Untitled - University of Toronto

Untitled - University of Toronto

JCN HANDBOUND AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS THI PERJPLl S OF INK RYTHR/KAN SEA i \\D PRAVEl n \ I KUI \n K \DI l\ I I\DI \\ 111 ...

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JCN

HANDBOUND AT THE

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS

THI PERJPLl S OF INK RYTHR/KAN SEA i

\\D

PRAVEl

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KUI

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1912

COMMERCIAL MI'M PHILADELPHIA

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I

HI

IM Kll'l

.1

s

A'l

OR]

I

\\

s

Philtddph

I

D

K

>

came

Kfencc

I

Acil pur|*s'

lost

no

in

presenting

of the

s

tiunu-

-tie

cumin

rKl's

TheV luxe

%**tnc

world.

scums urulcrtook the

m

his-

HKiphic

ami barter ilown author

.

>t

this

translation

prepu

wraj

iihit,

sh..\\ii

the

at

-

sent

the

tin

ntmsteil with the study and

which

in its early stages of n.

I

It

develop-

u as -d

prcpa its

interest

the carlv historx

in

Kr\rhr.r.iM

lus of tlu-

Aith the nations vessels

e.r

luiilt

ami cominaruicil lv cat

I

<-t

sul>jri-fs

interesr, i;i\-iny as

t<

the the

iuinmerce


Sea

is

the

.f

in

the

first

\*

thr \\'estern uorld.

the\

Jo an exhaustive

the international trade betueen the great empires of thrr with a collect tlu-

hiriLj

The

trade of a

carlx

\vfi

numhrr

-rltl

ami more umler exact laws

is

of J< in.i'ul

nmerce from

earliest

its

ot

other cmintries

vomini more

e\

ami supplx. Jaxxn to

its

\\

hen the

present tre-

roportions shall be caretullx x*ritten. A

ill

ul the

moil

Commercial

fpr rescuing this ral

turnish

a

work from

inter* s'-riu

Museum

will

not haxetoapu'

ami presenting

o

public.

\\. '

trml>cr.

part of such early

IV

\\

II

M

\. S

it

to the

INTRODUCE K)N / iht

//>/!

Aa

Kryltrfum

one of Columbus and Vi

i

'

like thr j..unui

.

.1..

rcss nut only individual

un.l

enterprise, but the

awakening of i imer-

geograpl *

'.!

>f

>

ni

the

<>t

\CNtrrn World. set

!

It

marks ihr turning

in

interrupt,

U

s.lV.l

human

.

Bal\\ Ionia,

and

in the

"\vh..lr

of that land

!

is

in.ii.i

;

>rd f>r

land of

r

The

Ciulf.

id <

:itl>,

>f

peoples of tha'

created an.

,

tolerated

we know

h.ih direction*, KgypC

the presence of

Arab

ic

mystefious R*4

tribes

The Arab

Indian trad

those

and more

Mm.

.

and

merchants, \frica,

the

but that

i

stones and spiers and the gods of

Was

ithin

the Persian

!

us

tin

uhich supplied

c

product* u

trading to the Kuphrates

not whither.

it

bdellium and the

The growth of

*

eastward

where there i

of exchanges nr.ir the heail

or intermediaries. in India

and com

II

there

B

the

I'll. I

canu- into t>eing, and a

tl

dawn

Persian (.

ilture in

and

the

I

the

nf

culture

good;

;

the

untru-N l>inierin^' "ii the

ami

ncrte

a inlr

f

years before

HI

the

and commanded by subjects of

vessels built

HI

List,

-h

organized tn

their prero.j.i:

:i

Keypc.

trm

th-

The

the Pharaohs

he Indian .

in

turn over the highlands to the up;

and

:i

desert to Thetx-> or

-r

Memphis.

carrying

them

through the Rr In the rare

of Egypt were turned eastward, and voyafes of lerce and conquest were despatched to the Eastern Ocean, the s

the Pharaohs found the treasures of

officers of

nearest

in the

all its shores gathered sought no further to trace them to their

ports, .nui

sources.

As the current F.upl. rates to the

of

trade gradually

p<

I

Mowed beyond

north, and

the

their

trace the better things toward then source in India,

gradually opened.

The

story ot

the world

the Nile and

curiosity

new

for

began

to

trade-routes

many

centuries

upon the- Nile and Kuphratcs Q all the territory through \\hich thi- neu routes passed, and so to prevent the northern barbarians from trading with others than theinseluv It uas early in this struck- that one branch of the people

was

that of the Struggles of the nations

known

home on

and

settled

on the Mediterranean, there to win in the West commercial which competition in the Kast was beginning to deny them.

glories

Greek

as

Phu-mcians

left

their

the Persian

(

iulf

The

colonies, planted at the terminus of every trade-route,

measure of commercial independence; but never overthrow of the Kast by the great Alexander was the control of the great overland caravan-routes threatened by a western people, for themselves a

until the

and

his early death led to

as they

no more than a readjustment

of conditions

had always existed.

Meantime the brethren

of the Phoenicians and their kinsfolk in

Arabia continued in control of the carrying trade of t! to their agreements ami alliances with the merchants of India.

Arab kingdom with

its

spices

trade in

in-

in

frankincense

while the cloths and precious stones, the timbers and

particularly

were

()

another retained the great eastern const of Africa, gold and ivory, ostrich feathers and oil; the shores

after

of the Arabian Gulf produced an ever-rising value

and myrrh;

..bject

cinnamon

brought from India largely by Indian

and carried to Gerrha and Obollah, Palmyra and Petra, Sabbatha and Mariaba were all partners in this commercial The Kgyptian nation in its later struggles made no effort to system. The trade came and the price was paid. And oppose or control it. the infusion of Greek energy after Alexander's day, when the Ptolehad made Egypt once more mistress of the nations, led to nothing more than the conquest of a few outposts on the Red Sea and at the head of the Gulf of Aden; while the accounts of Agatharchides are sufficient proof of the opulence which came to Southern vessels,

redistributed at Socotra or Guardafui,

the Nile and the Mediterranean.

Arabia with the increase of prosperity in Egypt. Here, indeed, the was more complete than ever; for changes in the topog-

trade control

raphy of India, the westward shifting of the Indus delta, the shoaling of the harbors in the Cutch region, and the disorder incident to

of Astatic people*, had tapped ihe vigor of the Indian

Arabia

in

.ml rote and

and

fell

r

-

itself

in

truggl<

kingdom

t-

pa*s<

an coast was

-.

bru

i?h

left \r.tl>

tr

ML L !.,:-. rd

ibr

.1%

v

adversary, establishing \-\ building up ibr kmi'dom .

the in

!

\\huh ;<,srttrd

state

was

It

home

former

lit

i,

and tbr new

I

i,

i*tolc

on tbe R< t

and

inquests

Roman

tbe

spoliation of

people was a rich inran

tbe

ail

treasures a>

ic

taste

.

he East was developed almost oier-nighf.

tl

unpbs


conquerors

rWkcd

pi in

tbe center

n

only mice

dominion

t<>

tbe

was

tl

fr

vas mo%'ed

bank of tbe Kupbrates

Rome

paid

h an enterprise

At;

called

arul .s\na glrt-

lain. -ret!

No

tbe

of

I

mperor

fmni and that disastrously, limited the

iicp.irtc(i

so that

.

all

its tolls t,, tb<

Rome

Arab kinndoins, unless

was

tbitber

i

But a wise derision

trade tbat flowed to tbe

I:mr

:i(;esofti>

Alexaml us.

d

bicb tbe people

I

was

by way of tbe

.asrt t

SO rhe

and thus added to and

:ypt.

of a direct .sea-route to tbe

for

to

ruler of

Control
sts

came

that tbr rule of tbr I*To|emir%

r >

posses

to

ihr Sinks,

the old **L

tl:

end under

its

irvrlf jt

in

itself

all

this rich

'urthia

couKi

and

itrol

the energy and subclct

a

\rab

information was allowed to reach the

he imagination could create tuinir

tbe least disturbance of th

human mem.r\ unknown ocean,

uith oni\ the \aguest

ideas

f

tbe

vurce*

souubt, and tbe routes that led to them, e

uld

a

Roman

reach the goal.

coasting

Hut accidents

it

an

might ru\e

along iian

fa^

in

of the

b.wfcle

amb-

smaning under the realm was courting the Roman alliance.

.m, srabia,

vessel,

And

be-jan

t

1

trading-posts atGuardafui, formerly under

Ul

new

free,

through the A ho might seek.

Arab

control, \M

re-

thru overlords, and their markets

quarrels of

And

then a

Roman

subject, perhaps

and earned in an open .in service, in the \\hemc he returned in a few months with a favorable Then Hippalux, a \enturesome naviwind and much information. much honor in Roman annals as that deserved as name -.\hosr

was driven

of Columbus Indian

modern

in

to sea

observed the periodic- chaise of the known to Arab and Hindu

historv,

doubtless long

in-

--id at

bnldlv

the proper season

age and returned with a cargo of

made

all

a successful tradin

those things for which

Rome

was p.' pearls, ebony and samlalwood, The old channels of tradebut balms and spices, especially pepper. was the age-long unso but not strong were paralleled conquered; -encmus

and

I

derstanding between Arab and Hindu, that cinnamon, which had made the fortune of traders to I. i:\pt in earlier times, was still found

by the Romans only at (Juardafui and was scrupulously kept from he-red and their knowledge in the markets of India, where it

while the leaf of the same tree producing that precious

distributed;

Roman merchants throughout the and as malabathrum formed the basis of one of their

bark was freely offered to the

Malah

.

alued ointments.

Great shifting of national power followed

Palmyra and Parthia accustomed trade, fell in

South Arabia

One

Indian Ocean.

shipping into the

fell

itself,

into

their revenues

Roman

Roman

its

sapped by the diversion of

The Homerite Kingdom

hands.

upon hard times,

this entry of

by one Petra and (r

capital

into ruin,

and some

men

migrated northward and as the Ghassanids bowed the

neck to Rome.

Abyssinia flourished in proportion as its old enemy of things had continued, the whole course of

of

its

best

declined.

If this state

later events

might have been changed. Islam might never have appeared, its system of law and government

and a greater Rome might have left from the Thames to the Ganges. Gradually the treasure that

strong.

pended civil

in

wars

But the logic of history was too to the Roman arms was ex-

fell

in the conquered provinces, in constant drain of specie to the east in

suppressing insurrections at

home, and

in a

settlement of adverse trade balances;

a drain

which was very

real

and menacing to a nation which made no notable advance in production or industry by means of which new wealth could be created. As x.urces of the itinople.

West

The

diminished the center of exchange shifted trade-routes leading to that center were the

old routes through Mesopotamia,

where a

revivified

power under

the

was

Sassanids

1

able

to

Arab

states

conquer every passage to the East, including which had nut yielded submission tt i

uchadreaar or Darius ihr ( irrat. Egypt, highway of commerce, became a mere gran.* \i>yssinia, drum from iu hard-won footholds

Ksarhad>;

m

iL'rr

thr

Constantinople east of th. aui

.4,

Hw.

could otfrr ihr

IP.

And the hirl power. welded the 1 a*trrn World as no force the West for another millennium i

:

N<>(

until

ht

'

'

tramp

!

those vast chain duttry and the nineteenth century did the Wrtfrrn itf

stern

markets on

Stood in need, and b)ing terms, turn h.uk the

own

their

direction.

rds of the

s,

.ire

Penplui of

this

subject,, i

of

its

who

stee

it

this

vessel into the first

markets, an
record

its

entirety,

n this trade in

uas not

human

.

plain and painstaking log of a

brought h.u k the

he

vi..r>

the most fascinating

.1

Erytkraa* Sta

.>orts

strove during the age* to stem

of enduring interest in thr

hem tht

who

lifted until the

wider

i

detailed record of

ondition* and alh-

fa eeattriai that and the gloom

p^*kt

Islam broke and trading, by grafting Jreek theory, laid the foundat! dern geNot Strabo or Pliny or Ptolemy, however great the store of

Arab secrecy

f

.

m

(

ography. t

ered together, can

t

merchant who wrote merely

m

rot

this

of the things he dealt in

and

etju.il

In.

-those peoples of so

ses so

htr

-ill

much; who brought

the ordered and industrious East,

he waters of the "Krythraran

I

:

and

in to

S<

DAM AND AUTHORSHIP OK

'INI

knows

to the restless

INI

PKRIPI

he manuscript COpiea of the IVriplusat Heidelberg and lx>ndon The Heiddberf enable us to fix either date or authorship. rk to Arrian, apparently

plus follows a report of a voyage ule

by the historian Arnan,

1M :;>t

\

I)

This

is

because in that

around the Black

who was governor

of Cappadocia

manifestly a mistake, and the

does not contain that

re fern

I

ndon

The

m

only guidance to date or authorship must he found

the

itself.

the sea-route to India, described in

Hippal ,ncent

about 47 A.

at

1

.-

).

from Pliny's account VI, 24) of the accidental Annius Plocamus who had fanned from

\'r

<

journey

a frccdman of

<'f

from the R<

easury the rc\cm,

This freedman

was carried away by a gale and in fifteen days drifted to Ceylon, \\here \ months returned he was hospitably received ami after a St

home;

which the Ceylonese kings sent an embassy to R..me. reign of Kmpcror Claudius,

after

Pliny says that this occurred during the

The discovery of Hippalus must have which began in the year 41. first after. soon (The question suggested by tl. very what the freedman was doing outside the Straits of l$ah--cl-Mandeb

come

whom

and from Pliny

Annius Plocamus farmed the revenues. As to this it have been the friendly Abyssimans. or were the

Can

silent.

is

Greek colonies

Arabia

in

in

still

existence?)

The discovery of Hippalus, described

in

57,

seems

to ha\<

curred not long before the author of the Periplus made hi> \ He evidently feels a deep respect for the discoverer, and goes on to

"

say that

from

that time until

across the ocean by the

now"

voyages could be made


monsoon.

Pliny has but a passing reference to

Hippalus, suggesting that

between 73 and 77 A. D. when he was writing, the memory of the discoverer had faded somewhat from view. Assuming 50 A. D. as a date earlier than which this Periplus can not have been written,

we must

look next for a limit on the other

side.

38

In

mouth

is

mentioned

ibject to Parthian princes at

$41

In in the

around the

"the sea-coast of Scythia"

which

of the Indus, and the metropolis of Scythia, Minnagara,

is

notes,

47

In

mentioned another is

is

simply the

war among themseh

city

Minnagara, which,

Hindu name

for

<

as indicated

"city of the invaders.'*

mentioned the "very war-like inland nation of the

Bactrians."

As explained

in the notes, the Scythians of the Periplus are the

who had been

tribe,

chi,

and overran Beluchistan, the lower Indus

parts of

the coast of

Yueh-

driven from Eastern Turkestan by the

Saka

India

itself.

They

valley,

a<:

submitted to the Parthian

Kingdom, of which they formed an important part. ern extension under Sandares, the ruler mentioned in a growing pressure from the

and

Kushan kingdom on the

Their 52, indicates

north, but prior

conquest

which occurred Boctnaiu ., the

-.uthaiu.

fhe "war-like iu

r

Kush.m,, former!] >.,

r

who,

.

>lmen westward by the Hun s overran and Mrt up there ;...;\. :tul kingdom xvhu .1

.1

cenhr

h,

..

ed most of northern Iiulu

in the valleys

the Indut and

if

. :

r..

1

A

l

>"

in

:

our

let!

r

A

I)

>

:

.

the

Pancrun *hi%

I)..

I

*V

.nn ai

90 and 95 A

.

its*

throughout Imlu and would not

.tut!

Lites,

.

.nd pr..iv

(

'icral

cd

km^i mlhc fteCOdd

commrm r
had

after

.1

uhuh

Lter ilun

thi% i'rriplus

ttea

4 and

In

our author metitions the

5

and inland,

ast

\\ith /;

this

i>f

/.i

ami

years,

C

>r

the

.unc

:

kings

ll.ik.il. \\\->

ity

of the Axumiir%, and

/oacales;

"/a HakaJe" found

of the

'I

<

nileii

i^

f

A

Hrnr> in the

r duration

Ah>\x

t> the

dates Salt Hxes at 76 to 89

whom by him

(

e,

was

thirteen

wing a n

!

-he birth of Christ took place in the eighth year of

accesMnn

Bazen was 84 years prior to

si

>f

Mini in the after the e\< nts,

abseii

r

'

that of

the

and can hardly be accepted as safe authority in the c\uinu< The fact that nearly all the reigns are

en as lasting an even number of years, or else as so

d

that the .is it

date of the

/a Maname if probably correct, but the Chmnulr* were written some centuries

kale.

ii\

The

HA.ile's predecessors, Zabaesi Bazen.

i

t.>

known :

m

i

K

-hat of

more than

US;

Hakale.

Obvkwsry

Salt's

his dates.

!i

f.n-t

work same conclusion; namely, earlier than the

/a

South Arabian inscriptions disthe separation of Axum from its mother-land,

c

and the

fit

quite possible that his rearrangement has

!.

th

many years and were only estimating the time,

obliged to rearrange their chronology in order to

f.ut>, .uui \\

-s

Arabia, not long before the date of

that there

is

no mention of

.md not

i

that the

Axum

in

any

lliny, suggests the

<

AlnsMSiun Chronicles are unreli-

They count as independent huvr been subject to the Arabian

rate in their earlier portions.

able, at

any

kings a

number

mother-laml;

of rulers

who mu>t

the order of events they relate

dates are merely approximations.

is

uncertain, and their

10

ran

1

the dates in the Chronicle, and Salt's identification of strictly correct, the date generally ac-

if

Zotcalcs with /.i Hakalc were

the birth of Christ.

for

i

acces^

.S

\\.

C., would bring

n to 71 A. D. and his death

\

/a Hakalc' s

t

is earlier than .irly all the commentators think that the IVriplus to is which known have heen \\ituml Plim's published beHistory, is their indication simiL The I> A. tween 7.1 and 77 principal seems to condci, where of Arabia the d< I'chx, Pliny i

on the other hand, there

but,

Periplus;

ho. k \\hieh describe

sixth

earlier than, the !

facts in (

Periplus

)f

arc-

lulu

where

,,nly

of

II

it

did

statements

in

disagreement with, and

course Pliny

usually not \ery discriminating, and

the Periplus

many

lie

v

ipiler

Pliny's

p;

and

may have chosen

i

op\-

to follow

not contradict the earlier;,

whose knowledge he repeatedly ex-

Mauretania, for

information about Mene than pressed respect. H but he not mention Axum. does in the Periplus, appears ist at the Promontory of Mosyllum and says that the Pliny has

there.

Atlani

much more

In this he follows

but

King Juha;

1

known the Periplus he ought to have included the African ./.ibar. He has an account of Mariaba, the ro\al city of Arabia >

Felix, in

which the Periplus has

24 B. C. .

ites,

,

The

rabia.

who One

not.

He

quotes Aelius (Jallus, writing

as stating that the Sabaeans are the richest tribe in southPeriplus,

however, has them subject to the from Aelius (Jallus.

II

rccci\c only passing mention

tempted to imagine that Pliny's account of the- \<>yage to India (VI, 26) in which he refers to "information on which reliance is

placed, here published for the first time," refers to the Perithen pliiN. existing merely as a merchant's diary; and Glaser has based much of his argument as to the authorship of the IVriplus on that pa-s-

maybe

age; but Pliny goes on to describe a voyage different in many \\ays from that of the Periplus, and giving quite a different account of the >f

India.

At the time

Pliny wrote, the sea-route to India had

been opened for nearly thirty years, and he might have had this information from any sea-captain, as indeed he might have had th nu-nt concerning Arabia Felix which seem to be in such cl< with the Periplus.

The argument

that Pliny,

cated in 77 A. D., borrowed from the Periplus

whose work was is,

thei,.

dedi<

and

even plausible, but by no means conclusive. Return 11, the reference to the anarchy in the In do- Parthian or Saka region does not suggest the consolidated power of that

King


Kathiawar and Ujjain

of 78 A. D.

;

who founded

^a era

the

indicating for the Periplus a date earlier than

th.;

.*

'4,,

helpful.

>rthwest China, at the dale of p.. wniid

must

the-

Ynplus

the Kate* of China, ind actively en-

>

:idahct

gag*

and influence

Mipoofted in br (he

>

.land Indu." hir

.

thr

suggests in

Singanfu

erland from chat country lo me from there and seldom ."

tl...t

I

c*waid acrcw

modem

-.iilet aCTUM'l

l;.i.i>

urkeWan urrr

J

'

ith of thr dt -srtt

)

I

In

,

>

ami'.! that

indk

1'*

nirntiuni

is

>tan

was

thr IVnplus must

l>r

M.iluhas, kinu

>f

1

Uill

Panchao.

opened by him wat opened as early

finally

u -i.,rr

hxr.i

that date.

th- Nahataeans.

Aft

mportant indica-

/

Josephiis in -

M.ii> hi.s.

.1

'

k

D

A.

/>'...

a

ixalrm,

.

IN.

<'.-;.,

\-

.1

(

Han

1)

It

a

that

npcror*

wat a

sister

in

the year 70

in

hus

III

Nahataean I

.1

ilx-nus

king

and Ca-

about 40 to

M.iKluiN \\ho married Herod Antipas, r his brother Philip's

tln>

<>f

ikt

name be

j*.

Ji

A

h

hit

-

'iihrms 'as

\%

km. -.I.. in, as having aMtsted Titu

itaran iition

under

Aiuhia,

Josephus, Ant. yw. X V 1 1 1 8). war with his father-in-law, ,

r

as,

and doubtless explains

him to

Judea.

to

>

it

the policy

hat

This must ha\r been the vamc against JcruNulrm infer that

had

lu-t-M

\v

ntten after that exp<

rnnerof/* and iher^

lus \\a.s

th.i

hi

the Periplui

Maiichas also would have been

haribael

fore

if

as

must have

^

written before Titus' campaign of the year 70 e

have the names of C'hanbael, king of the

and the Sabahes, and of Kleazus, king of It was the .pim..n of GUser, based on :ntry. by him in South Arabia, that both these names I

i

r

era! rulers during I

han persona] names, and that thr

a kinir Kleazus

n

1>

who was

was from

"a friend

of

the

niler in

!xjrne by aev\v 1619 ;,:;;, 29 A. D., and a king ChaThe mendoii of A. D. for a date answer might

H

i

i

i

after the

under Vespasian

succession

short

>t

but the years of turmoil throughout

tin-

reigns

Roman

followed

ilt.n

hmpirc. Forsev-

Nero, were not years ot prospeiou Tinmduates a dale eark dex nhcx.

cars after the death of ;phis ID

'

the rt-iun of Nero. br!

the

>ie

memorv

nuijhk. an\ time between

had faded; In

destruction nt

any positive date for the war leading

.\iai)ia

to the destruction ot this Sab. ican

ommcnted port, hut the inscriptions discovered and of the first rentir middle the time after to a point c

Author mentions the

In

\vas

.ihian kin-.'dom

their*

i

on

This

Mc-.<

ol

it\

treated hy the

se\cr<-l\

In

(

il.^ci

(

apMal

Romans soon

The Nubian queen Candace had

;>'

,U<

I

^kcus

histon dors not

\rahian

present km>ul<

Claudius

l>

\

'

';,!

<

:

Our

nion

his p; vdci exxor

of

of

after

attacked

and an expedition >ent out a-jainsf Iter u.uler IVtroniiis annihiher army and destroyed many of her rities, nu ludinu that of .

lated

I

\\as

his

in

H.

I'hat anotlier

(

\uhia retained considerable power

A

I)

shown

is

in

Aits VIII,

in

the

After

27.

queen

(

half of the

first

Phm

this,

'and.

first

,

century the

relates,

the neighboring deserts came down and plundered of the Nubian Kingdom, so that an expedition of in-

tribes of

E

what was

left

quiry

Nero

the emperor

sent by a

in

when In VI, SS ventured as far as Meroe

Pliny,

the South,

campaign and reported that they had met with nothing but deserts on their -routes. that the building in Meroe itself were but few in number and were

contemplating

ruled over by a queen named Candace, that name having 'I his stare of things can Infrom queen to queen for many >ear>. It is obviously later than the- account in the fixed at about 67 A. 1).

still

;

Periplus

name does

A in trade

The

is that the Periplus tells only of the ureat increase with India, and has no mention of a cessation or decline of

consequent upon the burning of Rome, JuK

Ten loss

out

of the

fourteen districts of

was not equalized;

refers to the baseless story of

)

some- reticence.

\\ords, he

ears of

mentions the

Nero and

mention

Nero's having

several passages to the destruction ;

In

L 9-25

in the year

the city were destroyed.

insurance did not exist

fire

that this great calamity hardly receives

many

destroyed,

not appear atrain for several centuries.

suggestive fact

that trade

M

Meroe must ha\e been

sunn after Pliny's time

\ er\

be

is

It

started

places,

the

fire,

his short-lived successors,

He-

and

in

like,

once

in

so

Rome passed

in

the

however,

through which

true

Plim's work

of building, temples and the

many

crisis

in

and of the

11

brought Hut

r strong

t

hand

\

i

.

um Rome

i

whose sudden expansion was due enn

>

ion of (hr iruir depression that im.vf ha%e

follow

MII h

r.l

a destruction of capital in.! ihr ensuing political dit-

The

>4 probable. tion a

stated in Revelation, ihr hstanding the different point the iicumstance* he describe I are of importance

\\III.

i

facts of this conflagra-

I

...k,

,

hr tithe

k

mi's

thr earth

..(

.

.

.

shall

beuail hrr, and lament

shall see the sin

man

r

lui\eth

r

ami of

s,

and

silk,

and

vessels of i\<>ry,

and

scarlet,

manner

all

all

pearls,

vessels of -

.>

and

,

and souls

and

oil,

linen,

and

manner

all

and

Hour, and

fine

chariots,

and

slaves,

which

thrsr things,

'

in.

and hue

most precious wood, and .1 odourm, and otnt-

and sheep, and horses, and

beasts,

of

.

h'

r

sweet wood, and

and marble, and and frankincense, and wine, and

,

..-..

:>

and

of brass,

burning,

weep and mourn handise anymore shall

.irth

I

stand afar off for the fear of her tor-

ill

wailing, and saying, Alas, ala>, that great city, ilothnl in Hue linen, and purple, and scarlet, and tl< 1

.is

and precious

and

ST.,IU-S,

s,

\shrn thr\ v.m

pearls'

-i

i

and as many as trade by

smoke

the-

one hour to

ipmaster, and

An.:

>(

.-t

all

great

com-

the

sea, stood afar off,

her burning, saying,

^

like unto tins And they cast dust on their heads ned, weeping and uailmi:, saying, Alas, alas, that great city, ere made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her .

For thy OX

e the great

men

of the

earth

Now our author was one ut m Ins .u -count there h as writt

-iiat

same shipmasters trading by no suggestion of standing afar off. would probably have appeared if he

great disas

iowmu the sudden and enormous ii

ticularly

in

r

increase

the ease,

in

Mippalus thrrc seems to have her thr Roman trade with India, and par-

The

Indian products.

the 4 *

<

of those

is

larger ships" now needed

particular 1>

m

for the

the importation

of

I'enpli

cinnamon trade,

luxuries,

can 6e

extravagaiu e

Ascribed to the fashion of i.uu ^

her death

until

Sah.i.i

t.ixontc

his

i.:

\

in

A

65

quantity of spurs usc!

Nero's comt, during the

set In

whose

I'oppia.

I).

Pliny* a

influence

lasted

reference to the

ti

nulh Poppa-a s funeral XII, 41 rased trade; \\hich he further confirms VI, 2<> In

IM

.it

>

ing that specie

.dance

the-

amounting and that

hut a

(juneil

sudden

Th-

i-

rease

in

of any description

written at a time

author's descriptions, at

S4,UOO,OOU

!-c

in

India,

was rcqu

Rom.

in

Is

e\en

.1

the

ot

its

the

h.ilain

less e\

idem.

the I'eriplus of trade with the to

when

as

Arabia and C'ln 'in-

i

'

the Frankincense Country and

"

with

commerce

^s of the Persian (iult,

was

Indian imports sold

litt!

for the entire trade iiu

p<- r yea--

Pliny's figures are untrust\Mrthy, as

tt

XII. 41, he estimates a <

these-

trade,

hundred times in

nun

to a

Martina, sumrests that

Parthia W(

southern coast of Arahia.

it

)m

(

stop

dependent'), the island of Masira;

explains that the coast lu-vond the islands of Kuria Muria

suhjci

Persia"

to

t

and thus <

by Rawlinson, nenian succession i

closeil

>/.v//; .1

leil

him.

to

A;///r,7n

Rome

to

XVI.

Acc'ordini;

to

the

conHictn

make war on

Parthia in

The Parthians. at the I)., the second \ear of Nero's rei^n. time occupied with ci\il war in the South (possibly even in their 5$ A.

-ja\r hostages and abaiulnewly-actjuired South Arabian poagesstons \ inenian pretensions; which, in however, they when war broke out anew. continued in a desui Hostilities 58, ,

1

way until 62, when the two powers agreed upon a mutual evacuation of Armenia and a settlement of the dispute by a Parthian embassy which to \isit Rome. This truce occurred in the summer of 62. The its \isit in the autumn and returned without a treaty. made embassy The truce was broken the same winter by a Roman invasion of Armenia, which was repulsed and the truce renewed.

Rome

Parthian embassy to

in

the spring of

placing a Parthian prince on the to receive investiture from the

occurred

in

65 A.

I

h.4 settled

A

second

the matter by

Armenian throne and requiring him Roman Emperor. This cerem>

).

between the two countries certainly ceased in the winter of 62 and probably, as far as commercial interests were conHostilities

cerned,

in

the

summer

of

that

year.

Therefore, the date of the

Periplus, or at any rate the date of the voyage on which it was based, can probably be fixed at not later than the summer of 62 and not eai

than the

summer

The

of 58.

possibilities are rather in favor of

the second or third year of

u .rn thr

i

h rarrst HIS

A<

vtur

sinu'lr

"

ill"

IS,

A

ujthtirxhip, ^1

thai

i*

if

rililuiii of

I

laser, in

admit

iii

the

I'enpluft atirilniir.!

an artulr published

U

J..

iMin\

\%ai)iaiof

nu-!.ti..ii..

qUOlcd of

uKI

.mr

4Ufhorifir%

t

II.UIM

ur

r

until-

r

x.

lt>

U..

:.

.1:1.

.

ajj

i

thr

D

1*1-11;

Hut

on

is

s,

Hckkrr

rd

t.,

1

In-

Nuhia

in

J4

t..

B

J^

C

un.i

.

iju

this s.mu- Hasilis,

a half lx-f.rr the

ihan

r.ithrr

.

latrr

IVnplu !ike

\^

name.

IV L

D

I

p.

u%ra*wril-

utury and

1

.,

Pfa.

'.

\\h..sr

.

in thai

a:^

than ihe

au'amst

I;

..uit

.f

thr upprr Nil

mus

Ha

himrlf

I'linv

as tin- author .1

the

t

'

artuK

that

'f

meant

.

'

" .

cjut

t>

nr appearing in the

the

)><


:

.

;

rmi

tin-

He aMimo

truef

>n

ilu

.nul

Alrv

in llir IVripUi%.

hn-ri

li.ixr

i

altogrti

huh

iiiijuiMi

n4hin^

ihui

in

trm|>lin<;

uilil

a% tlir

bet*

name

ml olm.'i I

il-lf

cuggrt%

>

I

nU-ss,

* h.

Cilaicr aanimt

th.

ffcrcnl mail fr..n> thr Basi! '

I

hen. tOO, a mafl

'f

I'luu's staiulu.

:

lu\r brca apt lo '

;UI

onm

an ohsoirr *eaK.-apcau h reli-

.s his text .units him. rrfrrrinu inrrrk lo "infrnuti..i.

ihr .ms:.il

R..HU-.

ami thr uritrr

>..ssihihtv that

his

namr

Plinv

..t

thr

may have used

Alto^rth.

!'<'!j>lu*

his

did

nol

account does -jumenl

"

"Scion*

n*

ll

imply

rern-

blc uiti

a

men ham

inactive

16

trade \\h'

the

al

4j

he

that

.

made aii

1

the \o\aue to


thr journey

the desert from C\ptos. \\hu-h Straho and

the text

c\ ulcnt In

is

liulia,

Berenice rather than Alexandria

lixt'd in

is

indicated h\

up the Nile and aCTOSS Pliny describe

at

length.

he made the voyage from Cape Guardafm to /.anis so vague and nurd-tain that lu- seems rather to the text but zibar, be quoting from someone else, unless indeed much <>t this part ot the ossiblc that

work has been

lost in

copying.

The

coast of

Arabia

east

of the

Frankincense Country, the entire Persian ( Julf and the coasts ot Persia and Heltu histan as far as the Indus rixer, serin to have been \.

to

him only by

They were subject

hears.,',

to Parthia,

Rome. That he was not a highly educated man is ijuent confusion of Greek and Latin words and

an enenu of

evident from his h< his

clumsy and some-

The value of his work consists, times ungrammatical constructions. not in its literary merits, but in its trustworthy account of the trade of the Indian ing

Ocean and

which,

ligent

until

of the settlements around

his time,

we

possess almost

and comprehensive nature.

its

iboretj

nothing of

concernan

intel-

[OCR

Itllil

ol

Xl'in

aii

(

-he

thr

Junrni

restored in Heidelberg in 'WrillV

Argumentum

(

i .

l\

I

A llaZJ, who packed t.

I.ihruf>

Ron.

M^.ituir rl

1'uludr

'unum qua

luaden

dc

PqfllO

pcriptut

Pond

i.nti:

i

Rulni

N

1

H.in:...iiis prripliis

\'|

m

v of wkucH tDC

iamM

.

il

\

de

-.igmenliim

\:

111

1

iliffrrrnt tillr

and shipped thr Heidelberg I

Tenth Century, in It was token 10 r., .Jer Nav

folloU

.IS

II

thr

i>(

KII'I.US

Hn.iriu-r,-

..?

uiul

was

I.

I'l

th

during .ind

in\rrMt\

I

III

I

A

1^,391.

to

;>osctl

lo be

panliiiu-nf. supposed

(Yntur\.

th

in

the Hritish

i>f

Musrum.

from the monxslcn

h.\r (.oinr

.tains

common

in

the Four-

A

portion

of

Mount

with the Heidel-

berg manuscript seems to haxr been copied therefrom, or from a In this

AkkivM M H

tl.r

Periplus

\SS.-MN

MOM n

S

N

.

1'n

i

ARI HI

ii'ii"\n

Sitiimundui G

his ire

of the Heidelberg

Httnlae Ann*

Jnulm* full

DE FU7MINIMM IT

later editions,

because of the disappearance

ma; '*TT.

I

!

n<

Vol.

per

Rwojini J't

qutlla

la

Arnaw

and


Mar Ru a

%

Gw. fi^miar R*1*4* OrWat*

\*uit*t9m*

Arricm

im

Ltmgt*

M m*r rtt,&

TrtH&tta ntUa Itaba**.

There were editions of Ramusio's ISbJand S88.

1SSO, 1S54,

*

fit* *U*

begins

Ontntali u rin* per

RAMUSSO.

III.

>

n*

navigatHmt

AUt Indtt

fi

Ml

pi

1,

muiM, ttpra icritta

d< C,iu*n,

n,fa Stamp*

//,;,

S.

of error* due to lack

i

In

Mi*

E^rrm

cd nexertheless for three cen-

of the sub--

turies as the basis of

>

/-'retrx.

apt and

of

DELI

anonymous.

I'I.RIIM.I

RAKMfn

Ml) \.\.\l II. I

is

1

Collection at Venice in

IS

ARRIAM

HISTORICI ET PHILOSOPHI P>N

urmoHf

Latinum

in

versus, plur'wiu^ut

\is

\l

.v

i

\

I

.m

////////

.

/////////

MK.I

i

/.

.

.

(,

<

.

(Y

Stvckio Ti/vrino avthore.

lit/mo

\i\

l-'.i

1

1

AD ADRIANUM G*SAKI\I

PERIPLUS,

.;non t

1577.

This

text

based on that

is

(

<>t

Jelenius.

\\itli

m

feu

'.datlons

ARRIAM

AMIS CONTRA ALAKOS, I'IKH-KS

PICA,

\IM.

Pi

text

)

text

onitains as

ll

U

\

/

..

\\i\\\

\.\

I

A',.

lu\|

I

,

.

Stink.

of

i:

/;////-

c;/////

;

'a,;

I

.

.

Joannes llud-

M

ill.

)od\vrlli.

I

h'fth title,

l\riplns

Mans

I'.rytlinti

Guilulm* Stucki*

I,.

lnt
>

Ti^i,

based on (Jelenius and Sturk.

is

Li-noMfi rois PALAI GEOCRAPHBTHENTON

i\

/nsiMi.ADos

En

H,ll
>.\

Kannirttn

/is

Hf/li'nikii

i>>n


Jiarin

t'in

/>/ii/^,

pu'nlfia$

Hifnn'>i tis Austria* fk tis Scliniunhltk'o

contains,

It

1111

I

\

li-nnri

I

its

itus.

pkifatmoi />//','.

1.

/

MlX'.XCl

DissrrtatiuiK-x

( jfrriano

I

:ncrtti tion ihus,

hniano,

"his

UK

I

ii'ioKis '

'I

/.

protrssvdk based on that

.

18,

1

Am

Blancardi,

is

VBTI

'
The

I

1

/r*7/7'//.

M

v

.17

This

'.

2 (<

pp.

1 Tr'uimn

f/>hi.

/

-v/V/j,

\thnn

i.i

//'j

/'////*/-///.

Tfalatfft, with notes translated from Hudson.

ARRIAM Nu o\u DII .\>is QPBRA

KI\\II

GftJECC ad

Studi* Jngnsti CltrutUOti Btrktck.

This contains, The-

TNI PBU1 An Account /

^

pp.

tc-xt

is

'

//,

11'illittm

'

Part

An I

the

\

.'luts.

first "i

>!xsc-rta:ioi)s.

I'm,,':;.

(

////

Vol.

staining, &//

ronta

first, //

.s/v/'z

\\illiani \'in-

li>

/

II,

.\\MIN

IHI

Ol

/>./)..

Lwdw: Cadf II

tun \olumcs.

the

,Jrotn

./////.,

TNI CoMMCRCC AND NAVIGATION //

Part

\.

ti;.

With Dissertations,

inguebar.

IN

Si

;tiw of

*/'//.

:

A/T////V/J

//.

from Hudson. iifRiAN

i

Arriantu Ptripkui

1-1 21,

,
r,]ttinnu

I

&D

'/'///

7V/-/////J

/'/

Part the second

s

I! 7.

'if tin

//w Account of the

.S///^

i

/

containinu,

<

i

Mi

./;/

INDIAN

tnnn v///. Vol.

In

I.

Erytln

Navigation

/

/

IN

.

>,i

\\ ith

./v//;// o/

If

tr.m ///
W/

Thev

of


.VY/.

.mi. ful

\olumrs, presenting

k lett and

translation in parallel column*.

,'lish

that

f

exhaustive tieoyraphu

i!rii..fr

st

tl-

.mil

linpunjiur

al

a by dtwrrtttiom

and

tn

n ilriMirih, jrc ..f ihr i'l rip| u

r

*iill

the olmlriK

I.,

IHfrd ul. I II,

nbtain

II

p.irt

Irss

nriicr.ill\

.ire

uxrtul ili.m lu> geographical

still,

IM

lame pan,

I)

I

(ast rib-

!,

and truwonh>, and li-jrnt

i

and romn

illn

wt

SEA

*i-

ute

'

;

preientaik>fi of thr tub.

Ml I'lKIIMI

.nslatt-.l

*

>

\\

l\

III

I

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\iiumf.

I

(

.

)vf
,9.

tfUCHUN

8CHK HI

IIN/M

*

M GtOMTAIMDI

HIM

-

;rtt t

IVnplux. translated into

N

SAMM.

IIK

i

>HIS

I

M>

\IIIN

\

,k..s,,|,

'

<

I.

(Htu.KM'llll

rk.

(i

(

(

MM n

Kin

--/ii.

4%.

pp

-\\AKI

rrman.

.!/;/.;;,.

.V

rr,.'-'

DCS PsEUDO-ARK \^ (jMtCHirrUIIO DB ERVTHKABttCHIM \IuRl3 I

7/f, d'u uhrigen ^

tfr:

rnilatlrt

I

Hartung

C

his partial translation is

sonant!

i

IN <>f

ARRIAM .!//

Berlin,

>

im .lunaff.

I (fArr-

$trmla*tr k*ktr<

DrxuL

based on the

little

irn

kmi awt*tatiw imtruxil .

ukr At

eub
te>

.

Hud-

\alur

M

B. hatn<

>

IMR^I

Rnmtmit

ti

H-

20

GBOGRAPHI GRJECI

M INGRES.

E codcibut

tarionf, indicibutque instruxit, tabu/is

MSA n

Pawn.

Vol.

id

MDCCCL

Didot,

M* OQ

pp.

I,

rtcognovit, prolegomenis^

trri I

M

Prolegomena Anonymi Periplus

bftl

AnwrnH

pp. 2 S 7-305

anno-

Carolus

illustravit

ineisis

Jrriani,

///

fcrtur

)

Pfriplus

Marts An-Mnr/, being the eighth title included in that volume. \,.| HI contUAS four inapt, xi-xiv, especially drawn to illustrate the IVriplus, ami four more, vi-vin and xv, drawn for other titles

Inn presenting details that further elucidate this work.

This edition

is

.1

cation only in

minor

improvement over

\.ist

presenting a text \\hirh

still

is

The Greek

details.

all its

predeo moditi-

the standard, admitting of

from the Heidelberg manuscript, and

text, carefully

corrected

critically revised

and im-

he presented side by side with a Latin translation. notes, which are in Latin, reflect almost everything of importance

proved,

is

I

to the subject

which had been written up

THK COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION

OP

McCrindU, M.A., LL.D.,

IV.

1.

.-,/;'//

j

ii

translation ( with

to that time.

mi: ERYTHRAEAN SKA,

commentary) of

t lit

H\

This W////K-

Calcutta, 1879.

PMRIPU

KRYTH-

s

R.I MARIS, by an unknown writer of the first Christian ,V;////;T, and of the second part of the INDIKA of Arrian. The translation of the Periplus was also printed in the Indian .Intiquary of

Bombay, Vol. VIII,

pp.

108-151.

This excellent translation, while based professedly ler's

text,

is

often reminiscent rather of

repeats various errors

Vincent's,

on Muland

thus

which Muller's notes had corrected.

The

notes are valuable for the original material they contain Concerning Hindu names, places and commodities, hut show lack of acquaintance with

DKR

German

writers.

PKRIPLUS DES ERYTHRAEISCHEN MEERES VON EINEM 1

1

v

GritcAucA

kun&n

nebst

und

deutsch mit kritischen

volls tandigem

und

Worteruerztichnisse

UNBEKANN-

erkuJrenden

von

B.

Annur-

I'abriciu*.

V

Comp., 1883. movt scholarly presentation of Greek text and German translation on opposite pages, with clear and exhaustive notes. IsifruK, I'frlag von Veit \

The

(

Irerk

text,

which

has been revised with

extreme

c

are,

mains many verbal corrections of Muller's standard text, and leaves little to be desired. The historical and commercial notes call

by

for revision Knirlish

research.

where they omit conclusions previously reached

writers,

and

in

so far as they are affected by later

SJ

The

present translation

is

hated on MGUer's

text,

adopting

most of Fabnciuf* verbal emendations, but conforming as possible with the results of later research. translation

have also been consulted frequently.

Pliny and other contemporary writer*, authorities.

far at

Vincent's text and

References in

as well as with

modern

12

The Voyage around Of

1.

designated ports on the Kr\ thr:r.in

tlu-

and the market-to\\ \1

from

that place,

dred

boundary

ns ]

I

around larhor.

the

it,

To

Berenice.

is

of

K.^\ pt,

first

thr ]-^\ p-

is

those sailing

on the nidit hand,

stadia, there

at the

the Erythraean Sea

alter

The

down

eighteen hun-

harbors of both are

and are hays opening from

the Krythrran Sea.

On

right-hand coast next below Berenice the country of the- Berber-. \lon^ tin- shore are the I.

is

the

Fish-Haters, living in .-cattered cavea in the narro\\

and beyond them

l-'urther inland are the Berbers,

the \Vild-Hesh-Katers and

-

and behind them, further inland, the country toward the WCBt, there lies a cit\ called

crned h\ in

each trihe ^o\

C'alf-I\atei>,

its

chiei

;

e.

'

J,

lielow the C'alf-Maters there

town on the shore stadia

from

after sailing

Men-nice,

called

from which the hunters thed\nast\ of

the-

about four thousand

Ptolemais of

And

that of Adulis.

here also

is

under

and

reached only by small boats. Below Ptolemaic of the- Hunts, stadia, there

white and

found

is

at a

a

little

distaiu

Adulis, a port

tablished by law, lyin^ at the inner end

runs in toward the south.

is

But the place has no harbor

like-

about three thousand

it

;

ivory,

4.

Hunts,

the-

This market-town has

the true land-tortoise- in small quantity

i-

market-

little

started for the interior

Ptolemies.

Smaller in the shells.

a

is

of a

Before the harbor

es-

bay that lies

the

o-caDed Mountain \er\

in the the-

t

I

mainland close

to

if

the hay. with the shores of

of

lir.ii!

two hundred Md

on hoth

cause l.uul.

ot

\\

hu h

i

called Diodorus.

isl.uul

hcdon

ould le re.u

means the barbaroui Mount.iii)

tuuivot


the l.uul; In '.md.

al

t>

xill.i'^r.

from \\huh inland t\v n

^

that

in

pl.iee

all

the

i\

hroii^ht

Mintrs l>e\
called

t

\\hole

'\rm-um. and then iniinher

ot

:ie

of that

market-town, out

Melding

which

tortois<--shell, I

i

lit

hundred

ri^ht

't

;

These p lierher countr\

this

miserlx

is

it

in

his

.

IN

the only

are -o\rrned

\\

otlu-r\N iae upright, aiul

'ire.

sand

-inn the

prodiurJ. \sho

of

the Ixittom

nd

..ther

th<

mound

the entrap.

iiich th<-

\\herv

drought

is

hexond

stadia it

the-

on

.

aiiot: at

sea

'

\

up

at

ind\ islands

;

piled

rare inter-

at

1

!

5.

the

rhinoceros that

hunted on the seacoast even near Adulis.

harhor

Alalai.

.did

% inland, although

^ht hand, there called

ih

.alls

elephants

killed live in th C

the

t

'

>lc

jotirne)

-the

l>)in that plancalled \n\ninitcN

'

t

iir.it!

i

n the in.iinI.iinltv\rMi\ st.ulia

shi !(!.

I

-in

d

i.t

th

r at

the lu\. h\ an

orhich

rit\

the

<>'

I

shore,

and

Ships ho.m

side*.

!

aUvayt

acquainted

24

There

6.

made

cloth

are imported into these places, undressed

in

robes from Ar-

for the Berhers;

Egypt

douhle-

cloaks of poor quality dyed in colors;

sinoe;

many articles of Hint glass, and murrhine, made in Diospolis; and brass, which

frin^cd linen mantles;

others of is

used for ornament and in cut pieces instead of coin;

sheets of soft copper, used for cooking-utensils and cut

up is

for bracelets

made

and anklets

tor the-

women

into spears used against the elephants

wild beasts, and in their wars.

cups, round and large:

market; wine

oli\e

made

much;

not

oil,

I

copper drinking-

Laodicea and

,ikewise

Ital\

and

,

,

and

for the king, gold

after the fashion of the countrx

military cloaks,

and other

coin for those

a little-

of

Inch

\\

Besides these, small axes

are imported, and adzes and swords;

to the

iron,

;

coming

not

much

;

silver plate-

for clothing,

and thin coats of skin, of no great value.

from the

district of

Ariaca across this

sea,

there

are imported Indian iron, and steel, and Indian cotton

cloth; the broad cloth called Sii(rniiif^cm\

and

and coats

girdles,

low-colored cloth, and

a

There are exported from brought

to this

these places i\or\

is,

from Tyhi

abl\ they put to sea about the 7.

From

this place the

\fter

of

just

same

lac.

tort

pt

is

January to but scason-

ScptemK

Arabian dulf trends

Berber market-towns, known

King

and

of

Thoth:

to

before the dull' of

about four thousand

sailing eastward along the

at interxals

to

month

the east and becomes narrowest Aval-

,

The most from Kg\

market from the month

September, that

skin and mal-

of

few muslins, and colored

and rhinoceros-horn.

shell

and that called

ttiotnic/ic

coatt,

stadia, for those

there are other

"far-side" ports; one after the other, without harbors as the

but haxing roadsteads ui

>ips

called

iret is

tou

ami

\\.ilm-.

called

ii

Hen-

shortest

flu-

\\

th<

assorted

r

a littK- tin.

gra|X-s

1\\

tlu-

nd Mu/.i on little

\\alitex

I

>

tlu- s;iinc-

opposite ihoie, \cr\

.1

Npic-e*.

li\e in

-.vh

Ii

place,

a

nixrrh. hut

little

tlu

fins. Called

hundred

the

In

inarket-toxMi.

M.il..

llu

stadia.

sheltered

a

d into this pl.u c

a

sail

of alxuit

cn road-

.nu

more

There

peaceable.

east.

are im-

things alreadv mentioned, and

the-

cloaks

int

running out troin the

spit

ire

tnnies.

Hint glast,

.

unrul\.

r\

\

tlu-

\nd the

than the reM.

.

from

and

ii-ll.

ei'^ht

I*.

r\prtrtl from HcrluTs then

I

and

than

coast

in.ii

for the Ber

cloth .assorted,

lu-ttc-r

siu.ill

i

Inch must

far-side

Hiere are imported into d

ratts.

hriti-r

this

the

to

Arahi.i

in

can anchor ami he

troin

.

\rsin

ss<-d

and d\ ed

;

drinkin^-rnps, sheets of aoft copper in small qiiantitN, Iher K1 and silxrr coin, not miu h. troin these phuc-s

m\

rrh. a little trankiiR-cnsc,

(thatknown ai far-ride), the harder einnamon, JtuKa^ hulian copal an-

ami

sla\es,

.

hut rarelx

Twodaxs'

9.

mark

:i

of

Inch are imported into Arahia;

.

sail,

or three, hevoiul

Mmulu.s.

sateh behind

There

\v

xx

here the ships

and

a p:

Malao \\

c

close- to

.it

is

the

anchor

the shore.

into this place the things previously

a

d

from

it

likexxise

u

d the

mer-

26

chandise alread

And

and the incense called wocrotu.

,

li\ing here an-

tlu- trailers

Bc\ond Mundus,

10. fief

tWO

beach. \\ith

Bailing

touard the

or three-, \ou

sail,

days'

more quarrelsome. reach Mosvllum,

There

had anchorage-.

a

cast, alter

arc-

imported

here the same tiling alread) mentioned, also siber There are shipped little iron, and glass.

from the place

great c|iiantit\ of c'innanion,

a

:n,.rket-to\vn

requires a little

fragrant minis, spice>,

than

(poorer

1

.

Kuer, and

a tine-

and has

a

C called

come

Then

Acanna

1

;

Beyond

ithe

to the- so-called Little Nile a

small laurel-^ro\

the shore recedes into

\\-herealone

is

a

c\

and

a

ha\,

lar^e laurelthe- far-

produced

and

of the hest ^rade.

this place, tin- coast

trending toward

side Frankincense, in u;reat quantity 12.

nifj^

ond Mosvllum.

Klephant, and

called

river,

and

in small quantities.

spring, and

I-.lephant.

that

and

hi;

tortoise shell,

Sailing alon^ the coast he\

at\\oda\s' course sou

Cape

of

Mimdns), frankincense,

and myrrh

r\ 1

of

that

shijvs

(so

the Market and Cape of Spices, an abrupt promontory, at the- \er\ end of the Berber coast toward the east. The anchorage is dangerous at times the south, there

is

from the ground-swell, because the place the north.

A

sign of an

diar to the

more they

place,

is

turbid and changes all

run

to a large

offers safe shelter.

is

exposed to

approaching storm which that its

the-

color.

is

deep water becomes

When

this

happens

called Taba?,

promontory There are imported

in to this

which

market-

town the things already mentioned; and there are produced in it cinnamon and its different varieties, gizir, asypha,

are/>';<

nui^la^

and moto) and frankincense.

Beyond Taba

13.

.mr lunulrcd

I'ano.

t

thru,

\iul

stadia, there

.ttter

four

sailing

al.mga pn>montor\ touard u Inch place uncut also draws \ou. tlirrr is another market-

hundred

stadi.i

called

t(\\ n

(

.

)pone, into se alread)

imn and

is

iiu

\\

li

tlir

same thing* arr

mentioned, and

in

prodi,

;neAo

slaves ot the hetter KMt,

'

it

thr greatest

and moto),

hu h arr hrou^lit to Egypt

in increasing nnmhcrs; and a :;r<-at ijnantit\ slu-11. hrttrr than that found cKru h. 14.

Th.

b made from Eg]rpc about die mootb lii. And .ships arc also nl\ from

placet across this *ea,

and

is

out from

titled

Aria*, a

that

|nl\.

>t

^

t(rtoise-

.t

inarkrt-r\vns

tlu-sr tar-side

all

1111-

Barygaza,

in- to these tar-side markel-fo\\ M s the products of their o\\n oil.

and

wheat.

places;

Cotton rloth, girdles,

.Some

make

the

'untied butter,

mOKOcAl and the

safpfMtofrhlt) 9

trom the reed called

and hone\ the vo>

sesame

sacchtiri.

dl\ to these market-toxs ns.

and others eu'han^e their Cargoes while sailing along the (XMSt

I'his v-onntr>

each market-tou 15.

ruled

Beyond Opone.

the south, dJ

is

ii

\/.ima;

are places

rirst

this ^oast

where

south-west.

is

si

\

days'

1>\

its

to

King, but

a

separate chief.

the shore trending

destitute of harU>rs. D

ill

Then

not suhjnt

more

to-

there are the small and great bluffs

ahrupt; ami this o>nrM-

another

is

lie at

is <>t

hut there

atK'hor. the shore l>cing

six days,

the direction hcing

conic- the small atul great lx-;u

course and ahcr that

in

order,

i

the

Course* of Azania, the tirst being called Sarapion and the next Nicon; and after that several rixerx and other aiu-horages. one atter the other, separately a rest

and a

28

run for each day, seven in all, until the P\ralaa> islands and \\hat is called the channel: beyond which, a little south of south-ucst, after two courses of

to the

and

along

night

Ausanitu

the

the

is

t,

a

day

island

Menuthias, about three hundred stadia from the main-

low ami and wooded,

land,

and man\

which there

in

rixers

arc-

kinds of birds and the mountain-tortoise.

There tre no wild b xcept the crocodiles; but there in this place there- athey d<> not attack men. and canoes hollowed from single logs, which ,

use

the\

for

and catching

fishing

them

island the) also catch

which

In

tortoise.

in a peculiar

wax,

in

this

wicker

the) fasten across the channel-Opening

between the breakers. 16.

Two

days'

sail

beyond, there

lies

the-

very

hut market-town of the continent of A/ania, which

Rhapta: which has

called

name from

its

the

is

Sewed

already mentioned; in which -/V/ /yfouiri'jH and tortoise-shell. there is ivory in great quantit) i

,

Along

this coast live

men

of piratical habits, very

great

mature, and under separate chiefs for each place. The Mapharitic chief governs it under some ancient in

right that subjects is

become

first

it

to the so\ereignt\ of the state that

in Arabia.

under

And

the

people

of

Mii/a

and send thither many large ships; using Arab captains and agents, who are familiar with the natives and intermam with them, and hold

u ho

it

his authorit)

know the whole coast and 17.

made

at

There are imported

Muza

,

understand the language.

into these markets the lances

especially for this trade,

and hatchets

and daggers and awls, and various kinds of glass; and at some places a little wine, and wheat, not for trade, but

29

thr ^tMul-uil!

to sc

,>f

if -MI these places a great

hut

that

and ton

'\\huh

II

India

:n

and

Adulis, and

of

is

in l>est

quant rhinocen

demand

ot the

continent th

lies

from

;d

around

to\\ aril

down on

the

to

last

the ri^ht

these places theunexpl

the west, and running along

regions to the south of Anhia. it mingles \\ith the uestern sea*

Nou

after th.it

ti

In the

19.

Libya and

i

sailing for t\so

let!

or three- da\- from Mussel Harhor eMtti unit, there-

which road to tlu-

1'etra.

X'illa^e.

is

fortirir

from \\hich there

suhjrct to

\lalichas.

the merchandise imported, with an

is

a

Kin

mark

>m Arabia;

t

stationed there as a collector

is

rovs the

holils the position of a

It

small vessels sent

cc-nturion of

.mother harbor and

which

Nahata-an^. ie

is

White

called

i-

.s-horii

a little

palm-od. \nil these markets ot \/ania are i,

There

the savages.

*>f

and so a

one-fourth

armed

force, as

on.

Dirccth

I<>.

countrs

tlu-

Arahia.

ot

the

n

lu-lou in

it-

Knthnran

conntr), ditlerin^

tln^

place

the adjoining

is

length horderin^ a great ilisSea. Different trilxrs inhabit

in

their speech,

s,,

me

The land next the sea and some altogether. and there with ca\es of the

is

I

ountr) inland ani^uages, In

whom A

who

peopled by

those

rascal 1\

men

.

similarly .

but

speaking

and nomadic camps, the middle course are plun-

live in villages

those xiilin^ orT

dered, and slaves.

is

partiallx

surviving shipu recks arc taken for

they too are continual 1\ taken prisoners

30

In the chiefs

and

k\\\<^ of

Na\ Ration

Carnaitcs.

is

and the\

Arabia;

dangerous alon^

arc-

called

this

whole

coast of Arabia, \\hichis\\ithout harbors, with bad an-

because of

bfcaken and Therefore \\ e hold

inaccessible

toul,

chorages,

rocks, and terrible in

everyway. our course down the middle of the ^ulf and fast as possible- In

on

pass

the country of Arabia until

as

we conn-

Burnt Island; directly below which there art

to the

regions of peaceful people, nomadic, pasturer.s

ot cattle,

sheep and camel.s.

Be\ond these

11.

places, in a ba\ at the- foot of the

ide of this gulf, there

Mir/a,

a

a

is

market-town established

gether from Berenice for those t\\

eh

e

place by the shore called

thousand

stadia.

And

In

law, di.vtant alto-

.sailing

southward, about

the whole place

i.s

en >wded

Arab shipowners and seafaring men, and with the affairs of commerce; for the\ carry on \vith

with the far-side coast and with Ban

own

city

Three days inland from

called Saua,

trade

a

sending

rlu-ir

23.

And

tribes,

a

port

then-

which

lives

named

vassal-chief

after nine da\s

metropolis, in

this

is

in the midst of the region called

Mapharitis; and there is bus who lives in that city.

two

bus\

ships there. 12.

,'

j^a/a,

is

more then-

C'haribael,

ifl

(

'hol;r-

Sapiiar, tin-

lawful

kin

the Homerites ami those lixin^ next to

them, called the Sabaites; through continual embassies and gifts, he is a friend of the Kmpem 24.

The market-town

of

Muza

is

without

a

har-

good roadstead and anchorage because of the sandy bottom thereabouts, where the anchors hold safely. Tin- merchandise imported there consists bor, but has a

both fine and coarse; clothing in the iniwith sleeves; plain, ordinar

of purple cloths,

Arabian

st} le,

or interwoven with gold;

d,

many), some plain and

aks, l>lankcts (not

made

others

the

in

flashes of

fashion;

local

sweet rush.

saffron,

different

iragrant ointments in moderate i|u.mtitx

ami in

xx

mm h.

heat, not

liir

I

moderate amount, ami

gold ami

VCSM !

the

same

sclccteil

pl.iv

all

ami the

.\\aliti-s

made

copper raids. the

c

t.u

000 t

llde

imn-

in the

sailing

the oast

stadia,

he

of

exen

it

Arabia and the

mm it

this

earlier.

place ahout

this

her and shuts

the M

to

cr. that

channel, not long

tlu-i

x..\.i^r

to prevent

he\ond

from

iiirntioneil

month

nothing

is

I

countrx about the Axalitic ^ulf

B

'rtnl

!'

thin^ prodiueil

best about the

After

Aether,

I

tinrlx

Mixer,

polished

the things alrrailx

loth; hut there

hundred

m<

m\rrh, and the (irhanitr-Mm.i-.!

and

alahastcr

xx

f

the Chief arc gixen horses ami Mimp-

1

iiiles,

ouintr) produces grain

great deal

a

xvinr

.

three licrk-r

coming ch in extent,

x\

hich

into a narroxx strait.

passage through \\hich, sixtx stadia in length, the island

Diodonis

boet

\\ith

Arabs, subject to the not so

much

xxatering-placc

,rse

rushing currents and

hhmiiig doun from rtly on this strait

is

Th

dixides.

tlu-

adjacent

through strong winds

\\ith

of

nd^e

In the shore there

same

chief, called

a market-toxx n as

and the

first

it

is

<

is '

mountains. a xilla. xx

Inch

an anchorage and

landing for those sailing

into the gulf.

Beyond

Ocelis, the sea widenii

to\\ard

32

the east and soon giving

about

hundred

txx-elvc

a village- In

\

LCW of the open ocean, after

stadia there

shore,

tin-

a

abb

of

is

the

Kuda-mon

Kingdom

Arabia,

Chari-

of

and having conxenient anchorages, and wateringthose- at Ocelis; it lies at places, sweeter and better than

bael.

tluIt

entrance of

citx

when

to Egxpr.

recedes from

and

\vlu-n

tlu-v

not dare to

did

hut

to the- ports across this ocean,

Egypt

at

gether

it.

Kuda'inon, because in the early da\ the vox age xx as not x rt made- from India

\va- called

the

bay, and the land

a

this place,

it

all

sail

from

came

to-

received the cargoes from both

Alexandria noxv receives the things But not brought both from abroad and from Kgvpt. long before our oxvn time C'haribae' destroyed the countries, just

as

phu After

27.

Eud-cmon Arabia

length of coast, and

then-

is

a

continuous

bay extending two thousand stadia or more, along which there are Nomads and Fish-Katers lixing in villages; this

bay there

('ana,

of the

is

a

just

beyond the cape projecting from

another market-ton

Kingdom

of

n

In

the shore,

Kleazus, the Frankincense

Country; and facing it there arc- two desert islands, one called Island of Birds, the- other Dome Island, one

hundred and twenty this place

King

lies

lives.

stadia

from Cana.

Inland from

the metropolis Sabbatha, in \\hich the

-All

the

frankincense

produced

the

in

brought bx camels to that place to be stored, and to Cana on rafts held up by inflated skin> after the And this place manner of the country, and in country

is

!

i

trade also with the far-side potts, with Marxgaza

and Scythia and Persia.

Ommana

and the neighboring

.

1

into tins place (nnii

I

a

\\hiMt .mil

little-

Arahian

st> Ir,

ulit\

and

,uirii\

.1

and other

km'K

for the

'

.1!

and

^es,

\nd

.

usual!)

tlu

\ported

dvc produce, fran

tins p' aiul thr

tlu-

llu-r

oral

i

silver plate,

thin dot

at

and

\Iu/a;

things ^;, h as go to

and

Kgypt

clothing in the

ami i
plain

:ul tin

Id

Muza;

\\inr. us at

thin;- that enter into

Ihr M\a^r

ports,

the

this pl.uv

t

>r

I

Ctna,

tin-

1

U^t made

is

rather earlier.

rx rdin^

tlu- laiul

trai

^reatlx. there-

-^le.it W*J .tciXMi, deep ha\ streu-hin^ Saehalitev; and the 'ranknu cns<- C'oun.1

\\

hivh

is i-alleil

1

iiu>untaiiu>us

anil

forbidding, urapjx-d f<>, and \ieldin^ frank

md

-hearing

!

or thu-knes.s;

:it

^

pt In

weep

laVtt

ti

U

ju^t

The

gum.

are

thick

>m

the

not of great

hear the tranknuense stk'k-

tlu-\

on the hark, their

trees

in

the

tn-c-s

amon^

us

m

fnuikiooe

and those \\ho are

.sent

t<>

tin-

For these places ar unpunishment. health), and j)estilc-ntial even to tho.sc tiling along the Coast: \\

ho

hut almost alua\-

also perish often

30.

On

this ha>

tatal to

from thru

those working there, d.

ii

a

\er> great

promonton

Eating the east, called Syagrut; on \\hich is a for: the defence *t the oumtr\ ami a harhor aiul storehouse .

for the frankiiu-en.se

:ul

opposite tins an island, King bct\v cape, well out at sea, there nit nearer it and the C !
is

.

and

is

very large but desert and

34

rivers in

marshy, having snakes and threat the

and crocodiles and

it

lizards, of

which the

tle-sh is

melted and used instead of oli\c

fat

eaten anil

The

oil.

mum island

neither vine nor grain. The inhabitants are few and tlu-\ live on the coast toward the- north, yields

no

fruit,

which tn>m i

this

side-

The\

faces the- continent.

are

mixture- of Arabs and Indians and (.reck-,

who have emigrated

to

earn on

The

trade- there.

island

produce^ the true sea-tortoise, and tlu- land-tortoise-, and the- white tortoise which i> \cr\ numerous and preferred for is

lar^e shells; and the mountain-tortoise-,

its

largest of

all

and has the thickest

shell

which the

of

;

which

\\orthlessspecimenscannotbecutapart on the- under hut those of valuesiele, because- they are even too hard ;

made

are cut apart and the shells

and small

plates

There

is

called

Indian,

also

\\hole into ca

and cake-dishes and

produced in

which

is

this

that sort of ware,

island

collected in

cinnabar, that

drops from

tin-

trees.

happens that just as Axania is subject to Charibael and the Chief of Mapharitis, this island is subject to the King of the Frankincense Country. 31.

Trade

It

is

also carried

on there by some people from

by those who chance to call there on thevoyage from Damirica and Barygaza; they brin^ in rice and wheat and Indian cloth, and a feu female

Muza and

and they take

slaves;

great

quantity of

for their

farmed out under the Kings and 32.

No\\ is

stadia;

and beyond

the-

carin>,

island

the

is

garrisoned.

Immediately beyond Sya^rus

cuts deep into the coast-line,

hundred

exchange

tortoise-shell.

the-

ha\ of

\\idth of

this there are

it

Omana

bein^

six

mountains,

Ji

anil

\e

and

roi-ky

hundred

by

more; and beynul

rciciMii^ the S.u h.ditu

t.r

established

steep, inhabited

stadia

tin, is a port

tr.inkuu'

Moscha, and ships from C'ana and ships returning from Dam

tiled the

irl\

i

anil

in

season

tin-

if

Baryga'/a,

wheat and sesame

heaps

\\intrr there,

if

call

and

th-

frankincense, which

oil for

o\er the Sachaln

all

drd. as

latr,

i-

the Kind's officers, exchanging

\\ith

trade anil

;

itr\

.

oprii

lies

and un-

under the protean her openly nor In stealth tan

the plat< i

it

Ixr

loaded on board ship \\ifh.mtthc King's permission; were loaded without this, the ship could i

From the harhor.

not

ond hundred

stadia

the harbor of as far as

along the shore:

islands, railed

i

a

at

v

for about fr

Asich, a mountain range runs

the end of \\hich. in a n>\\

/enobian.

barbarous region \\huh

now helon^s

doni, hut

Moscha

oast uell out at sea for

.

He.orul these there

lie i-

no longer of the same

ii

to

Per

i

two thousand

tiling

alon^

stadia

from

meettyOU an island called Sarapis, about one hundred and twenn stadia from the It is about two hundred stadia u ide and SIX mainland. /cnohian

Islands, there

hundred lon^. inhabited \illainous

and

i

lot,

In three settlements of

who

|-'j>h-

use the Arabian language

palm-leaves.

The

island pnni

iderable tort. i,e-shell of tine quality,

and cargo-ships are sent

there

and small

regularly

sail-

from

.1.

MIL;

\\ard

alMnjr the coast,

touard the entrance

of

which trends north-

the Persian Sea. there are

36

main

known

islands

thousand

stadia,

as

The

extending along the shore.

habitants are a treacherous

lot,

very

two

about

Cahri, aftrr

tin-

in-

little civili/ed.

upper end of these Caliri islands mountain- railed C'alon, and there follows

At

35.

the-

is

a

not range of far hc\ond, the mouth of the IVrsian Gulf, where there

much

is

if. iits

arc-

great

the

left of

mountains called Asabon, and

right there rises in

tlu-

To

diving for the pearl-mussel.

to

view another round and

full

high mountain called Semiramis; between them the passage- across the strait is about six hundred stadia; he;

ond which

that very great

and broad

called

market-town designated In law, \pologus, situated near Charax Spasini and the

Gulf there .

River Fuphrau 36. a

si

is

a

s.

Sailing through the

\-da\s' course there

called

the Persian

At the upper end

Gulf, reaches far into the interior. of this

sea,

Ommana.

To

is

mouth

of the Gulf, after

another market-town

of

I

both of these market-towns

\TH.I large-

from Baryga/a, loaded with c< >pper and sandalwood and timbers of teakuood and logs of blackwood and ehom To Ommana frankincense

vessels are regularly sent

i.s

.

also

brought from Cana, and from Ommana to Arabia sewed together after the fashion of the place;

known

these are

as

maJam hi.

market-towns, there are exported to Arabia,

many

From to

each of these

Banga/a and

pearls, hut inferior to those of

also

India;

purple, clothing after the fashion of the place, wine, a great quantity of dates, -old and slaves. 37.

Beyond the Ommanitic region there is

a

coun-

another Kingdom, and the bay of Gedrosia, from the middle of which a cape juts

try also of the Parsida*, of

out

Urn-

the bay.

int<

uith

nps. iniuitli.

land cit\,

market

little

thr Kin.

Kluml.i

MI at the

t,.

called

um<

but along

the

ro|>-

mm

:rlds

\

in-

frmii tlir M

iriirN is

affording an

from the place an

hai k

ii

\\hirh also ahl\

a

tod

ailed Or.i-a:

i

lin-rr i* a river

v\

Ii

coast

flirt

hut hdellium. region, the continent n>

from the 'iic

\\

hii-h tio\\s

ili>\\

that

thr \\hnle

north;

ocean

into the

h to

oumtry

tliis

r\

I-

ii:

i

i

\\.trr;

t

chin^ fresh from it.

is

the hays,

marshx

lies

:

Nmthus. the greatest o

n tlu- rivet

tlo\\

t

na, \\hii-h

mormons \olmnr

tlo\\n.in

of the

ct,i

thr

ul

across thr depths

r.ist

.in

Sea, hrin

so that a

this o>nntr\

Now

.

.

lm^

ti:

as a si^n of ap-

those i-.min^ from the tea,

t(

from the depths to meet of the plao-s jnst mentioned ami in This n\er has | those called gnur.

ming

forth

;i

ire

mouths, \rr\

and m.ir-h\

shallt)\\

one

;t the-

the shore,

the markrt-to\\

is

thrn

in.dl island, in.i.

princes \\ho 39.

Thr

.

thr middle; n.

at

Barharicum.

and inland hehind

Minn.i^ar.i;

it

is

it

which

In

Before is

the

it

me-

subject to I'.irtln.m

mtlx dri\ ing each other out.

art

ships

lie at

thrir i.ir^oes arc carried

i

in

M> that the\ art

.

anchor

up

at

Barharicum. but

to the

metnpoli>

1>\

all

the

imported into this margreat deal of thin clothing, and a little spur: to tin

figured

hum-,

I

here

.ire

topaz, coral, storax, frankincense, vessels

38

of

silver

gla.ss.

and gold

plate,

and

a

little

On

wine.

other hand there are exported costus, bdellium,

tlu-

Kcium.

nard, tiirquoi.se. lapis lazuli, Scric skins, cotton

cloth, silk \arn,

with

And

and indigo.

sailors set out thither

month

Indian Ktesian winds, ahout the

the-

Jul), that

is

Kpiphi:

is

it

of

more- dangerous thru, hut

through these winds the voyage

is

more

and

direct,

sooner completed.

Beyond the

40.

not na\ liable, I-.irinon;

its

river Sinthus there

running

in

is

another

toward the north;

parts are called

it

is

gulf,

called

separately the- small gulf

and the great; in hoth parts the water is shallow, with shifting sandbanks occurring continually and a great \\a\

from shore;

so that very often

when

the shore-

not CNCII in sight, ships run aground, and

if

they

i.s

at-

hold their course they are wrecked. A proinontorx stands out from this gulf, curving around from

tempt

to

Kirinon toward the East, then South, then West, and enclosing the gulf called Baraca, \\hich contains seven

Those who come

islands.

ipe

it

and standing further are drawn inside into the

by putting about a

who

but those

out to sea:

gulf of Baraca are lost; \iolent,

to the entrance of this ba\

and

the-

sea

is

little

for the waves are high and very

tumultuous and

eddies and rushing whirlpools.

The bottom

places abrupt, and in others rocky

and ha-

foul,

in

is

and sharp,

some-

so that

some being quickly As a sign chafing on the bottom.

the anchors lying there are parted,

cut

off,

and others

from the

of these places to those approaching

are serpents, very large and black; places on

this coast

sea there

for at the other

and around Barygaxa, they are

smaller, and in color bright green,

running into gold.

41.

and

He\ond the

-ult
Bantca

ginning of the

Hut

that of Barygaza

is

\riaca, \vhich

tin-

part

of

Kingdom

the

IN

\amhanusandofall

<>t

called S\ r.isirmr.

is

.leldin^ u heat and rue and .tn.l

hutter. cotton

1

Minna^ara.

Inch nuu h otton

\v

In these

do\\ n to Har\'^a/a.

to the present

Mu

The metropolis

in i-olr.

troin

the proinontorx

to

and

\\all

i

called

of

!iiaii>

great ftat-

of this

ountry

loth

Imuiglit

is

ulcr.

<.t

and great welN. from liarlxiricum

'ts

alon^ this coast,

irse

reame

-\

^edition

h as aiu-ient shrines,

is

phues there remain c-\en

time

The

sort*.

and the men are

cattle arr pastured there,

It

the Indian cloths

.ind [

nd hlark

1

King inland and adjoining Srul

it

called Ahiria, hut the coast

oil

Ixr-

Papica, opposite Barygaza, of three tlunisand stadia.

;

.ond

there

another gulf exposed to running up toward the north, at the mouth of which there i> an island called Ha-oru-

innermost part there

its

Those is

this

great river called Mais. this gulf,

which

three hundred stadia in width. leaving behind to their

lett

the island

and

this ri\c-r

\isihlr

just

traiglit to

the \er\

i-

^alU-il

df

hard to na\ i.s

a

is

Barygaza pass across

to

sailing

is

i-

r

from their tops touard the

mouth

of the

ri\

Nammailu-.

narrow to Barygaza and \er> this those coming from the ocean \er\

;

the case with hoth the right and

there

is

right

-it

a better passage

mouth

the \er\

and narrou

.

er of liarxgazi;

and

through the

left

passages, hut

lef

r

on the

of the gulf there lies a shoal. full

of

n>cks. Called

I

lerone.

-ill

the village

ig the- left

the-

projects

campra, \\hich

<>f

tammoni; and proinontorx

and

railed Papica,

is

opposite- this

that

hrfoiv

lies a

is

had anchorage

USe of the .strong current setting in aroiuul

because the anchor- are cut

And e\en the mouth of

and rockx.

made with he

satelx

it

,

difficulty,

made

shoals

the-

entrance to

the- ri\

er

.it

at the-

mouth

Because

44.

the passage

And

it.

found

\\hen

hecausr of the

fishermen

Service, -tationed at the very entrance in

hirge hoats called

is

of the liver. this, native

<>t

gulf

is

and c-annot

lo\\

difficult

is

the-

Marx ga/a

because the shore isverj \ on are close upon it

and

the hottoin being rough

out until

\ou haxe found

it

otT,

/;v//>/w^/

as far as Sx rastrene,

and

in the-

Kind's

well-manned ^o

c'jtymhti*

from \\hich thex

up the

pilot

\<

And thex steer them straight from the to Baiygaza. mouth of the hax lu-txxcen the shoals \xith their crews; and thex

toxx

heLnnning

them

of the Hood,

anchorages and in

places

by the

to fixed stations,

tiie

river,

in

going up \xith the and lying through the ehh at

basins. as

far

These

hasins

:ir e

deeper-

as

Barxga/a; \\-hich lies about three hundred stadia up from the ri\-er

mouth. 45. rivers,

Now the

and XCTX

creasing

at

the

whole country of India has great ehh and rlow of the

new moon, and

at

the

full

\erx

many

tides;

moon

int<>r

three daxs, and falling off during the inters ening days of the moon. But about Barxga/a it is much greater, so that the bottom

is

suddenlx seen, and nox\ parts of

the dry land are sea, and sailing just before;

of the flood tide,

now

and the

when

it

is

dry where ships \\ere

rivers,

under the inrush

the whole force of the sea

is

I

,mst them, are driven

against their t

tli^ reason

ho come

the rush

..t

mam

to this

market

Watefl

-it

f.>u

who

are r

n fur the

nnomin^

tlir

In th<

on their

and

sides,

tide

i

and smaller IxMtB are over-

it

the ehh. are

at

head of the current the) are

\ou

ill\

tilled \\ith

on the instant

PC Ntill.

mouth

the

1

trom

of the n\cr. a tar;

a \\Ol9t

In

ThromntrN

numerous

the

tribe-.

and

(

ot

MU'h the-

the

to the (.

'iithern part of vii-nt

this

draihma

there-

like

is

home

ti

sea

ir.se It

at \\

at

the

ni^ht.

hrn the

to

\<>ti

at

of an army tomes rush

a hoarse- roar.

as

the

people of

is

inhabited

\raftn. the n

I'

\bo\e these

Ha^trians. \\h

And Alexander, tratrd

the moinrnt

inland from Uarygaza

Chains .\lr\andria.

hkr nation

at

and \er\ soon the

the shoals u ith 47.

left

uatrr.

the sea

during the flood tidr

the entraiu'r

lu-'^in

amon^

not hrld on an e\en keel In props, thrin suddrnlx and undrr .ipon

if

^

nmon.

large

tiinird broadside

in the rush of

that

irresistible,

so that

the run-rut, ami so driven on

of

the channels h\ the receding WttCtl

ne\\

is

ami those that ha\e heen turned aside

turned:

irst

it;

it.

-t

tun

first

tiilr

ind the anchors cannot hold against utflit up cm throunh the speed the shoals and \\ n

sta.

entrance and departure of vesiose

\\

upwards more strongly

Current, for

n.itur.il

are

setting out

is

whii'h

th

is

\ar-

oun

under thrir

from these

parts,

and lra\m^ India; and to the prrx-nt day anaside Dainirir.t

arr current in Bars ^a/a.

coming

rountrv, hearing inscriptions in (Jrcek

fnm

letters,

and

4:


the device-

those

\\ho

reigned

after

Alexander,

ApollodotUs and Mcnander. Inland from called

citx

tliis

place-

O/ene. formerb

and to the

from

ro\al capital;

a

is

east,

the this

place an- brought down all things needed for the welfare of the country about Barygaza, and many things tor

agate and carnelian, Indian muslins and

our trade:

mallow

and

much

ordinary cloth. this sanu- region and from the upper countrx cloth,

Through is

brought

comes through Poclais; that is, the \ip\renc and Paropanisene and C'abolitic and that ;>ikenard that

brought through the adjoining country of Scuhia; aKo costus and bdellium.

There

imported into this market-town, \\ine, Italian preferred, also Laodicean and Arabian; copper, tin, and lead; coral and topaz; thin clothing 49.

arc

and inferior

sorts of all kinds;

cubit wide;

storax, sweet clover, flint glass, realgar, an-

timony, gold and

silver. coin,

when exchanged

for the

bright-colored girdles a

on which there

money

is a

King

vessels of

harem,

for

brought into those places very costly siber, singing bo\s, beautiful maidens for the there- arc-

tine

wines, thin clothing of the finest weaves,

and the choicest ointments. these

and

And

ointment, but not \cr\ costK and not much. the

profit

of the country;

There

are exported

from

places spikenard, costus, bdellium, ivory, agate

and carnelian, Ivcium, cotton cloth of cloth,

mallow

make

the voyage favorably about the

that

Epiphi.

all

kinds, silk

long pepper and such other things as are brought here from the various markettowns. Those bound for this market-town from Egypt

is

cloth, yarn,

month

of July,

41

Be\ <>nd Harygaza the adjoining coast extend* north to south; and o this re^ragt lin is

called Dachinabades, for Jachanos in the lanthe

oi

guage

means "south."

natives

inland

coimtrx hack from the coast toward the east comprises deser us and grett mountains; and all kinds beasts

ild

leopards, tigers, elephants,

hyenas, and baboons of

many sorts; and

\mon;r the market-touns

.;

thet aboi:

I

l'i

).u

hinalttdes

th.uu. distant

journey south from Baryga/a;

1

\\hich, about

another \ery

ten

!*-

dax^'

journey east, the here .ire hrou^ht Tagara. I

gresit

Barygaza from these places In \\a^ons and

>

through ^reat

tracts \\ithout roads,

reat quantity,

mon

n

the (Ganges.

ir .is

>1.

enormous

cloth,

all

kind.s of

from Pathana car-

and from Tagara much commuslins and mallou cloth, and

other merchaiulise brought there local 1\ from th the \\hole course to

ea-coast.

the end ot

Damirica

is

seven thousand stadia;

to the

The

Coast Countrx

but the

.

market-tou-ns of this region are. in order,

C'alliena. \\lucb Barygaza: Suppara, and the at] in the time of the elder Sara^amis became a lauful i

markc

t-tt>\\

n

;

hut since

Sandares the port

it

much

i-

came

into the possession of

obstructed, and

Greek

ships

chance to be taken to Barygaza

landing there max

under guard. llcxoiul C'alliena there are other

market-towns

.im.i Scmylla, Maiulai; urn and Aunmnohoas. .ntium.

of thi^ re-ion:

I

.

Meh-

The

\

there are the islands called Sesecriense ami that

the

<>t

Aegidii, and that of the Csenitae, opposite tin place called t'hersom-Mis ami in these places there are piraf

and

after this the

White

Thru come Nauru

Island.

and Tyndis, the first markets >f Dainirica, and then Mu/iris and Nelcynda, which are now of leading importance. 54. is

Tyndis

is

of

the

Kingdom

of C'crohothra:

a village in plain sight In the sea.

same Kingdom, ahounds in ships .sent goes from Arabia, and by the Greeks: a

distant

river,

hundred

stadia,

it

Mu/iris, of the

with car-

thereit

is

located on

from Tyndis by river and sea ti\e and up the- river from the shore twcntx

Nelcynda is distant from Mu/iris In river and about five hundred stadia, and is of another King-

stadia.

sea

dom, the Pandian.

This place also about one hundred and twcnn

river,

There

55.

is

another place

at

is

stadia

the

on

situated

a

from the

mouth

of this

which ships drop down on the outward voyage from Nelcynda, and anchor in the roadstead to take on their can because the the village of Bacare;

river,

of shoals

to

and the channels are not

river

is

The

kings of both these market-towns

terior.

full

And

from the

as a sign to

those approaching

sea there are serpents

you, black

in

color,

live in

coming

but shorter,

head, and with blood-red

e\

clear.

the in-

these- places

forth to

like snakes

meet

in

the

<

send large ships to these market-towns on account of the great quantity and hulk of pepper and 56.

They

malabathrum.

There

are imported here, in the

place, a great quantity of coin

:

first

topaz, thin clothing, not

red

i

Barygaza;

\\inc -.

lead;

tin,

antimom, COnd.

liiic-fi.s.

nut

and orpimcnt; and wheat enough leah in l\ thr nirn liailtfc

realgar

for the sailo-

prpprr, uhlih

I

in

in

i|uantit\ t

i

i

intuit, luir as IIHR h as at

.died

one

onl\

Besides this th

tmc

Teat quant

pearls

in

.

in.il.ilvathnim

Ganges, -

produced

urar these markcti, a

re-/ion

ira.

(

l-

isparrnt stone* of

tli

ilumnmls and sapphires, and

tnrt)isf-Nhcll

;

silk clMth.

frmn the all

kinds,

that

from

C'hrvsr M.uul, and that taken

amon^ the- islands along Dannrua. hey make the \o\atfr t. this favorahle season who set out from Kgypl I

a

in

the

lit

month

|vd\, that

<>t

Thi- \\holc

57.

and Eudiemon veasel.s.

sailing close

ered

arc-

\oyagc as above described, from

to

around

hi-

la\

small

the milfx; and

B!

he

sea. first discov-

ronrse straight arross the ocean.

OH the thoTCI

tromthroi'

India the \\iiul sets in

f

Muth\\rst \\uui i^iallrd HIJV

from the name-

paSKi

I

rom

;>f

him u ho

that

time

first di-,

1

the

to the prrsrnt ilay ships

ma, and some from the Cape

start.

of

the-

m

the sanu- tune \\hrn \\ith us the Ktrsian winds

hlo\\iii'4.

palus.

make

Araliia. thry used to

ports and the conditi.

lio\\ .it

l-piphi.

-he pilot \\ho hy obscn'ing the location

Hippaln of thr

i-

.md those hound for Damirica

Sp

ship's

head

hound

for

i

onsiderahlN

orT

the

wind;

thnm \\hile

the

tluwe

Harygaza and Sothia keep along shire not more than three days and for rhc rest of the time hold the

same Bourse

straight out to sea

from

that region.

46

wind, quite away from the land, and

\sith a favorable

outride pa-t

ill

tlic

aforesaid gulfs.

Besom! Bacare there is the Dark Red Mountain, another distru

anil

,nng along the coast toward

;

the south, called Paralia. it

has

a

fine

there

this

are the

those

place

is

called Balita

Comari and

of

Cape

a harbor;

;

He\ond

h\ the shop-.

another platv railed C'omari,

which

at

hither

come

\vho \\ish to consecrate themselves for the

rest of their livrs.

women

first

harbor and a village

i>

men

The

also

and bathe and dwell

do the same;

for

it

is

in celibacy;

told

and

that a goddess

once dwelt here and bathed.

From

59.

C'omari toward the south this re-urn

extends to Colchi, where the pearl-fisheries are;

worked

condemned

In

criminals);

and

(the\

belongs Pandian Kingdom. Colchi there folBeyond lows another district 'called the Coast Country, which it

to the

lies

At

on

bay, and has a region inland called Argaru.

a

this place,

and nowhere

else, are

bought the pearls and from there are

gathered on the coast thereabouts; orted muslins, those called Argaritic.

Amon^the market-towns

of these countries,

and the harbors where the ships put in from Damirica and from the north, the most important are, in order the\ in

hr^t C'amara,

lie,

which there

the shore as sel.s

made

countn coasting alonjj far as Damirica; and other MTN lar-v single logs bound together, called .iw//tw/v/; are ships of the

\

of

but those \\hich -

then Poduca, then Sopatma;

(

make

the voyage to C'hnse and to the

-ailed cfj/iimliii,

and

art-

very large.

even thing made of what is brought

There

are imported into these places

in

Da-

mirica, and the greatest parr

at

any

M time from Egypt comes h of ill

-ether uith

most kinds

the thing! that ait brought from l)amiric;i th.it

carried through I'aralia.

ire

\bout thr following region, th

ml the the

cast.

simimdu.

island Pala

The

banc.

King out

ipro-

distant.

the


'

h

opporifi

It

muslins, and tor-

transparent stones,

pearls,

IS

ds graduall) toward thr west,

;

and almost tOUchd

pnuhues

a

is

we*

-I

called

northern part

and the southern

touard thr

sea

.it

e trend-

11.

\hout these stretching a

grt-.:'

conn

^reat

ml

the region

is

plac'es

ilong the cirast Ix-fore the inland

muslins

of

ijuantit\

there is the region thc i\or\ knoun Afl Dosarenit. ;in^

\\ith flattened noses. ;ul

I

wh>

made

ti

d

I

)i>sarene, \irld-

He\on,l

this,

toward the north, there arc man\

among \\hom

rihes,

the

is

ward the east and CTossiag

tiniy,

<-n

\lalia

!

the

the l>ar-

are the C'irrhada \

(

-r\

vi\age; another ul

II.

tril>c.

the Lon^-fuCCS,

to he cannibals.

1

After the M. the course turns touard the east

shore-

remaining hexond

\ie\\,

and near

C

hr\ M

and

it

.

ocean to the right and the

sailing \\ith the

ul

it

to the

the \er\

left,

last

lit.

rise's

and

Ganges. malahathrum and river,

muslins of the

I

(

called the

the same ua\

market-toun which the

land touard the east, it

falls in

into

Ganges

danges,

as the Nile.

On

has the same nan

i-h this place are brought

ii"

spikenard and jx-arls. and u Inch are called (.aiu

tic

finest SOTtS,

48 It

that there arc gold-mines m-ar these places,

said

i-

and there

is

a gold coin

\\hich

opposite this rixcr there the last part of the inhahited

Mm

rising

itself:

called i.slaiul

And


in the

ocean,

world toward the

it

he hest tortoise-shell of

an

is

just

under thr

is

called

is

and

Chr\se;

the places on the

all

it

l-.r\

thra-an Sea.

After this region uiuler the very north,

64.

outside ending

i

n

a

land culled This, there-

silk

\arn and silk cloth

Bactria to rica In

This

is

arc-

the river

of

not easy of -access;

and seldom.

The country horder on the

under the Lesser Bear,

lies

is

the-

Caspian Sea, next to which

of

t

farthest parts of lies

which empty into the ocean. 65. Kverx \ear on the horders

lu-re

comes together

and hroud,

Dumi-

But the land of Ganges. few men come from there,

and

said to

faces,

rlut

In

Pontusand

Lake Ma'ot is;

of the land of

men

a trihe of

and

silk

brought on foot through

Bur\gu/u, and are also exported to

way

\er\

a

is

from \\hich raw

great iidand cit\ culleil Thina-,

and

th<

all

This

with short hodies

nature peaceahlc;

they

are culled Besata\ and ure almost entirely uncix ili/ed.

They come with

their wives

and children,

cam

mi;

gn-ut pucks and plaited hasketsof

what looks like green grape-leaves. They meet in a place hetween their own countn and the land of This. There they hold a spreading out the haskets under themsc-Kcsas mut>, and then return to their own phuv for several da\s,

the-

interior.

come

And then

into that place

natives wutching them and gather up their mats; and

the

they pick out from the braids the rihers which the\ pctri.

They

lay the leaves closely together

in.

call

several

rs

\\ith

and make them into lulls, \\hifli they pierce tin- tilers from the matt. And thrrr arc tlircr those

large-hall

made

malahathrum

cliuin-hall;

and those :st

(it

the largest

of

;

of

three

into India

1>\

th.^e

<

-I

1

raves are callctl the

tin-

iniii'

r.

the inr-

thr sinallrsC. thr -mall-lull. iialaluthrnin. and

s<

those-

u ho

j.

it

i*

:t.

mid thrM- places arc cither access because of

and ^reat iold. or 6

else

divinr intliK

cannot the

their evces

ntcr*

Jit out because

NOT] (Numerals

Periplus

Title.

wrmngs

Roman

in

name

the

\\.is

limes. \\hich

The

hand-book.

name

the tev

numerous

fnr sailing-chart

might be rendered as

title

to the Indian

geographers Sea and the Persian

in

applied ID a

answered

Erythraean Sea was

Title.

man

numbered

refer to paraKrr -'l >lls Minilarlv

(iulf.

(

A/T////Y/

perpetuates the aneient;

but

means

we

ti.i\-

Guide-Book

the term applied by

Kean, including

class of

aiul

(

Ro-

ircek and

Red

adjuncts, the

its

R< f/< SD that the

ID

modem

are assured by Agatharchides

means, not Red Sea. but Sea of

r

Kin-_

l.iythras,

folio-.-.

Persian legend. 'I'he

following

of the name:

'The famous

Man

dulged

5.

)

There was

manner.

desert, but \\ere BO at the time of

man

a

Kryrhras

making the journey

own

his mares,

life.

On

em-

the

In the u'inter-time lie used

li\ed.

at his

o\\n cost;

these changes of scene no\\ for profit, and

pleasure of his >f

S

after this

i

Medes, when

to Pasaru'ada?, in

is

and wealth, by name I, \thras, a Persian by His home was by the sea, facing toward \I\D/,eus.

ot

pire of the

Erythnir*,

\alor

his

which are not now

islands

uo

the account gi\en In Agatharchldes oi the

is

/)<

Persian account

for

birth, s'.n

to

'

a time the- lions

and some were slam;

i

and he

now

hanjed into a

while the

rest,

in-

for sonic larire

unharmed

but terror-stricken at what they had seen, fled to the sea. A strong wind was blowing from the land, and as they plunged into the waves in their terror, they were carried beyond their footing; and the

continuing, they

swam

the island opposite.

of

through the sea and came out

With them went one

of the

herdsmen,

marked bravery, who thus reached the shore by

shoulders of a mare. seeing them, strength

pushed

of

first its

off into

Now

Krythras looked for

put together a raft of small

si/.e,

n the sip

clinging

his

a

\outh to

the

mares, and not

but secure

in

the

building; and happening on a favorable wind, he the strait, across which he was swiftly carried by the

his mares and found their keeper also. Arfd with the island, he built a stronghold at a place then, being pleased well chosen by the shore, and brought hither from the main-land op-

waves, and so found

h as

were

dis>atisfied

with their

life

there,

and subsequently

II

(he other uninlufuird

all

:

uh of

was the

iflorv

these- hit tire-vis,

t!

even

.it

uh

.,:ai> v

,

ascribed

t..

numerous populations

j

iMilar

I

d'lttn

un

our

(

(utir

.mm n

th,

is

irferenl tiling Iron,

fur

(I

t<>

lume,

(he

due

as

asinbmu UN thr

i

Yrsian story

Hrrr ^

PlSanrad^-.

tlun thr

tru(h,

not

\\

(,

i>\

altmu South Arahu, Iraxing

Mriirt ami ..>hir

(

h.i M-ttlrd in

thr lul.

the aocy ol a and thru %pread

!

.U

"Rrd"

rpithrt of

tht-ir

(

(I

i.iuntr

1

|{.,min

,1

hour

referring,

thr

of

Suggests thr th<

.tin,

u

srj

i

..:

injure

I

Arabia, as set fnnh

art >und

vpbnaiNM)

tcsii'

kernel

It

while

ilui *rm,

,.f

.,.-

fals-

IN

nun u

thr

t..

in

iier (iiiH-

..

V.-.v

.

to thr io|,-r, it

>

illustrious

..ost

'

of thr

hrrr

i

or

"rudd-.

Deluding thr M.I that u.i-Ju-.i thnr shores and floated o( the Rrd People^" or, oooidbi t> Acathar-

many

.1

under

E

the text has

.IN

unriit

vbed MIC h

Trade

Designated ports.

1.

cstahlt

U.IN

l>\

i

of entry

l.i

Mipcr-

U-vird .lui.o

under the

.

pn

hunted to

'*d

it,

ohSuaUuhn

on the

ports

I

1'tolein

many u r rc alv.

-

I

ports of entr\ maintained In the \.ibat.ran Kin ji>in, h\ the I |..mrriir ^ -in in .:id In tl slahlished Kingdom of thr <

Axumitrs.

man

farmed

the latter, possibly,

(

I

now Ro-

v:\ptun (Ireeks,

subjects.

and

.iesiuna(ed."

therein strainmu' (he

MTIptlon I

,.t

>i

Egypt went

"frequented," its obvious dr-

II.

Ptolemies,

who

succeeded Alexander the (rcaf,

toward recovering her former \\ealth and glon

far

called I'lnladelpln.

and the Red Sea about (he

translates

and losing

I

tuier the early

i'tole.m

n.

<>(},

tl .,,:.

oriumallx

<

,

*ii:u'

h\

.,nr

..f

the

reojx-ned under the l.mpire in the

century, and partly reopened hy the Persians under Darius

more open

lenti.

carefulK pn>\ ided with the river

and (he

'.ished

to

comment

.

m

1

Sih

the Sfh

\arious canmui-n*j(r%,

and stoppmu-places, were opened be;uted pom of miry and where

\\ells

1

sea,

and colnni/c

was encouraged, and

I

the canal

-

t

.1

regular trade

I

:

.m shipping on the

was oper

the

Red

Seat

and the

\rahia,

these ports, and a

tribes of the

of

dcsi riptmn

Somali this

Ihe nanu-s

ne\\

1\ -i

reatcd

of

all

commcn c,

in

tomantic enthusiasm, are given by A.Mth.uvhides in his \\ork At the time of this Pcriplus, tin- remainn the l.nthnran Sea. '

ing settlements

seem to be Arsinoe, M\os-hormus,

and

The other places

Adulis

lost their

probably

beyond the straits r.ulf of Aden.

mentioned

IJcrcnicc, Ptolcmais

by Agatharclmlcs

had

importance as the l.^vptian ships ventured farther and frequented the richer markets that fringed the

Mussel Harbor (Myos-hormus is identified with the bay now known as R.is Aim .Somer, 2712'N.,

1.

,

\\ithintheheadland K.

.<5

55'

He

selected

uas founded by Ptolemy Philadelphia

It

II.

(

274.

as the principal port of Kuyptian trade with India, in

it

which uas closer to prefcieiuc t< Arsinoe (near the modern Sue/. the Kgyptian capital, but difficult of access because of the bad 1

,

Myos-hormus \\as distant through the upper waters of the Red Sea >r se\en days from I'optos on the Nile, along a road opened Straho \YII. I. 4S through the desert by Ptolemy Philadelphia. and Myos-hormus are in repute, and they Formerly the camel-merchants tra\eled in the night,

"at present C'optos

are frequented.

directing their course by ried with

vided;

water

them

water is

essels

\

is

in g

the stars, and, like mariners, car-

But

now

watering-places are pro-

also obtained by digging to a great depth,

found although

reservoirs.

obsen

a supply of water.

rain

rarely

falls,

which

is

and

rain-

also collected in

Coptos is the modern Koft, in the bend of the Nile. bound for Africa and Southern Arabia left Myos-hormus

about the autumnal equinox, when the N. W. wind then prevailing Those bound for India or Ceycarried them quickly down the gulf. lon left in July, and if they cleared the Red Sea before the first of

September they had the monsoon

to

assist

their passage across the

ocean. 1.

Sailing.

The

ship used by the author of the Periplus prob-

ably did not differ very materially

from the types created

in

Egypt long

before, as depicted in the reliefs of the Punt Kxpedition in the I)er-elBahri temple at Thebes, and elsewhere. By the first century A. I)

the single square height of the

sail,

sail,

with two yards, each

much

which distinguished the shipping

longer than the

of the

1

5th century

had been modified by omitting the lower yard and by increasing the height of the mast; while a triangular topsail had come into B. C.

,

The artimon or sloping foremast, later developed into a general use. bowsprit, was not generally used, even in the Mediterranean, until The accompanying illustration of a modern Burmah the 2d century.

uliuh

Irr,

.

<>r

ways thr shipbuilding ideas of an-

Roman oins

or rrlicK, \\huh were

'(

.

Molttrr-

i

i-alliiii!

the rudder info

he quarter, the steersman plyinu the .

whole

oxc-rlookinu the

Hippalus* d

off

of

built f>r tliffrrcnt c-oiuiitioiis

\\ithout

in

all

and purposes. In the Indian Ocean naxiuation drprudrd on the trade- wind*, \..\.i L nrd so that the slup ould run bcforr the wind in ,

i

iii.uiy

probably gives a better idea of our author' * ship than any

of the (Jreek r.u

in

*

;>

the

\\ind, to

it

a

nun h use

fnun

ThbwBft

hi* station high in

\essel

the pernuiu n\

S 57, carried with

tiller

--t

the trade-winds, described

knowledge of steering fhe boat somewhat

reach a destination farther M>uih than the straight jv.sxihle

but lar^elx bv shiftinu the

\

This

was done

partly bv the rudder,

I

lateen

"hi-

as exemplified

sail,

loria, and so on, came into use about used lv. Arab and Hiiuiu, rather th.i

Arab

the

in

tin-

,///>,;<,

4th centu". in

Sailing Ships an./ their Pritrhnt: M/ tches of SAi/>/-tri ,111.: //>/; :nt Shipping anJ Ancient Commerce \ Charnnck.

////ten ntif A-

1.

Ja

.s

//.-/.,

II

,

>

Archfologie Naval*.

:

Three

Stadia.

.stadia

were

iii

l 1

f

Reduced

Jin.

;cncs, of

Roman

use in the

the Philctcrian of 525 to the decree, the

thi> time.

anil

I

Bombay

CM (iieek

:

Ancient an.:

the

C., but was

II

(

world

)lympic

to Knglish

measure

would make the Phili-u-rian stadium equivalent to alxmt h.Sn ;id that ilu-iu-s ah
at

ol

this

feet, tin-

.

-;adium of the IVriplns fnillvspeakinu, ten

st

ulia of

seems the

.imeil in this text are

consumed

length of time

according

naturally \arieil

sailing-course,

t<>

Kratostheiu

IVriplus to the

But

\vuihl he a fair calculation.

the

to In- that of

it

Km_'lish

statute mile

must not he forgotten

that

all

approximations, based prindpallv on in

iroinir

and other factors as

from place toplaie, \\liuh wind and current, of

of the

directi.m well.

'I'he

distan

icrally

ami without any means of arrix imj at an irixen in round numbers; exact calculation, the h'jures in the text ran be considered only as approximation*,

system <>t mrasiirement laid do\\ n b> I'tolrmy, the circumference of the earth was estimated at 180,000 stadia

According

SOO

to the

stadia to the degree.

is 600 stadia. Greek stadium (being the length of the race-course at Olympia), was 600 (Ireek feet, or S to the Roman There was a later stadium of which 7'- went to the Roman mile.

'I'he true length

The Olympic

O f the degree

or standard

mile (1000 paces, 4854 Knglish feet). survived in Arabic science, and thence

Kurope;

the calculations of

being very nearly the Knglish furlong.

According 1

Leake's calculations, 606.75 Knglish

to Col.

Olympic stadium

1

Nautical mile

1 Admiralty knot by Clarke's measurement,

Therefore, In

=

feet.

=6067.50

10

or,

This, the 1'hileterian stadium, in

Olympic t 4

stadia *

4

= 6075. 50

= 60S-

6087

= =

1

1

1

minute of the equator. 44

. ,

1 de.

( (

Roman

1

M

1

-

milr

"

m,tr Illllrs

til

|

*9 to

Roman

4

The

A

w

miles

<>n tlu-

(ret.

degree.

be exa

Kngluh * 1 mar mi nautical milev

1'v

earth's

dearer

4SS4 Knglnh 5090

1000*n/*/ 1000 pa**

-

n u.|,sh mile

I

i

to

-

'

..-...i-

1

Has geographers, in

69.5

|4'*4,

SUM

^\c 21.62$ K

followed naiir -In- globe 1-lhth larger

than

it

really

is.

Vespucci, following I'toleim ami Alfra.-an. figured 6000

HUM Ron

.

as the measure- of tlir car*

360, 16*3 leagues

umhus.

foli

made

a

nude

Arabian Beographcrs,

.irious

the

leagues.

Ml

tin

>n

goesback tosomr drtiuiti(n based to

iini:

figure

is

\cr\

All ancient calculations

/

d

i

omr

lost- (..

i

treaty of /aragcr/a, in

17>7 leagues.

on dead reckoning.

'l"he

1

Ntnt Jt rAfrtqtu Jams

Saint- Martin, Lt

ilc

i

At the sides,

\\rre based

info use until

nmmimt. Paris, 1863 p. 197. Samuel Edward Dawson

<>n IS.I.

the valuation of 1734 league*

degree had become general. .is admitted on both

the

to

N

I'Amtx^mtik frr*fme

a

1

The

:

hut of Drmarraftim /

/V

Altx*mJ<

tk*t of tht Trtaty of TorJfiiltat, in Tranxactioni of the Royal Society of 2, pp. 467 ff. Canada, 1199: Vol. V.

mm*

Berenice (named

I.

and.i

'

!

fe

I

.

for the

I'mn

th

^

M

mother of holcmv Phibdelphus), Hay, below Ras

Roman

miles,

or

c ruins

a road across the desert in

I

'hen-

is

lou

tine natural harbor, hut the bar

a :

Strabo

XVI.

l\

.

da*

s,

ttstble,

the center

an trmple with hieroglyphics and bas-rrl

at

11 still

is

from r\en

a

.reek

b mr

6) mention* dangerous

rod

and \iolrnt \\nuis from the sea. the

tune of

port of

>: f

the an

this

Egypt 1

IVr.pius,

for the

Berenice seem

Kastern trade, and

to

ha e been the

was probably the

S6

This word means more than the "land

Berber Country.

2

of the barbarians," and seems,

like

our modern "Barbary

refer to the Berber race, as represent ing the

am -lent

to

States,

Tlamitic stock of

North Air

The name

itself

.tils

when

to be foreign to the people,

and

its

and

prob-

is

application to

North

nu e-oppositmn about the (iulf of Aden, oxercamc the "children of the

that ancient

Red Men,

the

seems

Arabic bar, a desert;

ably related to the

or ruddy people,

ad over

all

North Africa and carried the name with

them, submitting: time after time to similar Semitic conquests, I'hcrnician, Carthauinian or Saracen.

The

occurrence

We

Me.

toun and rins or

name throughout North Africa

of Berber (and

district

who

Barbarins,

appear

in

its

another

tribe calling

re-

is

Bcrbera, the Nile

inhabitants, the Barbara, Barbe-

Theban inscriptions as modern Berbers or Kalnles;

the western extremity, on the Atlantic

at

of

the ancient

Barbary States, the

the

Beraberata

and

of the

have the modern Somali port

coast of

Morocco,

still

themselves Berabra.

The

ancient Egyptians extended the word to include the meanings of savage and outlandtr, or public enemies in general; and from them the Greeks took the word into their own language, with like mean-

The

Berbers of the Periplus probably included the ancestors of

the Bcjas between the Nile and Red Sea, the Danakils between the I'pper Nile, Abyssinia and the (Iulf of Aden, and the Somals and Gallas.

Cave -Dwelling Fish -Eaters, Wild -Flesh -Eaters,

2

The original names, Ichtkyipkep (Tiogfodytae add nothing to our ethnic knowledge, being Moschophagi, dgriophagi, merely appellations given by the Greeks; and they are therefore

Calf-Eaters.

:

These tribes are represented by the modern Bisharins.

"C'alf-l.au -rs"

green

,

seems

to

mean

eaters after the style of calves,

things, rather than eaters of calves.

i.

e.

of

Some commentators would

replace dgriophagi by Acridophazi, locust-eaters. 2.

became

Meroe

was the

final capital of

the

Kingdom

of Nubia.

It

the royal seat about 560 B. C. and continued as such until a after this Periplus, when the kingdom, worn out by con-

tinued attacks by the tribes of the desert and the negroes of the Sudan, fell

to pieces.

was located on the

It

but just within the \tbara;

and

is

Nile,

below the 6th

cataract,

region that begins ab<.\e the confluence of identified with the modern Begerawiyeh, about

fertile

57

comprttrd the Nilr drka and ihr 1 Cat araCt, ihr modem AttUMt

VI* frrtilr v.illrv

thr n\cf IS flf a* ihr

,.t

madr

thr

oirram

uhm

close until above the Sth (ataratt, island

the-

the dixtame <-r

.

about I

<

I

lie s

<>OH

it

inilc-s

it

n

1

1

1-

gitrs plate to iiprn fertile

,

I

nd> thr

Nile

.m ..t

(

tome 40 nulr ihr

a^um,

lirs

'rnirul

A

lilur r

lake*

Nyanza

brluw

Khartum, about ISO

at

Nilr fuming

Anthara, and the

urrr mure or

.>n<

">u at diffrrriu (xruuix, but fhrir population

lest M>

Nsinian highlands u-crc peopled h\ a ,ui.ins

\\.ll

.is

..s

thr

tn

Hamitic slock

Mill

uiui\ili/rii

.idem and western desert, hut with a in nefro and a strong strain of Arabian origin Ihr upper reaches of

:

peopled

tribes,

I

From

or licrber.

the

.UTOXX the xo to tin da.

Theiue

history, as

the

of

thr

.Mjhlands rc.u

t

from
cnprelv

thr Atlura Ri\

hrd \|rmr from the Sudan and

the products of trade found their

beyond uhuh

market for

mouth

i

and other mutrx

\iit-.

:>hantine, ic its

Jiul

mrr

I

nonhcrn Abvuii

above Meroc, thr from the IIIHIIMI.IIMS

ihr

detrrt hug

lepham.ne and Assuan, and the dim i Imr, and by about 480 n ln narrow strip of river -hrd was Ndbss ..(

Atbara,

MI

b>tS

unpayable for

Above Auuan the

tiatunU barrier.

all

dem

I

\ery

\*

ay down-stream

no nruro wax permmed

to

-

k

town, Anuan, rtpcMS

name means "market."

mdan

i\<>r>, panther xkms and ostru h feathers, from the Nubian desert east of the Nile, cold, from the Red Sea across h, frankincense, and various fragrant woods and resins: \\lmh ufrc in Constant demand for the Kgypcian treasury and

ny and

the service of the temples, and provided a constant reason for LX)ntrol of this

important avenue of

In the early period of the Kgyptian nation the jw.wrr

the Delta, but a loose control

to

i

entered in

have been maintained between

tribes appearing in the inscriptions as During the prosperous period of the probably negroes. Kmudom, between the .<0th and 2>th i enturm H. C* the rivert

Old

seems

and 2d cataracts over

,

and Egyptian ships sailed the Red Sea as Then came a period of disorder and ike far as the untry. fall of the Delta dynasties, followed m the :2d century by the rise of

routes

the

were kept

in order,

rheban or Middle Kingdom, the dynasties of the Amenemhets These kings fully conquered the nver tribes to the >esostrises

58 tin- eastern desert, 2d cataract, as well as the Nubian troglodytes" where they dexelopt -d the ^old-mines that added 10 imu h t> their In this period, from tin- 22d to the IXthcenwealth and power. >t

he

name "Cush"

fiitt

appears in the inscriptions, imliby the wan-

ration overland to the Nile

dering C 'ushite-1. lamite tribes who had left their home at tin- lu the IVrsian (Iidt some 300 \cars previously. and who, after M-tiling in

the incense-producing regions of Southern Arabia and

Soma

whence the\ had opened trade with Mesopotamia, had The name Clish" the same trade to its others cat market in l.
and 6th ently a

cataracts, but

much

These people, appar-

of the highlands.

mongrel race, were held

in great

contempt

h\ the

1

"._'>

ptians,

numerous references such as the follov "Impost of the wretched Cush: gold, negro slaves, male and female; oxen, and calves; bulls; vessels laden with ivory, ehonv, annals contain

all

the good products of

this country.*'

After the

J

tf

fall

this

country, together with the harvc

M0 of the

XMth

dynasty, 1788 B.

C, came

a period

of feudal disorder, followed by an invasion from Arabia and a

f

This was ended dynasty, the H\ksos, probably Minsean Beduins. of the establishment of the Umpire Arabs and the the expulsion by

These U reat IM.aunder the XYlIIth dynasty (1580-1350 B. C.). raohs carried the Egyptian arms to their widest extent, from Asia Minor and possibly even farther south. The collapse of Rameses III (1167 B. C. ) left Nubia still Invasions from the west resulted in a series of Libyan Egyptian. which began, under Sheshonk or Shishak I, by reasserting dynasties, over Syria and by plundering the temple of Solomon and sovereignty to the 4th cataract

npire at

the death of

the treasures of the newly-established latter part

Kingdom

of

of this administration was so inefficient that

established in

Israel;

but the

Theban

princes

Nubia separated from Kgypt and formed a new king-

dom, now

called Ethiopia (indicating a growing Arabian settlement with capital at Napata, below the 4th cataract (the modern ( Jebel ,

Barkal), subsequently invading Egypt and establishing their over the whole valley, from ~22 to <><>; H. C Then came the Asfirst the definite syrian invasions, conquest of by Esarhaddon and then ,

1

.

The

Thebes is Nahtim (III, 8-10). The Nubians withdrew to Napata. There they were attacked by the resof under Psammetichus II, and about 560 15. C., transpower Egypt Egypt proper by Assurbanipal

in

661 B. C.

ruin of

vividly described by the prophet

ferred their capital to

Meroe; a much

better location, less

open

to

59

attack

I

a fertile region

dim

id the

I

41-.

m

>nh,

tr

r

the

-.f

|.ufh

fmm the outh and eari. Hrrr they hm ked the army of s<->. ulmh ma.ie .-ypt a Persian pro\i The M! mt his hands for 4 time. t>ut the country waa not Mb

u.ulr .

capita)

<

I

^ypl by Alexander rhe Great. with hit fUCCCMOn, the Htolemie*, ihry *

iiM.iisturhr,!.

4ii.l

notwithstanding the active policy

un Miprenui I

I'heir

quern,

province and the Ni the

<

iVtroniuftdettroyrd

)

I

,

t)i<

engulf'

\ itur*J

Plnu, u hovr

and

-rmbo,

kingdom was

.Inl .Irsert;

Sea.

N. Y., If

Roman

r.

Kcd

rhr

in

,

>;'

HnHty

t

'

t

and

Id tr

and

tl

tt

M C

"Kin'jilom

embasty

in

<,

that tlu

67

A

I

)

wafcbut a

National decay had done its work; bud from the attacks of the Derhers had joined

rhr .\\unur.,'

.f

wm

and towns

notei thai

:l

.-

!

:

/hlandf to the

!

In

1

under the

i,

md tuin.

>ia

;

Its

prosperity.

KM

hrr.unr a

l'\ /.:

new capital,

hristian thought, 1

.nl

and

under thr spur

desert,

highbnds the

a

1

of the Kizyptians a-

;M:III>,

puns were

Cambyses

to his Msrc

II,

irruption

\byvinian

onophysite C Christianity.

9) has an account of a war

utuier rhe

command of Mote*.

the

aft

name of Met

-mnl-

ing situated at the conrKix of the N va^hnall rhr >uth it

tx-

as the conditmi

.luuhtcr

Thar!

name

of

Saha.

the-

men

^e<' marriage with the had fallen in love with him.

the ohvious anachronisms in thisitory.

the

mriu-

hnally driven hack into their capital. Sjru

:

>

M

its

only hnally to from the

KgypC;

new

leave .ja

t.

d<

of //if Jnif,

.

and nuintained

<>\rrrun .

again

the mi*.

one fact is of Nubia wa

indicate* that

mamlx peopled, by Arabs, wh> had followed the the R
if

not

f

Punt ittut fa tufarakuktn R**k<.

*e* that N.

60 also

is

rian

a Semitic name, probably Nabat, allied to Nabatu of the Assyto Nebaioth (son of Ishmacl), and to the later

inscriptions,

Nabaurans of Herodotus (II, 8) refers to the "mountain of Arabia" extending from north to south along the Nile, stretrhiin.: up to the Krythr.ran is a t\\<> Sea, and says that at its greatest width from east to west it

months' journey; and that "eastward its confines produce frankinHere also is an indication of the connection of Nubia \\ith cense." SomaJiland, confirmed by the in

Meroc (Ed. Meyer:

pompous

titles

of the later Cushite kings

Geschichte Aegyptens t

359):

"Kings

of the

four quarters of the world and of the nine distant peoples." .<.

38

Ptolemais.

This

is

identified with

27' E., the southern portion of the

Kr-nh

Tokar

island,

delta.

It

189'N.,

was

fortified

by Ptolemy Philadelphus (B. C. 285-246), and became the cento of the elephant-trade. Being situated near the Nubian forest, where elephants abounded,

its

location

was very

and th

favorable.

from Asia;

formerly imported their elephants

supply uncertain, and Ptolemy sent his

The Egyptians had but the cost was high

own

hunters to Nubia,

against the will of the inhabitants, to obtain a nearer supply. From very early times there was a trade-route from the

Red

Sea

Meroe, and corresponding between Berber on the Nile and

to the Nile at this point, terminating near

closely to the railway recently built

Port Sudan on the 3.

Italian

Adulis.

Zula.

Adulis.

Red

The

Sea.

present

colony of Eritrea, which

port lies

is

Massowa,

center

of

t

In-

near the mouth of the bay of

The ancient name is preserved in the modern villa The location has been described by J. Theodore Bent

It is on London, 1896: pp. 228-230'. numerous black basalt ruins are still visible there. Adulis was one of the colonies of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and was always of commercial importance because it was the natural port for Abyssinia and the Sudan. It seems to have been built by Syrian Greeks. Here was the famous inscription reciting the

crtd City

of

the Ethiopians,

the west side of Annesley Bay, and

conquests of Ptolemy Euergetes (B. C. 247-223) with an addition by Aizanas, or El Abreha, King of Abyssinia about 330 A. D., for a

copy of which

we

are indebted to the Christian Topography of

Cosmas

Indicopleu 4.

Coloe.

The

ruins of

{Sacred City of the Ethiopians,

Coloe were found by Bent

at

Kohaito,

a large

flat plateau Chap. XII,). miles in the above many extent, high surrounding country (7000 feet) and thus cool and comfortable. It seems to have been the main set-

It

is

dement, and Adulis the trading-post, which was inhabited no mote

61

necessary because of

and

fig,

gates 5

hoc climate

its

one place 74 mi hrs v\ i.Jr fen

hm

,

I

u hole buik

the

%

here i a fae dam, mche* above bed-ruck, with

4

fret

in

of large cut

MOMS

Urge Ukr uiniM hate formed arc numerous MUMS of stone templo and dwelling, the ar\\

nrr

many

mis

xe

at

ovrrlnok the

(<>

i

apparently Hloiema

Adulis,

a*

thin-

il.isrr

I

kit iu

that

resembling :

u xr

111

'.MI

near Adulu in be the ancient i'*lne.

sfiH

i

Inn

1

up the

*

niountjii.,

uhu

I.

vrpdd

,ke longer in pmp.>riiMii than thr %ul*r<|urnl niad ofer fhr luhlr

l.iiul

nap

In-

1

anas), and

f'.lUH-.

tlu

deriviH

K.llll

Al.il

In

'

tlu

(from

:iled

i

i

southeastern Arab'

in

Islands in tlm

4

fn.m the tame

llarkhuf, an

Assuan noble

?:

|ih

\

as a

|)x,,.,stx

Com men

oumtrx

the-

ia I

^

(

II

.< iu r% fhr

I

artulr in Kk!)p<

am, southrrn Nubia) with

with inirnse, ebony, grain, panthrr>, i\.r>, throw-

^scs laden

good

exrry

caravan-conductor

proilin't

who had been

f Egypt,

'.rdi 9 I

:

HIM -iipthiiiN of

die

\!

v

anil

is

.,

i

!\<>i\ Kin-!

t

<

and Calon mountaniH

Islands II,

(

as the Arabic Kala'a.

insrnr ii.fi

Punt and df imiamtiukm Re*k< \\huh .;<-a-, ,-. the Adult* tirmnl f-.-m the tame wiurce as

(ilaier note*

same

the

I

m.rr

uas

sent to

Yam

than any

vijtlant

bet

h-.

.,

I.

hrrr arc numerous records of the receipt of i\ry,

under the

XV

I

Nth

I

>\

in

commerce

coming from Trhenu Nomaliland God's Kuna Muria Island* ;. CttSfc

nasty;

.

\rabia-, (inhn h

Also

a

.tile

NKIIIIIX

C'ountries,

of i\.t\

v

.

f

Retenu

hairs, tahirs,

.*nd i

Isy

(Cyprus).

hests, Statues,

and whips

unde-r the XlXrh an.l XXlh dynasties; the Papymi Harrii, bring an item in a Iwt of gift* of Rato the god Ktah. N. .m.. x throne was of ivory, overlaid whh L'ld. and harshixh" brought him the ivory every three yean,

ular records OCCU1

the

in il

I

km/

ii

I,

1

together with nold ami sil\er

Cyeneum 4 first ki

fix

is

the

t

apes and peacocks

modern Sennaai

I

Kui^

\

Eastern Sudan.

City of the people called Auxumite*. This i% the of Axum, and senes very nearly to

the date of

its

foundation

mention the Asachar

Pliny

living south of

of this period and oth Men* and known as eirphaiM-

62

and

hunters j

settlement as

their

Uppidum

stronghold,

Axum.

and Ptoleim locates a "city of the Sacse" has no knowledge

of

A xu in

VI,

Pliny

in the >4

same

probably the

Sac
Bion speaks of Asachae five days from

t!

Tiure highlands, hut ;he

iltoi

.

\scit.i

\\ho brought myrrh and frankincense to South Arabia cm their raits dcrixation
bladder;

askus,

coast of South

names' reproduce rather

Arabia, east of

Hadramaut, .

Axum, ma.

ASK

li.isik

and

Ascitae,

still

the I^atinized

in

Axum

the ancient capital and sacred city of the kingdom

is

h

identlyan ethnic and geographic

between Hasik, the Asaoh* or

M

mountainous

tin-

called

the place of coronation

form of Mabash. while

its

for

its

people

kings. call

\\

e call

Abyssinia

is

thcmsel\<

Habash is translated by modern ftwiwr, Hellenized into Acthiopians. while Herodotus Arabs as "mixture," explained Aethiopia as "land of the sunburned faces;" each explanation being, probably, incorrect.

The

Habashat appear likewise along the eastern terraces of South cenArabia (Mahra) where they were the dominant race t

turies before the Christian era.

Pausanias

d<

'

S//H

1

<

speaks of a "deep bay of the Krythr.i an Sea, having islands, Abasa the Roman andSacaea" (probably Kuria Muria. Masira, and Socotra '

;

writers mention an Abissa Polis in this region, and Stephanus of

P>\-

/antium says "beyond the Sab;rans are the Chatramotitae (Hadrathe I^tr\ptian inscriptions we learn maut) and the Abaseni." 1

mm

one of the Punt-people visited in their trading voyages Hirst/, and dwelt, apparently, not only in Mahra, but also

that

and

1. astern

\\;is

in

tailed

Socotra

Somaliland.

Glaser derhes the

name Habash from

a Mahri word, meanine

"uaihere Synonymous with this is Aethiopian or Itiopyavan, which he derives from atyoh, "incense;" and it is Significant that evefl in the time of the Periplus their ancient home in Mahra \\as still the

"Frankincense Country."

As "gatherers

of incense," then, \\eha\e

This people, like their predecessors from the same region, the Cushites u ho traded with lialnlon and Thebes, a branch of whom, 'Intermarrying with the names" 16 >, helped found the Nubian Kingdom, and like the 'Periplus,

the mission of

tin

Asaclut- or Axumites.

Punt or Poen-people of the Theban inscriptions, left their settlein Mahra, Socotra and Somaliland (the true frankincense

ments

country) and migrated westward, settling hnally in the Tiure hiirhlands, where for the first time they established an endurin-j puer. Hut their migration was different from the others, .irfare

and oppression rather than

trade.

in that

it

was due

41

Habathac or

'

Ir.

and thnr

use-land*,

worked with

h- Saforans,

'lirn at thr hri.-ht of

thr

..t

procprn!\

Hut the

Cape

Parthians

IVtxian

t

N.I.

on thr

r a

Arahi.i in.

I

Uidorus

>t

againaf the Sabvaiia.

t,

This tJatrs

Hnii\.ir

thr tinir

tlu- lanu'ua-jf

tmm

>t

1

tin-

.

thr

II

East]

from

a dirt-it sea-tradr

*T

Indian shippmu

I

.il

artuitu-s I

in

i

r

at (

trom

tra.

the

i-

its

it\

\dulis the

Urn.

am

irnt

and Persians \rahia;

hr

fertile

thru, to long as

domnutrd.

.

viale

Could

"mi%erl>

Abyssinia krpt up

auainst I'arthians

i

d through a

,m\mv: >f

nru

thnr ctronghold, the <>? \\unt It lay

thr

in Ins

kinudom

!nu!t

India

thr lowlands could IK-IK

gulf to

Arabia and of

thr drsrrt to thr north

instrad ot

.>:ui

Indian emhaaiie*, and

Jusrd thr Arabian

Ri\(

:>ara

(.ttiintn

-

had way.

a

uardaftn, ihr Haba*hat MMieht a

highlands

!mh soon hecamr .ttural

I..H L

)rsp,,ilrd of thru

thr

in

-i

grpcwatti iM'U'nimn"

\mu

It

t

and demoliihed

I

its

.

ParthuiiN rrnrwrd >.thg

..

\\huii had so

tli

.

.

;IL'

up

!rom abHil ..f

in

and Hadianiaut moved on Habasfa

MI;

mutual

for

.tlu,

Auguatltf, thr InoefMe-Couflffy, named (, ^ H.iS.^Ki

v!

t

airiii'.:

Umi.

t

.

L'trrward thr

and

rne-

kaiakin h)


an alluUH

<>f

m

'hai.i

(.

Himyar

MIH rsM

Madraiiuiit and

.iiiauiNt

k

In

.ii.|iu-sr

telling

ihr

tongue* by

" h\

x

;.,i:.

.Mih thrr<-

,'

-u rjrtr%, taid

I

came

lien

M npti.ni

a

of

ftin

.vt

,

hit

.trinii.-

tuui

wave

Siiin.il

Hadr.i

.ittai

A

r-**i

\\ ith ihr cattMiatunrnt

ii

rin;

id,

n

CJIas*

(J...HN..S

the

and ihr Habjhaf

k. .:..)'.. i.

ladranuut.

I

thr.>

.itii

MN

f

lentr*

Naki-ans.

ti:.-

,

Unls

nit-lit!..

and

(tuarc!afui,

l'f..l(

inn

inui h

TW

ihr

rdrr aloog

I'urthun, or A:

flu-

and imrrtw trade

jm

Ufuirr

MI.

il>rs iintit

of

r

thr

hnSTHIHM power AgatharchioW Thr Hafaaiiat

lift

Arabian

the south

Humar

m

and. perhap*. reU-

Tstr.i h>

;

Sococra and

hrl.i

coast.

ihrin

tamtfcn" were

aliie*

for ni its

:

allunir \\\r

MX irniunr* ihr

rnrnnrs thr Hoinrntrs. and thor Thr kinmlom ^rew apace, and lu u

and not

until thr latrr

net*

and C'm*iann-

Mohammedan

allir*

e

it

thr

o%rr-

conquests

64

us to

power broken and

preserve,

their

for

its people shut up in hundreds of years unknown

Monophysite

The

make

a lonu line of

<>f

Mirypt receded. Init

as

ualrlucfs and not

t->r

i..|.nists

and

Arabia,

/. scales kiii'js at

oumm

iahashat had frequented the

driven from

the outside world,

to

Christianity.

Alnssinian Chronicles

IVriplus, the sue* esx..t

until

mountains, there

their

most

that

tribal

The

kin^s.

It

is

the

probable

arrnturx bet

railu-r >t

the time of

a:

.\\uni.

than

state-builders,

/..scales' final

predn

G

migration

places not far from the Christian era.

The Abymnians were

converted to Chriitianit]

Before that time then

Buddhism.

outside

I

History of Architfctut,

Janu--

Monoliths

that the great

Egyptian,

monolith

at

but the details

Axum Indian.

translated in Egyptian in the

notes

its

first

at

is

al>out

330

\

I)

may ha\e been

iiitluenre ,

I,

142-S

;

notes

Axuin

of

An

Indian inspiration;

"the idea

Indian nine-storied

p.,

century of the Christian era!"

likeness to such Indian temples as

Uodh-(

iaya,

He

and

represents **that curious marriage of Indian with Kiryptian art which we would expect to find in the spot where the two people aim- in (

and enlisted architecture

r,

%ymbojtw

il,

A us to thr

Mi-

'

o

I

-.iking

their

tarv-.r^

ihnu

that

all.. \\.-.i

dirtn

wai a new power utui

\reb

flopped thnr

lYnplus,

rxrii

(*>

m.r

I

!

h

>-.

lie

fine

t..

by caravan; \\jlnr%and In

\\utn and Alexandria

Mh

EfFpt

H

dttinff

from

early

m

rrntury

scr\cr if the early relations Urtxveen

may

trj.ir

and second Chriitian ccntuhc%. Mid

Bodh-Gaya, India, the

,,i

t..

rrlami and takr (hnr v%arr

lUiarukarha. (

t

advantage of (hr Hindu iradm. af Oorfis on ikr Arabian iiioti

Buddhism and ChradaniQr mutual innV

find along this frequented route greater evidence of MJ

the

Parth

relatively obstructed ;>hesus.

l\r)ast>',

route*

through

.f AntnHh and Byzantium, and the ne teudeiu-y would be the nher

he u'r\\th ^ai-id

By

overland

the third ceniun. with the fall

66 Dif Abcstintfi

GUser:

Scr

Pmtt MM./

:tflirn

.;

1880.

!in,

'"

il.ulrlphu

4th edition

I

Isl.uuU.

Alalaei

4.

C.hrntnin

an./

BuitJh'nt

'miiuls:

,

the inter

<.r

1

I

n>.

(!o.i/>f/.<

1908.

fiete

5.

Mauakil

a>

U

north of Ras

,

lanhlah. I4

I

name.

preserve th-

Thc\ lir at thr entrance to Anncslcv Bay of the Opsian stone. \\\\^

Dahalak.

44'

V

uh-rmhnl

is

4
,

called

lu-in
!

I

with

lanfilah"

Ainphila, the Jntipluli Portu* of Artrmulorus.

\\.\\

Ph: it

nnJ

fo

1899;

Berlin,

Dillinai

;

Buililhi.Mn aiul cat!

I

IN

(A

support of his thesis. ibOTC Miimnati/ciM

in

Rcichr,

G*9grafihif Arahimi, Berlin, 1890 in Kon. PrrusN. ALul. il

Munich, 1895.

:/
masterly marshaling of inscriptions

of

Acthiopia

and

M'jht.

his da\ It

shadow

reriei'ted the

for i'\velr\

the ol>M;ui >tonc

'

I.

and

rather than the ima-je.

for statues

from the refections on the polished surface approaehinn from behind. It

pure

seems

was found

and

ItaK,

been

to ha\ e

and the same

state, It

in

Henry

(

A

a

poituo,

s

detect

am

siirht

on the uround

at a

or four inches in diameter.

few miles farther

at

Samnium

in

j_'lass.

much

in

h\

many

in

\isit

a hill,

near

pieces

<>!

.1

resembling

short distance from the sea;

(

it,

most

of

uhich were

)ne of the natives told

the interior, pieces

This substance has been

dimensions.

one

describes his

f,

of a urcat

collected nearly a hundred specimens of

<\\o. three,

that

i

in a inor.

which was marked

black substance, bearing a \ery hiyh polish,

that a

a

ini'jht

190-4

Jhyssinia, pp.

Bay of the Opsian stone, which he "was delighted with the

I

IK-

\nlfank- ulass, feldspar

to the

and

as used in

as our obsidian.

I'rjyagf into

that lay scattered about

\\

It

anordinu to Pliny, in India, and it was extensively imitated

also,

Portugal; Salt

sprlU

and \oti\e oflerinus.

used by the Kmperor Doniitian to face

\\.is

lie

.is

\rr\ dark, soiiR-tinu-s transparent, hut dull to the

\\.is

arc-

found

of

m\ return

since-

air.ily/cd

me

much to

Kivjlaml and found to be tnu- obsidian." 5.

Coast Subject tO ZoSCaleS. /Wo,

II.

)iintr\

tlic-

families'

"

residing in '/eila

C'hristians 5.

.Sea.

\b\ssmia.

!..

man

Red

of the

..I-.

ZoSCaleS.-

Mas'

Col.

Me

10th ccntui)

at

nr\

the

his

\\hole

from near Herbera probably to Suakin. At this time u hear only of 'Mus.i!c-

and udi. dt.

the ..ther ports Ill,

4hO-5

and tributan

to the

34.) identities this

Hakale, which appears in the AbyMiniafi Chronicles, < said to ha\e lasted \ears, and Salt h\cs the date1

m

Yule

least,

name The

with

/a

reinn \.

i>

I).

4f Bur

...im.K

l.r

460)

p

"no

that

CM) be placed"

dgpandnc

great

thr Chronicles.

upon

thr rpatf," who rngnrd 400 200, I \iuzaba, /a^dar, 100; /axeta* IWdyear*, h /a "n. hrr 4ih year the went Axum, Zakawasya hrr rrfiirn rrtu'iird 2S >r '

1

'

,

;

Mrm

followrd h\

Barti lia/rn.

I'-

IS

"..ml

\c-.its.

"

m

du-

/a Make-da uas thr

.M in

ill

tin-

ua%

\\ith tiinr

respondnuc

kn..\\ n

t<>

h\ thr i>

it

daft-

list,

in

H-^un in K

ihrm

t

I

Thr AlnsNiman thr

)

C'hr..nul.-

Ixr

him

in..\inj

hnui^lr

I

hrrrfrr /a Hakale'i

.1

.

\v

\

a>

advaiuc-d

u]>

t.

M

in

in

Bat-si H.; .ttu,

thr line hit

])rohahlr date.

.

<

>mpo*rd lome

titnr after the

.irlirr

tuuml

thr Mrs? ("hi

the I'hrmr

thr<

pi-.,p!r

that in

lijrdlt

\lirc pr<4iable

'Ms t

\rarx, in order tu

>

1

HIM rtptuxu, and lh

rminu r\iciciur. ian .mas. he must

U\ is

kin^

L'rrjf oniift-

Sat/atu% from ihrir

\\tini .uul AiiuliN

tin-

that.

accession


xaui

i%

thr IVriplns, ;s prop, .M:

t

I

M.IN aiul

and Conjcantiui

thr

Ahrcha ).

I

man Imp in

n

i..

rl

vwtrti

lirnd',

'

t)

(1

places in thr t'hnmulr, .m.! t.ilK

(

I'

..Mi/,

who

>a

,

(Ji, I)

'

thr

MM

iMlniiluir.l."

.ciitir.

l'tli

/4 Baei

them

uml /

year*,

4 rnont lix, and At/aru* il HI

M

ir

ni

'

'

of th If

hth year

.

namc%, OK

rar I/.IM.IS

month*.

,.

t.

..f

it

\%hi<

differ maieriaUy.

:ur\, as |

>rars.

portions are,

h Salt examined

innth>

Salt,

arc at

68

The gives

way

'La prefix,

in the

recalling the

3d century

Dja

to a long

of Glaser' list

Arabian mscnpn. /./, indu at inn

s

beginning with

perhaps a change of dynasty from the Habash stock 6.

Egyptian cloth.

6.

Arsinoe was

at

This was

linen,

the head of the

T

tin

<>

Sab;ean.

made from

Hcroopolm

(lull, corre-

sponding to the modern Sue/, but now some distance inland owing It was named for the favorite \\ to the recedence of the Gulf.

At one time

Ptolemy Philadelphus. tion,

it

it

was important commercially,

and while

as an entrepot for the Eastern trade;

it

soon

lost tha:

continued for centuries to be a leading industrial center, par-

ticularly in textiles 6.

Glass.

Pliny U/>.


XXXVI,

65) says

that

glass-making

originated in Phoenicia, and that the sand of the river Bclus \\as long He attributes the the only known material suitable for the industry.

discovery for the process to the wreck of a ship laden with nitre on shore, and the accidental subjection of nitre and sand to heat as

this

the merchants set caldrons

on the beach

to

cook

Later

their food.

the Phoenicians applied themselves to the industry; and their experiments led to the use of manganese and other substances, and to an

advanced stage of perfection

in the product.

mouth of the river Yolturnus was mixed with three parts u{ into a mass called hamm9-*itrum't which was subjected to fusion a second time, and then became pure white glass. Throughout Gaul and Spain a similar process was used, and th In Pliny's time a white sand at the

was much used nitre and fused

in

glass-making.

It

doubtless the process used in Egypt, as mentioned

The was

color

was added

in the

second fusion,

in

the Periplus.

after

which

th<

either blown, turned or engraved. 6.

Murrhine.

See the note to

49.

It

was probably

a

and carnelian from the Gulf of Cambay; but was extensively imitated The murrhine mentioned in glass by the Phoenicians and Egxptians. here was evidently a cheap trading product, probably colored

.

God) was probably Thebes, the meEmpire the modern Karnak. This was its name under the Ptolemies and Romans. There was another Diospolis in Egypt, mentioned by Strabo; it was in the Nile delta, abo\e the Sebennytic mouth; Still but it was not of great importance. another, known as Diospolis Parva, was on the Nile some distance below Coptos. The greater Diospolis Diospolis Magna was a center of commerce and industry, being no great way above Coptos, from which the caravans started for Berenice. 6.

Diospolis

(City of

tropolis of the Egyptian

ft

As

fume

illustrating chc

th.

..I

her hundred K a-

h

lunidrrd Mint uith horses and ihariolS."

pn.phrl Sahuin u

'

\

"populoiiN Fl,

and

(,.,,1

(>ut .rr

I

strength, h>

nt

int..

.

:>v!

her great n

all

IM.nv

i

finHM

-htupu and l.ubmi I

\,i

.,

was die carried away, Inldrrn abu were dashed in ;

in

.-,d

lots

*

lonourable

f

hains."

\\\l\

(*

makes

.

int., a h>l.rid.

brass, a >rll..\\ .illoy, asdtstineui\hrd <>r

WM

'M

Brass.

6.

\\

it

and they cast

the streets,

1

and

and lu-Ip.

that

abut K

f..und

I.

III.

capture by the Afttyr-

as

fr>m purr copper

it as an ore of copper lone in had been found for a long time, the earth It was used for the * .nd double been quite exhausted.

tli

Pliny describes

alloys.

hiuh ropiest, but sa

1

as,

ppcr brini:

t

h M-rnis

ili

uindant as a separate

in /IIH

.

t<>

the

emMigh for the as. been a n.ti\r hras* obtained by tmcking

tliouu'ht UIKK!

h.ivc

Kmnan

inrulluru)' did not di*finguih xinc

n

held in the hi^hot etimatH>n, and deeply reuretted, as in the case of the "CorinBut l.itci it \\.iv tound fn aiiident that the natite eanh,

\I

MII h

r

;iiL

>rcN \\rrr

is

thi.i

added

an impure oxide

u-.

and

this the

molten copper, would did without under-

to

Romans

ului the earth

u.l^, just a> they used native oxide of cobalt without knouin^ the metal cobalt.

i^

\\\\

.

IMnl.. stratus

..t

II,

44, and

I.enuios, about

Taxila in which were hunjr

Beckmann. Hntorj if 230 A

picti,

>

I

.

/irvnttimt,

mentions a shnne

in

>pper tablets representinc the

''The \anous Heum were portrayed a mosaic of orichakum, silver, gold, and oxidized copper, but the ns in irun The meiaU wtrt n in niously worked into one

Mexander and Porus.

in

<

another that the pu tures \\huli pnuliH tions of

the most

famous (Jreek

uii

were comparable to the

artists"

M

t

ruuilr

1*nt*t

-2).

The

,tuel> used by

>

the

Whotc wing,

like

Piuntnl with silver

God

Oscar Wilde

in his

poem

of the Attyrisa,

stnmge tnuupveot tale, row high above and with rrd and ribbed with nxb of

kit

tuwk-fccnd

70

The

Sheets of soft copper.

6.

That

Roman

the metallurgy of

text

'honey-copper."

is

days included a fusion with honey or

other organic substances. such as cow's blood, to produce greater Miillcr makes a more ductility, has been asserted, but not proven. suggestion, that this

-le

was

honey-cakes allo\

\\ith 5 to

ductile

as

Phm

most useful and most

XXXIV, fatal

instrument

in thin

copper

and

sheets,

were shaped like times generally meant an

the sheets

Ductile copper in Roman 10 per cent of lead.

Iron.

6.

\\

"honey-copper" because

called

(

<

speaks of iron as "the

<-4'

hand

in the

of

man." The

ore,

found almost everywhere; "even in the Isle of Klha says, is worked like copper, and its quality depends somewhat on the water Bilhilis and TunasM> in into which the red-hot metal is plunged.

he

is

Spain, and

send is

to

it

Comum

in

Italy,

The

in

I

apparently, the ore

is

In

all

is

the use of their

for

made by

the Seres,

Next

other kinds the metal

alloyed, that

is

The

text

rough skins with the hair

is

left

kaunahn.

on;

later

Originally

which

\\as

is,

largeK

exported.

It

is

1

t

they were imitated

-otamia by a hoaxy woolen fabric, suggesting the Mxcrooat,

"who

to this in quality

impure.

Coats of skin. of

that

smoking. " us with their tissues and skins

the Parthian iron.

were

are distinguished

best iron

not

modern

in

frie/e

known which

is

meant here.

Ariaca.

6.

around the Gulf

As

Gujarat.

the

This of

is

the

C'ambay;

name

northwest coast of the

indicates,

it

India, especially

modern Cutch, Kathiauar and was at the time of the Periplus

one of the strongholds of the In do- Aryan races, and Buddhism, the religion then dominant among them.

incidentally of

Marco Polo (Yule ed. I, 93) 6. Indian iron and steel. Book I, chap. XVI I, mentions iron and ondanlquc in the markets of Kerman. Yule interprets this as the andante of Persian merchants visiting

derives

Venice, an especially fine steel for swords and mirrors, and " " steel. Indian from hundwamy

it

Kenrick suggests that the "bright iron

'I

/ekiel

XXVI

1,

19,

must have been the same. f such material which Ctesias mentions two wonderful he had from the King of Persia. Probably this was also the ferrum candidum of which the Malli and Oxydraca? sent 100 talents' weight as a present to Alexander. Ferrum indicum also appears

in the lists of dutiable articles

Marcus Aurelius and Commodus.

under

"

Salmasius notes a Greek chemicaJ treatise of

)n the

(

tempering

In. '

Hindu-

says

ifi

in

Cotton.

.4i

Hebrew,

karpju.

Sanscrit,

the -

.rlanu

I

iron.

(o rind jnythin,

mpoMiblc

ti><

.

the manufacture ol

woriuhopt wherein are forged the must

l>o

(

(i9tnpitm ktrt*t*m

a.

'

fa/uav*) lunxe

ttrfar,

"t

I

Mini:

it

di.it

in

(he

.re

the

(bun

Is

..i

woven

into cloth

hutory

The

Mr K

Mated by

li.ur )>rrn .idmirably

Cillon Plant, a report of

ln
Department

!!.

II

in

,

.n thread and cloth are repeatedly mentioned i'rofess..r (

head of its

sho\\s Around for the belief that

s

t>

in

t

H

\

Sayce in

I'.

,

Herodotu* describes sheep, the

f

c

fruit

r

limes, and the

mmanded

hi^h

both

rininu

.

and Pollux

that

state

i

mdu

tgbnd

of the process by

jypi in their

gr.

I)

is

sively

.HIM-.:

-:t

.dso

the ,

km'

n,

ritx-r

;>ort

(

cottinm

known

to

and

Josephusas
vumd

appears

11

I'lm

in

this

)mmana.

luxe hern -jmwn

to

(the same

from

unknown.

Permian (Jul

d the IVnplus

.!

met

perhaps the unrated single factor

'>

the

-^

in

factor* in the

:

ami 2nd centuries A.

't

demand

1

mam

of the

nu n that ruuun was

-tir

1st

Roman

the

in

heapemng

and weavinu.

in the I'linx

at its best in India until

and the transfer of

and the

s,

was

was one

r industry

<

as a wool, better

Indian muslins were in great

fine

prices,

nt India,

it

of trees u rowing wild in India.

iotton cloth

nuiui:

in the

HMieft

\\M exported by tea to the C and K ftMind

it

the 4th millennium

wa.

h.%

Tkt

iurd

A^ru uhurr,

..(

by

facts

>

and

\ers states that the inhaixu

Chalii(I

>n

.

made use

of coiion. and that

the Ph.rnut.ins exported Syrian cotton cl
n U ro\\msays

that

it

was

m

:li

by the

isi\e industry.

during

Roman

in

ura,

women It

was

of

I'atnr;

and

but tbt%

quite certainty not

day*.

\rabic kat'rn

or ihe it reek

urn

are mu.rrtam, because those- words

which was

very general use in

all

worn

uniformly

likely cloth

in suitable

Vincent says cloth "singularly fine," and from >
down from the tree-cotton, Gossyfimaybe Greek omiptions of some

being the

But these words

ium arboreum.

<

Indian trade-names for different grades or dyes of particulars of

is

doth; while the

would read "the

sagnui, a saddle)

to stuff;

flax,

as tobe or toga.

Monache cloth.

6.

for sagmatogrne

the Periplus

"clothing," was very

Atmatismos, translated as

lengths to be

in

hut usually cotton

meaning simpK 'Yloth,"

tkonion,

applied also to

the Mediterranean coimti u -s

noteworthy that the word used

is

It

in

cloth, as

to

the

which we cannot determine.

Fabricius alters monai/ti to mrjlochini because of

the occurrrm

<

of the same word in the following line, and makes a similar alteration wherever the word appears in the text, but it is difficult to see just

what

is

gained.

This "broad cloth' was no doubt used for garments sue h as the modern Somali "tobe," described by Burton (first /v//j///>., p. " It is a cotton sheet eight cubits long, and two breadths srun 29) :

It

together.

is

worn

sometimes the

many ways;

in

arm

right

is

bared; in cold weather the whole person is muffled up, and in summer it is allowed to fall below the waist. Generally it is passed In-hind the back, rests upon the left shoulder, is carried forward over the

and ends hanging on the left shoulder, This is the where it displays a gaudy silk fringe of red and yellow man's Tobe. The woman's dress is of similar material, but differently worn; the edges are knotted generally over the right, sometimes over the left shoulder; it is girdled round the waist. In-low which hangs a lappet, which in cold weather can be brought like a hood breast, surrounds the body,

Though highly becoming and picturesque as the Tohe is by no means the most decorous of

over the head.

Roman dresses;

toga, the Somali

women

in the

towns often prefer the Arab costume

a short-

sleeved robe extending to the knee, and a Futah or loin-cloth under-

neath."

McCrindle, Ancient

India, p. 26, notes that

tinct species of cotton, Gossypium herbacenm^

tree-cotton. yields

a soft

pillows, etc.

"a

The and

former only silky texture,

Pliny says

(

MX.

made

is

which >

1

is

that

India has

and Gossypium

dis-

into cloth, while

the

latter

used for padding cushions,

Upper Egypt

also produces

shrub bearing a nut from the inside of which wool

and soft."

two

arh'jn uni or

is

got,

white

71

Molochine,

6.

or

mallow

cloth, was a coarse

h a preparation of a variety of the hibtscuf

This purplish cloth must have corresponded closely to the iinlls still in .ieman.l on this COMt

form

McCnndle

Lac.

6.

form of

lakkku.

is

also as a

It

was used by women

l**tk. a bapf

it

The

to dye.

rwj|/,

for dyeing the natlt

Praknt

and

feet,

ti

insect

lac

in-

I

notes that the Sanscrit

lonneited with the root

rifJiA./,

<

7W4*n0

Kerr)

4*01,

and

native in India

practualls confined to that countr\

Still

Ai

Watt (Cwwm/nrW /Wurft if /*4w, pp

to

two

ds

a dye

>ducts:

dt

and a

vorable terms with the Mexican cochineal placed by mamif.u lured aniline, \\hen c

The

resin.

until fetch dla*

"\.

1<

dye competed

were

again

div-

hfCHM

important resin

'he

1

formed ar..und the young swarms as they adhere to

is

the lac being a minute hemipterous inset

res;

t

h\ ing

on the

plum-juices sucked up by a probost

The

dye

is

taken from the bodies of the females, which assume For a comreproduction

a bright red color during the process of r

account of the product and

Of somewhat

its

uses see Watt.

similar nature to lac

was the "kermes-berry" prowhence the dye known as

duced on the Mediterranean holm-oak; carmesin, cramoisi, crimson or carmine;

or, referring to the pupa-stage of the

scarlet;

mother derivation, vermiculum or

insect,

vermilion.

These insect dyes were used

separately, or, associated with

murex,

*

as an element in the so-called

Tortoise-shell.

6.

man

1

'Tynan pun" his

was a

great article of

for mla\mu' furniture and woodwork. quently-mentioned commodities in the

the trade

is

commerce

in

world, being used for small receptacles, ornaments, and It

is

one of the most

The

Periplus.

fre-

antiquity of

uncertain, but this seems to be the "shell" brought from Queen Hatshepsut's expedition in the ISth ceo-

and of Punt by B C.

Rhinoceros. The horns and the teeth, and probably the were exported from the coast of Abyssinia, where Bruce found the '\ of this animal still a trade and described it 7V*tr/t, ^

6.

skin,

<

.:

Avalites 43

28' E.

ancient

name

It is

is

is

modern ZeiU, 11 20' N., he of Bab-d-Mandeh Ahalit, on the north shore of

identified with the

79 miles from the

straits

preserved by the village

I

The

the bay.

much

possessed

coast"

call

the place Ausal, apparently perpetu-

A East

son of Joktan

<

IV

(Jen.

also

one time

at

died the "Ausanitir is

thought In Korster (His-

name of Ohal, unknown in Arabia;

natc the

' I

whose name

'

A

Avalites

\ '!.

Gtography of Arabia,

which

..ist;

of the coast of

$ IS of the Periplus).

in

ttrical

Somali tribes

Ausan of the South

ating: the

is

almost

uhcating a very early migration of tins tribe to the Somali coast. )hollah

1

the Persian (Julf

which

;

at

mouth on

the l.uphratcs

\\as the t'hulu of the Assyrian inscriptions,

and the Apol.

Of

'/eila,

Ibn Batuta, writing

went from Aden by a

v

sea,

and

in

the 14th centun, said:

after four days

came

"I then

to the city of '/eila.

settlement of the Berbers, a people of Sudan, of the Shafia

Their country is a desert of two months' extent; the first part The greatest number of the inis termed Zeila, the last Makdashu. Ratizah sect. Their food is mostly habitants, however, are of the

sect.

camel's flesh and

H

tilth,

which are slaughtered Zeila

is

The- stench of the country

fish.

is

extreme, as

IB

from the stink of the fish and the blood of the camels in

it

described by Burton

'

First Footsteps in

East Africa,

p.

14)

"the normal African port a strip of sulphur-yellow sand, with a The deep blue dome above, and a foreground of the darkest indigo. buildings, raised by refraction, rise high, and apparently from the as

bosom

of the deep.

.

.

No

.

craft larger than a

canoe can

ride near

After bumping once or twice against the coral reefs, it was considered advisable for our ship to anchor. companions put me Zeila.

My

into a cockboat,

The

situation

is

make almost an

and wading through the water, shoved a low and level spit of sand, which

There

island.

is

no harbor;

it

to shore.

high

tides

a vessel of 250 tons

cannot approach within a mile of the landing-place; the open roadstead is exposed to the terrible north wind, and when gales blow from the west and south

it is almost unapproachable. Kvery ebb leaves a from the mile half a seaward town; the reefy extending sandy anchorage is difficult of entrance after sunset, and the coraline bottom

flat,

renders wading painful." ila, the nearest port to Harrar in the interior, had, when Burton wrote, lost the caravan trade to Berbera, owing to the feuds of its its rulers; so that the chara< people had not (hanged f

from the account given

At honey,

that

time the

in

7 of the Periplus

exports

from /eila were

antelope horns, clarified butter,

in sponge, coral,

and small

pearls.

and gums.

slaxes. ivory, hides,

The coast abounded

In the harbor

were about twenty

and maJI, they traded with llcrbcra. Arabia. and and were navigated by "Rajput" or Hindu

.rge Imiiu,

Burton

tii.

(
t

*ys /rib and 1

i

"I rrpeatedU heard at

'

a*;

Harrar thai traders had

ac

srxrn months ing v:ldeii hraielrts, in ship*.

sail

I

they rrai

till

hrd the

j

Suit

country of paean* Va upon * hit h Frank*

once saw a traveler descending ihr th a store and gold rine% similar to thine uird ai money Mr k .,pl relates a tile current in Abytpnans trut (here i> u rrnuunt of thr ^Lxr trade Kefween

of nuggets, bracelets thr an.

t'\

(iuim-h Jllil

m

.

the

urst

GlMMft OOMt) Hid Shot.

'

tin-

MIMU thr

(

-xtrrn

i

v

oast ot thr Rr.i

AIM!

.

/.m/ihar

!>rr^oing, wrinrn hrforr mndrrii 4 the samr mmimon

-

PnU|fur%r

AbytMMM

the

I

;>rn fr.Mii th<-

trade

the

|,

\

through Abys&inia to thr

Thr

between tae CMI

tion

Afrua asvcn thut akihx or prir%i%, rlbtah muniry piltzninaue, pass from thr \\

:

\\hri

uinn

Irurnril thr rxistnu r of

C'nnuo

:i

C'

thr tlinr of Jcijo

in

rxistrtl.

i

has btri.

it

al In

licn L'urU

had altered the

:

ax that (-\i>ti:,-

m

ancient

urll-rstaMished trade to Kir\pt and Nuith Arabia, cnming -nhr to tnhr through the heart of Afru dioancr* a

and South.

The .,trs

cCM8t.

**Far-Milc

Aci-ording to

Hunon

>f>

.

mali tribe> railed thnr i-oiintr> the Btirr tl .Irum, uhuh he " .is "barbarian land, but gors on t. explain that 1iam mean* V.ib.

banan" meant

all

as

just

Kgyntian* and (treelu

among

The name seems to apply to the migration and thr mtx-s who had crossed the -julf at Aden

trade

rrtrrrr*!

brini:

to

their

In

imntr>mrn

from South

various periods

at

,

history

**bar-

nations not of their iountr\

as

lhoe "of

the

nirh our author has rendered into (Jrrek asjwrvftJM

Juice of sour grapes. -Thr \ll ic II

white;

is

).nphai-ium the formrr

is

a kind

trxt

of

oil

is

/;../

obtained from thr

prodm rd by pressing hr nhteuhile when the u*e of a t

the laner from the Amina-an grape,

:k-pea, just before the

rising

of

thr

Dog-star.

The

%r

ranhrn \essrU, and then stored in vessels of Cyprian copper. Also tbe unnpe grape best is reddish, acrid, and drv to the taste pounded in a mortar, dried in the sun, and then divided into into

The Amiiuean

grape he deM.nbr>

m MY,

4:

alto

a

76

"so

woolly grape

we

that

not be surprised at the wool-bearing trees These latter were cotton; the former

of the Seres or the Indians."

mulberry trees with silkworm cocoons bred on them.

\\ere

Virgil,

,

"

Velleraque ut

foliis

depectant tenuia Seres."

"Omphacium

Pliny (XXIII, 4) says again: the humid parts of the body, such

Thr

,/!

i:i

11.

.

as the

powerful action of omphacium

honey or raisin wine. of blood, and quinsy." of

And

in

than olive)

modified In the admixture

is

XXIII, 39: "The most useful of all kinds of oil other It is t <>>d for the gums, and if kept from omphacium. r

in the

mouth, there

of the whiteness of the teeth.

\Vheat.

7.

heals uK erations ot

tonsilla;\ -Jamls.

very useful, too, for dysentery, spitunu

It is

is

time to time

cultivation

mouth,

Triticum

of wheat,

It

is nothing better as a presc!\.m\e checks profuse perspiration.

vu/gare,

Yillars, order

De

The

(innnini,/ is

older

Candolle, than the most ancient languages, each of which has independent and The Chinese grew it 270(1 H ('. It definite names for the grain. says

is

prehistoric

It

was grown by the Swiss lake-dwellers about 1500 U. ('., and has been found in a brick of one of the Egyptian pyramids dating from about 3350 B. C. Originally it was doubtless a wild grass which under cultivation assumed varying forms. In the early Roman Empire vast quantities of wheat were raised in Sicily, Gaul, North Africa, and particularly Later a great wheat area was opened Egypt, for shipment to Rome. in now what is Southern up Russia, which finally supplanted Egypt in

the markets of Constantinople, after Alexandria and Antioch

into Saracen hands. is

interesting.

It

The

shows

trade in

wheat

fell

as described in the Periplus

that South Arabia, Socotra and

East Africa

had wheat not only from Egypt but also from India, which has not \\ att usually been considered as a wheat country at that time. (op. fit.

p.

1082) thinks wild

rice

(Oryza

coarctata)

may have been

intended, but the Periplus distinguishes between wheat and

rice

as

The Hindus might certainly have had the seed coming from India. from Egypt and cultivated it, but Watt notes the complete absence, so far as 7.

I'itacta.

and

known,

of wild

wheat

in

Wine. The fermented The culture of the vine

modern juice of

seems

India. t'itis

to have

rinifem,

begun

Syria, but within the period of written history

versal.

It

introduction

Romans

was ascribed

to the gods:

it

Linn., order

in

Asia Minor

is

almost uni-

by the Greeks to

Bacchus, the Egyptians to Osiris; or in the case of the Hebrews, to the patriarch Noah. The vine and the Dionysos, the

to

77

loniinurd cultivation from fear to year,

iuirint:

nomadic coftdkiont, and die product h.-

I

tnnr

\-

hi-

\\\

-

II.

1

hv

fostered

Roman

tin-

ihr

In

At the tune

i

and

-intuition

.V

into

:

ami h-..

Somali

was

\Nine

V,.'>:.m

(iuir

.in

his

I

Romans procured

"the

and the t'alenun these, it havini: hern tpeneil

11.

''

?i.<6>.

Surrentum

->t

lateK disr..\rrrd

H

fernliu part i

found

it

is it\

can be kept

it

equal to

I*

r

mentions a Falernian wine which had

was from l^xlicca on thr Syrian coast, the modern Latakia. Strabo \\ I,

m

>ther

respects,

good harbor; the abounds with \%i.-

ter-

The whole mounexported to Alexandria. is planted almost to its summit with vines.*'

iiulustnallv at

appearance the

t

that

>anscnt, k+itktr*.

This metal, the product of (Jaluu and Cornwall,

introduced after u>M. its

\, VI.

Kalerman, the Slatanian,

in.- Hebrew, Mi,

ttannum utili/rd

us

now esteemed

is

in the

Campania,

tells

well-built cit>. with a

a \er\

is

.mu'mu the

made

plain of

<

\\huh the greater

was

ume

in

its

1

were im-

this may have 24) but was principally dateItalian wine was preferretl t..

(

their H nest wines, the

h.f

I

milc-s

nyi

wine

!

.

50

a

also carried to India;

was from the

1

Ihe

demanded

East Africa, South Arabia,

modern Naples, whence Strabo

the

ot

I' oast,

ncn

ot)

vuimtN

l.mpire

us that Italian and laodicean wines

the

lulled grape

all

Roman

salt.

tells

i'enplus

Seme and Moselle wine wat not

days of the

extraneous substances, such as myrrh and other

\\ith

gums,

thr

.

thr IVnplus. thr popular taste

..?

and the

early Italy, but

u ln> h restricted imports of by restricting viticukurc in the pro*-

<>f

valleys

until the later

:

in

,>orts

irpuhiit

Mum

and

hs,

unknown

\\as

It


carried the vine to Spain,

>

eks to southein (iaul

UK

,,i

.

and the Asiatic coast near Kphc*u

inlands

',-.,:.

1

,

ihe eariicft time*.

wat an important export MI the the Greek winet ihr be* were

alley

l-./rku-l

,,f

\l\

commerce from

Industrie* appears in

li

in

a

comparatively

late, period,

having been

and mercury. It tipper, the Mediterranean world soon after the migrasilver,

1'h.rm.

iron,

i

Syrii

I

lead,

"he Phoenician traders

ma> ha%r

on the Hlack Sea coast, coming overland from tribe to soon they discovered the Spanish tin and traced it to in

fust v I

finally that of

Cornwall.

The

vahie of tin in hardening

78.

H soon understood, and Ho\s

tin- tnuk \\.is monopoli/.ed tor ccnPhu-mcians ami then descendants, tin- C'anliaiinians.

the

h\

thc\

carefull\

Scrabo's story (III,

of

lecrei

\

its

>t

production appears

Phu-nician

tin-

Roman

followed by a

himself

the

guarded

V, 11'

n the Atlantic'

esscl

in

who, finding o.-M of S|>am,

captain

ran his ship ashore rather than divulge his destination, ami collected the

damage from his government on returning home. There is much ronfusion in the earl\ references to M the Hebrew Mr/ (meaning "the departed") was

to the metallic residue

from silver-smelting

a

mixture

f

this

metal,

also applied silver,

lead,

The same comparison applies and occasionally copper and mcrcur\. for to kauitfrot and stannum. example, distinguishes ft lunihuni Pliny, stannum. \Vithout any definite and '., lead, plumbum uindidum, Suetonius

away

(//////.

(

\'I,

\

)1

says that the

'

Kmperor

the gold and silver from the temples,

all

stituted tiurii/iakum

pure

\\as otten the only unide.

determining metals, appearance

iusis for

and stannum.

Vitellius took

o9 A. D.

) and subThis stannum could not have been

but rather an alloy of lead, like pewter.

tin,

The

Amarna

from the King of Alashia

letters

C

yprus), in the Tell-el-

tablets, indicate the possibility of the use of tin there in the

15th century H. C., and of the shipment of the resultant bron/e to l.'j\pt;

and

M/rm,

under Rameses

tin, as a

mention of

\\\ iron,

II,

and

scribes

a

it

(

1

1

for

coming from the god

thrice

16"

>S-1

was, of course, well

lead, as hall

111

Numbers \\.\I,

in

tin

\1

is

separate metal,

11.

12.

mentioned

C.

in the Pupyrm This confirms the

).

By

the time of

1

vckiel

known; here it appears with silver, The stela of Tanutamon de-

Spain.

Amon,

build by the

Pharaoh Taharka

at

N. pata (688-663 B. C.), of stone ornamented with m>ld, with a tablet of cedar incensed with myrrh of Punt, and double doors of elect rum i

with bolts of

By

the

tin.

C

Breasted, .Indent Records of Egypt, Vol. IV).

Greeks the

true tin

was understood and

and the establishment of their colony

extensively used,

of

\lassiliawaslanrelydueto the discovery of the British metal coming overland to the mouth of the Rhone. The Romans ultimately conquered both (Jalicia and Cornwall,

and then controlled the trade;

Pliny's ac-

was vague. the Periplus, tin was shipped from Ku\pt

count, their understanding of

Accordinir to

but to judre from

it

to

both

Somaliland and India. La-ssen

(

Indische Alterthumskundc,

I,

J4'>

ami

(

)ppert. aii'intm

from the similarity between the Sanscrit kasthlra and the (ireck kassitfm, would transfer the it

seems probable

earliest tin trade to India

that the Sanscrit

word was a

and Malacca;

late addition

but

to the

bornmril from

.nr,

In thr

lVnp!u> l""-rs.

Malao now

(lit-

.mil the

B

;

/

nh (hr

Se,, \'..|

t

am r III,

nirlal !,,

Itr.

ii..

i

HrilH-ra,

we*.

'

kmaitn,

i-

(ln%

,

nusi, ihe capital of enter of (he caravan trade to the

F:

uh

Urlf,

|idu

*

./

,

11,

1

.s

ItMiiuiL' J...JT i

(l>

Si 49 uml

IM

..i

K U K KA

Hniuh

II

^

From

Burton: ffr//

F**tj*r}> i*

4S

F.** j/Htm.

S

K

ltt%

<

.

19b) \viuilti identit) it with Hulhar. about SU miles farther west; p. hut the description of the "sheltering spit running >ut from tin- cast" hexond doubt at Berhera, which has just such a spit, while Ilulhar

Uurton

on the open heach.

is

407-4 IS

pp.

.//.,

ftp.

town and

the it.

(

detailed

a

give*

the stream

of

harbor,

of

description

sweet water flowing into

t

and of the interior trade and the great periodical

fair,

frequented

by caravans from the interior and by sailing \cssels from ^S Vmen, the South Arabian COMt, MnM.it. Uahrein and Kassora, and beyond .

see under

genera I,

is.

uas

It

14.

Coiu-erninr frankineense

Somali frankin-

.-

:.

ID

res in the trade

Punt expeditions, and probably much from, and often superior to, the Arabian.

time of the

the

at

Kgypt

earlier. It

trade as that described in

"Far-Side" frankincense.

S.

of

same

the

inbay;

different

indeed, possible that the true frankincense

//'/.,-(////,/

;/,

was native here, and that the Arabian \arieties (Boswellia serrtitu, .ibru ius ^ in curious di^' were a later cultivation. p. 124

etc.

>

'

<

of the text, thinks the

t

1

Malao frankincense was imported from Arabia!

8. Duaca is identified by Cilaser Mzz/-, 197 with duakli, which appears in several Arabic inscriptions as a variety of frankincense; duka^ he says, is a trade-name in modern Aden for a certain quality )

(

of frankincenliurton (op. ninir parallel

"4000

6000

to


with

416) describes the range of mountains runsome .$0 miles inland from Merbera,

p.

this coast,

feet, thickly

trees, the wild rt^

The

Indian COpal.

8.

covered with

r i_

i'm-arabic and frankincense

and the Somali pine."

Pliny as a dye (probably

the exudation of a

in

text

is

kankanidn which t

confusion with

lac

is

by

1

;

I

mentioned by )iosi

orides as

wood like myrrh, and used for incense. it came from the country that produces

Pliny

'

XII, 44

)

says that

cinna-

the Nabataean Troglodyte, a colony of the Nabat.i

mon, through

i

no Arabian product. Glaser Skhnu-, 196) is positive that it with Indian copal. Malabar tallow, or white Henry Yule identifies (

it

the

dammar, carp**;

gum exuded from

which

is

described by

evergreen of the forests

I'atfria

Watt

Travancorc, ascending to 4000

in

turpentine or drying

The

bark

oils, is

f<

Indun, Linn., order

(

at the foot of the

to

varnishes.

is

p.

//.,

*/>.

1105,) as

/>//>/,/*-

a "large

Western Ghats from Kanara This

and, like copal,

is

gum

or resin dissolves

chiefly used for

also very astringent, rich

in

making

tannin, and

i-

used to control fermentation. 8.

Macir

is

mentioned by Dioscorides as an aromatic bark. it was brought from India, being a red bark

Pliny (XII, 16) says that

tl

name

ng upon a large root, bearing the

Hr was

it

mi\'-,i

-A

ignorant

<-

hones, was used

ith

*.:

.

identifier

he does not ulrntifx

i-ut

his

I

!l,r

order JfHryiMx.r "a small den.!

as

are

thr

was

this

Portuguese in

ono

tn

i-.tr,

thc-\

.,

'

is

n,

hi|uiii I

vKemu

he sc-eds

\M-|.

much

d

I

a fi\.

1

M--

Hindu maltrui ms&4. (ming

t
found

it

h.txin^

'Iv

I

anthelnnntu

thr

in

s

imibr altitude

tn a

.mil

hark and

allrii Jitrka nttiJalmniii,

i

a-

H^rrkfHH autumn*.

,.;

,r.

t<

lioth

trratinrn'

m in

i,,,.t

the most nnp.irt.int inc. in me

amM>/

dyr

de* nhrd !>> \\j-r uml th:..p/h..ui India and Burma,

,

lliin.ii.i\.i

produced (hi* hark.

r

Southern lnlu

hills of

H\ the merit

,

the louet

linn

on the

tlir

\\.s tloulxless

"....-

Wall

decoction of

wilh mutant, a feme u r nallte i. ll lltr MUI-:

it

of the root-lurk

coast,

of the irer thai

A

itvelf

medicine as a specific foe

in

M

HI,

,

r

in thr

astringent,

form

..f

it%

a solid or

used

and

antidysenteric

ml, and the vv
.1

great

on the

is

used

caning, furniture and

for

turn*

Muiullls

9.

N., 46 hut

uiti

miu

I.MI

Rrttqut

ft

nmiiinft

and

says

utth lierhera

hetueco MaLaoand

more

or levs, he

"sheltering

h A/W

1

identifies

spit"

"

identify flats *

t dfnqtu 4ant

tU

a small island pron

:es 4 -rihes

ua> much frequented by Arab and Somali

\lullrrs identiru-aiioM less

the

10

HaJS, it

"island rlu*c to shore-

;

it

sail"

da>>'

Saint-Manm

de

liandar

u..u!d identif>

the So miles,

just as lie

s,

Vivien

this little harbor,

fr

h

And

hcrbera.

Malao,

Mundus.

three

>r

<

altogether

hulhar ami

^

m...!ern

the-

)

the text

Mundus.

ax

prohahK

S<

uith

Ubnd(ll

Burnt

probable because that island

\

IS'

.

17

IS'

too far from shore to afford

i>

vtion to small

MoCfOtU was (Skhsu, 199-201

is

s

( ilaSCT probably a hiuh ur raiie ,,f frankmi ensr that the Arabic name tor the bem %-ar

Mahn, m^nur

mghnirot, or in

Somaliland as

note

mMr

\

m

:

.

and

(ireek of the text the change

negligible.

10.

Mosyllum is N ., 49 35*1

placed by most commentators at Ras Mantara,

?

(11

4S

m

same word appears

that the

this to the

28*

SO' E.)

many

'tion.

Ocean

begins

here;

Ras Kham/.r

I

miles farther west It is

I

he

noteworthy

ignoring not only

text Ln\es

<

10

S>

no help

m

\ the

that Pliny says the Atlantic

the

coast

of

A/anu.

as

82 :>ed in

15, but the

>i

prominent headland on the

hl\, therefore, rather a

xiu-h

thr

\Ius\llum \\aspmha-

of Spu-rs itself.

Cap?

roast, altoorther

Rax Hantara.

.is

This, by the u.iv. \\as reputed to have been the eastward limit of conquests of Ptolemy Kuenjetes. King of Ki:\pt, in the 3d

century B. C.

Cinnamon.-

in

\\ \.

,x.

meant

/,-K

I

usually,

\\\ II. in Roman

text

h<-

1

19,

\\\.

24), the

wood

the

tunes,

from Hebrew

.

modern

kezia

cassia.

This

lengthwise, as dis-

split

tinguished from the flower-tips and tender bark, which rolled up into small pipes and was called kinnamomon, from Hebrew klinieh^ a pipe;

khmtm

'.

I

French

(ttfina,

XXX,

xod.

1",

Cant. IV, 14-;

Latin

canntllf.

Cinnamon and

cassia

are

varieties of laurel native

.d

VII.

Pn.x.

21,

and wood of Burma and China. Pjiamnfamil'nn, classify them as

the flmver-tips. hark, in

India, Tibet,

Kngler and Prantl, Die Natur/ic/un follows:

Laurace* Persoideae

:

Cinnamomeae: 1.

Cinnamomum Sect.

1.

Malabathrum including: C.

javaneum

C. xeylanicum C. culilawan

Sect. 2.

C'.

tamala

C'.

iners

Camphora including C. C'.

Cinnamon anointing

oil

partiienoxxlnn

one of the ingredients of the sacred of the Hebrew priests Exod. XXX). The Kuyptian

inscriptions of ,

camphora

is

mentioned

as

(

Queen

Hatshepsut's expedition,

in

mention cinnamon wood as one of the

the

I

5th

century

"marvels of the

country of Punt" which were brought back to K<:\pt. Cinnamon was familiar to both the ( ireeks and Romans, and

was used as an incense, and as a flavor in oils and salves. It is mentioned by Hippocrates, Theophrastus, and Pliny. Dioscorides gives a long description of it. He says it **grows in Arabia; the best sort is red, of a fine color, almost like coral; straight, long, and pip\ and it bites on the The best sort is palate with a slight sensation of heat. ,

II

that called zigir, with a scent like a rate.

many names, from the different that whu h is like the "\\iim

he-di, in

n the

'

Roman

me and

v

and

\cr>

.

.

it

The But the hetl

grows.

\|o%yllum, and thit cinnamon

And

greatest perfection,

,

of knots,

full

its

.

where

athecav

\ls\llinc, as well

callc-tl

placet

i%

this

cinnamon, he

it

says,

of a dark color,

a dark ash, like

tomethinf a small twig or spray

frat;

untcrs distinguish l>ctwrrn true imumon mil rtiliij valued at 1500 denarii (about $<25) the pound; thr

mrr was

.cm

,

"caaua"

the "harder cassia" at

it

Mabo.

>.

I

the tree,

tips of

The Romans

whu

h

.tnd

mi

lu.

led the hark, the split

wood, and the

could not distinguish between species, and their

was according

classification

to

O pone, and

"oluhK meant the tender fthoots and were reserved for the emperor* and p*and distributed by them on solemn occasions. Cassia was

Ciniunion, under the

root.

he Penplus nukes no distim tion

I

Mosyllum and

nu-ntious.it

to the

appearance of the product as

it i

ante

them.

As

to the

cassia

Herodotus (book III)

naturally so, as the

;

He distinguishes om the nests of

theme.

origin,

->f

was from Arabia

states that

Phoenicians brought

it

nni.ini-n, and gives a fabulous Story of It* great birds "in those countries in which

The Bacchus was nursed," which in (Jreek legend meant India. IVnplus says that it was pr
other

writers refer as the rtgio innamtmiftra in the same belief. no sign of a cinnamon tree in that region at present, requisite conditions ,.f sml and climate do not exist. P1in>

Hut there

where \

I.

\\

the

2 I.

(

'

l\

i

is

indicates ,

14)

that

N.IVS

it

that

it

was merely trans-shipped there. Strabo came from the "far interior" of thi

K ^IM, and that nearer the coast only the "false cassia*' grew.

\\l, 42)

Pliny

came from Aethiopia and was brought

sa\

by the Troglodytes, who took five yean are indications that the true cmiuHere making trip. mon was brought from India and the Far Kast to the Somali coast, and there mixed with bark from the laurel-groves mentioned in $ The Penplu* \rabia and l-.gvpt and by Strabo, and taken th< he "larger ships" required at M.s\llum for the acts of sea"

N

the round

in

1

cinnamon trade Punt" whence

This th

1

was probably the very midst of the "1-ind of brought cinnamon 15 centuries

befon In India various barks

and according

to

Watt (p.

and twigs are sold as castia and cinnamon. SIS' it is still almost impossible to '/., p.

M Cassia hark

uish them. torically the

rdcd

Chini,

first

Of Cassia lignta

iman.ibU

The refer

was

)

his-

came from China,

qualities

about 27d(l IV C.

tecords

Persian

left valuable.

*>

known, and the best

to be

first

Malabar bark was

t<.

i

mnamon

as

/

)./

"Chinese bvk;" and between the 3d and 6th centuriei V I) a-trade in this article, in Chinese ships, from was an

China to Persia. Marco Polo describes

The

and Tibet.

i

miumon

growing

as

Compam's

British Last India

usually from China; and Millhurn describes both bark and buds, and warns

in

Malabar, Ceylon,

show

records

mm. 1H1S,

came

trade

that

11,

it

Sd'ii

the "c<

^t

dark and badly packet!" product of Malabar. ice the later years of the iSth century the variety C. zsyiannnm has been e\tensi\cl\ culmatcd in Ceylon; but the best quality is still

shipped from Canton, being from C. Cassia, native throughout Assam. It seems altogether probable that the Burma, and Southern China.

cinnamon of the ancient

true

K-jvptian

and Hebrew records,
Herodotus and Pliny, reached the Mediterranean nearer place than Burma, and perhaps through the

Malacca

Straits of

Many, indeed, must ha\e been the hands through which it passed on its long journex to Rome. The maldhathrum of the Romans, which they bought in India while still unable to obtain cinnamon there, was the leaves of three from China

varieties:

of the

itself

These

trees are

about 6000 feet in

April,

stripped

himala, with a

(.'.

of

all

of>.


Vincent,

\\III;

11.

risin

tree flowers in January, the fruit ripens

also

also

and are

delicate

.-MO-SB;

pp. II,

and for malabatkritm

409;

that

it

Pfiannacographia, 519-527;

I,

and

iners.

and the bark is full of sap in May and June, when is and forms the best grade of cinnamon. The strippings

555-561;

389;

2>v/tf >//
off

Watt,

Coll.,

(J.

from C.

little

growth, evergreen,

fairly large

The

altitude.

months are not so

of later

II,

Malabar mountains from

that of the

Himalayas from

Marco

M

Little Nile River.

Yule

Polo,

*/>.

2~V-2S5,

I,

<-/'/.,

Fluckigcr and l.d..

II,

Hanbury, 5o, 315,

49,

folium indicum, see Garcia de Orta,

comment by

Linschoten, Yoy.

Lasscn,

701-16;

130,

less valued.

K.

Ball

in

Ind.

The

Roy. <

text

Acad., 3d

Ir.

Kd. Hakl. is

Soc

.

II.

icrv,

L3I

NfilopotarnioH, perha|>s a

Another reading is \, ptobmaiw, which might also suggest a connection with one of the But in Kgyptian records there is no mention of settlement Ptolemies. reflection of

or

c<

Kgyptian (ireek settlement.

mquest so far Muller identities

this river

with the

/'//>-

Tokwina

(11

Mf N., 49

ss

which empties below a mountain, Jrhcl Haima, 3800 The "uiull (aurrl gnnr

)

places at Bandar

Muriych, 4000

4U* N., SO

Muriyeh (11

ih.k

mean "elephant," and

the

hapr

ipnes into the gulf

RJU

m.Nirrii

a prornontury 800 fort

.

Thr

Cape (iuardafm

of

thr

IK-

t..

It

40 miles west

.clow the

J

feet high

Cape Elephant

11. 1

thr headland %ugge*i* the

..f

rast

just

>%

-.<

I

thr

.!

promontory

I

I

or the Tokwiiui '49 iiuense

is

hnutuht

.isrt

this

oust

in

erKtrriul"

Aden.

t

two the

>t

.it

i

But

t.ir

n.ist just

l>\

plui in-/

west t. admit nf ni\eriiit;

Ix-furc

(

11.

?:

|

rntMindrr

tlir

And

the

iuuniafui, nu-ntn >nn\ in

*5

"outhI.'

HI.

el

the relatively shtirt

(Il.isc-1

4'.

u.dcrn fttmt frank\lmllum at Ra Khatn-

da\s' journry, as stated in

Kas

Hadadeh

-rom w hu h thr

S

rnlireK !.)

is

r

el

h*h, about wild aHo iu

(tiucr, 199) think> this is too far ea*t, and prefer* Ra% .;>h.iit Rivrr he idrnnhe* uith the )j^ui. (48 -^

i>f

feel

there are ancient ruin* here

high;

two

between Ras

day*' *u\

Hantara and Ciuardafui; hut he t.uU to takr IM'.I aiouuit the pre\ailn i alms mirth >( thr ape-, u hu h umild jusiifx a shorter da-,

/

i

that

Nuimi\ than farther uest. \\hrrr thr \\:nds are Salt (/>.
'(iuardafm

97-8)

und the cape At daylight we found that The same marks on the shore hail

\\hen the wind deadened.

1

we had made

si-an rl\

remained the

\vh<>l<

Acannae

11

varceU

s

st

an\ progress.

day abreast

<>f

uirntihrd with

is

Bandar

I'lulah.

1

\

.

McCrindle notes that Captain Saris, an English navigator, railed here in 1611, and reported a n\rr, empmni' into a bay, Set eral sorts of gums, offering safe anchorage for three ships abreast. in burning, were still purchased by Indian ships from the Gulf of Camba\. whuh touched here for that purpose on their voyage 50

-

42' K.

\l.cha.

The Cape

i:

Guardafui, s it

as

or Ras Asir,

"a

scarped.

Ailrn

bluff

The

So"

11

point,

2SOO

tin

s

to the north there

\\ is

is

>f

our>r. the

it

feet high,

is

not to be

mmsoon

the

modem Cape Ma'r.ndlr

N., Sl

comes round

current

with siu-h \iolence that

wimi. and during

Cape

Of Spices

as perpendicular a% it

out

of

stemmed without

moment you

a stark calm with insufferable

if

it

the (Ju a brisk

are past the

From

This

is

A

Salt:

Horn"

"Southern

the

into Ahyssinia.

Voyage

of

si

coast

beyond

XVI. IV,

Straho, \\hosa\s

doubling this cape toward the south, nptions of harbors or places, ho ause nothing' " .iftcr

we is

have no more dc-

kno\\n

of

th<

this point.

Pliny prefers the account of

from at

King Juba of Maurctania, compiled which the end of the continent is placed

earlier information, in

so that

Mosyllum;

if

completely the account

The

he had before him

it

Market of Spices modern Olok, on

with the

Strabo's description

this

lYnplus, he ignored

gives of this coast. is

identified

the N.

if

W.

a* followi

by Glaser (Mazy,

side of the

II.

Cape.

\\1. IV. 14): "Next

is

the

country which produces frankincense; it has a promontory and a In the inland parts is a tract along temple with a grove of poplars. the banks of a river bearing the name of sis, and another that of I

Nilus, both of filled

which produce myrrh and frankincense.

with water from the mountains;

and the port of Pythangelus.

There

are

The

tracts in succession

many

an(j

frankincense grows,

Also a lagoon

next the watchpost of the Lion, next tract bears the false cassia,

on the sides of

rivers

on which

extending to the cinnamon country. tract produces rushes in abundance.

r j ve rs

The river which bounds this Then follows another river, and

the port of Daphmis, and a \alley which bears, besides frankincense, myrrh and cinnalatter is more abundant in places far in the interior.

called Apollo's,

mon. Next

The

the mountain Klephas projecting into the sea, and a (reck; then the large harbor of Psyumus, a watering-place tailed that of the is

Cynoccphali, and the Southern Horn 12.

Tabae

Cilaser (Sk'nau^

promontory of

this coast,

Notu Ceras

the

V

is

201

last

>

placed by Muller at the Ras C'hcnarif, 11 5 thinks the distance from Olok too great, and

places Tabae just behind the eastern point of the cape.

Pano

1<

isamo.lcrn affortis I

ahU ka* H.m,a, 11

on the north

village

n the >

%li<

Opone

<

Hnit'KJ llu r , |

en

-hesc

" ,:ypiian

the m.

'.

thr

KAS

naim-%, Pano and

<4//
thinks, dixulnl

lu-

now ki> M,, vv (-.,,.

of Virgil

.f

GWr

'

the

.

the I'uni

..ul

thrir

.

( >j

I'a^mk

l'.uu liuu PIIILMIIH ut

s

I'h.r:

Phew

of the point,

the isLn.l

';-.,.-.

uns (Sococra

N.SlTK

wet

rrmarkahle headland

!

(I User rinds a

12*

little

.

V

rlu

i>

\

Hafun. I"

snir,

limnr

..r

in the

<>t i\rliru% in the %tory quoted b> KIM/ branch uini: to the coast* of S\ru. the other to South Arabia and r^ist Africa.

Persian (lull

islamis

I

tie

Cinnamon produced.

l>

MM, w,//:/i/W,

/

I

^

and now

'Mom

"llu-

at

K

\lr

I

Drake-

/m//'

/7n;) dated

&.

licrbera, January 7,

w.is kn.\\:i die Roman* at the rvgw the lar^e quantines of myrrh that were country abounds \\\ thr \ an ou* species of the acacia*,

The

exported.

Imcr from

'lammalt if

\\

.

,

t

.in.-nn:

mrtmtt

A

G

EL

\

.

?

produce gums of

var>*int;

commercial value, alv> certain trees

reM

"I have so far I

"The is

IS,

cinnamon group,

across any trees of the

c

heard of their existence.

myrrh, or maimal as

-(luciiiii

ulled farrtn;

known

is

it

>uin<: t" thr .utixitus

but

'

n able to penetrate the southern Dholbanta and

where M.

rnrs ,\

it

to the

the Mullah

I

'

irrn

.itiam.

I

have never heard of the exportation of

It IN just possible that there cinnamon from thiN p.irr of Africa nuuht be some species of laurels in the Dholbanta country and south

of

it.

tnit

it

not possible

is

t<>

\rnture so far

oumu

<<

(he hosblit)' of

the Mullah." If there was any aromatic bark produced near Cape (tuardafui ami not merely trans-shipped there, it seems almost certain that it was ati .t.lulterant added thr re :.. the true cinnamon, that came from India

U in

I

isl

from Ariaca.

Ships \'

id I

IN

\

The

amiquit)

of

Hindu

trade

asserted by Soeke />i*wrr %f tkt Sntnf if tkt he Puranas described the Mountains of \ t

.

I

loon and the Nyanza lakes, and mentioned as the source of thr Nile the

"country of Amara. \\anza.

district north ot

.

wrmh

A map

IN

the native

name

of the

based on this description.

88

was printed

\Vilford,

:!.

Vol.

in the

III.

was ever written concerning then Country of the we know, until the Hindus, who traded with the of Africa, opened commercial dealings with its people in hing

\Ion,

as far as

>ast

some time

possibly

f,

prior to the birth of our Saxiour,

when, associated with their name, Men of the Moon, sprang into These Men of the M-.on existence the Mountains of the Moon. arc hereditarily the greatest traders in Africa, and are the only people, who.

f>r love

porters

barter

of

and go to the

country-folk go to a tins,

and they

"The Hindu with

intercourse

As

fair.

do

still

and change, will leave and they do so with far

back as

own country as much /est as our

their as

coast,

we can

trace they ha\e done

as heretofore.

it

traders had a firm basis to stand upon, from their

the

Abyssimans

through

whom

they

must

have

heard of the country of Amara, which they applied to the Nyan/.a and with the U'tinyamuau or Men of the Moon, from whom they

heard of the Tanganyika and

Karague

Two

mountains.

church

Rebmann and

Erhardt, without the smallest knowledge of the Hindus' map, constructed a map of their own, deduced from missionaries,

something on the same

in/.ibar traders,

by Mending the

scale,

Victoria Nyanza, Tanganyika, and Nyassa into one;

triuned lake they gave the

Moon happened to

name

of

Moon, because

whilst to their

the

Men

of

the

'

live in front of the central lake.'

This trading-voyage of the first century by Indian vessels, although extended, was in other respects similar to that of the Arab traders of a century ago as described by Salt op. <-/'/., p. 103) less

(

"The common

:

track pursued by the

Arab

traders

is

as follows:

they depart from the Red Sea in August (before which it is dangerous to venture out of the gulf', then proceed to Muscat, and thence to the coast of Malabar. Africa,

visit

Ouerimbo Islands,

In

Mogdishu, Islands;

December

Merka,

they then

they cross over to the coast of

Barawa, direct

Lamu, Malindi, and

their course

to

the

and the northern ports of Madagascar, or sometimes

down southward as far when they run up into

Red

stretch

occupies them until after April, Sea, where they arrive in time to refit

as Sofala;

the

the

Comoro

this

and prepare a fresh cargo for the following year." 14.

The products

of the products of

under 8 41.

The

of their

own

places.

For a discussion

India imported into the Somali ports, see later,

important thing to be noted here

is

that these ag-

products were regularly shipped, in Indian vessels, from the that these vessels exchanged their cargoes at Cape Gulf of Cambay ricultural

;

99

Guardafm ami preceded along ihr

i oast, tome MHithuard, hut mart $ 2S, ( hells, at the entrant c to fhc !
ami

that, ai

ordifi<; to

i

i

the trade, shared

of

ilk

im

the trade ID an

i

from

idcntal

the Arabs

N

..f

as

\\

had

the IVripiiis,

Rome

MI

o|

\\huh

had existed

shoxxn to ksiniMU

enough

product

>f

i

fur

ertainly

i

the

at

Romans

for the

to the i
..MHIHMIU

i

ihe dtyt

.,!

l^ypc by

2001) of

point

to kn<>\\

at

um

\%

ith

In.iia.

and

\car*

pn*Kal>lv

cv

hucstillt-.be

.n-baik only 99 a

t

hdc the

-onnneri

thrv

e.

ihit

luturen Arahia and htdu

the Arab;

a later artule of

IHJI in

\\trinfr KiM.fdiMii. and a irnJed

ailiatur.

<>r

nu'.

1'

iiiiiM.i|<.li/rd,

*t\\\n\i

ilireit

iiiltxatiMi:

i!

!art;rl\ (ak-

tin-

t!

IM>

'hr N.nuli

the

f

Arabian thippinff and

l>,

.

an.!

,

c-mm had

.ins

thr K-itiuMs,

L'N pi

I

and shared imnr

clis

Cargor

MIMIC rxtri.t

t

quite rci-rntl) In (Jrcck ships

kn.

i-lcaf,

name

-idrr the

of nuiltibat/trum, as a product of India and Tibet.

butter.- Ihe

l.mfieil

(

i

text

is

suppose

tliat

substitutes, as noti-d 'I'hc

have will

.1

keep

under

Therefore they propose

xoyage from India to Africa by the \s shown under in the tropics not

is

of

take

it

,

si\

.md Lieut

;

llcrbcra Fair,

trlls

of

> oinahland

That

in ioast.

is,

\ fi

I

monsoon may

41. clarified butter

onl\ for \ears, but for centuries;

for trips

.

the

wrOOf

41.

?5

pp. 1.^6 and 24"

:r$t footttfps,

h*>t

the

butter could have been brought from India, in this hot

to the eastern coast o!

ilimatr.

of

^|><

"ver\

he

.\oiild

to

Some

4t/rrw.

Lassen and fat>rum\

but the

shows

that

\sreksorniore. under the same C'ruttenden.

modern Cambay

in

hu descnplion

ships laden with

ghee

probably along the the Somali had learned the art of ilariKun* for trade elsewhere,

in the P'th icntury b> the same class of ships them from India in the st tent \lungo Park found the same product cntcnn-j int.. the ..nuiirri e a: the much more humid Senegal coast

butter,

ami exported

iiad

hrouuht

it

it

to

1

i

of

-

the milk chiefly as an article of diet, and that

not until

it

is

sour.

The cream which

rtcd into butter In stirring

't

it

affords

is

\iolcntl\ in a lar-r

\cn

th

a la bash.

This

90

when melted over a

butter,

xnl dixhcs.

in

it

liberally

sc-rxrs

on

14.

and arms."

their faces

1799.

il..n:

Honey from It

part

most of their

in

heads, anil

/...

best.

is

f

.\\

.r.

the reed called sacchari uorlil

European was known to Pliny tlu-

of the Sanscrit i
Grinding su^ar

The modern

a

ed \e:\ |.,>ii-

(

l\

Chap.

tion in the histor\ of

commerce. Prakrit torm

forms

likruisi- to anoint thru

tnm

heed

ul

gend<

small rarthrn pots, ami

languages

rerlect

in

ot

su^ar

is

.i>

as a medicine.

the

tirxt

an artu Sniihari

Arabic tukkar^ Latin

nu-nof

lc ix

t

lie-

..,.//,///////.

Western India

the Arabic form

Porn,

The %nckit\ Kntrlish sugar. Spanish tnuitir, sutrf, order Grtimhn-tc. is derived from Saa'/tarum suu'ar officinnrum, Linn., uas produced in India, Burma, Anam and Southern China, long It German

French

before

it

found

and crushed 14.

ships at

its

way

first in

to

Rome, and seems

to

have lu-cn cultivated

India.

Exchange Opone and

their cargoes. elsewhere,

is

This trade

of

the

Indian

so like that described on the

same

91

coast

t>.

C'ruttenden in

Lieut

184H, that his account deserve* iu be

in full:

i

the quotation b from Button, u pUr dewned \., -%thr mlaiui tnU move down toward the coaet,

"the season

(dun

ihari.-.-

(In-

>

huts t"i

their

anil prepare-

their ex;

have in opportune un haaing the full could arrive, hastened across, followed two r

el

tin

th<

:

oi

\\

and

:>,.-.

from Pore-

clumsy

i\rr chc

j

Mt

w

quancn

l>\

their superior capitaJ, cunning,

i;>etiton.

i

the fair there n lanuiM^es.

DI.

is

a perfect Babel, in con-

and the cuaHNBt Disputes between the in-

.u kti'>\\ Ic-tl-rii,

are the laws

I

lutul

and Has

thnnsel\es into a permanent position in the

\t-NsrU, ellxmeii

the IMI

unl

trader*

in their

gher

npt>'

their

Bunun

\vealth>

B<>mlu>, mllcd acron

atui

Sur.

hted 4fa4rj from Bahrein, liattora,

and

l.a>tl

bandar, Mandavi anil

MuiCU,

11

Kh\ MM, ami

the plai

f

e.

tnhes daily arise, and are settled by the spear and dagger, the N

retiring to the

:!ui du-\ -.\*

in.i\

beach

at a

and depaninu day and

niuht,

escorted generally by

MiUlren

marks the

or (ialla

inali

merchant

slave

the slave-caravan

arrival of

his

cone*

and the

safaaje

meets

Bagdad or Bandar Abbas;

sora,

women

and an occasional group of

i;

dusty and the intei

from the town, in Ixing strings of cameisare

short ilutaiue

disturb the trade.

n..r

with Ins head tastefully ornamented with a scarlet sheep:

seen peacefully bartering his ostrich feathers

lien of a \\ig, is

and gums with (he smooth-spoken Banian tmm Porehandar, who, on board his ark, and locking up his puggaree, which :

infallibly

be

knocked

rum -pread

>n

the all

ofl

of

the instant he

his

wares

at

was seen wearing

it,

a time, under a miserable

the heai h

end

"t

Man

kinds, deeply laden, e their

h the fair

and

is

nearly at an end,

and

craft of

generally in parties of thrBy the first week in April journey

sailing

homeward

and nothing > If ft to mark the sm taming 20,000 inhabitants, beyond bones of slaughtered

:ain

deserted,

92

camels ami sheep, and the hameuork of a few huts, which piled on the beach in readiness tor the ensu;:

The Bluffs of Azania

15.

ll.i/m. emlm... IS.

coast,"

*

Rft*

"

d

49

the

>ii

47

.

as six days' jounu

I.

tending below the equator. sections, the first called

"i,.\\

Inn this

;

IVnplus

is

rates

\

The Courses Of Azania are the strips of The Arabs divide this

IS.

I. mil <>r

el

55'

lunger course than the bluffs, \\hereas the

them both

as II

-

The Small and great beach is M? \ ending at R.i> .Wad, 4

actually a

carefully

known

are the rugged coast

44' N.,

K>1.

is

Barr

Ajjtin

'

desert

coast

into

UNO

name

the ancient

prcscrx ing

,

sriond Bcnadir, or "coast of harbors" apion may he the Nicon is, perhaps, the modern Mogdishu, 2 5' N., 45 IS' K. modern Barawa, 1 10' N., 44 5' K. The "rivers and anchor the

are along the

modern El Djt-snir or "mast of islands name A'/ania, R. N. I>yne, in

ncerning the Contfntpon,

Polo, have

.

much

and

The name

of interest

/ibar 'the Portuguese

in

form of '/anuhihar the whole coast, ,

derived from bar^ coast, and zang, black:

name seems

'/jin-uh
his edition of

survives in the

island, but to

not only to the

his

Marco modern /..mwhich Marco Polo applied

Henry Yule,

C'ol.

and

it

is

popularlx

"land of the blacks

Hut

be older, and to refer to the ancient Arabic and Persian division of the world into three sections, Hind, Sind and /in],

the

to

wherefrom even Kuropean geographers in medi;r\al times East Africa as one of the Indies, and Marco Polo located Abyssinia c

Middle India."

Cosmas

Indicopleustes, writing in the nth cen-

whole "Zingi"

tury A. D., indicates that the

1.

coast, to a point

cer-

below Mogdishu, was subject to the Abyssinian Kingdom.

tainly

Yule notes

that the Japanese

Encyclopaedia describes a

'country 01

W.

ocean, where there is a bird called plung, which in its flight eclipses the sun. It can swallow a camel, and its This is doubtless the '/aixjhihar quills are used for water t.

the

Tsengu

.

the

The

in the S.

name and legend

reaching Japan through the Arabs between Asia and

lack of distinction in ancient geography

L"es back to the

dawn

of

letters.

Hecataeus in the 6th century

two equal continents Kurope, north of south of it. Around them ran the ocean is supposed to have been based on temper-

divided the world into the Mediterranean; stream. ature.

The

Asia,

distinction

~l*azer( History of

dm isn

t

Geography,

p.

69) refers

it

to ancient

Assyria, a$u (sunrise) and irib (darkness) frequently occurring in inscriptions there.

n

94

The Pyralaae Islands

IS.

Lamu, back of which there waterway on the whole coast. *<' tncrc s empty >"' 18' S., 40 ami |,4mu, 2 :u-l"

'I'his

50'

mm h

only

protected

"channel;" several rivefl the ocean between Manila of a canal no\\

<>t

the

kno\\n

t<

impossible.

Ausan was

AusanitlC Coast.

tin-

Vincent's identification

1

is

later,

Manila, and

Patta,

the

Mombasa, on account

with

ha\e been due the-e 15.

is

a passage to

'

.

arc evidcntU

a thoroughfare,

is

South Arabia, u Inch had been absorbed

b\

a

district

Himyar

ot

Katahan

in

shortly before the

time of the Periplus;

hence the natural

the conquered

should be exploited for the advantage of the

state

result, that a

dependency of

H.imerite port, Mir/a.

Menuthias.

15.

Pemba

The

omissions.

material

probably

whole passage

'I'his

'at about 5

S.

first

is

corrupt,

island

and there are

south of

But the topographic description

).

Manda is

is

perhaps

and the name seems perpetuated in Our author was possibly unthe modern Monfiyeh (about 8 S. ). acquainted with this coast, and included in his work hearsay reports from some seafaring acquaintance, in which he may have lumped the truer to /an/ibar

'

about 6

S. ),

into one; or if he is describing places he has vi.sited suggested by the mention of the local fishing-baskets and the like), some scribe may have omitted a whole section of the text.

three (

islands

which

is

This location depends on the condition of the

Rhapta.

16.

If that be Pemba, preceding text regarding the island Menuthias. at the Rhapta would be the modern Pangani (5 25' S., 38 59' K ,

muth near

of the river of the

M'

Bagamoyo (6

Kilwa

same name; 38

S.,

if

50' K.

Zanzibar,

);

if

it

would

b<

Monfiyeh, the modern

-

Vincent's insistence upon KiKva is very likely well grounded, from the suggestion of the ancient name; that exist

''8

if

is,

the text

is

.

a mutilated description of three islands kno\\ n to "last market-town of the continent" below the southernmost island, Monfiyeh. Hut

close proximity, the

in

would

I

naturally be

the distances given by Ptolemy between

the former a location

for

(6 in

42' S.,

Africa

40

.<'

was due

man

39

5'

known

K.

The

i

.

to him,

Rhapta and IVasum

su

near Bagamoyo, perhaps I)ar-es-Salaam,

The Prasum is

evidently

of

Ptolemy, the farthest point

Cape Del

later identification of

Menuthias with Mad.,

to the discoveries of the Saracens, and

is

impossible for Ro-

times.

Rhapta, (ilaser notes, has nd.

its

name from an Arabian word

96

Great

16.

by the Arabs

in stature.

I

Africa, or rather

in

tor the slaves,

ceedingly strange,

'he

on

uii..u-

s\stem

the coast

both

u

sla\cholding

f

/an/ibar,

.it

i-

ex-

indixidual strength ami in

in

numbers, are so superior to the Arab foreigners, that if the\ chose to It happens, rebel. ihr\ might send the Arabs thing out of the land.

knowing tlu-ir strength any than domestic animals, and they seem to consider that they uoulti be dishonest if they ran away after being purchased, a<.d so brought pecuniary loss on their o\\ IK eke, '!>. thcv arc

hat

spell-bound,

not

liuition

Sovereignty of the state that

A

Arabia.

\i\ul picture

is

here given us

is

become

first in

of the earls policies of the

Prevented by superior force from expanding nortlmard. hut

Arabs

were

useful commercially to their stronger neighbors, they


m

:

The

early Egyptian records bear testimom to their The- "Authe second millennium B. C., if not earlier.

exploit Africa.

in $ 1-5 was probably a possession of Ausan was independent, which was not later than the 7th Later the coast became Katabanic, then Salxran, then

samtu l'oast" mentioned

when

that state

century B. C.

from

Homente

the

,*d

to the 6th centuries

A.

the Adulis inscription and Cosmas Indicopleustes, In

Mohammedan

times

it

according to

I).,

it

was

Al\vssinian.

returned to the Arab allegiance, and until

bar and the adjacent coast accepted the Knglish protectorate they

were dependencies

of the Sultan of

Cilaser has well expressed this

(Sknzs,

med was

II,

"We

209):

the

first

histon

in

must

Muscat undoubted

finally

si

M in

irresistibly

as

Rome

as these states

and Persia

and

I

expand

in

Moham!

Africa only,

became exhausted, then Arabia

hurst forth

also

Punt und

AY/,//,, 20-..

Previous translators of the Periplus have

meaning

dominion

vjxpt and Babylon

and overflowed the northern world."

.Jaratiuhtn

that

to bring Arabia into a leading position in the world's

retained their power, the Arabs could lint as

\-ab

f

abandon the idea

much misunderstood

the

of this passage in the text.

Arab captains

who know

the

whole

coast.

The

discovery by Carl Mauch in 1871, of strange temple-like structures in northern Rhodesia, led to a great deal of wild assumption as to their hist,r\

The

ruins are loosely-built stone enclosures,

some

of

them

form, having conical pillars within, and apThe largest of them were parently facing North, Kast and West. irregularly elliptical in

somewhat South of the present Salisbury-Beira railway line, near the upper waters of the Sabi River and w ithin reach of the trade

situated

97

known

Mia, nirs

it

to ha\e

was

ucntcd by Arab traders in medi-

h.

once aaMimed thai .mint ;MI-.U ur.t.,jt,i!'.

rti'ti:

at

Htm up

ous|\ hut

ami

Hall

by

See

for

lir.it,

I

Mjbjrci

IVM.

....

./'

and the

temples,

(

localit)

ilu-

\\us

20

II.

,

once

at

endow upiral

form of am

identified

ihr trmplr

..r,d .f

the

with the

N.lomon't voyage*. Profewr a resemblance be*

>plm j

rntulmc M.inl),

I

M**k*l*m*. by

l.omion.

ubiquitous "fond ol

at

toJumiii-

l/*iwA0,

,,

ure* suggerted tbc .n

*a

...Nfji

I,....: I

>jK*-*n or

it

The

.luran

a:

kingdom

of Southern

irumrnt was of course pure aawmption, as ancient literature to any knowledge of the

'll>f

:i

M\ hundreii miles of the

M

Randall- \Iav i\r-

.

in.nic

.uul p* ia %

Ins

in

Is

amount

of that work,

Kaflirs, if the so-called

I

)

e the

kingdom

nkin clu

Mdunml

work of negroes, Monomofapa. A piete

1906, that the sin.

London,

port of Sofala

careful iiurstigjlion of the ru

.1

I

of

period, found in the

he structures, showed that they could not dale earlier than the

14th or

1

They were

Sth century.

mit of loose stone,

and

their

enclosures for de-

supposed orientation was

found to be inexact and probably accidental.

done by Dr.

It this Kaffir kraal

did

The Periplus mentions Rhapta, some distance -he last settlement on the coast; and

.i.T

south of

tl

Pluler

l)elirad.

Periplus only through the -,ir

;.t

a'

and

I

\l.n href in disprotini: the antujur

however, need to be supplemented h> his the prol-. Arabian trade far down this coot not,

>res

in the

)r.

\lau\er ma\ ha\e knou

ven b\

rhiititrt, la ffefrap/i/f ft It

i

I

a^

(

iuillam

the detailed account ii\en in

IVnplus the statement

in

IS.

[)**-

cvmmtnt de f.Jfrii ut OntntaU is

definitely,

Kth

made

.

hut

tho>c v

that thi*

uhole

under some ancient right was sovereignly of the power which held the primacy in Arabia;** that is, A D the right was still s ancient as to be beyond in the If]

coast (to about 10

S.

)

\

t >

.,tin of

who desi rihed command of Arab

the merchant ships

in

the language of the natives

it

The

coast

captains \\ho

was

knew

and intermarried with

This condition is corroborated by the known Arab infusion in the negro peoples on the whole coast, whirh is of far earlier origin than the

Mohammedan \\|M

olom/ation.

the

xsere

the

t

Re\

the Rhodesia Si icntihV Ass, .nation, included in

its

IVriplus:

belween the speech

hiuls a striking similarity

nU words

He

identical

Pokomo

modern Swahili

the C'l/imha

kex to most of full

ml,

S.

J.,

men-

as

papci

Proceedings

is

the

).

Tana

which

Rixcr,

S.,and

that

the

of

gives a long comparative

derived from

more

en

ex

He

4
the aboriginal language-

is is

of the

ahout 2"

list

of

Pokomo and Ci/imha tongu--, evidently Krapf and other German philologists as

(juotes Dr.

the

thai

that the

S.

these so-called

in

Lamu

of

IX-19

xi

.1

1905), analyzes the languages of the coast ami

Buluxvaxo,

empties beloxs the island

that

1'orrcnd.

a

in

'.

sax inu

and what ua> then language,

natives

in

tioned

modern

and

primitive,

dialects

of

the coast, and

<>f

and he himself heliexes

it;

that

southern

the

the

gives

it

lather

coast.

W9

of the Sofala-Ophir theor>-, argues that the language

brought from the

Tana River

The

is

/amhesi, not by land because the modern tribes are of peaceful disposition, but rather by sea, and particularly by sea-traders, assuming such to haxe come from Arabia. assumption

to the

certainly far-fetched, as

it

is

hardK

likely that

any

however busy, would have brought this negro language and he transplanted it 1500 miles down the coast to a different tribe.

traffic,

I

>non

is

ward within

modern

rather that this branch of the Bantu race migrated south-

historical times,

through the African

rift-valley,

and

that the

the lower Zambesi, said to be speaking to-day the most primitive language, are their descendants, while those who retribes

of

mained on the Tana have had later contact

The name of the

Afn\mba

their speech modified

more

notably by

with the outside world. C'nimha, borne by the

modern

Roman

which

geographers;

dialect, suggests the

x\as

known

them

to

Matemus, who months southward from the (Jaramantes \ /./an and brought back word of a region abounding in rhinoceros, inhabited It seems not by negroes and bearing that name Ptolemy, I, 8, 5 through the report of an adventurous \outh, Julius

marched

for four

I

,

>.

an unreasonable assumption that he did reach the head-waters of the Nile and found somewhere in that great rift-valley the ancestors of Bantu tribe which later migrated southward and formed, among other confederations, the so-called A/wowo/afta of the media -\al this

raphere.

This

rift-valley of

Kast Africa

is

a striking feature of

raphy, and must have had a great bearing on

its

early trade.

its

topog-

A

good

99 '

the

Red

a

is

It ,.f

natural depretuon br^ni...^ an thr lower

UtfOWa ami the fctrjlU, faking fOUfhAbyvuma t., thr Itrituh an< im ludmi; lakes R u 4i.-um.kj and

.Sf.i

!>.

.,;h

in possessions,

.

and running almost

^4,

that this \alle\

me

\\as

hahle

mmmeuial

left regular

thr

tii.it

S\\.IIII;N

uhuh

UiKl,

extnit

M"

.it

l.i>

toumi

h.ivr

u..\ id

antit|uit>

N<.rtli,

is

it

necessary to

'

i-ulturr in

|

iln\\n the ntt-\

t

i

am

Ana bun

T

in

more or II Wit A

that

..;,.!

entirely

Mjthunalaiid

iradc-nmtc by r \ihan-jr in ili%pn*\inu he

unnciTHsan.

ruins, in attempt

uVm

broad un-

its

viulh of thr \j||e\, nn^ht t.

this natural

xe the m..

ah influence and infusion alon^ it

n.

t%

it

of

possihle lint the

cjuite

.il-m-j

Mashunalaml

of ihc

.,tttro|

inhabiti.

uith the

^r< at ilistuiur

its

i

trade than the fCS-coasC with

miirrd

IN

1

1

c

\

unclrr thr

tnt>c >

i-|.,ti,,:is

'f hr.ilth\

1

/.nnlu

thr

to

t!

ican CoaJC

tin

infikntKNI

'.

from the heail-uatrrs

r .!,

'

Arabian

of thr

Nur. southuur^i westward throuuh the Sudan toward th< .it sprc.ni <>( tulturr. 'Ik-lore ami religious '

Fl

and

well attested to admit of denial

pr.t>

Palm

1" narfi/ios

t

a

oil. The word in the text, >/,//,/>//>, isiorword which appears in modified forms in other

arikda^ nariktra,

geographers. .Kid the

<>f

i

pAoro),

t

N

Indian trade there.

!'(.>,

.

<

narft.\

appearance of the word on the Zanzibar coast

mnnimatmn

of course a

is

Praknt

whence

hi.\ t

from which the

I

the ad jcctixe 4Mofii-

Periplu-.

adjective koukinw.

This palm probahl)

nati\r

oil

in

was from

Cocos

;/.v

-

..

the Indian archipelago,

l.inn., order Palm**. and carried by natural

Hindu ;uti\ityto most of the tropical world. It known, providing timber for houses an. slnps, K.ues for thatch and fiber for binding and weaving, aside As a from the food value of the nut, fresh and dried, and the oil. medicine also it was of importance to the Hindus, the pulp of the ripe fruit being mixed with i laritied butter, coriander, cumin, carda>r n their m//7>fr-440*4r, aspei ih\ mn^ dyspepsia and

causes is

one

.is

\\rll

as

of the most useful plants

I

?

consumption. the 6th century' (I,

10:.

349-3

II,

The nut was described by Cosmas Indicopleustes in and by Marco Polo in the Hth century as
:<'>.

248) as Indian

nut.

(Sec also Watt, if

100

101

Thi* refects the settled M*t of -dd be by die ocean JIM! Herodocu* gives an account, by no mcam imp***-

Unexplored ocean. was

<.

it

mnnaiigated.

<

*ur rounded

under

MH-dilh.i,.

uhu

Mow Cape

v

ucsl

Moss\luni Channel,

C

B.

.r

thr

I'ltrtuguefe

kmmlrdi:r

our author

did not reach

in

it

(

*th

tn thr

kmm

'peant

>ra coart

and

/uMJohar

M iflafiirii

loth irntur>.

r

I

.uid

KHIII.UIS.

aiul thus

r

began

it

the ISth*

the

in

to

uni dur rastwurd

shift*

wa n*

.1

occw

placed ihr MMJthern

I'lmy thought

Aim

>!

tr

g>pt in the third year of

I

as far a> the

it

diicovrncs it

i..

Scran* i

(iiiardafui;

Ptolemy carried

.uid

-d

'

and

Guardafm,

actual southern extrusion

until

part

returning

,

.itosthrne*

jour

(lint

The

600

h did NO about

hut

was

thrir

kn-

they supposed that

it

thr link,

joiiic-
on Sea." I'hr

i

ideas of geography at thi> tnnr arc rrHcctrd by the

iirrrnt

map according

Thr

>f

Pomponius Mrla, about 44 A. D. was to establish the ami India, t<> a distance nr\rr lx-t<.:r

to

the author of the IVnplus .1

m. I

<)

voyage, from

the

-This srctmn

left.

l>ejin> tl"

\\'hiti- Vilhiyi-

Haura, 25

tors at HI

by Husani

island.

Arab name

itself

7'

more nearly right named at the beginning

the

,

ami held

Thus r

the

protected

in

the

arr

text,

probably

iupyinu.

.<5

H

I

lay

m

\\

thr

i-Araha, the great \alley connci-tmi: the

.4

,u

Mum,

Dead Sea

was the great trading enti <>f the of numerous important car emen northward, and frm the Per*iai

Akaba.

It

i

r

and the junction

runninu fr.un ^

eastward.

ferred

<

of

Arai^s,

a lu\

of this paragraph.

N..

..:>

(Julf

m

also

The distance and direction from Berenice, which is the <*arting-riMt in

C

Petra

nonhrrn

tecond

by most commenta-

.\\\n h lirs

Muvsel Harbor." through an error

the \\

of a

means "uhitr. and the The pbie is on the appears as Auarn^ in Ptolrrm te that led, and still leads, from Aden to thr \Irdi-

are

\\ith

,1

N., .C'

The name Ha urn

Thr ni\

r

India.

r<>

1

it

Controlled the Fastern trade ijr until

overland

(mm

both directions,

the results of Trajan's conquests trans-

trade to

already diverted to Alexandria.

Palmyra;

the sea-trade

hating been

of Arabia Pctraca has MS

hi- district

I

name, according

native

referring to

name was

XVI,

Isaiah.

Joscphus

'

frm

name

Ant. Jn,<

\\

\ariegatcd color of the rocks

the-

ltihlir.il

t<.

1.

Judges.

(Arabic

\7//

16)

I.

wu

1

the \Vad\

in

,W means a

\ apostr>phi/< -s

en rocks," and Obadiah.

.

/

Musa.

Edom"

OQ

"l

\/<;.

The

this cit\. '.

.

whose

"hollow

"thou

I

that

on high." Siraho (XVI, IV, -1 Myi "IVtra is situated on a spot which is R|Trounded and fortified h\ a smooth and level n>, k, \\ hu h externally is dwcllest

the

in

of

clefts

the

rocks,

habitation

is

'

abrupt and precipitous, hut within there are abundant springs of u.un Hc\ond the both for domestic purposes and for watering gardens.

cm

Insure the country

is

Juda-a

most part a

for the

my

Athenodorus,

friend,

desert, particularly tou.u.l

who

had been

at Petra,

he found many Romans and

to relate with surprise, that

also

used

main

other strangers residing the

XIV.

itnianus Marcellinus

<\

IS

describes the place as "full

of the most plenteous variety of merchandise, and studded with strong

and

forts

castles,

which the watchful in suitable defiles, in

tants has erected

solicitude of

-its

ancient inhabi-

order to repress the inroads

-f

the neighbor! nu nations'

The

topography of Petra and others.

cipitous

It

with a long,

cliffs,

almost impregnable.

and a safe storehouse

from Yemen.

well

is

of Flinders Petrie

The

It

seems

known through

the descriptions

was a fertile bit of valley surrounded narrow and winding entrance, and have been,

to

Biblical references

show

it

place of

a

first,

for the myrrh, frankincense,

sil\c

as an

miinu

Kdomite strong-

being abandoned when the Kdomites entered Palestine Babylonian captivity, it was taken by the Nabat.i-ans; \\hom Josephus makes the descendants of Nebaioth, son of Ishmael, while (Jlaser and others see rather Nabatu, an Aramaic tribe noted in an hold;

but,

after the

inscription

of

the valley of

Tiglathpileser

Kdom

III

in

probably

-745-727

H.

the 6th centun

C.

J,

who

migrated to

1

I

,

i

Here the Nabat^-ans were attai k

from Si

in.

at first nomadic and predatory, inxitmg land from by Antigonus, and by sea on the Gulf of Akaha, the Ptolemies Agatharchides, 88; Strabo, XVI, IV.

however, they sen led

exceeding,

down

as the ruins of

to orderly

Petra

testit\

commerce and prospered One may suppose that a

with Syria and Kgypt was due to their commercial aggressiveness rather than their predatory habits. They fought hard to maintain and control the caravan trade against the

part, at least, of their trouble

In their dealings with Rome they competition of Kgyptian shipping. cam water on both shoulders; helping Titus against Jeru-

tried to

101

salem, but supporting (hr Parthian* again* Rome as occasion or This B "as terminated in H'S A |) rajan thrill )io CaSfillft, \\ III. \"rr tiut fa] !

I

I

U

I

the desrrt \%a* Manketrd hv the fchip incd, thr ship and when thr ..vnlaiid iracic revived, toward thr end of was Palmvra whuh reaped the advanta, irntur\, !

sea-,

the

2tl

it

Malichai.

19.

Mut

,<',

The

this k.i. r

,,

-

Sahamm

the

..(

name might Hebcrw mtUik, king, which appears in MM h llrt>rr\\ names a* "Abimr .uui "\lcli hi/* \\\\; ti> the \\r!ttn^s of Jovrphns, who as a Jew would have bern likt-U t<> tiistmguiHh l>rtwrcn (he name and r kings having that name in what hr called (he the title, in M\iii.' thr il.ttr of

(hr

:nurilv (he

t<

rd as a tnuut-ripimn

\\hi.h

Arabia,'

>f

Nabatvans

In

his

>ulik

\\as certainly the

7ra

tki

of

Antiquititi

,

tame

as that of (he

XIV. U,

1

King
tions

IniN,

This

the Jews.

u the year 31

<

me

MIS

>aned cavalry to Julius Carsar for his siege of Alexandria

M in ins,

BtlL

Alt*.

I,

and

';

Pacorus, the Parthian emperor, for

him

pay an indemn Malchus can not,

t>

hiN

I

subsequent sent which Mark Ant

Aulut

auxiliaries

to

;>elled

course, be the one mrntionrd in (he

t

But Josephus (Jnvi$h War, III, 4, 2) mentions a King of Arabia, Malchus, who sent a thousand horsemen and rive thousand Pcriplus.

footmen

to the assistance

I

c in the year 7u A. irr

than the

Syrit Ctntrah,

who

in his

1).,

this

mentioned

\

upon Jerusalem. These King Malchus can hardly the text. See also Vogue,

attack

and

in

quotes HIM nptions of this Malichas or Malik, and

father Aretas Philodemus. oi

Hareth, a contemporan of

IiJx--

and Caligula. 19.

Small vessels from Arabia. account of handise

Rhn at fs

is

StraK

\\

I

l\

-

has

this trade:

conveyed from

I

n Phoenicia near Kgypt,

present the greater part

is

.e

<

and

th

to Petrt,

thence

>ther nations,

transported by the Nile to Alexandria.

brought from Arabia and India to Myos Hormus, and is then rd on camels t<> I'optus of the Thebais, situated on a canal of Nile, and to Alexaml The policy of the Ptolcmus. m seeking to free Egypt from cornmunicarial dependence on Yemen, and to encourage dr

104

had been continued

tion with India,

The

"small vessels" of

port arc to be contrasted with the

from Mosyllum in

The

to l.gypt.

I

"large vetaehT

1

the

t.

of

m

the

i

\ahat.ran

1" that traded

?i

caravan trade could not

This remained

pete with the ship. when the

the expense

at

from Mu/.i

'

same way, and along the Red Sea

the

Rome

In 1

>

In-

reached

amel could alwavs com-

Arabian hands for another

half-

l.mpcror Trajan reduced the \ahat.ransiosuh-

CCntur\.

Rome.

jection to

Centurion.

1*).

assumes

Vincent

does not indicate

that

this

was

a

Roman

At this time the kingdom of the \abat. rans was independent, powerful and prosperous; as it might well ha\e been, from the 25 per cent duty our author tells us officer, hut the text

it

levied

on the

rich trade

Two

Arabia. n this

and

^l

other instance

in

between Arabia and Romemeanings are attached

S 49

it

distinguished from the other

to this

word

refers to the entire peninsula

means Yemen,

it

it.

the

Homerite-Sabaite

kingdoms and

the

in

in

;

every

kingdom

political divisions of

as

the

peninsula

Differing in their speech.

20.

In

north

the

V

the

spoke a dialect of the Aramaic; along the coast the "C/aniaitcs"

t.tans

spoke various Ishmaelite dialects, out of which has grown the modern Arabic; at the trading-posts of the true Minseans, their own lanallied to Hadramitic, was spoken; speech was Himvaritic. .

1^.

that

Similarly,

is,

to the opposite coast below

ibed at the beginning of the

men.

Rascally

20.

writers concerning these

"The oxen were

on reaching Yemen,

2 voyage, in Compare the observations

Berenice.

first

of

other-

same Beduin robbers: plowing, and the asses feeding beside them

upon them, and took them away; the servants with the edge of the- sword/ Job

and the Sabeans

the

fell

:

yea, they

'

have

slain

These

are not the Saba?ans of

Arabia, the "nation

tall

Yemen,

and smooth" of

but

men

Isaiah

I,

14-15.

of Saba in CVntral

XVIII.

"Th-

Beduins have reduced robbery in all its branches to a complete and regular svstem, which offers many interesting details." Burckhardt (

"Before need.

we

lightly

According

to

condemn

the robber

Doughty and other

we must

reali/.e In

travelers three-fourths of the

In the Bedmns of northwest Arabia suffer continual famine. summer drought when pastures fail and the gaunt camel-herds

long give

no milk they are in a very sorry plight; then it is that the housewife cooks her slender mess of rice secretly, lest some would-be guest

its

should smell thr pot

hr h

I

gnawing of the Arab

,,..->

le**ened by the coffcc-cup ami chr ceaseless 'tobacco-drinking* from

4k*

And

he

will In

MM of

the -present r

again* him,

.mil

\\.-tilil

wild tribes are called in the

...

ten

(

...


(:nrn

t

m^

'laser's

He thinks that Kama Ivrmg one

165-6).

a

.

suggev n and

thr

r

of the north-

the trade in nurrh and frankincene ( througi

in

monopolv

from the producing regions. He the relationship of Mirurmns and

ontrol of the iara\an-routes

doubtfully to their

Minos

.unsrans to m-i-ii

nt

h.i\r

ice of early

stimom

to

legend of ..

east near the called

;ui

doubted, and

Arabian trade the

ied

in

and gold

Sirabo also

i

hief

ho dwelt

l./ekiel

in the

when

extreme

their capital at a

tlu>

of

all

\XV1I,

spices,

.

merchants

\t
(XVI,

III.

dev

1

and

largest city

.r

is

wkh

all

the>

precious

Mm.r, in the part to them are the

e.xt

i

i-hief

the time of the Periplus the term t> thr

Arabian trade,

earl\ \\

prrer\ing this Ptolemy adds

"

toward the Red Sea, whose Saba-ans. whose-

this

Compare

and Raamah.

thy fairs with

Mediterranean.

Crete to the txirders of India was

-\

u-an sphere of activity.

for

and whi> planted

Purali.

Rhadamanthus.

brother

thanked

Rhamn.t

ralleil

banks of the

hi*,

to be

in the

Khamba >tu bu

is

wide extent of :de

nomadii

thaJI dwell

irnt km L'l.in ..t the Min^-aiu, twhich Beduin tribes were nominally Mjhjrft IMiiu ng l't..|-m\ l>oth mention this place as a city of (he Muutaati Tims desi ribcs as the oldest commercial people in Arabia,

srttlnnrnts of

:

be

will

he

any other contemporary record. han^r the name t.. ( and Kafari-

*

makmu the am

raed,

stones,

arid

'V|. 11- IJ

Thew-

s

IMitu

hand

hit

,

nirrr, substitutes ^.Wm;'

tins, follow

-i

I.

AW **/*

bcCMMt /^ nuui

identified with

.ini..f i>r

unentators

cm

s

a wild

all hi* brrfli

Curnaitea. win. h

&**

nuinr

cull his

shjlt

H

t

southern traders, hut had

Uhmaehtes o\er

whom

routes exerted a varying measure

The Mm.ran kingdom had been i-on.juered by the Sabarans. sferred

"Xluuran" was no longer -led

t><

to include the

their settlements along the caravan-

authont\

>f

long since lost itsidentit). ha\m^ When Saba fell before Htmyar its

likewise;

but

we may assume

that at the

106

When the Homerite it was almost independent. m..-t <>t tin it asserted its authority over became powerful, dynasty date of the Periplus

when

Hejay.; .u

the Abyssinians conquered

knnwlciltjril MI far north.

the spur of

aimum

their

Tair, 15

1'he

Yemen

msurgcnce

Islam was a logical consequence of centuries of

former overlords

in

was

their rule

of the Ishmaelites c

not

under

ml war

Yemen.

Burnt Island is identified by Ritter and Miiller with Jebel ^ \ 41 50' E. a volcanic island in the direct course ;

.

nice

Mu/a.

to

of the

I

ahi in us prefers

45' N., 41

16

Disan, the most northerly

40' E.

but this

;

improbable, as hnni; out of the course "straight the niilf," and in the midst of "foul waters."

Chiefs and Kings of Arabia.

down

location

is

the middle of

The turmoil

South

in

Within a few \ears time has already been mentioned. the Habashat had been driven to Africa, Kataban and Saba had sucArabia

at this

The Homerite cumbed, and Hadramaut and Himyar remained. condition of the country and the not was established, yet firmly dynasty was feudal, each tribe enjoying a large measure of independence. Such

Homerite, levied

its

where Mapharitis, nominally on commerce, and maintained its own

here described,

the condition

is

own

taxes

colonial enterprise in Azania. 2

1

.

with the

Muza, mentioned by modern Mocha (13

our author as a seaport,

N., 43

19'

Pliny and Ptolemy, the market-town at

the

modern

as Masala.

village of

Mauza;

Both names

In the Periplus the

name

still

20' E.).

was some miles

is

identified

According

to

inland, probably

and Pliny distinguishes the seaport

exist

of the city

(Glaser, Sk'nze, 138-40;

is,

.

apparently, extended to include

the port. 1\.

Twelve thousand

800 miles or 8000 easy matter with

stadia.

It

The

Stadia.

may be

actual distance

is

about

a mistake in the text (a very

Greek numerals),

or, as Bunbury suggests (History 455) our author may have calculated the distance as so many days' sail of 500 stadia each. No calls being made on the coast, contrary winds might readily cause such an error in calculation. Where no instruments existed for measuring distances,

if Ancimt Geography,

II,

estimates would necessarily be rather general. 21

own

Sending their

ships,

to the Somali

coast and

India in competition with the Egyptian Greeks; down the east African coast to their own possessions ( 16) where they doubtless en-

joyed special privilege

which preferred

>

I

orci
to supply the

shipping was

unwelcome

north-hound caravans.

such as our author, had to pay dearly,

in

the form of

at

Roman ^ifts to

Muza,

subjects,

the rulers,

107

for permission to trade thrrr

Hindu tupping was UttpfH

,

at OceJts

(*: s.i u.i

the

modern

by Sprenger with the Sa'bof Ibo Mogiwir,

identified

N., 44

(13

KUon and

I

IV is

35' N.,

(13

Midler,

43

55*

(..(lowing N*btihr,

K

prate

in the

mountains about

Ma' a*r,

a tribe belonging

,

40 miles above Mocha.

Mapharitis

the

tic

whoic

stock,

OOUMH

:ioin his "lawful king'*

was

in the southern

ChoUebus

22. 23.

located

I

of the

cikh had, evidently, especial

i -I. <

Their location

..rikiel

V ham a is

the Arabic Kula'ib.

Saphar, mcncioncd by Arabian geographers as Zalar, Mocha on the road by Nicbuhr about 100 miles N i

mode:

Sanaa, near the

i%

Co

miles southeast of

whuh, <>n the summit <>f a uvular hill, its ruins still exist, /afar was the capital of the Homcritc dynasty, displacing Manh, that of the Sabsran, Timna of the Gebanite, and Carna of the Mm.ran Here, in the 4th century A. D., a Christian church was built, following r Constantius and the Honegotiations between the Roman ubba ibn Hassan, who had embraced Judaism In the mcntr was the scat of a one incumbent of uhuh. f.th irntui\ <

ir

i

.

the kin

pired the Abyssinian government, then ruling

Yemen, to undertake Charibael. blessed

,1

p.

84.

hi

(i laser has

)

and has edited mini

Juhan'im this

who

Charibael.

,

resenting a profanation of the church at Sanaa by cer-

a disastrous

<

\pedition against

the

!

Mecca. and means

Kariha-il,

(Hommel, The Anttrnt Hchmi Tnrfim, shown this to be a ro\al title, rather than a name, rtptions of a king named Kanba-il Watar

ruled about 40-70 A. I) (

Arabic

Homerites and

,

and

whom

he

identifies

with

.Irabu* und .4frika t pp. 37-8.) Both were of the Joktanite Sabaites

Die Abeuinier

in

race of South Arabia, the former being the younger branch.

In the

genealogy in Genesis X, we are shown their relation to the Three of the children of Shem are given as Semites of the North. trih.il

.Whir, and Arphaxad. Arphaxad's. son was Salah, and his These names are associated with Babylonia and Kber's second son was Joktan, of which the Arabic form

grandson Ould.ra. is

1

kahtan. which appears farther south along the Persian (lulf. in the Of the sons of Joktan, most are identified >ula of El Katan.

with the southern coast;

two

and Jerah ;/: last-named the Arabs .

The

( 4

call

them being Hazarmaveth lladraAVm/of Ptolemy, nonh of Dhofar). Yarab: his son was Yashhab (
of

the Jtraki*

101

the

Aabi

Oman,

in

named Abd-es-Shcms to have

begun

its

)

mi 35), and his grandson "Saba the Gre.i-" is said to have founded the city of MariK .nui

dam, on which the

great

<>f

irritation

the vu-imtv

The Sabzans are thus connected with this Saha, a dedepended. scendant of Jcrah, and not with Sheba, son of Joktan, who is referred rather to Central Arabia; whom Glaser and Hommel would make a colony from

Yemen,

Weber would

while

reverse the process, having

the Saharans migrate southward for the conquest of the

Acn inline tain

to

Arab accounts the dam

at

Marib was

Minxans

finished by a

King /ul Karnain, suggesting the primacy of the Mina?an d\ nasty time; but from about the 7th century B. C. the Sab.eans were

at that

supreme

in

southern Arabia, controlling the caravan-routes, ami Colonies and restm^-

all

forcing the wild tribes into caravan service.

We learn from were established at intervals along the routes. Koran (Chap. XXXIV) that the journey was easy between these

stations

the

and

cities,

travel secure

by night or by day;

the distances bei

short that the heat of the day might be passed in one, and the ni^ht in the next, so that provisions

such settlements

may be

need not be carried.

inferred

The number

from Strabo's statement

of

that the cara-

vans took seventy days between Mina?a and Aelana; and all the Greek Roman writers, from Eratosthenes to Pliny, testify to the value

and

of the trade, the wealth of those

hindrance of

The

all

who

it,

and their jealous

entry of the fleets of the Ptolemies into the

their establishment of colonies along

the caravan-trade. of the

controlled

competition.

Koran,

we

If

we

find

of the caravan-stations,

sift

fact

that the

its

Red

Sea, and

shores, dealt a hard blow to

from homily in the same chapter was abandonment of many

result

and a consequent increase in the c< now had to be carried;

camel-hire and of the provisions which

im-

poverishment, dispersion and rebellion of the dwellers in the stations, so that finally "most of the cities which were between Sabaand Syria

were ruined and abandoned," and a few years later than the Periplus, Marib itself, stripped of its revenues and unable to maintain its public works, was visited with an inundation which carried away its famous reservoir-dam, making the city uninhabitable and forcing the disperits people. Many of them seem to have migrated northward

sion of

and to have

settled in the

country southeast of Juda-a, founding Hie for generations a bulwark of

kingdom of the Ghassanids, which was the

Roman Km pi re at its eastern boundary. The great expedition against Saba~a by

the

Romans under

Aelius

(Strabo, XVI, IV, 22-4; Pliny, VI, 32) never got h the valley of the Minaeans; turning back thence, as Vincent surmised

Callus,

m

m

'M and as Glaser prove* <#//, 56-9), without reaching and Manb, probably without inflicting any luting injury on die tribe* It wai the merchant-shipping of the Roman*, and ulonu' ihcir route II

IK

it

,

undermined the

their soldiery, thai

As

the wealth of

the Saba-an*

j

Marib declined,

power was resolved into its elements, and was reorganized by a neighbor of the same Mood. >ldest son of Sana the Great, founder of Marib, was Himyar, whose descendants included most of the town-folk of the southwest

Two sons of

of Arabia.

i

its

Himyar, Malik and Arib, had carried

ktamte arms back toward the east again, subduing the earlier inhabitants of the frankincense region north of Dhofar. The center tribe

was

at

Zafar, southwest of Marib, and some day*' journey at /afar uas he .f the Ma'anr.

Allied with the sheikh

nearer the sea.

limn the port of

Muza.

This combination was able to overand Muza stripping Aden

the old order, Zafar supplanting Marib, of

trade and

its

its

privileges along the African coast.

Thereafter the

the Homerite kings assumed the title This was during the first century H xiba and Raidan."

Hiimarite dynasty

"Kings

The subsequent policy of the Kariba-ils of Zafar was to expand both north and east, to regain the old supremacy over the "Carnake*" along the caravan- routes, and to control the shipping from the east (See Prof. D. H. Muller's article, r/m/w, in the Kncydopardia Rritannica, 9th Ktiition,

Arabitn vor Jtm Islam

Weber,

(ilaser,

Dtr

in

Leipzig, 1901; Arabia, in Hilprecht, Expkratuni

m

inmel's- chapter,

Tk< Ptnttnik*

Un
Embassies and

23.

was soon ended. Mm.tan. India,

necessary a,

It

gifts.

was no

BM

\

N

A

pose that

This wooing of Yemen by Rome Arab policy, whether Ho-

or Nabauran, to let Rome cultivate direct relations and as the empire expanded stronger measures uere Fifty years later than the Periplus, Trajan had captured to attack

Yrm<

friend of the Emperors. Some commentators suprefers to a time when two Roman emperors ruled

this

together, thus dating the Periplus well into the 2d centm\ thing in the text to requur

began to (in the i

rule,

probably,

mind of our

of both those >

the 1st

.

part of the

and Abyssinia was being subsidi/ed

23. f

/

Ar*ku.

Hogarth, and the reports of the Austrian South-Arabian Kxpedrtx

1904;

with

\t/zz/and Dtt dbtntnur

all/ ()rifnt> 111,

in

the

last

M

days of

author, writing early

Roman

A

I)

.

but

The Homerite king, uho in

Claudius, was stmpl>. the reign of

Nero

.

the

Kmnerors, as he was also of several other* A list of the Kmperors of omuulrti with his.

and 2d centuries confirms

this:

110

ROMAN B.C

PARTHIAN B.C.

A.D.

39- 14

istus

Carsar

IV

Phta..tes

37-

2

B.C. A.l>.

Phraataces

Tilu-Miis

14 :

41

,da

On.des

ims

\

ononei

S4- 68

2-

K,

I

ibanuj

(

)tho

*

..sun

81

Domitiar

%

rva

117

51 1

51

I

51-

I

Volauases

108-

^111

IV

Antoninus Pius

I'M

180-192 193

Pertinax

193

Didius Julianus Septimius Severus

169-180

-209

disputed succession

Marcus Aurelius Volagases V Artabanus III Lucius Verus Marcus Aurelius Artabanus (Knd Commodus

161-169

42

42- 46

.u/cs

Trajan Hadrian

11- U8 K8-161

16-

Paioius

Titus

81

i

\'oiiones

Vitcllms

69-

III

Van.

(I.ilba

69 69

r

II

1

1

)

209-215 )

215-

1

of Parthian

Empire)

iracafla

211-212 '

212-217

(Jeta

Caracalla

217-218

Mac

218-222

Heliogabalus

222-2

Alexander Severus

I

u<>

.<

5

rinus

Roman Emperors

Marcus

serving together:

Aurelius, Lucius M-ta

Verus

161-169.

211-212.

Valerian, Gallienus

Diodctian, Maximian

253-259.

286-305, and through several succeed^

ing reigns. 24.

Saffron

The

(Crocus satr,ns, Linn., order Induct*}.

thai entered into trade

was the stamens and

pistils

of

the

which \sere used medicinally, as a paint or dye, a seasoning ery, and a perfume or ingredient of ointments.

As

a perfume,

halls, theatres

and courts

w

<

-d

part

flower, in

cook-

with

th<

ill

.

whuli

%ame

n-!..

lu'

.'

issues

from (Mr limbs

Saffron al*o entered into It

was mu

the


ami

is

c

jffiaxtiln.

pan

.

(*m/nr*" and

order

i*

mrtiu inr

in

Applied uith egg in

a >tv

of the scented

says, "Saffron

.seful

s

extract*,

t

the

mangold

order (*m/m..

\\l, 81)

.

-v

..(

many

Cartkamui rin^nn

s-

many pintuouf

adding (he stigmata of other plants, Mich it

In

.itr.l

:

MOII of

IX, 80

an(/>/k/n
of

i

(Sec Pliny, XIII

scent.

it

all

disperses is

i

blended with wine or water is generally kept in horn kinds of inflammations, those

It

employed

also for hysterical tuffocm-

uicerations of the stomach, chest, kidneys, liver, lung*.

and bladder

is

It

particularly useful in cases of inflammation of those

and for cough and

parts,

pleurisy.

I

.

with 1'imolian chalk for erysipelas."

Sweet

The

A

:

-

r

is

used

(See also Beckmann,

I-H ally

*p

is kyptru. There is much conbetween various species of aromatic rush, some including the calamui of the Hebrew anointing oil (Exodus \ \ \ which was probably Actrut calamity Lmn
24.

fusion

among

rush.

Roman

the

text

writers

,

,

srnn -.uju.itu

sub-tropical

useful

herb,

medicinally and as a flavor '

Plnu

Hut

XIII,

2

1

>th it

Linn

between

'Syrun calamus" and components of the Parthian "regal oint-

distinguishes

sweet-rush

rather have been

may

order Gramtntte.

An

account of

Andnpqp* ukar***-

production is gi\en medicinal properties That most highly esteemed, he says, came from near the temple of Jupiter Ammon in Egypt, the next best from Rhodes. It had an odor retAus,

h\

I'l.nv

,

-XII. 48), and of

sembling that of nard; ments,

it

was employed

It

is

its

its use in perfumes and ointand with wine and vinegar for

and aside from as a diuretic,

M liniments for

thr..at ul

its

ulcerous sores generaJU

possible, also, that the hf*roj of the text

may have been

the

Egyptian papyrus (Cypents papyrus, Linn., order CjpmKor); used, according to Pliny (XIII, 21-:) for boat-building, sails and mats, cloths, coverlets

and ropes, and the roots for

fuel.

He

notes

it

as a

product of Syria, growing in conjunction with the sweet calamus, and much favored by King Antiochus for cordage for his navy,

Again (XXX II I. 30) he says papyrus was used for smelting copper and iron, being

spartum. which was preferred by the Romans. favored next to pine wood.

11J

suggestion in the text is, however, for an aromatic rather than cordage or fuel, so that Andropcgon tchcenanthu is thr more prob-

The

.

able identification.

McCrindlc's suggestions of turmeric ( Curcuma lon^a. Linn., order and galartgal {Alpinta officinarum, Hancc, order are not borne out by Plim's d< M riptions; and these arc Imtli products of tl Mediterranean product.

while the text indicates an Egyptian or

ast,

Fragrant ointments. ury thought Ht t( minule all known 24.

so,

them

extensively,

which are produced by

light

"lux-

sa\s that

and they quite soak themselves in it, by an adventitious recommendation, counteract the bad odors

Persians use

and

1

fragrant odors, and to make .. inTin the invention of ointments hence

odor of the whole;

single

(Mil,

Pliny

dirt."

His account of the manufacture of ointments

Mil,

on numerous

There were two

principal

articles of trade

known

his time.

They consisted of

components.

the former

in

2

tlm>\\s

or juices, and solids

oils

A

as stynimata, the latter as hedysmata.

ment was the coloring matter, usually cinnabar or gum were added to fix the odor. Among the

third ele-

Resin and

alkanet.

stymmntti

were

oil

of

roses, sweet-rush, sweet calamus, xylo-balsamum, myrtle, cypress,

mastich, pomegranate-rind, saffron

oil, lilies,

fenugreek, myrrh,

The hedysmata included nard, and cinnamon. and costus, marjoram. balsam, Myrrh used by t/attf

only that

The ,

itself,

without

amomum,

i

nard, myrrh,

formed an ointment, but it was it would be too bitter.

oil,

must be used, for otherwise

formula of the "regal ointment," made for the Parthian

included myrobalanus, costus,

amomum, cinnamon, comacum,

marum, myrrh,

cassia, storax, ladanum, <>p<>balsamum, Syrian calamus and Syrian sweet-rush, cenanthe, malabathrum, serichatum, cypress, aspralathus, panax, saffron, cypirus, sweet marjoram, lotus, honey and wine.

cardamom,

spikenard,

The Mendesian nus,

mom, and

ointment included resin and myrrh,

metopion (Fgyptian

oil

oil of

bala-

of bitter almonds),

sweet-rush, honey, wine, myrrh, seed of

omphacium, rai dabalsamum, galbanum,

resin of terebinth.

Another included

oils

(

the

common

kinds),

sampsuchum,

lilies,

fenugreek, myrrh, cassia, nard, sweet-rush, and cinnamon. 24. ith

Myrrh,

a

gum exuded from the bark of a small tree, name some extent in Oman, and the Somali oa4

Arabia, and to

of Africa ; classified as Bakamodendron

(Engl.

),

order Burseracca.

<

Nees) or Ctmmiplnra forms the underwood of

Myrrhn It

(

,

Ill

and euphorbia. From car lieu time* it hat with frankincense, a conctituei me, perfumes It was an ingredient of the 1 1 ebrcw anointing oil

forests of acacia, moringa,

Aether \

\

and was also onr

,

ated kypht of the

ment

of

It

of the Kuyptian kings

;>s

2Sth

Suhuic.

component*

of the

,.

and embalming

-nr,

the p

..f

a preparation used in fumig.* was the object of numerous trading

!

century

"Lund

the

t-

C,

B.

of Punt

"

A

monu-

record* receipt!

I'unt. The expedition of HatshepMjt 1 Sth a^ain records nurrh UN the most important cargo, it ..f of the "man-els of the I'unt" was as follow*

measures of myrrh h-.m

Hi

centutv list

goodly fragrant woods of God's Kami, hcapt of myrrh-retin purr iv, Mm. mnamon wood, I'oM c.f 1

wood, ihmut incense,

;

sonter

intense,

.

eye cosmetic, apes,

mo:ikevs, dogs, skins of southern panther, natives and their children.

The

"Never was brought the like of this for un> " has been snue the Ixrirmnmg. Breast ;/ R*wr4i

inscription adds:

who

109

II,


ami Hanbury,

Ml

Plu,,

made

are

v

made

in

.

way up from the

the

The

it

tlm

in quality to

is

is tl

a

rh, at

cultivated

tinIN

'i

nurrh

gathered in

the

into

it

is

(sum, to Second only

;/*/*

superior.

of the wild or forest kind,

summ<

give

no tithes of myrrh

the produce of other countries as well;

fourth

tiai:>.

;

i>f

I

part of

it

to the

up indiscriminately by the

i^ht

name is

old as high as 40 denarii the pound; cultivated of 11 denarn, rythncan at 16, and *Wwnur

maximum

They because

root as far as the branches

tree spontaneously exudes, before the

t..

.1

the hr>t

all

to bear

hut in the case of the myrrh-tree

nude, a liquid which bears the \\huli thru- is no myrrh that

in.

140^

t

account of the gathering of the the myrrh-tree twice >ear, and at the

>rason as in the incense-tree;

which arc able

op. nt.

.ir

"liu-ismns are

uum:

<

(

tf Egypt,

<>ur

Init

principal tests of

its

to the

god,

but the grower!

king of the Gebanibr.

Myrrh

is

common

people and then packed without any difficulty, the

perfumers separate it its unctuousness and

goodness being

its

aromatic

smell.

"There

are

the

Troglodytic; tnatic,

uue.

A

and

that

third kind

myrrh, or ,&//
myrrh: the first among the wild and the next are the Muuran. which m-

several kinds of

is

the

a fifth in

the

of Ausaritis, in the

kingdom of the Diamtu. and a fourth is the mixed again is the Sambracenian. which is

kingdom

of the Saba-i, near the sea;

and a

114

sixth

also

is

known by

which

name

the

produced

is

cky of Messalum."

Mu/

I

^r,

The name The

"bit: M

>.

one

a white myrrh

is

tt

carried

sale to

port of Masai.

as the

he

modern

gahfirminaia :

Miiller and

which appear

in

I

word was

t

i

lu-

or

lYisian ami Indian rail

The

stacte.

map

text

is

"Ahn.

A/

it

me. mm*.:

and the San-

bola or bal,

ahru lus alter this to

Sprenger's

Stattt has already

mm\

from the Hebrew and Arabic

is

Gebanite-Mmaean

24.

same

is

MX*. P-

myrrh

I

and

spot,

the

is

ancient l.
..

trict.

his

There

of Ausaritic.

in only

or

/,',/,;.

corrupt,

ha\mu

ami \lm.ra,"

-a

of Arabia, hut not in the myrrh

been described

as the

gum

dis-

yielded In natural

exudation from wild trees, as distinguished from that coining from us on trees either wild or cultivated; while the qualifying adiec

n\c can hardly be other than (jebanite-Miniean, which was (See aU

the best varieties in Pliny's classification.

(

ilasi-r,

8824. Alabaster. Pliny (XIII, 3), says, "Ointments keep best boxes of alabaster, and perfumes when mixed with oil, which conduces all the more to their durability the thicker it is, such as the oil in

of almonds, the sun

for instance.

Ointments, too, improve with age; but which reason they are usually stowed

apt to spoil them, for

is

away

in a

12;

Mark, XIV.

shady place 7\

lead."

in vessels of

Avalites and the far-side coast.

24.

XXXVI,

(See also Pliny,

John, XII, 3.)

The

text

is

corrupt,

"aus dem gi-geniiber gele having ddulii; But Adulis was not opposite Muza, its exports were quite Aduliv The reladifferent, and it is not mentioned that they went to Mu/a Fabricius translates

tions of

Habash and Himyar,

at

the date of the

were not

IVriplus,

those of friendly commerce, and Adulis was distinct 1\ an K^yptian On the other hand, the text desc rihes, in 7, the trading-station. articles carried sale

to

there;

must instead of

which

conclude,

this

therefore,

that

the

Ocehs and Mu/a for "already mentioned"

to

passage refers as

scribe

narrow

Strait.

This

is,

of course, the

cl-Mandeb, or "Gate of Tears" (12 35' N., 43 because of its treacherous winds and currents.

The

IS.

43

18'

25.

name

"Adulis"

copied

"Avalites," which was what our author wrote.

A

25.

by the Berbers from Avalites

island

DiodoniS

is

the

12

strait 1

modern Perim (12

,

of Babso railed

38' N.,

I

Ocelis

is

the Acila of Strabo, Artemidorus and Pliny; the modern Cella. Forster traces in this name the

surviving in the

in (,r !lf ,., W nh whom he alao Utal, ton of Joktan in chc r-unkinfeftae Country connects Ausar (Ausal or Ausan tribe of

i

modern Ras el Sair. Thi% i% the district ".\iisamtu- coa*" near Zanzibar, at Mated in .UK irtit The S $1 ny of Uzal it ihe modern Sanaa. is uleimHcd by Gbucr with a bay on the northern tide of kh Sa'id (12* 4T N., 43* 21 a volcanic thepr which survive*

in the

\

the

-i

i

\

formation

ui... M

fam

jutto*

a narrow channel from the island that

Indian ships were permitted to go no further than this place, The text says merely argoes went by land to Muza.

"noi

v\.is

int<>

\rabianthoreand i* separated by of Pcrtm He notes the probability

tat

the

L-uIt

m.uket-town, but the

.4

\va\

India.

He

on the

authority of Oneaithe most convenient port for those coming

mentions two other ports,

Cana, win

Muza (Maaala) and

not frequented by Indian travellers, but

merchants dealing

for the

landing for those sailing

first

hut Pliny (VI, 104) states

.

in

udaemon Arabia

I

were only

frankincense and Arabian spices. is

the

modern Aden

(

48

12

from very early times an important trade center, where the from east were trans-shipped for the Mediterranean markets. goods and the chief port ,iuhl\, the Eden of E/ek..

45

E.

0'

of the

',

While temporarily in eclipse Minaran and Sabxan dynasties. it had regained its position by the 4th cen-

uiuirr the Home-rite kings, !)

\

ulu-n

mst.mtui> nojotiated for a church to be built there;

C

ami the Arabian geographers and Marco Polo refer to terms almost as glowing as those of Agatharchuies

The

Periplus gives the

Eudtrmw

like

/ir//jr,

to the right hand* .itin,

port the

being an attempt

'

(as

one faces the

attaching the idea of

name

its

activities in

of the entire disir

m/, "the country the Arabic, like the (

at translating

east

;

good fortune

6*

to the right hand.

had the same Mgniticance, of good fortune.

Charibael destroyed the place.

26.

.;/

:hi>

It

is

quite certain that

place during the

1st

our author having more as ,;/<;;*;/' Mullrr ami

The

text is corrupt,

no Roman emperor attacked

century, and the

title i&

equally suspicions,

correctly referred to -his sovereign, in 1-abruuis

Babatl&aH

/'.

Iftti

',

23, "

word, and suppose him to have been a king of ankinccnse C ountr>. But Schwanbeck {Rkft*i*kfn A/***m '>nMofi,, VII. Jahrgang, 1850) prefers CbriM* and Glasrr supports him by proving that EUmut, and not Elisar, was the name
syllable of the %

:>K

mentioneii

The

indications are against a westward

movement by

the

mon-

116

arch

was

his outlook

Sabbatha;

at

in the

The

other direction.

Peri-

plus indicates his control of the fertile frankiiu cnse valleys far beyond the account of Strabo, who knew Chatramotitis as a producer of myrrh t)u>

only;

movement followed

had,

the

The

Habash migration.

Chatra-

cope with an alliance of Homerites and Per-

true, to

is

it

which ultimately pressed them on cither side and engulfed them; was in a later century. Saphar and abbatha were not yet K-\nnd the period of expansion within their respective spheres. rum the Red Sea to the summits of the Arabian Alps was that of the si.ms

but this

1

.

the NV.uli

Between the two alike discredit

But

in

Hadramaut, on the eastern slope,

lay precipitous mountains.

Aden by

an attack upon

the alliance of

the destruction of Aden.

Muza The

that of the latter.

Topography and

history

the Chatramotitae.

with Saphar foreign

we

trade

have the motive for

was centered

at

the

Homeritc port, and Chola-bus gained for his merchants the rights The loss which those of Aden had enjoyed under the Sabaran kings. Ihn Khaldun Kay's edition, p. 158 tells us that the
city

was

common

built

there.

an annual

mostly of reeds, so that conflagrations by night were It involved hardly more than the discontinuance of

fair,

as described in the account by Lieut. Cruttenden at

Berbera, quoted under

Cana may 48

;

14.

be identified with Hisn Ghorab

20' E.), a fine harbor,

protected from

all

(

14

lu'

N

,

winds by projecting

capes on either side and by islands in the offing, as described in the

Here are numerous ruins and one famous Himyaritic inscripwhich a version is given by Forster. The "Island of Birds" is described by Miiller as 450 feet high, covered with guano, and thus U name from the same cause as the promontory Hisn Ghorab (Raven Castle). The modern town is called Bir Ali.

text.

tion, of

Fabricius (pp.

Cana

141-2), following Sprenger and Ritter, locates This seems not to accord

farther west, at Ba-l-Haf.

slightly

with the text, which says the port was "just beyond the cape profrom this hay," while Ba-l-Haf would be "just before." The

jecting

identification

and

fails

I

port.'

depends too literally on the stated distance of the islands into account that they are described as "facing the

to take his

is

true of

Hisn Ghorab and not of Ba-l-Haf.

Muller
278) and Glaser (Skmze t pp. 174-5) support the ihorah location by comparison of the distances given by Ptolemy between his 7. HI smfwrion and the neighboring ports. <

\

I.

AW

From Hisn Ghorab

the

way

to the interior leads

up the Wadi

Maifa, which empties into the ocean a short distance to the east.

JIT

The Cina

of the

lYnplu*

.

probably the

s

same

Canneh

at the

of

Ezek.el \.\\ll. "!e u'i:>i'

has shifted

Eleazus, 1

1

r

>
M

ii\en

the

notable, t>rin L> a translation

!

Jalit,

Abtuin.

/>//

'

hu

tc).

kiiU'l"M the "I

>(

the

already mrntinnril.

.

shiham

die Hadramaut, and (hu whose rnjn, dating about

several king* of

t.

he fhreaaji inacripcioa

,

m

King of the Frankincense Coun trj v God if miir* :ame uh

mines with lli-a//u 1)

.mil

.is:

manne: eastward to the

in like

Arabic

now through the port the capital of the country

enjoyed ptate* the

Phit ancient objflGlol

Habadtt, i

!

was now divided between Hadramaut and Panhta, ami its name was, apparently, assumed by the king of (he Hadramaut, perhaps uriu-iall), but icrt.unh !>> the popular voice, and by merchants thr IMH.IHN

such as the author ot the Peripl

country and not

stcd

the product of the

in

in its politics.

A

glance at the topography of this an understanding of its dealings with coast of Arabia from Hah

el

Mamleb

CM ><-!. .nul uill help toward

Iru its

to

The

neighbors.

Ras

el

Hadd

southern

has a length of

about 1200 miles, divided almost equally in climatic conditions. western half is largely sandstone bluff, sun-scorched and arid; Sy occasional ravines which bring

monsoon

the

The cut,

down

scanty rains dunng the western to fertilize a broad strip of coast plain.

On

edge the mountains of Yemen, rising above 10,000 feet, attract a good rainfall \\ hu h waters the western slope toward the Red Sea.

On but

the eastern slope the water-courses are soon lost in the sand, levels the \alleys are protected and fertile Such

on the upper '

\vhii

h

last

\hn.ran Jauf, and the \alleyof the Sahara ns, was made rich by the great dam that stored its waters for

and these three north toward

:iid

tl

believes an ni

for

,-e;

of the \al.

arm

from the

more than 200 then

it

owed all

their

of the sea,

highest

I-

prop<

ily

to

the east-Howing courses, the

This great cleft in the sandstone rock,

amaut. I'.ent

Kuphratcs,

above the greatest of

their position

all>,

nters of caravan-trade

valle\-.

now

silted

up

.

(<

which ga:hers

runs parallel with the coaat and productive for nearly the entire

peaks,

miles, fertile

turns to the south and desert like the

its

water; are

cliffs that line its

lost,

course.

1

hi*

was

the best frankincense

Beyond the mouth

of the

Wadi Hadramaut

'

%

:

arrf

IIS

Here the climate changes; the monsoon, Cape Guardafui. no longer checked by thr African mast, leaves its effect on tinwhich gradually rise above 4000 feet, clot In -d with r hills, The northwhile the coast plains are narrow and broken. vegetal ion north of

i

.

ern slopes of these mountains (known to our author as Asich. ^ K- w.itcr -course now know n as the Wadi Rekot. about 1(K) miles ."*

which empties

lone,

Kuria Muria Bay;

into the

coast plains as

fertile

far

as

Ras

the Dhofar and Jenaba districts, islands,

were the

incense

districts

oldest

<

beyond which are These mountains, and facing which lie the Kuria Mima el

Hadd.

and perhaps the most productive of the frankand it was always the ambi'ion of tin-

of Arabia;

powers of that region to extend their rule so as to include the Dhofar mountains, the Hadramaut valley, and the opposite Somali thus controlling the production and commanding tincoast of Africa various

in short,

price;

made them

the desert, different

wandering

::it

\alue,

made

restricted area

were by the steppe and

constantly subject to attack and control by

while at the same time their local con-

tribes;

intensive cultivation of

ditions, of

The

forming a "frankincense trust."

of the Arabian incense-lands, bordered as they

a controlled product of

great

for a peculiarly ordered state of society

and

for

a

development of caste unusual in Semitic lands, and in which the culm.itor, the warrior, and the privileged slave, had their place in the order given.

Of

the age-long struggle for control of these sacred lands \\ c little more than the Greek writers of two thousand >ears

know today

The modern the Arab

world takes

vessels that carry

it

to

its little

Bombay

supply of frankincense from or

Aden;

its

armies are sent

of to the conquest or defence of lands in other lines of productivity to But the ancient a a Manchuria. a Kimberley, Witwatersrand,

world the Incense-Land was a true Eldorado, sought by the empires and fought for by every Arab tribe that managed to ei by trading incense for temple-service on the Nile or Euphrates, The archjeologic al on Mount '/ion, or in Persia, India, or China. that in shall finally succeed penetrating these forbidden expedition itself

regions,

and recovering the records of

greatly to our store of

their past,

cannot

fail

to

add

of the surrounding civ illations, by

knowledge showing the complement to such records as those of Hatshepsut in Egypt and Tiglath-Pileser III in Assyria, and by giving the groundwork for the treasured scraps of information preserved by Herodotus,

phrastus,

Eratosthenes,

Agatharchides, Strabo,

Theo-

Pliny, and Ptolenu.

At present we must be satisfied with such knowledge of the IncenseLand as may be had from these, and from inscriptions found by

119

UMT

in

iu neighbor*.

of

it

UMHUM the Jd

Dunn.-

liun.M-l.and wa* held Habashat of

Pressure by

\\lmli (ilusrr

Hadr..

the greater part of ihr the Aetl

,

h\

4

,|r,

forced an alliance,

thr :rt.. r ,iut

Man!..

!<-

Hahashat.

Him>ur and Kaidan on the

h.,n,i, ...-.nnst

uhilr

.."

jplr

km- uho

rule* alio over

lioinrritr

.1

ami Marib ruled by

utpocfs,

" Raulan.

>li-.us U s

IVnplu>

ami Raidan and

(.

not

iu and lir

II

ti<

tiiuiiii

was

Ins

centuries

1st

Saba on one

.1

I

'

and

th<

and

.st,

a kinu

cif

ffrnrr.

Sab*

Hadnunaut and >cotni and

the

>f

'

whose whose

tttlr

rule r \u-n.U over thr

ihr

,,t

|

islands

M.IMCU,

4(1.

tlu-

\

M

KUTM

(

fiabasbat.

-ir

all f<>!

I

the kitvjs

I),

had abvirbcd the

'

\vhl(

*

.as \\lnlc the

'Ki:

Kaidan,

.i,

Abyssinian kinu s

.

u

I

ladramauc and

-d a foofhold in Arabia

'

tlurini: that (ft

MM. Hinu.tr. Rai-

Hahashat, Sal

The name "Hadramaut,"

the

Ma/arma\eth

of (J<

;>r<>hably to (he crater of Hir

runihlings

ertson Smith

were held

be the groans of lost souls Sfmitfs, p. 1 S4 and auth<

Rfligion of the

:

to

of the

1

.

-

a

1886; iccnth

C'entury,

Journal,

1

S

1

1'

to

et

M

l

;

: .

VII. 2o.

S"

1

; ,

\

.

\\

to

\atft

tl

II

\anden

*

C Ankipcl

Tht Hadramaut, a

xpttKthn

Ihrsvh

I

hun-.

/a Colonies .Iraki dtini

/

Ru'mt

tkt .

Theodore Bent:

J.

humty

K

n in Arabien, Mraunsi

iramaut

ILrhut,

\V. Rob-

t

r
Hiy'tr

(

ln
(la-

*

Jnnuj,

tht

Hadramaut, Geographical

in

SM-Arafr*, Makra-l**4

Rtn
und Hadkramuti Leiden, 1897; the works alrea. .laser. Hoinmrl, Weber, Hogarth, and /wemer; and the Austrian Expedition

Reports,)

Sabbatha. .ihwa.

motit.i

..li

ibam. it

is

jio\\

I

It

lu

n

Hex in the \\

;al .uii

of the Chaira-

Rakhiym, tome

distance

>f the present Madramaut, and about Hent Accordinu (,f>(rap*u-al Journal, \\ t

who work

lirst-rtc.

miiu-N in thr \irimt\; .lley.

while the natives are

now

all

in

the smk

the lower

120 1'his

is

Sabota of Pliny (VI, 32) "with sixty temples within

tin-

"

hi wall-

Frankincense, one

27.

articles of

commerce, order Hur

.

is

a resin

of the most ancient and exuded from various I]

:iative s

liirdwood (Tram. Linn

.

in

Somaliland ami .South

\\\'ll,

1871), distinguishes particu9 ', ami /'

H. Frerfana^ B.

urii,

the last-named yielding the best incense.

India, yields a resm of less fragrance, is

Arabia

Rhau-Dqjiana (the mocretu of

larly

Frankincense

pic

mm

h

m

B. M///;/',/, Ma ti\c

used as an adulterant

thus J.sc!y allied to myrrh, bdellium, and brn/.om.

The Greek word

is

lilxinoi,

from Hebrew

laben^ the Somali

meaning "white"; cf. " which is the Chinese term perfumc, calls it "white incense.' always

word

///*/////,

Arabic

for cream,

for frankincense.

/i//>////,

and "milk-

Marco Polo

'

Another Hebrew name was shekhcldh, Kthiopic seklnn, which Himnu-l \\ould connect with the "Bay of Sachalites" of 29.

Frankincense trees, from the Punt Reliefs in the Deir el Bahri temple at Thebes; After Naville. dating from the 15th century B. C.

The

inscriptions of the early Egyptian dynasties contain, as

we

might expect, few references to the trade in incense, which was brought overland to the upper Nile by the "people of Punt and God's Land' and not sought out by the Pharaohs. That incense was in '

me

is

sufficiently clear

from the

early ritual.

The

expedition to the

121

Incense-l,and undc

was

a notable

centut

,

\ Ith

rlu-

In

dynasty

royal attendant In, with

28th century

d>nat>, under IVp.

.%,.

(.1

YVawat and bearing

.,ihrr%,

of

completion

li

II

M-HI

on the

clothing 'probably In the Xltii d>-

-titk,

nasty,

and

I'thck.

imene,

and one hide" (as spe< under Mentuhottp IV ~Uf irnturv

coitoi

(

a royal officer Sebm, M-MI to the Tigre highland*,

"defended

Ix

h..v\

,

-h

.

1,

-rd

*

a royal sarcophagus state* that

"('atii'

of

ihc

^ugh-

were slum, nu rnte was put un the hrr lie hold, an arm) henomes of the Northland Dclu of ihc

Koats

'

i..li..\\r.i

it

to

in vatrt\

Egypc."

Ainrix-ini

was

Hammamat

sent for stone to

iVnpluN.

tlu-

.ir.r.

And

in

\Ilth dynaity, under

thr

.mother royal officer named I ntcf alon^ what was, in the tmir of thr

optos to Berenice Mout success, then provtr.'.fr*! hnnvlf

Mr

koughc

"t

\lir in-Magic, and aO the fodtol this highland, gi\ Then all scattered in sranh, lothein nuensr upon t!

and

found

I

it,

and the entire army was p raisin

.nth ohri-

Montu rn followed a period of disorder and Arabian domination A

huh Arab merchants

million described in (Jenes.N I

came from

controlled the trude

\\\\

II

Ciileail,

.

\

\

1

v

'

in

hiswa*

u traveling

'

'.

with their

iameU U

It and balm and myrrh, iM'i"v: to r.rr\ n nded by a native reaction under the great Pharaohs of the Ith or Thehan il\ nasty, under whom the land increased in p

:v

all

.

I

1

4 j.

These monarchs were not content to remain in dependence upon Arabia, but nruani/.ed great rleets which went "Land >f Punt" each season and brought back unprecedented

direi-tions .1

treasure

This land ie if

people

in

former times, according to the Deir el Bahri not; it was heard of from mouth to mouth

knew

tbe ancestors.

The

Lower

l.<:\pt,

fathers, the kings of

and Mine the tune

ot

marvel* brought thence under th\

were brought from one '

t'

fold, as a return for

mam

to another,

the kings of t'pper Kgypl,

p.t\ments.

mme

who

reaching them

But Amon-Ke, so the HIM ription continues by land and sea, until it came to the Incenseand brought back great store of myrrh, ebony and ivory* gold, cinnamon, nu apes, monkeys, dogs, panther-skirts, .

er

was brought the

x\ho has been since the heginnn planted in the court of the temple.

1

like of this for

nee ne -trees were

"hea\en and earth are flooded

uith

odors arc

i

made

ihedreat House," and the heart

in

Amon

of

glad.

followed a scries

I'hrn

tampamns m

<>r

Syria, resulting in the

submission of that country, and annual remittances of great quantities UK ense, oil, grain, wine, gold anil .ibian and l-.astcm treasure while even the "Chief of Shinar" at Ualn Ion stones Mixer, precious sent

gifts

of

lapis

la/.uli,

and the "Genabd"

the Incense-l.aiul

of

The

sudden opulence of the a enrichment in the worship of possible great aside of enormous endowments for the temSo Rameses II, of the ples, as well as annual gifts of princely \alue. "founded for his father offerings 12 c *2-i::5 \\ (' \l.\ih d\ nasty

came direct, offering Thcban dynasty made Amon, and the setting

their tribute.

'

.

growing for him;" wine, incense, while the court responded that Rameses himself was "the god of al! is BUO people, that they may awake, to give to thee incense." forhis/d

cultivated trees,

all fruit,

1

I

Merneptah was bidden by the All-Ix>rd to "set free multitudes who arc bound in every district, to give offerings to the temples, to ^cnd in

And

incense before the god."

meses

III

'

1

198-1

17

B. C.

),

it

in

XXth

the

seemed

as

dynasty, under Ra-

the resources of the

if

The god opened were poured bodily into the lap of Amon. the Pharaoh "the ways of Punt, with myrrh and incense for thy

nation for

"the Sand-Dwellers came bowing down to thy that great record of his gifts and

diadem;"

serpent

" And in the Papyrus Harris, name endowments to Amon, compiled for every year as "gold, silver,

lapis

his

tomb, there are such entries

lazuli,

malachite, precious stones,

copper, garments of royal linen, jars, fowl; myrrh, 21,140 white incense 2,159 jars, cinnamon 246 measures, incense 304,093

House."

various measures;" stored of necessity, in a special "Incense

(The

quotations are from Breasted, Anatnt Records of Egypt.

time the Hebrews ended their servitude

in Egypt and and them also frankincense naturally among migrated to Palestine; was counted holy. The sacred incense of the priests (Exod. \\.\\ was composed of "sweet spices, stacte, onycha, galbanum, \\ith

At

this

pure frankincense; of each a like weight "

And "when any

and ho!) it

shall

be of fine

frankincense thereon

upon

.

.

and he

and the

the altar, to be an offering

There were

the Ix>rd." for

.

flavor,

storing

when one

it

under

guard

I

perfume

in

.

.

offering

.

pure II.

I

and put burn the memorial

oil

shall

fire,

rooms <

a

.

meat

pour

priest

made by

special

.

shall

upon

it,

of a sweet savour unto

the temple at Jerusalem

and

Chron. IX, 26-30);

rooms was occupied (Nehemiah XIII, 4-9;.

of these

sidered a sacrilege

priestly

.

offer a

will

as a dwelling,

The

it

later,

was con-

trade in the days of

123 *

u

was importai

prosperity

Itlerness like pillars of

thi

(lir iiirrih.li.-

multituilr

hah:

\li.ii.

cmell

..t

M

all

.ig

cometh out of

of Solomon III,

he dromedaries of

^iui

Shcha

ami

Mej

thai

tmoke, perfumed wich myrrh and I rank-

*hall con.

shall

bong

nli the pmifcc

rKa "gtvr the king an hun%tore,

tame no

there

us stones

nx>rr

MH

jhundamc

h

\\huh

l

111,

M


Nmmul

he

I

and

of spice*

monarch TigUth-

InsiTiptKin of the great Assyrian

cell

-f

tlu- hnlli.ui* r

.f

my

Ashur,

lord, ovor'

and

Merodach-baladai

how he came and made dust of

his

land

in

Mihuiissmii, hrm^iiii; a* tnhutc

abundance, vessels of cold. in.

t

dotus

the

of gold,

,

MI

4u-wood, kinds."

all

empire frankincense was equally treasured. HeroArabs brought a tribute .: 1000 talents' weight

us that the

tells

is

the

in

license

was

t\iNhl\

'

sp..ils

of

,

sirnil^r

Gaza vlcr

in Syria,

was burnt

quantity

their great altar to

sent h.

(Plutarch, Iji, I.

HI, 97), ant tnat a

t'h.iKhrans on

the

altars t<>"


.nhinu. spu'cs of

r/Af/t/-wood f pany-< In the Persian

"gold

500

Bel at

Babylon

tal<

.ht

of

Leomdas Macedonian

the Great to his mtnr

iad rebuked him for loading the reiii.irkui'j that he must be more economical

until

had conquered rhe countries that produced the frankincense! The temple of Apollo in Miletus was presented Plim Ml, 31) with 10 talents' weight in 24 S B. C, by v II. Kmj ..t Sym, he

and

Antiochus Hierax, King of

his hrothrr .s

Cilicia.

The

temple of

Paphos was fragrant with frankincense:

at

"Ipsa Paphum sublinns La?ta suas ubi

Turc

calent

.t!>n,

templum

illi,

sedesque

revisit

ccnrumque Sahco

anr sertisquc recentibus halant //iW,

And from the

I,

416.

Bethlehem came "three wise men Matt II. gold, frankincense, and myrrh"

to the infant Saviour in

east, with .

gifts,

<

according to a Persian legend quoted by Yule,

"the

gold the kinship, the frankincense the divinity, thr myrrh the healing powers of the Child."

l.M

The

in funerals were its virtues required. under the XVIIIth dvnastv were instructed

Likewise of

Amon

to

priests

"be

\

he ye not careless onccrnmg ;in\ lant ni! your duty, divine concern he clean be inn things yc ye pure, your rules;

concern

i

i

.

bring ye up

ments of give ye

me

for

which came

that

my statues, consisting me shoulders of beef,

incense be heaped thereon. buried

was

him

in his

own

forth before, put

of linen;

offer ye to

"

(Breasted,

sepulchres

me

ye for

fill

.

.

of

:dl

f

in

which

the bed

spuv-

<>t

let

"They

571

II,

him

laid

with sweet odours and divers kinds

filled

th<

the altar with milk,


0/>.

and

.

me

on

the

\

1

i

apothecaries' art; and they made a very great burning for him." At the time of the Periplus this was pa: (II Chron. XVI, 14).

fashion

the

.larly

Rome,

in

as

Pliny observes

\\ith


42):-

\ II.

"It

is

luxury which

the

that has

phernalia of death,

is displayed by man, even in the paia" rendered Arabia thus "happ\ ami ;

which prompts him to bury with the dead what was originally unde; Those who stood to have been produced for the service of the nods. -

are likely to be the best acquainted with

the

matter, assert that this

does not produce, in a whole year, so lame a quantity of fumes as was burnt by the Emperor Nero at the funeral obsequie
i

And

his wife Poppaea.

number

then

us only take into account the

let

each year, and the heaps of odors that are piled up

and

in single grains;

up

ing

to

them the

in

honor of the

the vast quantities, too, that are offered to the

bodies of the dead;

gods

whole world

funerals that are celebrated throughout the

of

yet,

when men were

salted cake, they did not

in the habit of

nay, rather, as the facts themselves prove, they

less propitious;

How

even more favorable to us then than they are now. should like to know, of

The

I

all

the

were

lar

these perfumes really " to the gods of heaven, and the deities of the shades below: portion, too,

offer-

show themselves any

comes

customs ruling the gathering and shipment of frankincense

are carefully described by Pliny (XII, 30), as

"There

is

no country

in

the

foil.

world,"

(forgetting,

however.

"that produces frankincense except Arabia, Almost in the very center of and indeed not the whole of that. the Somali peninsula),

that

of

region are the Atramitae, a

whose kingdom

is

community

a distance of eight stations from

known by

the

name

this

is

the incense -bearing region.

This

of Saba {Aktsaf).

because of rocks on every the sea, from which

of the Sab;ri, the capital

Sabota, a place situate on a lofty mountain

it

is

side,

while

it

is

district

is

inaccessible

bounded on the

shut out by tremendously high

cliffs.

right

by

H

In M-hirm in breadth.

inigih and

(A * c

n rotd.

f

'I

"ere the n>

'

frankincense.

in

who can

people

and no other

the Sabsri alone, the Arabians, that beheld the u

among

le

Minari, a pro; the sole transit for the frankincense, along a

It

-MM) families

tin

is

have a right

and not

all

wlege by

t

MIS reason these person* are called sacred, while prumn- thr trees or gathering the harvest, >urie with women or coming pollution, either

itary successi<>

i,

:

ii.ii

the dead;

ith

\\

t

v is

by these religious observances so enhaiu about the mini;

iutur.il ..I

f

is

it

that the

the Dog-*tar,

most intense,
\\hen the

hr.it

is

,

.

thin,

thus

from being distended

made

t..

The

the greatest extent

in-

gradually extended, hut nothing is removed; the consequence of \\hi.h is, that an unctuous foam oozes forth, \vhuh risi..n

is

When

gradually coagulates and tin

the nature of the locality

\ed upon mats of palm-leaves, (hough in plaies the space around the tree is made hard by being well The frankincense (hat is gathered rammed down for the purpose. rt-ijuires

it.

thi

he former method

upon the ground "

is

The

at

no one

left to

!s< \c at

in the purest state,

.illotted in

prohitN of the is

is

the he.mest

t

it

is

in

though

that

certain portions, and such quite safe

watch (he

which

falls

weight

from

all

is

depredat

i

tree after the incisions are

k:,"un to plunder his neighbor incense is dressed for

.\le\andn.i, \\hrre the

liut,

sale,

the mutual >r:

.

indeed,

made, and

by Hercules!

the workshops

can never be guarded with sufficient care; a seal is even placed upon and a mask put upon the head, or else a net with \er\ close meshes, \\hile the people are stripped naked before

So true it is that punishments afford they are allowed to leave work. to be found by these Arabians amid ty among us than is their

woods and

forests! .luring (he

Vfe

II.

LM Sob In ct turn vtrga

** arboribus patrur. in-num, solis

And

K*in,

I,

57:

India mittit ebur,

modes *ua

tura

summer

is

gath-

autumn;

the

i)

i>

it

the purest of

the bark for that purpose dun:

in

lor,

ami not

to b<

<-d

of the Storage of

-.el

I'liny -jixes a

nter;

of

is

a white

XII, 32)

tiu

in the

h pl;u

is

\\

eight, a tenth part in

honor of

le to

n.

is

it

open

>.u

ks

i, the la\\N

made

ha\e ,

and not

whom they call Sahis; before this has been

their god,

dispose of

it

those strangers

all

apital,

for

.

nut of this tenth the public expenses are defrayed, for the

generously entertains

i

carried on

left

At this place the priests take by measi IK

indeed,

of a

I

lo deviate from the high road while carrying 1'v

made .s

however,

the incense ol the country

all

further account

I

this,

with the other ince;

incense after being Collected,

"I'hf

ami

all,

gathering takes place in the spring, incisions be-in-

..1

who have made

divinity

a certain

The incense can only number of days' journey in coming thither. be exported through the country of the Gchanit.r, and for this it is that a certain tax is paid to their king as well. ;

"There

are certain portions also of the frankincense

u!mh

are

given to the priests and king's secretaries: and in addition to these. the keepers of it, as well as the soldiers who guard it, the gate-keepers

And then beand various other employees, have their share as well. all along the route, there is at one place water to pay f

another fodder, lodging of the stations and various taxes and imposts besides;

the consequence of which

camel before

688

is

it

is,

that

the expense for each

arrives at the shores of our sea (the Mediterranean after all this, too, there are certain

denarii;

payments

still

<

to

be made to the farmers of the revenue of our empire.

"Hence

a

second quality

pound at 5,

of the best incense sells at 6 denarii, of the

and of the third quality

To Cana on frankincense, \\

<4

!u

h

as

at 3 denarii."

This was the Dhofar, or "Sachafrom that of the Hadramaut go by camel direct to Sabbatha. Pliny

rafts.

distinguished

would naturally

(iou^s the story of the inflated

rafts, derived, he thinks, from a fancied resemblance to the name given the African tribe \

I.

-them

Atctta\

the

Greek word

askos

meaning "bladder."

But the Ascitz, as already shown, were from Asich ( 33) and \\ere the founders of Axum. And the inflated raft is authentic, being the

well-known kfhk, a type still in general use on the Euphrates, \\hence the migrating Arabs no doubt brought it to the south coast. This is probably, also, the "cargo-ship" of Island for tortoise-shell.

?i

S3, sent

from Cana

to Masira

lariated raft,

from a

relief at

The neighboring

Nineveh.

After

coast of Persia meant

that part of

Arabian coast between Kuria Muria Bay and Ras el Hadd, liati recently been conquered by the Parthian Empire. The

ith

uhuh

our author avoids, and it is likely that this coast knowing rather the independent sphere of influence of

irthia"

did likewise,

nstitiu-nt

Kingdom

which, while an integral part of local government to an extent

of Persia;

sacid possessions, maintained :

its

the districts nearer Ctesiphon.

Imported into

this place.

The list of

imports indicates wheat, wine, and cheap clothing for the Hadramaut, and graven images for the household worship

the nature of the trade

:

a

little

and the Mediterranean

>pp<-r, tin, coral and storax, pr in demand (49), and where were i'lm-ut India, they whither they went in Hadramaut shipping ( 57), along with the frankincense produced in the country. The outlook of Hadramaut, then as now, was toward India by sea, and toward Kgypt by land. Bent found the same conditions; the capital full of Panee merchants, the natives going to India, the Straits and Java, and returning when they had amassed a competence; the Knglish protectorate accepted

to

because of England's domination of India, conxictions of rulers and people

in the face of the religious

Gttfrvpkxml /MrrW, IV. Malt/an described the Hadrami traders in Cairo as the keenest of the (

and spoke of their activities in the East; while the Dutch government, rinding the islands of Java and Sumatra overrun with Ha-

lot,

..it

sulted

in

Arabs, stimulated inquiries of them in Batavia, which re-

Van den Berg's book on

details than

their country, comprising

Bent could gather on the spot! H/

people, these Chatramotitr,

An

more

enterprising and

who may

have been the

128

power

in

whom

both of

the Mirnran dynasty and the Sahara n that followed it, c of frankincense to the subsisted nuiulv on th

which they were the mediators between the profane- world ar.d the unpolluted caste of those who were able by propitiati shed and gather its blood for the pimhcavpirit north, in

tion of maiiK

Tins u as the red coral of the Mediterranean, whirh in India and China, and was one of the

Coral.

commanded a high price ul Roman exp.rts

thither, heing shipped to Barbaricum, \\.u\~ As an import at ('ana Si 49, and 56. ) pa/a and Mu/i intended for reshipment to India in Arab or Hindu bottoms

Storax

28. solid,

was the

in

Roman

resin of

resembling ben/<> m of Liquidambar

.

times meant two different things: one, a somewhat officinalis, order >

Styrax

in incense. Liquid storax was order HamamiUdacue^ native- in S \V. Asia

and used

orientalis,

t

Minor, and exported, according to Kliickiger and Hanbury P/mrniiiIt was an expectorant and (

ctgraphia t pp. 271-6), as far as China.

The Periplus does stimulant, useful in chronic bronchial affections. in t distinguish between them, but Hiickiger thinks that the storax dealt in at Cana was the liquid storax, destined for India and China; \\ In. n would have had little use for an incense of less value than their own. There was, however, a local use for storax in defending the f rankincense gatherers from the 'serpents" guarding the trees; seepp. 1S1-2. Mirth in his China and the Roman Orient quotes Chinese annals covering this period, which state that the Syrians "collect all kinds of which fragrant substances, the juice of which they boil into su-Ao" *

he

identifies

are

more complete.

with storax.

Later annals, referring to the 6th century,

"Storax.

of various fragrant trees;

it is

is

made by mixing and

not a natural product.

boiling the juice It

is

further said

that the inhabitants of Ta-ts'in (Syria) gather the storax (plant, or parts

squeeze the juice out, and thus make a balsam (hsiang-kao) then

sell

through is

its

dregs to the traders of other countries;

many hands

not very fragrant.

before reaching China, and,

These references Jlaser

state to

;

they

thus goes

arriving here,

" indicate that the

been the product of one particular (

when

it

notes the

have been the

Chinese su-ho may not have

tree.

name su-ho, which the Chinese annals further name of the country producing the storax, and

city Li-kan, supposed to be the same as Rekam or which was a point of shipment. He compares this with the wet-wood mentioned in several Assyrian inscriptions a tribute received from Arabia, and with a city called I'suu, placed by Delitzsch south

connect with the Pctra,

129

of

Akko on

MOW,

Glaer

but

(he sea

a

kiuiri

think*

lathaitu,

from Akt Pfrrji, Baker, order times an important article

it

may have been

farther north,


bcfcq

from %ery early was produced almoM les% in demand, was from .41* AnothArabia, particularly m (he Hadramauc valley,

entirely in Socotra.

/....,..-

hit waft

I

.1

\\

but also as far as northern

n Socotrine aloes

was monopolized subject to the

Onun This

('ana.

in

I

he

quite possible, as the island

it

was

Had rani.

modern times these and many other

In

t'eriplut to

failurr

surprising, unless the product of the island

IN

\aneiie% are in

wild and culmatrd. throughout the rr.'pus

and very

little

Item

uw, hoth

SourAtm Jraha,

aloes collected in Socotra, but

many

field*

enclosed by walls, where it had formerly been produced. Hr drthe an thod still used to prepare the gum; thr I leaves piled

up

until th<

to dry in the sun for x.\

The Bay

29.

\\

.Irs of their own weight, then allowed rrks and finally packed in skins for shipment

of Sachalites. H idea

was an

surveyed, there

mil the Arabian coast

I

held by

all

was

the geographr

a deep indentation in the coast-line between Ras el Krlb ( 14 1" 48 4 md Ras Hasik 1" : midway bewhu-h Ras Fartak, or Syagnis 14 0' N. 52 *cted The error is very eudcnl in Ctolemy's observathe supposed gulf. \

(

\\IIK h

m.ikr Ras Fartak one of the most striking features of the

whereas

coast,

.

1

f

its

actual projei -tn>n

is

unimportant, and

its

height less

than that of the ranges farther east

The name of coast; as the district of is

as applu-.I

in

hat part of

Omana;

but

^ 2 it

1

'

seems to apply to this whole strip Ras Fartak is subdivided

lying east of

in

S

v< the

name

is

resumed.

This

with the Arabian geographers, whose SJukr extended beyond

The word

*

* *

Sachalitts

is

llellem/ed from the Arabic Sakil,

roast,

die same word that appears in East Africa as &ruw4/V. where the s are called SwatiK. This narrow strip of coast plain was diftopographically and ethnologically from the \ alle\ of Hadra-

maut.

The t

Ibn

count

t.t

word was Sheher or Shehr, and Cana was Ks-thehr thr

mediaeval form of the

val port that replaced

Khaldun this coast:

has the following ac-

I

"Axh-Snihr

the

I

is,

like

Hijaz and

Yaman, one

of

no It is separate from Hadrakingdoms of the Arabian peninsula maut and Oman. There is no cultivation, neither an- there palm-

the

The

trees in the country.

and

Their food

goats.

is

wealth of the inhabitants (diiMsis.it camels

Mesh, preparations of milk ami small

The

with which they also feed their beasts.

country

Mahra, and the camels called Mahriyah camels are reared is conis sometimes conjoined with Oman, hut cnnstitutn it been has described as and Hadramaut,

as that of

Ash-Shihr tiguous to

it

ikorfi of that country.

It

the Shihritc ambergris

is

produces frankincense, and on the seashore found. The Indian Ocean extends along

die south and on the north Hadramaut, as

if

Shihr were the sea-shore

Both are under one king." Hommel (in Hilprecht, op. cit. 700-1) argues for a derivation of name from some word allied to the old Hebrew term for frankin-

of the

this

tish,

knwn

alv

is

latter.

cense, shtkhtleth;

which does not seem

have been

to

south coast, while the evidence of the Arab writers also Glaser,

Skrzxe,

178-9.)

The

is

in

Periplus in

by using the adjective Sachalitic as qualifying

use on

against him. .

-ain>t

"frankincense,

tin-

(See him,

whirh

would be quite redundant. Vaughn {Pharm. Journ. XII, 1853) speaks of the Shaharree luban from Arabia, as yielding higher prices than that produced in a term exactly corresponding to the 'Sachalitic frankincense' Africa *

'

;

of the Periplus. 29.

The reports of the unhealthy character of fatal. spread by the earliest traders, have been assumed to be their

Always

this coast,

The fate of Niebuhr's party in device to discourage competition. Yemen, and the more recent tragic outcome of Bent's explorations, sufficiently

confirm the dangers from malaria, dysentery and the scorch-

ing sun.

But aside from the question of physical health, the tapping of the frankincense tree was believed to be attended by special dangers, exin

pressed

the faith of the people, and arising from the supposed

divinity of the tree itself.

W.

Robertson Smith {Religion of

the Semites, p.

427) recounts

this belief as follows:

"The animal of tree,

religious value

sacrifice, for

of incense

which was collected with

therefore, the sacred odor altar sacrifice,

it

originally

gum

independent of

of a very holy species

religious precautions.

was used

appears to have

in

owed

tamora (acacia) tree, to the idea that

and divine plant."

was

frankincense was the

it

Whether,

unguents or burned its

virtue, like the

gum

like

an

of the

was the blood of an animate

HI In

133):

Hadramaut

it

is still

dangerous to couch

the sensitive mimosa, becmuse the spini that reside* in the (flam will thr !:.'u:. The same idea appear* in the story of Harb b.

Omayya and Mirdas \

I

b

,

trodden and tangled thulet,

hiorical persons

When

"hammed.

\\u\i

these

two men

was

it

serpents,

Ixriirvol

Urn

place.

an!

>lcw

the

tiir

intruder* died

doleful

the shape

TV

their dwelling-

*

of the tree* take terpent

leave their natural seats, and similarly in

me* m

soon afterwards.

them because they had

spirits

died a gen-

hre to an un-

the design to brine * under cukiva-

w away wnh ite

who

tet

Moslem

form when they

superstition the

jm*

and kamata are serpents which frequent trees of thetr But primarily supernatural life and power reside in the trees

of the *tMr

v i

selves,

which are conceived

and even as

as animate

Or

again the value of the gum of the acacia as an amu uith the idea that it is a clot of menstruous blood, /.

is

a

woman.

and act

like

And similarly human beings

original source

in the

the old

Hebrew

(Judg. IX, 8

-.,

that the tree

fables of trees that speak

ff.,

2 Kings XIV.

The Romans souls of the dead

'<

hj-.r

savage personification of vegetable species.

and Greeks, it is well known, believed were incarnate in the bodies of serpents and

"

that the

revisited

hence, as Frazer has shown (G4sV* Assf4 such 3d cd., IV, 74), practices as that described in the B
the earth in that form;

whuh

deer-skins and girded with serpents,

they suckled.

Hence,

Roman custom

of keeping serpents in every household, and the serpent-worship connected with their god Aesculapius, to whose s, as well as to those of Adonis in Syria, childless women re-

also, the

paired that they might be quickened by a dead saint, a./mn. or by the god himself, in serpent form. Such was the belief concerning the births of

Alexander of Macedon and the Kmperor Augustus.

Herodotus refers

and

II,

75)

to this

same

Arabians gather frankincense," the

belief

which have been laughed he

says,

Phoenicians import into Greece;

and various

in

two passages (HI, 107

at as travellers' yarns.

for

"by burning

styrax,

'*The which

winged serpents, small

in

form, guard the trees that bear frankincense, a These are the same serpents that ingreat number round each tree. vade Egypt They are driven from the trees by nothing else but the size

smoke

in

of the styrax."

That

is,

the wrath of the incense-spint

appeased by the perfume provided by the

says, these winged serpents Hew into near Buto, where they were met by the ibis and defeated;

he

was

And every spring. Egypt through a narrow paw

styrax-spirit.

hence the

132

veneration for the tree-spirit

and

ibis in

hovered over

that the

Here

Egypt.

is

evidently a belief that the

blood as the traders earned

its

to

it

market.

danger that threatened the Egyptians was averted

the

In

power of their own sacred bird. The location of this int.. disputed, but it was probably al<>nu some ancient desert trade-route

defensive is

I

tin- IVriplus. such as that between Coptos and Berenice at the timewas also the name of an Egyptian deity, borrowed from "< f

> mien). Thcophrastus has the same story of the tree guarded by \\ serpents, but refers it t.> cinnamon (Hist. Plant., IX, 6). Accord in t< Herodotus, all the fragrant gums of Arabia similarly guarded, except myrrh; which may suggest that myrrh

Land'


from a more purely Joktanite

district, less

\

.s

\\

imbued with the animism

of the earlier races of Arabia.

The same of Isaiah

belief probably appears in the "fiery flying serpents

\\.\.

bO.

Medicinal waters were guarded by similar powers; a d sacred to Ares protected the sacred spring above Ismenian Apollo while among the Arabs all medicinal er, Pausanias, V, 43-5); waters were protected by jinns

The mon

(W.

Robertson Smith,

the Incense- Land presents

faith of

While Frazer

with that of the Greeks.

many is

op. cif..

features in

no doubt

com-

right

in

warning against indiscriminate assimilation of deities Greek, Kgyptian and Semitic, there is certainly some truth in the words of Euripides* lus

(son of Jove and Semele, daughter of the Phoenician

who came I.

to

Greece

"having

left

the wealthy lands of the

\dians and Phrygians and the sun-parched plains of the Per

and the Bactrian walls; and having come over the stormy land of the Medes, and the happy Arabia, and all Asia which lies along the there having established my mysteries" "every one of these foreign nations celebrates these or

of the Salt Sea,

.

.

.

and

According to Herodotus (III, 8 and I, 131), the only deities of Incense-Land were Dionysus and Urania, whom they called Orotal and Alilat; while the Semitic people of Meroe worII.

the

>

shipped Zeus (Ammon) and Bacchus (Osiris) .nth the Katabanic gods

Nou

of

'Am

and Uthirat

the invocations of

whom <

(

Jlaser a>sim;-

Punt und

die

in

,V.

the mys-

Dionysus were "Evoe, Sabai, Bacchi, Hues, Attes, Attes, Hues! :mg to Cicero (Dc natura durum, I, iii, 23) one of the names Bacchus was Sabazius; in whose mysteries at Alexandria, we arc

by Clement drawn through

told

'

Prttnpt.

ii, r

16)

persons initiated had a serpent and the reptile was identified

their robes,

Ill

he

tMui

(

.

,

i.

in

r

I'll:.

name

ir

appears also in the capital

c

be

(Ptmt* etc p. sun-cod, and whose Sabou or Sabbatha Shabu

dir

it>,

to

whom Gbser

\//'/;,

with Shams,

identical

Miiks

Here seems

76).

the god of the lncense-land

<>f

,11

,

.sabsrsn

<

..

the legions concerning the Hir

<>f

Hadramaut, and Aetna, on the lop of

*.

MI

I..IIM

the people offering incense to

..-N

sacrificed

the

(o appease

also,

O

sinian

uho

who were

spirit*

rrat

m-

migrated from

the descent of the

to

rr>

[II

tnr

monarch*

land, heads the

tin-

4oO> and luidolfut

P

CUM*;.

supposed to dwell

who

'great dragon

li

mrst asunder by the prayers of nine srr

tian saints

als,,

huh

Dundt

ft

Syagrrus

.

J.unrs

an.:

<


i

ll'tnktp.

tratukntm.)


unquc*

is

7w

rrgusson,

I

N., 52

36*

niu to a height of about 2500

feet,

visible for

This name, meaning "wild boar"

miles along the coast.

liu

in hi%

in

probably a corruption of the Arabic tribe-name tautar, plural

appearing also

,

Tim

Saulur

.md

in

was an incense-gatherinc .reek for "hoi

Mifitfr.

1~1

r,

modern

in the

folk,

n.,nr

uh..x<-

village of Pfing

from mtr, the root

See (Jlaser, ,S>i z^, he modern name Fartak, according to Footer (ip. tit. \\ Id Boa/s Snout/' the media-val has the same meanin ;

1

,

,

nomencbture

geographers having po&sibl) follouetl Ptolemy's

Dioscorida, (nearer

30.

the Arabian coast than the Afn<

of population and language, iitimifN

name

its

in

the

if

not

in

as our author

location

modern Socotra

(

12

30*

N., S4

uptKMis of the Sanscrit Ditpa SttiktiAim, iaiul

of

:

tlir

abode

of

Hindu name ma\ he

the language in

poSM tale of i

b

refers to

place for the voyagers

ancient the

i

Agatharchides

!

!

the Xlllth

I

iepn

i

:

uhuh

dynasty

<

is

iff

unknown;

the \

is

expressed 18th centun* II it

as

between India

(

of the \'th Congress of Oriental

/V-w/ maybe

the Iiu-ense-l.and. and in the "( ienius

inn or spirit of the sacred tree

I

here

is

good

134

for believing that

this is

also the

"Isle of the

Blest,"

the farthest

point reached by the wandering hero of that Babylonian Odx^ey, the narrative of Gilgamesh; which joins to the story of a search o\er tin-

known world

for the soul of a departed friend, found in the

end

prayer offered to Nergal, god of the dead, the material record The theory of early migration around the shores of Arabia.

Cushite-Klamite migration, outlined by Glaser (Skixzs, \<>l. recounted by Hommel (An. famr, p. .19):

II

is

In

this

thus

"Egyptian records furnish us with an important piece of ethnoFrom the Xllth dynasty (2200 B. C. r onwanfa

logical evidence.

a

new

in

race

Nubia.

tin its appearance on the Egyptian horizon: This name was originally applied to Elam ( Babyl. kashu:

makes

the modern Khuxistan; cf. also dutch \ and according to Hebrew translation, was

the Kissioi of Herodotus,

cf.

and

KaM

India

in

afterwards given to various parts of

central and

southern Arabia;

he argues that in very early times prior to the 2d millennium B. C. northeast Africa must have been colonized by the Kl. un-

from

this

who had to pass around Arabia on their way thither This theory supported by the fact that in the so-called Cushite languages of northeast Africa, such as the Galla, Somali, Beja, and other allied dialects, we find grammatical principles analogous to those of the early ites, is

Egyptian and Semitic tongues combined with a totally dissimila: no analogy with that of the Semites or with any Negro

tax presenting

in Africa,

tongue

languages of

but resembling closely the syntax of the Ural-ahaic

Asia,

to

which

...

Elamite language belongs.

the

According to this view, the much-discussed Cushites (the Aethiopians of Homer and Herodotus) must originally have been Elamitic KassA It

is

ho were

scattered over Arabia

and found

interesting to note that the Bible calls

name Gilgamesh has an Elamitic

that the

Nimrod

epi:

tells

their

Nimrod

way

to Africa.

a son of Cush, and

termination.

What

the

us of his wanderings around Arabia must therefore

be regarded as a legendary version of the historical migration of the Nimrod is merely a personifiKassites from Elam into Last Africa. cation of the

found both

And

in

in

Elamitic race-element of which traces are

the

same book,

pp. 35-6-,

references in the epic, which in

2000

B. C.

to

be

its

Hommel

thus describes the

present form he dates

at

about

:

"In the 9th canto we are

Mashu

still

Arabia and in Nubia."

told

(central Arabia), the gate of

how

he

set out for the land of

which (the rocky pass formed by

cliffs of Aga and Salma), was guarded by legendary scorpion-men. (Hence perhaps the name "land of darkness" applied to Arabia in

the

us

Hebrew

early

the sea-n

mash,

length he

at

came

make

his

way

to an enclosed spa

tii

.r

And cloMd How, (

mile* the hero had to

)

durli (hr virgin goddess Sabttu; who idU him since eternal days has ever crossed the sea, save Sha-

"no one

that

annals.

dense darkness;

:h

itlgamesh

U

cri of wilt

to

is

rest trlliii.-

.1

thou rru

* itaptthiim.

Him

r,l.,i

,

the

A rail /cm

he uskk (>

hint across

-nnu 120 tm.

Blest."

<

(surely not

,,

GUgmmeth.

then,

danfrau tW way. Death which boll tu mtr*

crowing, and eitremely

are ihr

"oars," as the translation has and smearing them with

it,

lung

but rather logs for an

;.

neth and Arad-Ea embarl

The

towed to and

fthip

fro while they

nid five days they

And

thus

Arad-Ka

were on

their way.

uth"

arrive,

which may have been Rah

Mandeb, and

el

in three dayt,

arrompluhed

at

-

"Nc

the

of the Blest"

'lash-Napishtim, great-grandfather of Ciilgamesh.

The

island Pa-antk of the Egyptian tale is obviously the same at c-land Panchaia of Virgil dVv and the tale I, indicates that Socotra was an important center of international ^

<

itself

pr iiu-t

,

the peoples of Arabia and Africa and the traders of India,

from the Gulf

C'amhay and perhaps

of

ports in that

Eirinon of

1

Here the occasional navies

from the time of Abraham.

trade not far

40); n

.:

<-a

in greater

of past ages, the

numbers from the

Rann

of Cut*, h

(he

a condition not changed at the time of (he Pert-

the inhabitants

were a "mixture of Arabs and Indians and

Greeks," nor yet when Cosmas IndicopfeMM visited the place, noting its conversion to Christianity, and observing that the < nt

found

Marco Polo Hi was planted there by the Ptolemies. "a great deal of trade there, for many ships come from

still

s

with goods to

[called Baiuarv,

come

from

(

sell

to the

Uti h

A

natives.

and Gujarat

)

all

multitude of corsairs

frequent the island;

they

put up their plunder for sale; and this they do to good profit, for the Christians of the island purchase it ng well that it is Saracen or Pagan gear."

there and

The names

encamp and

Pa-**tk and Pamkain Glaser would connect, at

already noted, with such others as

and the

Pum

or

Phcrnicians,

Pm

and

whose sacred

(Jfiuit,

\ Pliny gives the story Phcrnix, that famous bird of Arabia

the land of

/W

was likewise coo-

bird

h Panchaia.

eagle,

and has a

brilliant

.

the

wxe of an

golden plumage around the neck, while the

136 rest of the

with

long

body

is

adorned with a

tail,

roseate

hue;

ami the head with

a tuft of

intermingled

crest,

When

sacred to the Ml

which

sprigs of incense,

whu

except the a

of a purple color;

feathers

it

of

old

it

h

the

featheis

It

its

l>od\

a

small

torn its bones and marrow there spring upon them to die. which changes into a little bird; the t.ist thm ;h.. worm, I

to

perform the obsequies of

entire to the City of the

life

predecessor, ami

to

The

revolution of

of this bird, and a

new

comes round

cycle

in tin-

said,

m\"

seasons and

Mercury every

and Glaser connects the legend with the hawk

Egyptian god Horus I

upon

Com-

appearance of the M Seyffarth has supposed this to refer to the passage of years,

it

tin

with the same characteristics as the former one,

625

th<

cirrj

Sun near Panchaia, and there deposit

the altar of that divinity. pleted with the

its

is

is

cinnamon ami

builds a nest ot

with perfumes, and then la\s

fills

a/me,

is

thm.it

shall die in

(

my

Klior or Khol).

Kftor

Compare Job XXIX,

).

nest,

and

The

I

bird

shall

multiply

my

18:

"Tin

days as the Ph
came from an Arabian

name from the people thereof; just name phoinix to the date-palm, native his

land, hence Greeks gave the same that land; which ma\ be

as the in

assumed to have been the southern shore of the Persian Gulf, whence convulsions of nature, climatic or political changes, dro\e its inhabitants in opposite directions, carrying their culture with them and duplicating Persian Gulf place-names continuously in the Mediterranean

and Krythraean Seas. (Seethe introduction Ueber Nub'nche Grammatik; ,

die

I'olker

und Sprachcn Afrikus

Punt und

Glaser,

di<

and the reports of the Austrian South Arabian

30.

Great

lizards, of

arc probably I'aranus

niloticus,

which the family

flesh

I'dran'uL:-,

is

order

1

in

Shdarabhchcn -Expedition.)

eaten.

These

/,
native

throughout the African region, and attaining a length of more than Another species. /. sa/va/or, while somewhat larger, seems five feet. to be native only in India

and farther

east.

although offensive to the smell,

anidtr.

is

The

flesh of all the I'tir-

eaten by the natives, and

iered equal to that of fowls. The name I'aranus is from the Arabic Ouaran^ lizard; which by a mistaken resemblance to the .n^lish "warn" has been rendered into a popular Latin name, Monitor. 1

>nbndz, Natural Hnton, VIM. 542-5.) 30. -

Tortoise. It is uncertain what species commerce is from Clukn* imbricate

-shell of

the so-called "hawks-bill" tunic, found in

dom

^

all

are meant.

The

family CJiehnidte,

tropical waters, but sel-

reaching a length of more than thirty inches.

This

is

a

"true

ir as our author puts

sea-tortoise,"

but he goe

on

the large* and with thcthtcken

hc.

n.iiii-tortoise, lorn

mm.

molt arc .

while others, like

Mil

may u more it

'.

but

!*4*t4r) which apWestern Indian Ocean; ol
inlands.

in lets iretiurnted m.i\

to describe a

also a sea-tortoise

the

.:uis of

gascar

it,

I

al

-

hr

and the

'land-tortoise"

tpeciet of

"wheu+

>

WrWr* 30.

Dr^mi \hUHi

Cinnabar, that called Indian.

The

between dragon's blood (the exudation of a draoena -red sulphide ,,f uniMtu: it of longstanding, but le% our it at first than seems The absurd sight. story given by Pliny \ \\lli, 38, and VIII, i: The word kinnatan, he sa-. k the- luinr i!i\rn to thr thu V nullrr which ISSUCS from the .Nion

:.

i

beneath the weight of the dying elephant, mixed The occasions were (he continual

uslu-il

dragoi

he blood of either animal

combats

were

which

believed

to

take

place

between thr

have a passion for elephant's blood; he around the elephant's trunk, ftxed his teeth behind the

A as said

ear,

and drained

to

the blood at a draught

all

to the ground,

his fall

in

;

crushing the

when the elephant fell now intoxicated dragon.

;uk red earth was thus attributed to such combats, and >riiriiully

red ochre 'peroxide of iron

guen 1

,

was

loiter the Spanish quicksilver probably the principal earth so named. of was red earth sulphide mercury), given the same name and pre-

as a

pigment

to

the

iron

loiter,

again, the exudations ol

and Draaena xknfntka

Drac**a and Calamut drac* and Hadramaut (order /V
cinntit

,

tppearance,

owledge

>ion

th<

ot

.

is

in

Somaliland

in India (order

similar texture

not surprising, as the

Romans had

hemistry.

made by

Pliny noted errors

xsonous Spanish

^

physicians in his day, of prescribing

mnalut nurcad of the Indian; and proposed

the problem tn calling the mercury earth minium, (he the vegetable product kimma^an, but usage did not and ochre m///w,

a solution of

give the mercury earth the old Greek name the dried juice we give the same name in and agon's blood,

him.

\\ e

now

noted the two Wellsted (Tr
138

while the other was loo

Bent (Southtrn Arabia, 379, 381

bitter.

,

.387)

with its thick, twisted gives a good description of this peculiar tree, turned inside He notes out. umbrella an trunk and foliage resembling

MTV

that

little

now

is

exported from Socotra,

tin-

cultivated product

from Sumatra and South America having superseded

The method

it.

the simplest possible, the dried juice deing k IKK kid of gathering tree into off the bags, and the nicely-broken drops fetch the best price. is

According to the Century Dictionary the word cinnabar eastern origin:

Persian zinjarf, zinjafr,


=

Hindu

is

cin-

shangur.*.

nabar."

The

bit

of folk-lore quoted by Pliny confirms the Indian con-

Combats with

nections of Socotra.

a dragon or serpent for possession

of a sacred place, or for the relief of a suffering people, appear in

Mediterranean

the

such were related of Apollo

countries;

oracle of Delphi, of Adonis in Syria (perpetuated in the in St. George in the same locality), to say nothing of

all

at the

modern

faith

Marduk and

But in all these legends, in the Babylonian creation-story. borrowed or from Semitic held by them, the contender people while in Socotra it is an elephant. h*ro or a god Pliny offers a ma-

Tiamat

;

terialistic

explanation,

which

is

unconvincing because elephants are

not found in Socotra or in the neighboring parts of Africa. dently a local faith rather than a natural fact, and light

upon

it

blood

is

may

It is e\ i-

be thrown

by Bent's observation (Southern Arabia, 379) that dragon's still called in Socotra "blood of two brothers."

In the Mediterranean world this as a dye; in India

it

gum was

had also ceremonial

uses.

used medicinally and

One

must

refer, not to

Buddhism of the Kushan dynasty, apparently dominant as far south as the modern Bombay at the time of the Periplus, but rather to the Brahmanism overlaid upon nature-worship, then pre\ aearlier faith The members ot the lent among the Dravidian races farther south. Brahman triad were Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, the creator, presence, and destroyer; they were worshipped especially at a shrine on an

the

nd

in Bombay harbor, called Elephanta (in constant connection nmcrcially with the Gulf of Aden), and an elephant's head

the visible triad,

emblem

of

the sacred syllable

which was pronounced

at the

reading of the sacred books, and had

elephant signified

more

particularly the

AUM,

representing

beginning and the end of any

The mystic properties. person of the triad, Brahma

many first

the creator, while the dragon or serpent, in the form of the cobra,

represented Siva the destroyer;

and these combats of

Pliny,

between

an elephant and a dragon, the blood from which was called "blood

Iff

c a reflection of the perpetual conflict be*

and

i

iu triad.

IH

Hindu name

notable tiut the

is

it

titirtl

for Sucucra appear* likewise

M MM. legations of the \1 of

...

their

AU+

IJ.rths,

H,,,.,

,

if

ry

i>n (hut

s.

^amcxl.

dynav Anuthr

..!

ii,

or sac re

M-CV

iiiriur.it r

the badge of

i'

Xlllth

the MMJr* of

in

baptism

modern AbyMuuan

\rab cuvfoin, thr

Brahman

the

i

legendary

as old a% thr

\\

<

Hindu

of

iaJI>

name

the

h sunu'csts,

M.

tint

who had "emigrated

tra

aoena, and

in

In..

!.-

on

\

tk<

had

iklaml

power

IMdle Refton, Pitt* indicating chat the

,,

prieat .uid

(S<

^ ./

Porphyr)',

^>,

268;

'/.,

\l.,

Indian Antiqui:.

ITieldl CO

ii<>

fruit.

agn

-i

-.!

iiuiNt

C

Mod

and frankincense

nurrh and other uiuns, but owmi; market at Cana. trade, Init no present the frankiiu

.

t.ui

understood as referring natur.il product* of

IK-

p.iituularly rich in

\.ilur.

plentiful, alv>

the

fhii

"as

the

>f

(

rrh

the people

-

demand

in

full

and

\%

monop

Bent found 'lie

many walled

and dragon's blood un-

employed

\

was

to the

in the

of cattle,

production

and the Sultan

jars of clarified butter to the

as far as

Muscat and Zanzibar.

tkent

Suhjfi ml

t

to the

polii,

Frankincense Country. <

By speech,

Socotra has been joined to the

Mahn

La Rogue's map of ':<

:;

[h,

id

listed,

;?>.

as a

'

.died

the SI.

dependency

K

id

IS^S

.-

.

of the Sheikh

:

.

of

4^ Kissin,

Bent found the same

numerous

Garrisoned;

for

rumor :ui

The Bay alit'

KlH.'<;

writing in

of

defence again*! the two enemies of (he hard pressed on either side:

the I'arthians.

Omana,

her s

the

umion of the Kumar Bay.

miHiern

liay of t

16

140

IS'

N., S3

The

30' E.).

''mountains, hi-h and roe kv and steep,

modern

inhabited by cave-dwellers," are the

Kamar and

Jebel

Gara, reaching altitudes of over 3,000 feet. he name "Omana," the same as the modern

(

I

to

have extended

much

cluding

at

the time of the

)man, seems

lamer area,

a

\i-r

IVriplus

Jehel

in-

of the south shore of the Persian (Julf as well as the

coast of South Arabia as far as Ras Hasik

;

winch seems

of

all

have

to

for

Uidorus of C'haiax

i, writing in the time of Augustus. xpeakx of the Omanita* in the Frankincense Count

The mast between

been subject

the Parthians, bin recently

to

Kim^

esut,

Ras Hasik and Ras Kartak, likewise associated with the name Omana the Periplus, had fallen to the Chatramotit;r in the recent partition

in

of the

I

ncensc- Land.

The harbor

32.

Khor at

Reiri (17

low I

2'

N., 54

26' K. into

by a sand-bar);

tide

Moscha.

called

couple of miles east of the

),

This

identified

is

a protected inlet

with

n

which empties the \\adi Dirhat.

modern town

of

Taka,

in

the east-

ern part of the plain of Dhofar, a fertile strip of some 50 miles along the coast between Ras Risut and Ras Mirhat. surrounded by the ( iara

Marco Polo

Mountains.

haven, so that there India."

It

Byzantius. of

is,

is

a

describes great

it

traffic

(III, xxxviii

of

as

)

The

ancient capital, Saphar

many

(whence

the

Yemen

'

lay

western part of the plain, near the modern Hafa. Saphar seems to mean no more than "capital

name

so that the true

Ptolemy

The

it

and

Abma

modern name

mediaeval geographers with Saphar or

Zafar, the capital of the Homerites in

calls

this

no doubt, the "harbor of the Abaseni" of Stephanus

Dhofar, confused by

dence,"

"a very good

shipping between

the ancient

of

cit\

probably

in

the

or "royal resiix

unknown.

Po/is, "City of the Habashat."

and the mountains behind it and for someon either beyond side, are the original, and perhaps always the most important, Incense-Land of Arabia. We are fortunate in vivid a of the whole having description region, by J Theodore Dent Plain of Dhofar,

distance

Gngraphical Journal, VI, 109-134, with a map facing page 204; reprinted in his Southern Arabia) with careful corrections by ( ilaser (

(Die Abcttmierin Arabten und Afrika, 182-192 ;. The plain is alluvial washed down from the mountains, which are of limestone.

soil

It,

and high enough

to attract the rains;

so that instead of the

sandstone and volcanic rocks elsewhere on the south coast, here

"one

large oasis

producing crops of of

many

is

by the sea," abundantly watered the year round, and all

kinds.

streams, gathering

Theenc in lakes

ire !mj mountains are the source on the upper levels and falling to

141

thr plum through densely >u

form on

thr lakrs urr

i

lad almost v

'ssammr hung grant with thr odor

form, and the mountain* above ftummit with limber. Sufh a tcene Arabu it reminded us mote of tbr

to thr

itnest in

,

tbee gained

as

"

And

oral wealth

tin it harbor,

Sweet-teemed from ibe tree*, and ihc air wu It it probable thai a kfiuwlnuny Mowers

in garland*

<>f

.:ir\s

wlm

h

falls

for Arabia it% ancient reputation following up the stream leading to the anover a remarkable limestone diff, lirnc found

wooded

grassy plain used for grazing, and in the midst a (he

local

of

faith

the (Jara ml>c.

1

\e:\

the (Jura

llrduins of

take,

"they affirm that

h\r in the water, and that whoever wet* his feet here

jinnies to ha\.

thr

utc*, cactus, aloes, aitd

valleys,

leading up (> the tableland of Abytiitu

.illeyt

id

wooded

fides a delightful

all

;

\.\rmbcr a fair is held here, to whi tribe come and make merry. The

considered by them the great festival of the year. A round h thr us on whit hief shown was rock magician sits to exorcise the >( thr Like, 11:1111 and around him the proplr dai is

A

short

the

way up

modern tou

mountain-side

great cave

a

the ruins of an ar

.i:<-

irep

back of

just

hung with

stalactites,

which

rn, in the

and about SO

the remains of walls, and the rs told licnt,

in

around

diameter; of

*

a

Hafa,

below i

the

v

a natural

this hoi

entrance gate

large

"

was the "well of the Aditei," no doubt h> PtoU-nu. Ibn Katuta and

an ancient oracle, mentioned as such ochc

Sell

Hafa are the ruins of the ancient polis

full

water;

of

some 100

and

thr

in .1

capital,

center,

cmn

still

The

tiny harbor.

h

ground

that of the

them In

vca,

.1

the sea, but

covered with the at

oner

Color and .\\urn entertained that the same people

columns txr

built

is

.\huh

us of ancient temples, tin

them with

"by the

feet in height, encircled by

at Adulis,

all."

Hafa the Bents tund "a bazaar with frankincense

for shipment, JUSt as depicted A as while a large tract of their bright green leaxrs

and their insignificant This plain, \\ith

its

ancient

still

like

"

the

Deir

el

Of Adite,

in piles

liahn temple,"

**covered with frankn

ash trees, their small green

(Sec

later, p. ^

>aphar. wjs the tenter of the

fn.m Ad, umndson of luthern Arabia and much

empire -

fruit

in

Hum

which

142

and religion similar to and derived from the

u\iiiA.ition

according to the Aral entered and conquered South Arabia, but \\en

'ha!

C

tribes

.

.hsorbed In the

as a result of which the second, an, empire formed, in which the J>ktamtes became the sacred ami land-owning caste, while the political and economic activities remained v

\ishite stock;

Ad was

of

This was probably the power

with the Cushites.

that dealt with the

Egyptians under the \Vlllth dynasty, as pictured

at

I

)eir-cl-Bahri;

;ion und rning which the publication of tin ;i little too positive that the "Land of Punt'' could not be in 1

1

Arabia because the faces of the Punt people were not Semitic Latci tin at fault if they were.

testimony of Arabia \\nuld be v

conquered by the Banu Ya'rub,

ushites,

men, migrated

int

a

Joktanite stock from

-lishing

themselves

account of Ibn Khaldun

Kay's edition, pp. 179-80) gives "Adit: Hadramaut, to "originally belonged Ad, from uh
aid

(

Oman, he says, was conquered by the Banu YaVub, son of Kahtan Joktan that the Banu Ad were led thither by Rukaym son &f

Shihr and

people

Ye-

Ab\

the northern origin of the

a hint of

it

in

m

iiued the ancient conflict for six centuries

The

The Si

who had formerly visited He returned to the Hud. country and to

Ad and

people of

invasion.

its

company with led them in

the country in

They

wrested

it

.

the IVophet ships to the

from the hands

of

its

inhabitants, but they were themselves subsequently conquered b

Kahtan ruled over the country, and Banu Ya'rub, son of Kahtan. si>n was named." his was governed by Hadramaut, after whom

it

it

Makrizi varies the legend by making

he was made

"

ruler oixr Babylonia,

Habassia;" and he preserves a

Land with

and

Ad

son of Kahtan, by

his brother

memory

of the trade of

India, in the tale of a hero of that land

to the land of the

whom

Hadramaut th<

who came

Indians in the form of a vulture,

b\

whence he

re-

turned bearing seeds of the green pepper, as proof of his journey. It

is

Bent could not ha\e learned more of the

regrettable that

local faith of the (Jara tribe, exemplified at the

Dirbat lakes, which faith.

the

is

For as the Mahri

at the

tl

the Himyarite conquerors of do the Gara coast-land, represent to some Bent found a state of armed truce under heinhabitants.

incense

the earlier

annual reunion

probably an interesting survival of represent

so

t

restraining Muscat; Haines, Carter, and C'ruttenden had found the villages of the plain fighting among themselves, and the mountain folk fighting with the plain, the gatherers with the

influence of

lords, as of old.

Bent

tells

enough, however,

to indicate the

w-

141

ot of

mini

the propitiation of the

of the harvest by a "tribal

nalian rite*,

at

hal ihc

rr>t

God

may "worship The name

to Forster (?.

and

Mwka

mniniscenc of baccha-

sent to x%,,r,i%

Bombay

for dtttnbu-

l\

I'auwi.u*

,,f

another of thoar place-name* that are re-

is

t

west, and

.

modern

n the

*//.

,

Muller mistakenly identihc* this pon. According this IN an Arabic word meaning 11, 1"4-S

from the

i

Kaien" or

,

continues in the (irrek monAoi.

to be the

same

as Al^fia,

and

to the author of the IVnplus,

-

Milton:

all

on

"floater*

the "

harbor,

to Ptolemy,

it \\ probable that m*uJ*) meaning also "i

to that of strawberries

Camoes

Now

.k

Gbser supposes !

and

Greek any perfume, even

the same idea was uppermost with

t

t-

Mwhalimin meant "Incense Harbor;" l.urr

"chief magiand the celebration

whuh

Muscat, with

The word

thr

with other peoj

peated along the coast from raxt

flated skin,

thr

in

,rll,

it

>.\

rn*c,

.robably

<

the product

ft

spirit

funkim

of gathering ihr

word

which might not be polluted by

the lake, the water* of

of ihr

l.u>ut
\.

as

i

.:'!

-

and with

gentle gmles,

Fanning their odoriferous wings, dispense Native perfumes, and whisper whence they Molt

Those balmy spoils. As when to them who Beyond the Cape of Hope, and now are past Mosambic, off at sea northeast winds blow

sail

Sabcan odors from the spicy h
Well pleased they slack their course, and many a Ottered with the grateful smell old Ocean si.

Imgm

fen*/**/ /**/. IV.

(See the works already cited of Bent, Wellsted, Glaarr. Hommel. Xwemer, and Hogarth; Lenormant and Chevalier, .l/
actiw 9f

I

Cure.. 1K4".

and

Trmmt-

18S1;

Maknzi Dt I'M Hadramaut. Bonn, 1866; Wellhauten, Sin*,* V//rn, III,

32.

am./

US-146.)

The

ship could not clear. Compare the trading of the expeditions with the 'YhirK of the land of Punt" o\rr these of incense," and again Marco Polo'* description 111, x\ <

*'A great deal of w

rtse

great revenue to the Prince

and whilst he takes

it

,

grows in this country, and brint no one darrs veil it to any one ebe;

for

from the people

at

10 lures of gold for the

144

hundi' is

.

he

sells

And

immen

mervh.mts

to the

it

at

'<>

h\res. SM hi>

according to the Man'uid-nl-lttiln

graphical dictionary of about the

same

,

"tins inrenxe

period,

protit

an Arab geoifl

Dhafar, where the Sultan full) is made over to the rest the for the best himself; people part keeps But any one who should carry it elsewhere than to Dhafar would In"

watched, and can be taken only

to

put to death. 33.

Seven Islands

Kuna Muria,

about 17

called Zenobian. 20'

56

N.,

which acquired them from the Sultan

of

These an- now

K., and belong to (

In the

)ma;i.

I

railed

upland,

time of the

Periplus they belonged to their western neighbors, the Hadramaut.

The name (ienab;

the

Ysnobian

This same numerous Kgyptian

coast

of Punt.''

tribal

Genab having

name,

in

Arabic

the

possessed

the form of

the-

/enah

or

neiL-hbocm^

Gmahn, appe

one of the peoples of the ''Land (See Glaser, Punt und die Sudarabi^ /'//// AV/V///-, p. 1' inscriptions as

relation of these islands to the early frankiiu-en.se

Concerning the

trade, a bit of folk-lore

portant.

Helleni'Aed from

is

Beni

tribe of

Pauthier

in

preserved by

his

French

Marco Polo

is

particularly im-

text rightly connects the story with

geographical position; Yule and Vincent, in his edition of the Periplus (II, 347) refers the "fable," without explanation, to these islands. Its actual source, so far as known, has not been observed. the Kuria

Muria group because of

Cordier repudiate

it

its

as nonsense.

About half-way between Makran and Socotra, Marco Polo says xxxi), are the two islands ''called Male and Female, KIM,: about 30 miles distant from one another. ... In the island called Male dwell the men alone, without their wives or any other women. Every year when the month of March arrives the men all set out for the other island, and tarry there for three months, to wit, March, At the end of April, May, dwelling with their wives for that space. 111,

own island, and pursue their husbandry and trade for the other nine months. ... As for the children which their wives bear to them, if they be girls they abide with their mothers; but if they be boys the mothers bring them up

these three months they return to their

till

they are fourteen, and then send them to the fathers

custom of these two

islands.

children and gather such

fruits

husbands do furnish them with edition, II,

The all

Siu h

is

the

wives do nothing but nurse their

as their island necessaries.

"

produces; for their (Yule's Mono /Va,

404-6.)

This story is a reflection of the belief, already noted from Pliny, that the ceremonial value of the incense depended on the personal purity of the gatherers,

who were

considered sacred.

No man touch-

ing the tree, whether a proprietor according to the casie system of the .se-Iand, or a farmer or gatherer, Oave or free, might undergo

women or of the dead 'IV dec was a woman, and the protecting Mrrpentt were the fouls

pollution through the presence of of the

dead.

uses in

,le of

after

and B

and had

prayer,

conjugal

jlv,

certain

tmeretgn

availed of

intercourse,

uns, as deicribed by Herodotu%

by both

1,

\\l

.,,

.

..-.

purification

.ins

commuted

gathered without pollution, the incense

If

.-.-,..

IM..S-

tiu-

-he

l'lin>'s

4th centui\ thr

to the

mainland on

"beyond the Sabari and the Chatramoiiar biui >irK)> imrrh, aloes, frankincense, whose Abateni, \

1).,

says

\\huh resemble* the color of Mo,,

(dragon's

islands,

isania*

mentions

269)

1

:

swimming

writing in the

ami

i -11111.11111111

purple

Asciiar,

ben

inflated skin*, has

Abasa and

Tynan

thr

in

,//

bay of

a

Saca-a.

home

the

\\crc

\\-\\\c\\

of these '

describes t he >ii

these Kuria

Muna

islands,

ininj on

inflated

the S.

W.

-nth

skins,

Arabia and

and pastoral

monsoon

Oman,

(Jcneba" spread

folk,

I

(;cog.

Soc.

,

VII. 121,

Mere

every season by parties of Somalis, the privilege of collecting the frank i

Marco

obviously the fount

is

c

n.tK

.ist

\\

:.>-<

8 32. 1846)

that the coast of

S.-

'

wanderinu

swinv

skin tents, but

in

as noted in

s," >g.

Life*

"shark-rtshers

luin-r

retre.i

;ttr.ulrn

Arabia

M

pursuing sharks on inflated skins, liro.

^

j enefa

..

.ihty

Polo's

included the

who

tale.

pay

The

Kuru Muna

north and east thereof, would act as fishermen

and herdsmen during certain seasons, while during the remainder of

engage in the more profitable occupation of mwhich they were subjected to the rigid rules the Sayyit/ or saintly caste of landed proprietors, them-

.vould

gatherinu;

nuui too

When

in

in

den

digJi

lierg,

s;

'-44

).

rush of sap occurred in the spring they left their wives of the white gum, remaining on the perforce, to gather the best races for later gatherings until the trees became dormant the

first

when And

:i

v*

would

md they naturally remain with their

returned home,

mothers only during

past uhuh thcN uould be under the same ** men, and would begin work as gatherers.

childhood, i

their

their sons

as the

146

from being a

.:

Man-

fairytale,

is

it

potpibfe that at the time

quite

Hadramaut being

the caste-system of the

.our

.

fully

this story of the Christian dwellers crystalized under the rule of Islam was literally true, as it u.is in the Islands" on the "Male and Female

times

earlier

the race-conflict between

in

Joktamte overlords and

Cushite gatherers.

The "Male

Island" was, of course, the coast, and the Vmalc disincluded the entire islands; the Arabic dialects failm-1

t

tinguish between "coast" and "island.'

1

The "mountain range along the modern Jebel Samhan, and the name Asieh is preserved

Beyond Moscha.

3S.

the

is

2" 24' N., 55 in the modern Ras Hasik, 17 westernmost of the Kuria Muria Islands, which faces it. Sarapis is the modern Masira Island, :u 20' N. E.,

the

first

syllable

only being from the native name,

author assimilates to that of the Alexandrian

(

)siris of

llapi, Sarapis, or in the Latin, Serapis.

ship, in high favor at the time of the Periplus,

Plutarch, di Isidi Fray.er'

s

et Osiride,

l\uisania>,

The

syllable

tribe-name

Au-wr

This island

is

II,

is

58

4d'

uhieh our

the hull-worship,

1

SO

pp.

ff.,

17 5-6. )

n

&;-apis or Ma-i/V-a is probably the same or Ausan mentioned in $ 15 curiously confused by Pausanias

After describiny: the Chinese island of Seria

,

the

Concerning this worsee Straho, book \\ 1,

Hisfoire Anciennc,

Maspero,

in

known

to

silk culture,

be situated

in a

VI,

the

with the

2<>

he observes:* "the

recess of the

Re

formed, not by the Re but by a river named the Ser (this beinu Masira Channel), just Delta of Egypt is surrounded by the Nile and not by a sea, siu h aUo, k M said, is the island of Seria. Both the Seres and the inhabitants But

I

have also heard that the island

of the neighboring islands of

some

race;

say,

is

Abasa and Sacaea are of the Aethiopian

however, that they are not Aethiopians, but a mixture

of Scythians and Indians."

Here are confirmations of the Periplus, as to the possession a and Kuria Muria by the Habashat, and as to the comr

of

of

the Indo-Scythians, then in possession of the Indus \alley.

The

use of the "Arabian language" (Himyaritu or Hadramitic,

.

represented by the modern Mahri), noted in .M, confirms the accompanying statement that the island was then subject to Hadramaut, and its trade controlled from Cana. Ordinarily the connection would "

be rather with the

Fish- Eaters"

subject at that time to the

of the adjoining (icnaba

Parthians,

would have been Aethiopic or Geez.

so that the language

spoken

A

barbarous region ^

huh now belongs to Persia. Mu/u

conquered by the Parthian Kmpin hie

iYnpKit ami

*>e

'

at

,

apparently from hearsay.

u

Islands being now recentijr v%uh Rome, wa n

a

it

drtcnbed by

tailing-count Maaira, and thence direct to the

'

\1..

.,

Indus.

These

Calffi Island*.

arc (he IXiimaniyat Island* N. \\

duiam r hen k calculated same as the modern Kalhat,

c s

obviously the

.

t

I'lim

1>

\

I.

M

.

lit

\

'

trading port,

be confused with

"a city of ihc Saixri Asmbu a nation is is their 'I numerous islands. nurt, from

nen), dxvrllrts,

with

:

I.

persons en bar L i

In

(<>r

ivas el Had and Muscat, are the modern ul Miles Anfuhuh. inthewordi S-6) "arc Oman, CJc
.

nti/9/tin Excursion in

I

at

Phcrim

ami u

i.uis,

.-stations alonu the southi-m i-usr r

aiui

gaged

in

d

Solomon, Their con-

Arabia.

mst op(>ositc Indu must have led to

important p

by the me:

>n

the (unc of

earlier than

lui,

f

tho>c time*

rxdianuini: the product iiion

tsi

of this

-name

t:

is

and

who were

en-

\^

strongly

lieluchistan. \

,

little

i

civilized.

of a doubtful passage in the text;

not tee well

in

the daytime/'

us observers in :its

suffer

rernfu heut

.f

.

otSI

Oman, \vhich

.

i

folios*

offered In

Fsbri

Muller,

"who do

while less probable, recalls the fact

from ophrhalmu this

II.

that

.

:

that

a

good

total blindness,

was

noted

proportion of the in-

jiicly

due, largely, to the

dcMrnbcd by Abd-

//-ik, a 15th century Persian, i^ .N

bones; the sword in

so intense that

it

burned the marrow

in

the

scabbard melted like wax, and the gems which adorned the handle of the dagger were rediurd to coal. In the plaint

ame

its

a matter of perfect CAM:, for the desert (

CrWwi.

Quoted from Curzon

See also Hakluyt Society's ed.

Galon mountain. and was supposed to mean "t.. and is probably a tribal name

:

/Vru*

W

was

filled

tkt Ptrtic*

.XXII

While the name has a Greek form, the same as that of the u "mountains of tin- Kalhat

148

ireen Mountains/' behind range is ihe Jebcl Akhda feet in altitude. Good descriptions aie Muxv.it. a ml about 10,000

The

(

/wemer, ami Hogarth, and

given In \\rlUted.

and populous

the account of the fertile

(irneral

visited In

S.

The pearl-mussel,

35.

is

,

found

in

many

Miles

11.

of

espei

inte

i.il

Tyin, enclosed In these

\V;uli (//;

Aftltajpina mar^.

and

n the southern shores of the Persian Clulf

..mily

Ocean,

parts of the Indian

hut particularly

shallow water

in the

The pearl is a deposit formed around a and Crylon. foreign substance in the mantle of the mussel, generally a parasitic r fisheries ind Kxamination by Prof. Herdmanatt lar\a. n India

.

that the nucleus of the pearl

which he

was generally

a

Platyhrlmmthian

identified as the larval condition of a cestode or

pa;

tapeworm.

This cestode passes from the body of the pearl mussel into that of a -h

or

and thence

into

\\att,

.;/.

ray.

9p.

some

larger animal, possibly tin

pp. 557-8;

,

Cambridge Natural History,

III,

100, 449.)

Asabon mountains. "mountains as

still

of the Asabi," or

living there

'

rf. fit.,

I,

Hem

This

is

Assah,

whom

another

tribal name, Wellstcd described

239-242;, a people very different from

Oman, living in exclusion in their mountains whom Zwemer (Oman an
the

American Geographical Society, 1907; pp. 5^ ontiden remnant of the aboriginal race of South Arabia, their speech being allied to the Mahri and both to the ancient Himyantic; who were .1

probably not as

Zwemer

northward by Semitic mi-

driven

thinks,

but represent rather a relic of that pre-Joktantte southuard

migration around this

The mountain 2800

feet,

in the

26

\<

preserves the name, being

56

20' N.,

now

the Jebcl

25' K., continued at the end

Sihi,

of th-

promontory of Ras Musandum.

S5.

A

round and high mountain called Semiramis.

Fabricius, following Sprenger

and

Ritter,

ideniities

this

Koh-i-

\\ith

r

mubarak,

"Mountain

of the Hlest" '2S

while not high, being only about 600

and

directly

on the

feet,

50' is

N., 57

the Arabic Shamarida "held precious."

name Semiramis 1\ Musandum -

sacred spot to Arabian navigators from time immemorial.

aphers describe

and Vincent

huh,

of the shape here described

strait.

Fabricius (p. 146) suggests that the

it,

A

1

some

tells of

.of

is

probably

has been a

The

the practices of the ship-captains passing

those in his time as follows

the Arabian ships take their departure from

it

with

II.

o4

:

"All

some ceremoni

149

.perstnion, imploring 4 blessing ..n thnr voyage, like a

vessel

and decorated, uhuh,

nt^'ed

and n

if

dathed to

i%

a* an offering fur

the escape

<>f

i

he \estel"

Thi

Apologus. was an important

p..:i

wat

hguies

"t hulu.

was anion-

man

in

lit

known

i. iv

th<

'laces

in the

"as

tin

the

i

oast

as the n\rr

far

thr

<>f

named

|

.t

^r. ) from Merodach;

and wh the sea,

of

:

i

tnhutr of

canle and sheep." >:>ollah

enter.

i

uas the

feredofl

Sera h<>

>ttollah

\>

l-.iiin/

the mo,i,

is

n the Shatt-el-Arab, at

1>

xays

(VI, .U

'

that

piph.iiu-N

Ge

..niniarah

(

30'

.:-

under the nanu

Krhia,

whom

\rabians,

m-iu'!

it

in the


again o\erriou-cd, and

Juba has incorrectly de-

.n

i

>

hieftam, the

iliNtru-t

of the

rivers

(At the present day

ref(

Pliny's

f

the

name

l-'.l\mais,

possession

of

..r

1

says, o\\ n

more it

is

.

it

stands a

of

rapidly

the

imitates

sin an

1'

whov l.im.

and to a greater

-uU to the

how

large a

Vrura-

pan

in the

Parthian Umpire ma\ h.ive been played, at the dale of ( Julf

Charax was an

stronghold of the Parthian Kmpire. protecting

and was the home

time ut the

now

about 40 miles from the

subjects south of the Persian ant

"but

.

In no part of the world have

sea.

deposits been formed by the

than he

whose

(ireat,

Km

rr.iMr

.

embankments, bySpasimis,

ed as a satrap of bus." Stood near the shore and had a harbor of its

allu\ uil

N

confluence uith the Karun

its

three miles of the

(

the

hv inundations of the rivers, rebuilt by Anft-

again (f

the time of

in

the time of

in

was founded by Alexander the

it

-.1

I

\\hile

port,

>

m u imponance

had regained its former posr us derived from ( )bal, son of Joktan

Charax Spasini 48

seems always to hu\ e \\ the Selem ul.r, Jid

ruler

I

the dust of

"gold

loihin^, spices of all

-precious stones, timber, striped

il

It

Nimrud Intcnptioo of

in (he

lum

1

i

Balad.i

his land

land

and Assyrian inacripciom *h.,sr

.ikin

Obolkh. w

at

during Sarairn ume%, and from w Im h caravaiv\s

it

ihr

R.-in.i.

i

,.?

th.t!

Augustus, include the

a detailed .u^-unr of the oxeriar.ii

its

shipping

Uuiorus whose works, wrinen

i

.iravan-route

in the

Mmnumtt Ptriku*,

from Antioch

i

ISO

the borders of

to

H

H

tin-

India;

author of the

tlu-

world" mentioned by Pliny \L <1 who Wtt -in missioned by Augustus "to gather all necessary information in the out for Armenia to take the cast, when his eldest son was about to set iption of the

i

i

'mmand

against the Parthians

A

36.

and Arab

market-town of Persia

Ommana.

called

The

confused hy similar statements con-

-UK h

geographei cerning this port, and supposed that it \\as geographical!), instead of politically, "of Persia," and that the "six days' sail" from the sti.uts in

of of

Hormus mentioned M.IKM:

the Periplus,

in

Pliny this time

Hut

the Arabian side of the

Persian

(

was eastward along the

better informed, and locates iulf,

between the Peninsula

it

on

of

Kl

Musandum, then a Persian or Parthian dependency. "the the river Cynos (Wadi ed Dawasir? ) he says \ L 32

.iM.l

id

is

R.IN

'

impracticable on that side, according to Julia, on account of the rocks; and he has omitted all mention of Batrasave, a town of nani, and of the city of Omana, which former writers hai< as also of Homna and Attan.i, cut to b* a famous port of Carmama ion

IN

'

;

u huh

the present day, our merchants say, are by far the " unous ones in the Persian Sea.

The

at

spelling

"Ommana,"

as distinct

from

Omana,"

is

due to

Ptoletm, and, while perhaps incorrect for the Periplus, it convenBoth are certainly iently distinguishes between the two districts. the

same

modern Oman, which maintains

the

as

a century ago a real,

bay of Kl

Kztan

dominion of

"Km-j cent 1\

th

of the

to that of

Kuria Muria.

nominal, as

the

of

C'harax Spasmi,

and had only

numerous

After

Parthian control.

the

This was no doubt the

U mentioned by Isidorus Omanita: in the Incense- 1, and,"

come under

a

dominion over the whole coast-land from

re-

tit

Between dependence and freedom the whole country submitted "4 again to Persia in InSn, remaining under Persian control until 1

1

The

exact location of the port of

to the limited

knowledge

confirms Pliny in locating

Wadi

(possibly the

this coast.

hy a rixer

Yabrin, an

important

most any location between Abu Thabi distance stated,

Abu Thanni

six

trade-route

(Skiw, 24

pp.

30' N., 54

)mmano,

(

(

M94 21'

\1

and

1 ,

N., 51 27' E.) might be possible, but the days, or 3000 stadia, from the straits, indicates 17'

or Sahakha, at both of which there are

Kl

Ptolemy (

and

)

1X

fertile

Mukabber on the Sabakha coast (24 N., being perhaps more closely in accord with Ptolemy.

the coast;

.

uncertain owing

hand concerning

argues strongly for the bay of Kl Katan.

Khor ed Duan (24

is

east of the peninsula,

yet at it

Ommana

51

spots on

4

ISl

As

the obvious linking of Apologus port*, in $ 35 and .<'>, the tc*t givei two further proofs. 'sewed boats" are such as are iiill made along this cuan, and ilf

an

an imp.. n

8 36

in

I

49

in export

as

Indu u

lo

Barygaza /nnw Artba

at

\\

>S

Ouhlur on

the

M

and

Makran

iir

'

coast (2S

days 'sail eastward from the

\

.sn.uts

,

.,(

>mmana

in

the hoy of

>oma*

ami MtJunml Mtkrrnm It

notable that in hit

.

this po<.

rm-.ii.rv.il

prn.Kl

\

AM.

the

of

61

| J6t

II

(pp. 299- JOO ) he abandons

the activity of the Chahbar ports to the

lb4-S

(

S^>-i>

\ 11,

J-urnal, 1K96,

pearls"

in

N., 60

IS'

ui on Anturnt

H.-l.lu h !..l!..u

"many

Bahrein

at

is

referre.:

and export*

iKNts

suggest such a trade

he

I

teneraJ

(

>. X, pp.

(Journal R..>al argues for Sohar, on the Batinch coast of ( )nun, n<:c ocean terminus cut and important caravan. route;

)

<

but

tt

tlocs

:i

i.uu

was

tun

tally

with the statement in the text, that

days Msw/4, or faW, the was the center of an ac

six

nmana

Straits.

\tensive shipping trade

t

with Imii.t* r,)iun-,K-ii'l\ L^.ttni with

tranv-Anhun

the

re?'

caravan-routes; and Glaser points out the probability that this coast of itan was also the "land of Ophir" of King Solomon's tradingcr

and reshippcd, 36.

Copper

to the

is

r

where

sent

the

Kast were re-

the

>\erlafld, to the Mediterranean.

here mentioned as an am<

from

;xrt

no longer

i'i

rd in

was formerly >mrltcii m considerable quantities in South kajputana, and at various parts of the outer Himalaya, where tbe a killas-hke rofk persists along the whole range and init

i

m

and Bhutan

Kullu.

/"/jftv v p <

that this

\|x>rted >.irygaza (

.<'*

copper imp from C\ma

and 49) and

>mmana JS

>J

*

included

to the Indus

mouth

Me Persian

the:;

the susp

<

n the

Roman and

Par-

war, this would ha\e been a natural trade

rut \

1.

26) speaks of copper, iron,

ars,

,i

red lead, as

hipped to Persian (Julf and ::mir

Carman

1.1

n port

again that

Ommana

was no

152

SandalWQOd.

36.

A small

ocigrcen Western (

SanM/nm

Linn.,

,///>/////,

order

S, in hi bice*.

tree native in the dry regions of South India in North India and Coimbatore) Sandalwood has been known in India <,

-

a cultivated plant. .

;

(he Sanskrit authors C.htimlanti

>ior.

is

the

1mm

the

\anous

distil

name

flic

.is

rim-fly as

for the scries,

.*//

and pit^hnmiana the inferior, or yellow, from S
two kinds and

white, sandal,

01

tree-,

of red sandal or raktachanddna,

namely, Pttrocarpus mntalinut

Ca-stilpinia sappan.

This mention

Penplus seems to be the earliest Roman is mentioned by Cosmas Indu opleustes under the name Tzandana; and thereafter frethe

in

reference to sandalwood.

(6th century A.

D

It

quently by the early Arab traders who visited India and China. mas and the Arabs attributed it to China, this mistake arising, as Watt points out (op.

976) from the

p.

cit.,

fact that

Chinese vessels

this

at

made

the voyage between China and the Persian Gulf, stopping to trade in Ceylon and India, and disposing of their cargoes finally to

time

The wood

the Bagdad merchants.

is

not native of China.

According to experiments at the Royal Botanic Gardens cutta, sandalwood is a root-parasite on many plants. further

:

I,

references

Lassen:

see

Indische

at

Cal-

Alterthumskundf^

287.

Teak wood.

36.

Ttctm* [rtm&i Linn., order Verbenacea. A The in both peninsulas of India.

deciduous tree indigenous

large

wood

is

that chiefly exported

from Burma, and

larly

from India

at

the present time, particu-

the most important building timber of the

is

country.

Watt, (op. cit., p. 1068), quoting Gamble, says that the western Indian teak region has for its northern limit the Narbada and Mahanadi rivers, although it is occasionally found farther north. Climaticchanges since the date of the Periplus have probably restricted its area.

It is

fact that fills

it

Bombay and Travancore.

plentiful in

The wood owes

its

value to

its

great durability, ascribed to the

contains a large quantity of fluid resinous matter, which

up the pores and

known

resists

the action of water.

Watt mentions one

be over 2000 years old, and the discovery of teak in the Mugheir ruins indicates its use there under Nabonidu century B. C. ), and possibly very much earlier.

structure

36.

and

Blackwood.

translates

shows

to

The

text

is

sasamin,

which Fabricius

"white mulberry," from conjecture only.

that the text refers to the

wood

still

known

in

.,

McCrmdle

India as sisam,

\\att ocacfiocc

'>

wood*

<>f

rl ^' u

l

and

u

pp. 484-$i

,

one

Wettem Indu

i%

c>-

highly

vrry durable, due*

i>

I-

f,r

(he beti hard*

*

purposes *

all

'

agriculmnil implement*.

l

ttf

rd

..it-ltuildin>:,

In

uj to

//.

/>.

uiui

^>lic,

""

'"

i

Punjab and

the

ppcr Indu

I

rlir

as

well

furniture

as

./mm takes the place of

Wh. \\

is

>uth,

>am

distinguishes the true

.itt

MM

/sgumin'.i.r

l).uirt
or blickwood,

Indian rotewood. native

D.

latifclta.

on the banks of sandy, stony,

and Narbada, h..n>.

I

and

/>

/>wfcrnM,

farther

torrential ritrr*.

i'mplu* sayt order

Linn,

it

uuh

a the

was exported.

fciu

arc the leading varieties producing

jMs/4/wMrr/ojf

India has also

wood;

h tin-

ft

somewhat

deicnbed as fub-HimaajqriB,

tilt* is

D. tmbrytpurit and

ebony

ttmrnma

/>.

This hnr Mack heart-wood (from the date plum tree) has been

V

i-mli/.it.

<>f

Kgypcian inscription of

C. about 2500), mmr,.,,,, ebony as from the "negro-land" on the Upper

nasty (B.

brought down and the expedition of

Queen

about 1500) brought

from

pro ha:

Hatshepsut

ti

:

*

it

Old Testament

definite

appears as a commodity

the

it

might have

reference

is

m

come

K/ekiel

isles

"the were the merchan-

they brought thee for a present horns of ivory and

of thine hand; If

XVIIlth dynasty,

in the trade of Tyre:

Dedan were they merchants; many

of

<

of Punt." in this case

\byssinian highlands, although

II

men

it

Oxford

editor's

identification

of

Dedan with

the

shore of the Persian Gulf be correct, this passage indicates a trade in

ebony from India prior to the 7th century B. C., and

confirms the statement of the Periplus that

Barygaza to Plm\

Ommana

it

was

fhffyfll

and Apologus.

9) says that ebony

came

to

Rome

from both India

Egypt, and that the trade began after the victories of Pomp' >ia. He notes two kinds, one precious, the other ordu .

(Gforfiis

II,

116-117)

to ascribe

it

(III,

in glowing terms of the Herodotus, however, has preferred

speaks

tree, as peculiar to India

97) to Aethiopia, and

states that the

-re in the habit of paying to the >y

tin

way

of tribute, 100 billets of

quantity of gold

and

ivory.

King

people of that

of Persia, every third

ebony-wood, together with a

36. p.

Sewed

boats

this to

1^'

known

he the Arabic

as maiiarata./////////..

cilasd

<

ned with palm sheathing the base of the .

which included, first, the fibers and second, those taken from tin- husks ..t the This latter is what Marco Polo calls "Indian nut." It cocoanut. fiber,"

;>ctilcs of the date;

was a not

ion in Arabia than the date,

late

include

it

amonu Arabian i

I

that these

the South Coast,

ami the IVriplus does

exports, although noting

it

i;

Uland.

sewed b.it>

x\r;

Yemen and Hadranuut

.1

description of these craft, as

**Their ships are \vreu hed affairs, and many of then for they have no iron fastenings, and are only stitched together with twine made from the husk of the Indian nut. They beat this nut it becomes like horse-hair, and from that they spin twinwith this stitch the planks of the ships together. It keeps well and >rrodcd by the sea-water, but it will not stand well in a

until

The

ships are not pitched, but are rubbed with fish-oil.

is

They have

w nil, and one rudder, and have no deck, but only a This cover const** of spread over the canto when loaded. hides, and on the top of these hides they put the hones which they take- i> India for saJc hey have no iron to mfca nails of, and for

one ma*, one

I

wooden

4* in rhey yae only (.it

,is

them

the

li

pUnk

trenail* in thrtr shipbuilding,

twine as

uitit

have told

I

and

'n% a

business to go a voyage in one of ihotr ships, and many of f<>r in that .Va India the sforros are often lembir '

are lost,

.

mcili Carrrn, \\h.. 1

T

-.

,.x

}

:

W.

A.

'apt.

"Instead of nt

i

\\

nails.

,,at in 1691-9, fives

,

hu h they

a similar

/rmtr TrmAng Cfmim Mil. .!'*4

Siiffc:

ham-

without, they use pegs of

.trr

/

:

imn thr planks with

.mr. ami furthrr

'

t

"graphical Journal,

boo

Hcme

><> u

made

strings

For anchor, they have a large stone with a hole, and .siih htilr round plank attached to the end."

of

for oars, a

-A

ule'sA/fTO/V*, Cor"are

,

hunlm.

I

have seen them of 200 tons

hut they arc being driven out by iron-fastened vessels, a^

where (as on the Malabar and Coromandd

cxrept

gets cheaper,

caaM

stitched boat

.

-(I

used.

still

InnUi in the

(

iult

is

ised to rub the ships

voyagers of the

to fishing-boata.

was

The

whale-oil.

old

Arab

century describe the fishermen of Siraf in the Gulf

*>th

hale-blubber and drawing the

was mixed

But the

useful in a surf."

now conrined

is

"i;

oil

from

it,

which

used to rub thr joints of ships' plankI'oyaza, \, 146.)

.tnd

ing.

Kflation dei

:.

Chap II'. writing -,r Ormes." ays nd of barque or ship called Jatt t being cornwent on board into one of is. And

hurnal,

1

1

iys <

any iron

arrived at the city of

I

north of Bornb.iv

at all,

"wherein

,

and

Thana" (on fiair

in the

space of

Sabette Island,

of our

friar"

" irist.

MC

Jatf. I.

-hi!

ustruction

\laiuic\illr

d'tyaff ami Trout!

,

"Nearthat m(

I

.-:

the

i-abuiuLint there in that

.nan:. In

itx

Chap,

f-lll,

from

this

method

125, Ashton'*

p.

rrr are ships without naik of iron

1

isU-

ksof adamants (loadstones), for they sea (hat it is marvellous to speak of, and

r.H

hip passed there (hat had iron

:

\rahu l^ttkf^.

.:i\esa legend arising

nature,

bonds or iron

draws

iron

should m-\rr depart from

t

-

it.

nails

it

and v>

would it

perish.

would

156

Theodore Bent (Southern Arabia,

p.

8) describes these boats as

having "very long-pointed bows, elegantly carved and decorated with When the wind is contrary they are propelled by poles or shclk paddles, consisting of boards of any shape, tied to the end of the poles " with twine, and the oarsman always seats himself on the mmwalrs /wemer, (op. '/., p. 101), further confirms the Periplus

Sinbad the Sailor might recognize every rope and the odd All the boats have good lines and are well Unit spoon-shaped oars. i

For the

by the natives of Indian timber. facture except their pulley-blocks,

cloth

is

woven

Mcnamah and

at

rest, all

is


Bahrein manu-

which come from Bombay.

ropes are twisted of (fate-fiber

Sailin riulc

Kvcn rope walks which have no machinery worth mentioning. OIK out on the anvil hammered one are nails iron soft by long

"Kach boat has

t

he-

a sort of figurehead called the kubait, generally

covered with the skin of a sheep or goat which was sacrificed \\hcn This blood-sacrifice Islam has never the boat was first launched.

The

uprooted.

men

larger boats used in diving hold

than half of

less

whom

from twenty

to forty

are divers, while the others are rope-

holders and oarsmen."

Pearls inferior to those of India.

36.

This

is

said

to

still

be the case, the Bahrein pearls being of a yellower tint than those of the Manaar fisheries, but holding their lustre better, particularly in tropical climates,

36.

and therefore always

A

Purple.

in

demand

in India.

dye derived from various species of Murex>

Pliny (IX, 60-63) family Murictda^ and Purpura, family Buccinida. "The purple has that extells of its use at the time of our author: quisite juice cloth.

vein,

which

.

.

the tint of a rose

of

body fish

is

it

crushed

somewhat

is

for

when

it

dies

it

The

inclining to black.

entirely destitute of this juice.

alive;

ones

so greatly sought after for the purpose of dyeing

is

This secretion consists of a tiny drop contained in a white from which the precious liquid used for dyeing is distilled, being .

spits

It

is

rest of

the

a great point to take the

out this juice. From the larger but the smaller fish are

extracted after taking off the shell;

alive,

together with the shells,

upon which they

eject this

secretion.

"In Asia the and

Gartulia,

"After left

it

is

is that of Tyre, Kurope that of Laconia. taken the vein is extracted and

and

best purple

in

to steep for three days,

.

Africa that of .

Mcnmx

.

salt is

and are then boiled

added.

They

in vessels of

are

tin,

by

skimmed from time

to

About the tenth day the whole contents of the cauldron are

in

moderate heat; while thus boiling the liquor time.

in

is

a liquid state; but until the color satisfies the liquor

is

still

kept on the

that

.(

Irlt

is

.1

wn The

hue* Co red

iiu

(Q

th-

if

the

From

fxliifi*.

irod

tint

known

soaked

i*

f..r

K

in the

juice of the

in

the

of the

juirc

..dwrdihr

combinat

thif

To prodm r

as amethyst color.

the

Iyrun hue

ptlap* while ihr muiurr

an uncooked and raw state; after which :

th*

ng arc, for hfty pounds of wool, two he Ituftxum and one hundred and eleven

him.:

admirable

inferior to

hvr hour, and then, after ha% fully imbibed die color.

vouk

in again, until

proper

pi. .per

lie in

looked

is

kmeumm.

its It

tint

is

i%

in

changed by bring

considered of the best

is

ho* exactly the color of cloned blood, and is of a .4 ,h hue to the sigh shining appearance when held up

ben

the htiht;

t

it

hemc

IN

it

that

u

e hn.i

I

i<

>mcr speaking of purple blood.

'

ft] :'. ichus Ncpos,

,

stus,

has

was

thr \iolet purple

I

his

after the

was succeeded by

last

died in the reign of the late emperor 'In the days of my youth

in favor, a

and not long

denarii;

who

the following remarks:

left

pound of which used to sell at 100 Tarrnimr red was all the fashion.

Tynan ditxipka (double dyed) which 1000 denarii per pound. Nowadays does not have purple hangings and coverings to his the

not be bought for even

i-ouKI I

there

who

touches, even?' \\ IIH t> 11

ji

Krere

Cordu is

(his

49, was

'-

was probably date wine.

Amixn.

(

1

.

destination, ac-

Its

India.

1

1

5

)

x/., 750, quoted in Yule's says

"a

spirit is still

distilled

Marco

from

Polo.

dates.

It

mentioned by Strabo and Dioscorides, according to Kampfer, who was in his time made under the name of a medicinal stomachic;

h added radix China (rhubarb root), ambergris, and aromatic absinth." spices; the poor, licorice and Persian tain

This may, however, have included grape wine also, the moun\.illcy> >f ( )man having been the region originally producing the

I) .iti -N :

Pkamix

dactyltftra,

De Candollc (L'OripiuJtt

existed from r

IJnn., Plantti

Ac-

order Palms*.

Culm*,

t

has

tunes in the warm, dry zone which extends

from Senegal to the Indus basin, principally between the parallels 1 5 It was an important article of cultivation in Egypt, Arabia, and :i. otamia, and the Indus valley, for its wood, fiber, juke, and

15*

Date-wine is mentioned as an 1. t:\ptian product shipped up the Nile to the "negro-land," in an inscription nf the reiun of Menu-re, Vlth dynasty,

"0

I

I}.

C

(Breasted,

./,/,/,///

AW,/,,

1,

Dates appear as food, in an Abydos inscription of the reign of Khen785). In the coronation inscription of I, /ri, l~th century B C

Thothmcs

and Queen Hatshcpsut, XVIIIth dynasty, 15th cen-

111

di\me offerings to Amon-Rc included wine, fowl, fruit, Similar h>ts appear amonu bread, vegetables, and dates (11, 159). I nder the feasts and offerings from conquests during the same reign. .

Rameses

III

IV, 244, 295, 299, 347) the

new

I>,, t

.\rm

//

u 65,480 measures, S.I on branches; again, 241,500 measures; and as "offerings to the Nilegod/' dried dates, 11,871 measures, 1,396 jars; dates, 2,396 ures. I^ter, under Psamtik II, \\Vlth dynasty, 6th century B C

for

"offerings

feasts/'

dates,

v

t

(IV, 944) the Adoption Stela of Nitocris says: "Sail was set; the men took their weapons, and every noble had his pn>\iM<>n. " supplied with every good thing: bread, beer, oxen, dates, herbs great

The Greek name for the date, pkoinix, was the same as that Phoenicians given the traders from Sidon and Tyre Phoinikcs, whence numerous commentators, including Movers himself /);, Pkonnifr, II, i, 1) suppose the name of race and country to ha\e been derived from the date, which was one of the leading exports to the northern Mediterranean; of that race.

But

noting that the date-palm was a symbol is better evidence that the tree received

this in itself

name of the race, being truly, for Mediterranean peoples, the "tree of the Phoenicians." (So Lepsius in the introduction to his

the

Nubian Grammar, Ueber Punt und dit Sudarabitchcn

die falker

Reiche^

und Sprachen Afrikas, and Glaser,

66-9 J.

Pliny (XIII, 7) has a long description of the date-palm and its numerous uses; he says the Arabian date was the best, and describes fully

A

the different sexes of the trees, and the pollination of the flowers.

specially fine

called Syafri,"

variety of dates

which Pliny

taste to the fruit;

comes from the "southern

translates

but as he connects

it

The fertilized

a

with the story of the plm-nix,

count means no more, probably, than that the uthcrn coast of Arabia.

parts,

"wild boar," ascribing such

(See under

30.

fruit

c

ame from

)

date-palm being dioecious, the flowers must be artitu tally order to ripen the fruit, and this involves a knowledge of

in

the habit of the tree, and regular cultivation, in favorable surroun<

including intense heat and drought during the fruiting season. t-nnditions are all

only

partially fulfilled

nn the Northern Mediterranean.

on the Syrian

They

coast,

I

and not

exist to perfection

at

around

199

iif,

The

certain

Sth

a>

the

the

es 1

the cultivation

made from the

1.

i:\pt..

i

M

It

7V-..

its

it

un-

i

Not

is

centuries

until the 17th

cen-

until the

by no means impossible thai Egypt with Southern Arabia

intercourse

had come

it

source

dynast), rrler% nut to

appear as food, and not

date-fruit

iulti\.ition to

earliest,

in Kcypf

tap), and the time

Egyptian Punt -voyages.

first

temple-off er m^:

this

Y 1th

earliest inscription, in the

hut to \vuir

nt,

"un

and probably the became important

the principal,

still

When

of supply.

turn from the Prr%tan (iulf, that

in

rythnran, or in a larger sense Arabian, Sea.

Among

the classical references to this home-land of the Ph

may be

cimns

cited the

(

)dvs>c\.

I\

,

81-5, where

ncd. buth clearly Arabian*

opiaa

The Old Testament later

The

gives

1,

n.

*4.S

numerous accounts

quarter to Palestine,

frort) that

migrations

$idoma and Ae.iu-

';/: Strab...

t.

/.,

of

/ethariah IX.

historian Justin

( XVIII. 3. 2) gives the reason "the people of Tyre were sprung from thJ

for the earlier migration:

own land, being greatly distressed by earth time in the marsh-land of Babylonia, but quakes, and dwelt some the In of the shores later (Mediterranean) Sea, where they built a is

who

town which they fin is

the

I

s

left their

-

called Sidon because of the

Mum u-ian

word

abundance of thr the relation of this

for fish."

to the fish-god of Chaldxa, Oannes, see William Simpson, The connection is noted by the poet Prnctan, Thf hnak Le&nd. .1

set! litora

Phcrnices vivum

iuxta

vctcri

rognomine Quos misit quondam marc rubrum laudibus aurto*, ChaMiro nimium dccoratam sanguine grnirm, Arcmnuque Dri rclrhratam Irgibus unain.

Ac.

./w,

p.

12:

.ms to kttnt rather than to fish; readily the

(N. Y.. 190" but Simpson

-rd

shows how

whole legend changed according to the surroundmgt

thr prople.

Phirnu-uns, Syncellus den\e> them

As* to the race-origin of the

from "ludadan," and Josephfls Jutig. J*J. % I, 6, 2 from Drdan. was a son of Raamah, the son of Cush, according to the grne>

(

>

\

A

then, from J.luh. uh<>m ild indicate

tum

Arahi.i

later

that

account (Ckn*. fW4., I, 54) dernret 'I"hi% jnu a logy makes a son of Joktan

for Pi

>ely

MII leedu'.j \\.i.rs of

nr absorbed b\ the eurher.

the

same experience

as that of

migration, the later tending to

160 It

is

significant that

even the Greeks knew Phoenice as Canaan.

Hecat;rus refers to "Chna, as Phornice was formerly called," and the cd as late as an inscription of Antiochus Epiphanes, being nan

lomu-cted with the legendary hero Chna, who can be no other than Canaan of Genesis X, a brother to Cush, and who "begot Sulon, " This word, according to Movers, means "lowland, his first brn." particularly a strip of coast under the hills; and the same meaning is the

attached to Cush, Cutch, or in :,-s of India, }S), and to the

its

Kachh (Holdich,

Indian form,

modern Sawahil

of

and

Kast Africa,

>hchr of South Arabia, the Sachalites of the Periplus.

Another derivation of "Phoenician" from p/tonioi, (bloody, murderous), rests on the activities of that people as sea-folk, traders and So do the habits of the race survive in the puns of the rre pirates. The author of the Periplus ( 33) found the dwellers on Sarapis Island anthropois ponfrois, and the Roman shipping out of Kgypt had always m-d or under convoy. (

The

Gold.

Rome

)mmana

only, and

was an important product of Eastern Arabia, the

best fields

as a product of the Id

being I

Periplus mentions gold coin as an export from

to India, but gold

itself

Ganges

as an export from

region.

the middle courses of the

in

and the

)awasir,

Wadi

Yabrin.

gether ten Arabian gold-fields. \

(

Wadi

er

Rumma,

Wadi

Glaser (Skiw, 347-9) locates It

was

this

ed

alto-

production that K-d the "dust of the coun-

rian Tiglath-Pileser III to refer to gold as the

of Merodach-Baladan, king of Bit-Yakin, and to

Man

the

(julf ports centers also for the gold

make

the

produced farther to the

1

c

The watercourses of northCarmania, and the Himalayas. were probably the producing areas of the "land of Havilah" of Genesis II, 11-12, which could readily supply caravans

in Persia,

eastern Arabia

Canaan; while El-Yemama and the southern fields, of were probably the "land of Ophir" of Solomon's voya Kings X) and according to the tribal genealogy (Genesis X, 29) Ophir was a son of Joktan and therefore purely Arabian. Into this for Chalda-a or

richer yield, I

;

\oluminous controversy it is not necessary to go farther; the evidence is summed up by Glaser (Sk'neu, 357-^88).

To the Greeks and Romans the "gold of Ophir" was known as apynn, which Diodorus Siculus (II, 50) assumes to be a Greek word, ;thout fire," and goes on to explain that it was not reduced by roasting the ores, but

with this

was found

in the earth in shining

lumps the

size

Agatharchides and Pliny (XXI, 1 1; are both acquainted apyrvn gold, and Pliny (VI, 23) mentions also a river Apirus

'icstnuts.

161

na, inaregioi

described by Alexander

,J>

as gold-producing.

.<,

.

Pod

ne*u, theJoJuaimr

and the Ignite Kaamah

Oph

..ngs,

cosmopolitan

Ommina

the Penplut, under Parthian rule,

>t

was (he

I

The

Slaves. (he

.mil

p-.rts of

Arabs were inveterate slave-traders then a*

)IIUM \srr

In international

!

Ara-

ulway* active slave-markets.

the African ciMut had this as

..MIIIII..M .ii..ii

pat

(

agrccincm

one of K%

u?-

i

TheCnimiix

Parsida

.!

nplus gives the

power

Peru*,

mn

Kmpire and refers to the This "country East and South Arabia.

Parthian in

kingdom.

tiu-r

name

Perm,

<>r

.t

:

of

lu the

of that

iv ^

the-

Carmania; a vassal state in the Areacid fol.Ul not have shared, as a state, in the Arabian spoils >mmana was subject to the Parthian monarchy, not

Persia proper, including

of

tin ;>er.

VI. 28) says "Persia

Pliny

but has \

separate people,

The Bay

37.

Ras 66 64

a country opulent even to luxury, for that of 'Pan: Scrabo

Nuh

(25

Y

4

"at present the Persians are a who are subject to other kings; tomu-i times, but now to those of Parthia."

of Gedrosia, while

hardly a separate bay at

bounded by the strip of coast beN. 62 18' K.) and Cape Monze (24* 45 \ 6' N., e the "jutting cape" is Ras Ormara (2S

may be assumed

to be that

.

f

i

Oraea.

66

is

name

governed by kings

to the kings of Maccil<>n in

all,

its

-4) observes more exactly,

in.

1,

changed

I

The

bay

is

the

modern Sonmiani Bay

^\\\c Purali.

1

ilu

.it

<

25

\

time of the Periplus emptied into a bay running some

distance inland, an-.

ted

up to the coast lines. These are the ./*/ Altx*9ultr, \\. 1\-1.

/,

/

\\!\

0'

According to Holdich. the

\\\

.-tderthena-

or Oribans, their councry

called Ore. The river was called Arabia, and on its eastern bank dwelt "an Indian nation called Arabians;" while the Orior on the western bank were "dressed like the Indians and equipped with *' -.ipons. but their language and customs were different. (

i-oast-hsu- ran

Pliny

westward from the Arabb 160 miles;

VI. 2S4>), 200 miles.

They dwek on

or,

accord-

the inland hills

162

and along the shore, the latter being distinguished as Fish-l Alexander conquered the hill-folk and colonized their capital, Rhamwhile bacia, under his own name (Diodorus Su-ulus, \\ 1, li>4 Nearchus fought the coast-folk, reporting' them 'Yoxered with hair ;

on the body, their nails like wild birds' claws, used like iron for killing and splitting fish, and cutting softwood; other things they cut Strabo (XV, ii, 2) describes with sharp stones, having n<> iron." of whales and ureat shells; the of the made bones dwellings,

their ribs

being used for beams and

rafters,

and the jawbones

for don-

Here are more echoes of the early migrations that radiated outward from the Persian Gulf. The river Arabis and the Arabia: sufficiently reminiscent of Arabia, while the capital, Rhambac ia, appears in Ptolemy as a city of the Rhamnrc, derived from the same

The Oritx

source.

other in Persian; but this

The

eaters."

is

Makran

lation, like that of

modern

are represented by the

names have the same meaning,

probably no into

()m

country of

hill-folk,"

more than

Main Khnran, is

one

in

Both

Brahui.

(Jreek and

tin-

a punning trans-

Ichthyophairi,

rather related to the

Uru

"fish-

of C'hal-

da-an place-names; being connected with the sun-worship that survived well into the Christian era.

The

Brahui are a Dravidian tribe

left

behind by their race on its way to Southern India; in earlier days the connection of both with the Persian Gulf was less broken. The

name "Makran,"

as shown by Curzon ( Geographical Journal, VII, Dravidian; while "Brahui" is thought to refer to the hero of the tribe, Braho, a name having the same root as Abraham Imperial is

<

These people

are probably the same "Asiatic Aethiopians, and " who were similar airain (VII, 70) as "Aethiopians from the sunrise, to the Aethiopians of Southern Arabia, both peoples being represented Gtnutteer of India > IX, 15-17).

'

as those called

in

the

by Herodotus (III, 94)

Persian army, and both having presumably sprung from

same stock;

as witness the record in Genesis

X,

7,

t

he-

"the sons of

C'ush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabteca; and the sons of Raamah: Sheba, and Dedan." The Cushite name seems to survive in Kej, in the valley of Makran; the "Kesmac <>ran"

of

Marco

Polo.

The names

of the

Pharaohs of the

dynasty in Egypt, point to a like origin: i'a-anch, Pocn, etc.

Wcllsted Beni coast.

Genab

),

and Taharka

XXVth

or "Aethiopian"

Kashta, Shabaka, Piankhi

(cf.

Katar, Socotra).

v) noted the strong racial similant\ between the in South Arabia and the people found on the Makran (I, ch.

Holdich (Gt^raphUal Journal, VII, 388) finds the

Haftalu off the

Makran

coast

island of

the Astola of Ptolemy, a center of the

gave to

locally known as Serandipi a Ceylon, but uhu h, apart from its la syllable, the Sanscrit uid, seerm to be related to the island of Sen. Strap*, or

\l..

off

worship

ira,

the Arabian coast

n ulixed by Got/.

is

"Turanian-Ham H ;
it

between both wing* of thu tyurm

ltrMnu*g'

<

im Di,mt,

it

H'tttkamAt

.i<>

u

-MS I., ru\r in mind a rarr f/" /rntin, " Astatic Aethiopinegroes as the original of the Makran. But their descent h
.ms"

ui

John Mandevillr hup Mime ways seems nearer the truth

in (iult

IM

!

"Noah

had three sonv t.>nk ih

;>t

Cham

ves a legend

<

Asia, and

Shnn

n and Japhei

.':-.,f,-r

aiul the best part,

.am,

toward the ea*.

that

and Japhet t.n.k l.un.pc was the greatest and the most mighty, and of him came t....k

Africa,

And of his son Chute generations than of the other. Nimrod the giant, that began the foundation of the

to.

And of the generation of Cham be come the Paynims Babylon and divers folk that be in isles of the sea by all .

.

I

also Lassen, ;.

146-161 j and

P

us Hold.ch, G*in Ham. i:gn*fail Jnnui,

/>.

Got M

R.

VII.
Rhambacia. :

rills

I'hc

name

of the capital

not given in the

is

A man.

the lacuna with that mentioned h\

efers Parsis, the capital of

Gedrosia according

to

Fabri-

but

Ptolemy;

was probably much farther west. Rhambacia was at no great distance from the modern Las Beat

:>lace

to

According ,

this

whole neighborhood

Arabian occupation; but the exact I

'he

is

site is

Holdich

full

(,*

.f

/sW,

of evidences of

early

-

undetermin<

mbc-name, Rhamnar, Lassen connects with the

Sanscrit

ramana, happy, utmh, while possibly a mere pun, may explain the Hindu name "blessed" for Socotra, which had been identified with

Raam. same

tlu-

i

shite stock generally

I

he root of &wt/r-a

u evidently

Katar peninsula, adjoining Bahrein MamariJa, "precious," an Arabic name for the mountain

Straits

as Kl

at

ihc

Hormus; the "Island of the Blest" of the Babylonian nesh epic; may these reflect a Cushite race-appdbnon, like of

chosen people" of the Hebrews?

Bdellium

is

an aromatic

gum exuded from R*h*m*AmJim

order Kurtfnin*, a small tree natixr

in

n>nhwrtern

India,

164

Atrua; closely allied to m> rrh and employed from a very early date. AcXII. 19) the best sort came from Bactria, and the ng to Pliny from India and Arabia, Media and Babylonia. The- um, he

Beliu hi>tan.

Arabia,

aiul

l..ist

ilarly

>t

"ought

says,

to

he transparent and the color of wax, odont. friction, ami bitter to the taste, n

unctuous when subjected to \\nhout the slightest acidity.

steeped in wine, upon which The price in Rome he

When it

used for sacred pu:

emits a

still

S denarii

more powerful odor

per pound, making

it

equal

only to the poorest quality of myrrh.

Bdellium was particularly the product of the hills between the Hindu Kush and the Indian Ocean, and found its way wo

through the Persian ( Julf ports or overland through Babylonia. Arrian (Anabasis, VI, 22) tells how the army of Alexander, returning through

Orit, came upon "many myrrh trees, lamer than from which the Phoenician traders accompanying the army It is probably the hth... gathered the gum and carried it away. Genesis II. 12, which reached the Hebrews from the "land of

the country of the

"

uMial,

Haxilah,*' the south shore of the Persian Gulf, the district of

of

36.

Bdolach^ however,

is

thought by some

Hebrew

Ommana authorities

gem; while the same word is used in the Itimnm Tudela (Adler's edition, p. 98) for the pearls of the Bahrein fisheries, and with the same meaning in the Meadows of Gold

to be a crystalline

of Benjamin of

i.is'udi

See also Watt, p. 544). 1,290; Glaser, Skbcze, 324-5, 364-7.

(Sprenger's translation,

p.400; Lassen,

op. at.,

op.
A

passage in the Book of Numbers XI. 1 is pcrh;.ps of interest as reflecting the ancient classification of fragrant gums by size and The shape of the piece, rather than by distinguishing the tree.

manna

of the Israelites

is

there said (in the R. V.

to

)

have been "like

coriander seed," and the "appearance thereof as the appearance of The A. V. has the "color as the color of bdellium," in bdellium/' contradiction to

white;

Exodus XVI,

31,

where the color was

bdellium being brown, like myrrh.

The

said to

marginal

be

note in

the Revised Version,

"Hebrew, eye," points to the true meaning. Glaser has already shown the and incense of the Egyptian Punt Reliefs to be an Arabian word, a-a-nete, "tree-eyes" (Punt und
from the small round drops, which were supposed to be tree-tears ( The Hebrews 29) or the the tree-blood (as shown under 29). after the Exodus would have had the same classification ; so we may conclude that the author of

Numbers meant

to

compare the

IAS .illine

panicles of the tamaritk-root syrup, oriander seed, wh

whu h lc

thu

the larger and comer

the lump* of bdellium \\

huh he was

familiar in t;

KIM

sniihiis.

i

unusual

is

Hnuiu

n. tines rr.idii:!/

in

uths '

The Yangtse, (none

This

great rs

M

rtVtt

I

lndu

IJrahnu; h

is

i:cs,

:

had been seen by the author is

(

)ld

an ancient

Tetftament.

exceeded

of the

1

It* lYnplu* The sediment

a single year an island 65 The delta projects link beyond yard deep. to the distribution of silt along shore by

mini:

square miles in area and normal coax

the

b>

and Shan-cl- Arab

greater than that of the Hoanc-ho.

down

in

iiiriKiniir.i in

the f*tf* of the

is

IrreLs

V

discharge

at /W*j.

and Subffr

i

in his HiU
thing. (

the

Su\ir,

mixlm.

:n&n of the

known

m^' generally

West ^rnrrulK drop

the

basis for

argue-

mit*. and thi* form

!

'<

SixtAut

with

(<

4 ) ritual.

"i

ocean currents, and to the deposit of the remainder in a vast subthe river ic trough 1200 feet deep and upwards, due south of Ihs Urdus. /.;. 111.

The presence of great water>anscrit fraka. observed along these coasts, in the bays and at the mouth*

Graa>

.
ill

Barbaricum.

<8.

id i'l

This name

is

evidently

one suspects Bandar,

ax Kahardipur. \\lndi survives in the

.ui>

remains of

xiltm- of the Delta, the

this port are

probably yards

away from

a>

rvuble to men-of-war.

rmerlx

ih-banda

some name With the

modern Delta

the soft alluvium, and very likely quite

i

Hellennrd from

port, or possibly

inland to the east of the present main channel of the I

minx, while a similar fate has overtaken

and other places.

Since the opening

( f

.r,

Ken.

the Karachi railway mort

abandoned.

of India

Minnagara was dm mj the period

and Yueh-i ix

hi

icxuined their former

a

name

given temp

several

of the occupation by the Scyths (the Saka !

lapse of the Indo-Scythian

names with

their

autonoim

power

tl

166

This Mmnagara may be expedition it

identified with the Patala of

Alexander's

Vincent Smith locates

the capital of the delta country.

Bahmanabad, 25 50' N., 68 50' E., about six miles WC-M modern Mansuriyah. 'I "he site was discovered by M. Bel;..

at

the

..f

The Indus delta 1854, and includes extensive prehistoric remains. his growji greatly since our author's time, and the courses of the tributaries have changed repeatedly. Vincent Smith apex of the delta was probably about forty mi Irs north of He cites numerous that place, approximately 26 40' N., 68 30' E. facts to prove that the coast-line has advanced anywhere from 2<> to

Indus and

all its

s.us that the

The Rann of Cutch l.innon 40 miles since Alexander's time. now a salt marsh, he thinks was a broad open arm of the sea running (

,

N., with the eastern branch of the Indus emptying into it brought down by the river and formed into great bars \\ashed southward by the violent tides, has now dosed the mouth of the Rann Silt

The coast-line he thinks almost entirely. from Karachi to the Rann of (Am h. Reclus until

this

25

N.

142-5) says the Rann was probably open sea

(//j/0, III,

about the 4th century,

vated

may have averaged

when

a series of violent earthquakes ele-

He

whole region considerably.

rums

reports

at

Nagar

Parkar, at the northeast corner, indicating a lar^e sea-port trade there. These changes may have been one cause of the great migration

from

this

region to Java in the 6th and 7th centuries A.

Parthian princes.

38.

rule-

of

"Par-

over the

first

Saka, fleeing before the Yueh-chi. Seistan (Sakastenej,

leader

reference to the

)

iterestinu "metropolis of Sc-ythia" horde from Central Asia to overrun the Pamirs was the

thian princes"

The

The

I

They

settled in the

and the lower Indus.

By about

1

Cabul

1"

B.

valley,

C. their

Manes had established a kingdom at Cabul, subject to Parthia; " was known as the "Indo-Parthian, but his rac was, roughly

his line

speaking,

"Scythian."

Gradually the Yueh-chi pursued the Saka,

Greek

Bactria (they are referred to in this text, ^47.

<>nquering as the

Very warlike nation

Their king, Kadphises his gon,

Kadphises

II,

of the Hactrians,

"

living in the interior

conquered Cashmere and the upper Indus; who acceded about 85 A. D., after a disa I,

Kuche by the pursuer of the Yueh-chi, the Chinese directed his armies quering general Pan-Chao about 90 A. I). defeat at

southward and rapidly overran the Panjab and the lower Indus, and and interior points like Indore. Both races were called by the Sanscrit "Min" orScyths; the

then reached the upper

Periplus

N

shows the

'

Indo-Parthians

ruling

in

\thia," then at the apex of the Indus delta;

the

"metropolis

showing

the

ir

of

power

iff

Kabul

in thr

have tx-rn hr.,kcn already by

valley in

I*

iihtequent complete conquest by the t>cen

The

consummated. nt described in the Periplus

were probably Ian powerful Indo-

political

tbote that followed the jab.

SIX

WM

I

After

>

under twn

again tr<"i thr huius

traps"

This

it

fuppoced

some yean of anarcby and t..

and

subjn

later

MM

m

t.

and (be

.rrrdabouc

war, the Saia power

\\ il

lines of ruler*,

(I..

tbe

"Northern Sa-

"U euern

Saimr

these dynastic

li-.il.

tributary,

t

first

, ;

t

distant southern raiding by tbe Indo-Partbians led to the "Pallava" dynasties along tbe west coast, which after a couple of centuries succer.u-.i in gaining control ,,: much of Southern India. '

thought by

S2 as ruling in Call ic

mini

1

says:

i

and

colors,

mull

M

the

I

L'

isM*'".

uas very famous

for

invented at Alexandria;

Pliny (VIII.

making embroidery

in

have obtained the cloth with

different

name

of

more than two

these cloths are called permit*,

"

\\\4\

ili<

cqucrs.

"

Martial's epigram, th.it

iiombay.

J linens.-

hnue stuffs of this kind The method of weaving \

the

ubricius to be the ones referred to

I

i

\ptun

H

tissue

C'ubiciil..

indicates

was formed

in a

like tapestry,

loom,

and

that

W.IN finl>r..uU-rrl with the needle.

Topaz.

N

I

cktynlitkot.

This

stone, according to

IMiny, came from Aethiopia (Abyssinia) and tsbnds in the Red Sea; and he adds that the best sort came from India. Here is a confusion betbe Red Sea gem being the true topaz and kinds of stone ;

The knowledge of was vague, and we are apt to astray by assuming that because we have borrowed the Greek name we have applied it to the same stone. e (hiysolitlioi mentioned in thr trxt was almost certainly our

thr Indian either chrysolite or yellow sapphire. thr

Romans

regard to precious stones

in

topaz, \v hi. h xvas produced in abundance in the Red Sea islands, being an important item in the east-bound exports of Egypt, under the

mrs and Rot abosays: XVI. ,v, 6) "After Berenice is the island Ophiodea. was cleared of the serpents by the king, on account of the topazes found there. A body of men was appointed and maintained by the of Kgypt to guard and maintain the place where these It

.

.

.

upermtetul thr

t<

Election of

them

168

remarkable that the Penplus doc> not mention emeralds also

is

It

There was a larur production from Berenice to India. west of our author's home. They nu\

as an export

from mines

in the hills just

Rome

ha\c fetched better prices in

than in India, where they would

have had to compete with the native beryls. a description of these mines, as well as of the present app

:

~

ance of the

site

of Berenice, see Bent, Southern Arabia, 291

28 and 49. This was the red coral d which was one of the prim -ip.il assets of Western Mediterranean, I'lim observe! with the l-.ast. trade in its the Roman Kmpire coral was as that (\.\\1I, some surprise 11) highly prized in India

Coral.

Sec also

pearls at

Rome.

the-

as

were

opened and

The

and helmets with

swords, shields

\alue

export

its

Gauls formerly ornamented

their

coral, but after the Indian trade was

increased,

it

became extremely

with them.

Tavernier (Traveh in

ope,

Although it

is

it

one of the most

is

tions, so that there are Ball, in his notes

"the way

some

nations

was

among

precious stones

on Tavernier its

tints

also valued for

its

beautiful of nature's produc-

who

prefer

it

to precious stones.

(II, 136), ascribes the preference

adapt themselves to set off a dark skin,

and also look well with a white garment. It

found the same conditions

coral does not rank

nevertheless held in high esteem in the other quarters

and

of the globe,

for coral to

in India, II, xxiii)

"

his time:

"

supposed sacred properties, and the be-

charm continued through the Middle Ages, and lief in its to the even present day in Italy, whre it is worn as a protection uses as a

against the evil eye.

The

principal red

coral fisheries, then as

now, were

in

SiciK,

Sardinia and Corsica, near Naples, Leghorn and Genoa, in C'atalonia, the Balearic Islands and the coasts of Tunis, Algeria and Men-

Tavernier describes the method of fishing by "swabs" rafters, weighted, and bound with twisted hemp, which were

ci

let

down

and entangled amongst the coral on the rocky bottom, breaking more For a fuller description, see Emcycltpitdia Britannia^ than they caught. '

art.

"Coral

Red coral is Corallium rubrum, family Gorgonida. There was black coral in abundance in the Red along the Arabian coast, but these

were

not

pri/.ed

Sea, and others so

highly.

See

Haeckel, Jrab'ncht Koralltn. 39.

ftiuc t

CostUS. a

tall

This

perennial,

the cut root of Saussurea lappa, order C^mgrowfhg on the open slopes of the vale of

is

Kashmir, and other high valleys of that region,

at elevations of X,oo<)

149 (,,

v'""

i

also as a

perfume

in less quantity than it

gives

Roman Kmpirr

In the

''<"

,m

-

it

was used

many of

The

pepper and cinnamon.

as a marginal reading

f<>r

as a culinary the ointments, though

\,.du-

I

;,

Revised Version in place

of

one of the ingredients of the anointing oil >f the Hebrew The root was dug up and cut into small pieces, and shipped to Vincent describe* the root as being the to* both Rome and China, as

a yellowish

of a finger; ..

is brittle,

warm,

woody

bitterish,

part

The

within a whitish hark.

and aron

in agreeable smell,

reseniNni'j orris. 1

C

allinuus

nntrs that the gifts from Seleucus

the Milesians included frank

t

nyrrh,

pounds; cinnamon, 2 pounds; costus,

Romans

Rome

stated by

is

pound.

was often called simply rW/*, the root, as which was called>/;*m, the leaf The price

costus

distinguished from nard, in

I

Pliny

-

XII.

J.S

t..

have been S denarii per

id.

In

modern Kashmir the

and Red Sea In Kashmir

it

is

China

In

ports.

a Slate monopoly, shipment to China perfumes and as incense.

collection of costus

the product being sent to Calcutta and it is

Bombay,

used in

is

for

used by shawl merchants to protect their fabrics from

"IN >rd

See

Wan, 1

\

i

iostHs

is


/>.

mm.

from the Sanscrit

980; Lassen,

at elevations

hcium, also B. aristata,

From

the roots fruit

'standing in the

/>.

This was derived from

malayas,

from the stem,

*

kutJitka.

of

B. asianta,

varieties of the barberry

6,000 to 10,000

feet.

B. tit/gam, order

and stems a yellow dye was prepared; while and root-bark was made an astringent medicine,

n ,,f xihu-h is described by Plim XXIV. "7). the branches and roots, which are intensely hitter, are pounded and then the woody parts then refor three days in a copper vessel ;

:

and the dtunction boiled again to the thickness of honey. mixed uith \.irious bitter extracts, and with a murca of olive 1.

is

The

It

oil,

is used as an ingredient in and the other part as a face cosmetic, and for the cure of corroding sores, fluxes, and suppurations, for diseases the throat and gums, for coughs, and locally for dressing open " wounds. Many empty lycium potsfcave been found in the nn(See also Watt, ? ulancum and Pompeii.

ox-gall.

froth of this decoction

ipositions for the eyes,

v

170

Nard

(the root, from the lowlands, as distinguished from

spikenard, the leaf or flower, from the mountains, a totally different This is the root of the ginger-grass, Cymbopogon sen species).

order Gramme** native in the Western Panjah, India, Helm histan and Persia, and the allied species, C. /KMRMtttff| native more to It is closely allied to the Ceylon riu>pella, <:. the east and south. ttut,

nan/us.

From the root of this grass was derived an oil which was used Roman commerce medicinally and as a perfume, and as an astr in

in

ointments.

This

is

no doubt the nard found by the army of Alexander on

its

homeward march, in the country of the (iedrosians, f which A man 'This desert produces many odoritsays (Anabasis, VI, 22): which the Phoenicians gathered; but mm h of it was trampled down by the army, and a sweet perfume was diffused far and wide over the land by the trampling; so great was the abundance roots of nard,

of

it

The text has calUan stone, which seems the (XXXVII, 33), a stone that came from "the

Turquoise.

39.

same

as Pliny's callama

more

countries lying back of India," or description of the stone

occurs abundantly

identifies

definitely,

Khorassan.

II is

with our turquoise, which

it

volcanic rocks intruding into sedimentary rocks

in

The

in that district.

itself

finest stones

came from

the mines near

Maaden,

about 48 miles north of Nishapur (the Nisaea of Alexander, 30

30'

A natural trade-route from this locality would have N., 58 50' E. ). been down the Kabul river, thence by the Indus to its mouth, where the author of the Periplus found the stones offered for sale. <-e

Ritter,

Heyd, Commerce du Levant au Moyen Age,

also

Erdkunde, 325-330; Yule's

Goodchild, Precious 'Turquoise ;

is

Stones^

only found

Marco

284; Tavernier, Travels in Persia

....

pur, the other five days' journey

in

h53;

II,

Polo, Cordier's ed., in Indni.

i

II,

\i\:

two mines, one near

from it;" Lansdell, Russian

Cf*tral-Asia t 515.) 39. natural

Lapis

lazuli.

inclination

The word

would be

to

in

assume

the text this to

is

wpp/n-ims, and a

be the same

a

sapphire, which is also a product of India; but according to Pliny \\.\VII, 39) the stone known to the Romans as sapphire opaque blue stone with golden spots, which came from Media, that is, \

in a general

way, from the country

for engraving because

it

was

we

call Persia.

It

was not

suited

intersected with hard crystalline particles.

This can be nothing but our lapis la/.uli, which has been from a very early time for ornament and al-

in

demand ultra-

was so extensively used by the Egyptians m their public sapphire seems to have been rather a product of India and Ceylon, and would hardly have been exported h

MII

Our

buildings.

the Indus val % which gave beauteous tablets of the golden hued and azure sapphire "

>ionysius Pcriegete

I

birth (o the

hu h thrv

A

.di hilil

(

Mr much

Prrenm Stomt, the

certainly

bi-in..:

the par-

:n

!<

sapphire

240), also thinks that

p.

of

"It has been known from

says,

Kpiphanius, Bishop of to

to son

it

Lassen

i-

is

this

\rr\

rrrnod

Moses were

Salami*, says the Tables of the

inscribed

on

The Romans

lapis lazuli

a material for engraving of the same opinion. Beck man n ///// .is

/*t.,

writing in the 18th century, says that the real lapis lazuli

Bokhara, particularly to India,

via \\

he-

t

at

and from India

Orenburg, but

nh

less

Dioscorides, V, 157, 5

(The

than formerly.

Dionys.,

Marbodeus dt

;

that

it

it

.d*o

1

-

1,

came from

was sent thence through Russia

route corresponds as the sapphire of the ancic first

On/. XVI, 9; Theophrast. dt Lpid.

Isidori

gemmis,

Kalab and Badakshan; to Son mope.

"I consider

Periplus. )

quoin

xii

none was

Egyptians, and to a lesser extent by the

used by the

Law used

i.

and other

ustus

I

Assyrians.

ti\rn

which seems

,

I

rather than our sappt

.ipis lazuli

st

.

OH

,

1105;

| 43;

,

Kpiphanius

4

Lapidibus, 55.

India,

in India, II, xxv speaks of a "mountain Kashmir producing lapis,' which Ball (&MMM* G*kfj if U 529) locates near Firgamu in Badakshan, 36 10' N., "1

For a

fuller description see

Tavern ier, (Travels

)

i

was

is

Holdich, Gates of India, 426, 507.

was probably not the cteruUum of the Romans, which Their blue glass was rather cobalt. copper ochre.

Itramarine

I

rather

Seric skins. KXXIV, 41 says, "of all the difkuuk of iron, the palm of excellence is awarded to that which made by the Seres, who send it to us with their tissues and skins; in

M,

\ \\

\

qualm,

ings of animals are the skins

These passages are this

in

s'

.opposed to

the

whom see

fiouKi not h.t\c

than

in the

the

is

Parthian

And

fa

the most valuable products furnished by the

1

1

>th

whu

h the Seres

sufficient

Periplus.

hem

answer to those Vincent,

Fabricius, p.

again ,

151.)

II,

There

who

have doubled

S9U; Muller is

I,

288,

no more reason why

sent overland across Asia in the 1st century

to the 19th,

when

sider, for instance, the difficulty

the trade

was most important.

e\en t>-da\,

in getting

Con-

Russian sable*

172

and how much easier

to market,

from Tibet and Turkestan

As it

is

"most

to the

open

to question

to get

to tin-

the-

\.m<>us wild aiiim.il skins

Indus mouth!

excellent iron of the Seres" mentioned In Plinv,

whether

this

was not Indian

steel,

more

described in the Periplus as coming from the Gulf of

cor-

Camhay

and Egypt It was produced in Haidaral Golconda, and was shipped to the- Panjab and the famous Damascus blades of the I to be made into steel; middle ages being derived mainly from this source. (Tavernu i, See also under Travels, Ball's cd., I, 157. )

to the

Somali coast

short distance north of

39.

with

Cloth.

separate item. as mrfed

It

is

uncertain whether this should be connerted

following item, yarn, both

the

If

under

the latter, as

38

being

or whether

silk,

seems probable,

it

it

is

a

would be muslin,

the sin^n of the Greeks. long

a

staple

product

of tne Pan jab and Sind.

\/39. Silk yarn. found

silk

at

According

to the IVriplus, the

the mouths of the Indus and

Cambay, and in Travancore, u from N. W. China.

hither

it

Roman lu

(i.i:

traders

Gulf of

had been brought by various

routes

The

principal

highway

for silk, at this time as well as later,

through Turkestan and Parthia.

As

the

demand

in

\\.is

Mediterranean

grew more insistent, the restrictions of the Parthian government became more severe, and quarrels over the silk trade v\ the root of more than one war between Rome and Parthia, or later between the Byzantine Empire and Sassanian Persia. This effort of Constantinople to reach China direct, without dependence on countries

."\

potamia, led to alliances with Abyssinia, for the sea trade, and with the Turks, for a route north of the Caspian; but no permanent result

was reached

until the 6th century,

under Justinian succeeded

in

when

a couple of Christian

monks

bringing back from China the jealously-

guarded silk-worm's eggs, from which the

silk

culture

was introduced

Greece, and imports from the Kast diminished. At the time of the Periplus, Rome and Parthia being at war, the sea-route was the only one open to the Roman silk traders. into

See also under

49, 56 and 64.

39. Indigo, a dye produced from Indizoftra tinctona. Linn order Lffuminos*; and allied species, of which about 25 exist in \\ em ern India alone, and about 300 in other tropical regions. Concerning ,

modern production see Watt (op. cit., 664). It was valued in Western Asia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean countries as a dye and

the

a medicine.

Pliny says

(XXXV,

25

uibaunce imported

I

rum

India, with ihr

When hrokea small unacquainted. of a black appearance, but when diluted u nhibics a wndrou% There i% another kind t.f if purple and deep a/ure am

composite

u

if

f

caldn.n>

floats in che i\r

purple for

it

If

m

thr purple

ued

ague and other shivering Marco Polo sa> >

i>e-houe%, and

i*

m

as a

fits

and iksinaHi

made

upon which they pour water and

' '

of a certain herb

.is

we

see

each, and in that 4ii

The

then divide

They

it

rted to

f>

Ciulf of Raiin

it

h

the

until

whole of

thru put thi* liquid in the HIM. so that it hoiU and coagulates, and becomes

c,

.

luxe

whu

put into great

is

They

-imposed. cml..us

of the

sores.

gathered, and (after the root* have hern removed)

vessels

scum

ihc

acts at a sedative

irinon

1

it

into piece* of four

ounce*

our p

now ki. name comin.

the strange expanse

is

Wildrt:iess) of Cutch, the

the crescent-shaped rocky island bordering

it

on the

south.

about 140 miles long, and reaching 60 mile* from to shore; and in the dry season (of the N. K. monsoon It opens seaward by a dry and firm, 10 to 20 inches above sea-level. narrow channel, and west of Cutch the northern Rann communiunit. u in saline plain

Rann, which is connected Gulf of Cutch. In the rainy seaton

cates through a second channel with the

with the

l<>\v

(of the S.

-lying coast of the

W.

monsoon) the

sea

is

it

into

it.

'of stagnant water about 3 feet deep. Hut the ground so level that the Rann is never deep enough to stop the camel cara-

which cross and

vans,

terrible heat

const. it

driven through these channels b>

from the hilb also flows

nd, and the rain descending

it

at all seasons,

refraction, rr the

i

and the

Rann.

traveling by night illusions of

The

i

the mirages

guidance of

stars

v*

the

huh

and com paw

preferred.

This

saline

shown by

plain

was

certainly at

<>n<-

tune flooded by the sea,

and by the remains of vessel Old harbor works are ob>< up near the neighboring villages. Within rmnear Nagar Parkar, on the eastern side of the Rann.

as

the abundance of

salt

nncs it was probably the scene of an active sea-trade. e\en modern times the port of Mandavi, on the southern coast of Cutch. :

carries ,

on a

;

direct trade with Zanzibar, in small vessels averaging SO

of less than 10 feet draught

We are here again

reminded of the ancient Turanian

(

Accadun-

dian) sea trade, which must have centered in these bays,

Thr

re a

was probably

raised

by some great

174

The

upheaval

is

At

too regular to have occurred by ordinary causes.

have been open water, although below the Indus delta, ami the ocean into clear with a opening shoal, Now the Indus delta is with a branch of the Indus running into it. the time of the Periplus

seems

it

to

pushed very much farther south, and the scour of the tides has carru -d while the its alluvium along the coast, almost hlnckinu up the Rann; branch that watered it no longer flows in that direction. h ami One is led to surmise that the great migration from

dm

Gujarat to Java,

in

the 6th and 7th centuries, ami

led to the establishment of Buddhist

which in

which occurred

kingdoms there (survi\m<: Brambanan) may have

the tremendous temples of Boroboedor and

been due even more to this cause than to the invasion of hostile Aryan The conversion of a navigable bay into tribes from the upper Indus. a salt desert, and the diversion of the rivers that watered it, must ha\e spelled ruin and starvation to multitudes of its agricultural and seafaring inhabitants, who would have been forced to migrate on a sc -altunusual

in history.

Geological considerations tend to confirm the tradition, otherwise unsupported by historic evidence, that the Indus was formerly deflected by the Rohri Hills directly into the Rann of Cutch, where

was joined by the

it

river

which was supposed

to have

tinuation of the Sutlej and Sarasvati through the '

now

formed

a

con-

dried-up Hakra

canal. During exceptional floods the waters of the Indus Other overflow into the eastern desert and even into the Rann.

Wahind)

still

channels traversing the desert farther south ing of the main stream in

its

still

attest the incessant shift-

search for the most favorable seaward out-

According to Burns, a branch of the Indus known as the Purana, or "Ancient," still flowed in 1672 about 120 miles east of the present

let.

mouth.

The

constant shiftings of the river-bed toward the west ha\e

rendered the eastern regions continually more

many

river-channels into

inhabitants,

salt-pits.

arid,

and have changed

In the year 1909 a city of 25,000 almost annihilated by the Indus.

Dera Ghazi Khan, was Kirinon, kinn or Rann

The name

is

from the Sanscrit


or

irina, a waste or swamp.

40.

Whether 69 is

The Gulf the

name

of Baraca survives

uncertain.

5

It

modern Gulf of Cuteh. 22' V, in the modern Dwarka (22 srcms to be the same as Ba/iltka, which is

the

associated with Surashtra in the MaJulhhdnita, the

Rdmdyann and

the / Ithnu Purana. 41.

Ariaca.

thinks that the

name

This word is

I... in the text is \ery uncertain / l^tica the Sanscrit (pronounced properly

m and included the land on both side* of the ( ,uii An inscription of Asoka mention* Latx*. also gives the name Lanta. urlirst form feems to have been R&ittka or RAtktnka, "beJonct

mu'

thr

t<>

word appean abo in Synttttm. The word R&tktra survives alto in the modem Martina Another explanation derive* (Las*en, I, 108.)

km. -.1.

form of

Prakrit

,

this

(MaHMthtrti).

Ariaca from Apar&ntikft

%

name

an old

for the western seaboard.

InAan Ant^uMn, Ml, 259-263.) Ac. (Uchu ./.;,;, Ill, InS h..th l\mh and Kithiawir urn oriffaalb bland*. Thi* whole area (Baraca and Syrastr< -nr tunes. The land connecting Kathiawir has been raised in .igvanlal Indraji, in

'

with the nuii land i

not over SO fret above tea-level and

is

b

full

of

marine remains. lt>

position $

same as the Saka 41. ',

of the li

curly a centre of trade, itsees, political

he text

N

is

Mamtntr

and a great

and

religious.

i*

probably

*

See undr

a.

Abilia. This is the native Jbhira, which l,auen I, In the account argues must have been the Biblical Ophir.

Ophir

trade given in

The word

ltd

.

sandalwood(?)

cocks.

I

ruler

Oiioim-lfs Vlll

j.-M,

it

also an asylm:

Nambanus.

41. tlu

seaward made

(

1

Kings, IX, 26-28; IX,

1",

precious stones, ivory,

translated ape,

1

Kings, X, 11,

the products mentioned are silver,

Lassen remarks,

apes and peais bpki, not a

The word word, but derived from the Sanscrit word kapi. 49. The word for peacock, /n>A*Wm, is i\ory is noted under \v

tor th<

called in Malabar, tofri. lessen Saiuialwood, thinks, was the iilmug or a/fum, which he the Sanscrit Lassen also refers M from valgu, Malabar va/fum. :khi,

to the Indian city

Sophir

-

theSuppara

'

is impossible. The land of Ophir modern Gujarat, is and was purely an agricultural country, none of the products mentioned, and is at the northern end

But the location of

in India

Abhira, the dealing in

of India's west coast, not the southern,

came.

loiter scholarship

is

from which these products ( >phir on the

sufficiently sure in locating

Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf, hut the Indian names for the prodMentioned proved clearly enough that it was a trading center dealing with India, even

The

if

the land

itself

was not

Indian.

name, too, has a suggestive similarity.

Just as

we

have

Kachh, Khuzistan=Kassites, and "wretched Cush," so Abhira, Apir, Ophir suggest the same Dravidun-Accadian activity be tween India, the Persian Gulf, and Africa, which later gave way .

176

H of thousand

<

y<

ti\ it\

ha\e been

his \\ould

I

a

couple

Solomon's day.

Syrastrene.The name survives in the modern

modem

-he

41.

which

Surat,

>wes

K.uiu.: its

name

At the time of the- IVriplus this penmsu Arabic domination. gether with the opposite coast of Cutch and Cambay, \\.is subject

A fertile

41.

in

India,

(in iarat

country.

one

still

is

the richest

of

prosperity being largely dm- to the

its

st-lincs

frincii. is

to

I ndo- Parthian d\nastu -s

the Saka or

regions

to

and

to the fertility of

its

deep black

particularly adapted to the cultivation of cotton.

sheep and grain are exported

in large

hll

numbers

seaports

soil,

\\hich

Morses,

cattle,

Bombay and

to

other

parts of India.

41.

Rice.

The

Oryza, Linn., order Graminea.

specie!

now

There are various wild most generally cultivated is Oryza sativa. Roxb. or O. /////varieties, one of importance being Oryza ntirctata coida, which was native in the Indus and Ganges valleys, and also Tins wild apparently in Mesopotamia (see Watt, op. at., 823-5 (

.

variety resembles

Strabo and

some

wheat and seems of the

Greek

to

have been mistaken for

it

by

writers on India.

Oryza sativa, the cultivated form, is native in India, Burma, It is the principal food of Asia, and doubtless and Southern China.

was so

at the

time of the Periplus,

when

it

was exported

to

Arabia

was cultivated in China, according to Stanislas Julien, as early as 2800 B. C., and probably somewhat later in India. \\ att thinks the cultivation began rather in Turkestan, whence spread to China, India and Persia in the 'order named, the changing and Kast Africa.

It

it

climate also forcing

its

wild habitat southwards.

He

thinks that coin-

which the Dravidian invaders passed He also cautions until they culminated in the Tamil civilization. against the tempting derivation of the Greek word oryza and the Arabic al-ruzz (from which the modern rice, riso, r/z, arroz, etc. i, from the cides with the region through

Tamil

arisi,

thinking that they are rather from the old Persian

i-irhizi

(Sanscrit vrihi), indicating an early connection before migrations had radiated

from Central Asia

41. Sesame Oil, expressed from the seeds of Sesamum //////
was

a

regularly cultivated in India long before

it

the seed.

countries.

Originally, perhaps,

At the time of the

it

Periplus

it

native of Africa, but

was

reached the Mediterranean is

safe to

assume

that

177

was an important crop through* nit traJ

shm%

A Roman

to the

reshaped

initiation

m

thr

.iMomtiM-.:

It

is

U

l>\

utr

thr area

./.

Cambay

',000 j*r

states.

largely used

oil is

purpotr*

f-

soap manufacture, and as a lamp-oil

in

of

the olur

^//.-

pression in milk

closely resembles olive IN

..-I

not

Strabo

d.

\\

It

i%

d butter.

become

-hout smril. and not liable ro

a \rll... it

I

in the

India the

an adulterant

also used as

ot

r

1904- 5 was

India in

body,

warmer pan*

Aa>

n

,

world

.00,000 was inoilrrn

In

rl.ar

to the statistic* given

According

thr

varied from the and Africa, whence doubcle** it was

to both Arabia

Camhay

of

(iiilt

India and the

us

oil, is

It

and

i%

ran

similarly

used

extracted by simple ex-

custom

the ancient

i

itmu the body with sesamr

Cl.mfiril lluurr.

41

'his

I

not

is

Indian gki% an

oil

tresh

-The

butter

text

A>i/*n>/

is

(see also under

made

reduced from butter

but rather the Fabric

ms

says that

it

could

have been transported from India to Africa under the tropical sun, ami uould read boimoms, an Indian grain; but ghi stands l-.n^ not

journeys to-day and might very

r

1

icntury on the African coast, uhu cocoanut palm. According i

G/r.

s.ilt

in

.

demand oil

in the 1st

except from the

478) /Ai

an

is

ir-

oil

which the

deposited as a

.

m

If

in

produced no

.r! and the residue lasei:;. The butter thus luses .ib..ut 1> p<-:

icnt

it

been

after heating the butter about twelve hours, during

m.is!i

hot,

h

rut of

it*

bulk

buffalo's milk rather than cow's.

IN

mentioned

carefully

in

some

of the most ancient of the

Hindu

enclosed in leather skins or earthen pots, while

still

may be preserved for many years without requiring the aid

or other

the Deccan,

vl

all

of

of

'2-81, speaks of tanks of gki

p-

400 years

old, of great value medicinally,

butyron has beei.

whom

had fresh butter

in

n ended by the commenmind, although I-assen should

:>cen familiar with the durability of clarified butter, ts

and high

and with the

export from the rich agricultural region of Gujarat. and others, following a mention of tarrrn/ by h asafu-tida, by

way of

the Sanscrit

Mutan

Rut asafcrtida was a product of Afjhanistan and would haxe been brought to the Indus mouth rather than

178

Romans knew

the

may have

\\hilc Theophrastus

to Barygaza.

more

it

intimately as lastr,

referred to

which

the author of the Periplus would probably have used. Roman medicine as a remedy for fevers ami tropical IMmv, \I\, ders.

it

.

word

the

is

It

that

entered into

di'.-esme disor-

1

needlessly alters

Kabricius

the text to read

a

bosmoros,

gram,

McCrindle suggests wild barley or millet. The following passages from Strabo throw some light on that question He says (X\ n. L3) "My the vapors which ascend from so which he docs not

identify.

:

'.

>thcius states, and by the Etesian winds, India summer rains, and the level country is inundated. During the rainy season, flax and millet, as well assesamum, rue and bosmoros are sown; and in the winter season, wheat, barley, pulse,

many

is

rivers,

watered by the

"

and other esculents with which we are unacquainted. (XV, ii, 18) "Onesicritus says of bosmoros that

And it

again:

a smaller

is

It is gra n than wheat, and is grown in countries between rivers. the men bound oath to and are m>t threshed after roasted out, by being :

take

it

away before

it

has been roasted, to pre\ent the seed from being

'

exported.'

The treasuring of

and the prejudice which was regarded

this bosmoros

portation indicate the native millet,

was the grain most used for temple-offerin which might suggest themselves,

pure, and (

)ther grains

against

its

ex-

as particularly

are the

African

sorghum (Hindu juar) or Kaffir corn (see Pliny, XVIII, and 10, for description of its remarkable size and prolific increase Both are imPcnnisttum typhoideum (Hindu, bajra) or spiked millet.

millets, Holcus

portant crops in

modern

India, but

were probably brought from

recently than the date of the Periplus, and being native

more

would not be probable

maliland,

articles of

in

So

import there.

\\ild barley, suggested by McCrindle, was also name m Kgypt and Somaliland, and therefore not likely to have been imported. Another possible grain is the Indus valley wild rice, Oryza <*///
Watt,

823.

p.

The common was

millet,

Panicum miliaceum, while grown

in India,

Egypt and the Mediterranean countries. Altogether the bosmoros of Strabo was most probably "Poor man's

native in

millet,'*

Panicum Crus-galli; which

is

extensively cultivated to-d a\

The native name given China and Japan as well as India. into bosmoros. bura shama be Helleni/,ed might readily gal,

it

in

\\

y

According

Gramine

t

is

to

Watt

{op.

'/.,

84 S

'

Panicum Crus-galli, order

a large, coarse plant, preferring wet ground,

Mich as

Iff

borders of ponds and banks of stream*.

h

feet

thrives

rains are yield

fold

in

good

and

soils

sandy

light

on the banks

over,

is fifty

on

ru h

of

soil

u

Jt

classes,

a cheap

arm

.

Ic of

Cotton and

41

I

Hym

the

m/*4iW, and

SjBfMrAr,

of

vine

li/h:

Urge

i

the

The

river*.

millet,

chiefly by

the

and a/fords

millets.

These were

hitlw.

6 and

8

b*

when

quit ke%t -grow ing

consumed

is

Indian

t.'ii

"

deposited by

the

and the other

tagm** logins

.i\ermer throws

often cultivated

is

useful because u ripens early

<.

food before

extensively cultivated

on the Himalayas

*ilt

harvested sometimes in six weeks, and r

is

It

ss a rainy-season crop over most uf India

The

14.

the

account

Mr OH the earlier production. come to Renonsmri (near

cloths

and Broach, where they have the means of bleaching them in >>< <>( lemons growing in the ,ju.ui!it\

neighborhood.

I

when

10 cubits

loths are 21

.

i

-uhits

long

when

crude, but

There are both broad and narrow

blea*. -bed.

he broad are 1*3 cubit wide, and the piece is 20 cubits oitton i-loihs t. be dyed red, blue, or And au'-i to uncolorcd Agra and Ahmadabad, because ihe*e black, are taken I

in dyciK. a

done

the place where the indigo is made, uhich is used The cheaper kinds are exported to the coast of Melinde and they constitute the principal trade of the 1'criplus ,

.f

t

to carry

Mozambique, who

sells

them

to the Kaffir*

and the kingdom of Saba, ut need UMMJ sa;\ only nnxr

into the country of the Abyssirts

because these

not

people,

\i

.inslation

spun i-orton. from (in jar at

rrnier, ;>e,

i

and they arc onl>

un-

of safmatog.

support

is

who

*

says

'the

unspun cottons

being too bulky and of too small

exported to the

R

v,

M

and

aealsoa Their cotton trees are of very great

great deal

H

and attaining to an age t>f 20 years. Gtttrptum arbortum.) It is to be observed, howe\er. thut, when the trees are so old as that, the o>tt*>M ^ not good to spin, but only to quilt or stuff r

(

iu h,

Ixrils

I'p to the age of 12 years, indeed, the trees give

withal.

M, hut

the

t:.

fn>m

Xll. 1\

IMiny alv> i.

that

contrasting

of a different nature

age to 20 years the produce is inferior." fr,m Theophrastus a description of

iHi.'tex it

with Mlk.

'trees that bear wool, but

m

from those of the Seres; as in these .it all. and uuieeil mijht very rradily be uken

ft smaller si/,e. They bear a kind of gourd, about the size of a quince, which when ripe hursts asunder and discloses a ball of down, from which a costly kind

doth

of linen

41.

is

made."

Minnagara.

This

\\as

capital

identified

by Mullcr with

to Vincent Smith {op.
the

.<

.

.

-

N., 74 39' and Ktbru ms prefer, but quite conjecturally, to plate Kathiaw^r; hut the text indicates the mainland in ohser\ m<: that from Minnatrara cotton cloth was "brought down," by river pre53'

1

idle

.

Mir.iably. to Bar\
The name the

Minna-jara means

Hindu name

"City of the Saka invaders.

Mm,"

which

Barygaza. This is the modern Broach (21 42' N The Greek name is from the Prakrit Bkarukacka supp<

41.

59'K.

for the

).

t

"

\\ho be a corruption of Bhrigukachha^ "the plain of Bhrigu, Here is at least a suggestion of Dravidian connection a local hero. to

with the Brahui of Gedrosia, their hero Braho and their AV//; place-

nan

The

district

of Barygaza

.ndragupta Maurya,

who

was an important is

After the collapse of his dynasty princes, 41.

who were

in

power

to

said

at the

it

part of the

have resided

fell

into the

at

empire of

Suklatirtha

hands of the Saka

time of the Periplus.

Signs of the Expedition of Alexander.

army reached Jhelum (32 56' N., 73 47' E. ) on same name. Somewhat above that place, on the opposite

The

(

ireek

the river of

river,

Vincent Smith locates the

field

of his battle with Porus.

Alexander then penetrated about 50 miles N. E. from Amritsar.

History of India, 71-8.)

the Sutlej river, his retreat.

The

author of the Periplus

is

mistaken

the

side of the

(Early

to

Gurdaspur, on Here he be

in

supposing that

Macedonians got beyond the Indus region, and is probably quoin-hat was told him by some trader at Barygaza, who would hardly luxe distinguished Alexander from Asoka. Under the caste s\ stem the traders were not concerned with the religious or political activities of the country, and those concerned with foreign trade were often, now, mere outcasts; while even had they been informed, they would have been quite equal to attributing anything, for the moment, to the

Alexander, out of deference to their Greek customers, who were interested in h's exploits than any Hindu could be.

more

far

Ill

41

The promontory \MothiTKuif. Batones i* !'.r.un \

(21 Island,

i,

the

i*

the

(

;

shown

i%

u if

oppose

viand

u'UCie i>

iamb*.

..i

the

uih

(kopKai,

mouth

of the

uff

..

pont>

i

sailing^rounc of the

SiriuAi

map V

l>\

a

Periptu*,

shown

290.)

i. i

Ac-

n,i% I

at

ill

of Papica

t,

'"

.1 .

the Imfxriat

.

N

G*ntn-

rock partly covered by brown sand, and

\\.

.

'

*

ISO,

it

i*

a reef

..f

surrounded by rock\ a depth of 60 to 70 feet To avoid the rising to the surf a* iirrents, chopping sea and sunken reefs, boat% ha%e siill to follow is

ward the Narhada, as described

in the

Pen pi us.

The

42.

40*

great river Mais

is

the

modem

(he head of the gulf, at the city of I'amliay.

int.)

Mahi, empt\

(22

18'

m

<:

N

1

The

4:.

ern

N

river NamilKuhls

Hard tO navigate.

4.*.

page, from Rnlus.

gulf,

V

to the

././,;,

The sketch-map

\'ol. III.

is

the

mod-

on the preceding

illustrates the difficult

i<

\\

.

is

of the

mouth

of the Tapti River, the entrance to the

prosperous mediaeval port of the C'amanex of

Surat.

This

II.

539

from

travellers to this

perhaps, the same as

The

tnifnikii^

region.

\\orl Lassen de-

tirst

a type of Hshini; boat mentioned hy other

The

second

from these waters found by Burton

FootstrfH,

is,

Ptolenu.

Trappaga and Cotymba.

44.

craft

-

no doubt the long bar at the eastern side of the and C'ammoni would he at the end of the promontory that lies

Hcroiie shoal

;i\cs

Hindu, Narmada

Ncrbudda.

>r

su'_"jcxts

the

modern

bitiii,

the Somaliland port!

in

a

/

408).

*

Fishing-lx>ats entering

44.

Anchorages and

basins.

regular service of pilotage, under at least

Bombay

H:irl><>r

The

maintenance of

which incoming

100 miles from Barygaza, indicates an active

this

were met and regular com-

vessels

The use of "stations" in the merce, such as our author describes. river is still necessary' here, and in other rivers such as those of Burma, where modern

sailing traffic

is

more

active.

U) tide*. -The vivid description of the

Very great

4*

m

tidal

and the following paragraph, is certainly the result ol To a merchant familiar with the all but udelet* personal experience. waters >ea, it murt indeed have been a wonder of nature. tir same thing occurs in many pla. c a strong ode u forced this

(

1

.

of Fund), the

shallow and curving euary. as in Burma, ;l Bay of Panama, and elruhere -.j to the

hnfxnat Cxnuttttr tf India, IX, 297, high spnng tide* in the (ulf of Cambay rise and fall as much a feet, and run at a velocity ol

U

knots an hour.

The

knots.

tides reach

Ordinary

was the cause of the

to shipping,

damage

inevitable

desertion

the

.f

25 feet, at 4)4 to 6 under such dirBcuhie*,

Cambay

ports for Surat and,

nbay. h<

I

Along

MM rushing

with a hoarse roar.

in

"Through huanc rur nccr rrmittiaf, combt orecriag. "

the midnight edge by thote milk-Mhitc

Wl This

Arattii.

47.

who were

Prakrit

a

is

a people of the Panjib;

synonymous with the Punjab

Hindu

in

form of the Samcnt

name

fact the

in

Aratto

i

often

literature.

Arachosii.

This people occupied the country around the \ 65 4.r K.). McCrindle Ane^mt 27 India* 88) says "Arachosia extended westward beyond the meridian mdahar, and was skirted on the east by the river Imluv On the

m

north

it

Kandahar (31

Hindu Rush and on and populous, and traversed by one of the main routes by which

stretched to the western section of the si.t

as sia

(

,

I

communicated with India added

Gandaraei. ii

anil

MC

also

city, called

HoKlich,

Smith, hirly History,

greatly to

above

its

its

important

This people due Indu; (he

junction with the

In earlier tinu-s thr\ extended east of the

Peshawar distrut. where their eastern

prosperous

rich

iham.)

ibul River,

.

was

he pro\ince

capital

by

(;,.-,v

M

was located

tl

M /-/Ww,

Takikanla,

W.

114,

1

\ >tti

graph'u ttniifnnt du Gandhara.

a large

In Taxila.

t*r

h gr*-

)

trade-route briefly referred to in the

me

idhara

and Pushkalavati was that leading to Bactria, whence it branched wenward to the Caspian and the uphr.ite N and eastward through Turke1

stan

:

the "I

Poclais.

.in.:

..f

This'

(Sanscrit,

Pukka r*wtrf, or /V/UrAtwrf. "abound-

1S4

whence the Ptucelaotn of Arrian. ) Gandhara (cf. Sn.il>>, XV, 26-8; the modem Lassen, 11, 85K Arrian, Anabati^ IV, xxii; lnd*ca \\ Charsadda, 17 miles N. E. of Peshawar, on the Suwai River. ing in lotuses."

Prakrit, Pukkalaoti^

This was the western

capita] of %

47.

Smith > 4

Bucephalus Alexandria.

(*p. <7/., '

1

Its

.

\

p<>

This is uicntificd by Vincent modern town of Jhelum. with the 62) (See under marked by an extensive mound west of the "

The mound is known as /'////, "the- town, present settlement. and numerous Gneco-Bactrian ruinsbricks ancient yields large on the high-road from the west commercial importance. great

n at a ferry rior

gave

it

Warlike nation of the Bactrians. its

reference to Graeco-Bartnan coins current

in

and Its

to tin- Indian inte-

n,,s passage, with

Baryga/a, presents

.

view of Indian history which does not appear in any other contempoThe sequence of events in Bactria during the (unrary work. tunes between Alexander and the Periplus, which

is

fully set forth

by

summarized as follows (op.cit., IX, X) The Empire of Alexander was broken up at his death and the whole Eastern section from Syria to India fell to Seleucus, one of his The Indian conquests were lost immediately, but the intergenerals. Vincent Smith

is

vening country remained under Greek control for nearly !<>n The two northeastern provinces of Parthia under Antiochus Theos. The and Bactria revolted. Parthians, an Asiatic race akin to the

Turks, setup for themselves, and built up a military power which later The Bactrian country, absorbed the country beyond the Euphrates. which was then populous and productive, remained under the govern-

ment of Greek 208 B. C.

princes, and

its

independence was

The Greek monarchs

enlarging their domains

in

finally recogni/.ed in

Bactria immediately set about

an outlet to the sea through Indus Valley. In 190 B. C. Demetrius conquered the wholeIndus Valley and that part of Afghanistan lying around the modern by striving to gain

the

Cabul.

During his absence in India a relative, Kucratides, revolted and Demetrius returned home but his name does not reappear. roni 1

160 to 156 there seems to have been anarchy in

the assassination of Eucratides by his

seems

to have

been very

short.

In the years 155-153

brother of Apollodotus,

which ended son Apollodotus, whose in Bactria

a

whose

Greek King Menande,, apparently a capital was Cabul, annexed the entire

Indus Valley, the peninsula of Surashtra (Syrastrene) and other terrion the western coast; occupied Mathura; besieged Madhya-

tories

mika

<

now

Nagari near t'hitur-, and threatened the

capital,

Patali-

us which has

the

i

Mr

to Bactria

modern 'am*

'

his

I

Milmda

,,t

\\huh

.!/ ..'.;.,

i%

in a celebrated dia-

one

of thr

to have been fhe

iik

m.f L

Himiu kush Mountains.

tin-

.it

however,

Kuddhiwii, and

iirii.M

th

to retire,

'

name

taJi/ed uiulrr thr

b<

logue entitled 1 ht Uutiii..-.. bookt in Buddhist htrruturc

had

\

I

Mipposed to have

i%

ic

phase

U

history

reHeited by ihe menlion of the "-m " Itarygaza ac

\pollodotusandMenar thr nun>il

The coin* mutt have been over 200 year* n of small silver coin* in commercial use for

the 1'eriplus.

.r

the

jv

ie

kr nation

understand the \

mentions

our auth>r

as

in

living

..t

the

Itac

ruch

'

the interior under their

own

one must go to the history of central Asia. Chinese annals mention that in the year 1-S II. C., a nomadic Turki tribe in northwestern On!,.

and owing allegiance

i

to the

Chinese emperors, known as the

llionnu This numerous displaced savage trine* tars, turn moved who in and thus the great Asia, westward; waves of migration were begun which inundated Kurope for centime*. u-iinril the Roman Umpire, and long threatened to extinguish out of their territory hy the

and migrated westward. i

on i

in

their

westward movement

ti

4 tribe

knounas the Saka, who had lived between the Chu and Jaxanes These tribes in the years 1 40- SO poured into fiactria, \\helmed the Greek Kingdom there and continued into the country 1

it

as Seistan, then called,

from

Saka horde settled

in

its

conquerors, Sakastcne. Another in the Panjab and Maihura

Taxi la

more than a century seem to have been Another section of the Salus

on the Jumn.1. ulurr >aka BCIBO0I ruled These Saka

under the Parthut originally

connected with the Parthians.

for

tribes

at a later date pushed on southward and occupied -he peninsula of This saka dynasty which lasted for i enturiev Suras)

country

is

referred to by the author of the PeripJus in

38 as "subject

who were

constantly driving each other out" princes Sakas of India seem to have been subject to the Parthians,

hun

ami Indo- Parthian princes appear at Cabul and in the Panjah about There is a long line of Parthian prince* recorded as rul120 B. C. -hem Gondophare*. who acceded in 21 A D Cabul; 1

and

gamcprin

and the Panjab mentioned in the

-ibul

i

<

for

>

t!

Thomas,'

186

which, although not

until the third

omposed

i

which

the proMiiiu -nee with

century A. D., reflects in the history of

name was regarded

Ins

the time.

The

Indo-Parthian prunes were gradually driven southward by the ad\aminu Yueh-chi, who had expelled the last of them from the

Panjab before the end of the of this work.

The

had

trouble,

whose

Yueh-chi. in

settled

century A. D.

first

Bacti

westward la

north

that

at the

started

migration

of the

is,

Oxus River

all

mm this

about 70

were gradually brought together under a their central power, and wandering habits were changed for agriculso when the Yueh-chi nation was unified that ture and industn who under Kadphiscs 1, began to rule in 45 A. D., it represented a the from different people savages who had overwhelmed the Greek Kingdom of Bactria. Kadphises reigned over Bokhara and Afghanistan for 40 years, and was succeeded by his son Kadphises II, who The scattered

tribes

;

extended

his conquests into India.

The Chinese emperors

had never abandoned their assertion of

An embassy was sent from China sovereignty over the Yueh-chi. Oxus River in the years 125-115 B. C. to try to persuade the

to the

Yueh-chi to return to China, but the mission was unsuccessful, and subsequent revolutions kept Chinese interest at home between 100 B. C.

and 70 A. D.

A

Tartar army unHer the Chinese General Pan Chao reasserted all of Central Asia, extending its conquests as far as the Caspian Sea. Thus, with the submission of Khotan and

Chinese supremacy over to

Kashgar

Chinese armies

in

73 A. D.

,

the route south of the

Cen-

Asian desert was thrown open to commerce from end to end. \\ith the reduction of Kuche and Kharachar in 94 A. I)., the route

tral

north of the desert was also thrown open, and for the

commerce between

East and

West was made

first

time regular

possible.

should be borne in mind that this route was

still policed by Chinese Empire, and while communication was opened up immediately, trade was not carried on in large volume until the time of the Roman Emperor

It

savage tribes only nominally subject to

Marcus

the

Aurelius, 100 years later.

Kadphises II, ruler of the Yueh-chi, who had in the meantime extended his conquest into India but not yet as far as the Indus delta, sent an army of 70,000 cavalry against the Chinese General Pan Chao,

and was

totally

defeated near Kashgar;

years to send tribute to China.

and was obliged

for

some

117

Ai-

'

I)

N

hi* further

!-.u

unique*!* of India, and

.'.dom reached as far at Henarrt ami (iha/ipur

commerce between

rncd up thr

Mr

r

as

,

Am,

(Vntral

in

the

...

Ganges

India and

the trade had been

nu uirnial and subject to depredations of numerous savage '.irthians had dune what they could to control and or*

.

1

and

it

gartize

mhutr
lr\\

i<

Roman merchants, but they The existence of unified j>..-

the

thr eastward. thr Indus Valley

the

Ganges

and Afghanistan made possible a regular trade from The rapid growth of such trade ia Euphrates. ijjr <>f the Yueh-t hi Km-s in India. KadphisesI

to thr

.i.i,

whu-h India,

.

uhu

wrrc mutated from those of Au-

h

imitated thr gold I.HMS of the

II

Kadphises

gustus.

n pourinu into

in a

ln*ii.t

niaur, thr It

Roman

Roman

steady stream.

where there was an acme Roman maritime

Kmpire,

In Southern

trade, there

Kadphises

Rome

in

to

II,

announce

his

its

con-

was dispatched by

rnperor Trajan,

t

was

Ix-ing sufficient

probable that the Indian embassy, which offered

is

gratulations

had

ouuiuest of Northwestern India.

\U \.inder penetrated to the Ganges.

This

is,

of

course, quite untrue, the P.mjah having been the turning-point of his The great mass of India was entirely unaffected by his expedition. invasion,

led to the subsequent centralization of

it

under Chandra tipO

\

.

aurya.

I

Our

author

is

power

confusing Alexander with

Bander.

"The

East

bowed low

before the blast

In patient, deep disdain; She let the legions thunder past,

thought again.** -thew Arnolds

Ozene.-

48. I

'..,

the-

d

torious."

n

I

\l.il\\a.

The

Prakrit

is

l'jjtni%

The

I

jja.n,

:r

IT N., 7S

4T

form is LJy,. from which the Grerk is dcri\ Sanscrit

one of the seven sacred cities of India, not yield me Ujjain In Hindu legend it was here that the elbow of even to Benares. The river Sipra, Sati fell, on the dismemberment of her body by Siva. The place was important under on \s huh it is K .itr.!. is also sacred. wa. In early times it was known the earliest Aryan settlement .is \\.inti, a kingdom which is described in Buddhist literature as one is

1.

of the

As t*jjrni it is very prominent been the birthplace of Kachina, one of

four nrrat powers of India.

in Buddhist records, having

181

Sakyamuni' $ greatest disciples. as the Southern Mount, while

from the Deccan to

Here was a Buddhist monastery known was the principal stage on the route

it

Sravastl, then the capital of the great

kingdom

of

younger days Asok.i, later emperor, and the greatest patron of Buddhism, was stationed as viceroy of the This was the custom also western provinces of the Maurya Empire.

Here

Kosala.

also

his

in

subsequent dynasties, on both sides of the Yindluas, tor the heir-apparent to act as viceroy in the western provinces. in several

Ujjeni was the tude of

its

Greenwich By

geographers.

produce imported

at

Ganges kingdoms.

its

of India, the location

first

was

it

meridian of longi-

a trade

renter for

all

Barygaza, whence distribution was made to the At the time of the Periplus it was no loiter a

The Maurya empire being at "Minnagara." had broken up, and in the anarchy following the irruptions in tinnorthwest, its western provinces of Surashtra and \lalua had been

capital, the royal seat

raided

bySaka

as the

"Western

who

freebooters,

Satraps,"

finally established

themselves

or Kshatrapa dynasu

pow er-

in

u ration

!

or so before the formal proclamation of the d\ nasty the invaders' After th'eir claims were recgni/.ed they stronghold was their capital.

probably ruled from Ujjeni, which Ptolemy describes as the capital of his time. It reTiastfnos or Chashtana, the Kshatrapa ruler of in

mained, apparently,

when

reverted to

it

Saka hands

until

about the 5th century A. the (iupta I.mpirc;

I).,

Brahman power under

this

expulsion of the "misbelieving foreigners" giving rise to the tradition of Vikramaditya of Ujjain, the King Arthur of India, at whose court the "nine gems,*' the brightest geniuses of India, were supposed to

have flourished. (See Imperial Gavttter, VIII, 279-280 sen, I, 116.) 48.

XXIV, L12-114

;

Spikenard: NanksUukys jatamansi

t

I

j

order lalcnanacetc.

A

perennial herb of the alpine Himalaya, which extends eastward from "The drug consists Garhwal and ascends to 17,000 feet in Sikkim. of a portion of the rhizome, about as thick as the little finger, surmounted by a bundle of reddish-brown fibers, the remains of the radical leaves. essential

oil.

It is

aromatic and

In India

it

is

bitter,

and

on

yields

distillation

largely used as an aromatic adjunct

in

an the

preparation of medicinal oils, and is popularly believed to increase the " (Watt, */>.
According

to Pliny

ing to the size;

for that

(XII, 26), "Leaf nard varies

which

is

known by

rum. consisting of the larger leaves,

When

the leaves are smaller,

it is

sells

called

at

the

40

name

in price

accord-

of hadrosphse-

denarii

per pound.

mesospha?rum, and

i.s

119 at

But that which

60.

as microsphjrrum,

agreeable odor, but

when

old

the*

All

mo*

is

it

:.

..(

a

known

leave*;

varicdes of nard ha

powerful when fmh.

uhuh

that

gathered

all, i%

consists of the very small*

75 denarii per pound.

at

sells

considered the must valuable of

is

and

bbck

If

U

color

the nard

is

considered the

best."

observes that leaf nard, or spikenard, held ihr first place in the ointments ..f his day. Compare Mark

I'liny

M\

among

'

trlls

i

of the

cious," valued

''alabaster

more than 300

at

This

Caspapyru.

f

%pikrnard very pre-

dei

is

the

the Kisyapa."

K*tyapapt<

Ahuli cd pamara

is

::>

m

and meaning

-,

thai

raphtrs, (Jundhara

Ming 11.

ointment

-f

24: also, for fun her references, Listen,

r

48.

box

Greek

288-9.

1,

the Santera

t

The same word

wirvi

the Sanscrit Kii?*p*m*lti >f the Kaxyapa" (one of (he

According to the dmsi.mof the Greek grog. was the country below Cabul, while Kisyapamata district

India proper.

in

(Sec lessen,

U2,

I,

6M was from

It

The

Darius.

a

town named Caspapyra,

voyage of discovery

his

began

story

is

at the

given by Herodotus (1\

the place as being "in the Pactyan land,"

the Gandanra;

of

modern Attock (33

5

was wider. Gandhara points in the

Hindu Kuxh.

Me

44

refers to

calls

it

"a

Vincent Smith

;.

Paropanisus

,

could not have been far above the

It

earlier extension

48.

now

Caryanda

of the Persian km-j

and Mecabrus

name with Kashmir;

Hntory, 32) doubts the Connection of the while outside the present limits of >

that Scylax of

command

but

impotable

The

fact that the

Penplus

dis-

that direction.

name

given the mountain-ranee

was made the boundary between the of Alexander's Seleucus, empire successor, and that of Chandragupta hv uhich the nrxvlv -estabMaur>a, by a treaty ratified lished Indian empire recei\r
It

ii

tic

frontier' sighed

held in

<

\.nn tn his njluh successors, and e\en by the Mogul monarch;, of the loth

for in t>

I

and 17th cerium

.\

Hu*

also

132-4; Strabo,

\\.

4.

also Holdich,

lustin, ..

Arrian,

Gaui *f 1*4*.)

,/***.

S

;

/W,w.

11

190

The

48.

Cabolitic country is, of course, the modern t'alml Khyber Pass; being within the present limits ot

valley, above the

Afghanistan. 48.

ended about 51 A.

reign had

Lead.

49.

weak

Parthian princes,

subject to the

whose

Seeunder41.

Scythia.

Pliny

(XXXIV,

This was the region which wai successors of Gondophares,

1).

47-50)

(list.

noshes between

lead and white lead; the former being our lead, the

under

also

Galicia, doubting its

White

7). its

lead

he says came from

reported

made came from Cantabria

Black lead, he says, scription suggests galena, or sulphide of lead and Britain,

l.usitanu

.uul

"islands of the Atlantic," and of osiers, covered with hides.'

origin in

transportation in "boats

from

black

latter tr

and from Lusitania

'

Spam, and

in

silver.

It

where the Santarensian

his de-

came

also

mil

an annual rental of 250,000 denarii. in the form of pipes and sheets, and had many medicinal uses, being used in calcined form, made into tablets in the

farmed

at

Lead was used

same way wine.

It

as

antimony (see under this ), or mixed with greasr and as an astringent and repressive, and for uatn/.i-

was used

c

the treatment of ulcers, burns, etc., and in eye preparations; while thin plates of lead worn next the body were supposed to have

tion;

in

a cooling and beneficial effect.

As an import

Barygaza lead was required largely for the

at

coii

of the Saka dominions. 49. Bhils, a

now.

These were probably

Bright-colored girdles. Dravidian

who worked

hill-tribe,

The modern

Coorgs, a related

"girdle-scarf" which

is

now made

for the

the carnelian mines then as

tribe,

wear

still

at Sirangala.

<

Imp.

a distinctive

GV/%

.

,

VIII,

101-4; IX, 36.) 49.

Sweet clover.

This

is

Trifolium mclilvtus,

order /*gu-

minosa, the "melilote" of the Greeks and

Romans, used for making Pliny (XXI, 29) says tinchaplets and perfumes, and medicinally. best sorts were from Campania in Italy, Cape Sunium in Greece from Chalcidice and Crete

"The name this plant

The

;

native always in rugged and wild localities.

which it bears sufficiently proves that was formerly much used in the composition of chaplets. sertula, garland,

smell, as well as the flower, closely resembles that of saffron,

though the stem

itself is

white; the shorter and more fleshy the leaves,

And again (XXI, 87), "the meliwith the yolk of an egg, or else linseed, effects the cure of diseases of the eyes. It assuages pains, too, in the jaws and head,

the

more

highly

lote applied

it

is

esteemed."

191

and employed with

applied with rose oil;

raisin

wine,

it

it

good for

pains in the car*, and all kinds of swellings or eruptions on the bands. decoction of it in wine, or else the plant itself beaten up

A

r

.

for pains in the stom.

good

Com emm-: mum

the use of chaplets in the

Human

world. Pliny gives

OOW1 dHpltf MM < >r the MI tors in the sacred games. initially laurel and other liage wsj used; flowers were added by the p...mer Paustas, at tlct.uls

.M\C-M

\\1,

H

Sicyon, about 380 .trcissus,

1

-In

1

h-

'

Then came

C

the

"Kgyptian chaplr

and pomegranate blossoms, and then a durable anicle horn, and

of thin lamina? of

leaver of ^olti, siUrr. or tinsel, plain

rrsonal prowess in the garnet, or by that Chaple: of slaves or horses entered by the winner, and gave the victor "the

ami

right, for himself

his

f,.r

parents,

after

death,

to be cr

the body was bid out in the house, and on its fail, the tomb. other occasions, chaplets were n-t to being carried mcJlM nm

without

\\hile

On

then WM forbid If punishment for the oftV Chaplets were used also in honor of the gods, the Lares, ihsepulchres and the Manes; this custom still surviving in the L\ m-j f

The

use

by law, and

fhaplets In those

>f

nt

rntitlni tO

Pliny cites several cases of

immortelles on tombs of departed friends.

"Atque aliquis senior Annua contmct<

veterrs vrneratus amortft, crta dabit turoulo.

'*

-mxillu*.

and various and Pliny notes (hat in there was a demand for chaplets imported from India, made leaves on fabrics, **or else of silk of many colors steeped in

For such uses the

plaited chaplet, the rose chaplet,

came

ulered by hand,

;ic (1

Such

unguents.

at last arrived It

the piu h to

is '

has

II. 4

into use,

which the luxuriousness of our

women

'

!

would seem

as

if

this

sweet clover might also be intended for

the manufacture of chaplets for re-exportation to

The

Rom<

is unubnkt. This is the red sulphide from Persia and Carmania, and reached In modern times both realgar liulia from various Persian Gulf ports. and orpiment are produced in Urge quantities in Burma and China, where it is not impossible that production existed at the time of the

49.

Realgar. It was

of arsenic.

text

principally

Peripluv Pliny friable,

(XXX1Y.

SS

says "the redder

and the more powerful

its

it

is

the

odor the better

more pure and

it is

in qualit

1V2

is

detergent, astringent, heating, and corrosive, hut

it

is

most remark-

Dioscorides (V, 122) says it was able for its antiseptic properties." inhaled the smoke and burned with resin through a tube, as a remedy or bronchitis.

for coughs, asthma,

describes

alx.

Theophraxtux

its

properties.

The Greek word

survives in the

Calfitris quadrivafotSi order Conifer
t

modern gum xandarac horn

produced

in

in classical times.

and MoThe word is

of eastern origin, referring apparently to the color, and was c\tend< d from ore to gum because of appearance, reversing the process in the case of cinnabar

30).

(

The wood in this sandarac tree was much \alued In ihe ircekx and Romans for furniture, being, perhaps, the "thjrine wood" of (

Revelation XVIII, 12.

Tavernier also

(II, xii

)

found

vcfmillkm" brought hy the Dutch

to trade for pepper.

Antimony.

49.

ore, stibnite.

It

The

India and Egypt.

and

is

hotep

"

by

text

is

stimnti.

This was the sulphide

and eye-tinctures, both in ore came from Eastern Arabia and Carmania, into ointments

an Egyptian inscription in the tomb of KhnumBenihasan (under Sesostris II, 1900 B C.), being brought

mentioned II, at

The

was made in

Asiatics of the desert."

(\\X1II, 33-4) describes it as found made of concrete froth, white and shining

of astringent

and

refrigerative properties;

cine, being for the eyes."

was valued

its

silver

in

Pliny

stone

.

.

.

mines, "a

being possessed

principal use, in medi-

Pounded with frankincense and gum, it and mixed with grease, main use was for dilating the pupils and

as a cure for various eye irritations,

as a cure for burns.

But

for painting the eyebrows.

vated Hercules,

is

its

Omphale,

the Lydian queen

uho

capti-

represented by the poet Ion as using stimmi in her

Kings, IX, 30, probably used it when she tired her head;" while it is the chief ingreher face and "painted dient in the >fo///used by women in modern Egypt and Persia toilet;

Jezebel, in II

and Dioscorides (V, 99) agree in their description of its It was enclosed in dough or cow-dung, burned in a preparation. furnace, quenched with milk or wine, and beaten with rain-water in Pliny

This being decanted from time to time, the finest powder was allowed to settle, dried under linen, and divided into tahl<

a mortar.

49. Gold and silver coin. The Roman aureus and dcnarim were current throughout Western India, and strongly influenced the Kushan and Kshatrapa coinages. See under 56; also Rapson,

Indian Coins.

hange was dur

Roman

coma-,

idu,

ii/r

lra.1

*>r

rie

wat

crude, of bate

nll

bullion,

'copper,

and

tin

wai imported.

lead),

^

1

aces ice

Iwuirn,

'Irphant."

oriL'ii 1

to the Mipcrioricy of dbe

h Liter

x\hi

f<>r

,

whu

iAf*AaM

Kmu'N, X. --.

\

(

<11-<1

1,

thu nine thr

The

S

\%,,rd

used in

"elephant \ teeth," uhuh the Hebrews rhichbtbe word iited fa AMOS, III, 15; this word ibka became atn whence

t

In

14.

,

i

t

>man and Ktruscan

i.

<

ek
> the ivory and later to (he dfphantoi, applied hr\t animal, was the Arabic .tmrle / and the Sanscrit thhatinnia^ "elephant'* ,

Agate and camel ian.

49.

See

al

M under

6

>

The

tr

mjfcAinf iitkta kai mturrhini.

Accord I

'

\slm h

( Oj>.

561), the

fit.,

murrhme

\A*C\ and
so highly prized in Mediterranean countries,

carnelian and the like, and came from the (Julf was the chief market for that Indian industry.

.tgate,

Cambay, uhu

\Vatt

\\.--i-

h

of

'

I he stone is from the amygdaloidal Hows of the Deccan trap, The most important place at which chieHy from the State of Rajpipla.

agates are now cut pur and elseu

much

is

Cambay, hin

but the industry exists also at Jabhul-

reach of

the

Deccan

trap.

They

are

used for ornamental and decorative purposes, being mad' seals, cups, etc.

N,

\\ h

the pebbles the miners divide

i(

them

into

two

those that are not improved by burning, and those

asses

Of the former there arc three onyx, cat's eye, and a that are. All other stones are baked to yellow half-clear pebble called rori. During the hot season, generally in March and bring out their color. an open Held. Then, in deep by three wide, is dug round the field. The pebbles are gathered into earthen pots, which, with their mouths down and a hole broken in ihnr bottoms, are set in a row in the April, the stones are spread in the sun in

May,

a trench,

trench.

two

Round

feet

the pots, goat or

cow-dung cakes

are piled, and the

whole kept burning from sunset to sunrise. The pots are then taken About out, the stones examined, and the good ones stowed in bags. he bags are carried to the Narbada and floated to Broach (Barygaza). H\

this

tr.atmcnt the light browns brighten into white, and the

< M > el lows, maize becomes rosy, orange deepens into red, and an intermediate shade becomes a pinkish purple.

darker shades into chestnut.

194

Pebbles in which cloudy browns and yellou> were hist mixed are now The hue of the red carclear bands of white and red.

marked by

nelian varies

from the

stone, the

when

more

of large

it

si/.e

is

industry of

the

quality are

an

Bhlls,

formerly have possessed the to the hills

by

later invaders.

best

and thicker the White carnclians arc M -.in -e, and

esteemed.

and good

The

much

larger

esteemed.

This burning of agates is fully described by Barboxa It was then, as seems to be of very ancient date. the

The

palest flesh to the deepest blood-red.

are of a deep, clear, and even red color.

in

1517, and

n<>\\,

chiefly

ancient Dravidian tribe which

Cambay It

is

but had

coast,

this

product,

in

been

all

may

driven

probability,

*

'onyx stone" of Genesis II, 1.1, which reached ancient world through the "land of Havilah" on the Persian Gulf

which

the

is

the

Pliny (XXXVII, 7, 8) says that murrhinc was Romans after the conquests of Pompey the Great

first

t

he-

known

in Asia;

that

to it

was fabulously dear, T. Petronius having broken one of Nero's basins valued at 300,000 sesterces, while Nero himself paid 1,000,000 sesPliny attributes the vessels to Parthia and

terces for a single cup.

Carmania.

They were of moderate

size only,

seldom

be of a moist substance,

as large as a

by heat under ground; shining rather than brilliant; having a great variety of colors, with wreathed veins, presenting shades of purple and white, drinking-cup, supposed to

solidified

with fiery red between. Others were quite opaque. They occasionthat looked like warts. and contained spots ally depressed crystals,

They were

said to

have an agreeable

taste

and smell.

While Pliny's description is not very definite, more than any other substance, and the reference to mania rather than to the Gulf of Cambay means that

it

suggests agate

Parthia

and Car-

until the

Romans

discovered the sea-route to India they were dependent on the Parthian trade-routes for their Eastern treasures, and had only such information, often misleading, as the Parthians offered them. 49.

Silk cloth.

49.

Mallow

See under

cloth.

fabric, like the native cloth is

imitated by the

49 and

See also under

made by

modern blue

drill.

64. b.

This was

Rosa-Sintnsis, order Malvacea, a shrub which India and China. See Watt, p. 629. throughout

of

a coarse

the East African negroes, which It was dyed with the flowers

Hibiscus

is

nati\e

Watt Piper Ionium, Linn., order Piperacea. a perennial shrub, native of the hotter parts of India from Nepal eastward to Assam, the Khasia hills and Ben-al, 49.

Long pepper:

(p. 891), says

it

is

westward to Bombay, and southward

The Sanscrit name pippali was

to

Travancore and Ceylon. and only

originally given to this plant,

19S

within comparatively recent times

Long pepper

The

is

fruit it

The

die sun.

wii transferred

mentioned by Pl.ny

when

gathered

dried unripe fruit

Dachinabtdet. way toward the south,"

Ml,

differing at

little

in its

the prc it

is

l*4
am imt and

there an

modes

interesting t

of

1

account

is

1nfk-Jmsrua*

in the

Hit conclusion

294.306.

usages and

i%

"the

that

highly organized society, -\ those whuh exist

and although there arc no means

,

,

M the Henplus.

.

An

Many populous nations. T. C. Kvans, Grttk and Rma* by

Greek invader found

wdl

This the Sanscrh^^MMtf'. ''<*" jakkknAkrika thr modern Deccan.

Prakrit

pp.

to black

green, and is preserved by drying in and the root have long been used in

SO.

1,

as

of \enf>ing the

not unlikely that the population of the peninsula was

If this view is correct, Indu was the most populous region of the world at the tune of the Periplus, as it was the most cultivated, the most active industrially and com.illy, the richest in natural resources and production, the most

as great in that period as in

<

highly organized socially, the most ,:

millions,

The

great

the Saka in the

and the

it

powerful

the poverty

in

political!).

in the far

country, the remains of the

Cambay

Cliol.i in the

Andhra

the

in the

Deccan, and the Chera, Pindya

The economic

South.

northwest, in the

Maurya

status of the country

made

any one of these should possess political force with its population, resources and industries. It was made up

impossible that irate

w h ich

recognized the military power only so far do so; and they were relativeK unconcerned dynastic changes, except to note the change in their oppressors. For a contemporary account of the nations of India, see Pliny,

communities,

of ullage as they in

\

wretched

powers of India were the Kushan

Ganges watershed, and

least

t,

were compelled

to

-

SI

an,

Paethana:

Sanscrit,

PratistJtana.

on the Godavcri River (19

According

This

28' N., 75

(X Asolu

the

modern

.nth in is

to the Imperial Gaxtttttr

of the oldest cities in the Deccan.

is

24' K.).

one

sent missionaries to the

and inscriptions of the 2d century 8.

C

caves refer to the king and merchants of Pransthana. dons it as the capital of Pulumayi II, the Andhra kin.

in the Pitalkhara

Ptolemy men-

'AD

.

was probably the capital of the western provinces, the seat of the Andhra monarchs having been in the eastern pan of the kingdom, myakataka^ the modern Dharanikotta, on the Kistna rirer just naravari(16 34' N., 80 22' K but

it

196

According to the Pcriplus, Paithan was an important center of the To-day it retains a considerable manufacture of cot-

textile industry.

ton and

Almost

silk.

all

traces of the ancient city are said to have

disappeared.

The

Tagara.

51.

Sanscrit

name had

the

same form, appear-

ing in several records between the 6th and 10th centuries A. place is identified by Fleet with the modern Ter (Than

The

I)

1X

<

19'

the g and y being being a contraction of It is about 95 miles southeast ot I'anhan, frequently interchanged.

N., 76

and agrees

),

substantially with

From Broach

text.

240

E.

9'

miles,

the

distance

and direction given

to Paithan the actual distance, by road,

in the

is

about

Ter 104 miles, being 20 and 9 days' There are said to be some very respectively.

and from Paithan

to

journey of 12 miles, interesting remains of the ancient

city.

pointed out by Campbell, the "merchandise from the regions along the sea-coast" was not from the west coast, but from the Hay the tirst starting at of Bengal; and Fleet traces briefly the routes

As

Masulipatam (16 11' N., 81 8' E.), and the second from Vinukonda (\t) 3' N., 79 44' E.), joining about 25 miles southe. Haiclar abaci, and proceeding through Ter, Paithan, and Daulatahad, Here the main difficulties began, to Markinda (in the Ajanta Hills). through the Western Ghats, over the 100 miles to Broach.

This was the great highway of the Andhra kingdom, and was at Calliena in Bombay Harbor, as suggested

natural terminus

The

52.

obstruction of that port by the Saka

power

in

its

in

Gujarat

forced the tedious overland extension of the route, through the

moun-

tains, to Baryga-^a. J. F. Fleet,

(See dtty,

1901, pp.

Tagara: Ter, Sir

5.17-552;

in

Journal of the Royal Asiatic So-

James Campbell,

in

Gazetteer of the

Bombay Presidency, xvi, 181 H. Cousens, Archaologhtd Surtvy */' India, Annual Report, 1902-3, p. 195; Imperial Gazetteer, II, 82; xxiii, 284.) ;

51.

Country without

roads.

can (I, xi) "wheel carriages do not interrupted by

high mountains,

Tavernier says of the Dec-

travel, the

tanks,

and

roads being too

rivers,

much

and there being

many narrow and difficult passes. It is with the greatest difficulty that I was obliged to take mine to pieces freone takes a small cart There are no wagons, and you quently in order to pass bad places. only sec oxen and pack-horses for the conveyance of men, and for But in default of chariots, the transport of goods and merchandise. \ou have the convenience of of India;

Imeoft"

for

one

is

carried

much larger palanquins than in the rest much more easily, more quickly, and at

Iff

SIIIM>.U..

411

I

miles north of

m

25 N

to have bcrn the

i

rtwcrn Sou

capit..!

O9

the modern Sopira Bombax li uud i:

;

MaAMtorau

die

osxert

that

.illu-ii.i

(

u

the-

Gautama Buddha,

See

Bodhisattva of Sopira.

(;,

/m/>

,

birth,

was

XXIII.

-n.Mirn,

i

eastern sh..ie

former

in a

>pran

Somr

as Shurpiraka, as a very holy place

Kalyana (19

thr harbor of

14'

N.,

Was the Andhra kingdom during the periods when it held According to l.assm, thr name was also applied Co the harbor, roughly between 18 on either suit>f

Bombay.

It

!al port of the rst coast. t

.mil

coast

f

\

:o

Cosmas of tht

Indu-opleiistrs. in thr 6th century A. <-f

K\.I

km L'>,

I).,

found

it

one

marts of Western India, the capital of the pou with a trade in brass, Mark wood logs, and articles of

Sec Imp. G
word kalyana means Ablest," and names on the western shores of tl

hi-

I

is at

least

reminiscent of

The elder Saraganus; Sandares; which should has Sandann and Mamt NambanuS of 41. (Thr t<>

added

:<

Here arc three important

be

x:

references, both for fixing the date of the

IVripIus and for throwinu light on a dark period of Indian history The great empire of the Mauryas went to pines in the 2d cenC., leaving as its strongest successor its Dravidun clement, '.

ulhra cnuntn- in the

a;

Nizam's dominions.

Deccan, which comprised the \alleys of the Telugu peoples, roughly the modern

In the south the other

)ra\ idian kingdoms, the retained and their independCheras, nil-speak ing Cholas, Pandyas North of the Yindhyas there was anarchy. The ence I

I

.11

;.

states

Bengal

had resumed

their local

umbed ..M

The western

tubes

to

the

coast belou

the Saka

h(

at

was a bone Andhra mon-

the Yindhyas

commanders and

u ho maintained the feud for

I

governments, while the XMUIU invaders, the Saka and

.

least

the

a century, with

varying

of S.rashtra, Gujarat and Malwa, after years of porated under a stable governmei.t In the \Yestern

pioMiues

warfai

Saka Satraps, who subsequent 1\ defeated the Andhras and annexed the Konkan coast. This is thought to have been the origin of the Saka era, dating from 78 A. D. still largely used in India. A half-i i-ntut\ later the Andhras under \ili\avakura II, or Gauttml,

putra

i.

reconquered the coast-land, only to lose

it

to the

198

From the Saka era of 78 A. D. 46 years, there arc coins of a monarch named Nfthapina, by uhnin the line of the Satraps was established. This is thought to bo the same as the Mambarut of 41, whose name should be written Nambanus. Satraps after another generation. for

Andhra kings are enumerated in the Puranas, which, tothe coinage, afford almost the only information concernwith gether A dynastic name, borne by many of these monarchs. \\.i them. inn 'I

"be

Satakarni, and tins

Arishta Satakarni,

is

52 probably supposed to be the &ira&mus of 44-69 about A. while Sandum reigned D.); '

who

probably the same as Sundara Satakarni, whose short reign of a year, succeeded by another of six months, is affirmed by at least two The reign of this Sundara (the tex* should be altered of the Purfnas. is

to Sandares)

is

fixed

by Vincent Smith and others

at

83-4 A.

).

1

>m these facts it has been supposed that the Periplus itself must be dated in the same year, 83-4 A. D., but this does not nece follow. Its date is considered in the introduction, pp. 7-15, and

Roman, Arabian, and

upon ample evidence 60 A. D.

Nambanus

Parthian

is

fixed

at

41 is the same as Nahapana, it must yet be same as the great satrap whose victories over the Andhras and conquest of the Konkan are cited as one of the numerIf

shown

that

he

is

of

the

). ous events thought to be commemorated by the Saka era of 78 A At least one predecessor, formerly thought to be identical with that 1

Nahapana, has now been distinguished under the name of Hhn and the materials are not yet at hand for affirming, or denyin

which preceded

so-called Kshaharata line

possibility of others, in the

the achievements of the Satraps.

And is

if

Sandares of

52

a great difficulty in the

way

is

the

same

as

Sundara Satakarni, there

of identifying the Periplus with the

year of his reign. Calliena, his own port, he must be supposed to have closed, in order that its foreign trade might be diverted to Bary-

enemy! He, the Andhra was still "in his The Konkans sion;" not, be it observed, in that of the Satraps. were still nominally, though evidently not effectually, an Andhra degaza, the port of his Saka rival and bitter

monarch, must have done

this, for the port

;

pendency.

The

inference

is

unmistakable that the Periplus

state of things prior to the recognition of the

annexation of the Andhra coast; prior, that

A

I)

the

Andhra kingdom, but

It

describes clearly

describing a

Kshatrapa power and its is, to the Saka era of 78

enough an Andhra

harried and

is

port,

dominated,

still

subject to

"obstructed" as

Iff is

ny was

by the powerful navy of

it,

struggling to obtain

still

its

northern enemy, while chat

position.

The

What, then, of NahapAna and Sundara.'

the former has already been tuggeated;

the shortness of his

own

doubt a* to the

m to

reign and those of hi

mi mediate predecessors, and the length of that of Anshia 2S >eai s m.iu utr f.. him a long period of waiting as one of '

<

r

the royal heirs; which, according to the Andhra custom, was spent, at least in part, as viceroy at the western capital, Pafthin. Here he scd

all

the functions of a monarch, and his

Co appear

on

all

came

int<>

the possession of

"thr

rliirr

proclamations issued the

f

now

would be the name

(he western coast.

"Since

ft

Sandares" indicates* therefore, a date to-

reign of Arishta Sitakarni,

Saraganus," and who, ian, a

<>M

more powerful

it

may be

who

is

referred to as

inferred,

had been, as

ruler than the youthful Sandares,

struggling against greater odds to maintain the

Andhra power on

Between Arishta and Sundara the Viyu and Matsya Purlnas are agreed in placing three other monarchs: Hila (with whose name the f

Sanscrit as the literary language of Northern India

is

so

closely associated), who reigned 5 years; Mandalaka, Then came Sundara, 1 year, and Pimndrasena, 5 years.

Chakora,

6 months, followed by Siva Satakarni, 28

five short

reigns,

bet\

coming weak and

cession of

in their turn I

like

These

years.

long ones, seem

>

5

years;

to suggest a quick suc-

impractical sons of a strong monarch, followed

by another long reign of sterner purpose} a succession of the reigns of the sons of Henry II. and Catherine de uld account for (he condition described to

France. the author of the Periplus by

some acquaintance

at

Barygaza:

"When

Hianyakataka) was viceroy at now that he is on the throne na an active port and his sons have tried their hand at the viceroy's post one after the m the inter \als of their literary and artistic pursuits, and it has U-rn turned <\er to young Sandares, it has been an easy matter " Had for our Saka general to send down his ships and stop its trade. the story been written in S< V D., the informant would have said, "our satrap has annexed that country to his own dominions, and the old king Saraga mis

n..\s

ru

;

closed

" its

ports.

The same M to

explanation

is

have been go\ernor

Hut as-

sat rap

probable that OIK-

>f

perfectly feasible for

h\cd

that

Nahapina,

Surashtra before he

in

until the

Saka year 4<

name mo<) A

I),

was

was

who

is

satrap at

A.D.,

There alters

are other explanations of these three names.

Mamharus and Sandanes

both

have been an

was a tribe-name, and

But neither supposition

Ptolemy.

ms

him

to

Gondopharcs; \KC

Indo-Parthian successor to

thinks Sandanes

Fabric

to Sanabares, supposing

rindle

refers to the Arlake Sadin^n of

com mcing.

is

The explanation based on the Puranic lists and the coinage has inherent probability, and is confirmed by the description of political 52 of the Periplus,

conditions in

Andhra king Arishta

the

medium

that be applied to the reign of

if

Satakarni

(44-69 A.

1).

>,

through the

of his heir-presumptive Sundara, ruling as viceroy at Paith.

and displaying in the Konkans the only sh>\\ of Andhra authority which would have come under the observation of a Graeco-Roman merchant and shipmaster. (See

A.-M

ft

Boyer, Nahapiina

fin

in

{'.aku,

Journal Jsiatique,

July- Aut., 1897, pp. 12U-151; an excellent paper, in which the only matter for criticism is that the inscriptions of the Nabafcran Main-has

trustworthy than the chronology of the Ah>

should be thought

less

sinian

compiled much

Chronicles,

identification

later.

of the name of an Andhra king

the Asiatic Society

of Bengal, June,

s-

C. R. Wilson, Proposed in the Periplus, in

Journal of

with which the foregoing

1904;

Vincent Smith, suggestions are in accord, except as to their sequel. Andhra History and Coinage, in Zeitschrift der Dcutschen Morgcnliindischen Gesellschaft, Sept.,

Pandit Bhagvanlal Indraji,

1903.

Kshatrapas, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic 1

I

Rap son, The

'/'///

//"/.. //;;/

1890, pp. 639-662.

Society,

Coinage of the Mahakshatrapas

and Kshatrapus,

A. S., 1899, 357-404; same author, Ancient India, in Nu Col. J. Biddulph, m.smatic Supplement, J. A. S. B., 1904, p. 227. in a note to Mr. Rapson's first article, observes that our knowledge of

J.

R.

the Satraps

is

derived solely from their coins, of which the former are

undated; that each ruler puts his father's his

own;

name on

that the dates overlap frequently;

and

his coins as well as

that of the

two

titles,

hakshatrapa indicates the monarch, and Kshatrapa the heir-apparent. Vincent Smith, Catalogue of the Coins In the Indian Museum,

Chronology of Andhra Dynasty, in his Early History, Rapson, Coins of the Andhra Dynasty, the //",>/,;// See also Cunningham, Rook of Kshatrapas, etc., British Museum. Indian Eras-, Duff, The Chronology of India from the Earliest Tun Calcutta;

also

p.

190.

the

Beginning of the 16th Century.

K.

J.

53. Semylla. This Yuan Chwang, the Saimur

is

)

the Symulla of Ptolemy, the Chimolo of

of the early

Mohammedan

travellers;

the

modern Chaul (18 34' V, 72 55' E.), about 25 miles south of Bombay. The ancient Hindu name was Champavati, and was con-

201 hiia

J*fa

/

16li

t

at

i

|

GW.

Imp.

mouth

the

..(

iluin

(jujaiit

timr

(Sec Mit'rmdle.

Mullei

The

:

now

IN

It :

in

\, 184,

a foiling

Mulln,

I'

2*'S

I,

'

.,

,

.

<

probably the

is

modern Dibbol (17*

Hi.-

pom.

IN

uith

trailc

importance, being the the 14th t the

From

Konkan.

an c\tniM\r

haii

MMMu*r.

or Considerable hinorical

is

principal port of thr South it

In

Sanscrit \ltm4tru-, -.--.

the Sanacrk It

ill

1

,

and the following port are reversed.)

Pal*patm*.-Thi* >i\.i.

n<

K wis a great tenter for thr trade \ ,... .ve /./

teak and blackwood, and for thipbyildu^

Piiileim thr positions of this

cioatd

pott

village of

the Pcrkun

(

i

ulf

and Rr

thr uiuicrvfrouiul temple of Chandikibai, dating

from

(Imp whilr

(

itoirapkual Dutoxary

This

Mi-h/igaia. n Jaigarh M/.C, but

now may

(

17

little

of

is

<>f

them.

Amuntami Mt4t*\*il l*4ut

placed by

I

more than

(Nundo %

p. 68. )

MuUer and McCrindJe

\

1

the

/'.;':/w/kin
was a general term applying to

it

a fishing-village.

lu-s at

at

-ncrly a port of It

is

not im-

be the modern Rajapur 16 1*31*1 thr head of a tuial creek, and is the only port on

possible that li

/'...-

mountains and the coast south

rstrrn \ uulhya

v

Saiw nt

probably tbe

is

'tUcfxitnuc

<

.

which Arab boats still trade direct, though cannot approach within thrrr miles of the old atone quay.

Katnagiri coast to size

.

'.0.)

This

is

the Sifrrus of Pliny

the Mtlnff\nt of Plolcr

The name seems

to suggest the Sanscrit Mataw-gtri, "Malaya name which covered the southern part of the Western Ghats. same name appears in the MaK of Cosmas and our Malabar. a

I

lu-

5.v III.

there

'.

Byzantium. assumes

it

t

This i> rvidendy a corruption. ha\r been a colony of Byzanti;

I

iatrn v,

but

not the slightest e\ ulencc of the existeiu c of such a colony. If probably the moilem \ /.ulrog (Sanscrit, / {/frW*r/a is

,

iescnbed as being one of the best harbors on the

western coast.

(

Imp. GV/z.,

\\I\. .UO;

so Vincent, Mailer and

ilc. )

rogarum. :

N

This

is

probably the

modem

Devgar"

Bribed as "a safe and beautiful Undl

202

The average depth of water is limes perfectly smooth. entrance, only 3 cables in width, lies close to the fort

harbor, at

all

18

The

feet. '

(Imp. G
point

t

The

Aurannoboas.

53.

iron ore being

It

found

island in the harbor

is

chief shrine.

it

at the

a place of considerable importance,

is

To

the neighborhood.

in

/' instead of A> no modern Malvan

text has initial

McCrindle places

doubt a corruption. 3' N., 73 28' E).

in the

XI, 275; so Vincent, Miillerand McCrindle.)

Sivaji's

good

the Marathas an

cenotaph, and his image

is

worshipped

(See Imp. Gaz., XVII, 96.)

The name Malvan is a contraction of Maha-lavana,

"

'

'salt

marsh,

and the Greek Aurannoboas is perhaps intended for the Sanscrit Aranya-vaha, which would have a similar meaning.

Islands of the Sesecrienae.

53.

Vcngurla Rocks (15

some

3 miles in

These

are probably the

N., 70 27' E.), a group of rocky islets length and 9 miles out from the modern town of 53'

Vengurla, which was a port of considerable importance during the Dutch occupation in the 17th century. (Imp. Gaz. XXIV, 3" t

Island of the AegidiL This is perhaps the island of 20' N., 74 0' E. ), the present Portuguese possession. It is of historical importance, having been settled by Aryans at an early date, and appearing in the Puranas. (Imp. Gaz., XII, 251; so Miiller 53.

Goa

(15

The

and McCrindle. ) identify

less satisfactory unless

and

Imperial Gazetteer, following Yule, prefers to 45' N., 74 10' E. ) ; but the location is

with Anjidiv (14

it

we assume

to refer to the grouping of this

side of the 53.

Karwar

point.

Island of the Caenitae.

Rocks (1449'N., 74 facing, the roadstead of 53.

the order in the text to be wrong, and the following island on either

4'

E),

This

is

a cluster of

probably the Oyster islands west of, and

Karwar.

Chersonesus.

This answers

Greek, "peninsula."

for

modern Karwar (14 49* N., 74 8' E.), center for the North Kanara, and an active

the projecting point at the

from early times a trade port as late as the

and elsewhere

in

16th century, exporting fine muslins from Hubli

the interior, also pepper, cardamoms, cassia, and

coarse blue dun^an cloth. !>.<.

Pirates.

<

Imp.

Gaz.,

Marco Polo fill, more than

there go forth every year cruise.

These

stay out the

pirates take with

whole summer.

them

XV,

65.)

xxv),

says

of

this

coast,

a hundred corsair vessels on their wives

Their method

is

and children, and

to join in fleets of 20

or 30 of these pirate vessels together, and then they form what they call a sea cordon, that is, they drop off till there is an interval of 5 or 6

IN miles between ship and ship, to that they cover something like a ilrril miles of sea, and no merchant ship can escape them. For ne corsair sights a vessel a signal is made by nre or smoke, and he whole <>f them make for this, and seize the merchants and After (hey have plundered them they let them go. along with you and get more gain, and that mayhap will to us also!' Rut ... ^.s the mrr. hams are aware of this, and go so

pluiui'

M*

fall

manned and armed, and with such same

great ships, that they don't

In (hi* mishaps do befall them at time*" Yule observes, Ibn Batuta fell into the pirates' hands,

fear the corsairs. vicinity,

Still

and was stripped to the drawers. The northern part of Malabar, Kanara, and the Southern Konkan, were a nest of pirates from a very t

was

duic until

well into the 19th century,

when

their occupation

the British arms.

dettr

M

!<> says (III, xxiv) of the kingdom of Ely (near Mangalore), "if any ship enters their estuary and anchors there, other port, they seize her and plunder having been ban ML For they say, 'You were bound for somewhere else, and the cargo.

has sent \..u hither to us, so we have right to all your goods.' And this naughty custom (hey think it is no sin to act thus. prevails all over the provinces of India, to wit, that if a ship be driven by Stress of weather into some other port than that to which it was 'tis

God

And

bound,

it

was sure

to be

But if a ship came bound plundered. it with all honor and give it due

originally to the place they receive

In

an Eng-

ule notes, Sivaji replied to the pleadings of

1

embassy, that it was "against the laws of Conchon" (Ptolemy's Pirate Coast! ) "to restore any ship or goods that were driven ashore."

lish

Abd-er-Razzak notes the same practices

White Island (14

10

1'

Island.

N., 74

miles off the coast,

This

is

16' E.), also

at Calicut.

probably

known

the

modern Pigeon

as Nttrin.

about 300 feet high, and

is

It lies

visible for

about

25 miles.

(Imp. Gaz.. \\. M6. ) \ 1. the \itriai of I'ii: the as same This 26), the probably the threatened Roman of who the merchants; and stronghold pirates, S< tin- \./' of Ptolerm It

abounds

in

white coral and lime.

is

.

;

Naura and Tyndis, the It

seems

first

clear that a long stretch of coast

markers of Damirica.

on

either side of the

modern

wide berth by foreign men runt-ships because of the of its people, and because it produced no cargo of which they were in se.i -,c the following ports, Muziris and Nelcynda, these two have A. is uixen a

204

The mte: been placed too far north by most of the commentators is that the K
These may

districts

The Tamil

tions.

were those more

particularly infested

by pirates.

be identified with the Satiya kingdom of Asoka's inscrip-

where

ports, strictly speaking, lay within the region

the Malayalam language

is

now

spoken, that

is,

within the

modem

The Tulu, Kanarcsc of Malabar, Cochin, and Travancore. our within author's be to seem districts DacAmakufa and Telugu districts

These four ports probably lay respectively within the four districts into which the Portuguese and Dutch found rather than his Damirica.

the Kerala

kingdom divided Cannanore, Calicut, Cochin and Trawhich the last-named, at the time of the Periplus, mU :

of

vancore;

held by the Pandya kingdom.

The four Tamil all

named

states,

Chola, Pandya, Kerala, and Satiya, are

2d Rock Edict of Asoka.

in the

(Vincent Smith, Asoka,

that pp. 164, .UO-1 Kerala did not extend north of the Chandragiri river (12 36' N Naura being then in North Malabar, may be identified with the

p

Mr. Smith thinks (Early

115).

52' N., 75 been an active port

modern Cannanore (11

known

to have

History,

22' E.).

The

in the days of

the

latter pi.

Roman trade, Roman

and has yielded one of the most important finds in India of s, of the reigns of Tiberius, Claudius and Nero. It seems Honavar (14

clear that the identification of this place with the 17'

N., 74

the similarity of names,

is

modern

27' E.), while a tempting one,

not in accord with the

owinu to Honavar lies dispute between the

facts.

which was in Andhra and Saka dynasties, as well as the petty Maurya and Pallava princes; while from similarity of name the modern Cannanore would rather within the strip of coast

answer equally

The

well.

location of Tyndis, of the

of Muy.ms.

It is

Chera kingdom, depends on

that "

described as "a village in plain sight on the shore.

and may be identified with the modern Ponnani (10 48' N., 75 56' E. ;. This place lying at the mouth of the river of the same name, which drains a rich section of the western mountains known as the Hills, would have been a natural terminus for the pepper produced there, as well as for the beryls of the Coimbatore district. This Ponnani river, according to the Imperial Gazetteer (XX, l'>4 unlike nearly all others on the west coast, is navigable for small

Anaimalai

,

\

for

some

distance inland.

Dr. Burnell prefers Kadalundi near Beypore (11 11 N., 75 49' E. ) on the north bank of the river of the same name, which is also navigable to the foot of the

mountains, and carries

down lame

m But die (Imp <;<., \ 111, 17.) between Tyndisand Muxirit indicates Ponnim

trnet of timber.

SOU

stadia

Damiricm. The text has Lm,nk< which previ That name does not appear in India, or %

have retained.

Roman

accounts of

s

i

..iifusiiii!

correct form

and

it,

the

(irrrk

m

clearly a corruption caused by the

is

it

and A.

/>

name

I"he

appear*

\llth

thr

segment of the Pcutingrr Tables, almost contemporary with thr Periplus, and in Ptolemy as Dtmhrtf; and there seems no good reason for perpetuating the mitt.. \\\

Damirka means ern larly

*

'

the

'country of the Tamils,

'

that

it,

the South-

Dravidians as they existed in the first century, including particur .1, Pftndya and Chola kingdoms; known in their own

records as Dr+vufa-Jhtm.

The

Muziris.

was fixed by Burnefl, which as Kodungalur or Cranga\ 76 1 1' K. ), was an important port in medieval nore (10 times. Their argument was based on the 7000 stadia named in the text as the distance between Barygaza and Damirica. 53.

CaJdwell and Yule

location of this port

at Muriri-Jtotta,

,

Vincent Smit

History 340-1

He

are the same.

) is

confident that

"The Kingdom

Mi

of

Cranganore Satrjn must have adjoined Keralaputra; and since the Chandragtri river has always been regarded as the northern boundary of that province, the Satiyaputra

Kingdom

says

should probably be identified with that portion of

Konkans or lowlands between the Western Chits and the sea where the Tulu language is spoken, and of which Mangalore is the The name of Kerala is still well remembered and there b center. no doubt that the Kingdom so called was equivalent to the Southern Konkans or Malabar coast. The ancient capital was Vanji, also named Karuvur, the Karoura of Ptolemy, situated close to the

ore; which represents Mu/.ins, thr port for the pepper trade, boned by Pliny and the author of the Pcriplus at the end of the first " Vanji, according to the Imfrria I Gaxstltrr (XX century A. D. must be placed at the modern Pa'riir or Paravur (10 10' N., 76 15* E.), where the Pcriyar River empties into the Cochin back-waters,

Parur

is still

toCochin, all

Travancore,

n.

.U

tl

the Jeu

of the ti

-re

first

century,

when

;

it

is

earlier idenfihcation

Mangalore and

Nil-

it

formerly belonged

said to

comprise almost and the settlement may date from the end

migration to Southern

The at

a busy trading center, as well as the headquarters of the

While

district

known

It

is

that there

was a ronsidcrahlt

I.

..f

Mu/iris

uu.i

V.

74

Neicynda placed them 51' K., and 12 16*

conflict, with nearly all that

geography and pol

1

we know

kingdoms, and

i*

of the

entirely iro-

piut, belonged port, a poatib to the Pandyun kingdom, \%hu h rruinl> never Citrndcd to far .

The

(

ochin BM-kraten: fnun Rfrlut, An*.

V|.

III.

The

text tells us that

tea,

500 stadia," and Nelcynda from Muziris,

500

sea,

"

stadia.

1

his

Muziris was distant from Tyndis, "by river "by n\cr and

can hardly refer to anything but the Cm-bin

backwaters. 53.

This port

Nelcynda.

.Him by Friar Odoric, and

was probably

It

58' N.,

(9

is

the city

of

the

A

A^xmnrbj the Geographer

of

Ravenna.

the backwaters, or thoroughfares, behind Cochin 14' E. J, the exact locution being uncertain because

in

7o

of the frequent shifting of river-be. tainly very near the modern Kotta\am is

called

\imvltin by the Peutinger Tables,

by Pliny; Mtlkynda by Ptolemy;

exactly 500 stadia,

:.ns and islands; (

or 50

routes from the Pirmed

It

hills,

.

Sb'

according to the Imperial Gazetteer (XVI, 7), Syrian Christian community, whose church here ancient on the west coast.

but

N., 76 31' E. ), whu-h miles, from Cranganore. Kottayum, >

is

is' is

a center of the

one of the

in

also the natural terminus for the trade-

and

is still

a trade-center of considerable

importance.

The name

AV/vW
Nilakantha, "blue neck," a

which he

fers Mflkyndiiy

name

translates

of Siva.

is

the Sanscrit

Caldwell, however, pre-

"Western Kingdom."

A

good account of the topography of the coasts of India by J. A. Bains (Mill's International Geography 1907 ed. given >

"The

469). the

west coast. a

coast-line

mouths of the

little

is

singularly devoid of indentations, except

larger rivers

The only harbors

way up

,

and toward the northern portion of

is

p. at

tin-

except for light-draft vessels, are found

the deltas of the chief rivers, or where, as at Bomb.,

a group of islands affords adequate shelter from the open sea.

The

provided with little more than a few roadsteads. The southern portion of the u protected imperfectly

eastern coast, in particular,

is

is distinguished by a series of back-waters, or lagoons, parallel with the coast, and affording a safe and convenient waterway for small vessels when the season of high winds makes the ocean unnavigable."

coast

Cerobothra.

This is a transliteration of Wicraputra or Tamil kingdom, which in its greatest extension reached from Cape Comorin to Karwar Point, nearly 7 degrees of At the time of the Periplus the northern part had separated, latitude. while the southern end had passed to its neighbor, the Pandxan kingdom; leaving Kerala nearly coterminous with modern Malabar and Cochin districts. The capital was at Karur, or Parfir, opposite 54.

ilaputra^ the western

Muziris or Cranganore. (

is "son of Chera," .one of the legendary three founded the Dravidian power in South India.

heraputra

brothers

who

IN

Phm

name of a king was mcorm dynamic name or royal < Chera backwaters seem to be referred to by Pliny debated passage on r uith thword

use ot the

s

applies to the country,

and

as the also a

is

m

a

T own merchant^, who

mum

u hu h they deposit near tbote brought for sale hr Seres, on the further bank of a river in their country, are by them if the> are s.itiNfird with the exilian,

us that the

tell

He

It

\ \ \1\ I

as just as the

changed,

r

is

,

possible

ij.ntc-

who

41,

t'hera

that

r<

hola

is

kingdom meant

also

is

and

.V

always '

b) Pliii)

being

& m

Stm

ft

of

RMM

i>emg a product 6 of (he Periplus, as shipped from

in

.

C'heru, the Cfi

%

(

sent the best iron to

and

iaidarabad,

meaning

neighbor m/

See also under Sarapis, p. 146. "silent tra:< lieninC-

\ilulis. r

uler S 65,

ami

v

and again by Pliny ustes (book II

\

20

1.

',

-

Pausanus

J, '

i%

referred

111,

<

further:

s

to

Chera and the other Tamil

out of the original establishment

His ton; Chap, xvi; ,

Shan

rapi.

Caldwell,

liol

states

growing

Korkai. see Vincent Smith, farfr

Grammar of tkt

also History

1

int.

at

Drwu&m /*a*f*afrt &*M Indian PaLngt

of Tinntvr/Jy; Burnell, Menon, History if Travan&rt ;

Franca Day, Tkt

Sir Walter Pandian, Indian Il/Jagf AW*; Elliot, Coins of SoutAtrn India;- Foulkes, Tkt (Mfa*to**ftkt Dtkkn J. B.

fofthfPfrmauls-y

dou-n

k

to

P.

B. C.

thf 6th ((ntury

m Anttq;

,

i,

1;

t

in Indian

Anttquan, 1879, pp. 1-10;

Padmanabha Mcnon, Notts on Alalakar and in ptac* nmti,

Seu

199;

\\

/>-

Daw-son, Tkt

and

in

n Journal of tkt

,

Ck'tras, in J.

R. A.

S.,

if tkt Dymtititt if F. KCielthe A'oncological &rrtvr, Madras, 1884; of

Southfnt India, in ;///

1902;

Inscriptions,

of Ckola and Pandya Kings, e;

in

Imperial Gin,

Skttfk

Epignpki* India, Vok. II,

Chaps

i,

in,

i\,

v,

Indixkt PaUngrapkit, and generally, his Grwtdrui dtr

r.uhU-r,

Pkilobgit undAlttrtumskundti-

DfHUtitt if tkt

<

and Bhandarkar, Early HitMry if DtHan. in tens Ixjventhal, of Trnntirlh ; GaisttftroftktBomtayPrtsidtnn; I, ii; tkt

,

Hult/sch, Soutk Indian

Abounds

in

Inscriptions.

ships.

In these protected thoroughfares

flourished a sea-trade, largely in native Dravidian craft, earl\

i

and of great influence

in

which was of

(he interchange of ideas as

well as commodities, not only in South India, but in the Persian Gulf,

210

Merchant-ship of the 2d century, from a relief on a sarcophagus in the Lateran Museum.

and the coasts of Arabia and Africa, with which the trade was prinBoth Buddhist and Brahman writings testify to its cipally maintained.

CC

in

the 5th century B. C.

but their evidence

;

is late,

as they

Northern Aryans, an inland race, who appeared Better in South India after its activities had been widely developed. evidence is gi\rn by the Dravidian alphabet, supposed t<> he from a

arc the product of the

original, and to date from about 1000 B. C., whereas the Aryan, or KharosthT, alphabet was formuR. Sewell, Hindu Period lated after the conquest, about 500 B. C.

Semitic

(

Himyaritic, or Phcrnician

'

(

of Southern India, in Imp. Gaz., II, 321 "Sent from Arabia and by the Greeks" were the ships found by The text has Ariaca, but the our author in the Chera backwaters. is ob\ius, as the articles of trade were from foreign, and not "No Aryan language had penetrated into these Hindu, sources. kingdoms, which lived their own life, completely secluded from

error

Northern India, and in touch with the outer world only through the of maritime commerce, which had been conducted with

medium

from very early times. The pearls of the Gulf of Manar, the of Coimbatore, and the pepper of iMalabar were not to be had elsewhere, and were largely sought by foreign merchants, as early as safety

the 7th or 8th century B.

C."

(Vincent Smith, Early History,

211

Be iice

thr

in

udcla,

i

account of trade on

12th cenfury, fives the following

(his coast :

seven
is

which

the beginning

sons of CuOi. arc hunrst

%ur

ul... rru.i 'lir

U

in

and

nun

i

nil

tlir

harbour, three

in

that

.ill

count:

he hands n

:

summer, no man the hc.it in that cmmtrv

i

(tic

Then

They

in color.

come

them from

to

.:ul

t)

to

turn

night into

it

m(mc,

is

Tint custom per-

back.

New

in

in

is all

all

and from the third hour

home

hi*

(be mark

work and business ii.iv

Year, that

of hit house because of the

kimllc lights in

the streets, and then do their .\<-

>ut

>dy remains

onwai.i

il.iv

!

Passover to

thr

of

hbck

all

rrcurd ihnr

m when vaiU

and art

hrn merchant*

is

are the

ihr King's secretaries fo names and then bring them before the \\ he -rrupon thr King make* himself retpoiuihle r\cn for their h thr\ lra\e in the open unprotected. There is an who sits in his office, and (he owner of any lint property has

distant lands

official

These

m-wor*hipper*.

at

night-<

oMsrt|iiriu r of the great heat of

i

Pepper IN found there. They plant thr trrrs thereof in the and each man of the city knows hi> own plantation. The trees

the sun. fields,

are small and (be pepper trtl

so that

it

thry plan-

max become

it

it

is

in

And when

as white as snow.

sauce-pans and pour

strong.

Then

they take

Pandian kingdom.

it,

out of the water and

it

in tbe sun, and it (urns bL kituU of spices are found in (bis land."

54.

(hey have

boiling water over

id

ginger and

many

was Pindya, the southernmost, Tamil states. Roughly it the modern districts of Tmnexelly and Maduri; at ded beyound the Ghats and included 'I*hi

and traditionally tbe earliest, of tbe three iouu the time of .c.

tli.

The

capital, originally at

Korkai 'the t*Lki'of $ $9,

\ name

55

llrrr too. as in

country and as a dynastic

an

title,

BacarS.

55.

inlet

not as the

name

of

.

> is

used for the

any king.

Barb*; which

is perhaps the 120 stadia from Nelcynda. "* 2- N 76 of the sea, can be no other than Porakad , r the distance it transJueratx r whuh is a close

preferable reading. at

kingdom, the

th<

gives

)

This

place, distant

from Kottayam is exactly in accord with (he Porakad was once a notable port, but declined with the Alleppev built a few miles farther north after a canal had ,

rise

of

212

through from sea to backwater and harbor works constructed.

\\,

had settlements as

/Vwi,

The

188.) at

Porakad.

It

and by Tavern HI

<

low water.

Here

also

(Ball, in his is

the

is

1648) as Porca.

The

remains of a

now

covered by the sea, bem^ edition of Tavernier, I, 241

Portuguese fort and factory are at

(Imp.

and subsequently tin- Dutch, mentioned by Varthema L503)

Portuguese,

mouth

of the

Achenkoil

river,

which

rises

\isihle

m

the

(ihats near the Shencottah pass, the main highway between Tr.i\an-

core and Tinnevelly.

According to Menon were nearly all

settlements

(

.\

I

lalalmr
its f>/th< -;/
the

east of the backwaters at the Christian era,

and the present beaches existed only as tide-shoals. During the middle ages there was a period of elevation, \\liirh led to the formahanded the tion of new islands, while floods from the mountains i

courses of the rivers, and the location of the inlets. At present the tendency is toward subsidence, houses built at Cochin a century ago

being

now under

water.

About 800

B. C., according to local tradi-

tion, the sea reached the hills. on the Megasthenes, in the 4th century B. C., mentioned as sea-coast" the town of Tropina (Tripontari) now on the mainland

side of the backwaters;

Ptolemy's three shore towns between Mu/iris

and Barkart are likewise on the land

56.

Large ships.

The

ing the discovery of Hippalus

is

side.

increase in the size of shipping followreferred to also in

10.

Pliny speaks

describing the trade between Malabar and Ceylon. he sa\> VO, 24), "wa formerly mull:

>

made

vessels

nunnrr

of rushes, rigged in thr

vessels of recent time* are built with

prows

on

familiar

the Nile.

to

id

at

turning around while tailing in lhe*e

i

The

fiarrow.

tonnage of the

\

dm

cttait-

e%%el

if

(About 3 J tons.) prows Pl.ii> probably mean, aome such '

build and A .,t (he accompanying illustration, wt. Ocean generally. Mast and sail can be reversed at will, w* an be sailed in eithei direiiinn .uble

'he

rig a* ti

and white.

Peppt-i

A

perennial

Piper

I

Malabar, and

damp

h<(,

(1,

of Southern India.

278), notes

th.it

..

simply repeats the Indian name p'tppaH. Ihr antiquity of the trade in pepper other spices.

the

MJ:

has no

.

'Ilicrc

ID

word/wprrr, latin/>//vr,

if

not so easily

main mrntmn

scriptures

it

is

of

shown

as

the Kg)-ptian unknown, nor has it a

"mint and anise and cummin"

it

in

f

hit of fulkl

4th century H.

in the

IN

Hebrew

In the

is.

order

ravancore

very early times, in the

localities

Lassen

Linn.,

nigntm.

limber, wild n

the

(

MispeJa,

indeed, Dioscorides

irastus,

as

I

a

medu me. and

between black, white and long pepper. The Sanscrit and dyspepsia, used it Aether ginger and long pepper; these were their "three pungent subuishes

"

stances.

.

.

\

Buddknt Prm.

1

9,

see

1 ;

tury A. had

also

'

R**r4

I-csing, I

I

1

it.

it

after their

/

akakusu's

conquests in Asia

ia

a

There

Gulf.

r

is

through the caravan-trade to Tyre from the Persian some reason for supposing that pepper wu

especially in

demand

in

Babylonia and the IVr\ur

unnamon was

that more especially rcacmd demand for it came with the of the Persian empire under Darms The trade was and not overland; Herodotus knows the Dravidians UII t 100) .iving "a complexion closely resemhlmtf the Aethiopianft," .IN

i

by sea

,

and Kgypt, and at once provided the greatest market Knvpt knew it, probably, through the sea-trade of the ;

for

1

that the

most

active

Miuatnl \ery far from the Persians, toward the south, anil

It

i:

;ui

for

pepper existed

in

may

also

be surmised that a steady it arose in Rome, and

China before

214

was one reason

that this

for the sailing of the junks

day the tonnage of the in baskets of pepper; and he found i.

trade in pepper in the time of the

the merchants unheard-of profits just as It

Christen-

for

too, to this

!>...

ahmc Amoy;.

hau,

Zayton" (Ch\\.m-i

i'olo's

Jatedaccording to their capacity -ne shiplo.nl of (11, l\\\i

dom, there come a hundred such, aye and mure

The

M

In

goes to Alexandria or elsewhere, destined

that

r

Malabar

the

to

coast in the 2d century B. C. and probably earlier.

Roman l.mpne

hnu,

did later the (Jenoesc ami

it

was one of the most important

;:rtu les

of

commerce

between India and Rome, supplying perhaps three-quarters of the total bulk of the average westbound cargo.

The is

by

its

about $2.55 per

Among under

Roman

constant use of pepper in the most expensive

reflected

St.

ML

quoted by Pliny

price,

14

as

toot

15 denarii, or

Ih.

the offerings by the emperor Constantine to the church

Silvester,

were

costly vessels

and fragrant gums and spu

rs.

including frankincense, nard, balsam, storax, myrrh, cinnamon, saffron

and pepper.

That

continued

it

in

high esteem

by Alaric for raising the siege of of gold, of 30,000

5,000

Ibs.

3,000

pcs. of

hue

On,

Ibs.

shown by

the terms offered

of silver, of 4,000

and of 3,000

scarlet cloth,

M, Imcti nd

is

Rome: "the immediate payment Ibs.

of

r.

weight of pepper."

271-2.)

lull, III,

Pliny, indeed, expresses surprise at the taste that

brought it into "It is quite surprising that the use of pepper so great favor ( XII, 14 has come so much into fashion, seeing that in other substances which )

we

it

use,

is

sometimes

their sweetness,

that has attracted our notice;

ance

that can plead as a

import

all

it

an

article of

trial

of

that

was not content

it

as

food?

h;.s

nothing

to either fruit or berry,

pungency; and yet

way from

the

and sometimes their appear-

whereas, pepper

recommendation

quality being a certain

.">le

we

:

India!

it

is

in

it

its

only

for this

t!iat

\\ h. v\as the hist to make-

And who,

to prepare himself

I wonder, was the man by hunger only for the satis-

of a greedy appetite?"

In

medieval Kurope the trade was highly organized, the spice

being handled especially by merchants called "pepperers;" and the prices quoted in Rogers' History of Agriculture
En "land

that in the years just prior to the Portuguese discovery of the

Cape pay

route, a

pound

for a carpenter!

of

pepper brought two shillings, being four Vet the people preferred it above all other

215

was the

it

pices;

thing asked for by "Glutton" in

first

/Wi A>*MM

'

deale, gossib," quod she

"Hastow

auL'htc in tin purs'

p.omV

"I haue peper and

A

"giotown.wiltowa^

any h<*e spices.'" 'and a pounde of g-

qu.Mj.hr vced' for

ferthynirworth

"

f

astyngdayes.

escribes the pepper production of

tin UK

"the wood

as follows:

ibar"

;.i).

plant near unto it

the grains are laid in

ciul of 'In- sal.

with

I

Pand

I

of

yield grapes, but being ripe, they

is

.

.

KandtdM

all

Polum

.itmized version of

A ar

do

At the pepper made and kept. f I'olumbrum, whuh aboundeth kinds." (The proper form would be Polum-

and thus forest*

.disc

the

hum,

in

forest there

and are gathered as we gather grapes, and then the sun t. he dried, and being dried are put n

:,

earthen vessels;

wood or

I-

UTS, as our vines

pepp<

grows cootaineth

it

in (he said

landrma, and the uchcr lyncilim" (prub'In the aforesaid wood pepper it had after thi% .i\e* like nut.) pot-herbs, which they -.it trees as we do our vines, and they bring forth i

ahly

which

in

And

ri-.:f

Kolum, the modern

or

{Juilon.

modern

interchanged here as in the case of Karur, the

Pariir. )

Tavet er,

Dutch,'

pepper sold pruu

.id

came

he says

fi"in R.u.ipi

(II. MI

Malabarii do not pay

Hill's

in cash

f..r

>

hut

^

they gain 100 per :lt

He at <

'tie

cash, hut I

also

it

can get c

:

i-.illei

I,

it

it

man) kinds of

(

Svrtt of gite

in

it

it

is

brings

exchanfe

f
money way would be much

use kept h> the

\.

the "1'epper

Watt, 896-901;

Ho,

Fluckiger and

Manbun. '

TfxeJia BnturtHun,

frafih:

'*1*he

from the

it

>uu h method."

mentions aU,

CWhm,

fur

-

export*

i

rosily than the

guese

CM iun^e

on tnc merchandise which they

rtaU, DUt

of 28

is

purchase

inlmn, and quicksilver, and

umdise, as cotton, opi

ppcr which

(

the Katnagiri coast.

ed it.

lutuorin und

ipally at

<>n

:

an

/per

'

.

1':4-SS

desinU -s

.1

propitiation of the serpents guarding the

pepper, similar to those of the frankincense and diamond, -hn Mar... IT in the veruntry

h<

"In

\ermm fr the And some men say*

serpents and of other the country and of the pepper.

the story

216

when they will gather the pepper, they make fire, to hum Hut sa\e then make the serpents and the cock nil-ills to flee.

ahout

that

to

For if they burnt about the trees that hear, the be should burnt, and it would dry up all the virtue, as of am pepper other thine; and then they did themselves much harm, ami they Hut thus they do: they anoint their should never quench the fire. of

that say so.

all

hands and their

feet with a juice

made

of snails and of other things

therefor, of the which the serpents and the venomous In-.ists hate and dread the savour; and that maketh them flee before them, because of the smell, and then they gather it surely enough."

made

This

belief in the guarding of treasure, or of wealth-producing habitation thereof, ly spirits in the form of serpents, has the or trees, noted as attaching to frankincense ( been 29), and will already

The supposed necessity appear likewise with the diamond ( 56). of appeasing or else expelling the serpents by the use of other subwas held strongly in Rome itself. Pliny ascribes of kind fennel" "If "a giant (XII, 56). galbanum,

stances

this

to

ignited in a

pure state

And

it

again

(XXIV,

spondylium, III,

has the property of driving

is

away

13), "the very touch of

serpents by it,

.frankincense gatherers depended on

29, pp.

56.

oil

and

So also Virgil (Georges,

sufficient to kill a serpent."

"(ralhaneoque agitare graves nidore chelydrns.

The

smoke."

mingled with

415):

under

its

power

"

burning storax

see-

;

Ul-2.

Malabathrum.

Heeren, Vincent and McCrindle trans-

"betel," and thereby accuse the Periplus of a blunder in 63 and 65, where the substance is described as coming from the

late this

Himalaya mountains.

The

the pftros of the text in

translation

65

is

the

rests

same

on an assumption

that

as the Portuguese betre or

meaning betel. Watt (p. 891) says this latter is rather derived from a Malay word vfttila or vtrn-ila, meaning "leaf," and it is very doubtful if the hebetel of modern times entered into international commerce in hftit

t

Roman period. The word

pftros

is

rather

from the Sanscrit patra, "leaf,"

of

the tamala tree which, as explained under S 10, 13 and 14 The leaf exported from Southern variety of cinnamon or laurel.

from Cmnamomum men, and possibly from the Cinntiwhich in later times was cultivated in Ceylon and one of the sources of our cinnamon. (See Tavernier, Travel*,

India

was

momum is

The leaf coming from the Himalaya mountains was prinfrom the Cinnamomum tamala, which was native there. Pliny

II, xii;.

cipally

also

-zsylanicum

217

ays

tliut

'ties t..

also

mulitknki um wlmh mterrd so prominently into should ha\c a *mell like nard, and ocher Roman writers have confuted it with thr Ganges nard mentionrd in th-

Us-

SSS-v

II,

HM,

MI,

rr f rr%

M follows:

lt

,

rnard werr the two mart treasured ingre-

and perfume*

of thr oiMtinrnts

s

MIUS trade

\

mans knew coast of

-n

and

mii.mii'M

i

coming from the Somali coming from nulabathrum wa, in at least one

cassia only as

A

knew

the malahathnim as

various parts of India, and \<\ the ..' lr.tr iroin thr s.imr :-,.-

Case, the

'

iVriplus India, hut in

fti

\\as

'ffffimfftl

.

iu

Dipping and J*ftmt Oummfr*

'\ttikniL'

instance of the secrecy with

aiuu-nts conducted thr

the

\

an open an /

kftOfl this

\\hu-h

.iluccd a

;

no place meiitunu the export of cinitamon from $ 56 and 6.{ describes the export of malatatkntm. This !y of \rrv uiu irnt date and thorough iiich the bark .ni\ unit f.r trade purposes to the ui

History of

Lindtq

Roman empi

of the

suggested by the fact thai the Ro-

is

uahle portions of their

'

"could only have obtained hi* mation about cinnamon from the merchants who traded along the

trade/

thinks,

<

uho krpt the sn Carthaginians kept that of British tin shorcv

R

CT letter fI

I

I

)

ret

of

its

pr*vrmi*it as the

rake- Brock man, dated lierbera,

rihrmation of the absence of th

April

namon

species

from the Somali peninsula

nder

1

unlikely that thr original inhabitants of this country

anything of

cinnamon

until thr\ iia

coastal people

from the

have hunted for anything ot had existed they would ha\e that th

whereas they have had for cinnamon. Tl

to

who

or Arabs,

earliest times.

penetrated into the interior at

day as they do frank thy of nonce is

had heard of

go ^

all,

which

knew

commercial value

ha\e been

known

same

traders,

'Iliese is

its

to the if

they

extremely doubtful, would d

if

cinnamon

mtinued to export it up to the present imrrh and gum arabic. A point have names for all the last three, |

to the Arabic language for their

o f two

varieties,

names

4wM(/t/and lr/Sr. both

;ch arc imported. i

It

is

hiuhlv probable that both Strabo

and Pliny were led to

J18

believe that the into the

myrrh, frankincense, cinnamon and spurs

kingdom of Acthiopia and upper Fn\pt

same

place.

their

myrrh and cinnamon

if

came from

all

they stated the difficulties and

d..

the countries of the savage they experienced collecting it or their antecedents in the Horn of Africa. in

"There can be no doubt

the

Acthiopia obtained a better pru

Possibly traders in

(Jail. is

that the natives of these regions ha\c

The always been greatly feared by their less warlike neighbors. Somalis and their antecedents have always been keen traders, and there can be little doubt that if cinnamon ever existed in these regions, the practice of collecting

was

species here collected

would not have been dropped unless

the

of a very inferior quality and gradually

lost

it

Marketable value."

Through mens of the

same gentleman

the courtesy of the various aromatic

gums

in

maybe made

statement

rning

the

gathering speci-

more posimc

of Somaliland, a

than was possible under Kgyptian frankincense trade, in

character of the trees depicted on the Punt reliefs

141-2,

32, pp.

determining the at Deir el Bahri, a

photograph of which was reproduced on page 120. Professor Breasted in his Ancient Records of Egypt (II, myrrh, and translates it as myrrh wherever the records

calls this tree

refer to

it.

In the publications of the Egypt Exploration

Tempi* of Deir-fl-Bahrit III, 12),

it is

called frankincense

,

Fund {The

but

is

1

maliland in the neighborhood of Mosyllum, because of the supposed African appearance of the Punt people who appear elsewhere in

the

reliefs.

Specimens of true myrrh sent from Somaliland show clearly that no sculptor could have intended to depict by the rich foliage on the reliefs, the bare, thorny, trifoliate but almost leafless myrrh tree, nor yet the almost equally leafless varieties of

Somaliland frankin

This tree is of Dhofar

clearly Boswdlia Carteri, the frankincense of the rich plain in Southern Arabia. This is the only place producing frankincense where the trees can be cultivated on a fertile plain by the .

in

the midst of green fields and cattle.

There

the African coast which meets these conditions.

is

no

pi

Naville's objection

*

that the natives are

'not Arabs,"

/.

<.,

not Semitic,

is

really in favor

were the pre-Semitic, Cushite race whose dominions centered at Dhofar, and who are represented there by the modern ( Jara tribe. There can be no question that the trees in that relief are

of such a belief; they

the frankincense of Periplus, the

modern

Dhofar, the Shthri luhan.

"Sachalitic

frankincense"

of

the

ttt

m

To the potable objection that the Darror and Nogal valleys, taw southern part of the Somali peninsula, are fertile and might proi,:e than the northern coast, ic may be said thai the fertility

stops far short of the east coast,

ras thr irlirU

A Rome

t<>

show

b

which

nth snd (mile

a

absolutely deierti

plain bordering the sea.

great quantity of coin.

The

drain of specie from

Kast has already been referred to under

thr

>>x

"The

I'liny.

notice, seeing that ID n<> year

us of less than $50,000,000

warrv

sold

.ire

A

among

urMri.iiu.il before

us

is

does India drain

,000,000) giving back her fully 100 times thrir nrtt

at

i'enplu*, in

tlir

8 49, and

subject." he says (VI, 26

.!.!

A

I)

,

this

the subject of a Inter ittn the emperor Tiberius to the Roman Senate: "If a reform is in timh intended, where must it br

am

to restore the simplicity of

1

i

the taste for dress?

am -lent -xv

I

i

.

How shall we we to deal with the p^mfaf

time>

are

s of feminine xamt\, and in particular with that rage for jewels and precious trinkets, which lir.uns thr empire of its wealth, and sends, in exchange for baubles, the money of the Commonwealth to foreign MS, and even to the enemies of Ron (Tacitus,

N

extravagant importation of luxuries from the Mast

adequate production of commodities to offer in exchange, main cause of the success! xe ilcpmution and degradation of the

Roman

currency, leading finally to

tary standard

>r

ts

1

metal result in

The

wars.

enabled R- nu

its

total repudiation.

The

established by accumulations of

sack of the

r

i

change her coinage from copper to After the destruction of Carthage and Corinth in 146 B. C., t<>

came into general use, and through the wars of Cseav so became plentiful that in 47 B. C. its ratio to silver was a gold I'nder Augustus the ratio was 8.9. lower than c\er before or since. rr 4tnan. I'nder he aurrus being won! about 1 sea-route to India was opened, after which came the m of wastefulness and extravareiu'n of Nrro. marked b> gold coinage

t

it

gance, during which the Mixer .hnariui fell frm 1-84 to 1-96 pound Under rr, an alloy of 20 per cent copper being added to it n the

SO per

R

1

holly

was tampereii of

and under Scpiimius SeveniS

all

cent.

exchanue

\x

in

KUgubaluv 218 A I> (he^sViMnJU had Kxen the golden *rnu and was repudiated copper mally, under

ith

India,

1

xportetl

.

m

large quantities to

the supply at

home was

become the

exhausted.

basis

I'nder

128

Augustus the aurfus weighed 1-40 of a pound of gold, ami under Under Constammc- it Ml to n.m it weighed but 1-60. when the coin was taken only by weight (Sahatier, J t /iyztinks It

was

Adams, Law of

Civilization

this steady loss of capital, to replace

which no

h \\.is

i

produced, that led finally to the abandonment of Rome- and to the \ionm-di.i and transfer of the capital at the end of the 3d century soon afterward to Byzantium. t

Coin of Nero commemorating the opening

of the harbor-works at Ostia.

Madras Government Museum there is nearly a complete the Roman Emperors during the period of A of them excavated in southern India. all with active trade India, breaks in which distinct the two there are is that fact series; notable may of course be supplied by later discovery', but which seem to indicate a cessation of trade due to political turmoil in Rome. The o.ins Ilu of Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero are numerous. In the

the coins of

series of

Th few of Vespasian and Titus anywhere in India. then there are Hadrian and frequent; Domitian, Nerva, Trajan This indiof the time Commodus. until break comes another lasting very

cation, so far as

it

has any value, points again to the dating of the reign of Nero rather than during those of \ \ -s-

Periplus during the pasian and Titus I-

or a

full

account of

Roman

Thurston, Catalogue No. pp.

2,

coins discovered in South India,

Madras Government Museum,

1

56.

Crude

uncertain.

made

in

glass.

According in

Ceylon

The

origin of the glass industry in India

to Mitra,

Antiquities

refers to the glass of India as superior to

pounded

crystal."

used there

at the

of Orissa,

the 3d century B. C., and Pliny Mirrors, with a

foil

I,

101,

it

is

was

(XXXVI,

66) of "made because others, of lead and tin, were all

time of the Periplus, and Pliny indicate -s

1

\\.\\

II,

people of India, by coloring cryrtai, have found a " .g various done*, beryls in panicular .

M'ukfkkaiatiHi.

the

.u\,

(Ins

r?!i

.

K Hr

Mnra,

t

1

unhridge,

or nan

sc

mH not tay

IH..M-

I

said?

I

thouyi

the

.f

manner

like.

I

"

skillful artiu.

ma> IT

(ir>

no doubc very

different,

great,

and

be div

.uU tcafcely

and

tin

Coppt-i

tome

ornaments they hair

that the dit!i

As at Baogra intended

lead.

\\.\l\,

for tlu

'hough

different,

artists if

illations of .

IK-

examine ihrm,

>St,

U

i

may

he>

Uo A

re

/

"

they nu> he mutations by

,

a

and pearU

lead, but exclianues preficius &tine

ihiefl)

"India IM* neither bran

1"

for th

copper

S&*** Lead Wat med

I

for iht- in.inutactiire of

nn

\i:h a little

< .

nun

'.litra,

This is i\\< smooth shining

in thin ^beeis,

.;/

c/..

Orpiinent. mi:

in

the form

artu

Ir

of export

1'liny (\'l,

then the

harbor

.-:

from the 26)

scales,

'

il .1

mouth, and producing uold; time thr\ ell

i

UN,

tlie

au^ht

was not

at this

of the

siu'ht

t.f

the

be seen

to

Hear

h<

.

making

a d.iraMe miner. .1 r t

the sailors.-

tr r>\\s

CottOnara. identities v

;...mt.

j

n (his

:

Dr. Burneil

are the centers.

of the Rajas of

D

trans--

K**t*M e,

Aug.

and

1902;. suggests

and


lapis lazuli

Polo also notes Hit.

frm ftWrftg fiisl. uhuh C'annanore and

iieri\e> this .

:

Uui hanan prefers Addrfftt m*4i, In rnedi4\.il times the

included boch. the

.

as did realgar

M.*:*,.

with North \I.d.iiu

-widiiin Gramnui'

tyuary,

ni^ht,

pi

Ma.

South

Star

and

1

\\

So.

The

I'p to this spot and in these districts are Co

>

which he

)n and

it.

extended the empire of the Ach.i .nd mint ron, arsenic, and red -t The prim orpnnent uasas.i \ellow pigment

HUHium

(

spot the u nters state

(mat

durinu the \viu>le of

,

luiion

n\er of Carmania, with an excellent

'

I

at its

urscnu-, appear-

i

which have long been an

itdf to In

P

"Nod

says,

asafil

101.)

p.

,

ffJ/

t

kattal,

liish..p C'alduell. in

name from Mabyilam i^tbt, district.

sea,

M

or &/*,

:./:*;

r

./

222 u, the hill-country back of the sea-coast, would accord with In ar the facts while supporting the transliteration of the text. the term does not seem to have been applied to an exact locahu

Great quantities of fine pearls.

56.

These were from the u and S brought to InManar, mentioned in ports, the meet ing- point of Kastern and Western

fisheries of the Ciulf of

sold in the I'her.i

,

trade.

Silk

From China,

Cloth.

See under

jes.

^

.49,

56.

Gangetic spikenard.

5b.

Transparent Stones.

of the

Coimbatore

district,

for

This

ports.

wax

and

Tibet

D<

the

See under

>

These were principally the beryls which there was a constant demand in

Rome, and which always found Malabar

by

49 and 64.

their principal foreign

lot ali/.ation

of the

after the Portuguese period in India;

market

in the

trade continued until

gem

the reason

is

stated by

Tavernier

(II, x

was formerly the place where there was the largest trade diamonds, rubies, sapphires, topazes, and other stones. the miners and men-hauls went there to sell the best which they I

in all

All

Asia

in

had obtained whereas,

in

at the

their

mines, because they had there

own

if

country,

liberty to sell,

full

they showed anything to the

kmu s r

and princes, they were compelled to sell at whatever price they pleased to fix. There was also at Goa a large trade in pearls, both of those which came from the island of Bahrein in the Persian Gulf, and those fished for in the Straits of

Manar on the coast of

the island of

Ceylon."

India and Ceylon were preeminently the source of production of precious stones of all kinds, which were exported to every part of the cixiliy.ed

Watt

world.

(p.

556)

classifies the

production as

f<>

The

2.

Beryl group, from the sea-green aquamarine white. (The btry Ilium of Pliny, X X XVII, 20. ) (The adamas of Pliny, XXXVII, 15.) Diamond.

4.

Ruby.

5.

Sapphire, occurring

1.

to

the

'earl. (

The

carbunculus of Pliny, in

numerous

XXXVII,

25.)

colors, various blues,

\

inlet,

Produced mainly on the Southern yellow, green and white. Malabar hills, now rarely found in India but more frequently in

6.

(The hyacinthm (Included among the

Ccxlon.

Spinel.

of

Pliny,

XXX VII, 41

12 varieties of

Plim's

,,////////-

tuli.

7.

Tnpa/..

Watt doubts

its

production

in

and the Periplus sho\\x
India at any p that

it

was imported

Of

./!/*.!

A

>e.

product of Perm, m* occurring in India but rfrrn port*
nut; ihr n.irthu

\\.\\

Pl.nx.

'

3.O

II,

MX p4flH.il

tana being

tfZ04W/4,

upper

>nr

'

J

apis

f

,:ham*an r

or ulininurinr

l^/.uli,

used

urkestan but aiv

I

of

<


...

.

often

Iju^rljr

demand

kindt and in

all

is

Indu. these all find leading market it China

in

in.i:

-.in

it.-

I

m

mainly

I

a serpentine \\hile not prodmed hiie

I

sul>

11

Mi.tr of R*)pU-

India.

the 12 varieties, perhap>

,,f

IMi

<>f

anil

Jade

\ VII,

I'

Kgypt and the Mrtiurrranean world from the i-w/S^/Vw of Plmx. \\\\ II

in India,

earliest tiroes.

.>u4itzose, inrludint;

1

Rock

a.

crystals,

white and colored, which thr Romans do nshrd from more precious

not seem to hax

(The.nWof

tones.

AL

)v

F

Plmx.

\\\\ll.

bloodstone, chrysoprasc, jasper, chal-

..!!.

.

cedony, cat's

>..

opal, etc

(y/i^i/Xri,


tiitrtUlu;

tyx;

9ftil

Ttrnmuiin.

v

l-

the

(The4frjwof

red

I

imnfer,

l

>axs

Plmx.

PI,,,-.

\\\\il.

of a hexagonal form, briausr the

It

dux

Mirtatc,

..<

\ \ \ VII.) <>li\e

commonest

in

\\\\II. and

trade,

ce Ijuuen,

I,

II.

cur in

i

H

'are produced in India, lupuUnrs cut all beryls xvhu h is deadened by a dull .

I'he

-.en-

IK-

,

\uneties being

further discussion of the deposits

i

229-4

Plmx

'hrough red, dark blue,

green, and white, India.

(

murrkt**,

atrtJudmi*; tar.

tartia; At/iotnpium; fkrjMpraiur, imtpit,

<>l..r.

heightened by the reflection frm the any other wa>, these stones have no bhl-

is

" I he he crystals are naturally hexaheti most esieemrvi beryls are those whu h in color resemble the pure green of the sea. The people of India are marvelouJy fond of beryls I

.

.

.

of an elongated form, the -x

and say

that these are the only precious stonti

prefer wearing without the addition of gold.*' In

the

xvhuh uu

MnclickkakatHa, an early Sanscrit play, there

Uul<

>

a

row

of jewelers'

shops,

examining pearls topazes, sapphires, ben

U.

"where

i*

a scene

skillful artists

afe

rubies, lapis la/uli, coral

224

and

me

oilu

some work with

set rubies in gold;

gold or-

naments on colored thread, some string pearls, some grind the x,.mr pierce shells, and some cut coral." (Mitra, op.

lapis

,

UK).)

p.

Diamonds.

The

text

Then- can

diamond.

\\.\\ll. ijuarty.,

,

etc.,

\aiuc, not only

t

doubt that Pliny in his description other suhstam cs, probably

includes under adamn>

15'

iron ore, cmcr)

thcgreatc

no

be

Some commentators, Romans ever knew the true

adamas.

is

notably Dana, have doubted whether the

but he also says that the diamond

p<

the precious stones, but of

all

among

possessions; and as Watt says (p. 556), India source of diamonds known to European nations.

Garcia de

Orta (1563), mentions various

mines, such astho.se of "Bisnager"

(

r.astcrn

particulars of

Yijayanagar Tavernier's

the Indian sources of

all

diamond

and the "Dec am'

)

Ball, in his translation of

Dcccan).

human

was long the onk

'/'

,;

diamonds

,rA, gives full

450-4M

II,

was a diamond merchant and the first Kuropran (1676 examine critically the diamonds and court jewels of India. 1

.ixernier

The principal 1

districts

Southern

to

were, districts of

Group:

Kadapa,

Kistna, Godaverl, (Golcondft, etc.

MahanadI

Middle Group:

valley,

;

Karnul.

Bellary,

j

districts

of

Samhalpur,

Chanda; Northern Group: still

worked

15) describes the Indian adamas as "found,

CXXXYII,

Pliny

Yindhyan conglomerates near Panna

.

not in a stratum of gold, but in a substance of a kindred natui< crystal; which it closely resembles in its transparency and its highly polished hexangular and hexahedral forms."

diamond

is

octahedral.)

point at either extremity, of,

two cones united "

"In shape

the base.

at

(The

true

form of the

turbinated, running to a and closely resembling, marvelous to think it

is

In size, too,

it

is

as large eveti as

a ha/.cl-nut.

The Romans seem cutting.

Pliny goes

sum, while

at

the

on

have had no knowledge of diamond-

to

to say that -"its hardness

same time

it

is

beyond

quite sets fire at defiance;

all

expi

owing

to

which indomitable powers it has received the name which it derives from the Greek." (a privative, and daman, "to subdue.") After his description of the hardness of the diamond, Pliny ob'this indomitable power, which sets at naught the two most serves, violent agents in nature,

fire,

namely, and iron,

is

made

to yield bet

a

warm

he-ecu-

muu

however,

blood,

he

lre%f

the ttone, too t mutt he well fteepeci

;

II, v
(Tavc

Ball

(

.<*;,,

nut:

i

.

'.out

'

"ir number ,,f M-rpento. collrtt. The piece* 4 meat with diamonds sticking to them were then carried to their ne*s by

be

overed by diamond seekers.

biriU his

I

myth

is

founded on fhr

mini: of a mine,

t<

offer

At such can;" which

sacrifices birds of prey

Here we have a

praitur in India

these being represented by the assemble to pick up what they

mdation for the remainder of the

story.

striking similarity to the

fmerted with

:

the gathering of frankincense, as outlined under

rhusand \igAfs and On*

hr

I

on

cattle to propitiate the evil spirits

up

supposed to guard tremsurei

.tre

common

\rr>

29,

A'//A/ gives substantially thr

2d voyage), while

Sinh.ul thr Sailor,

and pepper

sufficiently iden-

the st'

^

along the \allry >ne

wherewith they pirn

aiul

irn nor

on\

steel

for

\,

that

r is

it

1

found that

was of diamond,

its soil

jewels and precious stones and pora hard dense stone, whereon neither

therefrom nor

hath effect, neither ca: he leadst

Marco Polo "Moreover

(III, xix) records

more

definitely this ancient be

mountains great serpents are rife to a marvelous degree, besides other xermin, and this owing to the great he*L The serpents are also the most venomous in existence, insomuch that in those

going to that region runs fearful peril; for

tie '.

by these

evil reptiles.

"Now among >,

men

to the

many have been

these mountains there are certain great and deep

bottom of which there

is

no

Wherefore the

access.

who go in search of the diamonds take with them pieces of flesh, as they can get, and these they cast into the bottom of a valley. ;i

Now

there are numbers of white eagles that haunt those mountain*

When

and feed upon the serpents.

upon where they begin

to

rnul

it

the eagles see the meat thrown

and carry

it.

lli:t

it

up

there are

to

some rocky hilUop

men on

the watch, and

as soon as they see that the eagles have settled they raise a loud shoutAnd when the eagles are thus frightened ML- to time them away. i

the

men

recover the pieces of meat, and find them

monds which ha\r

'he meat

down

in

the

Kctim

full

of dia-

Kr

the

abundance of diamonds down there in the depth of the \alley is astonishing, but nobody can get them; and if one could it would he only to be incontinently devoured by the serpents which arc so rife there."

The

part played by the eagles

is

other sacred birds, for the

that of

who gave his defence of Sita against the Raksha Ravana, in the A the ibis at Buto who defended Kgypt against the frankincense-serpents. defence and

man.

profit of

Compare

the bird Jatayu,

life in

<-

1

P.

\l.

in

was

\\ith these beliefs

from the wearer

off

warding

\Iaiuie\ill. still

fought the dragons.

(

Virgil,

.//;/////,

;

\.

Pliny.

Connected

mond

who

and the eagles

.

KSi

that in the efficacy of the dia-

"Sir John

sorts of evils.

all

XVII), recounts

fr,

for

it

liis

da\

.

and

it

may

be observed.

"He that beareth the diamond upon him, it giveth him hardiness It giveth and manhood, and it keepeth the limbs of his body whole. him victory of his enemies in plea and in war, if his cause be rightful. And if any cursed witch or enchanter should bewitch him, all sorrow and mischance shall turn to himself through virtue of that And no wild beast dare assail the man that beareth it on him. stone.

that

And

him

healeth

it

And

or travaileth.

diamond, anon it

that if

is

or poison be brought in presence of the

beginneth to

it

wax moist and

befalleth often time that the

and

for incontinence of

make

it

56.

and them that the fiend puisucth

lunatic,

venom

him

that beareth

it.

to recover his virtue again, or else

Sapphires.

The

for to sweat.

good diamond loseth

text

is

.

.

Nat hies

his virtue by sin,

And

then

it is

of

little

value."

it is

hyakintlios,

needful to

which has been

trans-

and amethyst. Jacinth is a product of Africa Rubies are from Burma and probably never came

lated as jacinth, ruby

rather than India. in great quantities

from

India.

Pliny says that the hyacinth resembles

the amethyst, but draws a distinction between them.

had as

in

mind a

meaning

violet sapphire,

all tints

and

his

word

really

Pliny probahk might be translated

of sapphire from blue to purple.

Dionysius Periegetes refers to the "lovely land of the Indians

where the complexions of the dwellers are dark, their limbs exquisitely >leck and smooth, and the hair of their heads surpassing smooth and dark blue like

t!ie hyacinth." (McCrindle, Ancient India, p. 18S. ) \V. Goodchild (Precious Stonn.p. 18.*), also thinks that the sapphire was the hyacinthus of Pliny, and says that the principal source

of sapphires in that part of the world was

in the watered graxeU of Southern Ceylon, which were derived from watered crystaline rocks; and at the time of the Periplus the natural market would have been

on the Malabar

coast.

The

ruby,

which

is

practically of the

same

.rundum group, was found in the wa* probably classified by

.Mti.,n, lri!..

sapphire in Ceylon, and I'l.m under the <*rkm \\X\11. JS lie

Boib rubies and tapphtrr*

(

UK! in

.

Burma and Sum, but at probably unknown to

quantities in

IVnplus these dei

the

of

nun h Beater

re

Tortoise-shell from Chryse. and

',

ahle that

\

\

Cf a Correct

tu r of

Man/i. id

Kieypt

plus

assume

u.'uul

I'hmt-M-

1

1

In-

(tut t..

.

(

u'

indeed, specincaJly mentioned n the partii ularU the o

to India

the I'eripluv

Ciunia

ends

is

It

the- list

return from

his

<>n

and

an active sca-

..f

less frequently,

then-

is

liimpan-

King of

it

in

perhaps,

by the author of

with the

letter

Portugal, carried by

India fourteen centuries later:

dbttndancc

and precious stones. coral, and scarlet."

of articles traded

t>

uiterrstui-j

of Calicut to the

m

the exi*teric

to Malacca,

time of the I'm-

yet the records of tbe

l>r\
\\ idi this itnn

Zamorin

at the

exidcmc,

irinsc-lxrs point strongly to

.md

s,

were the same the

l>'-\'ud

.inlv

ihi

prob-

f.i

.iiulitiiiiix

>

tt

and says (III, xx\ that the %hipx "are not one t<> (en <>f thcmr that goto

the eastward; a very notable

To

it

vr trade of Kaftfeni

fc

/h Indian ports. VK huh 60 and 63. Marco Polo notes

shippn in

-KbrHiu%4Kcuf

"that found along the cojut;" but

ai

the

NN'hat

mamon,

ol I

**ln

m>

cloves, ginger, pepper,

seek from thy cnuntry

lippalus f irst discovered. The may be placed at about 45 A. I), (see I

from the Vasco da

dis<.

is

gold, silver,

iiippalus,

opened a new ocean to Roman shipping; but it is probable that Arabian and Dravidian craft had frequented that ocean for many centuries, and inconeix.iMe that they should not have made use of the periodic changes of the monsoons, by far the most notable feature of their climate. \idence of both o>untne> indicates, on the contrary, that they i

p. 8

',

i

steered boldly out of si^ht of land, before records

of

.

'ten to

tell

it

Mr Sociftr,

Kennedy

in

an

article

in

the Journal

1898, (pp. 248-287) also thinks >d

that the

f/" tkt Rtyw dtMt monsoons were un-

before the time of Hippalus, but doubts the beginning of any

regular sea-trade before

the

such trade to the

ascribing

all

China.

Following

be-jmrnnv:

ome this

of

the

7th century B.

C

,

Nabonidus, in whose time to Babylon from India and even fmm

activities of

reign he thinks sca-tradc hctv

Babylon flourished for hut partly Aryan, and leading to the settlement

He

Hast Africa, Babylonia and China.

.1,

mainl>

<

Dtaxidian

Indian traders in

<>t

minimizes the impor-

tance of the early Egyptian trading-voyages, considering them purely early local, while the numerous references t<> articles and routes .t

the Hebrew scriptures he passes by with the assertion

trade in

that they

are due to the revision following the return

But whatever

may have been

Ezra's revision of the

llehre\\

books, substantially the same articles of trade are dcsc ribed in the records of Egypt at corresponding dates, and they indicate a trade in articles of

Indian origin to the Somali coast and overland to the Nile,

(See also under

centuries before K/.ra's day.

Such opinions presume change of cargoes passes from tribe

at

to

^

>.

Ill,

II,

and

1

1.

>

a continuous trading-journey withon

common and

tribe

meeting-points.

But primitive tiade

port to port.

At the time of the

cargoes changed hands in Malacca, Malabar, Somaliland, The custom is stated in South Arabia, Adulis and Berenice. I'eriplus

in

the Deirel Bahri reliefs describing

of 1500 B. C.,

where Amon-Re

tells

Queen

Matshepsut's expedition

the queen,

"No

one trod the incense-terraces, which the people knew not; they were heard of from mouth to mouth by hearsay of the am The marvels brought thence under thy fathers, the Kings of Louer Egypt, were brought from one to another, and since the time of the anestors of the Kings of Upper Egypt, who were of old, a*
many payments," It

was the

(Breasted, Ancient Record^

particular

II,

287).

achievement of the Egyptian Punt expediand freed

tions that they traced the treasured articles to their source

'

the land from the heavy charge of those

'many payments

Like-

wise Hippalus must be remembered, not for a discovery new to the world, but for freeing the Roman Empire from Arabian monopoly of tstern trade

ery

by tracing

was made.

it

to

its

source.

Ptolemy, indeed,

Beyond India no

knew

lasting

of Cattigara through

the account given by Marinus of Tyre; but such voyages were exnal, and the majority of the Chinese ships stopped at Malacca, It remaim d while the Malay cdandia carried the trade to Malabar. for the Arabs to complete the "through line*' by opening direct <>mc

munication under the Bagdad Caliphate, between the ends of the earth, Lisbon and Canton.

T. \V. Rhys Davids, in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic 1899, p. 432, quotes an interesting Buddhist passage referring

Prof. Sotifty,

to early sea-trade as follows

:

"In

tlir

I

)ialo.te

Huddha it a DftflSagc The Buddlta

ur> nt the

in fhr

,

'in to plungr forth ago ocean-going men ham % n board a thip. tukm^ with them a shorn sighting bird. i hip was out of tight of land they would Mt the tbore-

4

Whrn

tlir

And

kighdiig hird frrr

and

TO thr \\rsi rise aloft. ut

M.

and it

and

the South

!

and

intermediate point

igh( of

Lnd,

to ihr

k

t>ai

l_a*t

the

t

taught

would tome

it

.t

w..uld go to the

it

th<

(he hort/on

<>n

If if

in

Onp

ihithrr

a/j

it

uould

Ju%l

w.

brodx

smas Indicopleuxtes found this same custom in C'c\l>n m the A I) merchants depending *hore aghimg birds instead of observations of the sun or stars. irnturs

'tli

,

There

are similar passages in the oldest of the Veda*

son* .11.1,

knows

\\lio

air, hr, abiding in the

I'shas

harnessed

ihr path of the birds Hying through (he

knows

ocean,

at IK

si.

rxcitress of chariotB

who

as those

.:,

also the course of

thr

i.i\,

-

which are

are desirous of wealth *cnd

ships to sea."

off

"Do thou, Agni, whose countenance is tumrd t. all sides, *rnd our ad\rrxanr, as if in a ship to the opposite shore. Do thou v us in a ship across the sea for our \\i (A remarkable

prayer for safe conduct at s< Kalidisa, in (he Sakunta*..

>ry

u hose immense wealth

of (he

merchant Dha-

king on the former's perishing at sea and leaving no heirs behind him. The HitopaJfta describes a ship as a necessary rrquiMtc for a man navriddln,

to traverse (he ocean,

"ulio, after

home I

time

i

and a

having been

story

dr\<>l\rd

is

(\\rl\e years

to

the

gi\en of a certain merchant, on his voyage, at bst returned

wi(h a cargo of precious stoix he Institutes of Mann include rules for the -juidamc of mari-

onunrpassages quoted above indicate a wrll-dc\ eloped and The sea-trade was principally of Dravidian develop-

pnniitur trade.

>th :ul -e .,

the

Vedas and the Buddhst writings are of Aryan

refer to things nr\\

also

Buhlrr,

t<>

(heir race but old in the world.

Mgttmku Ar

/

189$, No.

II

Pal**zrap

like,

in

Indian

3,

J*rtitutn,

\\\.

kmn.

A

pi '.

I

111,

More

significant

is

the Phtrnu

un ong.n

ot

the Dratidian alpha*

230

long before the Aryan invasion

bet,

the

in

Ramiiyana

contemphis

.illed

messengers

<

that

southern India; while- a passage those \\hom the invaders

When Rama

"monkeys." winds

to the four

Hanuman who

t

suggests the ships of

in

search of

Sita.

i;

was disp.m vrai the mali'.-ned

1

across the (Julf of Manar to Ceylon ami discan doubt that the wings he used were sails. the Dravidians ferried across to Ceylon a force of Ar\an laiuls-

Who

red her.

men, who

flew

later

cm

turned and crushed them under the

established the dynasties of

Mem

l)t,i:-,Li-u

them to worship one of under the guise of a monkey, and to carry the cult the subjection that brought

god Hanuman in their own ships to are unknown and where it has -

ers, to the confusion of the

in

the vales of outlived the

modern

observer.

and

must ha\c been

own

their

monk'

the

<>t

Oman, where monmemory of its found<

Gen.

.V

\\.

Miles.

Gfographical Journal, VII, 336.) Significant also

his

is

the fact that Lieutenant Speke,

when plannm

discovery of the source of the Nile, secured his best information

from a

map

reconstructed out of the Puranas.

216; WiJford,

in Asiatic

Ruearehts%

III).

It

(Journal, pp.

traced the course of

"Great Krishna,'' through Ctttka^Mpa from ga\e the "Country of the Moon," which correct position in relation to the '/an/ibar islands. The name from the nati\e m-ti-mui'zij having the same meaning: and tin- map mentioned another native name, Amara, applied to the discorrectly trict bordering Lake Victoria Nyanza. the

river,

the

t

lake in Chandristhan,

it

I

"All our previous information,'

tayi Speke, "concerning the hydrography of these regions, originated with the ancient Hindus. who told it to the priests of the Nile; and all those bus\ Kgvptian

geographers,

who

be famous for

disseminated

their

their long-sightedness,

knowledge

with

in solving the

a

\ie\\

to

mystery which

enshrouded the source of their holy river, were so many hvpothc humbugs. The Hindu traders had a firm basis to stand upon through their intercourse with the Abyssinians."

(See

14

must be supposed that the navigation of the Indian Altogether Ocean began from the Persian Gulf and Arabia; that Western India claimed its share at an early date; and that this community of interest long excluded their customers of the Mediterranean world, from whose it

standpoint Hippalus was quite as great a discoverer as

if

he had

really

been "the

first

that ever hurst

Into that silent sea."

57.

which

is

Throw

the Ship's head.

a wrestlers' term

meaning

literally

The

text

is

//v/,//,--//*/,///,-.,,

''throwing by the ret

k

232

The uord

usion in the translation

has led to nuu-h unn<

Our

of this passage.

oune uhich

auth<

The olm.uis by referring to the map. \\ind, from Hisn (ihorah to th<- (iulf the

I

mltis.

would

ssel

<

ot

is

Carat*? or the mouth of

along the Arabian shore as

that tlie vessel dually rei Fanak, beyond which the A vessel hound would stand out to sea without changing its ciiirse. for the Malabar ports and sailing before the wind, with the t\ i

-

then

in lite,

\\ould have required steering off her course

tin-

whole tune, thus describing a wide curve before making the Indian Boats were not handled as easily then as now on a beam wind. coast. tent pull on the tiller by the hands The quarter-rudder required of the steersman. 57.

The Same

COUrse.

account of the

Pliny's

\oyage to

India (VI, 26), which has been cited by most commentators on the It will be seen that v liile it Periplus, is appended for comparison.

agrees with the Periplus in

of Arabia,

description

its

many of

points, particularly in

the

coast

Indian

i

its

description

not altogether the

same:

"In

later

times

it

has been considered a well ascertained fact that

the voyage from Syagrus, the Promontory of Arabia, to Patala,

oned

at thirteen

hundred and

advantageously with the aid of a

by the name of Hippalus. "The age that followed pointed out

one

who

to those

Sigerus, a port in until at last a thirst

still

are

k-

a shorter route,

and

.1

might happen to sail from the same promont. India; and for a long time this route was followed, shorter cut was discovered by a merchant, and the

for gain brought India s

ie<

can be performed most westerly wind, which is there known

thirty-five miles,

made

even

still

nearer to

us.

At the p

and companies of archers

to India every year;

are carried on board the \es>els, as those seas are greatly infested with pirates.

"It will not be amiss too, on the p the whole of the route from Kgypt, which late,

upon information on which

reliance

forth

been stated to us

h.is

may

be placed, and

is

of

here

The subject is one well worthy of our time. no year does India drain our empire of less than five hundred and fifty millions of sesterces, giving back her own wares which are sold among us at fully one hundred times in exchangi published for the

first

notice, seeing that in

,

their

prime

"Two The

cost.

miles distant from

Alexandria

distance thence to Coptos, up the

is

Nile,

the is

town

of Juliopolis.

three hundred and

the

miles,

eight

Moum/,

111

!>

v..>a^r

twelir

.lav

>

;>r"

;%

hen ihr Kiruait u inds a*B jiNirncy if trade with the

Copcot the

it

I

aid of camels, stations being arranged at intervals for the supply of stot these stations if called H>drruma ^UT .Mtf-pbce),

and

is

distant

is

li.it

is

from thr

j..uf m--,

another on

is

Vu

ilu-

,1

the

I

| is

t..

his last

!ra\ir:.:

the

'he

,".

.

IM\>\\\,

of

*.(

from

distant

fr

f

un

t\*.-

pcrsont.

i

lurhoT of

|i

r..j>-,.,

hundred

t\\.

this distance

is

jtul hfty-teven

ir
i

ra % riled at

\vhii h ;>tos to

||y.

iniard,

milek.

ih

whole

h.

hundred

.

rrunu M-\cn

greater part

ma

(

1

t!

to (hr

Rrd Sea and I

from

v% hit

ktalion at a

AJ)

"

it

alter

u:,..thrr

:

ilistant

is

on a

if

Apollo, and

..f

H thr

uith a caravans.il v (hat affordii l-Kl^m'I

4 tecocul

41

i

thr fourth

thru

!r..m

Mv.lrriiina, distant

and next

and lhu:\ miles,

,

four mile*,

a:

mouiitan.

.1

on a mount.

the third

irruma, that

.1

from Coptos onr hundred

distant

iniafe

*

la%i

from Coptos ninn>-rur mile%,

distant

Hydrrunu

r, ,.:,,!

-he-

i.

a distance of one day'*

-rrforni the

tak-

it

by the

I',

"Passengers generally set sail at midsummer, before the rising of the Dog-star, or rU<- munetliately ufter, and in about thirty day* r else at C'ana, in the regmn \\huh bears frank it

is

ere

i

not,

those touch

at

it

who

also a thin! port

is

-.isnl

I

In

;

deal in

and there

To

are

those

who

barcation.

is

bound

the wiiul,

If

name;

'he residence of the king there

in thr interior th<

called Sapphar.

Sy

:ussage to India, as only intense and the perfumes of Arabia.

another for

-\

!>v

the

name

the best place for hapj>ens to he blowing, s

]

i.illed Ilippalus,

is

of Save.

emit

is

possible to arrive in forty days at the nearest mart in India. Mu/iris by

name. tion. t>n

irahle place for di^mbarcaThis, howe\er, is a which account of the pirates frequent its \ionity, where the>

occupy a place

mm -hamiise.

c.ilh

^.

nor,

m

fact,

is

it

very rich in

Tx-sitlrs. the roadstead for shipping

is

an ides of

a considerable

distance from the sh.>re, and the cargoes have to he conveyed in bout, At the moment that I am xv cither for loading or discharging.

these

pages,

Another

port,

name of the king of this place is Cclobothras. and a much more convenient one, is that which

the

the territory of the people called

king Pandion used

Neacymh,

dwelling

at a

liarace by .ihle

name.

Merc

distance from

known

the marl in the interior, at a city

from which pepper

is

down

carried

of a single tree (see illustration on

names

of the>c

any of the former that the localit

from India on

month

\\

of

as Cotton. na.

changed

their return to

T\his. which

nt

known

212),

p.

and

is

cities arc to

from u huh tin umxtance

HIM c

-

their at

i

names.

it

he found

in

\\ould appear

Travellers

set sail

the beginning of the Iv.iyptian

our December, or

is

district

hollowed out

nations, ports,

liters,

The

Modiera.

.is

to Baracc in boats

at all

events before the

day of the Kgyptian month Mechir, the same- as our Ides of JanuThey ary; if tncv do this they can uo and return in the same year. from India with a south-east wind, and upon entering the Red sixth

i

Sea, catch the south-west or south."

Dark Red Mountain.

58.

can be no doubt that high sandstone and f

\ arkkallai

These

>.

laterite

text

is

Red

Bluffs,"

There

Pyrrhon.

a series of

headlands, which abut on the coast at

41' N.), and again

8

The "

refers to the

it

below Anjengo (8 40' N., 76 Beds" of the Indian geologists,

are the "Warkalli

and have recently been pierced by a canal to complete the backwater Tiriir and Trivandrum, nearly 200 miles ( Imperial d^-itfn. XXIV, 300.)

communication between

Beyond did not go.

The

remainder of

*

'sequel,"

we must assume

this point

represents

his

that the author of the Periplus

work, usually referred to as the

what he learned by inquiring of acquaintances

Nelcynda or Hacare, and set down in writing toward lightening the darkness of Mediterranean ideas concerning all matters oriental.

at

Paralia.

58.

56), this

is

Burnell and Yule, This

is

According to

a translation of the it

is

/'wrw/i,

supported by Gundert

Malayalam

translation

in his

AV//W,

Malay a lam

Ramayana.

include that of Punt/isan, "Ix>rd of Purali." untry in general

(Drwutia* Grammar,

CCMMt;" according to an ancient local name for Travancore.

the

of

Caldwell

Tamil

Dictionary,

and by the

The Raja's titles The native name

still

for

was Malayalam, from mala, mountain, and

Piedmont. alam, depth; the land at the foot of the mountains, Paralia, to the author of the Periplus, is the coast-line below the

Travancore backwaters, around Cape Comorin, and as far as Adam's Bridge: comprised within the modern districts of Travancore and Tinnevelly. 58.

N., 76

Balita. 43' K.

).

This is probably the modern Yarkkallai It was formerly the southern end of the long

hackwatcrs, and a place

(

f

cutting through a bluff the

8

42'

line of

considerable commercial importance. ack waters ha\e recently been con

By

1

.(ling as far as

Trivandrum, which

is

now

the chief port

rbrmied trnu

by pilgrims from

itni

Commit-

SH.

.norm,

I

S

Indian peninsula

ihr

<

CT

/"./

..f

all pins vuinux make K 4 favorite health

the

springs in

ininrr.il

N

S'

-

7-

,

(he San tlu II,

si

In

important place* of pilgrim.*

liuii.i

(lie

tHN-

iirisii.m

ti.i Koine, 1'urthu, India, T* cf ihe wrll. h the

C'lnn.i

and

first

were ativam

list

transformation

the

>t

(

ine,

\\..:I.l's

(he others passing through poliiuraJ religions, the Buddhist, a* Kdmunds

has Well said (BmMhiit ,tmi CJirnrian

Buddhism

\Iaur\u

<>f

the

Huiidhist,

of th.K

neiit

were


A

war, and in !-'

at

I

> ,

when

the

as, in

lex led .i !

nu-inonal

.

.

Mit<>

disintegradoa of of

the

lut

Andhra

.f

the

powcfB akuru

kii

lialasii

\

mt

\ :su

and presented the

Smith, hirfy History, 188.) --nt

through Turkestan and

ulule the ;.n-m:

'he lluiu-

t

;n,

;

t

tuu-rn-mofher

aivordanre with the sacred lau

onl\

(lie

'he Sakas, he "dr properly expended the taxes \\huh he

.

of the four castes."

o the north

in>

'

K:ui:

at

and Pahbvas

China had

u .is

iluef Huddhist

t\\

the

injucrcd, a

ris<-

faith.

-he Hindu, the

not

t

it

Indo^H->thun d of the Andhra in the Deccan. Both the Scythian Kanishka in the fl ntur>

the norti

barbarian u

Hut

The

llowed by the

l.nip'

in

.

pi.

Asoka.

I

nl

(;*ifx/>,

nn thr

ihr most powerful

\s.is

the

the

to the

it the monthly bathing lontinued; and according to the Imfxnul (urullftr

still

ami

name u

was applied

.4

Pol,,,

Southern

he

I

h

fiu

goddess Durga, or Parxati,

,.,,!hern efttrrmMy

tl.r I

MK h made of those kingdoms a In not taken place

Hurma and lmi-i

!

n the

n.

-

'.dy

(

them neighbors and anuent ..posed to

their

in

d\ nasties

rat

.

It

Rudra

a r

and

ret

.

of

of the

Hindu

the /',,w>.

was the

I

aw

of

the Southern

and caste-y>tems

'

"the

for the

ullv a:u!

who had

gods.

the god of the -ed bv the

together with his

.ins.

Hix svmbol was the

"Us,

i

Mcrijic piinciplc,"

coht.i. hers the lion,

u

hile their

elephant-headed, the god of learning.) Ami as the southern \\a\ed strong, so their religion \\as pushed lily

Buddhism i

in

its

home-land

..ntmcnt of Asia;

as

it

in turn

left

k

displ.t

spread outward over

Deccan and Bengal returned

ti

to the earlier

while of the structure built up by ECanishka the \\

f.uth,

had

until the

)i,

1

son

Huns

liiti-

but wreckage.

The

religion of India as seen by the author of the IVriplus

at Barygaza under the Saka satraps, a hctem Buddhism had supplanted the Law observed at I'jjeni and Pataliputta uiuler the Mauryas, and preached to the nations of the earth under Asoka in the third century B. C. while the purer form still upheld by the Andhras could not be found at their western port, Call

therefore twofold:

;

'<

h

the Sakas had

"obstructed."

In the south the earlier

f;iiih

advancing, and in Nelcynda, where some acquaintance related to our author the things he set down about the eastern half of Inch.

was the great Miihiibharata

of the north light," but

"that

fire

which supplied the information; the the and the Ramayana^ which continued to uphold the vrs" in the use of that visible altar-flame which those epics

had thought

to replace

were learning anew is

by contemplation of the "inner from the Katha I 'panis/.

their lesson

day by day to be praised by

men who

wake, with the

oblation."

Underlying the formal acceptance of the Brahman still

faith there

existed the earlier animism, the worship of spirits in the form of

trees

and serpents, with

all

the train of associated beliefs described

in

such works as Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship-, Tylor. Prim:. Culture, Frazer, The Gotten Bough\ W. Robertson Smith, The Rel'r The identity fion of the Semites; Ernest Crawley, The Tree of Life. of belief has been indicated by the legends attached to the most treasured articles of early trade. For international trade began l:ip_ -Iy on r

<

a religious basis, and was continued as a means of elaborating worship.

And to the activity and persuasiveness of the commercial peoples n be attributed the wide acceptance of their assertions reirardin-j the peculiar efficacy and sanctity of the spirits of their own sacred trees. There was no reason per se for the Egyptian faith in myrrh as a purifying and cleansing agent beyond the gum of their own trees, or tor the trust of the Babylonians and Greeks in frankincense, or of the Rom in cinnamon, beyond their own pine-resin or the "golden bouuh" of their earlier faith it was the result of the eclectic spirit which accepted that which was told them by strangers. The serpent-cult in Rome ;

;>p*au

"

it>i

f

intended

burned, was noc mere show,

f pices

'

.1

ft><

cuuritleat array of protect-

he under- world. the

-it

*-^

"" li:.ihn..i:.

i

and .in.l

K

u

:

i* still

OaChL

riicst \\

s,

,

another nearby place, Kayul At ptrst-nt the trade of port.

beinu more

a good

Kolkai, and

power

uj% one

it

silt

in

of the

accessible to the

by the Timra-

mediarva)

this

the

i

map

is

\\hich

given in Yule's

Hanuman,

Morn

Pki %

the monkey-god,

across the sea from the Mahendrauiri mountain 10

.md so helped R

times

M.rco Polo), became dixtrut passes (hmuuh .f

.

country from

.r

his leap

5' III

the legendary pro-

the deposit of

the sea retired from

>87;

f

ruleti

.idom,

{Imp.

.

/ it/

nr.it

the tune of the I'enplus

chief ports of tin

<-r

t

pr/

.irth

,l>a,

\t

ic

mod

-lie

i

liuii.i,

h .-

addressed to their jmni by the ends

(

t

of those trading by M-a,

taste

its earliest

Souihrrn

property of

Brahmanum,

permeates the jfe*t the Background of the Old

<

'

the

common

Incorporated by

Cey-

rescue of his consort Ski from

-he

king of Ceylon, as told in the Ramajamt; .f the worship of llammun.

and

'.|uently a renter

by the Dravidian sea-folk.

.irried afar .in,

In (he rich

\\ ai.

the trade of wliich passed through the port of Kallut

that

Torn which persons embarked for India." hies found a town Sibal, which, he observes, means "moo*

'inn

\

1

and wasthe;

.1

';nan, but a

tntpkical httmal,

temple

VI

"famous pn-

u

hi*

h

\\

venerated at Surat on the communication with Arabia. was the original capital of />/*-

still

as also in constant

According to local tr.iditi>n this and the birthplace of the dynasties ruling t

\Mtt-iXttwii it

\\\-

1

arc >.ivt,

\

here dedicated (o that image."

stiKxi

the time of the Penplus

in

Southern

This "dominion of the Pin-

238 said to

have been established by the descendants of Pandu, who Pandava brothers, the heroes of the North

was the Whether Indian war recounted in the Mtihahhartita. it or whether was attached to the was connection real, father of the

Pushkalav.it

i

the dynastic 1cm- ml

like

Pushkala and Taksha, sons of important than the oh\ ions Aryan

and Takshasila through

Bharata in the Ramayanti, is less descent of the dynasty in this Dravidian land, and their rigid institution of the caste-system which still prevails here in a completeness long since

outgrown

Those who would

in other parts of India.

see in the

northern spread of this dynasty a southern origin for the Dravidian race do not take into account the late origin of the dynasty, probably the 5th or 4th century B. C. already settled .

and

,

alien character

its

among

a

people

and developed.

\rrian (Indica, VIII) gives another version of the origin of this

from Pandaea, who, he

dynasty,

Heracles,

among many

which she

ruled,

years,

was named Pandaea

Heracles

sort appearing,

was "the only daughter of where she was born, and over

says,

sons; the land

made her

and married her himself,

after her.

"

No

worthy con-

marriageable at the age of seven that the family horn from him and '

her might supply kings to the Indians.'

The that the

Pandxa of his **I

not accepted by Arrian in entire faith; he observes by Heracles in hastening the maturity of power more might naturally have been applied to the postponement is

story

exerted

own

senility;

know, however,

he says

but, as that

it is

in

another connection

a very difficult task for one '

the ancient tales to prove that they are false.

tified

'

\\.\I

who

.

reads

'

In Greek literature concerning India, Heracles with Vishnu, and Bacchus with Siva.

is

usually iden-

The dominion brothers,

of the Pandyas was divided among three reputed Chera, Chola and Pandya, in which form it appears in

Asoka's inscription of the 3d century B. C., and in the Periplus. The capital had been removed, as Pliny states, to Madura (9 55' N., 78 7' E. ), which the Ramtlyana describes as a great city, its gates being of gold inlaid with gems.

The

seceding kingdoms were larger and more powerful than the 'Coast Country" *

original,

the most important being the Chola, the

59.

The

dynastic succession of these

broken chain

in

Indian

history,

kingdoms forms

the longest un-

covering a period of

at

least

two

thousand years. M-C Imperial Gazetteer,

XVI, 389;

341-7; and authorities quoted on

p.

Vincent Smith.

209.)

AWv

History,

21*

ni of Southern India were active trader* and colo-

Ceylon, in opposition to the native Sinhalcic, with

nists in

and

whom

they

whom

in spite of

they had extended rlectually over the north weatern coast of Ceylon, the i,

of the pearl-fisheries,

n

PCMI

59.

waters of the

(

I-

These wr

fisheries. of Manir.

iulf

nthehaJlow

(See under JU

ml

S4-8) says that pearl* cam. u%e in Rome of Alexandria; but that they tin* began to be ttted

i'l

aftrr

..irr

rank, and the very highest portion

first

ables belongs to the pearl. d of

.

.

.

The most

m

and production of the the oystr

'.

M-S

mtlmiur on

its

js its

and

shell,

to the

struggles,

which

the

.iMiin.il,

wht-n

white and

K

it

upon the

d(

it

is

said that.

its

at

length

shell, in

it

brilliant,

it

\uwmng. as ant of

i<

give* birth, after

the shape of pearls, If this

ha* been in a

flowed into the but

if

it

shell, then the pearl prwas turbid, then the pearl is of a

the sky should happen to have been loitering u.t> generated, the pearl will be of a pallid color, fr

it

that

the

(he Denial season of the

a kind of

*>

burden of

when

state

lor also;

whuh

t%

different

.

the quality of the dew.

perfectly pure

is

si

U Mm

r

ncs impregnated; andth.it

is

valu-

all

Taproba; .:;.

duced

among

products e of jcarU

ijintr

if

exidrnt that the quality of the

jx-arl

depends

i

a calm state of the heavens than of the sea, and he

contracts a cloudy hue, or a limpid appearance, according to

it

It i* wonder..ity of the sky in the morning. the influenced thus should be state of the they pleasurably by the of the sun the action arc turned of that pearls by us, seeing .

ful th.it

a red

i

olor,

Hence

n

1

IN

and

lose

all

that those

their

whiteness

which keep

just

like the

their whiteness

ulmh lie at too great a depth to be r< have seen pearls still adhering to the sheli c used as boxes for ointments. fish,

as soon as

it

even

p<

.

human

body.

the deep-

the sun's ich reason

-he hand, shuts

its

shell

.em that it up its treasures, being well aware that lit and if it happens to catch the hand it cuts it off with the The greater part of tht*r pearls arc sharp edge of the shell hand, only to be found among rocks and crag*, while, uf in the deep sea are generally accompanied by sea* vers .

:

i

And

dogs.

from

ladirs glory

the rattling the

m

having pearls suspended from their

present

ot

day, the

public

than

MI:,

that 'a pearl

they put them

<>n

then

<>\er the

feet,

and

worn by a woman

that,

Nay, e\en not only on the

nor

to

Pore

a

this,

even affecting them, as

-ire

people are in the hahi; is

ti:

them dangling from their ears, delighted e\en with of the pearls as they knock against each other; and now,

two or three

at

not banish these

will

their ears!

"Our or

\\omen

yet, for all this, the

enough but they must tread upon them, and walk with them of their sandals but

all

shoes;

it

is

in

her."

lacci

\\

un<;

well.

an

"1 once saw Lollia Paulina, the wife of the Km; ot at any public festival, or any solemn ceremonial, but only at covered with emeraPds ami ordinary betrothal entertainment

pearls,

which shone

in

alternate layers

upon her head,

in

her hair,

in her \\reaths, in her ears, upon her neck, in her bracelets, and on her fingers, and the value of which amounted in all to 40,

indeed she was prepared at once to prove the fart, by es; Nor were these any pr ng the receipts and acquittances. made by a prodigal potentate, but treasures which had descended to her from her grandfather, and obtained by the spoliation of the provIt was for this Such are the fruits of plunder and extortion! inces.

M.

was held so infamous all over the Kast for the ts which he extorted from the kings; the result of whirh (81, that he was denied the friendship of Caius Ca-sar, and took poison; and all this was done, I say, that his granddaughter might be seen, by by the glare of lamps, covered all over with jewels to the amount of i

that

Kollius

millions of sesterces!"

well-known story of Cleopatra's w. with Antony to serve him an entertainment costing ten millions of sesterces, and of her dissolving a great pearl in vinegar and swallowPliny then recounts the

ing

it.

The same

thing had been

done before, he

C'lodius, son of the tragic actor Aesopus, each guest was given a pearl to swallow.

Of

the pearl industry',

Marco Polo

who says

m Rome,

says,

by

served a meal in which

(

111,

xvh

:

''All

round

water has a depth of not more than 10 or 12 fathoms, some places not more than 2 fathoms. The pearl-fishers

this gulf the

and

in

take their vessels, great and small, and proceed into this gulf, where they stop from the beginning of April till the middle of May. .

Of

.

.

the produce they have hrst to pay the king, as his royalty, the tenth part. And they must also pay those men who charm the great

from injuring the

thriii

i

charm holds good

thrir

arm

so that the in IK-

for that day uiti>

tiwastoughtby ^ ule 4*-r\ed

in force,

the guardian

Hut sharks called for chc \uible aid

iurdv

.

,ii.iMi..i..i,

1

-

11. .1;

viill

and were appcated or r rolled by

-.

..-

it

hi* ancestral office being a Christian!

case of frank

\\

.

'41 ihnr will."

t

uf the priests.

trut

Brahmam )

%*ojve

i

-:,!

tlic

(

,

Imlr

the dixers

In

a.l

i

/AnfUMt**

and

uhiltf en-

.J.\rr

on.

vaier.

:>rrn a ftouiles*

and UnimpretMOQablc demon, or else that the indusciy dates from a time ;i!tn the A- .n invasion of Southern India, so thai the pnruly .

caste

stand aside f.r the benerit

.

the ser-

<>f

pent

Coast country.

-This i-.mntry, different from, and beis

kinudi>ni,

the

.n -

thr

Dravidian

of the

third

time of the

Penplus, as

it

states,

state*, the

prosperous of the th

'oast Country" CWa-mJmJeJam, from which uesc derived our modern \vord Ctrtmaiubl. By the Sam -

Urges'

lot

her

not to he

.itnir t

i.

com

4

the meaning being

^ar;

*ferrying-pUice,"

and referring to the

'

and the Far

shipping-trade for

was

called

\\

&//',

Hast.

li>

\\

hu h name they applied to both Chola and Plndya,

re important. The e\en though tl boundaries were, roughly, from tlir I'enner River on the nonh emptying into the Bay of Bengal at 14 40' N. ), and on the south the

10 thr

mrvii.i-v.il

3'

N.

),

or even the Vaigai (9

period the Chola

20'

N

I

taring

kingdom conquered and absorbed

progenitor, the Pandyan. and they arc

its

still

classified together in the

this

kingdom, the product of

modern "Carnatu

The i

pe.i

was

ionizing

!

to

sold only at the capital,

those of the Kalk

'

<

north of Adam's Bridge, as distinguished from those of the Ciulf of Manar, whu h belonged to the Pindyan kingdom, ann administered from Madura. 59. vfir

Argaru.This ib.tat.on

<

part

of

Tmhm,

is .

nearly a correct

tr indite ribon

.

the ancient capkaJ of the Chola kingdom, I* 49'

N

.

"8

41

I

Pi<

\sa> inland,

it

name

this

:

count the fact tint

and

hi

a

in

,1

dinVmn

take-

t,

into ac-

country fn>m the

Pindyan kingdom tinThe capital grew up around a fortress built on the summit u Inch rises out of the to a of Rock height Trichmopol) abruptly plain of .<40 feet above the old city, which notles picturesquely at .t

,

.

it

from the fn\\iiin: heights of the rock

\ievv Little

like

now

is

the old fortifications

left of

A covered

temple.

(Furncaux, /W/<;,

p.

passage

hewn

Init

is

\ery virand.

the citadel and a pa

out of the roek leads to them.

4

After the destruction of Uraiu'ir about ihe 7th century A.

was removed

the capital

Malaikurram, the

to

which N., 79 other after and changes to grandeur; (10

58'

:.

I

still

,

(Sir^

liot,

"

'I

of

retail

anjore (10

Coins of Southern India, 130;

I)..

modern Kumbakonam 47' N.

its

79

,

forma S

I

Vincent Smith) AW/7v

Hittory, 164, 342.) 59.

The

Argaritic muslins.

textile industry of

both Trichi-

nopoly (or I rai\ur and Tanjore has been famous from early times. There can be little doubt that some of the finest fabrics tl, the

Roman

world came from

of India, in the middle ages,

which were 60.

in

such demand

this kingdom of Chola. From th came those gold-threaded embroideries

in the

Saracen markets.

Ships from the north Kalidasa,

Bengal.

in

that

the Raghu-rum^^

is,

tells

from the

and

of a tour of comji;

made by Raghu, the great-grandfather of Rama; star-tinAyodhya the modern Oudh) he went eastward to the"ocean, having India,

<

conquered the Bangalis,

who

trusted in their ships.

I

oulkes, in

Indian Antiquary, 1879, pp. 1-10.) 60.

Camara.

Ptolemy mentions a Chabirii cmjwl'.n^

at o:

mouths of the Kaveri River; probably both t'nis and the (Inmaru of the Periplus were nearly, if not quite, identical with the modern the

KarikalUO 60.

55'

N., 79 50' EJ. This is probably intended

Poduca.

for /W//i//<7//W,

town," the modern Pondicherry (11 56' N., 79 4 abruius; Bohlen, Ritter, Benfey, Miiller, McCrindle and

"new

-

I

1

following Lassen, prefers Pulikat (13 60.

may be

Sopatma.

This

identified with the

is

25' N., 80

1

Yule,

1

probably Su-patana, "fair town,'' and ( 13 4' N., 80 15'

modern Madras

I

542) doubts the possibility of identifying either Camara or Sopatma and there is no evidence that Pondicherry exLassen

(

II,

;

isted at the time of the Periplus.

be no more than conjectural.

The

location of

all

three pot

60.

Ships of the count

doubt, the era: as

are

Mill

()>c

canoes

j<

f

uwrd

The

i

first

__.

were, no

... bilk sides ...w a*d outfi

hollow c

W^W^^H^

South iiuiu and Ceylon (picturr >anflm 9 were probably made ol two such

in

laru<

nr ii t-.-niu-t by a deck-platform admitting ol a

',unM/SiA, Atuit '.says that the

1847,

name>a/Jr

it

ml!

wed on

the Malabar

coaat for these double canoes. in

\Ulayaiam;

Caldwell itvet the forms rinplaWt jantfla in Tuluj and tamgtMa* in Sanscrr art

.

..i

India in

Krv

cr

i

*

the Sanscrit

ever (11, S4

% ,

j.

doubts the application of iibtr fte /'///

!,

in,

povoblc,

Emjil+Mu. 307) lessen, how-

'trade,"

-MIJ

.'.\..

flic

fthtpping.

361) av

^

the type ittclf

and

,rd

u

to

M

the archipelago.

with dcck-ftmcturp( of the m9ftm typci an ajaaavai oou use in Smith India, Ceylon, and the Eastern Arehtpelafo.

coast

Tin- comparatively large size of the shipping on the Commandd on which a frequent is indicated also by the Andhra coinage,

symbol

is

a

h

two masts apparently of

which the ship type bears witm numbers <>f Roman o>ms which arc fouiul on the Coast.*' (E. J Rapson, CtUU of the Andhra Dynasty,

turn- traffic, to c

landel i

.

KARLY SOUTH INDIAN COINS Iftri I,

Kuruiiihar or

lin.

I

I

Hot, (Joins

of Southern Plate II,

38

fig.

45

Andhra coin, showing a two- n.

Pallava coin of the

nandcl coast; showing a twoship like the modern coasting

presenting details like th the Gujarati ship at Borol>oedor, and the Persian ship at Ajanta. sliip

I

vessel or .fJtoni.

The

shipping f the Andhra and Pallava coins doubtless sur\i\ex modern "mnsula boats" at Madras: "The harbor of Madras) can never be a harbor of refuge, and

in the

all

that tin-

works

will

secure

is

immunity

whole of the Coromandel shore to the

vcssc-l>

is

carried

coast.

on by

.

.

.

and shipping so general along the

for landing

operations from the tremendous surf which

is

Passenger

jolly-boats

from

traffic

tin- pier,

from the or inasulah

These latter are relics of a bygone day, when Madras was an open roadstead and when landing through the surf by rm of jolly-boat was a matter extremely difficult, if not impossible. These masulah boats are flat-bottomed barges constnuud <>t planks sewn together with rope of cocoanut fibre, caulked with oakum, and arc able to withstand better than far more solidly built craft the

boats from the shore.

shock of being landed on the sandy beach from the crest of a seething breaker."

(

Furneaux, India, 254.)

nilar

i

r

uuv

in a general

m

i.M

While

J.iia

Anulr

to thr

tuv-rrlir!

ID

the Huddhltl

ihr

.LI.II-

was proba

r of the

broad

tail

with

(iuj.ir.iTi

ship

alxut

i.f

6i A

type were Joubilr<

inrludrii

nrr.-h.uns into

Ikrygia.

that

.irat

his

&

resolved to send his

,

thuie ol the

l

)

'

amon^

'In the fear 525 (Sda

rwd century, while the

Iti

uln.-

i>

ihr ISfh irnlur;

f

this

\.r.U

il-.ul.lc

ICIIIJlIc Ml

from about 60

the tr

t

,

=

.t 603 A D being foretold to era, country would decay and go to ru t. He embarked with about $000 .

followers in 6 large and about 100 small vessels, and after a voyage of four months rc.u If.: ..: .i.ul they supposed to be Ju\a; but flndm
thrins* -l\t -N mistaken,

rr-nnbarked, and

the i>land they

found

that

.ic

were wanting

rigly

1

other

.

an

<

.

finally settled at

seeki: t

/

make

.

Matarr

'I"hcprirur

a great and flour

applied to (tujarit for asMStance,

when

his

him a reinforcement of 20UO rom tins period Java was known and celebrated as a nnerce was carried on with Gujarfc and and the bay of Matarem was filled with adventurer*

father, delighted at

kingdom;

were

his success, sent

/<.

11

Colandia: This name seems 91 A no more than ship. means perhaps 60.

is

the

name

The 9ntit

text

being the f

Ma

v,

and

origin,

tailing ship,"

pan/ail,

for the fast fishermen entered in

modern Singapore

of Shipping and Crqft 166.

(Pritcher

gattas,

to be of .Ith

t

re-

)

kolandlophonta^ generally supposed to be corrupt, the

is

present

of

participle

Jntiquitirs of Onssa,

I,

to be.*'

Hut

Rijendrtlila

115) derives the word from

tlu

s'jfantarapota, "ships for going to foreiui

Burmese

laung-zJtt, (without rigging)

a carvel-built vessel on the same

;

The

larger type, in general use Chinese influence, although the lines are those of

as the dug-out /aung-tf for river use.

lines

on the

Chindwin River, shows This type displays the stern-cabins the higher-built Chinese junk.

The

differently arranged from ti See also Chatterton, Sailing Ships, 7, 31.

were of u reat which made the voyage to ( to the Chinese junks or the The sea-trade of the Gulf of laung-Tu'it, kattu or Chindwin traders. Tonkin was of very early date. Chinese annals mention voyages to

size,

colandia

r

1

must have been similar

I'.

Malacca prior to the Christian era, and probably as early as the 12th C. This region, known to the Chinese as r. -, hang idepcndcnt until the extension of the Chinese boundaries under

century B. the

Han

y

(2d century pointing chariot." wa> known in the dynasty

1'.

The

'

1

compas-,

or ^south-

1th century B. C., hut, a> indi-

'

cated by Hirtl

used

Arabs

\iM!ii> B'

w*& probably by Penians and t

r

'

geomancy

m

China

until applied Co navigation

the 6th

nuhe* A

ai

I)

TheChinese

themselves steered by the scars and che sun, and by .4* (he sea-bott*'

Model

ea

of an early type of Chinese junk, ihnwtng the

ttern-itni.

>crupir*l

lv

u

mrrflunt with hit Work of mrrr n of mv <

'

tlir

e

('..MI;

'

'

i%eum, Ph

iai.in i!Ccr.ip

:

ui !iirnlion> in

the

inrvr

ing the

HI

commcm. ship

,

>'

is

shown which,

IViM.m emba.ssy

*

if

not a junk,

See Torr, Polo

(Book

^//.

"th GCn-

ttc \'ll,

li-.

I) gives a detailed description of

Chap.

III,

in the e.iri)

manifestly intliu-n

is

(Yule's edition II, 249-51.) "The ships in which merchants go to and fro amongst the Isles of India, an- of tir timber. They have but one deck, though each of or 60 some 50 them cabins, wherein the merchants abide the junks of that day:

*

greatly at their ease, every

hath but one rudder, but

it

man

having one to himself.

The

ship

hath four masts; and sometimes they have

which they ship and unship at pleasure. vessels have some thirteen compartments
two

additional masts,

.

"The

case

mayhap

the ship should spring aleak

"The

fastenings are all of good iron nails and the side one plank laid OUT the other, and caulked outside and in ... double, with lime and chopped hemp, kneaded together with wood-oil. .u h of their great ships requires at least 200 mariners, some of them 300. They are indeed of great size, for one ship shall 1

5000 or 6000 baskets big that to pull

ot

them

and they used formerly to be larger

pepper;

And when

than they are now.

there

no wind they use sweeps, so Every ureat

is

requires four mariners to each.

.

.

.

ship has certain large barks or tenders attached to it; these are large enough to carry 1000 baskets of pepper, and carry 50 or 60 manners

So Fa-Hie n left Ceylon in "a of which there were more than 2UO on board large merchantman, a which was to and rope, a smaller vessel, as a attached, by men, or the to large one from the penis of injury provision against damage

some

apiece;

of

them 80 or

the navigation." in Java-dvipa,

another large

men.

They

1

(Trave/s, chap.

And

xi. )

landing from

carried provisions for 50

(See Yule's Marco other medieval writers; building, primitive

Polo, II, also,

d.

252-S, for de>cription of junks,

for a full

and modern, Ferrars,

account of />'//////,.,

60. Imported . . everything. Yule, 333), quotes from the Arab geographer Wassaf

from Quilon

length

coast

tin-

where he spent five months, he "again embarked in merchantman, which also had on board more than 200

to Nellore, nearly

300

p

H2-8.

in his :

Burmese

in

ship-

)

Marco

Polo

11,

"Maabar extends ie

in

sea-

The

curiosities of Chin and Ivlachin, and the beaut ;.ul prodHind and Sind, laden on large ships which they call Junks, like mountains with the wings of the wind on the surface of

ucts of sailinir

the water, are always arriving there.

The

wealth of the U!e> of the

Persian

in partu

niir

(

ubr, and

in

and Khuraian

Irak

in

MaiKar,

tc.tui>

far a*

and adornment ol Ruin and Europe,

limind at to be ihc

*o

v*

r

a

V

*domof Maabar I

the-

when

and

nohlett province in India,

best pearis are four

.ugdom: the

K-<

in /!-.

-i

ami ihrrr be

the* fairest

uniu>

Palawiimillilll.

I

his

,s

precious nonet, and

ul

in all the

pearU

modrrn

the

(

cylon.

uord

i

,im*ma t "abode of

The

lluddha. is

K was called Tapntam),

in:

the SaiiM

is

The

yaita.

of

reached the

i

uiiihisin uiuirr thr inis^ionary zeal of

speaks of

t

\\hii

;>,

RMml wc

-he

ki

in the time-

it

>:.t\i
.indent Aooording to McCrindle i, or Tamra^arni^ was ui ..tui

applied

2o

Imita,

name

160), the

(

the hrvt Indian

he

tin

t<>

new

kingdoms of JOmhcfH

1

colon.

Our

Aaoka.

greatest devotion to the

its

.?

tins*

landed.

tmra-bpti% the AII at the

appears

name,

mouth

t\\o

mil

mthoi

pleustes

>

br

of

huh,

for the

isl..

mrn-heror*.

thr

Ian.

the

name

adjoining the harbor

most famous

city in

\

/';../,..w..;.-.

I.

c

t

and

Cotmas notes,

is

i*U

^^,

'u*

source

i

hut jpphcx

J4

the

li:rc-k.

:?

McOmdle

as

r

Pliny

'.

miry
call*

knows

to he the orisjin

Simxiuht (mtstakin

ITOfd PakesimUl

5

>c

\

demon-kin;

thought by Mmir

name was

that the anaent uf

.s\llahU-N

Ramajona^

but in his ir.Mi rune

Miuth."

and

it

to a

calls

k

the island, thr king's place of residence,

a population of 200,000. south

<

1

Ptolemy n>tt -\

may

Another Brahmanical

.pnon of Asoka at Girnir. Dvipa Ravana, "island of \\

ca-

imt*p*mm t

!

in

napper of Situ in the

hr>t

of rhr Cianuc-v

"

But thrrr

and Pliny seems

to

t

is

no harbor on the

harbor with the actual position <.t the island harbor. no\\ lost, at Tape (/.-motm. the

In

human because

not

spirits,

So Fa-Hien

irnaders.

Aryan

Sinhalese are referred to as rakshas and

tic

Kt'jr

*/*' demons and

relation to the ancient

in

them

dcsi nh< -s

relating to their trade (Travel^ chap,

xxxvm

opposed

racially in

an

to

tin-

interesting! p.

"the counu,

:

had no human inhabitants, but was occupied only by uith which meu hauls of \ariouscountries carried on

spirits

and

When

a trade.

taking place, the spirits did nut slum tliemsel\es. They simply set forth their preen ms things \\ith labels of the price an. \\.is-

trafficking

to

them; while the merchants made and

t.M.k the things

away."

their purchases according to the

And

he found

in the capital city

Yaisxa clans and Sabaean merchants, whose houses

"many

an

stately

and beautiful." >mas Indicopleustes

Ceylon and what is said parison

in

the

Periplus,

Topography, book

and a

I).

;

translation

his is

ai

i

XI

<>tinr

appended

,

tell* of

amplifies for

com-

is

the great island of the ocean, situated in the Indian

by the Greeks Taprobanc, found; and it lies beyond the pepper has other small islands scattered around it in great num-

called by the Indians Sielediba,

is

where the hyacinthus stone It

country. of

ber;

Christian

:

"This which

<

trade in the 6th century A.

its

ry

is

which some have fresh water, and cocoanut palms. They Hut that great island, so its inhabitants close to one another.

\\<> 300 leagues in length, and in breadth about 90 miles. kings reign in the island, hostile to each other; of whom one has the region of the hyacinthus, and the other the rest of the island, in which

say,

is

is

the

I

market-town and

merchants from

port.

far countries.

It is frequented by a great press of In that island is established the Church

of Christ, of the sect of the Persians, and there is a presbyter sent from Persia, and a deacon, and the whole service of the church. Hut the natives, and the kings, are of other faiths. Many temples are to be seen in this island; on the top of one of them, they say, is a hyacinthus, in full view, sparkling

top;

and

it

and very

great, like a great spinning-

shines brightly, sending out fiery rays almost like the sun

From all parts of India, Persia and Aethia marvellous sight. come a multitude of ships to this island, which is placed as it were midway between all lands; and it sends ships likewise hither itself,

opia

and thither

in all directions.

n

other

the inner regions, that arc

is,

from Tzinista and from the

cloth, aloe-wood, clo\es. andalwood, and other products according to the place; and it

market-towns,

brought

silk

them

d>

to those

of the outside, thai

in whidl and tetamin wood, kinds " and .t, top, is a great market-town ;c the castor musk if found, and spik *d to

to Male,

is,

e brass is found,

.irious

>

Persia, t> the

lomcrites,

other thing* frum

<-ive

inner reruns, xxith

all

ovx n

its

markc xx

huh

has tur

Salopatana,

p.>rts

from

xx

:

uiui

Sindu

it

These

India.

are the best-known

And

Pudapacana.

then,

at

a distance of

nights from (he inamlun.i, out in the ocean,

u^uiii, on the mainland, market town, Marallo, shipping c-mu h-fthelU; and there is shipping abhaiulrnuni. und thru thr I..UMI:-. from which

shipped ;N

M

th.it

iiu,

and thru

i

no

"And

/.::,>

I

M, xvhu h tends

iithrr land, for the

UMMU

silk

ocean encircles

is

is

a

within which

cloth;

on the

it

so this island Sielediba, placed in the midst of India, whidl

produces the hy.u mthuv all.

the

npDes into the Per-

mint,

I

(

Nalopatana, I

Now

product* likewise.

hrhotha, Calliana, Siboc, and Male hu h pepper is brought i Parti, Mangarouth,

India

f

and Aduli*} and in return which it transom* to the

thc>c places,

r

sian Gulf, separates Persia

,

r

own

of trade one from our

goods frum

s

nurkct.

jrr.tt

.

all

markets and ships to

And there came thither on matter! named Sopatcr, who died about JS

pans, took him to the island of Taprobanc, where it happened that a vessel arrived at the same time from Persia, and there landed together those from Aduli*. among whom

And

years ago.

his business

Sopater, and those from

of

the

And

Persians.

tax-collectors

Persia,

amon^ whom was an

as the

so,

custom was, the captains and

thr in, brought

r<

them before the

into the presence of the king, after they

.1

the proper homage, he bade .:oes

it

and commci

.

f

tiout

them be

seated.

your countries, and

\\iih

ellentlv

well,"

your kinus

delay thr

Persian

is

they

the u'rratrxt

..

had

And then he how with four vaid

And

king.

trade

Replying,

the

and most powerthe most

hr u the k gi and ful, the creates! and the richest; u was silent he do wills." to lim Sopater he has power haxe to thThen saul Sty?" you nothing IB,

And

to >.i>, when tht* man ich )i Sopater replied, "XN'hut haxr \\ish t<> learn the truth, VIHI ha\-e both kings here I

.

i

xvill

ami

tlus.i.il.

which

But the king powerful." l>oth kn H-\v ha\e

m..st '

and

see

1

>ne

is

the most magnincent

wa amazed

at this *r

d he anv.v

252

both. >ou have the gold coin of the one king, ,r m.iiu-> and the drachma of the other, that is, the milliarense compare the And he, appr<>\ ing images of both, and you will see the truth." 't

;

Now the gold coin was and assenting, bade that both he produced. for thus are the best exported thither; fine, bright, and well-shaped; and the inilliarcnse was of silver and 1 need hardly s.i\, not to be comThe king looked at both obverse and pared with the gold coin. reverse, and then at the other; ami held forth the u <>ld coin with r

Romans are magnificent and pouertul And he commanded that Sopater should be treated with

admiration, saying, "Truly the

and u

honor; that he should be seated upon an elephant, and led around the whole city with drums, and acclaimed.

who voyaged

and those also from Adulis,

these things happened, so they say. the Persian was

when

Anil

This Sopater told me, with him to that island.

shamed."

Our

Almost touches Azania. world

author's ideas of the

whom

general are similar to those of Pomponius Mela, with

in

whose map (reproduced on

he was nearly contemporary;

p.

Inn

retains the old idea of a balancing southern "continent of the Antich-

"

with the eastern end of which he identifies

thones,

The

I

aprobanc.

Periplus does not indicate quite that extent for Ceylon, but ex-

The confusion may have been partly due aggerates its size tenfold. to the grandiloquent descriptions left by the Ceylonese embassy which visited

the

This

History of

indent

Ptolemy, wh> \\. In Sanscrit, as McClindle shows,

the Afaisolia of

is

river Afaiso/os, probably the Kistna.

the

Bunhury,

II

Masalia.

62.

(See

Emperor Augustus.

Gnzrafihy, Vol.

Afausa/a t which survives in Machhlipatana, the modern upatam (16 11' N., 81 8' E. ), until the construction of the

name

Bombay

is

At the date railway the chief port of entry for the Deccan. market of the Andhra it was, no doubt, the greatest

of the Periplus

kingdom.

Bay

Tavernier found

it

(I,

xi)

of Bengal, and the only place from

Siam, Arakan, Bengal, Cochinchina, for the islands of Madagascar, Sumatra,

The In

I

text

a bn.

He

which

vessels

sail

was

it

especially noted for

in

the

for Pegu,

Mecca, and Hormus, " and the Manillas.

notes the great quantity of cotton cloth

avcrnier's time

cilled, chint/.es

"the best anchorage

made

a

there.

painted, or pento say, made with

its

xii "catted calmendar, that is contrasted these fine hand-painted fabrics with the

MI,

)

coarse printed goods from Bengal. equal to the demand.

Sec also Imperial

(r\/z,

/

'

,

The supply,

XVII, 215.

he observes, was never

The under 8

difficulties

travel

,,f

through ihc Andhra

5'

(he

.1

ay and perilous

k, ,..,:,

There

traverse

|>A*hma "out

..t

of

conn with the- mads; but those who know how to manage uth difficulties u an. to proceed should brine with them money and various s and gi\ iU tend mrn to rtton them These will, at different stages, pas* them over to others, wh n*ti t xxxv. ) allow thnn the shortest rot. i.

are difficult ic

in

I

Dosarene.

62.

This

Orissa,the "Holy Land

of

/tarns*. the modern appears in the/

the Sanscrit

is

The name

In.;

Purina and the &i*Mfp**r, as a populous and powerful c. Mentions also a river /)o^rdn, the modern Mahinadi :i.'in this II-/I..M has long hern famous. It it mentioned both Makabt. nu as the most acceptable

/W*,

whuh

:

"km-

the

sovci-

!

Citrhada?.

62. still

known I

as

Odras" could

of the

-ru,

take to the

Pindu

.Intiquirit

This was a Bhotu tnhr, whose descendants, in the Morunu, WCM of Sikkim. They urn m.r. ohan features as described ; vc

\

Uranian

rai r,

ami were formerly iiuii-pcndcnt and powerful, having provided a dy-

Their location i not on the nasty of considerable duration in Nepal. the in but indicated the as text, \alleys of the HuiuU>u by tea, need only omit the words *'thc course trending, to make our author's information cormt

"

easily

.

locates

1

>;ahinaputra.

1

Lassen c-s

m>cn<

The MtkMklrm*

441-450

(I,

)

fully describes the

modern Bhutan. much Bengal at

in the

and inhabited Lassen names ten different capital was at Mokwanpur >:

the tune

in

the <

Kastern Nepal.

whose

allieil

<>f

tribes, on*

uncultixated, po|\ ./am. .us race,

whose name

\\\.

The) were

to the Tibetan*,

.\r\an

Kirata

'I

ration heir

a warlike.

I

na:

fnprr-

.ihman or Buddhist teaching, and w hose neglect of religious ausetl the Brahman Hindus to reduce them to the ra

Hence

Sudras.

the '

faces as "noseless,

t

oim-rnptuous dest lMin> cuIU them

:

:

their

Mongolian and w>%

"they have merely holes in their heads instead of nostrils and flexible " Ptolemy calb their countn A feet, like the body of a serpent rkaditi.

The .

\rvan Hindu and Brahman imihology there wa* a b who was a special enemy of the K

Kirata were under-sized,

called **pigmies." called

C

In the

iaruda,

254

Lasaen

(II,

thinks this story the original of the battle between

65"

pigmies and Megasthenes~ i

men

are

and other Greek

ICM.U!

"he then

;

\\.

Strabo

1

some

relates the st.-iv in

i.

writers.

tic-tail,

and

is

repnned

of five, and even three spans in height, some of ,\ e the;ily two Ire.ithinu ..nines ah,

nioutli.

without nostriK. I

'h..sr

three spans in height

of

Homer) and

by

In

deviates into fables, and says that there

wage war with

with the partruijcs.

\\hic-h

described

the cranc-s

arc as

large as

<:

and destroy the eggs of the cnmefl \\hich lay their people else are the eggs or the young cranes to he nowhere and eggs there; crane a escapes from this country with a brazen found; frequently c-ollect

t

of a

weapon

in

its

body,

wounded by

these people."

one of the -ailed the mentioned in first the recounts which combat, ..r/uniya, habharttti^ between Siva in the guise of a Kirat.i, or mountaineer, an.l Tins tribe

especially referred to in

is

Arjuna. 62.

These

Bargysi.

are the Bhar^as of the I'lshnu

there mentioned as neighbors of the Kirata, and doubtless of like race .i\lor, Rfmarks on tin- St-r/ufl to the Pcnpln^ in Journal of the I

mftttntal, Jan. 1847.) 62.

Horse-faces and Long-faces. This is no invention was no doubt told him by some friend at Nekymla,

of our author, but

who

spoke by his book

the Sanscrit writings,

'{'he

Aryans pni

intempt for the Tibeto-Burman races at their eastern p:their references to them are full of exaggeration and and frontier, fable. The Vara Sanhita Purana mentions a people "in the moun-

the

tains east of India," that

is,

in the hills

called Asvavadana^ "horse-faced.

(Taylor, 62.

among raw

eat

op. at.

on the Assam-Burma

so Wilford in Asiatic Researches > VII

;

Said to be Cannibals.

Herodotus

who

are called Padaeans.

one of the community

is

sick,

whether

it

notic-es

who

the "other Indians, living to the east, flesh,

frontier,

"

are

I

and IX.

such

a

i

ustom

nomads and hen any

Ml, 99.)

'\\

woman

or a man,

be a

)

if

it

be a man the men who are his nearest connections put him to death, alleging that if he wasted by disease his flesh would be spoiled; but if

he denies that he

is

sick, they, not

agreeing with him,

kill an<:

manner the women who And whoever arc most intimate with her do the same as the men. readies old age, they sacrifice and feast upon; but few among them upon him.

And

if

a

woman

be

sic k,

in like

attain this state, for before that they put to death

into

any distemper.

"

every one that

falls

IN '

'

Uimia

dams;" andStnuV

',

"who

mountaineers

lmii.ui

amc

couple of genBurnuu tnhe m the

and aged

(

I >

(he tribe,

nr

Ganges.-

i>

By the .ilv

\\est of

iv.ii..!

Sagar

belief that by

w

nc

it,

m

applied

mouth .1

(he

places,

under

same paragraph

to

is

This, until about the ISth

of the (ian^e>,

and

/WvuU*,

meant Bengal} by the but east of Gangi-Sigar

ilistrut

as at present.

s.ii

;.',<

sick

such

and were preferred from the

Hn-hli estuary,

the

ccntui), \\a> tlie largest

Tibeto-

between Aatam and Burma; the

"Padcans" is probably meant for they appear in the I'ara SamJtita

ami not

hin, a

into (he bodies of animals.

:,

distru

isl.uul

i

and eaten became of the i

whu

be followed a

said

hin Hills

.iMM.,;: uf.

Arva Pa-

tenet

quoting Megasthenes' account of

.

ied

agoi

Phoebo

eat the bodies of their relatives,"

were

practices

.mis

v

still

the

Hug nil

river

and

retain their sun.

the Adi Gangi, silted up, and (he river constantly u-iuiing eastward, finally joined its num lutmrl to that of the Brahmainto the M(. h..i cstuur>- as at present Imp. C
^

.:

XII, 1.^-4

:

probably meant Tamra-hpu, 87 56' E.), which gave its name \ in the Pandya kingdom, and to the island of the sca-pon of liengal in the Post-Vedic and

tin-

H>

to\\n

,,f

t

,

,

to the

I

ami. i -;

v

;

\\.IN

I

Buddi

net!

was the

" port of the

Hangilis,

who trusted

m

the great epics.

in their

ships,"

It

who were

Here it was that conquered by the hero of Kalidasa's Raftiu-umiu. a-ll ned two years, after which he embarked in "a large 1

merchant

vessel,

and went

floating over the sea to the southwest

to the country of Singhala."

This

supported by many scholars, seems and Dr. Taylor, uho would pbce Fergusson

identification, \vhiih

preferable to that of

is

Tamra-lipti at the modern Sonirgion (23 40* N., 90 Jo' H), the v arnagrima, the chief port of Eastern Bengal under the Gupta e and in the middle ages.

modern Bikrampur, one Hut :

the

Chandragupta Vikramiimportance does not seem to date from so early a

its

as that of the Periplus;

tiiges

Near here was Vikramapura,

of the capitals of

while

it is

more

likely that the

would have been localized on the sacred, and

name

at that

time

rincipal, estuary.

iho has been accused of ignorance for remarking

"

s

tiisi

harges

its

(XV,

waters by a single mouth."

i,

But

his

256

ion probably reflects the esteem in

as well as

which

that

\\as held,

astern Himala This was from the Ptolc -m\ aU<>. noted under 65. as supply,

Malabuthrum. the greatest

mouth

time

size, in his

predominant

its

I

I

,

says "the best malahathrum

produced

is

in

the

country

the

of

This was probably the true spike49, and valued sufficiently considerable quantity to Nelcynda, where the Romans

Gangetic spikenard.

63.

from the Himalayas, noted under

naril.

e

shipped

found

it

(

in

56).

from the Ganges (XII, 26) which

Pliny describes another kind

good for nothing; it bears tinodor." This, as \\att remarks

as being

condemned, name oztrnittSt and emits a (pp. 451, 462, 792), was a " nard root" of allied to the together

of

fetid

variety of

or Andropogon,

C\rnh',/>wn

na.

39; probably Cymttpofttt

These

species, the lemon-grass, ginger-grass, citronella, etc., aromatic oils, and until recently have been much confused.

all

yield

Pliny confuses this grass also with malabathrum, which, he reXII, 59), "is said to grow in the marshes like the lentil."

marks

(

These were not

Pearls.

remarks, those of the

;

as Dr.

Taylor

and usually reddish.

irregular,

63.

of the best quality

streams are inferior, being small, often

>

Muslins of the finest

are the muslins of fabrics of

the

Dacca

India, an ancient

sort, called Gangetic. district, the most delicate of

test

which was

of

These all

tin-

for the piece to be

Ventut textilis, or nebula, were names drawn through a finger-ring. of them. the knew Romans under which They are mentioned in

the Institutes of

Manu,

in

a

way

to

show

the organi-^ation of the

who

has received 10 pa/as of cotton thread industry: to increased eleven, by the rice-water and the like used give them back

"let a weaver

in

weaving; he

who

does otherwise

shall

pay a fine of 10 panas." who took his sovereign,

\ernier tells of a Persian ambassador

on returning home,

"a

cocoanut of the size of an ostrich's egg, en-

when it was opened a turban was from it 60 cubits in drawn length, and of a muslin so fine that you would scarcely know that you had it in your hand." The history of cotton spinning in India goes back to mi. riched with precious stones; and

antiquity, being; associated with the

described and pictured as wearing

such garments, showing great

skill

Vedic gods or goddesses who

woven garments. The in both woven and tinted

abundantly reproduced from early temples

in

are

patterns of design, are

Mitra (Antiquities cf

2S7

whence

>

industry at the tune

tile

appear* certain that ihr

it

the

..f

was

r,Mtian era

(

far in

-non

advance of

the western countries.

While locum nuy

luxe been spun firm

p..ssihl>

m

Turke%uu,

ti

has always been native in the Indian sula and that the Aryan invaders found the i ul fixation and industry '.i

it

The

well estaM.st.e-d

h..th

woolen

ci|ully to

used

early /'***, for example,

various

-

h as are ial

;

nude

>tdl

in clothing

kinds,

Kashmir

in

.

tome double** la

the A';/

of I

u

fine

the

not specified.

i

The .\ltkMamta-\i\

SaMa r

the

umiisjiij

presents

hi t> > udhisthira:

Cloths and

the former ..f wool and embroidered with skin-., and brocades; the latter marten and weasel; blanket* of \hhiras >f (iuj.ir.it. dodsfMtof COttOO, various manufa

gold, shawls


or of thread spun by ins,

h..uMnv:s

fr

(stlk?) v or of

^ of the Kajctern tribes, lower Bengal, muslin from people of Carnatic and

e!r

Midiupur and (Ian jam;

worms

Turkharasand Kankas;

fine

Mysore.

Ramayana mentions silken, woolen and cotton stuffs of ousseau of Sita consisted of "woolen stuff

c

.

fine

orn.

>

vestments of divers colors, princely carriages of every kind." silk,

Hecrcn supposes the woolen stuffs t> have been Cash me re shawls. is a stuff from Nepal. The change C

i.f

prohibited isjdc in

UM-.

Brahman! the

btm

In

" \\hi>

is

the

ii

.

1!

I~iws of

in the

into the hot

Manu, which

1.

i.

id]

pla\

Aryans penetrated

shown

is

v

me,

rolling about

AS

:.

-

rei

,

tine fabrics of all

kinds were

Mn^hckkakatika^ the buffoon inquires:

the

gentleman dressed
in silken rai.nent, giittenn/

as

if

his

limbs were out of

joint?*

.

here can be

I

r-

an early

that

ornai

as the

of

the (JatJiies \'alle\

little

doubt that the fine muslins of Eastern llengal " as extilc Hrer/e .eninj! 1> '

i

or

M

under MU h names

Run:

Spin in nu and weaxinj, of starting of mills about

qua

made our^

Bombay,

said

there before the Ar>an invasion.

both by hand, and although m Manchester and the

this superlatively fine

yarn

is still

pro-

1888 the spinners who supplied the to be reduced to two elderly women in the

quantities.

inext

1

In

258 village of

\\as thought Dhamrai, about 20 miles north <>t D.u a, hut of the demand tor rcvixal with he revived any might -i

ii

that the industry c fabric.

An

incredible

industry-

amount

One way

of

and

of patience

the

testing

skill

fineness

were required of

the

fabric,

in this

often

described by media -\al and earlier travelers, was n. pa^s a whole piece ing. yard wide through an ordinal t<> si/e and in the was weight proportion by however, number of threads. It is said that 200 years ago a piece of muslin 15 yards long by 1 yard wide could be made so fine as to wei-Ji only

of 20 yards long and

The

\

1

best test,

In 1840 a piece of the 900 grains, or a little over 1-10 of a pound. same dimensions and texture could not be made finer than 1,600 A pece of this muslin 10 yards grains and was valued at about $50. woven in less than li\e months, and not be wide could 1 yard long by the work could only be carried on in the rainy season when the moisture in the air would prevent the thread from breaking. At several places in northwestern India fine muslins were proThese aUo duced, but nowhere of quality equal to those of Bengal.

shipped westward, appearing in the Periplus as exports at the The change from at the Gulf of Cambay.

C

mouth of the Indus and

hand spinning and weaving to power looms and spindles was not gradual as in Kurope, but was due to the direct importation of

European fabrics, so that a few months sufficed to destroy the earlier industry and to lay the way for the modern textile mills of India.

Lamb of Tartary.

(See Henry Lee, The Vegetable India: turcs

Bombay, 1899; chap.

of

ment of

India.

iii.

J. II.

Furneaux,

T. N. Mukharji, Art

A!anuJ\ic-

Also, The Cotton PJant, published by the

Agriculture,

1

IT. S.

Depart-

896. )

Goldmines.

This was probably the gold of the Chota Nagpur plateau, located from 75 to 150 miles west of the Ganges The rivers flowing north and east of these highlands have mouth. 6.*.

The river long produced alluvial gold in considerable quantities. Son, which formerly flowed into the Ganges at the site of the ancient capital

Pataltputra,

the

modern

Patna,

was

called

writers Erannoboa^ from the Sanscrit hiranya-vaha y

(McCrindle, Ancient

India, p.

43 j

by the

"carrying gold."

the Aurannoboas of

cf.

classical

53.)

from Tibet, which produced the famous "ant-gold" mentioned by all the classical writers from Herodotus to Pliny. As Ball pointed out (.Journal of the Rr,\al Irish Acadtmy^ June, 1884), the "ant-gold" was a Sanscrit name for the

There was

also a substantial supply

small fragments of alluvial gold;

this

name was

plied to the dogs of the Tibetan miners,

passed on, being ap-

which were

also referred to as

2S9

*

The "horn

of the gold-digging

am." mentioned by

Pliny

as preserved in the temple of Hercules at Krythrar,

wms a gold-fit made of a wild sheep's born mourned on a handle. (Sec 112-5 J Armn, AnatawV, 4-7; Srrabo, X

pick-axe,

bam,

McCr

XI, 36,

Pl.nv,

Gold wms

<**//**,

also brought into India

60 miles

east of the

Si

through the Tipperah country

Ganges coming Assam and northern Burma.

washings of

Tax

-trs

delta

x\i

III,

th.t

i

was of poor

it

chiefly

from the

quality, like the

of that country, and that both were sent overland to China

silk

m

>uge for silver.

Assam,

In

Kail notes,

to require their suhjei ,

t*

u.is

it

while regula

A

,

a*hers

and others of sea

shells,

the size of our 15

The Assam crnu

r

W

India, p. 2.<1,

and the Alamgirnamti of

kalita,

coin calloi

called kali (Klliot,

\',

n Hill,

il

\^

....//.

is

thought In lienfey to be the Sanscrit

There was,

"numberr

.

a South

Indun coin

while Vincent, quoting

c/>.

one of Bengal

>ns

TavF\mtm* Gmhjj \f Muhammad Kazim O66

r

July,

The

Tavermer

-tie-shell bracelet*,

are, h..\s< -\cr, of substantial yield, as '

the

am

with numerous round and square pieces of which arc also of the same tortoise-shell

(HI,

s

taxed.

coins,

washings

lun

were

for the rulers

number of days

l>acca, according to

low

tool

gold a certain

f.-r

>perah merchants trading " x^

ill,

custom

the

:

wash

to

called kalian.

Su

Wilford (Atiatu Rttnmkn,

269), preferred the refined gold called
mciHii>n> gold

mines of Mysore)

;

on

but, as

Malabar coast (coming from the

tin-

Watt observes

(p. 56$), gold has always

mainly an article of import in India. '

the There can be link Island 'golden* '). doubt that by this was meant the Malacca peninsula, known to Ptolemy .IN the A una CAtnonum, although the location "just opposite the Imdisposes of a long voyage in rather summary fashion. nold mines of ancient date have been discovered in the Malayan

Chryse

State of Pa hang, north of <

name

Malacca, and these are probably the ones

of "golden"

to the peninsula.

esc records that ships from that country ilacca as early as the 4th century B.

the 1-th

i

\\hile the

legend of Buddha

C

.

made

It is

known

the journey

and perhaps as early as

Cambodia

is

at

260

suggestive of the great influence exercised from India over

all

Imlo-

China.

in the

and 2d

1st

N. Y.

Clifford (Further India,

C.

H.

excellent account of thch.i/y,

>

it

.crming

cent,.

,

1<>04, pp. (,-7
vaguely tin-

<>f

the

"l

I

)f

Romans Chi

the golden, Pliny has nothing to tell us, and the author of the Periplus He speaks, tells us only that it was situated opposite to the (lan-o.

however, of Thina, the land of

situated

silk,

'where the seacoast ends

whence we may

gather that Chryse was conceived by him as an island lying not only to the east of the (Janges, but also to This indicates a distiiu t adthe southward of the Chinese Umpire.

externally/

vance in knowledge, for the isle of Chryse, albeit still enveloped in a golden ha/e, was to the author of the Periplus a real country, and no Rumors must have reached him concerning mere mythical fairyland.

on which he believed he could rely; and this would tend to prove China via the Straits of Malacca, even though it was not yet in'general use, was no longer unknown to the manners it,

that the sea-route to

of the east.

We

ander, from

whom

know

that less than a century later the

sail< r

Alex-

Marinus of Tyre derived the knowledge subse-

quently utilized by Ptolemy, himself sailed to the Malay peninsula, and beyond, and it may safely be concluded that the feasibility of this southeastern passage had become known to the seafarers of China

long before an adventurer from the west was enabled to of its existence through the means of an actual voy

test

the fact

And

as

knowledge in the Roman world in the 1tury, Mr. Clifford aptly cites Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews, VI 1, 2) who recounts the Ophir voyages of Solomon, venturing some curious identifications: "At Ezion-Geber, a bay of Egypt on the Erythraean illustrating the state of

1

Sea, the king constructed a

Bcrenice( the

!

'),

Hebrew

and

is

number

of ships.

The port is now named

near the city of Elan, formerly deemed to be in

jurisdiction.

King Hiram

greatly assisted

King Solomon

preparing his navy, sending him mariners and pilots, who conducted Solomon' s officers to the land that of old was called Ophir, but in

;.

Aurea

Chtrsonesus,

It is

which belongs

to India, to fetch gold."

uncertain what knowledge Pliny had of Further India

1

1

is

account of Eastern Asia (VI, 20) professes to begin with the "

that is, the Arctic and after some names of doubtful Ocean, and the nation origin he mentions "the Promontory of Chryse of the Attacori on the gulf of that name, a people protected by their and in the interior the Caseri, sunny hills from all noxious blasts a people of India, who look toward the Scythians, and eat human flesh. Here are also numerous wandering nomad tribes of India."

thian

.

.

.

.

.

.

-

The numerous ami

migration* from

plus states,

f

ample ground for the belief and Ceylon were in truth, u an active trade u art, employing India

mim!>rr

Ltrurr ship*, anil in grcuit-r

migration

jrrut

to,

I

)

.

.

than those coming from Egypt. urjt Ji%-a in the uth century

t

i

:

Hindu kingdoms, have already ber monuments remar he tremendous

thr resultm..:

:i,l

and (hnr greatest

Buddhist temples of llorohitedur and at

s

any

:

is

64.

state

probably,

van;;. later

known th

state

Chinese

Chou

no

;

of

science.

human

\\liit !e\s

1

1. ..in.:

ailed

ai

was

bo,

f..:

and a constant

I !

capital,

ri\er not far

above

its

the present province of Shej|-i.

Centuries

the >

i

most powerful of the The power found itself

the imperial

livnastv.

,

the stales of

s

was ks

on the \Vei

in

harassed in the west by the Tartar lious

we must add genius!"

This can hardly be other than the

IV in,

as Si-gnan-fu,

the

none

of

the Kyra-

strength and patience, then

here

as the genitive of This),

of Ts'in

states,

China,

let* ditfinc-

more imposing mass If we wonder at

has a

f

and

Clifford's belief

the%c hr quotes Francois C Jarnier:

)f

A Land called This.

great western

meant,

pl.u e,

a gigan :igth

If

tmbodia are no

more an and

th

ttnbanan.

1.

Angk <

"IYriiu;

India into Indo-Chioa,

after the Christian era, give .nth

A

:

tribes,

and

in the east

by rebel*

Wei, Han, Chun, "IVi and Ch'u

Very

early in the dynast}-, perhaps in the 8th century B. .C., a portion of their sovereign rights

were resigned to

tlic

Tartars.

naturally profited

prime

of Ts'i

the frontier agaiiut the

idcrtaking the de'

sidcrat

'I

re

than the empire,

and the princes of Ts'in, as the annals put it, "like wolves or tigers to draw all the other princes into their claws, so that they devour them." The power of Ts'in grew until it overbalanced might >1

and the imperial power itself. As was incorporated into the dominions, and finally a IV in prince became F.mpemr >f China in 25S B. C. The greatest of the Ts'in monarchs/lViii Chi Hwangti. who ruled fn.m 2-1 to 209 B. C., is one of the Inchest names in It Chinese was he who began the CJrcat Wall, and who J the Chinese frontier across the Gobi desert, making under the Tian-Shan mountains, his outpost, and thus preparing die >r direct communication uith Bactria. Regular caravan travel China and Bactria is said to have begun in 1 SS -.^federation of eastern states,

Tartar territory was conquered

it

1

f

i

262

But the success of Ts'in had brought its own reaction. It wu couM not control all Onn so much a Tartar state that Hie political importance of the gave way to the Han d\

itself it

it

however, by the first Han emperor, KaoN.m, emoveii his capital from Ix>yang in Honan to Him-Yang or Singanfu in Shensi, the aiu ient Ts'in capital, and in order to make- that vas emphasised,

western location more accessible to the great high-road

from Loyang

to Singanfu,

rest of

which

is

the empire, built a still

in use.

Buddhist pilgrim in northwestern China: from a 6-ft. panel in the ( ommrn i.il Philadelphia, 1128 times enlarged from a portion of a film t-xposed by

Museum,

Bailey Willis, Carnegie Institution, Washington.

uasty

made no

tooa

lott

its

cffor

25-Sx

4

his

by

1

4

Yuch-i

and

the

upper India.

It

^

was

who

who Caspian, kadphic%, thru raab-

kui^

region thai lluddhiun kcerm hrw

in thi>

lima, rather than through

1

we* ward

the great conquests of the Generil Pan-chao, * and Tartar* as far as the and

Kh-.tun

near

ton.,

^Mcrtcd toverctfttir

hi

began the afffCStm

igti,

in

power ami

military

;

>

.1

outposts beyond the wall, the reign of Kwang \

d

was always mure or

I-

Tibet or Burma, and from in rummunicatiofi >

uith \Vcsirrn Asia.

if

:

lfCtiiui;.

H

Pa

:ntratin oftA* Ck'ttuit

under v

;

Raw

ft

39,

k

>ry

^*W

silk cloth.

io/

the earliest correct statement of

is

and of (he routes

t>>

which

ihe7

reached the uorid'%

it

cocoon-secretion of the mulberry-leaf moth, Btmbj* order Lffudopura native, apparently, and

(lie

is

fainih

Bocl

Murvr,

yarn and

silk

This

56.

H

i

and

silk

49 and

silk

niori,

Douglas, CAmu.

.

H.

Rkhard, C**>nk
lfCki*i,

/7 C,<*f r
llombycitJ*,

,

ilmuted, in the \v.irni-ic-nipeniie climate of north

Chinese legends mt

wood, with

,

silk

instruments of

\\

threads,

under

rig

of the

tin

worms and

u-h,

I

:

*

J'th

i

entury

the inventi.-

arc ascribed to l.n-tsu, k:.'wn as the

.:h was niperr Huanu-ti 27th centur)' H ^'.k, r:nlv. .::.-, by the empress, and those of the higher .rd skins as wearing apparel Soon other classes were enable i

v

I

discovered, and

:c

and

position

were*

for

t)u*

rir>t

rank

tune indicated by the man's outward

app< In

the

the

that the L'hinesc uovcrniner.

provinces of

K

<

v,

lih century

appears

the produt

k in every

same hiok describes

',<

'^ modern Hu-naa, had

and skins, Yu-i h-u, next Q

.

the

:..-rth

a trade

and TOC ti-

traded in bamboos, varnish, ulk and hemp, the northrrnmoNt, l'inL'-< 'hmi the modern Shan-Si) WSS noted

the lilo

^c

I

in dirTerent

i

tiie

<-d

r,

tton

.in..

It

\%

as this

province which

264

mo>t

I:.

t

whose hands II irth,

The

silk first

Anaent History

antiquity of the

industry

valley,

feeding on mulberry leaves

,

is

uncertain, hut the

importation from China,

Assam and

cultivation

tin-

the

India its

I

.astern Ken^al, carls

name

.f

Antheraa assama (feeding on and Attains ricinl feeding on the tasar silk)

;

(

<

The

trade in

yarn and

silk

doth

silk

not

\aricties,

including Jnthera-n

&////r;//V//-,

laurel

f>/ud

spc

H

plant

i

probably all stimulated by the value of the llwnhx silk. / See Watt, pp. 992-1026; Cambritig* AV/////v/////j/-,/

V

through

117, 121-2), in

to be in f.uor of

while

in the Christian era;

prii

CVntr.il Asi.i,

<,/

silk

by way of the Brahmaputra

modern

of

reached the western nations

weight of evidence seems

(the

nomad tubes

with the

^

,

\

1,

existed in Northern India

Silk is mentioned sr\nal time after the Aryan invasion. in the from Mak&bk&rata the /\,///^/v
soon

t

1

and

to the Persian conquest,

Darius and Xerxes that

it

The Hebrew scriptures Amos 111, 1.1

the dmeshfk of

damask,*

silken

fabric;

it

first

was, no doubt, through the empires reached the Mediterranean world.

contain at least two references to

seems

to

while mcshi

mean a silken gau/.e. Isaiah a manner indicating extreme

silk:

be the Arabic dinmk*, K/.ekiel

in

(XLIX,

also

<>f

12

)

XVI,

In

-

mentions the Sinim

in

distance.

has been supposed that the Greeks learned of silk tfrmufyh Alexander* spvppditjnnj but it probably reached them previously through It

Persia?

account: others.

Aristotle {Hist. Anim., **It

At

is

its

a great first

V,

metamorphosis

bombylius, and lastly a chrysalis From this animal six months.

all

reasonably coi has horns and so differs from

xix, 11

worm which it

produces a

caterpillar, tin

these changes taking place within

women

separate and reel off

the

was first spun This indiin the island of Cos by Pamphilc, daughter of Plates." cates a steady importation of raw silk on bobbins before An st< The fabric he mentions was the famous Coa vcstis, or ti time. which parent gauze (woven also at Tyre and elsewhere in S\ Ha came into favor in the time of Caesar and Augustus. Pliny mentions Pamphile of Cos, *'who discovered the art of unwinding the silk" (from the bobbins, not from the cocoons) "and spinning a

cocoons and afterwards spin them.

It

is

said that this

.

.

i

therefrom; indeed, she ought not to be deprived of the gloi having discovered the art of making garments which, while they co\< XI a woman, at the same time reveal her naked charms/'

r

tie

*ame

refers

fal

so famous for the

m

.t

D|

and

water, they

leaves;

where he speaks of "the

i,

JO,

is

found

in the.r forests.

down

off a soft

After

that adhere*

-

So man.!. .id u the

threads afresh. I

m

and so dtoant are

labor,

t

thus ransacked to supply a dress through which our

puhlic display their cha;

L41, Pfbo

< I

.

.

"her white breast* retplen-

s

Cleopatra, .m fabric, which, wrought in close texture by of the Seres, the needle of r un of the Nile ha*

dent through the

comb

that

it females of our part of the world they gtte task of unraveling their textures, and of uratmg the

!d

V

wool

skill

separated, Silk

ign

t

and has loosened the warp by stretching out the web." fabrics of this kind were much affected b> men alto during of Augustus, but the fashion uus onsidered effeminate, and i

Ronun

the

IKTIIUS

Senate enacted a law

"thai

should not defile themselves by wearing garments (Tacitus, Ann,

t

Aureltan

1

and

in gold,

that

.

he neither used

possess a garment of

it,

Pliny includes

it

the

Scnc

in

his

most

empin "most

of the

list

sources.

valuable productions"

costly things that are gathered

from

tiss

\\l, $) speaks of other use> such a pitch that a chaplet was held

Plin. last to

himself nor allowr

it

thereby setting an example against the

luxurious tastes that were draining the

are nard and

was enormously high, from that silk was worth its

'st

an account of the

.xury arose at

t

in

no esteem

at all

if

/ether with the needle.

not consist

More

tly again they have been imported from India, or from nations Hut it is looked upon as the most d the countries of India all,

of

many

to present chaplets

made

men

msness

Among both Greek and

of nard leaves, or else of silk

Such

colors steeped in unguents.

Rom.,

there '

m

his

rial,

and

yarn and doth

to

alike

although these accounts err in

some

m

He

his description of cotton.

which the

at last arrived

silk, both being called translation of the Pcriplus, omits

>tton

the pitch to

is '

has

'tree silk

was some confusion and Fabrictus,

wool

' '

i

altogether,

i

details, Pliny

rstan is

considering

cotton.

But

sufficiently correct

distinguishes the wool-bearing trees

of the Seres from those of the Indian -

d describes the cot-

bearded nut, containing on the which is spun into threads; the tissue mad. unerior to all others in whiteness and softness*'

rub, with

its

"fruit resembling a

266

while his account of the silkworm muli not so near

alt hi

is at least

\\ithm sight of the truth,

as Aristotle's:

it

they assume the appearance of small butteiiiies with but soon after, being unable to endure the o>Kl, the\ naked bodies, throw out bristly hairs, and assume quite a thick coat against the wmie;

"At

hist

off the

by rubbing rough:

with

claws, and

their if

of

all,

down

heir feet.

:

the trees,

that covers the

fed

upon

A

it

fine by

round

it

x\huh they are enveloped. after which they are placed bran.

aul

of the

Tip* ffcey compress into hall then draw it out and hang it between the

making

they take and roll

tin-

by

leaves,

is

It

in

combing

out as

it

their body, thus in

this

down soon

were

that they are taken;

state

earthen vessels in a

peculiar sort of

it

forming a nest in

warm

place,

and

shoots forth upon the

on being clothed with which they are sent to work upon another The cocoons which they have begun to form are rcmler<

task.

pliable by the aid of water, and are then drawn out into threads of a spindle made of a reed. means Nor, in fact, have tin by even felt ashamed to make use of garments formed of this m in consequence of their extreme lightness in summer; for so have manners degenerated in our own day that so far from wearing a

and

<

cuirass, a

garment even

(See also Lassen,

is

found to be too heavy. 31 7-322;

I,

III,

25;

'

'

Yates, Tfxtnnum

tiquorum. )

The reeling of silk from the cocoons was down from the leaves, which had also a

ing of

the cause of the confusion with cotton.

confused into a combbasis of truth, but

Compare

Virgil,

was

Georgics,

" II,

121;

"Velleraque ut

foliis

Pliny finally distinguishes

depectant tenuia Seres.

between the two

fibers in referring to

*

Arabian cotton (XII, 21):

nature from those of the Seres;

nothing "

at all,

bear wool, but of a different as in these trees the haves produce

'trees that

and indeed might very

readily

be taken for those of the

vine.

The word "silk'* is from a Mongolian original, sirkek, m< Korean j/r, Chinese u/. Hence the Greek .
the Chinese themselves, but rather the Turkish or Tibetan interim-diThat the word was loosely extended to cover most of I... aries.

Asia

is

Sinim,

undeniable; but Ptolemy distinguishes the Sina, Isaiah the while the Periplus gives nearly the correct form, 77m, for

China proper. Pliny has a curious mixture of Seres and Cirrhadae in his \-\rita

2*7

who*

VII, 2).

Hai-nowrd Mongolian face*

thnr fate*

in

..il.-s

and

ins'

whom

be

people who have no v\ho hxc on the ea> M dia, near the tourtt of the bodies are rough and hairy, and they cover theimrhr* with a 4

1

the

knowledge

the

..i

iiinianus

64 -

silL

M.r.r!:.:.,

ul .1

leave*

rin.j <>f

the

.

\\lll,

tow a

and

"'I

ythuu,

whuh

surr....

battles;

4,

of

fertility

i

hr

on the oucrrn

a country cooaidul

it%

of

I

hi* tribe

OO

and as ease

none

.

themselves

>

gi\e trouble to

more knowledge

dc border on the Scythians,
as India ami the Changes. 67.

hat

\i

.1

niotinta.ns

crahlc both for us extent and the

H>k

Merc he shows SOW*

tree*."

.,f

trade through Astfam.

of

is

lite

pleasant to

always avoiding arms moderate and quirt men, they

quietly,

their neighbor*.

and health

I

heir

climate

is

agreeable

r/rs gentle and delicious.

They

have numbers of shining groves, the trees of which through continued watering produce a crop like the fleece of a sheep, which the natives make into a delicate wool, and spin into a kind of fine cloth, formerly *

the use of the nobles, but

now

procurable by the lowest

he people without distinction.

"The names

68.

a peaceful

wtun

life,

themselves arc the most frugal of men, and shunning the society of other men.

strangers cross their river to buy

their cloth, or

culti-

And

any other of

merchandise, they interchange no conversation, but

settle

the

price of the articles wanted by nods and signs; and they are so mode* nexer buy any foreign that, while selling their own pr.ulu

But to the

Gneco-Roman world

the Seres were a

John in the middle ages. The .dese mouths; sec p. 209), and e\en Southern Arabia (sec p. 140) were identified

ubiquitous as the subjects of Prester

Ausar and Masira

in

with them.

Concerning the long struggles of the emperors at with the Sassa.ml m.marchs in Persia, over the e\er-u .

success of the Christian

culminating in the

Muceeded in bringing the jealously -guarded eggs hidden in a bamboo cane, thereby laying the foundation uli-

culture

oi

ant,

see Beazley,

Aruw

to Justinian,

of the ulk-

if

241

Gf6frapA.\\ \ ol. 1}

Histoirt

Heyd,

vant au

<

ZfjgraphiqufS

(1768)

in

ft historiqufs snt

-

Reinaud, Kf/a/iws pfittiqucs

-t>03;

M

'

\

de

.

'iptions ft

.1

.

.'

v

/;

(

mpirt Ronuiir:

>

'

t

'

v

I

<&///;.

ft

pr,miu

/

;>/<.

/*,

Sec also Richlhofen,

C/rimi,

1,

\.

rii.ip.

Ruins df Khotan ;

490-511;

Spe

/IT//**

.

Merc lain t

565;

//

.

M, 1' '>,

I.etou;

I.

Mocl, ////'.

Lindsay, History of

II.

.....

uttltftSfkl


....

2S1

;

Shipping
i

Bunhury,

Edmunds,

658;

./>;.

,

I

,

'I

.

///.>;

I,

//],

/>W///-.-

cd., introduction.

Through

Bactria to Barygaza.

from the Yellow River

to

Bactra,

first

i

instituted, possibly,

early in

the 2d century B. C. and then obstructed for nearly two centuries. The earlier, and to the Chinese the most imfollowed two routes. portant because

it

led to the

Khotan jade-held, was the Xnn-lu or

"southern way," the stages of which may be traced on

tin-

map

as

folio.

Lanchowfu, Kanchow, Yumenhsien, Ansicbow, Lop where the routes divided. to Khotan and ^ .u Rixer The \an-Ju followed south of the Tarim kand, thence over the Pamirs and westward to the Oxus ami This was the earliest route opened by the Chinese army under Pan i-janfu, !

^iemo (the Asmiraa of the Greeks

)

1

The

second route, the Pci-ln or "northern way,'* followed the same course from Sin anfu to Tsiemo, thence north of the Tarim through Kuche and Aksu to Kashgar, and

Chao, being cleared

in

74 A.

I).

oxer the tremendous heights of the Terek to the Jaxartcs and SamarThence a route led southward to Bactra, while another led

cand. s ,i:th

westward more

directly to Antiochia

second route was opened by Pan Chao

A

in

Margiana 94 A. I).

'

\aiiantof the Pci-lu led from Yiimcnhsicn to Hami, harachar, meeting the above route at

-1C

Kuche

;

respects, being close to the mountains, but

ant attacks by the savage Tartar tribes,

Hami

this

This

Merx.

was

was

1

u

pret-

suhjc<

especially being

i

storm-center in the Chinese annals, and an important outpost for the Another variant led from Turfan through defence of the main route. the Tian-shan to t'rumLsi and Kuldja, thence by the Hi River and

north of ihr m.iui:

.khara and

rnrral topography of thete

urkrun

I

Menr

rHite%

Thi

d.d

shown by a

it

paata Stanislau.

kntoritm

tht \


<-4/*Wj, in

1\

Hi

hounded mi ami

is

unf-lint

nu

|..sr

thr ra

harriers of

w

tf^"t

uhuh

from

the trunk

hu h

\\

',

u the

.nid

)',tn{-iu.i't.

thr

.l^rri,

t

ihr

a the

-

great

.1

.mil 15.. di ll

pr..ximrs

6000

//

fnm

to

lie-

(he touch

>

(

k urn-

/'/-j^.

(lie

.iL.ni:

dn-sc

and

%OUlh, :

the ,V.;i-;':,^

ulullL'

But

tnouiitain-raficcf

nonh

V./n-/* an-

rh.it

r/N/*-4wnr

Pamir %

'

III

h

>

called

(he WMJth

!<>

eatt to west, anil

from vnjth to

.,

BOfti

and Sungariu had no silk-tradr in I

'his

Ronun

Asian (radr-rou(r was

CVntral \1

part in thr tran^ontinrnraJ

tn

comprehensively dc-

firsf

tv\o generation* later than the

iinr

:

-aid

based on (he notes of a

Muinioman silk-men

name was Tr

to be

I

x*hu did not perform (he whole

or trading associates whom hr m-t says, began at the Hay of Issus in C

at

Turkestan from hit "agents" thr Pamirs -r, he

%

sopotamia. As-

atana and the Caspian Pass;

and

I

\ntiochi.i

I

Marxian.

the ,

I

C'hinrsc

route

i

\

pord

through (he mountainous

and (hrough thr trrr .f those mrrchants

.ishkurghan. in Sankol. on (hr upprr

Pamirs.

.

t..:ti!ic-d

(nun

through Parthu through Arta

built

on

a

,,

who

.r (.1

the

trade with the

^ arkar.d

Ri\rr in (he

Cfag that

gr-

from the Taghdumbash valley, at the convergence of routes from the Oxus, the Indus and the Yarkand Thence to the Casii Kashgar and through the country of the Tharises

(

until

af(er a

seven-months' Journey from thr "

the merchants arn\<

;H>|I,

>wer"

**S

the "C*i(> called

Thuur"

of (hr 1'eriplus

H\

to..

nix

l:rr:.il

an application of this "seven- months' journey"

and I'toU-nn

\\i-tr

led into gra\e error us

t,.

thr loflgt-

270

Rome

and China

The

first

is

between

but the evidence of direct trade

tudinal extension of Asia;

remarkable-.

the route

of

part

was minutely described before our

author's time, in the Mansioncs Parthica of Uidorus of Charax Spasini. This route of Macs the Macedonian followed very nearly the

same

direction as the Chinese

A',///-///,

the Pamirs diagonal!) to Kushgar,

cmssmu

after leaving Bactru.

on the /'V-///,

but then

tuminu south-

ward through Yarkand to Khotan, and in passing "Thagura" took a more southerly, and also a more direct route than the Nan-lu itself, which it joined half-way between Lop Nor and the Bulun/ir the east of which all three routes were iden"river of the Hiong-nu") tical as far as

(See

Singanfu.

map to face

p.

SOU, Vol.

Hantt-dtlas %

maps 61-2;

i:.

21;

l.\

op. cit.

,

19,

chap.

Lansdell,

and map.

v.

At Hactra

this

I,

of Richthofcn's China; ---Slider's

of the Chmttt

.ItLis

Stanford,

C///W

Central ./,/.

/*.////>//>,

Vc.l.

II;

plates

Mem.

)

o\erland trade-route branclied

again,

following

westward through the Parthian highlands to the Euphrates, or southward From to Hamian, the Cabul valley, the Khyber Pass and the Indus. Taxilathe highway of the Maurya dynasty led through the Panjah to the branch from Mathura southward to ( )/ene

capital at Palibothra, with a

The

and the Deccan.

route

down

the Indus to

its

mouth was

less

important owing to the character of the tribes living on the lower This is indicated by the text, which says far more of hereaches. t

Barygaza than of those

products carried by the overland route to coming to Barbaricum .

Yet a part of the Chinese trade was, apparently, localized at the mouth of the Indus. While the valuable silk cloth went to Bar. the yarn, or thread, went to Barbarttwnt where it was exchanged for a product always more highly valued in China than in India namely, frankincense; the white incense, or tktkri luban^ which Marco Polo found

still

fume."

in

is

not listed in the Periplus

Indian ports, and evidently found

fabrics

its

the Indus to Peucelaotis

way up

The

return, went to \arn, where it was used in making the embroidered and silk-shot for which Arabia and Syria were so famous in the Roman

and Bactra, and thence Arabia,

name of "milk peramong the imports at other

extensive use in China under the

This

to China.

s;lk

i

i

market.

R

!

Concerning the frankincense of the I)eir-el-Bahri relicts )rake-Brockman writes again from Bulhar, Sept. 18, 1910, I

.sTtle

shown

in

those reliefs are not the

humped

Mr that

cattle peculiar to

d likewise

SOMI.I.

Western

inn

.

t

a.

hut the ordinary type,

hi.hu

and Socotra. canle of theftc region% and \

without humps;

Abyvinia are

all

the

u

in fait the

humped

h..| r

variety

parts, as the

\ti

.iuuhc

hump u f

I.n.l

;:-ier, and

?..

it

is

if

hump

i%

mal-

thr.

>tcl

th.it

or possibly to the south side <>f Dhofar. Th

and the

iru

in

cattle.

the i'unt |ji|>cditioii did

the Somali coast, hut must have

tale,

thr%c dried-up

in

ornamented with figure* of humped mmcrcial Mitttum, Phil

.ir,

dynasty

>trd

Beiicir

improKablr

;:.-:

Xlllth

-he

thr.

these cattle what the camel'*

storehouse.

lack pottery

i

if

of

1

jion* and ha\

and

which

rabia

>f

of

Socotra,

make

gone which was a depen-

the island

ease-land

n<>t

to the Plain of

/Wv4

/Vwi**

of

of the

Viril.

in

:a,

on the

makes rclic-N

more

Sec Ptolemy.

1,

11-1-,

Rnnus.it, Remarques

de Incident (1825); If 'ay

M. R

De

13;

I,

Ifs

Tartarcs

Thither;

Lassen, Stein,

stir /'

Chinois:

sumt

-halitt -s

/'

1S-14,

liaiso*

Its

in Meni>,

Vol. xxxii (179S

,

,

F.mpirf C/iinois

SI

9-660; Yule, Sand-llur'tnl Ruins of Khotan

I,

1

1,

(

;

Wit Indus Df/ta Country;

ll.ii-j.

t

Guignes, Sur

ft l
dcs Inscriptions et Belles-Let!',

.It

the

\

Roma ins a-w

dcs

ami

strongly suggestive of

Sec also pp. 120, 141-2, and 2'

of the Pcnplus.

3 5 5-69 ;

but Altogether the Dhofar, the S t

that an interesting possibility; is

Richthofcn,

Vol.

(lhin
1;

Merzbacher. Tki C.cntral Tmn-Shan J 573-618; !f$ de f Asic Centralc ; Bon n Grandts wit* Manifold,

X'incent, 11, tains

i

;

.

.

,

and E&nomu Development

f'loration

in

(Ifntml and

II

China (with map) in G&fraphical Journal^ xxiii, 28 -SI 2, Mar. 1904; Tht Gnat //W// of China; Col. ,, Keane, Asia, I, chap. v. 1

IX

of the Royal Geographical his journey of 1SS~ alonn the entire Central route between Kashgar and Peking. Bell, in Proceedings

To I

Turkrstan

Ud

Damirica by

the

way

of the Ganges. same

ihetan plateau, starting in the

1

from SiiKjunfu

routes,

to Siningfu, thence to

to

Lanchowfu;

by the lower Brahmaputra was

I

inhabiting as,

for instance, a

to the

.

peak of Kailas

Gartok of

it.

the

to the

little

,U--

trade-

Tins u a > the direction as the

hraiu

'

hiivj;

K<>ko Nor, and southwestward,

and the Chumbi Vale to Sikkini and the Ganges.

'H,

Asian

I

'.4.

(

1

Lhasa

b\

The route from

used, owin<: to the savage

There were numerous other passages into India, frequented route by the Arun River through Nepal

or by following the upper Brahmaputra to the sacred and the source of the Sutlej, or continuing through

upper Indus.

Periplus

itself,

But natural conditions, as stated

made

these

in

Western

routes through

Tibet

almost impracticable for commerce.

This was the route which

later

became

the

t'icat

highway

<>f

i> best It Buddhist pilgrim-travel between Mongolia and Lhasa. bed by one of the few white men who have ever traversed it:

Hue,

Recollections

The

of a Journey through Tartary, Thibet and China during

Chinese Buddhist

monk Fa-Hien

country of Tamalipti, the capital of which

he embarked

in

is

spent two years a seaport

.

.

.

in

''the

after this

a large merchant- vessel, and went float ii It was the beginning of winter and the wind

sea to the southwest.

was

fourteen day*, taifinf day and night, (Key

'

f.

'To

4me

!

uutv

4p

Sintfhala." 4

the eastern ihippioff. according ID (he

he Chera backwaters were a meeting-pou* for the trade M.| of Sues. Our author did not 1

these vessel*

ame monsoon

because the

>Ja,

.

M

-hi% trade in hit

r

in this

is

kmud .ui.l

mi the east

of

turhit,

..rfee

I>IIM
.itlirr

in

MU(% of

.if

aUo gold and

%

They

The

alto

ships that

alto bring hither

ulver. clove*

and

tine spices."

.W

S

-W ^

Rockhill. 7^/

l/r./-rntw.-

/^MM/;

III,

India.

They

halbut.

and >endeU;

silk ,-,.! uM.Ul, .i:i.i

and

and beautiful buckram*.

4tc

'

day

great quantity of pepprr

II

nianuLuiu ?r.

thai brought

him away.

thrni xvnuM liuvr taken

'///v/

Waddell.

.

/./i./itf

M/

M/

7*4/ G<*traph'ual Rtmht / tk* Tikrt xxv 190S; 7i//W, :raphi(al Crosby, 77/r/ aW -london. /Jbw, U riuiuir.i )as, Joumn ! IJtattt tfW Central Owning of Tib,

Michusband,

Mint

f

1

-Little.!..

/w.

.Mm turn

-Carey,

Deasy, -Sandberir.

.

7"ir

inun Report, -v

Sh erring,

/.7w;

64.

II

'ft if

Few men come from

subjugation of Turkestan

i

The

naturally hazardous.

7'i/itrn/

r^ifir/n.

i/W

///

nt Tikt
there,

and seldom.

I

'mil the

and trade overland were routes through Tibet and upper Burma travel

sed as those leading through the

IV

and topographical reasons were alike responsible. Tkt Fact if Ckn*>, also, SeeLassen. -Kc.n;

for a

count of a recent journey along the

little.

acial

;

ac

:

Burmese

tra\elleil

route.

K

Aiu>ther theon. ..utlined h\ Cltfnortftf,

and

couperic the

<

Kimrsmill

/V/*7 .-;./ i

'hina

in his

llraiu h,

m PfHmg *

J
1

/.'/

'Hie

.\LinHt

fnntaffrt. in

XXXV and

v

*mt

lk<

J*nuJ *f tkt :ul

Tcrnrn dr

'.ili|uhoun's Imvtg /*V\4**j >, upper Burma; identifying Thmx- with r :hr >f Hsen-ui. Northern Shans, and with 7*m, ^ unnan. co Polo to the Chinese pr

introdu

Burmese form

(See also Rocher, may be the relation

/,/ ..f

Pn PmicnuN

-:*u .Srnr

* >*0*

But u rutrver

and Cosmas* Tsmtt/Ar to Burma.

274 it

may be

asserted that the

with that repon. to

Silk

Barygaza," that

Thin*

of the Periplus had nothing to do

was brought thence overland

is,

of name in a locality never important

hnd

in silk

'through B.unia

Why

by the Turkestan route.

.UK -lent center of the silk industry, Singanfu, to

*

a

ignore

fanned

the

similarity

product ion, separated

Early Chinese Buddhist 9-storied pagoda: compare illustrations of Hindu From a model exhibited in the- Commercial 64-5.

and Abyssinian types, on pp.

Museum.

Philadelphia.

Ik-routr h>

and

n

The With

000 miles of the most dificult travelling in Asia, by Shan tribri until tome centuries beer thin

1

settled

ly

thr risr

it

theory

manifestly impfacticihle.

Kuhan

the

,.t

dynasty in the northwe*, and their <>n (he Chinese border, it

home

towards thnr f-.nnrr

relatiuni

hy the Turkestan routei should He the m,l l(jry successes of China did not begin until 7

naturu!

AH

tint

cse Empcr. llu.i.ihiMM

1

Mi

r

A

<

!

rd from S8

two

ivtucion of

i:.

Sramanas, Kisyapa Matanga and Uharaiu, who arrived in 67 A. I). (Takakusu, Introduction to ln edition of 1 -feint;. P Before such an imitation thrrr must ha\r hern considerable activity i

.xi

the part

Thr

now the

imviionaries, then at

-

forerunners of

seems to be descrih :amanas in 67 A I

As

)

Contrasting With thr knowlrd<.:< :<

thr

\\ \

\i .N

il.itr

>i

(

tkt

1

1

1

as the

!'

Roman

()

MAN

1

i

**f/oi/-A
)^

of thr

aroiunt

N

\>

i

>j

<

A

in the

jn.rt

'in is also called

on the western

h
(2)

I

^

fences of cities are

made

of stone.

(6)

on the roads are covered with

(

9*

Li- km

*

and,

amounts

The

;

postal stations

plastr

The deand milene

:

* he kinds of other trees and plant* bent on agriculture and practice the planting of trees

and cypress trees and

much

nd brine I).

territory

states there are several times trn

people arc

/

four hundred cities

/.

and of dependent rs

/

part of the sea, Hai-tti-iL

n part of the sea").

thousand

i

ClUMW aaiu

Amhanador Kan Ying, A.

of thr

1

as being situated

i

*>>,

|

r

(

/>

Roman empire ronuinni

ilr

based on the

il

^

S8

fnirth writisn during tkt 5tk
embracing the p
an

interest.

CHAPTER " '/d/i

i

rir%e

ami

(.'hinii

the

(Hotting atiounr

<

of almost the same

from Mirth,

huh

v*

.

nun..irlv

cnmmer the iourney

trxt

all

i

and thr rearing of silk-worms. (9 ir embroidered clothi

r

!

and drne

of their heads,

in small cairiaces

when going in or out they beat he prevr drurcs and hoist Hag*, banners, and pennants. whu h thry h\e measure over a hundred /r in of the walled citirs covered with white lanopirs,

<

\1

*

1

\-.\

I

276

(14) In the

circumference.

from each

make king

oth<

15

i

used

ill

pillai :\c

-.

In

city there are five palaces, ten the-

in

taking meals are also made.

palace a day to hear cases.

After

distant

//'

crystal to

use-

palace buildings they

The

(16)

fi\c


has

In-

(17) As a rule, they let a man with a ha-, completed Those who have some matter to submit, follow the king's carriage When the- kinu armcs at the throw a petition into the b. IS The he examines into the rights and wrongs of the matter. his

round.

i.;

:

'

documents are under the control

of thirty-six

,/////;/

'

gene-

\\ho conjointly discuss government affairs. (19) Their kings are not but of men merit. (20.' When a they appoint rulers, permanent severe calamity is

the country, or untimely rain-storms, the king

\isits

The one

deposed and replaced by another.

of that country are

tall

(21

much

gold,

and

silver,

**jewel that shines at night, rals,

bar?),

amber,

silk-cloth of

"

rare

the

glass, lanz-kun

green jadestone

his duties

"he inhabitants

'I

and well-proportioned, somewhat

Chinese, whence they are called Ta-ts'm. tains

from

relieved

submits to his degradation without a murmur.

(22)

precious

The

stones,

the

especially

"moonshine pearl," the

////',

a kind of coral', chn-t
(

gold-embroidered rugs and thin

(ching-pi\

They make gold-colored They further have fine cloth,'' also

various colors.

the

like

counti

(23)

cloth

'

and asbestos

25)

cloth.

1

Shui-yanz-ts .us

ui,

(i. c.

down

of the water-sheep);

of wild silk-worms.

They

it

collect

all

is

made from

kinds of

substances,

the juice of which they boil into su-ho (storax).

All the rare

gems

They make

coins of gold and

one of

gold.

T ifn-f/iu

come from

of other foreign countries

(28)

They

silver.

traffic

Ten

(India), the profit of which trade

is

the

fr.

there.

units of silver are

by sea with

called

./;;-///

Part hi a

ten-fold.

(29)

are honest in their transactions and there are no double prices.

worth

They (30)

a well-filled The budget U Cereals are always cheap. ^1 of countries When the embassies come neighboring treasury. \\

to their frontier, they are driven

are presented with golden to

by post to the

capital,

and on

arrival,

money.

China, but the An-hsi

Parthians) wis!

carry on trade with them in Chinese silks, and it is for this reason that till the .3.3) This lasted they were cut off from communication. (

ninth year of the Yen-hsi period during the

emperor Hua:. A. D. 166) when the king of '/>/-///;/, An-tnn \Iarcus.\urclius Antoninus) sent an embassy who, from the frontier of Jili-nan Anam From that timeoffered ivory, rhinoceros horns, and tortoise shell.

(=

dates the (direct)

intercourse with this country.

The

list

of their

zrr

u htch bet throws doubt on the

v.mr

.

semk water") and the

wMl

;

fr<-

is

at sea

4*4

1'anhu

fun her sad

.

\-.u

n rttrnt >untry

by a tkik

ked by a f'tif. n
\\ill .itt.u

(

resting-pbn

<.

l.

be proir.

(40) /...':/
hrnl^c

.1

this

in

,

..nut.--,

\

;urt of

into

Empt\

ilu-

Roman

and

China

.ire

sham

is

meaning

and

OceaiL

fu

it

to be

This was the

geographers.

See

where the

Mela shows the Caspian Ocean, and or Don. Strabo (\\. \\. r

most

belief of

100,

p.

within ihe

h the Arctic Tanais,

of rare

curioskies

actually so far north as to ru\e

would require

this

ith.

tl.

may croat

mrndoned.

Under the Lesser Bear i{ini.ti.t\as

equipment, they

by which one

i:cnuiru\ \\hri

t

64.

//,

who

also say there

The ankles made

'

north

iiuintrirs

They

lions

in caravan

Military

these beasts.

and

.'en

and unless these be traveling

k passengers,

!>v

of

thrrr

//'*-/.

.

and, taking a northern turn,

nes unsafe

:!u-

it

lhr prr%r:.t

|fh

!!-

the-

of the

the >ca, wl>

//

t.

one

days,

'?rr

land-road of .4*-kn

round

>4iuU.

"mother

<

returned from

.ill

.

7* /*

.t far as

ol this country

,,

.

MTtS

>

'M we*, going over 200 inhales

,

/

H*umg-m*

iencc of the

desert

we*

that in the

*i

.d by

\

riului^ from the as

vard the extremit\.

it

ocean to the south.

A-

advances further inward, and widei^ rutcnthenet SajTS

it

I

that the was known to tl: ( >adusii the the oust the of and Albanians the of along voyage part Comprised 5400 stadia and the part along the country of the Aiu as the mouth o' the n\er Oxus, 4WO

sea

;

I

.

rd,

theme

is

t.

the Jaxartes,

ried t

the

2400 stadia."

rather an iniluatuin of the strong probability thatthr

Amu

ai.

together until after the Christian era, to the Greek adven-

re in truth accessible

278

turcrs

from Colchis,

(the Sea of

crossing:

Azov) Strabo

sular form, surrounded

from the

says (XI,

i,

I

5

u\me )

:

on the west by the

Sea.

As to Lake

"Asia has

Maeotis

a kind of penin-

Tanais and the

river

P.ilus

\la-otis as far as the Cimmerian Bosphorus, and tiiat part of th< uxine which terminates at Colchis; on the north by the of the I

in,

same

as

far as

the

mouth

sea, as far as the

of the Caspian Sea;

on the

east

by the

confines of Armenia.

were corrected by Ptolemy, but subsequently revived. Sec I'o/.er, Hilton of student Gtofrmpky 345,367; Huntington, 'The The /'/;'// Puht of Asia In GeoMackinder, of I Gngnapkical I'hc-NC

errors

t

;

jtraphi(tl Journal, xxiii,

422-4S7, April, 1904;

tatun of Eurasia\

June, 1904.

ibid.

,

Kropotkin, 7 'h,

In this proup of modern Tibetans may be found all the types mentioned in the closing paragraphs of the Periplus: "the men with flattened noses," the ..I the "1 onu-faccs," of 62, and the "men with short, thick 65. bodirt and hru:id, flat fares" of

65.

Besatae.

to the Cirrhad
These were another Tibeto-Burman tribe, and to the modern Kuki-Chin, Naua and

allied (

laro

279

them

IV.le my places

tribes.

(Unget, ami corroborate* I aaacin (III, 38) Appearance.

east

riplus AS to thrir perional

the

lilies

name

the

of

twU4v, "wretchedly ttupid," and Our author locates them 'on the

with the Sanscrit

*

sa\sr

-

.s.kkmt

tidicating that r location of their

annual

fair

JrLp

I

a Pass

lr.i

\\htilt thr

I

o\rrland

route

the t.iMr Km,:

.hrt

was then subject

above whnl.fl

)

or the

I

must have been near the 'ihetan side of ihr ?r.,n-

64 Ird Other

'Mentioned in

and Smgaitfu.

riingfu

Nepal are possible, par

lie

r Iravt

-:

A run River, hut Tom ihr Jirrct f

(he

fret

than

.yangtte

a past must be scaled higher by

Rui>

-eld. Th<

ft

3000

.Hgrwfi*/ J**n*/9

!

and March, 1904; and Th< Hitknt Mountain h,

OH'nnnor,

1903;

rVudo-C'allisthrurx

III,

They are a feeWe among the ru k

flk,

leaf.

caves

s

refer* to the

.f

leaf.

Thry

heads of

/u&r,

are small straight

I

..f

BiuuU "who

gat I"

diminutive Mature, and

\cr>'

how

mulerstand

itmutr kiuiulrd^r gather thr

tn tkt ."

A'

the country

men

f

t> climb

!

prn

and are thus

al

stunted growth, with big

ami not

\IcCrindlr

p. 180. )

Indian Jrtkiuttuft, I, \^ *ay: "The rgusson (History are a fragment of a great primitive population that occu-

/

.ins

some

he northern ami southern slopes of the Himalayas at very remote prehistoric tune

and they, ami

serpents;

their descendants

Sum

Hurni.i.

Buddhism.

and

In Iiulia

tlu-

I

\\orshippers of trees

ami

<>nt, in

and China, ha\e been the bulwark of it

in the

north

Feast for several days. m any accounts

and

ig

"

.

>(xion of a tribal

I

festival

and

Bengal,

Kr. ulians resisted Buddhism on the ^uth.

anism abolishetl

a

r

1

>f

neo-

other

from Herodotus (IV,

1

beyond the Pillars of Her who inhabit and men they Libya, their unloaded have and merchandise, they I>eople in order on the shore, go on board their ships and make a treat .* n to the the inhabitants, seeing the smui then deposit foUl m ex. han^r lr the in -chandtse, and with* :is r

.it

further say that

\

zso

to

some

distance from the merchandise;

ashore, examine the

gold,

then, lining for the meivh.imlise, they take ;tficient,

(

it

if

that the

up ami

their ships again

the Carthaginian!

quantity seen

sail

a\vav;

hut

if

it

is

and wait; the natives

modern trade-route through the mountains of Sikkim. and rovers of matting are easily distin^iishahle.

)n a

hu.>kct<

they go onboard

and

The

shoulder-

ai ach and dcpont more nnihrr party

gold, until they have

c

the fold

,

the merchanditr. nor do ibr a h ihr incrv hjfuliM- trf..rr -hr other party ha* taken the

1

hr

1

1

ems alto to ipcak Ammianut MarceUmu*. in

.

Himalayas}

pa%vd it

1

.real

(

the

Stone

Tathkurgh

-i

ascribe* u to

of the

ids to

!

t ustom in Crylon. nagai," the tutelary guardian* of die ptr-

packs and boket.

Ihr ^n. tfubr burdrt.

JoKes

:il

IN

ii

rd rctcrobUnt

i

fxtrtt, fiber;

tirsinptiM of

u-

llir tiir

'lir

Sans*

ihrouuhiuii In

Mulabathriiin.

IIH ipal .

quarters rivers

b

./JNMM*J* itfM^r

&>

and

b

COTTBCt,

P!i

the Hi;

:

)lhcr-

'he AfMMM&f leaVCt

;

in his

.uvMunt of h

lakex.

nativr

l,ti

"It contains

gold-dua

is

found

.thumlani is

in

this i-nuniry

and

KS of 4,

Brahman 1

fefi

thnr

he* a high

women and

-

f

chev

(heir idols.*'

87, 89, 216-18.

Influence of the gods.

66.

in

Coral

nand

in

tht%

i

irr.

writing's

I

the geography of

uer in (he

l~th cen(ur>,

who

tuna-

the Rama\a>i (his mrrc Kant of Bercn uler ihr spell of (he great epic* of India, at

sojourned

he

among n* ihrrr,

Cholas, Chenu, and the Pandyas dwelling by the toutWra tn.

' '

region beyond Sikkim. "impassable by reason of its fiat ttukuiini: the nnuhiiest peaks of (he Himalayas, was within

and u-rr

ih-


Wahabharata, all

ic

home-land of (he Brahman

mouniams. Kxrrrst. is a name of Siva and Durgi;

greatest of .

(he

Hritm***,, and faith;

with the

.ss, K

utrd the name of Gauri-

in (he

western curve of the grrji

peak of Kailas. the ( )|ympus <>f tin- Miiulu
is

d

the IVriplus

d

is

"HmJt not

that of the Sita-quest in the till

\mi

rca< h thr i-ountrv \\lirrr thr imrtlirrn Ki.

routines of the wide

t-artli,

homi- of Ci.d

ami

Spirits l>k-st

" !

I

214

OK TRADE MENTIONED

\K riU.KS

.

Red Sea

mtrattd according

to

1'KRIPLUS

the ports

Horn

Coast.

THK

IN

of Africa (The

"far side"

ISt).

AVAI

(Export,)

(Imports)

hell

Flint glass, assort

I\.r\

ADI

i

c.

I

Juice of sour grapes from I)i-

iv

oKi Undressed cloth from Egypt Robes from Arsinoc Cloaks of poor quality, dyed Double-fringed linen mantles

many forms (glass imitation made

Flint glass, in

M urrhine

in Diospolis Brass (for ornament and in cut i

pieces as coin) Shc< >pper (for cooking-utensils, and bracelets -

Iron (for spears) ;d

swords

Copper drinking-cups, and large Coin, a

Wheat Wine Tin.

(Exports

round

partly

Occ!

to

Muza) Ivory Tortoise-shell

Myrrh MALAO.

(bettrr than

things already mentioned.

Also Tunics Cloaks from Arsinoe, dressed and dyed Drinking cups

little

Wine

of Laodicea and Italy

Sheets of soft copper

Olive

oil

Iron

Presents for the king : gold and silver plate, military cloaks,

thin coats of skin

Indian

iron

and

steel

toghtf, perhaps

raw cotton

Girdles

Coats of skin

Mallow-colored cloth Muslins Lac.

Gold and

Frankincense (the far-side)

Cinnamon (the harder) Duaca (var. of frankincense) Indian copal

Macir (medicinal Kirk from Malabar) (These exports going to Arabia) Slaves, rarely.

MUNDUS. (Imports)

(Exports)

The

Ivory

(Exports)

Tortoise-shell i

noce ro s - horn.

silver coin.

(Exports)

Myrrh (from

Ariaca) Indian cotton cloth (the broad monadic} , also the sagma-

Rh

:

(Imports)

The

aiul anklets)

AJU

Dressed cloth, assorted

The

things already mentic

things already also

mt

its of

.

MOfYLLVM. (Im^rtj)

The

thi

l.itle

Iron, very (,:,,

Wine, a link

WW*. for free Cinnamon,

in

Fragrant

Irory

TWM

jtf

(in

incwttc

.Mkinmuc

(the

fmr^uk) .

M% K Frankinoctur

MARK

i

(

the l*et Ur-

Sncn

or

r

.

t

(Cmpr Guudft-

Arabte.

MVIA.

MM

cwms,

al

in

Clothing

Armbiaafylrt,t.itk

(varieties

artfa,

mtgtn,

with gold)

Km OVOM The

.

and JWOAO,

in great <|iuntity )

Slaves of the

Egypt,

in

Wttcr

..:

increasing

num-

Wine and wheat

(not

much,

Uw

country producing both)

bers

Present, tn the

Tortoiie-shell f

gfMHi

quality,

King and duel.

.

in great quati'

in

(Goods brought .1%

ami the

,H,rt)

)

M^ gold and poltfWd

liu