Unjustified Enrichment

Unjustified Enrichment

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Unjustified Enrichment: Key Issues in Comparative Perspective In recent years unjustified enrichment has been one of the most intellectually vital areas of private law. There is, however, still no unanimity among civil-law and common-law legal systems about how to structure this important branch of the law of obligations. Several key issues are considered comparatively here, including grounds for recovery of enrichment, defences, third-party enrichment, as well as proprietary and taxonomic questions. Two contributors deal with each topic, one a representative of a common-law system, the other a representative of a civil-law or mixed system. This approach illuminates not just similarities or differences between systems, but also what different systems can learn from one another. In an area of law whose territory is still partially uncharted and whose borders are contested, such comparative perspectives will be valuable for both academic analysis of the law and its development by the courts. d a v i d j o h n s t o n is an advocate and Honorary Professor of Law, University of Edinburgh. His publications include Roman Law in Context (1999) and Prescription and Limitation (1999). r e i n h a r d z i m m e r m a n n is Professor of Private Law, Roman Law and Comparative Legal History at the University of Regensburg. His publications include The Law of Obligations: Roman Foundations of the Civilian Tradition (1990; paperback edition, 1996) and Roman Law, Contemporary Law, European Law: The Civilian Tradition Today (2001).

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Unjustified Enrichment: Key Issues in Comparative Perspective

Edited by

David Johnston Reinhard Zimmermann

iii

          The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom    The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia Ruiz de Alarcón 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa http://www.cambridge.org © Cambridge University Press 2004 First published in printed format 2002 ISBN 0-511-02929-2 eBook (Adobe Reader) ISBN 0-521-80820-0 hardback

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Contents

List of contributors Preface Table of cases List of abbreviations

page viii xi xii xxxiii

I

Introduction

1

Unjustified enrichment: surveying the landscape david johnston and reinhard zimmermann

II

Enrichment ‘without legal ground’ or unjust factor approach

2

Unjust factors and legal grounds sonja meier

37

3

In defence of unjust factors thomas krebs

76

III

Failure of consideration

4

Failure of consideration: myth and meaning in the English law of restitution graham virgo

5

Failure of consideration robin evans-jones and katrin kruse

3

103 128

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vi

contents

IV

Duress and fraud

6

In defence of unjust factors: a study of rescission for duress, fraud and exploitation mindy chen-wishart

159

Fraud, duress and unjustified enrichment: a civil-law perspective jacques du plessis

194

7

V

Change of position

8

Restitution without enrichment? Change of position and Wegfall der Bereicherung james gordley

227

Unwinding mutual contracts: restitutio in integrum v. the defence of change of position phillip hellwege

243

9

VI

Illegality

10

The role of illegality in the English law of unjust enrichment w. j. swadling

11

Illegality as defence against unjust enrichment claims gerhard dannemann

VII

Encroachment and restitution for wrongs

12

Reflections on the role of restitutionary damages to protect contractual expectations janet o’sullivan

13

Encroachments: between private and public hanoch dagan

VIII

Improvements

14

Mistaken improvements and the restitution calculus andrew kull

289 310

327 348

369

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contents 15

Enrichment by improvements in Scots law james wolffe

IX

Discharge of another person’s debt

16

Performance of another’s obligation: French and English law contrasted simon whittaker

vii 384

433

17

Payment of another’s debt hector l. macqueen

X

Third-party enrichment

18

‘At the expense of the claimant’: direct and indirect enrichment in English law peter birks

493

Searches for silver bullets: enrichment in three-party situations daniel visser

526

19

458

XI

Proprietary issues

20

Proprietary issues george gretton

571

21

Property, subsidiarity and unjust enrichment lionel smith

588

XII

Taxonomy

22

Taxonomy: does it matter? ewan mckendrick

23

Rationality, nationality and the taxonomy of unjustified enrichment niall r. whitty

658

Index

730

627

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Contributors

peter birks is Regius Professor of Civil Law in the University of Oxford and Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. mindy chen-wishart is a Lecturer in Law in the University of Oxford and Fellow of Merton College, Oxford. hanoch dagan is Professor in the University of Tel-Aviv Law School and an Affiliated Overseas Professor in the University of Michigan Law School. gerhard dannemann is a University Lecturer in German Civil and Commercial Law in the University of Oxford. jacques du plessis is Professor of Private Law and Roman Law in the University of Stellenbosch. robin evans-jones is Professor of Jurisprudence in the University of Aberdeen. george gretton is Lord President Reid Professor of Law in the University of Edinburgh. james gordley is Shannon Cecil Turner Professor of Jurisprudence at the School of Law of the University of California at Berkeley. phillip hellwege is a Research Assistant in the Department of Private Law, Roman Law, and Comparative Legal History in the University of Regensburg. david johnston is an advocate at the Scottish bar and an Honorary Professor of Law in the University of Edinburgh. thomas krebs is a Lecturer in Laws at University College London.

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list of contributors

ix

katrin kruse is a Research Fellow in the Centre for the Study of Civil Law, University of Aberdeen. andrew kull is Robert Thompson Professor of Law at Emory University, Atlanta. hector l. macqueen is Professor of Private Law in the University of Edinburgh. ewan mckendrick is Professor of English Private Law in the University of Oxford and Fellow of Lady Margaret Hall. sonja meier is a Lecturer in Law in the University of Regensburg. janet o’sullivan is a University Lecturer in the Law Faculty, Cambridge University and a Fellow of Selwyn College. lionel smith is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Law, McGill University, Montreal. w. j. swadling is a Lecturer in Law in the University of Oxford and a Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford. graham virgo is a University Lecturer in Law in the Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge. daniel visser is Professor of Private Law in the University of Cape Town. simon whittaker is a Lecturer in Law in the University of Oxford and a Fellow of St John’s College, Oxford. niall r. whitty is a Visiting Professor in the University of Edinburgh. james wolffe is an advocate at the Scottish bar. reinhard zimmermann is Professor of Private Law, Roman Law, and Comparative Legal History in the University of Regensburg.

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Preface

This collection of essays has its origin in a conference which we organised at Christ’s College, Cambridge in April 1999. The aims of the conference are explained in our introductory chapter. Here it is enough to say that, while unjustified enrichment has clearly been one of the most intellectually vital areas of private law over the last decades, there seemed to us to be scope for comparative exploration of the area in a manner more comprehensive than it had until then received. With this in mind we invited a small group of speakers to Cambridge, where at the time we were both teaching. Our invitations to contributors were perhaps unusually prescriptive, and in particular allowed them no choice of topic. The main reason for this was that for each topic we wished to have two papers, each taking a different perspective. So we are extremely grateful to the contributors both for their enthusiastic participation in the conference and for preparing the papers published here. We would like also to acknowledge the helpful guidance of Peter Birks during the planning phase of the conference. In addition we warmly thank the chairmen who presided over the various sessions of the conference: Lord Goff of Chieveley, Lord Hope of Craighead, Professor Gareth Jones, Lord Rodger of Earlsferry, Professor Peter Schlechtriem and Lord Steyn. The manuscripts for this book were submitted by the end of 1999; they therefore reflect the law at that date. Most of the funding for the conference was provided by the Leibniz programme of the German Research Association. In addition, a number of participants were kindly supported by the European Commission through the TMR Programme ‘Common Principles of European Law’. We also thank Dirk Schulz and Christian Weinelt in Regensburg for assisting with editing the papers for publication. And we thank Cambridge University Press and Finola O’Sullivan for their willing and generous support of this project, both at the conference and at the stage of publication. David Johnston Reinhard Zimmermann

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Table of cases

337965 B. C. Ltd v. Tackama Forest Products Ltd (1992) 67 BCLR 2d 1; 91 DLR 4th 129 (CA) page 600 ABSA Bank Ltd v. De Klerk 1999 (1) SA 861 ( W ) 547 ABSA Bank t/a Bankfin v. C. B. Stander t/a C. A. W. Paneelkloppers 1998 (1) SA 939 (C) 529, 564–6 Aberdeen Railway Co. v. Blaikie, Brothers (1854) 1 Macqueen 461 394 Adam v. Newbigging (1888) 13 App Cas 308 180, 181, 245, 255 Adamson v. The Glasgow Corporation Water-Works Commissioners (1859) 21 D 1012 253, 409 Addis v. Gramophone Co. Ltd [1909] AC 488 337 Addison v. Ottawa Auto and Taxi Co. (1916) 16 DLR 318 182 Adras Building Material Ltd v. Harlow & Jones GmbH [1995] Restitution LR 235 332–4, 354 Agip (Africa) Ltd v. Jackson [1991] Ch 547 (CA); [1990] Ch 265 521, 522, 717 Aguilar v. Aguilar (1820) 5 Madd 414 277 Aiken v. Short (1856) 1 H & N 210; 156 ER 1180 41, 503, 651 Air Canada v. British Columbia (1989) 59 DLR (4th) 161 55, 63 Airbus Industrie GIE v. Patel [1999] 1 AC 97 640 Air-Kel (Edms) Bpk h/a Merkel Motors v. Bodenstein en ’n ander 1980 (3) SA 917 (A) 219 Alati v. Kruger (1955) 94 CLR 216 180–1 Alfred McAlpine Construction Ltd v. Panatown Ltd (1998) 88 Business LR 67 336 Allan v. Gilchrist (1875) 2 R 587 404 Allcard v. Skinner (1887) 36 ChD 145 167, 172, 181 American Home Improvement Co. v. MacIver 201 A 2d 886 (NH, 1964) 231

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table of cases

xiii

Ames Settlement, Re [1946] Ch 217 137 Anderson v. Anderson (1869) 8 M 157 404 Anderson v. Blair (1841) 3 D 968 470 Anns v. Merton London Borough Council [1978] AC 728 (HL) 650, 693 Aratra Potato v. Taylor Johnson Garrett [1995] 4 All ER 695 71 Armour v. Glasgow Royal Infirmary 1909 SC 916 715 Armstrong v. Jackson [1917] 2 KB 822 180, 255 Arris v. Stukely (1677) 2 Mod 260; 86 ER 1060 507 Associated Japanese Bank (International) Ltd v. Cr´edit du Nord SA [1989] 1 WLR 255 250 Astley v. Reynolds (1731) 2 Str 915 301 Atlantic Lines & Navigation Co. Inc. v. Hallam Ltd [1983] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 188 175 Attorney- General v. Blake [2000] 4 All ER 385 10–11, 12, 25, 106, 107, 327, (HL); [1998] 1 All ER 833; [1998] Ch 439 330–4, 341–7, 354 Attorney- General v. Saibo (1923) NLR 321 217 Attorney- General for Hong Kong v. Reid [1994] 1 AC 324 (PC) 576, 581, 663, 666 Attorney- General of Hong Kong v. Humphreys Estate Ltd [1987] AC 114 633 Austin v. Burge 137 SW 618 (Mo App 1911) 233 Ayers v. South Australian Banking Co. (1878) LR 3 PC 582 B. & H. Engineering v. First National Bank of South Africa Ltd 1995 (2) SA 279 (A) 218, 478–9, B. Liggett (Liverpool) Ltd v. Barclays Bank Ltd [1928] 1 KB 48 Bainbrigge v. Browne (1881) 18 ChD 188 Bank Melli Iran v. Samadi-Rad [1995] 1 Federal Court Reporter 465 173, 189, Bank of Montreal v. Hall [1990] 1 SCR 121; 65 DLR 4th 361 Bank of Scotland v. Junior 1999 SCLR 284 (Extra Division) Bank of Scotland v. MacLeod Paxton Woolard & Co. 1998 SLT 258 (OH) 667, 674, 722, Bank Tejarat v. Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corp. Ltd [1995] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 239 Bannatine’s Trs v. Cunninghame (1872) 10 M 319 Bannatyne v. D. & C. MacIver [1906] 1 KB 103 (CA) ´ Banque Belge pour l’Etranger v. Hambrouck [1921] 1 KB 321 (CA) 515, Banque Financi`ere de la Cit´e v. Parc (Battersea) Ltd [1999] AC 221; [1998] 1 All ER 737 9,

536 520 515 190 613 722 723 635 473 520 718 159

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Banque Worms v. BankAmerica International 77 NY 2d 362; 570 NE 2d 189 (1991) 504, 538 Barbour v. Halliday (1840) 2 D 1279 392, 396–7 Barclays Bank Ltd v. Quistclose Investments Ltd [1970] AC 567 108 Barclays Bank Ltd v. W. J. Simms Son and Cooke 21, 39, 50–1, 53, 69, 77, (Southern) Ltd [1980] QB 677; [1979] 3 137–8, 477–82, 503, All ER 522 505–6, 536–8, 704 Barclays Bank plc v. Boulter [1999] 1 WLR 1919 165 Barclays Bank plc v. O’Brien [1994] 1 AC 180 161, 167, 187–8, 504 Barnbugil v. Hamilton (1567) Mor 8915 253 Barnes v. Lozoff 123 NW 2d 543 (1963) 237 Baroness Wenlock v. River Dee Co. (1887) 19 QBD 155 522 Beacon Homes, Inc. v. Holt (1966) 66 North Carolina Rep 467; 46 SE 2d 434 379 Beattie v. Lord Napier (1831) 9 S 639 401, 421, 578 B´edard v. B´edard Transport Co. [1960] CS 472 598 Bedwell v. Bedwell (1989) 774 SW 2d 953 375 Bell v. Bell (1841) 2 D 1201 404–5, 418 Bell v. Lever Brothers [1932] AC 161 39 Belvoir Finance Co. Ltd v. Stapleton [1971] 1 QB 210 250 Berg v. Sadler & Moore [1937] 2 KB 158 299 Biffin v. Bignell (1862) 7 H & N 877; 158 ER 725 198 Bigos v. Bousted [1951] 1 All ER 92 291, 308 Bilbie v. Lumley (1802) 2 East 469; 102 ER 448 55, 56 Binning v. Brotherstones (1676) M 13401 423–4 Bishop v. Flood 133 Ga App 804; 212 SE 2d 443 551 Blackburn v. Smith (1848) 2 Ex 783 256 Blacklocks v. J. B. Developments (Godalming) Ltd [1982] Ch 183 515 Blum v. Dawkins Inc. 683 So 2d 163 (Florida Districts CA, 5th District 1996) 552 Boardman v. Phipps [1967] 2 AC 46 666 Bodega Co., Re [1904] 1 Ch 276 41 Bonnington Sugar Refining Co. v. Thomson’s Trustees (1878) 6 R 80 246 Boscawen v. Bajwa [1996] 1 WLR 328 14, 666 Bostock & Co. Ltd v. Nicholson, & Sons Ltd [1904] KB 725 255 Boudier, Req. 15 June 1892, S 1893.1.281 note 20, 513, 551, 560, Labb´e, DP 1892.1.596 578–9, 603, 617, 666, 682 Boulter v. Barclays Bank [1999] 4 All ER 513 (HL) 515–16 Bowmakers Ltd v. Barnet Industries Ltd [1945] KB 65 292, 296 Box v. Barclays Bank plc [1998] Lloyd’s Rep Banking 185 108

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xv

Boyd & Forrest v. Glasgow & South Western Railway Co. 1915 175, 184, 252, SC (HL) 20; 1914 SC 472; 1912 SC (HL) 93; 253, 282, 1911 SC 33 407–11 BP Exploration Co. (Libya) Ltd v. Hunt (No. 2) [1979] 1 WLR 783 183, 257 Brand’s Trs v. Brand’s Trs (1876) 3 R (HL) 16 415 Breunig v. American Family Ins. Co. 173 NW 2d 619 (Wis 1970) 233 Bridgeman v. Green (1757) Wilm 58 515 Bright v. Boyd (1841) 4 Fed Cas 127 (No. 1,875) 370, 375, 378 Brisbane v. Dacres (1813) 5 Taunt 143; 128 ER 641 59 British Steel Corporation v. Cleveland Bridge and Engineering Co. Ltd [1984] 1 All ER 504 633, 701 British Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co. Ltd v. Underground Electric Railways Co. of London Ltd [1912] AC 673 456 Britton v. Turner (1834) 6 New Hampshire Rep 481 379 Brooklyn House Furnishers (Pty) Ltd v. Knoetze and Sons 1970 (3) SA 264 (A) 563 Broun v. Mitchel (1630) 1 BS 68 706 Brown and Davis v. Galbraith [1972] 1 WLR 997 (CA) 502 Brown v. Davis (1987) 514 So 2d 54 (Florida) 376, 502 Brown v. M’Kinally (1795) 1 Esp 279; 170 ER 356 61 Brown v. Nicolson (1629) Mor 8940 253 Buchanan v. Stewart (1874) 2 R 78 398, 399, 709 Buchanan and Carswell v. Eugene Limited 1936 SC 160 428 Building Design 2 Ltd v. Wascana Rehabilitation Centre [1992] 6 WWR 343 (Sask QB) 600 Burnes v. Pennell (1849) 2 HLC 497 282 Butler v. Hayes (1997) 487 SE 2d 229 (Virginia) 376 Butler v. Rice [1910] 2 Ch 277 521 Buzzard Electrical (Pty) Ltd v. 158 Jan Smuts Investments 529, 542–4, (Pty) Ltd 1996 (4) SA 19 (A) 546–7, 563–4 Byfield, Re [1992] 1 All ER 249 495 Byne v. Vivian (1800) 1 Ves Jun Supp 540; 34 ER 911 267 CIBC Mortgages plc v. Pitt [1994] 1 AC 200 CTN Cash and Carry Ltd v. Gallaher Ltd [1994] 4 All ER 714 (CA) Caledonia North Sea Ltd v. London Bridge Engineering Ltd 2000 SLT 1123 Calloway Bank v. Ellis (1922) 215 Mo App 72; 238 SW 844 Campbell v. Campbell (1709) M 13432 Cano v. Lovato (1986) 105 New Mexico Rep 522; 734 P 2d 762

504 163, 704 463, 470–1 378 429 376

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Cantiere San Rocco SA v. Clyde Shipbuilding & 67, 129–35, 142, Engineering Co. Ltd [1924] 143, 154–5, 254, 266, AC 226; 1923 SC (HL) 105 430, 659, 699 Caparo Industries plc v. Dickman [1990] 2 AC 605 630 Car and Universal Finance Company Ltd v. Caldwell [1965] 1 QB 525 582, 667 Carmichael v. Castlehill (1698) Mor 8993 246, 253 Carrick v. Carse (1778) Mor 2931 698 Cassell & Co. v. Broome [1972] AC 1027 498 Cavalier Insurance, Re [1989] Lloyd’s L Rep 430 71 Chandler v. Webster [1904] 1 KB 493 66, 69, 130, 131, 659 Chase Manhattan Bank NA Ltd v. Israel-British Bank (London) Ltd [1981] Ch 105 77, 290, 668, 669, 724 Cheese v. Thomas [1994] 1 WLR 129 171–2 Chesworth v. Farrar [1967] 1 QB 407 654 Chettiar v. Chettiar [1962] AC 294 294, 296, 298 Chillingworth v. Esche [1924] 1 Ch 97 111, 137 Chisholm v. Alexander & Son (1882) 19 SLR 835 706 Christies’s Executrix v. Armstrong 1996 SC 295 463 Cie Immobili`ere Viger Lt´ee v. Laureat Gigu`ere Inc. [1977] 2 SCR 67 595, 607, 608 Citadel General Assurance Co. v. Lloyds Bank Canada [1997] 3 SCR 805; 152 DLR 4th 411 589 Citibank v. Brown Shipley [1991] 2 All ER 690 39 Citizens & Southern National Bank v. Modern Homes Constr. Co. (1966) 248 South Carolina Rep 130; 149 SE 2d 326 374 City of New Orleans v. Firemen’s Charitable Association (1891) 9 So 486 331, 337–9 Clark v. Woods (1848) 2 Ex 395; 154 ER 545 217 Clarke v. Brodie (1801) Hume 548 709 Clarke v. Dickson, Williams and Gibbs (1858) El Bl & El 148 175, 245, 255 Claxton v. Kay 101 Ark 350; 142 SW 517 (1912) 508 Cleadon Trust Ltd, Re [1939] Ch 286 520–1 Clydesdale Bank v. Paul (1877) 4 R 626 722 Coca-Cola Bottling v. Coca-Cola 988 F 2d 386 (3rd Cir, 1953) 354 Cochrane v. Stevenson (1891) 18 R 1208 415 Commerce Partnership 8098 LP v. Equity Contracting Co. (1997) 695 So 2d 383 551–2 Commercial Bank of Australia v. Amadio (1983) 151 CLR 447 191 Commissioner for Stamp Duties v. Livingston [1965] AC 694 (PC) 516

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Commissioner of Customs & Excise v. Randles, Brothers & Hudson Ltd 1941 AD 369 219 Commissioner of Inland Revenue v. First National Bank Ltd 1990 (3) SA 641 (A) 646 213 Commissioner of State Revenue v. Royal Insurance Australia Ltd (1994) 182 CLR 51 (HCA); (1994) 126 ALR 1 63, 312, 500 Commonwealth of Australia v. Verwayen (1990) 170 CLR 394 279 Cooper v. Phibbs (1867) LR 2 HL 149 189–190, 667 Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v. Argyll Stores (Holdings) Ltd [1997] 2 WLR 898; [1997] 3 All ER 297 345–7, 449, 455 Corpe v. Overton (1833) 10 Bing 252; 131 ER 901 70–1 Countess of Cromertie v. Lord Advocate (1871) 9 M 988 715 Coutts & Co. v. Stock [2000] Lloyd’s Rep 14 503 Craddock Bothers v. Hunt [1923] 2 ChD 136 (CA) 508 Cran v. Dodson (1893) 1 SLT 354 396 Craven-Ellis v. Canons Ltd [1936] 2 KB 403 105 Crawfurd v. Royal Bank (1749) Mor 875 674 Cr´edit Lyonnais v. George Stevenson and Co. Ltd (1901) 9 SLT 93 703 Cr´edit Lyonnaise Bank Nederland NV v. Burch [1997] 1 All ER 144 167 Crockett v. Sampson (1969) 439 SW 2d 355 (Texas Civil Appeals) 551, 552 Cumming v. Ince (1847) 11 QB 112 198 Cundy v. Lindsay (1878) 3 App Cas 459 250 Curtis v. Hannay (1800) 3 Esp 82; 170 ER 546 255 Custer Builders Inc. v. Quaker Heritage Inc. (1973) 41 App Div 2d 448; 334 NYS 2d 606 550 Cuthbertson v. Lowes (1870) 8 M 1073 406 Dales Service Co. v. Jones 96 Idaho 662; 534 P 2d 1102 550 Dalrymple, Frank & Feinstein v. Friedman and Another (No. 2) 1954 (4) SA 649 (W) 220 Darlington Borough Council v. Witshier Northern Ltd [1995] 1 WLR 68 336 David Securities Pty Ltd v. Commonwealth Bank of Australia (1992) 50, 53, 175 CLR 353 55, 60, 114, 256, 707 Davidson v. Bonafede 1981 (2) SA 501 (C) 221 Dawson v. Stirton (1863) 2 M 196 705 DeAngelo v. Brazauskas (1995) 86 NY 2d 746; 655 NE 2d 165 374 Dearns v. Andree 139 A 695 (Conn 1928) 237 Derry v. Peek (1889) 14 App Cas 337 196 Dies v. British and International Mining and Finance Corporation Ltd [1939] 1 KB 724 10, 123 Diesen v. Samson 1971 SLT 49 341

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Diplock, Re [1948] Ch 465 524, 634 Dixon v. Monkland Canal Co. (1831) 5 W & S 445 664 Dollar Land (Cumbernauld) Limited v. CIN 131, 385, 387, 388, 390, Properties Limited 1998 SC (HL) 90; 1998 SLT 403, 466, 469, 659, 992; 1997 SLT 260; 1996 SC 331 660, 685, 696 Donoghue v. Stevenson [1932] SC (HL) 31 29 Dorchester upon Medway CC v. Kent CC [1998] The Times, 5 March 1998 120 Douglas v. Douglas’ Trs (1864) 2 M 1379 396, 418, 422, 424, 709 Dowling v. McKenny 124 Mass 478 (1878) 236 Dowling & Rutter v. Abacus Frozen Foods Limited, 15 March 2000 (unreported) 406 Doyle v. Olby [1969] 2 All ER 199 (CA) 231 Duff, Ross & Co. v. Kippen (1871) 8 SLR 299 403–4, 709 Duke of Hamilton v. Johnston (1877) 14 SLR 298 397, 398 Duke of Norfolk v. York Building Co. Annuitants’ Trs (1752) Mor 7062 725 Dunbar Bank plc v. Nadeem [1998] 3 All ER 876; [1997] 2 All ER 253 190, 255 Duncan v. Motherwell Bridge & Engineering Co. Ltd 1952 SC 131 470 Dunnebacke Co. v. Pittman (1934) 216 Wis 305; 257 NW 30 376 Dyer v. Dyer (1788) 2 Cox Eq 92 296, 297 ELCAP v. Milne’s Executor 1998 SLT 58 (OH) 699 ERDC Construction v. HM Love & Co. 95 SLT 254 430 Earl of Aberdeen v. Gordon (1708) Mor 9031 268 Earl of Fife v. Wilson (1867) 3 M 323 706 Earthinfo Inc. v. Hydrosphere Resource Consultants Inc. 900 P 2d 113 (Colorado 1995) 354 East Ham Corporation v. Bernard Sunley & Sons [1966] AC 406 328 Eastwood v. Kenyon (1840) 11 A & E 438; 113 ER 482 97–8 Edinburgh and District Tramways Co. Ltd v. Courtenay 1909 SC 99 389, 421, 474 Edinburgh Life Assurance Corporation v. Balderston 1909 2 SLT 323 396, 419 Edwards v. Lee’s Administrator (1936) 96 SW 2d 1028 498, 510 El Ajou v. Dollar Land Holdings plc [1994] 2 All ER 685 (CA); [1993] 3 All ER 717 515 Elder v. Clarke (1944) 385 Illinois Rep 335; 52 NE 2d 778 378 Elektror¨atefall BGHZ 40, 272 544–5 Ellis v. Fraser (1840) 3 D 264 717 Elphick v. Barnes (1880) LR 5 CP 321 255 Emmerson v. Emmerson (1939) Sh Ct Rep 46 470