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Journal of Vacation Marketing Volume 10 Number 4 Tourism and retail transactions: Lessons from the Porsche experience Tim Coles Received (in revised...

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Journal of Vacation Marketing

Volume 10 Number 4

Tourism and retail transactions: Lessons from the Porsche experience Tim Coles Received (in revised form): 9th June, 2004 Anonymously refereed paper Tourism Research Group, School of Geography and Archaeology, University of Exeter, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, Exeter, Devon EX4 4RJ, UK Tel: +44 (0)1392 264441; Fax: +44 (0)1392 263342; E-mail: [email protected]

The relationship between tourism and shopping is relatively well understood. Conversely, the relationship between tourism and retailing is not. The difference between ‘retailing’ and ‘shopping’ is not just a semantic one, but one with major conceptual implications. Through the case of Porsche’s latest model, this paper offers a reading of the connections between tourism, shopping and retailing. A supply-side, retailer-focused perspective contributes a deeper understanding of tourist shopping, revealing as it does the social relations of exchange in tourism shopping episodes, different types of tourist shopper and how cars and other commodities may be usefully deployed to develop enduring, longterm destination marketing themes.

relationship between tourism and retailing contributes towards a much richer understanding of the relationship between tourism and shopping; that is, in terms of the meaning, construction and performance of tourism shopping episodes, the types of tourist shopper and their relevance to the destination image.2 Under the microscope are the efforts of Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche A.G. to embrace tourism as a medium to reinforce sales of its third and latest main model, the Cayenne. Porsche, as it is more commonly known, uses tourism to fashion ‘consumption experiences’ in support of its retail dealerships. Books, wine and gastronomy have been identified as popular lifestyle commodities driving specialised tourism shopping.3 German car manufacturers have also recognised that tourism can be used as an effective medium to enhance their marketing and retail distribution operations.4 Tourism may not sell the Cayenne alone, but it articulates more fully the prestige of Porsche ownership, the distinct privileges Porsche ownership brings and how otherwise intangible qualities of the brand are physically embodied and may be more deeply appreciated by the owner.

INTRODUCTION The relationship between tourism and retailing is one which is frequently taken for granted.1 The purpose of this paper is to argue that a more nuanced treatment of the

SITUATING TOURISM WITH THE SHOPPING-RETAILING NEXUS The centrality of shopping in shaping tourism experiences has been recognised in recent work, as has the role of tourism in

Tim Coles is University Business Research Fellow in tourism and lecturer in human geography at the University of Exeter, UK. His research focuses on the relationships between tourism and mobilities and the role of tourism in reshaping society and economy.

ABSTRACT KEYWORDS: tourism, retailing, shopping, automobiles, brands, lifestyle, Porsche, Germany

Journal of Vacation Marketing Vol. 10 No. 4, 2004, pp. 378–389, & Henry Stewart Publications, 1356-7667

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influencing the particularities of shopping practices.5 Issues such as the spatial, temporal and purchasing behaviour of tourists as shoppers, the type and nature of goods acquired as part of shopping episodes and tourists’ shopping performances are reasonably well understood in a very literal sense.6 Conversely, the relationship between tourism and retailing, or the supply-side dimension of tourist shopping, has been glossed over. This shortcoming has been compounded by a failure to conceptualise adequately the subtle differences and linkages between ‘shopping’ and ‘retailing’. As a useful starting point, Shields argues that increasing emphasis in society on the capture and consumption of material goods has defined the role of shopping not simply as quartermastering but as the acquisition of discretionary, often non-essential, goods.7 In this context, shopping has become an integral element in contemporary recreation patterns. Many people use shopping as a way of fulfilling part of their need for leisure because shopping offers enjoyment and even relaxation.8 Shopping is a manifestation of a consumer’s lifestyle and values, and tourism episodes of varying nature and duration, as particular forms of leisure, are often used as vehicles for further expressing consumer identity. This is a feature not lost on destination managers in several global cities, who have geared their image-making efforts to promote themselves as shopping destinations.9 While shopping is the focus of the consumer, it is simultaneously the object of the retailer’s gaze. Retailing is simply defined as the act of conveying a product — not usually for resale — from the final intermediary in the supply chain to the consumer. As standard business and marketing textbooks make abundantly clear, a number of different types of channels of distribution exist from producer to consumer depending on the nature of intermediation by wholesalers, at the end of which are retailers. It may seem axiomatic, but the retailer’s objective is to ensure that the product is conveyed to the consumer in the most effective and profitable manner. Conversely, shoppers aim to ensure that they

acquire the product that best suits their needs in ways they find economically, socially and culturally appropriate. A retail transaction occurs when both sets of conditions resolve to the satisfaction of their respective parties. Thus, shopping episodes can be read from the retailer’s perspective as well as the consumer’s. Tourism can be used to the retailer’s — as much as to the consumer’s — advantage, for instance to drive improvements in turnover, to stimulate long-term relationships with brands and products and to enhance levels of customer satisfaction with the transactional experience. Conceptually, retailers are not merely the passive satisfiers of tourist shoppers’ demand. Just as tourist shoppers intentionally manipulate tourism as a medium to play out lifestyle roles and aspirations, retailers (pro)actively deploy tourism as a mechanism by which to engineer such dreams, to stimulate and satisfy demand and to choreograph the experience of products and the brand. The latter is important because it forms the basis for deliberate and subtle relationship marketing. Tourism shopping experiences offer retailers the opportunity to build positive attitudes towards the brand among consumers with the intention that these will translate into higher levels of customer satisfaction and brand loyalty. For the destination, such an approach on the part of the retailer has obvious appeal. Connections between the brand and the destination are established — these have the potential to be long-lasting and durable (by virtue of the relationship between the brand and the individual consumer), and the cost of this positive destination marketing is borne primarily by the retailer rather than by local or state government (albeit this does precipitate questions over ownership, control and coherence of the destination image). Thus, although retailers and shoppers may be united by products through tourism, shoppers do not enjoy entirely free agency as consumers. As recent discourse in retail studies emphasises, when tracked over the past two centuries, supply-side discourse is now considered to offer a highly compelling set of explanations of retail organisational and con-

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sumer behaviour.10 Without having the scope to enter into a detailed discussion of recent critical debates on retail management, decisions made on the supply side and affected by the regulatory environment and the culture of corporate and state governance have considerable influence on the nature of the products, brands and consumption experiences served up for the edification of the purchaser.11 Similarly, although the retailer(tourist)shopper interface exists at the end of the supply chain, conditions and social relations between actors in their institutional contexts and settings elsewhere in (usually further up) the supply chain ultimately function to shape — to one degree or another — the nature of the retail episode for retailer and consumer alike. PORSCHE IN PROFILE Recognised as one of the world’s most prestigious car marques, Porsche was founded in 1948 in the Austrian town of Gmu¨nd. As the brainchild of Ferdinand (Ferry) Porsche and his father, Ferdinand, who designed the original Volkswagen, the first Porsche, the 356, resembled the VW in shape, boxer engine and rear mounting.12 Subsequent production facilities followed in Zuffenhausen and Weissach in Germany.13 Porsche’s initial motivation was based on his realisation that ‘at the beginning I looked around, but couldn’t find the car of my dreams. . . so I decided to build it myself’.14 Embodied in the 356, this ethos has, in turn, been imbued in the 911 and the Boxster. The former was first built in 1963 and is still considered to be the first and primary member of the brand family, while the latter has become the second main pillar of the company’s operations.15 Porsche wants ‘to reach people that have their own minds, that want to widen their own experiential horizons without being irrational, without having to relinquish the highest standards in precision safety, driving comfort and environmental compatibility’.16 Porsche has been trading strongly according to the company’s recent annual report, despite the difficult economic circumstances

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in Germany and the USA, the company’s major markets. In the financial year ending 31 July 2003, sales rose by 23.2 per cent to 66,803 vehicles worldwide. Of these, 27,789 were 911s, 18,411 were Boxsters and, significantly in its first year, the Cayenne sold 20,603 units.17 Launched in December 2002, the new so-called ‘third Porsche’18 already accounted for 30.8 per cent of the company’s sales. For Porsche, the Cayenne has many virtues. Principal among them are that, spiritually, it allows the company to connect with its sporting and rallying heritage. Commercially, it allows the company to tap into the lucrative market for sports utility vehicles (SUVs) and ‘soft-roaders’, especially in the USA where it has enjoyed strong early success,19 and thereby contributes to a more sustainable long-term future for the company. It appeals to potential Porsche purchasers influenced by family needs by offering all the practicalities of an off-road vehicle, yet combined with speed, grace, dynamism, rich design, exclusivity and status in the sports car tradition.20 Simultaneously, it protects against vulnerability to falling sports car sales, such as in 1992–1993 when new vehicle sales dropped to 14,362, the lowest level in the past decade.21 In effect, the Cayenne offers continuity in Porsche’s relationship marketing with its customers. Consumers may now build a lifelong association with the marque throughout the family life cycle, perhaps by starting with a Boxster, the cheapest Porsche, when young and/or single, graduating as a family nest-builder to the Cayenne and, when the kids have left home, looking to buy a 911 as the classic Porsche model.

VISITOR PRODUCTION: THE PORSCHE ‘EXPERIENCE’ IN LEIPZIG The Cayenne is the first Porsche to be built in Eastern Germany. A new, dedicated facility opened in 2002 in Leipzig, where the company expects to produce 25,000 cars per year.22 This includes facilities for production, marketing and distribution as well as a visitor centre which opened to the public in January 2003 (see Table 1 and Figure 1).

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Table 1: The basic features of the Porsche site in Leipzig — 1998 announcement of the Cayenne — 200ha site, including Cayenne plant and visitor facilities — 32m-high visitors’ centre in shape of upturned diamond, including • customer (car) pick-up centres, VIP lounge and bar • Porsche brand selection shop • exhibition hall • restaurants and conference facilities • large 900m2 auditorium, 500-person capacity; small auditorium/54-seat cinema; test track control centre — 2 test tracks • 6km off-road track with 15 training modules • 3.7km race track with sections modelled on famous F1 stretches

The Porsche visitors’ centre in Leipzig, Germany

Figure 1

Source: Tim Coles

In fact, Porsche Leipzig is designed with the visitor as a pivotal concept.23 As an imposing feature of the site and the city’s skyline, the 32-metre-high visitor centre re-

presents a statement of the company’s vision and the city’s aspirations since reunification. In the shape of an upturned diamond, the design symbolises the virtues of clarity; pur-

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ity of design and execution; quality of production and appointment; and long-lasting durability. The visitor centre is intended to cater for three main groups of visitors: Porsche purchasers, ‘general visitors’ and guests at meetings and conferences. Central to the core business is the first group. As part of the purchasing episode at the dealership, customers are given the option of ordering a pickup experience in Leipzig. Although it may appear as though a visit to Leipzig is an optional extra payment, it functions as a viable alternative to defray delivery costs that would otherwise be incurred. For Porsche, delivery in this form offers the opportunity to build a brand experience with the customer. As its branding literature stresses,24 Porsche entails emotion and Erlebnis (experience); that is, to build a deep understanding of the brand, one has to live it. In this case, living the brand means being able to experience the primary brand values of speed, safety and environment to their full limits and in the widest senses. As Cayenne marketing literature explains,25 the purchaser experience begins in the customer service centre with a comprehensive presentation of the visitor centre, the company and the vehicle, and covers all aspects of the Porsche brand world. After a short cinema show with a supplementary factory visit and a short pit-stop for gastronomic refuelling, the consumer is offered the chance to learn about the tracks, first of all from the spectators’ deck in the visitor centre and later at the wheel on- and off-road with an instructor after a briefing about the vehicle, its operations and its potentials. The experience is designed to ensure that by the time a customer leaves the site he or she will be totally certain about every facet of the car that has just been picked up. Practicality is, though, combined with fun, enjoyment and adrenaline because, as the marketing rhetoric emphasises, ‘works collection for the Cayenne means 18,000 seconds, 300 minutes or five hours of pure Porsche’.26 The visitor centre and the production plant offer a far greater marketing and event platform in which visitors can immerse

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themselves in the Porsche brand world. General visitors are members of the local public, day visitors and tourists who want to visit the site as a spectacle. Although some may already own a Porsche, this group is probably best described as ‘potential purchasers’; that is, for them to see Porsches in production, to see them performing at their peak and to be immersed in the brand world with its values, messages and symbolisms represents an opportunity for the company to forge a relationship with the potential owner first of all by building the dream and the aspiration of Porsche ownership. General visitors may be accommodated, by request, outside normal business hours and at weekends, but more commonly they visit as part of dedicated daily visitor tours (Monday– Friday). In this way, the company estimates it receives 100–200 persons per day, 2,000– 2,500 per month, resulting in about 25,000 per year.27 Tours, which cost A7.50 per person, typically include the upper levels of the visitor centre, with its vehicle exhibitions, shop and track control centre, as well as the factory floor, where the Cayenne and, more recently, the Carrera GT are produced. The purchasers’ level remains for purchasers alone to enhance the exclusivity of the service delivery experience. Finally, the facility is used for meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions (MICE), in particular for corporate clients and Porsche special-interest clubs. The meeting rooms and hospitality spaces are available for hire, as are track time, cars and instructors for those wanting a more memorable experience or to provide a novel incentive to their business guests or colleagues. The facility is also used by Porsche enthusiasts to deliver dedicated leisure experiences. Independent owners’ clubs may hire time on the tracks, while Porsche itself markets courses on sport and safety driving. Indeed, the company has established a travel club from which Porsche-related courses, short breaks and holidays can be bought (Table 2). In one of the more comprehensive breaks, owners and non-owners alike have the chance to drive each of the three models during the ‘Total Porsche Experience’. A

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Table 2: Holiday and shortbreak portfolio of the Porsche Travel Club (January 2004) Theme

Break

Days

Behind the Scenes with Porsche Geneva Motor Show Cayenne in Leipzig Porsche Backstage Historic Porsche Porsche Weekends Total Porsche Experience 911 Weekend: The Black Forest 911 Weekend: Bodensee Boxster S Weekend: Weyberho¨fe Boxster S Weekend: Rheingau Driver Training/Motorsport Holidays Porsche Camp Cayenne Porsche Camp4 Winter Training in Austria Porsche Austrian Experience Test Drive Formula 1 or Formula 3 F1 Grand Prix Weekend Porsche Introductory Driving Course Porsche Tours Porsche Feast for the Senses Porsche Tour of Burgundy and Alsace Porsche Tour of Switzerland Porsche Alpine Tour Porsche Adventure Holidays Route 66 Desert Safari in Dubai

Price (B)

Cayenne

1 1 1 3

240 495 365 1,190

3 2 2 2 3

1,490 790 790 690 1,150

[

5 5 3 3 3 3 2

3,000 2,911 1,490 1,390 N/A N/A 950

[ [

4 3 4 8

1,800 1,750 1,650 1,490

10 5

5,300 3,550

Porsche

[

Group

[ [

[

[ [ [ [ [

[ [ [ [ [ [

[ [ [

[

[ [ [

[

[

[ [ [

[ [ [

[ [

Notes: Price is in euros, and is per person per trip based on two sharing a double room. N/A — no price available. Group refers to product available as a group or incentive tour. Cayenne and (other) Porsche refer to driving of car included in the product.

more detailed inspection of the products available from the Porsche Travel Club reveal holidays of varying length not only in Germany and Austria, but also in neighbouring countries and more dramatic destinations overseas, but with the car and the driving experience central to the product.28

PORSCHE, TOURISM AND LEIPZIG AS A DESTINATION There is a mutually reinforcing relationship between Porsche and Leipzig. As the third largest town in Eastern Germany, shortly after reunification Leipzig earned the sobri-

quet ‘Boomtown East’. The city has been successful in attracting domestic and international investment. Not only Porsche is based there, but BMW has decided to build a new plant on the city’s northern periphery, which also hosts the new exposition centre complex (the Messe). The exceptional growth of business and commerce has created critical issues for the city as a potential urban tourism destination.29 On the one hand, it has stimulated business trips to the city; on the other, these trips are often short, and do not require an overnight stay as visitors are in easy reach of the road, rail and air networks. Furthermore, where visitors do choose to stay ‘in Leipzig’,

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it is often just inside (in some cases just beyond) the city limits in peripherally located hotels. These accommodation units are spatially dislocated from the majority of the city’s major tourist attractions and its major hospitality functions. Finally, a legacy of the early post-reunification stage was the development of expensive, mainly four- and five-star accommodation in the city. This was aimed at the then fledgling business tourism market (when commerce was mainly centrally located), in some cases as tax write-offs. One outcome of this process has been expensive prices for potential independent and package guests interested in a short break. From a purely commercial perspective, it is difficult to assess the economic value of Porsche to the local tourism economy. At the time of writing, the visitor programme has been running just over a year. Rich data are not yet in the public domain and detailed breakdowns of visitor numbers would have obvious commercial ramifications. Notwithstanding, a company representative suggested that the site had received approximately 25,000 visitors in 2003, the first year of operation.30 An exact breakdown of these figures into local residents or external guests, or alternatively general visitors, guests at meetings, etc and purchasers is not possible; however, the plant produces 130 Cayenne (and two Carrera GT) cars per day and daily the visitor centre deals with 12–20 purchasers. If 60 cars were picked up per week, the boost to local visitor numbers would be in the region of 3,120 with the same addition to overnight stays should each customer stay one night. Put in context, these data do not appear to offer outstanding immediate boosts to local tourism consumption. In 2000, during the Bach Year celebrations, the city welcomed 780,000 arrivals who made a total of 1.468 million overnight stays. In the same year, seven museums in the city enjoyed visitor numbers in excess of 40,000.31 Headline data of this type offer only a limited insight into Porsche’s contribution to Leipzig. Far from ‘phantom consumers’, Porsche purchasers are offered four- and five-star accommodation, and represent the

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kind of high-spending guests the city would like to attract through its extant short-break portfolios. In this context, such consumers represent an important, relatively stable niche market whose importance to Leipzig — like that of the general visitors and the guests at meetings — is far more in the ‘added value’ they are able to contribute as local champions to the city’s marketing and promotional efforts. Not only do Porsche visitors have ambassadorial roles through word-of-mouth marketing to friends and relatives, but Porsche itself as an icon offers the city a platform for its destination marketing. Like the other ‘blue chip’ investors, Porsche raises the city’s profile as a vibrant destination for potential visitors. Under the title ‘With a wealth of attractions, Leipzig is well worth a visit’, the company brochure ‘Discover Porsche in Leipzig’ includes a two-page spread on local tourist highlights.32 The company’s website contains a link to that of the Leipzig Tourist Service (LTS), the local destination marketing organisation, and LTS guides are employed to show Porsche’s individual and group (conference, exhibition and meeting) guests around the city on guided tours. In turn, this helps the LTS to add gravity to its marketing campaigns. Leipzig is also participating in a programme across the state of Saxony in 2004 to celebrate the 100th anniversary of motor-car manufacturing.33 As an exclusive, world-renowned sports car marque, Porsche is highly attractive for potential visitors when compared with Dresden (VW) and Zwickau (Audi, Trabant), especially when allied with the strength of the other local cultural heritage tourism offers. More recently, Porsche has been used creatively by the LTS as a significant hook into the world’s newest and as yet largely untapped market for the city.34 Porsche appears in the first Leipzig sales guide for China. The intention appears to be to talk to the increasing interest in China in Formula One and motor racing. For the LTS, through Porsche (and BMW, as well as to a lesser extent its other Saxon neighbours) there are opportunities to offer Chinese visitors a density of motor-car experience that only Stuttgart or Munich may rival. Finally,

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the city’s attempts to attract the 2012 Olympic summer games were predicated on the confidence that investors brought to the city over the last decade since reunification.35 Businesses like Porsche (and BMW), with worldwide brand identification, imbued the bid for this global spectacle with greater credibility in terms of the potential quality of delivery and strong evidence of local competence to stage the games.

DISCUSSION: ENGINEERING CAR TOURISM Porsche is just one of several German car manufacturers to deploy tourism as a means of enhancing, inspiring and precipitating

specialised shopping experiences. The new VW Phaeton, a top-end executive saloon, is produced in the so-called Gla¨serne Manufaktur (literally ‘transparent factory’),36 which has become a major landmark and tourist attraction in Dresden in its own right (Figure 2). Similar to the Porsche visitor concept, the Audi Forum in Ingolstadt will be joined by BMW Welt in Munich in 2006, while in perhaps the most radical example of its type Volkswagen (the parent company of Audi) has also recently opened the Autostadt (literally ‘car city’) theme park at its home town of Wolfsburg. This is devoted to the group and its marques, which also include Bentley, Lamborghini, Seat, Skoda and Bugatti.37 Mercedes-Benz offers its British customers the opportunity to pick up their cars from

Volkswagen’s Gla¨serne Manufaktur (‘transparent factory’) in Dresden, so-called because it offers visitors and the general public a window into the company’s activities

Figure 2

Source: Tim Coles

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their factories across Germany and advises them on appropriate journeys back through Germany, France and the Low Countries to make the most of their new automotive experience.38 Finally, like the Porsche Travel Club, Audi offers themed short breaks at weekends with its TT sports car model.39 Thus, tourism represents a significant method by which car manufacturers can add value to their long-term core business objectives. It allows them to build potentially lifelong, enduring relationships with their current prisoners of addiction as well as to plant the seeds of desire among the prisoners of envy. For car manufacturers in Germany, the immediacy of a visitors’ centre and its infrastructure represents the embodiment of a long-term future investment in their viability and sustainability. Visitor centres, theme parks and travel clubs allow car manufacturers to choreograph their brands carefully, to engineer deliberate consumer relationships with their brands and to satisfy lifestyle expectations and demands among their customers. But first and foremost these devices are an outcome of a business planning process which is informed by global and regional market conditions, regulatory settings and the business’ commitments to its shareholders and stakeholders (such as the employees). In other discussions of tourist shopping, tourism is read as a vehicle through which lifestyle preferences may be played out without full recognition that the agency of the actor (the retailer) may be constrained by the social, economic and political frameworks, structures and settings in which the commodity is produced and consumed.

CONCLUSION: SETTING OUT CAR TOURISM AND CAR TOURISTS Car tourism as a form of special-interest tourism is clearly an area that has not, as yet, been widely researched. At a destination level, the economic impact of car tourism may not be as important as the value added to local marketing and promotional campaigns. Within Germany, when viewed sec-

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tor-wide, competing car manufacturers have produced a range of tourism and leisure experiences which are consumed in everincreasing volumes, not least because of the endemic nature of car ownership. Not every consumer making a trip inspired by car brands is motivated and behaves in the same manner. Similarly, the strategies and tactics employed by the car manufacturers deliberately produce different types of experiences that reflect, and which reflexively help to shape, their lifestyles and identities. Further work is necessary not least to understand more completely these different visitor types, how experiences are mediated for their edification, how the messages manufacturers seek to convey are actually received and interpreted and how they engage with other tourism and leisure spaces in the destination. This reading stresses that it is important to emphasise retailing and distribution as much as shopping and purchasing in narratives of the tourists as commodity consumers. Supply-side accounts reiterate, after Shields,40 that the fusion of shopping as a symbolic consumptive practice with tourism has resulted in entirely new product-driven modes of tourism directed at conspicuous displays of consumption. Where exclusively demand-side views falter is that alone they are unable to explain the full intricacies of how those experiences are constructed, their mediation, their intended interpretation and ultimately their full importance as modes of consumption. In the case of car tourism, global ownership of the automobile is rampant. Could this be the next great massproduced tourism? ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The material in this paper stemmed from a research project on ‘The geography of heritage commodification and the new landscapes of tourism consumption in eastern Germany since unification’. This was funded by the British Academy (SG33303). This support is gratefully acknowledged, as well as that of Klaus Zellmer and Farida Daninger (Porsche, Leipzig), Dr Oliver Weigel (Stadtentwicklungsamt, Stadt Leipzig), Dr Bianca

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Meinicke (Audi, Ingolstadt) and Nicolai Scherle (Katholische Universita¨t, Eichsta¨ttIngolstadt). As usual, comments in this paper are the author’s alone and the usual caveats apply. (4)

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1/2, pp. 81–91. Shields, R. (1992) ‘Lifestyle Shopping. The Subject of Consumption’, Routledge, London. See also Jansen-Verbeke, M. (1990) ‘Leisure + shopping ¼ tourism product mix’, in Ashworth, G. and Goodall, B. (eds) ‘Marketing Tourism Places’, Routledge, London, pp. 128–135. Timothy and Butler, ref. 6 above, p. 17. Warnaby, G. (1998) ‘Marketing UK cities as shopping destinations: Problems and prospects’, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 55–58. For early discussions of this position see Shaw, G. and Benson, J. (eds) (1992) ‘The Evolution of Retail Systems c.1800–1914’, Leicester University Press, Leicester. For discussions of this type of work see Lowe, M. and Wrigley, N. (1996) ‘Towards the new retail geography’, in Wrigley, N. and Lowe, M. (eds) ‘Retailing, Consumption, and Capital. Towards the New Retail Geography’, Longman, Harlow, pp. 3–30; Foord, J., Bowlby, S. R. and Tillsley, C. (1996) ‘The changing place of retailer-supplier relations in British retailing’, in Wrigley, N. and Lowe, M. (eds) ‘Retailing, Consumption, and Capital. Towards the New Retail Geography’, Longman, Harlow, pp. 68–89; Wrigley, N. and Lowe, M. (2002) ‘Reading Retail. A Geographical Perspective on Retailing and Consumption Spaces’, Arnold, London. See Godau, M. and Polster, B. (2000) ‘Design Lexikon Deutschland’, DuMont Buchverlag, Cologne. Porsche Leipzig GmbH (2002) ‘Discover Porsche in Leipzig’, Selbstverlag, Leipzig. Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG (2002) ‘Die Modelle’, Selbstverlag, Stuttgart, p. 2. Ibid., p. 12. Ibid. For a summary of Porsche’s performance see Porsche (2003) ‘A further rise in sales, turnover and profit in the 2002/03 fiscal year. Vigorous growth for Porsche’, press release, 9th September, available from www2.uk.porsche.com/english/gbr/news/ pressreleases/pag/2003-09-09.htm. The company’s most recent annual report is also available online. This includes a helpful Porsche Group highlights summary spreadsheet with performance back to 1991–1992 — see Porsche (2003) ‘Group. Porsche creates added value’, available from

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www2.uk.porsche.com/english/gbr/ company/annualreport/group/members/ default.htm. Porsche (2002) ‘Sport utility vehicle launched in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Arrival of Porsche Cayenne’, online press release, 6th December, available from www2.uk.porsche.com/english/gbr/news/ pressreleases/pag/021209.htm; Porsche (2000) ‘The first secret about the new offroad sports utility vehicle is revealed: The third model range will be named ‘‘Porsche Cayenne’’ ’, online press release, 6th August, available from www2.uk.porsche. com/english/gbr/news/pressreleases/pag/ 000607.htm. Porsche (2003) ‘Cayenne contributes to record sales. Porsche: Best month ever in North America’, online press release, 3rd June, available from www2.uk.porsche. com/english/gbr/news/pressreleases/pag/ 030603.htm; Porsche (2003) ‘Best October ever in its most important market for the sports car manufacturer. Porsche sales up 85 per cent in North America’, online press release, 3rd November, available from www2.uk.porsche.com/ english/gbr/news/pressreleases/pag/200311-04-1.htm. For the company’s summary of the Cayenne, see Porsche (2002) ‘Equipment and prices for the Porsche’s third model series. Cayenne S and Cayenne Turbo celebrate their world premiere in Paris’, online press release, 5th August, available from www2.uk.porsche.com/english/gbr/news/ pressreleases/pag/020805.htm. See also motoring press reviews such as Neil, D. (2003) ‘Porsche Cayenne Turbo. We weigh the Porsche against other SUVs and give ourselves a hernia’, Car and Driver Magazine, August, available from www.caranddriver. com/article.asp?section_id¼3&article_id¼ 6847. Porsche, ref. 17 above, ‘Group. Porsche creates added value’. Op. cit. note 19. The 200ha site has already been enlarged by the purchase of a further 73ha plot. See Porsche (2003) ‘73 hektare expansion of estate. Porsche acquires more land in Leipzig’, online press release, 25th September, available from www2.uk.porsche.com/english/gbr/news/ pressreleases/pag/2003-09-25.htm. See Porsche Leipzig’s website at

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Coles

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www2.uk.porsche.com/english/gbr/ company/leipzig/default.htm for a visual representation of the site. Porsche Leipzig GmbH, ref. 13 above. Porsche (2002) ‘Cayenne. Der 3. Porsche’, Porsche, Stuttgart, pp. 156–158. See also Porsche Leipzig GmbH, ref. 13 above. Porsche (2002), ibid., p. 157. These data are confirmed in Daninger, F. (2004) personal communication, 1st June. See the offers of the Porsche Travel Club at www2.uk.porsche.com/isapi/english/gbr/ news/travelclub-2004/overview/ default.asp. For a more detailed discussion of the spatial aspects of contemporary tourism development in Leipzig, see Coles, T. E. (2003) ‘Urban tourism, place promotion and economic restructuring: The case of postsocialist Leipzig’, Tourism Geographies, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 190–219. Daninger, ref. 27 above. Ibid. Porsche Leipzig GmbH, ref. 13 above, pp. 20–21. See also Leipzig Tourist Service (2004) ‘Culture and History’, available at www.porscheleipzig.com/en/porsche_ leipzig/tourist.htm. Tourismus Marketing Gesellschaft Sachsen (2004) ‘100 Jahre Autoland Sachsen’, TMGS, Dresden. Leipzig Tourist Service e.V. (2003) ‘VRC

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[People’s Republic of China] Sales Guide 2003/04’ Selbstverlag, Leipzig, especially p. 6. Coles, ref. 29 above. See the website of Volkswagen’s so-called ‘Transparent Factory’ at www.glaesernemanufaktur.de/. For the latest on BMW Welt [World], due to open in 2006, see www.bmw-welt.com/ en/html/index.html. On the Audi Forum and Audi’s Erlbeniswelt [Experience world], see www.audi.com/de/de/ erlebniswelt/erlebniswelt.jsp. Volkswagen’s Autostadt is described at www.autostadt. de/info/cda/main/0,3606,21,00.html, in VW’s own publication Autostadt (2003) ‘Insight. A Guided Tour through Autostadt’, Autostadt GmbH, Wolfsburg, and and in the travel magazine Merian (2002) ‘Merian Extra — Autostadt in Wolfsburg’, Jahreszeiten Verlag, Hamburg. See also Coles, ref. 4 above. Mercedes-Benz (undated, c.2003) ‘Personal Collection for C-Class Saloon & Estate, SLK-Class, CLK-Class Coupe´ and Cabriolet’, DaimlerChrysler UK Ltd, Milton Keynes. Audi (c.2003) ‘Audi TT Erlenistage Roadster on Tour’, available at www.audi.com/ de/de/erlebniswelt/reisen/tt_weekend/ tt_weekend.jsp. Shields, ref. 7 above.

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