Tribal Law & Order Act
Michael T. Swallow Attorney at Law (SDBA #1678) Judge
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Amends Indian Arts & Crafts Act. Before TLOA: FBI had responsibility to investigate violations. Now: any federal law enforcement officer can investigate violations.
Amends Indian Arts & Crafts Act. Before TLOA: all violations were felonies regardless of value. Now: violations of $1,000 or more are felonies; violations of less than $1,000 are Class A (1 year maximum) misdemeanors.
Amends 13 federal laws: ‐Indian Law Enforcement Reform Act; ‐Omnibus Crime Control & Safe Streets Act; ‐28 U.S.C. 543; ‐Indian Tribal Justice Technical & Legal Assistance Act of 2000; ‐Indian Civil Rights Act; ‐Indian Self‐Determination & Education Assistance; ‐Controlled substances Act
‐Comprehensive Methamphetamine Control Act; ‐Economic opportunity Act; ‐18 U.S.C. 845; ‐Indian Alcohol & Substance Abuse Prevention & Treatment Act; ‐Violent Crime Control Act; Juvenile Justice & Delinquency Prevention Act; and ‐Violence Against Women Act & DOJ Reauthorization Act
CREATES OBLIATIONS UPON THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT CREATES OPTIONS FOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS AND TRIBAL COURTS
SEC. 202. FINDINGS; PURPOSES. (a) FINDINGS.—Congress finds that— (1) the United States has distinct legal, treaty, and trust obligations to provide for the public safety of Indian country; (2) Congress and the President have acknowledged that— (A) tribal law enforcement officers are often the first responders to crimes on Indian reservations; and (B) tribal justice systems are often the most appropriate institutions for maintaining law and order in Indian country; (3) less than 3,000 tribal and Federal law enforcement officers patrol more than 56,000,000 acres of Indian country, which reflects less than 1⁄2 of the law enforcement presence in comparable rural communities nationwide; (4) the complicated jurisdictional scheme that exists in Indian country— (A) has a significant negative impact on the ability to provide public safety to Indian communities; (B) has been increasingly exploited by criminals; and (C) requires a high degree of commitment and cooperation among tribal, Federal, and State law enforcement officials;
(5)(A) domestic and sexual violence against American Indian and Alaska Native women has reached epidemic proportions; (B) 34 percent of American Indian and Alaska Native women will be raped in their lifetimes; and (C) 39 percent of American Indian and Alaska Native women will be subject to domestic violence; (6) Indian tribes have faced significant increases in instances of domestic violence, burglary, assault, and child abuse as a direct result of increased methamphetamine use on Indian reservations; and H. R. 725—6 (7) crime data is a fundamental tool of law enforcement, but for decades the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Department of Justice have not been able to coordinate or consistently report crime and prosecution rates in tribal communities.
(b) PURPOSES.—The purposes of this title are— (1) to clarify the responsibilities of Federal, State, tribal, and local governments with respect to crimes committed in Indian country; (2) to increase coordination and communication among Federal, State, tribal, and local law enforcement agencies; (3) to empower tribal governments with the authority, resources, and information necessary to safely and effectively provide public safety in Indian country; (4) to reduce the prevalence of violent crime in Indian country and to combat sexual and domestic violence against American Indian and Alaska Native women; (5) to prevent drug trafficking and reduce rates of alcohol and drug addiction in Indian country; and (6) to increase and standardize the collection of criminal data and the sharing of criminal history information among Federal, State, and tribal officials responsible for responding to and investigating crimes in Indian country.
Amends 25 USC 2801 of the Indian Law Enforcement Reform Act of 1990 (ILERA). Confirms BIA’s 2005 administrative name change from OLES to BIA Office of Justice Services (OJS).
Amends ILERA (25 USC 2802). New responsibilities of BIA OJS now include: Dispatch, “E‐911” emergency services, Training for NCIC access,
‐Collection, analysis, and reporting of crime data, Reporting UCR crime data to FBI CJIS on a tribe‐by‐tribe basis, ‐Annual report to Congress addressing unmet need for OJS & tribal law enforcement, prosecution, judicial, corrections, etc. resources.
‐DOI, in coordination with DOJ, must develop a long term tribal detention plan. ‐Report must be submitted to Congress within 1 year.
Amends ILERA (25 USC 2803) regarding BIA OJS warrantless arrest standard. Prior to TLOA: “reasonable grounds”. Now: “probable cause”.
When federal investigation terminated or USAO declines prosecution, US “shall coordinate” with tribal law enforcement officials. EOUSA to submit annual reports to Congress.
Prior to TLOA: some USAOs designated tribal prosecuting attorneys as SAUSAs. Now: tribal prosecuting attorneys specifically set forth as eligible for SAUSA status. 1 AUSA per district appointed as Tribal Liaison Duties Section 113. (1) thru (9)
Prior to TLOA: DOJ Office of Tribal Justice was a “detailee” office. Now: OTJ will become a permanent DOJ component.
Amends mandatory “Public Law 280” (18 USC 1162 & 25 USC 1321(a)). Prior to TLOA: retrocession required State concurrence; Secretary of Interior decided. Now: allows for re‐assumption to concurrent federal jurisdiction; no State concurrence; AG decides.
‐BIA OJS required to recognize state & tribal police academies and other programs that meet Peace Officer Standards of Training. ‐Maximum age of new BIA OJS officers moved from 37 to 47.
‐Requires DOI to establish procedures for establishment of SLEC MOA. ‐Recognizes certain tribal law enforcement officers who meet federal criteria to enforce federal law
TLOA Section 233 Access to NCIC Statutorily confirms existing FBI CJIS policy to allow tribal law enforcement access to “Federal criminal information databases” including NCIC.
‐Amends Indian Civil Rights Act (25 USC 1302). ‐Prior to TLOA: tribal courts limited to one year per count. ‐Now: tribal courts limited to 3 years per count and 9 years per case.
‐Provide at tribal government expense, “a defense attorney licensed to practice law in any jurisdiction that applies appropriate licensing standards and applies appropriate professional licensing standards and effectively ensures the competence and professional responsibility of its licensed attorneys”; “Require that the Judge presiding over a criminal proceeding has sufficient legal training to preside over criminal proceedings & licensed to practice in any jurisdiction in the United States”; ‐make publicly available laws and criminal procedures, including recusal
‐Creates BOP Tribal Prisoner Pilot Program. ‐Up to 100 prisoners at BOP expense. ‐Must be sentenced under new tribal court felony sentencing authority. ‐Must be for a violent crime. ‐Sentence must be for at least two years.
Creates new Tribal Law & Order Commission to conduct a comprehensive study of IC criminal justice system. Will submit report to President & Congress within 2 years.
Development of long‐term plan for construction, renovation, and operation of Indian juvenile detention and treatment centers within 1 year of enactment of TLAO
TLOA Section 244 Tribal Justice Centers Prior to TLOA: grant authority limited tribes to
construction of facilities for incarceration; matching funds required. Now: allows for construction of “tribal justice centers”; no match required.
TLOA Section 245 Tribal Probation Office Liaison Program Authorizes Federal Pretrial & Probation Services to
appoint officers in IC which can provide for substance abuse & other treatment services.
Adds grant program authorization for grants to tribes & tribal consortia for delinquency prevention & response programs. Appropriates $25 million per fiscal year for 2011 thru 2015
Requires DOJ BJS, jointly with FBI & BIA‐OJS, to consult with tribes to establish & implement tribal data collection systems. Requires annual BJS report to Congress on Indian country crime data collection.
BOP must notify tribe’s chief law enforcement officer when releasing to tribal jurisdiction a prisoner convicted of violent crime, drug trafficking, or sex offense.
Prior to TLOA: BIA & IHS employees served with tribal or state court subpoenas invoked Touhy regulations for approval. Now: subpoenas approved if no disapproval within 30 days.
IHS shall coordinate with tribes, DOJ OVW, & BIA OJS to develop standardized sexual assault policies and protocol.
INDIAN ALCOHOL & SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT ACT: ‐ 5 Million per Fiscal Year – 2011 thru 2015 for summer youth programs ‐ 2 Million per FY for narcotics control/eradication – TLAO, Sec. 241
OMNIBUS CRIME CONTROL & SAFE STREETS ACT: ‐ 40 Million per FY 2011 thru 2015, to Tribal government – TLA, Sec. 243 VIOLENT CRIME CONTROL & LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 ‐35 Million per FY 2011 thru 2015, to Tribes for Tribal Jails, Justice Centers – TLAO, Sec. 244
JUVENILE JUSTICE & DELINQUENCY PREVENTION ACT OF 1974 ‐ 25 Million per FY, 2011 thru 2015 to Tribes for Delinquency Prevention & Response Programs – TLAO, Sec. 246