This is the published version of a paper presented at 12th International

This is the published version of a paper presented at 12th International

http://www.diva-portal.org This is the published version of a paper presented at 12th International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology, Istanbul,...

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This is the published version of a paper presented at 12th International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology, Istanbul, October 12-16, 2009..

Citation for the original published paper: Eriksson, N., Höglund, P. (2012) Well Preserved or Well Recorded: Approaches to Baltic Sea Shipwrecks Exemplified by the Dalarö-Wreck Project. In: Nergis Günsenin (ed.), Between Continents: Proceedings of the Twelfth Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology (pp. 325-329). Istanbul: Ege Yayinlari

N.B. When citing this work, cite the original published paper.

Permanent link to this version: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-17214

BETWEEN CONTINENTS Proceedings of the Twelth Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology Istanbul 2009

Edited by

Nergis Günsenin

ISBSA 12 Sponsored and Hosted by the Istanbul Research Institute of the Suna and İnan Kıraç Foundation Under the auspices of the Underwater Technology Program at Istanbul University’s Vocational School of Technical Sciences in partnership with the Faculty of Letters, Department of Restoration and Conservation of Artefacts

OFFPRINT

BETWEEN CONTINENTS Proceedings of the Twelth Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology Istanbul 2009 ISBSA 12 Edited by Nergis Günsenin © 2012 Ege Yayınları ISBN No: 978-605-4701-02-5 Published by Ege Yayınları Publisher Certificate No: 14641 Cover illustration Antoine Ignace Melling, A Picturesque Voyage to Constantinople and the Shores of the Bosphorus, “View of the Naval Shipyards of Constantinople” Cover design Aydın Tibet All rights reserved.

With special thanks to

Printed by Paragraf Basım Sanayi A.Ş. Yüzyıl Mah. Matbaacılar Sit. 2. Cad. No: 202/A Bağcılar İstanbul Tel: 0212 629 06 07 Fax: 0212 629 03 85 Certificate No: 18469 Production and Distribution Zero Prodüksiyon Kitap-Yayın-Dağıtım San. Ltd. Şti. Abdullah Sokak, No: 17, Taksim, 34433 İstanbul/Türkiye Tel: +90 (212) 244 7521 Fax: +90 (212) 244 3209 E.mail: [email protected]

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To the memory of Ole Crumlin-Pedersen (1935-2011) and Claude Duthuit (1931-2011) Crumlin-Pedersen founder of the Viking Ship Museum at Roskilde heralded a whole new area of archaeological ieldwork and remained a seminal and inspirational igure in nautical archaeology. Duthuit not only acted as director of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology (INA), but made lifelong contributions to the ield. It is thanks to his dedication and his passion that several excavation eforts, including those at Cape Gelidonya, have come to life.

Contents

List of Contributors ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... x Preface .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... xiii Keynote address: A Brief History of Nautical Archaeology in Turkey by George F. Bass ..................................................................................... xvii

A. News from the Mediterranean 1. Between the Seabed and the Public: Data Collection for a Virtual Museum from the Underwater Survey at Kaş, Turkey  Güzden Varinlioğlu and Elif Denel ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 2. Pharaonic Ship Remains of Ayn Sukhna Patrice Pomey ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 3. Middle Bronze Age Boat of Mitrou, Central Greece Aleydis Van de Moortel .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 17 4. Iron Age Phoenician Shipwreck Excavation at Bajo de la Campana, Spain: Preliminary Report from the Field Mark E. Polzer .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 27 5. Kızılburun Column Wreck Preliminary Hull Analysis: Maximum Results from Minimum Remains John D. Littleield .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 37 6. Tantura E: Hull Construction Report Eyal Israeli and Yaacov Kahanov ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 43 7. A 16th -Century Wreck Found near the Island of Mljet, Croatia Igor Mihajlović, Igor Miholjek and Mladen Pešić ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 49 8. Akko 1 Shipwreck: he Archaeological Find and its Historical Context Deborah Cvikel ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 59

B. News from Northern Europe 9. A 15th -Century Bulk Carrier, Wrecked of Skatö, Western Sweden Stafan von Arbin .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 67 10. Barcode Project: Fiteen Nordic Clinker-Built Boats from the 16th and 17th Centuries in the City Centre of Oslo, Norway Jostein Gundersen ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 75 11. Loss and Rediscovery of the Swedish ‘Prinsessan Hedvig Sophia’ in the Baltic Sea near Kiel, Germany Jens Auer and Martin Segschneider ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 81 12. Investigation of the Wreck Site of the 18th -Century Russian Warship ‘St. Alexander’ near the Tarkhankutski Lighthouse (Crimea, Ukraine) Oleg A. Zolotarev and Viktor D. Kobets ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 87

vi

Contents

13. Identiication of the 18th -Century Shipwreck W-27 on the Basis of a Comparative Analysis of Archaeological and Archival Sources Tomasz Bednarz ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 93

C. The Byzantıne Shıps at Yenikapı 14. ‘City’ Harbours from Antiquity through Medieval Times Nergis Günsenin ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 99 15. Byzantine Shipwrecks at Yenikapı Ufuk Kocabaş ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 107 16. Hull Characteristics of the Yenikapı 12 Shipwreck Işıl Özsait Kocabaş ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 115 17. Preliminary Report on the Yenikapı 17 Shipwreck Evren Türkmenoğlu ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 121 18. Ethnicity and Sphere of Activity of the Crew of the 11th -Century Serçe Limanı Ship: Some Tentative Observations Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 127

D. Medıterranean and Black Sea Shıps and Seafarıng 19. Byzantine Ship Graiti in the Kilise Mescidi of Amasra Kostas A. Damianidis .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 135 20. Roman Ships Carrying Marble:  Were hese Vessels in Some Way Special? Carlo Beltrame and Valeria Vittorio .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 141 21. Between East and West in the Roman Empire: Skippers and Shipowners from the Eastern Mediterranean homas Schmidts .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 149 22. 14th -Century Galley Fleet from the Black Sea: he Case of Codex 5 in the Hellenic Institute of Venice Yannis D. Nakas ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 157 23. Relections on the Graiti of Haghia Sophia at Trebizond (Trabzon), Turkey Lucien Basch ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 165 24. İnebolu Boat: Last Surviving Black Sea Ship of ‘Shell-First’ Construction and the Evolution of Boatbuilding in the Western Black Sea Coast of Anatolia Hüseyin Çoban .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 171

E. Ottoman Shıpbuıldıng 25. Design and Construction of a Black Sea Ottoman Ship Kroum N. Batchvarov .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 175 26. Technological Developments in the Imperial Dockyard (Tersane-i Amire): Anchor Manufacture for the Galleons of the Ottoman Navy Yusuf Alperen Aydın ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 183 27. A Lesser Known Branch in the Ottoman Imperial Dockyard: Tîr-i Güverte Metin Ünver ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 189

F. Shıp Constructıon 28. Wreck of the 1st -Century AD Lyon Saint-Georges 8 (Rhône, France): A Ferry or a Ligther from the River Saône? Marc Guyon and Eric Rieth .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 195 29. Arles-Rhône 3: Architectural and Paleobotanical Study of a Gallo-Roman Barge from the 1st Century in the Rhône River Sabrina Marlier, Sandra Greck, Frédéric Guibal and Valérie Andrieu-Ponel ............................................................................................................ 203

Contents

vii

30. Introductory Note to a 1202 Genoese Trading Ship (navis) Furio Cicilliot ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 211 31. 15th -Century EP1-Canche Wreck (Pas-de-Calais, France): A Fluvio-Maritime Coaster of Cog Tradition in the North of France? Eric Rieth .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 217 32. Drogheda Boat: A Story to Tell Holger Schweitzer ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 225 33. Regional Characteristics of the Iberian-Atlantic Shipbuilding Tradition: Arade 1 Shipwreck Case Study Vanessa Loureiro ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 233 34. Use of Pine Sheathing on Dutch East India Company Ships Wendy Van Duivenvoorde ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 241 35. Early Modern and Pre-Industrial Archaeological Inland Ship Finds from Poland Waldemar Ossowski ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 253

G. Experimental Archaeology 36. Sea Stallion from Glendalough: Testing the Hypothesis Søren Nielsen .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 261 37. Travel Speed in the Viking Age: Results of Trial Voyages with Reconstructed Ship Finds Anton Englert ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 269 38. Waterways from the Varangians to the Greeks: Some Results of Experimental Study on Medieval Navigation Petr E. Sorokin ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 279 39. Reconstruction and Sailing Performance of an Ancient Egyptian Ship Cheryl Ward, Patrick Couser, David Vann, Tom Vosmer and Mohamed M. Abd el-Maguid ................................................................ 287 40. Jewel of Muscat: he Reconstruction of a 9th -Century Sewn-Plank Boat Tom Vosmer ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 293 41. Design and Recreation of a 17th -Century Taiwanese Junk: Preliminary Report Jeng-Horng Chen ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 297

H. Research Methods 42. Development of an Adaptive Method for the Rescue of 15 Shipwrecks from a Construction Site in Oslo Harbour: Need for Speed Hilde Vangstad ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 305 43. Recent Advances in Post-Excavation Documentation: Roskilde Method Morten Ravn .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 313 44. hree-Dimensional Recording and Hull Form Modelling of the Newport (Wales) Medieval Ship Nigel Nayling and Toby Jones .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 319 45. Well Preserved or Well Recorded: Approaches to Baltic Sea Shipwrecks Exemplified by the Dalarö-Wreck Project Niklas Eriksson and Patrik Höglund .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 325 46. Hypothetical Reconstruction of the Dramont E Shipwreck Pierre Poveda ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 331 47. Reconstruction of the Oseberg Ship: Evaluation of the Hull Form Vibeke Bischof ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 337

List of Contributors

Valérie Andreieu-Ponel Aix-Marseille Université-CNRS, Europôle Méditerranéen de l’Arbois, BP 80, 13 545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 04, France [email protected]

Vibeke Bischoff he Viking Ship Museum,Vindeboder 12, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark [email protected]

Staffan von Arbin Bohusläns museum, Box 403, SE-451 19 Uddevalla, Sweden [email protected]

Jeng-Horng Chen Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronic Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Rd., Tainan 70101, Taiwan [email protected]

Yusuf A. Aydın Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of History, Ordu Cad., Laleli 34459, Istanbul, Turkey [email protected] Jens Auer University of Southern Denmark, Maritime Archaeology Programme, Niels Bohrs Vej 9, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark [email protected] Lucien Basch Avenue Armand Huysmans 206, bte 9, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium [email protected] George F. Bass Distinguished Professor Emeritus at Texas A&M University, and Founder and Chairman Emeritus of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology, USA [email protected] Kroum N. Batchvarov University of Connecticut, Academic Building 116 C, 1084 Shennecossett Road Groton, Connecticut 06340, USA [email protected] Tomasz Bednarz Polish Maritime Museum, Ołowianka 9-13, 80751, Gdańsk, Poland [email protected] Carlo Beltrame Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici, Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia, Dorsoduro 3484/D 30123, Venezia, Italy [email protected]

Furio Ciciliot via Guidobono 38/3, 17100 Savona, Italy [email protected] Deborah Civikel Department of Maritime Civilizations and Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905, Israel [email protected] Patrick Couser Sunnypowers Limited, 1 rue Saint Blaise, Bagneres de Bigorre, 65200, France [email protected] Hüseyin Çoban Bartın 74300, Amasra, Turkey [email protected] Kostas A. Damianidis Deligiorgi 51-53, 10437Athens, Greece [email protected] Elif Denel American Research Institute in Turkey, Şehit Ersan cad. 24/9, Çankaya, Ankara 06680, Turkey [email protected] Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr. Emeritus Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Texas A&M University and Institute of Nautical Archaeology 6200 Pelham Court, Bryan, 77802-6059, Texas, USA [email protected]

List of Contributors

Wendy van Duivenvoorde Department of Maritime Archaeology, Shipwreck Galleries, Western Australian Museum, 47 Clif Street, Fremantle, WA 6160, Australia [email protected]

Ufuk Kocabaş Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, Ordu Cad., Laleli 34459, Istanbul, Turkey [email protected]

Anton Englert he Viking Ship Museum,Vindeboder 12, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark [email protected]

Işıl Özsait Kocabaş Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects, Ordu Cad., Laleli 34459, Istanbul, Turkey [email protected]

Niklas Eriksson Södertörn University, SE-141 89 Huddinge, Sweden [email protected] Sandra Greck Arkaeos association, 1 boulevard Longchamp, 13001 Marseille, France [email protected] Frédéric Guibal Aix-Marseille Université-CNRS, Europôle Méditerranéen de l’Arbois, BP 80, 13 545 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 4, France [email protected] Jostein Gundersen he Norwegian Maritime Museum, Bygdøynesveien 37, 0286 Oslo, Norway [email protected] Marc Guyon Inrap, 12, rue Louis Maggiorini, 69500 Bron, France [email protected] Nergis Günsenin Istanbul University, Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Underwater Technology Program, Avcılar 34320, Istanbul, Turkey [email protected] Patrik Höglund Swedish National Maritime Museums, BOX 27 131, 10252, Stockholm, Sweden [email protected] Eyal Israeli Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905, Israel [email protected] Toby Jones Newport Medieval Ship Project, Newport Museum and Heritage Service, Newport Ship Centre, Unit 22, Maesglas Industrial Estate, Newport, Wales, NP20 2NN, United Kingdom [email protected] Yaacov Kahanov Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905, Israel [email protected] Viktor D. Kobets Kiev State University of Taras Shevchenko, Ukrania [email protected]

ix

John D. Littlefield Nautical Archaeology Program, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4352, USA [email protected] Vanessa Loureiro Rua das Janelas Verdes, nº 4-4º, 1200-691, Lisbon, Portugal [email protected] Mohamed M. Abd-el-Maguid Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt, National Maritime Museum, 270 Tariq El-Gueish, Alexandria, Egypt [email protected] Sabrına Marlıer Conseil Général des Bouches-du-Rhône - Direction de la Culture Musée Départemental Arles Antique, Presqu’île du Cirque Romain BP 205 - 13635 Arles Cedex, France [email protected] Igor Mihajlović Department for Underwater Archaeology, Croatian Conservation Institute, Cvijete Zuzorić 43 HR – 10000 Zagreb, Coratia [email protected] Igor Miholjek Department for Underwater Archaeology, Croatian Conservation Institute, Cvijete Zuzorić 43 HR – 10000 Zagreb, Coratia [email protected] Aleydis van de Moortel Department of Classics, 1101 McClung Tower, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA [email protected] Yannis D. Nakas Isaia Salonon 13, 11475 Gyzi, Athens, Greece [email protected] Nigel Nayling School of Archaeology, History and Anthropology, University of Wales, Trinity Saint David, Lampeter, Ceredigion, Wales, SA48 7ED, United Kingdom [email protected] Søren Nielsen he Viking Ship Museum,Vindeboder 12, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark [email protected]

x

List of Contributors

Waldemar Ossowski Polish Maritime Museum, Ołowianka 9-13, 80751, Gdańsk, Poland [email protected]

Petr Sorokin Institute of the History Material Culture, Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg, Dvorzovaja nab. 18., 191186, Russia [email protected]

Mladen Pešić International Centre for Underwater Archaeology in Zadar Božidara Petranovića 1 HR-23000 Zadar, Coratia [email protected]

Evren Türkmenoğlu Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects Ordu Cad., Laleli 34459, Istanbul, Turkey [email protected]

Mark E. Polzer Archaeology M405, he University of Western Australia 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia [email protected]

Metin Ünver Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of History, Ordu Cad., 34459 Laleli, Istanbul, Turkey [email protected]

Patrice Pomey Centre Camille Jullian, CNRS , Université de Provence, 5 rue du Château de l’Horloge,1390 Aix-en-Provence, France [email protected]

Hilde Vangstad he Norwegian Maritime Museum, Bygdøynesveien 37, 0286 Oslo, Norway [email protected]

Pierre Poveda Bureau d’archéologie Navale, B032, MMSH, 5 rue du Château de l’Horloge BP 647 13094, Aix-en-Provence Cedex 2, France [email protected]

David Vann University of San Francisco, 33 East Las Palmas Ave., Fremont, CA 94539, USA [email protected]

Morten Ravn he Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde, Vindeboder 12, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark [email protected] Eric Rieth CNRS (LAMOP), Musée National de la Marine, Palais de Chaillot 75116 Paris, France [email protected] Thomas Schmidts Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Forschungsbereich und Museum für Antike Schifahrt, Neutorstraße 2b, 55116 Mainz, Germany [email protected] Holger Schweitzer Martime Archaeology Programme, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohr Vej 9, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark [email protected] Martin Segschneider Archaeological State Oice Schleswig-Holstein, Schloss Annettenhöh, Brockdorf-Rantzau Str. 70 24837 Schleswig, Germany [email protected]

Güzden Varinlioğlu Sualtı Araştırmaları Derneği, Gazi Mustafa Kemal Bulvarı, Akıncılar Sokak, 10/1  Maltepe, Ankara, Turkey [email protected] Valeria Vittorio via G. , Marconi 66/a, 36016 hiene (VI), Italy [email protected]  Tom Vosmer Ministry of Foreign Afairs, PO Box 812, Postal Code 100, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman [email protected] Cheryl Ward Director, Center for Archaeology and Anthropology, Department of History Coastal Carolina University, P.O. Box 261954, Conway, SC 29528-6054, USA [email protected] Oleg A. Zolotarev 18-35 Lenınsky Village, Leninsky District, Tula Region, Russia [email protected]

Preface

he island of Tatihou in France was the site of the irst ISBSA meeting I attended in 1994. Encircled by seminal igures in our ield, it was the most inspiring event of my academic career. At the time, it became clear that the attendees were eager to hold one of their future meetings in Turkey. heir wish was the driving force that inally led me to this special day. Positioned between two continents, Istanbul was the perfect place to hold the Symposium. hroughout history, the exchange of goods and cultures between east and west, as well as north and south, was realized in the waters of the Anatolian coast, with the Black Sea to the north, the Sea of Marmara to the northwest, the Aegean Sea to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Given the vast area of interest, we invited participants to focus on the four seas and address their pivotal role not only for Turkey but also for the rest of the world. he Turkish coastline had already been the site of pioneering underwater excavations since the 1960s. Indeed, nautical archaeology was initiated

in Turkey under G.  F.  Bass and further developed under the auspices of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology (INA). Today, the development of nautical archaeology and boat and ship archaeology on an international level far surpasses the initially limited ield of underwater archaeology. Moreover, the discovery of the harbour of heodosius, one of the most outstanding archaeological events of our era, has further enriched  our ield and added yet another dimension to our symposium. he excavations in the harbour are still ongoing. hirty-six shipwrecks dating from the 5th to the 11th centuries have been excavated. heir study will make an enormous contribution to our understanding of ship construction and the transition from shellirst to skeleton-irst techniques. It will also allow us to re-examine Byzantine trade and the economy of the period. Furthermore, the remains revealing settlements dating back to 6500 BC, will shed new light on our understanding of the history of the ancient peninsula.

Fig. 1. Group photograph of the participants of ISBSA 12 (Photo: Engin Şengenç).

xii

Preface

Fig. 2. Group photograph of the participants of the Amasra excursion.

he ISBSA 12 was held under the auspices of the Underwater Technology Program at Istanbul University’s Vocational School of Technical Sciences in partnership with the Faculty of Letters, Department of Restoration and Conservation of Artefacts. It was sponsored and hosted by the Istanbul Research Institute of the Suna and İnan Kıraç Foundation and was held at the Foundation’s Pera Museum on 12-16 October, 2009. More than 200 participants from 24 countries attended the Symposium where 50 papers, 25 posters, and various ilms were presented (Fig. 1). his also allowed numerous young scholars to present their work and contribute to ongoing debates in our ield and even launch new areas of research based on recent discoveries. he papers for the symposium were selected by the ISBSA committee from among a multitude of excellent proposals. he mission of the ISBSA is focused on ship construction. While related subjects are welcome, the main thrust has traditionally been a discussion of the ship itself. It is our hope that the conference theme which has helped bring together numerous scholars from around the world, will also bring together the two sub-ields of archaeology which have until recently

remained separate. It is believed that a genuine thematic and methodological dialogue between land and underwater archaeology can only enrich the ield and uncover the mysteries of past civilizations. “Between Continents” will thus re-map our ield and reset its intellectual boundaries. Following the Symposium, an excursion to Amasra on 16-18 October ofered the opportunity to visit workshops that still continue the traditional art of shipbuilding in Tekkeönü and Kurucaşile in the Black Sea Region. Participants learned methods of ship construction directly from the local shipbuilders. he Shipbuilding Program at the Kurucaşile Technical High School, the Amasra Castle, and the Amasra Archaeological Museum were among the local sites included in the itinerary (Fig. 2). Hüseyin Çoban was pivotal to the success of this excursion; his hospitality and his immense knowledge of traditional shipbuilding enriched our trip. Like many other scholars in our ield, I owe my presence here today to George Bass who not only accepted our invitation to attend the symposium but also graciously delivered the keynote address. Frederick van Doorninck, Jr., the late Claude Duthuit, Don Frey and Robin Piercy from the Institute of Nautical Archaeology further enriched

Preface

this symposium with their presence. It was a genuine honour to have them in our midst. As in all scholarly disciplines the master - apprentice relationship is central to our ield. his was made amply clear during the course of this symposium. However, our ield is based not only on scholarly research. he constant interaction between nature and humans is an inextricable part of it: sailing on a ickle sea, working in the hostile underwater environment, and living in oten diicult conditions are among the challenges that make our ield so special. May God save sailors and nautical archaeologists for future research and many more symposia!

Acknowledgments I would like to express my sincere thanks to Suna, İnan and İpek Kıraç, founders of the Suna and İnan Kıraç Foundation, and Özalp Birol, General Director of the Suna and İnan Kıraç Foundation Culture and Art Enterprises; they made it possible for us to hold the meeting at the Pera Museum. he hospitality of the museum staf was also central to the success of this meeting. My thanks also go to Gülru Tanman of the Istanbul Research Institute whose help and friendship made it easier to navigate through a complexity of organisational issues. Erkan Bora, also of the Istanbul Research Institute, deserves special thanks for his assistance, not only during the Symposium, but also during the excursion to Amasra. Else Snitker welcomed everyone with her endless energyand friendly, familiar countenance.

xiii

I want to express my gratitude to Zeynep Kızıltan, directress of the Istanbul Archaeological Museums, who made it possible for us to visit the Yenikapı excavation site. Commandant Ali Rıza İşipek generously opened storerooms of the Istanbul Naval Museum, which is presently under construction. hanks to him, participants had the opportunity to see the sultans’ kayıks and the famous kadırga. he Setur Travel Company team contributed to a remarkable organisation. My heartfelt thanks also go to Carlo Beltrame, Ronald Bockius, Anton Englert, and Fred Hocker, who shared their invaluable experience as previous ISBSA organisers. I would also like to acknowledge Ayşın Akyor for providing much needed editorial help with the English text. Finally, my sincere thanks go to Rezan Benatar for her valuable intellectual and editorial contributions. She not only helped create a seamless text but also attempted to make rather complex material intelligible to the reader. he success of a symposium is always determined by the contributions of its participants. I would like to sincerely thank each and every one of them for an intellectually stimulating exchange. his volume is published by Ege Yayınları which has a long-standing commitment to archaeological research. I would like to thank its owner Ahmet Boratav for his interest in our work. My thanks also go to Hülya Tokmak for her patience with the layout of the manuscript.

45. Well Preserved or Well Recorded: Approaches to Baltic Sea Shipwrecks Exempliied by the Dalarö-Wreck Project Niklas Eriksson and Patrik Höglund

Introduction he absence of the wood eating Teredo navalis, commonly referred to as the shipworm, provides the Baltic Sea with ideal conditions for preservation of organic material. For hundreds of years hulls of sunken ships can remain virtually intact. he state of preservation does not only ofer a unique opportunity to record and to discuss almost any aspect of ancient seafaring, but also creates a fragile and complicated cultural heritage to monitor, preserve and to record. Research and ieldwork must correspond to approaches and strategies of governmental cultural heritage management and the aim of this paper is to describe how the Swedish National Maritime museums (SMM) have worked within these given circumstances.

A strategy for Well Preserved Wrecks When recreational diving became popular in Sweden in the 1960s, a lot of old shipwrecks were located. In these early years, wrecks did not have legal protection, and as a consequence, several were destroyed by salvage operations. In 1967 the National Heritage Act in Sweden was extended so that shipwrecks deemed to be older than one hundred years were protected. However, although the jurisdiction prevents salvaging, diving is still allowed on historic wrecks. Recent studies indicate that almost every known wreck older than one hundred years and accessible to normal diving has been disturbed by looters, careless divers or -by archaeologists! (Hansson 2009: 92) An archaeological excavation, including digging and raising of artefacts, efectively extinguishes that magic that you meet when visiting an untouched Baltic wreck, with the crew’s personal belongings, cargo and ship’s details still in place.

But does it really have to be this way or is it possible to gather substantial archaeological information without removing inds? Can we preserve the wrecks and at the same time carry out archaeological research? Technical diving has become both an opportunity to explore, as well as a threat to deeper lying wrecks. Previously unknown wrecks are located each year. From that precise moment when a wreck is located and its existence becomes known to society, it loses its natural protection of obscurity. It is neither possible nor desirable to excavate and to deprive these sunken ships of their contents. he strategy for preservation of fragile sites has been, up till recently, to prohibit diving. To exclude people from the cultural heritage does not seem to be a durable solution; as such behavior rather seems to provoke contempt for authorities. For this reason, SMM has initiated a pilot study. In the waters outside Dalarö, one of the richest wreck-site areas in the Stockholm archipelago, a dive park will be created. he aim is to give recreational divers access to the wrecks under controlled terms, via certiied diving organisers. hese organisers will have to report to SMM. Before ofering this service to the public, the wrecks will irst be documented in situ, as the threat of looting still remains. Instead of excavating and raising vital construction elements and artefacts, the hull, as well as the loose inds and contexts, are recorded under water. he wrecks will be visited by archaeologists and surveyed twice a year. Such an approach of course has impact on how archaeological ieldwork is carried out at the site, and what kind of research questions we are able to discuss. However, the nature of the well-preserved shipwreck itself contributes to a somewhat diferent approach, as

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much of the information that forms the departure point of ship-archaeological discussions is not accessible on a coherent, intact hull.

he signiicance of Baltic Sea Shipwrecks he archaeology of ships oten takes its point of departure in well recorded source material. Tool marks, diferent kinds of joints, framing, etc. form the basis for reconstruction of the ships’ construction sequence. hese are the cultural-technological clues that form the basis for analysis of the societal context of the ship. On a well-preserved Baltic wreck, these traces are hidden inside the coherent hull structure and are not accessible for recording. he aspects of shipbuilding that we are able to discuss from such a well preserved wreck concerns the result of the construction sequence rather that the sequence itself. he state of preservation enables us to view the complete ship and discuss the stylistic features. But in some cases, as will be described below, we are sometimes also able to go onboard the ships and experience the architecture. In other words, instead of observing the ship from the view of those who built it, we observe it from the user’s point of view. It is possible to focus on other features and aims of the construction and the diferent reasons why the ship is arranged the way it is.

deck is still intact, with hatches, pumps and a capstan still in place. he beakhead with its lion igurehead has collapsed, as has the upper structures in the stem and stern. he wreck lies in a sound with a weak current and the structure is quite eroded. he wreck has been surveyed by SMM, in cooperation with Southampton and Södertörn universities over two ield seasons. As the site, together with other shipwrecks in the area, will be a part of the above mentioned Dive Park, the ship had to be recorded with minimal efect to the surrounding sites, focusing on visible artefact contexts and architectonical structures. he hull structure of the Dalarö wreck was recorded using the direct survey method. Approximately 40 datum point tags where nailed to the structure and the distance between these point were measured with

he Dalarö Wreck and its Recording he Dalarö wreck was discovered in 2003 in the Stockholm archipelago. Although the ship lies at less than 30 m, it is one of the most intact 17th -century ships ever found. he 20 m long and 6 m wide hull leans 17 degrees to starboard. Two of originally three under masts are still standing and most of the main

Fig. 45.2. Section of the Dalarö wreck, illustrating the three-dimensional character of the site (Drawing: Niklas Eriksson).

Fig. 45.1. Deck-plan of the Dalarö wreck, made during irst season of ieldwork (Drawing: Niklas Eriksson & Jon Adams).

45. Well Preserved or Well Recorded: Approaches to Baltic Sea Shipwrecks Exempliied by the Dalarö-Wreck Project

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Fig. 45.3. he lintlock pistol found in the stern cabin (Drawing: Niklas Eriksson).

Fig. 45.4. A gun in its carriage in the stern. Notice the pistol under the wheel (Photo: J. Lindström. SMM).

a tape measure. he position of each datum point was then calculated with the program Web for Windows, originally developed for the Mary Rose project (Adams & Rule 1991: 145-154; Marsden 2003: 48). he result is a three dimensional grid that determines the position of each datum point. On the basis of these datum points, the hull structure was sketched under water in order to establish a deck plan (Fig. 45.1). Although the positions for the datum points were determined with quite high accuracy, the sketching is not 100%. It is accurate enough to discuss the major features in the ship’s design. he deck plan, describing the general shape of the hull, hatches, pumps, etc. was drawn during the irst season of ieldwork. he second season aimed to add a third dimension to the deck plan, by adding a proile cut-through section of the hull (Fig. 45.2). Parallel to the recording of the hull structure, the site was searched for loose artefacts. Although a lot of inds are buried in sediments, these eforts have provided us with information regarding the use of diferent areas of the ship, as well as provenance and dating, as detailed below.

space eating utensils were found. Probably some crew members stayed here. But they had to share the forecastle with two iron guns, the galley and the foremast. Also, the anchor cable was passing through this room, making it a sometimes quite wet environment, one can imagine. Besides the eating utensils, artillery equipment and the remnants of the galley have been found here. he cargo room is not so well deined and the extension is not known in detail. However, it should not have extended very far at of the capstan. he two small ports located amidships may be regarded as loading ports or lighting holes. As the cargo room has not been excavated, we do not yet know what the cargo consisted of in detail but we know that the ship carried a considerable load of Bartman jugs, the suggested provenance and dating of which is Freshen, Germany 1600-1660 (Gaimster 1997: 208f). As the room has not been fully examined, the matter of the cargo remains unsolved for now. he extension of the oicer’s cabin in the stern is marked by remaining bulkhead constructions. here is no supporting deck but the knees are preserved in their original position at the quarter deck. he original height inside the cabin has not been possible to determine exactly. However it is unlikely to have been much higher than in the forecastle, meaning that it was not possible to stand upright here. In the cabin area a lot of items connected to the oicers onboard have been found, such as round and square glass bottles, typologically dated to the period 1640-1680 (Bäck 2009 personal communication). Apart from these, 15 Bartman jugs, possibly of the same character as those in the cargo room, were also found. At the starboard side, stands an iron gun together with

Description he section drawing enables an almost full reconstruction of the rooms/spaces within the hull. Together with the recorded artefacts and the closed context, this forms a unique opportunity for interpretations of life onboard a ship in the second half of the 17th century. Starting in the bow, we have a low forecastle. Although the main deck has been lowered in this part, the height between decks is only 140 cm. In this

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loading equipment, lintstock, etc. Handguns have also been found here, a lintlock and a wheel-lock pistol, a musket and two swords (Figs 45.3, 4). In the remains of a cupboard, attached to the portside bulwark, a number of tools were found, including axes, hammers, chisels and planes. A pair of shoes was also found in this context suggesting that someone kept his personal belongings there, perhaps the ships carpenter. On the starboard side, a grindstone is attached to the side of the ship.

Interpretation he analysis of a ship’s architecture may be done from a functional point of view, discussing aspects such as carrying capacity and sailing abilities. One may also use a more stylistic approach discussing inluences in style and the owner’s social ambitions. Viewing the proile of the Dalarö wreck from some distance she ought to have appeared like a mighty warship -but in a puny scale. he ship’s architecture is, in spite of its size, an expression of power, from the distribution of guns along the ship’s side (two in the forecastle and up to four under the quarterdeck), to the beakhead and lion igure head. But this small ship has several other naval architectonical peculiarities, besides those stylistic elements borrowed from considerable larger ships. As already mentioned, the observations that usually form the point of departure in constructions sequence discussions, are almost impossible to make on a well preserved Baltic Sea ship structure, while recorded under water. But in spite of this, it is possible to draw some conclusions regarding the ships building tradition just by viewing the structure from outside. Seen from above, the hull has a sharp bow, which contrasts to that of merchant ships of Dutch origin (Eriksson forthcoming). he hull is quite wide and has a massive tumble home. Although the bottom shape is not known in detail, the accessible portion of the ship’s proile gives enough information to state that it is fairly sharp and not as lat as common Dutch constructions. But the hull difers from these ships in other aspects as well. he stern is of a round tuck fashion. he planking does not end in a rabbet in the sternpost but rather under the main transom. Such constructions are known to be used by naval architects working in an English tradition during the second half of the 17th century. As an example, the Swedish navy built their irst round tucked ships when master shipbuilders were imported from

England in 1659. Denrochronological analysis to some extent conirms the assumption of the English origin since one sample was possibly traced to northeastern England. here is more to architecture than function and tradition. A well-preserved wreck may be studied as the material setting of the everyday practices carried out onboard. Architecture may be regarded as a physical structure that makes people behave in a certain manner. Discussions concerning the mediating aspect of architecture may focus on the distribution of space within the hull. In contrast to other sources that used when discussing ship architecture, such as paintings or drawings a well-preserved wreck enables us to go onboard the ship and experience the architecture for ourselves. Shipwrecks which are oten routinely described as ‘closed inds’ or ‘time capsules’ have a great potential in this sense1.

Concluding Remarks his was just a brief overview of the kind of discussions that have circulated around the Dalarö wreck at present and should be regarded as an introduction to the kind of analysis that may be done within the framework of the current approach in cultural heritage management. he positive aspects of recording a wreck without disturbing cultural layers or raising artefacts are that it reduces conservation costs to a minimum. Also the wreck remains as it was found and may be used in diving tourism. But the approach also limits the amount of archaeological information that may be collected from the site. We are never able to spot the small artefacts, such as coins, buttons, clay-pipes or similar, or objects buried in sediments, without afecting the cultural layers. hese are the objects whose information may be crucial for detailed dating of the wreckage. Such artefacts are also important when trying to determine the provenance of the ship with more certainty. As a consequence we are not able to identify the ship through written sources. Without limited excavation we will probably never know the original identity of the ship.

Note 1 See Eriksson forthcoming, for a discussion of the archaeological potential regarding diferences and similarities in the division of space in ships.

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interpretations of Shipwrecks, Södertörn Archaeological Studies 9. Stockholm. Gaimster, D., 1997, German Stoneware 1200-1900. Cambridge Hansson, J., 2009, How does scuba diving afect our wrecks? Machu 3. Final report. Rotterdam. Lemée, C., 2006, he Renaissance shipwrecks from Christianshavn : an archaeological and architectural study of large carvel vessels in Danish waters, 1580-1640. Ships and Boats of the North, vol 6. Roskilde Marsden, P., 2003, Sealed by time - he loss and recovery of  the Mary Rose. he Archaeology of the Mary Rose, vol 1. Portsmouth. Redknap, M., (ed.) 1997, Artifacts from Wrecks - Dated assemblages from the Late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution. Oxbow Monograph 84. Oxford. Personal communication. Bäck, M., 2009, Swedish National Heritage Board.