead hairtail. In 2012, 20 species had landings over a half a million tons and this represented 38 per cent of the total global marine capture production. Many of these top species are small pelagic fishes (e.g. sardines, chub mackerels) and shellfish (squids and shrimp) whose abundance is highly sensitive to changing climatic conditions, resulting in significant interannual variability in production. Tuna harvests in 2012 were a record high, exceeding more than seven million tons. Sharks, rays and chimaera catches have been stable during the last decade at about 760,000 tons annually. Shrimp production from marine capture fisheries reached a record high in 2012 at 3.4 million tons; much of this catch was from the Northwest and Western Central Pacific, although catches also increased in the Indian Ocean and the Western Atlantic. Cephalopod catches exceeded 4 million tons in 2012.

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1.1

Regional Status

Significant growth in marine capture fisheries has occurred in the eastern Indian Ocean, the eastern central Atlantic and the northwest, western central and eastern central Pacific over the last decade, but landings in many other regions have declined. Thus, even though overall landings have been quite stable, the global pattern is continuing to adjust to changing conditions and regional development of fishing capacity (Table 2). Table 2. Fishing areas and captures (from SOFIA, FAO, 2014)

An estimated 3.7 million fishing vessels operate in marine waters globally; 68 per cent of these operate from Asia and 16 per cent from Africa. Seventy per cent are motorized, but in Africa only 36 per cent are motorized. Of the 58.3 million people estimated to be employed in fisheries and aquaculture (4.4 per cent of total estimated economically active people), 84 per cent are in Asia and 10 per cent in Africa. Women are estimated to account for more than 15 per cent of people employed in the fisheries sector (FAO 2014).

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2. Present status of small-scale artisanal or subsistence fishing The FAO defines small-scale, artisanal fisheries as those that are household based, use relatively small amounts of capital and remain close to shore. Their catch is primarily for local consumption. Around the world there is substantial variation as to which fisheries are considered small-scale and artisanal. The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) emphasized the role of small-scale fisheries in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. In some developing countries, including small island States, small-scale fisheries provide more than 60 per cent of protein intake. Its addition to the diets of low-income populations (including pregnant and breastfeeding mothers and young children) offers an important means for improving food security and nutrition. Small-scale fisheries make significant contributions to food security by making fish available to poor populations, and are critical to maintain the livelihoods of vulnerable populations in developing countries. Their role in production and its contribution to food security and nutrition is often underestimated or ignored; subsistence fishing is rarely included in national catch statistics (HLPE, 2014). Anyhow, the key issues in artisanal fisheries are their access both to stocks and to markets (HLPE, 2014). Significant numbers of women work in small-scale fisheries and many indigenous peoples and their communities rely on these fisheries. The “Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security” (FAO 2012) are important in consideration of access issues. FAO also notes the linkage to international human rights law, including the right to food. Most of the people involved in small-scale fisheries live in developing countries, earn low incomes, depend on informal work, are exposed to the absence of work regulations and lack access to social protection schemes. Although the International Labour Organization adopted the Work in Fishing Convention, 2007 (No.188), progress towards ratification of the Convention has been slow. FAO continues to encourage the establishment of fishers’ organizations and cooperatives as a means of empowerment for small-scale fishers in the management process to establish responsible fisheries policy. They have also highlighted the need to reduce post-harvest losses in small-scale fisheries as a means of improving production. Two special sections discuss these issues in SOFIA. Besides the “Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security”, FAO also adopted the “Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication” in June 2014.

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3. Impacts of capture fisheries on marine ecosystems The effects of exploitation of marine wildlife were first perceived as a direct impact primarily on the exploited populations themselves. These concerns were recognized in the 19th and early 20th centuries (e.g., Michelet, 1875; Garstang, 1900; Charcot, 1911) and began to receive policy attention in the Stockholm Fisheries Conference of 1899 (Rozwadowski, 2002). In 1925, an attempt to globally manage “marine industries” and their impact on the ecosystems was presented before the League of Nations (Suarez, 1927), but little action was taken. Only following WWII, with rapid increases in fishing technology, was substantial overfishing in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Gulland and Carroz, 1968) acknowledged. Establishment in 1946 of FAO, with a section for fisheries, provided an initial forum for global discussions of the need for regulation of fisheries. Capture fisheries affect marine ecosystems through a number of different mechanisms. These have been summarized many times, for example by Jennings and Kaiser (1998) who categorized effects as: (i) The effects of fishing on predator-prey relationships, which can lead to shifts in community structure that do not revert to the original condition upon the cessation of fishing pressure (known as alternative stable states); (ii) Fishing can alter the population size and body-size composition of species, leading to fauna composed of primarily small individual organisms (this can include the whole spectrum of organisms, from worms to whales); (iii) Fishing can lead to genetic selection for different body and reproductive traits and can extirpate distinct local stocks; (iv) Fishing can affect populations of non-target species (e.g., cetaceans, birds, reptiles and elasmobranch fishes) as a result of by-catches or ghost fishing; (v) Fishing can reduce habitat complexity and perturb seabed (benthic) communities. Here these impacts are discussed first for the species and food webs being exploited directly, and then for the other ecosystem effects on by-catches and habitats of fishing. Part VI of this Assessment provides additional detail regarding impacts on biodiversity and habitats. 3.1

Target species and communities

The removal of a substantial number of individuals of the target species affects the population structure of the target species, other species taken by the gear, and the food web. The magnitude of these effects is highly variable and depends on the species considered and the type and intensity of fishing. In general, policies and management measures were instituted first to manage the impact of fisheries on the target species, © 2016 United Nations

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with ecosystem considerations being added to target species management primarily in the past two to three decades. If the exploited fish stock can compensate through increased productivity because the remaining individuals grow faster and produce more larvae, with the increase in productivity extracted by the fishery, then fishing can be sustained. However, if the rate of exploitation is faster than the stock can compensate for by increasing growth and reproduction, then the removals will not be sustained and the stock will decline. At the level of the target species, sustainable exploitation rates will result in the total population biomass being reduced roughly by half, compared to unexploited conditions. The ability of a given population of fish to compensate for increased mortality due to fishing depends in large part on the biological characteristics of the population such as growth and maturation rates, natural mortality rates and lifespan, spawning patterns and reproduction dynamics. In general, slow growing long-lived species can compensate for and therefore sustain lower exploitation rates (the proportion of the stock removed by fishing each year) than fast growing shorter lived species (Jennings et al. 1998). In addition, increased exploitation rates inherently truncate the age composition of the population unless only certain ages are targeted. This truncation results in both greater variability in population abundance through time (Hsieh et al. 2006) and greater vulnerability to changing environmental conditions, including climate impacts. Very long-lived species with low rates of reproduction may not be able to truly compensate for increased mortality, and therefore any significant fishing pressure may not be sustainable on such species. Of course there are many complicating factors, but this general pattern is important for understanding sustainable exploitation of marine species. The concept of “maximum sustainable yield” (MSY), adopted as the goal of many national and international regulatory bodies, is based on this inherent trade-off between increasing harvests and the decreasing ability of a population to compensate for removals. Using stock size and exploitation rates that would produce MSY, or other management reference points, FAO has concluded that around 29 per cent of assessed stocks are presently overfished (biomass below the level that can produce MSY on a continuing basis; Figure 2 below). That percentage may be declining in the more recent years, but has shown little overall trend since the early 1990s. FAO estimates that if overfished stocks were rebuilt, they would yield an additional 16.5 million mt of fish worth 32 billion United States dollars in the long term (Ye et al., 2013). However, significant social and economic costs may be incurred during the transition, as many fisheries would need to reduce exploitation in the short term to allow this rebuilding.

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Figure 2. State of world marine fish stocks (from SOFIA, FAO 2014)

Anyhow, for many ecological reasons, the MSY is an over-simplified reference point for fisheries (Larkin, 1997; Pauly, 1994). For example, declines in productivity can result as fewer fish live to grow to a large size, because larger, older fish produce disproportionately more eggs of higher quality than younger, smaller individuals (Hixon et al. 2013). Long-term overfishing may even change the genetic pool of the species concerned, because the larger and faster-growing specimens have a greater probability of being removed, thereby reducing overall productivity (Hard et al., 2008; Ricker, 1981). Interactions between species may also mean that all stocks cannot be maintained at or above the biomass that will produce MSY. Strategies for taking these interactions into account have been developed (Polovina 1984, Townsend et al. 2008, Fulton et al. 2011; Farcas and Rossberg 2014, http://arxiv.org/abs/1412.0199), but are not yet in routine practice. 3.2

Ecosystem effects of fishing

The FAO Ecosystem approach to Fisheries (FAO 2003) has detailed guidelines describing an ecosystem approach to fisheries. The goal of such an approach is to conserve the structure, diversity and functioning of ecosystems while satisfying societal and human needs for food and the social and economic benefits of fishing (FAO 2003). There are ongoing efforts around the world to implement an ecosystem approach to fisheries that encompasses the aspects considered below, among others.

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3.3

Ecosystem effects of fishing – food webs

Marine food webs are complex and exploiting commercially important species can have a wide range of effects that propagate through the food web. These include a cascading effect along trophic levels, affecting the whole food web (Casini et al., 2008; Sieben et al., 2011). The removal of top predators may result in changes in the abundance and composition of lower trophic levels. These changes might even reach other and apparently unrelated fisheries, as has been documented, for example, for sharks and scallops (Myers et al., 2007) and sea otters, kelp, and sea urchins (Szpak et al., 2013). Because of these complexities in both population and community responses to exploitation, it is now widely argued that target harvesting rates should be less than MSY. No consensus exists on how much less, but as information about harvest amounts and stock biology is more uncertain, it is agreed that exploitation should be reduced correspondingly (FAO, 1995). The controversial concept of “balanced harvesting” refers to a strategy that considers the sustainability of the harvest at the level of the entire food web (see, for example, Bundy, A., et al. 2005; Garcia et al., 2011; FAO 2014). Rather than harvesting a relatively small number of species at their single-species MSYs, balanced harvesting suggests there are benefits to be gained by exploiting all parts of the marine ecosystem in direct proportion to their respective productivities. It is argued that balanced harvesting gives the highest possible yield for any level of perturbation of the food web, On the other hand, the economics of the fishery may be adversely affected by requiring the harvest of larger amounts of low-value but highly productive stocks. 3.4

Other ecosystem effects of fishing by-catches

Fisheries do not catch the target species alone. All species caught or damaged that are not the target are known as by-catch; these include, inter alia, marine mammals, seabirds, fish, kelp, sharks, mollusks, etc. Part of the by-catch might be used, consumed or processed (incidental catch) but a significant amount is simply discarded (discards) at sea. Global discard levels are estimated to have declined since the early 1990s, but at 7.3 million tons are still high (Kelleher, 2005). Fisheries differ greatly in their discard rates, with shrimp trawls producing by far the greatest discard ratios relative to landed catches of target species (Table 3).

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Table 3. Discards of fish in major fisheries by gear type. From Kelleher, 2005.

Very few time series have been found that document trends in by-catch levels for marine fisheries in general, or even for particular fisheries or species groups over longer periods. Although both Alverson et al. (1994) and Kelleher (2005) provide global estimates of discards in fisheries that differ by a factor of three, the latter source (with the lower estimate) stresses that the methodological differences between the two estimates were so large that two estimates should not be compared (a warning confirmed in the Kelleher report by the authors of the earlier report). When even rough trend information is available, it is for particular species of concern in particular fisheries, and is usually intended to document the effectiveness of mitigation measures that have been implemented already. As an illustration, in the supplemental information to Anderson et al. (2011), which reports a global examination of longline fisheries, of the 67 fisheries for which data could be found, two estimates of seabird bycatches were available for only 17 of them. Of those, the more recent seabird by-catch estimates were at least 50 per cent lower than the earlier estimates in 15 of the fisheries, and reduced to 5 per cent or less of the earlier estimates in 10 of the fisheries. Several reasons were given, depending on the fishery; they included reduction in effort and the use of a variety of technical and occasionally temporal and/or spatial mitigation measures. These can be taken as illustrative of the potential effectiveness of mitigation efforts, but should not be extrapolated to other longline fisheries. The more typical case is reflected in FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department (2009) and the report of a FAO Expert Consultation (FAO, 2010), which call for efforts to monitor by-catches and discards more consistently, in order to provide the data needed to document trends. Even the large initiative by the United States to document bycatches in fisheries (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2011) considers the reported estimates to be a starting point for gaining insight into trends in by-catch and discards. © 2016 United Nations

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It documents the very great differences among fisheries within and among the United States fisheries management regions, but has neither tables nor figures depicting trends for any fishery. By-catch rates may result in overfishing of species with less ability to cope with fishing pressures. The biological impact of by-catches varies greatly with the species being taken, and depends on the same life-history characteristics that were presented above for the target species of fisheries. By-catch mortality is a particular concern for small cetaceans, sea turtles and some species of seabirds and sharks and rays. These issues are discussed in the corresponding chapters in Part VI on marine mammals (Chapter 37), seabirds (38), marine reptiles (39) and elasmobranchs (40). In general, long-lived and slow-growing species are the most affected (Hall et al., 2000). Thus, the benchmarks set for a given fishery also consider by-catch species. The geographic distribution of discard rates is shown in Figure 3 (from Kelleher, 2005). The numbers in bold are the FAO Statistical Areas and the tonnages are of by-catch. Bycatches are clearly a global issue, and can be addressed from local to global scales. The review by Kelleher (2005) reports a very large number of cases where measures have been implemented by States, by international organizations, or proactively by the fishing industry (especially when the industry is seeking independent certification for sustainability), and by-catch and discard rates have decreased and in a few cases been even eliminated. A recent global review of practices by regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements (RFMO/As) for deep sea fisheries found that all RFMO/As have adopted some policies and measures to address by-catch issues in fisheries in their regulatory areas. However, almost nowhere was full monitoring in place to document effectiveness of these policies (UNEP/CBD/FAO, 2011). Nevertheless, extensive evidence exists that by-catches can be mitigated by changes in fishing gear, times, and places, and the incremental cost is often, but not always, small.

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The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Figure 3. Distribution of discards by FAO statistical areas (numbers in bold are FAO statistical areas, catches in tons). * Note: the high discard rate in FAO Area 81 is a data artefact. Source: Kelleher, 2005.

At the global level, calls for action on by-catch and discards have been raised at the United Nations General Assembly, including in UNGA resolutions on sustainable fisheries and at the Committee on Fisheries. In response, FAO developed International Guidelines on Bycatch Management and Reduction of Discards; these were accepted in 2011 (FAO, 2011). 3.5

Ecosystem effects of fishing – benthic and demersal habitats

Fishing gear impacts on the seafloor and other habitats depend on the gear design and use, as well as on the particular environmental features. For example, in benthic habitats, substrate type and the natural disturbance regime are particularly important (Collie et al., 2000). Mobile bottom-contacting gear (including bottom trawls) also can resuspend sediments, mobilizing contaminants and particles with unknown ecological effects on both benthic and demersal habitats (Kaiser et al., 2001).

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A very large literature exists on habitat impacts of fishing gear; experts disagree on both the magnitude of the issue and the effectiveness of management measures and policies to address the impacts. In the late 2000s, several expert reviews were conducted by FAO and the Convention on Biological Diversity in cooperation with UNEP. These reports (FAO, 2007; 2009) provide a recent summary of the types of impacts that various types of fishing gear can have on the seafloor. Most conclusions are straightforward: •

All types of gear that contact the bottom may alter habitat features, with impacts larger as the gear becomes heavier.



Mobile bottom-contacting gear generally has a larger area of impact on the seabed than static gear, and consequently the impacts may be correspondingly larger.



The nature of the impact depends on the features of the habitat. Structurally complex and fragile habitats are most vulnerable to impacts, with biogenic features, such as corals and glass sponges, easily damaged and sometimes requiring centuries to recover. On the other hand, impacts of trawls on soft substrates, like mud and sand, may not be detectable after even a few days.



The nature of the impacts also depends on the natural disturbance regime, with high-energy (strong current and/or wave action) habitats often showing little incremental impacts of fishing gear, whereas areas of very low natural disturbance may be more severely affected by fishing gears.



Impacts of fishing gears can occur at all scales of fishery operations; some of the most destructive practices, such as drive netting, dynamite and poisons, although uncommon, are used only in very small-scale fisheries (Kaiser 2001).

All gear might be lost or discarded at sea, in particular pieces of netting. These give rise to what is known as “ghost fishing”, that is fishing gear continuing to capture and kill marine animals even after it is lost by fishermen. Assessment of their impacts at either a global or local level is difficult, but the limited number of studies available on its incidence and prevalence indicate that ghost fishing can be a significant problem (Laist et al., 1999, Bilkovic et al. 2012). Quantitative trend information on habitat impacts is generally not available. Many reports provide maps of how the geographical extent and intensity of bottomcontacting fishing gear have changed over time (e.g. Figure 4 from Gilkinson et al., 2006; Greenstreet et al., 2006). These maps show large changes in the patterns of the pressure, and accompanying graphs show the percentage of area fished over a series of years. However, these are individual studies, and broad-scale monitoring of benthic communities is not available. Insights from individual studies need to be considered along with information on the substrate types in the areas being fished to know how increases in effort may be increasing benthic impacts. Furthermore, the recovery potential of the benthic biota has been studied in some specific geographies and circumstances but broadly applicable patterns are not yet clear (e.g., Steele et al. 2002, Claudet et al. 2008). © 2016 United Nations

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The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Figure 4. Distribution of trawling effort in Atlantic Canadian waters in 1987 and 2000, based on data of bottom-trawl activity adjusted to total effort for <150 t. From Gilkinson et al., 2006.

Even without quantitative data on trends in benthic communities, however, marine areas closed to fishing have increased. Views differ on what level of protection is actually given to areas that are labelled as closed to fishing, but the trend in increasing area protection is not challenged (c.f. CBD, 2012; Spalding et al., 2013). Moreover, the size of the areas being closed to fishing that are not already affected by historical fishing is unknown, as is the recovery rate for such areas, and high-seas fisheries continue to expand into new areas, although probably at a slower rate as RFMO/As increase their actions to implement United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105 (FAO, 2014). Hence the pressure on seafloor habitats and benthic communities from bottomcontacting fishing gear may be decreasing slightly, but has been very high for decades on all continental shelves and in many offshore areas at depths of less than several hundred meters (FAO, 2007). 4. Effects of pollution on seafood safety Fish and particularly predatory fish are prone to be contaminated with toxic chemicals in the marine environment (e.g., organochlorines, mercury, cadmium, lead); these are found mostly in their liver and lipids. Because many sources of marine contamination are land-based (Chapter 20), freshwater fish may contain higher concentrations of contaminants than marine species (Yamada et al., 2014). Furthermore, contamination of the organisms found there is highly variable at the regional and local levels. © 2016 United Nations

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Processing methods might significantly reduce the lead and cadmium contents of fish (Ganjavi et al., 2010) and presumably those of other contaminants, whose concentrations generally increase with size (age) of fish (Storelli et al., 2010). Some species of fish might be toxic (venomous) on their own, such as species of the genus Siganus and Plotosus in Singapore, which are being culled to reduce their presence on beaches (Kwik, 2012) and Takifugu rubripes (fugu), whose properties are relatively well known, such that it is processed accordingly (Yongxiang et al., 2011). However, in extreme situations, human consumption of the remains of fugu processing resulted in severe episodes (Saiful Islam et al., 2011). Fish, mussels, shrimp and other invertebrates might become toxic through their consumption of harmful algae, whose blooms increased due to climate change, pollution, the spreading of dead (hypoxic/anoxic) zones, and other causes. Harmful algal blooms are often colloquially known as red tides. These blooms are most common in coastal marine ecosystems but also the open ocean might be affected and are caused by blooms of microscopic algae (including cyanobacteria). Toxins produced by these organisms are accumulated by filtrators that become toxic for species at higher trophic levels, including man. Climate change and eutrophication are considered as part of a complex of environmental stressors resulting in harmful blooms (Anderson et al., 2012). The problem has prompted research to develop models to predict the behaviour of these blooms (Zhao and Ghedira, 2014). Since the 1970s, the phenomenon has spread from the northern hemisphere temperate waters to the southern hemisphere and has now been well documented at least in Argentina, Australia, Brunei Darussalam, China, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Republic of Korea and South Africa, but the expansion might also be due to increased awareness of the phenomenon (Anderson et al., 2012) The impact of toxic algal blooms is mostly economic, but episodes of severe illness, even with high mortality rates, might occur, which prompt regulations closing the affected fisheries. One of the best-known risks in this category is ciguatera, a well-known toxin ingested by human consumption of predatory fish in some regions of the world. The toxin comes from a dinoflagellate and is passed along and concentrated up the food chain (Hamilton et al., 2010). Processed foods are usually safer from the standpoint of contamination. Thus, processing results in added value to the raw food (Satyanarayana et al., 2012). However, inadequate harvest and postharvest handling and processing of the catches might result in contamination with pathogenic organisms (Boziaris et al., 2013). The general trend expected is an increase in the frequency of harmful algal blooms, in the bioaccumulation of chemical contaminants and in the prevalence of common foodborne pathogenic microorganisms (Marques et al., 2014), although the occurrence of catastrophic events seems to be diminishing.

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5. Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing The FAO International Plan of Action for IUU fishing (FAO 2001) defines IUU fishing as: - Illegal fishing refers to activities conducted by national or foreign vessels in waters under the jurisdiction of a State, without the permission of that State, or in contravention of its laws and regulations; conducted by vessels flying the flag of States that are parties to a relevant regional fisheries management organization but operate in contravention of the conservation and management measures adopted by that organization and by which the States are bound, or relevant provisions of the applicable international law; or in violation of national laws or international obligations, including those undertaken by cooperating States to a relevant regional fisheries management organization; - Unreported fishing refers to fishing activities which have not been reported, or have been misreported, to the relevant national authority, in contravention of national laws and regulations; or undertaken in the area of competence of a relevant regional fisheries management organization which have not been reported or have been misreported, in contravention of the reporting procedures of that organization; - Unregulated fishing refers to fishing activities in the area of application of a relevant regional fisheries management organization that are conducted by vessels without nationality, or by those flying the flag of a State not party to that organization, or by a fishing entity, in a manner that is not consistent with or contravenes the conservation and management measures of that organization; or in areas or for fish stocks in relation to which there are no applicable conservation or management measures and where such fishing activities are conducted in a manner inconsistent with State responsibilities for the conservation of living marine resources under international law. Notwithstanding the definitions above, certain forms of unregulated fishing may not always be in violation of applicable international law, and may not require the application of measures envisaged under the International Plan of Action (IPOA). FAO considers IUU fishing to be a major global threat to sustainable management of fisheries and to stable socio-economic conditions for many small-scale fishing communities. This illegal fishing not only undermines responsible fisheries management, but also typically raises concerns about working conditions and safety. Illegal fishing also raises concerns about connections to other criminal actions, such as drugs and human trafficking. IUU fishing activity has escalated over the last two decades and is estimated to take 11-26 million mt of fish per annum with a value of 10-23 billion United States dollars. In other words, IUU fishing is responsible for about the same amount of global harvest as would be gained by ending overfishing and rebuilding fish stocks. It is an issue of equal concern on a global scale. International efforts by RFMO/As, States and the European Union are aimed at eliminating IUU fishing. FAO notes that progress has been slow and suggested (FAO 2014) that better information-sharing regarding fishing vessels engaged in illegal © 2016 United Nations

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activities, traceability of vessels and fishery products, and other additional measures might improve the situation. 6. Significant economic and/or social aspects of capture fisheries Capture fisheries are a key source of nutrition and employment for millions of people around the world. FAO (2014) estimates that 800 million people are still malnourished and small-scale fisheries in particular are an important component of efforts to alleviate both hunger and poverty. Growth in production of fish for food (3.2 per cent per annum) has exceeded human population growth (1.6 per annum) over the last half century. Recently the growth of aquaculture, which is among the fastest-growing food-producing sectors globally, has formed a major part of meeting rising demand and now accounts for half of the fish produced for human consumption. By 2030 this figure will rise to two-thirds of fish production. Per capita consumption of fish has risen from 9.9 kg per annum to 19.2 kg in 2012. In developing countries this rise is from 5.2 kg to 17.8 kg. In 2010, fish accounted for 16.7 per cent of the global population’s consumption of animal protein and 4.3 billion people obtained 15 per cent of their animal protein from fishery products. Employment in the fisheries sector has also grown faster than the world population and faster than in agriculture. However, of the 58.3 million people employed in the fishery sector, 83 per cent were employed in capture fisheries in 1990. But employment in capture fisheries has decreased to 68 per cent of total fishery sector employment in 2012 according to FAO (2014) statistics. 7. The future status of fish and shellfish stocks over the next decade World population growth, together with urbanization, increasing development, income and living standards, all point to an increasing demand for seafood. Capture fisheries provide high-quality food that is high in protein, essential amino acids, and long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids, with many benefits for human health. The rate of increase in demand for fish was more than 2.5 per cent since 1950 and is likely to continue (HPLE, 2014). Climate change is expected to have substantial and unexpected effects on the marine environment as detailed throughout this Assessment. Some of these impacts may not negatively impact fisheries and indeed may result in increased availability for capture fisheries in some areas. Nevertheless, there will certainly be an increase in uncertainty with regard to effects on stock productivities and distributions, habitat stability, ecosystem interactions, and the configuration of ecosystems around the globe. Whether © 2016 United Nations

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these effects on the resources will be “mild” or “severe” will require prudent fisheries management that is precautionary enough to be prepared to assist fishers, their communities and, in general, stakeholders in adapting to the social and economic consequences of climate change (Grafton, 2009). Small-scale, artisanal fisheries are likely to be more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and increasing uncertainty than large-scale fisheries (Roessig et al. 2004). While small-scale fisheries may be able to economically harvest a changing mix of species, varying distribution patterns and productivity of stocks may have severe consequences for subsistence fishing. Further, the value of small-scale fisheries as providers not only of food, but also of livelihoods and for poverty alleviation will be compromised by direct competition with large-scale operations with access to global markets (Alder and Sumaila, 2004). The data clearly indicate that the amount of fish that can be extracted from historically exploited wild stocks is unlikely to increase substantially. Some increase is possible through the rebuilding of depleted stocks, a central goal of fisheries management. Current trends diverge between well-assessed regions showing stabilization of fish biomass and other regions continuing to decline (Worm and Branch, 2012). In Europe, North America and Oceania, major commercially exploited fish stocks are currently stable, with the prospect that reduced exploitation rates should achieve rebuilding of the biomass in the long term. In the rest of the world, fish biomass is, on average, declining due to lower management capacity. Many fisheries may still be productive, but prospects are poor (Worm et al., 2009). The growing demand for fish products cannot be met from sustainable capture fisheries in the next decade. On the other hand, the potential for sustainable exploitation of nontraditional stocks is not well known. Particularly in light of the growth of the aquaculture sector with a need for fishmeal for feed, the pressure to exploit nontraditional resources will increase even if the impacts on marine ecosystems are not well understood. 8. Identify gaps in capacity to engage in capture fisheries and to assess the environmental, social and economic aspects of capture fisheries and the status and trends of living marine resources Rebuilding overfished stocks is a major challenge for capture fisheries management. Another key challenge is making better, more sustainable use of existing marine resources while conserving the ecosystem upon which they depend. From a global perspective this will require filling a number of gaps, both scientific and in management capacity (Worm et al., 2009): - The transfer of fishing effort from developed to developing countries is a process that has been accelerating since the 1960s. Almost all of the fish caught by foreign fleets is © 2016 United Nations

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consumed in industrialized countries and will have important implications for food security (Alder and Sumaila, 2004) and biodiversity in the developing world. In many regions there is insufficient capacity to assess and manage marine resources in the context of this pressure; - The increase in IUU fishing operations is a major challenge for management that will require increased management capacity if it is to be controlled; - Recovery of depleted stocks is still a poorly understood process, particularly for demersal species. It is potentially constrained by the magnitude of the previous decline, the loss of biodiversity, species’ life histories, species interactions, and other factors. In other words, the basic principle for recovery is straightforward – fishing pressure needs to be reduced. But the specific application of plans to promote recovery of the stock once fishing pressure is reduced requires significant scientific and management capacity; - Addressing the challenges of spatial management of the ocean for fisheries, conservation and many other purposes, and the overall competition for ocean space, will depend upon greater scientific and management capacity in most regions. The average performance of stock-assessed fisheries indicates that most are slowly approaching the fully fished status (sensu FAO). On the other hand, recent analyses of unassessed fish stocks indicate that they are mostly in poorer condition (Costello et al., 2012). The problem is severe because most of these stocks sustain small-scale fisheries critical for the food security in developing countries. Better information and the capacity to manage many of these stocks will be needed to improve the situation. Debates among fisheries specialists have been more concerned about biological sustainability and economic efficiencies than about reducing hunger and malnutrition and supporting livelihoods (HLPE, 2014). It is necessary to develop the tools for managing small-scale fisheries efficiently, particularly in view of the competing longdistance fleets. The fishing agreements allowing long-distance fleets to operate in developing countries had not yielded the expected results in terms of building the capacity to administer or sustainably fish their resources. IUU fishing becoming more prominent has exacerbated the situation (Gagern and van den Bergh, 2013). It is necessary for developing countries to build the capacity to develop sustainable industrial fisheries and to develop stock assessment capabilities for small-scale fisheries balancing food security and conservation objectives (Allison and Horemans, 2006).

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References Alder, J., and Sumaila, U.R. (2004). Western Africa: A Fish Basket of Europe Past and Present. The Journal of Environment Development, June, 13 (2): 156-178. Allison, E.H., Horemans, B. (2006). Putting the principles of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach into fisheries development policy and practice. Marine Policy, 30: 757766. Alverson, D.L., Freeberg, M.H., Murawski, S.A., and Pope, J.G. (1994). A global assessment of fisheries bycatch and discards. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 339: 235 p. Anderson, O.R.J., Small, C.J., Croxall, J.P., Dunn, E.K., Sullivan, B.J., Yates, O., Black, A. (2011). Global seabird bycatch in longline fisheries. Endangered Species Research 14: 91–106. Bilkovic, D.M., Havens, K.J., Stanhope, D.M., Angstadt, K.T. (2012). Use of fully biodegradable panels to reduce derelict pot threats to marine fauna. Conservation Biology 26(6): 957-966. Boziaris, I.S., Stmatiou, A.P., and Nychas, G.J.E. ( 2013). Microbiological aspects and shelf life of processed seafood products. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93 (5): 1184–1190. Bundy, A., Fanning, P., Zwanenburg, K.C. (2005). Balancing exploitation and conservation of the eastern Scotian Shelf ecosystem: application of a 4D ecosystem exploitation index. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil 62 (3): 503510. Casini, M., Lövgren, J., Hjelm, J., Cardinale, M., Molinero, J.C., and Kornilovs, G. (2008). Multilevel trophic cascades in a heavily exploited open marine ecosystem. Proc. R. Soc. B. 275, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2007.1752. CBD (2012). Review of Progress in Implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, Including the Establishment of National Targets and the Updating of National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans, UNEP/CBD/COP/11/12, paragraph 26 https://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/cop/cop-11/official/cop-11-12en.pdf Charcot, J. (1911). The Voyage of the ‘Why Not?’ in the Antarctic. Philip Walsh (trans.). Hodder and Stoughton. New York and London. Claudet, J., Osenberg, C.W., Benedetti-Cecchi, L., Domenici, P., Garcia-Charton, J.-A., Pérez-Ruzafa, A., Badalamenti, F., Bayle-Smpere, J., Brito, A., Bulleri, F., Culioli, J.-M., Dimech, M., Falcón, J.M., Guala, I., Milazzo, M., Sánchez-Meca, J., Somerfield, P.J., Stobart, B., Vandeperre, F., Valle, C., and Planet, S. (2008). Marine reserves: size and age do matter. Ecology Letters, 11, 481-489.

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Jennings, S., and Kaiser, M. (1998). The effects of fishing on marine ecosystems. Advances in Marine Biology, 34: 201-352. Jennings, S., Reynolds, J.D., and Mills, S.C. (1998). Life history correlates of responses to fisheries exploitation. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B: 265:333-339. Kaiser, M.J., Collie, J.S., Hall, S.J., Jennings, S., and Poiner, I.R. (2001). Impacts of Fishing Gear on Marine Benthic Habitats. Reykjavik Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem. Reykjavik, Iceland, 1-4 October 2001. Kelleher, K. (2005). Discards in the World’s Marine Fisheries. An Update. Rome, FAO, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 470. http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/y5936e/y5936e00.HTM Kwik, J.T.B. (2012). Controlled Culling of Venomous Marine Fishes Along Sentosa Island Beaches: A Case Study of Public Safety Management in the Marine Environment of Singapore. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Supplement No. 25: 93–99. Laist, D.W., Coe, J.M., and O’Hara, K.J. (1999). Marine Debris Pollution. In: Twiss, Jr., J.R., and Reeves, R.R. (eds.) Conservation and Management of Marine Mammals: 342-366. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, D.C. Larkin, P.A. (1997). An epitaph for the concept of maximum sustained yield. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 106(1): 1-11. Marques, A., Rosa, R. (2014). Seafood Safety and Human Health Implications. In: Goffredo, S., Dubinsky, Z. (eds.), The Mediterranean Sea: its history and present challenges: 589-603. Springer Netherlands. Michelet, J. (1875). La Mer. Paris, Michel Lévy Frères: 428 pp. Myers, R.A., Baum, J.K., Shepherd, T.D., Powers, S.P., and Peterson, C.H. (2007). Cascading Effects of the Loss of Apex Predatory Sharks from a Coastal Ocean. Science 315: 1846-1850. National Marine Fisheries Service (2011). U.S. National Bycatch Report, Karp, W.A., Desfosse, L.L., Brooke, S.G. (eds.) U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFSF/SPO-117C, 508 p. Pauly, D. (1994) On the sex of fish and the gender of scientists: A collection of essays in fisheries science, Chapman and Hall, London. Polovina, J.J. (1984). Model of a coral reef ecosystem. Coral reefs 3.1: 1-11. Ricker, W.E. (1981). Changes in the average size and age of Pacific salmon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38: 1636–1656. Roessig, J.M., Woodley, C.M., Cech, J.J., Hansen, L.J. (2004). Effects of global climate change on marine and estuarine fishes and fisheries. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 14: 251-275. Rozwadowski, H.M. (2002). The Sea Knows No Boundaries: A Century of Marine Science under ICES. ICES, University of Washington Press, Copenhagen, Seattle, London. © 2016 United Nations

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Saiful Islam, M., Luby, S.P., Rahman, M., Parveen, S., Homaira, N., Begum, N.H., Dawlat Khan, A.K.M., Sultana, R., Akhter, S., and Gurley, E.S. (2011). Social Ecological Analysis of an Outbreak of Pufferfish Egg Poisoning in a Coastal Area of Bangladesh. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 85 (3): 498-503. Satyanarayana S.D.V., Pavan Kumar, P., Amit, S., Dattatreya, A., Aditya, G. (2012). Potential Impacts of Food and it's Processing on Global Sustainable Health. Journal of Food Processing & Technology 3: 143. Sieben, K., Rippen, A.D., and Eriksson, B.K. (2011). Cascading effects from predator removal depend on resource availability in a benthic food web. Marine Biology 158:391-400. Spalding, M.D., Meliane, I., Milam, A., Fitzgerald, C., and Hale, L.Z. (2013). Protecting Marine Spaces: global targets and changing approaches, Ocean Yearbook 27: 213-248. Steele, M.A., Malone, J.C., Findlay, A.M., Carr, M. and Forrester, G. (2002). A simple method for estimating larval supply in reef fishes and a preliminary test of population limitation by larval delivery in the kelp bass Paralabrax clathratus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 235:195–203. Storelli, M.M., Barone, G., Cuttone, G., Giungato, D. (2010). Occurrence of toxic metals (Hg, Cd and Pb) in fresh and canned tuna: public health implications. Food and Chemical Toxicology (48), 11: 3167–3170. Suarez, J.L. (1927). Rapport au Conseil de la Société des Nations. Exploitation des Richesses de la Mer. Publications de la Société des Nations V. Questions Juridiques. V.1. 120: 125. Szpak, P., & Orchard, T.J., Salomon, A.k., and Gröcke, D.R. (2013). Regional ecological variability and impact of the maritime fur trade on nearshore ecosystems in southern Haida Gwaii (British Columbia, Canada): evidence from stable isotope analysis of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) bone collagen. Archaeol Anthropol Sci DOI 10.1007/s12520-013-0122-y. Townsend, H.M., Link, J.S., Osgood, K.E., Gedamke, T., Watters, G.M., Polovina, J.J., Levin, P.S., Cyr, N., and Aydin, K.Y. (eds) (2008). Report of the National Ecosystem Modeling Workshop (NEMoW). NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-87. UNEP/CBD/FAO (2011). Report of Joint Expert Meeting on Addressing Biodiversity Concerns in Sustainable Fisheries http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/mar/jembcsf-01/official/jem-bcsf-01-sbstta-16-inf-13-en.pdf Worm, B., Hilborn, R., Baum, J.K., Branch, T.A., Collie, J.S., Costello, C., Fogarty, M.J., Fulton, E.A., Hutchings, J.A., Jennings, S., Jensen, O.P., Lotze, H.K., Mace, P.M., McClanahan, T.R., Minto, C., Palumbi, S.R., Parma, A.M., Ricard, D., Rosenberg, A.A., Watson, R., Zeller D. (2009). Rebuilding Global Fisheries. Science 325: 578-584.

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Chapter 12. Aquaculture Writing team: Patricio Bernal (Group of Experts), Doris Oliva 1. Scale and distribution of aquaculture Aquaculture is providing an increasing contribution to world food security. At an average annual growth rate of 6.2 per cent between 2000 and 2012 (9.5 per cent between 1990 and 2000), aquaculture is the world’s fastest growing animal food producing sector (FAO, 2012; FAO 2014). In 2012, farmed food fish contributed a record 66.6 million tons, equivalent to 42.2 per cent of the total 158 million tons of fish produced by capture fisheries and aquaculture combined (including non-food uses, see Figure 1). Just 13.4 per cent of fish production came from aquaculture in 1990 and 25.7 per cent in 2000 (FAO, 2014). In Asia, since 2008 farmed fish production has exceeded wild catch (freshwater and marine), reaching 54 per cent of total fish production in 2012; in Europe aquaculture production is 18 per cent of the total and in other continents is less than 15 per cent. Nearly half (49 per cent) of all fish consumed globally by people in 2012 came from aquaculture (FAO, 2014).

Figure 1. World capture fisheries and aquaculture production between 1950 and 2012 (HLPE, 2014).

In 2012, world aquaculture production, for all cultivated species combined, was 90.4 million tons (live weight equivalent and 144.4 billion dollars in value). This includes 44.2 million tons of finfish (87.5 billion dollars), 21.6 million tons of shellfish (crustacea and molluscs with 46.7 billion dollars in value) and 23.8 million tons of aquatic algae (mostly seaweeds, 6.4 billion dollars in value). Seaweeds and other algae are harvested for use as food, in cosmetics and fertilizers, and are processed to extract thickening agents used as additives in the food and animal feed industries. Finally 22,400 tons of non-food products are also farmed (with a value of 222.4 million dollars), such as pearls and seashells for ornamental and decorative uses (FAO, 2014). © 2016 United Nations

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According to the latest (but incomplete) information for 2013, FAO estimates that world food fish aquaculture production rose by 5.8 per cent to 70.5 million tons, with production of farmed aquatic plants (including mostly seaweeds) being estimated at 26.1 million tons. 2. Composition of world aquaculture production: inland aquaculture and mariculture Although this Chapter is part of an assessment of food security and food safety from the ocean, to understand the trends in the development of world aquaculture and its impact on food security it is relevant to compare inland aquaculture, conducted in freshwater and saline estuarine waters in inland areas, versus true mariculture, conducted in the coastal areas of the world ocean. Of the 66.6 million tons of farmed food fish 1 produced in 2012, two-thirds (44.2 million tons) were finfish species: 38.6 million tons grown from inland aquaculture and 5.6 million tons from mariculture. Inland aquaculture of finfish now accounts for 57.9 percent of all farmed food fish production globally. Although finfish species grown from mariculture represent only 12.6 percent of the total farmed finfish production by volume, their value (23.5 billion United States dollars) represents 26.9 percent of the total value of all farmed finfish species. This is because mariculture includes a large proportion of carnivorous species, such as salmon, trouts and groupers, “cash-crops” higher in unit value and destined to more affluent markets. FAO (2014) concludes that freshwater fish farming makes the greatest direct contribution to food security, providing affordable protein food, particularly for poor people in developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Inland aquaculture also provides an important new source of livelihoods in less developed regions and can be an important contributor to poverty alleviation. 3. Main producers of aquaculture products In 2013, China produced 43.5 million tons of food fish and 13.5 million tons of aquatic algae (FAO, 2014, p 18), making it by far the largest producer of aquaculture products in the world. Aquaculture production is still concentrated in few countries of the world. Considering national total production, the top five countries (all in Asia: China, India, Viet Nam, Indonesia, Bangladesh) account for 79.8 per cent of world production while the top five countries in finfish mariculture (Norway, China, Chile, Indonesia, and Philippines) account for 72.9 per cent of world production (Table 1, Figure 2). 1

The generic term “farmed food fish” used here and by FAO, includes finfishes, crustaceans, molluscs, amphibians, freshwater turtles and other aquatic animals (such as sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sea squirts and edible jellyfish) produced for intended use as food for human consumption.

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4. Species cultivated It is estimated that more than 600 aquatic species are cultured worldwide 2 in a variety of farming systems and facilities of varying technological sophistication, using freshwater, brackish water and marine water (FAO, 2014). In 2006, the top 25 species being farmed accounted for over 90 percent of world production (FAO, 2006a). Of the more than 200 species of fish and crustaceans currently estimated to be cultivated and fed on externally supplied feeds, just 9 species account for 62.2 percent of total global-fed species production, including grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), catla (Catla catla), whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), crucian carp (Carassius carassius), Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar), pangasiid catfishes (striped/tra catfish [Pangasianodon hypophthalmus] and basa catfish [Pangasius bocourti]), and rohu (Labeo rohita; Tacon et al., 2011). The farming of freshwater tilapias, including Nile tilapia and some other cichlid species, is the most widespread type of aquaculture in the world. FAO has recorded farmed tilapia production statistics for 135 countries and territories on all continents (FAO, 2014). In this respect, aquaculture is no different from animal husbandry, in that global livestock production is concentrated in a few species (Tacon et al. 2011).3 Among molluscs only 6 species account for the 64.5per cent of the aquaculture production (15.5 million tons in 2013) and all of them are bivalves: the cupped oyster (Crassostrea spp), Japanese carpet shell (Ruditapes philippinarum), constricted Tagelus (Sinnovacula constricta), blood cocked Anadara granosa, Chilean mussel (Mytilus chilensis) and Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas).

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Up to 2012, the number of species registered in FAO statistics was 567, including finfishes (354 species, with 5 hybrids), molluscs (102), crustaceans (59), amphibians and reptiles (6), aquatic invertebrates (9), and marine and freshwater algae (37). 3 On land, the top eight livestock species are pig, chicken, cattle, sheep, turkey, goat, duck and buffalo (Tacon et al. 2011)

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Table 1. Farmed food fish production by 15 top producers and main groups of farmed species in 2012 (FAO, 2014).

5. Aquaculture systems development The cultivation of farmed food fish is the aquatic version of animal husbandry, where full control of the life cycle enables the domestication of wild species, their growth in large-scale farming systems and the application of well-known and well-established techniques of animal artificial selection of desirable traits, such as resistance to diseases, fast growth and size. For most farmed aquatic species, hatchery and nursery technologies have been developed and well established, enabling the artificial control of the life cycle of the species. However wild seed is still used in many farming operations. For a few species, such as eels (Anguilla spp.), farming still relies entirely on wild seed (FAO, 2014). Aquaculture can be based on traditional, low technology farming systems or on highly industrialized, capital-intensive processes. In between there is a whole range of aquaculture systems with different efficiencies that can be adapted to local socioeconomic contexts.

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Physically, inland aquaculture and coastal shrimp mariculture uses fixed ponds and raceways on land that put a premium on the use of land. Finfish mariculture and some farming of molluscs such as oysters and mussels tend to use floating net pens, cages and other suspended systems in the water column of shallow coastal waters, enabling these systems to be fixed by being anchored to the bottom. Direct land use needs for fish and shrimp ponds can be substantial. Current aquaculture production occupies a significant quantity of land, both in inland and coastal areas. Aquaculture land use efficiency, however, differs widely by production system. While fish ponds use relatively high amounts of land (Costa-Pierce et al., 2012, cited in WRI, 2014), flow-through systems (raceways) use less land, while cages and pens suspended in water bodies use very little (if any) land (WRI, 2014). The handling of monocultures with high densities of individuals in confinement replicates the risks typical to monocultures in land-based animal husbandry, such as the spread and proliferation of parasites, and the contagion of bacterial and viral infections producing mass mortalities, and the accumulation of waste products. If on land these risks can be partially contained, in mariculture, the use of semi-enclosed systems open to the natural flow of seawater and sedimentation to the bottom, propagate these risks to the surrounding environment affecting the health of the ecosystems in which aquaculture operations are implanted. The introduction of these risks to the coastal zones puts a premium in the application of good management practices and effective regulations for zoning, site selection and maximum loads per area. In 1999 during the early development of shrimp culture, a White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) epizootic quickly spread through nine Pacific coast countries in Latin America, costing billions of dollars (McClennen, 2004). Disease outbreaks in recent years have affected Chile’s Atlantic salmon production with losses of almost 50 percent to the virus of “infectious salmon anaemia” (ISA). Oyster cultures in Europe were attacked by herpes virus Os HV-1 or OsHV-1 µvar, and marine shrimp farming in several countries in Asia, South America and Africa have experienced bacterial and viral infections, resulting in partial or sometimes total loss of production. In 2010, aquaculture in China suffered production losses of 1.7 million tons caused by natural disasters, diseases and pollution. Disease outbreaks virtually wiped out marine shrimp farming production in Mozambique in 2011 (FAO, 2010, 2012). New diseases also appear. The early mortality syndrome (EMS) is an emerging disease of cultured shrimp caused by a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a marine micro-organism native in estuarine waters worldwide. Three species of cultured shrimp are affected (Penaeus monodon, P. vannamei and P. chinensis). In Viet Nam, about 39 000 hectares were affected in 2011. Malaysia estimated production losses of 0.1 billion dollars (2011). In Thailand, reports indicated annual output declines of 30–70 percent. The disease has been reported in China, Malaysia, Mexico, Thailand and Viet Nam (FAO, 2014). It is apparent that intensive aquaculture systems are likely to create conditions that expose them to disease outbreaks. When semi-enclosed systems are used, as in mariculture, pathogens in their resting or reproductive stages propagate directly to

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the environment, where they can persist for long periods of time as a potential source of recurring outbreaks. Optimization of industrial systems selects for few or a single preferred species. This is the case in the oyster culture with the widespread culture of Crassostrea gigas and in the shrimp industry by the dominance of Penaeus vanamei, the white shrimp as the preferred species. This can be also an additional source of risk, if evolving pathogens develop resistance to antibiotics or other treatments used to control wellknown diseases. 6. Fed and non-fed aquaculture Animal aquaculture production can be divided among those species that feed from natural sources in the environment in which they are grown, and species that are artificially fed. The output of naturally-fed aquaculture represents a net increase of world animal protein stock, while the contribution of fed aquaculture, consuming plant or animal protein and fat, depends on conversion rates controlled by the physiology of the species and the effectiveness of the farming system. In 2012, global production of non-fed species from aquaculture was 20.5 million tons, including 7.1 million tons of filter-feeding carps and 13.4 million tons of bivalves and other species. Accordingly, 46.09 million tons or 69.2 per cent of total farmed food fish (FAO, 2014) was dependent upon the supply of external nutrient inputs provided in the form of (i) fresh feed items, (ii) farm-made feeds or (iii) commercially manufactured feeds (Tacon et al., 2011). The share of non-fed species in total farmed food fish production continued to decrease to 30.8 percent in 2012 compared with about 50 percent in 1982, reflecting stronger growth in the farming of fed species, especially of high value carnivores (FAO, 2014).

Figure 2. World aquaculture production, fed and non-fed between years 2000 and 2012 (FAO, 2014)

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In Europe, after much publicly and privately sponsored research, the technology to farm cod was fully developed and supported by large amounts of venture capital, and industrial production of cod started. In the early 2000s this industrial development suffered from the financial crisis of 2008, and further growth and development almost stopped. Although the participation of risk capital in the development of aquaculture might be an option in particular places and circumstances, it is far from being the preferred option. Development of aquaculture systems, supplying domestic and international markets, has a better chance to succeed if supported by a mix of long-term public support systems (credit, technical assistance) for small and rural producers coupled with entrepreneurial initiatives well implanted in the markets. Marine finfish aquaculture is rapidly growing in the Asia-Pacific region, where highvalue carnivorous fish species (e.g. groupers, barramundi, snappers and pompano) are typically raised in small cages in inshore environments. In China this development has led to experiments in offshore mariculture using larger and stronger cages. (FAO, 2014). These examples show that at least to the present, decision-making for the development of mariculture, particularly finfish mariculture, tends to be dominated by economic growth and not by food security considerations. To balance this trend, the intergovernmental High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security has recently advocated the need to define specific policies to support current targets on food security in view of the projected growth of human population (HLPE, 2014). The potential for non-fed mariculture development is far from being fully explored particularly that of marine bivalves in Africa and in Latin America and in the Caribbean. Limited capacity in mollusc seed production is regarded as a constraint in some countries (FAO, 2014). 7. Aquafeed production Total industrial compound aquafeed production increased, from 7.6 million tons in 1995 to 29.2 million tons in 2008 (last estimate available, Tacon et al., 2011). These are estimates because there is no comprehensive information on the global production of farm-made aquafeeds (estimated by FAO at between 18.7 and 30.7 million tons in 2006) and/or on the use of low-value fish/trash fish as fresh feed. Fishmeal is used as high-protein feed and fish oil as a feed additive in aquaculture (FAO, 2014). Fishmeal and fish oil are produced mainly from harvesting stocks of small, fastreproducing fish (e.g., anchovies, small sardines and menhaden) and for which there is some, but limited, demand for human consumption. This use, promoted in the 1950s by FAO as a means to add value to the massive harvesting of small pelagic fish, raises the question of the alternative use of this significant fish biomass for direct human consumption (HLPE 2014).

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In 2012 about 35 per cent of world fishmeal production was obtained from fisheries by-products (frames, off-cuts and offal) from the industrial processing of both wild caught and farmed fish. Commercial operations harvesting myctophids4 for fishmeal and oil are being piloted in some regions, though the ecological consequences of exploiting these previously untapped resources have not been evaluated. In 2007 the largest producer of fishmeal was Peru (1.4 million tons) followed by China (1.0 million tons) and Chile (0.7 million tons). Other important producers were Thailand, the United States of America, Japan, Denmark, Norway and Iceland (Tacon et al., 2011). Estimates of total usage of terrestrial animal by-product meals and oils in compound aquafeeds ranges between 0.15 and 0.30 million tons, or less than 1 percent of total global production. Patterns in the use of fishmeal and fish oil have changed in time due to the growth and evolution of the world aquaculture industry. On a global basis, in 2008 (the most recent published estimate), the aquaculture sector consumed 60.8 percent of global fishmeal production (3.72 million tons) and 73.8 percent of global fish oil production (0.78 million ons, Tacon et al., 2011). In contrast, the poultry and pork industries each used nearly 26 per cent and 22 per cent respectively of the available fishmeal in 2002 while aquaculture consumed only 46 percent of the global fishmeal supply and 81 percent of the global fish oil supply (Pike, 2005; Tacon et al., 2006) Fish oil has become also a product for direct human consumption for health reasons. Long-chain Omega-3 fatty acids, specifically EPA and DHA, have been shown to play a critical role in human health: EPA in the health of the cardiovascular system and DHA in the proper functioning of the nervous system, most notably brain function. In 2010 fish oil for direct human consumption was estimated at 24 per cent of the total world production, compared with 5 per cent in 1990. (Shepherd and Jackson, 2012). The total use of fishmeal by the aquaculture sector is expected to decrease in the long term in favour of plant-based materials (Figure 3). It has gone down from 4.23 million tons in 2005 to 3.72 million tons in 2008 (or 12.8 percent of total aquafeeds by weight), and is expected to decrease to 3.49 million tons by 2020 (at an estimated 4.9 per cent of total aquafeeds by weight) (Tacon et al., 2011). These trends reflect that fishmeal is being used by industry as a strategic ingredient fed in stages of the growth cycle where its unique nutritional properties can give the best results or in places where price is less critical (Jackson, 2012). The most commonly used alternative to fishmeal is that of soymeal. Time series of the price of both products show that use of fishmeal is being reduced in less critical areas such as grower feeds, but remains in the more critical and less price-sensitive areas of hatchery and brood-stock feeds. (Jackson and Shepherd, 2012)

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Myctophids are small-size mesopelagic fish inhabiting between 200 and 1000 metres that vertically migrate on a daily basis. Biomass of myctophids is estimated to be considerable worldwide.

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Figure 3. The aquaculture industry has reduced the share of fishmeal in farmed fish diets (percent) (FAO, 2014).

The use of fish oil by the aquaculture sector will probably increase in the long run albeit slowly. It is estimated that total usage will increase by more than 16 percent, from 782,000 tons (2.7 percent of total feeds by weight) in 2008 to the estimated 908.000 tons (1.3 percent of total feeds for that year) by 2020. It is forecast that increased usage will shift from salmonids, to marine finfishes and crustaceans because of the current absence of cost-effective alternative lipid sources that are rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. (Tacon et al., 2011) 8. Economic and social significance At the global level, the number of people engaged in fish farming has, since 1990, increased at higher annual rates than that of those engaged in capture fisheries. The most recent estimates (FAO 2014, Table 2) indicate that about 18.9 million people were engaged in fish farming, 96 per cent concentrated primarily in Asia, followed by Africa (1.57 percent), Latin America and the Caribbean (1.42 percent), Europe (0.54 per cent), North America (0.04 per cent) and Oceania (0.03 per cent). The 18,175 million fish farmers in 2012 represented 1.45 per cent percent of the 1.3 billion people economically active in the broad agriculture sector worldwide. (FAO, 2014).

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Table 2. FAO (2014) estimates that the total number of fish farmers in the world has grown from 8 million in 1995 to close to 19 million today, representing an increasing source of livelihoods. Not all these jobs are permanent and year-around, since many are seasonal.

Out of the 18.8 million of fish farmers in the world (Table 2), China alone employs 5.2 million, representing 27.6 per cent of the total, while Indonesia employs 3.3 million farmers, representing 17.7 per cent of the total. Employment at farm level includes full-time, part-time and occasional jobs in hatcheries, nurseries, grow-out production facilities, and labourers. Employment at other stages along aquaculture value-chains includes jobs in input supply, middle trade and domestic fish distribution, processing, exporting and vending (HLPE, 2014). More than 80 percent of global aquaculture production may be contributed by small- to medium-scale fish farmers, nearly 90 per cent of whom live in Asia (HLPE, 2014). Farmed fish are expected to contribute to improved nutritional status of households directly through self-consumption, and indirectly by selling farmed fish for cash to enhance household purchasing power (HLPE, 2014) The regional distribution of jobs in the aquaculture sector reflects widely disparate levels of productivity strongly linked to the degree of industrialization of the dominant culture systems in each region. In Asia, low technology is used in non-fed and inland-fed aquaculture, using extensive ponds, which is labour intensive compared with mariculture in floating systems. In 2011, the annual average production of fish farmers in Norway was 195 tons per person, compared with 55 tons in Chile, 25 tons in Turkey, 10 tons in Malaysia, about 7 tons in China, about 4 tons in Thailand, and only about 1 ton in India and Indonesia (FAO, 2014). Extrapolating from a ten-country case study representing just under 20 percent of the global aquaculture production, Phillips and Subasinghe (2014, personal communication, cited in HLPE, 2014) estimated that “total employment in global aquaculture value chains could be close to 38 million full-time people.”

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Table 3. Per capita average outputs per fish farmer by region (in FAO, 2014).

Fish is among the most traded food commodities worldwide. Fish can be produced in one country, processed in a second and consumed in a third. There were 129 billion dollars of exports of fish and fishery products in 2012 (FAO, 2014) In the last two decades, in line with the impressive growth in aquaculture production, there has been a substantial increase in trade of many aquaculture products based on both low- and high-value species, with new markets opening up in developed and developing countries as well as economies in transition. Aquaculture is contributing to a growing share of international trade in fishery commodities, with high-value species such as salmon, seabass, seabream, shrimp and prawns, bivalves and other molluscs, but also relatively low-value species such as tilapia, catfish (including Pangasius) and carps (FAO 2014). Pangasius is a freshwater fish native to the Mekong Delta in Viet Nam, new to international trade. However, with production of about 1.3 million tons, mainly in Viet Nam and all going to international markets, this species is an important source of low-priced traded fish. The European Union and the United States of America are the main importers of Pangasius. (FAO, 2014) 9. Environmental impacts of aquaculture Environmental effects from aquaculture include land use and special natural habitats destruction, pollution of water and sediments from wastes, the introduction of nonnative, competitive species to the natural environment through escapes from farms, genetic effects on wild populations (of fish and shellfish) from escapes of farmed animals or their gametes, and concerns about the use of wild forage fish for aquaculture feeds. 9.1

Land use

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occupied approximately 4.4 million ha—for a combined area of roughly 18 million hectares, overwhelmingly in Asia. Many of these ponds were converted from rice paddies and other existing cropland rather than newly converted natural lands—but even so, aquaculture adds to world land use demands. In 2008, global land use efficiencies of inland and brackish water ponds averaged 2.3 tons of fish per hectare per year (t/ha/yr). Expanding aquaculture to 140 million tons by 2050 without increases in that average efficiency would imply an additional area of roughly 24 million ha directly for ponds―about the size of the United Kingdom. (WRI, 2014) 9.2

Interaction with mangroves

Land conversion for aquaculture can lead to severe ecosystem degradation, as in the case of the proliferation of extensive low-yield shrimp farms that destroyed large extensions of mangrove forests in Asia and Latin America (Lewis et al., 2002, cited in WRI, 2014). Since the 1990s, non-governmental organizations and policy-makers have focused on curbing the expansion of extensive, shrimp farms into mangrove forests in Asia and Latin America (FAO et al., 2006b). As a result, mangrove clearance for shrimp farms has greatly decreased, thanks to mangrove protection policies in affected countries and the siting of new, more high-yield shrimp farms away from mangrove areas. (Lewis et al., 2002). 9.3 Pollution of water and sediments Wastes from mariculture generally include dissolved (inorganic) nutrients, particulate (organic) wastes (feces, uneaten food and animal carcasses), and chemicals for maintaining infrastructure (anti-biofouling agents) and animal health products (antiparasitics, disinfectants and antibiotics). These wastes impose an additional oxygen demand on the environment, usually creating anoxic conditions under pens and cages. Research in Norway has shown that benthic effects decline rapidly with increasing depth of water under salmon nets, but situating farms as close to shore as possible may be a prerequisite for economic viability of the industry. Fallowing periods of several years have been found necessary in Norway to allow benthic recovery. Research elsewhere indicates that benthic recovery may be quicker under some conditions (WHOI, 2007) 9.4 Impact of escapes With the use of floating semi-enclosed systems, escapes are inevitable in mariculture and inland aquaculture. Catastrophic events (e.g., hurricanes or other storms), human error, seal and sea lion predation and vandalism will remain potential paths for farmed fish to escape into the wild. Advancements in technology are likely to continue to reduce the frequency and severity of escape events but it is unlikely that this ecological and economic threat will ever disappear entirely. There is considerable evidence of damage to the genetic integrity of wild fish populations when escaped farmed fish can interbreed with local stocks. Furthermore, in semienclosed systems, cultured organisms release viable gametes into the water.

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Mariculture industry has undertaken a significant effort to produce and use variants of cultivated species that are infertile, diminishing the risk of gene-flow from cultivated/domesticated species to their wild counterparts when escapes occur. 9.5

Non-native species.

Aquaculture has been a significant source of intentional and unintentional introductions of non-native species into local ecosystems worldwide. The harm caused by invasive species is well documented. Intensive fish culture, particularly of non-native species, can be and has been involved in the introduction and/or amplification of pathogens and disease in wild populations (Blazer and LaPatra, 2002, cited in WHOI, 2007). Non-native oysters have been introduced in many regions to improve failing harvests of native varieties due to diseases or overexploitation. The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, was introduced to the West Coast of the United States in 1875. The Pacific or Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas, native to the Pacific coast of Asia, has been introduced in North and South America, Africa, Australia, Europe, and New Zealand and has also spread through accidental introductions either through larvae in ballast water or on the hulls of ships (Helm, 2006). 9.6

Genetically modified organisms

Although the use of transgenic, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs), is not common practice in aquaculture (WHOI, 2007), nevertheless the potential use of GMOs would pose severe risks. The production and commercialization of aquatic GMOs should be analyzed considering economic issues, environmental protection, food safety and social and health well-being (Muir, et al., 1999; Le Curieux-Belfond et al., 2009). 9.7

Use of chemicals as pesticides and for antifouling

A wide variety of chemicals are currently used in aquaculture production. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifouling compounds (biocides) 5 to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. Among the most common disinfectants are hydrogen peroxide and malachite green. Pyrethroid insecticides and avermectins are used as anthelmintic agents (Romero et al., 2012). Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine 5

Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling.

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(2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. (Guardiola et al., 2012). The use of biocides is not as well-regulated as drug use in aquaculture because the information available on their effects on ecosystems is still limited. 9.8 Use of antibiotics Antibiotic drugs used in aquaculture may have substantial environmental effects. The use of antibiotics in aquaculture can be categorized as therapeutic, prophylactic or metaphylactic. Therapeutic use is the treatment of established infections. Metaphylaxis are group-medication procedures, aimed at treating sick animals while also medicating others in the group to prevent disease. Prophylaxis means the precautionary use of antimicrobials in either individuals or groups to prevent the development of infections (Romero et al., 2012). In aquaculture, antibiotics at therapeutic levels are frequently administered for short periods of time via the oral route to groups of fish that share tanks or cages. Fish do not effectively metabolize antibiotics and will pass them largely unused back into the environment in feces. 70 to 80 per cent of the antibiotics administered to fish as medicated pelleted feed are released into the aquatic environment via urinary and fecal excretion and/or as unused medicated food (Romero et al., 2012). For this among other reasons, antibiotic use in net, pen or cage mariculture is a concern because it can contribute to the development of resistant strains of bacteria in the wild. The spread of antimicrobial resistance due to exposure to antimicrobial agents is well documented in both human and veterinary medicine. It is also well documented that fish pathogens and other aquatic bacteria can develop resistance as a result of antimicrobial exposure. Examples include Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Yersinia ruckeri, Photobacterium damselae and Vibrio anguillarum. Research has shown that antibiotics excreted tend to degrade faster in sea-water, while they persist more in sediments. (Romero et al., 2012) The public health hazards related to antimicrobial use in aquaculture are twofold: the development and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance genes and the presence of antimicrobial residues in aquaculture products and the environment (Romero et al., 2012). The high proportions of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that persist in sediments and farm environments may provide a threat to fish farms because they can act as sources of antibiotic-resistance genes for fish pathogens in the vicinity of the farms. Because resistant bacteria may transfer their resistance elements to bacterial pathogens, the implementation of efficient strategies to contain and manage resistance-gene emergence and spread is critical for the development of sustainable aquaculture practices. Industry faced with uncertainties created by the limited knowledge of infectious diseases and their prevalence in a particular environment tends to abuse the use of antibiotics. Defoirdt et al. (2011, cited by Romero et al., 2012) estimated that approximately 500–600 metric tons of antibiotics were used in shrimp farm production in Thailand in 1994; he also emphasized the large variation between different countries, with antibiotic use ranging from 1 g per metric ton of production in Norway to 700 g per metric ton in Viet Nam. In the aftermath of the ISA infection in the salmon culture in Chile, SERNAPESCA, the Chilean National Fisheries and

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Aquaculture Service, recently released data reporting unprecedentedly high amounts of antibiotics used by the salmon industry. 6 Inefficiencies in the antibiotic treatment of fish illnesses now may lead to significant economic losses in the future (Romero et al., 2012). Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in aquaculture also present a risk to public health. The appearance of acquired resistance in fish pathogens and other aquatic bacteria means that such resistant bacteria can act as a reservoir of resistance genes from which genes can be further disseminated and may ultimately end up in human pathogens. Plasmid-borne resistance genes have been transferred by conjugation from the fish pathogen A. salmonicida to Escherichia coli, a bacterium of human origin, some strains of which are pathogenic for humans (Romero et al., 2012). 9.9

Diseases and parasites

Farming marine organisms in dense populations results in outbreaks of viral, bacterial, fungi and parasite diseases. Diseases and parasites constitute a strong constraint on the culture of aquatic species and disease and parasite translocation by host movements in different spatial scales is common. In molluscs the main parasites are protozoans of the genus Bonamia, Perkinsus and Marteilia. The pathogens Haplosporidium, bacteria (rickettsial and vibriosis) and herpes-type virus have a gr