Untitled - University of Toronto

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F. Chant, Parkstone. Photo Oy ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE O.M., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. OF THE DORSET D&TURAIt FIELD EDITED BY HENRY SYMONDS. VOLUME...

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F. Chant, Parkstone.

Photo Oy

ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE O.M., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.

OF THE

DORSET D&TURAIt

FIELD

EDITED BY

HENRY SYMONDS.

VOLUME XXXV.

Dorchester :

PRINTED AT THE "DORSET COUNTY CHRONICLE" OFFICE.

*

*

*

'


*+.

28

84730

DA .

35-

CONTENTS. PAGE List of Officers of the

Rules of the

Club since

its

Inauguration

.

.

.

v.

,

vi.

Club

xi.

and Honorary Members Members List of New Members since the publication of Vol. XXXIV. Societies and Institutions in CorresPublications of the Club

List of Officers

.

.

.

.

List of

,

.

xii.

.

XXV.

;

pondence with the Field Club

THE PROCEEDINGS or THE CLUB from May,

1913, to

May, 1914

MEETING AT THE VALLEY OF THE WIN OB ALLEN Witchampton Its Barn, Manor House, and Church

xxviii.

House Knowlton MEETING AT THE NEW FOREST MEETING AT MALMESBURY AND LACOCK The Town The Second Day, Laoock MEETING AT STURMINSTER NEWTON

xxix.

.

.

:

xxx.

Crichel

xxx. xxx^i.

xxxv. xxxvi.

xxxvii .

.

.

r

xl.

Ibberton

xl.

Belchalwell

Sturminster Newton

xli.

FJRST WINTER MEETING

xjii.

SECOND WINTER MEETING ANNUAL MEETING The Hon. Treasurer's Statement

xlvi. xlix.

of

the

Club's

Receipts and Ivi.

Expenditure

The Hon.

Secretary's

Account

Anniversary Address of the President Alfred Russel Wallace, a Memoir by E. R. Sykes On the Relics left by Philip and Joan of Castile in 1506 atWolfeton House, Dorset, and preserved in the Writer's Family, by Rev. O. Pickard-Cambridge, M.A., F.R.S., C.M.Z.S., &c. .

.

.

.

.

.

Iviii,.

.

.

.

.

Ixxxiv,

Chained Books in Dorset and Elsewhere, by the Rev. Canon J. Fletcher, M.A. and R.D. .

.

.

J.

.

Sandsfoot and Portland Castles, by Henry Symonds, F.S.A. A Dorset Inventory of 1627, by Nelson M. Richardson, B.A. The Night-Soaring of the Swifts, by Aubrey Edwards

.

.

8

.

.

27

.

.

41

Family and his Writings, by Rev. E. H. Bates Harbin, M.A. " Dorset Buttony," by Captain John E. Acland, F.S.A. The Ancient Memorial Brasses of Dorset, by W. de C. Prideaux,

50

of Trent, his

.

L.D.S., Eng., F.R.S.M. Folk-lore

1

M.

...

Thomas Gerard

.

xxxix-

and Superstitions Rawlence

still

..

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

55

.

.

71

.

.

75

obtaining in Dorset, by E. A. ..

..

81

IV.

PAGE Fifth Interim Report on the Exeavations at Dorchester, by H. St. George Gray

Maumbury .

Rings,

.

.

88

.

British Arachnids, noted and observed in 1913, Rev. O. Pickard-Cambridge, M.A., F.R.S., &c.

On New and Rare by

.

119

.

A Tentative Account of the Fungi of East Dorset, by the Rev. E. F. Linton, M.A., F.L.S.

143

..

..

..

Phonological Report on First Appearances of Birds, Insects, &c., and First Flowering of Plants in Dorset during 1913, by .. .. W. Parkinson Curtis, F.E.S. .

181

.

Returns of Rainfall in Dorset in 1913, by R. Stevenson Henshaw, C.E. .. .. .. Index to Vol. XXXV., by H. Pouncy

206 220

INDEX TO PLATES AND ENGRAVINGS. PAGE OR TO FACE PAGE Alfred Russel Wallace, O.M., L.L.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.

Frontispiece 1506 at Wolfeton House, Dorset, and preserved in the Writer's Family 1 Plate A

On the Relics left by Philip and Joan of Castile in .

Plate

B

Plate

C

Plate

D

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

4

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

5

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

6

Chained Books in Dorset Chain and Book in Wimborne Minster Library Bishop Jewel's Works Formerly chained in Wimborne .

.

.

.

.

.

.

16

:

Minster, 1614

.

.

.

.

Chained Library at Wimborne Minster, 1686 The Ancient Memorial Brasses of Dorset Strong, Loders .

.

Blackmore, Lydlinch Skakespeare, Stratford-on-Avon .

.

..

.

16

..

21

.

.

.

.

.

.

76

.

.

.

.

.

.

77

.

.

.

.

.

.

78

Maria Oke, Shapwick

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

78

John Oke, Shapwick

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

79

Richard Chernok, Vicar, Shapwick

.

.

. .

.

.

79

John Gouys, Long

.

.

.

. .

79

Crichel

Fifth Interim Report on the Excavations at Dorchester

Plate

I.

Plate

II.

Plate III.

.

.

Plate

A

90

.

.

.

.

.

. .

.

.

100

..

..

..

102

..

..

105

..

Rings, 1913

.

.

. .

. .

. .

109

..

..

..

..

116

.

..

. .

.

.

Maumbury

Plate V.

Rings,

.

..

On New and Rare

Maumbury

.

Relics found at

Plate IV.

.

British Arachnids

119

V.

ZTbe H>orset

IRatural Ibiston? anfc Hntiquatian INAUGURATED MAECH 26TH, Presidents

ffielfc

1875.

:

1875-1902 1902-1904 1904

Hansel- Pleydell, Esq., B.A., F.G.S., F.L.S. The Lord Eustace Cecil, F.R.G.S. * Nelson M. Richardson, Esq., B.A.

1875-1882 1875-1884 1880-1900 1880-1900 1880 1885 1892-1904

The Rev. H. H. Wood, M.A., F.G.S.

J. C.

Vice -Presidents

1900-1909

:

Professor James Buckmaii, F.S.A., F.G.S., F.L.S. The Rev. Canon Sir Talbot. Baker, Bart., M.A.

General Pitt-Rivers, F.R.S. * The Rev. O. PickardCambridge, M.A., F.R.S. F.Z.S. * The Earl of Moray, M.A., F.S.A. Scot., F.G.S. M. Nelson Richardson, Esq., B.A. * The Lord Eustace Cecil F.R.G.S. ,

19 2

1904"

Club.

I

W. H.

Hudleston, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.L.S., Past Pres.

Geol. Society.

Cornish, Esq., D.Sc., F.C.S., F.R.G.S. * Captain G. R. Elwes. * H. Colley March, Esq., M.D., F.S.A. * The Rev. Herbert Pentiu, M.A. * The Rev. W. Miles Barnes, B.A. * The Rev. Canon J. C. M. ManselPleydell, M.A., R.D. R. Bosworth Smith, Esq., M.A. Henry Storks Eaton, Esq., M.A., Past Pres. Roy. Met. Society. " * The Rev. Canon C. H. Mayo, M.A., Dorset Editor of Somerset

1900-1904 1900 1902 1904 1904 1904 1904-1908 1908-1909 1909

Vaughan

1909 1911-1912 1912 1913 1913

* E. R. Sykes, Esq., B.A., F.Z.S., Past Pres. Malacological Society. The Rev. C. W. H. Dicker, R.D. * Alfred Pope, Esq., F.S.A. * Henry Symonds, Esq., F.S.A. * His Honour J. S. Udal, F.S.A.

1875-1884 1885-1892 1892-1902 1902-1904 1904

Professor James

1875-1882 1882-1900 1901-1910 1910

The Rev. H. H. Wood, M.A., F.G.S. The Rev. O. Pickard -Cambridge, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S.

1875-1884 1885-1892 1892-1901 1901-1906 1906-1909 1909-1912 1912

Professor James

and Dorset Notes and Queries."

Hon.

Secretaries

:

Buckman, F.S.A., F.G.S., F.L.S. The Earl of Moray, M.A., F.S.A. Scot., F.G.S. Nelson M. Richardson, Esq., B.A. H. Colley March, Esq., M.D., F.S.A. * The Rev. Herbert Pentin, M.A. Son. Treasurers

:

Captain G. R. Elwes. * The Rev. Canon J. C. M. Mansel -Pleydell, M.A., R.D.

Hon. Editors: Buckman, F.S.A., F.G.S., F.L.S.

The Earl of Moray, M.A., F.S.A. Scot., F.G.S. Nelson M. Richardson, Esq., B.A. The Rev. W. Miles Barnes, B.A. The Rev. Herbert Pentin, M.A. The Rev. C. W. H. Dicker, R.D. * Henry Symonds, Esq., F.S.A. *

The

asterisk indicates the present officials of the Club.

VI.

RULES OF

THE DORSET NATURAL HISTORY AND ANTIQUARIAN FIELD CLUB.

OBJECT AND CONSTITUTION. 1.

The Club

shall

be called The Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian title The Dorset Field Club.

Field Club, and shall have for a short

The object of the Club is to promote and encourage an interest in the study of the Physical Sciences and Archaeology generally, especially the Natural History of the County of Dorset and its Antiquities, Prehistoric records, and Ethnology. It shall use its influence to prevent, as far as possible, the extirpation of rare plants

and animals, and to promote the preservation of the Antiquities of the County. The Club shall consist of (i.) three Officers, President, Honorary Secretary, 2. and Honorary Treasurer, who shall be elected annually, and shall form the Vice -Presidents, of whom the (ii.) body for its management (iii.) The Honorary Honorary Secretary and Treasurer shall be two, ex officio Editor of the Annual Volume of Proceedings (v.) (iv.) Ordinary Members The President, Vice -Presidents, and Editor shall form a Honorary Members. Council to decide questions referred to them by the Executive and to elect Executive

;

;

;

;

The Editor shall be nominated by one Honorary Members. Executive and elected at the Annual Meeting. There

may

also

of the incoming

be one or more Honorary Assistant Secretaries,

who

shall

be

nominated by the Honorary Secretary, seconded by the President or Treasurer, and elected by the Members at the Annual Meeting.

Members may be appointed by the remaining Officers to fill interim vacancies Body until the following Annual Meeting. The number of the Club shall be limited to 400, power being reserved to the Council to select from the list of candidates persons, whose membership they may

in the Executive

consider to be advantageous to the interests of the Club, to be

additional

Members.

PEESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENTS. 3.

The President

shall take the chair at all Meetings,

and have an

original

and

a casting vote on all questions before the Meeting. In addition to the two ex-officio Vice -Presidents, at least three others shall be nominated by the President, or. ini his absence,

by the Chairman, and

elected at the

Annual Meeting.

Vll.

HON. SECRETARY. cause a perform all the usual secretarial work Meeting to be sent to every Member seven days at least before such Meeting make all preparations for carrying out Meetings and, with or without the help of a paid Assistant Secretary or others, conduct all Field

The Secretary

4.

shall

;

of each

programme

;

On any question arising between the Secretary (or Acting Secretary) and a Member at a Field Meeting, the decision of the Secretary shall be final. The Secretary shall receive from each Member his or her share of the day's of the Meeting, expenses, and thereout defray all incidental costs and charges to the Treasurer Annual the of the same before an account Meeting rendering any surplus of such collection shall form part of the General Fund, and any Meetings.

;

be defrayed out of that Fund.

deficit

HON. TREASURER. The Treasurer

5.

shall

keep an account of Subscriptions and

all

other

moneys

Disbursements, rendering at the Annual General Meeting a balance sheet of the same, as well as a general statement of the Club's finances. He shall send copies of the Annual Volume of Proceedings for each

of the Club received

and of

all

year to Ordinary Members who have paid their subscriptions for that year (as nearly as may be possible, in the order of such payment), to Honorary Members,

and

may, from time to time, appoint each Annual Meeting, containing Members in arrear, with the amount of their indebtedness to the

to such Societies

to receive them.

the names of

Club.

He

all

He

and individuals

as the Club

shall also furnish a list at

shall also give notice of their election to all

New Members.

ORDINARY MEMBERS. Ordinary Members are entitled to be present and take part in the Club's

6.

proceedings at Club,

when

all

Meetings, and to receive the published "Proceedings" of the which their subscription has been paid.

issued, for the year for

Every candidate for admission

7.

shall

be nominated in writing by one

Member and seconded by another, to both of whom he must be personally known. He may be proposed at any Meeting, and his name shall appear in the programme of the first following Meeting at which a Ballot is held, when he shall be elected by

ballot,

quorum

one black ball in

six

Twelve Members

to exclude.

for the purpose of election.

A Ballot

shall

shall

form a

be held at the Annual and

Winter Meetings, and may be held at any other Meeting, should the Executive In the event of the number of vacancies being less than the number of candidates at four successive Meetings, so decide, notice being given in the programme.

first of such Meetings who have not been elected at one of them shall be withdrawn, and shall not be eligible to be again proposed for election for at least a year after such withdrawal. Provided

the names of any candidates proposed at the

that

if

at

any Meeting there shall be no vacancies

in estimating the above

named

four Meetings.

available, it shall not be counted

Vlll.

8.- The Annual Subscription shall be 10s., which shall become due and on the 1st of January in each year. Subscriptions paid on payable in advance election after September in each year shall be considered as subscriptions for the

by such Member and the Treasurer. pay immediately after his election the sum of ten shillings as Entrance Fee, in addition to his first Annual Subscription. No person elected a Member shall be entitled to exercise any privilege as 9. such until he has paid his Entrance Fee and first Subscription, and no Member following year, unless otherwise agreed upon

Every Member

shall

shall be entitled to receive

a copy of the "Proceedings" for any year until his

Subscription for that year has been paid. 10. registered letter shall be sent

A

whose Subscription

is

payment within 28 days, but

by the Hon. Treasurer to any Member any Annual Meeting, demanding

in arrear at the date of failing

be

shall, nevertheless,

which he

shall cease to

liable for the arrears

be a Member of the Club,

then due.

Members desiring to leave the Club shall give notice of the same in 11. writing to the Treasurer (or Secretary), but, unless such notice is given before the end of January in any year, they shall be liable to pay the Annual Subscription due to the Club on and after January

1st in that year.

HONORARY MEMBERS. 12. Honorary Members shall consist of persons eminent for scientific or natural history attainments, and shall be elected by the Council. They pay no subscription, and have all the privileges of Ordinary Members, except voting.

MEETINGS.

The Annual General Meeting

13.

as

may

be convenient

;

shall

be held as near the

first

week

in

May

any) and to elect the Officers and Editor for the ensuing

to receive the outgoing President's Address

(if

the Treasurer's financial report year to determine the number (which shall usually be three or four), dates, and places of Field Meetings during the ensuing summer, and for general purposes. 14. Two Winter Meetings shall usually be held in or about the months of ;

;

December and February for the exhibition of Objects of Interest (to which not more than one hour of the time before the reading of the Papers shall be devoted), for the reading

The Dates and Places

and discussion of Papers, and for general purposes. Winter and Annual Meetings shall be decided by

of the

the Executive.

A

Member may

bring Friends to the Meetings subject to the following person (except the husband, wife, or child of a Member), may attend the Meeting unaccompanied by the Member introducing him, unless such 15.

restrictions

:

No

Member be prevented from him

attending by illness, and no Member may take with more than one Friend, whose name and address must be the Hon. Secretary and approved by him or the Executive.

to a Field Meeting

submitted to

The above

restrictions

at the Meeting.

do not apply to the Executive or to the Acting Secretary

Members must give due notice (with prepayment of expenses) to the Hon. 16. Secretary of their intention to be present, with or without a Friend, at any Field Meeting, in return for which the Secretary shall send to the Member a card of admission to the Meeting, to be produced

when

required.

Any Member who,

having given such notice, fails to attend, will be liable only for any expenses actually incurred on his account, and any balance will be returned to him on

The sum of Is., or such other amount as the Hon. Secretary may consider necessary, shall be charged to each person attending a Field Meeting, for application.

Incidental Expenses.

The Executive may at any time call a Special General Meeting of the 17. Members upon their own initiative or upon a written requisition (signed by Eight Members) being sent

to the

Honorary Secretary. Any proposition which shall be sent to each Member

shall be stated in the Notice,

to be submitted of the Club not

than seven days before the Meeting.

later

PAPERS. Notice shall be given to the Secretary, a convenient time before each 18. Meeting, of any motion to be made or any Paper or communication desired to be The insertion of read, with its title and a short sketch of its scope or contents. these in the

Programme The Publications

19.

is

subject to the consent of the Executive.

of the Club shall be in the

hands of the Executive,

who

Three or more Ordinary Members to form with them and the Editor a Publication Committee for the purpose of deciding upon the contents shall appoint annually

These contents shall consist of original papers and Annual Volume. communications written for the Club, and either read, or accepted as read, at a General Meeting also of the Secretary's Reports of Meetings, the Treasurer's Financial Statement and Balance Sheet, a list to date of all Members of the Club, of the

;

and

of those elected in the current or previous year, with the

names

of their

The Annual Volume shall be edited by the Editor proposers and seconders. subject to the direction of the Publication Committee. 20.

Twenty -five

communication

shall

copies of his paper shall be presented to each author

appear in the volume as a separate

given by him to the Publisher to that

THE AFFILIATION OF

article,

whose

on notice being

effect.

SOCIETIES AND LIBRARIES TO THE CLUB.

21. Any Natural History or Antiquarian Society in the County may be affiliated to the Dorset Field Club on payment of an annual fee of Ten Shillings, in return for which the annual volume of the Proceedings of the Field Club shall

be sent to such Society.

Every

affiliated Society shall

send the programme of

its

Meetings to the Hon.

Secretary of the Field Club, and shall also report any discoveries of exceptional And the Field Club shall send its programme to the Hon. Secretary of interest.

each

affiliated Society.

X.

The Members

of the Field

Club

shall

not be

eligible, ipso facto, to

attend any

Meetings of affiliated Societies, and the Members of any affiliated Society shall not be eligible, ipso facto, to attend any Meetings of the Field Club. But any Member of an affiliated Society shall be eligible to read a paper or make an exhibit at the Winter Meetings of the Field Club at Dorchester. Public Library, or Club or School or College Library, in England or may be affiliated to the Dorset Field Club on payment of an annual

Any

elsewhere, fee of

Ten

Shillings, in return for

which the annual volume

of the Proceedings of

the Field Club shall be sent to such Library.

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 22.

Small Committees

report to the Club sections

of their

any

may

be appointed at the Annual General Meeting to

interesting facts or discoveries relating to the various

which they represent and the Committee as a Corresponding Secretary. ;

of each section

may

elect

one

Members

NEW

RULES.

No alteration in or addition to these Eules shall be made except with the 23. consent of a majority of three-fourths of the Members present at the Annual General Meeting, full notice of the proposed alteration or addition having been given both in the current

Programme and

in that of the previous Meeting.

XI.

ZTbe H)ot3Ct

Hntiquartan ffielfc Club. INAUGURATED MARCH 26th, 1875.

Iftatural Ibistorp anfc

President

NELSON

:

M. RICHARDSON, ESQ., B.A. Vice- Presidents

:

THE LORD EUSTACE CECIL, F.R.G.S. (Past President}. THE REV. HERBERT PENTIN, M.A. (Hon. Secretary}. THE REV. CANON HANSEL -PLEYDELL, M.A., R.D. (Hon. Treasurer}.

HENRY SYMONDS,

>SQ., F.S.A. (Hon. Editor}. ELWES, J.P.

CAPTAIN G. R.

H.

COLLEY MARCH,

THE REV. CANON MAYO, M.A.

ESQ., M.D., F.S.A. (Dorset Editor of "Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries ").

THE REV. W. MILES BARNES, B.A. THE EAEL or MORAY, M.A., F.S.A. Scot., F.G.S. THE REV. O. PICKARD- CAMBRIDGE, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S. ALFRED POPE, ESQ., F.S.A. E. R. SYKES, Esq., B.A., F.Z.S. (Past Pres. Malacological Society}. His HONOUR J. S. UDAL, F.S.A.

Executive Body : NELSON M. RICHARDSON, Esq., B.A. (President}. The Rev. HERBERT PENTIN, M.A. (Hon. Secretary}, St. Peter's Vicarage, Portland. The Rev. Canon. M ANSEL -PLEYDELL, M.A. (Hon. Treasurer}, Sturminster Newton Vicarage, Dorset.

Hon. Editor : HENRY SYMONDS,

Esq., F.S.A., 30, Bolton Gardens, London,

S.W.

Publication Committee: The EXECUTIVE, The HON. EDITOR, H. B. MIDDLETON, Esq., Dr. COLLEY MARCH, and E. R. SYKES, Esq. Sectional Committees

:

The MEMBERS of the EXECUTIVE BODY ex officio, Captain JOHN ACLAND, M. A., F.S.A., the Rev. W. MILES BARNES, B.A., C. J. CORNISH BROWNE, Esq., Mrs. W. D. DICKSON, the Rev. S. E. V. FILLEUL, M.A., the Rev. C. H. FYNES-CLINTON, M.A., Dr. E. K. LE FLEMING, C. H. MATE, Esq., A. D. MOULLIN, Esq., Miss HILDA

Dorset Photographic Survey

POPE, the Rev. J. RIDLEY. Earthworks Dr. H. COLLEY MARCH, F.S.A. (Chairman), CHAS. S. PRIDEAUX Esq. (Corresponding Secretary), The PRESIDENT, J. G. N. CLIFT, Esq., the Rev. W. O. COCKRAFT, Jb.A., H. LE JEUNE, Esq., Lieut. -Colonel F. G. L. MAINWARING, VERB OLIVER, Esq., ALFRED POPE, Esq., F.S.A., W. DE C. PRIDEAUX, Esq., F.S.A., T. H. R. WINWOOD, Esq., M.A. 4 Numismatic H. SYMONDS, Esq., F.S.A. (Corresponding Secretary), Captain JOHN E. ACLAND, M.A., F.S.A., Lieut. -Colonel F. G. L. MAINWARING, Canon J. C. M. MANSEL-PLEYDELL, M.A., R.D., W. DE C. PRIDEAUX, Esq., F.S.A., H. F. RAYMOND, Esq. Restored Churches The Rev. A. C. ALMACK, M.A., H. W. CRICKMAY, Esq., the Rev. JAMES CROSS, M.A., the Rev. Canon FLETCHER, M.A., R.D., R. HINE, Esq., the Rev. Canon MAYO, M.A., W. B. WILDMAN, Esq., M.A.

Honorary Members:

W. CAERUTHERS,

1900

Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.L.S., British Museum (Nat. Hist.), South Kensington. The Rev. OSMOND FISHEE, M.A., F.G.S., Graveley, Huntingdon. A. M. WALLIS, Esq., 29, Mallams, Portland. A. J. JUKES -BROWNE, Esq., B.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., Westleigh, AshHill Road, Torquay. R. LYDEKKEE, Esq., B.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S., The Lodge, Harpenden,

1900

CLEMENT REID,

1900

Sea, Hants. A. SMITH WOODWARD, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., British Hist.), South Kensington, London.

O.M. 1888 1889 1900

Herts.

1904

WM.

1908

F.R.S,, F.L.S., F.G.S.,

One Acre, Milford-on-

Museum

(Nat.

THISELTON DYER, K.C.M.G., C.I.E., LL.D., Sc.D., Ph.D., F.R.S. The Ferns, Witcombe, Gloucester. Sir FREDERICK TREVES, Bart., G.C.V.O., C.B., LL.D., Thatched House Lodge, Richmond Park, Kingston-on-Thames. THOMAS HARDY, Esq., O.M., D. Litt., LL.D., Max Gate, Dorchester. Sir

,

1904

Esq.,

Xll.

Eist of jTiatural Sjistarp ant)

jfidti Club. Fear of Election.

(

The

initials

" " O.M." Original Member") signify of

1903

The Most Hon. the Marquis

1911

The

O.M.

The Eight

The Manor House, Cranborne

Salisbury, M.A., C.B.

Hon. Right Countess of Moray

Gertrude,

Hon. the

F.S.A.

Moray, M.A.,

of

Scot.,

Kinfauns Castle, Perth, N.B.

F.G.S. (Vice -President} 1911

The Eight

1902

The Eight

1884

Shaftesbury, K.C.V.O. The Eight Hon. Lord Eustace

1903

The Eight Hon. Lady Eustace

1904

The Eight Eev. the Lord Bishop of Durham, D.D. The Eight Eev. the Lord Bishop

Hon. the Earl

of

Hon.

of

Melbury, Dorchester

Ilchester

Cecil,

F.E.G.S.

(

the

Earl

Vice -President)

Cecil

1892

Wimborne

Westfield,

Earl

of Worcester, D.D., F.S.A.

St. Giles,

Wimborne

Lytchett Heath, Poole Lytchett Heath, Poole

Auckland

Castle, Bishop's

Auckland

Hartlebury Castle, Kidderminster

The Eight Eev. the Lord Bishop of Salisbury, D.D. The Palace, Salisbury 1889 The Eight Hon. Lord Digby Minterne, Dorchester 1903 The Eight Hon. Lord Chelmsford 18, Queen's Gate Place, London, S.W. 1907 The Eight Hon. Lord Wynford Warmwell House, Dorchester 1907 The Eight Hon. Lady Wynford Warmwell House, Dorchester 1910 Abbott, F. E., Esq. Shortwood, Christchurch, Hants 1912

1914

Acheson-Gray, Mrs.

1893

Acland, Captain John E., M.A., F.S.A.

1892

Acton, Eev. Edward, B.A. Aldridge, Mrs. Selina

1899

1912 1907

Alexander, Miss Constance Allner, Mrs. George

East Hill, Charminster

Wollaston House, Dorchester Iwerne Minster Vicarage, Blandford

Denewood, Alum Chine Eoad, Bourne-

mouth The Grange,

Chetnole, Sherborne

National Provincial Bank, Sturminster

Newton

Xlll.

The Rectory, Blandford

M.A.

1908

Almack, Rev. A.

1906

Atkins, F. T., Esq., M.R.C.S.,

1907

Atkinson, George T., Esq., M.A. Baker, Sir Eandolf L., Bart. , M.P.

C.,

L.E.C.P. Edin. 1902 1912 1887

1906

Baker, Rev. E. W., B.A. Bankes, Rev. Canon, M.A.

Ranston, Blandford

The Rectory, Witchampton The Close, Salisbury Kingston Lacy, Wimbonie

Bankes, Mrs. Bankes, Jerome N., Esq., F.S.A.

1902

Barkworth, Edmund, Esq.

1904

1889

Barlow, Major C. M. Barnes, Mrs. John lies Barnes, Rev. W. M., B.A. (Vice-

1903

Barnes, Mrs. F. J.

1884

Barrett,

1906

1895

Barrow, Richard, Esq. Bartelot, Rev. R. Grosvenor, M.A.

1893

Baskett, S. R., Esq.

Evershot

1904

Baskett, Mrs. S. R.

Evershot

1913

Bassett, Rev.

1909

Batten, Colonel J. Mount, C.B.

Gardens, London, S.W. South House, Pydeltrenthide Southcot, Charminster

63, Redcliffe

Blandford

Weymouth Avenue, Dorchester Weymouth 2, Belfield Terrace, Weymouth

President}

W.

Mary

Cathay, Alumhurst Road, Bournemouth Durlston Court, Swanage

1912

1894

St.

Glenthorn,

Bowles, Esq.

H. H. Tilney, R.D.

Lord-Lieutenant of Dorset

Sorrento House, Sandecotes, Parkstone St. Fordington Dorchester

George

Vicarage,

Whitchurch Vicarage, Blandford

Up-Cerne

House,

Dorchester,

and

Mornington Lodge, West Kensington

W. H.

The Wilderness, Sherborue The Wilderness, Sherborne

1910

Baxter, Lieut. -Colonel

1910

Baxter, Mrs.

W. H.

1888

Beckford, F.

J.,

1908

Benett-Stanford,

1910

Blackett, Rev. J. C., B.A.

1912

Blackett, C. H., Esq.

1912

Blackett,

1910

Blomefield,

1903

Bond, Gerald Denis, Esq.

1906

Bond, Nigel de M., Esq., M.A.

1903

Bond,

Tyneham, Wareham The Guild House, Glastonbury

1913

Wm. Ralph G., Esq. Bond, F. Bligh, Esq., F.R.I.B.A. Bone, Clement G., Esq., M.A.

1894

Bonsor, Geo., Esq.

El

Witley, Parkstone

Esq.

Major

J.,

Hatch House, Tisbury, Wilts

F.R.G.S., F.Z.S.

Keys, Stour Road, Christchurch Rasapeima, McKinley Road, Bourne-

mouth

W.

Blanchland, McKinley Road, Bourne-

E., Esq.

mouth

Commander T.

C. A.,

R.N.

1910

9, Bincleaves Road, Weymouth Holme, Wareham 8, Evelyn Gardens, London, S.W.

6,

Lennox

Street,

Castillo,

Weymouth

Mairena

Se villa, Spain

del

Alcor,

XIV. Fontmell Parva, Shillmgstone, Bland-

1889

Bower, H. Syndercombe, Esq.

1900

Bower, Eev. Charles H.

1898

Brandreth, Kev. F. W., M.A.

Buckland Newton, Dorchester Belmont, Parkstone

ford S.,

M.A.

Childe Okeford Eectory, Shillingstone,

Dorset

1901

Brennand, John, Esq.

1900

Brown, Miss

1895

Brymer, Eev.

1907

Bulfin, Ignatius, Esq., B.A. John Bullen Colonel Bullen,

1900

Belle Vue, Shaftesbury J. G.,

M.A.

1907

1905

Busk,

W.

Puddletown Hill,

Bournemouth

May field House, Farnham, Surrey Wraxall Manor, Cattistock, Dorchester Wraxall Manor, Cattistock, Dorchester

G., Esq.

W.

The Den, Knole

Catherston Leweston, near Channouth Blake Hill House, Parkstone

Symes Burton, Miss Bury, Mrs. Henry

1914

Ilsington House,

G.

1905

Busk, Mrs.

1901

Bussell, Miss Katherine

Thorneloe School, Eodwell,

1903

Butler-Bowden, Mrs. Bruno

Upwey

1911

Butlin,

1891

Carter, William, Esq.

The Hermitage, Parkstone

1905

Chadwyck-Healey, Sir C. E. H., M.A., K.C. K.C.B., F.S.A.

Wyphurst, Cranleigh, Surrey

1903

Champ,

St. Katherine's, Bridport

1913 1913

Champ, Miss Edith Champ, Miss Eva M.

Coniston, Bridport

1897

Chudleigh, Mrs.

Downshay Manor, LaugtonMatravers,

1894

St. Alban's,

1904

Church, Colonel Arthur Clapcott, Miss

1892

Clarence, Lovell Burchett, Esq.

Coaxden, Axminster

1905

Clark, Mrs. E. S.

St.

1895

Clarke, E. Stanley, Esq.

Trobridge House, Crediton, Devon

1912

Clift, J.

M.

M.A.

C., Esq.,

r

A., Esq.

7,

Weymouth

House, Upwey Westerhall Eoad, Weymouth

St. Katherine's,

Bridport

Dorset

The

Eodwell,

Weymouth

Cottage, Bradford Peverell, Dor-

chester

G. Neilson, Esq.

8,

Aldhelm's,

Prince's

Wareham Street,

Westminster,

S.W. 1883

Colfox, Miss A. L.

Westmead, Bndport

1878

Colfox, Colonel T. A.

Coneygar, Bridport

M.P. W., Esq., E.I.

1905

Collins, Sir Stephen,

1904

Collins,

1905

Colville,

1904 1912

Coney, Major Wm. Bicknell Cooke, Eev. J. H., M.A.,

1902

Cornish, Eev.

1903

Cornish -Browne, C.

Wm.

H. K., Esq.

LL.D.

Elm House,

Tring, Hertfordshire

Stoborough Croft, Wareham Loders Court, Bridport Hillside, Kingston, near

Taunton

Shillingstone Eectory

W.

F.,

M.A.

J.,

Esq.

Steepleton Eectory, Dorchester Cory ton Park, Axminster

XV. M.A.

1891

Cother, Eev. P. L.,

1886

Crespi,

1909

Cnckmay, Harry W., Esq.

A.

J.

H.,

Weymouth

Clearmount,

1,

B.A.,

Esq.,

Cooma, Poole Road, Wimborne

M.R.C.P.

Maybury,

Greenhill

12,

Terrace,

Weymouth 1884

Cross, Eev. James,

M.A.

House, Sturminster Marshall,

Baillie

Wimborne 1914

Cross, Miss Florence

Stock

Gaylard Rectory, Sturminster

Newton 1885

Curme, Deciraus, Esq., M.R.C.S.

Eversley, Durley Road,

1896

Curtis, C. H., Esq.

Blandford

1897

Curtis, Wilfrid Parkinson, Esq.,

1903

1907

Dacombe, J. M. J., Esq. Dammers, B. F. H., Esq. Daniell, G. H. S., Esq., M.B.

1907

Daniell, Miss Margaret

O.M.

Darell, D., Esq., F.G.S., F.L.S.,

E.E.S.

1912

Bournemouth

Aysgarth, Longfleet, Poole 27, Holdenhurst Road, Bournemouth

Harbour House, Bridport Dale House, Blandford Dale House, Blandford

House, Stoke Fleming, Dartmouth, Devon

F.Z.S.

Hillfield

Canon

M.A.

1904

Davies, Rev.

1894

Davis, Geo., Esq.

West Lodge, Icen Way, Dorchester

1909

Day, Cyril D., Esq., B.A.

Gleuhurst, Dorchester

1904

Deane, Mrs. A. M.

Clay Hill House, near Gilliiigham

1910

Devenish, Major J. H. C.

1914

Dibben, H. F., Esq., M.A. Dicker, Miss Eleanor H.

1907

1912 1912 1903 1911

S. E.,

Wyke

Regis Rectory,

Springfield,

Dickson, Colonel W. D. Dickson, Mrs. W. D.

Weymouth

Eype, Bridport

Brook House, Upwey, Dorchester Southill, Dean Park, Bournemouth Southill,

Digby, Major H. Montague Dillon-Trenchard, Miss Margaret

Weymouth

Dean Park, Bournemouth

11,

Park Lane,

The

Ridge,

Piccadilly,

Durlston

W.

Park

Road,

Swanage 1906

Dodd,

Frank

Wm.,

Esq.,

M.Inst.C.E.

1908

Dodington, H. P. Marriott, Esq. Dominy, G. H., Esq., M.R.C.S.,

1912

Dru Drury,

1904

Dugdale, J. B., Esq. Duke, Mrs. Henry

1908

L.R.C.P.

Adam

Street, Brooklyn,

Castle Gardens,

U.S.A.

Wareham

Milton Abbas, Blandford G., Esq., M.R.C.S.,

L.R.C.P. 1905

17,

Wareham Wareham

Corfe Castle, Sandford,

Manor

House, Godmanstone,

chester

1907

Duke, Miss M. Constance

The Limes, Dorchester

1908

Duke, Mrs. E. Barnaby

Maen, Dorchester

Dor-

XVI. 1896

Dundas, Ven. Archdeacon, M.A.

Milton Abbey Vicarage, Blandf ord.

1911

Dymond, Miss Evelyn

Two Leas, Wareham

1914 191C

Eardley, Mrs. H. Edwyn Eaton, Eev. A. E., M.A., F.E.S.

1913

Edwards, Aubrey, Esq.

The Rectory, Swaiiage Richmond Villa, Northam, North Devon The Beeches, Pen Hill Avenue, Park-

1913

1885

Henry, Esq., F.E.A.S. Elwes, Captain G. R. (Vice-

1913

Facey, C.

1886

Falkner, C. G., Esq.,

1884

Farley, Rev. H.,

1913

Farrar-Roberts,W., Esq.

Langton

Matravers,

stone Ellis,

President) S.,

Esq.,

M.B.

M.A. M.A.

Boat

Close,

Lyme

Regis

Bossington,

Bournemouth

The Elms, mouth

Chickerell,

near

Wey-

Ireton Bank, Rusholme, Manchester

Overbury Road, Parkstone Plas

John's

St.

Lodwig,

Road,

Bournemouth West

Wareham

1903

Fairer, Colonel Philip

Binnegar Hall,

1912 1912

Ferguson, Miss E. M. Ferguson, Miss Constance

Elwell Lea, Upwey, Dorchester Elwell Lea, Upwey, Dorchester

1904

Ffooks, Mrs. E. Archdall

1904

Fielding, Thos., Esq.,

Kingscote, Dorchester Milton Abbas, Blandford

1892

Filleul,

1889

Filliter,

1896

Filliter,

George Clavell, Esq. Rev. W. D., M.A.

1910

Filliter,

Mrs.

1901

Fisher, Mrs. J. F.

1911

Fisher, Rev. J. Martyn,

1890

Fletcher,

Rev.

S.

M.D. E. V., M.A.

W.

All Saints' Rectory, Dorchester St. Martin's House, Wareham East Lulworth Vicarage, Wareham East Lulworth Vicarage, Wareham

D.

Vines Close, Wimborne

M.A.

St. Paul's

1906

W. H. B., Esq. Fletcher, Mrs. W. J.

1907

Fletcher, Rev.

1885

Floyer, G.

1895

Forbes, Mrs.

1897

1910

Forde, Henry, Esq. Forder, B. C., Esq.

1893

Forrester,

1893

Forrester, Mrs.

1910

1911

Fox-Strangways, H. W., Esq. Fox, H. E. Croker, Esq., M.B.

1910

Fi-eame,

1895

Fry,

Canon

J.

Vicarage,

Weymouth

Aldwick Manor, Bognor, Sussex Wyrley,

M.

Colehill,

Wimborne

J.,

The Vicarage, Wimborne Minster West Stafford, Dorchester

M.A., R.D.

W., Esq., B.A.

Culverhayes, Shillingstone, Blandford

Luscombe, Parkstone Wilderton, Branksome Park, Bourne-

mouth

Hugh

Carl, Esq.,

B.A.

James

M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. Major B. E.

Edward Alexander, Esq.

St.

John's Cottage, Shaftesbury

Westport, 2, St.

Wareham

Aubyn's Park, Tiverton, Devon

Chalbury Lodge,

Weymouth

The Chantry, Gillingham 227, Strand, London, W.C.

XV11. 1903

Fry, George

S.,

Chesham, The Grove, Nether Street, Fiiichley, London, N.

Esq.

Edmund

1913

Gadesden, Mrs.

1896

George, Mrs. Gildea, Miss W. P. C.

1908

1890 1912

Holwell Manor, Sherborne Fleet House, near Weymouth

Upwey Eectory, Dorchester Wood Leaze, Wimborne Wood Leaze, Wimborne

Glyn, Captain Carr Stuart GTyn, Mrs. Carr

Gaunts House, Wimborne

1895

Glyn, Sir E. G., Bart. Godman, F. du Cane,

1906

Gowrmg, Mrs. B. W.

1908

Greenwood, Arthur, Esq., L.M.S.,

1888

Greves, Hyla, Esq.,

M.D. Esq.

O.M.

Esq.,

Lower

F.E.S.

L.S.A.

Beediiig,

Horsham

49,

High West

32,

Dorchester Eoad,

Dorchester

Street,

Weymouth

Eodney House, Bournemouth

1904

Groves, Herbert

1906

Groves, Miss

1912

Groves, Miss

1912

Groves, Miss

1906

Grundry, Joseph, Esq.

Blackdown, Weymouth Eed House, Queen's Avenue, Dor-

1896

Haggard, Eev. H. A., M.A.

Molash Vicarage, Canterbury

1912

Haines, F. H., Esq., M.E.C.S.,

1903 1905

Hambro, Hambro,

1913

Hamilton, Miss

1893

Hankey Eev. Canon, M. A. E.D Harbin, Eev. E. H. Bates, M.A. Harrison, Eev. F. T., M.A.

J.,

Clifton,

Weymouth

Thickthorne, Broadwey, Dorset

Blackdown, Weymouth

M.

chester

L.E.C.P.

1910 1890

Winfrith, Dorchester

K.C.V.O.

Sir Everard,

C. Eric, Esq.

,

,

.

Milton Abbey, Dorset Pickhurst Mead, Hayes, Kent Affpuddle Vicarage, Dorchester

Lambert House, Dorchester

Newton

Surmaville, Yeovil

Burton Bradstock Eectory, Bridport

1898

Hassell, Miss

Westfield Lodge, Parkstone

1894

Hawkins, W., Esq., M.E.C.S.

Hillfield,

1903

Hawkins, Miss Isabel Hawkins, Eev. H.

Eyme. Elwell

1908

Hayne, E., Esq.

1889

Head,

1905

F.E.G.S., F.P.S. Heath, F. E., Esq. Hellins, Eev. E. W.

J. Merrick, Esq.,

Hellins, Mrs. E.

Upwey Weymouth

Street,

M.E.I.A.,

Pennsylvania Castle, Portland

The Woodlands, Weymouth J.,

M.A.,

Marnhull Eectory, Dorset Marnhull Eectory, Dorset

LL.B. 1911

Westerhall,

Fordington House, Dorchester

1893

1911

1,

Broadwey, Dorchester

W.

J.

1899

Henning, Mrs.

1913

Henshaw, E. Stevenson,

Frome, Dorchester Esq.,

C.E. (Hon. Editor of the Dorset Rainfall Reports}

New Eoad,

Portland

xvm. Flamberts, Trent, Sherborne

1912

Hichens, Mrs. T.

1901

K. E., Esq. Hill, Miss Pearson

Eax, Bridport Beaminster

1910

S.

Long Lynch,

Hill,

1902

Hine, E., Esq.

1902

Homer, Miss E.

1907

Wood Wood

Childe Okeford

Bardolf Manor, Puddletown

C.

Bardolf Manor, Puddletown

1888

Homer, Mrs. G. Huntley, H. E., Esq.

1903

Jenkins, Eev. T. Leonard,

1912

Jordan, Miss

Leigh Vicarage, Sherborne The Eidge, Durlston Park

1893

Kerr, E. W., Esq.,

Swanage South Walks House, Dorchester

1895

1902

Lafontame, A. C. de, Esq., F.S.A. Langdon, Miss Mary C.

1876

Langford, Eev. Canon, M.A.

1907

Lees, Captain Edgar,

1907

1910

Lees, Mrs. Edgar Le Fleming, E. K., Esq., B.A., M.B.

1900

Legge, Miss Jane

1899

Le Jeune, H., Esq.

1900

Leslie,

Eev. E.

M.D.

E.N.

Lewis, Eev. A.,

189-4

Liiiklater,

1890

Lister,

Llewellin,

W., Esq., M.A. Lock, Mrs. A. H.

Honour

His Lock, B. Fossett

1893

Lock, Miss Mary C. Long, Eev. H. E., B.A.

1911

S. Devon White Cross, Wyke Eegis White Cross, Wyke Eegis

Southbrook, Starcross,

St.

Wimborne

Upper Parkstone, Dorset Eectory, Dorchester

Chardstock Vicarage, Chard Holworth House, Winfrith

High Cliff, Lyme Eegis Upton House, Poole 53, High West Street, Dorchester

Judge

The

MacCormick, Eev. Scot., M.E.A.S.

Margaret's,

St. Ives,

1892

1910

Athelhampton, Dorchester Parrock's Lodge, Chard

Came

M.A. M.A.

Eev. Prebendary, D.D. Miss Gulielma, F.L.S.

1905

Eoad,

Allington Villa, Bridport

C.,

1902

1900

Charltoii House, Blandford

M.A.

F.,

Toft, Bridlington, East

Yorks

Blackheath Eoad, Oxford Tolpuddle, Dorchester 7,

F.S.A.

Wrockwardine Wood Eectory, Wellington, Salop

1888

MacDonald, P. W., Esq., M.D.

Herrison, Dorchester

1902

Mainwaring, Lieut. -Col. F. G. L. Manger, A. T., Esq.

Wabey House, Upwey

1890 1907

Mansel, Miss Susan

1899

Mansel-Pleydell,

Eev.

Canon

M.A., E.D. (VicePresident and Hon. Treasurer')

J.

1896

C. M.,

Sturminster

Newton

Vicarage, Dorset

March, H. Colley, Esq., M.D., F.S.A.,

M.E.S.A.I.,

F.A.I.

(Vice -President}

1883

Stock Hill, Gillingham Top-o'-Town, Dorchester

Marriott, Sir

W.

Smith, Bart.

Portesham, Dorchester

The Down House, Blandford

1904

Marsh,

1911

Mason,

J. L.,

W.

White

Esq.

Cliff Mill Street,

Blandford

St.

Denis, Cann, Shaftesbury

1911

Esq. Mason, Mrs. E. E.

St.

Denis, Cann, Shaftesbury

1907

Mate, C. H., Esq.

Elim, Surrey

J.,

Road South, Bourne-

mouth 1879

Maunsell, Rev. F. W., M.A.

O.M.

Mayo, Eev. Canon, M.A., E.D.

1912

McDowall, A.

1907

Michell, Theo., Esq.

(

Vice- President) S.,

Esq.,

M.A.

Symondsbury Rectory, Bndport Gillingham, Dorset Norden, Corfe Castle Trewirgie,

Christchurch

37,

Road,

Bournemouth O.M.

1909

Middleton, H. B., Esq., Middleton, Miss A.

1890

Milne, Rev. Percy H.,

O.M.

Moorhead,

1905

Morgan, Mrs.

1911

Morris,

M.A.

M.A.

Esq.,

J.,

Bradford Peverell, Dorchester Bradford Peverell, Dorchester

Hornblotton Rectory, Castle Gary

M.A.,

The Imperial Hotel, Bournemouth The Vicarage, Yetmiiister

M.D. Sir Daniel,

K.C.M.G.,

D.Sc., D.C.L., F.L.S.

Crabton Close, Boscombe

14,

1897

Moule, Rev. A. C., B.A. Moullin, Arthur D., Esq.

Fermain, Cranbourne Road, Swanage

1908

Nettleton, Spencer, Esq.

West Lul worth, Wareham

1909

Newnham, H.

Rodlands, Dorchester

1905

Nicholson, Captain

1906

Oke, A. W., Esq., B.A., LL.M., F.S.A., F.G.S.

1886

Okeden, Colonel U. E. Parry

1914

1906

S.,

Little Bredy, Dorchester

Esq.

Hugh

Nettlecombe, Melplash

Okeden, Edmund Parry, Esq. Vere L., Esq.

1908

Oliver,

1908

Oliver, Mrs.

1904

Oliver,

1908

Ord,

Vere L.

Weston, Esq., M.A.

W.

T.,

Esq.,

32, Denmark Villas, Hove, Sussex Tumworth, Blandford

Turnworth, Blandford

Whitmore Lodge, Sunninghill, Berks Whitmore Lodge, Sunninghill, Berks Castle House,

Weymouth

M.R.C.S.,

L.R.C.P., F.G.S.

Greenstead,

14,

Madeira Road, Bourne-

mouth

W. W.

Esq., R. A.

1911

Ouless,

1911

Ouless, Miss Catherine

1905 1914

Paget, Miss Adelaide Pass, Alfred Douglas, Esq.

1890

Patey, Miss

,

Bryanston Square, London,

12,

12,

Bryanston Square, London, Park Homer, Wimborne

Wootton Fitzpaine, Charmouth 185,

Oakwood

London, 1908

Patterson, Mrs. Myles

1907

Paul,

1907

Paul, Mrs.

Edward

Clifford,

M.A.

Edward

Clifford

W. W.

Court,

Kensington,

W.

Cony gar, Broadmayne, Dorchester Esq.,

Eastbrook House, Eastbrook House,

Upwey Upwey

XX. 1894

Payne, Miss Florence O.

1906

Pearce, Mrs. Thos. A.

1909

Pearce, Edwin, Esq.

1901

Peck, Gerald K., Esq.

Fore Street, Taunton Muston Manor, Puddletown Tarrant Eushton Eectory, Blandford

M.A.

1878

Penny, Kev.

1894

Penny-Snook, L.E.C.P.

1907

Penny-Snook, Mrs.

1901

Pentin, Eev. Herbert,

J.,

Eydal, Wimborne Ivythorpe, Dorchester

S.,

Esq., M.B.C.S.,

Netherton House, Netherton House,

S.

M.A.

(

Vice-

President and Hon. Secretary)

1894

Peto, Sir Henry, Bart.

1896

Phillips,

1908

Eev. C. A., M.A. Pickard-Cambridge, A. W., Esq.,

1898

Weymouth Weymouth

St. Peter's Vicarage.

Portland

Chedington Court, Misterton, Somerset

Miss

Phillips,

M.A.

Walton House, Bournemouth Walton House, Bournemouth St. Catherine's,

Headington

Hill,

ford

1908

Cambridge, Eev. O., M.A., F.E.S. (Vice -President} Pickard-Cambridge, Miss Ada

1908

Pickard-Cambridge, Miss

1903

Pike, Leonard G., Esq.

Kingbarrow,

1913

Durweston Rectory, Blandford

1903

Pinney, Eev. Baldwin, B.A. Pinney, Mrs. Baldwin Pitt-Eivers, A. L. Fox, Esq.,

1913

Pitt,

O.M.

Pickard

Catherine

1913

Bloxworth Eectory, Wareham Picardy, Eodwell,

Weymouth

Weymouth Wareham

Picardy, Eodwell,

F.S.A.

Eushmore, Salisbury Cliff House, Shaftesbury Ibberton Eectory, Blandford

Mrs. Lionel Fox

1904

Plowman, Eev. L.

1896

Pond,

Durweston Eectory, Blandford

S.

Blandford

1908

Esq. Ponting, Chas. E., Esq., F.S.A. Poole, Rev. Sealy, M.A.

O.M:.

Pope, Alfred, Esq., F.S.A. (Vice-

1906

Culliford House, Dorchester

1906

Pope, Alfred Eolph, Esq., M.A. Pope, Mrs. Alfred Eolph

1905

Pope, Miss Hilda

South Court, Dorchester

1909

Pope,

1909

Pratt, Colonel,

1894

S.,

Francis

1896

Prideaux, C.

1900

Prideaux,

1905

Pringle,

W.

J.,

Weymouth

S.

17,

E.A.

S., Esq.,

de

Culliford House, Dorchester

Esq.,

Holland Eoad, London,

W.

The Ferns, Charminster L.D.S.

C., Esq.,

Ermingtoii, Dorchester

L.D.S.,

F.S.A., F.E.S.M.

1905

House, Marlborough

Chickerell Eectory,

South Court, Dorchester

President)

F.E. Hist.

Wye

Henry T., Esq., M.D. Pringle, Mrs. Henry T.

12,

Frederick Place,

Weymouth

Ferndown, Wimborne Ferndown, Wimborne

Ox-

XXI. 1888

Pye, William, Esq.

1905

Bamsden, Mrs.

Dunmore, Bodwell, Weymouth The Dower House, Lew Trenchard, Devon

1912

Wyndcroft, Bridport

1904

Bawlence, E. A., Esq. Keyuolds, Mrs. Arthur Bhydderch, Bev. W.

1887

Bichardson, N. M., Esq.,

1886

Newlands, Salisbury

Owermoigne Bectory, Dorchester B.A. Montevideo,

(President}

1901

Bidley, Bev. J.

1911 1911

Bobson, Colonel H. D. Bobson, Mrs. H. D.

1886

Bodd, Edward Stanhope, Esq.

1907

Boe, Miss M. M. E. Boe, Bev. Wilfrid T., M.A.

1909

1907

Bomilly, Geo., Esq., M.A. Boper, Freeman, Esq., F.L.S.

1889

Russell, Colonel C. J.,

1910

Bussell- Wright, Bev. T.,

1912

Chickerell,

near

Wey-

mouth The Bectory, Pulham, Dorchester St. Oswald, West Lulworth St. Oswald, West Lulworth Chardstock House, Chard Trent Bectory, Sherborne Trent Bectory, Sherborne

The Grange, Marnhull Forde Abbey, Chard

B.E.

Clavinia,

M.A.

Weymouth

Mouiitside,

Westbourne Park Boad,

Bournemouth 1905

Sanderson. Wells, T. H., Esq.,

1913

Sauer, Hans, Esq.,

1913

Sauer, Mrs.

1905

Saunt, Miss

M.D.

16, Victoria Terrace,

M.D.

Weymouth

Parnham, Beaminster Parnham, Beamiiister The Cottage, Upwey

Hans

The Cottage, Upwey

1905

Saunt, Miss B. V.

1889

Schuster, Bev.

W.

P.,

1910

Schuster, Mrs.

W.

P.

The Vicarage, West Lulworth, Ware-

1907

Scott, J. H., Esq.,

M.E.

Skiddaw, Talbot

1904

Seaman, Bev. C. E., M.A., B.D.

1883

Searle, Alan, Esq.

1906

Shephard, Colonel C.

1896

Shepheard, Thomas, Esq.,

1906

1884

Shepherd, Bev. F. J. Sheridan, Mrs. A. T. Brinsley Sherren, J. A., Esq., F.B. Hist.

1914

Sherring, B. Vowell, Esq., F.L.S.

1913

Shields, Bev. A. J.,

1908

Shortt, Miss E. F.

1908

Shortt, Miss L.

M.A., B.D. The Vicarage, West Lulworth, Ware-

ham bam Bournemouth

Ashton Lodge, Bassett, Southampton S.,

D.S.O.

F.B.M.S. 1903

Hill,

Stalbridge Bectory, Blandford

S.

Shortlake, Osmington,

Weymouth

Kingsley, Bournemouth West The Presbytery, Dorchester Frampton Court, Dorchester Helmsley, Penn Hill Avenue, Park-

stone

M.

M.A.

Hallatrow, Bristol Thornf ord Bectory, Sherborne

The Manor House, Martinstown The Manor House, Martinstown

XX11. 1897

1895

1912

Minterne Grange, Parkstone

Simpson, Jas., Esq. Simpson, Miss

Penolver, Glendinning Avenue,

mouth Knowlton House, Bournemouth

Smith, Eev. A. Hippisley

1913

Smith, Hy. Gregory, Esq.

1899

Smith,

Howard Lyon,

Surrey

Wey-

Eoad,

Crathie Lodge, Parkstone Esq.,

L.E.C.P.

St.

Mary's

Eectory,

Glanville's

Wootton 1909 1908

Smith, Nowell C., Esq., M.A. Smith, Mrs. Spencer

Eev. H. Shaen, M.A. W. E. H., M.A.,

School House, Sherborne

Kingston Vicarage, Wareham Southcote, Alexandra Eoad, Parkstone

1888

Solly,

1901

Sotheby, Eev.

1905

Stephens, J. Thompson, Esq.

Wanderwell, Bridport

1908

Stephens, A. N., Esq.

Haddon House, West Bay, Bridport

1900

Storer, Colonel, late

Keavil,

Bournemouth

1895

Sturdy, Leonard, Esq.

Trigon,

Wareham

1896

Sturdy, Philip, Esq.

1907

Sturdy, Alan, Esq.

The Wick, Branksome, near Bournemouth The Wick, Branksome, near Bournemouth

1905

Sturdy, E. T., Esq.

Norburton, Burton Bradstock, Bridport

1914

Sturrock, J., Esq.

12, Greenhill,

1898

Sturt,

189S

Suttill,

1905

Suttill,

24,

1912

Swinburne -Hanham,

Eodwell Lodge, Weymouth Manston Sturminster Newton

1893

Sykes, E. E., Esq., B.A., F.Z.S.

1889

Symes, G. P., Esq., M.A., B.C.L.,

E.D.

1913

Gillingham Vicarage, Dorset

W. H.

E.E.

Neville, Esq. S.,

Weymouth Crescent, Bath

Pymore, Bridport

Esq.

John, Esq. Swaffield, A. Owen, Esq.

(

Lansdown

9,

J. C.,

Esq.

West

Street, Bridport

,

Longthorns, Blandford

Vice -President}

M.V.O.

Monksdene, Dorchester Eoad, Wey-

mouth 1904 1904

Symonds, Arthur G., Esq. Symonds, Henry, Esq., F.S.A. (

Vice- President

South

Street, Dorchester

and

Hon. Editor) 1912

10,

1913

Symonds, F. G., Esq. Symonds, Wm. Pope, Esq.

1901

Telfordsmith,

O.M.

M.A., M.D. Thompson, Eev. G., M.A.

Telford,

30, Bolton Gardens, London, S.W. The Firs, Sturminster Newton Newton House, Sturminster Newton

Esq.,

The Knoll, Parkstone Highbury, Bodorgan Eoad, Bourne-

mouth

XX111.

1906

Thomson, Chas. Bertram, Esq.,

1907

Towers, Miss

Kelvedon, Norfolk

1898

1905

Troyte-Bullock, Mrs. Truell, Mrs.

Silton Lodge, Zeals, Bath Onslow, Wimborne

O.M.

Udal, His Honour J.

Eomansleigh, Wimborne

F.B.C.S.

S.,

Cliff

Eoad,

Sherringham,

F.S.A. 2, Marlborough Hill, London, N.W. Gordon College, Khartoum

(Vice-President)

1897

Udal, N. R., Esq., B.A. Usher, Rev. E., M.A., F.L.S.

1890

Usherwood, Eev. Canon T. E.,

1910

Vivian, S. P., Esq.

22,

1907

Waite, Arthur H., Esq. Walker, Eev. S. A., M.A.

Osmington House, Weymouth Charlton Manor, Blandford

Ward, Samuel, Esq. Warre, Eev. Canon F., M.A.

Ingleton, Greenhill,

O.M. 1904

Warry, Mrs. King

39,

1908

Netherbury, Beaminster Bagdale, Parkstone

M.A.

1887

1905

Eoyal Avenue, Chelsea, S.W.

Filey

London,

1905

Warry, Wm., Esq. Watkins, Wm., Esq., F.E.G.S. Watts, Miss

1893

Weaver,

1904

1905

Eev.

F.

Webb, Miss

Avenue,

Upper

Westrow, Holwell, Sherborne 62,

London Wall, E.G.

Bemerton, Salisbury Milton Vicarage, Evercreech, Somerset Luscombe, Parkstone

1913

West, C. E., Esq.

Cluny Croft, Swanage

1895

Whitby, Joseph, Esq.

Preston, Yeovil

1908

Whitby, Mrs.

1904

Wil'dman,

1903

W.

Preston, Yeovil

J.

B., Esq.,

The Abbey House, Sherborne

M.A.

W.

Herringston, Dorchester

1897

Williams, Captain Berkeley C. Williams, Miss F. L.

1884

Williams, Colonel Eobert, M.P.

Bridehead, Dorchester

1884

Williams, Mrs. Eobert

Bridehead, Dorchester

Ehoda

1908

Williams, Miss

1906

Williams, Miss Meta

1912

Williams, Mrs. Arthur S.

1905

Wills, A.

1906

Clapton,

Is".

W., M.A.,

F.S.A., F.E.Hist.S. 1910

Weymouth

Bemerton, Salisbury

Westleaze, Dorchester

Bridehead, Dorchester

W., Esq., B.A., LL.B. Winwood, T. H. E., Esq., M.A.

South Walk, Dorchester Hill House, Yetminster 3,

Hyde Park

Gate, London, S.W.

Eothesay, Dorchester

1913

Woodd,A.B.,Esq.,M.A.,M.E.I. Heckfield, Milford-on-Sea, Hants Winterborne Monkton Ecctory, DorWoodhouse, Eev. A. C.

1913

Woodhouse, Mrs. A.

1898

Woodhouse, Miss

1910

chester C.

Winterborne Monkton Eectory, Dorchester

Chilmore, Ansty, Dorchester

XXIV. 1903

1906

1906

Woodhouse, Miss Ellen E. Woodhouse, Frank D., Esq. Woodhouse, Mrs. Frank D.

1911

Woodhouse, Miss A. M. R.

1902

Wright, Rev. Herbert L., B.A.

1910

Yeatman, H.

Chilmore, Ansty, Dorchester

Old Ford House, Blandford St. Mary Old Ford House, Blandford St. Mary Norden, Blandford Church Knowle Rectory, Corfe Castle

F., Esq., M.A.,

B.C.L.

28,

Cecil

Court,

Hollywood

Road,

London, S.W.

AFFILIATED LIBRAE Y (Rule XXI.). 1911

Central Public Library

The above

list

includes the

May (Any omissions or

Bournemouth

New Members

elected

up

to

and including the

meeting of the year 1914.

errors should be notified to the

Hon. Secretary).

XXV.

jdeto ELECTED SINCE THE PUBLICATION OF THE LIST CONTAINED

XXXIV.

IN VOL.

PKOPOSED

MAY

Nominee. Miss

Edith

GTH, 1913. Seconder.

Proposer. of

Champ,

St.

A. Champ, Esq.

Katharine's, Bridport Miss Eva M. Champ, of Conis-

J. Suttill,

Esq.

,,

ton, Bridport

The Rev. A.

J. Shields,

M.A.,

Captain Carr

S.

Glyn

Miss Constance

Thornford Rectory, Sherborne

Alexander

of

Esq., of Crathie Lodge, Parkstone The Rev. A. C. Woodhouse,

Hy. Gregory Smith,

The Rev. Canon T. E. Usherwood

The Rev. H. Farley

H.

The Rev. W. Miles

S.

Newnham,

Esq.

M.A., of Winterbourne Monk-

Barnes

ton Rectory, Dorchester Mrs. A. C. Woodhouse, of Winter-

bourne Monkton Rectory

PROPOSED JUNE STH AND JULY BED, Nominee.

Proposer.

Mrs.

of Gadesden, Manor, Sherborne

Mrs. Lionel

Fox

Pitt,

Holwell

Canon

J. C.

M.

Mansel-Pleydell of

Cliff

1913.

Seconder.

H. Syndercombe Bower, Esq. The Rev. J. C.

House, Shaftesbury

Blackett

Aubrey Edwards, Esq., of The Beeches, Penn Hill Avenue,

Canon

H. Le Jeune, Esq.

T. E.

Usherwood

Parkstone

PROPOSED SEPT. 16TH, Nominee.

The Rev. H. H.

1913.

Seconder.

Proposer.

T.

Bassett,

R.D., of Whitchurch Vicarage,

Canon

J. C.

M.

Mansel-Pleydell

The Rev. Almack

A.

C.

Blandford

Clement G. Bone, Esq., M.A., of 6,

Lennox

Henry

Ellis,

Inglefield,

Street,

The Rev. W.

Weymouth

Esq., F.R.A.S., of Little Heath,

W.

J.

Mason, Esq.

Rhydderch The Rev. H. Solly

Potter's Bar, Middlesex

Win.

Pope Symonds, Esq.,

Broadview, Kettering

of

Alfred Pope, Esq.

The Hon. Editor

S.

XXVI. PROPOSED DEC. 9iH, Nominee. Miss

Burton,

Seconder.

Proposer.

Blake

of

1913.

Hill

The Rev. H.

S. Solly

The Rev.

H. F. Dibben, Esq., M.A., Eype, Bridport Charles E. Mason, of

of

Stone,

W.

Sir Daniel Morris

Dr.

Captain Carr

Canon

S.

Glyn

Ord

T.

J.

M.

Wimborne

J.

Fletcher

J. Sturrock, Esq., of 12, hill,

E.

S.

V. Filloul

House, Parkstone

Green-

Miss M. H. Saunt

Miss Simpson

Weymouth PROPOSED FEB. SRD, Nominee.

Mrs.

of

Acheson-Gray, Hill, Charminster

Miss Florence Cross,

1914.

Seconder.

Proposer.

of

East Stock

Gaylard Rectory, Sturminster

Miss L. R. Clapcott

H.

Canon

Esq. Mrs. Allner

J. C.

M.

B.

Middleton,

Mansel-Pleydell

Newton Mrs. Eardley, of the

Swanage The Rev. A. of Little

The Rev. H.

L.

C.

Moule,

B. A.,

Captain

J. E.

Acland

Bredy, Dorchester Esq.,

Fitzpaine,

of

P.

Robert

Colonel

Williams Colonel T. A. Coif ox

Char-

R. Vowell Sherring, Esq., F.L.S., of Hallatrow, Bristol

The Rev. W. Schuster

Wright

Alfred Douglas Pass,

Wootton mouth

Rectory,

Joseph

Gundry,

Esq.

H. Le Jeune, Esq.

Dr. H. Colley

March

XXV11.

PUBLICATIONS. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club.

Vols.

I.

XXXV.

Price 10s. 6d. each volume, post free.

General Index to the Proceedings.

Vols.

I.

XXVI.

Price 6d.,

by

post 7d.

The Church

By theKev. Canon RAVEN, D.D.,

Bells of Dorset.

Price (in parts, as issued),

By the late

J. C.

6s. t>d.,

HANSEL -PLEYDELL, B.A.,

The Flora of Dorset. 2nd Edition. Price The Birds of Dorset. Price 5s. The Moll usca of Dorset. Price 5s. By

F.S.A.

post free.

F.G.S., F.L.S.

12s.

the Rev. O. PICKARD- CAMBRIDGE, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S.

Spiders of Dorset. 2 vols. Price 25s., post free. The British Phalangidea, or Harvest Men. Price 5s., post free. British Chernetidea, or False Scorpions. Price 3s., post free.

By the PRESIDENT Second Supplement to the Lepidoptera of the :

Isle of

Compiled from the notes of Eustace E. Bankes, M.A., F.E.S.

Purbeck.

Price

Is.

The Volumes of Proceedings can be obtained from the Hon. Treasurer (the the Church Bells of Eev. Canon Mansel-Pleydell, Sturminster Xewton) Mr. Mansel-Pleydell's Dorset, from the Rev. W. Miles Barnes, Dorchester the works, from the Curator of the Dorset County Museum, Dorchester Rev. O. Pickard- Cambridge's works, from the Author, Bloxworth Rectory, Wareham the Lepidoptera of the Isle of Purbeck, from the President and the General Index, from the Assistant- Secretary (Mr. H. Pouncy, Dorset County ;

;

;

;

;

Chronicle Office, Dorchester).

SOCIETIES & INSTITUTIONS IN CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE FIELD CLUB. Bodleian Library, Oxford. Bournemouth Natural Science Society, " Trewirgie,"

Christchurch Road, Bournemouth. and Gloucestershire Archaeological

Bristol

Society,

Gloucester. British British

Museum, London.

Museum

London.

of Natural History, South

Kensington,

British Association, Burlington House, London.

Cambridge Philosophical Society, Cambridge. Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science. Essex Museum of (Natural History, Stratford, Essex. Geological Society of London, London. Hampshire Field Club, Southampton. Royal Society of Antiquaries, Dublin, Ireland. Society of Antiquaries, London. Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, Taunton.

University Library, Cambridge. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. Devizes.

jTtaturai Sjistarp anti

jfidfc

FROM MAY,

FIRST

Antiquarian

Club

1913, TO

MAY,

1914.

SUMMER MEETING.

THE VALLEY OF THE WIN OR ALLEN. Thursday, 5th June.

Wimborne railway station was the meeting place of about 120 members and their guests. Among those who attended on this occasion were the President, the Hon. Secretary, the Hon. Treasurer, and the Archdeacon of Dorset. Those of the members who had arrived by earlier trains occupied the interval by making a brief visit to the Minster Church, under the guidance of Canon FLETCHER. The party then began the programme by driving to the paper mills at Witchampton, where they were received by the owner, Mr. WILLIAM BURT, who conducted them through the manufactory and explained in detail the various processes.

Paper making had been carried on continuously in this country parish for about 150 years by seven or eight generations of Mr. Burt's forefathers, and the industry was therefore entitled to rank as one of the oldest in Dorset. It was mentioned that the chief products of the mills were cartridge paper for sporting ammunition and brown packing After the machinery and appliances had been paper. inspected, the PRESIDENT expressed the thanks of the Club to Mr. Burt and his family for their kindness.

THE VALLEY OF THE WIN OR ALLEN.

WlTCHAMPTON

I

MANOR HOUSE, AND CHURCH.

ITS BARN,

The Members were welcomed the Rev. E.

XXIX.

W. BAKER,

to this charming village by who acted as their guide.

the Rector,

The ruins of the so-called Abbey Barn were, by local tradition, part of a monastery but Mr. Baker was of opinion that the building was almost certainly the original manor house of ;

the Matravers and Arundel families, who had successively owned the manor from 1300 to 1600. The PRESIDENT recalled the fact that a holy- water stoup had been found in a fallen portion of the wall, but the RECTOR said that his

predecessor came to the conclusion that the stoup was from the private oratory of the house. Mr. PENTIN added that there was no evidence of any monastic foundation in the parish.

At the Manor House, which may be dated as not earlier than 1520, the PRESIDENT read a few notes prepared by Miss Williams, who had recently lived there. The diningroom, kitchen, pantry, and another small room, with the chambers over them, were the only surviving portions of the old structure, the other part having been added about 38 years ago. Over a small window are the letters W. R., which stand for William Rolle when the house was enlarged " a worn stone reading, Pray for the soule," was removed from between the two letters. (The rector in 1505 was Walter Rolle.) The oak mantelpiece and the panelling are Jacobean the latter had been covered with white paint, which was scraped off by Mrs. Williams. The church of All Saints was rebuilt, with the exception of the Perpendicular tower, by Mr. C. H. Sturt between 1832 and 1845, and was restored in 1898 by the Rev. C. P. Wix, then rector. Mr. BAKER related the history of the church and parish, with which were associated the families of Arundel, Scovel, and Cole. He also drew attention to the ;

;

monuments formerly in the old church, to the 13th century font of irregular octagon shape, which had at one time been

THE VALLEY OF THE WIN OR ALLEN.

XXX.

used as a drinking trough, and to the chalice and paten presented in 1630 by Elizabeth Scovel. Another interesting

was an earthenware flagon, capable of holding some " gallons, and bearing the inscription Witchampton

object five

Bellfrye."

CRICHEL HOUSE. the kind invitation of Lord Alington the Club next More Crichel. The ancient seat of the Napiers having been destroyed b} fire in 1742, the present house was erected

By

visited

"

7

in the

Classic

Renaissance style of that period, and was

afterwards enlarged by Humphry Sturt. Many royal visitors have been entertained at Crichel from time to time, King

Edward VII. and the German Emperor being among the The members were able to examine the

number.

architectural features of the interior

works

and the

collection of

the latter including a series of portraits by celebrated painters of the 18th century. There was time to of art,

walk through the Italian garden and the rock garden, where the botanists found

much

church, which was rebuilt

an

earlier fabric,

was

to attract their attention.

by Mr.

C.

H. Sturt on the

The

site of

also visited.

KNOWLTON.

A

pleasant drive brought the party to the derelict chapel Knowlton, in the parish of Woodlands. The ruins stand upon a plateau surrounded by a circular earthwork, the fosse of which is inside the vallum, as at Avebury. (Cf. the plan of

and description

in Proceedings Vol.

OSWALD KNAPP

XXXIV.,

p. 39.)

Members on their arrival and explained the points of interest. The original chapel was early Norman, of which period two typical arches have survived. The font, also of Norman work, is now preserved in Woodlands Church. The tower, chantry chapel, and the Mr.

received the

eastern portion of the aisle were of the Decorated period. Hutchins said that the building was in ruins in 1650, and although there had been later attempts at restoration it

THE VALLEY OF THE WIN OR ALLEN.

had been

in its present roofless

condition for

XXXI. at

least

a

century.

The day's programme terminated at Wimborne Vicarage, where the Club was most hospitably entertained at tea by Canon and Mrs. Fletcher. Two candidates for membership were afterwards nominated.

THE NEW FOREST.

XXX11.

SECOND SUMMER MEETING.

THE NEW FOREST. Thursday, 3rd July.

The Field Club assembled at Ringwood Station, the main purpose of the meeting being to examine the RomanoBritish pottery works in that district.

Mr. Nelson M. Richardson, the President, was accompanied by the Rev. H. Pentin, Canon Mansel-Pleydell, Captain Elwes, Mr. Alfred Pope, and about 85 members and their friends.

Under the guidance

Mr. Heywood Sumner. F.S.A., the party set out for the potteries at Sloden, where the spoil heaps yielded many specimens of broken shards, some of which had been decorated by the craftsmen of the Roman of

period.

After an inspection of the site, the members drove on through the Forest to the second pottery works at Island's

Thorn, where Mr. SUMNER addressed them on the history of the two undertakings, as derived from excavations and similar evidence.

These potteries, at Sloden and Island's Thorn, were Romano -British potteries of a commercial character. Here coarse, hard ware was made and hawked about the country for sale, presumably on pack-

by the trackways which one saw leading to and from There was one good example near God's Hill, called on " Map a supposed camp," but really an old pack-horse the road from the Sloden potteries to Cranborne and natural way, Chase. The potteries had been excavated to a certain extent, but not thoroughly, because the trees had always interfered with any excavators' work. Mr. Bartlett, who made these excavations in 1853, as recorded in Archceologia, found kilns with their floors intact, but not their side walls. They had a sort of brick earth remaining round the and unfortunately the side walls, but none of them were perfect plans which Mr. Bartlett drew of the sites of the kilns were drawn with the compass, and thus did not show how the kilns were made. It was supposed that wood was used as fuel, and that then, as nowadays, the horses, judging

the potteries. the Ordnance

;

THE NEW FOREST.

XXX111.

clay was fetched to the fuel, and not the fuel to the clay. There was abundance of wood in the Forest, and the clay may have come either from the hills around or from Alderholt. The floors of the kilns were

made

of

heath stone

sand indurated with iron.

That fact was

interesting, because in the course of the excavations which he had made on the site of a Roman farm on Rockbourne Down, where some

Roman

hypocausts had been found, he observed that the sides of the were made entirely of this heath sandstone, which withstood fire and burnt a wine-red. He had written to Mr. Engleheart, of Tisbury, who had excavated at Andover, and asked him whether he had also found this heath-stone used. Mr. Engleheart answered that in all the hypocausts that he had unearthed he had found this heath-stone, burnt a fine wine-colour. This heath-stone was found on all the hills about there, but not at Andover or on the heath Itself. Probably it flues

was an article of export, just as this coarse and fine pottery was hawked about the country. At Island's Thorn Mr. Bartlett dug up three Roman coins, dating from 350 to 370 A.D., but the patterns on some of the ornamented pottery had a distinct pre -Roman or late Celtic character, which suggested that these potteries were a going concern before the Romans came, and before they somewhat changed their

Much of the pottery found on the downs was style of ornamentation. too soft to be hawked about ; but that made at Sloden was quite hard, either black-grey or reddish ware, extremely well made and rather

" " were the harsh to the touch. Presumably these spoil banks place where they threw away the unsatisfactorily-made pieces the fiaschi. At Sloden the pottery was all of one kind, for homely domestic purposes,

but at Island's Thorn there was considerable variety. The principal type was of a rather thick, bone-coloured ware, on which lines and zig-zags were painted in red. Then there was also a very hard grey pottery with a purplish glaze, ornamented with indentations and and again one found a thinner reddish pottery with a glaze zig-zags apparently meant to imitate Samian a better-class ware which came from Gaul and which the Romans appreciated very much. The potters in the Forest were not very successful in their imitation of it, and their glaze always wore off. ;

Before leaving Island's Thorn, Captain Elwes was asked to the flora of the neighbourhood.

make a few comments on

He

among the rarities was a very scarce wild was not improbably introduced by the which gladiolus, Romans the plant had disappeared for a time, but during the last twenty years it had been found again. Another rare plant was the ivy-leaved harebell, which occurred among said that

;

THE NEW FOREST. moss

in

damp

situations.

Two

varieties of Drosera, or

sun

dew, were found there, as in Purbeck, and occasionally an unusual form of Orchis maculata. Erica ciliaris did not occur there.

The party then went to Mr. Sumner's house at Cuckoo Hill, South Gorley, where they were welcomed by their host and hostess and entertained at tea. Afterwards, Mr. Sumner invited his guests to examine the original drawings of various archaeological excavations, among which were the plans of a Romano -British farmstead at Rockbourne Down recently uncovered by him, and he also exhibited many interesting objects from the same site. Three hypocausts had been found, the arrangement of the flue in the bakehouse being of a very unusual character. The PRESIDENT then thanked Mr. Sumner for his valuable assistance during the day and for his hospitality at South Gorley.

At a business meeting which

followed,

a protest

was

recorded against any alteration of the calendar, including that proposed by the Illinois 'State Academy of Science.

by ballot, and one new nomination was announced by the HON. SECRETARY. Six candidates were elected

MALMESBURY AND LACOCK.

XXXV.

THIRD SUMMER MEETING.

MALMESBURY AND LACOCK. Thursday and Friday,

I4=th

and I5th August.

The headquarters of the Club during this meeting were at the Angel Hotel, Chippenham, a central point from which to carry out the programme. The members, having assembled at Malmesbury, placed themselves under the leadership of their friend, Mr. E. Doran Webb, F.S.A., who had again con-

sented to act as guide during the two-days visit to Wiltshire. On reaching the Benedictine Abbey Church the party was met by the Vicar, Canon McMiLLAN, who greeted the visitors

with a few words of welcome. Mr.

DORAN WEBB

then gave a short account of the history of which was derived, as he thought,

of the town, the

name

from the

and Saxon words

Celtic

Cross-hill-town

"

Mai dune beorg," or

.

The first Abbot of whom anything was was Aldhelm, who received a grant of lands

definitely in

known

A.D. 675 from

Eleutherius, Bishop of Sherborne, as stated in the chartulary of Malmesbury. In 705 Aldhelm became Bishop of Sherborne, and was succeeded at Malmesbury by a long line of Abbots, who controlled the church and monastery until the Dissolution.

Turning to the exterior of the Abbey, now the Parish Church, Mr. Webb remarked that this splendid relic of Twelfth Century Romanesque architecture had originally a tower at the Western end and a central tower at the crossing, surmounted by a lofty spire of wood. Both of the towers fell in the sixteenth century, the collapse of the Western one destroying the three nearest bays of the nave. The West screen front was afterwards rebuilt against the shortened church. The portions in use to-day were the six remaining

bays of the nave, now walled up at the East end, and the South porch. The Eastern limb, consisting of five bays, and

XXXVI.

MALMESBURY AND LACOCK.

both of the transepts, have vanished, save two ruined arches

and part of a transept wall. and monastic buildings stood on the North side, such fragments as have survived being now incorporated with the Abbey House, an Elizabethan dwelling. The Norman porch on the South side, showing eight orders on the outer arch and three on the inner, is the chief glory of " We have," said Mr. Webb, " no other porch the Abbey. equal to this in the whole country." The interior of the church retains the Norman vaulting of the nave and aisles,which, with the other early work, enables the stranger to form a conception of the beauty of the structure An altar tomb bearing the recumbent effigy in its entirety. of the crossing

The

cloisters

of a king, reputed to be ^Ethelstan, lies near the South-east corner. This king granted to the townsmen of Malmesbury

A.D. 937 six hundred acres of land in the neighbourhood, and the rights so conferred in Saxon times are enjoyed by some 240 holders of allotments at the present day. After the Dissolution the Abbey was sold to one Master in

Stumpe, a clothier, who set up his looms in the monastic offices and even carried on his trade in parts of the church itself.

Nevertheless,

it

is

to this

Tudor

clothier that

we

mainly owe the preservation of the nave and its conversion to the purposes of a parish church. The library of the monks had contained manuscripts which would now be priceless, but many of them, alas, were dipped in tallow and used by

Stumpe's weavers as a means

of lighting

them

to

and from

their work.

THE TOWN. The belfry tower is the only surviving portion of the old parish church of St. Paul, which was abandoned when the Abbey was adapted to parochial uses this tower now serves ;

as a campanile for the monastic church.

The octagonal market cross has its stone vaulting and is a fine example of the Perpendicular masonry

intact,

of the

sixteenth century.

I

MALMESBURY AND L ACOCK. The Club

XXX Vll.

also inspected the quaint buildings

known

as

Almost adjoining is the Court Hall, where the Trustees and Commoners meet on the second Almshouses.

^Ethelstan's

after Trinity to carry through the necessary formaliconnection with ^Ethelstan's gift of lands.

Tuesday ties in

Finally, Mr.

Walls on the

Doran Webb

way

to the

led the party along the

Town

Railway Station.

In the evening the members dined together at Chippenham, and afterwards the Rev. F. W. WEAVER, F.S.A., delivered a short address on the life of St. Aldhelm, with a reading from the Saint's poems translated from the Latin by Mr. F. Bligh Bond. A business meeting was held, at which three candidates were elected by ballot, Miss Woodhouse was appointed as Secretary of the Selborne Society's Plant Protection Scheme, and a contribution was voted for the excavations at Maumbury.

Corresponding

THE SECOND DAY, FRIDAY. At nine

o'clock the

members

started for the village

and

Augustinian Abbey of Lacock, and were received at the parish church of St. Cyriac by the Vicar, the Rev. W. H.

Ramsbottom. Mr. DORAN WEBB, in the course of his description of the church, said that it was practically rebuilt in the fifteenth century, when the transepts were added. The beautiful Lady Chapel, the latest of the structural work, had a fantracery ceiling and considerable remains of original colouring. canopied tomb in the chapel commemorated Sir William

A

Sharington,

who

died in 1566, the first lay owner of the Abbey after the Dissolution. A double

neighbouring hagioscope, one aperture giving a view of the high altar, the other of the side altar, was a somewhat unusual feature.

Among

the

Baynard

monuments was an

and

his

numerous

excellent brass of Robert

family,

dated

1500.

The

sacramental plate included a mediaeval silver chalice and cover, which Mr. Webb believed to be the ciborium from the

XXXViii.

MALMESBURY AND LACOCK.

conventual church, the only one

now

in use, as far as he

knew. the permission of Mr. C. H. Talbot the visitors then explored some portions of Lacock Abbey, a thirteenth century

By

House the

for Augustinian nuns, the foundress of

first

which was also

Abbess.

At the Dissolution the Abbey and

its

lands were sold to

down

who

the church and William Sharington, pulled a into conventual the transformed buildings private dwelling. Thus was preserved one of the most perfect survivals of the Sir

monastic period. Sharington, a Court favourite of Henry VIII., had a after his acquisition of Lacock he was chequered career ;

appointed in 1546 to be the head of the newly-constituted mint at Bristol, a position which he occupied until the second year of Edward VI., when he was dismissed in consequence

mint under his control. He escaped awarded to his fellow-conspirator, Thomas, the death penalty of Lord Seymour Sudeley, and was eventually pardoned, S then restored to him. His initials the estates being a it is him at and the coins struck Bristol, by appear on to be seen his same initials are curious fact that the upon tomb in St. Cyriac's Church and upon flooring tiles used by him when altering the interior of the Abbey. Although the conventual church is no longer in existence, the ancient cloisters are almost untouched, and are now The incorporated with the more recent Tudor mansion. underand or chapter house, sacristy, calefactory day room, of malpractices at the

W

croft, all

with vaulted roofs,

of the establishment.

tell of

the former magnificence

The dormitory and the

refectory also

remain, but have been divided internally. Mr. Doran Webb, having completed his architectural and historical narrative, led the way to Lacock village, where " he pointed out the blind house," the Abbey barn, the restored market cross, old-world spot.

and several delightful houses

in that

STURMINSTER NEWTON.

XXXIX.

FOURTH SUMMER MEETING. STURMINSTER NEWTON. Tuesday, 16th September.

About

sixty

members and

their

friends

accompanied

Mr. N. M. Richardson, the President, and the Club was once again indebted to Mr. E. Doran Webb for assistance during the day.

The place of assembly was Sturminster Railway Station, whence the party drove to the village of Hammoon, which derives the latter portion of its name from the Mohuns of Dunster other branches of this family were settled at Fleet and at Bothenhampton during the sixteenth century. On arriving at Hammoon the remnants of the mediaeval village cross, consisting of the broached socket stone and a section of the shaft, were first examined. Mr. W. Fisher Crouch said that he had found the fragments in April last in a ditch, and that they had since been placed on their Lord Port man had proposed to complete the original site. and so restore the cross. At the church the visitors shaft, were received by the VICAR, the Rev. G. H. WYNNE. The fabric of the building, although considerably altered from its ;

original

oldest

condition,

surviving

retains

part

is

points of interest. The thirteenth century chancel,

many the

the North, and there is a was regarded as a good East which window, three-light of the same Canon MANSEL-PLEYDELL example period. said that before the restoration there was a Norman arch between chancel and nave, but it had been removed

showing a

slight inclination to

"

The being very inconvenient." fifteenth century oak-ribbed roof of the nave was described by Mr. Doran Webb as almost perfect. Other noteworthy

by an incumbent

as

objects were the carved pulpit, bearing the date 1635, and an Elizabethan holder for an hour glass. There is also the

STURMINSTER NEWTON.

xl.

socket stone of what was probably the churchyard cross, converted into and used as a font.

now

The party then

visited the Manor House, by permission This Elizabethan dwelling, with a roof of thatch and an ornate Jacobean porch, has been said to be of Mr. Crouch.

"

the most picturesque of its kind," a description with which members were well content to agree.

the

IBBERTON.

A drive through Okeford Fitzpaine brought the Club to Ibberton, where they were met by the RECTOR, the Rev. L. S. PLOWMAN. The church, dedicated to St. Eustachius, stands high on the slope of the downs, and is reached by a flight of

47 steps.

The Rector,

in the course of his remarks,

said that the fifteenth century fabric was in a sorry state before its restoration in 1900, being partially roofless and used for marriages only. The windows contained several

Tudor days, among which were medallions displaying the royal Arms of Elizabeth with the dragon of Wales as one of the supporters, the Arms of Milton

pieces of stained glass of

Abbey, and other armorial fragments attributed to painterstainers of the sixteenth century. There is also to be seen a chained volume of Homilies, dated 1673. Below the church rises a spring known as Stachy's Well, a local corruption

name of the patron saint the waters now supply the town of Sturminster.

of the

;

of this spring

BELCHALWELL. This church was subsequently visited under the guidance Plowman. The late -Norman doorway is an admirable

of Mr.

and dog tooth ornamentation, and the four gargoyles on the tower are also worthy of notice. In the interior, the rood-loft doorway and staircase, the hagioscope, and the panelled arch under the tower are the more remarkable features. piece of work, with chevron

STURMINSTER NEWTON.

xli.

STURMINSTER NEWTON.

On

returning to Sturminster, Canon

MANSEL-PLEYDELL

and related the traditions concerning the Saxon stronghold, of which the only visible remnant was the deep fosse. The Gothic arches and other ruins of a building on the hill were of much later date. first

led the party to Castle Hill

Having inspected the ancient bridge over the Stour, the members drove to the Vicarage, where they were hospitably entertained by Canon and Mrs. Mansel-Pleydell. At a business meeting three candidates for election were nominated, after which an adjournment was made to the parish church, where a short organ recital was given. The VICAR then addressed the members on the history of the church, saying that it was built by John Selwood, Abbot of Glastonbury, in the fourteenth century.

Fox

down and

In 1827 Mr. Lane-

portions of the structure, excepting only the tower and the nave. As a memorial to William Barnes, the original oak-ribbed roof had been skilfully pulled

rebuilt

repaired and renewed, and a carved eagle-lectern provided as part of the same scheme. The Dorset poet was born

within the parish, was baptized in the church, and received Before the meeting

his early education at Sturminster school.

dispersed, the PRESIDENT expressed the thanks of the Club to their host and hostess, and to Mr. Doran Webb.

THE FIRST WINTER MEETING.

xlii.

WINTER The

SESSION,

1913-14.

Winter Meeting of the Field Club was held at the Dorchester on Tuesday, 9th December, 1913. The President took the chair at 12.30, and among those present were the Hon. Secretary and the Hon. Treasurer. first

Museum in

Captain Acland wrote to express his regret at being unable to attend the meeting. Four candidates for ballot,

membership were then elected by and the Rev. H. Pentin reported four additional

nominations.

Mr. ALFRED POPE read his report as the delegate of the Field Club at the meetings of the British Association in Birmingham, 10th-17th September, 1913 The meeting was very largely attended, the official list including some members and associates. Sir Oliver Lodge, D.Sc., LL.D., and F.R.S., Principal of Birmingham University, the President of the Association, delivered a learned and

2,800

" interesting address on Continuity." The Conference of delegates was well attended, no less than 120 affiliated and associated Societes being represented at their first

meeting. It was presided over by Dr. P. Chambers Mitchell, F.R.S., who gave an address on " Utility and Selection." This was full of technicalities and very careful study would be required to master its details. It was decided after considerable discussion to hold next year's Conference of Delegates at Havre, during the meeting in that town of the French Association for the Advancement of Science ; Australia, where the British Association holds its meeting next year being considered too far

distant for the Delegates to attend.

Various matters affecting affiliated societies were discussed at this meeting, but as none of them appear to be of interest to our Club I do not refer to them.

Of the sectional meetings I attended, perhaps the most interesting was the Agricultural Section, presided over by Professor J. B. Wood,

who in his very able opening address referred to the yielding capacity of cereals and how to combat the disease of Yellow Rust in wheat, and to the dietary of animals with a view to the production of the greatest weight of meat.

M.A.,

THE FIRST WINTER MEETING. Sir

xliii.

Richard A. Paget read a paper in which he put forward a sugges-

tion for a co-partnership in agriculture between landlord and tenant, on somewhat novel lines, and to which he is giving a practical trial on his

own estates in Somerset and Wilts, the result of which should be looked forward to with much interest. Other attractive papers were read in this section, and on the whole strong opinions were expressed that farming, under proper management, might in this country be made to pay a good percentage on the capital invested. On Saturday, Sept. 13th, excursions were made to various places of I had the honour of joining a party of some interest in the Midlands. 100 members who visited the Roman Baths at Wall, near Lichfield, the site of the Roman city of Letocetum, which had been excavated during the summer of 1912 by the North Staffordshire Field Club. The Photographs and Plan, which I secured on the site, and which I have brought for your inspection, give a good idea of the extent of these

most interesting excavations.

A report was read from Mr. E. who had been appointed

A.

FRY and Mr. NIGEL BOND,

delegates to attend the Congress of House on the 26th

Societies at Burlington

Archaeological June, 1913. A printed report of the proceedings had been Mr. Fry circulated among the members of the Field Club. " desired particularly to call attention to the Index of Archa3ological Papers," and he hoped that the Club would support

that most useful publication by purchasing copies. The Rev. A. C. ALMACK gave notice that at the February meeting he would bring forward a motion that the Field Club

should consider the possibility of compiling a record of archiand other losses suffered by the Churches in the county

tectural

and that a sub-committee should be appointed to take the matter into consideration. since 1840 or thereabouts,

Canon FLETCHER had promised to support the resolution. It was decided to make a contribution towards a memorial to the late Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace, which would take the form of a portrait for presentation to the Royal Society, and, if funds permitted, of other memorials. The PRESIDENT also proposed that the next volume of the Proceedings should include a memoir of Dr. Wallace, who had been an honorary, and in earlier years, an ordinary member of the Field Club.

THE FIRST WINTER MEETING.

xliv.

EXHIBITS.

By Mr. N. M. RICHARDSON, (1) iron filigree earrings believed to be reproductions in iron of jewellery which was given to the State by Prussian ladies during the Napoleonic an Elizabethan stoneware jug with contemporary pewter mountings which were very unusual in that metal, as silver was almost always employed. Also an iron an unmounted specimen of similar ware (3) cross 12 inches long recently found at Sandsfoot Castle, and which was believed to be a cross used to mark a This was lent for exhibition by the Corporation of grave. mouth. Wey By Mr. HENRY SYMONDS, (1) photographs of a Late Bronze Age sepulchral urn of an unusual type, recently found at Puncknowle. This type, which formed a transition between the food vessel and the cinerary urn, was not represented in the Dorchester Museum, and it had been possible to arrange that the specimen should be added to the Museum's collection. (2) a parchment deed written in Norman French and dated 1302 with the heraldic seal of the Daumarle (or Damarell) (3) a family, who were connected with the Courtneys

wars, 1813-15

;

(2)

;

;

"

"

Tower mint during and used at the ceremony of touching

in copper, struck at the

touchpiece the reign of Charles I., those afflicted with the King's evil. By Dr. H. COLLEY MARCH, two fragments of coal, from his own cellar, showing the bulb of percussion and conchoidal fracture

on one

exactly

similar

side

and the dorsal ridge on the other to the handiwork of the

in result

side, flint-

knapper. By Mr. ALFRED POPE, an Indian charm engraved upon a hard black stone and mounted in silver.

By Canon FLETCHER and

the Rev. H. PENTIN, various

chains and one volume to illustrate the paper by the

first-

named on Chained Books.

By

Mrs. T. A. PEARCE, (1) a fine axe of jade from (2) a pair of old Dutch engravings.

Zealand

;

New

THE FIRST WINTER MEETING.

xlv.

PAPERS.

The PRESIDENT read a paper by the Rev. 0. Pickard" Cambridge on The Relics left by Philip and Joan of Castile in 1506 and preserved in the writer's family," which is printed in this volume.

"

The Rev. CANON FLETCHER read a paper on Chained Books," to which Mr. PENTIN added some notes on the chained library at Milton Abbey Church this will also be ;

found in the following pages. The meeting concluded with the reading of a paper on " Sandsfoot and Portland Castles," by Mr. HENRY SYMONDS, also printed in the present volume.

THE SECOND WINTER MEETING.

xlvi.

SECOND WINTER MEETING. Tuesday, 3rd February, 1914.

The President took the chair at the County Museum, There was a large attendance of the members of the Field Club, including the Rev. H. Pentin, Canon ManselPleydell, and Lord Eustace Cecil, a past President. The first business was the election by ballot of four candidates for membership who had been proposed at the last meeting, and the HON. SECRETARY subsequently announced Dorchester.

six further nominations.

Owing

number of papers which were Executive had not invited any

to the unusually large

to be read

on

this occasion the

exhibits.

Dr. COLLEY

MARCH

called attention to the desirability of a

further investigation of the trench at Dewlish containing the

remains of Elephas Meridionalis, which had been explored by their first President, Mr. J. C. Mansel-Pleydell (cf. Proceedings vol. x., p. 1, and vol. xiv., p. 139), and by other Dorset men, since its discovery one hundred years ago. Dr. March had been informed that the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia

intended to turn their attention to this notable trench, and he thought that a Dorset treasure of such importance should be explored under the auspices of the Field Club. A discussion of the subject followed, in the course of which Captain ACLAND

proposed and Canon MANSEL-PLEYDELL seconded a resolution in these terms

:

"That the Chairman (Dr. H. Colley Marsh, F.S.A.) and the Hon Secretary (Mr. Chas. S. Prideaux) of the Earthworks Committee be authorised to obtain the aid of any experts or enthusiasts, whether they belong to this club or not, in order to carry out, with the kind permission of the landowner and tenant, a thorough scientific exploration of the Dewlish elephant trench, and to gather the requisite financial means for that purpose."

This was approved nem. con.

THE SECOND WINTER MEETING.

xlvii.

In accordance with notice previously given, the Rev. A. C. a resolution dealing with church restorations,

ALMACK moved

which ran as follows "

:

That the Dorset Field Club take into consideration the

possibility

of compiling a record of all the important architectural and other features which have been lost by churches in the county owing to

reconstruction or alteration since 1840 or thereabouts, and that a sectional committee be appointed to take such matters into consideration and to report at an early date."

In the absence of Canon Fletcher, the motion was seconded

by Canon MANSEL-PLEYDELL, who remarked that

his duties

as rural dean brought under his notice a lamentable amount of demolition of ancient features under the guise of church restoration. Considerable discussion ensued, the HON. SECRE-

TARY being of opinion that the work should be done through the rural deans, but eventually the proposal was adopted. The HON. SECRETARY then reported the receipt of printed matter inviting support of the Society for Promoting Nature Reserves in this country. Sir DANIEL MORRIS briefly explain-

ed the object of the founders of the society, which was to acquire land in desirable localities and to preserve it carefully as a refuge for plants, animals, and birds. i

PAPERS.

The PRESIDENT described a testamentary inventory

of the

contents of a yeoman's house at Woodcotte, in the parish of Mr. Richardson also produced Handley, in the year 1627. the original parchment roll, measuring 45 inches in length, and commented on many obsolete words which occurred in the

goods and chattels. Mr. E. A. RAWLENCE read a paper on the Folklore and Superstitions which still survived in North Dorset. list of

Mr.

AUBREY EDWARDS

read a paper on the night-soaring of

the Swifts.

Mr.

W. DE

his series of

a

number

"

PRIDEAUX contributed a further instalment of Dorset Brasses," and illustrated his address with

C.

of fine rubbings.

xlviii.

THE SECOND WINTER MEETING.

Captain J. E. ACLAND described the hand-made button industry which was carried on in the eastern part of the county during the eighteenth century and later. This home industry

had been happily revived during recent years. The Rev. O. PICKARD -CAMBRIDGE had written a paper on " New and rare Arachnida noted in 1913," which was read on

by the President. The Rev. E. F. LINTON, of Edmondsham, contributed the Sir DANIEL first part of a paper on the Fungi of East Dorset.

his behalf

MORRIS, as a brother botanist, thanked Mr. Linton for his researches and said that he

had promised a botanical paper which would meet at

to the Congress of Scientific Societies Bournemouth in June next.

The foregoing papers

W.

will

be printed in the present volume. "

had prepared an article on The commercial daybook (1713-18) of John Richards, of Warmwell," but it was postponed to the next indoor meeting, as the writer was absent in Germany. Mr.

Neville Sturt

THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING.

xlix.

ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING. Tuesday, 12th May, 1914. This meeting was held at the Dorset County Museum, the M. Richardson, being in the chair. Among those present were the Rev. Herbert Pentin, Canon

President, Mr. Nelson

Captain Elwes, Mr. Alfred Pope, F.S.A., Six candidates who had

Mansel-Pleydell,

and Captain

J. E. Acland, F.S.A.

been proposed for membership on 3rd February were duly elected by ballot, and the Hon. Secretary read the nominations of four additional candidates.

The PRESIDENT then delivered tenth since

his first

his anniversary address, the

election to the chair.

be found in the pages

The address

will

following this report.

Captain ACLAND proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Richardson for his masterly

summary

of scientific research during the

preceding year, and said that these addresses would in the future be regarded as important mile -stones marking the advance of knowledge. Colonel

MAIN WARING seconded

the resolution.

Mr. ALFRED POPE, in supporting the vote of thanks, paid a tribute to the versatility of the President's attainments. Mr. Pope added that the valla of Maiden Castle, which had much from rabbits, had been repaired and re turfed

suffered so

direction of the Inspector of Ancient Monuments, and were then in excellent condition.

by

Captain

ELWES

which was and the PRESIDENT expressed his

also supported the resolution,

carried with acclamation,

thanks.

The HON. SECRETARY read his report for the year 1913, which was as follows :

There is little to report this year. The membership of the Club has reached the maximum number 400. The Summer meetings in 1913 were well attended and there is a balance in hand of 6 7s. 5d. on my

THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING.

1.

Is. 6d. per diem for incidental expen this summer. The winter meetings be maintained during expenses were unusually well attended, the meeting in February being one of the largest for many years. My accounts for the summer meetings lie on the table together with the vouchers pertaining thereto. HERBERT

account, so that the reduced levy of will

PENTIN, Hon. Seen

Mr. Pen tin's statement of account

is

printed on a subsequent

page.

The HON. TREASURER, Canon Mansel-Pleydell, then presented an audited account of the receipts and expenditure during 1913, and explained that the re -arrangement of the Field Club's year had caused temporary anxieties owing to the fact that the cost of two volumes of Proceedings, instead of He expressed the one, had to be paid out of current revenue. opinion that the Club ought to have a room in which their books, reserve volumes, and documents could be kept. The accounts were adopted, the Treasurer being thanked for his services and congratulated on the success which had attended his control of the finances through a difficult period. The statement of accounts will be found on a later page.

A report by the HON. EDITOR was next read. Mr. Symonds furnished a list of the papers, &c., which would be included volume of Proceedings for 1914, and stated that the Field Club were indebted to Canon J. M. J. Fletcher

in the forthcoming

and

to

the

Maumbury Excavation Committee

for

having

kindly provided the respective blocks and plates which would illustrate the article on Chained Books and the report on the

work at Maumbury. A report by Mr.

C. J. Cornish-Browne, director of the photographic survey, was read by the HON. SECRETARY. The only contribution to the collection had been fifty prints from

the director himself,

leaving

the

who

did not desire re-election as he was

neighbourhood

shortly.

Mr.

Cornish-Browne

was thanked for his valuable assistance in making the survey, and the hope was expressed that he would still be able to add some prints from time to time. Dr. E. K. Le Fleming was appointed director, subject to his consent to serve.

THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING. Captain

ACLAND read

11.

the following notes dealing with the Museum under his care

chief additions, during 1913, to the

:

It is with much pleasure that I avail myself of this opportunity of describing to the members of the Field Club some of the principal recent acquisitions by the County Museum.

There have been several interesting additions to the prehistoric and perhaps the most remarkable is a cinerary urn, found at Puncknoll in the year 1908. A photograph of this urn was shewn at a recent meeting of the Field Club by Mr. Henry Symonds, through whose kind efforts, in connection with Mr. W. G. Cornick of Bridport, it has now come to the Museum. The British Museum does not possess a specimen of this type, nor is one shewn in Mr. John Abercromby's great work on Bronze Age pottery, which contains over 1,600 illustraIt was found under the foundation of an old building apparently tions. " a Watch-tower," which had been erected on a mound, possibly a barrow. The urn was said to be protected by 4 stones standing on edge and another placed upon the top. A second valuable acquisition of the same class, from Mr. Pike, of King Barrow, Wareham, is a fine cinerary urn discovered in a cist cut in the chalk under a barrow at East Down House, about 2 miles S.E. of Winterbourne Clenston, and 3 miles from Blandford. It is equal in size to the largest urn in the Museum, 22 inches high, 17 inches " " diam. at the top. It is of the well known Dorset flowerpot shape, and is practically identical with one we already have from the same we could almost imagine in fact that they had been made locality at the same time, and by the same hand. This collection has also been increased by a gift from Mrs. Hall, of Osmington, of 3 small urns, or " food vessels," in good contition, part (probably) of Mr. C. L. Hall's She sent at the same time 8 Roman black ware original collection. vessels 2 broken Roman fluted cups, and other fragments. Some of these are dated 1839 and 1840. Among other relics of the Roman period, we have acquired a good flue tile and a portion of an Antefix, from Miss Oliver, of Preston ; a loom weight, 7 Ibs., found in Dorchester, and formerly in my own and several objects of Kimmeridge shale from the clay pits possession near Wareham, given by Mr. Pike. He states that a very large number of much the same shape and workmanship are found together, such as roughly cut rings, and disks, which leads him to think they were brought there and used for some purpose connected with the pottery works. They are not turned on a lathe like the waste cores of armlets, but roughly chipped with a chisel. More than 100 Roman bronze coins have been given by Mrs. W. Mansel, from Puncknoll. They were found in that parish, and it collections,

;

;

;

THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING.

Hi.

" " appears most probable that they are the so called hoard mentioned by Hutchins, Vol. II., p. 769 they have been examined by Mr. Henry " " 3rd Brass pieces of the two Symonds, who informs me that 95 are emperors Victorinus, who died 267 A.D., and Postumus, d. 268 A.D. ;

;

they certainly have a most remarkable similarity in condition and appearance. Mr. T. H. R. Winwood has given us a very small but prettily worked also a small flint rubber, or mulling flint scraper, less than 1 inch long ;

We have purchased a

"

Neolithic grinding stone," so named by it has two well shaped hollows the authorities at the British Museum stone.

;

for holding with the

thumb and

finger.

It

was found near Lulworth.

principal objects of interest found during the excavation at Maumbury in 1913 are now in the Museum they do not throw any fresh light

The

;

on the history of the site. The Rev. H. Pentin has very kindly sent us two encaustic tiles from Milton Abbey, one of them shewing (as he informs me) the coat of arms and from Cerne Abbey, we have also some very of the family of Clare he also sent 3 " Friendly Society Staves," one interesting specimens bearing the name J. Butt. Occasionally such staves have fine ornamental brass tops, and if any member of the Field Club could assist us to obtain some for the County Museum they would make a valuable " addition to our collection of By-gones," which has received recently an example of shoes worn by oxen when ploughing, and other trifles. As a loan from Colonel Pinney we have a handsome shako worn by the Dorset Yeomanry about the year 1838, and from Captain Daniell, R.N., specimens of iron round shot, in halves, found near Netherbury. The Library has been enriched by a considerable number of books, dealing with a variety of subjects, of which I will only mention two of ;

;

"

Do 'set

volk." The Bishop of Durham gives a Memorials of a Vicarage," being recollections of his early years in Fordington, 1829 onwards, a truly excellent example of what home life should be. The other comes from Miss " Coombes, viz., Unpublished Poems," by Rev. W. Barnes, published " " in 1870, at the School, Winterborne Monkton also Song of Solomon rendered in the Dorset dialect, dated 1859 on the title page is written in M.S.," Privately printed by Prince Lucien Bonaparte, only 250 copies struck off." He visited Dorchester in 1859 to meet our Dorset poet, being an eager student of local dialects, and it was at his suggestion that Mr. Barnes undertook this somewhat remarkable paraphrase. " Leader Scott's " life of her father (p. 183) it is stated that the In Prince was a good linguist, and devoted many years to a comparative " study of local dialects. The subject he chose for comparison was The " of which he of had scores different translated into Solomon, Song special interest to us

charming

little

"

publication

;

;

dialects.

THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING.

liii.

The PEESIDENT said that they were much indebted to Captain Acland for his interesting notes and for his help to the Field Club on many .occasions. Mr. ALFRED POPE remarked that he would like to see the two organisations, the Club and the Museum, draw still closer together, just as the Somerset Archaeological Society and the Museum at Taunton formed one body. Mr. C.

S. PRIDEAUX, as secretary Sectional Committee, reported that

of

the Earthworks

Since the last annual meeting of the club your committee has met It was decided to deal with single parishes in succession by each

twice.

two members

committee of ten, in order if possible to survey five The Field Club has supplied the necessary Gin. Ordnance maps, which are therefore the property of the club, and will be sent to the secretary when the survey is completed. We are glad to report that a considerable amount of useful work has been done. But of the

parishes each year.

at the present rate of progress it will be 50 years at least before the whole county will be finished. We therefore want more help, and shall be glad of volunteers. It has been decided to discontinue the excavations at Maumbury Rings at present but the Dewlish Elephant Trench ;

be further explored in June, a special search being made for possible traces of early man and, judging from the large amount of correspondence received, we hope to see many visitors at Dewlish. The committee trust that members of this club will not only use their will

personal influence in preventing the destruction of earthworks, &c.,

but also report

all

such cases.

The corresponding secretary

of the

Numismatic Sectional

Committee, Mr. HENRY SYMONDS, mentioned that the one find brought under his notice had occurred in the summer of 1913 at an excavation near the southern end of South Street, Dorchester, where a few third-brass coins of the Constantinian period came to light. The County Museum had received the undistributed portion of the Roman coins found at Puncknoll about 1850, which had been already referred to in the Curator's notes (supra). The PRESIDENT announced that the Cecil for the years 1913-14 of

medal and prize to Mr. George Nicolson, " for his essay on The

had been awarded

Stavordale Road,

Weymouth,

THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING.

Hv.

utilization of natural forces for the economical production of electricity for lighting, heating,

and domestic purposes, having

special reference to Dorset and the neighbouring counties." Captain ELWES, as one of the trustees, presented the medal and

prize to Mr. Nicolson, and stated in the course of his speech that they would in future be offered biennially instead of

annually, the Cecil medal and the Mansel-Pleydell medal being awarded in alternate years. The respective prizes would be increased from 5 to 10 each. (The Mansel-Pleydell

medal was not awarded this year.) Mr. C. S. Prideaux exhibited a framed enlargement of a photograph of Maiden Castle, by Mr. W. Pouncy. On the motion of Mr. RICHARD BARROW it was resolved to buy the picture and present it to the Museum as a token of the Field Club's appreciation of the kindness always shown to them.

ELECTION OF OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES. Mr. Nelson M. Richardson was re-elected as President, on the proposition of Captain ELWES, which was seconded by

Canon FLETCHER. The PRESIDENT nominated the Vice-Presidents of the previous year, and they were re-elected. The Rev. Herbert Pentin was re-elected as honorary he named Mr. H. Pouncy as assistant secretary. secretary Canon J. C. M. Mansel-Pleydell was re-elected as honorary ;

treasurer.

need

of

In accepting the office he again mentioned the increased accommodation for the Club's library,

whereupon Mr. Pope offered to give a large bookcase, which was gratefully accepted by his fellow members. Mr. Henry Symonds was re-elected as honorary editor. The respective committees dealing with the Photographic Survey, Earthworks, and Numismatics were then appointed a list of the names will be found on another page. A sectional committee, proposed by the Rev. A. C. Almack, ;

for obtaining information as to objects of interest lost during

church restorations, was also set on foot.

THE ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING.

lv.

Mr. Alfred Pope undertook to represent the Field Club at the meetings of the corresponding societies of the British Association. Messrs. E. A. Fry and Nigel Bond were re-appointed as delegates at the congress of Archaeological Societies in union with the Society of Antiquaries of London. Lastly, the members voted as to the places where meetings

should be held during the ensuing summer.

upon Dewlish, Edington Chris tchurch.

(Wilts),

Lyme

The choice

fell

Regis (two days), and

Ivi.

BBIH

(MOOilNrH

Ivii.

of

tlje

MOORE RICHARDSON,

By NELSON

(Read

May

Esq.,

B.A.

12th, 1914.)

OBITUARY.

who have been taken from

us during the I twelve months to past regret say that I have again a long list to record, including

|F those

few Original Members of the Club to us, Rev. Canon Ravenhill and Mr. George Galpin, both of whom were frequently at our meetings and will be greatly missed by those who have known

two

of the

who remained

for many years. When Canon Ravenhill was Vicar of Buckland Newton, as he was for 47 years, nothing delighted him more than to get the Field Club to visit his district under his guidance and partake of his hospitality, so that

them

the older

Members

are indebted to

him

of Central Dorset.

for

much

of their

Several papers by personal knowledge him, chiefly on family history, will be found in our ProceedHis kindness of heart was well known, and may be ings.

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

lix.

by a small incident which comes to my mind. In his latter years, when he was rather infirm, he was our host at a Central Dorset Meeting, and a lady complained much of the steepness of a hill up which we were all walking.

illustrated

Canon Ravenhill immediately, though apparently much the the two, offered her his arm and escorted her

less active of

to the top, doubtless with considerable exertion. his last years

During

he was rarely absent from our Mr. Galpin always took a great interest

in Dorchester

indoor meetings. in the Club, especially in the Natural History side of it, and has aided it in other ways, though he contributed no papers. He was one of those intelligent and appreciative Members

who

are always welcome.

Mr. E.

Another old Member whose

loss

W. Young,

Editor of the Dorset County Chronicle, who joined us in 1893, and to whom we are indebted for much kind and patient work in connection with our I regret

is

Proceedings, in addition to the Index to the Volumes which he compiled for many years and the help he afforded in its early days to the Photographic Survey. Probably who has not edited our Proceedings is aware of the of

work and often worry, not

no one

amount

to mention correspondence,

entailed, of course, chiefly on the Honorary Editor, but also in a minor degree on those who are responsible for the printing and publishing of the Volume. During the nine years that

I edited the

Volume,

I

always found Mr. Young most ready

to help in any difficulty, and I feel that our thanks are partly due to him for the fine series of Proceedings that we have

upon our

Member

shelves. in

1903,

Mr. Frederick J. Barnes, who became a in Natural History and

was interested

Geology, and has contributed papers to our Proceedings. use of his position as a quarry owner at Portland

He also made

to preserve anything that he met with of rarity or interest, and many valuable specimens have been thereby saved which would otherwise probably have been neglected or I regard this as one of the objects for which our Club exists. Mr. Jem Feacey, who joined the Club in

destroyed.

1905, will be specially

remembered amongst us as the winner

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ix.

the

of

Mansel-Pleydell

architectural essay.

He

Medal in 1908 for an excellent has on more than one occasion

given valuable professional help gratuitously in connection with the Field Club and Museum. Mr. Henry Duke joined at the

same time, and those who were present at the Lulworth

Castle Meeting in 1906 will remember how much the Club was indebted to him on that occasion for his help and informaI regret also to have to record the loss of Captain tion.

Edward W. Williams, who was elected in 1892, and of a more recent Member, Rev. P. B. Wingate, elected in 1910. Of our Honorary Members, a most distinguished man, who was for some years after he

Alfred Russel Wallace,

came to live in Dorset an Ordinary Member of our Club, and was elected an Honorary Member in 1909, has passed from amongst us. His life and work have been so fully set forth in so many scientific and other publications, and also in a short memoir by our Vice -President, Mr. E. R. Sykes, which will be printed in the same Volume of Proceedings as do not propose to enter into it here. add that we mourn his loss in common with only scientists all over the world, and feel that our Club has been

this Address, that I I

will

honoured by

his connection

with

it.

ZOOLOGY. In spite of the considerable agitation which has taken place

with regard to the spreading of disease by flies, I believe that there is still little, if any, definite evidence that this is the case in this country, though doubtless germs have been found on the feet and bodies of flies. I refer to the mechanical

spreading caused by the germs becoming attached to the flies through their resting on them, and being conveyed to another person in this way. In regard to the other method in which the germ lives inside the fly, and the patient is

infected

by the

this country

not

is

as in malaria, the evidence as regards extremely small, and infection in this way is

fly's bite

much more than

suspected.

I think that a little

more

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixi.

certainty should be arrived at before we commence the violent crusades against flies which have been advocated. I am not now speaking of other countries which may be less

Our ignorance is well exemplified by the fact not yet known whether the common housefly hibernates in the perfect state or not. And may I here allude to the fact that the common housefly cannot bite, and that fortunate.

that

it

is

only comparatively few flies that have a biting or rather But piercing apparatus, or ever use it on human beings ? it is

an interesting association of non -biting flies with biting ones has been lately noted in India. The former attend on the latter and benefit by sucking up blood which the biting flies have drawn from the animal after or even before the latter have finished their meal. I am not aware that this has been observed in England. Again, if flies were responsible to

any appreciable extent disease germs, free

from

all

how

mechanical conveyance of

for the

could cows and other animals ever be

the available diseases, considering the swarms always on them, piercing their skin and devoting

of flies that are

special attention to

any raw

part.

that such infection never occurs

must be most exceptional.

;

I cannot say, of course, but it seems to me that

The conveyance

of germs, those of seems still to be a tuberculosis in milk, especially matter of some uncertainty, and as raw milk is stated to be

it

undoubtedly better for the general health and strength of babies than sterilised milk it has been lately urged in authoritative quarters that it should be used, the risk of if any, The being at all events very small. doubtless kills milk well as as the the sterilising germs. In the same way, in experiments on the subject of spontaneous

infection,

generation of life, the substances experimented with have first to be sterilised to kill all germs, and if such a thing as spontaneous generation does exist, of which I believe there is

absolutely

no

reliable

evidence,

the

sterilising

would

probably destroy any latent tendencies existing in the substance dealt with, and prevent its manifestation. The causes of the abundance or scarcity of

any

species of insect

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixii.

in different seasons are generally very obscure, which gives importance to observations in the Lake district proving that the numbers of a sawfly destructive to larch were immensely

reduced on two occasions by sudden increases in three parasites hitherto almost or quite unknown. This supports the method, sometimes successfully carried out, of introducing suitable parasites to a district subjected to any pests.

The most

Sudan mixed with treacle on the herbage, which would, however, one would think, be most dangerous to animals. One of the most cleverly worked out histories of the habits of insects is that on the courtship is

effective device for destroying locusts in the

said to be the sprinkling of poison

These flies, lately published by Mr. Hamm. are which there numerous a have flies, species, long proboscis with which they transfix other insects and suck their juices. When a male approaches a female he brings with him an In one it is an offering, which varies in different groups. of the

Empid

of

which

is received by the female, which sucks it during In another pairing. group a stamen or other fragment of a flower or insect is offered, with which the female merely plays. In another the male spins a cocoon round some small body,

insect,

which cocoon

is accepted by the female. There are many other details of these unique proceedings, into which space will not permit me to enter here. A great deal has been and written on bird spoken lately protection, and some

have made laws affecting the welfare not only of their own birds, but of those of other countries, by prohibiting the importation of the skins of plumage birds, countries, as the U.S.A.,

and

I believe that England is likely to follow their example. In the case of species that are recklessly destroyed or threatened with extermination, I think such drastic measures

are justified and desirable if, as seems probable, it is difficult or impossible to enforce protective laws in the countries where the birds live. As far as I know, most of these fine

plumaged birds are harmless, and some of them perhaps useful to man. But if ladies are chiefly responsible for the of these beautiful birds, men on the other hand slaughter

Ixiii.

have, for a still more transitory amusement, brought to the verge of extinction many interesting animals, and to preserve these for the world there would seem to be no resource except in the countries inhabited

by the animals,

which have been in some cases instituted.

In both cases

strict

game laws

they are killing the goose that lays the golden eggs, for whether by laws or extermination the future enjoyment of these things will be limited. To turn to the brighter side, I have to record a bird new to our fauna (Phylloscopus fuscalus], the

fortunately does not sound very a attractive for hats specimen of which was captured in Its usual habitat is the Eastern parts of Asia. the Orkneys. The placing of numbered rings on birds' legs has produced

Dusky Warbler, which

two remarkable results, a swallow ringed in Ayrshire in July, 1912, having been captured in Orange River Colony on March 16th, 1913, and another ringed in Staffordshire having been taken in Natal in December. What can be the object of this immense journey Records of this sort are accumulatand add our to ing greatly knowledge of migration, which was very speculative. To pass on to the mammalia it was !

years ago by a high authority that the black on a certain spit of sand in Orissa never drank living water. A nearly similar case has now been pointed out in regard to a herd of gazelles living on a small island in Somaliland, where the annual rainfall is less than 3in. and pools of water are only to be found for a few days, even after stated

many

buck

Doubtless this is made up for by succulent The United States Government has provided a

a heavy shower. plants.

further

tract of 15,000 acres for the encouragement of which are increasing, and now number about 3000, a mere nothing compared to the former countless herds, but far better than the complete extinction which would have ensued had they not been preserved. More than 50 bird reservations have been established of late years in the United States, including the well-known pelican rookery in Florida. A recent interesting method of observing wild animals is by bison,

putting

down

attractive baits in the neighbourhood of self-

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixiv.

acting cameras, which are at intervals illuminated by flashThe animals after a time are stated to take but little light. notice of the light, which it is suggested that they may regard as a form of lightning. It would be most exciting if these photographs were to reveal one of the unknown large animals

which there is reason to believe still exist in the interior of Africa. Of four at least there are more or less graphic descripbut tions from eye-witnesses, both European and native more than a passing sight has hitherto been wanting. The ;

9th Zoological Congress was held in March, 1913, at Monaco, where the Prince has founded an Oceanographical Museum for all matters connected with the ocean. Amongst other collections there is one of well-preserved deep-sea fishes, with,

in

each case, the original painting of the

immediately after capture.

A new

species of

fish

made

deep sea fish

was described which was obtained from a depth of 6,035 metres a greater depth than any at which a fish had been It will interest the members of the previously recorded. Dorset Field Club to know that one of their body, Lord

A Walsingham, represented Great Britain at the Congress. in Dublin been the has Zoological living young gorilla Gardens since January. This species is a rarity in British Zoological Gardens, and it is believed that there is at present only one on the Continent, namely at Stuttgart, where it has lived for several years.

BOTANY AND AGRICULTURE. The Botanical Section

of the British Association

was

last

year presided over by a lady, who gave a learned address on the subject of botanical embryology, to which I must refer those

who wish

to investigate the subject.

Amongst the

papers read in this Section, the one that seems most suitable for mention here is on the subject of Suceda fruticosa (shrubby sea

blite)

which the author considers the most

shrub with narrow fleshy leaves,

is

effective

This plant, a small common on the Chesil

stabiliser of all British shingle plants.

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixv.

Beach, but does not grow upon the seaside, but on the shore of the Fleet backwater and on the Weymouth side of the parts of the beach between the Ferry Bridge and Portland, so that it has not here the opportunity of doing much towards stabilising or preventing

movement

of the shingle.

I

should

myself have thought that, of the Chesil Beach plants, Atriplex portulacoides, growing as it does in large flat masses, would have had more effect than Suceda, but I am not acquainted

The

with this plant elsewhere.

sterilising of soil is

now carried

on by many plant growers, and enables the same

soil

to be

used over again for potting or otherwise, after being either heated or treated with an antiseptic. It is also said to greatly

Those organisms increase the productiveness of the soil. which are harmful to the beneficial ammonia-producing bacilli are

wholly or partially

killed, whilst

the

bacilli,

which

presume are mostly killed too, seem to return and thrive all the more until their enemies again increase, which takes a

I

much

Experiments on the growth of the hop longer period. shew that this is greatest from 3.0 p.m. to 9.0 p.m. and least from 9.0 p.m. to 3.0 a.m., the converse having been believed

by the Kent growers. Attention is called to the action of seed-eating birds as weed dispersers, through so many seeds passing through them uninjured. I can confirm this in my own garden, specially as regards the bramble, seedlings of

to be the case

which appear yearly in great numbers under trees in which birds are much in the habit of sitting or roosting. Other weeds away from their parent plants are doubtless frequently due to this cause where the seeds have no special arrangement dandelions for being carried by wind. Steps are being taken to extend the growth of flax, for which this country is suitable and which is much more valuable than some years British tobacco on the other hand does not seem to ago. like

find

much

favour,

its

quality at one large show being exin the remark that it was very

pressively demonstrated suitable for fumigation

Probably, however, it would be very dependent on our variable seasons. A National Botanic Garden has been established at Cape Town, and a very suitable !

Ixvl.

site it is

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

obtained with a considerable variety of ground, so that hoped that most of the South African plants can be

The identification of different kinds successfully cultivated. of wood is an exceedingly difficult matter, except in a few which fact I am led to allude to by the publication of a book on the Cabinet Timbers of Australia, which are said to be, as I have before understood, very beautiful and varied. More than 60 species are illustrated by colour photography, it is stated with great success. The recent issue of a book on Herbals, which ought to commend itself to both sides of our Club, causes me to remind you of a book much more closely connected with us, written by the Hon. Mrs. Evelyn " A History of Gardening in England," which contains Cecil, an immense amount of reliable and pleasantly-written information about these entertaining old books, as well as much else besides. We shall always remember her kindness and botanical lore on the occasion of our visit to Lytchett Heath cases,

in 1907.

GEOLOGY.

The last suggestion for calculating the age of the earth is the measurement of the amount of meteoric dust contained in the rocks, basing this

on the amount

of nickel.

It is

calculated that the earth gains 20,000 grams (about 451bs.) of cosmically derived nickel per square kilometre per annum,

which sounds an improbably large amount, as it means something like 1 grain per annum on each 3 square yards, but the actual calculation of the earth's age requires more data than are at present available. The calculation based on the increase in the proportion of lead to uranium in rocks as time goes on, the uranium changing slowly into lead, gives a very early date for the earliest sedimentary rocks of 1,300,000,000 years ago, about 4 times as much as some other methods.

The observation relied

of earthquakes, if the deductions may be upon, tends to throw light upon the constitution of the

earth's interior.

Earthquake waves from

travelling in a direct line to

different distances

any observatory

necessarily

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixvii.

reach different depths below the surface, and notes on the quality and rates of motion of such waves would seem to

show that a change

in the nature of the earth's crust occurs

at a depth of about 10 miles, with some indications of further changes at about 50 and 100 miles. But a still more definite

change is noted at a depth of about 2,400 miles or rather more than half way to the centre, which suggests a greater fluidity At present we have no of the substance below that point. means of confirming this, and can only await further discoveries. It is known to at least some of our members that an

attempt has been made for a number of years to ascertain whether any movement was still going on between the two sides of the great Ridge way fault, but practically none has been detected. It is known that such movements are sometimes caused by earthquakes, and have amounted to as much as 4 yards or so in a single earthquake. I am speaking,

however, of such violent earthquakes as this country happily does not experience, such as the Calif ornian earthquake of 1906. last,

A severe earthquake occurred in Peru on Nov. 7 and there have been several in Panama, but the canal

has fortunately escaped injury. A dreadful eruption took place last January in the volcanic island of Sakurajami, 3743 high, with 3 apparently extinct craters. Beginning with loud rumblings and earthquake shocks and columns of steam and dust, 3 fissures opened, and a violent eruption took feet

accompanied by earthquakes, a seismic wave, volcanic and the blowing out of the side of the volcano. Immense damage was done, with much loss of life. This volcano had been at rest for 134 years, and tradition place,

dust, streams of lava,

says that that eruption in 1779 was the first of importance since the formation of the volcano in A.D. 796. I should here

mention the fact (though

it might more properly belong to the that the crater of Vesuvius has been Engineering section) and descended, kinematographs taken showing the small erup-

tions in progress. Hot springs and evidences of recent volcanic action have been discovered in Spitzbergen. The travertine b'asins

formed round the springs contain a species

of

Chara

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixviii.

and a moss and 12

species of

algae

new

to the Arctic flora.

Strata shewing the probable existence of a large post-glacial lake, about a square mile in extent, have been found at the mouth of the Tyne, in Northumberland, at an altitude of

about 100

feet.

These strata contain plant remains.

coveries of petroleum of good quality have been

Dis-

made

in

Northern Argentina, which is important considering the great development in the use of this substance, which, one would think, was in danger of becoming exhausted whilst vast supplies of coal still remained. To turn to fossils, a portion of a wing of a giant dragon fly has been found in the Radstock coal measures, of such a size that the

must have had a span of something like may, without an undue stretching of the imagination, be presumed that there were other insects of unusual size on which it preyed, if its habits were as rapacious perfect insect 16 inches. It

A

as those of the dragonflies of the present day. remarkable find has been made of the teeth of an antelope closely allied to the elands of S. Africa, in a Pleistocene cave-deposit in

Maryland, U.S.A.

As

certain fossil teeth from India were

also believed to be of this class of animal, it is suggested that

may have found its way to America in past times by the The Address of the President of the Behring Sea route. Geological Section of the British Association gave a survey

it

of those fossil calcareous algae, which,

by abstracting lime an

from sea water and depositing it, have played such important part in the formation of calcareous rocks.

ASTRONOMY. The extreme delicacy the

observation

of

much Astronomical work, the

involving

exposure of photographic plates, and many other methods, the accuracy of which would be affected by the slightest movement or vibration as well as by a variable density of the neighbouring of

faint

stars,

long

is causing the removal of some of the great observatories from the precincts of towns to quieter spots.

atmosphere,

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixix.

and Hamburg observatories have already taken this and Paris is meditating a move. Greenwich, so far, has put up with these troubles, and it is to be hoped that such a serious uprooting may be avoided. To show the 30 years ago difference between the present time and 20 it may be mentioned that a hundredth of a second of arc can now be determined more accurately than a tenth of a second Berlin

step,

at the earlier period. These remarks are also borne out by the length of exposure, 38 hours 7 minutes, required in connection with researches on the spectra of spiral nebulae

carried on lately at the

Mount Wilson Observatory.

These

nebulae are found for the most part to exhibit the spectra of solar-type stars, but a small number give evidence of gaseous radiation. It is believed from certain observations that

some nebulae are variable is

one of

much

delicacy,

in their brightness

and the fact

is

;

but the matter

not yet fully estab-

last theory as to the cause of variability in some that they are Ellipsoids, uniformly luminous and rotating. When the broad side is presented to us the light would necessarily be much greater than when the narrower

lished.

stars

The

is

end was pointing in our direction.

This theory apparently accounts satisfactorily for the light changes observed and if an Ellipsoid of such a shape is sufficiently stable under such circumstances, it seems a more simple explanation than that of a light and dark body rotating round each other. In some ;

variables, however, such as Algol, where the light becomes suddenly more feeble for a short time at regular intervals, we must fall back on a dark companion or large planet for It has been discovered by the comparison of taken at different times that the bright and photographs beautifully-coloured star Capella has a faint companion moving in connection with it at the great distance of

explanation.

12' 3.3".

12 months.

Several meteors have been recorded in the past Two large ones on June 14, one said to be larger

than the moon, in the S. of Ireland, which travelled at least 490 miles, the other on the Eastern English Coast. One was observed from Bristol on Oct.

7.

Another from Oxford with

Ixx. tail on Nov. 24. Another on Jan. 19 last from at 7.0 and other p.m., brighter than the full places Reading moon, which burst with a loud report and much vibration. One was actually observed to fall in Zululand on Aug. 1, 1912. It weighed 381bs., and consisted almost entirely of nickeliron alloy. But the most extraordinary recent meteoric display was in America and Canada on Feb. 9, 1913, when

a coloured

three distinct groups of several meteors each passed over at intervals, following each other along the same path, each

remaining in view for about 20 seconds, and in some cases The complete display lasted finishing up with an explosion. about three minutes, and there were about 30 bodies altogether, set

which came

in sets of threes

moving abreast of each other.

and

By

fours, those in each

the time this wonderful

procession had reached Bermuda most of the large leading bodies had disappeared, whilst the number of groups and increased. It would be a painful thing to have idea of wonderful canals on Mars of which the the up have heard so much, and to which has been ascribed such

trailers

had

to give

we

extraordinary significance but everything has its day, and it is now suggested that recent observations tend to resolve ;

them

into disconnected knots of diffused shadings.

How

accepted by astronomers I do not know, but it is accompanied by a statement that Mars is almost always in a far this

is

frozen condition, and

is

therefore probably not inhabited at

But it seems to me that, considering the great variety of man and animals found on even this our earth, it is by no means fair to assume that Mars cannot contain intelligent or other beings on account of the fact that its temperature

all.

approaches that of our Arctic regions, for even there life is by no means absent, as the Esquimaux manage to survive,

But exist a far more hardy race. whether we shall ever be able to do more than theorise is doubtful. Coming now to our earth and its satellite, it has been calculated that the brightness of the earth's albedo or earthshine is about 1-1 600th of that of the rest of the moon. and on Mars there may

Attempts which have lately been made to photograph the

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixxi.

moon through coloured screens have shown the presence of a remarkable deposit round the crater of Aristarchus, which

may

be sulphur, which,

if

proved, would settle the question

of the volcanic origin of these crater-like 'forms, which have been attributed to the impact of huge meteorites, though if this

were the case

powers

of

why

attraction,

should our earth, with

not

present

similar

its greater features ?

A

change, not at present explainable, was observed to take place early in 1913, in one of the lunar craters, Eimmart,

which formerly at each lunation a white material seemed to fill and overflow. This phenomenon is no longer visible, and other differences have shown themselves, which in such an unchanging body as the moon are very striking. Some delicate observations undertaken to investigate the presence of radium in the chromosphere of the sun have shewn that radium and its emanation, neon, argon, krypton, and zenon, are all probably absent from the chromosphere. The latest theory of the formation of sunspots is that they are caused by the impact of pieces of Saturn's rings struck off by the Leonid meteors.

This

seems far-fetched,

but

like

many

other

The year wild-sounding theories has some basis of support. 1913 has been marked by an absence of sunspots more striking than in any year since 1810 but as a large sunspot has lately ;

minimum

period would seem to be at an Preparations are being made for viewing the total solar eclipse of Aug. 21 next, visible from Norway. The next

been developed the

end.

one visible from England will be in 1927, the last one seen this country having been in 1724. It is satisfactory to

from

learn that

Canada

will before long possess a

very

fine reflecting

telescope, with a mirror of 6ft. in diameter.

METEOROLOGY. It

would be

difficult

and not

so satisfactory to consider the

weather for the past 12 months, starting backwards from May, as all the weather statistics are made up to the end of December. The mean temperature of 1913 was in excess of

Ixxii.

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

the average over the whole of the British Isles, the excess amounting in the Midlands and East of England to 2, in

The spite of the fact that the summer was cool and sunless. summer was also dry, and in most parts the amount of rain for the year was below the average, Ireland, however, having an excess of 5 per cent. The same statement also applies to the rainfall of the past winter. At the British Association

Meeting the subject of the comparative departures from the normal temperature at the same time in different countries was brought forward, investigations having shewn that with regard to Egypt and S.W. England the abnormal heat in the latter in 1911 had been contemporaneous with an abnormally cool summer in Egypt. On comparing the returns for 34 years it was further found that the departures from the normal in the two countries were in opposite directions in all seasons, but the results were much more definite in the first and last quarters of the year. This discovery will doubtless produce definite results in the comparison of other countries as regards temperature, and advance our present very small knowledge of its laws. One of those destructive tornadoes

which occasionally visit us and uproot trees, &c., in their path, which is fortunately a narrow one, occurred on a larger scale than is usual in this country, in S. Wales and in the The later part of its course, in Cheshire, on Oct. 27th last. width of the storm was about 200 yards, but along its course two men were blown away for considerable distances and killed, buildings were wrecked, trees uprooted, and great damage done. Egyptian statistics shew that during 45 years (1868 1912) only 180 thunderstorms, including all observations of even slight lightning, were recorded, and only

28 cases of hail or heavy rain. The forecasting of the weather is still unfortunately a very uncertain matter, and from comparisons with the actual state of things it has been

deduced that not very much more than half of the forecasts are correct. Investigations of the upper air by means of balloons have altered our ideas about it almost as much as the discovery of radium has done about the temperature of

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixxiii.

the earth, and no doubt in course of time forecasting will but at present the influences which determine improve the weather seem very complicated and difficult to grasp. ;

Observations of clouds at Epsom, continued for eight years commonest form of cloud

at hourly intervals, shew that the

cumulus, which occurred on 1622 days, stratus coming next with 1155, as well as many other facts connected with clouds.

is

It has been suggested that the presence of volcanic dust in the atmosphere is responsible for a diminution of the amount of the sun's heat reaching the earth, which seems to be borne

out by the agreement in the past 150 years between eruptions and cold periods. A valuable contribution has been made to our knowledge of the Aurora by a series of simultaneous photographs of Aurorae at two stations about 17 miles apart, which will afford data for working out details as to their form, position, and altitude. The rate of movement of Greenland glaciers has been found to be from one to two metres per day. Both these and glaciers in Norway and North America seem to be retreating in position, as are many of those in the Alps, whilst most of those in the Pyrenees are advancing. The Grand Pacific Glacier in N. America has gone back the great distance of 25 kilometres in 33 years.

Experiments continue to be made with regard to detecting the neighbourhood of icebergs, the most reliable method being the observation of the fall of air-temperature caused by

them even when at a considerable distance. They rarely give an echo, and the temperature of the water near them is uncertain. A Government grant will probably be made this year for the purpose of research into this matter. An interesting book by our former V.-P., Dr. Vaughan Cornish, on Waves of

Sand and Snow, has lately been published. We have to thank him for several valuable papers on this and kindred subjects, in our past volumes.

ELECTRICITY.

At the Berlin Meeting Commission, at which

of the International Electrotechnical

no

less

than

24

nations

were

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixxiv.

was that was decided that French should be the standard language, and that a vocabulary should contain the official equivalent words in French, English, German, and Spanish for electrical terms, difficulties having arisen An International Comin practice, especially in Spanish. mission has been appointed to make experiments on the

represented, one of the most important points debated of nomenclature.

It

propagation of electric waves, the station at Brussels being used as a centre. The effects and causes of natural electric

waves are

also to

be investigated.

Another case

of the value

means of life saving was provided the steamship Volturno, which was burnt at sea in October by 10 steamers responded to the call for help and saved when last, all on board who were still alive. The effect of oil in calming the raging sea was also strikingly demonstrated, one of the steamers having a cargo of oil which, when thrown on the of wireless telegraphy as a

water, enabled small boats to reach the burning ship, though

a violent gale was blowing.

CHEMISTRY.

Much

discussion took place at the last British Association

Meeting on the subject of the nature of the Atom, it being supposed to be in one case a minute nucleus surrounded by electrons. The chemical analysis of matter was also greatly to the fore, ideas

the

on the subject having been so much discoveries in connection with radium

affected

by

and

changes and emanations.

its

Chemical section says

"The common

The President

of

the

origin of all

elementary though I think that such words to the ordinary observer would be a little disappointing when he found that the desires of the old alchemists had not advanced much nearer fulfilment than when they devoted their lives to the transmutation of other substances into gold. He also in his Address throws out a warning to those who, because certain vital products can be substances

is

now an accepted theory

"

produced by chemical processes, jump to the conclusion that all chemical changes in living substances are brought about

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixxv.

He points out that we are by ordinary chemical forces. from being able to reproduce such products by means similar to the vital ones, and until we have some definite knowledge of how the vital processes are carried on and can imitate them in our laboratories we have not much ground to go upon. The National Physical Laboratory is now in possession of a British Radium Standard, and is prepared to standardise preparations of radium and mesothorium. The chief source of radium is the mineral carnotite, from Colorado, and, the process of extraction having been improved, more far

can be obtained per ton of ore. It has been found that the percentage of radium in accessible rocks is much more than enough to sustain the earth at its present temperature, were it to be as

abundant through

its whole mass. In order, therebe kept at its present heat it seems necessary to assume that the bulk of the radium it contains is concentrated near its surface. Remarkable results have

fore, that the earth

may

taken place by passing X-rays through zinc -blende and other when received on a photographic

crystals, the issuing rays,

plate, recording a geometrical pattern of spots, which, by placing photographic plates at different distances, are shewn to be formed by rectilinear pencils of rays spreading in all directions from the crystal. These appear to be the reflections

X-rays from the similar and similarly situated planes atoms composing the crystal, in other words the planes of the space lattice. It is considered as more likely that the reflections come from the sides of one set of atoms composing the molecules of the crystalline substance than from the sides of the actual molecules, and that much may be learnt from these experiments of the atomic structure, and perhaps even of the size and other details of the atoms themselves, and that it of the of

forms a new departure in our knowledge in this respect.

ENGINEERING.

The development of aeroplanes is still continuing, and is perhaps most strikingly seen in the wonderful feats accomplished

by

certain aviators which are so

much

before the

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixxvi.

The accidents are

public.

so

sufficiently

to

class

said to be less numerous, but are

aviation

still

as a very hazardous

Some advance has been made towards automatic

pursuit. controls

which keep the aeroplane stable and prevent the upsetting effects of unexpected currents of air, bub there appears still much to be desired. There seems to be much difficulty in the satisfactory application of mathematics to the science of aeroplane stability, and what has been accomplished in this respect has been chiefly the result of experiment. A new record of height has been established, a French

having reached an altitude of 20,300 feet. Conference on the Safety of Life at

aviator

International

The Sea,

instituted in consequence of the loss of the Titanic, lays special stress on three points namely, a service for the

observation of icebergs, wireless telegraphy on ships above a certain size, and an adequate supply of lifeboats, with con-

them on either side of the ship. interesting experiments made on the reciprocal attracof two ships passing near to each other, show that this

venient means of launching

Some tion

constitutes

a very appreciable source of danger,

as

the

tendency to collision is considerable, especially when the speed is low. Great trouble has been experienced from the ravages of the Teredo in Auckland Harbour, New Zealand, kinds of

many

Now

wood having been

tried without

the remedy has been found by any boring animal.

any

in ferro -concrete,

unaffected

The

success.

which

is

turbo-

largest built at Newcastle-on-Tyne for Chicago, and gives excellent results. The President of the Engineering Section of the British Association dealt chiefly

made has been

generator yet

in his Address with the Electrification of Railways,

advocated, giving

many

details of cases in which

it

which he had been

adopted.

GEOGRAPHY. The subject but,

might

as

be

a

of

Geography

matter treated

of of

is

fact,

under

a most comprehensive one most of the items which ;

it

fall

more naturally into

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. other sections,

so

that what remains

Ixxvii.

is

but

little,

and

that, now-a-days, chiefly in connection with the Arctic and, more especially, Antarctic expeditions, which have of late

been so numerous and borne so much fruit. Now that the Poles have both been reached, some of the romance of these has vanished but there is still much to learn, and most of our globe is getting so well known and mapped that no great ;

geographical discoveries are possible. A new piece of Arctic land has been discovered by some Russian ships north of Siberia, consisting of a coast of about 200 miles in extent.

The

Mawson

Expedition has returned with information about those regions, gained, unfortunately, at the expense of a tragedy somewhat similar to that of Captain Scott and his companions, but in which

much

Antarctic

scientific

the leader was spared. Two more expeditions are starting, one under Sir Ernest Shackle ton, the other under Mr. Foster

Of other expeditions, the Yale one to Peru has light on that remarkable people, the Incas, who

Stackhouse.

thrown

formerly inhabited

it.

The

city indicated in their national

legends as their original home has, it is believed, been identified, and the wonderful masonry of the temples, the cemeteries, and the pottery and bronzes found in them are described in the report. In Brazil, again, a large area of

unknown country has been mapped.

In the Himalayas a

height of 24,600 feet has been reached, the highest yet attained by man a feat showing great energy and endurance.

Accounts

of various other travels are given in the Geographical Section of the British Association, and its President dwelt upon the prospects of the food and other

supplies for future generations when the earth's population should have increased and multiplied, and the amount of

unoccupied

land

should

be

comparatively

small.

An

increasing population is generally supposed to be an advantage to a country, but there is another side to the question, and it

certainly seems to

me

to be not without its disadvantages. in numbers and

The people who, on the other hand, decrease

tend to die out are certain native races who come under

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixxviii.

white men's influence, such as the Australians and neighbouring nations.

The Andaman

Islanders appear to have suffered

way, as their numbers in two groups of islands are reduced to 455 out of about 3,500 in 1858, when British

in this

now

occupation began. Those by whom civilisation has not yet been adopted, however, still survive and flourish.

ANTHROPOLOGY AND ARCHEOLOGY. The excavations at Maumbury Rings being now finished, the Earthworks Committee of our Club proposes this year to turn its attention to the Dewlish Elephant Trench, a great part of which was explored in 1888 by our late President, Mr. Mansel-Pleydell, whose finds of tusks and other portions of Elephas meridionalis, a gigantic elephant standing 17 feet

high, are in our Dorset

Museum.

[See Proc. D.F.C. X., 1.]

This proposal originated from a suggestion that the trench was of artificial formation and made by prehistoric man as a trap to catch elephants but the evidence of this is so far confined, I believe, to the finding of a few so-called eoliths, which may or may not be of natural formation and could have ;

but

weight in deciding the question. Geologically, the excavation will prove of interest. To revert doubtless, to Maumbury, one of the results that seemed to me of most little

importance was shewn in last year's work by the discovery that on the East side, just inside the bank, was a series similar and similarly placed to those discovered under the opposite bank. The natural previously and almost unavoidable conclusion is that the present banks, of

prehistoric pits,

or rather others on which these were raised, were

made in

con-

nection with the pits. As to what the connection was, and what was the exact object of the pits, it is difficult to say. The theory that they were excavations for the purpose of

obtaining

flints

seems to

me

insufficient

on account

of their

number and regular formation, when one ordinary quarry would have afforded a much larger supply less

work.

The theory

of flints

of storage or hiding places

with far appears

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixxix.

me more probable. Excavations have been carried on in many places. In Egypt a 1st dynasty cemetery at Tar khan

to

has been examined, and

is

considered to prove the presence

of Egypt who eventually conquering founded Memphis, who appear to have been slightly shorter than the native population. At Meroe more Roman objects have been found, showing a probable occupation by their troops. At Abydos a large reservoir has been found and two gigantic colonnades leading into a great hall, which appears from inscriptions to be the celebrated tomb of Osiris. On the Palatine Hill at Rome has been discovered the famous

there

the

of

tribe

Mundus supposed

to lead to the infernal regions.

The

pit

is

covered by a square roughly hewn slab of tufa, pierced by two holes. In Guatemala a series of temples has been brought to light, containing

many

carvings and hieroglyphs of at

unknown

At Carchemish and elseinterpretation. where works have also been carried on. At Pompeii the remains of the ancient harbour have been found, about 1,300 yards from the present seashore, covered with a layer 23 feet deep. In Ionia a remarkable collection of ancient Greek surgical instruments has been discovered, all of bronze, except two of steel. The collection is to go to an American Museum. Nearer home, excavations in the shell-mounds of the Scotch Island of Oransay have produced numerous early bone and horn implements, and at Cor bridge a large find of Roman articles has been made pottery altars, a bronze pig containing gold coins, and many other things. From an Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Hornsea a series of bronze brooches similar to ones found in Norway, a bell, and food vases without any ornamentation were obtained, and are now in the Hull

present

Museum.

In Kinkell Cave, near St. Andrews, a slab of red sandstone with incised crosses is considered by the excavators

A

to be one of our earliest Christian relics.

pigmy

flints of

various forms has been

made

the junction of the Feugh with the river Dee.

shop

A

flint

work-

numerous hammer-stones, cores, worked pot boilers, fragments of pottery and animal bones

floor containing

flints, flakes,

discovery of

in Scotland near

Ixxx.

Also in Suffolk, flints stated has been found at Ipswich. to be humanly worked, with barnacles of the Red Crag Sea

attached to them, have been excavated from the base-beds of the Crag. Excavations and other investigations in France have

tended to prove that different types of Palaeolithic implements occur in succession in the same order at different places, and show their gradual development from an early form to the latest. Recently, excavations in Kent have shown a similar succession of types from the Strepy in the lowest stratum through Chelleaii evolue, St. Acheul, Solutre, and Le Moustier, forming a similar sequence to that of the Somme The subject of worked flints is a difficult one, as Valley.

Chellean,

many of the forms are doubtless produced by natural causes and are probably even harder to distinguish from the ancient artificial ones than some modern imitations of antique china and glass are to tell from the really old specimens. Under these circumstances little reliance can be placed on them as evidence unless the traces of

and indisputable.

human manufacture

are clear

Much

further discussion has taken place as to the shape of skull which the Piltdown fragments represent and as to its age, about which opinions differ widely. It also

seems doubtful if the Galley Hill and Ipswich skeletons are nearly so old as they have been represented, the evidence being It is improbable that any really early unconvincing.

human remains have

yet been found in S. America, and I

believe that none have been discovered in S. Africa, though quantities of Palaeolithic implements have occurred in the

A discovery of what may be an ancient skeleton has lately, however, been made in German E.Africa, the man being stated to have had 36 teeth, some of which latter country.

a curious habit for a very early race, and one which throws a little doubt on its supposed age. What is

were

filed,

believed to be the earliest

known drawing

of a

human

figure

has been found engraved on a mammoth bone in the upper Aurignacian layer near Poucin, in France, and numerous paintings in red have been found on rocks in caves in Spain,

some

shewing

men

hunting

the

stag.

An

apparently

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixxxi.

on a fragment been found near Sherborne in an old mound of

Palaeolithic engraving of the fore part of a horse

of rib has

debris from a quarry, the only other similar British specimen having come from the Creswell caves. The specimen is, 1 believe,

in

described

On

the Sherborne School Museum, and has been by our Hon. Member, Dr. A. Smith- Woodward.

the evidence of certain beads

and pronounced

to be

Egyptian

now of

in the Devizes Museum, about the 14th Century,

the erection of Stonehenge is ascribed to that period. This agrees fairly well with other available evidence. In B.C.,

this section I

the

Duchy

would note the purchase of Maiden Castle by Above all things it is important that

of Cornwall.

this magnificent its original

camp should be preserved, as far as possible, in and we all, I am sure, trust this will be

condition,

done under its present ownership. I also wish to call attention to two books of great interest to our Antiquarian Members " The History of Beaminster,' lately published on Dorset, one " by our Member, Mr. Richard Hine the other, The Ancient Earthworks of Cranbourne Chase," by Mr. Hey wood Sumner, whose kindness and hospitality as our guide to the New Forest Potteries last year we shall all remember. :

;

GENERAL.

The Society

for the Promotion of Nature Reserves has been formed in this country for the purpose of acquiring and preserving in a wild state suitable pieces of land. Of these there are many in Dorset which still afford shelter to certain plants and animals which anything approaching cultivation would destroy. Even such an unattractive patch as the Chesil Beach, between the Ferry Bridge and Portland, contains species not found elsewhere in England, and this in spite of the fact that a road runs along the middle

lately

of it

;

but there are also

many much more

beautiful spots

In Germany since 1907 there worthy of preservation. has been a State department for this purpose, and many tracts have been preserved in this way to the great advantage

well

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixxxii.

both the present nation and posterity. At the British Meeting the Education Section discussed a variety of points connected with that subject, amongst

of

Association

others the advantages of making museums more educational. I think myself that the first duty of a Museum such as ours, to collect and preserve what might otherwise be lost, and the second to exhibit what it has in such a way that its is

visitors

may

learn as

much

as possible about each object.

by which I presume is meant phonetic seemed to find some favour but I cannot under-

Spelling reform, spelling,

stand

We

;

how any educated person can bear

should have no

clue

the sight of

it

!

the

meaning of the many unfamiliar words we so often now meet with. One thing has struck me very forcibly of late years, and is, I believe, a direct result of over-education and general civilization. It is that now no one (with few exceptions) is able to do anything for him or her self, but must go to a professional If people were less educated and more self-supporting for it. I am sure that the general comfort and happiness would be vastly increased, and there would be less of that restless I spirit which is always wanting some new excitement. also think that they would have more general useful knowledge than they appear to have under the present system. I am by no means against education, but I think that for one thing the future walk in life of the pupil is not sufficiently considered, and too many things are taught indiscriminately to all. The President of the Education Section of the to

British Association, at the beginning of his masterly address, mentions the fact that we are now spending 34,000,000 per annum on education, and says " it appears difficult to find distinct evidence of

with the

sacrifices

improvement

in

any way commensurate Anyone who is

which have been made."

interested in this subject should read the whole Address. I have been speaking, of course, of general education. Higher

Education for those who have shewn themselves fitted for it a different matter, and must be kept at a high level in order that the knowledge of the world may be preserved and

is

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.

Ixxxiii.

Educational and civilizing methods as practised the by Japanese in Formosa would, I fear, not be tolerated here, though they might sometimes be useful. The utilised.

Aborigines are enclosed in a highly-electrified wire fence 300 miles long, which kills any who touch it. Any native wishing to submit is handed over to the authorities to be civilized

but the details of the process must be left am ignorant of them. The Metric and some small steps towards in the world, spreading

and educated

;

to the imagination, as I

system is it have been taken in

It

has undoubted

for convenience of calculation,

but the change time, a separate

advantages would be difficult. sub-section

of

this

country.

Last year, for the

Psychology

was

first

formed at

the

British

Association Meeting, and attracted a large number of auditors. It was also touched upon by the President of the

Association in his Address, but the subjects dealt with in the various papers do not seem to have gone outside matters

human and animal minds, generally known as spiritualism

connected with the working of the little,

if

any, of

what

is

It has been the habit of the being contained in them. British Association of late years to hold its meetings occasionally in some of our Colonies, such as Canada and

South Africa. that

it

should

This year for the visit

Australia,

first

realizing the union of the British

distant shores.

m

time

it

has been decided

and thus do Empire even

its

share in

in its

most

Bussei

A Memoir

by E. R. SYKES.

the death of Alfred Russel Wallace the last link with the great workers

on evolution, whose

names adorn the mid-nineteenth century, is broken. One by one, Darwin, Hooker, Huxley, &c., they have passed away, and now death has taken from us the last, and one of the greatest.

Dorset Field Club, have a special interest in Wallace he was an Ordinary Member of the Club for some years, and in 1909 became one of our Honorary Members

We,

of the ;

;

to

many

of us

he was personally known, and not a mere

abstract personality.

Born on January 8th, 1823, at Usk, in Monmouthshire, he was educated at Hertford Grammar School, and for a short time assisted his brother as a land surveyor. Later, he became a schoolmaster at Leicester, and there, about 1845, he became friends with H. W. Bates, whose works on the Amazon Region are so well known. This was a turning point in his career for, in 1848, he and Bates, both already keen students of nature, went out together to study and collect

animals and plants in South America.

After a short

time they separated, and Wallace spent four years in the country, exploring the Rio Negro. Unfortunately the bulk of his collection

was

he returned home.

lost,

owing to

fire

on the ship by which

In 1854 he started on his classic expedition

ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE.

IxXXV.

Malay Archipelago, then but little known this lasted than eight years, and he brought back the vast store of over 125,000 specimens. On the materials so collected and " and were based his Island Life studies his geographical '' we also of while Distribution Animals," may Geographical Wallace's line," note his discovery of what has been called dividing the Archipelago into two distinct regions, with to the

no

;

less

'*

l(

entirely different faunas. may now turn to his

We

name

of

Wallace

will ever

epoch-making work, by which the be remembered. While still in the

Malay Archipelago he sent home

to

Darwin

his essay

'*

On

the

tendency of varieties to depart indefinitely from the original type," which, to the latter's amazement, proved to be in theory and reasoning precisely similar to the great work on It was eventually which he himself was then engaged.

arranged that a joint paper by Darwin and Wallace should be read at the Linnsean Society, and in 1858 this was done. After a stormy controversy the great theory of the survival has met with universal acceptation, and the foundation-stone of modern biology stands firm and secure. To us of the present day it is hard to realise that

of the fittest

what has been well called one of the driving forces of the world, and which seems to us but a simple truth, should have been found so hard to accept. Incidentally, we gain some insight into the working of Wallace's mind, into which, after a long period of, no doubt, unconscious preparation, decisions flashed. The above conclusions came upon him suddenly, " and we know that he said of himself I am a believer in inspiration. All my best theories have come to me suddenly." Characteristic of his enquiring mind was it, that he never

considered the details of the theory as finally settled. He was far from accepting the whole of the " Origin of Species " verbatim, and, in later years, he endorsed the somewhat " World of diverging views of Weissman. Finally, in his Life," he expressed his disagreement with the view attributed to Darwin, that man, like all other animals, has been produced

by the unaided operation

of natural selection.

ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE.

IxXXVi.

From

this

time onwards Wallace occupied his rightful

position as one of the leaders of scientific thought

;

slowly,

but steadily, recognition and honours poured in upon him and he held his place till death, on November 7th, 1913, in his ninety-first year, removed him from amongst us. It is impossible in a brief memoir like the present to give any real survey of Wallace's scientific or other work. An author who dealt with such widely-sundered subjects as Island Faunas and Spiritualism, the theory of evolution and State ownership of land, is not to be summarised in a few para" Island Life," a graphs. For a moment we may turn to his ;

summary

it

may

be

said,

but a summary welded by a master

hand. Here, after a brief essay on distribution, he points out that the key must be sought in evolution and after dealing with glacial epochs and changes of climate, he gives a detailed ;

survey of the fauna and flora so far as known, the result being a book of great value, not only to the specialist, but also to ''

the general reader. In his Malay Archipelago," again, we find most valuable observations, not only on the animals and plants, but also on the native races and their history ;

and that he risked many dangers in the cause of science, the mere account of his voyage from Waigiou to Ternate, in 1860, is sufficient

to show.

which lead men to become what they are, though often apparently small in themselves, afford an interesting study. In the case of Wallace, his taste, already slightly developed, for zoology and botany, no doubt received a great stimulus from his friendship with Bates. This association largely led to the first expedition to South America, and, gradually, the collector became the master mind, using his collections in the way they should be used as materials for study. To take another instance, his views on the State ownership of land may be traced to his association with his elder brother, a surveyor, and to the experience this gave him. Patient, industrious, broad-minded, with wonderful powers of concentration, the world has lost a great naturalist and

The

influences

philosopher.

^^^s^^^^^^^^

b

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.

PL. A.

"

B

( '

I

,

Portraits of Philip and Joan. Fig. 1. Porcelain Bowl in silver-gilt strap -mounting. 2. Inside view of Bowl.

c.

Iron Chest

D.

Cedar Chest.

front

and back views,

Eeft bp P)ilip ant) jfaan of Castile in 1506 at Mtolfetmi anli |3reserbeti in ttje

By Rev.

0.

PICKARD-CAMBRIDGE,

M.A., F.R.S., C.M.Z.S.,

&c.

(PLATES A, B, C, D.)

!HE coming

of

Philip

Archduke

of

Austria and

with Joanna his wife, eldest King of Ferdinand daughter King of Aragon and of

Isabella

Castile

Queen

of

Castile,

to

Weymouth

in

the year 1505 is a matter of English history. Their appearance at Weymouth was at once to the notice of Sir Thomas brought Trenchard of Wolfeton, the High Sheriff of

the

County

who were

of

Dorset,

by the Weymouth

naturally alarmed by the appearance Sir Thomas off their port of a Spanish Fleet of 80 ships. Trenchard seems to have immediately put himself in communication with the Government Authorities ki London, and himself became the host at Wolfeton of Philip and Joan,

authorities,

2

RELICS LEFT BY PHILIP

AND JOAN OF CASTILE.

both as eminent personages really in distress, and who afterwards continued to be his guests for a prolonged period it was at the instance of the English Government. Thus all their retinue with and his Queen Joanna that

King Philip

Wolfeton House for a considerable time, and would necessarily be accompanied by much baggage and other impedimenta. They were also, evidently, unable to speak English, and a relative of Sir Thomas Trenchard's who had lived in (Mr. Russell, of Kingston Russell, Dorset), the with Spanish language, became Spain and was conversant were

in residence at

then a guest also at Wolfeton, and acted as an interpreter. Mr. Russell afterwards accompanied Philip and Joan to the

Court of the reigning King of England (Henry VII.), in London, and there laid the foundation of the existing House of Bedford. All this, however, is a matter of English History, and it is not my purpose to go further into it here. We have information on all the above in Hutchins' History of Dorset (3rd Edition, Vol. II., pp. 421, 780, 781, also Vol. III., pp. 329, 330). My object in the present paper is simply to bring

together in a connected form a short account of the

still

Thomas Trenchard having been a kind and honoured host to Philip and Joan, by their presentation to him, on their departure to the Court of Henry VII., or existing proofs of Sir

shortly after, of their Portraits and two valuable specimens In addition to these, their of Oriental Chinese Pottery.

them various articles of baggage, which become useless to them and so mere doubtless, such as some Chests (in which their money Iron impedimenta, and other valuables had been contained) and Wooden Chests containing probably linen and clothes and other articles needed in a voyage such as that in which the King and Queen had been interrupted. Some of these chests were perhaps left by them at Weymouth but it is most probable that all, or nearly all, went to, and remained at, Wolfeton House. Hence it is quite possible that some may have found their way into the possession of other persons but at any rate some of them, if not all, remained at Wolfeton House and

Majesties left behind

had,

;

;

RELICS LEFT BY PHILIP AND JOAN OF CASTILE.

3

have come down to their present possessors in an unbroken line from Sir Thomas Trenchard through John Trenchard, of

Newton House,

Sturminster

by whom

and Poxwell, or the left, greater

Marshall,

they were

Ringstead, Dorset, part of them, including the Portraits and Chinese Bowls, to the late John Trenchard Trenchard, of Poxwell and Ringstead, and Greenhill House, Wey mouth.

The relics above alluded to and which I propose to describe and figure are i., Portraits of the King Philip and Queen Two Chinese Oriental Porcelain Bowls Joanna ii., Massive Iron Chests Two and iv., One Large Cedar iii., ;

;

;

Chest.

The

measure 19 J inches square to the outside of Engravings were made from them in 1801 by an

Portraits

the frames.

eminent portrait painter and engraver (C. Bestland) at the instance of John Trenchard of Newton House, Sturminster Marshall, and were intended, as I have understood, to illustrate the account in Hutchins' History of Dorset of their Much, and in some respects Majesties' visit to Wolfeton. unfavourable, criticism has been made by some members of the family in regard to the rendering of the portraits by Bestland, and it is believed that their rendering in the present paper, from the good photographs now exhibited, is more accurate and a manifest improvement. As to the artistic

value of the portraits I am not qualified to speak. The ornament round the King's neck represents the English Order of the Garter, conferred upon him by King Henry the VII., and was worn by Philip, when the portrait was painted, in compliment to Sir Thomas Trenchard. The portraits were most certainly, as Bestland remarks, painted at the time of the King and Queen's visit to Wolfeton, and expressly for

the purpose of showing their Majesties' deep sense of gratitude and approval of the treatment shewn them by Sir Thomas

Trenchard while at Wolfeton. is

known

as to the artist

painted, but presumably painter.

it

I

am

not sure that anything

by whom these portraits were must have been by some Spanish

4

RELICS LEFT BY PHILIP

The next objects

AND JOAN OF

CASTILE.

would mention are the two Oriental is enclosed in a hand-

I

Chinese Porcelain Bowls, one of which

some silver-gilt mount of strap-work, 'bearing London hall marks inside, dated 1549. This date being over 40 years subsequent to their presentation to Sir Thomas Trenchard shews that the mounting must have been added by the Trenchards, long perhaps after the bowls

came

into their

possession, and no doubt it was added to do honour to Philip and Joan's gift. The bowls themselves are of ordinary and one of shape and appearance, 7 or 8 inches in diameter them (the one mounted in the strap-work mentioned) is considered by experts to be the better one of the two They are ;

.

said to belong to the middle of the Chinese or possibly earlier, i.e., 1465-1488 A.D,

"

Ming Dynasty," and are of blue and inside are repre-

and white ware, decorated with flowers, sented four fish swimming round another circle in

enclosed in a

fish

Nothing appears to be

the centre.

known

of the

mounting, nor have I ever heard any explanation details. A figure of the bowl is given by Mr. W. G.

silver-gilt

of its

Gulland in Vol. 1902, p.

277,

II.

figs.

"

of

486,

Chinese Pottery," second edition, This figure, however, was

487.

engraved from a very inferior photograph, and gives no clear representation of its details. The figures given in the present paper are

much more

accurate in their details, especially of figure of the bowl is also given by Mr. Sydney Heath and Mr. W. de C. Prideaux in " Some Dorset Manor Houses," 1907, facing p. 38. But this the strap-mounting.

A

figure,

engraved from the same above-mentioned inferior photograph, also shows its imperfections. It may be mentioned here that the silver-gilt mounting of the bowl " the Renaissance style " of the date which

is

said to be in

it

bears, being years subsequent to the gift of it by Philip and Joan to Sir Thomas Trenchard, and to have nothing Moorish in its character. The above two portraits and the bowls are in the possession of Mrs. F. G. A.

thus as before observed

many

Lane, of Bloxworth House, daughter of the late Colonel Jocelyn Pickard-Cambridge and grand-daughter of the late

Plate B.

Proc. Dorset, N.

H.&A.F.

CHINA BOWL.

Club, Vol.

FIG.

1

FIG.

2.

XXX V.

H M

w u

RELICS LEFT BY PHILIP

AND JOAN OF

CASTILE.

5

Rev. George Pickard-Cambridge, of Bloxworth House and Rector of Bloxworth.* one Passing on to the two Iron chests, the rather larger width, and 1ft. Sin. structure can easily be

2ft. 3in. in length, 1ft. Sin. in

measures

depth it is very massive, and its seen from the very accurate photograph exhibited, quite even if I precluding the necessity of a technical description, it shews of were qualified to give it. One of the views given in

;

the work on the front and on the inside of the lid

;

the other

view shews the outside of the back and lid. The original key is also given very accurately, and is six inches in length. The apparent keyhole in the front is a sham, the real one being at the middle of the lid. This chest, formerly in the possession of the late John Trenchard Trenchard, of Poxwell and Greenhill House, Weymouth, has from him come now into the possession

of his great nephew, Jocelyn Pickard, R.E., and -only son of the late Rev. Henry Adair Pickard, M.A., of Airedale, Oxford.

The other chest mentioned measures in length 2ft. 5in., its width is 1ft. 4Jin., and depth 1ft. 3Jin., and, although differing somewhat in several points of detail from the above described, bears an unmistakable family resemblance to it. It was formerly I am unable to give a figure of this chest. in my own possession, having come to me from my late father (the Rev. George Pickard-Cambridge, of Bloxworth before House). He received it from John Trenchard,

mentioned, of Newton House, Stur minster Marshall (from also the one I have already described was received by

whom *

488,

In Gulland's work (above referred to) Vol. a

Oxford,

Chinese is

II., p.p. 271, 278, Fig. in the possession of New College, " The Warham figured under the name of

Porcelain

described and

Bowl

" smaller than the " Trenchard one, and *' has a quite different silver-gilt setting from the Trenchard Bowl." Whether this last or the Warham Bowl can claim to be the earliest

Bowl."

This bowl

is

much

known piece of Chinese Porcelain brought On this point Gulland says, p. 278, it is

into England is uncertain. " a matter of opinion and

fortunately of no consequence," to which I quite agree.

EELICS LEFT

6

BY PHILIP AND JOAN OF

CASTILE.

John Trenchard Trenchard, of Greenhill House, Wey mouth). This second chest was afterwards sold Pickardby auction by my late brother (Colonel Jocelyn and was Cambridge) at Weymouth, without my knowledge, to Town Council subsequently presented by the Weymouth was it bequeathed at the late Sir Richard Howard, by whom in the Municipal is now and his decease to that same body,

my

father's brother,

Offices at

Weymouth. To pass on now to the Wooden

is

exhibited

measures in

depth

shown

;

;

this

is

made

chest, of

of

which a photograph

wood

cedar

massive

;

it

lin. in width, and Ift. Sin. 5ft. 9in. in length, 2ft. side and has its front ornamented, as is well

in

the

scroll-work.

photograph, by This chest came

bold to

Moorish

my

late

engraved

father (the the second

Rev. George Pickard-Cambridge), along with above mentioned, from John Trenchard, iron one

of

and in Newton House, and from my handed tradition The still remains. it my possession down with it is that it was one in which Philip and Joan brought their linen and such like effects to Wolfeton House, and was left there when they departed to the Court of Henry VII. My father being, I must confess, more moved by father

it

came

to me,

than antiquarian ideas, simply made use of it as Since it came into my hands, however, it has been promoted to a higher sphere, and occupies an honoured

utilitarian

a corn

bin.

house, position on a musical platform in much orchestral and other music, and such like.

my

and contains

Having now described those relics, whose descent from Philip and Joan are undoubted, I will only add a few words as to some other chests (both iron and wooden) which may possibly have the same source, but in respect to which there is not any clue or record, or history, that I have been able to ascertain. The first I will notice is an iron chest of a distinctly similar family character in the Guildhall at Weymouth, and which, so far as I have understood, has been there from time immemorial but I have not succeeded in finding out whether or no the archives of the Guildhall contain any record relating ;

a

3

I

RELICS LEFT

The next

BY

AND JOAN OF

PHILIP

CASTILE.

7

an iron chest in the possession of Mr. C. and another belonging to Mr. E. H. A. Mackley of Vermont, Dean Park, Bournemouth. Both of these, I understand, bear a close resemblance to the undoubted Philip and Joan chests but they are wanting in to

it.

S.

Prideaux, of Dorchester,

is

;

any authentic record to connect them with the visit of Philip and Joan to Wolfeton. Respecting possible

regard to

wooden chests in other hands, I was informed some time ago that there was in the possession of the landlord of the Bath Hotel, at Bournemouth, a chest which my informant told me

was very like in appearance, if not identical, with the one in my possession above described but I have had no opportunity of verifying this, nor of hearing what is its ;

Our President has also told me that he has himself history. a chest of somewhat similar character to that which I have described, but smaller

and that

;

it

hails

from an old Dorset

appear to have any history attached to it. It may very possibly be a Philip and Joan relic, though lacking any known connection with the visit to Wolfeton. house.

It does not, however,

The account I have given of those relics to which there attaches an undoubted authenticity is, of course, of most interest to Sir

my

who have

family,

Thomas Trenchard

;

but

directly descended from I think, of real and

it is also,

great interest as a matter connected with the stirring English History of those days, and is thus well brought within the " Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club " scope of our " Meetings and its Proceedings."

Dorset

in

Cljatnei anli

By the Rev. Canon

TT

is

M.

J.

FLETCHER, M.A. and R.D.

J.

perhaps scarcely to be wondered at that

many

of the earliest repositories of

were connected with

books

religious establish-

ments partly because the priests were the educated class, but also because the temple and its precincts seemed to offer ;

greater security for their safe custody than would be the case with the majority of secular buildings.

In Christian times, gathering together of

Community books

;

life

naturally led to the

and, almost from the

first,

were promulgated for their use and preservation. St. Benedict, who lived from about the year 480 until 543, may be regarded as the father of Western Monasticism. He

strict rules

was

especially

instrumental in encouraging the study of

and the great Benedictine Order, which he founded in 529, and to which many of our English Monastic Communities belonged, or from which they were derived, enforced books

;

the habit of

reading, and, as a consequence, led to the

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE.

9

production as well as to the preservation of books. The time of his monks was divided into periods of prayer, of mental study, and of

manual labour.

"

Idleness," he wrote, in the

"

is the enemy of the soul. 48th chapter of his rule, Hence, brethren ought, at certain seasons, to occupy themselves with manual labour, and again at certain seasons with holy

From Easter until the end of September, they were to apply themselves to reading from the fourth until the sixth hour. From October until the beginning of Lent they were to study until the second hour. And during Lent they were to read until the third hour. a book being then entrusted to them which they were to read straight reading."

through. The labour bestowed upon the production of a book, when each copy must needs be carefully written by hand, together

with the costliness of the material (vellum, or some other form of parchment) of which they were usually composed, apart from the value of the subject matter, or in some cases of the associations, would account for the care which was

bestowed upon their safe custody. Sometimes it was an inflexible rule that no books were to be lent outside the Monastery at all. In other cases they might not be lent without the receipt of volumes of at least an equivalent value as a pledge. Occasionally a terrible imprecation was annexed against such as should remove a book without

intending to return "

non

it, e.g.

quis eum (librum) de monasterio aliquo ingenio rediturus abstraxerit, cum Juda proditore, Anna, et

Ut

si

portionem aeternae damnationis accipiat. Amen, amen. Fiat, fiat." The use of chains was of course to ensure the safe custody of the volumes to which they were attached. The period during which books were chained, for more or less public study, may be said to have lasted from the early part of the Caipha,

thirteenth

century until late in the eighteenth century.

mention of chained books, so far as I am aware, dates back to the early part of the thirteenth century, when

The

first

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE.

10

"

bestowed several exemplars Roger L'Isle, Dean of York, of the Holy Bible to be used by the scholars of Oxford under and these books, with others, were locked up in a pledge chests or chained upon desks in St. Mary's Chancel and *

;

Church, to be used by the Masters upon leave first obtained." we constantly During the fourteenth and following centuries read of books being secured by chains at the Universities, Indeed, at as well as in Cathedrals and in parish churches. Oxford, there was an early statute which enacted that every book which was presented to the University Library should be chained within twelve days after it had been received. By the statutes of my own College in Oxford (University " no it was enacted that College), which date back to 1292, sell, pawn, hire, lett, or grant any House, Rent, Money, Book, or other Thing, without the consent of " all the fellows." And, again, Every Book of the House, now given, or hereafter to be given, shall have a high value set upon it when it is borrowed, in order that he that has it

fellow shall alienate,

may

be more fearful

lest

he lose

it

;

and

let it

be lent by an

Indenture, whereof one part is to be kept in the common and let no Chest, and the other with him that has the Book ;

Book belonging to the House be lent out of the College without a Pawn, better (than the book), and this with the consent of all

the Fellows."

Both at Oxford and at Cambridge, the Statutes of the various Colleges contained most stringent regulations with regard to the custody of books. They were regarded as " the most precious treasure of scholars, concerning which there ought to be the most diligent care and forethought, lest they fall into decay or be lost." They were classed with the At Oriel, for example, College Charters and Muniments. books might be borrowed for a year by members of the foundation. But if any book was lost, the full value was to be paid. If the production or restitution of any volume was *

Roger de Insula

1226.

He

(or

died in 1235.

De

L'Isle)

was Dean

(Le Neve.)

of

York

in 1221

and

in

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE. wilfully deferred, or

if it

had been pawned or

11

alienated, the

culprit would, ipso facto, be deprived of his Fellowship and would cease to be a member of the Society. There were, generally speaking, two classes of books

;

those which were allowed to be taken

away from

the place

where they were usually deposited often a pledge being left as a guarantee for their safe return and those which were allowed to be studied in situ, being secured in their place either

by chains, or at least by strict modern system of combining a lending department was anticipated. Libraries, using the

term

regulations.

Thus our

library with a reference

in the sense of buildings for the

than that of mere collections of books, whether in connection with Monasteries, Universities, or Cathedrals, were for the most part built during the fifteenth At Oxford a room for the reception of books century. had been commenced as early as in 1320. It stood over a repository of books, rather

vaulted chamber in the N.E. corner of St. University Church) been placed there

.

Mary's (the Books, however, do not appear to have

until

1367.

The Library was

finally

established and furnished in 1409.

In the building accounts of the Library at Exeter Cathedral in 1412-3, are charges for chains for 191 books, not secured before.

In 1418, some books were bequeathed to York Cathedral

Library by the Treasurer, John de Newton, and were fastened to the Library desks and in 1421 Ralph Lorimer, of Conyngstrete, was paid 23s. Id. for making and mending 40 ;

chains for these books.

About the year 1444, when a special Library Room was erected at Salisbury to cover the Eastern Cloister, one of the Canons gave some books, on the inside cover of two of which, in the handwriting of the period, is a note bidding that they should be chained in the new library. It

was not only

in Monastic

and University or

in Cathedral

Libraries that books were carefully preserved but within the Cathedrals themselves and in other Churches they were ;

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE.

12

to be found, kept for the use of readers primarily, perhaps for the studies of the clergy for the ordinary layman, or laywoman, was in those days, as a rule, deficient in learning, ;

;

and consequently unable to make use

of books.

has already been pointed out that, early in the thirteenth century, books were chained, for the benefit of students, It

in

St.

Mary's Church,

Oxford,

and that

this

was

the

Library but, nearly two centuries after the Library had found a permanent home of its own, we read that

commencement

of the University

;

In 1414 a copy of Nicholas de Lyra was chained in the Chancel of St. Mary's Church for public use, where it was inspected by the Chancellor and Proctors every year.

Nearly a century previously, in 1327, a Breviary and Missal had been chained up in the Choir of Exeter Cathedral for the use of the people.

In 1365 books were

left

by Bishop Charleton to be chained

at Hereford.

In 1389, at the altar of St. Thomas the Martyr, in Salisbury Cathedral, were chained Psalters and the Liber Matutinalis. "

a Hugh's shrine at Lincoln, there was booke of seint Hugh's life cheyned, and a book of sermons." " In 1472 St. Edmund's, Salisbury, has ij Legendes, Hugucion y chayned in our lady chapell." There is an interesting mediaeval inventory at St. Margaret's,

Attached to

New

St.

Fish Street, London, in which some considerable number books belonging to the Church are mentioned as being

of the

"

cheyned."

There is an erroneous impression that in pre-Reformation times the Bible was practically a closed book. The following extracts tend to show that, if this was the case, it was only so because

many were unable to read, or were ignorant of the Latin tongue In 1369 Bishop Charleton left a Bible, a Concordance, a Glossary, Nicholas de Lyra, and five Books of Moses, all to be chained in Hereford Cathedral. :

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE. In the time of Richard Collegiate Chapel subjects,

of

chained.

II.

13

in the

(13771399),

Royal

were 34 books on different them were a Bible and a Amongst

Windsor

Castle,

Concordance. In 1378 Thomas de Farnylaw, Chancellor of York, left, amongst other books, a Bible and a Concordance to be chained "

in the north porch of St. Nicholas Church, Newcastle, common use."

the Gospels in English was

In 1394 a copy of

for

by a

left

Holy Trinity Church, Goodramgate, York. In 1407, amongst other books to be found in St. Mary's Church, Warwick, at the Earl of Warwick's Altar, was a

chaplain to

Bible.

In 1491 the parson of

"

that James', Colchester, wills my portuse (breviary) and all my bookys that be bounde, that they be chayned in saint peter 's chappell by the byble.'"

In

in

1498,

the

St.

book inventory, to be found

wardens' accounts of Bassingbourn, Cambs., " Hubbertes gift, the bybull."

In 1506 a Bible in 3

vols.,

is

in

Sir

the

John

a Lyra in 3 vols., and a Con-

cordance were chained behind the Treasurer's Stall in Exeter Cathedral.

Commentaries on various books of Holy Scripture are also frequently mentioned as having been chained in Cathedrals and other Churches.

Towards the

close of the fifteenth century, about the time many of the College Libraries

of the invention of printing,

Books, worn out, were not replaced. Pledges redeemed, and many volumes were permanently alienated. Others were sold or given away by those who had no right to do so. At Exeter College, in 1458, suffered loss.

were

not

always

the reason given for books being chained was that some of

them had been taken away. But worse times were to Monasteries Libraries.

involved

the

follow.

The suppression

destruction

of

the

of the

Monastic

In three years, 1536-1539, the whole system was.

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE.

14

2,000 Monasteries came to an end. The swept away were pulled down. The books were burnt, or used buildings such for purposes as the scouring of candlesticks, or the Others went to the grocers or soapsellers boots. of rubbing for the wrapping up of parcels, or were cut up by the book;

binders as materials for their trade.

The Universities were not spared. The Commissioners of Edward VI., in 1549, considered that they were empowered to reform the Libraries as well as those who used them. Any illuminated MS., even if it had nothing more superfew rubricated initials, or a was illustrated with diagrams, was doomed to destruction. At Oxford, of the numerous MSS. of which it had formerly been the possessor, 600 of the most important of which had at one time been the collection stitious

about

mathematical

of

than

it

treatise,

Humphrey, Duke

cultured layman, Henceforth, as

a

if it

of Gloucester,

three only

new

now

libraries

not a theologian, but a remain.

were formed, or some few of

the old ones restored, printed books for the most part took but the old conditions to a certain extent the place of MSS. ;

were continued, and for two centuries longer were chained.

many volumes

The following notices with regard to chaining, and the abolition of chains, at the Bodleian Library, Oxford, during this period, will

A

be of interest

:

dated 7th Feb., 1643, was written by the Marquis of Hertford, at that time Chancellor of the University, to letter,

the Curators of the Library, complaining that many of the books were not properly chained. In reply, the Curators

had ordered to be done all that he required. At the surrender of Oxford, after its siege, in 1646, General

replied that they

Fairfax set a good guard of soldiers to preserve the Bodleian. 'Tis said there was more hurt donne by the Cavaliers (during :

their garrison) by way of embezzilling of bookes than there was since."

and cutting

off

chains

About 8,000 volumes were added to the Library by Mr. A condition imposed by the executors gift.

Selden's

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE.

15

stipulated that within 12 months the books should be placed, and chained, and a catalogue made. Accordingly, in the accounts for 1660 there is an entry of the cost of providing

25 10s. chains for these books, In 1751, additional chains were provided for the Library. The removal of the chains commenced in 1757. And, in

was a payment made for unchaining 1448 books penny each. In 1769, some long chains were sold at 2d. each, and short

1761, there at one half

ones at IJd. each.

was

And

then, en masse, 19 cwt. of old iron

sold at 14s. per cwt.

Several of the chains are

still

preserved as

relics.

CHURCH BOOKS IN BYGONE DAYS WIMBORNE MINSTER. Of the following items, the

refers to

first

IN

a bequest to

Wimborne Minster, the others are extracts from the Churchwardens' Account Books of that parish, which are almost complete from the year 1475.

Walter Hoggis,

clerk, of

Abbots Ann, Hants,

in addition

to other bequests, including 10 for the erection of a library at Hyde Abbey, Winchester, left by will, dated 10 Apr., " to the 1488, and proved 5 May, 1490 (P.C.C., Milles, fo. 35), '

King's church of Wimborne one book which is called Sermons of a pupil to be placed in some suitable place there." '

1495

" Et (goods of the church), Walt's hart." (sic) m'g'i of the

1510.

1529.

1

missale ex don' deca'i

[i.e.,

one missal, the

gift

Dean, Mr. Walter Hart].

Itm a payr of testymentys of the coste of Alys Pep. Payd for a prynt legend [probably a printed copy of the story of Saint Cuthburga, the Foundress of the

church 1538.

1539.

ffor

(circ.

a

payd Cuthborow Itm payd ffor

xs. iiijd.

705)].

new legend

of

the

store

of

Seynt

vjs. viijd.

halff a

new byble

vijs. v]d.

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE.

16

This would probably be

"

Matthew's

" Bible,

published

which Cranmer had ordered, in 1538, to be supplied everywhere in churches. It was to be provided by the clergy and churchwardens conjointly. In accordance with this

in 1537,

was paid by the ministered at Wimborne.

order, doubtless the other half of the cost

Dean and Canons,

&c.,

who then

new man veil boke

for the

Church

1540.

Itm payd

1542.

Itm payd ffor a deske and a cheyn ffor the bybyll, and mending of a tressell in the markett and nayls

1547.

Itm pd Itm pd Itm pd

ffor

a

iiijd.

i]s.

xiiijd.

1547. 1549.

for a bybyll

xvjs.

for a manuell

xviijd.

for a parafrasse

&

a chayne to

make hem

faste

1564-5.

1565-6.

xls.

Itm Rec. for the olde Byble Itm payde for ij books of p'yers

for envadinge of

the Turke 1566-7. 1567-8. 1568-9.

xijd.

....

Itm pd for ij Comunyon books xls. xxvs. vid. Itm pd for a byble Itm payed for a newe byble (probably the Bishop's .

.

Bible)

1588-9. 1604. 1613.

xxxiijs.

Item paied for a new Bible xxxiijs. iiijd. Reed for the ould Bible iiijs. Itm for the Church Bible (no doubt the " Authorised "

.... .

.

Version)

Ivjs.

Item for a horse for Mr. Wayne and another for

Henry Allen 1614.

....

and there

to Dorchester for the bible

dinners.

iiijs.

Itm for B. Jewels Booke 1 45. Od. Itm a chaine for B. Jewels Booke 9d. Itm for makinge a dext (desk) for B. Jewels Booke Is. Qd. Itm (Received) of Chichester Shepton for a rome .

(room)

The "

under

B. "

sittings

Jewel's

were

life

booke.

.

[i.e.,

holdings, and

.

a

seat.

after the

1

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE. death

of

the

occupant

reverted

Church."] It. for a book of Com'on praier

1617-8.

.

"

.

"

to

Is. .

.

For new binding ye Com'union book For a Directorie

1645-6.

17

.

.

the 2d.

viijs.

0.01.10.

.0.02.00. "

was a Worship of God Presbyterian formulary put forth by the Assembly of Puritan Divines, and enforced on the nation by Parliament. Every parish was bound to purchase this book, and anyone who was

The

Directorie for the Public

discovered to be using the Book of or privately, was fined 5 for the

Common

Prayer, publicly 10 for the

first offence,

second, and imprisonment and loss of all goods for the third. Bishop Jewel's Works would probably have been removed

during the Commonwealth. Immediately after the Restoration of the Monarchy, we find 1659-60.

1660-1.

1685-6.

1691.

For fitting the Booke called Bishop Jewells works & Chaine & a staple 0.02.00. It. for making the Deske for Bishop Jewells booke 00.10.00.

It.

It.

for 2

payd

Comon

prayer Bookes.

.

1.01. 0.

for binding the Church bible ffor Book of Homilies

00.11.00. pd A 00.08.00. pd pd for the Book of Canons & the 39 Articles 00.02.00. pd Mr. ffurber for 3 new Common Prayer

Bookes

01.37.00.

With each new 1701-2.

pd

reign

for 2

new Prayer Books were bought

new Common Prayer Books.

.

1.

:

4. 0.

The books most frequently found chained at the present day in churches are the following The Bible, which is sometimes bound up with the Book :

of

Common

Prayer.

Erasmus' Paraphrase of the New Testament. Jewel's Apology, and Defence of the Apology. Foxe's Book of Martyrs.

IS

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE. The Whole Duty of Man. The Book of Homilies. Comber's Companion to the Temple.

An Order Churches was

of

Thomas Cromwell's

to

provide

Bibles

in

In 1538

inserted in the Injunctions of 1536.

Cranmer ordered that Matthew's Bible should be supplied there was everywhere in Churches. And on July 31, 1547, ordered that forth which an Injunction of Edward VI. put " one moneths three within each parish should provide in volume of Boke of the whole Bible English (i.e., largest the Great Bible which had been published in 1539) the same to be sette upp in some convenient place within the At the same time it was ordered that a Churche." translation of Erasmus' Paraphrase on the "

should "within one twelvemonth This was repeated in 1559.

New

be set up in

In 1571, after the death of Bishop Jewel

all

Testament Churches.

(of Salisbury),

Archbishop Parker wrote commending his Defence of the Apology, and urging that it should be placed in Parish

had not been already procured. And in ordered that Jewel's collected Bancroft 1609 Archbishop works should be placed in Churches in addition to Erasmus'

Churches where

it

Paraphrase. In 1571 Archbishop Parker had ordered that Foxe's Book "

in the common halls of ArchMartyrs should be placed bishops, Bishops, Deans, Archdeacons, and Heads of And in 1684 the publishers of a new edition Colleges," &c. of

obtained a promise from King Charles II. that Parker's order should be revived.

The Whole Duty

of

Man was

published soon after the

unknown. It attained an authorship elevation only next to the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer. It was recommended by Bishops to be used instead of sermons, and young clergymen were advised to persuade Restoration.

Its

is

every family in their parishes to read it three times a year. It will be noticed from what has been said that, although

it

was ordered that some

in

of these

volumes were to be

set

up

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE.

19

the Churches and others were placed there because they were thought likely to be helpful, yet there were no directions

given that any of them should be chained. for the sake of securing them.

This was done

and other buildings which are in possession and Chained Books have been given in

Lists of Churches

of Chained Libraries

Notes and Queries, Blades' Books in Chains, Dr. Cox's Church Furniture (Antiquary's series), c.f. also Clark's The Care of Books. Excepting for the short notes immediately following, the remainder of this paper deals only with Dorset Church Libraries and Books.

English Chained Library now in existence can be compared for a moment in interest or in value with the

No

Cathedral Library at Hereford. The building on the site of the old western cloister is modern (1897). In the upper chamber are the old volumes. Originally they numbered

Now

2,000, all chained.

there are 200 MSS., in the original

besides a large number of early-printed books also in chains. Amongst the treasures of the Library

book

cases, chained

;

are an ancient copy of the Gospels, which is probably more " than 1,000 years old a 13th century copy of the Hereford " " a copy of the Use written about the year Use," Bangor ;

;

1400, with a curious

middle of the book 1483

;

and

a

charm

for toothache inserted in the

edition of Caxton's Golden Legend, a considerable number of Incunabula, or 15th ;

first

century printed books. It is perhaps unnecessary to state that, preserved at Hereford, in the east aisle of the choir (though of course not chained in the Library), is the celebrated llth century Mappa Mundi. In 1715 a collection of some 280

chained books was bequeathed to the churchwardens of All Saints' Church, Hereford, and their successors, for the use of the rectors or In 1858, when a bookseller vicars, by Dr. Wm. Brewster.

named Head was warden, and the church was

in need of money, the entire collection was disposed of to a London firm of booksellers for 100, and narrowly escaped shipment to

20

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE.

But the Bishop, hearing of what had been done, and after some delay, and the payment of the books and chains were returned purchaser's expenses, from London and restored to their original position in the America.

interfered

;

vestry.

At Minster in Thanet (Kent) for many years past the boards alone of a Bible have been chained, every page of the Volume of which at one time they were the covers having been

carried

away

and,

presumably,

appropriated

by

trippers.

At Whitchurch, Little Stanmore, Middlesex, the Earl of Carnarvon, afterwards Duke of Chandos, rebuilt the church in 1715, and had two copies of the Book of Common Prayer chained to the book rests in each

pew

b}^

means

of iron chains

about 10 inches in length. Some of the chains still remain in but only a few of the books aie left, and these in a very situ ;

imperfect condition. In the Minutes of S.P.C.K. for June 16th, 1707, occurs the " Mr. Skeat moved that a large decent Bible following :

might be bought for the Use Prison in South wark.

of the Prisoners in the

Compter-

"

Agreed to the said Motion and that the Whole Duty of Man, the Art of Catechising, the Xtian Monitor, and Dr. Gibson's Family Devotion (the last three to be bound totogether) be added thereunto and all to be chained in that Prison."

The Calendar p. 18) gives

of

warrant

Treasury Books and Papers (1739-41, (3 April, 1739) for delivery at a cost of

13 of a folio Bible, folio Book of Common Prayer, and Baker's Chronicle, with iron chains and pins to chain them to the reading desk in the Guard Chamber at St. James' for the use of the

Yeomen

of the

Guard.

Blades (Bibliog. MisceL, 1890, pt. 2, p. 6) states that at " Wimborne a copy of Fox's Book of Martyrs was in bygone days chained to a desk in the dissenting chapel," cf. also Hutchins' Hist. Dorset (last Edn. Vol. III., p. 229). Nothing, however,

is

now known

of this.

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE.

CHURCH

LIBRARIES

At

GILLINGHAM still

AND UNCHAINED) AND THE COUNTY OF DORSET.

(CHAINED

CHAINED BOOKS,

which

&c., IN

is

a collection of 300 books, unchained, left to the vicar and

remain of the 619 volumes

feoffees of the parish lands of Gillingham, in 1718, will of

Thomas Freke

most part

At

21

of Gillingham.

of theological works,

They

under the

consist for the

and are now at the Vicarage.

KINSON

about 220 volumes were given to the Church in 1895 by Rev. P. J. Newell, then a resident of the parish. They are shelved at the west end of the Church. At MILTON ABBAS is one of the two Dorset Chained It consists of 66 volumes, for the most part Libraries. but theological, which were originally kept in the vestry many years ago they were removed to the Vicarage, where they now are. A marble tablet, in the vestry at the Abbey, ;

records the fact that John Tregonwell, Esq., who died in 1680, " by his last will and testament gave all the bookes within

the vestry to the use of the Abbey Church for ever, as a thankful acknowledgment of God's wonderful mercy in his preservation when he fell from the top of this Church." The incident happened when he was five years of age. Accompanied by his nurse, he was on the roof of the south

when her attention was otherwise engaged, on to the parapet, attracted by some wild clambered he was which flower growing out of the wall, and, losing his fell 60 feet to the ground. The skirts of his dress he balance, as a parachute and broke his fall. inflated acted becoming transept, and,

When

the nurse reached the ground, to her astonishment

and relief, she found the child unhurt and picking daisies.* But most celebrated of all the Dorset Libraries is the farfamed Chained Library at WIMBORNE MINSTER. It was founded by the Rev. Wm. Stone in 1686. Stone was a native of Wimborne, and was born about the year 1615.

*

Proceedings of the Dorset Field Club, Vol. IV., pp. 86-87.

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE.

22

William Stone, who Presumably he was the son of another " or Ministers," was one of the three like himself, " Minster were in charge of the Presbyters," who conjointly at of

in

Wimborne. He took the degree of B.C.L. when 18 years one of the Ministers of Wimborne age, and was appointed 1641. During the Civil War he appears to have attached

himself as Chaplain to the Royal

many his

labours, losses,

duty."

Army, "where through

and dangers he strenuously

During the period

travelled in foreign lands. to Wimborne, and in 1661

Upon

of

the

Commonwealth he

the Restoration he returned

was restored

of the Ministers of the Minster.

fulfilled

Two

to his position as one years later he became

Inn Hall, Oxford. The remainder of his life he spent partly in academical work at the University, He died in Oxford partly in ministerial work at Wimborne. Principal of

New

in July, 1685, in the 70th year of his age, and was buried at St. Michael's Church, where his monumental tablet still

remains, place in church.

though

has been

it

removed from

its

original

the chancel to a position at the west end of the

Stone was not unmindful of the poor at both places of his At Oxford he founded the almshouses at St. residence. Clements. And by Will, bearing date 12th May, 1685, he tenements, houses, and reversions, within the parish of Wimborne, for the benefit, after the death of his brothers and sisters, of the almsmen who should live in the left all his lands,

hospital of Saint Margaret's (the old leper hospital of St.

Margaret and

St.

Anthony, whose 13th century chapel

still

remains).

He

left his

books to Wimborne Minster.

For the most part

though there are also some volumes with historical, scientific, or more general subjects. dealing be described as a collection such as would form They may they are theological

;

the library of the Head of one of the smaller Colleges in Oxford in the 17th Century.

The following extracts from the Wimborne Minster Churchwardens' Account Books refer, the two first to the time of

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE. Stone's restoration to his office as

"

Minister

the others to the formation of the Library

"

of

23

Wimborne s.

1660-61.

It.

payd fora hoode

;

:

for Mr. Stone

.

d.

1.06.05

Memorand' that the new Table bord wh stood in ye Quire is left at Mr. Stone's house. [Probably this was the table round which the Communicants sat during the time when There is a payment the Independents were in power. recorded in 1655 for the benches used for their seats.

Upon three 1685-86.

of these the houselling cloths are

Disbursements

Payd Dennis Smith

now placed.]

:

for one

boards for ye Library

hundred .

of

Deal

.

.

them Payd for from Poole them home Payd bringing for into them Church Payd carrying Pd Rich. Morris and John Gill for slitting Deal and doing other work Payd Edward Alles for Iron work about the the porters for Lading

.

.

Library & Church, &c.

other

Pd Jno

.

00.10.00

.

.

00.00.10

.

.

00.16.06

about

the

Mackrill for Leths for the Library carriage of lead to ye Church

pd

pd

for bringing the

apeareth

bookes from Oxford as by

03.08.03

&

..... .

for bringing the

00.02.08

.

.... Ironwork

06.15.0

.

00.01.00

bill

02.04.04

books from the Caryer to the

Church 00.02.06 Pitman for brick lime and hair workSamuell pd .05.13.00 manship about the Library .

pd pd

for cleaning the library 4 times John Mackrill for timber and work

Library

.

..... .

.

work about the Library, boards under the leads, and other work about the Church to Mr. Lloyd for money disbursed by him at pd Oxford for boxes and nailing for the bookes

pd John Purches

for

00.01.00

about the

....

05.05.09

08.15.06

00.15.00

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE.

24

Some

additions

were made to the Library by Roger

the Middle Temple, a native of Cowgrove, Gillingham, Wimborne, who, by a codicil to his will, dated 2nd July, " 1695, gave for the use of the newly erected library of of

Wimborne

Minster

various

books

in

the

said

codicil

for the purpose particularly stated to have been bought Bible and Lexicon), the others, Polyglott (including, amongst also such of his best books to the value of 10 (not being law books) as were fitted for the use not only of the clergy but of the gentry, shopkeepers, and better sort of inhabitants in and about the said town, but not to be delivered until the books, already given to the said library by Mr. William Stone

and

and

others, should be chained in their places as usual in

public libraries, and until chains and places should be provided for the books already given, for which purpose he gave 10 to the churchwardens of the said church."

A MS. in

catalogue of the books,

existence.

They were again

W.

made

in

1725,

catalogued in under-master of the

is

still

1863 by

G. Wilkinson, an Grammar and again in 1890 by William Blades. Amongst the treasures of the Minster Library are " (1) A MS. dated 1343, entitled Regimen Animarum,"a book of directions for priests in dealing with souls. And " Incunabulum," (or book printed before the year (2) An " " It is a black letter 1500). copy of some Tractates of St.

Mr.

School,

Anselm, dated 1473. Grimston's History of the Netherlands contains the " Sir Walter Rawly." autograph of William Blades (Books in Chains), writing in 1890, states that there are seventeen volumes which are not in the British

Museum.

This statement, however, is hardly correct now ; there are, so far as one can judge, eight books, or though editions, which the British Museum Library does not

Besides these two Chained Libraries, there are also in the County of Dorset Chained Books at

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE.

IBBERTON,

where the chained Book

1673, was examined by the members

25

dated Club at

of Homilies,

of the Field

on Sept. 16th, 1913. REGIS, which possesses two chained volumes

their meeting

LYME

version of the Bible, (a) a quarto black letter Geneva dated 1615, bound up with the Book of Common Prayer, dated 1637, and (b) a black letter copy of Erasmus' Para" This phrase of the four Gospels, in which is the MS. note

Book

Lyme Regis 1599." For a time these but they were discovered in London and restored to the Church, where they are now chained to their pertaineth to

books were

lost

;

original lectern.

LYTCHET MINSTER, where the Whole Duty, of Man, with chain affixed, may be seen in a glass-fronted case near the vestry door. Both chain and book were formerly in the vestry detached, though the book had evidently previously had a chain affixed. [The church, with the exception of the tower, was entirely rebuilt in 1833-4.] SPETISBURY. Here a copy of Jewel's Defence of the Apology and other works (in black letter), dated 1631, was removed from the church chest, in 1856, by the Rector, Mr. Vizard, and was fastened to the bolt in the pillar on the

north side of the chancel arch, which, according to tradition, was originally intended for the purpose.

STRATTON

(CHARMINSTER), which possesses a of Jewel's Apology, the date of which is about 1615. was formerly chained to an open reading desk. It repaired in 1890, and

copy It

was

now

enclosed under glass. of the Life of Bishop Smythies of the Universities Mission to Central Africa is chained to the

STUDLAND,

is

where a copy

desk in the chancel, at the place where, as a boy, he used to worship when his father was Vicar of the parish.

WIMBORNE MINSTER. Amongst the books in the "chained Library" is a dilapidated copy of Bishop Jewel's works (which it is intended before long to have repaired). But the chain is of a very different pattern from those affixed to all the other volumes in the Library. And,

26

CHAINED BOOKS IN DORSET AND ELSEWHERE.

moreover,

it is

fastened to the top edge of one of the boards,

instead of to the middle of the outer edge. MSS. notes of baptisms, too, on some of the margins seem to prove that it

was at one time in the Church. that this

is

the identical

"B

There can be but little doubt " alluded to Jewel's booke

above, which the Church accounts show was purchased and and chained to a desk in the Minster in 1614. There are those still alive who can remember two books, a Bible and Prayer Book, and the Whole Duty of Man (dated

Chapel at Wimborne Minster. Shortly before the restoration of 1855-7 they were removed to the (Chained) Library, where they are deposited 1702), chained to a desk in the Trinity

in the glass case in the centre of the

room.

The following High Hall,

extract from the will of William Fitch, Esq., of

dated 24th Feb., 1740, and proved 12th Dec., 1743 (P.C.C.,

Boycott 359) relates to them " I desire a long reading desk may be fixt over the (Family) Vault in Wombourne (sic), and that the Bible, the whole duty of man, Mr. Nelson's f feasts and Fasts, and Doctor :

Sherlock's Book concerning Death and the immortality of the soul be chained to ly on the said desk."

And so we conclude with the thought of this good man, whose devotional companions these books had been during his life, bequeathing them to the church in which he had been accustomed to worship, with the desire that after his life on earth was over they might be helpful to the souls of his fellow parishioners.

ant) ftortJanli Castles.

1HE

By

HENRY SYMONDS,

two

fortresses

F.S.A.

which face each other across the

roadstead of Portland are said to have been built

by Henry VIII. as a protection against from the Channel, and although

invasion

no reason for doubting the statements made by Hutchins and other writers, I have been unable to find any trace of an order to build, or any account of the expenditure incurred when the castles were erected. There is, however, a recital hidden away in an Act of Parlia" ment of 1540, entitled A bill for the subsidy," which touches there

is

to that effect

upon the

subject.

Among

the reasons for the additional

taxation imposed by that Act was the cost of building and arming many castles for the defence of the Kingdom, one of "

bulwark at Portland," and it is said that those being the ten thousand men had been employed upon the various works.

The two

in question have always been the Crown, who appointed a governor, or " captain," from time to time, and repaired the walls, &c., out of the public funds of the Exchequer. The details of

property

of

structures

the

SANDSFOOT AND PORTLAND CASTLES.

28

these renewals have survived in some instances, and shed a amount of light upon the methods of construction

certain

and the varieties of armament in a coast fort of the Tudor " new " castle of Portland was and Stuart periods.* The no doubt a few years earlier in date than its neighbour, but both Sandsfoot, and it differed from the latter in design a common threatened from the were by beginning strongholds ;

sea. Apparently danger, viz., encroachments by the Portland was thought to be more worthy of preservation, as

to-day almost unchanged in its main features, and is occupied as a dwellinghouse by an officer of the garrison whereas Sandsfoot is a picturesque ruin, with the southern it

is

;

portion of

which

its

fabric lying

upon the beach below the

cliff

on

formerly stood. At the time of the Armada, Portland was held by one hundred foot soldiers in addition to the gunners, the garrison but nevertheof Sandsfoot being fifty plus the artillerymen it

;

would seem that the inhabitants of the district were alarmed at the prospect, for they say in a letter of 1586 that less it

the Spaniards could land near Weymouth or Portland and that her Majesty's two castles could not reach them with a

(Dom. State Papers.) have arranged the available information in chronological order and in separate chapters, for convenience of reference. The names of the officers of both castles are almost invariably those of families connected with this county, and it is not unlikely that the men, too, were locally recruited. single shot.

I

OR WEYMOUTH, CASTLE.

SANDSFOOT,

The

my *

earliest

notice

is

of this castle which has come under when Maurice Rede was appointed for

mention

in 1541,

The eastward shore

of Dorset was guarded by Brownsea Castle, by Henry VIII., and by small forts or gun platforms at Handfast Point and Peverel Point in Elizabethan times, but historical facts are even more scanty with regard to those defences.

also built

SANDSFOOT AND PORTLAND CASTLES.

29

" to the office of gunner (vibrellator) in the house commonly known as the blockhouse of Weymouth," at a fee of 6d. the

life

This grant may rolls, 33 Henry VIII., part 3). serve to date approximately the completion of the building, as an official list of the King's fortresses in 1540 includes

day (Patent

Portland but

which

it

is

silent as to the

Weymouth

blockhouse, from all events

can be inferred that the latter was at

unfinished in that year. In June, 1545, Philip

Bonde, then master-gunner of Sandefote Castle, was to receive one last, i.e. twenty -four barrels, of serpentine powder, to be equally divided between that place and Portland (cf. Acts of the Privy Council). is perhaps the first recorded instance of the use of the

by which we now know the ruins. During the reign of Edward

VI.,

John

This

name

Wadham

(of

Catherstone) Privy Council MBS. of 1550 as being the Captain of Sandsfoot, and two years later he is instructed to dispense with the services of one of the five is

mentioned

in the

this was presumably gunners then on duty in the Castle of economy, as a similar order was addressed ;

from motives to Portland.

About thirty years later, a comparatively short period, some of the external masonry and other portions of this fort already needed reconstruction, not, indeed, from battering by enemies, but from the wash of the tides. After the damage had been made good, Sir George Trenchard sent to the Exchequer an account of the work done there between 1584 and 1586, from which I have briefly abstracted a few items

New making two 116

platforms, viz., the lower and

higher

keeps,

8s. 3d.

and one without the barbican, and other and the gatehouse. which was wrought by the sea on the east

Making 4 lead pipes within pipes for the upper platform

Filling up the great gulf side of the castle, and building a wall of ashlar 22ft.

and

in length 60ft.

Repairing the gate of the outer ward.

upon the same, in height

SANDSFOOT AND PORTLAND CASTLES.

30

the vaults, being wholly decayed and sunk into ths a new bridge at the outer sea. Making 33 feet of stone gutters and it upright. and stable the setting Repairing gate. of which certain principals of timber Repairing the upper platform, " and lead were rent and broken by violence of a culveringe of brasse which brake, being shott and discharged in tyme of an occasion of

New making

service."

to support the lead work set over the Supplying bars and cramps refers to the royal arms Queen's Majesty's arms. [This probably of chancel the church, having been in fixed now Wyke in worked stone, The armorial coat would be that of brought from Sandsfoot in 1825." freemason," for taking down part of Elizabeth.] George Awdeney, the hall chimney and rebuilding it with a top piece cut and wrought in divers vents thereby to convey the smoke, which otherwise at all winds

was very noisome. Masons, plumbers,

tilers, smiths, and carpenters were paid 12d. the 383 Os. 2d. day, the total expenditure on repairs being The outlay upon the weapons in the same years included axle trees and wheels for the great ordnance nocking and trimming 40 bows leather at 8d. each feathering 20 sheafs of arrows at 16d. each bags for powder, and sheepskins for sponges for the ordnance. (P.R.O. Declared acc'ts. Pipe office, 3570.) ;

;

;

In 1594 Sir Geo. Trenchard and

Wm.

Bampfield received a

12d. the day for joint grant of the office of Captain, with will be noticed It soldiers. three 18d. for and themselves

that the captain's pay

is

the same as that of the artificers

(S.P. Dom. Elizabeth, Vol. 249.) previously out during Elizabeth's reign, were carried other No repairs but in 1602 the Queen asked for a special return as to the

mentioned.

number

the list of brass ordnance throughout the country shows that Sandsfoot possessed one culverin and one demi;

culverin of that metal.

During the two years 1610-11 Sir George Bampfield, the captain, expended 211 5s. 6d. on reconstructive work and a few additions, which included the following items down

a ruined wall, laying a foundation 60ft. long, 6ft. deep, 15ft. above the foundations. The carriage of " 400 tons of filling stuff " cost 20. Making with ashlar stone the wall and parapet of a new platform and Pulling

and

10ft. thick,

and rebuilding the old wall

laying paving stones there.

SANDSFOOT AND PORTLAND CASTLES.

31

Putting new ashlar in the most defective places of the castle. Providing iron casements and glass, lead for the roof, tiles for the The cost stable, and timber for the lower platform and the bridge. altogether

=

(Declared acc'ts.

2 11 5s. 6d.

Pipe

office,

3582.)

We now

reach a comprehensive report as to the condition " and its readiness for war. In the year 1623 James I. instructed Sir Richard Morryson and two other

of this

"

bulwark

make an exact survey of all the royal fortifications on the Thames and Medway, and from thence along the south coast as far as Land's End. The recommendations

officers to

clearly indicate that

Castle

Weymouth

was again

in peril

from subsidence, notwithstanding all that had been done some twelve years earlier. An abbreviated statement of the result of the inspection is here "

The

quoted

Institution."

Bamfield the reversioner being Sir Wm. Trenchard. Thos. Pawlett, lieutenant, 9d. per diem. Bryan Yates, porter, 8d. Richard Champpion, master gunner, 8d. Henry Haider, Andrew Pitt, Wm. Cumphye and Nicholas Eyles, .

Sir

Wm.

;

gunners, 6d. The captain's three men, 6d. Iron ordnance, serviceable, 10, viz., 1 culverin, 5 demi-culverins, 2 sakers, 1 minion, 1 fawcon.

225 round shot of iron.

501bs.

musket

shot.

Powder and match.

9 ladles, complete (used for drawing the charge of a gun). Black Crowes. Cressetts unstaved. 20 pairs heads and rammers. bills. 3 chain shot.

Unserviceable ordnance, &c. " Calyvers with croked stocks."

1

saker,

valued at

16.

16. 0.

Flasks and touch boxes with strings. Two demi -culverin carriages to be cut shorter. Reparations. In this castle (Sandsfoot) the middle square tower is covered with lead, with a platform upon the same, the fourth part being quite decayed. The leaks are to be repaired and covered with

Short and long pikes.

boards pitched and strewed with shell sand. The platform being out of use, and to prevent the charge of mending, is to be removed for better service upon the lower battery which had been left unfinished by one Gibbons. All things else concerning the house are in very good repair. At the lower battery upon the water, one corner thereof the water hath undermined. The wall is of free stone very sufficiently built against the water towards the east and would be very convenient

SANDSFOOT AND PORTLAND CASTLES.

32

towards the west with a like wall 30 feet high, four and a half rods long thick at the bottom and wrought (which makes nine rods of wall), 10ft. This wall will prevent the with Portland stone, at 30 18s. Od. a rod. " it were needful that it and the of corner this of battery undermining " water daily undermines and eats were looked unto in time because the away the ground. By estimation the cost of the wall is 278 2s. Od. There is round about this fort a rampier with two points, bullwarks, enclosed with a dry overgrown moat. To make the moat deeper and

a parapet upon the same, as formerly proportion the rampier with intended, which parapet is in length 47 rods at 42s. the rod, with cleanswithout the rampier towards the ing the moat ; and a single parapet water is about 15 rods at 13s. Total 108 9s. Od.

The coming in of the fort wants a palisado the porch of brick is ruined and uncovered, it must be arched and the main body of the same vaulted, so that one may go over the vault from one rampier to the and in the same a portcullis should be placed, with a roof on other the top which may be used for an outward court of guard, together ;

;

with three sentinel houses about the walls.

The whole charge by an estimate 459 Is. (Harleian MSS. 1326.)

We may assume

57.

of the engineers will

amount

to

that the renewals and additions mentioned

1623 were duly caried into effect, because survey the castle proved itself to be a defensible fortress at the time of the Civil War, when it was held for the King from August, of

in this

I believe that during this latter period 1643, to June, 1644. a Royalist mint was in operation within the walls of Sandsfoot (Numismatic Chronicle 4 S., Vol. XIII., p. 119).

Until after the restoration of the

Monarchy there

is little

to be recorded, though the structure doubtless received hard knocks in the course of the protracted warfare.

many The

Domestic State Papers of Charles II. show that there was a close association between the parishioners of Wyke Regis and the neighbouring castle on the edge of the cliff, an association which had existed at all events during the reign of Charles I.

and probably at an In 1661

(?) I find

earlier date.

an order to the

Sheriff of Dorset that the

be disbanded within four days and the arms taken in charge. This was followed, in 1664, by a protest from the inhabitants soldiers

kept for the garrison of Sandsfoot should

SANDSFOOT AND PORTLAND CASTLES.

33

of Wyke against the removal of the troops from the castle, which had defended the country from foreign ships and had been a place of security. Humphrey Weld, who was captain during the last mentioned year, then presented a petition

alleging that the Duke of had fined the men of Wyke

Richmond, as Lord-Lieutenant, who were the King's immediate as bound to furnish arms and constant tenants, and, such, service for the defence of Sandsfoot that these men were therefore exempt from duties incident to the rest of the that the Duke's agents had taken possession Dorset militia of the castle, and that he (Weld) had been deposed from his ;

;

deputy-lieutenancy This petition was referred to the .

Duke of Albemarle and on 13th January, 1664-5, reported after having heard the evidence of both parties, that Sandsfoot should be demolished as being unserviceable to the King other statesmen,

who

;

that the sixteen

men

(of

Wyke) then bound

to defend the

Castle should be transferred to the militia to serve with that

and that Weld should be restored to the dignity of which he had been deprived. (S.P. Dom. Charles II., Vols. 47, 90, and 106.) As a matter of fact, the Castle was not " slighted," a contemporary euphemism for deliberate destruction, but it would seem that the report of 1664-5 fixes the period after which no attempt was made to preserve the building, although it was used as a store house for arms as late as 1691. At an unknown date before 1725 the Tudor " blockhouse " had become a ruin, as is proved by a note upon a map of Portland

body

;

Castle to be presently mentioned. I believe that no picture exists which represents Sandsfoot before it fell into decay. It is true that Delamotte's Guide

(2nd Ed., 1789) contains a ground plan showing barbican," a gun platform with a pentagonal front, which faced the sea at the southern end of the main rectangular

to

Weymouth

the

"

building. Whence Delamotte obtained his information is at present a mystery, as it is probable that the barbican had

subsided on to the beach long before 1789.

The dimensions

SANDSFOOT AND PORTLAND CASTLES.

34

given by him are 100ft. to scale

by

but as the plan is not drawn whether the measurements apply

50ft.,

to say

it is difficult

to the rectangular portion alone or to the entire structure. Of views which show the ruins there are many, the earliest

them being perhaps the engraving by Buck, produced

of

about 1735

but none of these prints afford us much help mental picture of the original fort in the

;

in constructing a

in the foregoing pages. light of the written records quoted I will add that the Crown continued to appoint a governor

to the storms.

years after Sandsfoot had been abandoned As recently as 1795 Gabriel Tucker Steward

was the captain

of the derelict castle.

for

more than

fifty

PORTLAND CASTLE. The history

of the

"

new

"

upon the sea shore appears Henry VIII., shortly before the earliest known mention of Sandsfoot, and I may say that no allusion to the older fortress now called Rufus, or Bow and Castle

to begin in the 31st year of

Arrow, Castle occurs in the records of the period under contherefore, Rufus Castle had been presumably dismantled before the middle of the sixteenth century, if it sideration

;

was a royal and not a feudal stronghold. In 1540 a list was prepared of the names of persons in the " " Portland bulwark was King's fortresses, among which the solitary place of arms within the borders of Dorset. The captain was Thomas Marvin, who received 12d. the day, with an allowance of 6d. daily for two men. The gunners were four in number,

Holman, and John

Robt. Skogan, John Waclin, John whose pay was 6d. the day respec-

viz.,

Hill,

(Exch. acc'ts 60 4.) A change in the governorship took place in February, 1545-6, when John Leweston was appointed as Lieutenant of the island and Captain of the Castle from the 31st Deer, then last, with a salary of 16d. the day during his life. The tively.

grant also authorised

him

to nominate a deputy

and to

elect

SANDSFOOT AND PORTLAND CASTLES.

35

"

meet and able men who were to be daily abiding that is to say, two porters, six gunners, and five there," thirteen

It is remarkable soldiers. (Pat. roll, 14 Elizabeth, part 8.) that these offices were conferred upon Leweston under the seal of the Court of Augmentations, and that the expenses

were to be paid by

and Dorset.

its

receivers in the counties of Somerset

As we know that

this

Court was set up by

Henry VIII. for the purpose of administering the revenues of the suppressed monasteries, it is not improbable that the cost of building the two castles, as well as the pay of their garrisons, was in part provided out of ecclesiastical funds. On this

point I will recall the tradition that the Sandsfoot was brought from Bindon Abbey.

At the time

Edward stores,

of

of the rebellion in the west country against

VI., Portland Castle

which were replaced

two Hamburg

stonework

had furnished some military

in 1552

;

these items consisted of

and two Flemish barrels of serpentine powder, together with 24 bows and the same number of sheaves of arrows. In 1554 John Leweston, described as of barrels

Leweston, enters into a recognizance (with a penalty of 1,000 marks) whereby he undertakes to defend the castle on behalf of Queen Mary with all his power, cunning, and industry, and that if his own power should be insufficient he would call in the sheriffs of adjoining shires, warning them to come to his assistance. For an unknown reason the Captain was superseded a few years afterwards, and his post given to George Strangways, but the latter was in turn relieved of the office on account of sickness in May, 1557, when Leweston was re-appointed to his former duties. (Acts of the Privy

Council, passim.) Passing on to Elizabeth's reign, I find that Charles Arundel received in 1572 a reversionary grant of the governorship of

the castle and island after the death of Leweston, but as the latter survived until 1584, it is doubtful

command

was ever

in

We now

obtain a

and

its

equipment.

there.

whether Arundel

(Pat. roll, 14 Elizabeth, part 8.)

information concerning the structure In the month of October, 1574, Leweston

little

SANDSFOOT AND PORTLAND CASTLES.

36

signed a certificate as to in which he says that

"

the wants

The whole platform upon the keep

is

"

of the establishment,

in great

decay and requires

much timber

He

for its repairs. asks for fifty calevers (handguns)

and

their furniture, also for

four pieces of brass, being sakers, and forty-four shot for each piece, in place of two demi-culverings of cast iron and three iron slings and four bases, which pieces had been condemned and were not serviceable.

(Dom. State Papers.

Eliz.)

have already mentioned Sir George Trenchard's account between April, 1584, and October, 1586, and I will here cite a few extracts from that part of the document which relates to Portland during the I

of the renovations at Sandsfoot

same

period.

New making two cost of

148

platforms, viz., the lower and upper keeps, at a

Os. 7d.

Mending the roof over the captain's lodging eleven new pipes of New laying the lead over the hall, and repairing the porter's " lodge. Making a little house, or skeelinge," of boards to put the ladles in. and gun sponges Digging two saw pits, and providing sand for casting the lead. The total cost was 228 14s. 8Jd. (Declared accounts. Pipe office 3570.) ;

lead.

About this time a governor who is not included in Hutchins* comes upon the scene. In 1592 Sir Walter Raleigh had added to his many other occupations by filling the dual office of Lieutenant of the island and Captain of the fort, but the

list

routine duties were then performed by a deputy Nicholas Jones. Twelve months later, Sir Walter

named

was in correspondence with the Government, who had required him

to put the castle into a proper condition for defence. He told the Privy Council in August, 1593, that there had been

no good ordnance at Portland since the brass cannon and best pieces were taken away by an officer for use in the Queen's ships, and he asked for a new supply, as they were then defenceless. In all probability this requisition was only partially satisfied, because the survey of

James

I.

mentioned

SANDSFOOT AND PORTLAND CASTLES.

37

various types of artillery, but no brass guns of any kind. A second complaint by the Governor as to the deficiencies at the castle proves that the statesman-soldier had then been succeeded by his brother, Carew Raleigh, who wrote a letter as captain in 1596 to the effect that his garrison had been employed for other services, and that he wished for 100 men to be held in readiness in the country near to Portland.

When speaking of Sandsfoot I alluded to a report by Sir Richard Morryson on the condition of that fort in 1623 the corresponding inspection of Portland furnished similar details ;

as to the latter castle at the same date

The Institution. Carew Rawleigh, captain, and the reversioner is Gilbert Rawley. John Bone, lieutenant, 12d. the day. Robert Westrom and William Williams, the outer and inner porters,

Sir

Sd. each.

Robert Hone, master gunner, 8d.

The men (names omitted)

6d. each.

Iron ordnance, &c., serviceable. 3 culverings, 9 demi-culverings, 1 saker,; total 13. 1 field carriage for culvering, and 3 for demi-culverings. 7 ladles

Round

complete, for cannon. shot of iron, 899.

Also powder, match, muskets, bandeleers, moulds, long pikes, black crowes, heads and rammers, cressets, 20 bedds and 40 coynes

bills,

wedges). Unserviceable ordnance, &c. 2 sakers of iron, valued at 33 12s., and 9 field carriages for cannon, valued at 70 13s. 4d. <(

Also sponges, muskets, flasks and touch boxes. Reparations.

In this castle, on the upper platform are several defects and leaks in " the lead by which the seeling " and joists under the same are decayed and ready to drop down. The joists must be supported with stone "" cartowses " and timber along the wall of freestone, but this cannot prevent the further rottenness of the woodwork. Alternatively, the lead may be sold and a sloping roof of sufficiently strong tiles provided, as no ordnance was used on that roof, which was only a covering of the house. By estimation this would cost 110 4s. Uopn the second battery the platform is very good, but it must foe

removed to repair the leaks

of the lead

4 10s.

SANDSFOOT AND PORTLAND CASTLES.

38

where five pieces (of artillery) stand, Also, upon the lower battery 16 10s. Also, in the each of them wants a platform which will cost is half decayed, must one which of for gunners, same room the lodgings to the same ; be newly lathed and plastered, with several partitions the which "hinders staircase the the house, removing also, about " making a door at the coming in mending traversering of a piece windows and the bridge at the coming in, with a palisado before ;

;

glass it.

Estimated to amount to

41 9s. 6d.

the south-west side of the bridge the moat is overgrown and must be dug wider and deeper, and enclosed on the inside with a stone wall 26 rods long to the bridge, at 35s. the rod, which will cost, with

Upon

digging the moat, 45 10s. the bridge the moat is daily Also, towards the north-west side of overflowed by the sea, so that at high water there is no passage to the castle on that side there, the moat must be mended with a counter;

its overflowing, which being 15 scarp to withstand the sea and prevent the moat, together with a with 45s. a at in cleansing rods rod, length, stone traverse towards the sea to keep the water in the moat and resist the force of the sea on that side, will amount to 68 15s.

The main defect in mined by the waves

this castle, as in several others, is that it is underof the sea ; there is fallen down some 4 rods of

freestone wall about 5 feet high which is to be new made, and it will For preventing the like 28. 7 a rod, cost to do it substantially accident, which may cause the ruin of this fort, there must be 80 rocks of 3, 4 or 5 tons apiece laid before the same for a bank against the force of the water, each rock being brought from several places about the

by water, which would amount to about 240. The whole sum by the engineer's estimate is 554 18s.

island

6d.

There

is

missing a brass piece of ordnance whereof the lieutenant is to give an account, also of 10 men at 6d. the day whom we found to be deficient at our being there.

An

old trench without the wall of the castle, more dangerous than be thrown down at the charge of the islanders. (Harl.

profitable, is to

MSS.

As

1326.)

in the case of Sandsfoot, I think

we may

believe that

Henry VIII. 's bulwark at Portland was restored, shortly after 1623, to a condition approaching its former strength. During the Civil

War

it

was held

resistance under Colonel

proved to be the cause in Dorset.

in turn

parties, and its until April, 1646, behalf of the Royalist

by both

Wm. Ashburnham

last serious effort

on

The Commonwealth Government placed

one company of troops in charge of the

fort,

a better provision

SANDSFOOT AND PORTLAND CASTLES.

39

than was made for Sandsfoot, which is alleged to have been defended by three old men in 1653, and therefore of no value "

the Dutch had a mind to land." One other fact remains to be mentioned.

if

An

excellent

Portland Castle, dated 1725, is preserved in the British Museum, the scale being one inch to twenty feet.

ground plan

of

The drawing shows a building with a semi-circular face of masonry over-looking the sea, and protected on the landward side by a walled enclosure, the general appearance strongly and I feel no resembling the fort as it is at the present day ;

doubt that the drawing also gives a faithful picture of the At the original structure without any material change. foot of the plan the draughtsman added a note to the effect that the use of this castle was to protect trading vessels against privateers, and that it was well situated for that purpose, the guns being near the surface of the water whereas Weymouth Castle, two miles distant, stood on ground that was too high, which was probably the reason why that castle was demolished and Portland alone kept in repair. (Brit. ;

Mus., King's Library,

Although we

may

Crown

XII., 24.)

not altogether agree with the suggested

cause of the abandonment of Sandsfoot, the

memorandum

is

interesting as the expression of an opinion held by a military engineer in the first half of the eighteenth century.

POSTSCRIPT. Since the foregoing paper was set up in type I have found certain accounts among the State Papers of Edward VI. for

the year 1552 which appear to contain the amount of the original expenditure when these two castles were built. " " The information is set out in the form of a brief declaration the whole naval and military expenses incurred by Henry VIII. and Edward VI. during the wars against France and Scotland, the total sum being nearly three and a half of

millions sterling.

SANDSFOOT AND PORTLAND CASTLES.

40

The

figures

which more immediately concern

my

subject

are thus stated "

" "

" Fortifications in the late King's time (i.e. Henry VIII.). The castell or forte of Portlande, 4,964 19s. lOfd.

The

castell of Sandfote,

(S.P.

3,887 4s. 2d. VI. Vol. XV., No. 11.)

Dom. Edw.

Intoentorp

of 1627.

By NELSON M. RICHARDSON, B.A.

5a^time ago I had the good fortune to meet a bookseller's catalogue, an in

with,

"

the goods and chatles of inventory of William Edmonds alias Younge of Woodcotte

in

the parish of

Handley

in

the

Countie of Dorset yeoman deceased taken and praysed the f owerteenth day of January

by William Clarke John Coumbe and Henry Thorne Anno Domini 1627." The Inventory is contained in a parchment roll about 45 inches long and six inches wide, indented at the top, i.e. cut off

from the original parchment

fitting it to the other piece it

may

in a

line, so

wavy

that by

be proved to be the original "

and authentic document. Hence the term indenture." The house which contained the goods and chattels would -appear to have been that of a superior farmer, and better furnished than the average, as far as my small experience of inventories of that date goes. There were ten or eleven

rooms with furniture in them, besides possibly empty garrets, which are described as follows (1) Hall, (2) Roome within :

AN INVENTORY OF

42 the Hall,

Buttery,

(3)

(4)

1627.

Brewhouse, (6) MillGhuest's Chamber, (9) Chamber

Kitchin,

(5)

(7) Woollhouse, (8) over the Hall, (10) The little Chamber, (11) At the Stayer head. This last was probably only a landing, and some of the others may have been outhouses.

house,

carpets, two the for table boards, one chair, probably master, or possibly

The Hall was handsomely furnished with two

the mistress, three forms, eight join stools, and 10 cushions. " " The rest consisted of a pair of iron andiers (which are, I candlestick and one call andirons) copper presume, what we rather a poor light for supper if no more were used, but there were plenty, three of pewter and five of brass, in the Buttery.

In the room within the hall were two table boards and a pair I do not know whether it is so, but I presume that of tables. table boards

may

and tables are

be boards supported on moveable trestles, when made as one piece of furniture.

so called

There were in the house six bedsteads, of which only one, that in the Guest's Chamber, had curtains, and three trucklebeds, the Room within the Hall and the Woolhouse having each one bedstead, but apparently no bedclothes, though the others are well supplied with them, the two standing bedsteads and the trucklebed in the Chamber over the Hall boasting three feather beds, seven feather bolsters, seven

and five pairs of blankets, though only one pillow I I think, however, that the pillows must have got mixed, as,

coverlids

for the bedstead

and trucklebed

in the Little

are

no

lid,

I suppose of Arras tapestry,

than

Chamber, there

In addition to the ordinary bedclothes the Guest Chamber bedstead has an Arras coverless

six pillows.

and a rug. This and the are carpeted. There are also three which are enumerated amongst such

Chamber over the Hall beds for servants,

things as hurdles and flitches of bacon

but where they were under the latter, or in some loft. perhaps The linen is kept in two presses, one chest and one box at the stairhead, and consists of 20 pairs of sheets, six pairs of pillow-ties (probably pillow-cases with strings instead of buttons), three cupboard cloths and one damask board cloth,

placed I cannot tell,

;

AN INVENTORY OF

1627.

43

a dozen napkins, but only nine towels. Baths are not mentioned, but they appear to have been dropped when the

Romans left England, and are quite modern institutions, Early if not later, and perhaps in 50 years more be considered as dangerous to health as they probably were at the time I am speaking of. There were several

Victorian, I think,

will

and cupboards in the house, and one livery only three chairs, but not much else in the way In the of furniture besides what I have already mentioned. chests, coffers,

cupboard

;

Kitchen were

many pewter

utensils, three salts, a flagon, 18

wooden trenchers), two dozen two dozen saucers, two basins, two plats (I suppose dishes), two dozen spoons, also a basin and ewer, perhaps of this material, in the Guest's Chamber only, no means of washing being found elsewhere. There were no knives (except two mincing knives) or forks (except garden forks), and probably each used his own knife which he carried about with him in a sheath, and his fingers. There were of brass, four pots, six kettles, six pans, one ladle, and perhaps other The kitchen things, the material of which is not mentioned. only silver was one silver salt and seven silver spoons, valued at 5 13s. 4d. What would they not fetch now ? There was a sum of 70 in money in the house, and the wearing apparel was priced at 20 In the kitchen were two muskets and other arms A good part of the Inventory is occupied with the farm stock 14 kine, 10 bullocks and 10 other beasts, nine carthorses and two mares, 88 wethers, 76 ewes, 61 hogs and four fat swine, besides 17 other pigs, 1 worth of unnumbered poultry, besides all the wheat, barley, oats, and peas, and farm The last items are 14 flitches of bacon implements. 4 13s. 4d., bees in the garden 5s. Od., and one chattell lease in Woodcotte 100, the total being stated to be 659 17s. 6d., which I think is incorrect. I make it 675 17s. 6d. The spelling of the names of the various articles is fairly consistent, though not in accordance with our practice, and some of them are not well known in the present day. A platters (as well as 10 dozen

pottingers,

.

"

sull

"

is

a plough of some sort

.

;

a

"

willy," a large wicker

AN INVENTORY OF

44

1627.

"

"

probably the same as a range or bolting " serch," which is in the same item as various sieves, may be the same as a sarse, scarce, or searse, " " " in the item Reckes and Reckes which is a fine sieve. basket

a

;

renge

sieve to sift

meal

a

;

" It is not rakes, for I cannot make out. 1 Hurdells " " comes just above in association with shovels, rackes picks, forks, and iron wedges and similar implements for It cannot be ricks, as hay is mentioned elsewhere 13s. 4d.

at

8,

and

ricks

would even then be worth much more than

not including hurdles.

It

into for feeding sheep, has seen this word

&c.

racks for putting hay Mr. H. Symonds tells me he

meaning

17th cent. Somerset document.*

means a

sieve,

"

grunters

we have

as

I

"

a

small

am

not sure

6 seives

"

in the Millhouse, associated with

" and one Tubb at "

"

am

6s. 8d. are, I

"

"

1,

may mean

told,

basket, " if

a

in

saive "

just below. "

a " 3

one henn Coope

probably the same

(spelling uncertain), and grintings grintons bins with divisions for corn for grinding. They cannot " " be pigs, as they are amply provided for elsewhere. Skillets

as

or

mean

bowls with long handles, to be used as saucepans. " " associated with two basons and two pewter do not know the meaning of. One or two friends

are, I believe, "

One Charter

plats," I

have suggested that may be so, but

this

"

it

is

it

is

a misspelling for charger, and " Fower payre of only a guess.

associated with iron spits, dripping pans, pot hooks, &c., are probably some kind of hooks. Trendells, couells, silt trowes, and stoninge trowes are found in the

Hangings

Brewhouse.

Silt trowes are salting troughs for bacon, and trowes doubtless troughs for some other purpose. stoninge Trendells are said by Webster to be weights or posts in a mill. Mrs. Richardson tells me, however, that the shallow tubs used

for

me

washing butter are called trendies. Mr. Symonds gives another meaning, a cooler for beer, also called " keever."

Since writing the above, I find that " Reckes " are small with side rollers to let the lambs run out of the hurdles, while keeping in the ewes. *

NOTE.

gateways

fitted

AN INVENTORY OF

45

1627.

This seems more probable in this connection. He also says " Can this be a variant of cowl or

" " of " couell or " covell

wooden tub with ears for use with a stick in " it ? Dr. March says the word is used in Cornwall and Devon to denote a sort of basket. The Inventory is a

coul,

carrying

well written, though

of the letters are different

many

from

our present ones, but I think I have deciphered

all

correctly. I will read out a

list itself,

to

s.

d.

13

4

show some

few of the items from the

the words

of the prices.

Hall.

Two

carpatts and

Tenn Kushings

Room within the Hall. Two table bords, one Beedsteed, a payre of Tables

.

.

.

.

.

.

one Cubberd, and

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

100

Kitchin.

One Dossen and

halfe of pewter platters

Six brasse kittells

Two

Musketts, two swordes, three daggers, one Corslett, and a pike .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Woollhouse.

Fower weight

of wooll

and a weight

of lokes

1

10

200 300 700

Ghuests' Chamber.

Two

feather beds, Three boulsters, two pillowes, two payre of Blanketts, one Arrace Coverlead, and one Rugge .

.

At the Stayer head. Twentie payre of Sheets

.

.

..

.

.

..

.

.

..

.

.

700

..1500

Nyne Towells

10

His apparell both linnen and woollen

Three score and seaven acres of wheate

Fowerteene Kyne Nyne Carthorses with there harnes

Fower

fatt

swyne

.

.

.

.

20

.

.

67

30 .

.

.

.

.

.

30

368

AN INVENTORY OF

46

1627.

have brought also for comparison another Inventory of

I

1640, but this gives no values, and refers to a much more important house at Craford (doubtless Crayford in Kent).

much easier to read than the Handley one, though 13 years later, so that I have not transcribed it with only the exception of the ee and ss and some of the spelling, it This

is

from the writing of the present day. The pewter less than 58 dishes, besides plates and other things, and there is a good deal of silver, Turkey carpets and Turkey work, French chairs and carpets, tapestry and other hangings and curtains, but remarkably little furniture except bedsteads and chairs. It looks as if it might have been made by an amateur, perhaps the owner, Mr. Robert Draper, and he may have got tired of it before he came to the end, as one But it is very sometimes does, I fear, with such lists differs little

comprised no

!

I will not enter into further interesting as far as it goes. details, as it is not the subject of paper, but pass it round

my

so that those

who wish may study

TRANSCRIPTION OF

BY

6lN.,

INVENTORY

it

ON

at leisure.

PARCHMENT ROLL

45iN.

BELONGING TO N. M. RlCHARDSON.

A true and perfect Inventory indented conteyning all the goods and Chatles of William Edmonds alias Younge of Woodcotte in the parish of Handley in the Countie of Dorset yoman deceased taken and praysed the Fowerteenth day of January by William Clarke John Coumbe and Henry Thorne Anno Domini 1627 etc. s.

Imprimis in the Hall

Two

Table bordes three formes Eyght ioyne stooles and one Chayer .

.

.

.

Item Two Carpatts & Tenn Kushings Item one payre of Iron Andiers & a Copper Candelstick Item in the Roome within the Hall Two Table bords One Beedsteed One Cubberd & a payre of Tables Item in the Buttery Three Hogesheads Seaven barrells .

Three timber flaggens beare the barrells

..

&

Two

..

..

.

..

..

..

..

100 034 100 0134

100

five brasse Candel-

tinninge booles three pewter saltes

one pewter flaggen

.

three timber horses to

Item three pewter Candelsticks sticks

.

..

..

& ..

d.

18

AN INVENTORY OF

47

1627.

s.

Item Ten dossen of Trenchers Item in the Kitchin one dossen and halfe platters

Two Two Two Two

Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

of

.

pewter .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

dossen of pewter pottengers dossen of Pewter sawsers basons one Charter & Two pewter plats dossen of pewter spoones .

Fower brasse

Nyne

potts.

Skilletts

.

1

.

.

.

.

.

.

..

..

..

..

..

Six brasse kittells

..

..

..

..

..

Six brasse pannes

..

..

..

..

..

one Chafinge Dishe one pisell & morter a skimer & a brasse ladell ... Item Seaven Iron spitts two payre of Iron Andiers .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Fower payre of Hangings three payre of potthookes one griddier one fyershoule one payre of tongs two dripinge pannes & a fender Item Two Musketts two swordes three daggers one .

Corslett

&

a pike

..

..

..

.

..

.

.

..

.. Item one Birdinge peece .. .. .. .. Item Two minceinge knives one Cleaner one fleshoock

&

a Treiuat

..

..

..

..

..

..

Item one Table borde three formes one Chayer one Treay and two booles Item in the Brewhouse one furnace Item Fower Vates Six Trendells Fower Couells & Six .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

payles

Item Item Item Item Item Item

Trowe .. Two stoninge Trowes one

silt

in the Millhouse one

..

..

..

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

malt mill

..

Three grunters one henn Coope & one Tubb a well buckett & a Roope in the Woollhouse Fower weight of wooll & a .

weight of lokes

..

.

..

.

.

..

.

.

..

.

.

.

.

..

Item one beddsteede .. .. .. .. .. Item in the Ghuests Chamber one Table borde one lyvery Cubberd two formes Three stooles one Chayer one Chest & a Carpit Item one bason & yewer & a payer of Iron Andiers Item one standinge Bedsteed with Curtins & .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

..

..

..

..

13

4

1150

300 068 026 068 13

4

100 034 068 068 068 700 050 10

1

10

010

2100

Item Two feather beeds Three boulsters two pillowes two payre of Blanketts one Arrace Coverlead & ..

10

168 068 010 2134 100 200 300 040

a

Truckellbedsteede

one Rugge

d.

034

.

..

700

AN INVENTORY OF

48

1627. s.

Item Five pewter Chamber potts Item in the Chamber over the

.

.

.

.

.

.

hall Two standinge Bedsteeds one Truckellbed one Table bord and one presse Item one Chest & Two Coffers Item Three feather beeds Seaven feather Bolsters & .

.

.

.

.

one pillowe

..

..

..

Item Seaven Coverleads Five payre payre of Curtins

&

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

..

.

.

.

.

..

.

.

.

.

..

.

one Carpitt .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

a Truckelbed

..

..

10

..

..

6134 10

.

Item Two feather beeds Three bolsters and Six pillowes Item Three Coverleads two payre of blancketts & one payre of Curtines

1

050 500

of blancketts one

Item one still Item in the little Chamber one standing bedsteed and .

d.

050

..

100 500 200

Item Fower Coffers one presse and a box .. Item one Silver Salt & Seaven silver spoones .. Item at the Stayer head two presses one Chest & one box Item for linnen Twentie payre of sheets Item Six payre of pilloties Item Three Cupbord Clothes Item Nyne Towels Item one damaske bord Cloth and a dossen of

1500

Napkines Item Two diaper bord clothes and a dossen of Napkins Item Ten other bord clothes and Three dossen of

200

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Napkins Item in money Item his apparell both linnen and woollen Item Threescore and Seaven Acres of wheate Item of wheate in the Barnes treshed & vnthreshed Item of Barley in the Barnes threshed & vnthreshed Item of woats and pease in the barne Item for Malt .. .. .. .. .. .. Item for haye .. .. .. .. .. .. Item Fowerteene Kyne Item Fower beasts of Three yeres of age Item Six Beasts of Two yeres of age Item Ten yearlinge bullockes .. .. .. .. Item Two hackney Mares .. .. .. Item Nyne Carthorses with there harnes Item one yonge Coult .. .. .. .. ., Item Fowerscore & Eyght Weathers .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

10

.

.

.

.

.

.

5 13

4

300 1

10

100 10 1

10

4 10

70

20 67 40 60

400 168 800

30

6134

700

6134

..1200

.

.

.

.

30

100

32

AN INVENTORY OF

49

1627.

s.

Item Item Item Item Item Item

Threescore Threescore

& Sixteene yewes & one hoges .

Fower Fatt Swyne ..

.

..

.

.

.

.

..

.

.

.

.

..

..1800 ..

Seaventeene other pigges for poultery .. .. .. .. .. .. two Irebound Carts Six Sulls six harrowes one dragg Three Ladders & a Rowler Item Three payre of plow Irons one Iron barr two .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

payre of Fetters and Two plow chaynes Item Three Cart Ropes two Cart lynes two winnowing sheets Eyghteene sackes a Bushell & a peck Item one Sieth fiue Reapehocks one hatchet one hoocke one Pickax one spade two shoules six corne pickes, three forckes ten Rackes Fower Iron .

wedges & a saive Item for Reckes and hurddells Item one willy Six seives a Renge and a serch Item three bedds for servants Item for Wood and Timber Item fowerteene niches of Bacon Item for Butter and Chease Item for Bees in the garden Item one Chattell lease in Woodcotte .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. .

.

.

.

.

.

368 400 100 600 170 200 13

.

.

.

totall

4

100 068 200 500 4134 400 050 100 s.

Sum

d.

24

.

659 17

d.

6

of

By

S a

ti)e

AUBREY EDWARDS.

field naturalist in

way I wish to bring Members of this Natural

a small

to the notice of the

Field Club the wonderful nightsoaring habit of the swifts. I will take it that my fellow-members are

History

well acquainted with this bird Cypselus apus of the family Cypsdidae of the order Picariae,

except as to

its

habit of roosting in the sky,

which was first discovered by my brother, Cyril Edwards (now Rector of Mottisfont, in Hampshire), and myself in 1886, and published by me in a letter to Nature of October 27, 1887.

My

excuse for bringing this matter before you is that, it has been published as just mentioned in 1887 and

though

later in the Selborne Society's

May, and by Mr. Wichell

Magazine

in Knowledge,

in 1890,

June

January 1897, and and again by 1,

often noticed in short paragraphs in The Field, myself in a lecture to the Bournemouth Natural Science

Society in December, 1912, very few people have heard of it, still believe it. And it is not everyone who has

and fewer

the opportunity of observing it. In a Field Club like this I feel sure there will be some who can and will investigate

THE NIGHT-SOARING OF THE SWIFTS. most wonderful exhibition and wonderful bird. this

of

wingmanship

51

of this

merry

I can take it for granted that you all know that the swift has nothing to do with the swallow, but is a relation of the That it is a dark olive nightjar and the hummingbird.

chin), weighing 1 Joz. and measuring the in with comparatively enormous stretch of length, 7Jin. its four claws all point forward That 15 inches. of J wing

brown bird (with a white

and are very sharp, that the sole of the foot extends joint above, and you might call the bird plantigrade. the foot is designed for clinging on to rocks and walls. the bird cannot

That the shape

sit

on a bough

;

it

can only

lie

to the

That That

along a ledge.

body is like a slightly flattened fish, with perfect streamlines and nothing projecting to catch the wind. That the bird does not seem to bend the last joint of its wings in flight, but always keeps them widely stretched, never folded back like those of the swallow. That its dark brown eye is deeply set with an embrasure cut out so that the bird can see straight ahead. That it arrives in pairs in the first week in May and leaves about the llth of August the last to come and the first to go. That it pairs for life, and comes back to the same nest year after year. That its one note is a shrill scream, which, when uttered in chorus as the birds are flying round in rings, is the most joyous of

all

in spite of

of the

the birdsongs in this land. You will know that, all the bird books say, the swift, if unwounded

what

and in good health, can rise from the level ground if it has headroom and is not soaked in long, wet grass. That it never settles on the ground or at any other place than its own nest, except when it is exploring for a nesting-place.

That its

it

does everything in the air except

eggs, incubate,

and feed

its

make

its nest,

lay

That it eats, drinks, nest on the wing.

young.

mates, and gathers materials for its That it roosts on the wing, I am not taking for granted that you know.

But

many

if

you have

from a Church where and have studied them for the

lived a few yards

pairs of swifts nested,

THE NIGHT-SOARING OF THE SWIFTS.

52

your life, and have read Gilbert White's on the swift in his Natural History of Selborne, monograph the eggs two or sometimes three take that know will you 19 to 21 days to hatch, and that the young, which are blind That they for nine days, take six weeks to reach maturity. remain in the nest, never leaving it till they fly to Africa probably without resting. That these and all other summer migrants come here only to breed, and leave as soon as the best

part

of

young are ready to fly and that, unlike the swallows, the That the hen alone tends the swifts have only one brood. young. That its nest is bound together by the glutinous And doubtless, if you have had my saliva of the swift. ;

you have, when you realised the difficulty they have in procuring materials in the air, scattered feathers from the soundholes and watched them race for these, and noted how, though not a swift was in sight at first, soon the air was full of the dark forms capturing feather after feather till they seemed to have long white moustaches streaming out on each side. And when you have been watching up opportunities,

amongst the bells in the church tower, and taking notes of dates day after day, you may have been set back a whole year by a wretched mouse killing the bird you were watching to ascertain its rate of growth. You will know what beautiful glossy birds the young ones are, with their quill feathers edged with light and with their pink feet. You will know

that the swift can fast for a long time, but that cold weather numbs and eventually kills it. That its food consists exclusively of winged insects, which it cannot take except in air, as it is too highly specialised to be able to pick a fly off a window. You will know what merry and playful birds

the

are, and that they have been evolved for a life in the air. thought the members might like to be reminded of a few the interesting facts they know about the swifts before

they I of

coming to the point of

this

paper

The Night-soaring

of the

Swifts. If

you

you

will

will see

watch the

them

all

swifts at sunset

on a

gather together and

fly

fine

evening

about

in all

THE NIGHT-SOARING OF THE SWIFTS.

53

directions, like distracted spirits, for some time. Then, as the will see them get into order, form them-

dusk creeps on, you

and ascend

selves into a flock,

into the sky in wide spirals,

will disappear from sight again, and at last they will rise so high that they are lost to the sight of the unaided eye, though with a binocular you can see them for some minutes longer. Then the sound ceases, and the stars are out.

screaming

all

the time.

several times, but

They

come round

If after watching them up you had sat on a tombstone under the eaves where they build, till half -past ten (with watchers on the other side of the church) to make sure that no bird returned to the nests, and on other nights alone till eleven, you would know each time that they didn't come

back to their nests that night. At first say till the first of June all the birds go up together, but when the eggs are laid the hen stays at home and a male bird may often be seen driving a late -flying hen back to the nest before he goes up with the others. Mr. W. A. Wichell, the author of The Evolution of Bird Song, ;

pointed out the meaning of this performance to me the swoop of the one bird at the other and the escape of the latter, last.

who, however,

White

feed in the evening. tails

is

always brought back to the nest at come out to

of Selborne notices that the hens I

proved

this

by cutting some

of their

square.

no question that the swifts go up into the air out on a fine night, and that they stay away till the but what proof is there that they remain on the morning ? wing Though convinced that they do, I cannot prove it, and, though I have watched them up a hundred times, I have never seen them come down again. But a farm boy to whom Mr. W. H. Hudson was talking, near Wells, told him that they remained flying about all night, and that he had often seen them rush straight down as if falling from the sky at the same place soon after sunrise, when he was crow-scaring. This is told in " Nature in There

is

of sight

;

THE NIGHT-SOARING OF THE SWIFTS.

54

Downland," and the boy said that he had found

it

out for

And Mr. Edward Hart, of the Bird Museum himself. Christchurch, tells me that he also found out some 14 or

at

15

years ago that the swifts ascend and spend the night in the air, and that he has counted them up at sunset and counted

them down at sunrise. That is as near as I can get to proof. " If anyone should say They go and roost at a "

Why

I can only reply, and roost in distant

should they

cliffs

which

?

is

distance'*

Why should they go the only reasonable

suggestion that can be made when they have their own snug nests at hand, in which they do rest when the night is " not fine enough for them to ascend ? Many a time have I watched them make a trial trip and then come down again and go into their own proper nests because the weather was

not good enough.

Of course

it is

no question

of food.

I believe it is sheer

delight in their strength of wing which sends them up. And, as for keeping there, very little exertion would be required for a swift to balance itself with its

a

summer

head to the wind during

night.

Roosting in the sky

The

is

quite an easy matter for the swifts.

in people believing it. difficulty I hope the members of this Field

opportunity

is

will investigate the matter.

Club who have the

Cerarfc of QTrent, fatni

Itjis

By Rev.

E. H.

BATES HARBIN, M.A.

an amplification of my remarks when the Field Club Church on the llth September, 1912 (Vol. XXXIV., I offer it on the ground that the two families of Storke p. xxxvi.) and Gerard, whose history is here pieced together, were of Dorset origin, and that Trent itself is now a part of Dorset.]

[This paper

is

visited Trent

JTEHESE

notes deal with two distinct subjects. The part gives a fuller account of the descent

first

of

the Manor of Trent than has yet been or even For the possible.

attempted

numerous copies Public

Records

of I

and extracts from the

am

greatly indebted

to

Mr. E. A. Fry, who has also provided references to Hutchins and other printed authorities,

and made valuable suggestions on doubtful second

part

I

endeavour

to

present

points.

the

In the

accumulative "

evidence which assigns the authorship of the Particular " " " and Coker's Survey of Dorset Description of Somerset

Thomas Gerard of Trent. For ease of reference the Somerset Survey is quoted throughout the first part as by

to

Gerard.

THOMAS GERAED OF TRENT.

56

I.

The early history of Trent has been very fully recorded by Mr. J. Batten and Mr. T. Bond.* It will suffice to state here that on the death of William de Braose, temp. Hen. III., his great property, including Trent, was divided between his three

Eva

sisters

Eleanor wife of

:

wife of William de Cantilupe,

Humphrey de Bohun,

and Maud wife

of Roger Lord Mortimer of Wigmore. Eva Cantilupe's third was bestowed on the Priory of Studley in Warwickshire Eleanor and Bohun's third eventually passed to the Young family ;

;

the fortunes of

Maud

Mortimer's share are the subject of this In the reign of Edward III. it was the

part of the notes.

property of Sir Thomas de Testwood and

John of

Testwood,

in

1358. t

Sir

in

West,

who exchanged

Mary

his

wife

for

the

it

with

Manor

the parish of Eling, near Southampton,

Thomas was descended from a younger

arms of used the branch of the Cantilupes, and " that family on his seal yet circumscribed with his own name," as Gerard had noticed on a seal in his own custody. f

"As for John Testwood de Trent by The author proceeds he was father of a second John, and he of a third John whose inheritance fell by his only daughter and heir Isolda unto Thomas Lane, and this in the same manner to John Storke, whose predecessors had long remained in :

his exchange,

Dorsetshire."

add anything to this account of the family. be found in the V. C. H. of Hants, IV., 549. In 1378 John and Mary Testwood released to John Harewelle, Bishop of Bath and Wells, an acre of land and the advowson It

is difficult

Some references

to

will

*

Som. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. Proc., XX., ii., 113; Trent; Batten XXI., ii., 28, Honor of Odcomb and Barony of Brito T. Bond. Henceforward simply Proc. Ped. Fin., divers cos., 32 Ed. III., t Dorset Records, XVIII., 153

J.

;

;

;

545. J Particular Description,

Somerset Record Soc., XV., 176.

THOMAS GERARD OF TRENT.

57

The Bishop probably obtained make provision for the Rev. Richard Harewel (Herwell), perhaps a nephew, who was Rector of Trent in 1402 and afterwards he disposed of his right to other parties. | In 1396 John Testwood and Elizabeth his wife made a settlement of lands in Chilton of the

Church

of Trent.*

this grant to enable

him

to

;

life, with remainder These lands were resettled in

Cantelo for the benefit of Elizabeth for her

John and

to

his

heirs.

1405.J his will in July, 1412. He in to be buried the of St. body chapel Mary in the church of Trent, and left ten shillings for the sustentation

The

John Testwood made

last

directed his

the

of

work

of

the said

church.

He mentions

his

wife

Elizabeth, his daughter Isolda, and Thomas Lane, whom Gerard records to be his son-in-law, and father of a daughter

and

heiress married to

John Storke.

In 1430 John Storke and Alice his wife are given in a

and

of

service

to

Sir

list

Thomas

persons owing homage Beauchamp, of Whitelackington, in Somerset, but there is nothing to show whether the lady was his second wife (see ||

post) or the

daughter of Thomas Lane.

The marriage must have taken place before 1428, since the Feudal Aid for that year enumerated John Storke, John Botreaux, and the Prioress of Studley as joint owners of Trent. If As Storke was party in a Final Concord in 1416 he was then of full age, and must have been born not later than 1395. He owned property in Blandford Forum which may have descended to him from Simon Storke, who in 1392 settled the same quantity of tenements, &c., in Chyping

*

f

Fed. Fin., 2 Ric. II., 18. S. R. S., XVII., Weaver, Somerset Incumbents, 201.

J Fed. Fin. 20 Ric. II., 31, S. S. R. S. XXIL, 18.

S.R.S.,

XVI.,

R.

103.

S.,

XVIL,

167

S.R.S.,

XXII.,

189.

59.

||

Fed. Fin., 8 Hen. VI., 91.

If

Feudal Aids, IV., 375.

;

6

Hen. IV.,

45,

THOMAS GERARD OF TRENT.

58

Blandford on himself and Matilda his wife, with remainder to William Stork and Juliana his wife.* John Stork was evidently a man of considerable ability in the

and standing

county of Dorset.

He

is

frequently

found in Final Concords, acting as a trustee for one of the

was in During the long reign of Henry VI. he besides sitting as nearly every Commission of the Peace, for Government nominated Assistant Judge at Assizes, and On business generally. He died early in the next reign. was entered order an IV. the 24th January, 4 Edw. (1464), on the Fine Roll (No. 273) to take an inquisition on John parties.

Storke gent deceased, but unfortunately this inquisition not in existence.

is

widow, had previously been married to John and the inquisitions Petyr. She died on 6th December, 1474, no property in held she that taken after her death show at her Bagber, near Somersetshire, and that property his

Alice,

Sturminster Newton, was given in dower by her first husband, to which her grandson, William, son of John Petyr, deceased,

was

heir.f

In a fine of 1446 John Storke

from which growing up.

and

it

is

described as

Thomas Inge

(Ynge), of Gorton

died almost immediately after his father. for

senior,"

may be inferred that another John was now He was married about 1460 to Agnes, daughter

heiress of

Rolls

"

12th

January, 1465-6

is

Denham, but

On

the Patent

entered a licence for

William Kayleway to enfeoff Agnes late the wife of John Storke of his Manor of Corston (Gorton) held in chief to hold the same to herself and the heirs of her body, with remainder

On the Fine Roll of Inge. an order dated 10th May, 1466, to

to the right heirs of

Thomas

6 Ed. IV. (275 m. 22)

is

hold an inquisition on John Stork for lands in Dorset. But again, unfortunately, the inquisition is not in existence.

*

Fed. Fin. 16 Ric.

II.,

95

;

| Inq. p.m. Alice Stork, 14

Dors. Records, XX., 217. Ed. IV., 12.

THOMAS GERARD OF TRENT.

59

There were two sons, John his successor, and Tristram,

bom

in 1465.

Collinson gives an account of the Inge family under Corston " in his custody Gerard, who had (III., 346).

near Bath

ancient charters and deeds of the manor," rightly them to Gorton Denham, and concludes by stating

many

assigned "

from whose heir generally

(of

Inge)

by the Storkes

it

"

devolved on the Comptons, late owners of it (p. 201). It is probable that Agnes Storke remarried Roger Norman. The Patent Roll on 16th Nov., 1484, records a licence to (but not Kayleway) to grant Gorton to Roger Norman for life, remainder to John Stork and the heirs of his body, remainder to the right heirs of Thomas Inge. John Storke (III.) was married by 1483, as in that year he

several trustees

conveyed

his interest in the

Blandford property to trustees

as dower for his wife Margaret, a daughter of John Wadham, He died 20th October (Oxfordshire senior, of Merifield.

In the inquisition), or 9th October, 1485 (Dorset ditto). in the former county he held the Manor of Burton Ynge latter certain tenements at Blandford which had belonged ;

John Storke, and settled by him as above, and lands in Bradford Abbas, Underdo wne, Lye, and Wareham. The Somersetshire inquisition is missing, but from to his grandfather

the particulars collected after the death of Tristram Stork, it appears that the family estate included part of Trent, and lands in Gorton, Holway, Crothorne, and Charlton Canvyle.

There were no children, and his heir was his brother Tristram, * An annuity of forty aged twenty years and a half. from his Bradford was shillings property given to John, son and heir apparent of Peter Bamfield Esq. (of Hardington).

Margaret Storke remarried Robert Gilbert, son of John Denham. f Robert out-lived his wife, and died 12th November, 1537. The inqusiition

Gilbert of Witcombe, in Gorton

*

Inq. p.m.

t Inq.

p m.

John Storke,

in Vol.

I.

Hen. VII., pp.

56, 57.

Tristram Stork, 24 Hen. VIII., Vol. 54,

73.

THOMAS GERARD OF TRENT.

60 p.m.

incidentally

gives

the

information

that

Margaret's

father was John Wadham.* Tristram Storke may have received his Christian name from Tristram Burnell, of Newton Surmaville, near Yeovil, who was a friend of his grandfather, John Storke. He was

returned as one of the gentry resident in Somersetshire temp. Henry VII., f married Alice, daughter of Robert Bingham,

Bingham's Melcombe, and died 18th August, 1532, leaving

of

four daughters co-heiresses.

His property extended into four counties, and the information given in the inquisitions shows how it was divided. J Johanna, aged 30, wife of Richard Compton, received Gorton

Denham, Holway, and Crothorne

Isabella, aged 28, wife Burton Ynge (Bourton), Seymer, Oxfordshire Anne, aged 26, wife of John Larder, received lands at Hinton Admiral and Christchurch Twyneham, and Mary, aged 24, the wife of William Gerard Hants " (Jerard), my great-grandfather from whom though shee

Alexander

of

;

received

;

;

were the youngest sister the principall house of them (i.e. Trent) is descended to myself." The surname of Gerard is not uncommon in Somerset and Dorset, and is often found under the form Jerarde. Curiously

enough there was a family called Jerarde resident in the neighbouring parish of Sandford Orcas, who are frequently described as Gerard. The arms of the two families are, however, quite distinct, that of Jerarde of Sandford being Arg. a chevron gules between three ermine spots, while Gerard of Trent bore quarterly Gerard and Brinn (of Lancashire).

Thomas Gerard of Trent, the author, evidently believed that his family came originally from Lancashire, where the *

Inq. p. m.

f Collinson J Inq. p.

Storke

(06.

8

Robert Gilbert, 30 Hen. VIII. I.,

m.

C. Vol. 60, 109.

XL. Tristr.

Storke

Aug. 1546), Vol.

:

Vol. 54, 62

85, 34.

Particular Description, 177.

;

54, 73

;

54, 75

;

Alice

THOMAS GERARD OF TRENT.

61

found in very early records. He included many arms taken from the Lancashire pedigrees in his heraldic tree painted in Trent Church, but it is certain that according to the account in Hutchins' Dorset I., 609, the

name

is

coats of

ancestor had

moved southward

before these alliances were

He

did not enter his pedigree at the Heralds Visitabut his relation tions for either Dorset or Somerset in 1623

made.

;

John Gerard of Longhide in Purbeck, recorded his pedigree, and also gave a shield which contained the bearings of no Lancashire alliances, but a number of old Dorset families and also included several quarterings which belonged ;

exclusively to the Trent branch of the family by the marriage I have a strong suspicion that the with Mary Storke.

Heralds, to whom Thomas Gerard was well known, either by accident or design assigned his shield to the Purbeck branch

without proper enquiries. of The Gerard pedigree begins with William Gerard Bremhill, in Lancashire, who married Jane, sister and co-heir Bremhill. Two generations are skipped, and grandson, also William, who was born about found at Friar Mayne, co. Dorset, and married to

of Peter de

their great

1400, is Edith, daughter and heir of Thomas Meeres of Osmington. Of this marriage there were two sons, the younger, Robert,

The

being of Longhide in Purbeck.

and

heir of

elder son

John was the

who married Margaret, daughter

father of another John,

Walter Wells of Tincleton, and had issue another

He John, with whom we find ourselves on firm ground. married firstly Dorothy, daughter of Paul Cook of Sussex, * and secondly

in

1528 Isabella Plompton, widow.

He

died

property in Broadway and Nottington, West Waddon in Portesham, and a moiety of other property in West Totton and Chickerell, and four burgages in Dorchester. William Gerard is his eldest son

24th August,

and

heir,

*

and

1542,

is

Brown

leaving

forty years old

Collections at

f Inq. p. m.

J. G.

;

and more, t

Taunton

C., 65,

Castle, Vol. 23, 134.

No. 43.

THOMAS GERAED OF TRENT.

62

"

Freer There were also several other children. John of " 12th was 1558. a will which He made July, proved Mayn mentions his wife Edith, daughter of George Turberville, brother Sir Henry, knight of St. John of Jerusalem, Elizabeth his brother's daughter, and his nephew Thomas. * Fauntleroy, and Alice became a nun. f Dorothy married William married Mary Storke, and settled at Trent. In his

manor house (long since destroyed) were shields bearing the arms of Testwood and of many others. J He died in January, 1567-8, and was buried in Trent Church, where plain slabs marking the graves the windows of the hall of the old

were

of the family

visible until a recent restoration.

From

dated 12th and proved the 31st January, 1567-8 and the inquisition, it appears that he held the Manors of his will

||

Broadway and Waddon alias West Waddon, and lands in Nottington and Crocketswaye in Broadway. His only son and heir was Thomas, aged forty years and more. His daughters were Elizabeth Martin ^[ and Julian Pagys.**

Mary Gerard, the She

heiress of Trent, died 28th

left directions in

March, 1577.

her will to be buried in Storkes

He

in

The inquisition held after her death shows that she owned the Manor of Trent held of the honour of Trent Church.

Trowbridge. Thomas Gerard married Isabella, daughter and co-heiress of Leonard Willoughby of Toners Puddle, by whom he had a

He

numerous family.

*

f J

||

Brown,

Brown

F.,

Som.

Wills,

died 18th November, 1583, having

I.,

46.

Collections, Vol. 16, 811

C., Vol. 150, 185,

32, 133.

Dorset.

Of Park Pale in Tolpuddle Rutland 3. 11

**

;

Particular Description, p. 177. Som. Wills I., 40.

Her

first

died in 1559

Som.

;

;

she died in January, 1587-8

husband was George Milburne Cheyney 49.

of Milborne Port

Will,

Wills,

I.,

40.

Inq., Chanc. ser. II., Vol. 195, 123.

Will

:

he

THOMAS GERARD OF TRENT. desired to be buried in the

Church

He belonging

63

to his house in the

The

inquisition shows that he held undiminished the family property in both counties, and his will directed that portions should be paid to his younger sons, of

Trent.

James, John, and Thomas, and to his daughter Elizabeth.* William his eldest son succeeded, being about thirty years of

He married Mary, daughter of Sir Christopher Allen age. of the Mote, Kent and died 1st May, 1604, aged 52 years. Collinson (II., 386) gives the inscription on his monument . ;

?.''

Gulielmo

armigero, ex antiqua Gerardorum familia in agro Lancastriensi oriundo, monumentum hoc Gerard,

imposuit uxor ejus maestissima, equitis aurati cetat.

vero

militis

:

obiit

filia

May

1,

Christopheri Allen,

Anno. Dom. 1604,

52.

SUCK,

As he died intestate administration was granted to his widow which was afterwards renounced, and a fresh ;

administration granted to the Honourable Lord Paget, a cousin of the widow, during the minority of the children,

Thomas, Mary, and Ethelreda. Another daughter, Anne, died 25th January, 1596, and was buried in Trent Church. The widow outlived her son Thomas by a few weeks, and died 30th December, 1634. Her will was made on 22nd Oct.,

and proved 5th January, 1634-5. She mentions her daughter Lady Hansby, the daughter of her son Edward Gerard, and certain grandchildren, including a Roper. Her life interests in the Manors of Broadway and Nottington were in 1607 to Thomas Eliot for granted forty years on account -^, of her recusancy and this | declining towards Roman Catholicism may have been the reason why she did 1634,

;

not administer the estate of her late husband. In 1600 Broadway was returned as belonging to Thomas Gerard, a recusant but either the date or the Christian name is in error. In the Recusant Rolls for the latter part of the sixteenth ;

*

Som.

t

Brown

Wills,

I.,

46.

Collections,

Inq., Ser. II., Vol. 208, 158. 136.

XXIII.,

THOMAS GERARD OF TRENT.

64

century, under Trent, William * servants, are entered.

and Mary Gerard, with some

inquisition held after the death of William Gerard returns that he held the family property undiminished in

The

Trent, Nottington, Broadway, and Waddon ; and that his heir is his son Thomas, aged eleven years on the 17th March last past, 1603-4. f

is

Thomas Gerard was therefore born 17th March, 1593. He very probably the Thomas Gerard who matriculated from

Gloucester Hall, Oxford, on 18th June, 1610, though the age The next thing known about him is given as sixteen years.

Robert Coker of he was so proud of the arch separating

his marriage in 1618 to Anne, daughter of Mappowder, in Dorsetshire. Of this alliance

is

that he caused to be painted on the

soffit

the Storke aisle from the nave of Trent Church an elaborate

on one side the alliances of his own the other those of the Coker family. J and on family, the evidence on given in Part II. of these notes to Relying heraldic tree, showing

reckon

Thomas Gerard as

tion of Somerset, this

man and

the author of the Particular Descripwill give a very fair idea of the

book

mental equipment. One point comes out very Whatever the theological leanings of his parents plainly. he was decidedly anti-Roman Catholic, and was fond of a sly dig at the weaknesses of its professors. He was an enthusiastic herald and genealogist, and frequently apologises to the his

reader for providing so much of his favourite studies. He was well known to the landowners of Somerset and Dorset,

and was evidently given

carte

title-deeds of their lands.

He

blanche is,

to

transcribe the

however, careful not to

put down anything that might cause trouble, and writes, " you must not look for tenures here, for too manie looke into them." He had a great admiration for Camden (P. 2.) ;

*

Som. and Dor. N. and

t Inq. p. m. %

;

Q., V., Art. 86.

C., 282, 53.

A good illustration will be found in Collinson II.,

has identified nearly

all

the arms in his paper.

384.

Mr. Batten

THOMAS GERARD OF TRENT. and having to point out an Britannia, he continues,

"

error in a

work

65

so general as the

from me to tax him, whose bookes I was never worthy to bear after him." (P. 101.) He had read the national records in London, and his farr be

it

knowledge of their contents is remarkable, though equalled by John Smith of Nibley, a contemporary antiquary, who wrote the Lives of the Berkeleys. Another member of this fraternity, William Burton, author of a history of LeicesterAs the owner of shire, seems to have been a personal friend. Leland's collections Burton certainly allowed Gerard to consult and copy such parts as interested him. Unfortunately an effort about 1615 to revive the original Society of Antiquaries, which came to an end at the death of Queen

was stopped by a hint that King James took a

Elizabeth,

mislike of the Society and Gerard had no opportunity of discussing this favourite subject with congenial friends on visits to London.

little

;

In the midst of his labours his wife died on 25th June, 1633, monument in Trent Church states, one son

leaving, as her

Thomas Gerard died on 13th October, The inquisition enumerates the family estates in Somerset and Dorset, and gives as his heirs his daughters,

and

five daughters.

1634.

Elizabeth aged twelve, Anna aged ten, Ethelreda aged nine, Annie aged six, and Frances aged four years, the son having died before his father.

Thomas Gerard

died intestate,

and administration was

granted to his nephew, John Gerard, on 17th February, 1634-5. The estates were divided between the four sisters Annie died 9th October, 1637. Elizabeth who grew up ;

M.P. for Weymouth * Anna married Colonel Francis Wyndham and received Trent for her share Ethelreda married Edward Hyde, of West Hatch, in Wilts and Frances married John Wynter, of Dyrham, married

Bullen

Reymes,

;

;

;

co. Gloucester.

*

Som. and Dor. N. and

Q., IV., v.

THOMAS GERARD OF TRENT.

66

After Worcester fight in 1651, to Colonel and Mrs. Wyndham fell the dangerous task of providing for Charles II. for three

from the was conducted to Dorsetshire coast. King Mrs. was sheltered he where Hale, near Salisbury, by Mary Hyde, related to Edward Hyde, the brother-in-law of Mrs. Wyndham. After the restoration Anne Wyndham wrote an weeks while

his friends tried to find a

way

of escape

Failing this the

account of the King's sojourn at Trent, under the " Claustrum Regale Reseratum."

The male

line of

title of

her descendants died out in the third

and the relics of the royal visitor, a knife in a generation case and two worked caps, together with the portraits of Colonel Wyndham and his four sons, are preserved at Newton ;

having descended

Surmaville, Elizabeth,

to

the

who married William Harbin,

Colonel's

daughter

of that place.

II.

The second portion which shows that the

of these notes contains the evidence last

Thomas Gerard

of

Trent was the

"

" Particular Description of Somerset, and also " of Coker's of Dorset." This evidence is considered Survey

author of the

under four heads.

(1.)

Thomas Gerard wrote the "

(2.)

He

(3.)

This work

Particular Description."

also wrote a survey of Dorset. is

the Survey hitherto attributed to John

Coker. (4.)

This attribution has arisen from pardonable misunderstanding of certain passages in the Survey.

The following pages are based upon an exhaustive article by Mr. John Batten, F.S.A., in Som. and Dors. N. and Q., V., " Art. 83, Who Wrote Coker's Survey ? " and on my introduction to the Particular Description of Somerset Rec. Soc., XV.

;

Som.

THOMAS GERARD OF TRENT.

67

(I-)

As the manuscript

of the

"

"

has no title page nor introductory matter, the author and date have to be determined by internal evidence. The date can be found at " a sixth bell was added in the once. Under Queen Camel Description

yeare of grace 1633 by William Perry a parishioner," p. 197. " lie Brewers, now the seat of Mr. Walrond, at this present Sheriffe of the county." William Walrond filled that office in 1632-3. So the Description was being written out

Under

in 1633.

The author reveals himself in his account of Trent, p. 176. " The place which now gives me habitation." One of the " four daughters of John Storke was married unto William Gerard, my greate grandfather, from whom, though shee were the youngest sister, the principall house of them is descended to myself."

"

In

my

hall are the

arms

of

Test-

wood and many others," the former owners of Trent. In 1633 Thomas Gerard, the great grandson of William Gerard, had been living there for thirty years, having succeeded his father at the age of eleven. The author's Christian name comes out in his account of Odcombe, p. 104. Referring to the arms assigned to King Brute, he observes

:

"I am a

Thomas, and therefore hard of belief." It may therefore be considered proven that Thomas Gerard was the author. There is no difficulty in supposing that a gentleman of independent means from his youth upward could have made a survey of two adjacent counties by his fortieth year.

The account of Somerset is not complete, as the second but there are volume of the manuscript has disappeared been through had author the sufficient references to show that wife died on land. Gerard's the the length and breadth of husband bereaved and the 25th June, 1633, may have been stopped for a while, and have been unable to write out his notes before his own death in the autumn of ;

1634.

THOMAS GEEARD OF TRENT.

68

(2.)

"

Under Compton Pauncefoot the author writes Compton male of that ancient heire unto Keynes Humphrey passed and notable family of Keynes which I have spoken of at :

large in

my "Survey of Dorset."

(P. 188.)

In the account of

became the possession of Robert de Fitzpaine, Stogursey a noble Baron of whom I have spoken elsewhere." The " See at Aukland in Dorsetshire." Also marginal note is " The family of Everard by the under Luxborough (p. 17) heire of Bellott Lord of Frome Bellott in Dorset they removed thither, where if it you please you may finde more of them." " Under South Parrett, North Parrett. The first of these is in Dorsetshire, but, because as I remember I have over:

It

:

:

:

passed it there I will only lett you know that it belonged to the knightly family of Malbancke." (P. 64.) It is plain that the author of the Somerset Survey had already composed a similar Survey of Dorset, to which he was able to refer his readers, as if they would be found close It is quite probable that the two works were together.

form part by John Norden

originally intended to

of the

histories projected

in the reign of

series

of

county

James

I.*

(3.)

It is only natural that these references to family history should also be found in Coker's Survey but an examination ;

of the

two books brings out such a

close correspondence as

would be possible only in the case of the work of a single mind. Coker's Survey was printed in 1732 from a manuscript which had no title page, and this defect was common to the other

For a full account of the parallelisms copies then in existence. between these two anonymous works I must refer to Mr. Batten's article, which can only be summarized here. * Diet. Nat. Biog.,

XLL,

105.

Som. Rec.

Soc.,

XV.,

They

intro.

THOMAS GERARD OF TRENT. are both referred to as a

"

69

Particular Description."

They

both take the places described not by the local divisions of hundreds, but by following the courses of the rivers and streams. They both have identical and unusual terms and also peculiar expressions and epithets Both descriptions. books are full of heraldry. Each author committed the same error in making Francis Goodwin Bishop of Worcester instead ;

The Dorset Survey mentions the which was conferred in 1622 and this date is only eleven years before that of the Somerset Survey. By every test the two books are found to have been composed by the same person. of

Hereford,

Earldom

1617-34.

of Bristol,

;

(4.)

According to the evidence already given, the author lived so it is not to be expected that he would give the same personal clues to his identity in the Dorset in Somersetshire

;

Survey. The selection of a member of the Coker family seems to rest on the account of their ancestral home at Mappowder, where the author restrains his eulogy on the ancient

and respected family by remarking

"

that

it befits

me

not,

being a member of the House, to speak of it." But Thomas Gerard, being a son-in-law, might well consider himself a member of the family and that he was proud of the alliance ;

very evident by his causing an heraldic tree of the Coker arms to be painted on one side of the arch in Trent Church to

is

his own on the other. There is another personal reference under Tincleton " Walter Wells left only one daughter, temp. Ed. IV., married unto my predecessor John Gerard." The Episcopal register

match

:

(of Bristol),

"

under a

list

headed Incumbents or Lessees, gives A vacancy till 1579, during which

:

John. Gerarde d. 1576.

John Coker often occurs." This is the basis for the theory that John Gerard, who married Miss Wells before 1483, was a and incumbent of Tincleton, where he survived clergyman !

THOMAS GERARD OF TRENT.

70

Predecessor in both Surveys is used as an and the alliances in the Gerard equivalent to ancestor So this reference is really shield include the arms of Wells. until

1576

!

;

evidence for the Gerard authorship. Coker do not appear as clergy in any

John Gerard and John or registers and it

lists

;

quite probable that they were simply lay-lessees of the Another personal reference is found under rectorial tithes. " The bones of the founder are enclosed in a Abbotsbury is

:

dainty marble

coffin,

Gerard, as owner of

which

Waddon

I

have often seen." Thomas next parish to

in Portisham, the

Abbotsbury, had plenty of opportunities to see the ruins, which a resident at Mappowder or Tincleton would not possess. The scanty references to a Coker authorship are therefore

shown

Two

to be non-existent. difficulties

of the Survey.

under the name citations

confusion.

have arisen from

this incorrect description

The work has been of Coker, that a

so

often referred to

change to Gerard for future

would involve an unnecessary amount of The other, almost humorous, is the insertion in

the Dictionary of National Biography (Vol. XI., 251) of a of John Coker, which has to be regarded as a unique instance of a ghost-name in that valuable work. life

By Captain JOHN

E.

ACLAND,

F.S.A.

TN the Dorset County Museum two sets of hand-made buttons the

may

early

Milborne

sample of

be seen

one dating back to

century, from Andrew, and the other a the industry carried on at the

part

of

last

S.

present time at Lytchett Minster, Poole. " This button making, or buttony " as it

was termed

locally,

was an important

industry in the eastern parts of the county in former days, until in fact it was driven out of the field by the machine-made article. Through the kindness of Miss M.

am

able to give some interesting facts about this they were supplied to her by Mr. Samuel G. Case, whose words I shall use as far as possible. The clothwork button was the first to be made at Shaftes-

Mansel, I industry

;

bury and neighbourhood at the beginning of the 18th century by Abraham Case. It was made on a round disk with a hole in the centre the disk was made out of the horns of the Dorset sheep, and a small piece of white rag was fixed on the disk and then worked over the finer the work the higher the ;

;

price.

f

i

1

DORSET

72

"

BUTTON Y.

The high top buttons were used for

ladies' dresses,

and there

were flat ones as well, the polishing and finishing off being could earn done at Is. per gross by four expert women, who as 8 for much as been paid 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. daily, and have a month's work. The wire button

was brought out by a grandson of and another the reign of George II.

Abraham Case, in member of the family

;

started the trade at Bere Regis, in the He died in best and most extensive premises in the place. Case's built who Peter Case, 1758, and was succeeded by of the the on profits Street and Clayton Square, Liverpool,

|

button trade. of the 18th Century, Lady Caroline a school at Milton Abbey for 12 poor Darner established and taught reading, and instructed clothed were children, who in making buttons, the afterwards and in first

Towards the end

spinning,

industry being continued for many years. The central depot was established in 1803 at Milborne Stileham, a hamlet of Milborne S. Andrew, by Peter Case, his two nephews, George junior, and he was succeeded by and Henry, the latter being the father of the Mr. Case who furnished increased

these

notes.

stupendously.

At Milborne Depots

(he

were

says)

formed

the at

trade

Pydel-

Langton in the Isle of and Purbeck, Iwerne, Shaftesbury. At Langton and Shafteswas an kept permanently at the other places bury agent horses were kept to do the journeys on fixed days well known to the workers, who came in hundreds to exchange their buttons for goods and cash. Buttons were taken at the central depot, Milborne, on Fridays only, when the place was crowded like a fair. The London office was at 19, Addle Street, E.G., and the agent there did business with England, Ireland, and Scotland, with all the chief cities of Europe, and direct to Quebec, Boston, and New York. This was in the forties, and the office was held for 135 years for no other purpose than the sale of buttons, when the returns were from 10,000 to 12,000 per annum.

trenthide,

Hanley,

Woolbridge,

;

I

"

DORSET

The names

of

the

BUTTONY."

wire buttons were

73 '

mites,

bird's-eye,

spangles, shirt, jams, waistcoats, and outsizes, and four different-sized wire. The wires or rings were made from a roll of wire, burned, and twisted on a spindle, the nipped ends

put together and soldered by dipping in hot melted solder. This work was done by expert girls or boys called " winders and dippers," and others called " stringers " counted the The brass wire was rings and threaded them in lots of 144. from Birmingham, brought in waggons with very wide wheels, a ton, or ton and a-half, at a load. The price of the best work was 3s. 6d. or 3s. 9d. a gross, and it was done by the Mowlems

and other

families at Whitchurch,

who

could

make a

gross a

day.

The lower sorts of buttons were sometimes soiled, and this was remedied by placing them on yellow paper the next on dark blue and the best were quality papered paper very on pink. There were about a dozen expert paperers in Milborne Da vises and Lanes chiefly. The papers were had from a paper company in Upper Thames Street, London some women could earn double as much as others, an ordinary worker earning from 7s. 6d. to 9s. a week. This flourishing trade was not, however, destined to last, and it is curious that the year of the great Industrial Exhibition in London should have seen the death blow given to the famous Dorset industry. Mr. Case shall relate it in his own words " Perhaps you would like to learn something of Ashton's patent machine button and its disastrous effect on the handmade button. It was in the year of the great Exhibition (1851) that it was whispered among the people of East Dorset ;

;

;

:

only a few stray buttoners west of Puddletown), and the smash came at last, 1851-2-3, worse and worse. We employed in wire-makers, paperers, and but they were soon in a button workers, from 800 to 1,000 (for

there

were

;

state of poverty, some starving, and hundreds were sent off to Perth, Moreton Bay, and Quebec by the noblemen of the

county

;

about 350

left

Shaftesbury.

My

uncle and father

DORSET

74

"

BUTTONY."

dissolved partnership, and in 1849 or 1850 there was on hand but a stock of 14,500 worth of goods and buttons ;

my

continued his journeys to the chief towns. Ashton's buttons were becoming known everywhere, but I may state that in March, 1859, I sold in the City 856 worth of wire and uncle

still

cloth

worked buttons

in five days, all to

be delivered within a

month of purchase, and that was the last extensive sale of the hand-made button. My father was just upon being ruined, but the lords of the manors of Bere Regis and of Milborne stepped into the breach and saved him." In reply to an enquiry of my own, last year, the lady in charge of the Mission House, Lytchett Minster, writes " The button-making is done in the cottages as a spare time :

'

"

"

"

We have a depot in the village at which buttons are purchased, but the greater part of the business employment. is

"

done by post. Last year (1912) we sold

"and " "

'

so

material

When

38 worth, and paid for workers

36.

Mr. Case died we bought up

we have the

all

the old buttons,

entire stock."

This industry will, I fear, never again reach its former importance, and the comparison of the 38 worth sold now with the 10,000 worth sold when trade was at its best, is indeed a sad one for the button makers of Dorset.

f

f

Brasses of Dorset.

By W.

de

C.

PRIDEAUX,

L.D.S.,

Eng., F.R.S.M.

PART VIII.

>HE

continuation this year comprises seven brasses, two only being mentioned in Haines's list.

One a

is

a restored coat of arms, inserted below

rare

Crichel.

Norman-French For purposes

inscription at of comparison I

Long give

a

rubbing of Shakespeare's inscribed stone at Stratford-on-Avon and its partial counterpart atLydlinch. Two of the inscribed brasses are in the open air on tombs in Loders churchyard one, on a flat stone, is much defaced, as might be expected " " the second, on the east end of an altar tomb, is in good ;

;

and for its late period, 18th century, interesting. have two costume brasses from Shapwick, Maria Oke in the habit of an order, with lapdog at her feet the second, an inscribed effigy to Richard Charnock alias Hodgson, Vicar. Lastly, I show you the Norman-French inscription to John Gouys c. 1330. If this date be correct, and there is no reason to doubt it, the little brass is of the respectable age of condition, I

;

nearly 600 years.

76

ANCIENT MEMORIAL BRASSES OF DORSET. LODERS, ST.

Two (1.)

MARY MAGDALENE.

in the Churchyard.

Fixed by a central brass bolt through the stone to the east end of an altar tomb in a southern direction from the chancel wall. lOins. wide by 12ins. high. Size. Strong impaling Birt, with the Strong Description.

Position.

above. Strong, Gules an eagle displayed within a bordure engrailed or. Birt, Argent on a chevron gules between three bugle horns sable stringed crest

of the second as

out of a

crosses crosslet fitche or.

many

mural coronet

Cresfc,

a demi eagle with wings

or,

displayed of the last. Motto, The Eagle is Strong. On the north and south sides of the tomb are

dated inscriptions to many of the Strong family, from 1760 to 1796. (2.)

Prone upon a marble slab in a southern direction from the chancel wall.

Position.

Size.

12ins.

by

17Jins.

A

rectangular brass, having in an arched portion above the inscription the crest of Marsh, out of a mural crown gules a horse's head argent This crest was confirmed to ducally gorged or.

Description.

Marsh

Marton and Langden, co. Kent, in 1602. Underneath lie the remains of John

of

Inscription.

Marsh

who

|

Worth

of

in the parish of

died Deer. 16th 1765

Elizabeth

Aged 77

wife

his

Deer. 25th 1755

1756 Aged 24 1759 the sons of |

who

|

Netherbury Gent,

aged 60 years, and of 22nd 1780

died Feby.

George Marsh who died 22 years, Rob Marsh May 1st Aged And of Richd Marsh Aug. 8th years,

and

years,

|

|

|

also of

|

|

the

above named John and

Elizabeth reflect, amend, no length, Eternity no end.

Reader, pause, Life has

Strong LODERS.

o a o

ANCIENT MEMORIAL BRASSES OF DORSET.

77

LYDLINCH, ST. THOMAS A BECKET. Hutchins states that the Blackmore brass I found what I consider to be its lower portion securely fixed within an oak frame on the west wall of the porch.

Position. is

in the chancel.

is

by SJins. wide. The Shakespeare slab by SJins. The upper edge of this fragment is

21ins. long

Size.

33ins.

Description.

straight, the lower of

an ornamental

outline, point-

ing, I think, to the

upper portion having been cut away. This piece speaks of bodies, and below has the initials of Richard Blackmore, Priest, 1767. The Revd. S. F. Hooper, who has taken every care of this brass, knows of no other portion. Richard Blackmore* signs the registers of Lydlinch as Rector from 1745 to 1756, and from 1757 to 1767 as Curate children of Richard and Elizabeth Blackmore were baptised, and some buried, during ;

incumbency, and it is reasonable to suppose they were buried below the chancel, in a spot formerly

his

indicated

by

this brass

when

in a

complete condi-

tion.

very interesting from its inscription is similarity to that of Shakespeare on his Stratford

The

slab.

LYDLINCH.

GOOD S FOR JESUS' SAKE FORBEAR TO MOVE THE BODIES THAT REST HERE. ir

,

R.B.P 1767.

The Registers

of Lydlinch,

The Parish Register

Society.

ANCIENT MEMORIAL BRASSES OF DORSET.

78

STRATFORD-ON-AVON

.

GOOD FREND FOR JESVS SAKE FORBEARE TO DIGG THE DVST ENCLOASED HEARE, BLESE BE Y MAN Y SPARES THES STONES, T

AND CVRST BE HE Y MOVES MY BONES.

SHAPWICK, ST. BARTHOLOMEW.

(1.)

Position.

Now

mural on the west wall

formerly on the

floor of the

of

north

aisle,

north or Husey

aisle

(Hutchins). Size.

16Jins. high

by

16ins. wide.

A

small but fine effigy of Maria, heiress Description. of Lord de Champneys, standing, habited in long to the feet, near which a small dog an ornamental collar around the neck. having in the robes of an order assumed shortly Possibly before death. She married, first, Sir William Tourney, and afterwards John Oke in the reign of Richard II. Thomas Oke of New Sarum, whose will is dated 1430 and proved 1434, was perhaps

gown reaching lies,

their son.

Inscription.

Hie

Champneys

Position.

Now

Maria, heres ux' Joh'is

Shapwyk

dom' Oke q'r

um

de

a'i'ab'z

Ame'.

p'piciet d's.

(2.)

jacet

in

mural on the west wall

of

formerly on the floor of the north or

north

aisle,

Husey

aisle.

(Hutchins.) Size.

14fins,

by

An

15Jins.

inscribed brass having border with roses at the corners.

Description.

an unusual

o

'*

~

fv ''-^*''.

'*'

i

-.y**?.

CC

IS

ii%0rfanp^ to$ date $$i$8Mjm /Ifoaria

fee.

SHAPWICK.

Jobn

Ke,

SHAPWICK.

Cbernoft, l^icar,

SHAPWICK.

3obn

LONG CRICHEL.

ANCIENT MEMORIAL BRASSES OF DORSET.

79

Inscription.

Quercus sub petra jacet hie intra Johannes Per preces celices poscens q'd sit sibi data Pro culpa venia per ipsum sepe peracta :

nunc mundi periculosa, vermes sic jubet velle divinum, sociis anima Deus omne p'evum

Stultissime vita

Nunc

Sie sc'is

:

me

Celsi mat'troni

Q'd med

viva semp' benedicta.

delicta tradantur ut oblivioni,

Sic queso

Et

:

socii

da veniam

permaneam Ergo te, Rex Xpiste, sic

:

me

Ame'.

In the chancel near the Communion Table.

Position. Size.

ac purificatus

precor s'cus tuus ut

auxilii collocet vita perhenni.

Angelus (3.)

ut indicet inmaculatus

:

mundus

20ins. high

A

Description.

by

14ins. wide.

tonsured figure of a priest with hands

and joined

uplifted

Hie

Inscription.

in prayer.

D

jacet

quondam

Hogeson,

a'i'e' p'piciet'

Ricard'

vicarius

eccl'ie,

alias cui'

De.'

LONG CRICHEL, The Church stands

in the

ST.

MARY.

Manor

of Crichel Govis.

In the chancel on a grey

Position.

Chernok,

istius

slab,

near the

north wall. Size.

14ins.

by

2ins.

Inscription.

Johan' Gouys gist icy Dieu de salme eyt mercy. This very early Norman-French inscripDescription. tion has been inlaid in the broader end of a coffin-

shaped

comparatively modern origin middle is a shield bearing the Gowis or Govis of London. Argent, a

slab

inserted about

arms

of

of

its

;

80

ANCIENT MEMORIAL BRASSES OF DORSET. lion's

head erased gules.

Roger Dobyn

to

"

John de Govys presented

Longa Kurchel

"

in 1324.

This

near this date, c. 1340, when NormanFrench was spoken at the English Court. Inscriptions to priests were then for the most part in Latin, brass

is

the canonical language, while those of knights and ladies were in French, and rarely found after 1420.

This

is

probably one of the oldest brasses in Dorset.

Norman-French compare with in the nave century, being "

inscriptions being rare,

this of

example two others,

Chinnor,

Oxfordshire,

we may

viz.,

that

late

14th

:

Adam Rameseye

gist

ycy Dieu de sa alme

eit

mercy Ame," and that

in Hellesdon Church, Norfolk,

c.

1360, all

but very beautiful in their simplicity " Richard de Heylesdone & Beatrice sa feme

being brief

gisont icy Dieu de

lo'

almes

eit

m'cy amen."

auli still

By

N

E. A.

obtaining in Dorset

RAWLENCE.

the remote villages of Dorset, and especially of the Blackmore Vale, a great deal of superstition

and

folk-lore

old inhabitants

;

still

lingers

but the

amongst the

difficulty is to get

behind the scenes in order to find it out, as there appears to be a subconsciousness that

some

such dealings are unorthodox, and possibly fear of ridicule. In some cases a saying will only drop

out when it just illustrates the circumstance. In one instance " saw." Shortly a farmer illustrated something by an old afterwards I asked him to repeat it while I wrote it down, but for the life of him he could not do so. It flowed out Realising that with the right place. relics of the past will all these present generation probably

naturally enough in

its

and that, with education and the advent of books, and papers, improved locomotion, the time is gone for ever when the children sat round the cottage hearth and heard " from Vather the do'ens an' zay'ens o' gran-ver," about five disappear,

FOLK-LORE AND SUPERSTITIONS IN DORSET.

82

or six years ago I set myself the interesting task of trying to My fish out and gather up the fragments that remain.

me unusual opportunities, and perhaps I of these a natural ability to get into the confidence possess old folk, and thus get behind their inner mind, or at some old a piece of paper in the receipt or charm that is written on The of some drawer. corner in the or hidden Bible, Family profession gives

result of this pleasant inquisition has resolved itself into of man and beast, (1) Remedies for ailments

three heads

Old customs and games, and (3) Old saws and sayings. As the time at my disposal is short, I only propose to deal with some of the remedies affecting poor humanity which I have been able to glean and if by disclosing these sovereign cures I bring ruin to the dental and medical professions, I tender my humble apologies and regrets. First, let me say that except in one or two instances I propose to use fictitious names for persons and places, as I could not betray these (2)

;

confidences.

In 1907 I obtained, over a cup of tea, the following from a dear old couple. The old lady fished out two charms from the leaves of the family Bible.

To cure toothache As Peter was sitting by the river Jordan, Jesus passeth by " and He said to Peter, Why sittest thou here ? " and Peter "

Because I have the toothache."

Jesus saith unto me, and I will heal thee. May it be done to all those that carry these words about them. It shall be even as thou sayest it." said,

him,

"

Arise, follow

To make the charm

effectual, a lady must write it for a a and gentleman, gentleman for a lady, and the party receiv" it must not Thank you " for it. ing say A charm for nose bleeding

Let the blood stand

still

as the waters did in the river

Jordan, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen."

To our present minds such statements appear to be somebut behind them lingers a remnant of that

what shocking

;

FOLK-LORE AND SUPERSTITIONS IN DORSET. faith

which enabled the Apostolic Church to heal

83

all

manner

of diseases.

The

man

then thought that his turn was come, and that his vather zuffered tar'ble from rheumatics," and that he heard of a wonderful cure which some old man in the neighbourhood had. So he sent two of us boys to get the receipt and take it into Yeovil to be made up.

told

old

me

"

How

We

brought it back and put the bottle on the mantelshelf, where it remained for a long time and so long as it was " vather niver had a twing of the rheumatics." But there one night we were larkin and at hos' play in the kitchen and ;

knocked the bottle

off

the shelf and broke

" it,

enough vather 's rheumatics corned back agin."

I

and zure

am

that I could not get the ingredients of this wonderful the very presence of which scared the microbes away.

He

me

sorry elixir,

"

That verdigrease from a pump is an a highly antiseptic treatexcellent cure for the shingles," also told

ment The

!

following incident was related to me in 1910 by a leading auctioneer in the county. He had been suffering from the toothache, and on the way to the dentist he met

an old farmer "

client.

"

Wer' be you gwain

"

?

said

he.

To the

dentist to have a tooth out," said my friend. " " dwont 'e goo there. I'll tell 'e Lor'," said the farmer, how to cure it. Now you goo to a young w'oak tree and put

yer y'arms round it, an' mark the place wher' yer vingers mate. Then het a zlit in the bark wi' yer knife, then put yer left han' behin' yer head and pull out zum hair behin' yer right ear

and put

it

in the zlit o' the bark.

Yer

'ill

niver

have the toothache agin." My friend, being of a very equable frame of mind, ultimately lost his tooth and not his hair. On Easter Monday, 1910, I was travelling to Abbotsbury, when a quaint old soul got into the carriage, and as she

me she was on the way to see her daughter, who had presented her with a gran' chil', she was naturally in a very communicative frame of mind. I gathered from her that she was a great believer in the phases of the moon, and informed

84

FOLK-LORE AND SUPERSTITIONS IN DORSET.

me "always to cut my when the moon is waning, as they she told

hair, finger

and toe

nails

not grow so fast aftera wards." She was evidently great economist of time. her from suffer teeth, and told me that She appeared to her was when the moon stumps stuck up and were a'grow'n will

went back when the moon waned. I asked her the toothache, and she replied that she had cured how she " zalt wi' water and hold it in her mouth mix to told been had tried it, but could not keep the She boiled." it till " zo of water in her mouth long enough to make it boil, course her toothache wer niver cured." painful, but

Only recently I obtained a similar sort of negative cure from North Dorset, as follows " Get an honest lawyer's pocket handkerchief, Wash it in an honest miller's millpond, Dry it and iron it with an honest tailor's goose. If you can do that you will never have the toothache :

again."

my old South Dorset friend, I asked "if she Steal could cure warts, and she gave me this receipt it over the left it then throw and rub on the wart, something Returning to

:

shoulder and bury it, and tell no one." I suggested that one " Oh might get into trouble by stealing, but she replied, !

money a pea or bean or piece of meat will do." " She also gave me a cure for boils Find a place where

not

;

:

you can cover seven or nine daisies with your foot. Then pick and eat them." I suggested that they might be dirty " after having one's foot on them. She replied, Ther', yer must eat so much earth avore yer dies." As we drew near to her destination, I asked whether she believed in these " " old cures. Bless e," said she, they be a lot better than doctor's stuff." 5

Another cure for warts from North Dorset Find a snag bush in a hedge, then walk backwards to the bush and pick a snag over your left shoulder. Bite it in half and rub the wart with it. Then throw the snag away over your right shoulder, and

tell

no one.

FOLK-LORE AND SUPERSTITIONS IN DORSET.

85

At a house in King Stag, just north of the Blackmore Vale Dairy, one John Buckland is said to have lived about fifty years ago. He was known as Dr. Buckland, and his name is cut with a diamond on a very old pane of glass in the bedroom window. He held what was known as a " twoad vair," which took place, so far as I could make out, at the change of the moon in the month of May, and was for the cure of persons affected with the king's evil, running or tubercular wounds. Dr. Buckland collected a large number

and the affected person had to open his or her on to their bare chest. The doctor then seized a clothing toad, cut off its head, and popped the writhing body into a muslin bag, which was dropped down the chest of the patient and suspended round his neck. If the patient endured the " " the scrablen' of its legs in its shock of the cold toad and death throes, he would be healed but if he "turned," i.e., became faint or nauseated under the experience, he would die.

of toads,

;

Only

just before Christmas I

came

in contact with one of

Dr. Buckland 's patients, who lived near Wincanton, so far had the doctor's fame reached. A farmer told me that when

he was a child he had running sores on his legs, and he was not expected to live. As a last resource, he told me that he "

"

butter cart remembered being sent in a (i.e., a small tilted cart which the farmers' wives went to market in) to a " the noted doctor at Buckland Newton who practised toads of full twoad cure," and he remembered seeing a box which the doctor had, and his seizing one and treating him as

now about

sixty, and, in with Dr. Buckland his child mind, he had evidently confused miles three is about the village of Buckland Newton, which to the west of King Stag. Any way, my farmer friend is now

before described.

This farmer

is

a most robust and energetic man, weighing hard on twenty stone, and a living witness to the efficacy of Dr. Buckland's "

twoad cure." Farmer Jones, who

in a wise in all the

woman who country

lives in

North Dorset, is a great believer and has a great reputation

lives at C. H.,

side.

FOLK-LORE AND SUPERSTITIONS IN DORSET.

86

was coming down a ladder with a pack of hay on his head, and fell backwards. In doing so his foot slipped between the rungs of the ladder and got For weeks he was laid up, and had to go terribly twisted. on crutches. One day I called at his farm and found him

Some

my

years ago

friend

"

Hallo, walking across the yard with a stick. I said, " " " I farmer What has cured you ? Well," he said, !

and they couldn't cure me, so I went Wise Woman. I couldn't go myself, so I sent Mrs. B., who was the wife of a neighbouring cottager, and had been under treatment by the Wise Woman. I asked what she did. had

tried all the doctors,

to the

"

Well,'' said he,

"

she sent word that old

Jimmy Snook had

an evil eye on me because I didn't gee' him enough cider, and that I was to get rid of him and she sent some bay leaves which I was to boil and wrap my foot in tight on going to bed, and the next morning I could walk across the yard " How about Jimmy Snook ? " said I. with a stick." " Well," said he, "he's worked on the farm for vifty years an' more, and I have ge'en him the zack lots o' times, but he wont go." I expect Jimmy got his extra allowance of cider, and he died not long after. Possibly his death was accelerated ;

by

this extra allowance

!

Woman must

The Wise

have got

at Jimmy's existence and weakness through Mrs. B., who either had a spite against the old man and wanted him to be " " turned out, or else it was a plant between her and Jimmy to get the extra allowance of cider. I discussed the merits of the Wise

Jones, and he observed a smile on

"I

Woman with Farmer my face and remarked,

zee

you don't believe in her. I do. These wise 'oomen but if they has very well zo long as they does good an evil eye on yer I'd burn 'em, that I would," and he wrung his fist in the air, and the fire which of old condemned the witch to the faggots clearly flashed out of his eyes. be

all

;

On

me that he had a bad that he could As he had tried three try the Wise Woman

another occasion Farmer Jones told

very bad and swollen knee and leg not get up into his trap without

help.

doctors with no result, he decided to

so

FOLK-LORE AND SUPERSTITIONS IN DORSET.

87

She examined his leg as he sat in the cart, and then again. went into her cabin and made up some herb lotion which she

rubbed in well, and told him that by the time he got to the next village he would be well enough to get out and have some refreshment at the publichouse. A tempting suggestion of which he was able to avail himself, and by the time he got home he was nearly well a few more applications of the ;

lotion completely cured him. friend suffered terribly Yet another time

my

from eczema

So in the arms, especially during the Spring and Autumn. bad was he that he could not feed himself. Again he resorted " Look'e here, missus to the Wise Woman, and said to her, ;

you can heal this yer ex'ma, I'll gee yer vive pounds." She gave him some herb ointment, and he told me that three pots completely cured him. Before fulfilling his pledge he waited until the Spring to see if it would break out again,

if

"

zo I puts the old 'oss into the zure enough it didn't trap and droved over to C. and said, Look'e yer, missus I be corned to pay yer the vive pounds I promised 'e if yer " and he tendered the five pounds, but cured my ex'ma,'

but

;

'

;

the old lady would only take a pound. Farmer Jones also informed me that the Wise

always picked her herbs at midnight on a were more potent then.

full

Woman

moon, as they

son passed the old lady's cabin, and in the road was a patient sitting in a cart, evidently too bad to of the out, and the Wise Woman was standing in front

Last

Autumn my

get flourishes in the air trap with her back to him, making great demon. But some with a willow wand, probably exorcising the herb from come cures real after all it will be seen that the

remedies, and that suggestions about an evil eye and flourishto play on the ignorance ing the willow wand are only adjuncts of her patients.

Such are some of the superstitions and arts that still linger as quaint and interesting remnants of the past, but of which will probably be ignorant, unless some the next generation

record of

them

is

made.

Jfiftl)

Interim

on :mttmttmis

at

Keport

tlje

jffltoumtmrp

H. Colley March, M.D., F.S.A., Chairman.

John E. Acland, F.S.A., Hon. *

W. M. Barnes N. Clift J. M. Falkner R. H. Forster J. G.

*

Sec.

J.C.M.Mansel-Pleydell H. B. Middleton H. Pentin

Prideaux C. Prideaux N. M. Richardson

C. S.

W. de

*

Alfred Pope, F.S.A. *

Executive Body, Dorset Field Club.

Committee have much pleasure in presenting the Report of the work carried out in the Autumn of 1913, written by Mr. H. St. George Gray, who, as in former years, directed the excavations, and has recorded, with his accustomed accuracy and completeness, all essential facts that have come to light.

The thanks those

who

of the

Committee are offered

who have

subscribed to the funds, and also to have assisted by lending material and appliances,

to all those

especially to the

Town

Council of Dorchester, Messrs. Lott

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

and Walne, Mr.

Slade,

We

and Mr. Foot.

also the great help afforded by Mr. Mr. C. S. Prideaux, who were

89

wish to mention

Sebastian Evans and

constantly present on the

ground.

The 111

expenditure of the season's and the receipts to 96

9s. lid.,

work amounted

A

3s. 2d.

to

balance of

26 3s. lid. was brought forward from 1912, out of which the expenses incidental to the publication of this Report will have to be paid.

The

facts that

construction,

as

we have well

as

learnt of the original form of

the

complicated

and of

history,

are highly important, and amply justify the series of excavations now, for a time, brought to a close. It may be possible in the future

Maumbury Rings

1.

To

encircles

ascertain whether or not the Outer Ditch completely the Earthwork how it terminates at the N. ;

and when and for what reason it was constructed. 2. To examine the breastworks on the top of the Great Bank, and to explain their purpose and that of the Civil War Entrance

;

terraces. 3.

To discover more relics of a Bank and to determine its

Great

;

definite character in the

actual

summit

in

Roman

times. 4.

To extend the

diggings in front of

"

the

Den

" ;

and to

connect those between Cuttings XXX. and XXXI. as well as between Cuttings II. (Extension) and XXXI. 5.

To complete our knowledge of the prehistoric Shafts Bank as to their absence

to their relation to the Great

;

the N. Entrance and in the Arena

;

as at

and as to whether Shafts

IV. and XVII. are themselves simple throughout, or are each the joint opening of smaller shafts, lower down, in close order.

we await with now in progress, of

Meanwhile, exploration,

Signed on behalf

interest

the

result

of

the

the pits at Grime's Graves. of

the

Committee,

HY. COLLEY MARCH. 21th February, 1914.

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

90

SHORT REPORT ON THE EXCAVATIONS OF

By H. ST.

1913.

GEORGE GRAY.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES ACCOMPANYING THIS

REPORT PLATE

Sketch-plan of

I.

:

Maumbury

Rings, similar to that given

in the former Reports, the position of the 1913 excavations (Cuttings

XXX.

to

XXXV.

inclusive

and two narrow cuttings parallel to the It shows the relative position of

transverse axis) having been added.

the cuttings

made

and 1913, but the scale

in 1908, 1909, 1910, 1912,

too small to attempt to show structural details. The position of the Well is seen in Cutting XXXIII., and Shafts XII. to XVII. on the

is

E. side of the central area.

It

should be noted that a dotted

circle,

passing through the middle of the shafts, and having a diameter of 169ft.,

has been described on this plan.

PLATE

II.

General view of

Maumbury Rings (September

24th),

taken from the top of the Great Bank, looking S.S.E., and showing the excavations of 1913 in progress. The W. terrace is seen in the foreground, and on the opposite side the whole length of the E. terrace. The planks and windlass represent the position of the Well (Cutting

On

XXXIII.). progress

;

made during into

the

the

left

the

excavation

of

Cutting

XXXI.

is

in

and further south Cutting XXX., the largest excavation the whole of the investigations, including the digging

Great

Bank.

The

photograph

shows

the

horizontal

forming the Civil War Terrace, the solid chalk arena wall (with strut-holes on the top), and the oblong enclosure

stratification of the material

recessed into the " wall."

PLATE N.,

III., FIG.

A.

Cutting XXXIII., the Well, taken from the

September 17th, 1913.

The spade

rests

on the

solid chalk

arena

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

91

which had been cut through subsequently for the purpose of sinking the well (4ft. in diam.). This view shows the steps, or foot-holds, cut into the S.S.E. face of the Well side.

;

there were thirteen steps on each the bottom being

The Well was apparently never completed,

reached at a depth of

27ft.

below the surface of the

turf.

Owing

to

previous mutilation of the solid chalk the mouth of the Well was " " steaned with Purbeck stone slabs on the X.W.

PLATE

B.

III., FIG.

Cutting

Terrace, looking S.W.

XXX., taken from

(September 24th, 1913).

the slope of the

The view

clearly

shows the upper margin of the mouths of Shafts XII., XIII., XIV. and XV. (counting from the S. end). On the right the solid chalk arena-floor

is

seen,

which was about

and on the l-5ft.

left part of the platform of the enclosure lower than the arena-floor. The Inner and

Outer Trenches are seen in section

at the S. end,

and

in the foreground

part of the Outer Trench cut into the solid chalk at the foot of the

" wall."

PLATE IV.

Cutting

XXX., on

the E.S.E. side of the Rings, taken

from the N.W. on October 2nd, 1913, at the close of the excavations, and after the whole of the solid chalk in the cutting had been laid bare.

The upper

figure stands

on the solid chalk below the Great Bank

;

on the platform of the enclosure recessed into the arena-wall. Along both sides of this area post-holes are seen, and at the S. end a recess in the wall. Strut-holes can be traced on the top

and the lower

figure

of the wall on both sides of the photograph, and in the foreground the extreme E. margin of the line of shafts. The old turf line under also the oblique seams of rubble the Great Bank is clearly defined ;

forming the earthwork, and the horizontal stratification of the Civil

War

Terrace.

PLATE V. Cutting XXXII., outside the Great Bank on the N.N.W., October 3rd, 1913. This view, taken from the N.N.W., shows the The old turf line, stratification of the seams forming the earthwork. at a max. depth of 15ft. below the crest, is clearly defined, and below The large lumps of chalk in the seen. from the earthwork. At obtained were foreground (left-hand side) the foot of the bank a trench, apparently of modern construction, is shown re-excavated, and the nature of its loose filling is seen on the it

the natural solid chalk

face of the cutting.

is

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

92

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

I.

In our last report reference was made to the unfinished " known as King Arthur's exploration of the amphitheatre " Round Table at Caerleon. It was hoped that a fund of 500 might be raised to purchase the site, complete the excavations, and put the walls of masonry into such a state weather. of repair as to enable them to withstand the

Unfortunately the Caerleon committee has been dissolved,

and the scheme

Beyond the noted in our

is

in

abeyance.

city wall at last

report,

Caerwent and on a

structure

its

N.E.

side, as

was discovered

in

thought to be a second September, 1912, which was at Roman amphitheatre, but later explorations show it to be a first

round temple enclosing an octagonal structure.* In connection with the pre-history of Maumbury its we look forward to the results of the systematic shafts, &c. excavations which are being carried out at the Grime's Graves, Weeting, Norfolk, by the Prehistoric Society of East

The Grime's Graves consist of 254 saucer-shaped depressions which are the mouths of shafts excavated in the chalk rock. One of these shafts was excavated by Canon Green well in 1870, and found to be 39 feet deep with galleries Anglia.

at the bottom. Among the objects discovered were seventynine red-deer antler picks (all below 17ft. from the surface), more or less complete, a ground axe of basaltic stone, cup-

shaped vessels

made chalk As

of chalk

supposed to be lamps, and a well-

phallus (now in the British

director of the excavations, I

Museum). had the pleasure of con1913 from September 4th

tinuing the work at to October 4th (the

filling -in

The sub-Committee,

consisting of Dr.

Maumbury

in

being completed subsequently). H. Colley March, F.S.A.

(Chairman], Captain J. E. Acland, F.S.A. (Secretary], Mr. J. C. S. Prideaux, and Mr.W. de C. Prideaux,

Meade Falkner, Mr.

*

Archaeologia,

LXIV., 447452.

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

93

me most valuable support.* These antiquaries were frequently on the ground, and their assistance from time to time in the general organization of the rendered

investigations

and overlooking the director.!

workmen was extremely helpful to Mr. Sebastian Evans, who did much for the of the

1912 excavations, offered his assistance, which was readily accepted and greatly appreciated. Mr. C. S. Prideaux again rendered the Committee great service by lending his camping outfit,

and although he could not be present during the whole work was as

of the operations this season, his interest in the

keen as ever.

The director has held himself responsible, as in former years, for the recording of the work, the preparation of all the plans, sectional drawings and photographs, { as well as the care and repair of the relics discovered. Help in the matter of identifying natural history specimens has been

kindly rendered by Mr. Clement Reid, F.R.S., Mr. E. T. Newton, F.R.S., and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

In

conjunction

subscribers

are

with

this,

the

recommended

Fifth

to

Interim

read

the

Report,

previously

published papers on the subject, to enable them to interpret the full significance of some of the details of structural interest

Club,

;

and

they are published in the Proceedings, Dorset Field also issued separately.

The sketch-plan

(Plate

"

I.) J>

intended merely to show the general outline of the Rings and the relative position of the thirty-five cuttings which is

have been made.

* Since the last series of excavations in 1912 the

Member in the person of the Rev. Broad wey on June 10th, 1913.

has lost a valued died at f

C.

Sub -Committee

W.

Whistler,

who

A maximum number of ten men was employed for the excavations,

with John Lush as foreman. J Subscribers

may

see the full series of photographs (1908-1910, on applying at the Dorset

and 1913) considerably over 100 County Museum. 1912,

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBUBY RINGS.

94

II.

SOME GENERAL OBSERVATIONS.

During the season the investigation of the Well (Cutting XXXIII.), the N.W. margin of which had been found at the close of the excavations in 1912, was completed (Plate III., It appeared to have been sunk in the XVII. Century A).

by the Parliamentarians, who,

the

fearing

loss

of

their

a well water supply, evidently never It was and it is finished, inside the earthwork. necessitate did not its comcircumstances probable that

decided

usual

to

sink

pletion.

We

had hoped that time would have permitted us to open up the arena-wall and the inner and outer trenches on the " " to the E. end of Cutting transverse axis E. side, from the Extension near the N. Entrance.

II.

XXX.

But the excavation of enormous amount

entailed such an

(Plate I.) Cutting of labour that only a comparatively small digging (No. XXXI.) could be made adjoining Cutting II. Extension, the intermediate ground, left untouched, covering a maximum length of 38-75ft.

The usual structural features were revealed in Cuttings and XXXI., the former digging including the removal of the large quantity of material which filled an enclosure recessed into the arena-wall an area of similar dimensions to the corresponding one excavated on the opposite

XXX.

side

B).

A XXX.

Rings in Cutting XX. (1910). also investigated in Cutting All these features will be described in

of the

shafts

was

line of five

(Plate III.,

their

proper

place.

But, perhaps, the most important work of 1913 was that carried out with a view of ascertaining the date of the Great Bank enclosing the shafts and arena. For this purpose the

excavation of Cutting XXX. (Plate IV.) was continued towards the E.S.E. as far as the middle of the crest of the encircling earthwork, and a similar cutting (No. XXXII.)

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

95

was made half-way through the Great Bank on the N.N.W. from the outside of the Rings (Plate V.). In both these cuttings the old turf line was found to be clearly defined at a depth

of 15ft.

XXXII.

it

was

below the crest of the bank, and in Cutting slightly higher than the general level of the

on the N.W. at the present day. As a trench apparwas found at the foot of the bank in Cutting XXXII. (Plate V.), two small excavations were made on the N. and E.N.E. (Cuttings XXXIV. and field

ently of late date

XXXV.,

Plate

I.)

round the earthwork.

to

ascertain It

was

if

this

trench continued

clearly defined in both these

places.

There of the

is

strong negative evidence that the Great

same date as the

shafts.

The few

relics

Bank

is

found in the

two cuttings are such as have been obtained in the shafts, and nothing which could be definitely assigned to the Bronze Age, or the Late -Celtic or Roman period, was revealed in Not a single object was this part of the investigations. obtained from the actual surface of the old turf, but in Cutting XXX. an antler pick (No. 395), of the same type as those found in the shafts, was uncovered about 1ft. above the and in Cutting XXXII. an antler rake original surface (No. 412) was obtained within 0'75ft. of the old surface, and a burr and lower part of a red-deer antler (No. 394) only a foot above the same level. Fragments of antler were met with in two other positions in the body of the earthwork, and a piece of carved chalk of circular section (No. 409), similar to other carvings of the same character found in the ;

shafts.

As long intervals have occurred between our excavations, and as these were filled in after each season's work, it has been no easy matter to determine whether or not the solid but perfect chalk arena was cut down to a dead level ;

accuracy does not appear to have been achieved. It is now found that the greatest deviation from the horizontal (as ascertained from the parts excavated) is from the S. corner of Cutting XX. to the E. end of Cutting II. Extension (Plate I.),

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

96

On the from W.S.W. to E.N.E. being l'32ft.* to the close Well taken floor of the a level other hand (Cutting XXXIII.) on the N.N.W. agrees exactly with the arena-floor at the S. end of Cutting XXX. on the E.S.E., but some of the intermediate levels taken varied to the extent of 0'85ft. that from the centre of Again, it was ascertained in 1908 the

fall

the arena to the N. Entrance there was a gradual fall of 0'75ft., whereas the floor was found to be level from the " " den on the centre up to the margin of the so-called S.S.E.

The lowest part

of

the arena appears, therefore,

to have been between Cutting

II.

Extension and Cutting

XXX. In speaking of the Roman work it may also be recorded here that the enclosed platform of solid chalk in Cutting XX. on the W.N.W. was l*15ft. higher than the nearest part of the

arena-floor,

XXX.

whereas

the

corresponding

platform

in

was T5ft. (average) lower Cutting The maximum dimensions of than the adjacent arena. The each of the enclosed platforms were 15'75ft. by lift. "den" (Cutting XV., 1909) measured 17'5ft. so-called by 13'5ft., and was absolutely level with the adjacent arenaon the E.S.E.

floor.

From

the excavation of Cutting X. (1908) on the N. and Cutting XXX. (1913) on the E.S.E. it has been clearly shown that the vertical depth from the old turf line under ,

the Great

Bank

to the adjacent arena-floor

and and the solid and XXXII., virgin chalk was is

11 '75ft.

;

as the average depth between the old turf line chalk was found to be 2ft. in Cuttings X., XXX.,

it is evident that a depth of 9 '75ft. of removed in the central area subsequently to Neolithic times, and presumably by the Romans. As Plate I. shows, the position of seventeen shafts has now been determined, and a dotted line has been indicated on

*

The

S.S.E.

stratification

of

the chalk rock

dipped from N.N.W. to

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

97

showing that the middle of each shaft is on the line having a diameter of 169ft. Using the same found, from Mr. Feacey's plan, that the general line of the crest of the Great Bank is practically a circle with a diameter of about 276ft., and the diameter of the outer this plan

of a true circle centre * it is

earthwork is about 335ft. on the other hand, is a wide oval with diameters of 192*5ft. and 158ft. (measured from the inner " inner trench "), and the outside dimensions margin of the of the earthwork including the bulge at the S.S.W. are 345ft. on the long axis and 335ft. transversely. Within the margin of the solid arena no trace of a shaft has been found, although several small cuttings have been made partly with the

boundary

The

of the

arena-floor,

intention of testing this point. | Assuming that the prehistoric shafts existed before the solid chalk of the central area

had been lowered

and the

estimated to be 11 '75ft. lower than the original ground level it appears quite evident that, at the surface, they did not originally take the form of pits at all. It is the

arena-floor

is

opinion of the director that in the position of these shafts, in prehistoric times, there existed an immense circular trench, or ditch, having a medial diameter of about 169ft. Judging from the excavations in Cutting XXX. and elsewhere, this ditch was probably some 16ft. deep below the original surface, and perhaps something like 40ft. wide at the top.J

*

The centre

of the 169ft. circle is at a distance of

about

10ft.

S.W.

of the central picket in the arena used for surveying purposes.

t These cuttings were Nos. III., IV., V., VI., XI., XIII., XIV., also two small unnumbered cuttings between Cutting XXX. ;

XXXIII.

and the centre

(vide Plate

J It is possible

I.).

that these dimensions

may have

to be altered to

at the top is given on the at a very much assumption that the counterscarp of the fosse was if the inclination of the escarp and but the than ; escarp steeper pitch

some extent.

The approximate width

have been a decided counterscarp did not vary much, then there must berme between the earthwork and the fosse.

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

98

Estimated by the average slope of the sides of the shafts it themselves on is evident that they could not have shown the original surface as pits, and, indeed, it is seen by a glance at the plan and sections that the mouths of the majority of the shafts united below the level of the arena-floor. Had we re-excavated the long hollows, called Shafts IV. and XVII., would have been to a depth, it is probable that they greater

found to divide into several

pits.

a large circular fosse was appears, therefore, that material to form the encircling bank, originally cut to obtain and that shafts of various shapes were sunk from the bottom It

of this trench.

On

the other

hand

it

is

possible that the

and before any regular

shafts may have been excavated first, bottom of the fosse was cut. We have nothing further to add with regard to the purpose

of the shafts since the last part of Section V. of the 1912 was written, beyond what is mentioned above. It

Report

known how long they were left open but it is evident that they were not filled in by ramming (except just at the is

not

;

mouths), as the rubble was found to be very loosely compacted. There can be no doubt that more chalk was excavated from the shafts than found its way back into them. The additional material might have been used to increase the height of the

earthwork. In the former reports the depth of the shafts has been given as measured from the nearest part of the arena-turf. Now that the old surface line under the Great Bank has been

exposed in three places, it is possible to give their approximate depth below the original surface of Neolithic times. On these lines it is estimated that the average depth of the seven re-excavated shafts was originally 35ft., whilst their average depth below the nearest arena-turf of the present day is exactly 27ft.*

*

The same depth

as

the unfinished

(Cutting XXXIII.).

Well.

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

99

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

100

features at are Maumbury which resemble in both cases may have been fosse interior and the Avebury, intended for the same purpose, perhaps to prevent animals and the ordinary people from trespassing on a spot reserved The forthfor ceremonies conducted by privileged people. into the both at excavations 1914), (Easter, Avebury coming fosse and vallum, may result in strengthening a comparison between these two prehistoric enclosures.

There

III.

CUTTING XXXIII.

THE WELL (PLATES

I.,

II.,

AND

III.).

This cutting, which measured 12ft. by 9ft., partly overlapped a small extension of Cutting XXI. (1912). On the E., S., and W. the Roman arena-floor was reached at an

average depth of

more or

3'4ft.

below the surface.

The

floor

was

other places, owing to long exposure during the use of the site as an amphitheatre. The surface " was rather rough, but covered with the shingle " previously less stained, as in

described.

In the N. corner of the cutting, solid chalk was reached at a depth of 6 3ft. and had the appearance of being fresh cut. In the central area, on the E., S., and W., it was also found that -

the ground had been cut out to a greater depth than the " arena-floor, a chalk wall," T75ft. in height, connecting

Roman and more recent levels. (Plate III., A.). On digging deeper in the centre, where loose filling

the

the

mouth

of a circular shaft, or well,

a diameter of

existed,

was revealed, having

In clearing this area a few fragments of pottery (one piece glazed) were collected, none of which was earlier than the XVII. Century. 4ft.

On the N. side of the shaft some slabs of Purbeck limestone were uncovered (Plate III., A.), and they were found to continue round its margin towards the W.N.W. for a distance of 3ft. (rather more than a quarter of the circumference of the

I DC-

Q z-s

Q=i ^ ^ & rT

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

101

"

" It was observed that the well was steaned only in the position where the solid chalk had been cut to a depth of 6 -3ft. The width of the steaning was about 1ft., and what hole).

remained was built below the surface.

in four courses, the

bottom being 6' 75ft. The stones on the inner edge were trimmed to conform to the circular shape of the well. It was found that the shaft extended downwards with the same diameter of 4ft. At a depth of 8ft. below the well's mouth a typical fragment of glazed stoneware of the Bellarmine type (No. 338) was

At

a piece of red earthenware with a dark this was of the same glaze (No. 339) was obtained as albarello the found in the New Ditch (Cutting type (No. 295) outside the N. and referable to the middle XXIX.) entrance, of the XVII. Century. At 14ft. three glazed shards and an

found.

12- 5ft.

brown

;

iron horse-shoe nail (No. 341) were found

At

this stage in the operations

also

modern.

we temporarily stopped

the re-excavation, but ultimately decided to obtain some builder's men, a windlass and other tackle (Plate II.) to

pursue the work further. Two pieces of black pottery (No. 379) were found at a depth of 14'3ft. below the well's mouth. One fragment is modern the other I am inclined to regard as Romano-British, but a single fragment of Roman pottery where the whole ;

country teems with such shards affords no evidence of date by itself, and it might easily have become mixed with the material used for

depth

At

filling

the well.

The

iron nail (No. 382),

has a decidedly modern appearance. below the mouth of the well the pieces of chalk

19ffc.,

15ft.

rubble became very large, and at 16ft. Purbeck slabs began to be found and continued to the bottom. About eleven

dozen of these stone slabs were afterwards counted, and most From of them were shaped, one edge being slightly concave. this fact it was evident that at one time the mouth of the well was steaned more extensively than it was when we found it, and it is possible that the stones originally extended all round the mouth.

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

102

Nodules of

flint

were occasionally found in the

filling

down

The chalk increased in moisture at the lower levels, but even at the bottom it was not really wet. To test the true bottom the solid chalk was cut away with a pick-axe to 19ft.

to a thickness exceeding Gins. Resting on the bottom of the well, thin ironwork (No. 386) was found in a fragmentary condition. Some of this was

Three

thin sheet iron bent over to double the thickness.

three other door-hinges in form these have rivet-holes at of stouter material

pieces

resemble

pieces

are

thin

;

;

and some of the rivets still In some places remain, to man} of which oak adheres. a coarse woven fabric is seen between the wood and iron. These remains do not appear to have formed part of a more or

less regular intervals, 7

bucket.

Conspicuous features in the structure of the well were the which occurred in vertical

steps, of footholds (Plate III., A.),

order on opposite faces,

i.e.,

thirteen steps on each side.

was

on the N.N.W. and

On

the

S.S.E.,

N.N.W. the lowest step

and the lowest step on the other side 3'2ft., from The steps in both lines were at somewhat irregular distances apart, but the average was T55ft. their average size was Depth, Sins. height, 2'2ft.,

the bottom of the well.

;

5ins.

;

width, 9ins.

;

The bottom was reached at a depth of 27ft. below the and 21 '85ft. below the solid chalk margin of the mouth

surface,

of the well.

There can be

little

this well was sunk in the when Maumbury was a Parlia-

doubt that

troubled times of Charles

I.,

mentarian fort. All the relics, with perhaps one exception, appear to be of the XVII. Century. It is highly probable that the Parliamentary forces, fearing the loss of their usual water supply, decided to sink this well, and it would appear that circumstances did not after pletion. level,

It is not likely that

and no

bottom.

silt,

all

necessitate its

com-

water was found at so high a or any other soft material, was found at the

D Tl

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS. IV.

(PLATES

CUTTING II.,

I.,

103

XXX.

III.,

AND

IV.).

This was by far the largest cutting which has been made at Maumbury. Its position is on the line of the transverse axis and on the E.S.E. side of the Rings. It extended from the E. margin of the arena through the highest part of the Civil War terrace, and half-way through the Great Bank to

The horizontal length of the cutting, was 63ft., and the width on the curve of the arena about 47ft. The margins in other directions were irregular and governed by the structure revealed as the excavations proceeded. At this spot the highest part of the terrace is 12' 7ft., and the crest of the its crest (Plates I., II.).

in the direction indicated,

Great Bank

The

is

22 '9ft. above the arena-turf.

was reached at the S.W. end of the cutting below the surface, and at the N.W. end 4 35ft. Not far from the W. margin a fine chalk rubble occurred at the floor level, and it soon became evident that arena-floor

at a depth of

3' 75ft.

-

shafts of a similar character to those discovered in other

and the W. half of their openings cuttings also existed here gave the edge of the solid arena-floor a sinuous outline ;

(Plate III., B.).

In removing the chalk rubble and other filling, the following were discovered, the great majority of them being of

relics

the

Roman

337.

A

period

large

:

number

of shards of black

Romano -British

pottery

found spread over a small area just under the turf. Much of it has burnished line ornament, including the common lattice pattern. 340. Globular bead of light grey colour formed from a fossil hydrozoon, Porosphaera globularis. Found in the upper Roman mould. A similar bead was found in 1910 (No. 175), and has been About three dozen of these fossils were collected from various figured. but very few of them parts of Cutting XXX. and at different depths ;

had been bored 342.

for use as beads.

Piece of brilliant bluish-green vitreous paste, probably part Found in the Roman area.

of a tessera.

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

104 Third

343.

brass

coin

of

Tetricus

II.,

A.D.

268-273.

Depth

3 -5ft. fibula, the pin detached (and found at some little length 59mm. (Illustrated}. It has a thin, slightly arched bow, wide at the head and gradually tapering towards the nose. Found in the Roman deposits over the platform. The brooch is of a

Bronze

344.

distance

type

off)

;

common

345.

in

S.W. Britain.

socket Iron arrow-head with one pointed barb remaining much corroded. (Illustrated.} Found near length 52mm. ;

broken No. 344. ;

;

Another arrow-head

of iron (No. 335)

was found

in Cutting

XXI. Tessera of pale grey-coloured stone. Depth 2-6ft. Two pieces of cut chalk with deep parallel scorings. 347. Found just above the level of the arena-floor. 346.

348.

Part of a handle of dark brown

349.

British

of angular form,

earthenware,

Romano

-

and ornamented with two deep

parallel Found in a similar position to Nos. 347, 348. grooves. (Illustrated.} 350. Roughly formed disc made from a piece of thick red tile, ;

diam. 3ins. 351.

Depth 3'4ft. Fragment of human

skull.

Depth

3 -3ft.

Third brass coin of the third century British imitation of a Roman coin of Claudius Gothicus (or one of the Gallic emperors), A.D. 265-270 of the " Pax. Aug." type. Depth 3-3ft. 352.

;

;

353.

of

Fragment

thin

terra

between Shafts XII. and XIII.,

unornamented. Found below the level of the arena-

sigillata, 1ft.

floor.

Three fragments of lathe-turned Roman pottery, of light colour unornamented. Found between Shafts XIV. and XV., 1ft. below the level of the arena-floor. 355. Part of a well-worn whetstone square section. Found near No. 354. 354.

terra-cotta

;

r

;

356.

Stone tessera of a greyish-green hue, about |in. square. mouth of Shaft XIII., depth 7 -5ft. below the surface.

Found

in the

358.

Two

fragments of coarse pottery of Romano-British type. of an antler pick (No. 357) at the top of Shaft XIII.,

Found with part 3- 1ft.

below the level of the arena-floor.

Two fragments of a light-coloured mortarium. Found over Shaft XIV., depth 4 -5ft. below the surface. 363. Base of a Roman amphora, of a reddish buff colour. Found over Shaft XIV., depth 4ft. below the surface. 362.

364. Penannular brooch of bronze, with bulbous terminals, ribbed obliquely; arched pin. (Illustrated.) Found over Shaft XV., depth 4 -3ft. below the surface. This form of terminal is rarer than the turned-baok terminal so common in S.W. Britain.

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

344

374

105

375

345

RELICS FOUND AT

MAUMBURY

(All found in Cutting

RINGS, 1913.

XXX.)

349. Handle of pot, Roman. 344. Bronze Fibula. 345. Iron Arrow-head. 368. Pottery handle, Romano 364, 372. Penannular Brooches of bronze. British. 374. Stone Counter. 375. Iron Spear -head. 388, 391. Flint Scrapers.

(From Drawings by Mr. E. Sprankling.)

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

106

Handle

365.

a vertical groove as

common

a

earthenware of a saucer or other vessel, with of the aperture is almost circular

of black

ornament

Dorset type.

;

;

a piece of imitation

Found with

Samian

pottery, depth 2 -8ft. Piece of skull bone (probably human) and a piece of Romano366. Found at the top of Shaft XVI., depth 7'4ft. below British pottery.

the surface.

horses

Fragment of terra sigillata, bearing traces of galloping Depth 3ft. Handle of dark brown pottery, similar to No. 365, but 368. the aperture is of D-shaped ornamented with two vertical grooves 367.

as ornament.

;

form.

(Illustrated.}

Found near No.

365.

Part of a sharpened bone implement, similar to No. 175 369. It closely resembles a number of found in 1910. Depth 3 -2ft. implements found in the Lake-villages of Somerset. Penannular brooch of bronze of a common S.W. type, in 372. the loose pin is slightly finely patinated turned-back terminals, moulded and grooved transversely. Found over Shaft XV., depth 3-8ft. below the surface. (Illustrated.} A similar brooch (No. 98) was found at Maumbury in 1909, and has

good preservation and arched

;

;

been figured. 373.

Fragment

of fine grey pottery of

sandy texture, with yellow

Depth 2 -5ft. glaze on the outside ; probably Roman. 374. Counter, or draughtsman, of light grey-coloured stone, with smooth flat faces diam. 20'5mm. (Illustrated.} Depth 3 '4ft. ;

Small iron spear-head, with short socket formed by hammerpoint missing. (Illustrated.} Depth 3 '6ft. ing over the metal Skeleton of a dog, described with the animal remains. 376. Iron staple a spike terminating in a ring 381. length 4fins. Found on the platform. 375.

;

;

Uninscribed British coin of bronze, of a degraded type common somewhat defaced. Found in the Outer Trench, depth

383.

in Dorset

;

Another specimen (No. 406), burnt, slightly bent and somewhat defaced, was found just above the arena -floor (depth l*8ft.) in the narrow cutting between Cutting XXX. and the middle of the arena. A third example (No. 269) was found in below the surface.

4-5ft.

XXI.

Cutting 384.

ware

;

(1912).

Part of a " tazza " with overhanging flange, of a reddish-buff Roman. Found 2ins. above the platform.

385. sigillata.

387.

Several fragments of one or two vessels of very thin terra Found a little to the W. of the platform and just above it.

Part of a

human

and mastoid process. filling of

Shaft XIV.

skull, including the right

Found with Roman remains

meatus audit-emus at the top of the

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS. 388.

Discoidal

107

of

scraper flint, chipped, of Neolithic type ; diameters 49mm. and 53'5mm. Found at the top of (Illustrated.) the filling of Shaft XIV., in association with Roman remains. 389. Piece of lathe-turned armlet of Kimmeridge shale. Found 0'5ft. above the arena-floor. 390. Fragment of a handle of a vessel of Romano-British pottery, ornamented with three grooves on the line of the handle. Found 1ft. above the arena-floor. 391.

Discoidal scraper of

flint, of

chipped; of circular outline, near the scraper, No. 388.

Neolithic type, well formed and

diam.

48mm.

(Illustrated.)

Found

407. Head of a human femur. Found on the solid chalk ridge between Shafts XIII. and XIV,, and at the bottom of the Inner Trench. 413. Iron nail, length 2|ins. Found in a post-hole in the Outer

Trench. Charcoal, fairly well preserved, was collected from three places the Roman deposits, including one spot 0'35ft. above the platform. All this charcoal was examined by Mr. Clement Reid, F.R.S., and proved to be oak.

among

Comparing Cuttings XX. and XXI. (1910 and 1912) on

W.N.W. side of the arena with Cutting XXX. (1913) on the opposite side, very few structural features were disclosed. In clearing away the many tons of material from the old the

War terrace had been raised, the and other objects (mostly of the

surface on which the Civil

usual

number

of shards

XVII. Century) were collected, including part of a glazed (No. 361) and about 13 J dozen bullets of lead (No. 336)

tile

found under the turf in the middle of the slope of the highest part of the terrace, spread over an area some three yards in diameter, few of them being found at a greater depth than 0-5ft.

Judging from the condition of these bullets (many being considerably flattened) they had been discharged from a gun or pistol. From those in good condition it is ascertained that they vary in diameter from 14-5mm. to 18'5mm. They seem to afford evidence of target practice, the shots being fired probably from the corresponding terrace on the W. side. The director having recently seen similar bullets from Naseby in Warwick Museum, asked Lieut. -Colonel A. Leetham,

Curator of the Royal United Service Institution, to compare the Maumbury bullets with some in his charge, and he reports that the

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBUBY RINGS.

108

Dorchester specimens are similar in shape and size to the examples from the battlefields of Naseby and Marston Moor and the siege of not be of the Charles I. Athlone, and he sees no reason why they should of the bullet varied considerably, as did the calibre "The period. musket of that day but as a matter of fact the shape of the bullet did not vary until the Brown Bess went out, and indeed the round Mr. ffoulkes' to the time of the Crimean War. bullet was in use ;

up

be the correct one, as the pistols of the XVII. Century were of large and varied calibres, and there are such weapons in the Institution's Museum which would take either of the two bullets you solution

may

send."

Mr. Charles ffoulkes, F.S.A., Keeper of the Tower Armouries, who " The bullets are more has seen some of the Maumbury bullets, wrote all the arquebuses that are at the Tower as bullets, probably pistol In the XVII. Century the pistol was fired are of much larger calibre. some writers advised touching the enemy's breastat point blank If your find is of plate with the pistol before it was discharged.' different calibre it would bear out the theory that they are for pistols, :

'

;

as each regiment

had

for obvious reasons.

same calibre of arquebus having pieces of different

as near as possible the

The disadvantage

bore was found in Elizabeth's reign,

of

when the

'

caliver

'

was

intro-

duced to give uniformity."

After the removal of the terrace the top of the solid chalk arena-wall was soon disclosed, also the outline of an area

deeply recessed into the wall, which proved to be an enclosure of similar character and proportions to that found on the (Plates III., IV.). By degrees opposite side of the Rings. the floor of the enclosed area, bounded on three sides by

chalk walls and open towards the arena, was cleared, and in carrying out this work a good number of relics and shards of

Roman

period were collected. The platform was found smooth and well worn, but there was a decided fall from front to back amounting to 0'7ft. Owing to the presence of shafts and the consequent disturbance of the chalk rock in this position the W. margin of the platform was somewhat The dimensions, however, were exactly the same irregular. as the W. enclosure, viz., length 15'75ft., width lift. Along both sides and at the foot of the wall of the enclosure were two trenches, that on the S. 6' 75ft. and that on the N. 6ft. long they were rift, deep below the platform and

the

to be

;

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

109

of an average width of l'2ft. at the top (Plate IV.). At each end of the trench there were single post-holes, one D-shaped, one round, and two square. All of them were l'85ft. deep below the platform. These trenches correspond exactly with those found in the W. enclosure. The chalk wall at the back of this area reached a height of 10ft. the lower half stood at an angle of about 80. There was no trench at its foot, nor was there one at the foot of the corresponding wall ;

W. enclosure. A deep recess of semi-circular section this penetrated the wall at the W. end of the S. trench recess extended to a height of 3'9ft. above the floor. Its base in the

;

was

O'Sft. above the platform, whereas the bottom of the similar recess in the S. wall of the W. enclosure (Cutting XX.)

was

above that platform.

If the posts in the S. sidetrenches carried hoardings these recesses would have been obscured.

2ft.

Near the top

of the arena -wall to the

N. of the enclosure

three and to the S. two strut-holes were noted, and they were of a similar form to those found elsewhere in previous years. (Plates II., IV.). Owing to the existence of shafts between the arena-wall

and enclosure and the nearest part of the solid arena-floor, the inner and outer trenches, which bounded the arena in all parts of the

Roman amphitheatre, were very difficult to trace in

this cutting, for the reason that they had been almost entirely cut in the rammed filling above the mouths of the shafts, and

indeed no part of the inner trench had sides or bottom of solid chalk. Here and there the outer trench penetrated the solid chalk (see foreground, Plate III., B.), but even in

were composed of rammed chalk in the The average width of the gangway was 3ft. upper parts. and the average width occupied by both (as elsewhere), trenches was 7' 2ft. No post-holes could be traced in the inner trench, but in the outer trench two circular post-holes

those places

its sides

were noted at the

S.

end

of the cutting, a square

middle of the front of the enclosure, and the N. end.

five

one in the

square ones at

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

110

From

this cutting, in conjunction

with others,

it

appeared

probable that long before the existence of the enclosure and the inner and outer barriers, there was a prehistoric trench of large proportions between the arena-wall and the solid arena-floor on the line of the shafts discovered.

added

five

more

pits to those previously

known,

This cutting viz., Shafts

XII., XIII., XIV., XV., and XVI. (Plate III., B.). Only part of the N. margin of Shaft XII. was traced at the S. end of the of Shaft XIII. * the N. and S. margins were cleared cutting ;

(giving a width of only 3'75ft.)

;

of Shaft

XVI.

at the N. end

only the S. margin could be determined. But the outlines of Shafts XIV. and XV. in the central part of the cutting were entirely re-excavated. This was of an irregular oval form, Shaft XIV. (Plate I.). the long diameter, 12ft. at the mouth, being E. and W., the short diameter 6' 75ft. (The mouth of this shaft is seen between the platform and the surveying post, Plate III., B.). It was found to be 25' 8ft. deep below the nearest arena-turf, and 33' 6ft. below the old turf line under the Great Bank. Towards the bottom it was of circular section with diameters of 4ft. at 9ft., and 3' 1ft. at 1ft., from the bottom. At higher levels the rounded section had a flattening on the W. The bottom was basin-shaped, but not quite true, being slightly deeper on the S.W. than on the N.E. The chalk rubble filling of this shaft was moister than in any of the other pits

re-excavated.

Besides the antler pick (No. 402), depth 9ft., and an antler rake (No. 392), depth 6'5ft. below the arena-turf, a few other fragments of antler were found at a depth of 8 '5ft.

Below this very little was discovered until, at a short distance from the bottom, a fine rounded nodule of flint about 5Jins.

diameter was brought to light. Within a foot of the bottom a pick formed from the antler of a slain red-deer in

(No. 405) was discovered *

;

the skull part was slightly charred,

In the mouth of this shaft part of a pick (No. 357) of an antler tine (No. 359) were found.

and the point

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

Ill

the bez- and trez-tines were carefully reduced to stumps, and the brow-tine bore evidence of considerable wear. Below this a little burnt matter and charcoal (too for preservation) were observed

;

and a

large

fragmentary lump of chalk

(No. 408), length Tins., scratched with deep parallel incisions, with a tapering hole penetrating one surface to a depth of l^in., and having a diameter of l^in. at the top. Shaft XV. (Plate I.). This pit was of similar form to Shaft XIV., having at the mouth a long diameter of 14ft.

from E. to W. and a short diameter of 8ft. from N. to S. (The W. end of its mouth is seen in the foreground of Plate It was found to be 26' 7ft. deep below the nearest III., B.). arena-turf, and 34- 5ft. below the old turf -line under the Great Bank. At 6' 2ft. from the bottom there was a definite constriction in the walls of the shaft with a steeper pitch to the base the diameter at this point varied from 3'2ft. to ;

3'5ft.

The bottom was very smooth, basin-shaped, and

quite circular in. section, the diameter at 1ft. from the base being only T7ft. Nodules of flint in the filling tried or

were not

otherwise

plentiful.

Parts of the crown of two antlers (No. 370), one bearing traces of fire, were found in the mouth of the shaft, depth 6'2ft.

(the following depths are

below nearest arena-turf)

;

and at a depth of 7 '6ft. portion of the antler of a slain red-deer (No. 377). At 5-2ft. an antler pick (No. 380), in a weathered condition and at lift, some pieces of burnt antler and fragments of decayed oak (No. 397) were obtained. At 4* 7ft. from the bottom, an antler pick (No. 399) in good condition was found it bears clear evidence of cutting in various places, presumably with stone tools. At T2ft. above the bottom an antler pick (No. 400), considerably damaged, was un;

;

beam is very massive, having a maximum 165mm. between the bez- and trez-tines circumference just above the burr about 206mm. Within

covered

;

the

circumference of

;

bottom the crown of an antler (No. 401) points was found, somewhat abnormal and flat stained by fire like No. 400. 2ins. of the

;

of it

two was

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

112

Above and below the pick (No. 400) a large mass of fragments of charred antler was revealed, some of the pieces being one or two fragmentary far more calcined than others animal bones were also found here,and a good deal of blackened wood (not true charcoal). This was identified at the Royal ;

Botanic Gardens at It

Kew

said that this tree

is

is

as

hornbeam (Carpinus

now

rare in Dorset,

betulus).

though an

undoubted native. Four pieces of flint, much calcined, were found in the mouths of some of the shafts, viz., No. 360 in Shaft XIII., Nos. 393 and 414 in Shaft XIV., and No. 371 in Shaft XV. In the 1912 Report it was recorded that a remarkable carving in chalk was found in the filling of Shaft X., which perhaps affords further evidence of phallicism in early prehistoric times. This season two somewhat similar objects of

chalk were discovered.

No. 409

XXXII.

is

mentioned in the

The description Cutting other (No. 378) was found in the mouth of Shaft XV., and consists of a piece of carved chalk of circular section, broken of

at both ends

;

into the earthwork.

diam. at larger end 2Jins., tapering to 2jins.

at the other end.

Excavation of the Great Bank (Plates II., IV.). At the same time as the excavation of the enclosure and shafts was in progress, men were employed in penetrating the Great Bank (to the middle of its crest) on the line of the transverse axis. This part of the cutting was 10ft. wide at the top, a considerable batter being necessary to keep the sides standing as the digging was continued downwards.

The upper part of the Civil War terrace, which had to be removed, was composed chiefly of chalk rubble, closely compacted and with horizontal stratification. The maximum thickness of this material, measured vertically, proved to be 5' 8ft. and the width of the whole terrace (at its highest ;

measured horizontally, was 33ft. Below it the old surface covered in the XVII. Century was clearly defined, and its junction with the turf at the E. margin of the terrace part),

was quite

distinct.

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY E1NGS.

The excavation

of the

113

earthwork was carried down in

all

parts to the surface of the solid chalk in the contour of the latter there was a considerable amount of irregularity at the W. end, the difference in level being accounted for a ;

by

or shelf, in the solid chalk

(maximum depth

hole,

which

2ft.),

extended across the cutting from N. to S. (Seen at top of the ladder, Plate IV.) From this hole to the E. end the level of the solid chalk varied to the extent of T5ft. As in Cutting XXXII. into the outer part of the Great Bank on the N., the ancient turf line in Cutting XXX., of dark brown

unctuous mould (max. thickness 0'5ft.), stood out in marked contrast with the chalk rufible of which the greater part of the earthwork was composed. A length of 25ft. was uncovered, and its surface deviated from a straight line to the extent of O75ft. The old surface (represented by a black line in Plate IV.) was discovered at a depth of 15ft.

beneath the crest of the bank. Below it the chalk rock was reached at depths varying from T65ft. to 2 '35ft. Near the E. end, instead of finding undisturbed rubble under the old surface line, dark mould for a length of 7'3ft. extended down to the chalk rock

;

no

relics

were found in this material, and

did not appear to have any special significance, and was probably natural. In one place a dark patch of old turf was met with at a level of 2 2ft. above the old surface line. it

-

The

stratification of the chalk rubble

and mould forming

the body of the bank was extremely interesting, as may be seen on the S. side of the cutting in Plate IV. In the middle there were layers of fine

and coarse chalk rubble alternating

these with narrower seams of mixed mould and fine rubble seams were inclined towards the E. at an angle of about 35. ;

This feature provided an object lesson as to the manner in which the material was thrown up, or carried up in baskets. At the W. limit of the Great Bank there was a difference in the soils, and the original bank appeared to have been disturbed as far inwards as the old surface line was found to

Here (on the S. face what appeared to be a small

begin.

of the cutting) the section of

trench, or ledge, filled with a

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

114

mixed mould and rubble, was observed and relics or pottery were found, no definite plotted but, as no evidence of date was obtained. a Nothing was obtained from the body of the bank except the and near an top, few bones of young pig (Sus scrofa) antler pick (No. 395), with the handle-end incomplete, found in an important position 1ft. above the old turf line. It is a small shed antler of red-deer with the brow-tine fairly comfine

silt

of

;

and the bez- and trez-tines cut down as stumps. The pick is smooth and bears signs of considerable wear, and is of shafts. precisely the same type as those found in the prehistoric date of the of the evidence no conclusive obtained We remains were found few here fact that but the Bank Great the N.N.W. on similar in and the (Cutting XXXII.), digging and that nothing of Roman date was found in either of these cuttings, points to the probability that the earthwork is prehistoric and contemporaneous with the accompanying plete,

;

shafts.

V.

CUTTING XXXI. (PLATE

I.).

Cutting XXXI. was a quadrilateral area (seen on left-hand side, Plate II.), the sides measuring from 20ft. to 23* 75ft. in length.

Its

Cutting

II.

N.W.

corner abutted against the S.E. margin of The digging revealed the usual

Extension.

features, viz., the material forming the Civil

War

terrace

resting upon an old surface which covered the Roman and earlier work, the chalk wall of the arena, and the inner and

outer trenches with the solid

S.W. the outline

gangway between.

of a large shaft (or shafts

?),

On

the

bearing the

number XVII., came to light. In the rubble filling at the mouth no prehistoric remains were found, but we examined the material no deeper than 8- 15ft. below the surface of the turf. The E. margin of the pit was practically in the same position as the inner edge of the inner trench. Square post-holes

were revealed in two places on the margin of the shaft, one the centre of a basin-shaped cavity in the solid chalk.

filling

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

115

In the inner trench, which was 2ft. deep below the 3ft. gangway, a circular post-hole was noted. On the arena-wall two strut-holes were found, and two others further S. were traceable. The wall was uncovered under the terrace to a height of 5ft. above the gangway.

On

clearing the outer trench of rubble it was found to have of 2 -2ft. below the gangway. In it the

an average depth

position of six post-holes (mostly rectangular) was clearly traced, the second from the N. being situated in a basin-

shaped depression in the bottom of the trench. The postholes were by no means equi-distant, but they were on an average 3 '3ft. apart.

The outer trench was not continuous throughout, and between the second and third post-holes from the N. there was a decided ridge of solid chalk rising from the bottom of the trench. The bottom of the trench terminated at a distance of 3ft. from the S. end of the cutting, and it gradually sloped up to the level of the gangway at l'7ft. further S. The discontinuity of this trench was not noticed elsewhere in the excavations.

There was a comparative paucity of the unnumbered

iron nails, a stone pieces follows 396.

Depth 403.

of

terra

and

sigillata.

relics in this cutting

;

Roman

deposits included a few an earthenware tessera, and three

finds in the

The numbered

objects

were as

:

XVI.

Century

Nuremberg

counter,

Hans

Kravwinckel.

2ft.

Third brass

Roman

coin,

burnt and unidentifiable.

Depth

4-5ft.

404.

Long

iron nail, bent, with large thin head.

Found on

level

of the arena-floor.

VI.

CUTTINGS XXXII., XXXIV., AND (PLATES

I.

AND

XXXV.

V.).

outer half of the Cutting XXXII. was made through the Great Bank on the N.N.W., and was 35ft. in length by 12ft.

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

116

At the N. end the digging was begun 5ft. beyond from this point the bank rises to a turf line was found to be clearly old The of 17'4ft. height defined for a length of 18'5ft., its max. thickness being O25ft. It consisted of a dark brown unctuous mould, without any admixture of chalk. Below its surface the solid chalk was reached at depths varying from T8ft. to 2'3ft. The vertical in width.

the foot of the rampart

;

height of the earthwork above the old surface line (clearly seen in Plate V.) was 15ft. turf -mould was seldom found to be more than Gins, below that most of the thrown-up material conand thick, sisted of chalk rubble, streaked with mould of different some of the lumps of chalk were very large. colours No relics were found on the old turf line, but at 0'75ft. above it an antler rake (No. 412), of a type found in the The objects found were as was uncovered. shafts,

The

;

follows

* :

Burr and lower part of a red-deer antler. Found about 1ft. 394. above the old surface line. Point of a red-deer tine, well worn. Found in the body of 398. the earthwork. Depth 4'75ft. below the surface. Piece of carved chalk of circular section broken at the smaller 409. end diam. 2|ins. tapering to 2f ins. present length, 2|ins. similar to Nos. 309 and 378 described elsewhere. Found 2-5ft. above the old ;

;

;

surface line.

Burr and part of beam of an antler, much weathered. Found below the surface. 412. Rake, consisting of the crown of an antler of three points ; also a piece of decayed oak (C. Reid). Found 0'7ft. above the old 411.

10'6ft.

turf line.

In digging the bank at the N. end the outline of the top of a ditch was noticed on both faces of the cutting (Plate V.). On removal of the silting, it was seen that a trench had been cut into the solid chalk subsequently to the formation of the Great Bank, the latter having been considerably scarped in *

A

in the

piece of burnt skull-bone (probably of the earthwork.

body

human) was

also

found

PLATE V

MAUMBURY RINGS, DORCHESTER, 1913. CUTTING XXXII. STRUCTURE OF THE GREAT BANK ON THE N. N. W. (Full Title given at the beginning of the Report).

From a Photograph by Mr. H.

St.

George Gray.

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

117

the construction of the ditch.

found in the

Unfortunately no relics were which appeared to be a comparatively

filling

modern accumulation. At the level of the old turf line this ditch was about 7ft. wide, and extended to a depth of 2*5ft. below the level of the chalk rock the ditch was l'75ft. wide ;

at the bottom.

At the W. end of Cutting XXIX., as mentioned in the 1912 Report, a trench, having a width of about 3ft. at the bottom, was traced for a length of 5ft. running at a level of T7ft. higher than the New Ditch which terminated against the earthwork. This record, taken in conjunction with the line led us to make a small XXXIV., measuring 8'6ft. by N. and against the foot of the Great Bank

of the trench in Cutting

intermediate 3'3ft.)

on the

cutting

XXXII.,

(No.

Here we found a trench cut to a depth of 2 '6ft. (Plate I.). in the solid chalk, 6ft. wide at the surface of the chalk rock, and l'9ft. wide at the bottom. The bottom was 2 -85ft. lower than the floor of the trench in Cutting XXXII. (S.W. the natural fall of the ground was in the same direcside) ;

tion.

To

No

relics

test the

were found in the

filling.

matter further, another cutting (No.

XXXV.

j,

measuring 10ft. by 2ft., was made in a similar position on the E.N.E. side of the Rings, and here again a trench was found now covered by the foot of the Great Bank. It was 4ft. deep below the solid chalk, with a width of at least 8ft. at the same At a depth of T3ft, level, and 1'Sft. wide at the bottom. were found close together a head and neck of a human femur. a metal ferrule of a of

stick,

and a piece

of thin

These

Romano-British

black pottery remains are

type (No. 410). hardly enough in themselves to date the trench and, as pointed out elsewhere, the presence of odd fragments of pottery of the Roman period affords no definite evidence of ;

being constantly found mixed with disturbed soil. ferrule, however, brings us to much later times, and seeing that modern remains were found in Cutting XXIX. and in other parts of the New Ditch, the probability is that the date,

The

trench under consideration

is

of

Cromwellian construction.

EXCAVATIONS AT MAUMBURY RINGS.

118

Time did not permit

of testing its existence at other points,

probably be found that this trench encircles the Great Bank. but

it

will

ANIMAL BONES.

VII.

have been from the Roman deposits. The those found in 1913 have been kindly

All the bones found in the Prehistoric Shafts

preserved greater

also a selection

;

number

of

by Mr. E. T. Newton, F.R.S.

identified

most interesting (excluding implements CUTTING

Remains

of

The following are the of red-deer antler)

:

XXX. Toad (Bufo

ROMAN

vulgaris).

Depth unrecorded.

DEPOSITS.

Jaw

of Field Vole (Microtus agrestis). Lower jaw of small slender Dog (Canis vulpes}, size of Arctic fox.

SHAFT XV., ROMAN FILLING. Metacarpus

of

3ft. 1 Of ins.

Ox,

length

197mm.,

SHAFT XVI., ROMAN FILLING. Skeleton of

giving

estimated

height

of

at shoulder.

Dog

Depth

6 -9ft.

below the surface.

estimated height at shoulder

(Canis familiaris),

1ft. 9ins.

FROM THE BODY OF THE GREAT BANK, NEAR THE Young Pig

(Sus scrofa)

vertebrae,

TOP.

humerus, two astragali, two calcanei.

CUTTING XXXI. IN POST-HOLE WITH IRON NAIL.

A few

bones of small Fox.

ROMAN

DEPOSITS.

Polecat (Mustela putorius) complete lower jaw and two humori. Small Dog (Canis vulpes) parts of two lower jaws.

CUTTING XXXII. IN

BODY OF THE GREAT BANK

Ox, parts of ribs. Red-deer (Cervus elaphus)

IN

CHALK RUBBLE.

Three or four pieces of antler.

PLATE A Proa Dcrset,N.H.&A.F. Club, Vol. XXXV.

4fev 33. O.Pickard-Cambnd^e

r

del'

M'Fariane 4Erskine.LitTi.E6in

NEW

AND RARE BRITISH SPIDERS

EXPLANATION OF PLATE

A.

Figures

134.

Clubiona juvenis, Sim. Fig. 1. Left palpus of male from outer side ; 2. Ditto in front ; 3. Epigyne of female. Clubiona subsultans, Thor. Fig. 4. Right palpus of male from above and behind ; 5. Eyes of male from above and behind 6. ;

Epigyne

of female.

Phyllonethis instabilis, Cambr.

outer side

;

8.

Epigyne

Phyllonethis bellicosa, Sim. 10.

side;

Left palpus of male from

7.

Fig.

of female. 9.

Fig.

Left palpus of male from outer

of female (from

Epigyne

Ben Nevis);

11.

Epigyne

of female (from St. Kilda).

Leptyphantes Carrii, Jackson. Fig. 12. Left palpus of male from outer side 13. Eyes from above and behind. ;

Robertus scoticus, Jaekson.

above and behind

;

Fig. 14.

Cephalothorax of female,

Extreme

15.

terminal joint and palpal claw

Porrhomma

Thorellii,

Hermann.

;

Maso

in front.

Part of palpal organs of male 20. Ditto from outer side and above

;

(drawn by Dr. Jackson). Coryphaeus mendicus, L. Koch. Fig. 22.

;

Epigyne.

Left palpus of male from

Eyes from

18.

from

showing the

Fig. 19.

from above and behind

above and behind

16.

;

Fig. 17.

rather in front on outer side

Opistoxys subacuta, Cambr.

joint of palpus

21.

Epigyne

Right palpus of male from

of female.

Right palpus of male from outer Fig. 23. 25. Cephalopalpus of male from outer side thorax and eyes of male from above and behind ; 26. Profile of

Brittenii. Jackson. side.

24. Left

;

27. Epigyne of female. male (cephalothorax) Tiso cestivus, L. Koch. Fig. 28. Cephalothorax and eyes of male from ;

29. Profile of male (cephalothorax) ; 30. Left palpus of male from outer side ; 31. Ditto, from behind and inner side ; 32. Ditto from outer side rather behind ;

above and behind

33.

Epigyne

;

of female.

Oxyptila nigrita, Thor.

Fig. 34.

Left palpus of male from above and

behind.

N.B.

The short

lines indicate the natural length of the spiders.

Bare NOTED AND OBSEEVED

IN 1913.

Plate A.

By

Rev.

0.

PICKARD-CAMBRIDGE,

M.A.,

F.R.S.,

&c.

(Read February 3rd, 1914.)

HAVE

very little to record from any personal observations the past year. The during

kind

help, however, and the work of others me to give you, in the subjoined List,

enables

some

of the valuable

their work.

Most

and important

results of

of the materials in the List

have been kindly submitted to me by those I would specially collected them. name among the collectors several of my sons and Dr. Haines, of Winfrith, in Dorset, but more especially Dr. A. Randell Jackson, M.A., D.Sc., of Hoole Road, Chester, whose work in Scotland last July has added several species of Araneidea These will be found in the (true spiders) to the British List.

who have

"

List

"

in their systematic position.

Nothing new to the British List has been turned up by my Dorset helpers, though, as will be observed, some rare and local species have occurred. This may, of course, be in some, and probably in great, measure owing to those parts of the

ON NEW AND BARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

120

county where their work has lain having been already more districts. closely worked than many other British in any way assisted all who have are due to thanks best My

me during the past year, and I must add here the name of Mr. Denis R. Pack Beresford, of Fenagh House, Bagenals Town, Ireland, from whose researches the British and Irish List has been enriched

Clubiona

to the genus

by a valuable addition

noted in the List below.

Possibly there may be this year some new Members of our Field Club who may wish to know where further information is

to be obtained on the general subject of British Arachnids. would refer them to the author's following publica-

If so, I

tions "

:

Spiders of Dorset" published by the Dorset Nat. History, and Antiquarian Field Club, 1879 1881, and the Supplementary Papers in most of the subsequent years to the

present date. "

List of British

and Irish Spiders " (Sime and

chester, 1900). " British Phalangided or Harvest

Men

"

Co.,

Dor-

(Dorset Field Club

Proceedings, Vol. XI., 1890). " " British Chernetidea or False Scorpions

(I.e.

Vol. XIII.,

1892).

The following Papers on British Arachnids have been published since my last report in Vol. XXXIV. " On Some Arthropods observed in 1911 and 1912," by A. Randell Jackson, Lancashire Naturalist, March, 1913, :

pp.

440443. and records of numerous known from Dorsetshire as well as other parts of England.)

(This Paper contains notes species "

A Spider New to the British Isles (Cluliona juvenis, Simon), recently found in Ireland," by A. RandellJackson, M.D., D.Sc., and Denis R. Pack Beresford, B.A., M.R.S.A.,

Irish Naturalist,

(This species

November, 1913, pp. 205, 207.

is

noted in the following

List.)

pi. I., figs

14.

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS. "

On Some New and Obscure

Naturalists' Society for 1911

British Spiders," 12, pp.

2046,

A. Eandell Jackson, M.D,, B.Sc. (The new species and some others contained

121

Nottingham by

pi. I., II.,

in this paper

are noted in the subjoined List. A considerable portion of the paper is devoted to the genus Porrhomma, Simon, of which the British species are subjected to an exhaustive and careful differentiation.) Contribution to the Spider

"A Fauna of Scotland," by A. Eandell Jackson, M.D., D.Sc. Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, Session 19131914, Vol. XIX., No. 5, pp. 103128. Plates II., III.

(Various new and rare species, noted and described by Dr. Jackson in this paper, will be found in the subjoined List.) "

On the Origin of the Araneidal Fauna of Yorkshire." Naturalist for Feb. and March, 1913, pp. Ill 114 and

131138.

By Wm.

Falconer.

ARACHNIDA.

ARANEIDEA. Fam. DYSDERIDJE. Segestria Bavariea, C. L. Koch.

Bavariea, C. L. Koch, Die Arachn. X., p. 93, pi. 351, fig. 818. Segestria Bavariea, Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 8 Segeslria

An immature example was

found and sent to

me by

Dr. Haines from Ringstead in April, 1913. Although immature, I have no doubt about the identity of this

The only

is that given the there locality was though in fact, of The was, capture place given erroneously. under a stone or piece of rock in the island of Portland.

specimen.

in

British record hitherto

Spid. Dors., p. 8

;

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

122

Fam. DRASSID^:. Mieariosoma minimum, C. L. Koch.

Micariosoma minimum, C. L. Koch, Cambr. Proc. Dors. N. H. and A. F. Club XXXIII., p. 70, 1912.

Koch

L.

C.

minimus,

Phrurolithus

;

R,

A.

Jackson, Trans. Nottingham Naturalist Society,

191112, Dr. Jackson 1912, to

Box

p. 23.

records another

(I.e.)

visit, in

British locality in

the

Hill,

September, which this

Immature examples were species was first obtained. found in considerable numbers, but only one (a male) adult.

Clubiona juvenis, Simon.

PL

1, 2,

A., figs.

3.

(Arachnides de France,

Clubiona juvenis Simon. torn IV., p. 227).

Dr. A. R. Jackson and Clubiona juvenis, Sim. Denis R. Pack Beresford. Irish Naturalist, ;

November, 1913, pp. 205207. pi. I., figs.

Vol. XXII.,

14.

A very distinct species, and new to the British Islands. Adults of both sexes were found in tufts of grass on the Sandhills at Arklow,

of

County

Wicklow, Ireland, by

position appears to be

Mr. D. R. P. Beresford.

Its

nearest to Clubiona

L. Koch, but

trivialis,

it

may easily be

distinguished by the form of the palpi in the males of the epigyne in the females.

Clubiona subsultans, Thor.,

PL

A,

figs. 4, 5, 6.

Clubiona subsultans, Thor. Hungarise, Vol.

and

Clubiona subsultans, Thor.

Kulczynski Aranese

;

II., p. 2, pi. ;

IX.,

figs. 2,

23, 35.

A. R. Jackson. Proc.

Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinburgh, p. 125, pi. III., figs. 3, 4, 5.

vol.

XIX., No.

5,.

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

An

123

adult of both sexes found by Dr. A. R. Jackson at in 1913. A very distinct species, new to

Loch Rannoch

the British Fauna.

It

allied

is

to

Clubiona redusa,

Cambr., but is very distinct in the characteristic features of both sexes.

Agroeca celans, Blackw. Agelena celans, Bl. pi.

X.,

fig.

Spid. G. B.

;

and

I.,

p. 161,

103.

Both sexes taken rather commonly by my son Alfred (A. E. LI. P.-C.) in Morden Park in August and September, 1913,

Agroeca

among

di versa,

heather.

Cambr.

Proc. Dors. N. H. and Agroeca diver-sa, Cambr. A. F. Club XXXIV., pp. 108, 112, pi. A, figs. ;

1913.

1, 2, 3,

Several adult

on

Bloxworth

A.

E.

LI.

observations

Heath P.-C.).

both sexes were found 1913 (by

of

specimens in

September,

It

is

possible

that

future

prove this to be a well-marked but so far I believe A. gracilipes, Bl.

may

variety of The examples now recorded it to be a distinct species. of both sexes are quite similar to those of the type ;

recorded

I.e.

supra.

Fam. DICTYNID^E. Protadia patula, Sim.

Cambr. Spid. Dors., p. 470. Lethia patula, Sim. Protadia patula, Sim. Ibid Proc. Dors. N. H. and A. F. Club, Vol. XXXIII., pp. 73, 75, pi. A., ;

;

figs, la,

2a, 3a, 4a, 5a,

Dictyna patula, p. 197.

Sim.

;

6,

and

7.

Arachn. de France

I.,

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

124

Protadia

patula,

Sim.

Trans.

Jackson,

A.

Dr.

;

Randell

Naturalists'

Nottingham

Society for 1911, pp. 2023. Dr. Jackson (I.e. supra) describes the male, the female

only having been described previously, and distinguishes the species from Protadia subnigra, Cambr.

Fam. HAHNIID^E. Hahnia Candida, Sim.

Hahnia Candida, Sim. Cambr. Spid. Dors., p. 71. adult female was found among heather in Morden ;

An

Park by my son (W. A. P.-Cambridge) in Sept., 1913, and a male and two females (adult) were sent to me from Ringstead, where they were taken by Dr. Haines in the same month. Hitherto the only known British locality has

been at Portland.

Fam. THERIDIIDJE. Episinus lugubris, Sim.

Episinus

lugubris,

torn. V., p. 42,

Sim.

Arachn.

;

de France,

and Cambr. Proc. Dors. F. Club,

Vol. XXVII., pp. 74, 83, pi. A., fig. 2. Adults of both sexes, as w^ell as immature examples, found by my son (A. E. LI. P.-C.) in several coppices at

Bloxworth in May, 1913. Theridion simile, C. L. Koch.

Theridion salvum, Cambr. Proc. Dors. N. H. and A. F. Club XXXIII., pp. 70, 74, 88, pi. A, ;

figs. 8, 9, 10.

On

further

consideration of the type specimen of T. salvum and comparison with examples of Theridion simile, C. L. Koch, I have been led to believe that it

may

be only a melanic example of the latter.

This, however,

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

125

I do not as yet consider at all certain, and it remains for further research to confirm it. The normal form of

Theridion simile probably occurs on heaths in the same but I have never as yet taken it so far from its usual habitat, i.e., the heather-clad waste lands.

district,

Phyllonethis instabilis, Cambr.

Theridion

;

PI. A,, figs. 7, 8.

Cambr. Trans. Linn. Soc. No. 14. Phyllonethis instabilis, Cambr. Spid. Dors., p. 95. Theridion venustum, Walck. -Cambr. Spid. Dors.,

XXVII.,

instabile,

;

p. 416, pi. 55,

;

;

p. 476.

Dr. A. R. Jackson, Proceedings Roy.

Phys. Soc.,

Edinburgh, Vol.

No.

XIX.,

5,

pp. 122, 123, PL II., figs. 8, 10, 12, 13. It appears on further consideration that the above, formerly considered to be of the same species as Theridion

venustum, Walckenaer, is not that species, nor yet the Theridion lepidum, Walck., with which, also, it was considered conspecific the original name, therefore, ;

given to

it

Trans.

(Cambr.,

becomes again

Linn.

Phyllonethis bellicosa, Sim.

;

above)

PI. A, figs. 9, 10, 11.

Theridium lepidum, France V., p. 64.

Walck. -Sim.

Theridium bellicosum, Sim.

Arachn.

;

Aran

;

de

nouv, &c.,

Mem.

Soc. Roy. Sc. Liege Arach. de France V., p. 64, as syn. of

2e Mem., p. 106, in

and

T. lepidum, Walck., note

Theridium bellicosum, Sim. Proceedings Vol.

PL

I.e.

Soc.,

valid.

Roy.

XIX., No.

Dr. A. R. Jackson,

Phys.

5, p.

II., figs. 7, 9, 11,

3. ;

121,

and

Edinburgh,

Soc.,

and pp.

123,

124,

14.

Annals of Theridion lepidum, Walck. -Cambr. Scottish Natural History, pp. 220, 223, October, ;

1905, sub. Phyllonethis.

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

126

Examples

of

both sexes of a spider evidently nearly Cambr., were found on

allied to Phyllonethis instabilis,

Ben Nevis by Dr. Jackson

in July, 1913.

Comparison

however, proves them to be quite distinct, and that the Ben Nevis examples are Theridion Arachn. de Fr., bellicosum, Sim., given by M. Simon, Theridion as a synonym of lepidum, Walck. I.e. of the two,

supra,

It is This synonym, however, seems to be doubtful. are Simon's Nevis Ben examples pretty certain that the

T. bellicosum, and that Dr. Jackson's discovery of them I have received is their first record as a British species. E. J. Rev. from Hull, taken on examples of the female the Cheviots, Scotland, in 1912.

Lithyphantes corollatus, Sim. Proc. Dors. Lithyphantes corollatus, Sim. -Cambr. in several and F. Club, Vol. XVI., p. 122, 1895, ;

succeeding vols., XVII., XXI., and XXVI. This very distinct and pretty species has been found in some abundance on Bloxworth Heath in the past year, 1913, both sexes, adult of September,

by

my

and immature,

sons A.

W.

P.-C.

late in the

and A. E.

month

LI. P.-C.

Teutana grossa, C. L. Koch. Teutana grossa, C. L. Koch-Cambr. Proc., Dors. F. Club, 1891, Vol. XII., p. 88.

Two

females, not yet quite adult, were sent to

me

from North Devon in October, 1913, by the Rev. A. E. Eaton, by whom they were found in overhauling the Several years ago a female Mrs. Haig Thomas at Grange,

contents of a lumber room.

was sent to me, found by near Wareham. There seemed at the time a possibility that this example might have been imported from the Continent, as Mrs. there

;

Thomas had recently been travelling made it appear much more

but subsequent enquiry

probable that it was an indigenous specimen, and, it is the only one as yet recorded for Dorsetshire.

if

so,

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

127

Laseola erythropus, Sim. Laseola

erythropus, Sim. 1881, Arachn. de France, Vol. V., p. 141, Cambr., Proc.Dors. F. Club, Vol. XXIX., p. 170 (1908). Laseola proximo,, Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. Club

XVI.,

;

p. 102, pi. A., figs. 3a, 36, 1895.

An

adult male received in October, 1913, from Mr. W. Falconer, was found by the Rev. R. A. Taylor in Cornwall subsequently I have received both sexes from ;

Mr. Taylor. The female is new to me, but the male I believe to be identical with L. proxima, Cambr., which M. Simon considered on examination to be the same as his L. erythropus.

Laseola coracina, C. L. Koch.

Euryopis coracina, C. L. Koch-Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 573.

A

male, not quite adult, was found by my son (W. A. P.-C.) among heather in Morden Park on Sept. 20th, 1913. It is still a very rare species, and hitherto has only

am

occurred, so far as I locality

aware, in one other British

Suffolk.

PL A,

Robertus scoticus, Jackson. Robertus

Phys.

scoticus,

Soc.,

A.

figs. 14, 15, 16.

R.

Jackson,

Edinburgh,

p. 120, PI. II.,

Vol.

Proc.

Roy. XIX., No. 5,

fig. 15.

adult female (length 2mm.), allied to but quite distinct from Robertus neglectus, Cambr., was taken at Loch Rannoch in July, 1913, by Dr. A. R. Jackson, and

An

is

a species new to science.

Leptyphantes

Carrii,

Jackson.

Leptyphantes

Nottingham p. 25, pi.

L,

PL A,

carrii,

A.

figs. 12, 13.

R.

Jackson

;

Trans.

Naturalists' Society for 1911 figs.

14.

12,

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

128

A

very distinct species new to science found by Dr. Jackson in June, 1912, in Sherwood Forest, running on

A

the trunks of oak trees. I.e.

minute description

is

given,

supra, by Dr. Jackson.

Leptyphantes Black wallii, Kulcz.

Cambr. Proc. Leptyphantes Blackwallii, Kulcz. 112. Vol. F. Dors. XVI., p. Club, An almost black variety of the female of this spider was taken by my son A. E. LI. P.-C. at Blox worth in ;

August, 1913. Leptyphantes cacuminum, Jackson. Leptyphantes cacuminum, A. R. Jackson.

Roy. Phys.

Soc.,

vol.

Edinburgh,

p. 118, pi. II., figs.

Proc.

XIX., No.

5,

16.

Adults of both sexes were found by Dr. Jackson on Ben Nevis in July, 1913. It appears to be a very distinct

and not to have been described or recorded

species,

before.

Length

of the

male 1-75 m.m., and of female 1-8 to

rOm.m. Bathyphantes parvulus, Westr.

Linyphia parvula, Westr.

;

Cambr. Spid. Dors.,

p. 210.

An worth

adult male was taken

by A. E.

LI. P.-C. at

Blox-

in August, 1913.

Opistoxys subacuta, Cambr.

PL

A., figs. 19, 20.

Opistoxys subacuta, Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. Club, 1891, Vol. XII., p. 91, fig. 3.

Leptyphantes patens, Cambr. 1907, pp. 128, 139, pi. A.,

I.e.

Vol.

XXVIII.,

20,

25 (male,

figs.

not the female). Opistoxys subacuta having been insufficiently figured (I.e. supra), I have added here some figures of the palpal

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS. organs drawn by Dr. A. R. Jackson, which serve

for

its

better

identification.

will

129 perhaps

The

identity of subacuta was

Leptyphantes patens with Opistoxys unsuspected at the time when the former was described, chiefly owing to the palpal organs of L. patens having been forced out of their natural position. Dr. Jackson, who has carefully examined and compared both the types, first suggested to me their identity.

Centromerus (Tmeticus) abnormis, Blackw.

Cambr. Spid. Dors., Linyphia abnormis, Bl. pp. 207 and 578. Adult males were found in Bere Wood towards the end ;

of

May, 1913, by

my

son (A. E. LI. P.-C.)

Centromerus (Tmeticus) expertus, Cambr. Tmeticus expertus, Cambr., Spid. Dors., and Proc. Dors. F. Club IV., p. 152.

p.

203,

This species, though widely distributed, seems to be a and rare one. An adult of each sex was found at the end of November, 1913, on the outside of a copse at

local

Bloxworth, among herbage, by

my

son (A. E. LI. P.-C.)

Leptorhoptrum (Tmeticus) Huthwaitii, Cambr. Neriene Huthwaitii, Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. Club X., p. 118, 1889.

Tmeticus Huthwaitii, Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. Club

XXVI.,

p. 47, 1905.

Leptorhoptrum Huthwaitii, Cambr., Kulczynski, Aranese Hungarian II., p. 79, Tab. III., fig. 20.

An species

adult male of this fine and widely distributed was sent to me from Yorkshire in August, 1913,

by Mr. W.

P. Winter.

This spider

place in the genus Tmeticus

genus formed for

it

;

its

by Kulczynski

is

certainly out of

place

(I.e.

is

in the

supra).

new

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

130

Porrhomma

Thorellii,

Herm.

Porrhomma

PI.

Thorellii,

A.

figs. 17, 18.

Herm. A. R. Jackson Trans. Not-

tingham Naturalists' Society, pi. II., figs. 22 and 27.

191112,

p. 36,

Average length, about 2'4mm. This species, differenby Dr. Jackson (I.e. supra) from others with which it has been mixed up, is allied nearly to Porrhomma pygmceum, Blackw., and has not, until Dr. Jackson's announcement (supra) been before recorded as British. Both sexes are recorded. The example from which my figures were drawn was sent to me in 1902 by Mr. W. Falconer, from Huddersfield, and was then doubtfully tiated

named by me, P. pygmo2um, Porrhomma

Bl.

pallidum, Jackson.

Porrhomma pallidum, A. R. Jackson Trans. Nottingham Naturalists' Society, 1911 12, ;

p. 38, pi. II., figs. 18, 32.

Length l*65mm. I'Smm. This appears to be, so far as at present known, a Northern form only. Dr. Jackson reports it as hailing from Moray, in N. Scotland, and mountains in Cumberland also Northumberland, Yorkshire, Cheshire, and Staffordshire, where it seems to be not rare in both sexes found amongst moss and dead leaves in woods. I have not myself seen a type of this ;

;

species.

Porrhomma montanum, Jackson. Porrhomma montanum, A. R. Jackson Nottingham

Naturalists'

p. 40, pi. II., figs. Length, 1-5 2m. This

Society,

;

Trans.

1911

12,

24 and 34.

spider, new to science and to the British List, is also a Northern form, and usually found at high altitudes Ben Voirlich, Scotland,

Cumberland,

Isle of

Man, Northumberland, Yorkshire,

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS. Cheshire,

and Edinburgh.

seems to be

131

Both sexes are recorded.

It

allied closely

P. dblitum Cambr.

both to P. pygmceum, BL, and have not seen a type of this

I

species.

Oreoneta fortunata, Cambr. Tmeticus fortunatus, Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. Club, Vol. XVI., p. 123, pi. A., figs. 6a d, and VoL XXVIII., pp. 121 and 142, pi. B., figs. 42, 43, 44 (1907).

An

adult male was taken by the Rev. R. J. PickardCambridge at Warmwell in May, 1913. It is still a rare spider,

and

its

systematic position does not appear to be

yet settled.

Sintula cornigera, Bl.

Sintula indecora, Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. Club, Vol. XIV., p. 156, fig. 7.

Neriene cornigera, Blackw., Spid. G. B. and p. 273, pi.

An

my

XIX.,

fig.

I.,

187.

adult female of this rare spider was found by among heather at Bloxworth

son (A. E. LI. P.-C.)

on April llth, 1913.

Maso

Brittenii,

Jackson.

Maso

ham

PL

A,

figs.

23, 24, 25, 26, 27.

Brittenii, A. R. Jackson.

Naturalists Society,

Trans. Notting-

191112,

p. 27, pi.

I.,

and pi. II., fig. 14. of l'59mm. of female, 2'lmm. A very male, Length distinct species described and figured by Dr. A. R. new to science. The Jackson, I.e. supra, and female was found by Dr. Jackson in May, 1912, in a swampy place in Delamere Forest, and the male in the figs. 11, 12, 13,

;

spring of 1911 on by Mr. Britten.

Wan

Fell,

near Penrith (Cumberland),

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

132

Gongylidium retusum, Westr. Erigone retusa, Westr. Aranese Suec., p. 253. Neriene retusa, Westr. -Cambr., Spid. Dors. p. 116.

An adult male was found at Bloxworth Rectory by my son (A. E. LI. P.-C.) Aug. 3rd, 1913, and another by Dr. Haines at Arne. It is still a rare spider in Dorset.

CORYPHAEUS, F. 0. P. -Cambr.

The genus Coryphaeus was established by the

late

F. O. Pickard-Cambridge for the reception of a spider

(Ann. and Mag. N. H., ser. 6, This spider (Coryphaeus 87). glabriceps) afterwards turned out to be identical with Gongylidium distinctum, Sim. M. Simon subsequently

found near Vol.

Carlisle.

XIII.,

transferred

1894,

his

p.

distinctum

G.

(Hist, des Araignees

I.,

to

the

This last

701).

genus Hilaira. seems to me,

is, it

quite untenable, and thus Coryphaeus becomes a good genus, with C. distinctus, Sim., as its type.

Coryphaeus mendicus, L. Koch.

PL

mendicus,

Coryphaeus

Fragmenta

585588,

A,

L.

fig.

Arachnologica pi.

XXI.,

figs.

21, 22.

Koch. 14,

V., 16,

Kulczynski, 1907,

pp.

17, 18, 19.

Coryphaeus mendicus, L. Koch, Dr. A. R. Jackson, Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc., Edinburgh.

No,

5, p,

Vol. XIX.,

127, pi, III,, figs, 6, 7, 8.

Both sexes adult (not before recorded as British) were taken by Dr. A. R. Jackson on Ben Nevis, Scotland, in The lengtb of the male is 1.8mm. July, 1913. Tiso aestivus, L. Koch.

Tiso

PI. A, figs.

aestivus,

Hungariae Erigone

ii.

Koch. Kulczynski Aranese Tab. V., fig. 7, a, b, c, d. e. L. Koch, Beit. Z. Kennt. Arach. L.

II., p. 127,

cestiva,

Tirols,

2833.

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS. Tiso

133

L. Koch, Dr. A. R. Jackson, Proc. Soo., Edinburgh, Vol. XIX., No.

cestivus,

Roy. Phys. 5. p.

127, pi. III.

figs. 9, 10, 11.

An

adult example of each sex was found on Ben Nevis Dr. Jackson in July, 1913. This species, which is a by

very distinct one, had not been before recorded in Great Britain. The length of the male is 1-3 mm. Erigone longipalpis, Suud. Neriene longipalpis, Sund. Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 107, and Trans. Linn. Soc., XVIII., p. 447, pi.

XXXIV., No. 23 and 24. Also Proc. Dors. Nat. Hist, and A. F. Club VI., p. 48, pi. B., 4.

fig

Adult males and an adult female found at Arne were sent to me by Dr Haines in June and September, 1913. A local spider, but at times abundant in some coast localities.

Erigone arctica, White. Erigone Hist, fig.

A

local

5.

spider,

An

localities.

Cambr. Proc. Dors. Nat. arctica, White. and A. F. Club, Vol. XXII., p. 49,pl.B., but often abundant in some coast

adult of each sex was sent to

me

in

September, 1913, from Arne, by Dr. Haines. Erigone Tirolensis, L. Koch. Erigone

Tirolensis,

L.

Koch,

Beit.

Z.

Kennt.

Arach. Tirols, ii. A. R. Jackson, Proc. Roy. ,, Phys. Soc., Edinburgh, Vol. XIX. No. 5, p. 126, pi. III., figs. 12, 13, 14. Adults of both sexes were met with

by Dr. Jackson in July, 1913, on Ben Nevis, Scotland. The species had not been previously recorded as British. The length of the male

is

2-2

mm.

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

134

Erigone capra, Sim.

Arachn. de France, torn V.,

Erigone capra, Sim.

p. 529, figs. 327, 328, 329.

Erigone capra, Sim. Naturalist,

142145,

;

A. Randell Jackson.

August,

1910,

Vol.

XIX.,

Irish

pp.

pi. 3.

of this species, which had not been before in the British and Irish List, were received by

Both sexes

noted Dr. Jackson from Mr. R. D. Pack Beresford, and were found by Mr. R. Welsh on the banks of the Ulster Canal,

near Monaghan, in October, 1909. (The record of this from Proc. Dors. F. species was inadvertently omitted Club, Vol.

Lophomma

XXXII.,

1911.)

herbigrada, Blackw.

Neriene herbigrada, Blackw. pp. 113 and 576.

Cambr., Spid. Dors.,

Neriene exhilarans, Cambr., Ann. Mag. N. H., ser. 5, Vol. 4, p. 199, pi. XII. fig. 3.

An

adult male was taken at Bloxworth in April, 1913,

bv A. E.

LI. P.-C.

Enidia bituberculata, Wid.

Neriene bituberculata, Cambr. Spid. Dors., p. 119. Blackw. Spid. G. B. and I., p. 268, pi. XVIII., fig.

181.

Dicyphus bituberculatus, Wid.-Camb., List of Brit.

and

Irish Spiders, p. 41.

Adults of both sexes were found in abundance and sent to

me by

The

Dr. Haines in April, 1913, from Tadnole Heath. generic name Enidia was substituted by Mr. F. P.

Smith (Journ. Quaker Microscopical Club, Nov., 1904, p. 115), the name Dicyphus (Menge) being pre-occupied and Neriene restricted to other species of Mr. Blackwall's generic group of that

name.

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

135

Entelecara fiavipes, Black.

Walckenaera

fiavipes,

BL, Spid. G. B. and Ireland,

p. 298.

Entelecara fiavipes, Bl., Cambr. Proc. Dors. F. Club, Vol. XXIII., p. 24.

An

adult male of this

little spider was taken by A. E. June, 1913, in a copse at Bloxworth. It continues to be a rare species.

LI. P.-C. in

Acartauchenius

seurrilis,

Cambr.

Erigone (Walckenaera) seurrilis, Cambr. Zool. Soc., Lond., 1872, p. 761, pi. LXVL,

Proc. fig.

18,

(male).

Arceoncus aequus, Cambr.,, Proc. Dors. F. Club, 1910, Vol. XXXI., pp. 55 and 69, pi. A., figs.

1113

(female).

Dr. Jackson has kindly sent me a female of A. seurrilis, Cambr., from Germany, and on comparison I find this to be identical with A. aequus, Cambr. The male only of the former,

previously

and only the female

known

of the latter,

were

to me.

Thyreosthenius biovatus, Cambr. Thyreosthenius biovatus, Cambr. Proc. Dors. N.H. and A. F. Club, XXVIII., p. 121, 1907. adult female was received from Mr. J. H. Keys,

An by whom

it

was found

in a nest of

Formica rufa

(var.

fusca rufa), at Whitesands, Plymouth,

Panamomops

bicuspis,

Cambr.

Neriene bicuspis, Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 139. bicuspis, Cambr., Simon Arachn. de France V., p. 795. adult male of this curious little spider has again

Panamomops

An

been met with by my son (the Rev. R. Warmwell in May, 1913.

J.

P.-C.)

at

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

136

Baryphyma

pratensis, Bl.

Walckenaera pratensis, Blackw., Spid. G. B. and

I.,

p. 306.

Baryphyma

Schlickii,

Arachn. de France,

Sim.,

torn V., p. 695.

Walckenaera Meadii, Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. Club,

An

Vol. X., p. 13, and XII., p. 95. adult male, received from Dr. Haines,

by whom

it

was found at Tadnole in April, 1913.

Fam.

MIMETIM3.

Ero Camforidgii, Kulcz.

Ero Cambridgii, Kulcz. Club,

XXXIII.,

Cambr., Proc. Dors. F.

p. 80, pi. A., figs.

3033.

A fine specimen of the adult female was found close to the Rectory, Bloxworth, on the 17th of May, 1913, by A. E. LI. P.-C.

Fam. EPEIRIDJE. Epeira dromedaria, Walck.

Epeira dromedaria, Walck. Simon, Arachn. de France, I., p. 62, 1871. Epeira dromedaria, Walck. Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. Club, Vol.

XXX.,

p.

Ill, pi. A., figs.

1517

(1909).

dromedarius, Walck. Jackson, Trans. Nat. Hist. Society, Northumberland, Durham,

Araneus

and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, n.s. Vol. III., Part 2, p. 9, pi. X., figs. 8, Sa, and Trans. Nottingham Naturalist Society for 191112, p. 30. Dr. Jackson records the results of two visits to the only

known British locality of this fine and distinct An Epeirid, Burnham Beeches in Buckinghamshire.

as yet

adult male was found recorded as British.

;

this sex

had not been before

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

137

Zilla Stroemii, Thor.

Zilla Stroemii, Thor.

Kulcz., Aranese Hungarian Z.,

137, Tab. V.,

ffg.

30, a, b,

Bosenberg,

Die Spinnen,

Deutsehland,Tab.III., figs. 34, A, B, c.

A. R.Jackson, Proc. Roy.

Phys. Soc,, Edinburgh, Vol. XIX., No. 5, p,

125, pi.

III.,

ffgs,

1, 2, ,,

T.

,,

Thorell,

Remarks on

synonyms

of

European

Spiders, pp, 34, 35, 36. Adults of both sexes of this spider, new to Britain, were

found by Dr. A. R. Jackson on the banks of Loch Rannoch, Scotland, in July, 1913. It is allied to Zilla X-notata, Clerck., an abundant and widely-dispersed species, but quite distinct.

Fam. THOMISIDvE. Xysticus erraticus, Blackw.

Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 309. Blackw. Spid. G.B. and I.,

Xysticus erraticus, Bl.

Thomisus

erraticus,

p. 71.

An

adult female from West Lulworth found by Dr.

Haines

in April, 1913.

Xysticus ulmi, Hahn.

Thomisus Westwoodii, Cambr.

XXVII.,

A W.

Trans. Linn. Soc.,

p. 403.

female of this species found in Morden Park by A. P.-C. in September, 1913.

ON NEW AND BARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

138

Xysticus luetuosus, Blackw.

Xysticus

luetuosus,

Bl.

Cambr.,

Spid.

Dors.,

p. 305.

Adult males in very fine condition, among dead leaves, Bere Wood, found by A. E. LI. P.-C., at the end An adult female was also found by Dr. of May, 1913. &c., in

Jackson at Loch Rannoch in July, 1913. Oxyptila trux, Bl.

A

Oxyptila trux, Bl. Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 320. Thomisus trux, Blackw., Spid. G. B. and I., p. 84. male and female, adult, found in a copse at Blox-

worth in June, 1913, by A. E.

LI. P.-C.

Oxyptila Blackwallii, Sim.

Oxyptila Blackwallii, Sim.

Cambr.

Spid., Dors.,

p. 318.

Thomisus claveatus, Walck. and I., p. 87.

A to

male, not quite adult, of this species found

me from West Lulworth

and

Blackw., Spid. G. B.

also

in April, 1913,

and sent

by Dr. Haines,

adult females from Ringstead in September

following Oxyptila sanctuaria, Cambr.

An

Oxyptila sanctuaria, Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 319. adult female found and sent to me from Arne in

June, 1913, by Dr. Haines. Oxyptila nigrita, Thor.

Xysticus

PL A,

nigritus,

fig.

34.

Thor.

Tijds.

Ent.,

XVIII.,

1875, pi. 24.

Oxyptila nigrita, Thor. II., p. 238.

Simon, Arachn. de France,

Oxyptila nigrita, Thor. Cambr., Proc. Dors. F. Club,

XXIX.,

p. 181, pi. A., figs. 35,

36 (1908).

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

139

An adult male of this distinct and rare spider was found and sent to me in April, 1913, by Dr. Haines from Ringstead. The male may easily be distinguished from that sex of others nearly allied, and bearing a very similar general appearance, by the form of the cubital joint of the palpus. The female only had been recorded before as British.

ORDER PHALANGIDEA. Fam. PHALANGIIDJE. Selerosoma quadridentatum, Cuvier. Sclerosoma quadridentatum, Cuvier, Cambr., British Phalangidea, Proc. Dorset F. Club, Vol. XI., p. 171, pi. B., fig. 4.

of this species was sent to me from West Lulworth by Dr. Haines, shewing, it appears to me, very clearly the distinctness of the species from its ally, 8. Romanum, L. Koch.

An immature example

Fam. TROGULINAE.

Anelasmocephalus Cambridgii, Westwood. Trogulus Cambridgii, Westwood (1874), Thes. Ent. Oxon., p. 202,

pi. 37, fig. 6.

Anelasmocephalus Cambridgii,

An

W^estw.

Cambr.,

Dors. F. Club, Vol. XI., p. 207, pi. E., fig. 29. was example of this rare and curious Arachnid

found and sent to me from Ringstead Dr. Haines.

in April, 1913,

by

ON NEW AND BARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

140

LIST OF In

ARACHNIDS

the foregoing Pages, with references to

Page and

Plate.

ORDER ARANEIDEA. Koch p. 121 Segestria Bavarica, C. L. L. C. Micariosoma minimum, P- 122

Koch Clubiona juvenis,

Simon

subsultans, Thor.

Agroeca celans, Blackw. di versa,

Cambr.

Protadia patula, Sim. Hahnia Candida, Sim. Episinus lugubris, Sim.

p. 122 p. 122 p. 123

figs. 1, 2,

3

figs. 4, 5,

6

p. 123 p. 123 p. 124 p. 124

Theridion simile, C. L.

Koch

p. 124

Phyllonethis instabilis,

Cambr.

p.

125

bellicosa, Sim. p. 125 Linn. corolla tus, p. 126 Lethyphantes

Teutana grossa, C. L. Koch

p. 126

Laseola erythropus, Sim. ,, coracina, C. L. Koch

p. 127

Robertus scoticus, Jackson Leptyphantes Carrii, Jackson

p. 127 p. 127

BlackwalliiKulez.

PL A, PL A,

p.

p.

PL A, PL A,

figs. 7, 8.

figs. 9, 10,

127

PL A, PL A,

figs. 14, 15, figs. 12, 13

128

cacuminnm Jackson p. 128 patens, Cambr.

11

p. 128

Bathyphantes parvulus, Westr. p. 128 Opistoxys subacuta, Cambr. p. 128 PL A, Centromerus (Tmeticus) abnormis, Blackw. p. 129

figs. 19,

20

16

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

141

Centromerus

(Tmeticus) expertus, Cambr.

Leptorhoptrum Cambr.

Porrhomma ,,

,,

p.

129

p.

129

Huthwaitii,

Herm.

130 PL A, pallidum, Jackson p. 130 montanum, Jackson p. 130 Thorellii,

p.

Oreoneta fortunata, Cambr. Sintula cornigera, Blackw.

p.

131

p.

131

Maso

p.

131 PI. A,

Brittenii,

Jackson

figs. 17,

18

figs. 23, 24,

25,

26, 27

Gongylidium retusum, Westr. Coryphaeus mendicus, L. Tiso aestivus, L. Koch

Koch

Erigone longipalpis, Sund.

White

,,

arctica,

,,

Tirolensis, L.

,,

capra, Sim.

Lophomma

Koch

herbigrada, Bl.

Enidia bituberculata, Wid. Entelecara flavipes, Blackw.

Acartauchenius

scurrilis,

p.

132

132 PI. A/figs. 21, 22 p. 132 PL A, figs. 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33

p.

p.

133

p. 133 p. 133 p.

134

p.

134

p.

134

p. 135 Cambr. p. 135

Thyreosthenius biovatus, Cambr. p. 135 Panamomops bicuspis, Cambr. p. 135

Baryphyma

pratensis, Blackw. p. 136

Ero Cambridgii, Kulcz.

p.

136

Epeira dromedaria, Walck.

p.

136

Zilla Stroemii,

Thor.

Xysticus erraticus, Bl. ,,

,,

ulmi,

Hahn.

luetuosus, Blackw.

Oxyptila trux, Blackw.

,,

p.

137

p.

137

p.

137

p. 138 p. 138

Blackwallii,

p. 138

sanctuaria,

p.

138

nigrita, Thor.

p.

138

PL

A.

fig.

34

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH ARACHNIDS.

142

ORDER PHALANGIDEA. Fam. Sclerosoma

Phalangiidce.

Sub-Fam.

Sclerosomatince.

quadridentatum.

Cuvier

p.

Fam.

139

Trogulince.

Anelasmocephalus Cambridgii,

Westwood.

p.

139

ffenfcrtitoe

Account of

tije

jfungi of

(East Dorset*

the Rev. E. F.

By

little

LINTON, M.A.,

F.L.S.

attention has been paid to the Fungi County of Dorset, as far as I can

of the

and no attempt seems to have been by the Members of the Dorset Field Club to enumerate or record

learn

made

;

hitherto

the species. close

of Vol.

In the general index at the 16 of the Proceedings the

word Fungi does not occur

;

and

in the

eighteen annual volumes that have since been issued I find no evidence that the subject has been dealt with.

Considering the great variety that occur in our

woods and pastures, and the beauty of form or colour of numbers of the species, this omission is curious and I hope ;

attempt to fill a gap may lead to further investigation of this branch of British botany. The neighbouring County of Hampshire contains one of

that

my

initial

the best worked and also richest districts for Fungi in the and is fortunate in having for its exponent British Isles ;

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

144

such an accomplished adept as Mr. J. F. Rayner, F.R.H.S., " whose elaborate "Guide to the Fungi, &c., of the New Forest has been published in the Proceedings of the Bournemouth

Natural Science Society, Vol. III. interest in this class of plants was first aroused brother, the Rev. W. R. Linton, late Vicar of Shirley,

My

by

my

Derbyname is appended shire, in his later visits, 19051907, whose in this paper to the localities of the species he introduced me to.

Since 1907 I have collected during the

in Edmondsham and the immediate

vicinity,

autumn season and kept note

of results, forwarding specimens while fresh to Mr. J. F. The value and accuracy confirmed. or Rayner, to be named all

paper are due in great measure to his frequent much-enduring courtesy in responding to my of the records in this

appeals and naming the contents of my packets. This last season, the autumn of 1913, I have gone further afield, and visited several sylvan localities along the eastern

border of the county, from Alderholt and Cranborne to and have also had Branksome Park near Bournemouth ;

most helpful co-operation from two ladies, who have collected and sent specimens to Mr. Rayner to be named by him and reported to me for use in this paper. Mrs. Pringle has gathered material at Ferndown, and introduced me to some of the

neighbourhood. Mrs. E. W. Baker, of Witchampton Rectory, has collected, and submitted to Mr. Rayner, near all the numerous species recorded below from Colehill

woods

in that

Holt Wood, Lower Mannington, and I acknowledge here, and also some few which Witchampton, from Branksome Park, to which her name is appended as

Wimborne,

Crichel,

collector in the

proper place. Of the minor localities mentioned below Castle Hill Wood, Furze Common Copse, Great Down Copse, Rhymes, Hyles', Romford, and Goatham, are all situate in Edmondsham Birches Copse and Sutton Holms are in a detached portion ;

of

Gussage

St.

Michael

adjoining

Edmondsham

;

Mount

between Verwood and Woodlands and Branksome Park is the open part of that estate which is not yet Pleasant

is

;

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET. enclosed or built over.

145

Other places named

will

be easily

recognised.

With regard to the plan of my paper, I have had Mr. Rayner's Guide by me for comparison, as a work arranged on modern lines, followed the same order of Classes, Families and Orders, and with his consent made free use of his etymological explanations and descriptive notes, and quoted such English names as he sanctions. As to the order of species in each genus, I have followed George Massee in his British in

Fungus Flora (1893-95), copy of his book.

my A Synopsis

of the

as all

arrangement

my

notes are entered

of British

Fungi

in their

Classes, &c., has been drawn up in accordance with that in

modern

use,

and follows herewith.

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

146

FUNGI. Class

BASID10MYCETES.

I.

Order

H YMENOM YCETEAE.

I.

1.

Family

Section

1.

Fr.

Leucosporse Fr.

Series A.

Molles Sacc.

Series B.

Tenaces Sacc.

Section

,,

2.

Rhodosporae.

3.

Ochrosporse.

4.

Melanosporse Sacc.

2.

POLYPOREAE

3.

HYDNEAE

,,

4.

THELEPHOREAE

,,

5.

CLAVARIEAE Corda. TREMELLINEAE Fr.

Family

6.

II.

Order

III.

Pers.

G AST E ROM YCETE8.

Family

4.

PHALLOIDEAE Fr. NlDULARIACEAE Fr. LYCOPERDACEAE Ehrb. SCLERODERMEAE Fr.

5.

HYMENOGASTRACEAE

1.

2. 3. ,,

Fr.

Fr.

PILACEEAE.

Order

Class II.

AGARICINEAE

Vitt.

ASCOMYCETES.

Order

I.

Order

II.

P YRENOM YCETES.

D ISCOM YCETES.

Class III.

PHYCOMYCETES

Class IV.

DEUTEROMYCETES

(Moulds).

MYCETOZOA.

(Imperfect Fungi).

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

147

FUNGI. Class

BASIDIOMYCETES.

I.

Spores borne on supports termed basidia.

Order

HYMENOMYCETES.

I.

Spores exposed before maturity. 1.

Family

AGARICINEAE

Section

1.

Fr.

Leucosporae.

Spores more or

less white.

Series A. Holies. Fleshy, putrefying.

Genus

1.

AM ANITA

(from some fungi found on Mt. volva and ring present. (Like Phallus, from the smell.)

Fr.

Gills free

Amanus).

A. phalloides Fr. In woods

;

not uncommon poisonous. Great Sutton Copse and copse by Hyles' Holms near Cranborne (1) wood S. of Daggons ;

;

Down

;

;

Road A. mappa Fr.

;

Station. (Lat., napkin).

smell strong. poisonous Frequent in woods Furze Common Copse Sutton Castle Hill Wood Holms. ;

;

;

;

A. pantherina Fr. (Lat., spotted like a panther). scarce In woods poisonous. Castle ;

;

Hill

Wood. A. muscaria Fr.

(Lat.,

musca, a

fly

;

flypapers were

made from it). Under birches not uncommon

formerly

;

ous

;

pileus.

very distinct with

Ferndown

its scarlet

(Mrs.

;

very poisonwhite-spotted

Pringle).

Colehill.

Sutton Holms. A. strobiliformis Vitt. base of stem).

(Lat.,

cone -like, from the conical

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

148

Wood

Sutton Holms (W. R.

rare.

borders;

Lintori).

A. rubescens Fr.

(Lat., turning red).

Woods,

Common

Furze

common

etc., fairly

;

edible, reddish.

Broad-

Mt. Pleasant.

Copse.

stone.

A. spissa Fr.

crowded,

(Lat.,

the warts on the

i.e.

pileus).

Open ground near

local trees probably but above. A. Like rubescens, grey poisonous. Furze Common Copse. Wood Castle Hill Wood. S. of Alderholt Station. ;

;

Roze. (Gr., like an Amanita). with a volva but no ring. A. vaginata Roze. (Lat., with a sheath). Woods not common. Furze Common Copse.

Genus

2.

AMANITOPSIS

Gills free,

;

Sutton Holms.

Genus

3.

LEPIOTA

Fr.

(Gr., lepis,

a scale, ous, the ear).

with a ring but no volva. " Parasol Mushroom." L. procera Scop. (Lat., tall). Gills free,

Woods and pastures frequent Edmondsham Park. Furze Common ;

L. rachodes (Vitt.) Fr.

(Gr.,

surf-like,

edible.

;

Copse.

from the scaly

pileus).

Under

trees

not common.

;

Furze

Common

Copse. L. amianthina Scop. (Lat., Woods or pastures

Common Genus

4.

Fr.

adnate to stem In

yellowish tinge).

(Lat.,

armilla,

a

;

chiefly on decayed wood, edible common. Castle Hill

woods, ;

Furze

bracelet).

ring present, at least at (Lat., of the colour of honey).

A. mellea Vahl. clustered

its

said to be edible.

Near Mount Pleasant.

Copse.

ARMILLARIA Gills

from ;

;

first.

often

Wood.

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

Down

Great

Holms.

"

trunks,

Avenue,

white

pure

St.

said

;

Park.

Giles'

Witch-

Beech Disease."

(Lat., slimy).

On beech common.

Sutton

Copse.

ampton. A. mueida Schrad.

149

to

be

Beckington

Beeches, St. Giles to Gussage.

Genus

5.

TRICHOLOMA fringe,

from

margin

of

(Gr.

the

the

a

of

Gills

pileus).

a hair, loma, a left on the

of

trichos,

traces

veil

sinuate;

volva

0,

ring 0. T. equestre Linn.

(Lat., knightly,

appearance). In fir woods, rare.

Road T.

Station.

T.

distinguished

Plantation S. of Daggon's

(Lat., monstrous).

Wood.

Castle Hill

Edmondsham. T.

its

Broadstone.

portentosum Fr. Edible.

from

Great

Down

Copse by HyJes',

Copse.

acerbum Bull. (Lat., bitter). Not common. Castle Hill Wood. albo-brunneum Pers. (Lat., white and brown). Pine woods, etc. Castle Hill Wood. Great

Down

Copse.

T. rutilans Schaeff.

(Lat., ruddy). or near pine roots and stumps. Cranborne. Plantation S. of Daggon's Road Station. Furze

On

Common

Copse.

Near

Mt.

Pleasant.

Lower

Mannington. T. imbricatum Fr.

In

(Lat., tiled).

Creech Hill Wood, T.

murinaceum

etc.

woods,

pine

Bull.

;

St. Giles.

(Lat.,

of

edible.

Cranborne.

Alderholt.

the

mouse-coloured

pileus).

Rare.

Great

Chiefly pine Hill

Wood.

Down

Copse.

(Lat., earthy, in colour).

T. terreum Schaeff.

woods

Colehill,

not uncommon. Castle Wimborne. Plantation S.

;

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

150

Daggons Road

of

Belt of woodland E.

Station.

side of St. Giles' Park. T.

(Lat., soapy, as to odour).

saponaceum Fr.

Woods

common.

rather

;

Wood.

Castle Hill

Sutton Holms. T. virgatum Fr.

(Lat., striped).

woods

Pine

Daggon Road T.

sulphureum Fr. In woods

Schaeff.

Bull.

Common

Copse.

Great

Down

Copse. " Blewits." wearing a mask). Furze Common Copse, W. R.

(Lat.,

(Lat.,

Down

a

naked, from the glabrous margin). Castle Hill Wood. Creech

in woods.

Wood,

Giles.

St.

Common

Park. T.

Down

from type).

pale form, var. sacrum, open Beckington Beeches.

Common Hill

;

Furze

A

little S. of

Furze

rare.

rare.

;

Not common.

nudum

Great

(Lat., white).

personatum Fr. Linton.

T.

Goatham.

(Lat., playful, sporting

In woods T.

of

(Lat., sulphur-coloured).

poisonous.

;

In mixed woods T.

S.

Witchampton.

Copse. T. lascivum Fr.

album

Plantation

infrequent.

;

Station.

Copse.

Withy Beds, Crichel. Belt E. Fide of St. Giles'

Witchampton.

grammopodium Rare

;

Bull.

(Gr.,

with

lines

on the stem).

Branksome Park.

edible.

Great

Down

Copse.

Genus

6.

CLITOCYBE

(Gr. elites, a steep slope, kube,

Fr.

head, from the decurrent

gills of

the genus).

Stem

externally fibrous. C. nebularis Batsch.

Lat., nebula, a cloud, the pileus

being cloud-grey). Esculent and

Cranborne. C.

clavipes

Pers.

Furze (Lat.,

swollen at the base).

of

good

Common

flavour

;

frequent.

Copse. Witchampton. club-footed, the stem being

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET. Pine

woods.

Only seen

151

in

Common

Furze

Copse. C.

odora Bull.

when

(Lat.,

fragrant,

from the spicy odour

dry).

Hare

edible

;

scented

;

fresh (J. C. Rayner). to Alderholt Park. C. rivulosa Pers.

(Lat., rilled, etc.

Pastures, field,

when

violets,

at the S. entrance

from the furrowed

very

;

like

Woods

uncommon.

pileus).

Pasture-

Edmondsham.

C. eerussata Fr.

(Lat., painted with white lead). In woods, not common edible. Plantation near Cranborne. ;

C. phyllophila Pers.

Among

(Gr., leaf-loving,

leaves in woods.

be poisonous. C. pithyophila Fr.

Great

Down

from the habitat).

Uncommon

;

said to

Copse.

(Gr., pine-loving).

In pine woods rare. Furze Common Copse. candicans Pers. (Lat., shining white, the colour of ;

C.

the pileus). leaves in woods.

Among damp

Copse. C. maxima Gaertn. and Mey.

In woods

Down

Copse by Sutton Holms.

Edmondsham.

C. infundibuliformis Schaeff.

excellent. C. geotropa Bull.

and pastures.

and

Copse,

Common

(Lat., greatest).

(in this district)

Among moss

Furze

Great near

Hyles',

(Lat., funnel-shaped).

woods and

edible

and

turned towards earth, from

the

in

fields

;

Plantation near Cranborne. (Gr.,

margin). edible unWoods and near their borders and near Castle Near common. Rhymes Copse Hill Wood, Edmondsham. Maldry Wood, St. ;

;

Giles. C.

inversa Scop. pileus).

(Lat., inverted,

from the margin

of

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

152

Among dead leaves, mon. Furze Common C. flaccida (Sow.) Fr.

often gregarious

Copse, and

not com-

;

near Castle Hill.

(Lat., flabby).

Among dead Furze Common

woods

leaves in

;

not common.

Copse. (Lat., like a drinking-cup).

C. cyathiformis Bull.

In woods, pastures, etc.

rare.

;

Maldry Wood,

St. Giles.

C. forumalis Fr.

(Lat., wintry,

its late

Pleasant.

appearance.)

Copse near Mount

not common. Branksome Park.

Pine woods

C.

from

;

metaehroa Fr. Pine stone.

(Gr., changing colour). not uncommon. woods, etc. Cranborne. near Plantation

BroadFurze

;

Common

Copse. (Gr. double-footed

C. ditopoda Fr.

the stem

;

is

some-

times central and sometimes eccentric). In woods under pines. Furze Common Copse. Suttori

Holms.

C. fragrans (Sow.) Fr.

Among moss

(Lat., sweet-scented).

in

Lower Mannington.

woods

Ferndown.

edible.

;

Maldry

Wood,

St.

Giles.

Sutton Holms.

Genus

7.

LACCARIA some

Berk.

(From

shellac,

characterising

of the species.)

L. laccata Berk.

Woods,

(Lat., lacquered).

heaths,

etc.

;

common

;

variously

usually purplish. Plantation S. of Ditto near Cranborne. Road Station. Daggon's Several woods in Edmondsham. Ferndown, coloured,

Mrs.

Sutton

Pringle. Vaill.

amethystina Sutton Holms.

Genus

8.

Ferndown.

Holms. Martin

Var.

Wood.

Witchampton.

COLLYBIA (Gr. collubos, a small coin, in reference to the flattish pileus).

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET. C. radicata Rehl.

wood E. C.

having a

(Lat.,

In woods

edible.

;

153

root).

Castle Hill

Wood.

Belt of

side of St. Giles' Park.

maculata A. and S. Pine woods. Station.

(Lat., spotted).

Plantation S. of Daggon's

Ferndown, Mrs.

Pr ingle.

Road

Copse near

Mt. Pleasant. C.

butyraeea pileus)

Bull.

from the sticky

buttery,

(Lat.,

.

Rather common

in woods.

Castle Hill

Plantation near Cranborne. Furze C.

velutipes

(Curt.)

Fr.

(Lat.,

on

trunks

Wood.

Common Copse.

velvet-footed,

from

the velvety stem).

Gregarious

;

and stumps. Elm Ferndown. Belt on E.

stump, Edmondsham. side of St. Giles' Park.

C.

confluens Pers.

(Lat.,

from the

closely gregarious

habit).

leaves in

Among

woods

Rayner's New Forest list). Furze Common Copse.

rare

(absent from

Creech

Hill, St. Giles.

;

(Lat., evolved from fir-cones). dead half -buried cones of Scotch fir on Growing not uncommon. Branksome Park. in woods Lower Furze Common Copse. Broadstone.

C. conigena Pers.

;

Mannington Plantation. C. cirrhata (Schum.) Fr.

(Lat., curled,

from the slender

twisted stem).

Among moss a copse near

;

Castle Hill

rare.

Wood, and

in

it.

(Lat., somewhat persistent). not common. Ferndown, woods Chiefly pine Mrs. Pringle. Witchampton.

C. tenacella (Pers.) Fr.

;

C. dryophila (Bull) Fr.

(Gr., oak-loving).

In oak woods, among dead leaves

common. Cranborne

Castle .

Wood.

Hill

Ferndown

.

;

said to be

Plantation near

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

154 C.

extuberans Fr.

from the prominent umbo

(Lat.,

the pileus). On rotten wood, etc.

Forest

Genus

9.

list).

MYCENA

M.

Pileus

stem slender campanulate, wood. on usually small, mostly growing Fr. capillaris (Schum.) (Lat., from the usually striate

New

Copse.

a fungus).

myces,

(Gr.,

rare (not noted in

;

Common

Furze

of

;

thin,

species

;

slender

hair-like stem).

On dead beech and Hill

M.

Wood,

corticola

other leaves

Creech

rare.

;

St. Giles.

Fr.

bark,

colo,

Among moss on bark of living trees Edmondsham Rectory garden

and

(Schum.)

(Lat.,

cortex,

inhabit).

not

;

common.

orchard. Sutton Holms. M. discopotia Lev. (Gr., with a

disc-like

foot of the

stem).

On

sticks, &c.

M. rorida Fr.

;

(Lat.,

Castle Hill

rare. ros,

dew,

from

Wood. the

running

glutinous stem).

On dead bramble M.

twigs in woods

;

rare.

Wood

Goatham.

in

clavicularis Fr.

On

the

stem

(Lat., tendril-like, of the

ground

woods

in

?).

uncommon.

;

Broadstone.

M. epipterygia (Scop.) Fr. (Gr., upon bracken). On twigs and among moss in woods not very common. Furze Common Copse. Maldry Wood, ;

St. Giles.

M. leucogala Cooke. tion

(Gr.,

white milk, from the exuda-

when

On

broken). rotten stumps in

Ferndown.

M. galopoda last).

Furze

(Pers.) Fr.

woods

Common (Gr.,

;

not common.

Copse.

with milky stem, like the

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

Among moss, on Down Copse.

Great

M. sanguinolenta (A. and from the juice).

trunks

Furze S.)

155

not very common.

;

Common

Fr.

Copse.

(Lat., full of blood,

leaves and moss, in woods not Branksome Park. Furze Common

Among damp uncommon. St.

Copse.

;

Giles,

E.

side

of

Park.

Sutton

Holms.

M.

Iris

Berk.

On

M.

(Gr.,

the rainbow, from the colouring).

Furze Common Copse. from the thread-like stem). (Lat., On dead leaves in woods common. Castle Hill Wood. Goatham. Great Down Copse. Belt fir

stumps

rare.

;

filopes (Bull) Fr.

;

E. side of St. Giles' Park.

M. pullata Berk, and Cke. (Lat., clothed in mourning, from the dark brown colour). On dead leaves rare. Broad stone. M. ammoniaca Fr. (Lat., with the odour of ammonia). On the ground, chiefly under pines uncommon. ;

;

Castle Hill

M. metata Fr.

Wood.

(Lat.,

moss

measured or marked off). not common. in pine woods

Among Common

;

Furze

M.

Copse, Mannington Plantation. consimilis Cooke. (Lat., species)

Lower

W. R. Linton. resembling,

i.e.,

other

very rare (not in

New

Forest

.

Among

grass Castle Hill

list).

;

Wood. "

from the colour colour with a silky sheen even when dry,"

M. stannea

Fr.

(Lat., of tin,

;

tin-

G.

Massee.)

Among grass in woods. Common Copse.

Wood,

Goatham.

Furze

(Lat., wrinkled, from the pileus). common ; or near stumps, trunks, etc. Down Great Copse. Ferndown, Mrs. Pringle.

M. rugosa Fr.

On

Maldry Wood,

;

St. Giles.

Witchampton.

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

156

M. galericulata (Scop.) Fr. (Lat., having a small cap). On stumps and the ground in woods common. ;

Wood.

Castle

Hill

Furze

Common

Plantation near Cranborne.

Great Down Copse. Copse. Belt E. side of St. Giles' Plantation.

Goatham

Sutton Holms.

Park.

M. polygramma

Fr.

(Bull.)

with

(Gr.,

many

lines,

of

the stem). On trunks and stumps rare. Copse adjoining These two localities adjoin. Hyles', Birches Copse. ;

M. tintinnabulum Fr.

from the campanulate

(Lat., a bell,

pileus).

On M.

fallen trunks

lactea (Pers.) Fr.

On Hill

;

(Lat.,

dead

Plantation, Goatham. from the white colour). milky, rare.

pine-needles

Wood.

uncommon.

;

Castle

Ferndown, Mrs. Pringle.

M. luteoalba Bolton. (Lat., yellowish-white). not common Among moss in pine woods stem paler yellow than in M. flavoalba. Only seen in Furze Common Copse. M. pura (Pers.) Fr. (Lat., pure, unmixed, from the colour, usually rose, but variable). Woods with the odour and taste of radishes Plantation near Cranborne. Belt E. frequent. ;

;

;

;

side

of

St.

Giles'

Park.

Great

Down

Copse.

Witchampton.

Genus

10.

OMPHALIA

Fr.

from the usual shape

omphalos,

(Gr.,

of the pileus).

the

navel,

Stem

cartila-

ginous pileus usually depressed in the centre gills decurrent. ;

0. umbellifera (Linn.) Fr.

(Lat., umbrella-shaped).

In wet places, swamps Holms ? W. R. Linton. 0. umbratilis Fr.

Sides

of

;

;

not common.

Sutton

(Lat., abiding in shade).

ditches

(absent from the

New

and damp Forest

list).

hollows

;

rare

Broadstone.

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET. 0. fibula (Bull.) Fr.

157

(Lat., a pin).

In damp, mossy, or grassy woodland spots not common. Castle Hill Wood. usually orange Birches Copse. ;

;

Genus

11.

PLEUROTUS

Fr.

from the shape

ear,

(Gr.,

pleura,

of the pileus,

a side, ous, an

and the

lateral or

eccentric position of the stem). P. ulmarius Bull. (Lat., adjective of elm, ulmus}. On trunks of trees rare (not in the New Forest ;

list).

Withy Beds, "

P. ostreatus (Jacq.) Fr.

On

trunks

;

On

common. P. porrigens Pers.

gills

Crichel.

Tree oyster." decurrent, stem lateral

;

not

beech, St. Giles' Park.

(?)

(Lat., stretching out).

rare. on old pine trunks Withy Beds, Crichel (Mrs. Baker's specimen was rather old for

Sessile

;

naming).

Genus

12.

HYGROPHORUS

from the moist or Gills

waxy

Fr.

(Gr.,

viscid pileus of

bearing moisture, of the species).

most

plant often brightly coloured. Of a wax-yellow (Lat., waxy).

;

H. ceraeeus (Wulf.) Fr. colour.

infrequent. Near Plantation S. of Daggon's Road Station. H. coccineus (Schaeff.) Fr. (Lat., scarlet). edible ; moss and grass bright red

Pastures

;

Among

sham.

Near Romford.

V. Linton.

H. miniatus Fr.

Among

;

;

Castle Hill, near Cranborne.

common.

By

Edmond-

Martin Wood, Miss

Witchampton.

(Lat., red). or grass, in pastures

woods

;

edible.

Smaller than the other crimson or red species,

H. coccineus and H. puniceus. Castle Hill Wood. Field between EdmondFurze Common Copse.

sham and Verwood

Station.

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

158

H. puniceus Fr.

(Lat., purplish-red).

common Mossy pastures and woods larger than H. coccineus, which it most resembles, and stem stria te with a white base. Goatham. Great Down Copse. Near Romford. Witchampton. obrusseus Fr. (Lat., of gold-assaying, from the ;

H.

;

golden-sulphur colour). rather rare. PlantaGrassy places in woods tion S. of Daggon's Road Station. Withy Beds, Crichel. ;

H. conicus Fr.

(Lat., conical).

In pastures

Wood.

Field

Field near Castle Hill

frequent.

;

Near Romford.

by Birches Copse.

H. chlorophanus Fr.

(Fr., greenish-yellow).

edible clear Grassy places in or near woods not common. Furze Common yellow Copse. Withy Beds, Crichel. ;

;

;

H.

psittacinus

Fr.

(Schaeff.)

red and green). In pastures

edible

;

Edmondsham

common.

;

and

Park,

parrot-coloured

(Lat.,

Fields

towards

;

of

Romford.

Witchampton. H. pratensis Fr. (Lat., of meadows). Pastures and woods said to be common. or near Goatham Plantation. ;

H. virgineus (Wulf.) Cke.

(Lat., virginal,

from

its

In

white

colour).

Pastures and open woods

;

edible

Edmondsham, Hyles, abundant.

;

common.

Sutton Holms.

Half-a-mile S. of Wimborne. Var. roseipes Mass., with stem soon hollow and rosy towards the base ;

Near Romford. spores elongate. H. cossus Fr. (Lat., larva of goat-moth, from

Among Wood,

grass

in

woods

;

rare.

its smell).

Creech

Hill

St. Giles.

H. hypothejus Fr. (Gr., sulphur beneath, because yellow under the olive gluten).

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

159

In pine woods, among heather rather common. Broadstone. Colehill. Plantation S. of Daggon's Road Station. Copse near Mt. Pleasant. ;

Genus

13.

LACTARIUS

milky

Fr.

(Latin,

Gills usually

juice).

large, fleshy. L. torminosus (Schaeff.) Fr.

In woods

involute.

margin Holms. L.

turpis

rather

;

Fr.

(Lat.,

milk,

lac,

decurrent

from the

plant often

;

(Lat., causing colic).

common

Castle

base,

;

Hill

ugly

strawberry colour, Wood. Sutton

from the

;

dingy

colour).

In woods, chiefly under birches

Ferndown, Mrs. Pringle. and Birches Copse. L. insulsus Fr.

not frequent.

;

Copse between Hyles'

(Lat., tasteless).

In woods and pastures like L. deliciosus, but of paler colour rare. Sutton Holms. ;

;

L. blennius Fr.

(Gr., slimy).

On

the ground in woods Castle Hill frequent. Wood. Plantation near Cranborne. Belt on E. ;

side of St. Giles' Park. L. pyrogalus (Bull.) Fr.

from

(Gr., fiery milk,

its

acrid

taste).

In woods

livid grey,

;

poisonous

not frequent.

;

Plantation, Goatham. L. ehrysorrheus Fr.

(Gr.,

gold-flowing, from the deep

yellow milky juice). milk very acrid, In woods, chiefly under oaks rather common elsewhite then golden-yellow ;

;

where.

Plantation S. of Daggon's

Road

Station.

Sutton Holms. L. vellereus Fr.

(Lat., fleecy,

In woods Forest.

Copse.

;

from the downy

said to be

common

in

pileus).

the

New

Seen only on the Romford side of Birches

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

1(JO

L. deliciosus Fr.

(Lat., delicious).

scarce in the edible In woods under pines Forest. New Woodin the common district ;

;

;

land,

Branksome Park. (Lat., pale in colour).

L. pallidus Fr.

inIn woods chiefly under beeches pale tan Martin Miss Hill Wood. Castle Wood, frequent. ;

;

V. Linton. L. quietus Fr.

(Lat., restful,

mild

;

from the agreeable

flavour).

In woods and open ground under trees common. Wood, near the Station. Castle Hill ;

Alderholt

Furze

Wood.

Common

Birches

Copse. Plantation. L. rufus Scop.

Copse.

Down

Great

Copse.

Lower

Mannington

(Lat., red).

In dry pine woods reddish-bay, margin clothed with whitish down when young acrid, poisonous ;

;

;

Plantation S. of Daggon's

frequent. Colehill,

Ferndown.

Wimborne.

Road

Furze

Station.

Common

Copse. L. fuliginosus Fr.

(Lat., sooty,

from the dark down with

which the pileus is at first sprinkled). In woods poisonous. Castle Hill Wood. L. volemus Fr. (Lat., a kind of pear, from the stem ;

being enlarged upwards ?). In woods, pileus golden-tawny rare.

L.

serif luus

of

size

large

;

Edmondsham. Fr.

(Lat.,

flowing with

serum, from

its

watery milk).

w oods and open ground very common. Branksome Park. Broadstone. Several woods in Edmondsham. Ferndown, Mrs. Pringle. Goatham. Lower Mannington. Sutton Holms.

Damp

places in

L. mitissimus Fr.

In woods

(Lat., ;

r

;

very mild).

frequent

;

nearly allied to the next,

but distinguished by the shining golden-tawny

FUNGI OP EAST DORSET.

161

colour of the pileus and stem.

Sutton Holms. L. subdulcis Fr.

Wood.

Castle Hill

Witchampton.

(Lat., rather sweet).

In woods and open ground pileus reddishbrown or bay said to be frequent. Romford, ;

;

in pasture.

Genus

14.

Sutton Holms, in woodland.

RUSSULA

many

Fr.

species).

mostly

large,

(Latin, rusaus, red, the colour of

Gills brittle, usually

adnate

showy.

or

fleshy,

Mild,

plants

;

acrid,

in

least

at

flavour.

Series A.

Holies.

Taste

mild

(at

first).

R. alutacea Fr.

(Lat., like

woods

In

;

tanned

edible

;

leather).

rare.

Common

Furze

Copse.

R. puellaris Fr. (Lat., girlish, from its slender form). In woods not common. Castle Hill Wood. ;

R. lactea Fr.

In woods colour

Road

from the

(Lat., milky,

;

colour).

distinguished by its white or creamy uncommon. Plantation S. of Daggon's ;

Station.

R. nigricans Fr.

(Lat., becoming black). Turns quite black, differing from the next by the flesh becoming reddish when broken common in woods. Border of Birches Copse. Plantation Furze Common S. of Daggon's Road Station. Copse. Great Down Copse. Sutton Holms. R. adusta Fr. (Lat., scorched, from its turning sooty;

grey).

In woods

;

not changing colour

flesh

common. Plantation Great

Down

R. densifolia Seer.

Daggon's Road

;

un-

Station.

Copse. (Lat.,

from the

Flesh turning red

Wood.

S. of

;

close set). gills being not common. Castle Hill

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

162

R. heterophylla Fr. (Gr., In woods, rare

in length).

gills different, gills

;

Button

very narrow.

Holms. Fr.

R. virescens

green,

from

Copse,

where

becoming

(Lat.,

the

distinct colour of the pileus).

In

Birches

rare.

woods,

it

borders on Hyles. R. furcata Fr.

(Lat., forked, gills forked).

uncommon. In woods and grass under trees Holms. Sutton Furze Common Copse. ;

R. vesca Fr.

(Lat., eatable).

Rather

common

smells

;

good.

Common

Great

Copse.

crab

of

Wood.

Castle Hill

;

edible,

Furze

Ferndown.

Down

Copse.

Sutton

Holms. (Lat., turning pale, after

R. depallens Fr. at first).

Said to be frequent in woods

Wood.

Hill

R. cyanoxantha

Furze

Common

(Schaeff.)

;

being reddish Castle

edible.

Copse.

Fr.

(Gr.,

blue

and

yellow).

Castle Hill edible. In woods, etc., frequent Great Down Furze Common Copse. ;

Wood.

Copse. Series B.

Tenaces.

from R. fellea Fr.

In

Taste

acrid,

the first.

(Lat., full of gall, bitter).

woods,

chiefly

beech

;

straw-coloured,

common.

not

Castle Hill poisonous Great Down Copse. R. drimeia Cke. (Gk., pungent, from the taste). ;

In pine woods

;

distinguished

Wood.

by the purple

pileus, clear yellow gills, and acrid taste common. Branksome Park. Colehill. Plantation S. of ;

Daggon's Road Station.

Ferndown, Mrs. Lower Mannington plantation.

Pringle.

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET. R. oehroleuea Fr.

yellow and white). gills white common in woods.

(Gr.,

Pileus yellow

163

;

;

Plantation S. of Daggon's Road Station. Common Copse. Great Down Copse.'

R. foetens Fr.

Furze

(Lat., stinking).

Reputed

poisonous

;

said

to

be

common.

Seen only in Furze Common Copse. R. emetica Fr. (Lat., making sick). In

woods, chiefly beech poisonous be frequent. Belt on E. side of St. Park. Holt Wood. ;

said

;

to

R.

fragilis Fr.

(Lat., easily broken).

In woods,

more

common

fragile

;

like the last,

poisonous.

;

Castle

Down

Great

Giles'

violacea

Sutton Copse. Ruelet. Pileus bright

whitish margin.

Castle Hill

but smaller, Hill

Wood.

Holms. violet,

Wood

Var.

with

a

Ferndown.

Witchampton.

Genus

15.

CANTHARELLUS

sort of drinking-cup, Gills decurrent,

C. cibarius Fr.

Adans. (Gr. kantharos, a from the shape of some species).

narrow, forking, margin thick.

fit for food). common in woods as Reported egg in colour edible. Birches Copse.

(Lat.,

;

;

Common

yellow

Furze

Copse and one or two other woods

in

Edmondsham. C. aurantiacus Fr.

Under

(Lat., of

orange colour).

woods bright orange common. Branksome Park. reputed poisonous Broadstone. Colehill. Plantation S. of Daggon's in

fir-trees

:

;

;

Road C.

Furze

Station.

tubaeformis Fr.

(Lat.,

Common

Copse.

trumpet-shaped).

In woods on the ground and on rotten wood not gills smoky-yellow ;

yellowish-brown above,

very S. of

common.

Castle

;

Hill

Daggon's Road Station.

Wood.

Plantation

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

164 C.

infundibuliformis Fr.

(Lat.,

funnel-shaped).

ground and on rotten wood under trees pileus perforated at the base and opening not common. Branksome into the hollow stem

On

the

;

;

Park.

Genus

16.

NYCTALIS

(Gr., nuktos, of

Fr.

dark

in

living

the night, from

on

Parasitic

places)

decaying

fungi.

N. asterophora Fr. (Gr., bearing stars, from the stellate conidia sprinkling the pileus).

On

decayed

gregarious

;

Eussula nigricans of Ferndown, Mrs. Pringle.

plants

rare.

B.

Series

Tenaces.

not

Genus

17.

MARASMIUS

Fr.

(Gr.,

;

Leathery, putrefying.

to wither or shrivel,

which the species do instead of rotting). M. peronatus Fr. (Lat., booted, from the woolly covering of the base of the stem).

Among dead Copse.

M. oreades Fr. "

leaves

in

woods

considered

;

Common Copse. Belt on E. side of St. Giles' Park.

common.

Creech

Furze

Hill

mountain nymphs, from its forming " fairy rings "). Fairy -ring Champignon." In pastures, in rings which spread outward (Gr.,

excellent year by year Pastures in Edmondsham. ;

eating

;

common.

M. calopus Fr.

On the

(Gr., fair-footed). twigs, roots of grass, etc.

New

S. of

Forest

list).

;

rare (absent from

Among moss

in plantation

Daggon's Road Station.

M. ramealis Fr. (Lat., of branches, from its habitat). On bramble stems, twigs, etc. white, disc common. Castle Hill Wood. tinged brown ;

;

Furze

Common

Copse.

Witchampton.

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET. M. androsaceus Fr.

165

some zoophyte). and twigs hedgerows, under said to be common. trees, etc. On dead oak leaves, Castle Hill Wood. M. Hudson! (Pers.) Fr. (Named after Hudson).

On

(Gr., like

fallen leaves

;

;

On

fallen holly leaves

rare pileus covered Holt Wood, Mrs. Baker. growing on leaves).

with purple

;

;

hairs.

M. epiphyllus Fr. (Gr., On dead leaves and twigs pileus white very bmall, stem filiform, long in proportion, minutely not uncommon. Edmondsham and velvety ;

;

Goatham, pointed out to me by W. R. Linton Belt E. side of St. Giles' Park.

in 1907.

Genus

18.

LENTINUS

Fr.

from the nature L. cochleatus Fr.

(Latin,

lentus,

(Lat., spiral, like

On stumps

in

woods

;

P.

19.

PANUS

pungent

On

pliant,

snail-shell).

common Great Down

edible,

;

Copse.

(A word used by Pliny for a swelling

Fr.

or tumour). Stypticus Fr.

a

not

with a faint odour of anise.

Genus

tough,

of the species).

(Gr.,

from the

astringent,

styptikos,

taste).

decaying stumps and twigs

colour, stem short, sham. Ferndown.

Wood.

lateral

Great

;

;

cinnamon-

Edmond-

common.

Down

Copse to

Maldry

Witchampton. Section

2.

Rhodosporae (spores pink or salmon).

Genus

20.

LENZITES

botanist)

Fr.

(After

Lenz,

a

German

.

L. betulina Fr.

(Lat., of birches,

from

its habitat).

fantrunks and stumps, especially birch N. the said to be common in shaped, sessile Forest. Birches Copse.

On

;

;

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

166

Genus

21.

PLUTEUS

Fr.

a conical shed,

pluteus,

(Lat.,

from the shape of the

pileus).

(Lat., deer-like, from its fawn no volva or ring. On stumps and half-buried wood umber, turning dark brown. Not uncommon, but only found in this district by Mrs. Baker at Witchamp-

P. cervinus (Schaeff.) Fr. Gills free

colour).

;

;

ton.

Genus

22.

ENTOLOMA

fringe,

Fr.

enlos,

(Gr.,

within,

loma,

a

probably referring to the innate character of

the partial veil). E. sinuatum Fr. (Lat.,

from the margin

being wavy, sinuate). In deciduous woods

less frequent poisonous Sutton Holms. ;

;

than in the N. Forest. E. lividum (Bull.) Fr.

of the pileus

(Lat., lead-coloured).

In dry woods or under trees rare. poisonous Under a belt of trees in Edmondsham Rectory ;

garden. E. prunuloides

Fr.

(Lat.,

;

resembling

prunulus,

i.e.

which it is said to do in its scent). moss and grass smell strong of new

Clitocybe prunulus,

Among meal

;

like E. lividum,

;

common.

(Lat.,

Among fibrillose

Great

maned

Down

Among By belt of

smaller

;

un-

mouse-coloured,

;

Castle

Hill

Wood.

Copse. (Lat., silky).

not common. small, white grass trees E. side of St. Giles' Park. ;

E. rhodopolium Fr.

In woods

;

;

(Gr., rosy-grey).

pileus brown, then pale

mealy at the top E. costatum Fr.

moss

common.

not

;

much

copse.

or crested).

and

grass

E. sericellum Fr.

veins).

common

Furze

E. jubatum Fr.

but

;

uncommon.

;

stem long,

Sutton Holms.

(Lat., ribbed, the gills

having raised

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET. In

damp meadows

and E.

without

like E. sericeum.

;

scent

167

rare

;

;

but

moist.

larger,

Pasture

between Romford and Birches Copse. nidorosum Fr. (Lat., reeking, from the peculiar alkaline smell).

In woods said to be frequent. Woodland ground by Edmondsham Park. Furze Common ;

Copse.

Genus

CLITOPILUS Fr. (Gr. Wtos, a declivity, pilos, a cap, from the decurrent gills). Agrees in structure with Clitocybe in the Leucospome.

23.

compact (Lat., a little plum " " " Plum mushroom Vegetable shape ?). Sweet -bread." edible and of excellent flavour In woods said to be common, in the N. Forest. Edmondsham Rectory, under trees. Furze Common

C. prunulus (Scop.) Fr.

;

;

;

Copse.

Genus

24.

Great

LEPTONIA

Down

Fr.

Copse.

(Gr.,

leptos,

slender,

from the

habit of the species, most of which are small). adnate to the stem, but soon separating ;

polished, hollow. L. lampropoda Fr. (Gr., shining foot,

Gills

stem

from the polished

steel-blue stem).

not common. Furze Common Holms. Copse. Sutton in sunL. solstitialis Fr. (Lat., of summer, growing

Among

light

grass

;

?).

with none of the blue tinge Among grass rare (not in the N. Forest the to common genus ;

;

list).

Genus

25.

Broadstone.

NOLANEA

Fr.

(Lat.,

nola, a little bell,

from

or free. the shape of the pileus). Gills adnexed, Stem cartilaginous, hollow.

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

168

N. pascua (Pers.) Fr.

(Lat., of pastures).

In woods and pastures

;

pileus livid-bistre, but

Broadstone. Edmondcommon. sham Park. Near Furze Common Copse. Near Mount Pleasant, and near Romford.

variable

Genus

26.

;

CLAUDOPUS W.

lame, and

Smith.

G.

daudus,

(Lat.,

Gr., pous, a foot, from the crooked or

absent stem). W. G. Smith.

C. variabilis

(Lat., variable).

On dead wood,

stumps,

or

sticks

sessile

;

laterally, or at length with a short stem-like base then pale salmon white, gills regarded as ;

;

By Birches Copse. On fir and lime, Edmondsham Rectory Garden. Furze Common common. Copse. Section

Genus

27.

PHOLIOTA

3.

Fr.

of Ochrosporae (spores various shades of brown).

(Gr.,

pholis,

Gills free.

species being scaly). P. squarrosa (Muell.) Fr.

(Lat.,

a

many

scale,

Stem with a

with bristling

ring).

scales).

In clusters at the base of trees and stumps At the base of an apple-tree, infrequent. ;

edible

;

Edmondsham, P. spectabilis Fr.

W

.

showy). base of trees, clustered

(Lat.,

On stumps and be

P.

R. Linton. Witchampton.

Ferndown, where Mrs. Pringle first found it, and I later. Near Mount Pleasant. marginata (Batsch.) Fr. (Edged, from the margin oi the pileus being streaked). On pine wood leaves Castle Hill

Genus

said to

;

common.

28.

INOCYBE

;

rare.

Fir copse neai

Wood. Fr.

(Gr., is, inos, fibre, kube,

from the character

of the pileus).

Gills usually sinuate.

Stem

head

;

ringless.

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET. I.

scabra

scaber), Fr. (Lat., rough). the ground in woods uncommon. StanFurze ridge Plantation S.E. of Cranborne. Common Copse. Belt of beech E. side of St. (

Agaricus

On

;

Park.

Giles' I.

169

lacera (Ag. lacerus) Fr.

(Lat., torn,

from the scaly

piJeus).

In woods,

etc. rare (absent from N. Forest distinguished from /. scabra by the inside of the stem becoming reddish. Belt of beeches on

List)

;

;

E. side of St. Giles' Park. I.

rimosa

from the pileus). not woods and shade ground Field of Edmondsham Park surrounded

(Bull.) Fr.

On

the

frequent.

in

by woods. I.

(Lat., cracked,

;

Down

Great

Copse.

Fr.

geophylla (Sow.) (Gr., earth-leaved, from the clay-coloured gills).

Among

grass

woods and

in

probably

under

trees

;

frequent, pileus silky, at first white, then violet to lilac. Plantation S.E. of Cranborne. Plantation

Daggon's Road Station. Edmondsham Furze Common Park, Rectory garden. Down Great Copse. Copse. S.

of

and

I.

(Lat., rather rough).

scabella Fr.

not very common grass in woods Furze or reddish yellowish-brown. pileus Common Copse. Belt of beeches E. side of St.

Among

Giles'

Genus

29.

Park.

HEBELOMA

;

;

Sutton Holmes. Fr.

(Gr., hebe,

from the character more or less viscid

;

of

the

stem

gills sinuate. H. fastibile Fr. (Lat., nauseous,

youth, loma, fringe,

veil).

fibrous,

Pileus smooth, without a ring

from the

;

smell).

Pileus yellowish, then paler, soon flat Great Goatham Plantation. frequent. ;

Copse.

Maldry Wood,

St. Giles.

rather

Down

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

170

H. glutinosum (Lindg.) Fr. (Lat., sticky, like glue). Among dead leaves in woods pileus like the last, but with white squamules sprinkled in the Dead Man's not common. glutinous film ;

;

Corner, Cranborne. H. mesophaeum Fr. (Gr., dusky in the centre). rare in this disFrequent in the N. Forest ;

Branksome Park.

trict.

(Bull.) Fr.

H. crustuliniforme

shaped

(Lat.,

like small

buns). said to be poisonous, and In grass and woods N. Forest. the in Only seen at Sutton frequent ;

Holms.

Genus

30.

FLAMMULA

colour of

many

Fr.

flamma, a flame, the

(Lat.,

species).

Stem

fleshy

;

usually

gills

decurrent, not sinuate.

Among side,

from its strong smell). Grass bank by the road-

(Lat., lupus, a wolf,

F. lupina Fr.

grass

;

rare.

Edmondsham. (Lat., belonging to charcoal,

F. carbonaria Fr.

from

its

habitat).

On

burnt

gregarious

;

earth,

not

etc.

charcoal,

common.

;

Branksome

densely Park.

Broadstone. F. inopoda Fr.

(Gr.,

with fibrous stem).

On

stumps, chiefly pine Belt E. side of St. Giles' Park. ;

gregarious

;

rare.

F. hybrida Fr.

(Lat., mongrel). the ground among sticks or on stumps very rare (not in the N. Forest list). Wood N. of

On

;

Ferndown. F. sapinea Fr.

(Lat., belonging to pines).

On stumps and decaying

fir-branches, in

woods

;

not uncommon. gills yellow, then tawny-brown Branksome Park, Mrs. Baker. Broadstone. ;

Lower Mannington Plantation.

FUNGI OF EAST DOESET.

Genus N.

31.

NAUCORIA

FT.

(Lat.,

171

naucum, a

the slight vestige of a veil). melinoides (Bull.) Fr. (Gr.,

from

trifle,

honey-like,

from the

colour).

Among short grass in pastures and woods said to be frequent, and to resemble Galera hypnoram, but for its toothed gills. Plantation ;

Stanridge

S.E. of Cranborne.

N. semiorbicularis (Bull.) Fr. (Lat., hemispherical). In short grass not common. Broadstone. Way;

side turf,

Genus

32.

GALERA

shape G.

S. of

Daggons Road

Fr

Station,

(Lat., galerum, a

Ferndown.

hood or cap, teh

of the pileus.)

hypnorum a Greek

(Batsch.) Fr.

name

(A Latin genitive of hypnum,

for a moss)

moss

.

woods Among very common. stone Castle Hill Wood. Ferndown. Common Copse. Sutton Holms.

Genus

33.

TUBARIA W.

in

Broad-

;

G. Smith.

(Lat., tuba,

the shape of some of the species). decurrent, triangular. T. furfuracea (Pers.) W. G. Smith.

Gills

Furze

a trumpet,

more or

(Lat., like bran,

less

from

the scurfy margin of the pileus.) On twigs, chips, etc., on the ground rather common. Castle Hill Wood. Fields, Edmond;

sham.

Ferndown,

Genus

34.

CREPIDOTUS

Fr.

allusion to the shape lateral, or

Mrs.

Goatham

Pringle.

Birches Copse.

Plantation.

wanting.

(Lat., crepida,

and

a sandal, in

Stem

colour).

eccentric,

Allied to Pleurotus, but spores

rust-colour. C. mollis Fr.

(Lat., soft).

On dead

trunks, stumps, etc.

apple trunks,

;

rare.

Edmondsham Rectory

On dead

orchard.

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

172 C.

Fr.

applanatus pileus

level,

from the

flat

?).

rotten wood sham Rectory field.

On

C. alveolus

on a

(Lat.,

Lasch.

rare.

;

Furze

On

a post,

Common

Copse.

gaming-board, from

(Lat., a

Edmondits

plane

surface).

On

rare. Creech Hill Wood, St. on a birch trunk (so named by W. R.

trunks

Giles,

;

Linton). C. epibryus Fr.

On Genus

(Gr.,

on moss).

mosses, leaves, etc.

CORTINARIUS

35.

Fr.

;

rare.

Button Holms.

cortina,

(Lat.,

round

a

vessel, a cauldron, from the roundly convex pileus). A well-marked genus, with cobweb -like veil gills ;

often purple at first, bright brown at maturity from the rust-coloured spores. For convenience it can be

divided into five sub-genera.

Phlegmacium, Fr. (Gr., phlegma, shining moisture, from the glutinous pileus.) Stem firm,

Sub-genus

I.

All growing in woods, on the dry, often bulbous. unless otherwise stated. ground C. varius Fr.

(Lat., variable).

Also in pastures nington Plantation.

Sub-genus

II.

and stem

;

MyxaiumFr.

uncommon.

(Gr.,

Lower Man-

muxa, mucus).

Pileus

glutinous.

C. mucifluus Fr.

with mucus). Plantation S. of Daggon's

(Lat., flowing

Not common.

Road

Station. C. elatior Fr.

(Lat., taller).

rather common. Chiefly under pine trees Castle Hill Wood. Great Down Copse. Hyles' ;

adjoining Birches Copse.

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

Sub genus

Dermocybe Fr. (Gr. from the thin pileus).

III.

5

173

derma, skin, cube,

Pileus dry, at length glabrous. C. ochroleucus Fr. (Gr., yellowish- white). Rather bitter to the taste, inodorous

head,

common.

Mrs.

Ferndown,

Pringle.

silky,

not

;

Belt

on

E. side of St. Giles' Park. C.

(Lat., of a dog, in the sense of

caninus Fr.

Common.

Birches Copse.

Road

Plantation S. of Daggon's

mean).

Wood.

Castle Hill

Sutton

Station.

Holms. C. myrtillinus Fr.

(Lat., like myrtle, in colour).

Near beech-trunks, C.

cinnabarinus Fr.

etc.

Sutton Holms.

rare.

;

colour of dragon's blood,

(Lat.,

vermilion).

with a smell of radishes. Rather frequent Holt Wood. PlantaWimborne. near Colehill, ;

C.

tion, Lower Mannington. cinnamomeus Fr. (Lat., cinnamon-coloured).

Pine-woods

chiefly

Branksome

Forest.

common

;

Park.

in

the

N.

S.

of

Plantation

Var. semisanguineus Fr. blood-red. with half gills* usually -bloody), (Lat., Besides the two localities above, where it was

Daggon's Road

Station.

wood near Ferndown.

frequent, also in a

Sub-genus IV.

Telamonia Fr.

Stem banded,

(Gr., telamon,

or scaly, below

;

a bandage).

flesh of pileus

thin. C.

torvus Fr.

Not

Down

(Lat., wild).

uncommon. Copse.

C. hinnuleus Fr.

Castle

Hill

Sutton Holms. a young stag

(Lat., of

;

Wood.

Great

fawn-coloured).

and Birches Copse.

Copse adjoining Hyles' C. brunneus Fr. (Lat., brownish).

Not

common.

Castle

Hill

E. side of St. Giles' Park.

Wood.

Belt

on

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

174 C.

incisus

Fr.

(Lat.,

cut

the

as

into,

be-

pileus

comes).

Uncommon.

on

Belt

Broadstone.

E.

side

of St. Giles' Park. C.

(Gr., half hairy).

hemitrichus Fr.

stem very floccose Margin of pileus fibrillose Forest list. Only in N. said to be frequent ;

;

found in Castle Hill Wood. Hygrocybe Fr. Sub-genus V. a head, from the moist

(Gr.,

hugros, moist,

cube,

Pileus pale,

when

pileus).

flesh very thin. dry armeniacus Fr. (Lat., from armenium (pomum), the apricot, from the general colouring). rare (absent from N. Chiefly in pine woods ;

C.

;

Forest

list).

C. saturninus Fr.

Birches Copse. (Lat., like Saturn,

gloomy, from

its

habitat). rare. Grassy places, woods from Baker, Witchampton. ;

Mrs.

Sent by

(Lat., of two colours). Stem violet at the base, whitish above common. Castle Hill Wood.

C. bicolor Clarke.

C. jubarinus Fr.

;

un-

(Lat., radiant).

In pine woods, on pine leaves,

etc.

pileus

;

uncommon. tawny cinnamon, shining Broadstone. Plantation, Lower Mannington. bright C.

decipiens

;

Fr.

(Lat.,

other

resembling

deceptive,

species).

Rather frequent. Broadstone. Furze Common Copse.

Castle

Hill

Wood.

C. acutus Fr.

(Lat., sharp,

pointed

;

from the pointed

umbo). not Distinguished by the conical umbo uncommon. Broadstone. of Plantation S. Road Belt E. Station. on side of St. Daggon's ;

Giles'

Park.

Sutton Holms.

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET. Genus

36.

PAXILLUS

Gills

decurrent

a small stake, a peg).

(Lat.,

pileus involute. (Lat., rolled inwards

P. involutus Fr. of the

Fr.

175

;

;

from the margin

pileus).

common in Edible, but hardly worth eating the N. Forest. Plantation S. of Daggon's Road ;

Ferndown, Mrs. Pringle. ? from the

Station.

P. panuoides Fr. (Gr., shell-shaped

On decayed

pine

wood

;

pileus).

Wood

rare.

N. of

Ferndown. Section

4.

Spores

Melanosporae.

black, purplish- or brownish-black.

Genus

37.

AGARICUS

Linn, pro pte. (Of Greek origin, a fungus growing on by Pliny

agaricon, Latinised

timber). A. arvensis Schaeff.

;

(Lat., of arable ground).

"

Horse

Mushroom." In pastures, usually under trees

;

edible,

but

not always wholesome not frequent. Edmondsham Park. Field just E. of Birches Copse. ;

A. campestris L.

(Lat

,

belonging to the plain).

"

Com-

mon Mushroom." In open tributed.

fields

;

Several

common, but unevenly disin Edmondsham, and

fields

towards Verwood Station.

Genus

38.

STROPHARIA

Fr.

(Gr.,

strophos,

band, in reference to the ring). adnexed; with a distinct ring. S.

aeruginosa (Curt.) Fr. colour of the gluten).

Gills

a

twisted

adnate or

(Lat., of verdigris,

from the

In woods and pastures poisonous reported in the N. Forest, not so in this district. Plantation S.E. of Cranborne. Furze Common ;

common Copse.

;

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

176 S.

inuncta Fr.

(Lat.,

anointed

from the gluten

?

hooked, from the decurrent teeth of

;

or

the adnate

gills).

Among grass, in woods, Common Copse.

etc.

uncommon.

;

Furze S.

merdaria Fr.

(Lat., of dung).

On

not very drying dung in pastures or woods or overlooked. frequent, Stony field E. of ;

Birches Copse. S.

semiglofoata

from the

(Batsch.)

On dung near Furze

Genus

39.

Gills

H.

common.

;

Common

HYPHOLOMA

fringe,

Fr.

hemi-spherical,

(Lat.,

pileus).

Fr.

Branksome Park. Fields Near Romford.

Copse.

huphos, a web, loma, a fringing the pileus).

(Gr.,

from the partial

veil

adnate or sinuate.

sublateritium

(Schaeff.)

Fr.

(Lat.,

almost brick-

coloured).

On rows

woods and hedgeBirches Copse. By Plantation S. of Daggon'g

or about old stumps, in ;

Castle

Road

poisonous

common.

;

Wood. Near Mount Pleasant.

Hill

Station.

Witch-

ampton. H. capnoides Fr.

(Gr., smoke-like,

from the colour

of the

gills).

On

the ground and on trunks in pine -woods rather frequent. Plantation S. of ;

fasciculate

;

Daggon's Road Station. Furze Common Copse. Great Down Copse. Plantation, Lower Mannington.

Near Mount Pleasant.

H. epixanthum Fr.

On

old

fir

yellowish-brown, tawny).

(Gr.,

stumps,

N. of Ferndown

("

etc.

;

not common.

apparently

this,

but

Wood dried

up," J. C. Rayner).

H. fasciculare (Huds.) Fr. from its tufted habit).

(Lat.,

in

little

bunches

;

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

On

old

clusters

;

etc.

stumps,

often

;

very common.

177

forming dense

Woods in Edmondsham.

Branksome. Plantation S.E. of Cranborne. Plantation S. of Daggon's Road Station. Ferndown, Mrs. Pringle. Sutton Holms. Witchampton. H. velutinum (Pers.) Fr. (Lat., velvety). In

woods, and roadsides in the N. Forest.

fields,

;

more frequent

uncommon,

Down

Great

Copse.

H. appendiculatum ages, from the

(Bull.) Fr. relics of

(Lat.,

with small append-

the veil on the margin of the

pileus).

On stumps H. hydrophilum the

woods

in

not common.

;

gills

Fr.

(Bull.)

water

(Gr., loving

;

from

exuding drops of water).

On stumps differing

in

in

woods

the

similar to the last, but

;

above

character

mentioned

Plantation S. of Daggon's frequent. Station. Castle Hill Wood. Ferndown.

Common Genus

Castle

Wood.

Hill

;

Road Furze

Plantation, Goatham.

Copse.

PSILOCYBE Fr. (Br., psilos, bare, naked, cube, head, no veil being apparent on the pileus). Stem tough margin of pileus incurved at first. Spores purplish or slate-colour.

40.

;

P. semilanceata

Fr.

almost

(Lat.,

lance-shaped).

"

Liberty Cap."

On

pastures,

common. ford.

etc.

Furze

Sutton Holms.

(bluish).

P. spadicea Fr.

Rhymes

;

gregarious

Common

foenisecii

habitat).

poisonous

;

Near RomVar. caerulescens, Cooke

Copse.

(Lat., date-brown).

On the ground about stumps Sutton Holms. P.

;

Copse.

(Pers.)

Fr.

(Lat.,

of

;

not frequent.

cut hay, from

its

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

178

Among grass Common Copse.

41.

to

PSATHYRA pieces).

hollow,

Furze

old).

Fr.

Pileus

fragile

not common.

;

Button Holms (apparently, but

specimen rather

Genus

edible

;

(Gr., psathuros, friable, falling stem conical or bell-shaped ;

like

;

but

Mycena,

dark

spores

purple-brown. P.

corrugis

Fr.

(Pers.)

on

wrinkled,

(Lat.,

the

pileus).

In pastures Park.

not common.

;

E.

side

of

St.

Giles'

Genus

42.

a

BOLBITIUS frequent

Fr.

(Gr.,

habitat).

from a word

Fragile

dissolving

gills

;

cow dung,

for

;

spores rust-coloured. B. fragilis Fr. (Lat., fragile).

On dung and among recorded

in

COPRINUS

43.

frequent

Pers. Gills

habitat).

rare

;

(not

Plantation

List).

Edmondsham Rectory

S.E. of Cranborne.

Genus

short grass

N. Forest

the

field.

kopros, dung, the into a black dissolving

(Gr.,

Spores black. C. atramentarius Fr. (Lat., inky a black fluid). fluid.

;

About old stumps, and on clusters

strong

Edmondsham, C.

ttmetarius

Fr.

edible

;

;

from

its

rich soil

not

melting into

;

usually in

common.

very

in three central localities.

(Lat,,

of

the

dung-hill,

from

its

habitat).

Rare

;

absent from the N. Forest List

or clustered.

;

solitary

In or near Creech Hill Wood, St.

Giles. C.

micaceus Fr.

minute

(Lat.,

particles

of

sparkling, glittering, crystalline

covering the young pileus).

oxalate

from the of

lime

FUNGI OF EAST DORSET.

About stumps and

common

garden, and

field in

C. deliquescens Fr.

differs

;

slender,

park.

the

in

Withy Beds, CricheL rather

;

gills

in being free and

being

Creech Hill Wood, St. Giles. of development (Lat., slow

separate.

the ground.

more

local,

;

from C. atramentarius

and

C. tardus Karst.

On

posts

Edmondsham Rectory

(Lat., melting, dissolving). and heaps of dead leaves

On stumps rare

old

N. Forest.

in the

179

?).

Wood

Creech Hill

more more

(probably

this species, J. C. Rayner). C. radiatus Fr. (Lat., from the pileus soon splitting in

radiating fissures).

On

horse-dung in grassy woods

and ephemeral. Furze

Recognised by

Common

(Lat., in folds, re volute pileus).

In rich pastures,

N.

Forest.

Common Genus

44.

Rayner

in

Copse.

C. plicatilis (Curt.) Fr.

and

very delicate

;

J. C.

etc.

Rhymes,

from the

splitting

reported as common in field outside Furze

;

a

Copse.

PANAEOLUS

(Gr.,

pan,

all,

aiolos, variegated,

from the appearance of the gills). P. campanulatus (Linn.) Fr. (From a

late Latin

word

for a little bell).

On ground where manure common. Genus

45.

PSATHYRELLA

Pileus striated

;

Fr.

(Gr.,

;

P.

S.E.

;

said

to

be

of

psathyros,

friable).

common.

Planta-

spores black.

P. gracilis (Pers.) Fr. (Lat., slender) not Roadsides, banks, etc

tion

lies

Belt E. side of St. Giles' Park.

Cranborne.

Sutton Holms. atomata Fr. (Gr., powdered glisten on the pileus).

Edmondsham with

atoms,

Park.

which

180

FUNGI OF EAST DORSETPastures,

etc.

;

rare

(not

common

in

the

E. side of St. Giles' Park.

Forest).

(Lat., scattered about). Tufted, about the trunks of trees or on the less frequent than in the Forest. ground

P. disseminata (Pers.) Fr.

;

Sutton Holms.

END OF PART To

I.

be concluded with Part II. in the next volume of

the

Export on of

<8irt>0,

jfirst

ano

Insects,

Jfirst jflotoerins of pl IN DORSET DURING 1913.

By W. PARKINSON CURTIS,

F.E.S.

FOREWORD.

Members these

of the

Notes

Club

will miss at the

the

familiar

name

head of

esteemed President, who has for so

of

our

many

years edited this part of our Report. At his request I consented to relieve him of the burden of his

duties

in

this

respect

in order to leave

him

duties of his

I have, however, the notes as observer, and

assistance

perhaps

of

may

freer for the other

office.

his

be permitted to express the

hope that the Club will have the benefit of his observations for many years to come. I am not quite so well equipped as he is either in regard to the topography of the western part of our native county or in regard to botanical knowledge. I shall endeavour to improve the former this summer by

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

182 casual

" trespassing,"

and the

be

latter will

fortified

by the

kind assistance of the Rev. E. F. Lin ton. It

is

a matter for reproach that we have so few observers fill our schedules, seeing the number of our Members

ready to

;

was brought prominently before me some time since, when I was asked to inform the Brit. Ornithological Union on the distribution and frequency of occurrence of the Nightingale in West Dorset. In fact, Mr. Rodd is the most westerly of our observers, and so I could only reply to the B.O.U. that little or nothing was really known as to the and

this fact

distribution of the Nightingale in I appeal to those of our Members

make

careful

West Dorset. Accordingly who are able and willing to

and accurate records

to send returns.

might perhaps here correct a mistake in the last report (Vol. XXXIV., p. 205), due to the state of flux that our I

scientific nomenclature is in at the present time, as a result of a failure to adhere to the Strickland code. Mgiihalis vagans

= Acredula rosea the Long tailed Titmouse, and not Mgialitis the British hiaticola-major, Ringed Plover. The observers seem sometimes to put the first appearances of birds in the song column and vice versa no doubt on many occasions the two dates are coincident, but it would be an assistance to me, when the one column or other is not filled in, if the observer would put a pen through the blank, as in some cases where the birds are returned under the song column the bird is much more easily noted than the song, e.g.,Muscicapa grisola, with the result that one is in doubt as to whether the ;

date be in the correct column.

The names (arranged alphabetically) of those who have sent returns are as follows, the initials prefixed in brackets to the names designate the responsibility for the record in the notes hereafter :

(E.H.C.)

(W.P.C.)

(W.H.D.)

Eustace Barker Curtis

.

Ays8arth Poole W. Parkinson Curtis Revd. W. Hughes D'Aeth, Buckhorn Weston )

>

j

Rectory, Wincanton.

'

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC. (S.E.V.F.)

Revd.

S.

E. V.

Filleul,

All

Saints'

183

Rectory,

Dorchester. (J.M.J.F.)

Revd. Canon

J.

Wimborne

M.

J. Fletcher,

The Vicarage,

Minster.

Revd. E.

F. Linton, Edmondsham Rectory, Dorset (post town, Salisbury). G. R. Peck, Huston Manor, Puddletown, Dor-

(E.F.L.)

(G.R.P.)

chester.

(J.R.)

M. Richardson, Monte Video, near mouth. Wey E. S. Rodd, Chardstock House, Chard. Revd. J. Ridley, Pulham Rectory, Dorchester.

(E.E.W.)

Miss Ellen

Nelson

(N.M.R.) (E.S.R.)

E.

Woodhouse,

Chilmore,

Ansty,

Dorchester.

MAMMALS. (The Badger). One was killed by the Canford We observed the Bear Cross, near Kinson. keepers footmarks of one in Berewood. (W.P.C. and E.H.C.)

Meles taxus at

Jed

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

186

BIRDS.

A

good view of this bird at (W.P.C. and E.H.C.) The Rev. Coccothraustes coccothraustes (The Hawfinch). O. Pickard-Cambridge reported that a pair of these birds were back on the Rectory lawn at Bloxworth again, and enquired We believe of me whether they had nested in Berewood. was but the which did nest, so, placed exactly where a they nest was two years ago, was no longer accessible, as the branch below had broken off. (W.P.C.) At Dorchester, seen on 19th December, 1913, and several

Corvus corax (The Raven). Arish Mell, 3rd August, 1913.

times after.

(J.R.)

Carduelis carduelis (The Goldfinch). This bird is on the increase in the county several pairs were seen by us in the ;

spring and on 28th September, 1913, at Handley Down we saw three large companies of finches in which the goldfinches ;

were as 3 to 1. In this connection it is regrettable to note that at least one nest of young birds was taken and confined in captivity in Bloxworth, and that a bird catcher was loose in the

neighbourhood of Dorchester to ply his nefarious trade weeks before being brought to book by the police.

for several

(W.P.C.)

Cannabina rufescens (The Lesser Redpoll). 1st March, 1913, about two dozen were seen at Canford. Their identity is certain. On the 2nd March, 1913, their number had been much increased in the same wood. They were busily engaged

They had disappeared by and (W.P.C. E.H.C.)

in pulling birch catkins to pieces.

the 15th March.

Loxia curvirostra (The Crossbill). Two seen in the fir trees at Kniton, near Canford, 23rd February, 1913. (W.P.C.) Motacilla lugubris (The Pied Wagtail). On March 24th, I a noticed considerable number of these 1913, birds whilst

driving from East Lulworth to Bere Regis via Moreton and Affpuddle, and came to the conclusion that there had been

an immigration. of Parkstone,

This was confirmed by Mr. Frank Hudson, who subsequently informed me that he had

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

187

seen a number on the Sandbanks on March 23rd, where he had not previously noticed them. (W.P.C.) Motacilla alba (The White Wagtail). On the 4th October, 1913, one seen in

company with

Motacilla lugubris at Osming-

ton.

(E.H.C.) Motacilla flava

(The Grey-headed Yellow Wagtail). 7th October, 1913. In Poole Park. I first thought it was an ordinary Yellow Wagtail, but its head seemed the wrong "

it and got a clear view, which placed mind beyond doubt." (E.H.C.)

colour, so I stalked

identity to

my

Parus ater (The Cole ater, and not to Parus

Tit.

its

This note refers to Parus ater

ater-britannicus, the British form.)

23rd February, 1913, three seen at Canford in company with Parus ater-britannicus and Regulus cristatus, the company was about 300 strong 21st December, 1913, one seen at ;

Canford in

company with Parus

palustris-dresseri,

Parus

caeruleus,

ater-britannicus,

and Certhia

Parus

familiaris.

Mgiihalis vagans (The British Longtailed Titmouse). On the 16th February, 1913, we saw a large company of these tits working through the Canford Estate from S.W. to N.E.

E.H.C. counted 43 go by, whilst W.P.C. saw many go overhead accompanied by Parus ater-britannicus. We estimate that upwards of 300 passed, the largest flock we have ever (E.H.C. and W.P.C.) April 6th, 1913, a finished nest at Berewood, a second on the 27th April. 12th April, 1913, a finished nest at Canford.

seen.

10th May, 1913, a (This was deserted on the 3rd May.) finished nest at Canford with two eggs, about 1J miles from the deserted nest. These birds took over a fortnight to

complete the clutch, and the young did not leave the nest till the middle of June. (W.P.C. and E.H.C.) Panurus biarmicus (The Bearded Tit). Although not a Dorsetshire note we were pleased to see for the first time these birds alive at Stalham Broad,

Norfolk, in August.

(W.P.C. and E.H.C.) regulus (The crests have often come to

Regulus

"

Golden-crested

window

Wren).

to feed this year.

I

Gold have

188

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

never seen them do so before."

15th April, 1913,

(J.R.)

an unfinished nest at Canford. (E.H.C.) (Note This bird seems to be on the increase, and would probably increase still more if only the squirrels were kept in check according to our ;

upwards of fifty per cent, of their nests are destroyed by this destructive rodent, in whose favour it is experience

impossible to say anything.) Sylvia sylvia (The White-throat). First seen 27th April, 1913, at Creekmoor, Poole (W.P.C.), and not again till 12th May, 1913, when a pair was seen at Berewood. This bird

was very scarce

in 1913. 1st June, 1913, Sylvia (E.H.C.) seems I never saw one all day (we were sylvia very scarce,

out hunting for 10 hours).

(E.H.C.)

6th July, 1913, seen

at Studland in

company with other migrants apparently 2nd August, 1913, two collecting preparatory to leaving. 6 and seen at 10, Kniton, Canford, on downward parties,

6th September, 1913, five or six Sylvia sylvia migration. seen in Purbeck. 7th September, 1913, a dozen seen sitting on telegraph wires at Worbarrow. (E.H.C.) This was the last

time this bird was seen, so evidently

departed about

it

this date.

Sylvia curruca (The Lesser Whitethroat).

This bird seems Dorset without manage being noticed. 12th May, 1913, at Berewood, E.H.C. heard one " kissing," so it evidently had a nest near. 25th May, 1913, another was heard in Blox worth. In the winter we found a nest belonging to

to get in

and out

to this bird in Berewood.

of

It is curious

how

out of the county without being noticed, and found in the county. (W.P.C. and E.H.C.)

it slips in

its

nest

is

and

rarely

Sylvia atricapilla (The Blackcap Warbler). 12th May, 1913, a pair seen at Berewood. 18th May, 1913, three males

heard singing in the wood.

(E.H.C.) Sylvia simplex (The Garden Warbler). 12th May, 1913, seen in Berewood. 18th May, 1913, one male heard singing in

Berewood.

(E.H.C.)

MdizopUlus undatus (The Dartford Warbler). at Hamworthy, 26th October, 1913. (E.H.C.)

One seen

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

189

Phylloscopus siUlator heard at Canford.

(The Woodwren). 10th May, 1913, 12th May, 1913, two heard at Berewood. 7th June, 1913, a pair feeding young in a nest on the north-east side of bank in a copse at Canford. Both birds first

brought food., though the male every now and again went into a tree above the nest to sing. Both birds came round us when we examined the nest and uttered a " weet weet weet," notwithstanding that both had plaintive a bill full of lepidopterous larvae. (W.P.C. and E.H.C.) Locustella

ncevia (The Grasshopper Warbler). 3rd May, two heard singing loud and long at Canford, and again on the 5th May and again on the 10th. On the 17th May only one bird was singing in the same bog. On the 22nd we

1913,

made strenuous efforts to find the nest, but although the male bird actually walked right over E.H.C.'s feet (!) we failed. Both birds seemed very tame. We saw the male again on the 5th June, but the birds were gone on the 7th. On the 6th July we saw eight or nine in company with other migrants at Studland this was the last time. (E.H.C.) ;

Turdus musicus (The Song Thrush). beginning of January. eggs at Berewood.

(N.M.R.)

In full song at the 6th April, nest and four

(E.H.C.)

Daulias luscinia (The Nightingale). This bird was more than usually abundant in Berewood, altogether we found six nests,

and saw

addition several pairs feeding young

in

;

except for one nest, which for some reason did not hatch, the birds got off well. The nest that failed was in the vicinity

two robins' nests and a hedge sparrow's nest, all of which were wholly or partially destroyed, and we incline to think the sitting birds were destroyed. (W.P.C. and E.H.C.) Cindus aquaticus. This bird brought off a brood at of

Wareham Colonel

this year.

Frank

G.

(W.P.C.) L. Mainwaring,

under date 3rd March, 1914

of

Upwey,

writes

:

" One of the most interesting birds here is the Dipper, or Water Ousel (of which I have seen two or three pairs flying about or at rest between the source and the mouth of the Wey). A pair of these

190

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC. '

'

birds build their nest every spring in the dungeon of the mill race, under the garden of the flour mill, opposite our house, and five or six years ago, I got a youth of seventeen named George Coombs who had an Al camera to go into and along the Dungeon (the water was only six inches deep) with me one day, and with the light of magnesium wire he took a photo of the nest (which had two nearly full-fledged young Dippers in it) which was placed on a projecting brick of the wall about 3 feet above the water, and about six yards from the entrance of the

dungeon."

Muscicapa grisola (The Spotted Fly-catcher). An albino was seen in Major Devenish's grounds at Springfield, Rodwell, Wey mouth, in company with typical individuals with which it agreed exactly in habits and mode of life, so I don't think there can be any question of its identity. It was accidentally killed in the

neighbourhood afterwards.

Glivicola riparia (The

(N.M.R.)

An

Sand Martin).

albino was seen

on the Fro me, Dorchester Fishing Club Upper Water, September 12th. (G.R.P.) Hirundo rustica and Chelidon urbica (The House Martin). There seems to be no doubt that one or other, possibly both, of these birds were observed in January at Upwey. Members of the Club will no doubt agree with me that the weight of evidence favours the Barn Swallow rather than the House Martin. I give below a short resume of the evidence of the observers, so that every person can form an independent judgment. As to explanation, Colonel Mainwaring suggests re migration

or

hibernation.

quite meets the facts.

I

think

neither

Hibernation in

its strict

suggestion sense of a

of winter quiescence, during which functions are suspended in part, is not known to exist amongst the Hirundinidae, nor so far as I know in any other bird. I incline

period

to the belief that the bird or birds seen were a very late brood, not strong enough to migrate with the general body, which were wandering about in an aimless way at a time when the

migrating instinct would be quiescent this, of course, is surmise, but surmise which would fit in with most of the ;

known facts as to the migration of swallows, which neither remigration nor hibernation would do. The matter arose in

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

191

way. The Rev. S. E. V. Filleul returned " two House Martins were seen by several people at Upwey on 10th this

January (s.c. 1913)." I editorially questioned the record as duty bound, as it was most extraordinary. The Rev.

in

E. V. Filleul then wrote

S.

"

I believe that the visit of

10th, 1913, to of it. I went

me

two or three House Martins on January

Upwey was quite genuine. My mother wrote down a day or two after and found that she

me

to tell

could not

swear to the fact, as her sight was not good enough, but only that she had seen the birds flying up and down, and they were said to be swallows. The gardener and boy saw them, and several people living close by remarked upon them. They were evidently House Martins, for I enquired carefully

could

tell

fact, I

about that. I think that Colonel Mainwaring it he lives in Upwey (Wabey House). In sure whether he did not actually see them. Of

you more about

am

not at

all

;

course they attracted a good deal of attention. The birds were not bred at Upwey, but were passing and were only seen that day. Some were recorded in Ireland quite as late as that I noticed."

I accordingly wrote to Colonel Mainwaring, as follows

who

writes

me

:

"

I

beg to state that the Rev.

in referring

you

to

S. E. V. Filleul is evidently mistaken regarding the supposed occurrence of the House on 10th January, 1913. I did not see any House

me

Martin at Upwey Martins flying about here in January but I did see a Swallow, and wrote to the Editor of the Field on the 8th of January and reported tho fact of my having seen a swallow on the 3rd, and such was duly inserted under the Notes and Queries, Tho Naturalist, in the Field of 10th and llth January, 1913. I also wrote to the Editors of the Morning Post and the Dorset Chronicle about it, as I thought such an occurrence most extraordinary." ;

'

'

'

'

'

'

On

'

'

that evidence I would remark that Mr. Filleul's note

however, by Colonel Mainwaring's is first-hand evidence report, supported,

were reported to Mr.

Filleul first as

is

enquiry, and that

careful

;

that the birds

Swallows and subsequently

changed to

House Martins, while

identification

is

Colonel Mainwaring's that young swallows have shorter tails than adult birds, and would therefore be more that while the confounded with house martins easily

"a

swallow

"

;

;

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

192

observers whose names are available are persons of superior education, they may not necessarily have seen the same birds that the mere occurrence of a swallow would tend to support ;

the possibility of the occurrence of house martins, since the conditions which favoured the continuance of the one in this country would also render possible the continuance of the other.

Generally scarce, but present in great quantities on the

morning of July 27th at Weymouth. (N.M.R.) Dendrocopus major (The Great Spotted Woodpecker),21st June, 1913, at Canford.

(E.H.C.)

Dendrocopus minor (The Small Spotted Woodpecker). 21st Observed at Dorchester, (J.R.) January 21st. December, at Canford, an adult male Dendrocopus minor "

W.P.C. and I cycled over to Break Hill Wood, and immediately on our arrival were rewarded with a sight of an adult male Dendrocopus minor very busy searching for food on an oak tree of some age. It seemed to prefer searching for food on the smaller branches We watched it with the glasses for a long time, of the trees. and saw it searching on three trees. The hammering was very like that of Dendrocopus major, and very rapid indeed, and the only means I have of judging the incredible rapidity with which this little bird hammers is to compare the perobserved searching for food.

cussions with the exhaust explosions of a petrol motor. The speed of the woodpecker's blows, to my ear, would about

synchronize with the exhaust of our engine at 1,000 revolutions per minute. As it is a four-cylinder four-cycle engine there are two exhaust pops per revolution, which would give the speed of the woodpecker's beak at 2,000 blows per

minute, thing

is

which

seems

almost

certain, the bird's

head

However, one an absolute blurr when it

incredible. is

hammers, and it looks like a very high speed piece of machinery Another thing I noticed was that this bird ran

in motion.

down a hanging feeding as it

it

went.

simply flew on to

branch spirally backwards, not stay long on the main trunk; and off again, merely going to it as a

horizontal It did it

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

193

Likewise, the bird can hammer when it is any position, but seems to prefer having his head above his body and not below the level of his body. He does not

point of vantage. in

hammer many

seconds consecutively, or I suppose his beak He looked very spoil its temper. lovely in the bright sunlight with his crimson crest and nevertheless he is not a very constrongly marked back

would get heated and

;

spicuous

little

bird."

(E.H.C.)

Micropus apus (The quantities

of

swifts

Common

flying

Swift).

around

all

8th July, great the afternoon and

evening, but

all gone the next morning. Weymouth. (N.M.R.) June 22nd, at Poole, on our return at 8.50 p.m., just as darkness was falling, w e saw about 50 swifts circling round and round and screaming. They were very high in the air, and looked quite small. As they circled round they kept banking and mounted higher and higher, until at last they could only just be discerned. Then they took a course about due south, straight toward Cherbourg, as straight as a line and at very high speed. Their direction would have taken them over no land except Sandbanks and the corner of Brownsea, and it is not reasonable to suppose they went to such great height for such a short journey, and nothing to r

take them to either place. (E.H.C.) Asio otus (The Long-eared Owl).

June

5th, one young Underkeeper Balson.

bird destroyed

At Canford, circa and one made captive by

Astur palumbarius (The Goshawk). One shot by Headabout Nov. 2nd. In keeper Wren at Canford on the river seen at Ringwood was which bird is the this all probability

and Wareham. (W.P.C.) Buzzard (species ?). Seen Keeper Wren on

at Canford

several occasions.

in the Spring

(E.H.C.)

by

A buzzard was

district and passed into the hands slaughtered in the Wareham ashamed of a local bird stuffer, but the captor was sufficiently was of his misdeed to give instructions that no information

to be given to me on the subject, so I do not know whom it was killed. (W.P.C.) species it was or by

what

194

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

Falco cesalon (The Merlin). One seen at Canford 2nd March, 1913. At about 3.30 p.m., at the foot of Blue Ball Hill, about 1J miles on the Dorchester side of Bridport, we observed a Merlin sail along in front of the car, doing 27 It continued for several m.p.h. with the greatest ease.

hundred yards, and then suddenly threw up its wings and shot into the foot of the hedge, from which it emerged close in front of the car, with an Accentor modularis (hedge sparrow) After this it shot off at such a pace that we could not catch up with it. (W.P.C. and E.H.C.) Chaulelasmus streperus (The Gad wall). Two shot at Wareham in the winter. (W.P.C.) in its claws.

Glottis nebularius (The Greenshank). Seen at Morden Park on 12th July, 1913, obviously a downward migrant.

(E.H.C.)

Tringoides Jiypoleucus (The Common Sandpiper). First seen at Dorchester 10th April (G.R.P.) on upward migration. Limosa limosa (The Bartailed Godwit). September 5th, at 1.45 a.m., I heard a flock of waders migrating over the

house while I was in bed

it must have been a large flock, for fully 1J minutes. There were at least different sorts of birds, and from their calls to each other

for I heard

two I

;

them

took them to be Bartailed Godwits and Knots.

satisfied as to the

Godwits.

I

am

(E.H.C.)

Stercorarius crepidatus (Richardson's Skua). One seen on Poole Harbour July 24th. (G.R.P.). (I find on enquiry from Mr. Peck that this was an adult bird of the dusky race.)

Crex crex (The Corncrake or Landrail).

Seems to be one and according to my experience The causes seem to be complex, but

of our disappearing species, is

steadily decreasing.

two principal ones may be cited the prevalence of the horsed mower and reaper and binder, which ensures the destruction of every nest in its path and often of the young birds, and the that the latter is a deadly foe is proved by sportsman's gun the information given to me that Mr. Cavendish Bentinck's shooting party secured 50 landrails in one day's shooting in ;

Purbeck whilst the birds were on the downward migration.

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

The

landrail

is

tired landrail

195

no times difficult to shoot on the wing, and a which is resting preparatory to the

at

crossing particularly easy victim. (W.P.C.) E.S.R. notes that this bird is almost extinct round Chard.

Channel

is

Caccdbis Partridge).

a

rufa

(The

Major

Spanish

Redlegged

or

French

Farquharson,

Langton Herring, The 1st Redlegged or French Partridge I knew in Dorset was caught in a rabbit trap, in the year 1871, on the Blandford Downs during a heavy snow storm. They have been put down about Lulworth, I believe. When I came here in 1907 there were but few, but these dry summers have helped them to increase very much, and the English Partridge has decreased. One or two days I have Dorchester, writes

"

:

not shot a single English Partridge, all French. I am sorry, as I like the native." (With this latter remark I agree, either on the table or in the fields our native bird is preferable, j believe the increase of Caccdbis rufa to be attributable in part its wildness, which keeps it out of the way of the gun in

to

part

;

its

wariness, which enables

its

pugnacity, for

it

it

to escape the fox

;

and

in

always succeeds in driving Perdrix

part cinerea from the immediate vicinity of its nest. ED.) E.S.R. notes that " it was a poor woodcock year in the South of England that young starlings were nearly fledged on the 25th January, 1913 that the dawn choruses in March ;

;

and up only

;

to the 10th April were very short, five to ten minutes the killing East and South wind and bitter cold

effectually preventing,

weak.

On March

and generally that song was short and

28th birds were in

full

dawn chorus

for 15

minutes only, but up to May 12th, owing to cold and wet weather, I have heard the Nightingale and Spring migrants very

little

as yet.

Partridges (Perdrix cinerea) were scarce and wild. in legged Partridges (Caccabis rufa) are increasing

Red-

West

Dorset and East Somersetshire. After 41 years' observations I am of opinion that the Nightingales and Turtle Doves have been gradually coming

Westward, and are more

plentiful here."

196

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

Ctf

OJ 1*

JiP *

ss

^?

i o c

1

III

W

o

.

PS

_o -

p. <;

.

<

B

-

O

>

x

131

2

>.

x

>&.'

2

>>

Illlllllll -~

t."

^ tH3

ft,

^

|Z|

^

(i,

,J

S'S| W 1

iSS Ice

.

'

I

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

197

At Weymouth,

14th November, several humble bees about quite lively. August 26th, Colias edusa flying in garden, the only one seen. flying

The swarms

of

flies,

resembling columns of smoke at the

tops of the trees, were unusually dense in early August, several columns

and

striking this year

usually over one tree, but

some much

by

Some years ago I ascertained larger than others. that similar columns were composed of Rhyphus capture but whether both sexes were present (N.M.R.)

fenestralis,

know.

I

do not

NOTES ON INSECTS.

By W.P.C., Poole. I did very little collecting this year indeed, and the bulk of my outdoor work was devoted to colour photography of lepidoptera in their natural positions of rest, and to a series of observations on the attacks by birds upon

lepidoptera,

information

is

much

upon both

of

which subjects further

needed.

The year opened with boisterous wet and cold weather, but Hybernia marginaria put which retarded everything in an appearance on January 19th, and Tortricodes hyemana was about on the 16th February. We had severe frosts in the third week of February. The weather improved in March, and on March 15th both Tephrosia bistortata and Chimabache fagella put in an appearance however, on March 21st we had driving snow and hard winds, followed by a slight return of warmth, which tempted Vanessa io out for an airing, and a speedy relapse into gales, The early part of April I saw no insects, and cold, and rain. and April 20th was the first really warm spring day, ;

;

accompanied by being 24th April Phycita fusca, Anarta myrtilli, and Boarmia cinctaria were out in full force Saturnia pavonia was flying about wildly. Hemeorophila Gonepteryx rhamni

turned

Micropteryx sepeella(?)

On

out,

the

;

abruptaria Tceniocampa gothica and Eupithecia pumilata were all seen at rest. The cold weather returned, but on

198 1st

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

May, by beating

larvae at night,

I got

two Triphcena

Berewood, after which we had hurricanes and heavy it and was altogether as bad a spring as I can remember. rain, Pieris napi Cyaniris argiolus appeared on the llth May on the 12th May. Nemzobius lucina and E. pusillala were fimbria in

;

About this date the weather and we had some glorious days in May, but they came too late to save the spring larvae from a watery grave, as attested by the scarcity in the summer. In the first week in June Dicranura furcula, from both Berewood and Canford, emerged in my breeding cages, and were followed by D. bifida from Cranborne. A few days in the later end of June were dull and wet. On the 2nd July, 1913, I found a freshly-emerged Coccus lignaperda, which had formed its cocoon of mortar in a space in a brick wall where there had been a settlement, about 1ft. Gins, from the ground. On the 5th July, at Berewood, Boarmia roboraria, B. out in Berewood on the 18th.

settled in fine,

repandata

ab

conversaria,

Geomeira

papilionaria,

Noctua

(Agrotis) ditrapezium, and Phorodesma bajulcUa all came to The latter in my experience being rare in the county. light. On the 19th July Hyria auroraria was seen. On the 20th July Aventia flexula and Eilema deplana were

taken in the

On

New

Forest.

the 27th July Zeuzera

cescidi,

which was found

in 1912

at Canford by Headkeeper Wren, emerged, but unfortunately escaped, as my only hope of feeding it for 15 months or so was to feed it in a living apple tree in the garden.

On the 2nd August a late Hemaris fuciformis larva was found at Canford.

On Mell,

the 3rd August Colias edusa male was taken at Arish and I was also fortunate enough to secure the most

extreme Lycosna corydon var fowleri I have ever seen. In August I was working the Broads of Norfolk with satisfactory results, though the nights were very moony and foggy. On the 28th August one specimen of Aporophyla australis

was procured by E.H.C. at Badbury Rings.

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

19ft

21st September, 1913, at Cranborne, I found a cocoon of Dicranura bifida inside a loose piece of bark on a poplar. The

space between the tree and the bark was packed absolutely full

of

Amphipyra

tragopogonis, which

was

in all stages of

dilapidation.

27th September, 1913, flying over a heath

swamp

I

took a late Tapinostola fulva

at Canford.

5th October, 1913, I again hunted the poplars at Cranborne for D. bifida. I found three, and E.H.C. found one. These were mostly spun just under the surface of the moss of the trees, and the outsides of the cocoons were covered with lichens or moss. The day was fine and warm after a heavy

thunderstorm the preceding night, and E.H.C. thought the bifida

cocoons looked a darker color after the rain

;

the best

to look for a patch of lichen which has no definite thing on it, since the larva bites up the lichen, and it does pattern not therefore retain its natural form. is

200

^

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

201

-stf

So?

S8

IS

S

p 1

BS8

SJ

S

s

I II

2Q2

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

FLOWERS. Geranium lucidum was in bloom April 26th, Lamium album and L. Galeobdolon. White and yellow Dead Nettles, on same date. Polygala vulgaris (milk wort) both pink and blue. Spiroea ulmaria, meadow sweet, June 19th, Dorchester.

J.R.

March 20th. Orchis maculata (Spotted Orchis) Weston. (W.H.D.) Honeysuckle was Buckhorn May 26th, in leaf at Canford on January 19th. Portugal Laurel and sallow in flower at Canford on February 19th. It was a very Viola canina was in bloom as poor year for sallow blossom. late as December 13th at Canford, and except for July primOn roses were in bloom in Berewood throughout the year. December 14th we procured Vicia saliva, common Vetch, Viola canina,

Lychnis diurnajed csimpion,Lychnis vespertina,\vhite campion,

and a good bunch of primroses in Berewood, whilst ground Utricularia ashes and hazels were full of new green leaves. minor and Pinguicula lusilanica were abundant in Morden Bog on July 18th. (W.P.C.) " E.R.S. Notes. Snowdrops out on January 4th, the earliest date I can remember seeing them. Primroses too have been seen out during December, 1912, and January, 1913." A few snowdrops were out in a Chardstock garden 25th December, 1913.

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

203

204

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

GENERAL REMARKS. E.R.S. NOTES.

12th January, 1913, a remarkably mild a cruel spring, fine for farming and gardening 22nd March, 1913, a great gale from the S.W. The

winter so far

though.

early part of

;

March marked by very variable weather,

gales

from S.W., hail, rain, snow a little (about March 22nd at night) and also a little thunder and much sheet lightning. March 29th April, heavy thunderstorm 29th, sunny, mild, and fine. and rain over South of England. After a cold wet spring, by the middle of May fine weather set in and resulted in a beautiful, dry, warm, fine, summer, which was quite hot in July and August, and I never remember the pastures more burnt up at the time. The hay and corn harvests were good, the hay harvest especially, but the turnips and roots generally failed, the turnips especially. Grass was never greener or more abundant in October, after the rain of September. Altogether it was a good year for farmers, and

farm stock kept up its prices. There was a good deal of thunder and heavy rain storms in

all

September and the beginning of October. have had a few frosts lately, before and on Christmas Day. The winter of 1913, to 23rd December, 1913, has been mild and dry. Sharp frosts and snow 29th December. We have had wet days, but as a rule the summer, autumn, and winter up to the end of 1913 have been hot, fine, and generally the latter part of

We

dry. A beautiful year for farmers all round, and our farmers are doing well and making money, although not one I ever

heard will confess this to me. This has been a good flowering or fruit year generally about here. Mangolds were a good crop in West Dorset, the late rain saved them. The year 1913 ended the last four days with bright, fine, seasonable weather,

and ironbound

in frost

snow on the ground. J. R. NOTES. Average barometric reading Highest monthly average (Dec.)

.

.

.

.

29'66

.

.

.

.

29 '89

and

FIRST APPEARANCES OF BIRDS, INSECTS, ETC.

Lowest monthly average

(Jan.)

.

.

.

.

Highest individual reading I have never reached as (On 21st Dec. .

205

29*42

33 '0

.

;

high a record before).

Lowest individual reading December 29th. A few snow storms. Thunder on Jan. 20th and March 21st .

.

.

.

28*67

only.

Return* of Rainfall in in 1913.

By R. STEVENSON

HAVE

received

HENSHAW,

66 returns this year, 4 less than 1 by the removal of an

in the previous year

observer and 2

Mr. H.

C.E.

Stilwell,

;

by the regretted deaths of Winterbourne Steepleton, and

Mr. H. B. Vincent, Swanage. I have calculated the averages from the

24 stations which are marked with an asterisk

and which are spread as equally as possible over the whole county, although there is a large area in the centre of the county not represented by any return, and it would also be an advantage if another record in the tables

were commenced in the Langton Matravers and Swanage area.

The average for the year calculated from the

selected stations

34 030 inches, whilst the average taken from the 66 returns sent in is 34*088 inches, showing that, although there are a

is

-

number

of gauges crowded into a small area, they are counterbalanced by those in other districts.

RAINFALL IN DORSET.

207

The average for the 58 years 18561913 is 33*846 inches, was an average year, and, as will be seen from

so that 1913

Table

5, is

represented by 100 '5, against the 58 years' average

of 100.

January, with an average of 6'18 inches

falling on 23-6 month, followed by the 3 autumn months, October, November, and September, in the order

days, was

by

far the wettest

named. June and July were very dry months, and if the last day in August be excepted so was that month in most districts at a few stations, however, heavy falls of rain were recorded on the 9th of August, particularly in the Bere Regis, Bloxworth, and East Lulworth districts. The wettest day throughout the county generally was the ;

6th October, the greatest fall occurring on that day at 32 stations, whilst 15 stations record the 4th September as the wettest day, followed by the 5th September at 6 stations, and the llth and 19th January at 4 stations each.

The greatest daily fall recorded appears to be the 2 -39 inches on the 6th October at Blackdown House, Broadwindsor,

when

2 '10 inches were recorded at Coneygar, Bridport, and 2 '00 inches at Dorchester Waterworks. Six days with more than 1 inch of rain were recorded at

5 such days at 2 stations, 4 days at 6 stations, 3 days at 12 stations, 2 days at 19, and 1 day only at 23 stations, whilst at 3 stations the rainfall did not reach 1 inch on any 1 station,

day. of wet days, namely 247, were in 1912 record the held which recorded at Broadstone, place Blackdown at observer House, The 22 more with days. number minimum the whilst 214 records Broadwindsor, days, of 121 was at Fleet House, Chickerell, where the minimum was

The maximum number

also recorded in 1912.

With regard to the recording of wet days, there appears to be considerable discrepancy between stations at no great distance apart, and it is probable that this might be caused, to

some extent, by the

in use. particular measuring glass

RAINFALL IN DORSET.

208 It

is

not easy with some glasses to decide whether there is less than '005 glasses, however, are now made with

more or

;

a conical depression in the bottom, in which '005 can be quite accurately measured, and I would strongly recommend observers to obtain these glasses where possible, suited of course to the size of the gauge in use. In Table 4, statistics of the temperature of the air are given as recorded by Mr. T. Pulsford, Lyme Regis, and which fill the gap which was made by the absence of the record which

had been kept at Winterbourne Steepleton for so many years by the late Mr. H. Stilwell. I very much appreciate the great improvement which has taken place in the correctness of the records which have been sent

in,

the

number

of inaccuracies being small in

comparison

with the year before.

OBSERVERS' NOTES.

BEAMINSTER, HAMILTON LODGE. The average Beaminster 40 years to end of 1912 was 38*03 the rainfall of 1913 (35-38) is 2-65 below average. Greatest fall in 24 hours, I 59 on 6th October. A max. shade temperature of 70 and over was reached on 43 days, as against 15 in 1912 and 87 in 1911. The warmest day was 16th June, temp. 79. The highest reading of the barometer during the year was 30-67 on the 31st December. rainfall for

1

CHEDINGTON COURT.

Our average

rainfall

for

years ending 1912 is 37'63 on 170 days. Total of 1913, one-hundredth part of an inch more.

the

15

Very

mild autumn.

CHICKERELL,

"

MONTEVIDEO." Jan. 19 Thunder and and night. Mar. 21 Thunder and and a little in afternoon. May 14

lightning in afternoon lightning at 4.30 a.m.

Two

thunderstorms

;

'40in.

of rain fell in

about f hour

;

RAINFALL IN DORSET.

some lightning and thunder.

209

A little thunder a 30 long way Sep. Heavy thunderstorm in afternoon towards Dorchester and Abbotsbury, but none over Chickerell, though the thunder was often loud. off in

A very

Aug. 30

afternoon.

dry summer, as

shown by the small rainfall in the Aug. 25 3 months and 10 June 8 Aug. 21 2J months Snow on Feb. 17 and Dec. 28.

is

following periods May 15th days with only 1- 19 in. of rain. :

with only

-51in. of rain.

DORCHESTER, WOLLASTON HOUSE. Except for the heavy January there has been nothing of an exceptional nature in the year's record. The total is almost exactly in rainfall in

accordance with the average.

EAST LULWORTH VICARAGE. much below the average, 12 82 -

The

rainfall

ins. less

than

this

year

is

and

last year,

lower than any year since 1908 (28 27 ins.). The first frost came Jan. 12th, which was also a very wet !

month. June and July were unusually dry, totalling only T26, less than in any year in the last ten years. Heavy thunder occurred on Oct. 4th. In the heavy downpour of Aug. 9 1'60 ins. over an inch fell in four hours. The first frosts of any hardness began Dec. 29th.

LYME

REGIS.

far

half

Several very beautiful sunsets were observed

during November, notably about 4.45 p.m.

the' 28th,

with crepuscular rays

C

HOUSE. Mean temperature, 50'548 on June 17th min. temperature, 20 April 84 temperature, max. tern., 136 highest hours of sunshine, 1,564 13th GILES'

ST.

;

STURMINSTER Tuesday

;

;

;

bar. reading, 30'34 in.

;

lowest bar. reading, 28'80

MARSHALL,

HOUSE.

BAILIE

4 p.m., slight thunderstorm

;

in.

28th

I hardly

Oct.,

remember

RAINFALL IN DORSET.

210

30th Oct., Thursday Very heavy rain and 3.30 p.m., ='58. Nov. 23rd, Sunday 1st frost, nasturtiums cut down. Dec. 29th A very slight sprinkling of snow during Sunday night, with a cold W.N.W. wind.

another this year.

between

1

WARMWELL HOUSE. Several peals of thunder were heard on 19th Jan. A slight fall of snow occurred on 17th Feb. There was thick fog on 10th, 13th, and 14th February. "

MASSANDRA." The year 1913 shows a marked contrast to 1912, the rainfall being 12*07 in. less. The winter and spring were mild, the summer dry, and autumn with little wind and few gales. unusually warm

WEYMOUTH,

;

WIMBORNE, CODFORD HOUSE. The temperature of the year has been moderate. The lowest minimum temperature, with the exception of the night of Dec. 31st, when the temperature fell to 23, was 25 on the 12th of January. The highest maximum was in June, when on the 16th and 29th the thermometer rose to 76, but it did not once reach 80.

WlNTERBORNE WHITCHURCH VlCARAGE. JAN.

A

very mild month. On only one day did the temperature fail to reach 40 in the shade. On 21 days rain fell. There was a great deal of thunder and

from 6 to 9 p.m. on the 19th. The highest the temperature was registered on the 23rd, 51

lightning

;

lowest during

the night of the coldest day was the 13th, max. 37 the 3rd, 45.

FEB.

Another mild month. failed to reach 40

On

21. The warmest night,

12th, ;

four days the thermometer

The highest temthe lowest perature was registered on the 12th, 52 during the night of the 23rd, 22. The coldest day in the shade.

;

was the

19th, 35

;

the warmest night the 4th,

48.

RAINFALL IN DORSET.

MARCH.

211

Rain fell on 15 days. On the 15th a rather heavy thunderstorm passed over from S.W. to N.E. A very

severe

accompanied with a which were of enormous size, passed over from N.W. to S.E. between 3.30 and 4 p.m. on the 21st. The highest temperature was registered on the 30th, 57 the lowest, the night of the 17th, 24. thunderstorm,

hail storm, the hailstones of

;

APRIL.

A

wet month rain fell on 16 days. There was a snow shower at 9 a.m. on the 12th, the only snow ;

observed here through the year as yet. Considerable of thunder and lightning occurred between

amount

5 and 6 p.m. on the 29th. was registered on the 23rd, 69 of the 12th,

MAY.

Highest temperature ;

the lowest, the night

24.

part of this month was particularly cold and There were 15 days on which rain fell. A very heavy hail storm passed over from N.W. to S.E. at 7.45 a.m. on the 19th. There was a good

The

first

wet.

deal of lightning during the night of the 29th thunder distant in the S. Warm weather prevailed ;

during the last week. The highest temperature was on the 26th, 79 the lowest, the night

registered

of the 6th,

JUNE.

;

31.

there was a strong gale from Rain fell on 6 days S.W. to N.W. on the 9th. There was an unusual absence of thunder. The highest temperature was the lowest on the night registered on the 26th, 81. of the 2nd, 37. ;

;

JULY.

Temperature reached 70 and above in shade on 15 days. Rain fell on 10 days. There was a total absence of thunderstorms. in shade

was

registered

the night of the 8th,

The highest temperature

on the 28th, 80

43.

;

the lowest,

RAINFALL IN DORSET.

212

AUGUST.

The thermometer reached 70 and above on 18 days. From 5 to 7 p.m. heavy fell on 9 days. thunder was constant, far to the S. The highest the temperature was registered on the 3rd, 79 lowest during the night of the 5th, 38. Rain

;

SEPT.

Warm

summer-like weather prevailed throughout the month, the special feature of the period being the exceptional high night temperature. Rain fell on 14 days. A heavy thunderstorm to the S.W. occurred on the

was

The highest temperature

30th.

registered on 27th, 73

in shade

;

the lowest

during the night of the 16th, 41. The coldest day warmest night, the 4th, was the 2nd, max. 58 ;

when OCT.

the thermometer failed to

Exceptionally

warm weather

fall

below 60.

prevailed

throughout

Rain fell on 16 days. The highest was the registered on the 3rd, 66 temperature The coldest day lowest, the night of the 21st, 33. the warmest night, the was the 21st, max. 50 19th, min. 54. the

month.

;

;

Nov.

The temperature was high

for the time of the year throughout the month, reaching the exceptional height of 61 in shade on the 26th, and 59 on the

Rain

on 18 days. Highest temperature on the 26th, 61 the lowest during the night of the 22nd, 26. The coldest day was the warmest night the 20th, min. 50. 23rd, max. 44

29th.

was

fell

registered

;

;

DEC.

Mild weather prevailed

till

the 28th,

when

the condition

became frosty and snow fell on the 29th from 8.45 to 10.15 a.m., the first snow to lie on the ground in this neighbourhood for two years. Lightning was seen during the night of the 29th. Rain fell on 10 days. The highest temperature was registered on

RAINFALL IN DORSET. the

1st,

31st,

33

;

54

in shade

;

213

the lowest the night of the

21.

The coldest day was the 30th, max. the warmest night the 2nd, min. 48.

The max. and min. thermometers from which the above records were taken are Kew-corrected instruments, placed in a Stevenson screen, 4J feet above ground (over grass).

RAINFALL IN DORSET.

214

ico mm o oo i>coeoi~i^-Or-(Cirt]t^oi -6o-'ti-'*hJo-'*irHi^t^cor-i co co co co co co co co co co co co <* co co
oo

r-i r-<

r-H

t 6O e5 60 oo in in in r~ r*

N

c
c<]

^ooo^coco OJ * CO CO CO

O

-^(MOT-ioo(Mr-iocicocoooo3coococD^inin9qos( CO T!< CO CO CO -if >* CO *# in * CO CO OJ ^* rf * Tt< CO CO -^ (M CO

^

CO

COOO-*CCI>^CM co-^-

mcotMi-i'^incocO'nosoOr-ic^cvicp^ipoi.^-^t-pt^eo

CO CO CO CO CO CO

CO

CO CO

^ CO CO

C
CO

r^cDmcs-^ocfN

P. rt*

CO

* CO CO CO CO

<7
CO 6q <* CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO

* CO

CO

CO

'ii

rt< rti rt< C<1 C
CO

tt


~~~ tn os

(

B a HS

.

* m
as

_n i

i
<^coi^(>]co^^^co^co(^cocqco(^cococococoNcO(:
cococococgcqcq

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lOOOCDOm

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i>Tjii>-coi>-inos

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i

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.=11

:

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s

II

S

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a.lL

l^ll IIIII t HIP' ^l"ll IlfJl^sl^flfi^SI? 5 o ^ j ^^GfcHi-^O^ -

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L-

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.

;

S

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:

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=

a-

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:

sSv

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RAINFALL IN DORSET. CM CO

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CO
OCOT). cb 00 co --t I^H co CM co co co

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CO CM CM CO

US

coco

GO CM CO rH CO CM CO US rH rH

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rt
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1

r-ll>-<* <*

215

USrHUSCDUSCDGC-tCOCO

t>-

rH -rt< CM 01 * co oo -i* us co co co eo co co 7-1 ?i eo eo co

p7*COCOrHO-fl^CCO

00 ** co

O O O O1 GO US O 00 CM US

CO

CMpprHCOOOCirHCOp

rH

t* 00 KS ^ OOOCOI>-

M

(MCOr-lt-

eo>.'5i>-co

-

^j<-rti

co

o^rHi> TtioOcOCO

O-*

CKNOOOWOOOSOJOO

cosocq

co

coco

co

cocoeoco

coc-i

cocoi-icococo'ivicococo

co C5 eo

CO US CO

rH yf rH

CO CM r* CM rH cVl

I>O

lO(MO-*C5COfOC5rHOO

rH

Ot^

rH

pc

CM CM rH

m

coco

"*00

rH 00 (M

CO

rH rH

rH

OOC33O5

<*

-^ICO

t-

OOOO

**<

-*CH>COCO

COCO

-t GO GO t>CO CO US CO

- us us o eoeococo

i-tt~ooocsiM

COCSOOOOt^tN'MrHiJvIO

COOCD-^I>COCOGOOCO COCOinCO>OlOlOCOl>.lO

CSOOrHl--

cocoTfeo

Tjt

-^ CO

OI>rHlO Ol-^-HlCO

oosoo Ot l-

TJ<

eo 01 ii co

(MCO

CO!MCOCOCM

CO

O'M

COCO

(MCOCOCOCO'M'MCOCOCO

CM CO

t^COGO'MCOCMI>-t<'MCO

CO

rHOO

"*OC5r~rH'M-*O'Mei

CO CO CM

CO

CM CO

CO

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CM 'M CO CO

CO CM

C-l

lO t-

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COC3 I>00

OO C5

rHOOGt>CO

^*00

lOl^rHTjlr-,

rH CO

O ^t^t^OCJ^COCOCO^ CO

CO US

CO US

rt CO US CO

<*

CO

rH CO US t^ CO "* US US CO

Cil^

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O p US

lf~

US

CO CM Ol CO CM

4>J

CO CO

cV]

m-^COOCOCOrHCOCOO

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CiOCJCJ C-]

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1.-5 CO t- u-5 00 l^ US US US US CO U5 US US CO

rH

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-.,

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216

RAINFALL IN DORSET.

RAINFALL IN DORSET.

s ffl

RAINFALL IN DORSET.

218

TABLE

III.

AVERAGE MONTHLY RAINFALL.

RAINFALL IN DORSET.

TABLE

V.

FLUCTUATION OF ANNUAL RAINFALL. 58 years' average

Year 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913

= 100. Eatio.

79 88 103-5

89 87-5 126'5

102 79-5

100 98 81-5

110 117 92-5

132 100-5

INDEX TO VOL. XXXV.

3y H. POUNCY.

J.

Acland, Capt. xlix.,

E.,

xlvi.,

xlviii.,

88

71,

li.,

Cornish-Browne, C.

^Ethelstan, xxxvi., xxxvii.

Aldhelm, St., xxxv., xxxvii. Almack, Rev. A. C., xliii., xlvii., liv. Allen (or Win) Valley Meeting, xxviii. Andover, xxxiii. Arachnida, New

Report,

Arundel

1.

More, xxx.

W. Fisher, xxxix., W. Parkinson, 181

Crouch,

Congress,

Delegates'

Curtis,

xl.

xliii., Iv.

Darwin, Chas., Ixxxv.

(family), xxix.

Charles, 35

Ashburnham,

Col.

Wm.,

Darner,

xli., Hi.

Bates, H. W., Ixxxiv. Batten, John, 56 " Beaminster, History of," Ixxxi. xl.

Bindon Abbey, 35 Bingham's Melcombe, 60 Blackmore Vale, 81 Bond, F. Bligh, xxxvii. Nigel,

33 Dewlish,

(find

liii.

Dorset Buttony, 71 Dorset Inventory, 41 Dorset County Museum,

liii.,

liv.

Earthworks Sectional Committee,

liii.

li.,

Memorial Brasses, 75 Dxike, the late Henry, Ix. Durham, Bishop of, lii. Iv.

Edmonds, William,

41,

xlvii., 50 Elephas Meridionalis, xlvi., Electricity, Production of, liv. Elwes, Captain G. R. (Vice-President),

Brasses of Dorset, xlvii., 75 British Association, xlii. Iv. Castle, 28 Burt, William, xxviii.

xxxiii.

;

xlix., liv. St., xl.

Eustachius,

in Dorset, xlviii., 71

Abraham, 71 Cecil, the Hon. Mrs. Evelyn, Cecil Medal and Prize, liii. Chained Books, xlv., 8

Case,

Ixvi.

Chesil Beach, Ixiv.,

Feacey, the late Jem, lix., Filleul, Rev. S. E. V., 191 First Appearances of Birds, Insects, &c., 181 Birds, 186 Insects, 197

Charnock, Richard, 75

Flowering Plants, 200 Meteorological

Chippenham, xxxv. Iv.

"

Weymouth,

Edwards, Aubrey,

xliii., Iv.

Brownsea

Christchurch, Coker, John, 55, 66

to

Elephant Trench, Ixxviii. of Constantinian

Dorchester coins),

xliv.

liii.

Edington,

Bothenhampton, xxxix.

Button-making

Caroline, 72

Guide

Delamotte's

Baker, Rev. E. W., xxix. Mrs., 144 Bampfield, William, 30 Barnes, the late Frederick J., lix. Barnes, Rev. William, B.D. (Dorset

Belchalwell,

Lady

Daumarle family,

38

Avebury, xxx.,

Poet),

J.,

Cornish, Dr. Vaughan (former VicePresident), Ixxiii. Cranborne Chase, Ixxxi. Crichel House, xxx. Long, 79

and Rare British

(1913), xlviii., 119

Archaeological

Cole (family), xxix.

Survey

of

Remarks, 204

Dorset," Fleet, xxxix., Ixv.

221 Fletcher, Canon, xxviii., xxxi., xliv., xlv., 1., 8; Folklore and Superstitions, surviving in Dorset, xlvii., 81. Fry, E. A., xliii., lv., 55 Fungi, of East Dorset, xlviii., 143

March, Dr. H. Colley

(Vice-President), xliv., xlvi., 88, 89

Maumbury Rings

Members

Officers, xi.

Sectional Committees, xi. xii.

Long

Ibberton, Church, First Insects, &c., Dorset, Appearances (1913), 197 Table of same, 196 Societies,

Corres-

ponding, xxvii.

A Dorset,

xxv.

Thorn (New

Crichel, 79

Milborne St. Andrew, 71, 72 Milton Abbey, xl., xlv., lii., 21, 72 Mohun (family of), xxxix. Morris, Sir Daniel, K.C.M.G.. xlvii., xlviii.

New

Forest Meeting, xxxii. winner of Cecil George, Medal, liii. the of Swifts, 50 Night-Soaring Nicolson,

41 Forest), xxxii.,

xxxiii.

Numismatic Sectional Committee,

Iwerne, 72

Jackson, Dr. A. Randell, 119 Jewel, Bishop, 17, 18

et seq.

Kingston Russell, 2 Kinson, Church library, 21 Knapp, Oswald, xxx. Knowlton, (derelict chapel), xxx.

Okeford Fitzpaine,

and

Hon.

and Joan

of Castile, 1

List of Members,

Portland Castle, 34

Photographic Survey, 1., lix. Pickard-Cambridge, Rev. O. (VicePresident), xlv., xlviii., 1, 119, 186 Plowman, Rev. L. S., xl. Pope, Alfred, (Vice-President), xlii., xliv., xlix.,

liii.,

liv., lv.

Bow and Arrow

Castle, 34

Portman, Lord, xxxix. Pouncy, H. (Assist. Sec.),

Regis, lv.

Chained Book, 25

xliv.,

Phonological Report, 181

Portland, 27

xii.

xxix.,

Sec.),

xlvii., xlix., Hi., liv., Ivii.

Philip

Loders Church, 76 Lydlinch, 77

liii.

xl.

Pearce, Mrs. T. A., xliv. Rev. H. (Vice-President Pentin,

Lacock, xxxv. Augustinian Abbey, xxxviii. Church, xxxvii. Lane-Fox, Mr. xli. Le Fleming. Dr. E. K., 1. Leweston, John. 34 Linton, Rev. E. F.. xlviii., 143

Lyme

xxiv. (elected

,,

Lydlinch, 77 Shapwick, 78

xl.

Island's

xi.

Ordinary

Loders Church, 76

xlvii., 41,

Inventory,

Honorary Members,

New

Harbin, Rev. E. H. Bates, 55 Hine, Richard, Ixxxi.

and

Report, 88

Club

of the

during last club year), Memorial Brasses of Dorset, 75

Haines, Dr., 119 Hammoon, xxxix.

Institutions

Ixxviii.

liii.,

Fifth Interim

Galpin, the late George, Iviii., lix. Gerard, Thomas, of Trent, 55 Gillingham, Roger, 24 Gillingham. Thos. Freke's Library, 21 Gray, H. St. George, 88, 90

Handley,

Excavations. 1.,

Presidential Address,

liv.

Iviii.

Lytchett Minster, 25, 71

Obituary, Zoology, Ix.

Maiden Castle, xlix., liv., Ixxxi. Mainwaring Col. F. G. L.. xlix.. 191 Malmesbury and Lacock Meeting, xxxv.

Botany and Agriculture,

Mansel, Mrs. W., li. Mansel-Pleydell, the late J. C. (First

Meteorology,

President), xlvi., Ixxviii.

Mausel-Pleydell Prize, liv. Mansel-Pleydell, Canon, (Vice-PresiHon. and dent Treas.) xxxix, xli., xlvii., liv., Ivi.

Iviiii.

Ixiv.

Geology, Ixvi. Ixviii.

Astronomy, Electricity,

Ixxi., Ixxiii.

Chemistry, Ixxiv. Engineering, Ixxv. Geography, Ixxvi.

Anthropology and Archaeology, Ixxviii.

General, Ixxxi.

222

Prideaux, Chas.

S..

88,

xlvi.,

liv.,

liii.,

7,

Publications of the Club, xxvii. xliv.,

lii.,

Raleigh, Sir Walter, 36 Sir Carew, 37 Ravenhill, the late Canon, Iviii., lix. Rawlence, E. A., xlvii., 81 Rayner, J. F., 144 Reymes, Bullen, M.P. for Weymouth, 65 Richards, John, of \Varmwell, xlviii.

Nelson M. liii.,

(Vice-President),

liii.,

lx..

(Vice-President xliv., xlv.,

1.,

li.,

27,

liv.,

Talbot, C. H., xxxviii.

Taunton Museum,

liii.

Tetricus, 104 Treasurer's Account, Tregonwell, John, 21

Ivi.

Trenchard, Sir George, 29, 30, Trenchard, Sir Thos., 1 Trent. 55

(President), 41

liv., Iviii.,

Wallace, the late Alfred Russel,

xxxii.

Ringwood, Rockbourne Down,

Warham

Walter, xxix.

Roman Coins, li. Roman Farm (Rockbourne Down), xxxiii., xxxiv.

Romano-British pottery, Rules of the Club, vi.

xliii.,

lx., Ixxxiv., and frontispiece. Walsingham, Lord, Ixiv.

xxxiii. Rolle, William, tfxix.

xxxii.,

103

Bowl, The, 5 Weaver, Rev. F. W., xxxvii. Webb, E. Doran, xxxv.,

Salisbury Cathedral, 12

xxxvii.,

xxxix.

Weld, Humphrey, 33

Weymouth,

Sandsfoot Castle, xliv., xlv., 27 Scovel (family), xxix., xxx. Sectional Committees, liv. Selborne Society (Plant Protection scheme), xxxvii. Selwood, John, Abbot of Glastonbury,

1, 6,

28,

Whistler, the late Rev. C. W., 93 Wichell, W. A., 53 Williams, the late Captain Edward W., lx.

Williams, Miss, xxix. Mrs., xxix.

Wimborne,

xxviii., xxxi., Minster, xxviii., 15, 22, 25 Margaret's Chapel, 22 Win (or Allen) Valley meeting, xxviii. Wingate, the late Rev. P. B., lx. Win wood, T. H. R., lii. Witchampton, xxviii., 144

St.

xli.

Shaftesbury, Clothwork Buttony, 71

Shapwick, 78 Sharington, Sir William, xxxviii. Sherborne, School Museum, Ixxxi. Sloden Potteries, xxxii. Societies, &c., Corresponding, xxvii. Somerset Archaeological Society, liii. 25 Spetisbury, " of Dorset," 119 " Spiders Stachy's Well," xl. Stone, Rev. William, 21 Stonehenge, Ixxxi. Storke, John, of Trent, 56 Stratton, 25 Studland, 25 Stumpe, Master (Malmesbury clothier), xxxvi. Sturminster

Newton meeting,

xl., xli.

Sturt,

R.

Symonds, Henry, and Hon. Editor),

Observers' Notes, 208 Tables, 214

xliv., xlv., xlix.

Seymour of, xxxviii. Sumner Hey wood, xxxiv., Ixxxi. Superstitions and Folklore, surviving Sykes, E. Ixxxiv.

Returns (1913), 206 Annual, 219 Monthly, 218

Richardson,

Neville, xlviii.

Sudeley, Lord

in Dorset, 81 Swifts, The Night -soaring of, 50

li., liii.

Pydeltrenthide, 72 Rainfall

Humphry, xxx.

W.

de C., xlvii., 4, 75, 88, 92 Proceedings of the Club, xxviii.

Puncknowle,

Sturt,

92

W.

C. H., xxix., xxx.

Paper Mills, xxviii. Barn, Manor House, xxix.

Church, xxix.

Wix, Rev. C. P., xxix. Wolfeton House, 1, 2, 3, 7 Woodcotte, xlvii., 41, Woodhouse, Miss, xxxvii. Woodlands, xxx., Church, xxx.

Wyke

Regis, 32

Wyndham,

and Mrs., 66 G. H., xxxix.

Col.

Wynne, Rev. xxxix.,

Young, the late E. W., lix. Younge, of Woodcotte, 41

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