Unilever Smallholder Performance Measurement Survey (Revised

Unilever Smallholder Performance Measurement Survey (Revised

Unilever Smallholder Performance Measurement Survey (Revised version for piloting) Unilever’s Sustainable Living Plan describes Unilever’s corporate s...

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Unilever Smallholder Performance Measurement Survey (Revised version for piloting) Unilever’s Sustainable Living Plan describes Unilever’s corporate sustainability ambitions, formulated into more than 50 time-bound targets. One of these targets is to: “engage with at least 500,000 smallholder farmers in our supply network. We will work with our suppliers to help them improve their agricultural practices and thus enable them to become more competitive. By doing so we will improve the quality of their livelihoods.” To better know and report on the impact our sourcing has on smallholder livelihoods, Unilever is developing and testing an approach for measuring conditions in smallholder supply chains. By anchoring the measurement approach in Unilever’s understanding of how participation in a Unilever supply chain can improve livelihoods, Unilever can both report on progress and diagnose issues with the potential to improve the experience of small scale producers. The following survey was developed to assess smallholder performance along 12 key indicators established in consultation with a team of external expert practitioners.

Basic Learning Questions: I.

Are the farmers experiencing good trading relationships?

Trading relationship indicators: price satisfaction, perceived quality of relationships, future planting plans, importance of this crop to livelihood

II.

Do farmers have access to training, inputs and services?

Access to services indicators: Satisfaction with access to services, training and technical assistance, Utilisation of services

III.

Are the farmers adopting GAP and productivity indicators: Adoption of good agricultural good agricultural practices practices, Productivity, Quality of crop produced and experiencing good productivity?

IV.

Are the basic needs of farmers and their families met?

Livelihood indicators: Food security, Income, Likelihood of poverty, Children in school, gender equality

Categories of questions for the survey: 1. Farm Description 2. Farm Practices and productivity 3. Access to Services and Utilisation of Services 4. Trading Relationships 5. Livelihood a. Includes Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI), Months of Adequate Household Food Provisioning (MAHFP) and Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS)

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Survey: Note that the flow of the questions is structured to move from the more comfortable to the more personal questions about household finances. In this general version, the India PPI is however used for purpose of illustration. Since PPI is country specific, if this tool is to be used in another country, it should be replaced with the right PPI when it is available or be removed when it is not available. Questions specific to PPI for India in BLUE (do not change the scoring) Questions specific to the target crop to be identified and added in ORANGE (based on e.g. feedbacks from local agronomists/experts) Household Dietary Diversity Score in GREEN (check whether it is really useful to include it for the relevant survey!) YELLOW questions are specific to understanding gender PURPLE colour letter indicate where changes were made in this version (versus the previous version) Questions in LIGHT BLUE are provisional asset questions that should be checked whether they are in duplication of the metrics in the PPI for the relevant country. Farm Description: Goals: Record farmer name and demographic information to provide context for analysing survey data 1. Farmer name Name 2.

Farm Location1

Village name (as one would use in post address), District

3.

Gender of the person interviewed

Male (1)

Female (2)

4.

Are you the head of the household? –If not, what’s the gender of the head of the household What’s your age?

No (0)

Yes (1)

Male (1)

Female (2)

5. 6.

#

7.

How many members does the household support? (Include all people living in the household2)

8.

How much land do you currently farm? (Include land you are renting, leasing or borrowing3)

Unit

#

9.

How much land do you own or hold a title to? (= the total land you are farming minus the land you are renting, leasing or borrowing) Are you a member of a farmer group 4? –If so, which of the following types of groups does your household participate in? Does your farm hold any certifications, or is part of a certified group of farms?5 –if so, what certification is it?

Unit

#

No (0)

Yes (1)

10. 11.

12.

13.

# of men (i.e. males 18 and over

# of women (i.e. females 18 and over)

Cooperative (1)

# of boys (i.e. males 17 and under)

Association (2)

No (0)

Organic (1)

Utz (2)

# of girls (i.e. females 17 and under)

Informal farmer group (3)

Yes (1)

FairTrade (3)

Rainforest Alliance (4)

Other (5)

Farm Practices and Productivity Goals: Record adoption of best practices and productivity of target crop to look for possible correlation and/or room for improvements in yield 1

Farm location choice should be locally relevant to the supply chain. If it is unclear which village a farmer resides in, refer to a village name as one would use in post address. 2 Head of household refers to the person in a household who is running the household 3 There are many forms of land tenure. This question must be adapted to culture. 4 “Farmer group” is a term that may need to be adapted to culture. 5 Certifications listed in option list will vary according to crop and region.

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14. How much land did you grow (crop) on last year? 15. What quantity of (crop) did you harvest from whole farm last year? 16. What was the average yield of (crop) from your farm? 17. How do you feel last year’s production of (crop) was in terms of weather?6 18. What variety did you grow last year? (choose the main one if more than one varieties)

24. Who receives the money from sale of product? 25. Who makes the decisions about investing in the crop? Spending on fertilizer, seeds, etc.

#

Unit

#

Unit

#

Worse than a typical year (1)

Hybrid variety bred for processing purpose (1)

19. Did you do soil testing for macro and/or micro nutrients for your crop last year? 20. If so, was the testing report supported with a corrective recommendation nutrient management plan? 21. What is your irrigation method? (choose the main one if more than one methods) 22. Did you suffer serious yield loss due to infections of pests and diseases last year? 23. Who does most of the work on the crop?7

Unit

Same as a typical year (2)

Traditional variety bred for processing purpose (2)

Hybrid variety bred for fresh market (3)

Traditional variety bred for fresh market (4)

No (0)

Yes (1)

No (0)

Yes (1)

No irrigation (0)

Drip (1)

Sprinkle (2)

No (0)

Mainly men from the family (1)

Better than a typical year (3)

Mainly women from the family (2)

Yes (1)

Mainly boys (3)

Mainly man (1) Man, but consulted his wife before decision was made (1)

Other methods (3)

Mainly girls (4)

Mainly Hired Labour (5)

(2) Mainly woman

Woman, but consulted her husband before decision was made (2)

Man, without consulting his wife before decision was made (3)

Woman, without consulting her husband before decision was made (4)

Access to Services Goal: Measure the producer’s satisfaction with his/her ability to access the services that typically increase productivity 26. How satisfied are you with the access that you have to planting material?8

Not at all satisfied (1)

Not very satisfied (2)

Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied (3)

Quite satisfied (4)

Very satisfied (5)

27. How satisfied are you with the access that you have to fertilizer?

Not at all satisfied (1)

Not very satisfied (2)

Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied (3)

Quite satisfied (4)

Very satisfied (5)

28. How satisfied are you with the access that you have to pesticides?

Not at all satisfied (1)

Not very satisfied (2)

Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied (3)

Quite satisfied (4)

Very satisfied (5)

29. Are you satisfied with your access to credit that you could use to invest in your farm?

Not at all satisfied (1)

Not very satisfied (2)

Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied (3)

Quite satisfied (4)

Very satisfied (5)

6

We are asking about whether to account for factors BEYOND farmers control that influence productivity. Therefore focusing on weather. Practices chosen to look at gender roles 8 Planting material refers to seeds, young seedlings or any transplanting materials. By access, we mean “are you able to get good quality planting material if you wanted it?” Do you have physical access? Do you think it is affordable?9 The term “agronomist” will likely require customization to culture. 7

3

30. Are you satisfied with the access that you have to technical assistance to help you grow (crop)? 31. Are you satisfied with the access that you have to market price information about (crop)? 32. In the last year, how many times did you receive agronomy training or advice from an extension worker/ agronomist9? 33. Who participated in the trainings or advisory meetings? 34. Do you gain useful knowledge from your trainings and meetings with agronomists? Trading Relationships

Not at all satisfied (1)

Not very satisfied (2)

Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied (3)

Quite satisfied (4)

Very satisfied (5)

Not at all satisfied (1)

Not very satisfied (2)

Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied (3)

Quite satisfied (4)

Very satisfied (5)

Never (1)

1-2 times a year (2)

3-5 times a year(3)

6-11 times a year (4)

>=12 times a year (5)

Mainly man (1) Never (1)

Seldom (2)

Mainly woman (2) Sometimes (3)

Most of the time (4)

Always (5)

Goal: Measure the producer’s perception of his/her trading relationship within this supply chain to test the sustainability of these relationships 35. Were you satisfied with the price you received for your crop last year? 36. Were you satisfied with the profit you made from the crop last year?

Not at all satisfied (1)

Not very satisfied (2)

No opinion (3)

Quite satisfied (4)

Very satisfied (5)

Not at all satisfied (1)

Not very satisfied (2)

No opinion (3)

Quite satisfied (4)

Very satisfied (5)

37. Do you expect that your relationship with your primary buyer10 will continue for a long time? 38. Would you like to strengthen your relationship with your primary buyer in the future? 39. Do you believe that the future of growing this crop is strong and hopeful? Livelihood

Disagree strongly (1)

Disagree (2)

Neither agree or disagree (3)

Agree (4)

Strongly Agree (5)

Disagree strongly (1)

Disagree (2)

Neither agree or disagree (3)

Agree (4)

Strongly Agree (5)

Disagree strongly (1)

Disagree (2)

Neither agree or disagree (3)

Agree (4)

Strongly Agree (5)

Goals: Measure producer’s poverty status in order to better understand the risks they face. 40. How much product did you sell last year? 41. What price did you receive for your product last year? 42. How much money did you spend paying others to help you grow and harvest this crop last year? 43. How much money did you spend on fertilizer, pesticide and planting material to grow this crop last year? 44. Please estimate the percent of your household income that comes from this crop (versus the total that include other cash crops, dairy, animal husbandry and off-farm incomes): 45. Please estimate the percent of your household income that 9 10

Unit

#

Unit

#

Unit

#

Unit

#

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

The term “agronomist” will likely require customization to culture. Specify what we mean by the local buyer so that it can be defined by the interviewer

4

comes from other activities in the farm (include other cash crops, dairy and animal husbandry, but exclude off-farm incomes): 46. How important is this crop to your overall livelihood? 47. How do you feel about your overall economic situation compared to last year? 48. Who makes the decisions about investing in big household items (e.g. TV, furniture, motorcycle, etc.) 49. In the last two years, what is the most significant change in your life resulting from the trade in this crop?11 50. How many school-age children (normally between the ages 6 and 12) does the family has? 51. How many male children attend school more than 8 months per year? 52. How many female children attend school more than 8 months per year? 53. What is the primary source of drinking water for your household

Not very important (1)

Somewhat important (2)

Very important (3)

Worse (1)

Same (2)

Better (3)

Man, but consulted his wife before decision was made (1)

Woman, but consulted her husband before decision was made (2)

55. What is the main source of cooking fuel used by your household?

#

#

#

1 □ Interior plumbing 2 □ Indoor tap/spigot

8□ 9□ 10 □ 11 □

Not cooking (0)

Wood picked (1)

Purchas ed wood (2)

13 □ Bottled water 14 □ Other Yes (1) Charcoal (3)

No male head/spouse (0)

57. What is the household type?

Labour (agricultural, casual, or other) (0)

58. What is the primary source of energy for cooking?

Firewood and chips, dung cake, kerosene, charcoal, coke or coal, gobar gas, or others (0)

11

Not literate, no formal school, or primary or below (0)

No (0)

Private outside tap/spigot Public tap Well with pump Well without pump (artesian well)

12 □ River, lake, spring, pond

5 □ Rainwater 6 □ Neighbor's tap/spigot 7 □ Neighbor's well No (0)

56. What is the general education level of the male head/spouse?

59. Does the household possess any casseroles, thermos, or thermoware?

Woman, without consulting her husband before decision was made (4)

Open text answer (short).

3 □ Water merchant 4 □ Water truck

54. Do you have access to electricity?

Man, without consulting his wife before decision was made (3)

Gas (4)

Middle school (3)

Electricit y (5)

Oil (6)

Secondary or higher secondary (5)

Diploma/certific ate course, graduate, or postgraduate and above (7)

Self-employed (agriculture or nonagriculture), regular wage/salary-earning, or others (5)

LPG or electricity (3)

No cooking arrangement (9)

Yes (5)

This is the “most significant change” open ended question. Answers would be entered as very short key word summaries.

5

Other (7)

60. Does the household possess a television and a VCR/VCD/DVD player? 61. Does the household possess a mobile handset and a telephone instrument (landline)? 62. Does the household possess a sewing machine? 63. Does the household possess an almirah/dressing table? 64. Does the household possess a bicycle, motorcycle/scooter, or motor car/jeep? 65. Months of Adequate Household Food Provisioning.

No, neither one (0)

Yes, only one (4)

Yes, both (9)

No, neither one (0)

Yes, only mobile (9)

Yes, a landline, regardless of mobile (15)

No, none (0)

No (0)

Yes (1)

No (0)

Yes (5)

Yes, bicycle only, no motorcycle/scooter, or car (1) No (0)

Motorcycle/scooter, but no car (regardless of bicycle) (13)

Motor car/jeep (regardless of others) (18)

Yes (1)

-Were there months in the past 12 months, in which you did not have enough food to meet your family’s needs? 66. -If so, which were the months in Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec the past 12 months when you did not have enough food to meet your family’s needs? (Do not read the list of months aloud) 67. Please describe the foods (meals and snacks) that you ate or drank yesterday during the day and night, whether at home or outside the home.12 Start with the first food or drink of the morning. Write down all foods and drinks mentioned. When composite dishes are mentioned, ask for the list of ingredients. Do not include any food used in a small amount for seasoning or condiments (like chillies, spices, herbs, or fish powder) When the respondent has finished, probe for meals and snacks not mentioned. Breakfast:

Morning snack:

Lunch:

Afternoon snack:

Dinner:

Evening snack:

12

The dietary record will be used to calculate an Individual Dietary Diversity Score (IDDS) which aims to reflect nutrient adequacy.

6

When the respondent recall is complete, fill in the food groups based on the information recorded above.13 For any food groups not mentioned, ask the respondent if a food item from this group was consumed.

Place a 1 in the box if an item in the group was consumed, place a 0 if not.

A.

68.

69.

70. 71.

72.

73.

74.

75.

76.

13

All starchy staples: bread, rice noodles, biscuits, or any other foods made from millet, sorghum, maize, rice, or wheat as well as potatoes, yams, manioc, cassava or any other food made from [ ___  roots or tubers B. Beans and peas: dried beans, dried peas, lentils, or foods made from these (such as hummus) [ ___  C. Nuts and seeds: nuts, seeds or foods made from these (such as peanut butter) [ ___  D. Dairy: milk, cheese, yogurt or other milk product [ ___  E. Flesh foods: beef, pork, lamb, goat, rabbit, game, chicken, duck, other birds, insects, fresh or dried [ ___  fish or shellfish, liver, kidney, heart or other organ meats or blood-based foods F. Eggs: eggs from chicken, duck, guinea fowl or any other egg [ ___  G. Vitamin A-rich dark green leafy vegetables: including amaranth, cassava leaves, kale, and spinach [ ___  (including wild forms) H. Other vitamin A-rich vegetables and fruits: pumpkin, carrot, squash, or sweet potato that are orange inside or any ripe mango, cantaloupe, apricot (fresh or dried), ripe papaya, dried peach, [ ___  and 100% fruit juice made from these I. Other vegetables: tomato, onion, eggplant and others [ ___  J. Other fruits: apple, orange and others (including wild fruits and 100% fruit juice made from these) [ ___  How many times a week do you eat dairy, Never or <1 1-2 x/week 3-5 x/week 6-7 x/week such as milk, curd cheese, yoghurt or other x/week milk product? How many times a week do you eat flesh Never or <1 1-2 x/week 3-5 x/week 6-7 x/week foods, such as beef, pork, chicken, fish, x/week mutton, or insects? How many times a week do you eat eggs? Never or <1 1-2 x/week 3-5 x/week 6-7 x/week x/week How many times a week do you eat vitamin Never or <1 1-2 x/week 3-5 x/week 6-7 x/week A-rich dark green leafy vegetables such as x/week amaranth, cassava leaves, kale, and spinach (including wild forms) How many times a week do you eat other Never or <1 1-2 x/week 3-5 x/week 6-7 x/week vitamin A-rich vegetables and fruits, such x/week as pumpkin, carrot, squash, or mango? In the last year, did your family produce No (0) Yes (1) vegetables or fruits or keep animal for Continue to question xx meat or eggs for family consumption? In the last year, how many types of # animals did you keep for family consumption? In the last year, how many types of # vegetables did you produce for family consumption? In the last year, how many types of fruits # did you produce for family consumption?

> 1 x/day

> 1 x/day

> 1 x/day > 1 x/day

> 1 x/day

The lists should be adapted to the local context by using local names for food items and foods commonly consumed in the area.

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