Transport Development in New Horizon - The Chartered Institution of

Transport Development in New Horizon - The Chartered Institution of

Half Day Seminar 30 May 2015 Transport Development in New Horizon Half-day Seminar – 30 May 2015 (Saturday) Transport Development in New Horizon H...

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Half Day Seminar 30 May 2015

Transport Development in New Horizon

Half-day Seminar – 30 May 2015 (Saturday) Transport Development in New Horizon

Half-day Seminar – 30 May 2015 (Saturday) Transport Development in New Horizon Background

Table of Contents

The Chartered Institution of Highways and Transportation (CIHT) is a learned society concerned specifically with the planning, design, construction, maintenance and operation of land-based transport systems and infrastructure. It aims to provide a forum for the exchange of technical information and views on highways and transport policy; to provide specialist advice to government and other bodies; to make roads safer for the travelling public; and to encourage training and professional development to meet today's requirements. Chartered Institute of Highways and Transport, Hong Kong Branch, was set up more than 30 years ago, to provide a forum in Hong Kong for engineers, planners, professionals and related operators.

1. Background and Theme 2. Programme 3. Seminar Speakers and Synopsis 4. Seminar Papers

Every year CIHT Hong Kong Branch organises a half-day seminar to provide a platform for academics, professionals and other interested parties to exchange views on selected technical topics. This year the University of Hong Kong will be the co-organiser of this event. The Half Day Seminar for year 2015 will be held on 30 May 2015 (Saturday) morning, in Wang Gungwu Theatre of the University of Hong Kong. Professionals and students from University, Consultant and Contractor, as well as those related to transport or highway industries, will be invited. A nominal fee will be charged to each attendee to cover the cost.

Theme 1 - Sustainable Transport for the Community Ir. Albert CHENG, New Territories East Development Office, CEDD

Theme 2 - Growing Rail Transportation in Hong Kong Ir Dr Philco WONG, MTR Corporation Limited

Theme 3 - Enhancing Connectivity in Kowloon East

Theme

Ms. Brenda AU, Energizing Kowloon East Office, Development Bureau

In the past 15 years, number of registered vehicles in Hong Kong increased by 130,000 to almost 700,000 in December 2014. At the same time, public transport ridership increased from 10.8M to 12.6M journeys per day. To cater for transport demand and to foster the continuous economic and social development of Hong Kong, we need a safe, reliable, efficient and environmentally friendly transport system. The proposed topic for year 2015 half-day seminar is:

Theme 4 - Railway Development Strategy 2014 Ir. Robert CHAN, Railway Development Office, Highways Department Theme 5 - Transport Planning and Development in Hong Kong Ir. Alfred Lam, Transport Planning Division, Transport Department

“Transport Development in New Horizon”.

Theme 6 - A Walkable City with Improved Connectivity Ir Edwin Ka Hung TONG, HKI&I, CEDD 2

5. List of Sponsors 1

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Half-day Seminar – 30 May 2015 (Saturday) Transport Development in New Horizon

Venue: Wang Gungwu Theatre, Graduate House, HKU Date & Time: Saturday, 30 May 2015 from 8:30am to 1:00pm. Programme

2

Theme 1 – Sustainable Transport for the Community Time starts

Duration

Event

8:30

30 min

Registration

9:00

10 min

Welcome speech

9:10

20 min

Keynote address Mr. Shing Mu YAU, Acting Secretary for Transport and Housing

9:30

30 min

Theme 1 – Sustainable Transport for the Community Ir. Albert CHENG, CEDD

10:00

30 min

Theme 2 – Growing Rail Transportation in Hong Kong Ir. Dr. Philco WONG, MTRCL

10:30

30 min

Theme 3 – Enhancing Connectivity in Kowloon East Ms. Brenda AU, EKEO

11:00

20 min

Tea/coffee break

11:20

30 min

Theme 4 – Railway Development Strategy 2014 Ir. Robert CHAN, Highways Department

11:50

30 min

Theme 5 – Transport Planning and Development in Hong Kong Ir. Alfred LAM, Transport Department

12:20

30 min

Theme 6 – A Walkable City with Improved External Connectivity Ir. Edwin TONG, CEDD

12:50

10 min

Closing Remarks

13:00

--

End of the Seminar

Synopsis: The principles of sustainable transport for the community will be briefly described. The means to achieve these principles in Kwu Tung North and Fanling North New Development Areas will be discussed, including integrated planning between land use and transportation. The provision of pedestrian friendly green corridor through reconnection of people with nature and a comprehensive cycle track system will be introduced. Transit oriented development with major development nodes relying on railway system is proposed. The ultimate goal is to create a new generation new town served by a sustainable transport system. Keywords: New Development Area, Sustainable Transport, Transit Oriented Development Speaker: Mr. Albert CHENG, Project Manager, New Territories East Development Office, CEDD, HKSAR Ir. Albert Cheng is a professional civil engineer with over 30 years’ experiences in the planning, design, management and implementation of public works projects including the infrastructures for the Chek Lap Kok Airport, the Cyberport Development, the Hong Kong Disneyland and Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge. Currently, Ir. Cheng is the head of New Territories East Development Office of CEDD and is responsible for overseeing the planning, design and construction of infrastructures for new towns/ development areas in New Territories East, Liantang/Heung Yuen Wai Boundary Control Point, Development of Anderson Road Quarry Site, and the new Lam Tin/Tseung Kwan O Tunnel. Ir. Cheng is Fellow of Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, and Accredited Mediator of Hong Kong Construction Arbitration Centre. He is currently the President of the Hong Kong Institution of Highways and Transportation.

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Notes: 1. Q&A section will be followed immediately after each presentation.
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Theme 2 – Growing Rail Transportation in Hong Kong

Theme 3 – Enhancing Connectivity in Kowloon East

Synopsis: The recent opening of West Island Line (WIL) has opened a new page in the MTR’s history. This natural extension of the Island Line, linking up the Western District with the rest of Hong Kong railway network, provides an efficient, reliable and environmentally friendly transportation system to serve the local community for better public transport connectivity with other districts.

Synopsis: Kowloon East was an important industrial hub of Hong Kong and witnessed the heyday of Hong Kong’s manufacturing industries until the 1980s. Since the relocation of the airport to Chek Lap Kok in 1998, the former airport site become available for development. In addition, with the shift of the manufacturing base from Hong Kong to the Mainland, a huge stock of industrial buildings in Kwun Tong and Kowloon Bay became under-utilized. On the other hand, with the continual economic growth in Hong Kong, the demand for high quality office space can no longer be met by the traditional Central Business District (CBD).

Together with WIL, Kwun Tong Line Extension, South Island Line (East) and Shatin to Central Link, which are currently under construction, will add 30km of metro railway line, along with 14 new and 13 expanded stations to create a better community railway. Other than the domestic lines, the 26km Express Rail Link (XRL) will not only provide an additional cross boundary link between Hong Kong, the Pearl River Delta region and major cities on the Mainland of China; but with it comes a new landmark with open green spaces surrounding the architecturally-inspired terminal structure at West Kowloon. In September 2014, the Government released the Railway Development Strategy (RDS) 2014, which outlined the blueprint for rail network expansion in Hong Kong up to 2031. The MTR Corporation has provided technical input to Government on these new railway projects and will continue to support Government in the delivery of new railways for the community.

4

To sustain Hong Kong’s long-term economic growth, Kowloon East has been identified as the second CBD of Hong Kong for its huge potential in supply of commercial and office floor space. There is an existing stock of about 2 million m2 of commercial/office floor space, including office, retail and hotel uses, in Kowloon East. It is estimated that Kowloon East has the potential to provide additional 5 million m2 commercial/office floor space from new developments mainly in Kai Tak, and from redevelopment and in-situ conversion of industrial buildings in Kwun Tong and Kowloon Bay. With the former airport site planned for development into a community with public and private housing, sites earmarked for commercial, sports, leisure, tourism and other government and community facilities, it is believed that the Kai Tak Development (KTD) together with the transformation of the old industrial areas in Kwun Tong and Kowloon Bay would bring synergy, turning Kowloon East into a vibrant area where people would like to work, live, play and stay.

This presentation will cover the five current major projects being undertaken by MTR Corporation as well as the future railway projects set out in RDS 2014.

Keywords: Industrial hub, Second Central Business District, Kai Tak Development

Keywords: Environmental transportation system, Railway Development Strategy 2014, five current major projects.

Speaker: Ms. Brenda AU, Head of Energizing Kowloon East Office, Development Bureau, the Government of HKSAR

Speaker: Ir Dr Philco WONG, Project Director, MTR Corporation Limited

Ms. Au heads the Energizing Kowloon East Office, a multidisciplinary office set up in the Development Bureau of the Government to facilitate the transformation of Kowloon East from an old industrial area into an attractive alternative Central Business District. She is a town planner by profession and has long working experience in the public sector. Her experience includes planning for new towns and new development area, cross-boundary planning, planning studies, harbour-front planning, statutory planning and review of Town Planning Ordinance, and district planning and development control. She was the Assistant Director of Planning responsible for Town Planning Board matters before assuming her current post in May 2014.

Dr. Wong is a chartered civil engineer with over 35 years of experience in business management, implementation and delivery of large-scale infrastructure projects in Hong Kong, the Mainland of China and overseas. He graduated from the University of Manitoba with a bachelor's degree in Civil Engineering and obtained his master's degree in Construction Management and Engineering from the University of Toronto, and was awarded a Doctor of Business Administration Degree by Curtin University, Australia. He is currently the Projects Director of MTR Corporation responsible for delivery of 5 railway projects which are currently under construction and the development of new railway projects in Hong Kong. Dr. Wong is a fellow member of the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers and the Institution of Civil Engineers, a member of several Hong Kong Government Panels, Authorities and Advisory Committees of academic institutions. !5

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5

Theme 4 - Railway Development Strategy 2014

Theme 5 – Transport Planning and Development in Hong Kong

Synopsis: Mr. Robert Chan will give an overview of the history of the railway development strategies in Hong Kong, culminating in a more detailed introduction of the current volume: Railway Development Strategy 2014. The talk will also include a review of the process of the study carried out from 2011 to 2014, namely Review and Update of the Second Railway Development Strategy, which provided technical input to the formulation of the current Strategy. Keywords: Railway Development Strategy 2014, Second Railway Development Strategy

Synopsis: The planning and development of the transport system in Hong Kong in last few decades will be briefly described. This will be followed by a presentation of the current transport policy and strategies which are the bases for current transport planning and development in Hong Kong. Discussion with be given on the relationship between transport planning and town planning, environmental consideration and sustainability. Comments will be made on the current activities in transport planning and development that are being pursued by the government so that the transport system in Hong Kong can meet the travel demand in the future in a sustainable manner.

Speaker: Mr. Robert CHAN, Chief Engineer, Railway Development Office, Highways Department, HKSAR

Keywords: Transportation Planning and Development, Environmental Consideration and Sustainability

Mr. Robert Chan has worked in the Highways Department of Hong Kong for over 20 years, the past three as Chief Engineer in Railway Development Office. He took part in the management of major works projects such as Western Harbour Crossing, Deep Bay Link and Central Kowloon Route. In Railway Development Office, he is responsible for the Review and Update of the Second Railway Development Strategy Study, as well as providing technical support to concerned Government bureaus or departments on railway development and planning matters.

Speaker: Mr. Alfred LAM, Chief Engineer, Transport Planning Division, Transport Department, HKSAR



Mr Alfred Lam is a chartered civil engineer specializing in transport planning and traffic engineering. Mr Lam has worked in government departments and consultancy firms on a wide range of transport planning and traffic engineering projects in Hong Kong, the Mainland, the Philippines, New Zealand and the UK. He has extensive experience in transport modelling work for the forecast and assessment of travel demands, public transport patronage and road traffic movements. He has conducted and managed various traffic impact studies and transport projects involving traffic and transport surveys, travel demand analyses, traffic engineering designs and assessments. Mr Lam was conferred with a Bachelor of Science degree in Civil Engineering, a Master of Science Degree in Transport Planning and Engineering from the University of Leeds in the UK. He is currently the Chief Engineer of the Transport Planning Division of the Transport Department, and is responsible for the planning for strategic transport infrastructure and transport policy, developing major transport management scheme, and undertaking major transport studies and transport planning matters in Hong Kong.

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Theme 6 – A Walkable City with Improved Connectivity Synopsis: In the 2014 Policy Address, Tung Chung New Town Extension was identified as one of the initiatives for enhancing land supply in the short to medium-term to meet the needs of housing, economic and social development. It is targeted to further develop the new town to accommodate a total population of about 270,000 from its current population of about 80,000. To cope with the planned population, two new railway stations at Tung Chung East and West and a new interchange at Tai Ho are proposed to improve external connectivity of Tung Chung. Regarding internal connectivity, the concept of a “walkable” city will be taken forward. Comprehensive networks of footpath and cycle track to allow easy access to different parts of the new town will be put in place. The paper will discuss how these initiatives can help developing Tung Chung into a more integrated new town with enhanced quality of living. Keywords: Tung Chung Town Extension, Enhancing Land Supply, Comprehensive Networks Speaker: Ir Edwin Ka Hung TONG, Project Manager, HKI&I, CEDD, HKSAR As the head of the Hong Kong Island and Islands Development Office, CEDD, Ir Edwin Tong is responsible for the planning and implementation of infrastructure and development projects in Hong Kong Island, Lantau and other outlying islands. Currently, the Office is undertaking the planning, design and construction of more than HK$40 billion worth of infrastructure and development projects. Extending Tung Chung New Town to accommodate a population of about 270,000 is one of the major development projects being taken forward by the Office.

Theme 1 Sustainable Transport for the Community Ir. Albert CHENG

Edwin is a chartered engineer and a Fellow of HKIE. He has more than 30 years’ experience in infrastructure planning, design and construction. He started his career in the Highways Department of the HK Government and has since worked in the Transport Department, Drainage Services Department and Development Bureau. In May 2009, he joined CEDD and was appointed Project Manager (HKI&I) in May 2013.

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Provide affordable transport services Reduce car dependency Shift modal splits towards public transport Enhance walking and cycling environment

• • • •

Walking Strategy with 3 C connected, convenient, comfortable

Provide affordable transport services Reduce car dependency Shift modal splits towards public transport Enhance walking and cycling environment

The perfect city mobility system would:

The perfect city mobility system would: • • • •

• Provide affordable transport services • Reduce car dependency • Shift modal splits towards public transport

• Provide affordable transport services • Reduce car dependency • Shift modal splits towards public transport

Strategies seek to reduce the carbon footprint of transportation while improving access, mobility, community vibrancy and the economy.

The perfect city mobility system would:

30 May 2015

Vehicle Oriented Policies

City mobility should:

Reconnect with nature

“ sustainable transport for the community ”

Project Manager, New Territories East Development Office Civil Engineering and Development Department, HKSAR

Ir Albert CHENG

Sustainable transport for the community - the case of Kwu Tung North and Fanling North new development areas

10 11

2

2015/5/24

1

2015/5/24

• Target population: 176,900 • Job opportunities: 38,000 • New generation township in 10-15 years’ time

Kwu Tung North and Fanling North NDAs:

Provide affordable transport services Reduce car dependency Shift modal splits towards public transport Identify opportunities to enhance walking and cycling environment Integrate planning and land use through transit oriented development

Integrated planning – open space as an inviting neighborhood

• • • • •

The perfect city mobility system would:

12 13

Integrated planning – open space as an inviting neighborhood

Integrated planning – pedestrian friendly green corridors

Reconnect people with nature – water resources

The Case of Kwu Tung North and Fanling North New Development Areas

4

2015/5/24

3

2015/5/24

❹AXIAL / RADIATION ARRANGEMENT

Sustainable transport for our future community



Land use integration with transport infrastructure – transit oriented development



Land use and transport integration – transit oriented development







Transit Oriented Developments (TOD)

❶NEW TOWN

Integrated planning – cycle track system

Land use integration with transport – Transit oriented development

Integrated planning – Accessible system for public enjoyment

Integrated planning – cycle track system

14 15

6

2015/5/24

5

2015/5/24

上水 上水 Sheung Sheung Shui Shui 粉嶺 粉嶺 Fanling Fanling

粉嶺北新發展區 粉嶺北新發展區 FanlingNorth NDA FanlingNorth NDA

21.3%

Employment Ratio:

290 persons per ha

Population Density:

173,500

Residential Population:

Hang Hau

Tseung Kwan O

寶琳 Po Lam 將軍澳

Po Lam & Hang Hau in Tseung Kwan O Case FLN NDAs area

3%

Employment Ratio:

393 persons per ha

Tseung Kwan O area

KTN NDAs area

Population Density:

Walkway System to meet the 3 C connected, convenient, comfortable

176,900

Residential Population:

Medium Density Scenario

古洞北新發展區 古洞北新發展區 Kwu Tung North Kwu Tung North NDA NDA

Kwu Tung North and Fanling North New Development Areas

16 Urban Design

• To implement new generation and quality township with sustainable transport for the community

• To capture creatively the opportunity offered by nature and existing infrastructure

• To take forward the people oriented approach in the design of transport system

Stepped building height profile gradually decreasing from district centre to riverside

Theme 2 Growing Rail Transportation in Hong Kong Ir Dr Philco WONG

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Inviting and vibrant system linking different activity nodes

More Inviting Walking Environment

7

2015/5/24

Growing rail transportation in Hong Kong

Introduction

Ir Dr Philco Wong MTR Corporation Limited

The development of railways is essential to serve the increasing transport demands and support the sustainable development of Hong Kong. The development of railway transport will not only significantly speed up passenger flow, but will also alleviate road congestion and lessen vehicle-induced air pollution. The development potential of areas along the railway lines will also be unleashed to facilitate housing and economic developments.

Abstract The recent opening of West Island Line (WIL) has opened a new page in the MTR’s history. This natural extension of the Island Line, linking up the Western District with the rest of Hong Kong railway network, provides an efficient, reliable and environmentally friendly transportation system to serve the local community for better public transport connectivity with other districts. Together with WIL, Kwun Tong Line Extension, South Island Line (East) and Shatin to Central Link, which are currently under construction, will add 30km of metro railway line, along with 14 new and 13 expanded stations to create a better community railway. Other than the domestic lines, the 26km Express Rail Link (XRL) will not only provide an additional cross boundary link between Hong Kong, the Pearl River Delta region and major cities on the Mainland of China; but with it comes a new landmark with open green spaces surrounding the architecturally-inspired terminal structure at West Kowloon. In September 2014, the Government released the Railway Development Strategy (RDS) 2014, which outlined the blueprint for rail network expansion in Hong Kong up to 2031. The MTR Corporation has provided technical input to Government on these new railway projects and will continue to support Government in the delivery of new railways for the community. This presentation will cover the five current major projects being undertaken by MTR Corporation as well as the future railway projects set out in RDS 2014.

Biography of the Speaker Ir Dr Philco Wong, BSc, MEng, DBA, CEng, FHKIE, FICE, RPE(Civil), PEng

In the early 1990’s, the government conducted a holistic review study on the railway network development, which led to the birth of the first Railway Development Strategy in 1994. The study laid the path for planning the future expansion of Hong Kong’s railway network. A number of strategic railway schemes, for example, Tsuen Kwan O Extension, were proposed forming the very foundation for Hong Kong’s railway development to be implemented over the years. Then in May 2000, to further meet the daily transport needs of the public and coincide with the policy in adopting railway as the backbone of Hong Kong’s passenger transport system, the Government announced RDS-2000 which mapped out another plan for the expansion of Hong Kong’s railway network up to 2016. The recent opening of West Island Line (WIL) has opened a new page in the MTR’s history. This extension, linking up the Western District with the rest of Hong Kong’s railway network, provides the efficient, reliable and environmentally friendly transportation system to serve the local community and to improve connectivity with other districts. Together with other 4 MTR projects in full swing, Hong Kong is witnessing an unprecedented growth of the railway network.

The Five New Railway Lines (2009-2021) The MTR Corporation has undertaken the design and construction of the five new railway projects (see Figure 1). Together with the existing railway lines, the 56km added network will further enhance the connectivity throughout the territory and relieve congestion at some critical links. The following gives a brief account on MTR’s five new railway projects.

Dr. Wong is a chartered civil engineer with over 35 years of experience in business management, implementation and delivery of large-scale infrastructure projects in Hong Kong, the Mainland of China and overseas.

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He graduated from the University of Manitoba with a bachelor's degree in Civil Engineering and obtained his master's degree in Construction Management and Engineering from the University of Toronto, and was awarded a Doctor of Business Administration Degree by Curtin University, Australia. He is currently the Projects Director of MTR Corporation responsible for delivery of railway projects currently under construction and future development of new railway projects in Hong Kong.

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Philco is a fellow member of the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers and the Institution of Civil Engineers and a member of several Panels and Authorities formed by the HKSAR Government and a member of Advisory Committees of academic institutions.

Figure 1. MTR’s five new railways projects

West Island Line (WIL)

Kwun Tong Line Extension (KTE)

Being a natural extension of the existing Island Line from Sheung Wan to the Western District, WIL is a 3km community railway which comprises 3 underground stations and is designed to relieve road traffic congestion and rejuvenate the old Sai Wan district. The construction of WIL commenced in 2009 and was opened in December 2014 (with Sai Ying Pun Station opened in March 2015) (see Figure 2 and Figure 3).

KTE extends the Kwun Tong Line from Yau Ma Tei to Whampoa with an intermediate station at Ho Man Tin, which will be an interchange station between the KTE and Shatin to Central Link (SCL). The 3km railway relieves traffic congestion in the Whampoa district and rejuvenates the adjacent Hung Hom area (see Figure 4). KTE will also provide an alternative option for passengers travelling between Central Kowloon and Hong Kong Island, thus relieving the bottleneck of the cross harbour section of the Tsuen Wan Line and the road traffic of the Cross Harbour Tunnel in Hung Hom. The construction of the KTE commenced in 2011 and is targeted to complete by 2016.

Given the hilly constraint, WIL has provided deep lift shafts and pedestrian adits designed to maximise the accessibility of the public. This community railway brings added convenience to about 230,000 people working and living in the Western District, and the average daily patronage has reached over 100,000.

Figure 4. Alignment of Kwun Tong Line Extension

! Figure 2. Alignment of West Island Line

To minimise impact on residents and traffic around Whampoa Station, an extensive temporary traffic management scheme (TTMS, see Figure 5) was devised to enable pipe piling and excavation works to be carried out while keeping vehicular and pedestrian traffic flow moving. In the area around this station, over 100 stages were designed into the TTMS to allow for progressive diversion of the existing utilities, and enable the construction sequence to proceed with minimum impact on the community.

20 21 Figure 3. Kennedy Town Station Entrance C at Forbes Street

Figure 5. TTMS stages for Kwun Tong Line Extension's Whampoa Station west concourse construction

South Island Line (East) (SIL(E)) The 7km SIL(E) is a medium capacity railway system running from Admiralty to the Southern District of Hong Kong Island with 5 stations (see Figure 6). It will be the first railway service for the Southern District of Hong Kong, serving an estimated residential and working population of 350,000. SIL(E) provides an alternative mode of public transport to relieve road traffic congestion along the Aberdeen Road Tunnel. It also promotes the urban revitalisation in Wong Chuk Hang and tourism developments to generate long-term employment and economic benefits. The construction of the SIL(E) commenced in 2011 and is targeted to complete by 2016.

Express Rail Link (XRL) The 26km XRL starts from West Kowloon in Hong Kong and connects to the national high-speed rail network (see Figure 8). This cross boundary link effectively enhances Hong Kong’s connectivity with other major cities on the Mainland by connecting Hong Kong with the 16,000-km National High Speed Rail Network. The XRL will significantly reduce the travel time and associated cost between Hong Kong and Mainland cities. The construction work of the XRL commenced in 2010, and is targeted to complete by 2017.

Figure 6. Alignment of South Island Line (East) The delicate excavation underneath the existing Island Line (ISL) running tunnels is the major challenge of this project and this involves extensive underpinning works of existing ISL. The underpinning works involves 28 temporary structural steel columns progressively installed and then extended incrementally as the excavation continues downwards (see Figure 7).

Figure 8. Alignment of Express Rail Link An architecturally inspired high-speed rail terminus will be built for the XRL (see Figure 11). Construction under multiple contracts and fabrication of an iconic roof are the major challenges of this terminus. It is a large-scale complex structure covering more than 380,000 m2 gross floor area. It consists of four basement levels, two storeys above ground level, a three-level underpass system, eight footbridges and two pedestrian subways.

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! Figure 7. Underpinning of the Island Line, with progressive excavation between temporary supports

Figure 9. Artist impression of the West Kowloon Terminus

Shatin to Central Link (SCL)

Railway Development Strategy 2014 SCL comprises two sections: The East West Corridor (EWC) runs from Tai Wai to Hung Hom as a 11km extension of the existing Ma On Shan Line and the North South Corridor (NSC) is a 6km extension of the East Rail Line which crosses the harbour to Admiralty (see Figure 10). The SCL serves multiple districts and provides convenient interchange points for the respective lines. The construction of the SCL commenced in 2012 and is targeted to complete by 2019 (EWC) and 2021 (NSC).

While construction of the remaining 4 new railway projects after the completion of WIL is in progress, the Hong Kong Government announced Railway Development Strategy 2014 (RDS - 2014) in September 2014. The RDS-2014 was formulated on the basis of the findings of the consultancy study on the “Review and Update of the Railway Development Strategy 2000” (RDS-2U). The study covers railway schemes identified in the RDS-2000, which have not yet been implemented, and other railway proposals suggested by the Government or members of the public. It is without doubt that railway would continue as the backbone of the public transport network in Hong Kong. The objectives of the Study include: • To cover more areas and provide railway service to more people; • To enhance the accessibility and connectivity of major infrastructure and New Development Areas (NDAs); • To relieve bottlenecks of the railways and trunk roads; • To unleash or enhance the potential for developments and redevelopments along the railway lines; and • To improve network robustness.

Figure 10. Alignment of Shatin-to-Central Link Construction of SCL has presented a combination of known and emergent complexities that need to be managed to deliver the railway. Also, the preservation of heritage elements and relics is a key factor for consideration in this project’s delivery (see Figure 11). Extensive communication between engineers, archaeologists, the Government and the public was necessary to preserve the heritage values while serving the best interest of the society. SCL itself is progressing for the future while preserving the past.

A wide range of factors, including transport planning, land use planning, development needs, economic return and other benefits, environmental impact and engineering feasibility have been considered in setting out the blueprint for territory-wide railway development. With consideration of the recommendations from the RDS-2U consultancy study and the views collected during the Public Engagement (PE) exercises conducted by the Government, it was recommended in the RDS-2014 that the preferred network would include seven railway projects (as shown in Figure 12) with a tentative implementation timeframe between 2018 and 2026.

24 25

Figure 11. Excavation of TBM launch shaft at To Kwa Wan Station site was on hold pending protection works for archaeological features at area 'T1'

Figure 12. Hong Kong’s Railway Network in 2031

These seven projects and their key functions are elaborated in Table 1:

Northern Link (NOL) and Kwu Tung Station

Table 1. Hong Kong Railway Development Plan Package

Descriptions

Northern Link and Kwu Tung Station

-

Functions

A major regional line linking West Rail Line and Lok Ma Chau Spur Line Route length: about 10.7km Indicative implementation window: 2018-2023 -

Tuen Mun South Extension

-

East Kowloon Line

-

-

Tung Chung West Extension

-

Hung Shui Kiu Station

-

South Island Line (West)

-

26 North Island Line

-

-

Improve network robustness and east-west connectivity Divert passenger flow of the East Rail Line Serve the NDAs in the northern New Territories (including Kwu Tung North and Fanling North) Enhance cross-boundary movements

Extension of West Rail Line southward from Tuen Mun Station to a new station at Tuen Mun South Route length: about 2.4km Indicative implementation window: 2019-2022

Enhance connectivity of Tuen Mun South area Promote the use of railway

A new line running in the north Kwun Tong area connecting Diamond Hill Station of Kwun Tong Line (and future Shatin to Central Link) and Po Lam Station of Tseung Kwan O Line Route length: about 7.8km Indicative implementation window: 2019-2025

Provide additional transport capacity to serve the planned developments in Kwun Tong North area Improve operational robustness of the railway network

Extension of Tung Chung Line westward with a new station at Tung Chung West Route length: about 1.5km Indicative implementation window: 2020-2024

Support the extension of Tung Chung New Town

A new station on West Rail Line between Tin Shui Wai Station and Siu Hong Station Indicative implementation window: 2021-2024

Support the development of Hung Shui Kiu NDA

A new line linking South Island Line (West) to West Island Line Route length: about 7.4km Indicative implementation window: 2021-2026

Address the growing transport demand in the western part of Southern District Relieve pressure on the road network in Pok Fu Lam area

A new railway line on the northern shore of the Hong Kong Island formed by extending Tung Chung Line eastward and Tseung Kwan O Line westward Route length: about 5km Indicative implementation window: 2021-2026

Divert the harbour-crossing passenger traffic Meet transport demand of the expanding CBD Improve operational robustness of the railway network

NOL will be a 10.7-km regional line between Kam Sheung Road Station on the West Rail and a new station at Kwu Tung on the Lok Ma Chau Spur Line (see Figure 13). NOL not only provides domestic and boundary train services from West Rail, but also connects East Rail and West Rail, forming a loop in the northern New Territories, to improve east-west connectivity and robustness across north New Territories. Also it serves the the NDAs in Kwu Tung North and Fanling North. The Kwun Tung North NDA would accommodate a population of about 105,000 and provide 31,200 jobs by 2031 while the Fanling North having a population of 71,400 providing 6500 job opportunities upon full development in 2031.

Figure 13. Conceptual Scheme of Northern Link

Tuen Mun South Extension The 2.4-km Tuen Mun South Extension will extend the West Rail Line from the existing Tuen Mun Station to Tuen Mun South (See Figure 14). The Tuen Mun South Extension mainly serves to improve railway access to the community south of the current Tuen Mun Town Centre and connectivity to Tuen Mun Ferry Pier. The area near Tuen Mun Ferry Pier is currently the home of approximately 90,000 residents.

27

Figure 14. Conceptual Scheme of Tuen Mun South Extension

East Kowloon Line (EKL)

Hung Shui Kiu Station

The 7.8-km EKL will run in the north Kwun Tong area connecting Diamond Hill Station of Kwun Tong Line (and future Shatin to Central Link) and Po Lam Station of Tseung Kwan O Line(see Figure 15). The EKL will serve the densely populated areas in Choi Wan, Shun Tin, Sau Mau Ping and Po Tat, as well as the committed major development projects in the area, like the Anderson Road Development. The population of the Anderson Road area is expected to increase by about 73,000 by 2026, adding to the existing population of about 300,000 in the uphill areas in north Kwun Tong.

Hung Shui Kiu Station will be located between the Tin Shui Wai Station and the Siu Hong Station on the West Rail Line(see Figure 17), primary to serve the future Hung Shui Kiu NDA. Based on the Preliminary Outline Development Plan released in the Stage 2 Community Engagement exercise in July 2013 under the “Hung Shui Kiu NDA Planning and Engineering Study”, the Hung Shui Kiu NDA would accommodate a total population of about 218,000 and provide about 100,000 employment opportunities by 2034.

From a network perspective, the EKL can enhance the overall network robustness by offering an alternative railway route for trips between the Tseung Kwan O area and Kowloon and by serving as a parallel line to the Kwun Tong Line.

Figure 17. Conceptual Scheme of Hung Shui Kiu Station

South Island Line (West) (SIL(W)) Figure 15. Conceptual Scheme of East Kowloon Line

Tung Chung West (TCW) Extension The 1.5-km TCW Extension will extend the Tung Chung Line westwards from Tung Chung Station to a new Station in Tung Chung West. The new station is planned to serve the existing Yat Tung Estate and other potential developments nearby (see Figure 16). Tung Chung West is the home of approximately 40,000 residents and a Recommended Outline Development Plan for the further development of the Tung Chung New Town is being developed taking account of the housing demand, public aspirations and the findings from planning and engineering assessment.

The 7.4-km SIL(W) will serve the western and southern parts of the Hong Kong Island by extending the railway to Aberdeen, Wah Fu, Cyberport and Pok Fu Lam(see Figure 18). The SIL (W) connects with SIL(E) and WIL at Wong Chuk Hang Station and HKU Station respectively, forming a loop in the western and southern parts of the Hong Kong Island. The SIL (W) will relieve pressure on the road network in the Pok Fu Lam area as well as addressing the growing transport demand in the western part of Southern District.

28 29

Figure 18. Conceptual Scheme of South Island Line (West) Figure 16. Conceptual Scheme of Tung Chung West Extension

North Island Line (NIL) NIL is a 5-km extension of the Tung Chung Line and Tseung Kwan O Line along the northshore of the Hong Kong Island, connecting the vicinities of Tamar, the HKCEC and Victoria Park (see Figure 19). With NIL in place, it could improve network connectivity and robustness by diverting the harbor-crossing passenger traffic and providing additional capacity to meet transport demand, as well as providing more railway access to the expanding CBD.

Theme 3 Enhancing Connectivity in Kowloon East

Figure 19. Conceptual Scheme of North Island Line

Conclusion With the remaining four railway projects under construction and further expansion on the railway network up to 2031, railway network would be greatly expanded (see Table 2) and expected to serve approximately 75% of the local population and 85% of the employed population. Investment in the railway infrastructure can create opportunities for development and re-development and link up the communities.

Ms. Brenda AU

Table 2. Hong Kong Railway Development Plan Time

2015

2021

2031

Railway network length

221km

274km

Over 300km

No. of stations(excluding Light Rail)

87

99

114

30 Bibliography 1. 2. 3. 4.

Annual Report 2014, MTR Corporation Limited, 2015 Railway Development Strategy 2014, Transport and Housing Bureau of HKSAR, 2014 HK’s Railway Development Strategy, Issue 38, Project Links, MTR Corporation Limited, 2015 The MTR Projects Journal Issue 4, MTR Corporation Limited, 2014

31

CIHT Seminar on 30 May 2015 Enhancing Connectivity in Kowloon East Ms Brenda AU Head of Energizing Kowloon East Office, Development Bureau, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Kowloon East – Hong Kong’s Second CBD Kowloon East was an important industrial hub of Hong Kong and witnessed the heyday of Hong Kong’s manufacturing industries until the 1980s. Since the relocation of the airport to Chek Lap Kok in 1998, the former airport site become available for development. In addition, with the shift of the manufacturing base from Hong Kong to the Mainland, a huge stock of industrial buildings in Kwun Tong and Kowloon Bay became under-utilized. On the other hand, with the continual economic growth in Hong Kong, the demand for high quality office space can no longer be met by the traditional Central Business District (CBD).

32

To sustain Hong Kong’s long-term economic growth, Kowloon East has been identified as the second CBD of Hong Kong for its huge potential in supply of commercial and office floor space. There is an existing stock of about 2 million m2 of commercial/office floor space, including office, retail and hotel uses, in Kowloon East. It is estimated that Kowloon East has the potential to provide additional 5 million m2 commercial/office floor space from new developments mainly in Kai Tak, and from redevelopment and in-situ conversion of industrial buildings in Kwun Tong and Kowloon Bay. With the former airport site planned for development into a community with public and private housing, sites earmarked for commercial, sports, leisure, tourism and other government and community facilities, it is believed that the Kai Tak Development (KTD) together with the transformation of the old industrial areas in Kwun Tong and Kowloon Bay would bring synergy, turning Kowloon East into a vibrant area where people would like to work, live, play and stay. The Energizing Kowloon East (EKE) Initiative The Government announced the EKE initiative in late 2011 to facilitate the transformation of the former airport site and the Kwun Tong and Kowloon Bay Business Areas into an alternative premier CBD for Hong Kong. The area covered by the EKE initiative is about 488 hectares.

! Area covered by the Energizing Kowloon East Initiative

The Energizing Kowloon East Office (EKEO), with a multi-disciplinary team of professional staff of planners, architects, engineers and landscaped architects, was set up under the Development Bureau in June 2012 to steer, oversee and monitor the transformation of Kowloon East and take forward the EKE initiative. The EKE initiative is not a development project of a new area. It is also not a large-scale urban redevelopment project, in which land ownership of an extensive area is consolidated for comprehensive redevelopment of the entire area. The EKE Initiative is an experiment in shifting away from the conventional “development planning approach” to a “place-making approach” to facilitate the transformation of Kowloon East. The latter approach refers to an integrated community-based strategy for planning, design, implementation and management that mobilizing local community assets, inspiration and potential to create good public spaces as well as emphasizing high quality urban design, active dialogues and engagement with the community to create a sense of place. The EKE initiative starts from: • establishing an understanding of the place and its users as well as how they interact; • making better use of “left-over” spaces; • reconsidering the use of public spaces; and • releasing the development potential of the area. The EKE initiative is vision driven. It emphasizes on leveraging the market forces and improving public spaces to drive the change. Every opportunity for !2

33

• improving connectivity in Kwun Tong.

improvement is seized with a view to promoting incremental transformation of the area. During the process, continuous community engagement is promoted to ensure that the needs and aspirations of different stakeholders are addressed as far as possible. The general approach is to continuously nurture partnership with different stakeholders, improve infrastructure and public facilities in the public realm, facilitate private development/redevelopment projects, and provide an overall framework and environment conducive to the transformation.

The CMP is not a final blueprint. It evolves overtime to take account of the progress of work and feedbacks of continuous public engagement in the transformation process. The fourth version of the CMP was promulgated in January 2015. The four key strategies remain unchanged in the evolving CMP. Traffic Conditions in Kowloon East

Conceptual Master Plan (CMP) The EKE CMP provides a broad framework to guide the work of EKEO and there are four key strategies in the CMP which guide all efforts:

Narrow pavements, insufficient pedestrian crossing facilities, frequent loading and unloading activities, vehicular and pedestrian conflicts are common scenes in Kowloon East.

• • • •

to enhance “Connectivity” of Kowloon East; to build the “Branding” of Kowloon East as the second CBD of Hong Kong; to make use of “Design” to drive change; and to provide opportunity for a “Diversity” of uses.

! Typical scenes on a working day in Kwun Tong and Kowloon Bay


! 34

Conceptual Master Plan (Version 4.0)

Ten main tasks have been identified in the CMP, which are broadly classified into three categories – (a) enhancing connectivity; (b) improving the environment; and (c) releasing development potential. There are four main tasks under “enhancing connectivity”:

We have to realize that these are not problems that pop up overnight. Kwun Tong and Kowloon Bay used to be Hong Kong’s main manufacturing base. The standards of design and provision of infrastructure facilities were based on the requirements at that time. However, as the area is being transformed into a business area, the problems become more apparent.

• exploring the feasibility of providing an Environmentally Friendly Linkage System (EFLS) in Kowloon East; • improving connectivity in Kowloon Bay; • improving connectivity in Ngau Tau Kok; and !3

!4

35

! Central Kowloon Route and adjacent road networks

! Kowloon East in the past

Transport Planning and Studies The overall strategy to improve the connectivity of an area, which is applicable to Kowloon East, is targeted at four levels – strategic, inter-district, intra-district and local levels.

36

At strategic and inter-district levels, there are the proposed Central Kowloon Route, MTR East Kowloon Line and the transport infrastructure connecting with the KTD area. The Central Kowloon Route together with the proposed Trunk Road T2 at KTD and Tseung Kwan O – Lam Tin Tunnel will directly link up Kowloon East with West Kowloon and Tseung Kwan O, forming a key component of the strategic road network. With the proposed Central Kowloon Route, vehicles from Kowloon East would be within easy reach of the Western Harbour Crossing and Hong Kong Island, the Kwai Tsing Container Terminal and Hong Kong International Airport as well as the New Territories.

The East Kowloon Line under the Railway Development Strategy 2014 will not only support the residential development in the uphill area of Kowloon East, but also reduce the reliance on road-based transport and relieve the current congestion on the Kwun Tong Line. The East Kowloon Line will be subject to detailed engineering, environmental and financial studies as well as the assessment of passenger demand, etc. While there are on-going major infrastructure and transport planning for Kowloon East at strategic and inter-district levels, the Government has already conducted the overall planning and traffic impact assessment for KTD, and road and infrastructural works are being implemented progressively in tandem with the phased completion of various development projects at KTD. At intradistrict level, the proposed EFLS would form the core of an integrated multimodal linkage system for Kowloon East that also features improved pedestrian facilities, green road-based transport and the MTR, to provide the CBD with first-class connectivity. Subject to the findings of the proposed detailed feasibility study, the EFLS would connect the major transport nodes from the MTR Kowloon Bay Station through KTD, and across the Kwun Tong Typhoon Shelter to the MTR Kwun Tong Station. 37

!5

!6

facilities, enhancing streetscape, promoting greening, diverting heavy pedestrian flow, connecting different important nodes of attraction including the waterfront and KTD through at-grade connections or pedestrian footbridges.

! Proposed alignment of Environmentally Friendly Linkage System

At local level, EKEO places emphasis on improving the local pedestrian and traffic environment. We also advocate the concept of “Walkable” Kowloon East. The shift from an industrial-oriented to a more commercial-oriented setting in Kowloon East is accompanied by a significant increase in pedestrian volume, which has called for more immediate actions to some localized areas. Since the establishment of EKEO in June 2012, we have completed 30 quickwins to improve the pedestrian environment in Kowloon East, ranging from widening of footpaths, provision of better pedestrian facilities to local greening, to bring about immediate improvements to the area.

38

To establish short, medium to long-term pedestrian and traffic improvement measures, we have commissioned two consultancy studies to formulate proposals for the Kowloon Bay and Kwun Tong Business Areas. The studies also aim to provide better accessibility from MTR stations through the business areas and further to the waterfront and KTD. Kowloon Bay Business Area (KBBA) The KBBA pedestrian and traffic environment consultancy study commenced in February 2013 and is anticipated to complete in mid-2015. Since 2014, the recommended short-term pedestrian and traffic environment improvement proposals at local level have been progressively implemented. The study has undergone a 3-stage public engagement and a comprehensive pedestrian network has been formulated. The network comprises 7 strategic pedestrian links to connect different parts of KBBA by improving at-grade pedestrian !7

! Recommended pedestrian network in Kowloon Bay Business Area

These medium and long-term improvement works are being taken forward in stages. For example, to relieve the congestion problem at the existing footbridge connecting the residential areas east of Kwun Tong Road and the MTR Kowloon Bay Station, we have commenced the preliminary design of an additional footbridge to alleviate the problem and to provide better connection to the future East Kowloon Cultural Centre. A grade-separated approach to provide alternative routings, diverting pedestrians away from existing bottlenecks, in the form of an elevated walkway system is also being explored with the private sector. In the process of improving walkability in KBBA, we seize every opportunity to provide a more pleasant walking environment for public enjoyment while connecting people to places of work, leisure and entertainment. For example, parks and sitting-out areas will form a major component of the proposed Green Spine and Green Link in KBBA. The existing parks and sitting-out areas would be face-lifted to promote a better use of public spaces in a more pleasant setting. Kwun Tong Business Area (KTBA) A similar pedestrian and traffic environment study for KTBA commenced in May 2014. The study aims to improve the connectivity from MTR Ngau Tau Kok and Kwun Tong Stations, to bring people to the business area, to leisure nodal points, to the waterfront and to the KTD Area. !8

39

! Highlights from Back Alley Project @ Kowloon East

!

A vibrant waterfront and enhanced public open spaces will help to facilitate the transformation of Kowloon East. The face-lifting of Tsun Yip Street Playground is a good sample showcasing how the industrial culture of Kowloon East can be integrated into urban design to improve the public open space. Through this project, pedestrian connectivity in the surrounding area can be further enhanced.

Initial pedestrian environment improvement strategies for Kwun Tong Business Area

One of the initial pedestrian improvement measures is the making use of the extensive matrix of back alleys in KTBA as alternative pedestrian routes, incorporating them into the pedestrian network to relieve congestion on existing pavements. It also has strong art and design elements, adding diversity and vibrancy to the area. We have launched the Back Alley Project @ Kowloon East, involving collaborative efforts of non-governmental organizations, academic institutions, art and design students, local and overseas artists and other government departments. We not only face-lift and connect the pedestrian routes by introducing way-finding elements, but also connect with the community through art, running and participation.

40 41

! Face-lifting of Tsun Yip Street Playground

We are also collaborating with the relevant government departments investigate ways to convert the existing King Yip Street Nullah into a landscaped river by !9

!10

providing riverside walkways, improving neighbouring pedestrian facilities and adding green elements along the river. Moreover, there is a Green Operation on Hoi Bun Road to enhance the walking environment along the waterfront and additional landscape planting is introduced at various locations in Kowloon East.

improving connectivity in Kowloon East. Hopefully, the Smart City initiative by making use of information and communications technology, wider use of internet of things, sensors and big data analytics would, among other things, take the current work on enhancing connectivity a big step further and empowering the public with enhanced pedestrian and vehicular accessibility in a more sustainable manner. This is a major area of work that would involve a lot of collaborative efforts in the public and private sectors and stakeholders in all relevant fields.

! Artist impression of proposed beautification of King Yip Street Nullah

What’s Next? Throughout the urban transformation process of Kowloon East, we strive to look for hidden potentials and opportunities, and we seek to engage the community. It is only through maintaining close dialogues with the community and understanding their needs and expectations that we will be able to build a better place for all.

42

In the past, the success of a city is often measured by its economic performance or maybe how well the transportation infrastructure is connected as one. Today, the quest to excel in planning for our cities commands a more integrated and community based approach. EKEO has adopted a bottom-up and place-making approach in Kowloon East in all our strategies. The approach to improving connectivity not only focuses on connections with transport and activity nodes, but more importantly it connects with the environment and the people and cultivating their sense of belonging to Kowloon East and addressing their needs.

43

In the 2015 Policy Address, the Chief Executive announced that Kowloon East would be used as a pilot area to explore the feasibility of developing a Smart City. One of the focuses will be on further enhancing walkability and mobility, and hence connectivity in Kowloon East. The two pedestrian and traffic studies on KBBA and KTBA provide the necessary infrastructural backbone in !11

!12

Railway Development Strategy 2014 - An Overview Robert C. M. Chan Chief Engineer/Railway Development Office Highways Department Hong Kong

Abstract This paper presents an overview of the recently announced Railway Development Startegy 2014. It also reviews the process of the study carried out from 2011 to 2014, namely Review and Update of the Second Railway Development Strategy, that provided technical input to the formulation of the Strategy. 1. Background

Theme 4 Railway Development Strategy 2014 Ir. Robert CHAN

44

The Railway Development Strategy 2000 (RDS-2000) was announced in May 2000, mapping out a plan for the expansion of Hong Kong’s railway network up to 2016. It envisaged six passenger railway corridors and a potential Port Rail Line. Except for the Northern Link, North Island Line and Port Rail Line (which was shelved in 2009), the recommended railway projects have come into operation or are at different stages of implementation. In view of the public demand and development needs, the Government also decided to take forward two other railway projects that were not included in the RDS-2000, namely the South Island Line (East) and Kwun Tong Line Extension. In total, five new railway projects, namely the West Island Line, South Island Line (East), Kwun Tong Line Extension, Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link (Hong Kong Section) and Shatin to Central Link, are now under various stages of construction and expected to be commissioned in succession between the end of 2014/ early 2015 and 2020 /2021. The Government commissioned the consultancy study for the Review and Update of the Railway Development Strategy 2000 (RDS-2U) in March 2011 to update the long-term railway development blueprint for Hong Kong to cater for the latest development needs in the society. The study reviewed the railway schemes identified in the RDS-2000 which have not yet been implemented and other railway proposals suggested by the Government or members of the public.

2. The Need for RDS-2U Study Following the announcement of RDS-2000, there have been some major changes in the planning circumstances in Hong Kong. At the same time, there have been increases in the cross-boundary travel demands resulting from closer economies and social activities between the Mainland and Hong Kong. In the past decade, with the implementation of the Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA) and the Individual Visit Scheme for mainland residents, there has been an upsurge in the overall cross-boundary passenger demand and railway usage, and this is expected to continue. The development of the railway network in many Pearl River Delta (PRD) cities, and extensive coverage of the intercity and high speed rail network, will further promote intercity rail travel. There is a need to examine the cross-boundary railway planning framework to account for the strategic developments, sustainability of public transport and land use planning in Hong Kong, Shenzhen and nearby PRD cities. For Hong Kong’s domestic railway network, many District Councils and the public continue to make requests to expand the railway network to meet increasing public aspirations. Moreover, the Rail Merger in 2007 opened up new possibilities for integrating the rail networks of MTR Corporation Limited and the former Kowloon Canton Railway Corporation to improve railway services for the travelling public. Although many of the objectives of RDS-2000 still remain valid, it is against this background that the RDS-2U was initiated and a comprehensive review and update of the RDS-2000 was undertaken. On the basis of the RDS-2000, the consultancy study examined the needs of the future railway network to fulfil the following objectives: To cover more areas and provide railway (a) service to more people;

45

(b) (c) (d) (e)

To enhance the accessibility and connectivity of major infrastructure and New Development Areas (NDAs); To relieve bottlenecks of the railways and trunk roads; To u n l e a s h t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r developments and redevelopments along the railway corridors; and To improve network robustness

. In the study of railway proposals, consideration was also given to: • Minimising disruption to the existing network and impact on the local communities and the environment; • Using proven technology to deliver the desired results; and • Being affordable and cost-effective. 3. Study Process The technical study process included extensive analysis of the latest planning data and forecasting information. The ways to provide railway service in future key development areas and to improve the service of the railway network in developed areas were explored. Various conceptual railway schemes were reviewed and rationalised, some of which had been proposed in the RDS-2000 and some by the Government or the public. The study and consultation process was conducted in two stages, with a view to recommending a new railway development strategy that is cost-effective in meeting the transport needs and supports the future development of Hong Kong in an environmentally friendly manner. Stage 1 Study – Major Regional Corridors (a)

46 (b)

Conduct Passenger Transport Demand Forecasts: The latest planning information was examined to analyse the long-term local passenger transport demands and forecast major growth areas, having regard to the development potential and needs of various districts in Hong Kong. Review the Demands for Major Regional Railway Corridors Serving Key Development Areas: On the basis of the above demand forecasts, a preliminary review of the demand for new major regional railway corridors in key future development areas was conducted to enhance railway coverage for associated areas and major infrastructure. Conceptual railway schemes were preliminarily assessed from different

perspectives, such as engineering feasibility, environmental impact, operational considerations and service levels. A three-month Stage 1 Public Engagement Exercise (PE1) was held from 20 April to 21 July 2012. The public was consulted on the preliminary ideas and conceptual schemes of the major regional railway corridors serving key future development areas. Analysis results on the major functions, planning considerations, traffic demand, as well as constraints from technical, environmental and other aspects were presented to allow early engagement of the public in the discussion and planning process. Stage 2 Study – Network Integration and Local Enhancement Schemes Having completed the PE1 exercise, the Stage 2 studies focused on two key areas: (a)

(b)

Optimisation and Integration of Railway Network: The conceptual schemes of major regional railway corridors were optimised in view of the public comments collected in the PE1 exercise, and integrated into the existing railway network with adjustments where necessary, with a view to developing a holistic and more cost-effective railway development framework for Hong Kong; and Study of Local Enhancement Schemes: The patronage of the integrated railway network was forecast to assess potential bottleneck locations, with particular reference to the usage of the urban sections of the existing railway network. As the urban area has adopted a high development density with comprehensive railway coverage, the study mainly focused on local enhancement schemes such as: parallel lines to enhance network capacity; line extensions or spur lines; and new stations to increase the overall capacity of the railway network and reduce road-based feeder needs.

After completing the relevant studies, the public was further consulted on the local enhancement schemes. A three-month Stage 2 Public Engagement Exercise was held from 21 February to 20 May 2013.

4. Evaluation Process

demand in East Kowloon.

Drawing from the public views collected in Stage 1 and Stage 2 of the public engagement exercise, further assessment were conducted on the RDS proposals, such that the planning of the major regional and local enhancement corridors can be further optimised in a coordinated manner (with adjustments, additions and deletions where necessary). in order to provide recommendations on the future railway development.

6. Benefits of the Expanded Railway Network

The evaluation criteria used to measure the performance of the schemes focused on the following indicators: • Transport policy and passenger demand – which is also an indicator of environmental and economic benefits; • Access to existing and planned areas of development; and • Economic benefits and value for money – cost, economic and financial viability. 5. The New Strategy The findings of RDS-2U provided the basis for the Government to prepare an updated strategy for the long-term railway development of Hong Kong, namely, Railway Development Strategy 2014 (RDS-2014). It was announced on 17 September 2014. The RDS-2014 recommends that seven railway projects be completed in the planning horizon up to 2031 having regard to transport demand, costeffectiveness and the development needs of NDAs and other new developments. The seven projects are – (a)

Northern Link and Kwu Tung Station;

(b)

Tuen Mun South Extension;

(c)

East Kowloon Line;

(d)

Tung Chung West Extension;

(e)

Hung Shui Kiu Station;

(f)

South Island Line (West); and

(g)

North Island Line.

Of these, the Northern Link and the Kwu Tung Station are combined as a single proposal, and the East Kowloon Line is a new proposal developed by the consultant after considering the public comments and further examining the transport

When the seven recommended projects covered in the RDS-2014 are completed, the total length of the railway network would lengthen from 270km in 2021 to over 300 km by 2031, and the number of stations would increase from 99 in 2021 to 114 by 2031. This level of rail coverage, plus the potential extensions beyond 2031, would be conducive to the fulfilment of our planning, development, transport and environmental objectives in the horizon of 2031 and beyond. The key benefits are highlighted below: (a)

Integrating land use and transport development – Taken together, upon the implementation of the recommended projects, the railway network is expected to cover areas inhabited by about 75% of the local population and about 85% of job opportunities. With proper integration of the planning for railway and land development, there will be synergy in broadening the living space for residents in Hong Kong. The expanded railway network will support the NDAs and other new developments in the New Territories, release the development potential of peripheral areas and facilitate local rejuvenation, development and economic activities.

(b) Serving Hong Kong’s transport demand

– The expanded railway network will cover more areas and provide railway service to more people. It will improve the connectivity and accessibility of NDAs and other new developments, relieve the pressure on critical transport corridors, as well as boost operational robustness and reliability. With the implementation of the railway projects, the rail share among all public transport trips would further rise from around 40% at present (and around 43% upon the completion of the five railway projects currently under construction) to between 45% and 50% by 2031, depending on a myriad of variables including transport policy, population and employment growth, as well as changes in economic conditions.

47

(c)

(d)

(e)

48

Providing a high level of transport service – The expanded railway network will help shorten journey time and make travel easier across the territory. The railway schemes will provide adequate capacity and travel conditions to meet the forecast transport demand by 2031 and allow for further passenger growth. Environmental Benefits – Railways can save land, minimise the reliance on road travel and reduce the use of energy, thus curbing roadside pollutant emissions. With the implementation of the railway projects, the rail share in the public transport system would rise to some 45% to 50% of the total number of public transport trips by 2031, and a reduction in road-based transport is expected. This would translate into environmental benefits amounting to a reduction in roadside air pollutants by some 190 tonnes of nitrogen oxide per year and 143,000 tonnes of green- house gases per year, i.e. reduction of about 2% to 4% of the roadside air pollutants and green-house gases per year. Economic Benefits – The expanded railway network would help improve the connectivity in Hong Kong and shorten the journey time of commuters, thereby enhancing the economic capacity of Hong Kong for meeting the long-term socio-economic needs. The railway projects are expected to bring the important, strategic benefits as referred to in (a), (b), (c) and (d) of this paragraph and to create job opportunities. These benefits are not easily quantifiable. Meanwhile, the consultant estimates that, taken as a whole, the investment in the expanded railway network will bring direct economic benefits (mainly in terms of savings in the travelling time of public transport users) of $3 to $4 billion per annum by 2031 upon the operation of all the projects. The overall economic internal rate of return (as conventionally defined) of all the projects is estimated at about 2%.

7.

Implementation

The taking forward of individual proposed railway projects set out in the RDS-2014 will be subject to the outcome of detailed engineering, environmental and financial studies relating to each project, as well as updated assessment of passenger transport demand and availability of resources at the time. The Government will have to carefully consider all relevant factors and strike a reasonable balance among various interests of the community when mapping out the way forward for each railway project. (For instance, initiatives on land production and housing supply as well as hospitals and strategic roads may be equally, if not sometimes more, important to the community.) In particular, the Government will critically examine the financial implications and consider the most appropriate implementation programme and financing arrangements for each project. Furthermore, for railway projects which are mainly intended to complement new residential developments, the implementation timetable for the development areas in question will be an important planning parameter. Prior to the finalisation of any new railway schemes, there will be further public consultation. Against the above background, the feasibility and viability of, as well as the indicative timetable for, implementing the recommended projects may be adjusted with changes in circumstances subsequent to the release of the RDS-2014.

Theme 5 Transport Planning and Development in Hong Kong Ir. Alfred Lam

49

Hong Kong.

Transport Planning and Development in Hong Kong

Moreover, the government has drawn up transport policies

and made them more effective by formulating transport strategies from

Alfred Lam

time to time to provide a safe, efficient and reliable transport system which meets the economic, social and recreational needs of the

Synopsis:

community, and which forms part of the sustainable development in The planning and development of the transport system in Hong Kong in the last few decades will be briefly described.

Hong Kong.

This will be followed by

a presentation of the current transport policy and strategies which are the

This paper will present the development and planning of the transport

foundations of the current transport planning and development in Hong

system in Hong Kong over the last few decades.

Kong.

will be given on the achievements of three comprehensive transport

Discussion with be given on the relationship between transport

planning

and

sustainability.

Then brief discussions

and

studies in Hong Kong and the promulgation of the transport policy and

Comments will be made on the current activities in

strategy in Hong Kong, which are the driving forces behind the successful

town

planning,

environmental

consideration

transport planning and development that are being pursued by the

development of a world-class transport system in Hong Kong.

The

government so that the transport system in Hong Kong can meet the

paper will then discuss the constraints that limit the further development

travel demand in the future in a sustainable manner.

of road network in Hong Kong and the challenges ahead for finding ways to make the transport system effective, environmentally friendly and sustainable.

Introduction Through decades of integrated land use and transport planning, the 50

existing transport system in Hong Kong has achieved world-class standards and is modern, effective and safe.

The planning for transport

Land Use and Transport Planning Formal planning for land development in Hong Kong by the government

has to give due consideration to the plans for future land use

started in the early 1920s.

developments.

Through successful completion of three comprehensive

Kong was recommended by Professor Sir Patrick Abercrombie in his

transport studies in Hong Kong, the government was able to draw up

submission of “The Hong Kong Preliminary Planning Report” to the

holistic plans for implementing transport infrastructures and services in

government in 1948.

1

A framework for future development in Hong

Besides the planning of new developments on 2

51

both sides of Victoria Harbour only, the report proposed the creation of

“Asia’s World City”.

more land through reclamation from the Victoria Harbour and new town

ties in social, economic and transport activities between Hong Kong and

development.

the Mainland in the future for preparing the planning framework.

In addition, new transport projects such as cross-harbour

In addition, HK 2030 took into account the closer

HK 2030 recommended the implementation of new development areas

tunnel and new railway lines were recommended in the report.

(NDAs) in Ping Che, Ta Kwu Ling, Fanling North and Kwu Tung North

More comprehensive planning framework was recommended in the

in Northeast New Territories and Hung Shui Kui in Northwest New

Colony Outline Plan that was completed in 1972 and Hong Kong Outline

Territories.

Plan in 1979.

The planning framework included land and infrastructure

developments in the urban area and the requirements for new town

Land use planning has evolved from the early days of providing housing

development.

and commercial developments in the territory to the current practice of

Transport planning work was included in the Plan to Land development in Hong

planning for sustainable development in Hong Kong with due

Kong had started to expand from the urban area along the north shore of

considerations to the economic, environmental and social activities from

Hong Kong Island and Kowloon peninsula to new towns in the New

a local perspective to regional and global perspectives.

Territories.

use development in Hong Kong has been focused in the urban area along

support the travel demands in the territory.

In the past, land

the north shore of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon peninsula.

The Territorial Development Strategy completed in 1984 adopted an

shortage of land in the urban area, new towns and NDAs are implemented

integrated approach to land use and transport planning for the territory.

in the New Territories.

Due consideration was given to the performance and requirements for the

over the last century has led to a concentration of employment places in

transport network when land use planning was made.

the urban area while a large proportion of housing developments are in

In 1996, the

Territorial Development Strategy Review was conducted and other 52

Due to

As a result, land development in Hong Kong

the distant new towns and NDAs in the New Territories.

considerations relating to the environment and cross-border transport links were included.

After that, the planning framework for the territory

was revised based on the planning study of Hong Kong 2030: Planning Vision and Strategy (HK 2030) that was completed in 2007.

Comprehensive Transport Studies

The HK

2030 aimed for sustainable development in the territory with due consideration to the environment so that Hong Kong would become an 3

53

The government has conducted Comprehensive Transport Study (CTS) three times between the 1970s and 1990s to provide information and data 4

to formulate transport policies and to map out the implementation

With the completion of the Territorial Development Strategy in 1984 and

programmes of strategic highways and railways to satisfy the transport

the sharp growth in population and car ownership in Hong Kong since the

demands of the people in the territory in the future under different

completion of 1976 CTS, the second CTS (1989 CTS) was conducted

planning scenarios and socio-economic assumptions.

between 1986 and 1989 to provide information and data for reviewing transport policy and to recommend new strategic highways and railway

The first CTS (1976 CTS) was undertaken by consultants between 1973 and 1976 to work out recommendations on transport policies and a programme of developing strategic highways and railway projects to support land use developments in Hong Kong up to 1991.

The 1976

CTS findings provided technical support to the government to promulgate the White Paper on Internal Transport Policy in 1979. Figure 1 illustrates the strategic highway and railway projects recommended in the 1976 CTS.

projects to support the land use developments in Hong Kong up to 2001. The 1989 CTS recommended new strategic highway and railway projects for satisfying the forecast travel demands of the land use developments under the Territorial Development Strategy.

The 1989 CTS required

that new strategic highway and railway projects should be financially viable and the recommended programme of implementing the projects should meet budgetary constraints. The 1989 CTS supported an integrated approach of land use and transport planning to minimise traffic demands and examined traffic restraint measures such as increasing first registration tax and annual licence fee to reduce car ownership, thus constraining private car trips.

The 1989 CTS

provided technical support to the government to promulgate a new transport policy in 1990. The strategic highway and railway projects recommended in the

54

1989 CTS are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 1

55

Strategic highways and railway projects recommended in the 1976 CTS 5

6

co-ordination and the use of new technologies were recommended to reduce the reliance on private car as a transport mode.

The 1999 CTS

findings provided technical support for formulating the current transport strategy that was promulgated in 1999. The strategic highway and railway projects examined in the 1999 CTS are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 2

Strategic highways and railway projects recommended in the 1989 CTS

Between 1997 and 1999, the third CTS (1999 CTS) was undertaken to assess future transport needs and to develop a balanced transport strategy that would serve Hong Kong up to 2016.

There was a need to conduct

the 1999 CTS because of various social and economic factors, viz. anticipated significant increase in population and land use developments, rising public expectation on transport services, surge in cross-boundary 56

Figure 3

Strategic highways and railway projects examined in the 1999 CTS

traffic and growing concern on the environmental impact of road traffic. Besides the addition of environmental assessment, the 1999 CTS placed emphasis on the environmental consideration in transport planning,

57

Transport Policy and Strategy

reinforced the importance of the integration of land use and transport planning, and stressed the importance of railways as a backbone of the public transport network.

In addition, better public transport 7

Based on the results of the 1989 CTS, the government promulgated the White Paper on Transport Policy entitled “Moving into the Twenty-first 8

Century” in 1990.

According priority to railways;

This transport policy is still valid and is founded

upon the following three main principles:

Enhancing the quality and co-ordination of public transport services;

Improving transport infrastructure;

Promoting cleaner modes of transport and environmentally friendly

Expanding and improving public transport; and

transport plans including greater emphasis on pedestrian needs; and

Managing road use.

Harnessing public support to help implement the strategy.

The key recommendations of the 1999 CTS that were adopted in the

Since the promulgation of the transport policy and strategy, the

current transport strategy entitled: “Hong Kong Moving Ahead” are as

government has taken actions for “improving transport infrastructure” so

follows:

that the transport system will work efficiently.

At the same time,

planning for timely provision of transport facilities is undertaken Better integration of transport and land use planning; Better use of railways as the back-bone of our passenger transport system;

continuously to support new developments and to avoid the occurrences of any bottlenecks in the transport network. Regarding the principle of “expanding and improving public transport”,

Better public transport services and facilities;

the government is of the view that public transport services should be operated on prudent commercial principles by private companies or

Better use of advanced technologies in transport management; and

public corporations and the government provides a regulatory framework and some degree of co-ordination between different modes.

Better environmental protection. 58

The current transport strategy was promulgated in 1999 and it focuses on:

The

guiding principle is to ensure that the community derives maximum benefit from its investments in the transport infrastructure and public transport services through healthy competition between modes.

Regularly reviewing the need for, and timing of, railway and

The

highway projects;

government considers

that the

continuous

expansion and

improvement of the transport infrastructure and public transport services 9

10

59

help reduce but cannot replace the need for road management measures.

the shortage in land.

The proposed developments of NDAs in the New

Road traffic congestion entails heavy economic and social costs.

Territories have attracted strong objections by the locals, pressure groups

Therefore, proper management of road use may be a cost-effective way to

and environmentalists.

combat road traffic congestion, redress pollution problem related to

environmental impacts associated with the construction of new transport

traffic movement and save resources in implementing new transport

infrastructures and the possible air pollution, noise emission and visual

infrastructures.

intrusion when the infrastructures are in operation.

People are concerned with the adverse

New legislations

like the new Air Quality Objectives, which came into force in January 2014, make the planning for new roads and railways difficult become of the high standards on environmental protection that need to be met.

Constraints and Sustainability

The

costs of mitigating the environmental impacts of the transport Over the last century, the transport system in Hong Kong has been developing together with the land use developments in the urban area and new towns.

60

infrastructures could become a large portion of the total construction costs of new transport infrastructures.

In the last century, the construction of new highways and

railway lines faced little political and environmental difficulties when the

Besides environmental constraint, the expansion of strategic highways

public was more tolerant towards reclamation in the Victoria Harbour and

and railway lines in Hong Kong also faces difficulties in avoiding

the development of virgin land.

physical constraints in the urban area with many existing and planned

Large parcels of land were reclaimed

from the Victoria Harbour for development and slopes in the urban area

buildings.

were levelled for construction of new communities.

constraints on the implementation of new transport projects.

Similarly,

In addition, land shortage in Hong Kong has imposed severe The

implementation of transport infrastructures was part of the work involved

acquisition of private land for the construction of transport projects would

when new towns were built in the New Territories.

not be an easy task because such acquisition is usually objected by the

However, the

sentiment of the public towards the construction of new roads and

locals and in some cases, by various pressure groups.

railways has turned negative in the last couple of decades when the urban area and new towns have become fully developed.

61

Public acceptance is necessary for the successful launching of transport projects.

In recent years, many transport projects were objected by the

At present, there is difficulty in Hong Kong to carry out large scale land

public.

use development and construct new transport infrastructures because of

the Hong Kong – Zhuhai – Macao Bridge was delayed due to a judicial

11

12

For example, the implementation of the Hong Kong Section of

review on the environmental impact assessment of the project and the

activities will generate additional demands on the transport system.

As

construction of the Hong Kong Section of the Hong Kong – Shenzhen –

railways are environmentally friendly and efficient mass carriers, their

Guangzhou Express Rail Line was protested by large groups of residents

use should be encouraged.

and students.

reliance of the NDA residents on road-based transport will be

If NDAs are well-served by rail services, the

significantly reduced. Through good coordination of public transport New highways will encourage the use of private car which is not an efficient transport mode.

Currently in Hong Kong, 88% of all motorised

trips are made by public transport with railways constituting 30% and buses 27%.

Since the government promulgated the transport strategy in

services, rail passengers can reach places in the vicinity of railway stations by feeder services of other public transport modes.

The

provision of park-and-ride facilities at railway stations will also allow motorists to stop driving to the urban area from the New Territories.

1999, the planning and construction of new railway lines have resulted in the use of railways surpassing the use of buses.

At present, the people in

With proper and sensitive planning, the transport system may be

Hong Kong are accustomed to using railways which is a sustainable and

expanded with adverse impacts on the environment minimised.

environmentally friendly transport mode.

Nevertheless, the construction

transport and land use planning, facilities and services could be

of new roads is still required for new land use developments in Hong

incorporated into the design of NDAs to encourage walking and cycling

Kong to provide accessibility to service vehicles, emergency vehicles and

to reduce reliance on motorised transport.

road-based public transport.

that can be pursued in the design of NDAs are:

A balance has to be struck between the

In

Examples of the initiatives

provision of new roads and their encouraging effects to more usage of Locating intensive residential developments and employment nodes

private car.

within short walking or cycling distances from rail stations.

62

The design and provision of comprehensive walkway system or cycle Challenges Ahead

paths will increase mobility within residential developments and

Integrating transport and land use planning could reduce the generation of motorised trips, which in turn alleviates the demands put on the transport system and lessens the impact on the environment.

Even if the need to

travel can be reduced, increases in population, and economic and social 13

employment nodes, enhance road safety and improve local air quality, thus reducing the number of short motorised trips in the local area. The provisions of escalators and travellators to help pedestrians to traverse long gradients and distances respectively will encourage 14

63

walking instead of making short motorised trips.

The provision of

RDS that was publicised in 2000.

By 2031, there would be over 300 km

cycle parks at railway stations and commercial centres will allow

of railway lines in Hong Kong with 75% of the population and 85% of

people to use their bicycles instead of feeder buses to travel between

employment places in Hong Kong within the catchment of railway

their homes, and railway stations and commercial centres.

services.

With about 90% of the passenger trips in Hong Kong are currently made

Besides planning for the railway projects in RDS 2014, the government is

by public transport, the reliance on private cars is amongst the lowest for

currently undertaking the Public Transport Strategy Study to enhance the

world-class cities.

roles and functions of different public transport modes.

Nevertheless, the growth of private car fleet in Hong

Moreover, the

The increase in the

Transport Department makes use of transport model to forecast the travel

number of private cars and their usage has resulted in road traffic

demands in Hong Kong under different scenarios of land use

congestion in many strategic roads in Hong Kong.

developments.

Kong is about 4% per annum over the last decade.

Despite the

Based on the traffic forecasts, the need, scope and timing

government has tried to provide new roads or road improvements for

of various strategic highway projects are reviewed regularly so that their

serving NDAs in the New Territories, the development of new roads is

implementation and commissioning can be achieved to satisfy new travel

lagging behind new travel demands.

demands.

managing demands is needed.

A balance between meeting and

Priority to use roads should be given to

At the same time, the planning for cross-boundary

infrastructure developments is an ongoing process to meet the passenger

road-based public transport and the growth in the number and usage of

and freight demands between Hong Kong and the Mainland.

private cars should be restrained.

foregoing work provides information and data for the planning of future

In the long term, the introduction of

The

road pricing in Hong Kong would be necessary to regulate the use of the

transport infrastructures in Hong Kong.

As the foregoing work is being

less efficient private car.

undertaken continually, there may not be any need to arrange for another comprehensive transport study to produce similar information and data.

64

At present, an average of over 12 million passenger journeys on a weekday are made by public transport such as: rail, franchised bus, public light bus, taxi, ferry and tram. The government has shown its commitment and plan to provide more railways and associated facilities through promulgating the Railway Development Strategy (RDS) 2014 last year.

This plan for railway expansion is a continuation to the last 15

In the planning for the development of NDAs, planning and engineering (P&E) studies including traffic assessment study will be conducted to consider the provision of transport infrastructures and services to meet the travel demands of the NDA population.

When the provision of new

highways and railways is considered in the P&E studies, the latest 16

65

planning data for the territory and public aspiration are taken into account.

Victoria Harbour, the development of new towns in the New Territories

Hence, the current practice in transport planning is to undertake transport

for housing engenders large commuting traffic and passenger demands

and traffic studies at the time when individual NDAs, such as those in

between the urban area and new towns.

New Territories North and Hung Shui Kui, are planned.

need to be served by railways which are efficient mass carriers and environmentally friendly.

These enormous travel demands

To encourage people in Hong Kong to use

public transport instead of private car, the government has made suitable

66

Conclusion

transport policy and strategy.

As one of the world's most densely populated cities, Hong Kong faces

In Hong Kong, roads are heavily used by vehicles delivering goods and

unique challenges in providing a safe, efficient and reliable transport

services, and by road-based public transport modes supplementing

system to meet the economic, social and recreational needs of the

railway services as well as providing feeder services.

community in an environmentally acceptable manner.

and will not fully replace roads.

As an

Railways cannot

However, construction of new roads is

international city and an advanced economy, a first-rate transport system

expensive and subject to various physical, environmental and social

is vital to ensure sustainable and equitable development in Hong Kong.

constraints.

However, limited land and financial resources, higher population

room for the servicing vehicles and road-based public transport through

forecasts, rapidly increasing cross-boundary traffic and greater concern

the application of various fiscal and traffic management measures.

about the environment make it challenging to provide adequate transport

the long term, it would be appropriate to use road pricing to regulate

infrastructures and public transport services to meet the travel and freight

private car usage and impose congestion charging to keep Hong Kong

demands of the people in Hong Kong.

moving.

Hence, the use of private car should be discouraged to make

In

Transport demands are generated by the people in various land use developments in a city like Hong Kong.

The characteristics and pattern

67

of transport demands are affected by the cityscape and land use planning. The town planning of Hong Kong in the early days has resulted in the majority of employment opportunities located in the north shore of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon.

Due to shortage in land on both sides of the 17

18

Reference Abercrombie, Professor Sir Patrick. (1948) Hong Kong Preliminary Planning Report. Freeman, Fox, Wilbur Smith and Associates. (1968) Hong Kong Long Term Road Study. The Government Printer Hong Kong. Transport Branch, Government Secretariat. (1990) Moving into the Twnety-first Century the White Paper on Transport Policy in Hong Kong. The Government Printer Hong Kong. Transport Department, Hong Kong Government, Wilbur Smith and Associates. (1989) Hong Kong Second Comprehensive Transport Study. The Government Printer Hong Kong. Transport Department, Hong Kong SAR Government, Wilbur Smith and Associates Limited. (1999) Third Comprehensive Transport Study. Transport Department, Hong Kong SAR Government. (2013) Travel Characteristics Survey 2011. The Government Printer Hong Kong. Wilbur Smith and Associates. (1976) Hong Kong Comprehensive Transport Study. Hong Kong Government.

Theme 6 A Walkable City with Improved Connectivity Ir Edwin Ka Hung TONG

68 69

19

CIHT Seminar Transport Development in New Horizon 30 May 2015 Tung Chung New Town Extension – A Walkable City with Improved External Connectivity Ir Edwin Ka Hung TONG, JP Project Manager (Hong Kong Island and Islands) Civil Engineering and Development Department (CEDD), HKSARG

of housing, economic and social development.

The TCNTE will involve development of

over 215 ha of land comprising approximately 124 ha to be formed by reclamation at Tung Chung East and 91 ha from existing hinterland mainly in Tung Chung West, for residential, commercial, open space, roads and other infrastructures uses. With this enhanced scale of development, more community facilities, job opportunities and an improved living, working and leisure environment can be provided to the existing and future residents. Upon full extension, the new town would accommodate a total population of about 270,000, more than twofold its current population capacity of about 124,000 (see Figures 2 and 3). To achieve these objectives, strengthening the connectivity to urban areas and promoting walkability within the town are crucial considerations in taking forward the project.

Synopsis

2.

In the 2014 Policy Address, Tung Chung New Town Extension was identified as one of the initiatives for

Tung Chung is located at the north of Lantau Island and to the southeast of the Hong Kong

enhancing land supply in the short- to medium-term to meet the needs of housing, economic and social

International Airport (HKIA) (see Figure 4). Geographically, Tung Chung enjoys a superb location, as it is surrounded by many tourist attractions and strategic infrastructures. In the

development.

It is targeted to further develop the new town to accommodate a total population of about

Strategic Location of Tung Chung

270,000 from its current population of about 80,000.

proximity, a variety of transport modes are available including HKIA, SkyPier, Airport Express Line, Tung Chung Line and the North Lantau Highway. Large-scale transport

To cope with the planned population, two new railway stations at Tung Chung East and West and a new

infrastructure projects going to be completed in the years ahead (see Figure 5) include the Expansion of HKIA into a Three-Runway System, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge

interchange at Tai Ho are proposed to improve external connectivity of Tung Chung. Regarding internal connectivity, the concept of a “walkable” city will be taken forward.

Comprehensive networks of footpath and

cycle track to allow easy access to different parts of the new town will be put in place. The paper will discuss

(HZMB), Hong Kong Link Road (HKLR), Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities (HKBCF) and Tuen Mun-Chek Lap Kok Link (TM-CLKL).

how these initiatives can help developing Tung Chung into a more integrated new town with enhanced quality of living.

1.

These mega transport infrastructure projects would greatly improve accessibility of Tung

Background of the Project

Tung Chung New Town (TCNT) (see Figure 1) is the first new town developed on an outlying island of Hong Kong. Its development can be traced back to 1980s when the Port 70

and Airport Development Strategy was formulated. At that time, TCNT was positioned as a supporting community of the new international airport at Chek Lap Kok. TCNT has been developed in phases since early 1990s. The current population capacity of the existing TCNT is about 124,000. In view of recent changes in planning circumstances and the emergence of mega territorial infrastructure projects in North Lantau, the Government commissioned a consultancy study in January 2012 to draw up options and make recommendations on the remaining development in Tung Chung. In the 2014 Policy Address, Tung Chung New Town Extension (TCNTE) was identified as one of the initiatives for enhancing land supply in the short to medium-term to meet the needs -1-

Chung particularly from the Western Pearl River Delta (PRD) and the north-western New Territories, creating new job opportunities to the local community and attracting more visitors to Tung Chung. Coupled with the famous tourist spots in Lantau, including Hong Kong Disneyland, Ngong Ping 360 and Tian Tan Buddha as well as the historic monuments, cultural heritage and natural scenery in and around Tung Chung, there is high potential to develop Tung Chung and its environs into an attractive regional tourism node to support the development of the area. Visitors can conveniently reach the nearby facilities such as the HKIA, Asia World-Expo, hotels, etc. located at the Airport Island. The new shopping, dining, entertainment and hotel facilities in the TCNTE will also be another focus for visitors. Due to the convenience to be brought about by HZMB with its extensive connectivity with the Mainland’s road network, most cities in the Western PRD will soon fall within a reachable two-hour commuting radius. The travelling time to most areas of the Western PRD will be significantly shortened (see Figure 6). This is expected to bring about the benefits of “Bridgehead Economy” for Lantau and particularly for Tung Chung and its environs. 2

71

People can shuttle within Hong Kong, Macao and Western PRD with the most direct route. It is envisaged that Tung Chung will become a gateway to the Western PRD and before long,

The new railway station at TCE would be beneficial to the transport network for improved connectivity and accessibility for the entire Tung Chung development. The TCE station is

one should not look upon Tung Chung as only a new town in a peripheral area of the city.

proposed to be added to the east of Caribbean Coast. The TCL tracks will be diverted to

3.

vacate space for the station construction between the tracks. This option will require less modification works on the existing TCL tracks and will have less impact on the system

External Connectivity

capacity of TCL. 3.1 Transit-oriented Development

3.3 Road P1 (Tung Chung - Tai Ho Section) and Tai Ho Interchange The TCNTE is planned as a compact development in order to create a mixed-use area with a concentrated population and job opportunities within easy walking distance of major transportation terminals to promote sustainable and green planning. To encourage use of the rail mode transport, higher density residential and/or commercial developments is planned to be located within 500m walking catchment of the future MTR stations at Tung Chung East (TCE) and Tung Chung West (TCW). These areas will become the focal point of the new

In the strategic context, the Road P1 will serve as a primary distributor parallel to the North Lantau Highway (NLH) and connect Tung Chung with the Siu Ho Wan and Sunny Bay where future developments are also being proposed.

The Road P1 configuration, routing and

interchange arrangement is hence strategically related to the planning of the whole North

town with relatively higher-order retailing. A public transport interchange is also planned adjacent to the proposed TCE station to encourage use of railway and facilitate a seamless

Lantau.

connection between railway and other modes of transport.

The increased development

Interchange (THI) will be a major external highway connection for TCE (see Figure 7).

intensity around the proposed railway stations is seen as an opportunity to create a new, highly visible centrality that is emblematic of the new town. The residents and those

Such road arrangement will (a) minimize vehicular traffic going through the residential

working in the vicinity can enjoy a vibrant, mixed-use atmosphere.

In the local context, as identified by the traffic impact assessment for the TCNTE

Study, a section of Road P1 connecting existing Ying Hei Road to the future Tai Ho

clusters; (b) relieve the future traffic over-capacity of existing Tung Chung East Interchange; and (c) serve as an alternative access to TCE in case there are traffic accidents in Tung Chung East Interchange and Yi Tung Road.

3.2 Railway Provisions The total length of the existing Tung Chung Line (TCL) is about 31.1km long. Between the two terminal stations at Hong Kong and Tung Chung, there are 6 intermediate stations,

The existing THI is proposed to be upgraded to a 3-lane circulatory carriageway grade-separated interchange above NLH.

The future THI will have a larger reserved

namely Kowloon, Olympic, Nam Cheong, Lai King, Tsing Yi and Sunny Bay. It is proposed to extend the TCL westwards by about 1.5km from the existing Tung Chung Station

capacity for future development in the Siu Ho Wan area whilst also fulfill the traffic needs of

to a new station at TCW while another new station is proposed at TCE (see Figure 7). It is assessed that TCL can cater for the increase in patronage induced by the additional population

account sight line, available headroom and horizontal clearance with the piers and support

at the required service level upon full development of TCNTE.

it would involve works within the railway protection zone and over the operating railway line.

72

The TCW station would not only serve the potential developments at TCW but also enhance the accessibility of nearby housing developments and local villages. This can respond to the strong request from local residents for a new railway station near Yat Tung Estate where approximately 40,000 populations are resided. The station is suggested to be built

the proposed development at TCE. columns of TM-CLKL.

To avoid conflicts, the design of THI has to take into

It is anticipated that the construction of THI will be challenging as

It is also envisaged that temporary traffic arrangement at NLH for construction of the merging slip roads from Tai Ho Interchange to NLH will not be an easy task.

construction difficulty and the risk to railway operation during the construction, existing box structure will be made use of.

underground since above grade options would conflict adversely with existing and proposed developments.

3

To minimise the

4

73

4.

two-storey, up to about 8m, podiums on the ground floor of residential estates. They are

Internal Connectivity

intended to enhance the activity on ground floor and provide opportunities for local residents 4.1 “Walkable” City in Tung Chung

to open up small businesses and street shops. The pedestrians can enjoy the vibrant spaces with a combination of retails and dining, and open space amenities such as sports grounds and

The TCNTE is envisioned as a premier development showcasing sustainability principles that

children’s playgrounds (see Figure 9). In TCW, the Town Park hill, which is previously

promote the concept of “walkable” city.

Pedestrian and cycling connectivity throughout the

considered as a major hindrance to connectivity between TCW and existing Tung Chung town

new town is one of the key design concepts driving the configuration of the spatial framework

centre, is designed with major footpaths and scenic routes that will allow convenient access to

of the new town. The footpath, cycle track and carriageway will be well integrated under a

join the two areas.

three-zone concept, i.e. district distributor, local distributor (suburban) and local distributor (rural). Key destinations within TCNTE such as proposed railway stations, waterfront and

The proposed district distributor Road D1 runs across the proposed Central Park at the central

neighbourhood centres will be linked up by comprehensive open space, footpaths and cycle

portion of TCE. In order to make way for the at-grade Central Park and to encourage the

tracks, to allow convenient and comfortable movement within the development.

Trees will

be planted along the footpath/cycle track to provide separation from the carriageway, a barrier

through pedestrian walking and cycling at at-grade level, part of the proposed Road D1 will be designed in the form of a depressed road.

from road traffic noise, and shading for the pedestrians and cyclers. This will create a comfortable walking and cycling environment.

Tung Chung is characterized by a high usage of existing cycle track network.

By promoting walking and cycling, greenhouse gas emissions within TCNTE can be greatly reduced due to reduced demand for fossil fuel-powered vehicles.

There will be less air

pollution and noise pollution, and thus creates a more environmentally friendly environment in Tung Chung. Integrated pedestrian network within the new development area includes walkway system, pedestrian facilities, pedestrianized plazas, linkage to PTIs and railway stations. Emphasis has been placed on the needs of pedestrians in transport and land use planning. This aims to reduce the number of short motorized trips and the conflict between pedestrians and vehicles with a view to increasing mobility, enhancing road safety and improving pedestrian environment in general.

comprehensive cycle track network expanding from existing network to the new development will be incorporated. The proposed cycle track network links up the whole TCE Area to the waterfront which can greatly increase the tourism value of Tung Chung. The cycle parking facilities near major destinations such as PTIs will also be provided to promote cycling within the development.

In order to maintain a balance between cycle track connectivity and

valuable land resources, it is proposed that cycle track will only be put on one side of the carriageway. Cycle track is also proposed along the promenade for leisure purpose. The cycle track will run along the proposed Road P1 up to the proposed cycle park at the area surrounded by the proposed new Road P1 slip roads connecting the Tai Ho Interchange. It allows flexibility in future for further extension of the cycle track network to the potential

To promote walking within the development, there will be a comprehensive network of 74

A

footpaths within TCE and TCW (see Figure 8).

Local residents and tourists can easily

access to public transportation hubs and new focal areas for commercial and recreational activities. A series of linear parks are proposed in TCE to form a key set of pedestrian spines that stretch north-south from the core area to the waterfront, and from east to west extending from the existing landscaped corridor in Tung Chung town centre to the waterfront. These parks will not only serve as green, open space amenities, but also as the main pedestrian routes with integrated commercial areas and positioned on the edges of the surrounding residential estates. Along the route from the core area to the waterfront, there will be 5

development at Siu Ho Wan and other developments in North Lantau. The proposed cycle park would be equipped with various types of facilities including kiosks, small cycle maintenance shops and cycle parking areas to support the need of the cyclists. The cycle park can also be designed for the use of beginner cyclists. 4.2 Waterfront Promenade The new waterfront promenade linking TCE and TCW will form a distinctive component of Tung Chung’s coastal identify and also operate as pedestrian walkway to enhance connectivity of the entire TCNT. It will be designed as a continuous, barrier free public open 6

75

space devoted to pedestrians and cyclists that is intimately connected with the inner landscape

quality of life.

framework of the development.

low carbon emission zone, use more sustainable modes of transport, and provide a pedestrian

It will provide both a functional and a recreational resource

and provide a natural focus for the resident population and visitors.

There will be a variety

The green transport strategy for TCNTE is to make the whole development a

and cyclist friendly environment.

of waterfront facilities that create an attractive, vibrant visual scene and the potential for varied recreational pursuits.

In general, there will be a 6m pedestrian promenade with

In order to facilitate the adoption of zero-emission electric vehicles in TCNTE, appropriate

A cycle track will run adjacent to the promenade.

space provisions for charging facilities and parking spaces for charging has been allowed.

Behind the cycle track will be a broad landscaped buffer, heavily planted with lawn areas,

There will be a total of 18 electric bus parking spaces equipped with relevant charging

shrubs and trees.

facilities in three public transport interchanges (PTIs) proposed in TCE.

seating, shelters and canopy tree planting.

For the new PTI

proposed in TCW, there will be 9 parking spaces equipped with relevant charging facilities for

4.3 Integration of Flood Protection Measure with the Road Network

the electric buses.

More charging facilities will be proposed in appropriate government

facilities and major amenities where large amount of people may visit.

It is considered that

The Tung Chung Stream within the study area is well-known for its biodiversity and high

such provisions can encourage the use of electric vehicles and to create a greener environment

ecological value. Taking into account the high ecological value of existing Tung Chung

in TCNTE.

Stream and the low-lying ground level along the banks of the east and west streams, a polder scheme is proposed in TCW to mitigate the flooding risk of the Tung Chung Stream and to

With a view to providing an additional mobility option instead of driving or taking public

provide adequate flood protection for existing villages and the development sites planned for

transport, and for the people to enjoy the environment, the provision of cycle rental / sharing

private development at Tung Chung Valley under 200-year design event.

system such as those in Taipei, London and Paris, whereby cycles may be rented for short durations from dedicated cycle pods, is under consideration at selected locations including

Under the polder scheme, flood protection will be achieved by elevated polder levees up to

railway stations, PTIs and waterfront promenade.

about 1.5m above existing ground with minimum 1:2 sloping sides (see Figure 10).

uses for short- to medium-distance trips that are outside the normal walking catchment zone.

Each

development parcel within the polder scheme will contain a dual-purpose flood attenuation

The cycle rental system is targeted for the

The proposed cycle pods can be installed in the amenity area or regional open space.

and stormwater treatment pond to manage peak flows and remove pollutants in the runoff from roadways, development parcels and local villages by sedimentation and biofiltration.

6.

The Future

Roads will be built on top of the polder levees as an integrated design, which will provide access to the local village and facilitate future maintenance of the above sustainable urban

It is envisaged that upon completion of the HZMB HKLR and the TM-CLKL, currently

drainage system.

scheduled for 2016 and 2018 respectively, Lantau will become an essential connection point with the Western PRD.

76

5.

Initiatives for Green and Lo w-carbon Transportation

The topside of the HKBCF Island is also being studied for

commercial development such as shopping, dining, entertainment and hotel facilities.

A

convenient vehicular and passenger transport connection with the North Commercial District

According to the consultation document of the Environment Bureau for “Hong Kong’s

of HKIA, Tung Chung and the surroundings would be a key to the success of the proposed

Climate Change Strategy and Action Agenda” published in 2010, the transport sector accounts

topside development.

for about 18% of the local GHG emissions.

public transport system such as rail link connecting the topside development with other

The Government has proposed to set a target to

reduce carbon intensity by 50% to 60% by 2020 as compared with the level in 2005.

Apart from new roads, it is important to consider other forms of

developments in the vicinity.

Sustainable transport planning is fundamental to meeting the carbon reduction target. Coupled with spatial planning, transport planning can also improve health, the economy and 7

8

77

On the other hand, the Government announced in the 2014 Policy Address to explore ways to further develop the eastern waters off Lantau Island and neighbouring areas, with a view to developing an East Lantau Metropolis (ELM) for accommodating new population. By enhancing the transport infrastructure to connect the area with the existing urban areas, the ELM can become a new core business district in addition to Central and Kowloon East. TCNTE is centrally located among the above proposed developments in and around Lantau. Obviously, Tung Chung will play a more and more important role in linking up and providing a sizable workforce for the developments in Lantau as well as other parts of Hong Kong. days to come, Tung Chung will develop rapidly.

In

Tung Chung will not just be the location

where the last station of Tung Chung Line situates. It will be the place where doors to further developments will be opened by the improved external connectivity.

On the other

hand, the concept of “walkable” city will be promoted in the TCNTE to create a comfortable walking and cycling environment with an aim to enhancing the quality of living.

Figure 1 – Tung Chung New Town in 2012   

78 79

9

Figure 2 – Artistic Impression of Tung Chung East Development under TCNTE   

T

路 CL L

S 香港 H C

港 H

Figure 3 – Artistic Impression of Tung Chung West Development under TCNTE   



香港 H L

東涌 Tung Chung 

Figure 5 – Strategic Mega Transport Infrastructure in the Pipeline around Tung Chung   

港鐵機場快綫/ 東涌綫 Skypier

Airpor t Express/ Tu n g C h u n g L i n e

香港國際機場

北大嶼山公路

東涌 80

North Lantau Highway

Tung Chung 

Two hour  commuting circle  of Tung Chung  81

Figure 4 – Location of Tung Chung with a variety of transport modes available 

Figure 6 – Strategic Location of Tung Chung in relation to the Pearl River Delta Region   

Street shops

Future Tai Ho Interchange

Proposed Tung Chung East Railway Station

Tung Chung Railway Station Existing Cycle Track Proposed Cycle Track Existing Road Proposed Tung Chung West Railway Station

Proposed Road Proposed Road P1

Street shops

Proposed Public Transport Interchange

Figure 7 – Proposed New Railway Stations, Road Network and Future Tai Ho Interchange   

Figure 9 – Open Space Amenities with Street Shops   

82 83

Figure 8 – Comprehensive Network of Footpaths and Cycle Tracks in Tung Chung East   

Figure  10  –  Schematic  View  of  Polder  Scheme  (Reference  from  Figure  17  of  Stormwater  Drainage Manual of the Drainage Services Department of HKSARG)         

Co-organized with Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong

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