UFOs: A History, 1950: April–July - Sign Oral History Project

UFOs: A History, 1950: April–July - Sign Oral History Project

UFOs: A HISTORY VOLUME 6: April--July 1950 LOREN E. GROSS First Arcturus Printing December 1990 For additional information, contact: ARCTURUS BOO...

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UFOs: A HISTORY VOLUME 6: April--July 1950

LOREN E. GROSS

First Arcturus Printing December 1990

For additional information, contact:

ARCTURUS BOOK SERVICE P.O. BOX 831383 SIDNE MOUNTAIN, GA 30083-0023

Cover Illustration: McMinnville, Ore. Telephone Register, June 8, 1950

APRIL - JULY 1950 By mid-1950, the UFO wave then in progress was globegirdling. Reports were coming in from all over: Latin America, Japan, Africa, Australia, the Middle East, and' Europe; but as usual the vast vajority were being made in the United States. Since, however, our discussion begins with the month of April, a little April item from Germany is appropriate at the outset. April Fool . A curious photo of a tiny man-like creature garbed in a skin-tight suit appears in UFO literature occasionally. In the picture the critter is being led away by two men in trench coats, the supposed diminutive "man" allegedly a survivor of a crashed flying saucer shot out of the sky by an American anti-aircraft sergeant. The origin of the photo and the story have remained obscure for decades. What is the truth? Well, the storyline is a recognizable variant of the hoken dreamed up by the American con artists Silas M. Newton and Leo A. GeBaucer. A wirestory of the Newton and GeBaucer "little men from Venus" story reached Europe, and in Germany the Cologne Neue Illustrierte (News Illustrated) took a liking to the yarn and went to the trouble of faking a photo. Why did the Neue Illustrierte bother? Few Americans know that the German celebrate April 1st the sameway they do.l Such nonsense confused the issue but it never dispelled real concern over t~e UFO question. "Immense turtle." ·If the UFO's were American or Russian then they were taking a chance testing them far and near. Droning through the air over the coast of Venezuela, a DC-3 airliner piloted by John Power and Angel Delgado made its way uneventfully, on course and on time, April 2, 1950. Suddenly the passenger plane began to . shake violently from a shock wave. Both pilots tightened their grip on the controls and snapped their heads in time to see a "huge machine" lunge past 2,000 feet away. Powers said to•the press after landing: "It was an enormous apparatus of aerodynamic form similar to an immense turtle and I have no doubt that this · machine was guided. "2 . , ... Less spectacular was the report of "white balls" streaming mile-long vapor trails. Flying in V-formation they sped over Macon, Georgia, headed east. In spite of the estimated 1,000 miles per hour plus speed, the objects may have been aircraft,

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1i but nearby Warner Robins Air Force Base procl a imed general ignorance and shrugged it off as "too much Saturday night cclebrating."3 "Silver football."

On Highway 38, a few miles out of Butler, Pennsylvania, April Znd, some people in a car became fascinated with an aerial vision. They pulled up and got out for a better look. They saw a "silver football" flashing in the sun and hightailing it across the sky at great altitude. Before it passed out of sight in the west, the witnesses were sure they could detect rro wings or hear any sound. One of the witnesses was an instructor at an art institute and he made sure the press was impressed with the fact. He insisted that his eyesight was superior and there could be no mistake when he said the object was not a jet plane. The UFO, he declared, was a metallic-like football shape about 100 feet long which flew overhead at about an elevation of 6,000 feet.4 Reports also came in at this time from Longmont, Colorado, in the U.s.S · and Selkirk, Manitoba, in Canada.6 On the other side of the world in Italy a flying saucer caused a "horse to bolt" but unfortunately th~ writer of this manuscript has no further information on what may have been an interesting incident.7 "Flying Saucery." When a large parachute training balloon at Weston-onthe-Green near Oxford, England broke loose from its moorings and drifted over London, the Air Minister got its first big taste of saucer mania. Phone calls stated: "it's got dots on the bottom," and "it's stationary," or it's moving fast." All of which may well have been accurate observations except £or the initial report made by a bus conductor who tried for a chuckle or two: "There is a flying saucer right over my vehicle with lots of little men with ginger hair inside having tea."8 The balloon, however, did not trigger a UFO wave in England although there were some who expressed concern about a creeping "flying saucery" threatening to infilitrate British society warning that British scientists would be stand-offish until: " ... something is found that can be identified under the microscope of the National Physical Laboratory, or in a line-up at Scotland Yard ..•. "9 One member of the English scientific fraternity protested: "We really have nothing to go on in this country." And the Royal Air Force responded in a frustrated tone: "People have started calling us up now asking us what it is all about . But what can we tell them? None of us has seen o..ne yet. "10 There was no UFO wave in England at this time because the UFO's were acting like real objects and not mass hysteria.

The UFO wave of 1950 was moving northward through Europe and had not yet crossed the channel! Did this fact prove ~he objects real? One wonders. Eventually England would contribute its share of UFO experts for the gifted amateur is a recognizable English type, people who teach themselves to be experts on everything from butterflies to Bauderlaire, all for the love of the thing, with no hope of making money at it. They write erudite letters to the Times, win abstruse magazine competitions, and write books-rn-retiremcnt that astonish pedagogues. Back in the United States, like dandelions and toadstools, the flying saucer proved prolific and no sooner did official Washington stomp it out on one front when it popped up on another. However, the UFO historian developes an odd feeling about the official policy towards the UFO question at this time. · An interesting speculation about this period of UFO history suggests that high up in the U.S. Intelligence Command it was decided to "use the UFO mystery" against the Soviet Union, to stir up suspicions that America was testing a "superplane." That the Pentagon might resort to this kind of psychological warfare tactic is not inconceivable, since warnings that a foreign power might utilize the same tactic against America had appeared more than cnce in U.S. Air Force UFO studies. Also, the then current international political situation was a test of nerves, more so than in contemporary times with co-existence in vogue. In the year 1950, Stalin was still the unchallenged dictator of the Communist world but he was getting old and there were some American Intelligence experts that felt that the aging B9lshevik, half mad and growing senile, would make a military move against the West before he died. A few Intelligence experts eveh felt danger was not without some validity because Stalin ordered the North Korean Army to take up attack positions along the 38 parallel and to make ready to invade South Korea sometime in the next 90 days. If the Pentagon never meant to discourage or worry the Russians with the UFO mystery they missed a marvelous opportunity. We have only to give an ear to an opinion from the "other side," some remarks by Dr. Felix Zigel, a top Russian astronomer associated with that nation's space program. Radio Commentator Frank Edwards came across a 1967 Russian magazine article that gave Dr. Zigel's views of the UFO riddle. In the article, according to Edwards, Dr. Zigel says that Russian scientists wer.e as puzzled as Western scientists over the UFO phenomenon and that Russian radar had tracked the strange objects for years. Edwards states further: "He also revealed that in the early years of the problem, 1946 - 1950, the Russians suspected that they might be some sort of U.S. secret device, at the same time that we suspected that they might have been Russian."ll

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Returning to 1950 we finJ that on April 3rd a big broahaha broke out over something published in tl1e newsweekly U.S. News and World Re~ort. The magazine had publisheJ its conclusions concerning t e sky mystery titled: "flying Saucers--The neal Story." The flying saucers, according to the magazine, were "accepted as real," because they actually were a new kind of secret military aircraft utilizing revolutionary principles, a U.S. Navy aircraft combining the best features of both a jet and a helicopter. The newsweekly referred to the summer 1949, White Sands, New Mexico, reports of a craft performing fantastic feats over that test range. Data obtained on the size, speed, and altitude were strangely cleared for publication at ~he time by the Pentagon (Commander R. B. McLaughlin's article in the March issue of True magazine: "Uow Scientists Tracked Flying Saucers."). The U.S. News and World Report did not buy Commander McLaughlin's idea that the saucers might be tourist buses from planet X reasoning that, in its opinion, the Air Force had abandoned its investigation into the UFO mystery without much fuss which the magazine interpreted as meaning the High Command knew the objects were domestic in origin and were not concerned. The newsweekly reasoned further that even if the Air Force denied ownership, that still left the Navy. Continual denials by the Pentagon were interpreted by the magazine as psychological warfare against the Soviet Union, thus it may be safe to assume people were sane after all and not victims of mass hysteria befitting the t~mes.12 News commentator Henry J. Taylor, who had just recently insisted the flying saucers were "very important and wonderful news" for Americans, went on the air again April 3rd over the ABC radio network to repeat his earlier remarks, but as before he remained vague about his source of information and other specifics,l3 the very details U.S. News was now trying to supply. Both T~ylor and U.S. News had composed their idea of the "real story" out of guesswork. The New York Herald-Tribune, a newspaper of extreme flying saucer inappetence, marveled: " ••. the magazine U.S. News and World Re~ort has a high reputation for reliability, and t e article contains many unqualified statements supporting its theses when it would have been just as easy to put the statements on a conjectural basis."l4 Once the American secret weapon theory was seriously proposed, some of those of the Fourth Estate leaped .at the chance to tell·the world they had believed UFO witnesses all along. The evidence, such as it was, hadn't changed but a "reasonable" solution made all the difference. Robert Ruark, a syndicated columnist wrote at the time:

"I wi s h here and now to go on record. believe that there are flying saucers. I believe they are aircraft containing life. I believe that very soon a solution of them will be offered to 15 the public. ~ly hunch is that they arc ours ... " The influential columnist Drew Pearson went along Hith Taylor and/or U.S. News and World Report: "flying saucers, seen by hundreds of competent observers over most parts of the United States, are accepted as real. Evidence is that they are aircraft of a revolutionary type, a combination of helicopter and fast jet plane_." 16 Another journalist, Peter Edson, wrote from Washington on April 3rd that: "The biggest off-the-record story in Washington is the flying saucer. The Air Force says 'there ain't no such animal.' They have never seen one and have no photographs or visible proof, however, privately most officials believe there's something to it."l7 The President of the United States. Newsmen went right to the top, the White House, but President Truman had made a timely retreat to Key West for a vacation. The morning of April 4th a group of newsmen compiled a list of questions and submitted it to the Chief Executive's P~ess Secretary, Charles G. Ross. That afternoon, Mr. Ross called a news conference to reply to the newsmen's inquiries. There was no detailed response, there was just the assurance that the reputed wanderers of the skies were not American. The President, Mr. Ross stated, had taken the trouble to confer with his Air Force and Naval aides, Brigadier General Robert B. Landry and Rear Admiral Robert L. Dennison, and learned that the Armed Services was still standing on conclusions reached the previous December. Mr. Ross added that it was extremely unlikely that the President would be kept in the dark about any new military development, domesti.c or foreign. As far as the President 18 was concerned, the so-called flying saucers did not exist. Reporters sought a response from Commander McLaughlin, and when asked, the Navy officer made known his strong disagreement with the newsweekly's conclusions and disavowed collaboration. The Department of Defense followed up by swiftly issuing a blanket denial that any government agency or military service was testing saucer-like aircraft, especially the Navy.l9 Secretary of Defense Johnson even felt compelled to bring out Navy Secretary Matthews and the Chief of Naval Operations,

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Admiral Forrest Sherman, to shoot down the se~rct Navy plane suggestion.20 Secretary Johnson grinned and remarked to the press that: " .. . he'd like a few saucer squadrons to beef up the Air Force."21 And, still grinning, he . said he : " ... raised the question about the flying discs at the Armed Force's Policy Council- - facetiously."22 The United Press news service carried all these official attempts to fend off rumors about the mysterious sky objects, statements that should have satisfied everyone, yet the news service expressed an uneasiness in its feelings about whether or not the saucers were so much nonsense: "But stories of strange objects soaring through space, often at fantastic speeds, }(eep cropping up. "23 In spite of the blasting given the UFO's, the New York Times noted the sudden rise in the number of UFO reports and expressed a sentiment which stated that an element of "reality" had· accompanied the widespread resurgence of unexplained aerial activity. The Times also noted that the Defense Department was being harrassed-oy-in understandable deluge of inquiries about the chance of a new Air Force UFO investigative project.24 On Capital Bill the Chairman of the House Military Appropriations Subcommittee, Representative George IL llahon, joined President Truman and Defense Secretary Johnson in expressions of doubt that such craft as flying saucers existed. Furthermore, Representative Hahon issued his own flat denial that the United States government was in the saucer business, secretly manufacturing the strange craft and then testing it in the nation's skies. Another member of the subcommittee, Representative Albert Engel of Michigan, listened carefully and when Representative Hahon finished, expressed his own view: "Maybe so, but I saw one myself." Representative Engle explained that he and some friends had sighted a flying disc the previous summer and two of his party had even chased after the object in an airplane. While a "believer," Representative Engle disagreed with the Chairman in regards to who owned th~ saucers. He tended to agree instead with Henry J. Taylor that the sky objects were the result of some top secret American project. The Russian theory he dismissed; afterall, he stated, as a member of the important Military Appropriations Subcommittee he was fully aware of the latest in Russian military hardware.2S · While the Air Force fell back on the usual litany about mass hysteria, birds, clouds, meteors, reflections, hoaxes, etc., to explain flying saucer reports, people nonetheless continued to "see things." And when some UFO's "buzzed" the headquarters of Air Force Intelligence at Dayton, Ohio, it was downright embarassing. At first they were just brilliant points of light in the night sky not unlike the normal stars in the celestial vault, but then they took on an increased glow and attracted the attention of some people motoring home five o'clock the

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J::orning of April 4th. The witnesses watched as two light s , one behind the other, swept down out of the heavens with terrific speed and came to a halt in the sky over Dayton, Ohio. They then shifted to a point over Wright Field wher e the lights suddenly shot skyward in a vertical climb, goin g s o high they be ca me invisible. Later two light s in the sky, perhaps the same ones, appeared over Dayton and zipped aroun d in various dir ec tions, occasionally taking brief pauses in their flight. With the first light of dawn th e lights departed.26 The next day the phones jumped off the desks at Air Force Intelligence at Wright Field. Officials told c a ll e r s they knew nothing about any strange lights. The press wa s informed that: " ... we know nothing about the flying saucer s reported by nine Tipp City residents. We have no official report and our radar observers reported nothing."27 One of the Tipp City witnesses had a reply ready: "If they say at Wright Field they didn't see them, then someone is napping over there."Z8 Another pair of strange objects played follow-the-lead e r in the air over Denver, Colorado the same day . Perhaps the y were the same UFO's. In California the phone danced on the desk of the Provost Marshal's office at Edwards Air Force Base, Muroc, California at 9:30 p.m. April 4th . Four persons living in the city of Delano, about 40 miles north of Bakersfield, called the Air Force base to alert them to the fact that something very odd was taking place in the evening sky over the south side of Delano. The citizens said that a circular object, 25 inches in diameter, was whirling on its axis and flying in an orbit . While the witnesse~ watched, the object would occasionally change its motion and orbit in the opposite direction. The object was plainly visible since it was only 200 feet high. 29 The steady flow of reports, in spite of negative remarks from the likes of President Truman, had the press reaching for more answers no matter how .unlikely the source. The San Diego Tribune-Sun, on April 4th, gave space to a very unlikely sourc e. A news story said : "A picture George Adamski, amateur astronomer, sent to the Naval Electronic Laboratory for an op1n1on on whether it bore the image of a space ship has been found and the opinion is 'No!' Or is it?"30 The photograph referred to (It showed some meaningless streaksl is of no consequence, but one can imagine how dizzy Adamski gbt when the press showed an interest in what he ' claimed to know about the sky . mystery when even President Truman was being quizzed about the subject. But it was more than publicity that Adamski yearned for. Contact with an alien civilization had an overpowering appeal and Adamski

was highly susceptible to its allure. at this time (April 1950) he hoped:

Adamski wrote that

" ... without end that for some reason, some time, one of them (a flying saucer) would come in close, and even land. I have always felt th a t if the pilot within one of these ships would come out we could meet, there would be a way for us to understand one another."31 A filler in some newspapers mentioned a Reuters dispatch from Australia that told of a UFO sighting in Queensland, anothP-r indication Of the continued world flap.32 April 5th a report came in from Edmonton, Alberta, in Canada, but the most detailed cases for this date available are American. People up and down Rhue Street in Ahoskie, North Carolina, pedestrians and motorists alike, stared skyward right after the sun had ~et. For five minutes an object moved across the sky south to north. It was described as: " ... rectangular in shape, very bright red and tapering at the trailing end. Maintaining a steady speed and a steady course, the "short neon tube" grew fainter and fainter as it flew out of sight. At Woodland, North Carolina, some 16 ~iles to the west of Ahoskie, the same day, a soundless, white, cigar-shaped thing, tapering to the trailing end, had been seen earlier in the day. It had been seen at low altitude and witnesses figured its size was 18 feet long.33 "Fast as the dickens." Out West the planet Venus on the evening of April Sth was brilliant and low in the sky causing a temporary flap among police in communities just south of San Francisco with some lawmen standing atop their patrolcars to catch a glimpse of the suspect point of light.34 What set off excitement was a UFO report made by a frantic woman living on Mt. Hamilton road outside San Jose who phoned police to say she had seen some strange sky objects between 7:00 and 8:00p.m. She remarked: "They were running at each other. They were somewhat elliptical, fast as the dickens, and gave off a bright glow."35 The Air Force learned that: " ... on 5 April 1950, at approximately 1215 hours (MST) she saw a dull white, disc shaped object, like a 'flying saucer,• traveling in a straight line in a northwesterly direction. She stated further that from where she was standing in her back yard •••• the object appeared to be at ahvut 45 degrees. --- (deleted) said the object reminded her of two saucers placed Tim to rim, and had the apparent size of such

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an object if it were only a few feet from her. She said it moved swiftly at constant speed, was in sight ahout 10 or IS seconds and then disappeared behind some trees. It had no lights, emitted no sound, left no smoke or vapor trail, was not marked, and was not equipped with any visible control surfaces, and did not have a metallic appearing surface."36 A pair of UFO's zoomed over Ironwood, Michigan on April 6th, 37 and another Reuters dispatch mentioned that something was seen in the sky over Asmara, Eritrea in Africa. Another foreign sighting took place in England signalling the beginning of ur:o activity in that countrL Perso1.s in the English town of Whitly, in Yorks, reporLud so ~ ' in ~ perplexing which was described as two ''revolving hoops-one inside the other--passing over the coast.38 Another vote for the theory that flying saucers, at times, use vapor producing engines was a report from Massachusftts April 6th. The man that made the report was a member of the Air National Guard, a Lt. Sevila, who was startled by a roar "like a flight of jets." Alarmed, he glanced out the window of his home at Westfield, trying to see what was passing low over his home. Peering carefully, he said he saw, clearly, a large, perfectly circular "thing" that exceeded a four-engined plane in size and sparkled like polished chrome in the rays of the sun. For all its noise, the ur:o made little headway and remained in view for four minutes on its way westward. Lt. Sevila wrote an account of the sighting for the Air National Guard's 13lst Fighter Squadron's magazine Thunderbolt. When the local press rerrinted the story, a man who lived in the city of Agawan felt great relief because he had had the same vision and so knew he wasn't nuts.39 More comments from Congress. The press quoted Senator Russell Armed Services Committee:

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"I am completely baffled by Flying Saucer stories. It seems inconceivable that so many pilots would have hallucinations or be fooled by cloud or atmospheric formations. "From their testimony, it seems they do exist. But our Air Force says they do not. I just can't understand it. No, I don't think it is in the stage for a Senatorial investigation as yet."IIO A scoffer, Senate GOP Floor Leader Wherry of Nebraska remarked: "There a r e so many claims made. It is like our foreign policy--it is in a state of confusion and no one seems to know what it is all about."41

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Senator Tydings (D-Maryland) Senate Armed Services Chairman, declared that: " ... his committee has not discussed the disc s with anyone, let alone defense officials."42 Quoting Tydings directly, the press reported: "I have not taken the matter seriously. I would assume it was our own experiments in embryo stage rather than men from Mars."43 April 7th newsmen approached a leading authority on missiles and a founding member of the old German Rocket Society, Willy Ley, who discounted the proposal that UFO's, flying saucers, or whatever, were the result of an other worldy technology, yet he wasn't impressed with the latest official talk either. He liked the idea that the reported discs were real and probably U.S. military weapons since in his words: " ... a large number of honest witnesses have seen them."44 Ley was countered by Rear Admiral C. M. Bolster, Assistant Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics for Research and Development, who protested the idea of Navy aircraft being blamed and fell back on the theory that it was high flying research balloons that were being mistaken for some sort of immensely advanced aircraft.45 Pittsburgh's saucer sighter of April 7th had an unusual way of spotting a UFO that passed over that city. A youngster, 11-year-old B. Wappler, was running to catch a fly ball when his eyes fixed instead on a round, bluish-white object having a "tail of lightning." The· ·whole ball team then caught sight of what Wappler was looking at. The boys dashed home to tell their parents.46 Earlier in the day at Fort Madison, Iowa, at a fountain pen factory four workers sighted what they said was a silvercolored rotating disc flying by the factory spitting out a shower of silver sparks.47 Chastised by Washington's reaction, David Lawrence, editor of U.S. News and World Report, wrote in a syndicated feature that he felt someth1ng was amiss and that there must be a lot of critical data reposing in secret Air Force files, charging that it was even possible the secret policy of the military was cloaking official incompetency.48 Enjoying the discomfiture of its rival in the newsweekly business, saucer skeptic Time sent a reporter to interview Frank Scully perhaps hopi"iiglor a quote that would set back serious consideration of the UFO problem even further. Alas, Scully refused to say much because he was saving all comment for a book.49 · The Time representative would have done better if he had left Los Angeles and driven out to El Centro, a small California community about 10 miles from the Mexican border. On April 7th when the national press was debating the existence of UFO's,

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the citizens of this Imperial Valley town were able to judge first hand. Mysterious lights, hundreds of them, could be seen in the night sky. Approaching out of the south, some hovered while others moved slowly, and still others darted back and forth at various velocities, a sort of nocturnal Farmington. Newspaper headlines in the region termed the phenomenon "flying candles" in the honor of Good Friday.SO Back East two nightwatchmen aboard a ferry ship moored ncar St. Ignace, Michigan, were making their rounds when a "disc-shaped" object raced about in the night sky performing lightning-like maneuvers over the Straits of Mackinac. One of the watchmen, J. Angelason, told the press: "An intense dark glow came from the sides of the disk. It ran the entire length of the disk--like a blue fluorescent factory light." The local news reporters made a comment in the news story that a similar manifestation occurred several weeks before over St. Ignace, Sault St. Marie, and in Canada over the province of Ontario.51 "An unorthodox light." The date was April 7th. The place was Logan International Airport, Boston, Massachusetts. The time was 9:55 p.m. On duty in the control tower at Logan were -three aircraft controllers: a W.G.M,a F.H., and a H.G.M (The complete names have been deleted). Also present was an unnamed watch supervisor who filed the official report on the incident we are about to discuss. In front of these witnesses a very strange light performed some unorthodox maneuvers. The mysterious light, changing from a deep blue to a pure white color and then to a cherry-red, moved across the field against the wind, at one time splitting into two lights which spun around one another, an ellipsoid pattern of diffused luminescence. The ~atch supervisor, with a long list of credentials and at the time a Lt~ Colonel in the Air National Guard, tried to apply every natural solution he could think of to account for the phenomenon. Forced to discard ideas that seemed logical, the watch supervisor wrote a detailed report stating that he observed a solid mass in the midst of the glow as he followed it with binoculars. He added: "For obvious reaons no formal report of this incident was made to any source. ~ith so many reports rampant developing from irresponsible or hysterical sources, one hesitates to solicit ridicule, but in view of the close similarity of what I witnessed, I feel it incumbent to submit this report in spite of this risk."S2 · "Flying Bowl."

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SAUCER OVER KOKOMQ-Earl Bakel' ot Kokomo, Ind .• stands .:n his back yard and pointe to the spot iD the sky where he says a .. :ly ing saucer" hovered for about two minutes at 200 to 300 foot ·d titude. Baker holds aa artist's sketcb made from his description ot. the object. which he said bad a conning tower and portholes &ivin& out a bWiE.b ll&ht.

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As a railroad train chugRed its way past Ouncannon, Pennsylvania, the engineer, II. Perry, and his fireman, ~1. Conlon, were amazed by a "flying howl" the size of a large aircraft. lt cruised overhead at about 3,000 feet, low enough to cause great puzzlement to the ~air of railroad men who could detect no means of propulsion. 3 Kokomo. Colonel Robert Bell, an Army security officer at the Pentagon received an unusual letter from the fifth Army Regional Office, Indianapolis, Indiana. The letter's subject was "Flying Saucers." Checking his files he found a directive titled: "Department of the Army, GSUSA, CSGID, 452.1, dated 25 March 1948, subject: Unconventional Aircraft, control number A-1917." The compliance requested therein was that reports of unconventional aircraft be forwarded to the "Commanding General Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, ATTN MCI." Not knowing i f the directive was still in force, Colonel Bell nonetheless forwarded the information and added his request for an update on the status of Air Force interest in such material. No reply is on file. The UFO report, an interesting one, is reproduced below: "On 12 April 1950, an agent interviewed Mr. Earl Baker of Kokomo, Indiana, sheet metal fabricator with the Continental Steel Corporation, 1200 West Markland, Kokomo, Indiana. Informant stated that, upon being awakened by his dog at 0200, 8 April l9SO, he saw an 'object' about two hundred feet in the air, almost directly overhead. This 'object' was a grayish metal disc approximately fifteen feet in diameter and fifty feet in circumference, shaped approximately like a child's toy top. On the top bulge of the 'object,' he saw a small conning tower as the whole thing tilted occasionally. The 'object' rotated slowly on its perpendicular axis, and informant saw three small port holes on the outer rim. These port holes showed a blue-white light from within. After hovering for approximately two minutes the 'object' rose soundlessly and without tilting moved away to the north at a speed approximating that of a conventional type of aircraft at takeoff. Informant could furnish no further information as to size or appearance of the apparition."S4 More April 8th cases. A trio of farmers near Henderson, K~· ~~ky r • . r~~ .· some UFO's they said resembled "30-foot oil drums" that whizzed by in formation trailing smoke.SS

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For a brief moment llorscheads, New York, commanded attention when a "flying saucer was found on a farm thcr·c." Constructed of cardboard, garnished with an old radio tube, the "saucer" caused no concern after the FBI was informed. It reminded one of many similar "finds" made in 1947.56 Other sightipgs were made at Moline, Illinois; Upper Sandusky, Michigan; and Gouverner, New York, but it is a wirephoto from California that sticks in the mind. Making the pages of many newspapers was a photo of two service men, arms raised, swearing they had distinctly seen a "pinkish, pancake-like, thingamajig flipping around in the sky over Long Beach~" Both men were trained military observers and they kept insisting: " ..• our eyes don't play tricks on us."S7 Up north in the Bay Area,April 8th, a Mrs. G. Grey of San Francisco was idly gazing out the window of her home in the direction of Mt. Davidson when to her surprise, two disclike objects hurdled right at her house. The flyin~ "somethings" zipped at her with colossal speed, braked and then proceeded to move up, and then down, and then around, in an apparent game of aerial tag.S8 Similarly, a rancher that same day near the community of Terra Bella, California, a Mr. R. Barke, watched wide-eyed as another batch of disclike things swooped, climbed, and circled, emitting puffs of black vapor when soaring vertically.S9 All this time Moscow made a show of being amused. Radio Moscow charged the "Yankee reactionary press" with trying to wring more military appropriations out of the U.S. Congress with screams about mysterious objects in the air.60 "Doubting Thomases?"

.An AP story datelined Shelby,

North Carolina:

"Five Shelby residents aren't Doubting Thomases when it comes to tales of flying saucers. They say they saw one high over Shelby Saturday. "Paul Limerick, the commander of Shelby's Veterans of Foreign Wars, gave the report on the whatzit of the air. He said he and Doane Mulick, an employee of an auto parts firm, and three children watched it for at least two alinutes. "Limerick described it as aluminum colored but not in the shape of an airplane. Apparently round, it followed a horizontal southwesterly course without making any .noise or giving out any smoke or flame, he reported. Limerick said it 'Wobbled' along its course for about two minutes and then shot straight upward before disappearing."61

I4

The red

s pr;~y.

April 8th, Amaril1o, Texas: "Twelve - year-old David Lightfoot claimed today that he touched a 'flying saucer' and it sprayed him with a gas that raised red welts on his face and arm. "Many persons tended to believe that David, as a true son of Texas might be getting an early start as a teller of tall tales. But his story was backed by his cousin, Charles Lightfoot. "The boys were fishing 10 miles northeast of here Saturday, they said, when something 'like a balloon' sailed over their heads and landed beyond a slight rise. "David ran to it. He said it was the size of an auto tire about is inches thick and curved on the bottom with a top looking like a flat plate. "The part between the top and bottom was real red like it was on fire, he said. "The top was still spinning as he approached. The disc was blue-gray in color and red-hot otherwise, he said. "'I dived for it but my fingers barely touched it,' he said. 'It was slick like a snake and plenty hot.' 'It "Then the top started spinning faster. made a whistling noise and took off,' he said. It was out of sight in 10 seconds . "He said that as i t left the ground, the gadget released a gas or spray which reddened his arm and face and caused small welts. His father applied skin balm.which removed the welts, but the reddness remained. "Charles couldn't run as fast as Dav'i d but said he was within 100 yards of the object when it took off."62 By a lucky accident, an amateur astronomer in Sacramento, California happened to be scanning the stars over the city at 8:35 p.m., April 9th, with a small telescope and he witnessed an eerie sight. Rushing pell-mell northward was ~ flight of some SO objects acc ompanied by a dim, white glow. Stargazer II. Benach yelled to a friend nearby to come and confirm what he had in the eyepiece . They took turns looking and then rushed to the phone to alert the local newspaper, the Sacramento Bee.63 "Are they or aren't they?" The parade of reports began to tell on even the cons ervative New York Times which asked in a April 9th headline: "TIIOSE FLYING SAUCERS : ARE TilEY OR AREN'T THEY?" Noting that even President Truman could not shed any light on the riddle,

I5

the Times called the renewed liFO wave a whoppe1· that was remiiiTSCCnt of the wi hi year of 194 7. tJ4 The liFO activity was most intense across the lower half of the United States at this time, Apirl lOth, with a few exceptions like a sighting at Oba, in Canada, ISO miles north of Sault St. Marie. Lacking details it is hard to say if Oba's report was a "real" UFO sighting hut another April lOth case fits the pattern geographical!~ and it makes good reading.65 At first it was thought to be the morning star. At Monterey, California, on the morning of April lOth, there occurred an experience that would be long remembered by the witnesses. The press account on the case reads: "A 'bright chrome-like' flying saucer was spotted yesterday by at least seven persons as it cruised at a high rate of speed over Monterey County. "Two sheriff's office patrols reported to Salinas that they had seen the mysterious objects . "One of the deputies, Ted Cross of Monterey, was drivin~ a prisoner to the county ja il when he said he saw the saucer. "·'It was definitely some kind of aircraft, but not local,' he said, 'in fact, nothing like anything seen in this world before.' "Cross said the object was about 30 feet in diameter and appeared to be travelling at approximately 4,000 feet."66 As the witnesses watched, the object came to a halt and started to spin. After a minute or so, the thing zoomed off in the direction of Fort Ord, California, an Army Base.67 As the object moved northwest, the rays of the sun reflected brightly from its surface. Supporting the sheriff deputies was a Greyhound bus driver on his early morning Salinas to Monterey run who happened to spot the same object. Likewise, a local gas station attendant saw the same object. Both ~e bus driver and gas station attendant reported the object independently.68 When questioned by the press, deputy Cross remarked: ''It was a bright, circular, spinning object--spraying little flares of light (and it was) ..• visible for five minutes. "69 In the police car the prisoner, a delinquen~ girl, muttered: "I guess it's just one of those days."70 Cross radioed headquarters where an all points bulletin was broadcast. Within minutes two other deputies in a patrol car ncar Castroville radioed that they sighted the strange object in question yhich, while it was in view, turned and flew 7 o~t to sea. . Army Intelligence agents, possibly from nearby Fort Ord, hotfooted it to the sheriff's office to quiz the saucer

16

sighters, displaying more enthusiasm than one might expect from reading all the statements from the President on down that saucers were just so much nonsense. nuring the half hour interrogation the Army agents told the lawmen that military investigators like themselves were required to carry a camera at all times in case they ever got a chance to take a snapshot of one of the elusive sky objects. Moreover, and this is of extreme interest to the uro historian, one Army man snapped: " ... if you (one of the lawman) itad photographed it, we would have confiscated your film just 1 ike TIIA T! "* 7 2 When that quote hit the newswire the bigwigs back east had a fit. An Air Force spokesman in Washington 'hurried to say that the casual confiscation of civilian film was downright illegal unless, of course, a military secret or a restricted area was photographed. Perhaps because this discussion might put the saucers in a favorable light, the Pentagon added that it still didn't believe in the objects and that orders to investigate reports were: " ... general in nature and subject to interpretation of commanders in the field."73 Fire and smoke. While a crew of nine state highway workers labored on a road outside of York, Pennsylvania, in the Pigeon Hill district, April lOth, the foreman, R. Jenkins, and the rest of the men, were surpised by an unfamiliar whining sound. Looking up the crew sighted something approach at terrific velocity. Only 500 feet above the ground, a black oval 20 feet in diameter spewing fire and smoke swerved into view. Dumbfounded because the object sported no winRS or propeller, the men watched until it moved out of sight.7~ Meanwhile, llenry J. Taylor reiterated his now famous claims and warned that the stubborn refusal of the Pentagon to admit that the saucers were American would open the way to the Kremlin announcing that the strange objects were Russian which might produce hysteria in the Free World . 75 Kenneth Arnold, blamed by the skeptics as "starting it all," made news again on April lOth when United Press mentioned that the Boise flier felt there may be a link between the saucers and unidentified submerged objects reported by the Navy. Asked about the more sensational rumors making the rounds, Arnold replied: " .•. [I) don't scoff at reports that 'little men' have fled from alleged crackups of flying saucers in Mexico and Southern California . " Moreover: "Who am I to say that no such men exist? My mind is always open to anything. I haven't seen any of the tiny men myself. But I have letters from persons who have seen them. And they're serious too."76 *Emphasis is part of the original quote.

I7

In about the middle of Kansas, at the city of Lindsborg, April lOth, a P. Patchin saw a gray-white clam-shaped object streaking across the heavens at 11:30 a.m. According to Patchin's calculations, the object was heading southwest at about 650 miles per hour and at an altitutde of two miles. 77 More roars. Much like the experience of Lt. Sevila of Westfield, Massachusetts, who had been alerted to something strange in the sky by a horrendous noise, another gentleman, a Mr. E. D. Williams of Buffalo, New York, a reserve flying officer, was also s(artled by a loud roar just before midnight April lOth. Being a pilot and familiar with aircraft activity in the area, he sensed something amiss. He couldn't see two well because of the glare from the street lights but he said he saw enough to put a doubt in his mind about his belief that the saucers were bunk: "It was the noise that attracted me. It sounded like four or five jet planes were just outside the house. I flicked off the light and looked out to see an object with four or five flaring exhausts streaking across the sky. It was flying at about 2,500 feet and going west in a straight line."78 "As red as a red neon tube." Four o'clock in the morning of April lOth, Captain Charles H. McMahon arrived at Robin's Air Force Base, Georgia, after a three hour flight. He was tired and wanted some shuteye before reporting for duty the next morning. Some friends had dropped him off at the base hospital ~here the Captain throught he might find a cot so he could catch 40 winks. The so-called "flying saucers" were the farthest thing from his mind; in fact he had never really paid attention to the subject. As the Captain walked up to the front door of the hospital, he passed a Sergeant Lovett C. Harrell, Jr. Sergeant ·Harrell called out to the officer and directed his attention to the sky. Captain McMahon lifted his head and saw something red in the dark sky at about 12,00 feet altitude. He later told Intelligence officers his story.79 The UFO turned out to have been a conventional object, a verdict that need· not be contested, but the details of the interrogation make for interesting reading. Here is what happened to Sergeant Harrell. "Any preconceptions?" Military Int~lligence asked Sergeant-Harrell if he had got a good night's sleep, whether his vision was 20/20 without glasses,·or if he had been reading newspaper accounts of recent flying saucer sightings, and finally, had he listened to Henry J. Taylor's broadcast about American secret weapons. Satisfied that the Sergeant was a good obse~ver and had no preconceptions,- the interrogation proceeded.

IR

An investigation revealed that the Robins AFB weather unit had released a weather balloon around 0400 and that this balloon had dropped a paper lantern containing a lighted candle which had been seen· to float over the llospital and to have come down in the swamp. (The Air Force Times issue of 15 April SO had a similar device illustrated on page one.) It's evident that witnesses had seen this lantern but it is important to point out that the military men had observed accurately, although they had not seen a "flying saucer," it is interesting to note that it was not a "flying saucer" that they reported.BO A half-hour show. Montclair, New Jersey, April 11th, was the scene of a half-hour show. A Miss Delapen, up to this time a doubter~ was entertained by an aerial spectacle that produced a firm belief in the strange objects known popularly as flying saucers. The New York secretary watched a dozen softly . glowing yellow-colored things like dinner plates play in the air over Montclair. The young woman noticed the sky objects when she was enroute to church about 7:30 p.m. The UFO's, moving in two and threes, chased one another about the sky, disappearing and reappearing, as she said: " ... circling first high in the sky then dropping down in a circling motion ... " A neighbor, A C. Perdue, confirmed the sighting.Bl The only accounts available for April 12th are European ones. United Press reported that American occupation officers had seen something at Neukirchen, Germany.82 And on the afternoon of the 12th, two brothers were driving a road linking Tarragona and Reus, Spain, when they noticed an object hovering over some olive trees. The brothers, Pedro and Adres Garcia, said the thing was a small disc about one meter in diameter. It glowed strangely and was visible for only a few seconds before zipping away.83, 84 "Study of aerial phenomena." On March 30th when Brigadier General Carroll visited the lOth District Office of Special Investigations, USAF, based at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, he issued verbal instructions that a summary of "aerial phenomena," reported and investigated in that area be prepared. General Carroll requested that the summary be forwarded immediately to OSI headquarters in Washington, D.C. By April 12th the summary was completed and it makes for interesting reading when it is compared to documents like the final report of Project GRUDGE: "1.)

A review of the files on 'Aerial Phenomena' contained in the lOth District OSI files 124-0 and 124-39, of which there are approximately forty cases, indicates that the following generalizations are

pertinent to the investigation: "a. The observations of the individuals who have reported sighting the so-culled 'flying discs' have been at all times during day and night; about 70 percent of those on file have been after the hours of darkness, ranging from 1800 hours to 0200 hours. "b. Most of the observations have been sightings of single objects; however, about 10'percent of the sightings have indicated there were two or more, with the maximu~ being four. "c. The observations have been made by both military and civilian personnel. The predominance of the military sightings have been in the vicinity of Camp llood. The military sightings comprise 75 percent of the sightings on record in this office. No particular observation can be made regarding the sightings of the civilian personnel; they have been in metropolitan or interurban areas. "d. In practically all cases, with one or two minor exceptions, the estimate of speed of the 'aerial phenomena' have been in supersonic speeds, ranging from 800 to 2,000 miles per hour. This conclusion is arrived at in that the individual method of expressing speeds, ranging from azimuth readings converted into linear miles per hour, through military persons, by artillery observer giving feet per second, to pilot estimates of ~peed given in miles per hour; i.e., (1)

One civilian giving an estimate range of one-quarter mile an azimuth movement of 170 degrees in three minutes, which converts to approximately 335 miles per hour.

(2)

A military observer's estimate of 3,000 feet per second, which converts into approximately 2,000 miles per hour.

(3)

A military pilot's estimate of 2,000 miles per hour.

20

"e. Weather, as a factor in these cases, doc s not seem to be of major importance; there are four sightings in which the alleged disc ·or 'fire ball' was sighted ncar or in the vic i nity of thunder storms that were active at that time; however, most of the cases on hand have clear weather or with a small amount of clouds as climatic condition s prevailing at the time of the sightings. The estimated altitude of the 'aerial phenomena' at the time of the observations seem to be predominantly in the lower altitudes, ranging from two to eight thousand feet; however, there are several incidents in which the estimated altitude of the object was 20,000 feet or above. "f.

"g. Vi s ual phenomena associated with the passage of the 'flying discs' are approximately equally split; as having a long tail; and as to those which have no such visual evidence of an appendage during its passage through the air at high speed . "h. Most cases of these observations have reported an absence of all sound with the passage of the phenomena; however, there are a few which have reported a hissing sound, which cannot be described in any other manner. It is the universal opinion of all persons interrogated in the reports reviewed that the objects were of a smooth contour, with no proturberances for control or method of propulsion.

"i.

"j. The described sizes of these 'aerial phenomena' in most cases, conform to that expressed in the following illustrations: a civilian service station attendant described the object as being approximately the size of the disk in a passenger type motor vehicle; another civilian described it as being the size of a volley ball. As illustrated, each of these conforms to general shape and size in uniform manner. It should be pointed out. however, that in none of the investigations on file in the lOth District Office, is there any further description of saying at what distance the comparative object is to be held from the eye; this leaves some doubt as to this comparative size.

21

"k. In all cases, the object and the vapor trail or tail attendant thereto was of a uniform color; however, the color used in describing the object in each case varies from a blue - white through bright red to orange. "2.)

A tabulation of the sightings indicates that they fall in a line from northwest to southeast, originating in the vicinity of Camp Hood, and terminating in the vicinity of New Orleans, with a few individual sightings to the east and west of this general line.*

"3.)

In most of the cases on file in the lOth District, distribution has been through OSI channels only, primarily between the 17th District and the lOth District Offices, however, in accordance with a letter from Headquarters, OSI dated 2 June 1949, this subject, and letter, Headquarters, OSI, 20 May 1949, copies of reports were sent to the Commanding General, Air Material Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, and to the Director of Intelligence, USAF.

"4.)

Attached to this report as Enclosure No. 1, you will find a copy of the minutes of the meeting of a conference on 'aerial phenomena' held in the conference room, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, at 1300 hours, 16 February 1949. Herein are expressed the views of several scientific people which might be an aid in the digesting of these phenomena.

"5.)

Comments and Recommendations: It should be po1nted out that each one of the approximately forty observations contained in the investigative files of the lOth District is diverse, in that the intelligence of the individual; the scope and range of experience, and the ability to express oneself is widely diversified in each case. The homely expressions, the excitability of the individual under stress, the acuity of the . memory in each case is a questionable factor. The investigative technique in the form of the report is not uniform throughout. All

*This seems to be the first mention in UFO history of "Orthoteny." The reader should consult the book: "Flying S~ucers and the Straight Line Mystery by Aime Michel. New York: . Cr1terion Books, 1958.

22

these factors tend to downgrade the authenticity of the overall report . The above comments are the opinion of the undersigned as to the f a ctors which are common to all or most of the reports revie1•ed. "6.)

It is the opinion of the undersigned that the 'phenomena' do exist, but that the haphazard pursuit of information and the Jack of coordination of investigative effort including scientific research into this ma tter makes it a problem that cannot be resolved at the pres ent time.

"7.)

It i s recommended that the matter be brought be fore a proper command at the headquarters level, with a recommendation to that command that a coordinated scientific effort be made to es tablish an explanation of this phenomena.

(Signed) Ralph H. Schaller Lt. Colonel, USAF BS District Commander" Snooping on Moffett Field? A lot of citizens of San Jose, California, on April 13th, were stirred up over some strange manifestations in the heavens above their city. Said one witness: "It hovered in the direction of Moffett Field, staying up there stationary four or five minutes. Then three flaming tongues shot out of the tail and it vanished within a minute or so. "The object appeared to be several thousand feet high. I thought jets of flame came out along each side of the tail and a third in between the other two. I heard a swishing sound. As it moved away it seemed to flutter a bit."86

Not many miles away that day, at Salinas, California, a city that experienced a UFO visitation back on April lOth, another UFO appeared . A Mr. Potter of Salinas motioned to four co-workers to join him outside the plant building where they all worked. Mr. Potter was standing on the loading dock while engaged in his duties as head engineer when he first laid eyes on the "thing" in the sky, shiny in appearance and, as he termed it, looking like: " .•. one of those long-rooted sweet potatoes[?]."87 lie reckoned that it was just pulling out of dive when he first spotted it. He immediately contacted the sheriff. The sheriff visited the plant and questioned the witnesses. The CAA was phoned but

23

autho'rities said there were no aircraft in the area at the time. Subject to merciless ribbing by those who failed to catch a glimpse of the object, Mr. Potter refused to back down but he also refused to claim a "saucer sighting." 88 Almost directly east of Salinas, at about 1,500 miles, at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on April 13th, a saucer sighting involved an interesting witness. The news story relating the incident read: · "A Baptist minister says he saw two objects that looked like flying saucers. Reverend G. Bellamy said he and a friend saw the two things standing on edge, then suddenly wheeled over into a horizontal position at the same time. Bellamy says he knows the Air Force has denied such things exist, 'but whatever we saw,' he says, 'has made a believer out of me. '"89 . April 14th was another lull except for foreign reports. They told of a sighting at Guaquil, Eduador, in South America, and in Europe about something in the air above Palermo, Italy. In Spain a sighting was made at the city of Camarasa. Spainards living near the Riegos y Fuerzas del Ebro hydro-electric power plant claimed that a luminous object came down out of the sky, landed on the waters behind the dam, floated for a time, and then was seen to sink beneath the surface.90 And then there was Germany. Panic. In a scene reminiscence of the war, hundreds of fearstricken Germans jammed the roads leading out of Munich. The recent shooting down of an American bomber over the Baltic by the Russians and sharp exchanges of diplomatic notes gave birth to a rumor that World War III would break out at any minute. Authorities managed to stem the tide of humanity only after crowds had gone miles from the city on a frantic trex to the Alpine redoubt. A contributing factor to the hysteria had been the sighting of flying saucers over Bavaria which the German population was convinced could only be Russian reconnaissance aircraft . 91 "The Flying Top." A civilian driver for the American Occupation troops at Bremershaven, a Rudolph Schriever, a 40-year-old German aircraft designer .who had graduated from Prague University, boasted to the Yanks he had conceived of a disc-shaped aircraftr even completing blueprints. Schriever called his envisioned machine a ."flying top", a ·craft that could travel at 2,000 miles per hour, with a range of some 4,000 miles. Although his plans were purloined from his laboratory aft'3r

"

.

.

.

.-A..IOIMEI .LUFTWAFI'I capt&ln aDd aircraft dutpltt". Rudolpll Sc:llrtever !IIIHt), wllo •ya eDglne«n tbrougllout tbe worla experunent.d In U.. early ll140a W1tll " !!ylng aauc:en,'' t• wiii!DC to build one tor tile United Statea In ILix to rune monu.a. The .O.yeaM)Id Prague University rradnate uW M made llluepriDU till' IUc:ll a maclllna (above), whlc:ll M calla a '"!lying top," ·lletore Germany'a -CDUapae and ...UI&t. UM bii!IPriiiU were atoleD trom Ilia l&borstor)'. Be uya tile maclltna would be C&9&ble ot 2;.., !!J1! wttll.r&dlua ot U~ ~·a.-~~-~1!--AzmY clr1••r at Bremerllaven.. . fl~~

24

the war, he claimed he couJJ build his "flying top" for the United States in six to nine months. Eventually a sketch of Schriever's proposed ship and his story appeared in the German news magazine Ocr Spiegel, inviting the attention of llearst's International News Service . Quizzed by phone hy INS reporters, Schriever's story made the newspapers in the U.s.92 Although the German's design relies on conventional aerodynamic principles for lift and would doubtlessly fail to maintain stability in flight, there are those that persist in asserting that Sch~iver's craft is what the flying saucer mystery is all abou~, that German scientists left Germany before that nation collapsed in the Second World War and pe~fected the machine at a secret location. As late as the 1980's, a neo-Na~i group based in Canada still espouses the idea. · Except for a sighting at Farmington, West Virginia, nothing is on record for April 1Sth.93 The next day there was also a single report, this time from Burlington Iowa, and was carried by the Des Moines Sunday Register.9~ April loth did have, however, another interview of Kenneth Arnold. Meeting with reporters at his Boise, Idaho home, Arnold asserted that if all else fails he would get proof of the saucers' existence i f it took the rest of his life . People, he said, were still phoning him at all hours. Letters, newsclippings, magazine articles, and wire recordings filled shelves and closets in his house. He figured be had the largest collection of UFO material in the world.95 On Rainy Lake in Illinois a man and two boys rowing a boat . on a la~y Sunday afternoon, April 16th, were witnesses to a speeding object: a round, silver, soundless object, heading south. This happened at 3:45 p.m. The reaction of the local newspaper to the first UFO sighting in the area was somewhat amusing: "Frankly, we were getting a bit envious of the national publicity accorded some communities. "96 A mighty strange "meteor." The OSI office at Westover Air Force Base, Massachusetts, alerted Washington of a strange story: "The Sprin~ficld Union carried an article on April 17, 19 0, tn wh1ch it was reported that one --- (deleted) of Ludlow, Mass., advised that while on duty at the ·-- (deleted), atop Minnechaug Mountain in Ludlow, at 1030 hours, 16 April, he saw a large silvery disk with a gaseous tail, flying very slowly about eight to ten thousand feet above him, pursuing an easterly course. Mr. Grant stated that he watched the object for seven minutes before it disappeared from view and that it was definitely not an airplane,

2S

perfectly round and was emittin~ a long tail of burning gases which made it look like a meteor. It started to climb before it disappeared from his view, but did not appear to be climbing at an exceptionally rapid rate."97 This seemed to be something worth checking out but such action was not taken . The OSI at Westover told Washington: "No investigative action has been initiated by this office, in accordance with AFCSI Letter No. 85, dated 8 February 1950."98

.

April 17th. According Tribune, a UFO In France. On a t Wellington,

to the London edition of the New York Herald was seen over the Montmarte sect1on of Paris the other side of the world a report was made in New Zealand.99

General Carl Spaatz, at this time retired as Air Force Chief of Staff, took the opportunity to lecture the American public about the folly f getting all worked up about supposed objects in the sky. He told Newsweek that the countrr ~ouldn't have a chance j f the Russians started dropping bombs. 0 A mention of Mexico. The Intelligence Division, Headquarters, ~MTS, Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, fil~d an Air Intelligence Information Report listing sightings by various t.tATS units in the Texas region. The 1923rd AACS Squadron based at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, in document dated April 17th, also mentioned civilian accounts anrl was part of the Air Intelligence Information report issued by Washington. The 1923rd document tells us: " (deleted) a San Antonio attorney, reported he saw a flying saucer passing over Laredo. He believes they are huge blobs of molten metal from some distant planet which are cooled and hardened into discs while hurling through space. He estimated it to be from 75 to 100 feet in diameter and travelling approxi mately six or eight hundred miles per hour and about 5,000 feet altitude. Later the same day he reported he saw another flying saucer. A flying saucer was spotted over Mexico City's Central Airport and reported as a shiny fast moving aerial object. It hovered over the airport motionless for awhile and then whizzed out of sight at high speed. The El Nacional declared that a flying saucer had cr a shed 1n the Sierra de Morones mountains making the ground boil. It was constructed of metal and

26

painted an orange color.

It carried no crew." 101

It is interesting to note that the above made the official UFO file while other more deserving information remains to this day ignored by the Pentagon. The reference to Mexico is note worthy because it is one of the few acknowl edgernents by the U.S. military that anything at all was taking place south of the border. An example of one of the better reports was one filed by a scientist from the University of California who was working at Los Alamos, New Mexico, when he saw something extraordinary. While peering through a Bosch and Lomb telescope at 1:30 p.m. on April 17th, he spotted a: "bright, metallic, circular and flat object travelling in a southeasterly direction . . . "102 The object was plainly seen in the clear air and seemed to be some nine feet in diameter. It appeared to be about 2,000 feet high and moved across the sky at an undetermined speed although the scientist (whose name was deleted from the offi cial record) said the object travelled: " ... faster than any known conventional aircraft."l03 In view for about 20 minutes, the UFO put on quite a show: "Maneuvered up and down from IS to 35 degrees and at times slightly to the sides. Object se~med to rotate end over end in a forward tumbling movement at a variable frequency of approximately one second. When the edge of the object was toward the scope, it did not appear to have any appreciable thickness."l04 The next day an equally odd report was forwarded to Washing ton by the OSI at Westover: "The SprinSfield Union carried an article on 18 April 195 1n wh1ch 1t was reported that two Springfield, Massachusetts Technical lligh ~chool students, --- (deleted) and --- (deleted) ~f Springfield saw a 'Flying Saucer' above Beckwood Boulevard, at approximately 2015 hours on 17 April 1950. --- (deleted) described the incident to the Springfield Union as follows: " --- (deleted) and --- (deleted) were travelling on Beckwood Blvd., in the former's car when they spotted a red object approaching it. The object appeared to be two discs not visibly connected but with a reddish hue between them. It appeared that one disc was following the other. The discs were described as having a bottom section 'the shape of a slice of baloney,' approximately six feet in diameter and a convex top approximately four feet in diameter. The object was moving up and down through a distance of approximately twenty feet, and although not

27

aflame appeared to be aglow. - - - (deleted) stated that it was emitting what he thought to be sparks and was making a weird whistling noise. He stated that he pulled his car to the side of the road to avoid a collision . --- (deleted) stated that the object approached to within one hundred feet of his car. After several 'hops' in the air, the object ascended rapidly, vertically, and disappeared."lOS As before, the OSI office told Washington it had taken no investigative action. The OSI office at Carswell Air Force Base, Fort Worth, Texas, forwarded a message to the Director of the OSI in Washington, D.C. which stated: "Two witnesses, housewives of military personnel, who reside in the North Section of Sherman, Texas, reported that at 1045 on 18 April 1950, they had observed from their residence 18 to ZO flat circular objects with polished silver surface in the air. These objects were quite some distance away--from thirty to forty degrees above the horizon and were fitst seen in the West going in a general direction East by Northeast. The objects appeared to have sort of a hooking circular motion and appeared to rotate in a counter-clockwise motion. They made no noise. Objects remained in view four to five minutes. 11 106 Like other local OSI units, the Carswell District notified Washington that: "Pursuant to AFCSI Letter 85, no action is being taken on this matter."l07 April 18th. In an issue of the Marshalltown, Iowa newspaper, the Timesit was reported that a resident of the city of-ronGa ha spotted a UFO and the newspaper noted that the witness was the former mayor of the Iowa community.l08 The day's spotlight, however, was on the Texas turmoil. Re~ublican,

For two days in Texas, April 18 - 19th, things were especially bewildering for those in the Lone Star state due to the clear skies and the apparent visit by a big skyhook balloon. Texans craned their necks skyward to watch a slow moving, translucent, top-shaped object pass over numerous cities at a great altitude. A few persons guessed that it was a balloon although not many people knew that balloons of such a giant size existed and so became convinced a mysterious craft was spying out the countryside. The balloon overshadowed reports of a more puzzling nature like the sighting made at the city of Sherman where three individuals said they

28 saw: " ... eighteen saucer-shaped objects over Sherman ahout noon . .. the objects were noiseless and racing north, high and fast in formation."109 And in Austin, a policeman reported: " ... a saucer-shaped object in the sky, wingless and traveling at a high rate of spced."110 likewise, citi•enr of Dallas spotted something skittering about the heavens. - c ~ u~~ing to a Mr. A. J. Chennault, he and everyone in the apartment building where he lived perceived : " ... a flying "dinner plate" very high overhead.lll But the trophy for the case of the most interest goes to Fort Worth's "Flying Bananas." The incident received national distribution by AP wirephoto. The story first appeared in print in the April 18th edition of the Fort Worth Star-Telefram and was given star billing on the front page no doubtecause it was one of those rare instances when a photograph accompanied a flying saucer sighting. The headline in the Star-Tele~ram shouted: PICTURES OFFER PROOF VET SEES FLYING OBJECT IN SKY AND PHOTOGRAPHS THEM."ll2 With publicity like that, Air Force Intelligence agents couldn't pass up the chance to make an inquiry . The Eighth Air Force sent agents to investigate in response to a directive from SAC. The title of the directive read: "Strategic Air Command, date 31 January 1950, subject : 'Reporting of Infomration on Unconventional Aircraft.'" The contents of the directive are not stated but it probably okays the passing on of UFO reports, subject to the judgment of the local military commander. The Eighth Air Force gave as its reasons for looking into the case the widespread notoriety of the incident and: " ... as far as is known by this headquarters this is the first time a photograph purporting to be a 'flying saucer' had been published by the press."ll3 ~toreover: "If analysis by expert photo technicians substantiated that the photographs are genuine, instead of abrasions or crimps, they will be of definite intelligence value."ll4 Agents located the photographer, I. Maaxy, and discovered that the newspaper's account was not entirely accurate. They learned that the exposures were made over a week earlier at 5:30 p.m. on April 9th. The phenomenon as viewed by Maxey was "seven perpendicular streaks of light in three groups, moving horizontally across the sky." A thorough study of the negatives revealed that the liS zllegcd saucer images were crimps resulting from mishandling. After a lengthy interrogation the supposed mysterious incident shrunk to nothing in the way of "proof." It was the type of case hard line skeptics dream about. The Texas saucer epidemic did have at least one definite result; it sent newspaper reporters stampeding to find Air Force Secretary W. Stuart Symington. Cornered by the news hounds in San Francisco, the Secretary proved to be of no more

29

of a help than any other official. lie insisted that there w
~()

"TilEY SEEf.IED TO MOVE WITII 'SI:NSI:' TRAVI:I.INC fiRST IN ONE lliRECTION TIIEN STOPPING AND REVEKSINC DIRECTION. '"119

The same day, April 19th, an extraordinary phenomenon was on display in the heavens over Edmonton, Canada. Witnesses numbering in the thousands gaied toward the southwest where approximately 30 degrees above the horiion there was a remarkable sight which veteran Aurora watchers declared was something quite different from the usual northern lights. It was said the "thing" resembled a "giant luminous red pencil of light."lZ~ This sounds a lot like the "thing" reported over Dallas, Texas, the same day: " ... on April 19, 1950, 'a vertical luminous tube, of the color of red-hot iron,' was (seen) ... "lZl Eerie Episode. An eerie episode occurred in California. Police officers B. Morton and D. Nielsen were motoring down llighway 99 outside Calexico in their patrolcar at the lonely hour of 3:00 a.m. on April 19th when three dark circular masses, each one about 150 feet in diameter, came into view. Moving slowly and silently, the objects emerged out of the mist in the west at about a Z,OOO foot altitude flying in formation. One ob ject carried no lights while the other two were well lit . The lawmen noticed that the objects were "crabbing and skidding" as they moved through the air. The strange aerial intruders circumnavigated Calexico a number of times and then took a wider track and circled the whole valley. Officer Nielson was puizled at the absence of flame anJ noise and could only surmise that the weird acroforms had no connection with the local Naval Air Station so the objects must have been some of the famous flyini saucers.lZZ April 20th. Early in the morning of April 20th, a painter by the name of W. C. Earterling arrived at his place of work in llouston, Texas. Looking up he spotted a big round disc in the dark sky. He thought it was iust the moon until he peered closer and noticed that th~ "moon" had a distinct silver hue . Suddenly, without warning, the "moon" zoomed away "like a bolt" with a "mild roar" or "whoosh," spilling a shower of sparks. The plant's nightwatchman, S. Dobos, also got a quick look at the thing. Dobos said: I don't know what it was and I can't guess where it came from. All I knQw is that it was there and I got a little shakey about it. .. )23 "Numerous inquiries." A Major R. 0. Rounds, weather officer of the Eighth Air Force, Carwells Air Force Base, Texas, pushed the idea that

31

weather balloons most probably were getting persons all worked up hut he said his remarks were "unofficially suggested."lll8 A more formal reply to the unsettled press and public was that of Lt. Colonel C. II. Scott, Public In format ion Officer for the Eighth Air Force Headquarters, who issued an official memorandum addressed to "All Concerned," a document that reiterated the usual Air Force position. The Fort Worth Times published it verbatim even to its military form. The document was necessary, as stated therein, due: " ... to the numerous inquiries received by the office.••lZ4 It was night time, April. 20th, and in Texas one of the oddest UFO cases of the year took place. A motorist on a stretch of lonely road, Highway 94, suddenly g·ot the "feeling" so~ething was following him. The newspaper account picks it up from there: " ... he observed a round, flying object dbout eight feet in diameter, while driving alone nine miles west of Lufkin last night . . . . the saucer stayed about 200 feet ahead of him for some time but he was unable to distinguish any details until he stopped .... he got out of his car to see the object better and it hovered about 20 feet over his head, giving off a dull red glow. "125 And he further stated: " ... the bottom of the object was rounded like a globe ... [and] it appeared to be made of aluminum." Suddenly, he said: Sparks flew from a slot in the craft's bottom as it took off after hovering over his head about two seconds."l26 According to Robertson the thing took off with a "whooshing roar", speeding away at a 50 degree angle . About five minutes after the object disappeared, Robertson felt a burning sensation on his face. His clothing was not burned.l27 Farm folk southwest of Princeton, Missouri, tied up the party telephone line buzzing about a flying disc trailing white smoke that sped over that area April 22nd.l28 April 21st. Major Levy, speaking for the Counter Intelligence Division of the OSI, sought a "current estimate" of UFO reportings as of March 21, 1950, because, as he put it, he: " •.. felt that a current estimate based on your analyses will enable this office to better furnish guidance to OSI District Offices as to the extent and nature of their future reporting of such incidents."l29 The Director of Intelligence, DCS/0, Collection Branch, referred Major Lev' 'to the UFO directive dated 12 January 1950 that denied UFcr•s special status, adding:

r 3l

"Reference is made to conversations on this subject between Lt. Col. !Jearn of this lli rectorate and Major Cox of your office, on 3 March 1950, and between Major Boggs of this Directorate and ~lajor Nold, of your office, on 28 March 1950. In both discussions, it was explained that none of the recent 'flying saucer' publicity has offered anything that would modify the Air Force's collection policy as contained in letter cited in paragraph 1 above."l30 Photographs at, Red Bud, Pacific City, and the Balearics. A huge, reddish disc with a metallic "dome" projecting above the semi-sphere top, moved and hovered repeatedly over the countryside near Red Bud, Illinois, or so said a man named Dean Morgan. The witness to the alleged visit by a UFO claimed that it occurred on April 23, 1950. After awhile, the UFO was gone in a flash, disappearing over the horizon. A photograph was taken that shows a red blob but it was not subill~tted to authorities. Others in the area were said to have sighted a similar object zooming in the direction of Carbondale .131 .Overseas at the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, a newsreel cameraman by the name of Enrique Hausemann Muller allegedly caught a saucer on film, the image showing a spinning pinwheel-shaped object spewing rays of exhaust. The picture was said to have been taken April 24th. The supposed UFO looks suspicious. It is probably some fireworks pinned to a paper cup.132 A photograph of slightly more consequence was the result of the Pacific City incident. An amateur photographer by the name of R. IIermann approached the Portland, Oregon, Ore~onian, April 22nd, with a story about a picture of a strange obJect he had taken March 12th. It seems his friends had voiced a worry about the picture since it might be a violation of a government secret if the object had been on a classified test flight, therefore IIermann destroyed the negative but he could not bring himself to do away with the print. It seems that he had spent Sunday, March 12th, on the beach at Pacific City, one of the many beauty spots along Oregon's Pacific coast. It was a murky day with light rain that afternoon but IIermann had decided conditions were still good enough to test his new 45 R.B. Graflex, intending to take a picture of his wife romping in the surf. lie was all set when an unusual object came into view spewing a vapor trail. It approached over the ocean on a south to north course moving fast. Oddly enough the object bore little resemblance to a saucer and IIermann thought that strange because he thought the object must be one of the mysterious flying craft he had read about. Instead, the thing was shaped like a turtle shell with a

'

33

"definite front and rear." The thing did not spin, and on the bottom were "six hole-like features, three forward and three aft. The latter details became visible when the object tilted slightly and turned to a new heading that sent it out to sea, pa s sing out of sight in the direction of Tillamook headland. There were oth e rs on the beach at the t i me according to ~1r. IIermann but he didn't think anyone else noticed the ohject. Going into more detail, Mr. IIermann said the UFO had a polished silver finish and spurted an orange flame out the hack leaving a white vapor trail. Although he feared the Air Force might cause some trouble if he made the photograph public, he did feel its release would clarify some confusion surrounding the flying saucer mystery. Experts in photographt examined the print and gave their opinion that the imag e on the emulsion did not appear to be an obvious fake, but of course! without the negative not much else could be detcrmined . l3~ A Salem, Oregon newspaper photographer concluded that the object was only a "water spot on the negative," that the negative had not been properly dried."l34 The image seemed transparent although there was no indication of retou~hing. The picture is reproduced in the book, Cor,; .ang_~ · - ___ ..:~-. ::ers, on page 177 . The image is a faded foot~snape and o ; -rlttlc apparent value. The Oregonian followed up the Salem photo story the next day with a mention about the 1897 airship mystery, a few lines about Charles Fort, and a few words from the now famous Kenneth Arnold.l3S Turning to the entertainment page, one finJs an ad for the movie, "The Flying Saucer," the film now playing at theaters in the area and receiving free publicity every time a new saucer sighting was announced. The day also brought with it a report from Klamath Falls, California,l36 and another from Saigon in IndoChi~a (Vietnam). By April 25th, the northern movement of the UFO wave hit Laramie, Wyoming. The local newspaper noted that it was the fir s t such saucer visit since the previous October. Nothing spectac ular in UFO chronicles, the report mentions an extremely slow, round, glittering object on a western course at about 3,000 137 feet as viewed by four observers at a local university campus. Ansonia, Connecticut, is a little farther north in latitude than Laramie but not much. The news from Ansonia on April 25th may, or may not, have been about a "real" flying saucer, because two reports made on the 25th, and another the day before, mention an object that looked more like a "gravy boat" then like a dinner plate. Glowing a beautiful amber, it was watched by Ansonia police. One lawman saw something that: " ... resembeld a half moon but was squared off on one end."l38 A patrolman named J. Folly phoned headquarters when he sighted the thing at 1:30 a.m. and then he asked the proprietor of an all night din~r, D. Ceremans, to step outside and confirm the

34

sighting. The previous evening two other Ansonian lawmen saw something very similar about the same time of night (12:30 a.m.). Of the two patrolmen, one of them, a W. O'Bri en, admitted ignorance of the phenomenon's identity and could only say that its motion was uneven and in appearance it seemed : "Squared at one end and the other end appeared to him more pointed than crescent shaped."l39 Whatmay have been the same aerial intruder cruised over Stanford, Connecticut, some 25 miles away on the night of April 20th.l40 A woman told authorities she saw an "upside down banana," and the next night ~t about 10 o'clock a Stanford couple were surprised by an orange-reddish upside down "banana" or "crescent moon" floatin~ over the three tops. At first glance, it was believed to be the Earth's lunar companion, but it suddenly struck them that the "moon" was upside down.l41 Spying on . storage areas? "A Spot Intelligence Report sent to Washington declared : "G-2 Sixth Army, Presidio of San Francisco, California, reports that the CIO Field Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, reported unconventional aircraft sighting. Military security patrols at Dougway Proving Grounds reported to the Intelligence Officer of Western Chemical Center that on 25 April 1950 in the early morning hours over the Ammunition Stor age Area in the vicinity of Dougway Mountain a serie s of unusual lights and flying objects of unknown origin were observed. The characteristics and size of a 'flying icebox' were described. This flying object while in flight was surrounded by an aura of spears of light jutting diagnoally from the main body. A 24-hour search of that area at Dougway Proving Grounds is in effect until further notice."l42 . Again no action was taken by the OSI although the 19th District Office forwarded the above information to headquarters in Washington. Colonel John Swope, Commander of the 19th District Office, said of action: "None by this office. A 24-hour search of that area by Dougway Proving Grounds is in . effect until further notice."l43 The following case reminds one of the famous Betty and Barn·ey case of September 19, 1961, when they encountered a strange craft with "windows around the side" while driving a road in New Hampshire. The 1st District OSI office at Westover Air Force Base, Massachusetts, alerted Washington to the fact that : "The Hartford Times carried an article on 26 April 1950 1n which 1t was reported that a

I

;

3S ~Irs. ---(deleted) and son--- (deleted), age 8, of--- (d e leted) Road, Rocky llill, Conncticut, at 1945 hours, 25 April 1950, saw a flying saucer described a s oval in shape, having what seemed to be lighted wi ndows around the outside . It was flying at a l ow altitude erratically at a high rate of speed."l44

No investigative action was taken. "Ice cream cone." On April 26th, the Portland Oregonian had a new sensation for its readers, a story under the headline: "SPEEDING 'ICE CREAN CONE' SKIPS OVER VANCOUVER, B.C." It stated: ·~mystery aircraft, 'about ZOO feet long and shaped like an ice cream cone,' flashed over the city Tuesday, and even authorities at the International airport here are puzzled. "The aircraft, they said, first appeared in the west about 4:00p.m. (PST) at about 15,000 feet. It passed beyond the airport at a tremendous speed, disappearing about one minute later to the southeast. The mystery ship was sighted by residents in all parts of the city. Police, newspapers and radio station switchboards were flooded with calls. "Among those who saw the aircraft were F. V. Magar, superintendent of airport operations, and Allan Sharp, airport attendent. "'I have never seen anything like it before,' said Mager, 'and I have never turned in a report about a flying saucer either.' "It was ~lager who gave the 'ice cream cone' description of the ship. "He said a 'white substance hung about the tail, but did not trail out as vapor does from a fast-moving plane. "'It must have been doing at least 700 miles per hour.'"l45

A Reuters dispatch out of London on April 26th declared th a t UFO reports were being made at Lisbon and Berlin; moreover that someone had made: "predictions that the same will occur e.a rly next month in Sweden."l46 The prognosticator and details of his signs or symptoms are, unfortunately, unavailable. This underscores again the lamentable lack of research on the 1950 UFO wave in Europe. April 27th. White Sands again.

l Some very interesting events took place on April 27th. All month people all over the world wer e seeing "aerial visions," a phenomenon that had scientists scratching a collective head. Offering some hope for obtaining some real evidence were the men and equipment at White Sands Proving Grounds in New Mexico, and by chance another photographic UFO record was achieved on April 27th by White Sands Asania theodolites . The camera technicians were thrown into confusion when a strange object suddenly zoomed overhea~. Quickly one of the camera crews shot a number of frames. Their camera was the only one loaded with film as the others had expended their film during a just tompleted missile test. When the filmwas developed, a "dark, smudgy image" showed up on the frames, results that did not impress the Air Force. UFO expert, E. J. Ruppelt, who claimed familiarity with Air Force files, stated that the film evidence was not satisfactory since just a single theodolite had caught the streaking object on film. Photographic tracking by more than one Asania station would have provided accurate data on height, speed, and size; and since that had not been the case, military investigators wquld only say: " ..• it does establish the fact that some type of object did exist."l47 The foregoing was based on details derived from the writings of E. J. Ruppelt. Ruppelt, who is still widely considered a top notch UFO authority, is error prone and very ofteri fails to give the whole story. Examination of official documents reveal that four objects and not one were photographed. Furthermore, more than one Asania station did obtain some interesting data. One of the other stations PiCked up a visual azimuth angle on the photographed UFO which enabled the experts at White Sands Data Reduction Unit to make some calculations. The official document that tells us this fascinating fact reads: "According to conversation between Colonel Baynes and Captain Bryant, the following information is submitted directly to Lt. Albert. "Film from station PlO was read, resulting in azimuth and elevation angles being recorded on four objects . In addition, size of image on film was recorded. "From this information, together with a single azimuth angle from station M7, the following conclusions were drawn: ·~.

"b. "c.

The objects were at an altitude of approximately 150,000 feet . The objects were over the Holornan range between the base and Tularosa Peak. The objects were approximately 30 feet in diamter.

37 "d.

The ohjects were traveling at an undeterminable, yet high specd."l48

"What do you make of that?" Late in the evening, at 8:25 p.m., April 27th, a mysterious red glowing aerial object intruded on the peace of mind of Captain Robert F. Manning and co-pilot Robert Adickes at the helm of Trans World Flight 117 en route to Chicago. The Trans World airliner droned along uneventfully at 2,000 feet and was passing over Goshen, Indiana, when Captain Manning noticed a crimson colored point of light rapidly gaining in size. The red light did not blink and kept growing. Amazed, Capt a in t-fanning shouted to Adickes: "Look over there!" What do you make of that?" Air Traffic Control at Chicago was contacted about any other air traffic in the area, particularly jets as the red blob began to get uncomfortably close. Chicago radioed Captain Manning that it had no flight plans of any aerial traffic for their area other than their own flight. By now the red object was pacing Captain Manning's OC-3. The UFO looked like a "huge round wheel rolling down a road." The airliner's hostess, Gloria Hinshaw, was summoned to the pilot's cabin to witness the phenomenon. She did and then quickly returned to the passenger compartment to alert the passengers. Those passengers seated on the right side of the airliner peered out the small airliner windows. t-feanwhile, Captain Manning said to Adickes: "Let's get a better look," and as he said that he banked the DC-3 toward the object, but the thing immediately reacted, moving away to keep its distance.l49 Donald Keyhoe, who investigated the incident, reconstructed events inside the aircraft: "Some of the passengers, including one who plainly had a drink or two before embarking, thought the whole thing was a gag. 'Sure, let's all see the Flying Saucer,' chortled the tipsy gentleman. 'Let's see the little men from Mars. • "He stopped, his mouth hanging open, as he saw the strange red object glowing beyond the wing. Pop-eyed, he sagged back in hi~ seat."lSO The round mass, glowing dull red like hot steel, after about eight minutes, increased its speed to an estimated 300 to 400 m.p.h., leaving the airliner far behind. The press was present in force when Flight 117 landed at Chicago and soon news service teletypes across the nation were tapping furiously. Fawcett publications phoned Donald Kcyhoe and requested that he do a complete investigation of the case. Arriving quickly in Chicago, Keyhoe interviewed both Manning and Adickes. And since some of the passengers got a good look at the UFO, he tracked them down and quizzed

f them too. The passengers, mostly important bu s ine s smen, knew little about aircraft so th e y coultl add little in the way of valu a ble data, but they all concurred that the UFO was a scary sight . Adicks told Kcyhoc he had heard strange accounts related by other pilots but such stories had only half convinced him something uncanny was going on in the nation's skies. Now, however, he said he wouldn't give anyone much of an argument about flying saucers.lSl Questioned as to possibility, he had only seen a reflection of a spect acular barn blaze outside of South Bend, . Indiana, Adicks shook his head and stated emphatically that the UFO: " ... was definitely an objcct."152 In keeping with the theory in fashion at the time, Adicks remarked: "It was nothinf from Mars. I think it was just a little flying machine." 53 Edward Ruppelt, with access to official information, tells us that the Air Force was cognizant of 35 reported aerial encounters between airliners and UFO's over a three month period, April through June, 1950.154 How about the Air Force's UFO investigation at Wright Field in Ohio while this amazing UFO phenomenon erupted in the heavens? Ruppelt tells us that evaluating was nil and that all of the official files of the defunct Project GRUDGE were unceremoniously gathered up and chucked into storage and in the process a lot of data was lot or misplaced. Investigations of UFO reports, if any, were processed through "regular channels."l55 "Faster than a F- 861" The Westover OSI office received a very intriguing report at this time: "At 1100 hours, 27 April 1950, Lt. Beebe reported the following information to Special Agent Raymond I. MacKinnon, Det . 'G' 1st District OSl: On 27 April 1950, at approximately 0900 Lours EST, Beebe, flying an F- 86 Sabre Aircraft solo on a routine II hour GCI mission out of Otis AFB, Falmounth, Mass., at approximately 21,000 feet altitude, was heading approximately 345 degrees over Plymouth, Mass., when he sighted a light brown object, altitude approximately 17,000 feet heading of approximately 80 degrees, flying at a terrific speed about 10 miles ahead at 10:00 o'clock, to left of his ship. The object flew laterally eastward until it reached a position of 2 o'clock from Beebe, then climbed at an arigle of SO degrees until attaining an altitude of approximately 28,000 feet, then turned to an approximate heading of 0 degrees and disappeared approximately 15 seconds after Beebe

39

first sighted it over land. Beebe's approximate indicated air speed was around 500 MPII at the time and he did not attempt pursuit because of the terrific speed of the object . Beebe described the object's shape as a flat oval, no signs of support or propulsion, contrails, or exhaust and he did not get close enough to observe any other particular details. Weather conditions at the time were CAVU (contrails were produced by other F-86 aircraft at altitudes of 35,000 feet or above). "Captain Ray E. Clark, Detach. CO, 654th AC &W Squadron and Controller on Duty, advised S/A Mac Kinnon: No indications were received on Ground Radar scopes from 0430 - 1200 hours, 27 April 1950, of any unusual aircraft or excessive speeds in any area within the range of their apparatus. No unusual incidents were noted in the AC & W Squadron during these hours. "Major Jack C. West, Mobile Control Tower Officer on duty from 0800 - 1200 hours advised S/A Mac Kinnon: No radio interference was noted during his tour of duty and he was not aware of the reported unconvcntionaJ aircraft until interrogated about radio reception. He did remember some radio squeals of 5 - 10 seconds duration at approximately 1000 hours which he concluded were repairmen testing equipment and thought no more of this common interference."l56 While it appears the OSI did question some of the witnesses in the case, Colonel Martin of the Westover unit stated in the report on the case that: "No investigative action has been taken by this office, in accordance with AFCSI Letter No. 85, dated 8 February 1950."157 "It made my wife's hair stand on end!"

Two sightings were recorded at Rangely, Colorado, on April 28th. One involved an oil company superintendent on an outing with his wife and daughter. The three were entranced by a "phosphorus-like" globe that made the superintendent's wife's "hair stand on end" as it darted through the clouds. Elsewhere at Rangely, a Mr. and Mrs. G. Holden swore that a circular disc about two to four feet in d i amter approached within 60 feet of them, flying past at eye level. In appear ance, it seemed to have a glowing metallic paint job.lS8 Yet another red UFO was reported over Centralia, Washington, the following day, April 29th, when a housewife caught sight of a pair of discs in the sky near her home, and while she watched, six other discs joined the first two. One of the discs was a deep crimson in color. The objects sped southward and vanished in a cloud.l59

40

The last day of the month the towns of Burlington and Muscati_vc in Iowa, joined the list of UFO sighting locales, but it was at the city of Mount Joy, Iowa that the most interesting case took place. A Mr. and Mrs. Wedemeyer related to the press that a disc-shaped object shifting around in the heavens, spinning and glowing like a whitehot hunk of molten metal, abruptly exploded producing a cascade of sparks like fireworks.l60 April had been quite a month. The May 1st edition of the magazine Air facts had an article by Robert Fisher. lfe wanted to comfort those of the flying fraternity that were being subject to ridicule because of their reporting of encounters with UFO's. Fisher could have kept quiet but he decided to tell the world that he too had met up with one of the strange objects in his Bonanza NC 505 B on March 18th while in the air over Bradford, Illinois.l61 The May 1st issue of Qu~lt magazine also had something to say: "The high command Wl have to make its demands stronger to stop flying saucer rumors. The Pentagon is full of officers who don't know what to believe."l62 "Why does the flying saucer story stay alive?" Out of Washington, D.C., May 4th, the Associated Press news service issued a long news story, attributed to no specific government source, asking the forementioned question. The story dwelled on all the old arguments, denying that the objects were real, that they are ours, uninvited imports from Uncle Joe, or crockery convoys from Capella. The hardest knock was put on the extraterestrial hypothesis. The news service terminated with: "But if you want to start an argument, just bring up the subject at a dinner party."l63 Behind closed doors Hoover's FBI received another update on the status of the Air Force's thinking concerning the UFO problem, but the Bureau fared no better than the general public. Either the Pentagon meant what they said, or felt, as they apparently did from the first days of the controversy, that the FBI should not privy to significant evidence. The Pentagon told the FBI that the troublesome space visitor theory was not considered an impossibility, but there was no evidence to support such a notion. The lligh Command credited the current crop of reports to hysteria and suggestibility.l64 Birmingham's ghostly bogey. The Birmingham Post told of a "ghostly visitor" on the evening of May 4th: - -

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"D. L. Reid, a former ne\•spapcrman on the staff of the Montreal Star and now president of the Southern Discount Corp., 5113 Farrell Ave., said today he and his family were returning from a theater last night when they were attracted 'by a bright light in the sky.' "Mr. Reid said he and his family--and other persons in the neighborhood, saw a glowing object in the sky. "'It was the most amazing thing I've ever seen,' Reid said today. 'It appeared to be stationary for about 15 minutes. For the first minute and one-half, it was a very luminous white. Then it gradually turned to a bluish-white.' "Reid said that at first the ghostly visitor appeared to be 'elliptical.' "He said the object appeared to be revolving and that the longer he looked at it the more it assumed a 'bullet-shape.' "'It had a long fiery tail,' he said. "'It appeared to grow real bright, then dim again--almost as if it were taking flash pictures,• according to Reid. "Suddenly at' the end of about 15 minutes, the object turned vertically and disappeared straight up."l6S

The Birmingham Post got additional inform~tion from a Charles Bellsnyder w'JiOCiid his best to sound sincere: "I don't know whether it was a flying saucer or not. I've never seen a flying saucer. But I certainly never saw anything like it before."l66 His account of the incident as it appeared in the Post went: "Mr. Bellsnyder described the 'saucer' in the beginning as appearing 10 to 12 inches across 'from where we were.' Then, he said, a tail grew from the object until it appeared to be about 150 feet long. '"The tail was a long fiery streak,' he said. 'It appeared to get brighter and dimmer as we watched. Finally, after a few minutes, 167 it turned, went up vertically and faded out.'" Hammersley Fork, Pennsylvania, had a single report on May Sth, but a more extensive UFO story originated in Australia: Reports of 'flying saucers' poured into Sydney today from many parts of Australia, and officials said they could not shed any light on the mystery. "Persons from four widely separated areas--

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including Sydney suburbs--reported seeing a 'cigarshaped object larger than any plane' flash a cross the sky shortly after dawn Saturday. "Two of the reports came .from airline pilots. One was from an air force officer, a veteran of World War I I . "The Royal Australian Air Force said there were no jet planes over the areas where the reports originated."l68 The morning of May 6th in Italy crowds of Romans ori their way to work spotted a couple of flashing objects the shape of stove lids (round) slowly moving through the air about a mile above the eternal city. The objects appeared to be spining and. emitting flashes of light at intervals. As the objects passed directly over the Piazza Colonna, traffic came to a complete stop as people gawked skyward and cried: "flying saucers, flying saucers."l69 More to the north in Europe, England had its first visitation of a mysterious nature when on May 6th a "Saturn-like" UFO coasted over Llantarnam in Wales."l70 In the United States, on May 6th, a whole "squadron of saucers" stirred up Abington, Pennsylvania . Speeding in circles above the city, the objects attracted the attention of the entire community and surrounding area, including Mr. R. Little, publisher of the Scranton Tribune who couldn't provide an explanation for the phenomenon . The occurrence was the talk of folks thereabout for weeks afterwards.l71 A letter from a concerned citizen to Air Force Intelligence that was found in that service's UFO files reads : "On May 7th my husband, my grandson, Lorrie Earl, and I were returning from a picnic, about 6:45 p.m. when we saw this silvery white object hovering quite low, I'd say possibly 100 feet from the ground. It moved back and forth for 10 minutes as though it was trying to gain altitude. Then all of a sudden it went up into the air and was out of sight in less than a minute. "We were directly across from it and only about 21 or 3 miles away. "It was about 9 miles south of Ely, Nevada." 172

I I I t



With so many cases it just became a matter of time before the right circumstances produced a significant UFO incident that left its mark on UFO history. This assumes that the saucers were "real" of course. Events unfolded slowly in regards to public awareness of the UFO incident in question. The actual day of its occurrence passed with no public notice at all. The McMinnville Photos.



At this time the northward shift of UFO activity began to pick up in areas across the middle of America. This included areas in the State of Oregon. Newscaster Frank Edwards, who interviewed the witnesses by phone, wrote the following about the outset of the incident that would produce the famous McMinnville photos: The sun had already set when Mr. and Mrs. Paul Trent turned into the driveway of their farm near McMinnville, Oregon. It was May 11th, 1950, and in her lap Mrs. Trent had a little folding camera with which she had been taking some family snapshots earlier in the afternoon."l73 After feeding some rabbits in their hutches in the . backyard of her home, a farm located 10 miles southwest of McMinnville, in gentle undulating farm country of western Oregon, a Mrs. Paul Trent walked toward the house. That early evening she noticed a strange object speeding through the sky coming out of the northwest. She shouted for her husband who came running with the camera. Interviewed June 12, 1950 at the Alderbman Berry and Vegetable Farm outside McMinnville, where he drove a truck, Mr. Trent said: " ... he was in the kitchen when his wife sighted the flying disc first about 7:30 p.m. She was in the back yard and called to him. He immediately ran for his folding camera, dashed outside and took the pictures. There in the sky was a 'thing' he believed was 20 to 30 feet in diameter ... "l74 Approaching in the air was something brightly silver in color with a hint of bronze. It looked to be an inverted piepan shape with a small "post" on the top. Mr. Trent snapped a picture with his inexpensive Kodak as th~ UFO closed within about 500 yards and then veered west, gaining altitude as it retreated. Mr. Trent shifted his position slightly and took another snapshot before the strange object was lost from view.l75 Meanwhile, Mr. Trent's wife tried unsuccessfully to phone her inlaws that lived down the road. Mr. Trent later told the press: "I was kind of scared of it you know, you hear so much talk about those things and the government."l76 It didn't occur to the Trents that they had photographed something that might be from Mars, so without undue concern they used up the rest of the film and only then did they have the roll sent to a drugstore for developing. It would be some time before the press would learn of the photographs, much less the authorities. Much more about this will be discussed later.

The Amarillo case, a very special story. The District Commander of the lith OSI unit stationed at· Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma, immediately ordered agents to Amarillo, Texas to question the night serviceman at the Tradewinds Airport. It took something spec i a 1 to 1urc OS I investigators all the way to Amarillo but in this case the trip seemed worth the trouble. The serviceman swore that a strange "machine" had landed on the Amarillo airstrip! The man's story follows: "I glanced aloft, and saw what appeared to be an exhaust flame approaching from the WestSouthwest. I watched the approach of the flame until it passed overhead, and judged it's altitude to have been approximately SOO to 700 feet . I was mainly interested in it because it did not h;lVe any navigation lights and until then supposed it to be a plane. "After the object passed overhead, immediately returned to the main hangar, went inside and tried to awaken--- (deleted), a pilot employed by Tradewinds Airport, who was sleeping in the hangar. Being unable to awaken --- (deleted), I then returned to the front of the hangar, and saw the object approaching 200 to 300 miles per hour. I again went inside to try and awaken--- (deleted), and being unable to do so, returned to the front of the hangar. By that time the object had swerved to the right and was headed in the direction of English Field, North-East. Approximately five minutes later, I was going from the office, in the front of the hangar into the main hangar itself, and saw this brilliant light approaching from the West-NorthWest~ I switched on the flood lights in the front of the hangar, and saw the object come to rest approximately three hundred feet in front of the hangar, on a grassy area . The approach of the object was accompanied by a slight swishing sound. By the time the object had landed, I had the flood ligh'ts on, and stepped outside the hangar to get a better view of the object. It appeared to be flat on the bottom, but otherwise eliptical in shape, with a sharp cut off section toward the rear. The rear of the object was sharply cut away. It had a bubble setting forward on the top of the object, which appeared to be about the size of a football helmet. Toward the rear of the object was what appeared to be a pipe or tube protruding from the body of the craft, approximately one foot high. The object seemed to be sitting on the ground, and small exhaust flames were coming from the rear of the craft. While it sat on the ground, it seemed to be idling.

rI I I

t

45

"I again went inside the hangar to try · and awaken --- (deleted), but being unable to do so, returned to the front of the hangar. The object remained on the ground for a period of three to five minutes, and after returning to the front of the hangar, I noticed the grass beneath the object beginning to smolder and burn. While watching the object, it suddenly raised, a whining sound was heard, accompanied by white flames, approximately three feet in length, shooting from the rear. After reaching a level of four feet, it then took off in a Southeasterly direction, with a terrific roar. The take-off was gradual, and it started off in a shallow climb until reaching the far side of the field, when it started a steep climb. It then leveled off, and seemed to turn, but without the bank of a conventional aircraft. It appeared to remain on an even keel while making the turn, and then proceeded to gain speed and momentum; headed in a Westerly direction, and with a sudden burst of speed was soon lost to sight. "I would estimate the size of the object to be approximately six to eight feet in length; from one and one-half to three feet tall at the highest point. "After taking off I noticed the grass where the object had been sitting was still burning. I took a fire extinguisher from the hangar, and used almost all of the contents in putting out the fire."l78 Records did not say if the investigation of this alleged incident was complete. Did the OSI agent question the pilot the witness tried to awaken? Was the fire extinguisher empty? Was the burned spot examined? Was the CAA weather station or the tower at English Field contacted about any strange aircraft in the area at the time? The only check that seems to have been made was an interview of the editor of the Amarillo Globe News who denied receiving any reports from people 1n the area.l/9 The lack of data leaves us at a dead end except for the fact that there was a similar incident that was said to have occurred October 27, 1952, at Z:lS in the morning at Marignane Airport, Marseilles, France.* *The witness in the French case was a M. Gachignard . His story differs in a number of small details but nonetheless is remarkably similar to the Amarillo case. The reader can judge for himself by conulting the book, The Truth About Flting Saucers, by Aime Michel, New York: Criterion Books, 19 6, pp. 157-160.

f I

May 13th. "Them there things arc here again." A UFO drought in northern Ca 1 ifonti a en tied May 13th. Near Sutter Buttes, a small volcanic geographic feature that rises abruptly from the flat, fertile Sacramento Valley, a farmer and a field hand were wrestling an irrigation pump into place. High above, scooting around in the blue were brilliant white colored objects. Looking up the two men followed the - wild maneuvers for several minutes and then the old farmer turned to his companion and with a shake of his head drawled~ "Them there things are here again."l80 Another candidate for the growing legion of believers was a private pilot swinging his small plane around in the air over Forest Park, Missouri, on May 16th, a gentleman named E. Cullon. He glanced out of the corner of his eye and discerned something about 20 feet in diameter and 4 feet thick. It was round, cream colored, and moving fast. It was very fast, in fact he estimated it was zipping along perhaps ten times his own speed. Cullon had a passenger with him but hesitated to say anything until the UFO's presence became all too obvious. After drawing near, the l!H) began to increase its distance. Banking his plane to keep things in sight after it passed by, Cullon failed to gain on the thing as he watched it zip toward the eastern horizon. Culton's plane was hindered in its pursuit by a strong headwind but the UFO never slowed up the slightest. 181 Captain Eddie Rickenbacker was very concerned about pilots encountering strange "' i.:cts in the skies. As president of an airline he ha.l an important reason to be worried. He contacted the new~ ~·J
At 8:45 p.m., a doctor and his wife were in a parked car on the shore of Lake Michigan at Wilmette Beach, Illinois, the night of May 16th. The wife pointed out something in the sky: "The object was traveling south at a tremendous rate of speed and at first Dr. --- (deleted) thought that it was a 'shooting star.' While watching it, Dr. - - - (deleted) realized that the object was not a star but appeared to be some type of aircraft. The object was 'elliptical' shaped, approximately SO to 100 feet in diameter and appeared to be traveling on a set course 6 to 8 miles from shore. The object was in sight for three or four seconds and traveled 50 or 60 miles in that time. Altitude was estimated as 25 degrees above the horizon. When last seen the object had changed course and was headed out over the lake. The object fluoresced with a pink hue."l84 The Director of Research and Development, Major General S. R. Brentnall, USAF, at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, notified Washington on May 17th that personnel and equipment on a limited basis were now available for an investigation of unexplained aerial phenomena being reported over Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico. Askania photo theodolites, optical spectra-photography, and radio spectrum analysis equipment had been requisitioned. One hangup to the initiating of the effort, however, was the current ·~hands off" policy by the Air Force. General Brentnall asked Washington: · " ... it would be very desirable to have the activities of the 17th District OSI at Kirtland Air Force ,Base reinitiate in making field investigations of light phenomena reports. Such reports would be important in the verification of any results of the project work at Holloman. It is therefore requested that action be taken for reinitiation of the 17th District OSI investigations for the period of this project."l85 The next day another UFO report was recorded in England. A Mr. W. Campin, who resided in Timperey, was surprised when be saw something the size of an airplane speeding along in the sky in and out of the clouds. He told a reporter for the Manchester Guardian that the strange object appeared to be dark gray or black against the setting sun, and in shape it resembled a "huge smoke ring" even though he was sure it was a solid object.l86 "Is there life on Mars?"

48

The Lowell Observatory at Flagstaff, Arizona, was established at the turn of the century with the specific purpose of detecting a suspected alien civilization on the planet Mars. Scrutiny of our neighboring world yielded tantalizing data but not much else so it could rank as one of history's ironies that the supposed evidence of alien life might be closer to home. On May 20th the astronomer Seymour lless was strolling the grounds of Lowell Observatory during lunch and as was his habit, he inspected the sky to check cloud cover. On this occasion, he perceived something unfamiliar approaching out of the southeast. ~arge enough to command immediate attention, Dr. Hess squinted and peered with more concentration. Having a four-power telescope handy, Dr. Hess followed the object with hi s spyglass as i t passed i n fro nt of a small cumulus cloud, the object appearing dark aga inst the cloud, but of a much lighter hue as seen against the blue sky. The professor of course was an ideal observer, for he was well aware of how objects appear under different lighting conditions and how to judge the object's size (an estimate derived from angular diameter) from cloud drift. Having ready access to the Weather Bureau office, Dr. Hess obtained exact data on cloud height in the flagstaff area. Without getting too technical, we know from the professor's calculations that the flying object in question was a round, gray-colored thing about four feet in diameter that was self-propelled since it was traveling at right angles to the wind. The object, according to Dr. Hess, was ~oving at 100 miles per hour.l87 When Dr. Hess told tl .. ress al>c nt the incident, reporters cont a cted Williams Air Force Base for a comment. A spokesman at the Air Base outside Phoen i x denied hav i ng knowledge of anything in the air resembling Dr. Hess' UFo.lBB May 21st. Unfortuhately, a camera doesn't figure in the ne xt case. A Felix Zenon, 60 years old, of Montrose, Colorado, didn't characterize himself as a "believer," at leas t not until May 21st when he emerged from his house in Montrose and beheld something in the sky t hat appeared round and huge. Flashing in the sun, the object was hovering in the he a vens, so Zenon summoned his wife and his son Bill. As the three watched, a second object like the first approached and parked next to the one in the air over Montrose. After a while , the two left together , moving off to the north toward Cerro Summit, a cut in the Rocky Mountains, but the objects altere d course to an eastern heading before vanishing from sight.lB9 ·A Gallup Poll released on May 21st showed that the per centage of those favoring a secret weapon theory to explain UfO's was running one out of three. Fans of the extraterrestrial idea lagged way behind. Way over half of those polled

r '

49 expressed little interest in the subject or dismissed fJyin~ saucer reports as due to jokes or illusions, bbt with !he passage of years belief in UFO's would slowly gain more and more devotees.l90 A May 1950 convert was a journalist widely considered the Dean of Science Editors, Waldemar Kaempffert. He admitted that back in 1947 he had shrugged off saucer stories as "unsubstantiated anomalies," yet with the latest cascade of testimony, he was ready to have a change of heart. lie leaned toward the idea that the strange objects soaring over the nation were some sort of secret Pentagon contraption. In spite of reports of excellent quality the Air Force continued to wear a mask of public indifference, even comic on one particular occasion. During Armed Forces Day at Randolph Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, the loudspeakers blared out that the air show then in progress would have a "top secret finale." It was announced that "real flying saucers would make an appearance!" In an attempt to humor, thirty thousand paper plates were dumped over the crowd from Air Force cargo planes during a final flyby.l91 The saucers put on a show of their own the same afternoon for seven members of Wyoming's Air National Guard, pilots of the 187th fighter squadron, as the airmen were standing watch at Cheyenne's airport scanning the horizon for the appearance of the rest of the unit's aircraft. T/Sgt. E. Ules was the first to sight the UFO's. His shouts brought the others running. All looked skyward and sighted: " ... four perfectly round pure white discs coming in due south in a 'V' formation and heading north."l92 A "re-emphasizing." Writing to General Carroll, Lt. Colonel Rees submitted a summary of observations made in the U.S. Southwest. The OSI District Commander broke down the observations into three classifications instead of gathering every report under the heading of just "anomalous luminous phenomena" like the military had done since 1948. The OSI was now evaluating each sighting into one of the following classifications: (1) green fireball phenomena, (2) disc or variation, and (3) probably meteoric. According to the Colonel, a number of military and government agencies wanted UFO information, naming ~he Federal Bureau of Investigation, El Paso and Albuquerque Field Offices; Atomic Energy Commision, Los Alamos, New Mexico; and USAF, Cambridge Research Laboratories. Lt. Colonel Rees sought to send the summary to the forementioned organizations and requested permission to do so from General Carroll as Director of the OSI. Until then Colonel Rees held such distribution in abeyance. Colonel Rees felt there was good reason to distribute the material: "This summary of observations of aerial phenomena has been prepared for the purpose

so of re-emphasizing and reiteratine the fact that phenomena have continuously occurred in the New Mexico skies during the past 18 months and are continuing to occur and, secondly, that these phenomena are occurring in the vicinity of sensitive military and government installations. ul93 An enclosure with the letter gave the opinion of a professor who was an authority on meteors. Dr. La Paz and the Russian rumor. Dr.Lincoln La Paz who had served .on a voluntary basis as a consultant to the Air Force's investigation of green fire balls and reported flashing over sensitive military and scientific installations in New Mexico, wrote Colonel Doyle Rees, Commander of the 24th OSI District to reiterate his previously stated conviction that the green fireballs were anomalous . On May 23rd, Dr. La Paz wrote .that the only change he wanted to make in .his nine listed mysterious characteristics about the fireballs would be to add two more. One was the number of reported vertical infalls of the green fireballs, something that is very rare for ordinary meteors. Secondly, the maximum frequency of green fireball sightings occurred at 2030 hours in contrast to ordinary meteors that peak at 1600 hours. This time Dr. La Paz offered an interesting speculation about the Russians. He postulated that since the majority of green fireballs were reported between S:OO p.m. and 11:00 p . m. in the Southwest United States, it meant that in the southern Urals in Russia it would be 7:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. With that in mind, he noted tha~ the estimated speed of the reported fireballs could take them from the Urals to New Mexico in 15 minutes. The morning hours in the Urals would be the prime time to launch missiles due to weather conditions, thus he believed it significant that the fireball sightings occurred when they did . Even the days of .the week.figured in the theory put forward by Dr. La Paz. Since most fireball reports were recorded on Saturday and Sunday, he felt this indicated that the weekends were test periods for the Soviet scientists. Furthermore he remarked: "It is a curious and fairly well established fact that there bas been a distinct decline in the number of .green fireball sightings during the last two months, within which the number of socalled ·'flying saucer' incidents in this region ·has attained an all time high. · . "Although I have recently received from · Dr. Joseph Kaplan of the Scientific Advisory Board a letter containing the statement:

A SPECIAL INSERT FOR 11-HS EDITION

!SA~ JOSE EVENING ~~~S

FRIDAY, APRU.l4,1950 .25

lit's Spring~ Saucers Fl-,, an·d San Joseans See Them "Two other pe..- witll • • • an object with a loBI ller)' tall. ~t;!.e~ rrowtar - • ., It boYere
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Maybe Mars Is Whistling Britons Probe Stronge Vibrotory N LONDON, April are heartnc noises In the air. And at one of them-Ralph B. Cox, elderly London banister-Is termlned to find an el
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:a. L. VInson, nllred business~ maa; Mr. and t.fra. Oscar Rke. ond Joe Hardin, fteichl acenl lor 111o Cltuopaake " Ohio llollwor, told of the n,·in& oblocl. lt aMmed to be" obeut 10 feet Jon& and perhaps two fed· wide II ot about 1,000 lert, and emitted "'uminous rccr clow. AU aald the objeet ,.... trantlnl at · ·m~.:!ium rp«ct•• and rtrriained In si,ht for some «.i:>ulet · ·· obout t p.m. ycsterdar.

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Military Den1es. Use of 'Saucers'. WASIUNGTON, April 4 IUPl.-1 Two new "rut~ tiOrtes or ftylnr ! uueen t.oday proYok~d ••••rout ' denlols from the Armed Fortes lhol i they ore, I• rulllr, seerel u.s.l wupons. I Both the Air Foree and tile Novy said flolly that they ore not experl· menllnc with any pllne or wupon , that could account for wlresprud · reports obout the flylnc disks. A spokesman for the Air Force, 1 which has been lnvesllcallnc hun·j dreds of llylnc saucer stories, uld · the armed services are sllndlnl; I on conclusions ruched last Decem· 1 ' ber that flylnc saucen Just don exht. soarlnr throurh spoce, often at hntasllc speeds, keep cropplnc up. ft1dlo Commenloter Henry Tulor ond U.S. News and World Report, 1 weekiJ nt1''1 ••rntne pabUshed hue, ro•e the latest nr·,· tlotts yesluday. Both tilled flotly that fl)'lnr uueers do nisi, bat neither qnoled ony ""lhorlly fnr their tlalemenls. In 1 'broadcut over the Amorl· 1 ron Drnarlnsllnc :>y•t•m. Taylor sold that there are two types of . "ll)'ing saucers" which the mllitlf')' hu classified as srcret. One, he said. Is a hormless, pilotless disk which usu11ly dlslnterrates In the air. Its purpose, he uid, Is a lop military secret. He sold the other Is the I'IIY)''s so-called "Flylnc Phantom" or Jetpropelled XF-~U-1. The Navy, he sold, Is experlmentJnc with the! radical plane at Its Patuxent, 1\ld., ; test center. ' U.S. News sold simply that the sauc:trs are revolutlon•ry ne·.v planes, probably developed by the N•''Y as part of Its cutded mloslle experiments. The Air Force Issued Its dmlal ' promptly.

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The Northern Callforala Air National Guard 1111 II lsa'l '"'""

lnl' lilt Jlltlme•o Jer II\ dlaplaylnr a nrtnc uucer at the old circus

------

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h1gll Air Force

nllicen who11 solemn!)' assert in private conversation that they believe the flying saucers C'Ome from ~t:.rs, now at Its nellrest !)Oint to earth.

rrounds, S. Flnl and Alma Sta. II oars the cadret Is the only

"eaptured·' one In U.e eoun&r7. . The rhamlek Ia an ollenllon• roller for recrulllnc nndldolea for the lt4tb Flrlller Squodron al\d the 24Cih Air Senlce Graup, wbleh meet at Harward Airport for ll'eekly drlll1o

I

"Gennan newspapers have always loved April Fools Day." The following story appeared in the April 1, 1950 issue of the Wiesbadener, West Gennany, newspaper Wiesbadener I!Bblatt: "FLYif'li SAUCER OVER WIESBADEN A GIANT FLYI~ DISC CRASHED AT BLEIDIENST.ADTER KOPF CREW MB-IBER IS IN aJSTOD'l

NO CAUSE Fffi PANIC. "A story was told of how a flying saucer crashed during the night over Wiesbaden, there was also a survivor, a crew member, he was put into protective custody. The strange creature was said to have only one leg and moved about on a rotating plate, his anns come to an end in four stubby like fingers, he has large glaring eyes his head was an oval shape, one of the US policemen was carrying an air tank with a hose attached to it. '1be mysterious ~tr. X was taken to the Wiesbaden Heroberg hotel. The Americans would not conrnent on the incident. So that Mr. X can get used to our air, he will be taking a walk around the grounds of the hotel dail v between 14: 00 hrs and 15: 00 hrs . "It. 1-1as also stated that special trips would be arranged on the world famous Neroberg raih-1ay around the area, there was AO danger to the local population from the crashed saucer and special units were out searching the area with apparatus similar to mine detectors called Telesearchgerats, the special units will be searching the woods and looking for other crew members. "Anyone who has observed anything strange in the area is requested to call the incidents room at the Town Hall, further investigations will then be carried out, 1-~e ourselves will do everything in our power to keep the public on its toes in the truest sense of the 1-1ord!" (English translation by ~fr. J.P. Johnson t-I.U.F.O.I.T./Gennany) The above ''-1r. X" storv 1-1as investigated in depth by the Gennan UFO investiKlaus 1\'ebner in 1981. ~lr. Webner visited the offices of the \\'iesbadener Tagblatt 1-1here he met Nith reporter William Sprunkel who admitted dream1ng up tlie "crashed saucer" story after noting the great nt..Dllber of flying saucer re[~rts on the newswires. Since April Fool Day is a widely observed·tradition in Germany and the American occupation authorities were eager to please, Sprunkel had little trouble borrrowing two U.S. soldiers to ·pose for a "captured saucer pilot photograph." The local U.S. Army liaison officer, laughingly a~reed and phoned his Commanding Officer at Wiesbaden . The CO, in turn, got approval from U.S. HQ located at Heidelberg. Having arranged for two American MPs, reporter Sprunkel then recruited a photographer Hans Scheffler and made him part of the scheme. Scheffer's five year-old son, Peter, who enjoyed the "game" inmensely, was dressed up ·as the ·~1r. X," the saucer pilot (After the picture was taken Peter's fingers were touched up on the negative to resemble claws). Pictures in the Tagblatt showing "flying saucers" in the sky over Wiesbaden 1-1ere also faked. Scnefter"photographed a glass cover. on a city water fountain and then prints of the cover 1-1ere cut up and glued on a picture showing the l~iesbadener ~larkt church. The glass cover gave the saucer image a ghostly appearance 1-1hich Sprunkel explained in his April 1st story in this way: "The Infra-red Kathoden ray projector cylinder together with a special photographic technique and a new film process reveals what is invisible to the human eye. This is how we got this proof of the flying saucers over Wiesbaden. No noise 1~as heard from the objects because ultra short waves cannot be heard by the ht.man ear."(Translation also by J .P. Johnson) : ~a tor

·.· .

~l~MEO~

·T··.· '

fiNDS\

flYING SAUGEH A. flyinl sau~r. three fi!Ct thick with a diameter of t~n feel. was found early y~sterd•y in a eomer of Kru•l Park, on Ot ;, Drive. Alameda. Inside was a man In 11. ,-eon ISUit with a cape, helmet and mask Ito match. Pollee and National Guardsmen npt a crowd of 300 awar from the object. After pollee lints h~~ been .et up, the man emerged from the

«

saucer to displ•y a ban~r r••d· 1111, "l C:une Frnnt ftlar1 In Sn 'lJte In a Swtn Ch"""" Fodnl'3·'," Inve~tll(atlon

disclosed h• wu

not from Mars, but WArren Fran· cis, a eensus tak.., from the Ala· meda Junior CJt,,m~r ot Com· merce. The cham~r pull•d the stunt to advertise Its show, to be staged

IT'S ANOTHER SAUCER-W"•• •• •"i"' oloa..,l Ill•• a flyi•c ..••• ,_.,.. Ia K...i Park, Ala••••· a

••• ....,..... willa • ,..... aaU ••• • ai.. eayi•w •• waa f,._ Man. That alp. wae f•••• te Ito falaa lll•t tho ather aita ho caft'iad iadi ..

catad the Ala..ada J••i•r Chamber of Commerce will et•r• a •hew called "'Life ia a S•iu Ch•••• Fadory."' The •hitor In the taacar ia Wa~" Fra11cia, Ala"'Ma caa..a talrer, thew• partied.,. Na .. tiotta1 C•ardaMen who eaddenlr arri••d to take charaa. _ . ____-PI\ete bT .. ,. PraMt.te Z•an~lntr.

hn ~rantlsra t:nmbttr 5

1

Svod••• A,..1 t, lfSO

Friday and Saturday nights, at 8 p. m .. In the Porter School.

PiavC/ii!IJnveils.'Fiying sfitlEt/5;1 ·TheVi'ftU. s.... Pirate 'Planes'· . . 1· . ":. .· •.

saucers<}/~J5•

.!



. .·

J~ .lly. Steffan Andrews If<() Amerlc.:n Ptrat. planu Ill the air

'Unknown' To Truman

. ...,.,."_ _ _ _ " _ " · onr foretn terrlto17," Zaalu-

KEY WEST, April 4-(UP) Those stories or Oyinl sau~n have cone clear to the top o( our 1 government, to PrKident Truman himself. Mr. Truman's news secretary, Charles Ross, says the President knows absolutely nothinl what· ever or the existence or any type . of fl;inc saucer. Rou says the I stories are not beinl denied just J because we're developinl a secret I weapon thot officiols can't even hint about. Ros1 says it's juS! thot the White llouse know• nothinll to support the rumors of saucers. When recent reports of them reached the White House, Mr. Trumon checked with General Robert Landry, Air Force aide to the President. Landry told Mr. Truman the Air Force investigated the sauc~r reports . for two yean ' and fuund no support lor them. / As for reports that saucers are ' radically new planes heine de: veloped by the Navy, Ron soys it simply is not true so far as the President knows. · I The only saucers c:onceminl the Preoident today were on the din· ner tabl" at Kay Wert, Florida. He spent a quiet vacation day with his family on the beoch. Other SloriH But still the stories come. At' Tipp City, Ohio, nine persons say j they saw flyinc saucers both hov- • ering and speedlnc in the sky over town and over the Air Force base at Wril(hl field. near Dayton. , Wril!hl field officials say the•,• don't know anything abo u I il Nothin11. they say, showed· up on their radar. 1 AI Elizabeth, Illinois. Po I i c e Chief J. C. Lee said he snw a r~d and· blue thing that looked lik" a disc whizzing over town Sunday. He kept quiet about it until now. he says, because he was alraid people would laugh al him.

I

I

Dawtd. Zaalanb. hatcbet mao '"' ....rted•. , •• :: for &be Sowle! newopaper rr...da, He ..td • tha . flylnr .U.C. bad Joined . t.b1 llllrertlll controweny appeared recmtly .•;.111 MonraJ, Oftr liJIIIr ..ucer.. lodaJ-wlt.b onr Africa and alao "!!JJ 'IOIDe of &be llat UMrtloD · that be knew the Sta"a of .t.bl UDited Statea." their real . secret. "Thll i. not a. rtdJCU)oua tanThere II not.blllr "myotertoua" tuy of the. newopaper clowno. but about them. he said In a lead the smokeacreen pUt out bJ tbe , Pravda article beamed bJ Sowle! professional lnltlcatora, of war,"l I radio to North America ond man- Zulavslus. bouro;e~·~e.!e__ '"!_ real _lllrhll_ !'Lm>!!.Jiress" ··- '.;..~.

I

KIND OF SILLY,' BUT THER~ . THEY WERE, 6 FLYING S~'-l~E~S . 1

A oquadron of slz IIJ\nc uuceral "I'd read about theM lhin11 In flew ovor ihe Contra Costa hUI• the paper, but I nner th.,...ht I'd ••• an,.," s&ld he. "lt'o kJ.n.d <>f a .ooutheut ol Orinda yesterdaJ. ;Illy deal. aun, but lb117· weren't A· woman who driYe .Into a oervlce planeo. I'll cuaraniH any_,. thaL station at the Orinda cr0$110&ds, What the doYII thoJ wero, 1 can't fl11t apotted them. and shouted to say.• Rod Xello11. ll, of 1133 ~1th ue- Don Bradley. crouroad.l . . nuo, Oal
AprU 3, 1950

San Jose News

CAN'T LAUGH IT OFF

flying Saucer Jitters Finally Invade Britain .LONDON, April 3 (API.-Tho wllo haye beea reellnr ...... perter to 1uell lblncs. have come dowa In •rea& numben wtth a eue el nrtaa aaucer jlllera. A bus conductor wu the first yesterday to report by telephone to tbo air ministry: "TIIert's a flylnc saucer right over my vehicle with lots of little JDCQ With &inger hair inside." Tho ministry lauehed it otrofte bus conductor doesD 't count for much. But not for lone. The phone kept rineinl. Dozens ol cJU.zeRJ reported variously: "It has dots on the bottom ~ ......

(The Telenews docl.lllentarv mentioned above ran about · 20 minutes and featured interdews lvi th Frank Scull v and Donald V-eyhoe. --L. Gross)

Fair Offers

Jfore Saucers

$so;oool~r Flyil]g_QiJ~ ;; A L::. A :;, -:-::.::., r.fet.-The state fair

lJ Texas

hrin~:in« its .:lUdience thf' fir~a i nform:~:tion of .1U new and im·

port;tnl scientific de\•elopments. Thornton said the fair does

!l_£l know whethrr sue~ cti 'iC!; actuallv r:
• 311-il Jeee Ue\JB W•nt to Ride /4-5-50 A Flying Saucer? YORK, April 5
FIJinc ~aucen Ia the shape ef siiYer dellan were reported zip-o pi•• acreu Saa Jose sklea Sun• det alleraoon b)" Ror i\llehe, Geerrlaa llolel, 99 S. 14111 SL :\llehe aiHI three companioaa sar the uucen passed dtrecu,. oYerllead ~t a ~lela nte of speed followlaa two Jot alrplaneL

:. ~~ • 1 o(

has postl!d a S50.000 r~ward for .lhe discovery, prcscr\'allon and delivery to it in its orizinal form, a ~o-called tlyin~t disc o( inter· P!anetary oriJ;:..;:in.;:._ _ _ _ __ 1!. k Th~~nton, president of the fair, said the offer was made because of I he fair's intttrest in .

SI~tns

Seen-Chasing After Jets!

.. - ··----··-·

.

-···

..

:'Pancake·Shape' Craft !Flown, Nary Discloses

~

Th1·ouah Ita public lnformatlor desk In the Pent.aron, t.he Na•1 Issued a quick denlol It waa op· 1eratini anr ftylnl( .saucerL '"The Na•y Is not. tnraced Ia research . _?_~ _In . ftylnl_ anl__ jet· · poWered, circular- shaped · atr 1 craft. .. the sta~ment said. it acknowledaed that Chonce Vourht "did construct a pancake shaped aircraft. called the Zlrn· merman-•klmmer In 1941," a full scale prototype coiled the X4 :~;r "but It never new," the NU!

I

l

: I

However, a small. l.OOO·pounc

j scale model, powered by a Lycom

Inc cn,lne, did lly and wu unde radio control In tll~ht. "This," the ~avy spokumat , said. " probably accounts for t.h• 1 ln nl•ht photos shown ID th• ' maaazine."

It's allvery ••• ll'a atatlonary •• It's movlnl fut •.. the little men Inside are havln1 tea." Other phonea were rin&lnl, no· !ably lhoso' at the meteorolollcal oftlce. The thln1 wu hi1h, low. circular. tear·shaped. GenUemen of the meteorolo1ical ofllce finally climbed to tbe root and swept the skies with their eyes. Then it waa explained-maybe. A call came from the parachute traininl centrr at. Wtston--on-theGre~n. near Oxford, to report that a parachute jumpinc balloon wu mlssinl. the presumption being that it had torn away rrom itt moorin1s. It was about 60 feet lon.c and thf!' jumpinc school feared th.1t in yrst~rday'l squall it mi&ht drift over London and cau!e alarm. Th• toxplanaUon i:m 't quite &en· eraUy aecepted. It doun't account for the 1in1er-haired men. and no balloon has Hen recovered.

----

;z,mmerman. lsDoubtlul - · His Plane Is Saucer :

LANGLEY AIR FORCE BASE,

Vo., April 4 lif'J.-<:harles H . Zlmmtrman .saya he doe.sn"t believe " ! plane he helped develop 5everal years ••o Is a forerunner of the! ; : nylnlf' saucer. Mr. Zimmerman Is head of thr. J i dynamic •t.ablllty branch of the • Lan~:ler Aeronautical I.. bora tory . 1 ~::~~~~u~tlsory Committee lor 1

'

Mr. Zlmm.erman. ·who - ~-;;u ,known as the desicner of the · "FIJin~ Pancake," ucd , · he wu connected with the build-· ; lnr of such a plane sevtral years · a co durtnr the war. He :aid 1t lYIJ built and ftown at Stratford Conn.. and was a. h .irly well~ · known projrct. But he added. he doe.
i

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MONTVALE. N. J.; Aprit" ~1-WIIIy Ley, one of th.. world'o outstandinr authorities on rockt!to and nlcht above tbe! stratosphere. said today he is firmly convinct!d that "llyinr saueen": ·have be'~n \Vln(lng acro11 the Una ted. Slatn. ' t Ley, a foundin~ member of the German Rocket society fro!"· which Nazi Gennany drew scientists to produce the rocketo· wtilch 1hombarded Britain. soid the "sauce~: probobly are Unitt!d St.IIIM pnilltary · tecrets. • · •· • •·one thing I can uy In a Joud,and clear vofce," Ley said. "nytnrl He said that although ha hu' ,saucert..iJe not rpcket·Pr9peJ!efi:j' IJ,!.V~r see~ a nz-ln& saucer, he 11 If they are. they have the WOtat COn\·inced there are suer. tfii.n p possobtl shape for spet!d and elfl-'because they aze possible to build ciency." r nd bt!c " I be ol But. he st~id. it is ~ntirPIY f'OS· •a aUH • •rr• num r sible and probable that the U. S.j hone-st '-'1tnessH have s~n thm1."' has learned how to send discs soar-• 'There are three possibiJIUeo,''l in~ over the nation in controlled he said. · IJI~ht. : ··one is that they are a Unltt!d "The answf'r to "''hether rliscs·Statu military secret. can fly is simple.'' he said. "\\'h~n ''The second is that they ar~ th~ r was a srudent, we used lo make srcret ot some rorercn pow~r. pre· ilrojec~ile fired frof!i~ fl~es.'.:_ ~~~ ~ done abo~L."_

,•

t~

.

4

Montean-rt:~

Tells of 23-Year

O~~NT!~~,~~~ ,!/!~

A Dutch-bom en11ineer and sculptor: Alexand..- ' G. Wenors, hU told of a "work-'>le" flyln• ooucer which wu desiRned 23 veors A«o and rtje:ted durin• Wnrld W;tr II as ••too tar adv1nced." Wey~ers said in a story oooyI"IKhted bv the Monterey Penlnaul. Herald that ills flyinK disc, which he calls a "dlscopter," was oat•nled in 1944, three _,.earo bt!fora the first flvin• saucer report came out of OreJlOR. He says hl1 .&aucer

is shll in the paper deaian . stace. He h~sn't made a model of it. Bul he insists lhe desi~en is aeronauticatlv sound. Blueprints show the . c.-raft elicves ir.ts can be und in plac ol the rotors.

, ,- ~

Fl yi· .·~~·jors~~~fi'l~i, Says Rickcnbacker

·

INDIANAPOLIS, June II, lAP! C>pt. Eddie Rickenback•r today ca me to the rescue of th~ people who can ·t get oanyone to believe lhey 'v~ seen flyin« saucers. Jte thinks they·re rta l, too. ''Too many good men have seen them thar don't have hallucina· tions,'' he said in an interview here today. .. And If th<)' exbt." he added, "you can bet they -belon1 to the United St.ates Air Force-lbey·re not from Mars and not from Rus· sia." Rlckenbackrr. a colorful ace of World War I aviation. came her e on an Inspection tour as president uf F.aslcrn Air Lines. Air Forre officials have dented la unchinJC any such objects. Rlck e11backe r declined to amplify his n•marks. 4

Ozzie To Resume Pole Sitting; Promises To Explain 'Saucers' Georn A. IOIZlel Ooborne, self-strled kin&' of the na. pole sitters. Is read,. te try •cain. And tbla time lt'o not onlr with the lhoucht of breoklnc hlo own
lo reporl to the .w orld any dll• conrlea he mar Iaake. ·•t Intend to ha•e • complete report on the flyln• saucer mrs1-.f}' for lh• people or San Jose bdore 1 eome down," Oate de· clared. An allempt to break hla 5Zday record h~re laat year ended dramatlcolly when Ozzle wn hauled down rrom hb perch unconscious. Ire was hoopUallzed with bronchtal pneumonia and exhautlon after 51 days aloft. The pneumonia w.s caused by a two-day stornt which Ozzie slubbornly wealhered In his atlempt to set a new record. Durlnc his sell 1mpoMed con• llnement. !IDle claimed to hne • receiY "2000 propoaals of mar• 4

The joke was roore of a success then Sprunkel expected. Excited inquiries came in from all over. One man called, a journalist, offering to pay big rooney for the story and pictures, and when Sprunkel insisted the incident was a hoax, the angry fellow charged that the hoax explanation was just a ploy to adVoid sharing the world-shattering information! The Wiesbadener J!Bblatt felt compelled to set the record straight,so on April 3id 1t ran a 1teiii""iSserting the incident was a hoax and that people should stop taking the story seriously. The story persists. UFO investigator Klaus Wehner was critical of Moore and Berlitz for the two writers' failure to identify the Sprunkel hoax when it was mentioned in the 1980 book The Roswell Incident. The reader is referred to pp.l02-103. It seems that anFBI agent named Johri Quinn of the New Orleans Office was given a crude reprint of the "Mr. X" picture on May 22, 1950, by an unnamed infonnant· who felt it was his duty as a good citizen to turn in the photograph(which he brought from an Army man for a dollar)to the U.S. Government since it showed a ''Martian survivor of a saucer crash in the United States." fUrther data transmitted by the informant correctly identified Wiesbaden, West Germany, as were "it first surfaced," but the time frame of its origin is incorrectly named as the "late 1940s." That a U.S. GI stationed in far away Wiesbaden would have in his pos_es!;; ion such "American saucer evidence , "puzzled the Roswell Incident authors. The source of the Wiesbaden information is contained· in the document: "Mister X was an April Fools Joke, Saucer Crash Never
H.

The reader might also liant to check a source tmavailable to this writer: "Just What ARE Those Flying SaUcers --A Secret Weapon?" Public 9'inion NeHs Service. l'rinceton, N.J. 20 Hay 1950.

I.

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'':nuC'h'!.lln Nordlr.,.mlc.;a, dann obt•r 3uC'h '" ,ondl•f't'n Li.ndrrn ~itunc,lM:rtC"hh• · ub<"r 1-lu:ct:"rtde Untrrte!l'!.rn, dll' ~t'!.d'trn :.• -.·nrcJrn wertft . SC'hhcuticb wurdt·n !flit' •uch "brr d....., Kan•~tt;tt und ubrr Ueltcn Mt~b•d,h•t, wit' Prtn. ..:cnturtn ~ · lc•nniL'·•'• ·n.

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duncsolhr.ier in dn DictrstiWfter Strotkt un~ C'":•hf~e ihtTIIJr:"~int:n hl1:t~;. 1-:r ~t."h:~ 1

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Kurho.u~·Wriher·GienchribC"• Otufef"· und drr ladtle ~tk•nfuU1, r.ab aber 1u be'• nommcn. Dat halte al~o r,t'kluppt. \Vohrr · ~=:k..c;:~~:~~:~~~!~l~:!:,~:~;:;~~~~

• ~;r~~r~~:;:=-~:.':; 1-;1r'.:~:·::'~~~:;~~ ftr•d,. ltu:r~: einhok-n mitUt'.IJartiOfhlt-n

• • : •

8 :

"•"' ~thcfflrrwuOie llll und SICil•. St'ln

du•ru~COndl~('ftllcrrrnl•bc-nlttlluibt•rd&r·

di«-u•s ll•ndrrnil war also ccnomnwn.

t'thllcnnvrnochsic~IP·SokfJt••n.dtt-Mi·

:.c Komod•r und ertrilten ihr l::inYCrsland· nes . 1:.' konnte al~o 1"'"'=ehC!n. ll:an~ ~htolll,.r phOCCJ~:raphirrlr vnd

r.eb iC'h ltotrh tvm Dmertkanf~hen Vrrbm•

t•nlf fuurtt"-

fuftfiAhr~r:f"r Sohn f~ter rneche do•.1\uch

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Mi!ltC!t X ~P"t.irrtn. Nun hattr ich uiW'!o ru•

nllt'm UcrM'hl hicll-



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the rrlunti•·•\C' Cr'>ChrC'hlr,chc ;chtai•T.ot·

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~.olt"ht'niH· mhlundbtbtldt .. t-•noPmH..c.h Unlc.•rt;w;cnN dlfJ:~

;~:.~:~~•td tlie~nd~

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Ubrir,rn~: lliiUf"' drr JC'hl.lU(' Kt~pl. df'r

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r.r11.d""" h.lllt'<'t :~n C'Mtf"r Sh•lh· dil' A·rt· lu .. un.: dt..·r w.t·~ badcnu·l·.• .:b!att·Uft\4:,... ~·•

:;:;.~;,.:::.:~~::~;;~C:::a~:!~~~:.;~: ~~~:::~~~~~~~·~.~~-=~~~~!!~~.!!~; ta~scn·GL·sch~htet:t•fund~n". wi1~ , .~

• D

a

\\'I LJtf:r.M SPI\ UNKF:I..

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•••••a•••••••••••••••a•••••tJitlbn>ntr.~oabloffiiM;uwoch. 22. Aor~ 19B118Giaae•••••••

.



-11-

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.:

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Guided Missile Is Spotted__ _ IPublisher:Defies-. ~~nttarJ'·Pres~ure Near U. S. Bases in Alaska ~MEW 16/4.FAIRBANKS, Alaska, Jui~ 3...5(tP)-The ~Iaska Air . Command said tonight "sontething'' whleh appeared to he a cuided mi!lllile definitely passed over this strategic U. S. defense outpost Saturday night.

YORK. May 26 :' ..Utor reporta that o,lense panment of!lclala have eliei-ted Jot ot preuure'' to p.-,_vent. •••• a book by Donald Keyhoe.' en· tied "'I'he FJyin1 Sau~n Aft

·Secondo

· later CAA commum.o.-:Oftlcers were lnvestiptinl re- r porll that.· ·• similar object Will1 calor Jack O~vb in Missoula Mont., saw an oranae-yellow_ ob~ 1~n this mominc. . ~ ·Capl Ruth .Marytlees, Alaska . ject shaped like a Zeppelin speedAir Command public Information ' io1 toward Great Falls, Mont. HO ' . oUicor, confirmed that "somethlnc miles away. passed OYer Fairbanks ute Satur-o day nicht and was seen by both' civilian and military personnel at: bases neu Fairbanks and in tbe : · · . Both civilians and military per-~ sonnel told intelli:once officers ·that they had seen the mysterious <'missile" at 8 a. m . today. -~ · PersonJ who said they witnessed tho strange !light this morning rc· 1 ported that the object was travel· ! inr about 800 miles an hour In a .. southeasterly direction. 0 ~ Tb.;y said It flew over Eileson , iuid Ladd Air Force Bases at Fair.banks ind an Army camp at Bir I Delta, Alaska, about 70 airline ·.,rules .southeast o{ here. · .over Montana Saturday ':'; CJvil Aeronautics Administra, j"tiOn. air force and commercial air- · I line otllclals said lhey also saw a . strance object in the sky over · Montana and washington state !Saturday niRht. : James Seakinl( and P:~ul HoP"' : kfns, who were on- duty in the ' control tower at the Spokane. , ; Wash,. Air Foree base, reported 1 ·· i"lon1 yellow object" headed for 'the control tOwer and "scared the de~i~ o~t ~f us ~ot: a -~inut~.~·- -·- - ·

I

I

• • RIC KEN BACKER



HINTS TRUTH_._-c IN 'SAUCERS' ;_1' •

8

SAVANNAH, Ga., Mar II IUri.-Capt. Ed. I e Rkkoa• bacher. lY•rld War I fiJln~ ate, apparentlr dots not acree wiUt preunt da1 ,\lr Foree leatlen tbat fblnc saucers are ae•· existent. ••There must he somelhial te them, lor too many reliable" per• sons ha•e made reports on them." Rlekenbacker said dur• InK an overni1hl slly here. ••1 am dutr·bound not to taJ lhern~r

what I don' t know ab•ut them.

they tlo eatat. un rest assure .. that they

'"llnwe•cr. If JOUI

are ours.••

"J1~ Blil~~~: edlf~r of ..;~~cett

:JOid medal. books. aaicl, ·however, tthlt the book · will 'be 'put on ule line 5 an)'Wi y · •unless tho Derose Depa~tment cets out a re· ·· · .Cralninc order'." . . "It they can · prove publication wtU do the country hami, involve uttonal aecurity.~· .fie u..id, "we'll · withdraw It" .The department, which repeat,edly has .belittled reports of "fly. jboc uucen," said in Wuhin.;ton ·:!!~s l~t~ "no· interost" in Key-

~

' 1

: . city." I• Ear IF 1\lemln• · ·

wbat I know about

E

Flying Flounder Is ~ Not; Flying Saucer W A$HINGTON, April 1.-1111• ": The ~avy today discounted a ::t- Califotnia report that perhaps its twin-mKine Chance-Vought XF5U Iichter plane had been mistaken .for a flying saucer. The : plane was nicknamed the I "Fh·in,p Flounder" for its broad, , flat appearance. . But . the Navy said it bought nnly one of lhia type n( aircraft and that was two years a~n. The pl•ne . wu not successful, the N•vy said, and the project wu dropped. 1 A Naval Aviation Headquar-1 trrs ~pokeoman said he did not i know if the plane over had been flown. He said it probably is now stored in some naval avia .. tion han~er .

Bishop .said the hook Already had been 'put on sale at midwest· ~m nJ-Wsitahds but w·a ! with · drawn' alter five days when the .depot't!"ent applied "pressure."

I

S J NeWs

4/10/50

SanJosea11 Reports

I~!~~.~~~~~:port

of

! !lylnl saucers.

Never Seen Flying , Saucer? Join Up-;)o ST. PAUL, MINN. April 211 CUPI.-R. G. Stewart has or• pnized and become myopic mastor ot the "l· Never-Have-Seen-a• Flylnir·Saucer Society.w Stewart, Northwest Alrllnet. otfklal, formed tbe club when, after maklnc cautio\11 inquirie!. helearned there were other scattered persons who never had seen the century phenomenon. ~th ~ He hopea to. hold the memberohlp to persona who not oaly never Jlave aeon a tlylnl aaueer but abo ~opa Lhey nner will aee one.

1 Roy Miehe, a resident in the Georciao Hotel, 99 S. 14th St., reports he and three friends saw some of lhe otran1e object\ yesler-, day alternoon whllo they were standlnl In front of 145 5 . 11th SL . They appeared for about a min-,. · ute and a hall and looked like •il· ver dollars, Miehe reports. The objecll passed directly overhead at I • hlch rue of speed and a high 1 altllude, he says. Shortly altrr he ~w the saucers or flhatevrr they were. Miehe says he saw two jet airplanes llyinC in the same direcUon. They were leav. inc vopor trails behind them, but the saucers moved through the air without such taila, Mlehe says. He wants anyone else In San Jose who mi'{ht have seen the objects to confirm his observation by calllnr CY3-9753.

I

fNIA T " • - • TINC SAUCER • • • Jt%7 VINTACE-'111• aboYe d u wl D c. whlcb obon au..,.·-ped obJocta moored ond oat com1D1 ID lor a iabdiDC. II the Ideo ot a Dulcb-bom oaJIDoer oDd - • -· AleliUidor o. Weraen ol JloatereT, ColU. who d.....,.td I& ap Ia 112'1-klriC btlon tho llrd nriDt auoer ropon C&DIO out of 0rtcoa Ill IU1. W!~n' fiJIDI dlle Wbldl ht ealla a "dllcopter,• wu patented In lltt ond rojecr.od durtn1 World War 1.1 u •too ad•onced. • He ..,. U.. Idea II aroooautleoiiJ OOUDd.

n

1.:>4.1'- ]",.;-~. l'le rc-/k.-. -- 'lj-lt-

'Night IJiscs'

1

Reported---

They Glotv! A new wrinkle In nriDISIUCers

-whirllnl( dlsn that llaht up after dark reperted lad nll(ht br o Mount Uamllloa Road housewife. M n. June Sands or Boll I OZ, Mount llamlltoa Road, deaerlbed seeinl( o plarlul aamo ol toe

w••

amon~r

lhree of

four of the

thlnrs between 1 and I p.m. yesterday. Said Mn. Sands: "They look just like saucora and they llaht np. And lher were r11nninc a& each o&her. lu.11 She described them ao beinl all&hiiJ elliptleal In sllape, lrnellna d extremel1 hlwll speeda and &1,_ In& oil a brlaht llahl.

~, . .

,£;;);~/~ Round and Round Water on Film __ SALEM, Ore., April 22. UN~,;_ proCessional pholoJirapher declared today that an amaleur'a '' (lying saucer picture" wos merely a water spot on the ne1aUve. The original negative of the print, showlnl a football-shaped object In the sky over the OreaoD beaches, was destroyed by Rand Hermann, Camas. Wash., who In• slated he saw a dylnl saucer and - was afraid he would be In I rouble with the Air Force. Don DIU. a Salem newopaper photographer. said they were all : just water spots resultlnll from •water not belnl properly dried on I the nuallves. A

ROME. March 2S.'J"iii)Pl- . Prof. Gulseppe Belluuo, 73- · year-old Italian turbine cnrltleer, laid today that designs t::~r

'"nyinc sauceri··wm-pre::

pared lor Hiller and Mussolinl in 1942. "A~ordlnr to those designs," he saJd sn an Interview "the di:~a could carry a c~trgo 'or ex-· ploolves of any kind-and todAy an otomie bomb-to destroy enUre cities." · 01 the" present reporti or · ::!Jylnc saucers,'' &lluzzo said: , It has passed my mind that some great power is experi- ' n1~nting

with

flying

discs - ·

without expJosh·es or atomic bombs.

-·... .. ___ ,_._. . . ·- .. . . . . . . __ ____ ::.::.= :::- =-...................

-

Flyin;Saucers Baffle Senators Just Like They Do People :· WAIHJI
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-* * * * * * U.S. Testing 'Flying Saucers, ' Radio Conzmenta·t or Asserts Top-Secret Planes, 1\lissiles Denied b~ Military Services 1'fEW YORJt, April 3. IUP)'TIJinl 18lleenM rtpOrted hurt1tn1 throulh the Nortll Amff!e1n oldeo aetueu,. are two types of top-secret tJnlt~d Statn llllll18ey Jnventlono, :Redlo Commentator Heney J . T1ylor 18ld tonl1ht. The real beta behind both are pod . - . for the 1Uitlon, TaJior uld. In . 1 notlonwlde braadcut llftl' the Amerlc•n Braadcntlnl Company network. WASHINGTON, April 3. CUPI Tile Armed Sentees llnlcM emplla&lftll:r .....,. that thtJ Ire eecret planea, rulded •lallla er 1Qtlllnc elle tllal eoald 11a .....lien fet" •nJtnc uueen.• The • .,. denlah were hned 'l f'kr a- Pllllllllled repo111 .,_. lila MII..,.M-ftpoflediJ epetled fro• tllae 11 tltDe 11 ftl'lea peiata •• the North A...tcan Ceatlne•l-lo Jlf1.,. 1nd Air Foree Reftl JH'Olteta. Mfhe Armed Senlces are nol doln&' a•Jihlnc that could be lroeed II belli&' lhe bnls of re· ,..... or RJinc 18ucen,M ... Air Foree -llntDan 181d.

pended In the. air. soan to 30.000 feet 1nd more, drops to 1000 feet, and then usually dlslntecrates In the air. The s.ouce,. 1re harmless, pilotless disc•. ranclnc from 20 Inches to 250 feet In dlametor, he pld, and they've been hautlnc the skies lor three )'ea ... The otber zoomlnc objects, which some persons have thoucht were 18Ucen, reolly are llylnc phantomo," the XF~O jet-propelled air·

cr•ft. with whkh the N1vy ac· tnowledees It Is ~xperlmentlng at P1tuxent, Taylor said. Th~oe pl1nu, h~ described u elrcular and 'A'In~le.. 1nd npahle of flytnc at a hnla!tlc role of opeed. Penons whn have seen I hem cl1lmed they lookr
••••1.,._

Md.,

--~~~~~~~~~

- ------

FlllST FL\'ING 5.\UCEil!U.S. New• and 1\'orld lltport for April 1 publish~• thlo picture ,..lth orlide conl~ndtnc "fl,tnr saucrrs ar~ nal •irtrlft of re•o· hillonar' drslrn. dntlopod In U.S. Thlo ~tale mod•l bulll In

194! t~ mountN for wind tunnel ·

lt!l at Lanclcr, \"a., hboratorr. AP ll'lrtpholo.

I

SAN JOSE EVENING NEWS FRID~Y. MAY 5, 195013

PITCHING HORSESHOES

Billy Rose I .,

BILLY KOSI I THE SAUCE& THAT CBE!U At tho risk of lwlnl lauthed out of court and countenanee, I'd lite to report that I've seen Flyinl Saueero. It hoppened on a cloor and moonminus night two Summen a1o In Newton. Conn., on the lawn of the homo beloncinl to Paul Osbomo, the playwri~hl. Amonc my follow oglors wore Paul · · ~,;:;, and his wife. Dl••<; rector Josh Logan and hl1 minus. and Au• thor John Her••Y and hll. W h a t 's rn o r e. none of Ul ••• In his cupa the nlrht •• watched the ny-

I

I

in~~:u~~Z;

be-

....

gan obout 10 p.m. while we were sittlnc outdooro, enjoylnr and shoollnll tho breeze, and the flrot thine we notleed were several surchiiJ!hts some miles away pok· inc their yollow flnaero Into the sky, A few mlnutn later, three 1 bits of celestlli ehlnaware skit· tored Into view, and from then until midnhrht they skipped and stampered above our- bewildered heads. • As nearly u I eould judce. theH Whatzlsea were at least 200 feet In diameter and were flylnc ot an altitude of from 3.000 to 5.000 feet. Their edce• cave off a lbOIIIJ rlow, nry much like blue neon tubtne seen throuch a heavy fo1. DISCS DISAPPEAR When the learchlllhLI floaliJ cut off and the discs cot lost In the stars. we put what was left of our hud1 tocelher ond decided that what we had witnessed must have been some kind of hush-hush military exercise. We also deeided that, If we didn't want a butterfly net slipped over our heads. It would be smart to keop our lips zipped about the whole thinr. How come, then, that wllh my bare lace h•n•lnc out in print, I'm , !pllllnl the story now? Well, un• tll recently tho tolk about tho per-~ snlckety pencake1 has been mora

l

lo- Ulan ludd- - d l n l to 10me wrilen, they "'ere IDIUlM by Mullana two lncl111 taU: . eecordlnl to othen, by Ruulalll two droshklu wide. Recently, howner, doeumentatloa hea beruo to roplaca delirium, and 11'1 becOIDIDI aYideat that the nercro- maahole coHn are not oaiJ real, but, despite all denlell, one of the top.. ! eecret weapon• of our • - NaY)' i and Air Force. The m01t eoaYIDdDI t11t1_,. Wll offered April 3rd br Beary J.

I

· Tarlw on a General Moton lll"old· eaat over the ABC network. Taylor, after tnltlnl 111 around tba cowatry and talklnl to people· who bad 11oa, touched and ena flown tbeH c:redullty-crocklnl e r a f t, made the tollowlnl flet 1nd uofrlvolou• 1tatements about them: One type of aoucer Ia the "tnna" dbe, whleh roncea aaywber• from 20 lochu to 200 feet In diameter, Ia uomennod ood IIDerallr. aulded by · some form of remote controL . The ·other Is e jet-drlnn pletter hlch eerrlel 1 crew and II upable of •uch 1upersonie speeds that In lllcht it looks ilko e hundred-loot flamlna clear. Furthermore, accordlnl to Henry J., e "true" dllc wu eetuallr phololfiPhed near Wildwood, N.J.;. another wee found In the vicinity of Galvelton, Tex., and etenclled oa Ita surface wa1 the followln&: "Military secret of tho United Stete1 of Ameriea-Anyone dam• 111n1 or reveallnc description or whenaboutl of thla missile is subJect to prosecution by the United Statee GoYernment. Coil collect at once." IThen a lone-distance telephone number, and the addre•s ot 1 U.S. Air Base, and finally the words on the "saucer" In bll black letter•: ~on~xploslvo.l "I know what th••• so-caRed fly. ln1 soueera are used for," Taylor COIIICiuded. "When the military authorities ore ready to releue the Information it will be a Joy to tell you the whole story, for it Is good news-wonderful news.·• WARSAW PLEASE COPY \Veil, I don't know what the saucers are for, but on the basis of this ond other reparts-plus the evidence of my own buc-eyes-l'm coavlneed they exist and, praise ' the Lord and p..s the ommunitlon, are ours. Moscow papers ple-ase copy. As you may remember, I wrote a column last week about the bureaucratic blabbermouths In uur Na· lion's Capital who, at the drop of a daiquiri, blurt out lop milituy secrets to anyone who will listen. Well, I'm plenty happy to learn that-It le11t as regards one vjtal

ftl~herl are som1 follti In Wllhln1toa who not only ltoow their beeaa but cu kNp from apiUInl tbem.

--· -- ----------------·-·------·----··-.. --·-------·-------·-- ·----·-·y.,_ "" w;.d.· n.-~-ftnia>l-

"LoS .PLA'rivti~~"--- J~.[Q..=~-4-;...

.,._:._1 _§'~~cen hawe been more clearly obaened oyer. ' ~ •1-Me:dco than ebewben. A bm report on the facta. -

lhc -.att authoriuUve 1t0rf Oil tM COD-- , 1..-: TIMir ~ho-olu"'a ·"J>In>no-pawe hadliM ...., THE oa-•. MaiCO CnY, Mardi 27. 1!154t . 1M newspaper I~ do«Sana'" aal ma '"II: SEJlVATOI.Y Of TON.,NTZI~~L\ ; . PHOTOGilAPHED A STJL\:->GEo tbooc who waoch~ tbc uca """ . A......t 27. 1949, tbc crow L !"' 10 12 AOOtL MIIIJ "IT~ IU,! ~1 OBJECT. lido,;. ,...aioftc.JOb that doe disk-wpcd obj
CIIJ daWa toltl ...Uid ...... been. We do He uicl chat it wu made o1 aluat.ia& metal aacl ••• loll6wecl .., • tail of &.re of I roup of bunten wbo tflumed 10 £no.• anide told how ml utroaocacn : U~m.Hencra Proleuor and aornc 100 fnt lone. It wu tranlinr hom GuaDlaja~•· laliKo. and ~cd a . Luie Munch Saucer wh1ch t6qo had lftll ~~ I P..a .on; were photorapk~nl lh~ aidneght sty · . southeast to nonhwaL 1 am the corrapondcnt in Mn1co for ;\larch 6. They had obaentd a diU.Itkc . when the myutr&O'II th•nc aMICd the Quick M~pinc aDCll iodwkd_the llGrf object which lubcd dttoush ~ ak.y o~ ' fickl of •ilion and ldt iLl u~d. u a wide. in aay n~• leuer that week, u n wu ~he the Cerro ctcl Cua~ro at a fanuauc: white, diapnal band on the pboto- . . lfl'phic plaee. )lunch wa.s utin; a red finl innancc· 1 k~ of ~u«n bc1n1 . \'tloc.ity." . iher and &be Jlp wa.ndcrer ~~ra1,bftl ; . repontd o ..cr MexiCO. Nat day, J.larcll 9, doc Saiina whi~ had toward ohe cut 5 d..,_ Ia ado I " ,..;1i,, ..ry well be the IOO'et ol model'a , • . need sou1h o'-u their towa. The ,-.Jbscn : miau.I.CI until It wu out ol liaht.. He; armia... On Much 11. ~ fu.nhcr nth o1 Sauc:cn I uid the formati:'»n ticked_ out red-yellow ·pointed out that Yea• ...:I ~~ iia 1 wat reponed. The crew of a. Contpa 1 ap.arltt. le~t tnt~ of whue UDOtc and , heumly bodla IDOft 10 1M WCIL ' · -:;;..:: : --- da- - d'-'-•·-t _,_ . jTr.tmponcs cup plane dcocribcd tOundedlo~ebooUnrocakettla. ·1 1 · . . Y· a - - . - - -JO l:;ty howaod OYCr lluadaa, Sii\OIOa, lro. 10 I oloj«t whoch ohq ~IIW whi e a. · dlilia uoc ljoced" .....- o...epe<. CUCrTma. Tlwa be ,..tdocd il ...._.. I IWODIJ at.iUwy a..t ci•il·-oalutia per· lllouaht it wu ...de o! al-inuao. He ro-1 %.001 lm•r-~ ~ 1! _ __ .. . .•. _ . '.? ·~-p-": _I~ disapthc11 1ooton. I<>< lao•-cred 10 doe ,.-. direaion ol the Cra:t Bat cotulllla·: --~=(); Nai-th l. ~i~';b ~-~ontO' ~at ic aopptd Hill M\'et-al daaa uri"' tioa. II mo,ft to. .nl the .outbn• at . the lronl pain ol Neaiaia put dailia IIi pasuce. · nloci&y. put I'Hp~red S;a~~e~r. a cby, AIIIC Tbe · aad itayed there. £scebior btadlined: Durlnr tbc alt...-n. tnllc 111 •loa· llANGO SAW THE FLYII'iC .o•·cr lobmla~. and the auaena ol In· Ncxim's ..... dty wa• clisn&pteclf ~1HPIO. CuanaJwlo, rqwtned an :automo- · · ALL DU SAUCER. INOTJ.~~SOV~~~~E b;le·hul>!....,. M>ria Luha llodilla ol ! j her 10 da11<1 Duranp c..IJcac ,..pcadod

.

n ·

Chy Eudsi« ~ tbc ropublte ••• ~

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1111

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atudenu could. watch . dtc ph_en~e~.~-~

uked ~ H·lbe oa.jlCi"';&. _ .., •· /"':Ne,(l.bf.ltiidt i ~: jh;s:4U
n•;va.

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"""'I ,.,...,

Sl

'Frankly I don't know of any U.S. experiments that would result in the appearance of these unconventional objects, and neither docs Von Karman . ' I still consider the most probable explanation of the green fireballs to be the one given in the first of the three paragraphs ... [here Dr. La Paz refers to a letter he wrot~ to Dr. P. H. Wyckoff back on February 20, 1950.)."194 After quoting his letter to Dr. Wyckoff, La Paz ends with: "Although the above paragraphs were written some months ago, the recommendations contained in them are the ones I would urge you to consider at the present time."l95 What he had suggested was that the minority of luminous phenomena being reported could not be meteors and if the fireballs were not American secret devices an in~ensive, systematic investiga tion was urgently needed. UFO activity since January had been so intense Donald Keyhoe had no trouble expanding his True magazine article into a 173 page manuscript when commissionea-to do so by Fawcett publications; and in spite of the tremendous popularity of Keyhoe's magazine article, Fawcett felt there was a need to engage in some sort of promotional stunt. On May 25, 1950, Fawcett announced that there would be a temporary delay of the publishing of Keyhoe•s· book because "some unknown government agency thought the work revealed information vital to national defense." Nonetheless, Fawcett assured the public that the book would still appear in bookstores on June Sth as originally scheduled after a study of the government's complaint. Two days later, on May 27th, Keyhoe's book, Flying Saucers Are Real, was released to bookstores on a test basts 1n vartous mtdwest states undeterred, apparently by any alleged government displeasure.l96 Keyhoe's book pushed hard for the extraterrestrial theory, attacked Air Force censorship (real or imagined), and stated confidently that Americans wouldn't panic if the truth about the enigmatic sky wanderers was made known. Keyhoe's writing had punch, a readable narrative style, and made good use of some spectacular UFO cases that had taken place in the previous months. "Watch itt

Watch it!"

During the evening of May 29th, about SO miles southwest of Washington, D.C., an American Airlines DC-6, piloted by a Captain Willis T. Sperry,cruised along at 8,000 feet. The airliner had just taken off from Washington Airport and was passing over Mt. Vernon, Virginia. The sky was dark since it was after 9 o'clock. Captain Sperry's attention was temporarily diverted as her fumbled with a map. His co-pilot Bill Bates caught sight of a brilliant blue glow and thought a collision was imminent so he yelled: "watch it, watch it!" Captain Sperry grabbed the controls and jerked the airliner

OBJECT AS IT MOON

C~OSSEn

IN FRONT OF FULL MOON

VERY BRILLIANT FLUORESCENCE BLUISH LIGHT ON THE FORWARD END OF OBJECT

(Copied from an Ulustrat ion made by Wlllis T. Sperry,Captain, American Airlines)

Jl!RECTION OF TRAVEL

into an aht·upt turn as the strange glow zoomed to1~ard his. plane. As the light appro;i~.:heli, it appeared as a brilliant, bluish, fluores-:ent light. After returning to a straight ~.:oursc and ~.:olle~.:ting their wits, Captain Sperry and his co-pilot spotted tl1e blue light which was now motionless. When first seen the UI'O appeared to be a light about 25 times the magnitude of the brightest star. Later during a brief moment the blue light passed in front ·or the moon, which was full at the time. Sperry, Gates and Flight Engineer Robert Arnholt, all discerned a silhouette. The blue light was coming from the front of what appeared to be a smooth surfaced spindle. Some lO seconds went by as the object hovered motionless and then the cigar-like shape resumed its forward motion. Said Sperry: "When the object first appeared coming toward us, I started a turn to the right, then when it changed its course to parallel us, I started turning to the left so as to be able to follow its path. Even so it went to the rear of the plane, circled around to the right far enough so that the First Officer (Gates) saw it on his side before reversing its direction and going out of sight."l97 Captain Sperry radioed Washington Tower but the controlcrs had not seen anything unusual. Tower personnel alerted the press and the next day in Tulsa reporters ~uestioned Captain Sperry. Instead of being ridiculed by his fellow pilots, Captain Sperry was approached by other airline flying officers who insisted on having "serious discussions" about the flying saucer problem. One flyer was even able to provide informa tion that seemed to lend support to Captain Sperry's story . Captain Sperry heard from a pilot who had been flying another American Airlines plane over Virginia some 400 miles to the south, a pilot named Henry H. Myers, President Franklin Roosevelt's personal pilot during World War 11. Myers had noticed a brilliant "shooting star" that night the same time as Sperry's UFO encounter. The "shooting star" dropped down out of the night sky off to the north of him where Captain Sperry's plane was at the time. To Myers' astonish men~ the "shoY~Ang star" fell a distance and then moved hon zonta lly _ Of h1s own UFO encounter, Captain Sperry told the press the Air Force was interested but had kept their agents at a distance. The press reported: "He made no report to the Air Force but answered questions posed by a major who called · him at Tulsa long distance from the Pentagon on 30 May."l99 That the UFO could have been a meteor was emphatically . discounted by both Sperry and Gates. A spokesman for American

- ----- -- - - - -- -- ..... -c--,;::==,..........______..

Airlines reacted to Sperry's description of the UFO's astoundin~ speed by expressin~ amazement, noting that to he able to circle a 300 mile-per-hour airliner twice demanded an engine of incredible power.200 "Damned nonsense." If Edward Ruppelt is accurate, the Pentagon hit a high of irritability by May 1950. Ruppelt has one unnamed Air Force general bellowing: "It's all a bunch of damned non sense." And of pilots reporting UFO's, the same military bigshot snorted: ':They were just fatigued. "201 More of McMinnville. Meanwhile, at McMinnville, Oregon, the Trents received their developed film from the local drugstore in early June. Not only did Mr . Trent get two fairly clear pictures of the UFO, but each picture included many things in the foreground and the background that would prove of considerable value in subsequent scientific analysis. The prints remained a family curiosity until a boyfriend of one of Trent's nieces saw the images and since he was in the Army at the time, he urged Mr. Trent to tell someone about the photographs. Eventually, Mr. Trent confided in his banker. The banker knew Mr. Trent well and was convinced of his excellent character. In fact, the banker was so persuaded that there was something to the story he did a bold thing. He put the prints in the bank's front window! It wasn't long before a reporter for the McMinnville newspaper stopped by to ask questions. The newsman went out to Trent's place and got the complete story including the negatives. The editor of the paper was well aware of the veracity of the Trent clan and splashed the pictures and story over the front page of the McMinnville Telephone-Register on June 8th. In the story Trent is quoted as worrying about photographing some sort of secret weapon. Mr. Trent would never claim to have taken a picture of a space ship as some critics would charge.ZOZ As word spread, the Trents recorded an interview for Lew Gillette of radio station KMCM, while the Portland Oregonian, picked up on the case June lOth followed by the Los Angeles Examiner on June 11th. Life magazine, hot for such visual t1ll1lation, grabbed a print for its June 1950 issue. Incredibly, there is no Air Force (Project GRUDGE) UFO file on the important McMinnville case. The only acknowledgement in the Air Force (Project GRUDGE) UFO file is a statement made by Lt. Colonel John P. Spaulding, Chief, Civil Branch, Community Relations Division, Office of Information.· The Colonel had answered a letter written to the Air Force by a civilian in 1965. The civilian wanted to know what the Air Force thought about the Trent pictures that were causing so much excitement among students of the UFO mystery. The reply by the Colonel was short and to the

potnl: "The Air !'on c has no informal ion on photo~:raphs of an unident if ted flytng object taken hy Mr. and ~1rs. Trent of McMinuville, 0rcgon."203 Actually, the Ait· Force docs have some iuformatiou on the case, hut it is in records of local Air Force OSJ unit activities. It is not clear if it was the Air Force's intention to hide data in local files but it sure helped to keep a lot of liFO material out of public view and away from journalists and others who wanted to see "all of the Air Force's UFO ev idence." The OSI records that refer to the McMinnville case will be discussed later in this text. Radio commentator Frank Edwards, who was fascinated by the UFO puzzle, jumped on the Trent case as soon as it hit the newswire. lie phoned the editor of the McMinnville paper to get the complete story and that evening went on the air to tell his listeners about the amazing photos, adding that if anyone wished a copy of the now famous June 8th edition, they should write the office of the TelephoneRegister. So many took .pen in hand, the small town paper was swamped, so the front page of the June 8th edition was reprinted and sold through the mail for 10¢.204 While The Air Force may have claimed ignorance of the Trent photos for years, Frank Edwards would have us believe the Pentagon was well infor~ed: "I secured two enlargements from the original neRatives and took them to the Air Force at the Pentagon. They attracted quite a bit of interest, and at that time (June 1950) I was told that they were the best civilian photographs of an Unidentified Flying Object that the Air Force had seen up to that time."20S The photos were so good many people assumed the Trcnts were trying to pull their leg. The images could not be clouds, birds, balloons, or even flaws on the negative. It seemed certain the images depicted a small model which meant a deliberate hoax, or a large and extremely strange flying craft. Concerning the possibility of a hoax, Paul Trent's brother, Clayton, snapped: "Paul doesn't know enough about photography to fake something like that."2U6 Investigators agreed with Mr. Clayton, finding that Paul Trent was an unsophisticated photographer . Paul Trent remained bewildered by it all: " ... 1 didn't believe all that talk about flying saucers before~ but now I have an idea the Army knows what they are ... ""07 The UFO in the photographs resembles a garbage can lid thrown in the air, a suspicion that required careful examina tion by experts. Another suspicious fact was a statement by Mrs . Trent when interviewed by Lew Gillette. She told of spending weekends at Delake, Oregon, where: " .•. she had seen

similar objects on the coast three different times, 'hut no one would believe mc . '"208 If there is one tip off to a hoax it is a person that claims multiple UFO sightings. Did the Trents, specifically Mrs . Trent, fake the photos to "prove" she had seen a UFO? Were the Trents inspired by the alleged UFO photo taken at Pacific City, Oregon, a story of which appeared in the Portland Oregonian on April 22nd? The Trent's story contained numerous details that could be checked, and the photographs had enough potential to draw many experts into a heated fray. Seventeen years' later the Me Minnville case was subject to a complete investigation. A visit was made to the Trent's homestead. Geological survey maps were studied and the Trcnts requestioned. Most importantly, the UFO negatives were given a scientific examination. Results showed that sophisticated optical fabrication was ruled out. Some actual object had been photographed, even the most severe critic conceded that, but the cardinal question was what kind of solid object? Wa s it a small object very close, or was it a large object at a distance as claimed by the Trents? A densitometer measurement of the pale shadowed bottom of the UFO image on the negative indicated that the UFO was a large object in the sky at a distance due to evidence of atmospheric extinction and scattering that reduced contrast, but a critic attacked the case on a number of points. Phillip J. Klass listed a few things that bothered him : 1.

Confusion over whether Mr. Trent was in or outside the house when the UFO was first sighted.

2.

Claims of previous sightings (a rare occurrence in UFO history).

3.

The apparent unconcern over making the pictures public.

4.

The possibility that a smear of oil on the camera's lens may have falsely enhanced the photometric value for the shaded bottom of the UFO image.

5.

A shadow under the eaves of a building in the photos indicated a possible late morning photo instead of the witnesses' claimed 7:30 p.m. time.

6.

Lack of collaborating wintesses.

7.

The shift of matic enough suspended by a wire shown

the UFO in the two photos was not drato rule out entirely a small model an undefined string, apparently from crossing the top of the photograph.

On the other hand, those that look with favor on the Trent's story countered with:

1.

Weather I.:Oilllitions on rel:onl correlate with tlol· Trent's testimony.

2.

Vcruc i ty of the Trents was •·a ted excellent hy neighbors and local businessmen.

3.

Likewise, the Trents made a favorable impression on the experts that questioned them in . 1967 .

4.

There was no apparent motivation to undertake a hoax.

S.

Over all appearance of photographs consistent with early evening time.

6.

No apparent reason for claiming an early evening time rather than a late morning one.

7.

The sky shown in the photo is brighter toward the west indicating a sunset.

8.

An analysis of the photo's images shows an absence of rotation which agrees with the Trent's testimony.

9.

The size of the UFO image in photo 12 taken a moment a{ter photo II, showed that the image is slightly smaller which is consistent with the witnesses asser . tion that the UFO was moving away.

10.

Another aspect, termed psychological reaction, makes much of the shift of Mr. Trent's position as he snapped photo 12. If the UFO had been a mere model suspended from a wire a short distance away, why did Mr. Trent suddenly step to his right and backward into the yard instead of forward. Mr. Trent claimed that the UFO tipped and circled while being photographed thus a shift away by him was ~equired as well as to the right due to the layout of the yard.

11.

Measurements of known distances of landmarks shown in the photos correlate with photometry readings. This lends support to the accuracy of readings of the UFO image itself. The UFO's size as estimated by the Trents given as "20 - 30 feet in diameter," compares favorably with densitometer measurements that indicate a large object tens of meters in diameter, and although no guess was made of the distance of the UFO, photometry results suggest an object 1.3 kilometers away, a range that seems reasonable if the sighting was authentic. (t also has merit in that it agrees with the object's suggested diameter.

12.

The Trent's description of the UFO's surface brightness, the appearance of aluminum, was confirmed by photo analysis.

S7

Klass disputed points numbe~ 1, 4, and 6, 209 but those objectirins and additional clarifications were discussed with the results in the Trent's favor by Dr. Bruce S. Maccahee in his own investigation conducted in the late 1970's.210 If Dr. Haccabee is right, then the results of the 1967 government sponsored study are still valid: " . . . the simplest and most direct interpretation is that the photos correlate with the witnesses tcstimony.••211 This is apparently so in spite of Phillip Klass' arguments.212 Close scrutiny of the Trent case was still some time in the future as of mid June 1950, therefore, it is best we leave it for now. One of the more remarkable displays of UFO maneuverability was described in a report from California dated June 12th. The witness, a A. C. Fisher, was observing a jet aircraft speeding through the sky leaving a long vapor trail behind. Suddenly it was noticed that the vapor trail had been "cut." Peering skyward with greater care, Mr. Fisher discerned a metallic looking disc executing a vertical loop around the streaking aircraft, performing the feat several times in succession. Two other discs came into view and performed the same aerobatics.213 "If its one of ours, I'm mighty proud." A certain Air Force Sergeant assigned to the Mt. Tamalpais military radio station in Marin County, California, boasted: "I've seen 'em all [aircraft} and I never saw anything like that." While driving home from his duty shift at the radio station one afternoon he thought it funny people in town were staring at the sky. Arriving home he grabbed an eight-power pair of binoculars and looked to the south at the object in the sky that was drawing everyone ' s attention. · Very high up in the sparkling clear air that day of June 13, 1950 was a huge, circular object with a flat bottom. The thing hung there, motionless. Mulling the extraordinarily good weather, the Sergeant thought to himself: "If somebody wanted to look at the Bay Area, they sure got a good look ... " Suddenly, as he watched, a puff of smoke erupted from the UFO's underside, which was followed by an incredibly swift departure, so fast the Sergeant lost it almost immediately. The Sergeant made a phone call to the Oakland Tribune. He identified himself and told his story. He f1n1shed up by saying that he thought the UFO was larger than a B-36 and capable of faster and higher flying than anything he knew about, terminating the telephone interview with: "Doc, if its one of ours, I'm mighty proud of it."214 Both the Sergeant in the above account and Mr. Trent seemed to have been influenced by the secret weapon theory postulated b'y men 1 ike 'Henry J. Taylor, although the extraterrestrial idea was still being promoted. In June 1950, a small newsweekly

S8

Talk of the Times, carried the April Fool joke cor:cocted by the Cologne, Germany newspaper Neue Illustrierte The Illustrierte's jazzed up version of the Newton and G~3aucer's hoax had returned to the U.S., its origin almost untruceable. The space visitor angle got another boost, this time in ~fan to Man magazine in a story titled: "Did the Mystery Plane Come From Mars?" The whole essay was built around the proposal that the phenomenon reported by airline pilots Chiles and Whitted back in the summer of 1948 was most probably a spaceship from the red planet. Now ·Man to Man, a cheap pulp, was hardly in the same league as th~ Saturdaf Everting Post, but the author of the forementioned art1cle m1ght lift a few eyebrows: Captain Corley McDarment, USAF (Reserve), Director of the Aviation Writer's Association, Executive Secretary, Air Reserve Association, and Assistant Chief of the Information Division, Army Air Corps when General H. H. Arnold was Commanding General.21S "Discourage the public." Approval of a limited dissemination of the summary prepared by the 17th District OSI dealing with aerial phenomena was received by the Kirtland Air Force Base unit on June 15th. The reply was made by an Acting Chief of thl! Counter Intelligence Division on behalf of General Carroll . The tone was not too favorable. The letter noted that nearly every OSI unit had submitted reports of UFO activity even though such reporting was voided by AFCSI Letter No. 85 dated 8 February 1950, with the most reports being forwarded by the 17th District Office. Taking note of Dr. La Paz, the Counter ·Intelligence Chief stated: "Dr. La Paz has carried on considerable correspondence with the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board and the Research and Development Board. Opinions vary among qualified scientists in both of the above agencies as to the motives of Dr. La Paz and his qualifications as a specialist in the field of celestial phenomena."216 The mention of flying discs as a classification of aerial phenomena to be studied incurred a sharp reaction: "Pertinent to OSI participation in the investigation and study of aerial phenomena are the conclusions reached by all Services through the JIC that studies of all available data had resulted in the conclusion that oply natural or explainable phenomena were involved. These conclusions served to give no credence to reports in the public press that such phenomena may have been of unfriendly origin. "In December 1949 the Directorate of Intell igence, DCS/0, cancelled all outstanding intelligence

59

requirements for collection of information concerning 'flying saucers.' As previously mentioned, this action was with the concurrence of all Services through the JIC. Official releases were then made to the press that 'flying saucers' had been established to be the result of natural or expl~inable phenomena and that the USAF would discontinue the investigation and study of reported observations."217 This attack on flying saucers, however, still allowed for an investigation of unexplained celestial phenomena which was assumed to be of nafural origin, although an authorized scientific approach might appear to be related to the matter of flying saucers in the public mind. Finally, while permitting a distribution of the 17th District's summary, the distribution had to be kept limited because: "Inasmuch as presen~ Hq. USAF policy is to discourage public interest in 'flying saucers' it might not appear consistent for the OSI to undertake a broader dissemination of material which relates in part to the discredited 'flying saucer' reports."218 Australia, Japan, and South America. In Australia, in June, a Fred Beppo, a former flying instructor, noted something over Geelong in Victoria. His son, a mere four-year-old, had noticed it first and shouted that an "airplane was in the sky." Beppo, looking up, beheld: " ..• a round disc, bronze on the top and silver underneath, moving southwards in eerie silence at an estimated one thousand miles per hour and leaving behind it a trail of blue vapor or smoke." The report caused a sensation in the Australian press.219 A military teletype message from the Far East notified the Pentagon in Washington that .at 0605Z on 21 June: " •.• A CIRCULAR SHAPED OBJECT OF NATURAL COLOR WHICH APPEARED WHEN TILTED TO BE OF HIGHLY POLISHED SILVER AND METALLIC CONSTRUCTION. OBJECT WAS APPROXIMATELY 2 MILES HORIZONTALLY FROM OBSERVER. ESTIMATED ALTITUDE 7000 FEET. ANGLE OF ELEVATION FROM HORIZON WAS 60 DEG. OBJECT IN VIEW NO LONGER THAN 20 SECONDS. SIZE ESTIMATED 30 FEET DIAMETER AND 5 FEET THICK. FIRST OBSERVED TRAVELING P~RALLEL TO AND 1000 FEET ABOVE F-80, CAME ABREAST OF F-80 TILTED AT ABOUT .43 DEG TO HORIZONTAL FLASHED BY SUNLIGHT AND APPEARED TO SHIMMER, THEN RETURNED TO HORIZONTAL AND REMAINED IN SAME PLANE. ROSE ALMOST VERTICALLY ABOUT 1000 FEET, SEEMED TO CHANGE DIRECTION SLIGHTLY AND

hll

HAP Jill. Y ll I SA I' I'EAI!EJ) . NO SOliN II COlli. II liE llETEC:TEII llUE TO OTIIEH ACI'T . SPEI:U EST I t-IATEil 6 50 MPII WilEN 1: 1HST SJGIITEil TO 975 Ml'll WilEN LEAVING. OIISEitVER RATEil WITII 1100 IIOURS IN TRANSPORT AN[) FIGIITER

ACH.

,zzo

An extremely brief note from South Africa reported that UFO's were now being sighted over the countryside, especially the Pertoria area.2Zl "Roaring like Thunder." Airman Garland, on duty in the Hamilton Air Force Base Control Tower with airman Roger Pryor, first detected the blue flame's approach that unforgettable morning of June 21st. Brilliant and swift, the strange light gave the impression of being a bolide. Fog hung like a heavy curtain all over the Bay Area except for llamilton Field where good visibility prevailed. At 1:35 in the morning there was not much air traffic so the onrushing phenomenon drew Garland's anJ Pryor's undivided attention. Somewhere between 2-5,000 feet high the UFO rocketed over llamilton Field doing an estimated 1,000 to 1,500 miles per hour. In the darkness the airmen claimed to have seen through binoculars a "circular craft, thick in the center and tapering to edges similar to a cone or fan." Pryor added that he saw: " ... a blue flame shooting out as the object flashed from southwest to northeast," and agreed with Garland that the thing exhibited controlled flight. Within moments after the UFO had left the area, it reappeared out of the northeast and made another pass over Hamilton, "roaring like thunder." Two NCO's, Staff Sgt. Ellis Lorimer, Control Tower Operator, and Staff Sgt. Virgil Cappuro of the Airways Communications Unit were summoned. The four Air Force men watched as the UFO made four more passes over the airfield during a 25 minute period before finally veering toward the ocean and disappearing for good. To the airmen's reckoning the UFO's movement suggested repeated trips over Hamilton Field's radio beacon located just north of the airstrip. That afternoon the San Rafael Indefendcnt-Journal, serving the urban area adjacent to Ham1 ton, carr1ed a big page one scare-head: AIRMEN SEE FLYING DISCS ROAR OVER IIAMILTON FIELD. A Major Johnson responded to press inquiries in a low keyed manner admitting that the UFO, as reported, "traveled much faster than an ordinary aircraft" in quick sweeps over the airfield. He confirmed the absence of scheduled air traffic at the time or the subsequent emergency landing of any aircraft in distress. The Pentagon bounced the problem back to the commander of Ham~lton Field, terming it a "local matter." Casual talk around the airbase most often mentioned the possibility of a "lost jet plane."222 · The Oakland Tribune did a little investigative work and learned that quest1on1ng by Intelligence officers would be

61

released and insistenly referred to the Air Force's published report that there are no flying saucers. '7he Air Force report was made last December after two years of investigation. "Reports from persons who claim to have seen saucers in the Bay Area particularly, have been frequent ever since, however."223 On June 22nd, a press conference was suddenly called at Hamilton Air Force Base. The airmen who reported the UFO were there with Air Force Intelligence and Public Relations Officers. It seems the airmen had changed their story. No, the UFO's shape was'not discernable. Also, there had been no "roaring like thunder,"--just a blue-white flame.224 The Air Force officers present stated that an official written opinion on the incident was being sent to Washington and no further comment about the episode was foreseen.22S A week later, across the bay in the city of San Leandro, a respected retired Oakland educator and California historian, a R. Stuart, slumbered quietly with his wife in the backyard of his home as was his habit during the hot summer nights. The time was a little after 1:00 a.m. in the morning. Suddenly he was rudely awakened by a "roaring like thunder." Overhead at about 2,000 feet, rocketed something "circular with jets of flame shooting out from the edges."[!]226 Daggett's shimmering mystery of June 24th. Back in the U.S. still another aerial sighting of something odd occurred near Daggett, California, to the northeast of Los Angeles. A spindle-shaped object sped across the sky at an altitude in excess of 50,000 feet. A pilot of a Navy transport spotted the streaking object and was impressed by a faint shimmering about the trailing end of 'the spindle although there were no words used that might be construed as describing a jet exhaust. The mystery object headed north, as the crews of two commercial airliners alerted by the Navy pilot looked on. Before flying out of sight, the spindle changed course to a western heading enabling the aircrews to make out the spindle's pipe-like cross section.227 Ground observers of the blazing object were located at Las Vegas, Nevada, and Silver Lake, California. At a news conference, Captain Sam B. Wiper and First Officer David Stewart, pilots of one of United Airlines'airliners, described the UFO as a brilliant blue and orange in color, and that "long trails of light streamed from it."228 First Offic~r Stewart remarked: '' .•• my ship was flying at 14,000 feet and the object flew a parallel course for 20 miles and then faded into the distance. He estimated its speed as faster than his plane's 200 miles per hour."229 The United Press reported that: "The pilots insisted the object was no optical illusion and pointed.out that ~11 their passengers witnessed the phenomenon."230 The news service needled the Air Force with the inclusion of a few extra words as the story was sent out over the tele-

h.!

type: "Neither l'irst Officer Jlavid Ste1~art or Captain Sam Wiper identified the lliri~::ihle-like object a~ a flying saucer, which deprives the Air l'orce of an Ol!(lOrtunity to say once again that such things don't exist."Z31 ~lcanwhilc, the Trent's in Oregon had so far been spared any hassle over their UFO experience. What happened then is not too clear. According to Mr. Trent, about three weeks after his UFO pictures were first published, he had some "visitors." This would mean sometime close to the end of June. It is known that an agent of the Air Force's OSI stationed at Fairfield-Suisan Air Force Base, California, was from Me Minnville and could vouch for the Trents as solid citizens and may have triggered an inquiry. On the other hand, Frank Edwards claims he may have initiated interest when he personally went to the Pentagon. Anyway, microfilm records in the National Archives show that a brief report on the Trent story had been filed with the local 19th OSI California District office by the agent in question on. June 26th. Allowing a few days for decision making and travel time, would bring us to the end of June. In fact, at the end of the month some men showed up at the Trent farm, took pictures of everything inside and outside the house. They even searched the house. Mrs. Trent remembers with irritation that the men left dresser drawers a mess. All kinds of questions were asked. In the yard various objects were tossed in the air and photographed.232 The men excused their actions by saying it was their job. It is not known just what the men were looking for but it is assumed they were seeking the "model used in the hoax." A plain clothesman also visited the office of the Telephone-Register and obtained some prints of the Trent pictures. Luckily the Trent negatives did not vanish forever into some classified military file like some other UFO film. The last to have the negatives had been ~~feR and that magazine insisted it had mailed them back to t 1e c Minnville Tele~hone-Register. For years they were presumed lost until t ey turned up in the possession of the International News Service in the 1960's.233 The men who swarmed over Trent's house and yard may well have been from the Air Force's OSI. One of the residents of t-Ic Minnville, Oregon was a Lawrence llyder, an Air Force Sergeant stationed at Fairfield-Suisun Air Force Base, California. While home on leave on June 8, 1950, he read about the Trent photos in the Me Minnville Telephone-Register and when the Sergeant returned to duty in California, he urged the OSI to check on the "saucer pictures" since the Trents were known by the Oregon community as substantial and honest citizens. Lt. Colonel Kenneth King, Commander of the local 19th District of the OSI, forwarded a note detailing the Sergeant's suggestion to OSl headquarters in Washington. No more information on this case is available in OSI records.234

"The 90 second meteor."

Was Mother Nature breaking her own taws, or were there things under intelligence control penetrating the Earth's atmosphere? Such a question is valid when w~ ponder an official report by a weather reconnaissance mission over the Gulf of Mexico called a "Pelican Mission." The aircrcw declared: "At 1940 CST, 24 June 1950, flying on a Pelican at 10,000 feet, course about thirty 'degrees, ground speed 173 knots, position 26 degrees 50 minutes north, 86 degrees 5 minutes west, a brilliant light was observed high in the sky at what seemed a great distance at a relative bearing of about 80 degrees. The light proceeded earthward at what seemed a slow {90 seconds) rate and in a surving erratic path leaving an extremely bright glowing trail. After about a minute and a half the light disappeared but the trail continued to glow blue-white with undiminished brilliance for another fifteen minutes after which it faded slowly to a soft blur and finally dissipated at about 2000 CST."23S routin~

The 11th District OSI . Office forwarded a news clipping from an issue of the Daily Oklahoman to OSI headquarters in Washington. The clipping read: "Holdenville, June 24 -- (UP) -- Central Airlines here reported Saturday that one of its pilots followed 'a saucer-shaped object' for 20 miles in the sky near Commerce, Texas. "The airline said its Forth Worth office reported by teletype that both flight captain Harry Logsdon and a passenge~ identified as W. Crowder, Texarkana, Texas, said they saw the object. "Logsdon, a veteran commercial pilot, was quoted as saying he kept the object in sight for about 20 miles before it pulled away from his airliner in a sudden burst of speed. "He estimated the object's speed 'in excess of 400 miles an hour,' the airline said."Z36 Lights of an unidentified nature caused speculation that flying saucers had visited the Newburgh, New York, area during the night of June ZSth. At least one witness, a reporter for the Newburgh News, described the lights as disc-like and that they shifted position in formation. The reporter, a Mr. Connolly, had considerable wartime experience as an aircraft spotter but he still insisted the lights he saw on June ZSth had no likeness to any aircraft he was familiar with.237 Stalin strikes.

•At 1940 CST, 26 June l960, tlying on a routine ?elloan ~t l0 1ooo !'eet, oourae about thirty dersreee, grouod apeed 173 knots, position 26 ...'50' U JG~ 1 \T, a brilliant .light woa obsernd high in the ak;(. nt who.t seemed o creat distance at a relati~ bearing ot about 80°. The light prooeoded earthW8rd at what seeQ&d a slow ret~ and in a ourviu~ erratio path leaving an e,;tre:nely bright ~lowing trail. J1fter abou~ a minute end a halt tho li~t dissaot'eared but the trail continued to glow blue-white with undim· 1n1ahed brilli&noe tor anothoi fifteen minute• artwr ~1ioh it taded sl~ly to a sort blur and tinall~ dissipated at about 2000 CST." ·

..

•At this time the portion of tho sky in whloh the ~henocenon ooo1.1:ned had turned duk onour;h tor most ot the stars to be visible. Skies in tho 1cmocl1.ate v1a1nity •r• ol.G.u but a thunder ator:na on tho horizon, e~o1ally to :the South aod ia,t._.ira- ,.,., ......... __ .......

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These were quiet days when our own world was so peaceful that it could think about others, but not for long. There could be some truth in a supposition that a die-hard attitude by those few experts favoring a Soviet solution were behind an imposition of UFO secrecy. An aggressive move was believed possible and the saucers may have been scout craft or first strike missiles of Stalin's . UFO reports in Europe and the Far East had proved worrisome as can be seen by comment in official communiques. On June 25th war broke out. Without warning, Communist armies struck south across the 38th parallel in Korea. American troops were caught up in the fighting. President Truman, with the backing of the United Nations, declared North Korea an aggressor and ordered the Pentagon to rush more troops to Korea to throw back the invasion. Fears of a military move by Stalin had been just i fied. "Wonderful news." The July issue of Reader's Digest was on sale and the editors had selected Henry J. Taylor's radio broadcast about UFO's as the subject of a "condensed article" as odd as that sounds. Of all the articles in that particular issue, it was Taylor's claims that were used to sell the magazine, with big ads in the newspapers trumpeting th~ ''fact" that the flying saucers were not Russian or Martian, but were Uncle Sam's secret weapon which would "prove wonderful news for America." 238 The UFO's continued their bad habit, especially with shooting going on in the Far East, of snooping around sensitive ailitary installations. At the Army's Red River Arsenal, Texarkana, Texas, on June 27th, a bright, glittering object was noticed by two men driving a Federal truck on Van Buren street. The description of the object said it appeared to be: " ••. as large as an ordinary dishpan 18 inches by 5 inches deep as the dishpan would appear at about 15 feet distance ••. "239 It looked: " .•. flat on top and bottom and rounded on the sides, similar to two dishpans turned together." 24 0 It moved, they said, "plenty fast." Both witnesses, according to military interrogators, were beyond reproach in regards to character and integrity and were employed · by the Arsenal in supervisory capacities.241 . When a local television station in Louisville, Kentucky sent one of its staff photographers out on a routine assignment, he· came back .with something other than routine news. The newsman heard a plane pass over and happened to look up. He spotted a roaring aircraft ·and .. to the left of the plane a "large bright slisc with a light . corona around it." Bringing his mQvie camera to bear, he shot SO feet of film while the UFO hovered. For some 10 seconds the UFO remained motionless and then moved off toward the west.242 The Air Force put into motion a secret investigation of the incident which we will discuss a bit later in this text.

0

I

II cuuph: of house1•ivc s at Oakland, Ltlifornia, one .June L7th, were outside about noon, 11 : 30 a . m., and they itlle1y watched a hig bomhcr fly over when: " ... a shiny, spinning object overtook it from the rear, flew over it and disappeared in the cast. "24 3 The airborne wil1-o'-thc-wisp flap then rampant extended to Cairo, Illinois, the same afternoon, June 28th., as the Louisville UFO movie session. five inhabitants of Cairo noticed egg-shaped objects with a chrome-like finish in the atmosphere. Mr. A. L. Morris saw one "egg" pause for awhile and then tear off to the southwest.244 An Air Intelligence Report from Georgia reported an "erratic" object: "Betwee n 0415 and 0500 EST on 28 June 1950, an unidentified aerial object was observed by --- (deleted} and his wife from Chatham City housing project in Savannah, Georgia. Object was described as a round ball of colorless light which moved in an erratic manner vertically and horizontally over an area NE of the city for 45 minutes until it disappeared, climbing swiftly to the NE."245 The July issue of Flting joined Reader's Di~est on the newsstands with its own f ying saucer article. T e article was "The Flying Saucers Fact or Fiction?" by the magazine's editor Curtis Fuller. It was an effective essay since it was built around four close-up UFO sightings by airline pilots. Fuller disected and then rejected theories that attributed the strange objects to the science of mankind, which automatically put him in opposition to Taylor's · "good news." The effectiveness of the essay was aided by its temporate tone and the fact that it reached thousands in the aviation industry. While we're at it, another literary event at this juncture should be mentioned . To put an end to the tiresome chore of retelling his June 24, 1947 experience of three years before, Kenneth Arnold had a 16 - page booklet printed titled, "The Flying Saucer As I Saw It." Price: 50f. A UFO report came out of Lexirigton, Virginia, June 29th, which was printed by the Rockbridfe Count~ News, but the next day a sighting that was far rom a 11 ot-in-the-sky" story was observed. A startling example of a reported encounter between a UFO and an aircraft was recorded at Dowagiac, Michigan . A fanner, J. Kell er , well known locally for honesty and for being a hard worker according to the press, was plowing his hay field near the city of Dowagiac the afternoon of June 29th,

•J

Opposite page:

A Canadian document, dated June 29, 1950, from that nation's Department of Scientific Intelligence, states that it learned the U.S. Air Force was following a policy of :'playing down" flying saucer reports.

Z 'lbla Dinctorate aent ID ott1cer to WuhlastoD to obtain the naul.t. ot a qeoial atucly 011 tbia aubjeot uader.taba by tJw QS,jf'. thie ·~ laT.. ticat.d ao. . 376 lacUcta traa all polat. ot n. .. 8114 ooacl\llled that tmn wen nry r .. ot the alle&ed e1pt1Dc• which coulcl ut be npl&lucl either byllatw'al pbeamulla or by -.dul;r actin 1aaclaat:1cm. It wu • telt by the US.IP that ~ t\lrtber publioity 1u ncard. to ·~ ..w:en• woulcl tellll to buluce turtller dptbac• ot m S..C1aath'll character. B.a.oe their pnaellt policy 1a to •pw cbm• the ·~­ ject 8114 cleal with euoh nporte u clo oo.. la -.,bd.1rl.4aal bu .., w1tha\lt ut!f epeoial &rriiJlleMa.te tor nportiuc or brYeeticat1on.

1 It aeeJU to . . tbat a aimilar poUq em our part . woulcl be wiae llllll that lt woulcl be \1Dd..1rable thenton tor us to produce a epeoial qu11tlcnmaln or aalce VJT apecial arrmc•1118ate tor 1a'l'eat1caticna th1• woulcl teDd to ciT• e-.pb.aaia to the aatter. I aball. - . n r . pase to JOU tor J0\11' iutonaatioa. 8114 a:r tvther actlOD JOU can to tab eucb \IUOUcitecl nport. u an ncelncl.

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66

unconcerned with such things as f.1 ying saucers. lie test ifled that he nearly jumped ~ut of his skin when an Air Forc e C-54 swooped over his farm at an altitude of only 500 feet . Perched atop his tractor, Keller said he had a good view of the c ~ s4 as i t sped by only a quarter of a mile away. Keller swears that he saw something directly beneath the a i rcraft, something .shaped like a huge, chrome - colored, hubcap, about 25 feet in diameter and about 15 feet thick in the center. lie claimed that the curving top had a small dome protruding in the middle. The thing wobbled a little and then dropped down away from the C- 54 and zoomed off at a terrific velocity, vanishing fro• sight in about five seconds. According'to Keller he waited a week before telling anyone fearing horselaughs from his neighbors, but when he got up enough courage to relate the story to friend s , he softened the account by suggesting that the plane must have launched the saucer. When Washington heard about it, a military spokesman suggested that Mr. Keller may have just witnessed the loss of a piece of cowling from a four engined bomber.246 The strangest "prank of nature" to take place in the skies over Cincinnati, Ohio, since the "space platform" sightings the previous Fall and Spring occurred in July 1950. The exact date was not remembered by the witness, a "~tr. R," who had a decade of experience as a CAA engineer. The witness described the UFO antics. The witness said the UFO climbed : " ..• up at a 60 degree angle into a sunny sky filled with cumulus clouds. After a quick acceleration, the grayish metallic object reached its new elevation at 16 to 18,000 feet, then stalled for about 10 seconds. While calling to his wife to witness the event, Mr . R. watched the object dive back to its original elevation before levelling off and racing westward ..... 247 The Vermillion case. On patrol near Furley, Kansas, two sheriff deputies noticed a red glow in the night sky. One deputy, for an instant, thought he was watching a meteor until he realized that meteors don't fall upward. The lawmen switched off the engine of their patrol car but could hear no sound coming from the mysterious object as it streaked upward at a 45 degree angle, a course that quickly carried it out of sight. The two officers said nothing until they heard a much stranger story about a Minister's experience. Darkness covered the flat countryside nine miles west of Kingman, Kansas, midnight, June 30th, as a Rev. R. Vermillion drove toward town on U. S. Highway 54 . Beside him sat his wife who had dozed off:

h/

"'1\'c had hccn to Kiowa ;11111 w•·rc rctunlin!: home when I noticed a bright •·cd light nc<~r Cunningham. Then I saw <1 white light and figured it was a heavy bomber heading for Wichita.' '"As we drove ncar the ship I detected a rotary movement on its outer ring. The object was about 250 feet in diameter, about 10 feet thick and had a small canopy raised about two feet on the top.' "'I slowed down and awakened my wife. When a car passed me, I waved at the driver and cried "flying saucer!"' "'At the bridge over the Ninnescah River I stopped and the driver of the other car-Mr. Muinix joined us. He told us that one of his daughters had seen the object near Greensburg and that he told her she was crazy when she said she had seen a flying saucer. He added that she remarked to him that he might think otherwise if they encountered someone else who saw the ship.' '"At first I thought we might be observing a helicopter. I looked closely for retracting gear but saw none. The ship was hovering over two tractors which were in operation on a small plot of ground.' "'The canopy part of the object was made, I am sure, of Alcoa because I have seen a Jot . of that type of metal. The moon was shining brightly and the craft was plainly discernible.' "'After we had watched it for several minutes we decided that we would get in our cars and try to drive as close to it as possible. I turned out the lights on my car but Mr. Muinix had his on.'" " ... the object was not shaped like a saucer but more like a disc, or two saucers stuck together with a small protrusion or canopy about 10-15 feet in diameter on top. The rotor or outer spinning portion of the disc was approximately 10 - 15 feet from outer edge to inner edge; no vanes, blades, etc. were detected. Disc had a white light on top, a red light on the north side and a green light on the south side as viewed from the west side of the disc. Disc was estimated to be 200-250 feet in diameter and approximately IS feet thick at center."248 Later when interviewed by the press, the Minister said: "'I was going to shine my car's spotlight on it ... ' "'But I stopped him,' put in Mrs. Vermillion.

6H

'I didn't want that dingus taking out after us. Chances are we'd have gone up in a puff of smoke or,somethin~.·

"'So I just watched,' her husband continued. 'It was about as big around as a B-29 is long. And it was a perfect circle. The edge was toward us when we first saw it. It had exactly the shape of a discus like they throw in the Olympics, except for a sort of pilot's canopy on top.' "'There wasn't anyone or anything under that canopy.' "'When we drove closer we had a bottom view. The outer rim was rotating--we could tell that-and the inside was stationary.' "'After the man from Meade and his family came up, we started back to where we'd been . I turned off my lights, so as not to scare whoever was flying it. The other guy didn't though, and when that gadget saw both of us coming--it took about six seconds to get clean out of sight.' "'That's all there was.' "'I was scared,' said Mt;s. Vermillion. "'So was I,' agreed her husband. 'If it had a gun I didn't see it, but it wouldn't have needed one. I'd have died of fright the first move it made after me.' "With regard to the possible effect of the 'disc' on his work as a minister, Rev. Vermillion said he 'wasn't sure.' '"Probably won't have much effect, I hope,' he said. "'I had thought of including it in my sermon Sunday, but I don't think I will now. People are funny about things like that. I'd hate to have a member of my congregation sit on my head while someone called the laughing-academy.'"249 A follow-up news story went: ·~e reported the incident to the Wichita Eagle and since then life at his house has been 1 just one telephone call after another.' "'First it was the Associated Press, then another newspaper, then the Air Force, and I don't know who all,' said Mrs. Vermillion. 'I'm afraid the children will begin to wonder what it's all about. We haven't told them just what happened yet.' "'Right now, before anyone starts spreading screwy storlcs about us,' the minister continued, 'I want to say that we didn't see anything alive on that thing. • "'There were absolutely no little green men with egg on their whiskers or any other assorted

6!1

do-bobbies.' "'I was a pilot during the war, and I've been a minister here in Cheney for two years. I have no desire to be pointed out as a nut or to have my children pointed out as little nuts.' "'But the fact is that we saw this thing-1 won't call it a flying saucer because it wasn't shaped like one--this 'disc' in the sky. '"We have people to back us up--the man from Mead~ who met us on the road. It was only up about 300 feet and there were no clouds with a full moon. We had about as clear a view of it as anyone could hope to have. 1 "250 The article continued: "The Rev. Mr. Vermillion said he saw testing of F-86 Shooting Stars and that he has seen B-47 jets in operation but that he never before had witnessed acceleration like that of the unusual object. '"I saw a lot of weird things while I was in prison camp in Germany,' the past related, 'but nothing as weird as that ship. I couldn't help but think what p1ctures it might get by use of infra-red film over the Boeing plant.' "'I am convinced that it is not radio-controlled. I think the pilot saw us. Why the ship was hovering is a mystery. The pilot may have been checking a camera or, since the plane was seen near Greensburg, he may have been checking traffic on U.S.-54 Highway.' "The minister drew two sketches of the 'saucer' Friday, one as he actually saw it and one as he imagined it would appear to someone looking at it from above. "A former resident of Cunningham, the Rev. Mr. Vermillion said he graduated from high school at Santa Anna, California, and then entered the air corps. He was with the 95th Bomber Group, 334th Bomb Squadron of the Eighth Air Force. "Mr. --- (deleted) said that he estimated the speed of the object at 700 to 800 miles by comparing its rate of movement with that of commercial airplanes. "The informant advised that he is a meteorologist with United Airlines and the object he observed was not a plane, nor was it a fireworks display."256 In keeping with current Air Force policy, the 24th Disrict Office informed Washington that no action was being taken or was even contemplated.257

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It came to the attention of authorities at the Steep llock Iron Company, Ontario, Canada, that workmen working the company' :; miuc had seen strange things in the night sky. This was confirmed by residents of the nearby community of Ali toknn. UI'O' s were spotted maneuvering over a large area from Fort William to Port Arthur. An official of the Steep Rock Iron Company defended the publication of UFO reports in the Company's magazine, The Steep Rock Echo, by referring to the fact that local folks had seen many strange aerial objects. lie cited the additional fact that telegraphers of the Canadian National Railroad had alerted each station up and down the line one night to track a UFO. The UFO was tracked to a point where it turned and retraced its course.ZSB

With Communist spearheads thrusting deeper and deeper into South Korea, Americans were jittery over the possible expansion of the conflict. Large Soviet troop movements were reported in Europe, and on the domestic front Congress hesitated over the admission of Alaska and Hawaii to statehood, a hesitation some felt was an invitation to the Russians to threaten those two strategic regions. Thus when a UFO report came out of Alaska, the Commanding General of that military district drew up an official communique on the incident for public release which emphasized that the object sighted was not a ''guided missile." Lt. General Natham F. Twining, Commander of the district, termed the thing a "small phenomenonal object." Reported by the military at Ladd Air Force Base and cilivian observers at Eielson Field, the mystery object "bounced around in the sky" at an estimated speed of 600 miles per hour before taking off and vanishing over the horizon to the southeast. Any further inquiries about the episode, General Twining said, were to be forwarded to Air Force headquarters in Washington,

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On July 5th, sightings were reported at llamilton, Ontario, in Canada, and at Octroit, Michigan in the United States . Such sightings might be due to excitable civilians without technical training so perhaps it would be better to go into detail with an official Department of the Air Force Staff Oivision Message, classified confidential, filed the same date: "At 1540 hours MST S July SO, three Staff Sergeants on duty at the Hill AFB Radar Station observed an unidentified aerial object flying at an estimated 25,000 feet altitude on a course of approximately 120 degrees and passing almost .. directly over Hill AFB. Object reportedly under observation for approx. l minutes, and described as about SO feet in length. circular in shape with diameter-thickness ratio of about 4 to 1. Estimated ground speed of between 5 and 700 per hour. No sound or exhaust trail observed.

71

Described as silver in color. Radar set was switched on shortly after object was sighted, however object disappeared before radar set warmed up sufficiently for tracking. Advise extent of investigation this sighting and whether reports covering any future sightings are desired."260 The last sentence is an indication of the puzzlement among various military commands after the lack of interest by the Pentagon in the massive UFO wave, something we will delve into at greater length. The Air Force,-at this point in time, suffered from a peculiar malady which Dr. llynek, long time military advisor, diagnosed as a condition of feigned disinterest. As an example, Dr. Hynek quoted from a memorandum, dated July 6, 1950, and addressed to the Chief of the Counter-Intelligence Division of the Department of the Air Force. The document was from the Chief of the Air Force's General Investigative Oivision, Lt. Colonel F. D. Garrachy: "Subject:

Unconventional Aircraft (Unclassified).

"Major Nold has contacted the Technical Capabilities Branch, AFOIN, who in turn discussed the request being made of DOIS, with Lt. Colonel Stattler, Acting Executive, AFOlN. Nothing was known about a recent personal request from General Cabell that action be taken to obtain the motion picture film through contact with th~ 'Courier Journal,' Louisville, Kentucky. Technical Capabilities Branch instructed Major Nold that they would take the responsibility for withdrawing any request made by that Directorate in view of their conviction that the film would not be likely to add anything new on this subject and could probably not be secured without compromising the Air Fozce interest. "Colonel Roth, Executive to General Putt, was aware of a request to AMC which was based on the desire to Dr. Valley, Research and Develop ment Board, to see such a film if one existed . The Directorate of Research and Development stresses that they would not desire that any interest in the film on the part of the Air Force be revealed to the 'Courier Journal . ' Colonel Roth expressed a personal opinion that it would be nice if OSI could arrange to secure a copy of the film in some covert manner but if that was no~ feasible he would recontact Dr. Valley and recommend that if Dr. Valley still has an interest in seeing the film that he arrange to negotiate directly with the 'Courier Journal.'

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"Lt. Colonel O'Connell, lli s tri.:t Commander, Sth OSI llistrict, was .:ontacted at approximately lolS hours Oil this date and infonnetl of the above. lie proposes to inform Colonel Watson of MIC that OSI representatives could not hope to make inquiries in this matter without risking an indication of Air Force &nterest. Colonel O'Connell proposed further to determine if Colonel Watson desires to recontact his requestors (AFOIN and AFDRO) for further evaluation of the matter."261 Lt. Colonel Garrachy then listed five points: "1 . At approximately 1300 on this date Lt . Colonel O'Connell, District Commander, Sth OSI District, called the undersigned and stated that he had received a request from AMC, to make certain inquiries as indicated below. He said that General Cabell, Director of Intelligence, this headquarters, had called Colonel Watson at AMC with reference to an article which appeared in the Louisville, Kentucky Courier-Journal concerning an individual who had taken mov1ng pictures of a flying disk. lleadquarters ANC told Colonel O'Connell that General Cabell had requested action to obtain the moving pictures and to interview the person who had taken them; further that inquiries in this matter should be made in such a manner as not to indicate Air Force interest. "2. Colonel O'Connell also stated that General Putt and Colonel Bousshey R&D Headquarters USAF, had made an independent request upon lleadquarters AMC silmilar to the request by General Cabell . "3. Colonel O'Connell stated to the undersigned that he is reluctant to have one of his agents contact representatives of the Louisville, Kentucky Courier-Journal and conduct the additional invest1gat1on Indicated in this matter inasmuch as the identity of the agent as a representative of the Air Force must necessarily be disclosed and this would indicate the Air Force interest in this matter. Colonel O'Connell said that he feels the best procedure might be for him to contact the FBI locally and request that a representative of that agency conduct the necessary investigation thereby precluding any indica tion of Air Force interest. However, Colonel O'Connell said that he would like to have the approval of the Director of Special Investigations before proceeding in this matter. "4. I discussed the above with Major Nold and he stibsequently informed me that he had talked

to a representative and had stated that the OSJ should not directly attempt to obtain the information indicated above. "S. Inasmuch as this is a matter under the cognizance of the Counter-Intelligence Division, it is hereby referred for further action as necessary, including furnishing telephonic advice to Colonel O'Connell, Sth OSI District (For your information, I told Colonel that in this field, he should contact the Counter-Intelligence Division.)."Z6Z Dr. lfynek feels that the Air Force had adopted a "counterespionage" attitude toward the public during this period, and as for the evaluation of UFO reports, it went from unbias to biased as typified by a memo dated July 19, 1950, which was exchanged between Colonel Bruno W. Feiling, Chief Technical Analysis Division, Intelligence Department, and Lt. Colonel Hemstreet. The memo discussed Intelligence procedures used to investigate UFO reports: "Mr. --- (deleted) memo dated 14 July SO has been reviewed. Although investigation was requested in the matter, it appeared that too IITO\:'•'r ~ J,we t.·as S(l'e>"r~ i.-r t.'u! i.on•e.ft ic.at .;o.'Q. .r t is suggested that in the future we contact the individual concerned to get the story .. . If, however, there have been no reports by other personnel on the same incident, it seems that there is no justification for contacting as many agencies as was done in this case. It seems that if a legitimate sighting is made, it would be reported by a number of people. Excessive contacts can only serve to keep our interest in these matters a subject of discussion by more people than we would like. "263 The last two sentences of this memo we will consider separately because they answer some obvious questions about Air Force behavior. We could ask: "Why didn't they investigate more UFO sighitngs if they were interested." The answer apparently was that they were selective. The second to last sentence established at least one qualification, and there may have been more: "It seems that if a legitimate sighting is made, it would be reported by a number of people." This would infer that there was such a thing as a "legitimate" sighting. This is certainly an interesting statement, although it does not mean it endorses a spectacular explanation for UFO sightings. The very last sentence had a bearing on what Dr . Hynek termed the "counter-espionage" attitude of the Air Force. We should zero in on the previously mentioned General Cabell, the Air Force Director of Intelligence, who becomes the vort~x of controversy in the years ahead. It seems it was he who was calling the shots and was no doubt responsible for

l

74

sentiments of Colonel feiling as expressed in the last sen tence of the memo : "Excessive contacts can only serve to keep our interest in these matters a subject of discussion by more people than we would like." This attitude might explain why subsequent official "investigative projects" had more of a resemblence ,to a public relations effort than to anything like a scientific effort. There will be more discussion of this at the end of this booklet. Taking up the continuing parade of UFO sightings, once again we find that Los Angeles had one July 6th . A brilliantly lighted circular object, an estimated SO feet in diameter, was said to have been seen 1,000 feet in the air poking along at some 50 miles per hour, a speed that was increased many times as it zoomed over the Hollywood hills. Estimates were provided by a William Grant, former Marine Corps aerial photographer, and a Gilbert Magill, president of a concern conducting research with helicopters.265 July 6th three physicians on the staff of Menninger Clinic sighted a high speed object they said: " ... sure looked like a disc or saucer."266 The thing, the "size of a nickel or quarter," (at arms length) was spotted as it sped over Topeka, Kansas. The next day five more persons sighted something in the air that looked: " . . . just like a plain platter . "267 The ob 268 ject was: "so shiny they could hardly stand to look at it." Phenomenon over Peril. The U.S. Coast Guard reported what it termed an "unconventional aircraft" in the air over Peril Strait, Alaska, on July 8. The object in question was described as two opaque white oval discs "connected by a strut," with its overall dimensions of 100 feet by 60 feet. The thing was on a 290 degree heading and was making a speed of some 350 miles per hour. Three Coast Guard men were listed as witnesses. The official summary stated: "The above described object was sighted directly overhead and 'observed until it disappeared two and one-half minutes later beyond 1500 foot level of FALSE LINDENBERG HEAD in Peril Strait, Alaska. Object was distinctly observed below the highest cirrus clouds, and it appeared to be banking and climbing, end and side view were observed in addition to oval bottom view."269 A skyhook balloon? At Schenectady, New York, July 9th, a Mr. J. Sokol noticed a "strange white column" poised high in the sky over a U.S. Army Depot that day at 2:30p.m. Sokol flagged down a police car and talked to the lawmen inside. Sokol pointed skyward

7C,

a,nd the policemen, Officers E. Uarrison and J. llill, saw what to them appeared to be a giant cigarette hanging in the air. Quickly radioing the nearby county airport, the police convinced authorities they should send Air National Guard fighters aloft to investigate. While the lawmen watched, the warplanes climbed to the object's altitude and began circling the UFO. The police did not see what finally happened to the object but they did make inquiries about the episode. Air National Guard headquarters refused comment.270 Army CIC agents

succumb~

"At 1140 hours, this date, S. S. Deering, Major, Operations Officer, lllth CIC Detachment, Fort McPherson, Georgia, telephonically advised that he and Francis Riley, WOJG, lllth CIC Detachment, observed at 1025 hours, 10 July 1950, a round object south of Fort McPherson, Georgia, traveling in a northerly direction at an altitude between 35,000 and 50,000 feet. Major Deering advised that the object was quite distinct and was visible for approximately fifteen minutes except for periods when the object passed behind low hanging clouds. Major Deering advised that he heard no sound from the object and that it was the opinion of himself and Riley that they had not mistaken the object for a weather balloon. Major Deering further advised that Riley is a former Air Force officer and is accustomed to observing objects in f1 ight. "271 The Osceola Oddity. Of all the aircraft-UFO encounters during this period the one near Osceola, Arkansas, is singular not only for the fact that the UFO's presence was confirmed by radar, but for the fact that the object reported bears a resemblence to the image in the Me Minnville photos. Two Navy pilots, J. W. Marin and R. E. Moore, who were flying training planes out of Millington Naval Air Station, Memphis, Tennessee, July lith, were shocked when a large object passed through their field of vision dead ahead. The Navy pilots said the object looked to be 25 feet wide and about 7 feet high, its cross section similar to that of a "World War One helmet." Radar technician G. D. Wehner, operating the "electronic eye" aboard Moore's aircraft, reported that the UfO passed so close the helmet-shaped configuration showed up on the radar screen. The press report reads: "It looked like a round object when seen at a distance. It was in sight three minutes. They tried to pursue but their training plane proved too slow.

76

"Initially they thought they were seeing a bright glare from aluminum skin of a jet fighter but they changed their minds after they closed within a mile. They estimated the UFO was at 8,000 feet and moved with the speed of 200 miles per hour. "The Navy has the report under study." 272 "Wavering Doubts." The Florida Times-Union had a reporter named Toni Veverka, who like many had wavering doubts about flying saucers, at least until the 11th of July 1950. The change was a rude awakening: "My early morning sleep was shocked into full awareness by a tremendous roar, quite unlike tha t of several bombers, in that it lacked that steady sound. Nor was it like the whine of a streaking jet. "Like the man in 'The Night Before Christmas,' I jumped to the window to see what was the matter. "Out of the southeast, at about 500 feet altitude, was coming a great golden light. The machine carried no running lights. It didn't need them . "The entire object seemed suffused (from beneath) with a glow that surged with each increase of the roar. It increased and diminished at a rate something like one would count one-two-threepause; one-two-three-pause. "The thing was curving toward the north westward. As it passed, I could see violet and great flashes spurting into a shor t comet's tail. Viewed from the rear, and in the growing light, the thing seemed to waver in an up and down movement, similar to that of a gramophone disc on an uneven center. "Far to the northwestward the not-so-fast moving object made a sweeping curve and returned, apparently from its starting point. "Then started my vigil by the window . I f there had been one, maybe it would return--or there might be more. "The watch was rewarded in about 15 minutes. Only this time the thing was much higher. It followed the approximate course of the first visitor. "In another 15 minutes, a third came." 273

I f

~.

This was supposed to have happened at 5:00 a . m. in the Riverside area near Jackson-v ille. This case, like the one at Hamilton Air Force Base in California back on June 21st, is a puzzler in that whatever was making the noise was not

77

clearly seen. Jet aircraft were fare in 1950 so perhaps witnesses were confused, but on the other hand there were reports of people seeing thundering disc-like craft spewing smoke. "Big meat platters." A St. Louis police lieutenant had just gotten home from his duty shift, Wednesday, July 12th, and had stopped momentarily to chat with a neighbor who lived in the same apartment house, N. Dittlinger, an aircraft engineer. Suddenly Dittlinger glanced up and shouted: "look at.that!" The lieutenant, W. Lohrum, turned and stared at what: " ... looked like two big meat platters about 12 to 15 feet wide, headed in the direction of Lambert Field." Metallic in appearance, the UFO's were bathed in a silver luminosity . As the UFO's silently sailed over, they occasionaly fluttered like paper. A woman some blocks away reported the same thing.274 A revealing statement was inserted in a reply to the 16th OSI District Office at Ogden, Utah, from OSI Washington headquarters. When the Inspector General informed the Utah unit that an investigation of UFO reports was not desired, only one exception was named: " . .. reports concerning sightings of unidentified aerial objects need not be forwarded by TWX unless considered to be of priority Counterintelligence interest to this headquarters."27S Having received a summary of UFO reports made in New Mexico from the 17th District OSI Office, the Atomic Energy Commission's Security Division expressed thanks and indicated that it did not think such phenomena was complete nonsense: "The Security Division at Los Alamos desires to continue to cooperate in the work of your office in the investigation of these phenomena and will continue to report all observations from the Los Alamos area."276 A day later another St . Louis citizen happened to be ob serving the passing of an aircraft over the city. He was using a small spyglass and to his surprise he detected a "small, silver-white disc" stalking the aircraft. During the brief interal he had both under observation, the disc abruptly shot away at a 90 degree angle.277 Four groups of "unconventional aircraft" were observed during a thirteen minute period on July 13th. An Air Force reconnaissance aircraft on a routine photographic mission in the vicinity of Fort Peck, Montana, sighted a number of round, metallic silver objects . The crew of the Air Force p~ane est~'ftted that the objects were about 15 - 20 feet in diameter.

~

I

I

Three
I

On a farm near Avoca, Victoria, in Australia, in July, an Alex Holland was sleeping soundly until his bedroom filled with light. llolland was aroused from his slumbers thinking that an auto had pulled up outside. Looking out the window, llolland swears he saw a shining disc rise from the horizon from the south and cross the vault of the heavens. That wasn't all. According to him:

7!1

"Six more followed in quick succession. They all went in the same direction except one. It turned sharply and went back where it came from. Each one looked a bit bigger than a full moon. They were all the same size and travelled at terrific speed and at a great height. "283 The sighting marked the start of a flood of reports in Australia. As the UFO wave of 1950 surged northwa rd and was about to wa sh over Canada, reports coming in from the northern part of the U.S. excited interest among Canadians. Canadians, according to a public opinion poll conducted in July 1950, accepted the idea that after a close inspection of reports there remained a balance of respectable evidence and curious data , which could, not be dismissed as delusions, as some mythopoeic faculty. Half of the adult population "believed." Among those Canadians fascinated by the UFO mystery was a Wilbert B. Smith, a 42-year-old electrical engineer employed by Canada's Department ofTransport (DOT). Smith began to collect newspaper accounts of UFO sightings about this time and started to correspond with others who were likewise intriqued with the sky riddle. Eventually Smith would be Canada's most famous personality in the UFO field.284 Wiesbaden, Germany. "It's a flying saucer!" An Air Intelligence Information Report dispatched to headquarters, MATS, Washington, on July 27th stated: "At 1850Z, while sitting on the porch of the MATS barracks, I observed an object in the western sky at an approximate bearing of 315 degrees true and approximately 45 degrees verti cally, well above the sun which was low in the sky. The body resembled an automobile headlight tilted so that a portion of its under elliptical surface was visble with no motion other than a slight oscillation of its lateral axis. At approximately 1851Z, I called Pfc. R. M. Grisillo, sitting near me, and requested that he observe the sunlight being reflected from the body and its lack of motion. Grisillo exclaimed, "It's a flying saucer! • At 1854Z I observed an almost simultaneous acceleration and disappearance of the object."285 July 25, 1950: " ... two young men who live in a suburb of Los Angeles declared at at 2:30 a.m. on July 25,

J

I I f

80

looking up as they drove along in their car they saw a grayish disc, light in color, one hundred feet in size. It was hovering about one thousand feet up, where two big brightly lit highways intersect. They thought they might track it but suddenly it dashed off. They thought, though, that it left a bluish-white vapor trai1."286 Confronted by a reporter from the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, the official of Parks Air Lines simply stated that he wasn't going to name the phenomenon he saw on July 25, 1950 except to say that it was some kind of machine, some sort of aircraft he had never heard of even though he did his best to keep up with the latest developments in aviation. He told reporters the thing was: " ... what is commonly known by the peasants as a flying saucer ... " / The editors of the PostDispatch mused the witnesses' description and dubbed-rf: '' ... a strange aircraft that glowed with a bluish-white 1 ight." The Parks official, W. Blandford, had been piloting a company DC-3 with Flight Captain G. Keller and First Officer H. Butts, en route to St. Louis when a bluish-white object was sighted motionless in the air. Slowing his DC-3, Blanford turned and approached the UFO for a close look. For some three minutes · the strange thing held its ground, and then it zoomed off at a 30 degree slant at a terrific velocity.287 . "Blue Sausage." Trailing yellow fire, a 'blue streak about ten feet long and shaped like a "sausage" dived out of the sky at a plane piloted by Jim Graham, Chief Pilot for the Capital Aviation Company, while he was flying over Williamsville, Illinois, on July 30th. The "sausage" hit the plane's propeller and "exploded like a bomb." When Graham landed at Capital Airport at Springield and inspected for damage, he couldn't find the slightest scratch. When the incident was reported in th~ papers several Springfield residents said they had also seen the ''flying sausage." One woman said that when she watched it pass over Springfield it made a "popping noise." Many calls were made to the ·springfield Journal newspaper office to report the phenomenon which was described as a mysterious streak across the heavens. on th: ~~~~~~ 8 ~uch streak was reported the following night Nuclear powered aircraft? Unexplained objects over Oak Ridge National Laboratory gave one officer stationed there the jitters, a Colonel Hood, who knew that UFO witnesses were not lushes on the way home from the bar. When he was approached by the head of the Physics Department at Vanderbilt University who postulated

81

a correlation between sightings of UfO's and peaks in background radiation, Colonel flood agreed to run a check on the possibility. This was in July 1950. A similar plan carried out in the fall of 1949 at Mt. Palomar, California, seemed to offer proof of such a correlation but the apparent positive evidence was deemed an "equipment malfunction." Colonel llood and the Vanderbilt professor decided on a course of action: "To effect this correlation, they went to a radar site at the Knoxville Airport and got a copy of their log of unknown tracks. They then got the records from several radiation monitoring stations in the Oak Ridge area and attempted to make a correlation. Their attempts to correlate the data were not too successful. The radiation detection equip ment that was used was the standard equipment set up to monitor the background count in four separate areas at the laboratory. One type of counter measured alpha radiation and one type gamma radiation (these were not the directional type of coincidence counters used at Los Alamos). Colonel Hood stated that approximately three times per month, peaks would be recorded on the tapes, sometimes on either the alpha counter or gamma counter and sometimes on both simultaneously. They took these peaks and the unknown radar pickups and in some cases were able to correlate them. No written record was made or kept."Z89 "Saucer clubs." In his column in the New York Herald-Tribune on July 9, 1950, John J. O'Neil suggested forming saucer clubs, a portent of things to come. Meanwhile, the only group that in any way resembled a "saucer club" was the BSRA. The Borderland Science Research Associates organization was busy publishing newsletters that listed the latest UFO reports, an activity it had been engaged in since 1948 and for awhile it appeared that BSRA might evolve into the first civilian UFO investigative organization, and to top it off, its publication of a book about the sky mystery in 1950 could have endowed the Boderlanders with even better credits as a pioneering investigative effort. Moreover, the head of BSRA, a Mr. Meade Layne, composed an open letter directed at the American public and government authorities which proclaimed that his group had determined that the UFO's, more commonly referred to as flying saucers, had peaceful intentions and that the objects originated from an extraterrestrial source. The government, he suggested, should attempt to establish contact with the helmsmen of the strange craft. Superficially BSRA compares well with later groups that t~ok an interest in the aerial riddle, but a closer look shows that Meade Layne's people had some really off-the-wall ideas.

BSIU\'s

tl w un· js ,ontaine.l in thl' oq: a iiJ Z;Jtioll' s r:_ __:>_i. 1~tery a11d_ l_t_s So Jut _!_<_•~ . lYtl

19SO hook, Tl ~_ -~~~-!!..':'

Bes ide s t-tcaJc l.ay11e, other members tlwt contrihuteJ to the work were ~til len Cooke, .John A. IIi II ianl, and EllwarJ S. Schultz. It turns out that little in the slim volumn actually relate s to what was being reported in the press. The USRA "solution" was a mix of nonsense about an "etheric realm," a different invisible universe that vibrated at some greater or lesser speed than own. The nSRA people maintained that 4/5 of our world lies outside of our normal vision and that the saucers are launched from there, a place that is one of seven planes of existence between the Earth and its nearest planetary neighbor in outer space. This plane of existence they called "Etheria." Conjecture about the physics of that ghostly place called "Ethcria" was the consuming passion of the book's authors, producing a wordy and arcane commentary. According to the BSRA people, the saucer pilots, or "Etherians," were dwarfs because "their ships penetrated too rapidly our atmosphere,'' ·or (they offered a dual possi bility) "they just chose to materialize in smap forms sin\ply for the convenience of operation." The aliens' avowed purpose, stated BSRA, was to prevent the destruction of the universe by the makers of Atomic weapons . The saucers, BSRA went on to say, traveled "along magnetic meridians north and south." The BSRA absurdity was not without its effect. It had started with a "mental contact" with a UFO over San Diego on October 9 , 1946 and took on garnishment in the following years. We can see where con artist Silas Newton apparently heard of BSRA's ideas during his travels in stiuthern California and used it to piece together the "little men from Venus" yarn which entangled Frank Scully. As Keyhoe predicted, the story refuses to die. Thirty years later rumors of a "Uanger 18" persist. And then there was another person of interest to us watching from the sidelines in 1950, a George Adamski. lie was taking it all in and making plans.

FOOTNOTES I.

2. 3. 4.

s.

6. 7. 8. 9.

10 . 11. 12. 13. 14. 1 s.

16. 17.

18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29,

Frankfurt, Germany. 1 April SO (AP). (St. Louis, Missouri) Post-Dis~atch, 2 April SO, p. 1-C.. Macon, Georgia. 2 April SO (IN). (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) Post-Gazette, 4 April SO, p. 1. Longmont) Colorado. 3 April SO (INS). (Hamilton, Ontario, Canada) Spectator, 1 April SO. Rome, Italy. 2 April 59 (AP). London, England. 4 April SO (AP) . London, England: 6 April SO (Reuters). Ibid. ECIWards, Frank. Flying Saucers--Here and Now! (New York : Lyle Stuart, 1967), p. 152. "Hying Saucers--The Real Story: U.S. Built First One in 194 2." U.S. News and World Report, 7 Apri 1 SO, pp. 13-1 s. (Los Angeles, California) Times, 4 April ~0, p. 1. (New York, New York) Heral~bune, 4 April SO, 16. This aritcle appeared 1n newspapers across the nation on 12 April SO. This writer has no exact reference and has obtained the quotation from a source that is recommended reading. Ruark's words are on page 32 of the text: A Surve of Press Covera e of Unidentified Fl in Objects , a octorate 1ssertat1on y cr>crt Joseph Strentz, an authorized facsimile produced by microfilm xerography in 1980 by University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A., London, England. There is another scholarly treatment the reader might consult, although this writer has not as of this writing . There should be a M.A. thesis on file at the University of Southern California by DeWayne B. Johnson, titled: Flying Saucers--Fact or Fiction? It was written in 19SO. Pearson, Drew. "Bare Fly1ng Saucers As Real Aircraft Being Developed by U.S." (Los Angeles, California) Evening Herald & Express, 3 April SO. Edson, Peter. "Washington Notebook." (New York, New York) World-Telegram, 3 April SO. Washington D.C. S April SO (UP) . Time, 17 April SO, pp. 52 - 53. washington, D.C. 4 April SO (UP). (Los Angeles, California) Herald-Express, 4 April SO, p. A-2 (UP). Ibid. washington D.C . 4 April SO (UP). New York Times, S April SO, p. 24. Washington D.C. S April 59 (UP) . (Troy, Ohio) Troy Dailey News, 3 Apr i 1 SO. (Troy, Ohio) Troy Da1lcy News, 4 April SO. (St. Louis, M1ssour1) Po s t - Diseatc h, 4 April SO, p. 6 - A. Letter: To: Intelligence DlVlSlon, Air Material Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio. From: Headquarters, Edwards AFB, Muroc, California. 10 April SO. Blue Book Files.

30 .

31. 32. 33. 34.

35. 36. 3 7. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 4 3.

44. 4 5. 46. 47. 48.

49. 50.

Sl. 52. 53. 54.

55. 56.

57 . 58.

(San lliego, California) Trihune - Sun, 4 April 50. Adam s !.. i, George 1; llesmon(Jl.cs lTC~-- !JJ'_Ing Saucers llav~ Lan1kd. (New York: The British BoOYl:enter, Inc. ,1953). 'i ;-:-J17 . ' Ciimherra, Australia. 4 April 50 (Reuters). Blanchard, Lucuis. "Elongated Object Sighted in llcrfonl." (Ahoskie, North Carolina) News and Observer, 6 April SO. (Palo Alto, California) Palo Alto T1mes, S April 50, p. 3. (San Jose, California) Mercur~-Herald, 5 April SO, p. 15. "Spot Intelligence Report." Name of writer not given . ) llO 113 Offutt AFB, Omaha, Nebraska, 24 April SO . Blue Book Files. (Ironwood, Michigan) Oailb Globe, 4 April SO. (London, England) London aily Express, 6 April 50, p. I . Westfield, Massachusetts, 3 April SO (UP). Washington, D.C. 6 April SO (INS). Ibid. TliTd'. TliTd'. Montavale, New Jersey. 7 April 50 (UP). (Honolulu, Hawaii) Star-Bulletin, 1 April SO, p. 14. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 8 April SO (INS). (St. Louis, Missouri) Post-Dispatch, 7 April SO. Lawrence, David. "Flying Disks Not lloaxes." (liolly.w ood, California) lloll~wood Citizen News, 1 April 50. Scully, Frank.ehind the Flying Saucers. (New York: llenry Holt & Company, 19SO), pp. 104-lOS. (Brawley, California) Brawley News, 7 April 50, p. 1. St. Ignace, Michigan. 11 April SO. Blue Book Fi les. Listed by date only: 7 April 50. Duncannon, Pennsylvania. 8 April 50 (INS). Letter: To: Commanding General, Wright-Patterson AFH, Dayton, Ohio. ATTN: MCI. From: Colonel Robert P. Bell, GSC AC of S, G-2, 25 April SO. llendcrson, Kentucky. 8 April SO (UP). Horseheads, New York. 8 April 50 (UP) . {Brawley, California). Brawley News, 8 April 50, p. 3. (San Francisco, Californ1a) San Francisco Chronicle, 8 April 50, p. 13.

59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69.

70 .

Ibid . TliT(J.

TRiieigh, North Carolina) News and Observer, 11 April SO . (Los Angeles, California) Herald-Express:-TO April SO, p. A - 7 (UP). (Sacramento, California) Sacramento Bee, 11 April SO, p. 35 . Nolan, Joseph. "Those Flying Saucers: Are They or Aren't They?" New York Times, 9 April SO. (Toronto, Ontario, Canada} Toronto Daily Star, 10 April SO. Monterey, California. 10 April ~ so (UP}. . (Oakland. California) Oakland Tribune, 11 April 50, p. 3 . (Salinas, California} Sal1nas Cal1fornian. 10 April 50, p. 1 . (San Francisco, California) San Francisco Chronicle, 11 April SO, p. 4. Ibid.

R'l

71. 7 2.

73. 74. 7S. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82 . 83 .

84. 8S.

86. 87 . 88 . 89. 90. 91.

92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. lOSt

Ibid. (Salinas, California) Salinas Californian, 12 April SO, p. 8. Ibid. ~Louis, Missouri) Post-Dispatch, 10 April SO, p . 1. (Ill'). (St. Louis, Missouri) Post-D1s~atch, 11 April SO, p. 5-C. (Los Angeles, Cal iforn1a) llera d-Express, 10 April SO, p. A-7 (AP). Lindsborg, California. 10 April SO. (Buffalo, New York) Buffalo Courier Express, 11 April SO. "Spot Intelligence Report," by ~lajor P. Kubala, Intelligence Officer, Robins AFB, Macon, Georgia, 11 April SO. "Spot Report of Unidentified Flying Object, " by Lt. Colonel Eugene C. Cropper. DON6 Robin AFB, M~con, Georgia, 11 April SO. Blue Book Files. (OSI records). (New York, New York) World-Tele~ram ~ Sun, 13 April SO. Neukirchen, Germany. 12 Apr1l 0 (UP). · Ballester, Vicente Juan (Assisted by Jacques Vallee). "Survey of Iberian Landings." Flying Saucer Review, Special Issue 14, August 1977, p. 46. El Correo Catalan (A newspaper in Spain) . 13 April SO. 11 ~1emorandum. 11 To: Brig. General Carroll, llq. USAF, Washington D.C. From: Lt. Colonel Ralph II. Schaller, District Commander, 00110 Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, 12 April SO. Blue Book Files. (OSI records). {San Jose, California) San Jose t-lercliry llerald, 14 Apri 1 so, pp. 1,4. Ibid. T53Tinas, California) Salinas Sun, 13 April SO, p. I. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. 13 Aprll SO (UP). Ballester, Vicente Juan. "Survey of Iberian Landings." Flying Saucer Review. August 1977, p . 46. Wighton, Charles. "Panic Rush from Rumor City." (London, England) Da il~ Express, 14 April SO, p. 1 . ,Bremerhaven,ermany. 14 April SO (INS). Farmington, West Virginia. lS April SO {UP). (Des Moines, Iowa) Sunday Register, 16 April SO. (San Jose, Californ1a) Mercury-Herald, 17 April SO, p. 3. (Salem, Illinois) Salem Re~ublic, 18 April SO. "Spot Intelligence Report, by Colonel L. L. Martin. DOll Westover AFB, Massachusetts, 17 April SO. Blue Book Files. (OSI records). Ibid. WCITington, New Zealand. 17 April SO (UP) . "Flying Saucers Again." Newsweek. 17 April SO, p. 29 . "Air Intelligence Information Report," by 1st Lt. A. G. Love. Intelligence Division Uq. MATS, Andrews AFB, Washington D.C. 18 May SO. Blue Book Files. ''Spot Intelligence Report," by Lt. Colonel Doyle Rees, DOI17 Kirtland AFB, New Mexico. 24 April SO. Blue Book Files. (OSI records). Ibid. J1)1(J.

rrsj)Ot Intelligence Report," by Colonel L. L. Martin, DOll Westover AFB, Massachusetts. S May SO. Blue Book Files. (OSI records).

86

106. 107. 108. 109.

110. 111. 112. 113. 114. llS. 116. 117.

118 . ll9.

"Spot Intelligence Report," by Lt. Colonel Herman A. Peterson. 00123 Carswell AFB, Fort Worth, Texas. 19 April SO. Blue Book Files. (OSI records). Ibid. (Marshalltown, Iowa) Times-Republican, 18 April SO. (Dallas, Texas) Dallas Morn1ng News, 19 April SO, p. 1. Ibid.

T61.0 . Forth Worth, Texas. 18 April SO (AP). "Air Intelligence Information Report," by Major Dalton Smith, Hq. Eight Air Force. 27 April SO. Blue Book Files. Ibid.

TiiT
{Los Angeles, California) Dailfi News, 19 April SO, p. 14. Fort Worth, Texas. 20 Apr1l 5 (AP). (Joplin, Missouri) Joelin Globe, 20 April SO. The author has the or1ginal teletype tea r sheet which shows no news service identity other than the designation "Zl34P4/19."

120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 12S. 126.

127. 128. 129. 130.

131.

132. 133.

134 . 13S.

136. 137. 138.

139. 140. 141. 142. 143.

"(Edmonton, Canada) Edmonton Bulletin, 2S April SO, p. 3. Vallee, Jacques. Challenge to Sc1ence: The UFO Enigma. (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1950), p. 199. (Brawley, California) Brawley News, 20 April SO, p. 3. (Tulsa, California) Tulsa Dally World, 20 April SO (UP). (Fort Worth, Texas) Fort Worth Times, 20 April SO. (Lufkin, Texas) Lufkin Daily News, 21 April SO (UP) . Ibid. T61.0. Pr1nceton, Missouri. 22 April SO (AP). "Special Inquiry," by Major Gilbert R. Levy, Actg. Chief, Counter Intelligence Div., OSI, IG, USAF. 21 March SO. Blue Book Files. (OS I Records). Letter: To: Office of. Special Investigations, IG. From: Major Abram E. Gwynne, Assista nt Executive, Directorate of Intelligence. 21 April SO. Blue Book Files. (OSI Records). Morgan, Dean. "The Red Bud Illinois Photo." Flying Saucer Magazine, October 1959, p. 2 .. Arnold, Kenneth and Ray Palmer. The Coming of the Saucers. (Boise, Idaho and Amherst, Wisconsin: Pr1vately publ1shed by the authors, 19S2), p. 178. (Salem, Oregon) Oregon Statesman, 22 April 50, p. 1. Ibid. {POrtland, Oregon) Oregon Statesman, 22 April SO, p . 1. Klamath Falls, California. 24 April 50 (AP). (Laramie, Wyoming) Laramie Dail~ Bulletin, 2S April SO. (Samford, Conneticut) Samford A vocate, 2S April SO (AP). Ibid.

TIWI. TIWI. nspcit Intelligence Report," by Colonel John G. Swope. 00119 Fairfield-Suisun AFB, California. 12 May SO. Blue Book Files. (OSI records). Ibid.

87

144. 145. 146. 14 7.

148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. ' 154.

155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161.

162. 163. 164.

"Spot Intelligence Report," by Colonel L. L. Martin, DOIII Westover AFB, Massachusetts. S Nay SO. Blue Book Files. {OSI records). . . . (Portland, Oregon) Oregonian, 27 April SO, p. 1. London, England. 26 April SO (Reuters). Ruppelt, Edward J. Report on Unidentified Elying Objects. (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1956), p. 84. "Objects Observed Following ~tX 776A Test of 27 April 1950," prepared by Wilber L. Mitchell, Math'ematician, Data Reduction Unit. lS May SO. Blue Book Files, Chicago, Illinois. lS May 50 (AP). Eisings, Larry. The Mystery of Other ·worl.ds Revealed. (New York, New York: . Fawcett for the Sterling Publishing Co., Inc.), p. 129. Keyhoe, Donald. "Flight 117 and the Flying Saucer." True, August 19SO, pp. 25, 75-79. South Bend, Indiana) ·south 'Bend Tribune, 28 April SO, p. 1. Ibid. Ruppelt, Edward J. 'Report on the Unidentified Flying Objects, p. 109. Ibid. llSpOt Intelligence Report," by Colonel L. L. Martin. DOH Westover AFB, Massachusetts. 2 May SO. Blue Book Files. (OSI re'cords). Ibid. ~gelr, Color~do} ~angtH~ ·Driller, 28 April so, p. 1. (R1vers1de, Cal1forn1a) Dally Press, 30 April SO, p .. 2. Arnold, Kenneth and Ray Palmer.· ·the Corning ·of 'the Saucers, pp. 1S0-1Sl. Fisher, Robert. "Confidentially."· Air Facts, May 1, 19SO, pp. 150-lSl. Scully, Frank. Behind the Flying Saucers, p. 229. Washington D.C. 4 May SO (AP . Maccabee, Dr. Bruce. "UFO Related Information From FBI Files, Part 4." The Mufon UFO Journal, February 1978, p. 14.

16S. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176.,

(Birmingham, Alabama) Birmingham Post, S May SO. Ibid.

lDTcf.

~ey,

Australia. S May SO (UP). (Oaklind, California) Oakland Tribune, 7 May SO, p. 6-A. Wilkins, Harold L. · 'F1yinf Saucers on the Attack. (New York: Citadel Press, 1954), p. 30. (Riverside, California} ·naily Press, 8 May SO (UP), p. 2. Letter: To: Air Material Command, Washington D.C. From: --- (deleted) East Ely, Nevada. 28 June SO. Blue Book Files. Edwards, Frank. "Did Mrs. Trent Photograph a UFO in Oregon?'' (Indianapolis, Indiana} The Irtdiartapdlis Times, 23 August 6S, p. 9. Me. t-finnville, Oregon. 12 June SO (INS). Ibid. Maccabee, Dr. Bruce. "The Me Minnville Photos." Unpublished manuscript, 1978, pp. 7-10.

I 7 7.

I 7 B.

179. I HO.

181 . 18 2. 183 . 184.

185.

186 . 18 7.

188. 189 . 190. 191. 192. 193.

194. 19S. 196 . 197 . 198.

(St. Loui s , ~1is s ouri) l'o s t·~~ispW~o.:h, II .June 50, p. I~ · A. "Special Inquiry," by S7ADale .l>awson. no I l l Tinker AFB, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 18 May 50. IHuc Book Files . (OSI records). I hid. (Sacramento, California) S;1cramento Bee, 13 t-lay SO, 1\ 10. (St. louis, Missouri) Post:lns¥atch, 16 t-lay SO, p. 1. (Portland, Oregon) Ore~onian, 2 June 50 (AP), p. 1. Maccabee, Dr. Bruce.UFO Related Information from FBI Files, Part 7." The Mufon UFO Journal, November·lleccmbcr 1978, p. 12. Letter: To: Commanding General, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio, ATTN: MCI. From: Colonel Robert P. Dell, AC of S, G-2, Hq. Fifth Army, Chicago, Illinois. 26 June SO. Blue Book Files. Letter : To: Director of Research & Development, llq. USAF, Washington 25, D.C. ATTN: AFMRS. From: Major General S.R . Brentall, Research & Development, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton AFB, Dayton, Ohio. 17 May SO. Project TWINKLE Final Report. (Manchester, England) Manchester Guardian, 17 May SO, p. 10 . Hall, Richard, ed. The UFO Evidence. (Washington D.C: National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964), p. 3 (Photostat of the typewritten report that had been drawn up within an hour of the sighting). Flagstaff, Arizona . 23 May SO (UP). Montrose, Colorado . 21 May SO (UP) . Gallup, George II. The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion, Volumne Two (1949-1958), p. 911. New York Times, 22 May SO, p. 8 (UP). , {Salem, Oregon) Statesman, 23 May SO, p. 1. "Summary of Observat1ons of Aerial Phenomena in New Mexico Area, December 1948 - May 19SO," by Colonel Doyle Recs . DO 117 Kirtland AFB, New Mexico . 2S May SO. Blue Book Files . (OSI records). Ma c cabee, Dr. Bruce. "UFO Related Information from the FBI File, Part 7." The Mufon UFO Journal, November · December 1978, p . 11. Ibid. ~York New York. 2S May SO (AP). Sperry, Captain Willis T. letter to the Editor: "The Mail Box." Flyin~, Septembe r 19SO, p. 8. Barrow, Robe rt.UFO Revisited." Official UFO, February 1977, p. 56.

199. 200 . 201.

K1emperer, W. B. (In the presence of ~tr: AI Chop of DAC Public Relations on February 4, 19SS). "Interview with Captain Willis T. Sperry." Blue Book Files. Washington, D.C . 31 May SO (UP). Ruppelt, Edward J . Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, p. 114.

202. 203 .

McMinnville, Oregon. 10 June SO (INS). letter: To: "Mr. Case" of Hoquia11, Washington . From: Lt . Colonel, USAF, Chief, Civil Branch, Community Relation s Division, John P. Spaulding, USAF, Chi e f, Civil Branch, Community Relations Division, Office of Information. 10 March 6S . Blue Book Files.

89

204. 20S. 206. 207. 208. 209. 210. 211.

212. 213. 214. 21 s. 216. 217. 218. 219.

220. 221. 222.

Personal interview between Jack B. Bladinc, editor of the Me Minnville Tele~hone-Register, and the author. Edwards, Frank. D1d Mrs. Trent Photograph a UFO in Oregon?" (Indiananpol is, Indiana) The IndianapoJ is Times, 23 August 6S, p. 9. Me MinnviJle, Oregon. 12 June SO (INS). Ibid. "[JloTtland, Oregon) Oregonian, 10 June SO, p. 7. Klass, Phillip J. UFO Explained. (New York. Random House, 1977), p. 144. Maccabee, Dr. Bruce. "On the possibility that the Me t-linnville Photos Show a Distant Unidentified Object." Upublished manuscript. Condon, Edward U. (project director). Scientific Study of Unidentified Flbing ObJects. Daniel S. G1lmor, ed. (New York: E. P. utton 1n association with Colorado University Press, 1970), pp. 396-407. Sagan, Carl and Thornton Page, eds. UFO's--A Scientific Debate. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1972), pp. 13, 207. Webb, Wells Alan. Marsf The New Frontier. (San Francisco, California: Fearon Pub 1shers, 1956), pp. 124-12S. (Oakland, California) Oakland Tribune, 13 June SO, p. 27-E. Corley, Me Darment. "D1d the Mystery Plane Come from Mars?" Man-To-Man, June-July 19SO, pp. 6-9, 60. "Memorandum for General Carroll," by Lt. Colonel David B. Borden, Actg. Chief, Counter Intelligence Div. OSI, The Inspector General. IS June SO. Blue Book Files. (OSI records). Ibid.

lliTd.

naiTedge, James. Fl~inf Saucers Over Australia. (Sydney, Australia: Horwitz ub icat1ons, Inc., 1965), p. 26. "Classified Message." To: CSUSAF WASH DC ATTN: D/1. From: FEAF TOKYO JAPAN 23 June SO. Blue Book Files. Doubt, Publication of the Fortean Society, Edited by TITTiny Thayer, Vol. II, 143, p. 232. (San Rafael, California) Independent-Journal, 21 June SO, p. 1.

223. 224. 22S.

(Oakland, California) Oakland Tribune, 21 June SO, p. 1. (Oakland, California) Oakland Tr1bune, 22 June SO, p. 32-B. (San Rafael, California) Independent-Journal, 22 June SO, p. 4.

226. 227. 228. 229. 230. 231. 232.

H3. 234'.

(Oakland, California) Oakland Tribune, 28 June SO, p. 2-E. Hall, Richard, ed. The UFO Ev1dence, pp. 30-31. (Case certified by Paul Cerny). Los Angeles, California. 1 July SO (UP). Los Angeles, California. 21 June SO (AP). Los Angeles, California. 28 June SO (UP). Los Angeles, California. 29 June SO (UP). Maccabee, Dr. Bruce. The Me Minnville Photos. Unpublishe.d manuscript. Spring 1978, pp. 23-26. Condon, ' Edward U. Scientific ·study of Unidentified Flying Objects, p. 399. . "Spot Intelligence Report," by Lt. Colonel Kenneth W. King. DO 119 Fairfield-Suisun AFB, Fairfield, California. 26 June SO. Blue Book Files. (OSI records).

' 10

235.

236. 237. 238. 239.

240. 241. 242. 243. 244. 245. 246. 247. 248. 249. 250. 2 51. 252. 253. 254. 255.

256. 257. 258. 259.

260.

261. 26 2. 2tJ3. 264. 265.

Letter: To : Commander, ~lilitary Air Transport Servi c e, Andrews Al'll, Wa s htngton LS ll.C. ATTN : llirector of Plan s , Intellig e nce llivisiun. From: 1st Lt. Lewis 1.. llowcs, Intel) igcnce Officer·, 208th Re connaissance Group (Weather) Tinker Al'll, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. 26 June 50 lllue Book Files. "Spot Intelligence Report," by Capt. Dale W. Dawson. DO Ill. Tinker AFB, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. 26 June 50. lllue Book Files. (OSI records). New York Times, 27 June SO, p. 31. (St. Louis, Missouri) Post-Dispatch, 27 June 50, p. 7 . "Spot Report, Unidentified Aerial Object," prepared hy Captain J. A. Matchan, Ord. Dept. Intelligence Officer. 29 June 50. Red River Arsenal, Texarkana, Texas. Blue Book Files. I hid. T6Td. Louisville, Kentucky. 28 June 50 (UP). (Oakland, California) Oakland Tribune, 28 June 50, p. 2- E. (St . Louis, Missouri) Post-Dis~atch, 28 June 50, p. 6-A . "Air Intelligence Informationeport," by Captain Edward G. Merrill, Hq. 2nd Bombardment Group (?). 28 June 50. Blue Book Files. (St. Louis, Missouri) Post ~ Dispatch, 6 July 50, p. 8. Letter to the U.S. Air Force. From: L. H. Stringfield. 7 April 54. Blue Book Files. (Wichita, Kansas) Wichita Beacon. 30 June 50. Ibid.

ma.

T6Td. TTfiTeigh, North Carolina) News and Observer, 3 July SO. Doubt, Volumn II, 143, p. 212. TS3r\Francisco, California) San Francisco Chronicle . . "This World Section." 9 July 50, p. 3. Heard, Gerald. Is Another World Watching? (New York: llarper & Brothers, 1950), p. 3. "Spot Intelligence Report," by Lt. Colonel Wallace B. Schoies. DO 124 Chicago, 18 Illinois. 4 August SO. Blue Book Files. (OSI records). Ibid. W1TICins, lfarold L. Flying Saucers on the Attack, pp. 252255. (Seattle, Washington) Post-lntelligencer. 4 July 50, p . 2. Letter: To: CS USAF, Washington D.C. ATTN: Director of Special Investigation. From: Department of the Air Force Staff Message Division (No other identifying data legible on official microfilm). Blue Book Files. llynek. J. Allen. Hynek UFO Report. (New York: Dell Publishing Co., Inc., 1977), pp·. 54-SS. Ibid, pp. 56-57. TliT
91 266. 267. 268. 269.

270. 271.

272. 273. 274. 27S.

276.

277. 278. 279. 280. 281. 282. 283. 284. 28S.

286. 287. 288. 289. 290.

"Special Inquiry," by Colonel. Matthew Thomson. DO *13 Offutt AFB, Omaha, Nebraska. 17 July SO. Blue Book Files. (OSI records). (Topeka, Kansas) Topeka State Journal. 8 July SO. Ibid. Letter: To: Commanding General, Air Material Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio. ATTN : MCIAX0-3. From: Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard. 18 July SO. Blue Book Files. Arnold, Kenneth and Ray Palmer. The Coming of the Saucers, p. 1S3. "Spot Intelligence Report," by Robert H. Brighinell. DO 16 Dobbins AFB, Marietta, Georgia. 10 July SO. Blue Book Files. (OSI records). (St. Louis, Missouri) Post~Disratch, 12 July so. p. 9-C. (Jacksonville, Florida) · Th~ F or1da Tim~s - Union, 11 July SO. (St. Louis, Missouri) Post~DlSp•tch, 14 July SO, p. 1. Letter: To: District Commander, DO 116 Hill AFB, Ogden, Utah. From: Major Roy A. Lange Ass't Executive, Special Investigations. The Inspector General. 12 July SO. Blue Book Files {OSI records). Letter: To: Major Richard G. Cox. DO 117 Kirtland AFB, New Mexico. From : W. J. Me Elreath, Director, Office of Security AEC, Los Alamos, New Mexico. 12 July SO. Blue Book Files (OSI records). (St. Louis, Missouri) · post~Dispatch, 14 July SO, p. 1 . "Spot Intelligence Report," by Colonel t-latthew Thompson. DO 113 Offutt AFB, Omaha, Nebraska. 2S July SO. Blue Book Files. (OSI records). Arnold, Kenneth and Ray Palmer. The Coming of the Saucers, p. 1S3. Pomeroy, Ohio. 17 July SO {AP). "Spot Intelligence Report," by Major Richard Cox. DO 1/17 Kirtland AFB, New Mexico. 18 August SO. Blue Book Files. {OSI records). Ibid. Halledge, James. Flying Saucers Over Australia, p. 28. Nixon, Stuart. "The Man Beh1nd Project Hagnet." UFO ~uarterly Review, January-March 1973, p. S. --Air Intelhgence Report," by --- (dele ted) Intelligence Officer, 1602 Air Transport Wing, Wiesbaden, Germany, 30 August SO. - Blue Book Files. (Los Angeles, California) Times, 26 July SO. (St. Louis, Missouri) Post-=-nTSj)atch, 2S July SO, p. 1. (St. Louis, Missouri) Post-Dispatch, 1 August SO, p. 3-A. Fragment of incomplete document. No identifying information. Fil~d by date: July .19SO. Blue Book Files. Layne, Meade. The Ether ShiE Mtstery and Its Solution . . (San Diego, Cal1fornia: Tal o the Ttmes Publishing Company, 1950).

INIJEX

A

ARC radio network, p.4. Abington, Pa., p.42. Adamski, George, pp.7-8,82. Adicks, Robert, pp.J7-J8. Agawan, Hass., p.9. Ahoskie. N.C., p.8. Air Facts, p.40, Air Force Scientific Advisory !bard, p. 58. Air Force Times, p. l8 . Air Force UFO suiiUIIilry, p.l8. Albert, Lt., p.J6. Amarillo Globe News, Amarillo, Tex., p.~-Anderson, Ho., p.29. Andrews AFB, Hd., p.25. Angelason, J., p.ll . Ansonia, Conn . • p.3J. Araoed Force's Polley Council, p. 6.

Armed Services Com111lttee, p.9. Arnholt, Robert, p.52. Arnold, Kenneth, pp.l6,24,65. Asan 1a cameras, p. 36. Asmara, Eritrea, p.9. At ito lean, Canada, p. 70. Atomic Energy Commission, 49 . Atomic Energy Commission Security Force, p.77. Austin, Tex., p. 28. Avoca, Australia, p. 78. B

Bakersfield, Calif., p.7. Baleraric Islands, p.32. Ba rke, R., p.lJ , Barker, Earl, p.l2. Bates, Bill, pp.Sl-52. Bavaria, Germany, p.23. Baynes, Calif., p. 36. Beebe, Lt. , pp.JB-39 . Bell, Col. Robert, p. l2. Bellamy, Rev. G., p.23.

Bellsnyder, Charles, p.41. Benach, II . , p. l4. Beppo, Fred, p.59. Berlin, Germany, p.J5. Birmingham Post, Birmingham, Ala., p.40. Blandford, W. p.80. Bliven, Bruce, p.78. Boggs, Haj., p.32. Bolster, Admiral C.H., p. Bl . Borderland Science Research Associates, p . 8l. Boston, Haas., p.ll. Bousahey, Col., p.72. Bradford, Ill., p.40. Brentnall, General S.R., p.47. Brynant, Capt., p.l6. Buffalo, N.Y., p.l7 . Bureau of Aeronautics for Research and Development, p.lO. Burlington, Iowa, pp.24,40. Butler, Pa., p.2. Butta, H., p.80.

c Cabell, General, pp.71-7J . Cairo, 111., p. 65. Calexico, Calif . , p . JO. Camaraaa, Spain, p.2J. Ca•br idge Researc h Laboratories , p.49. Ca•pin, W. p. 47. Cappuro, Sgt. Virgil, p.60. Carbondale, Ill . , p.)2. Carroll, General, pp.l8,49. Castroville, Calif., p.l5. Carswell AFB, Tex . , pp.27,30- J l . Centralia, Wash. , p. 39. Ceremans, D., pp.JJ- 34. Chehalis, Wash., p. 78. Chennault, A. J., p;28. Cht;yenne, Wyo., p.49. Chicago, Ill., p.37. Chronicle, Chehalis, Wash., p. 78 .

Ctnc in nat 1, Ohio, p. 66. Clark, Capt. Ray E., p.39. Cologne, Germany, p.l. Coming of the Saucers , p.33. Conunerc~ Tex., p. 63. Conlon, M., p.l2. Connally, Mr., p.63. Cooke, Millen, p.82. Counter-Intelligence Division, USAF, pp.31,71,73. Courier-Journal, Louisville, Ky., pp.71-72. Cox, Maj., p.32. Cross, Ted, p.l5. Crowder, W., p.63. Cullon, E., p.46. Cumming ham, Kans. , p. 67. D

Daggett, Calif., p.61. Daily Oklahoman, p.63. Dallas, TeJi,, pp. 30:...31. Dates: 9 October 4 6, p. 82. 28 March 48, p.l2. 16 February 49, p.21 . 20 May 49, p.2l. 2 June 49, p.2l. 12 January 50, p.31. 31 January 50, p.28. 8 February 50, pp.25,39,58. 3 March 50, p.32. 12 March 50, p.32. 13 March 50, p. l8 . 18 March 50, p.40. 21 March 50, p.31. 28 March 50, p.32. 1 April 50, p.l. 2 April 5(!, pp.l-2. 3 April 50, p. 4. 4 April 50, pp.7-8. 5 April 50, p.S . 6 April 50, p. 9. 7 April 50, pp. l0-11. 8 April ·so, pp.l2-14. 9 April 50, p.l6. 10 April 50, pp.l5-17,22. 11 April 50, _p.l8 . 12 April so, pp. 12,1s. 13 April -5o, pp.22-23. 14 April 50, p.23. 15 April 50, p. 24. '16 April 50, p.24. 17 April 50, pp.25-26.

18 April 50, pp.26-27. 19 April SO, pp.27-30. 20 April SO, pp.30-31,34. 22 April SO, pp.31-32,55. 23 April 50, p.32. 25 April SO, pp.33-34. 26 April SO, pp.34-35. 27 April SO, pp.35-39. 28 April 50, p. 39. 29 April 50, p.39. 1 May 50, p.40. 4 May 50, p.40. 6 May SO, p.42. 7 May 50, p.42. 13 May 50, p.46. 16 May 50, pp.46-47. 17 May 50, p.47. 20 May 50, p.48. 21 May 50, p.48. 23 Hay 50, p.SO. 25 May 50, p.Sl. 27 May 50, p.Sl. 29 May 50, p. 51. 30 May 50, p. 52 . 8 June 50, pp.53-54,62. 10 June 50, p.53. 11 June 50, p.53. 12 June 50, pp.43,57. 13 June 50, p.57. 15 June 50, p.58. 21 June 50, pp.61,76. 22 June 50, p.61. 24 June 50, p.63. 25 June 50, pp. 63-64. 26 June -50, p.62. 27 June 50, p. 64. 28 June 50, p.65. 29 June 50, p.65. 30 June 50, p.66. 5 July 50, p.70. 6 July 50, pp.71,74. 8 July 50, p.74. 9 July 50, pp.74,81. 10 July 50, p. 7 5. 11 July 50, pp.75-76. 12 July 50, p.77 . 13 July 50, p. 73 14 July 50, p.73. 15 July 50, p.78. 17 July 50, p.78. 18 July 50, p.78. 19 July 50, pp.73,78. 20 July 50, p.78. 25 July 50, pp.79-80.

27 July 50, p.79. 30 July 50, p.80. 31 July 50, p.BO. 19 Septmber 61, p.34. Dayton, Ohio, pp. 6-7. DCS/0 Collection Bracnch p.3l. Deering, Haj. S.S. 1 p. 75: Delake. Oreg., p.7S. Delano. Calif., p.7. Delapen. Hiss .• p.l8. Delgado. Angel, p.l. Dennison. Admiral R.obert L. p. 5. Denver. Colo •• p.7. Department of Defense pp . 5-6. Der §_pie&!!_, p.24. • Detroit. Hich., p.70. Dittlinger. N., p. 77. Dobos. S. • p. 30. Dougway Proving Grounds. Utah. p.34. Dowagiac, Hich. , p.65. Duncannon. Pa., p.l2. E

Earl, Lorrie, p.42. Earterling, W.C .• . p.JO. Edmonton, Alberta. Cana~a, pp. 8.30. Edwards AFB 1 Calif .• p.7. Edwards. F.rank, pp.3.4l.S4.62. Edson 1 Peter, p. 5. Eielson Field. Alaska. p. 70. El Centro 1 Cal if., p.lO. !!_ Nac tonal, p. 2 5. Ely, Nev., p.42. Engel. Rep. Albert 1 p.6. "Etheria," p.82. Ether Ship _!!ystery ~ its Solution. p.82. Examiner. Los Angeles. Calif., p.53.

F Farmington, W.Va., p.24. Fairfield-Sui san AFB 1 Calif. 1 p. 62. FBI. pp.40.46,49. Felling. Col. Bruno w.• pp.73-74. Fisher. A.c .• p.57. Fisher. R.obert, p.40. Flagstaff. Ariz. 1 p.48. !!.Y~. p.65. Fly~ Saucers and the Straight Line fustery 1 p.21. !!.Y~ Sauc er• ""!! Real. p. 51.

Folly, J . , pp . 33-34. Fonda, Iowa, p. 27. Forest Park. Ho., p.46. Fort Lewis 1 p.78. Fort Hadison 1 Iowa, p.lO. Fort McPherson, Ga., p.75. Fort Monmouth, N.J., p.78. Fort Ord, Calif., p.lS. Fort Peck 1 Mont •• p.77. Fort William, Canada, p. 76. Fort Worth, Tex., p.28. Fort Worth Star-Telegram, fort Worth. Tex •• p.28. Fort Worth Times, Fort Worth, Tex. 1 31. Fuller. Curtis. p.65. Furley 1 Kana., p . 66. G

Gachignard, H., p.45. CSIIIert. Robert J. ,· p.29. Carica, Pedro 1 p.lB. Garrachy. Lt. Col. F.D., p.71. Ge Baucer. Leo A.• pp.l 1 58. Geelong, Australia, p . 59. Cmeral Investisative Division, USAF, p. 71. Germany. p.l. Gillett e 1 Lew 1 pp. 53-S4. Goshm 1 Ind •• p.37. Couverner 1 N.Y •• p.l3. Gra\oo~m 1 Jim. p.BO. Grant. Hr •• p.24. Grant, Will i.aaa 1 p. 74. Greensburg, Kans., p.67. Grey. Hra. c .• p.l3. Grisillo, lt.tt., p. 79. GRUDGE, project, p.l8. Guaquil, Eduador 1 p.2J. Gulf of Mexico, p.63.

"

Hahon. Rep. George H. • p 6. Hamilton AFB, Calif. 1 pp.60-61 76. • Haaailton, Ontario 1 Canada, p. 76. Harford Times 1 Harford 1 Conn .• p.34. Harrell. Sgt. L.c •• p.l7. Harrison, E., p.75. Hauaemann, Huller, p.32. Hearn, Lt. Col., p.32. Hemstreet, Lt. · Col., p . ·1 j ,

Henderson, Ky., p.12. Herald-Tribune, New York, p.Bl. Hermann, R., pp.32-33. Herzog, Jom, p.29. Hess, Dr. Seymour, p.48. Hill AFB, p.70. Hill, j., p. 75. Hilliard, Jom A., p.82. Hinshaw, Gloria, p. 37. Holland, Alex, p. 78. Holloman AFB, N.H., pp.47,78. llood, Camp, pp.l9 ,21. Hood, Col,, pp.B0-81.House Military Appropriations, p.6. Houston, Tex., p.JO. Horseheads, N.Y., p.l3. Hyder, Lawrence, p.62. Hynek, Dr. J. Allen, pp.71,73. I

Independent-Journal, San Rafael, Cali~60.

Ironwood, Mich., p.9. J

Jenkins, R., p.l6. JIC, pp. 58-59. Johnson, Secretary of Defense, pp. 5-6. K

Kaempffert, Waldemar, p.49. Kaplan, Dr. Joseph, p.SO. Kelly AFB, Tex., pp.l8,25. Keller, G., p.BO. Keller, J., pp.65-66. Keyhoe, Donald, pp.37,51,82. KeyWest, Fla., p.5. King, Col. Kenneth, p.62. Kingman, Kans., p. 66. Kirtland AFB, N.H., pp.47,58. Klass, Phillip, pp.55,57. ltnoxvllle Airport, Tenn., p.Bl. Kokoma, Ind., p.l2. Korea, pp.3,64, 70. L

Ladd AFB, Alaska, p.70. Landry, General Robert, p. 5. La Paz, Dr. Lincoln, pp.)3,51,58. ta'r amine, Wyo., p. 33. }.aredo, Tex., p.25. Las Vegas, Nev., p. 61.

Lawrence, David, p.lO.· Layne, Meade, pp.Bl-82. Levy, Maj., p.Jl. Lexington, Va., p. 65. Ley, Willy, p.lO. Life, pp. 53,62. Lightfoot, Charles, p.l4. Lightfoot, David, p.l4. Limerick, Paul, p.lJ. Lindsborg, Kans., p.17. Lisbon, Portugal, p.JS. Little, R., p.42. Llantarnam, England, p.42. Logan International Airport, p.ll. Logsdon, Capt. Harry, p.63. Lohru•, W., p. 77. London, England, p.35. Long Beach, Calif., p.lJ. Longmont, Colo., p.2. Look, p. 78. Lorimer, Sgt. Ellis, p.60. Los Angeles, Calif., pp.74, 79-80. Los Alamos, N.H., pp.21,26, 29,49,77. Louisville, Ky., p.64. Ludlow, Mass., p.24. Lufkin, Tex., p.Jl. H

Haaxy, I., p.28. Haccabee, Dr. Bruce S., p.57. MacKinnon, Raymond, pp.38-J9. Macon, Georgia, p.l. Hagar, F.V., p.JS. Magill, Gilbert, p.74. Manchester Guardian, Hanchester, England, p.47. Hanning, Capt. Robert, p.37. Han to Han, p.SR. Hartin,Col., p.39. Harignane Airport, France, p. 45. Marin County, p.57. Marin, J.W., p.75. HATS, p.25. Matthews, Secretary of Navy, P· 5. HcDar.ent, Capt. Corley, p.58. McLaughlin, Commander R.B., pp. 4- 5. McMahon, Capt. Charles H., p.l7. McMinnville, Oreg., pp.4J, 53.

Meade, Kans., p. 68. Mexico City, Mexico, p.2'5. Michel, Aime, p.21. Military Appropriations Subcommittee, p.6. Millington, Naval Air Stat ion, P· 7 '5. Moline, Ill., p.l). Montclair, N.J., p.l8. Monterey, Calif., p.l'5. Montrose, Colo., p.48. Moore, R.E., p.7'5. Horgan, Dean, p.32. Morris, A.C., p.65. Horton, B., p.JO. Mount Joy, Iowa, p.40. Mt. Paloaar, Calif., p.81. Mt. Vernon, Va., p.'51. Huinix, Mr., p.67. Hulick, Doane, p.l). Muroc, Calif., p.7. Muscative, Iowa, p.40. Myers, Henry H., p.'52. N

Naval Elec~ronic Laboratory, p.7. Neue Illustrierte, pp;l,'58. Neukirchen, Germany, p.l8. Newburgh, N.Y., p.6J. Newburgh News, Newsburgh, N.Y., p.63. - - Newsweek, p.25. Newton, Silas, pp.l,58,82. New York Times, pp: 6,14. Nielsen, D., p;JO. Nold, Maj., pp.30,71-72. 0

Oakland, Calif., p.6'5. Oakland Tribune, Oakland, Calif., pp;57,60. . . Oak Ridge National Laboratory, pp.B0-81. Oba, Canada, p.l5. o• Brien, w., p.34. O'connell, Lt. Col., pp.72-73. Ogden, Utah, p.77. Oklahoma City~ Okla., p.23. O'Neil, John J., p.Bl. Oregonian, Portland, Oreg., PP· 32-33,35,53,55. "Ortboteny," p.21. Ocala, Fla., p.78. Osceala, Ark., p. 7 5, 78. Oxford, England, p.2.

p

Pacific City, Oreg., pp.32,'55. Palermo, Italy, p.23. Patchin, P., p.l7. Pearson, Drew, p.'5. Perdue, A.C., p.l8. Peril Strait, Alaska, p.74. Perry, H., p.l2. Pertoria, South Africa, p.60. Pittsburgh, Pa., p.lO. Plymouth, Mass., p.38. Pomeroy, Ohio, p.78. Port Arthur, Canada, p.76. Potter, Mr., pp.22-23. Power, John, p.l. Princeton, Ho., p.31. Pryor, Roger, p.60. Putt, General, pp.71-72. Q

Queensland, Austrlia, p.8. p.40. Quixley, C.L., p.78.

~.

R

Radio Moscow, p.l3. Randolph AFB, Tex., p.49. Rangely, Colo., p.39. Rainy Lake, Ill., p.24. Reade~;~s=:Dl&est·,; , pp;64.,.65. Red Bud, Ill., p.32. Red River Arsenal, .Tex., P· 64 • "Red Spray," p.l4 • Rees, Col. Doyle, pp.49.:.:5o. Reid, D.L., p.41. Research and Developement Board, P• 71. Reus, Spain, p.l8. Rickenbacker, Capt. Eddie, p. 4 6. Riley, Francis, p.75. Robertson, Mr., p.31. Robins AFB, Ca., . pp!l7-18. Rockbridge County~. Va., p. 65. . ' . . Roth, Col., · p.71~ Rounds, Haj., R.O., P• 30. Royal Air Force, England, p.2 . . Royal Australian Air Force, p. 42. Rome, It~y, !:P•42 • . , . Ross, Charles G.; p.·s. Ruark, Robert, p.4. · Ruppelt, Edward J., pp.36,38,53. Russell, Senator, p.9.

Russia, p. 50.

s Sacramento, Calif., p.l4 . Sacramento Bee, Sacramento, Calif., p.l4. Saigon, IndoChina, p.33 . Salinas, Calif., p.22. Salt I.ake City, Utah, p.34. San Francisco, Calif., p . l3. San Jose, Calif., pp.8;22. San Leandro, Calif., p.61. "Saucer lands," pp.44-4,5. Sault St. Marie, Hich., pp~ll,lS. Savannah; Ga., p. 65. Schenectady, N.Y., p.74. Schriever, Rudolph, pp.23-24. Schultz, Edward, p.82. Scientific Advisory Board, p. 50. Scott, Lt. Col. C.H., p.31. Scully, Frank, pp.l0,82. Selkirk, Manitoba, Canada, p.2. Senate Armed Services Committee, p. 10. Sevila, Lt., pp.9,17. Sharp, Allan, p.35. Shelby, N.C., p.l3. Sherman, Tex., pp.27-28. Sherman, Admiral Forrest, p.6. Siena de Morones Hts., p.25. Silver I.ake, Calif., ·p.·61. Smith,. Wilbert B., p. 79. 'Sokol, J., p.74. South Bend, Ind.~ p.38. Spaatz, General Carl, p.25. Spaulding, Lt. Col. John P., p.53. Sperry, Capt. Willis T., pp.51-52. Springfield, Ill., p.SO. Springfield, Haas., p.26. s~rtogfield , J6urnal, Springfield, -Ill., p.SO. !pringfield ~;. PP•..24,26. Stanford, Conn., p.34. Stattler, Lt. Col., p. 71. Steep Rock Echo,Ontario, Canada, p. 76. Steep Rock Iron Company, p.70. Stewart. Daivd 1 pp.61~62. St. 'Ignace.·Micb., p.ll. St. Louis, Mo., p.77. ~ Louia··~-Dispatch, St. Louis, Mo., p~80. Straits ·of Mackinac, p.ll. Stuart, It.~ P• 61. Sunday Register, Des Moines, Iowa,

p.24. Sutter Buttes, Calif., p.46. Sydney, Australia, p.42. Symington, Air Force Secretary. Stuart, pp.28-29. Sweden, p. 35. Swope, Col. John, p.34. T

Talk of the Times, p.58. Tarragon-;;-spain, p.l8. Taylor, Henry J., pp.4,6,16-17, 57' 64. Technical Analysis Division, USAF, p.73. Technical Capabilities Branch, p. 71. . Telephone-Register, HcHinnville, Oreg., pp.53-54,62. Terra Bella, Calif., p.l3. Texarkana, Tex., p.64. · Times-Rep~.~blican, Marshalltown, Iowa,p.27. Time s-Un ion, Jacksdnville, Fla., p.76.-Timperey, England, p.47. Tipp City, Ohio, P• 7. Topeka, Kans., p.74. Trent, Clayton, p.54. Trent, Hr. Paul, pp.43,53,55-56,

T~~t, Hrs. Paul,· pp~43,54_:55,62. Tribune-Sun, San Diego, Calif., p.7. True, p: 51. Truman, President Harry, p.S. Truth About !!Y.!:!!$ Saucers, p. 45. Tunderbolt, p.9. Tydings, Senator, p.lO. · Twining, General Nat ham F., p. 70.

u Ules, TlSgt. E., p.49. Upper Sandusky, Mich., p.l3. u.s. Army Intelligence, p.l6. U.S. Navy, p.4. U.S. News and World · Re{JI)rt, p.4-5,

10:" - - - - - - - - v

Valley, Dr., . p.71. Vancouver, Canada, p.35. Vanderbilt University, p.SO. Venezuela, p. i. Vermillion, Rev. R., pp.l,66-68,

69. Vev er ka, Toni, p. 76.

w Wappler, B., p.IO. Warner Robins AFB, p.2. Watson, Col. , p. 72. Wehner, G. D., p. 75. Wellington, New Zealand, p.2S . We st, Maj . Jack, p.39. Westfield, Mass., p. 9. ~estover AFB, Haas., pp.24-26,34. White Sands, N.H., p.)6. Whitly, England, p.9. Wichita Ea~, Wichita, Kans., p . 68. Wiesbaden, Germany, p.79. Williams AFB, p . 48. William s , E. D., p.l7 . Williamsvil le, Ill., p . SO. Wilmette Beach, Ill., p.47. Wiper, Capt. Sam B., p.61-62. Wyckoff, Dr., p.51. X

y

York, Pa . , p.l6.

z Zenon, Felix, p.48. Zigel, Dr. Felix, p.).

The "UFOs: A HISTORY" series represents the most ambitious and comprehensive attempt yet made to apply the historian's skills and methods to a subject so "un-historical" by nature, so unscientifically documented and so little esteemed in general by conventional scientists and academics: that of Unidentified Flying Objects. And yet, the UFO presence in contemporary society has been a pervasive and persistent one; one sees the UFO motif everywhere, indicating that its impact on our culture has been profound and permane.nt. It cries out to have its modern rise carefully charted and delineated. No-one is better-qualified to take up this fascinating challenge than Loren Gross, who has devoted decades of painstaking-and always scrupulously objective-historical research into this project. Modern-day researchers into The Unexplained, as well. as future students of 20th Century history, will be the grateful beneficiaries of his labor.