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i«.

COLLECTION Vol. IV.

Aug. 22, 1802.



Sept. 14, 1886.

Chicago Historical Society's Collection.

—Vol. IV.

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS

Edited and Annotated

By

EDWARD

G.

MASON,

President of the Chicago Historical Society.

Published at the Charge of the Jonathan -Burr Fund.

CHICAGO: FERGUS PRINTING COMPANY 1890.

COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION:

Edward

G.

Mason,

George W. Smith, Levi

Z.

Leiter.

r I

V4

^Ms/y

-jf;

CONTENTS \ Inscription,

Preface,

.....--. ...--. ..---. .



-

-

-

-

-

.

List of Illustrations,

Chicago Historical Society, Officers, November, . . . Past Officers, . . . Members, Honorary Life .

1889, -

.

.

-

-

.

Life,

Annual,

Associate,

.

Honorary, Corresponding,

Hubbard, Gurdon

..... ..... .

.

.

.

.

.

-

.

-

.

vii

ix

v xi xii xiii

xiv xvi

xx xxi xxii

by Hon. Grant Goodrich, 9 Arnold, Isaac N., by Hon. E. B. Washburne, 27 Tributes of Hon. Thos. Drummond, Hon. VanH. Higgins, and Hon. Wm. F. DeWolf, 46 Skinner, Mark, by E. W. Blatchford, 54 "Washburne, Elihu B., by Gen. Geo. W. Smith, 78 Tribute of William H. Bradley, 98 Carpenter, Philo, by Rev. Henry L. Hammond, 102 _ _ _ Stone, Samuel, by Mrs. William Barry, 130 Menard, Pierre, Sketch of, by Edward G. Mason, 142 The First Lieut.-Gov. of Illinois, by Hon. H. S. Baker, 149 Pierre-Menard Papers Ante-Nuptial Contract between Pierre 162 Menard and Miss Therese Godin, June 13, 1792, Pierre Menard's Commissions as Major of Militia, 166 Pierre Menard's Commission as Judge of the Courts of Randolph County, -168 Pierre Menard and John Edgar's Commissions as Associate Judges, Criminal Court, Randolph County, 168 Pierre Menard's Commission to take Testimony in Land-

S.,

:

Office Claims,

------

Menard's Commission as Judge of Court of Common Pleas, Randolph County, Pierre Menard's Commission as Lieut.-Colonel First Reg't Randolph Co. Militia, under the Laws of Indiana Terr'y, Pierre Menard's Commission as Captain of Infantry in Louisiana Territory, Pierre Menard's Commission as Lieut.-Colonel First Reg't Randolph Co. Militia, under the Laws of Illinois Terr'y, Pierre Menard's Commission as Indian Agent, -

171

Pierre

----i

171

172

173

175

176

EARLY CHICAGO AND

ii

ILLINOIS.

Pierre-Menard Papers Lewis Cass and Pierre Menard's Com. _ _ missions to make Indian Treaties, Record of Marriage of Pierre Menard's Parents, Record of the Baptism of Pierre Menard, Record of the First Marriage of Pierre Menard, Record of the Burial of Pierre Menard, _ _ _ Vasseur, Noel le, by Stephen R. Moore, Lists of Early IlHnois Citizens, Introduction by E. G. Mason, Heads of Families in Kaskaskia in or before 1783, Inhabitants of Prairie du Rocher and St. Philips in 1783, Heads of Families in Cahokia and its Environs in 1783, Heads of Families at Cahokia, Prairie du Pont, etc., 1783, Liste des Habitans resident aux Kaskaskias en 1790, :

Capt. Piggot's

Company

in First Militia Reg't, Apr. 26, 1790,

Company, August i, 1790, Roll of Capt. Jean Baptist Dubuque's Company, Aug. i, 1790, Roll of Capt. Philip Engel's Company, August i, 1790, Roll of Militia of Kaskaskia, August i, 1790, Roll of Militia of Prairie du Rocher, August i, 1790, General Return of St. Clair County Militia, August i, 1790, Roll of Capt. Francois Saucier's

Petition of Certain Inhabitants of Vincennes,

Jones, John Rice, by W. A. Burt Jones, Jones, John Rice; Gen. Augustus; Hon.

-

-

.

.

.

Myers Fisher; Gen. Geo. Wallace; William Powell; Eliza; and Harriet,

W.

A. Burt Jones, Col. John, Sketch of, by Edward G. Mason,

Jones, Rice, by

Todd, jr., John Todd's Record-Book: Gov. Henry's Instructions _ List of Commissions, Military and Civil, License

_ . Trade, Letter to the Court of Kaskaskia,

_

for

-

-

180 iSi

192 198

203

204 206 209^

213

216 217

219 220 222 224 228 230 260

285

to Col. Todd, 289 -

-

.

_ -

178

271 -

-

jj^ 177 178

-

294

296 -

297

Plan for Borrowing $33,333^^^ of Treasury Notes, both belonging to this State and the United States, 298 Copy of the Instructions, etc., on the Borrowing Fund, 299 Bond of Commissioner, 300 Proclamation of, prohibiting New Settlements, 301 Warrant for Execution; John Todd to Richard Winston, 302 _ John Todd to Nicholas Janis, 302 Proclamation of, concerning Continental Money, 303 . _ _ _ . Order to Hold Court, 304 Letter to Spanish Commandant at Ste. Genevieve, 304 Proclamations of, concerning Provisions for Troops, 305-6 Notice concerning Called-in Currency, 307 Record of Order on Governor of Virginia, 307 Condemnation Proceeding; Court Record, 308

...

CONTENTS.

iii

-...__

John Todd's Record-Book Oath of Allegiance Court Record, 309 Peltry Account, ^i^ _ . _ Entries by Col. Todd's Successor, 315 John-Todd Papers Col. John Todd, jr., to Governor of Virginia, 317 John Page, Lieut.-Gov., to John Todd, Co. Lieut, etc., 320 . . Col. John Todd, jr., to Col. P. Legras, 320 Col. John Todd, jr., to Oliver Pollock, 321 Oliver Pollock to John Todd, County Lieut, of 111., acknowledging receipt of his, by the hands of Mons. Perrault, 323 . _ _ Col. John Todd, jr., to Gov. Jefferson, 323 Gen. Geo. Rogers Clark to Col. John Todd, 325 Lieut.-Col. J. M. P. Legras to Governor of Virginia, 328 Thos. Jefferson to the Hon. the Speaker of House of Delegates, 329 John Dodge, Indian Agent, to Gov. Jefferson, 330 - 334-5-41-2-6 Col. John Todd, jr., to Gov. Jefferson, -335 Richard McCarty to John Todd, Esq., _ _ Richard Winston to Col. John Todd, 338 Col. John Todd to the Governor of Virginia, 343 Board of Commissioners to Benj. Harrison, Governor of Virginia, concerning Col. John Todd's, jr.. Accounts, etc., 348 Col. John Montgomery to the Hon. the Board of Commis;

:

:

sioners, for the Settlement of

Thomas

Western Accounts,

Jefferson to Col. Todd,

-

-

-

351 _

-

— Philippe de

357

Rocheblave, Sketch by E. G. Mason, 360 Rocheblave Papers Sir Guy Carleton to Rocheblave, 382 _ _ _ Richard McCarty to Rocheblave, 383 Petition to Carleton concerning Rocheblave, 385

British Illinois

:

Declaration of Gabriel Cerre,

_

.

_

_

389

_ _ . Rocheblave to Lieut.-Gov. Hamilton, 3gi Rocheblave to Lieut.-Gov. Abbott, 392-3 Sir Guy Carleton to Lord George Germaine, 394 Rocheblave to Lord George Germaine, 395 _ . _ Inhabitants of Peoria to Rocheblave, 397 Examination of Henry Butler before Rocheblave, at Ft. Gage, 398 Rocheblave to Carleton, 401 . . Rocheblave to Lord George Germaine, 407 Rocheblave to Bosseron at St.Vincennes, 408 Rocheblave to Lieut.-Gov. Hamilton, ^09 Rocheblave to Lieut.-Gov. Abbott, _ . 410 Rocheblave to Thomas Dunn, Treasurer, Quebec, 410-11 Rocheblave to Carleton, 412-18 Court of Enquiry at Fort Chartres, 1770, by Hon. John Moses, 420 Index, 487

-----

-----

-__-___.

ILLUSTRATIONS. Arnold, Isaac N., from a photo, by Alex. Hesler, Carpenter, Philo,

Hubbard, Gurdon

.

S.,

.

.

Menard,

March, 1881, .

27 102

.

from a photo, by C. D. Mosher in 1880, Frontispiece

Jones, John Rice, from a portrait by Dauberman,

owned by

in

.

in winter of 1823-4,

Hon. Geo. W. Jones of Iowa,

his son,

.

......

230

Pierre, from a portrait by Chester Harding, in Chicago

Historical Society,

Menard's, Pierre, House, from a photo, by Thomas Smith, Proclamation of Col. John Todd, Autograph

Letters,

jr.,

June

in 1884,

72,

.

..... ..... S.

M.

Fassett, in 1874,

Washbume,

le,

E. B.

.

.

-

.

.

192

.

54

.

181

Stone, Samuel, from a photo.,

Vasseur, Noel

152

15, 1779, fac-simile from

Chicago Historical Society, Vol.

Skinner, Mark, from a photo, by

142

-

132

78

r This

Volume

Memory

Inscribed to the

is

of

Jonathan Burr, Born at Bridgewater,

March

Mass.,

Became a Resident of Chicago

Where he He

Died, February

was a highly-esteemed

By

olence.

his last will

4,

6,

in 1848; 1869.

citizen, distinguished for his

he distributed the bulk of

amounting to more than two hundred thousand

To

the public institutions of Chicago. Society, of

the

that the principal

its

sum

of a perpetual

expended

his fortune,

dollars,

among

the Chicago Historical

dollars in trust to invest the same,

annual income thereof at

ing the expenses of

dation

benev-

which he was an honorary life-member, he bequeathed

sum of two thousand

to use the

1794;

its

publications.

discretion toward defray-

He

expressed the desire

so bequeathed should be fund,

for this purpose.

made

the income of which

The

the foun-

should be

cost of printing this volume

has been provided for by the income of this fund.

Vll

and

PREFACE.

THE

present volume

is

the fourth in order of publication of the

collection of the Chicago Historical Society.

has been

It

the intention of the committee in charge, in arranging the material at

hand, to print

first

last

century.

arrangement;

that relating to our

This material also lends

time, then matter of

readily to another

itself

of papers immediately concerning Chicago; next,

first,

more reference

of those having

own

present century, and finally that relating to the

earlier date in the

to the State of

various territorial organizations comprising

its

Illinois,

and the

area; and lastly, those

by

relating to the period of the possession of the Illinois country

Great Britain. Other documents of the days of British and of French lUinois,

which the

limits of this

volume did not permit

to

be printed

now, are reserved for future publication.

Of

the six

memoirs of deceased

citizens of

Chicago included

in

Hubbard is by Hon. Grant Goodrich; that of Hon. Isaac N. Arnold is by Hon. Elihu B. Washburne; that of Hon. Mark Skinner is by E. W. Blatchford; that of Hon. E. B. Washburne is by Gen. Geo. W. Smith; that of Philo Carpenter, Esq., is by Rev. Henry L. Hammond; and that of Samuel Stone, The portraits which accompany them Esq., is by Mrs. Wm. Barry. this

volume, that of Gurdon

S.

most part gifts to the Society from the relatives or friends commemorated. The address upon the first lieutenant-governor of Illinois, Pierre Menard, is by Hon. H. S. Baker of Alton, 111., by whom it was delivered at the unveiling of the statue of Menard, presented to the are for the

of those thus

State of Illinois

by Charles Chouteau,

Esq., of St. Louis, Mo.,

the pioneer trader,

of Kankakee,

111.

Noel

The

and foremost lawyer are

by

his grandson,

the portrait

ing son,

is

le

Vasseur,

is

and

The memoir of by Hon. Stephen R. Moore

standing in the capitol grounds at Springfield,

111.

biographies of John Rice Jones, the earliest

in the

Mr.

W.

Northwest Territory, and of

his family

A. Burt Jones of St. Paul, Minn.,

and

from an original in the possession of his only surviv-

Hon. George W. Jones of Dubuque, ix

la.

X

PREFACE.

The

and the

introduction to the Lists of Early Illinois Citizens,

sketches of Pierre Menard, John Todd, and Philippe de Rocheblave, are by Mr. E. G. Mason.

The

Menard, the view

portrait of Pierre

of his residence at Kaskaskia, and the fac-similes of Col, John

Todd's proclamation

in

French and English are from originals in the

possession of the Chicago Historical Society.

For several of the

letters printed in the

John-Todd Papers, we

are indebted to the invaluable "Calendar of Vigrinia State-Papers,"

published under the authority of that State, and for others hitherto

unpublished to the kindness of

Wm.

Wirt Henry, Esq., of Rich-

mond, Va. For the remainder of the John-Todd Papers, and for all of the Rocheblave Papers, we are under obligation to the "Canadian Archives," and the copies of the Haldimand Collection there preserved, and especially to the archivist, Douglas Brymner, Esq.

His labors

in

collection,

and

obtaining these copies, his admirable calendar of the

the gratitude of

his courtesy in all

who

The remarkable

it

accessible entitle

official

particularly as governor of

umes, was presented by

until

it

to

by Sir Frederick Haldimand of his documents during his service in America, Canada, from June 30, 1778,

the latter part of 1784, comprising two hundred

Since that time

him

collection

correspondence and

and

making

are interested in our history.

his

has been

nephew known

and

to the British to

until

thirty-two vol-

Museum

a few scholars, but

it

in 1857.

was not

Mr. Brymner's reports on the "Canadian Archives" for 1882

and subsequent years were published

that there

was any general

re-

cognition by historical students of the exceeding value of this collection.

It is

not too

much

to say that the light

upon the period of the Revolution,

part at least of the history of the Northwest. collection have been printed

it

casts, particularly

necessitates the rewriting of that

by the

Selections from this

historical societies of

Michigan

and Wisconsin, and now by that of Chicago. It would be a fitting and worthy work for the State of Illinois to undertake the publication of this entire collection, which contains the most authentic and, to a great degree, the only record of the early days of the Illinois

country.

Chicago, January

i,

1890.

OFFICERS OF THE

CHICAGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Elected November

1889.

19,

PRESIDENT,

EDWARD

G.

MASON.

VICE-PRESIDENTS:

ALEXANDER

C.

GEORGE

McCLURG,

W. SMITH.

SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN,

JOHN MOSES. TREASURER,

GILBERT

B.

SHAW.

EXECUTIVE committee:

Edward Henry

J.

George

G. Mason, Chairman ex

Willing,

'

Levi

officio.

Leiter,

Z.

1890

Samuel H. Kerfoot,

1891

Edward H. Sheldon,

Edward

1892

Daniel K. Pearsons,

George W. Smith.

L.

Dunlap,

E.

Ayer,

1893

TRUSTEES of THE GILPIN FUND:

Edwin H. Sheldon,

Augustus H. Burley,

Peter

Henry

L.

Yoe,

Edward

G.

Mason and Alex.

XI

C.

J,

Willing,

McClurg,

ex

officio.

'

List of Officers of the

856.

Win. H. Brown.

857.

Wm.

H. Brown.

858.

Wm.

H. Urown.

859.

Wm.

H. Brown.

Wm.

J. y.

H. Brown.

861.

W.

L. Ncwl)erry.

862.

W.

I..

(W. \ '(

(

863.

W.

I..

Newberry.

864.

VV.

I,.

Newberry.

865.

W.

I,.

Newberry.

866.

W.

1,.

Newberry.

867.

W.

L.

Newberry.

870.

(No

876.

Isaac

N. Arnold.

Isaac N. Arnold.

878.

Isaac N.

879.

Isaac N. Arnold.

\

/J. Y.

885.

886.

Isaac N. .Arnold.

N. Arnold.

887.

24, 1S84.

Died Apr.

E. B. W.ashbnrne. E. B. Washburne.

E. B. Washburne.

Died Oct.

Edward

Scammon.

Wm.

B.

Ogden.

J. Y.

Scammon. Ogden Scammon.

Wm.

B.

J. Y.

Wm.

(

(

I

( '/

William Barry. Resigned Jiuie. 1866. •

>

(

Ogden.

Tinkham.

Edward

I.

Tinkhanu

Franklin Scammon. Franklin Scammon. Died Feb. 10, 1864

Geo. F. Rumsey.

"

>

"' t

Thos. H. Armstrong,

Thos. H. Armstrong.

Thos. H. Armstrong. Resigned Sept., 1868.

B.

I.

William Blair.

*

Ogden.

Edward

f

William Barry.

Scammon.

J. Y.

(

)

i

I

J. Y. Scammon. Edwin H. Sheldon, Thomas Hoyne. Thomas Hoyne. Ezra B. McCagg. Thomas Hoyne. Ezra B. McCagg.

/

Geo. F. Riimsey. Robert T. Lincoln.

(

Thomas Hoyne.

j

f

J

W. Hoyt.

Wm.

Corkran.

w^V"?'" Wm. Corkran. -

'.

Robert Reid.

(

I)

Edward

I.

Tinkham.

Solomon A. Smith.

Belden F. Cvdver.

22, 1887.

C"..

Mason.

C"..

Mason.

(;.

Mason.

Belden F. Culver. Resigned May 12, 77 -

Robert T. Lincoln.

Thomas Hoyne.

'

(

William Hickling.

(

Thomas Hoyne.

(

William Hickling.

(

Thomas Hoyne

Thomas Hoyne.

i

/

E. B. Washburne.

(

Thomas Hoyne. E. B. Washburne.

"(

(

(

t '(

t

} ( "(

(

(

( "(

E. B. Washburne. John Wentworth. A. C. McClurg. Geo. W. Smith. Edward (». Mason.

Solomon A. Smith. (

I). H.-igc-r.

Albert D. Hager. .Vlbert

D. Hager.

.Albert

Edward G. Mason

I

Solomon A .Smith. Died Nov. s, 1879. Byron I^ Smith.

Henry H. Nash.

D. Hager.

Henry H. Nash.

Albert D. Hager.

Henry H. Nash.

Hager.

Henry H. Nash.

Albert D. Hager.

Henry H. Nash.

Albert D. Hager.

Henry H. Nash.

D. Hager.

Henry H. Nash.

.Albert

A. C. McClurg. A. C. McClurg. Geo. W. Smith.

Solomon A. Smith.

(

Albert D. Hager. Albert

-Albert 1).

A. C. .McClurg.

A. C. McClurg. Geo. W. Smith.

;

(

|-

William Hickling.

'(

'i

Edw.-ird

B.

B.

(

'I

Edward

Ogden.

Wm.

J

*

Isaac N. Arnold.

884.

B.

.Samuel Stone, Ass't.

.Arnold.

Isaac N. Arnold. 883.

.A.ss't.

William Barry.

William Barry.

(

I.saac

Samuel Stone,

Samuel D. Ward.

Election.)

877.

880.

William Barry.

Ogden. J. Y. .Scammon. Wm. B. Ogden.

j

Edwin H. Sheldon.

.Samuel Stone, Ass't.

Wm.

Resigned Nov., 1870.

87s.

,•

Geo. Manierre.

i

874.

William Barry.

I,.

(

(

.Sheldon.

'-

Ass't.

/

Scammon.

Kdwin H.

Samuel Stone,

D. Ward.

c Samuel D. Ward.

Ass"t.

William Barry.

.Samuel Stone, Ass't,

'(

J. Y.

Samuel Stone,

William Barry.

(

Newberry. Died Nov. 6, 1868.

Scammon.

USamuel '

Geo. Manierre.

(

L.

.Stone, .Ass't.

Wm.

j

(

W.

MbrarUn.

William Barry.

Newberry. Wm, B. Ogden. W. I,. Newberry. Wm. B. Ogden. Wm. B. Ogden.

(

Xewberry.

Samuel

L. Newl)erry. Wm. B. Ogden.

It

Wm.

Ser'.v anil

B.

W.

( '(

Rkcords

William Barry.

Ogden. ( J. Y. Scammon. jWm. B Ogden. J

"(

860.

its

Vlee-Pr»»lileiili«.

President.

Yrar.

Historical Society

Cliicaj^^o

As Shown hy

John Moses.

Henry H. Nash.

John Moses.

Henry H. Nash.

John Moses.

Gilbert B. Shaw.

I

A. C. McClurg. Geo. W. Smith.

I

J

xii

)

MEMBERS CHICAGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY, HONORARY LIFE-MEMBERS. Resident- Members or Life- Members

who have contributed $500 or more to the Society:

NAME

ELECTED

William Barry, (Rev.) Jonathan Burr

.

Lezi Z. Leiter

Jan. 17, 1885

80

(res.)

1858

Feb.

1869

75

July 27, 1883

66

Sept. 29, 1865

67

Oct. 3, 1864

70

.

Sept. 16, 1887

74

May

78

(life)

1857

(life)

1864

(life)

1859 I87I

Flavel Moseley

Albert A.

.

Daniel K. Pearsons

(life)

1864

(res.)

1877

(life)

1858

Allen Robbins

1857

Edwin H. Sheldon

Mark Skinner Byron Laflin Smith Samuel Stone

Henry

J.

Willing

4,

1883

.

Munger Samuel M. Nickerson

AGE

1856

Mrs. William Hickling

Thomas Hoyne

DIED

(res.)

.

.

(life)

1856

(res.)

1879

(life)

1857

(res.

1877

xni

4,

1876

CHICAGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

LIFE-MEMBERS. Those contributing $300. AGK

Newton Arnold Timothy B. Blackstone

856

Isaac

Eliphalet

W.

Blatchford

869 871

Chauncey T. Bowen James H. Bowen William Bross Arthur Gilman Burlcy William Findlay Coolbaugh William M. Derby Hugh Thompson Dickey (ieorge L. Dunlap

869

Alden Ellis David J. Ely Henry Farnum William Whitman Farnum Charles Benjamin Parwell

871

.

869

55

May

1881

6,

I,

1

881

59

865 871

869

Nov.

1877

57

865

Feb. 24, 1877

62

857

Oct.

80

17,

870

.

858 869

.

.

.

1883

4,

864 .

869

John Villiers Farwell Marcus A. Farwell William Henry Ferry

869

Marshall Field

869

John Forsyth

March

869

.

Lucius B. Boomer

.

68

870

George M. Bogue

J.

April 24, 1884

869 870

March

26,

1880

61

869 868

Sept. 22, 1885

55

Oct. 25, 1873

5'

Alex. Nathaniel FuUerton

870

Sept. 23, 1880

76

Henry Greenebaum

870

Walter Smith Gurnee Henry II. Honore "Thomas Hoyne

857 864 July 27, 1883

66

Egbert L. Jansen

869

.Samuel

W.

.

Fuller

Samuel Johnston Samuel H. Kerfoot Nathan J5. Kidder John Harris Kinzie

857

869

869 856

Mrs. Jesse Bross Lloyd

870

Horatio Gates Loomis

857

I'^zra

Butler

McCagg

James H. McVicker Arthur B. Meeker Moss Robert Walter Loomis Newberry 1'..

1886

Oct.

5,

June June

27, 1875

72

21, 1865

62

53

869

856 1883

864 870 857

Nov.

6,

1

868

64

1

LIST OF MEMBERS. William Butler Ogden Mahlon Dickinson Ogden

-

1856

Benjamin V. Page William J. Quan

.

1864

.

1864

Joseph Sampson Reed Robert Reid

3, 1877 Feb. 13, 1880

72 68

April

1883

82

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Scammon Scammon Jonathan Young Scammon Mrs. Maria S. Scammon Mark Skinner Alvin Edmond Small .

.

.

.

.... ....

1868 88

61

1883

70

23, 1876

35

1857

June

1864

March

17, 9,

1

1870

i

.

.

Charles T.

5,

1868

George Frederick Rumsey Joseph Turner Ryerson Louis Sapieha

.

1863

Aug.

1863

Feb. 10, 1864

53

1856

Sept. 16, 1887

74

1870

Dec. 29, 1886

75

1871

March

57

1856 1870

.

Perry H. Smith

Aug.

1871

Benjamin W^right Raymond

Franklin

1856

XV

.

Jesse Spalding

29, 1885

1867

Thompson Harvey M. Thompson

Daniel

.

1869

....

John Byce Turner John Tyrrell George C. Walker

John Wentworth Calvin T. Wheeler Peter Lynch Yoe

1864

.

.

.

1869

Feb. 26, 1871

72

Oct. 16, 1888

73

1871 .

1869 1867

.

1869 1871

CHICAGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY

XVI

RESIDENT OR ANNUAL MEMBERS. Annual dues,

(Dec, 1889.) NAME

5

per annum.

HI.ECTKIJ

William K. Ackerman

CEASED

AGK

resigned in 1889

1879

George Everett Adams

1879

John McGregor Adams James M. Adsit

1879 1882

resigned in 1880

Owen

1888

resigned in 1889

1879

died June 13, 1881

.

F. Aldis

George Armour

.

Armour

1882

Ayer Ayer William T. Baker

1869

1888

Alvin C. Bartlett

1882

Samuel E. Barrett

1888

Henry W. Bishop John C. Black Edward T. Blair Frank M. Blair

1870

Philip

1).

Benjamin

Edward

F.

1888

E.

1888 1884 I881

.

William Blair

1858

Kollin P. Blanchard

1883

withdrawn, 1888

Rufus Blanchard

1877

trans, to

James VanZant Blaney, M.D.

1856

died Dec. 12, 1874

William H. Bradley

1878

Mason Bray man

1856

William Hubbard Brown

1856

Isaac

Howe

Burch

1857

Augustus Harris Burley

1864

John B. Carson Frank R. Chandler Samuel Blanchard Chase

1888

.

.

Ellis Sylvester

69

Chesbrough

'

Corresponding

died June

17,

died April

9,

1867

1884

54

72

68

resigned

1869 1877 1869

died Aug. 17, 1886

73

Augustus Louis Chetlain

George C. Clarke John M. Clark J. Thorn Clarkson

1888

Lewis L. Coburn

1877

1877

.

I88S

Charles Counselman

1888

Mrs. Caroline Fairfield Corbin

1888

Burton C. Cook

1883

resigned in 1888

1883

died Sept. 15, 1888

1888

resigned in 1889

1867

died Oct. 19, 1889

Henry Corwith Ambrose Oamer

.

John Crerar Shelby M. CuUom

.

1889

75

63

LIST OF MEMBERS.

Eelden Farrand Culver

1857

Nathan Smith Davis, M.D.

1856

John DeKoven

1888

.

DeWolf

Oscar C.

.

William Elkanah Doggett

Dow

J, Hall

.

John High Dunham James Sears Dunham John Villers Farwell,

.

Norman Fay

1882

resigned,Nov. , 1888

1864

died April

1881

died

.

1882

.

Lyman John

J.

J.

1886

from Associate

May

1857

died

1857

died June 29, 1873

1874

18,

.

Gage

1881

1882 1888

Glessner

1883

Edward Goodman Daniel Goodwin

1869 1887

William Cutting Grant

1882

died Sept. 25, 1887

Samuel C, Griggs Charles F. Gunther Albert David Hager Chalkley J. Hambleton

1861

resigned

Charles D. Hamill

.

Harding John Charles Haines Charles M. Henderson William G. Hibbard William Hickling J.

resigned in 1887

died July 29, 1888

1882

from Associate

1881

trans,

1857

removed

1882

1882

1870

died Aug. 25, 1881

1869

trans, to

1857 1882

died Oct. 19, 1857

Charles Hitchcock

1869

died

187S

died

May May

died

March

Hjortsberg

.

.

Charles B. Holmes

.

71

1888

John High, Jr. Harlow N. Higinbotham

.

58

1883 1877

VanHolst Higgins George M. Higginson

Max

74 58

1883

.

Fullerton

trans,

Joseph O. Glover

Amos

56



1879 1888

1880

W.

1876

1884

Henry Field John Herbert Foster John W. Foster Allen Curtis Fuller

3,

12,

1862

George Harris Fergus

Charles

May

1879 Jr.

Nathaniel K. Fairbank

C

Corresponding

trans, to

68

1856

Corresponding

6,

1881

15,

1880

50

54



1882

Charles L. Hutchinson

1888

Edward S. Isham Henry P. Isham

1864 1879

Ralph N. Isham Huntington W. Jackson

1888

Obadiah Jackson

1869

1879

13,

1878



CHICAGO HISTORICAL

XVlll

NAMB

John

J.

SOCIE-TV.

LHCTEU

Janes

1884

CEASED

March

AGK

William Sage Johnson

1877

died

Daniel A. Jones

1882

died Jan. 11, 1886

Mahlon Ogden Jones Francis H. Kales Edson Keith

1879

resigned

1869

died Nov. 9, 1883

William D. Kerfoot

W. Kimball Henry W. King

1888

Edward Channing learned Edward F. Lawrence

1882

1889

John T. Lester William Lill

1850

Robert Todd Lincoln

1869



died Sept. 18, 1884

65

died Aug. il, 1875

67

1888

Haines H Magee George Manierre George Manierre,

1859

died Jan. 16, 1879

1856

died

May

21, 1863

46

died

May

13,

1884

7S

Jr.

1889

Edward Gay Mason Henry Burall Mason Roswell B Mason

1888

McVeagh

1883

1882

.

Alexander C. McClurg

1878 1877

Cyrus Hall McCormick, J Leander J. McCormick

1882

Samuel H. McCrea

Henry G. Miller John Moses Charles H. MuUiken Henry H. Nash Murry Nelson

1877 1880

resigned in 1889

resigned in 1887

1888 1887 1879 1880

.

1888

P. Odell

1888

William A. Otis

1888

Potter Palmer

1879 1880

Abram M. Pence Erskine M. Phelps Henry H. Porter

1880

Sartell Prentice

1879

1883

.

George M. Pullman

Henry Ray,

1882

M.D

1856

died Sept. 24, 1870

Edward Kendall Rogers

1862

died

Julius Rosenthal

1869

trans, to

I87I

died April 28, 1886

1877

removed

Julian Sidney

75

1879

Cyrus Hall McCormick

Charles

51

resigned

1877

.

J. J.

79-

1883

1883

.

William

Franklin

59-

1888

.

Charles P. Kimball

21, 1882

Rumsiy

Horatio N. Rust

Arthur Ryerson

May

2,

1883

49 72

Corresponding

65

1

LIST OF MEMBERS. NAME

Homer

E. Sargent

Sidney Sawyer (Gilbert

B.

Shaw

.... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .

.

James Washington Sheahan Henry M. Sherwood Stephen V. Shipman .

John G. Shortall Kdward A. Small William A. Smallwood (leorge W. Smith Solomon A. Smith Orson Smith Alexander C. Soper Franklin F. Spencer Albert A. Sprague

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Otho S. A. Sprague James Landon Stark Ralph Edward Starkweather, M.D. .

.

Edward

S.

.

Melville E. Stone

.

.

.

.

.

J.

J.

.

resigned

1886 died Feb. 17, 1873

1877

died

resigned in 1887

March

20, 1880

.1880 resigned

resigned in 1888

1877

resigned in 1888

.

.

.

1867

died Jan. 31, 1888

1856

died Dec.

.

2,

53

1873

.1881

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1864

died July

8,

1887

71

.

George Henry Wheeler Julius White

.

.

.

.

.

.

61

1888 1884

died Oct. 22, 1887

1882

resigned in 1888

1857

1880 1867

.1888

.

.

resigned in 1887

1881

died

March

12,

1876

1888

.

.... .... .

died Jan. 23, 1881

71

1869

.

.

.

1877 1882

.

.

188.4

.1857

.

.

.

Simeon B. Williams Benjamin M. Wilson

1880 1882

1882

.

64

.1888

Dana Webster

Sidney Williams

died Nov. 25, 1879

1888

.1880

.

Washbume Hempstead Washbume

Norman Williams

1867 1869

.

Elihu Benjamin

Joseph

1867

1881

....

EliasT. Watkins

71

63

2,

.

.... ... .... .

Warner Esaias Warren

Ezra

died Jan. 13, 1882 died Jan.

.

.

.

1877

1888

....

John A. Tyrrell William M. VanNortwick Francis L. Wadsworth James M. Walker John Richard Walsh Samuel Dexter Ward

resigned

59'

Nov., 1889

.

.

.

Woolsey M. Stryker Elisha H. Talbott John H. Thatcher John Leverett Thompson Edward Islay Tinkham Lambert Tree

1877

.1861

.

....

Stickney

Joseph Stockton

resi)jned

1886

.

.

died June 17, 1883

1882

.1857

.

.

187

.1888

.

.

1865

1878

.1889

.

.

XIX

ELECTED

1888 1888

trans, to Associate

6k.

CHICAGO HISTORICAL

sc»cii:rv.

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS. This classification of members has been abolished. Mrs. Margaret Maria O'Donohue, Charles N. Fessenden,

John Newell, Augustine

fuliiis

White.

W.

Wright,

.

HONORARY MEMBERS: NAME Samuel Greene Arnold..

Providence, R.I.

1878


Washington, D.C.

1861

William H. Bisseli Henry Williams Blodgett

Belleville,

111.

..

1856

Chicago

..

..

1882

RESIDENCE

ELECTED

AGE

DIED

Feb. 13, 1880

59

Mch.

49

18,

i860

.Sidney Breese

Carlyle,

John Bright Lewis Cass Richard Cobden

England Detroit

..

England

..

Edward Coles...

Philadelphia

..'

Isaac Craig

Alleghany, Penn.

1882

Chicago

..

..

1857

..Chicago

..

..

1882

..

..

i860

Jan. 15, 1865

71

..

..

1870

Feb.

56

i860

July

1879

Aug. 21, 1888

Stephen Arnold Douglas

Thomas Drummond Edward Everett

Thomas Foley

111.

..

...Boston

Chicago

(Bishop)

..

1878

June

..

i860

April, 1889

..

1861

June

..

i860

April

1861

July

Lady Jane Franklin England Samuel Smith Harris (Bishop) . ..Detroit, Mich. .. Gurdon Saltonstall Hubbard Chicago .. .. David King Newport, R.I. .. Airs. John H. Kinzie Chicago .. .. Bremen, Germany John George Kohl Abraham Lincoln Springfield, 111. Pierre Margry Paris, France .. Matthew Fontaine Maury Lexington, Va. . Wm. Edward McLaren (Bishop).. Chicago .. .. .Davenport, la. .. John McMullen (Bishop) Charles D. Mosher Chicago .. .. Dorchester, Mass. John Lothrop Motley

Duke

of Newcastle

Frederick Nolte

-.

England .. Paris, France

1875

18,

1882

7,

70 56

Feb.

I,

1865

1879 1861

1873

1879 1880

July

4,

1883

51

1863

May

29, 1877

63

..

i860

Oct. 18, 1864

53

..

1881

..

1864

..

1877 Jan. 28, 1859

63

May

77

Belleville,

111.

..

Charles Rogers

England

..

..

1880

James Savage Goldwin Smith

Boston

..

..

i860

Toronto, Ont.

..

1864

Cambridge, Mass. ....Jersey City, N.J. Boston, Mass. ..

i860

8, i 865

Mch.

8,

Mch.

14,

1866

77

Mch.

11,

1874

63

1887

85

1873

1861 1861

Manlius, N.Y. Wheaton, 111.

..

1878

Dec.

16,

..

1877

Mch.

6,

Boston, Mass.

..

i86r

Nov.

27, 1873

111.

89

1881

..

xxi

67

1878

1881

..Jacksonville,

70

64

14,

1857 1861

..

73

47 86

Oct. 28, 1878

..

Richard Yates

1879

Apr.

..

Henry C. VanSchaack James Barr Walker (Rev.) Robert Charles Winthrop

19,

1856

Boston

Chicago

48

1861

William Hickling Prescott John Reynolds

Sumner

1861

3,

Sept. 15, 1870

Bridgeport, Conn.

Lyman Trumbull

82

1863

Horatio N. Powers

•Charles

61

1868

Sept. 14, 1886

Elkhart,

William L. Stone

1865

Mch.

Chicago

Jared Sparks

1866

2,

1878

Richard James Oglesby

..

17,

7,

June

78 78 84

1877

AVilliam Frederick Poole

111.

27, 1878

1863

1887

82

5^

CHICAGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

XXll

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS: NAME

ELECTED

KESIDENXE

Alfred T, Andreas

Chicago

..

..

1879

Thomas H. Armstrong

Chicago

..

..

1879

Henry Asbury Samuel T. Atwater Henry Samuel Baird

Chicago

..

..

1883

..

1878

David Jewett Baker George H. Baker

Green Bay, Wis.

1864

Alton,

1856

111

New- York City

Henry Bannister John Stetson Barry (Rev.) John Russell Bartlett

Edmund

N.Y.

....Buffalo,

1

Dec, 1872

Providence, R.

1857

May

28, 1886

7,

I.

Hiram Williams Beckwith

Danville,

Chicago

Rufus Blanchard

Chicago

Daniel Bonbright

..Evanston,

..

..

111.

..

1879

..

..

1884

..

..

1877

111.

..

Benjamin Nicodemus Bond

Stanberry, Mo.

Henry R. Boss

Chicago

Benjamin L. T. Bourland

Peoria,

.. 111.

Wesley Raymond Brink Charles Brooks

77

— 53 8r

1881

1880 -.

1879

..

1889

...Boston, Mass. Edwardsville,

..

1857

111.

1881

1863

July

1881

Sept. il, 1883

76 76

..

1857

Aug.

10,

1881

71

..

1882

Aug.

14,

1889

7^

Aug.

11,

1872



Feb.

8,

.Medford, Mass.

Brown

Chicago

Hickman Browning Edmund Bruwaert John Howard Burnham

Chicago

Mrs. Pamelia C. Calhoim

Chicago

Frank Cantelo Mrs. Maria G. Carr... John Dean Caton

Peoria,

Orville

Quincy,

..

.. 111.

..

Bloomington,

..

1879 1880

..

1889

111.

.. 111.

Chicago

..

..

1887

Chicago

..

..

Chapman Frank M. Chapman

Chicago

..

..

1859 1880

Chicago

..

..

1886

George Churchill

Troy,

.Samuel Clarke Clarke

Marietta, Ga.

Charles C.

1856

111

Conant (Rev. ) Rockford, Chicago

Belden Farrand Culver

..

111.

..

1856

..

..

1857

N.Y.

1880

Chicago

..

..

1878

Charles H. G. Douglas

Chicago

..

..

Lyman Copeland Draper Henry T. Drowne

Madison, Wis.

1879 1880

Dawson

Morrisania,

New- York

City

..

1872

1857

William Frederick DeWolf

B.

1883

84.

Kilbourne City, Wis. 1888

C. Davis Bradlee (Rev.)

Henry

15,

1869

Apr.

John H. Beers

Hammond

6,

1859

1887

Augustus

Aug.

1857

1879

Mrs. Harriet C.

1884

..

111.

Worcester, Mass.

Bowman

3,

Wakefield, Mass.

Evanston,

Chicago

Jonathan

May

887

Oliver L. Buskin.

Mills Barton

AGE

DIED

1877

1863

51

LIST OF MEMBERS. NAME

RESIDENCE

XXIU

Dunn, Jr Reuben T. Durrett

Indianapolis, Ind.

Daniels. Durrie Zebina Eastman

Madison, Wis,

..

887 880

Maywood,

..

866

J. F.

Ky. ..

Louisville,

111.

..U.-S. Army Joseph H. Eaton Springfield, 111. Benjamin Stephenson Edwards .Springfield, 111. Ninian Wirt Edwards ..Taunton, Mass. S. Hopkins Emery Chicago Bernard Felsenthal Cornelius

Conway

Felton

Robert Fergus.

14,

857

Feb.

4,

859

Sept. 2, 1889

80

Feb. 26, 1862

55

Jan. 23, 1868

78

857

Chicago

879 ..

III.

1883

1886

.New-York City

857

879 881

Joseph Gillespie

Ed wardsville,

Charles Gilpin

Philadelphia, Pa.

Richard A. Gilpin

Lima, Pa. .. Columbus, O.

..

879

Boston, Mass.

..

857

Dec. 28, 1865

Grayville,

..

863

Oct. 29, 1865

..

861

Graham James Duncan Graham Albert A.

James Gray.. Samuel Abbott Green, Mrs. Rose F. Hager

M.D

..Chicago

James Hall George H. Harlow

Cincinnati, O.

J.

Harmer

Ozias M. Hatch Samuel Foster Haven Joseph Henry

865

111.

..

Chicago Chester,

857

7,

1885

76

66



Apr. 25, 1889 July 5, 1868

69 75

879

879

111.

Chicago ..Springfield,

111.

Worcester, Mass.

857

Sept.

5,

1881

75

Washington, D.C.

857

May

13,

1878

81

879 July

II,

1865

58

Alexander Hesler

Chicago

John Howard Hickox.

Albany, N. Y. ..

857

Richard Hildreth

Massachusetts

857

Henry H. Hill George M. Higginson Adolphus Skinner Hubbard Edwin Hubbard Miss Laura M. Hubbard Charles W. Hunter.. Joseph Hunter (Rev.) Henry H. Hurlbut

Jan.

883

Waukegan,

Robert

857 881 881

Boston, Mass.

Elijah Middlebrook Haines

Charles Harpel

111.

111.

68

857 866

Cambridge, Mass.

.Vandalia,

68

June

856

Washington, D. C.

Peter Force

Jacob Fouke Asa Bird Gardner

DIED

ECTEIJ

..Chicago

..

..

..

Chicago .San Francisco, Cal.

879

Bennington, Vt.

878

Chicago

879 856

Mch.

..

856

May

..

880

..Alton,

111

..London, Eng. Chicago ..

William B. Isham

New- York

Gabriel S.Jones

Chester,

Kiler Kent Jones Dwight H. Kelton William H. Kimball

Quincy, Mich.

Quincy,

City

i860

76

1861

78

20, 1886

62

884 879

111. 111.

Concord, N.H.

16, 9,

..

877 886

Aug.

.

CHICAGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

XXIV

RESIDENCE

Henry Clay Kinney (Rev.) Arthur M. Knapp

Chicago

1879 1880

.Boston, Mass.

George S. Knapp Ebenezer Lane

Chicago

1887

Chicago

1856

June

Milwaukee, Wis.

1856

Sept. 14, 1875

Joseph P. Leavitt Benjamin F. Lewis

Chicago

1881

Dec. 23, 1882

Chicago

1886

Washington Leverett

Alton,

Charles E. Lippincott

Chandlerville,

Thomas Lippincott

Pana,

Increase A.

Lapham

(Rev.)

Stephen Harriman Long

Henry Loomis Anthony Johnson Ludlam George Perkins Marsh James McGovern (Rev.) .Sterling Young McMasters Eliza Meachem Peter A. Menard

111 111.

111

Alton,

111

.Burlington, Vt. Atlanta,

Minn.

St. Paul,

New

Dec.

1889

84. 62.

i860

Apr.

1859 i860

Sept. 4, 1864

80.

July 23, 1882

81

May

77

1879

..

III.

1886

Kaskaskia,

111.

1879

Anson

Wright, Cal.

1864

New- York City New- York City New- York City

1857

Edmund

B. O'Callahan

William Butler Ogden J. Onahan Nathan H. Parker



Peter Parker

Francis

Parkman (

Amos J.

Perry

)

1880

Mo.

St. Louis,

..

-

Watts de Peyster

Boston, Mass.

1857

.

111.

1856

Clinton, Wis.

..

1881

..

1881

Ann

William

Elizabeth Stone

II.

Swift

Harriet A. Tenney

Mch.

15,

1858

69

Providence, R.I.

New- York Chicago

Miss

Ky.

Louisville,

W.

John Russell William Henry Ryder (Rev. ) Henry R. Schoolcraft John Wilson Shaffer John R. Shannon. George E. Shipman John C. Smith Robert Smith

1878

.Spring,

Albion,

Prickett

866

1857

William Pickering

George

1

Washington, D.C.

Rock

29, 1880

1888

Robert Wilson Patterson (Rev. ).. Chicago

John Mason Peck Rev. .Stephen D. Peet William H, Perrin



1863

Chicago

William

1869

13,

1857

Kaskaskia,

George Henry Moore

13,

Haven, Conn. 1886

Frederick Metzger S. Miller

64.



Sept. II, 1887

1859 1886

111.

67

1886

111.

Lockport,

i860

2,

1883

Italy

Rome,

J

City 1865

111.

Apr. 22, 1873

1882

Bluffdale,

III.

..

1856

Jan. 21, 1863

Chicago

1863

Mch.

8,

Washington, D.C.

1857

Dec.

10,

Salt-Lake City

1866

Oct. 30, 1870

1879

Dec.

Chester,

111.

..

Chicago

1857

Chicago

1879

...Alton,

III

Chicago

New- York City Lansing, Mich.

13,

1888

1864 1882

1857 1880

Dec. 21, 1867

1857 1886

Apr.

,888 7,

1879

66 71

56

65



79

.

XXV

LIST OF MEMBERS. NAME

XECTK

RESIDENCE

Reuben G. Thwaites

Madison, Wis.

..

1889

aleb B. Tillinghast

Boston, Mass.

.

1880

Ottawa, Ont.

.

(

Alpheus Todd (iustavus Unonius (Jeorge P.

Upton

VanName Thomas A. M. Ward lownsend Ward

Addison

Upsala, Sweden

Chicago

New

1864

Haven, Conn. 1886

Philadelphia, Pa.

Chicago

1877 1865

Henry Co.,

I86I 1861

Aug. 25 25, 1864

-.

I88I

July 19, 1883

Port Kent, N.Y.

1859

Central City, Neb.

1880

Sycamore,

Albert E. Wells

William Harvey Wells

Chicago

1857

Henry Benjamin Whipple

Faribault, Minn,

1864

Samuel Willard Fletcher Williams ..-

Chicago

1880

Charles Lush Wilson

James Grant Wilson John McNeill Wilson Robert J. Woodruff

Jan. 22, 1884

1857 1866

Hooper Warren James Waterman Winslow C. Watson

J.

DIKO

J

St. Paul,

111.

Minn.

...Chicago

New- York

City 111.

74

Jan. 21, 1885

1880 ..

..

Englewood, Chicago

111.

1864

Mch.

9,

1878

Dec.

7,

1883

1880 1879 1886

60

Chicago Historical Society's Collection.

—Vol. IV.

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS GURDON A

S.

Settler of

HUBBARD,

Chicago

in

1818.

By Hon. Grant Goodrich. Read

before the Chicago Historical Society,

GURDON

November

16, 18

SALTONSTALL HUBBARD,

the sub-

memoir, was born in Windsor, Vt., Aug. 22, 1802, his father, EHzur Hubbard, and mother, Abigail Sage, were natives of Connecticut. They had six children, four girls and two sons, of whom Gurdon was the eldest. His father was a lawyer by profession, but through unfortunate speculations became poor, and could afford his son only the advantages of a common-school education, except about a year in the higher branches, under the tuition of a clergyman. His father, hoping to better his condition, removed with his family to Montreal, Canada, in May, 18 1 5, but on his arrival found the Canadian laws project of this

hibited

of

him

to practise his profession until after a residence

five years.

Every

effort, therefore,

became necessary

to

support the family, and young Hubbard here practised his

He borrowed twenty-five cents of a and on this capital commenced the purchase of articles of food from farmers, coming to market, and selling them at a profit, and during the winter, made profits of from $80 to $100, mostly contributed to the family treasury. In April, 18 16, he obtained a situation in a hardware store, his board being his only compensation. By his faithful attention to his duties he won the confidence of his employers and the clerks in the store. He also became first

lessons in trade.

friend,

2

9

EARLY CHICAGO AND

lO

ILLINOIS.

acquainted with William Matthews, agent of the American

Fur-Company In the

fall

at Montreal.

of 1817, John Jacob Astor, president of the

company, ordered Matthews to employ twelve young men and one hundred Canadian voyagetirs to report A clerk in the store, to Ramsey Crooks at Mackinac. eighteen years old and the youngest of all, was the twelfth engaged. On learning of his engagement, young Hubbard, though not sixteen years old, resolved to obtain a situation in the expedition. As was to be expected, his father and mother refused their assent; but so persistent was he, they finally agreed he might go if he could procure an appointment, knowing the number required was full and believing He applied to Matthews it impossible for him to do so. and pleaded with him so earnestly that he finally agreed to take him into the service of the company for five years at $120 a year, if he could obtain the consent of his parHis parents kept their ents, which he thought unlikely. promise, and though his friends pointed out the dangers, fatigues, and exposures to which he would be subjected, he persevered, and entered into the required agreement, thus overcoming what seemed insurmountable obstacles by an address, judgment, and persistency indicative of the character and success of his maturer years. On April 13, 18 18, the expedition embarked from Montreal in open boats, loaded with goods and supplies for Mackinac, the capital of the American Fur-Company, from which all expeditions were fitted out for the entire Northwest, to collect and bring back furs to that place, to be assorted and prepared for market. The fatiguing labor of pushing their boats up the strong current, and dragging them over the foaming rapids of the St. Lawrence, and then carrying them overland to Lake Simcoe, and thence over the portage to the Nottawasaga River, by which they reached Lake Huron, can be better imagined than as clerks,

-Lil

GORDON SALTONSTALL HUBBARD.

II

but it was accomplished, and they reached Mackinac, July 4. The fare of the clerks was tea, sugar, hardbread, and salt pork. Young Hubbard endured the labors and braved the dangers of the voyage without a described

;

murmur of complaint, and

at Mackinac entered with cheerupon the performance of the duties assigned him, which he was engaged from five in the morning to seven

fulness in

in the evening,

We

with one hour's interval for dinner.

are prepared to expect from one so

young who thus volun-

home, and the comforts of civilization, knowledge of the privations, toils, and certain perils inseparable from the life of a fur-trader, something of that wonderful courage, judgment, and skill which were tarily left friends,

with

full

so conspicuously displayed in his subsequent

suspicions that his action was inspired

life.

by the

youthful romance or the love of wild adventure,

pated by the filial

fact,

during

all

wants of

of

dissi-

$80 a year of his salary paid and continued to do so

his family,

the years of his apprenticeship.

Mr. Hubbard has his life

is

that in obedience to the promptings of

duty, he at once ordered

to relieve the

Any

spirit

left

an intensely-interesting record of

and adventures of the

first

two or three years while

employment of the fur-company. I could delight you with numerous extracts of most thrilling interest, but I must content myself with allusions to a few which best serve to illustrate some prominent characteristic of the in the

man, or are necessarily connected with the conquest of the Northwest from its savagery by the forces of civilization, or will enable us to appreciate the quality

and discipline

of the school in which he received his business education.

The company employed four hundred clerks and two thousand voyageiirs. He was assigned to a brigade— as each outfit was called to trade at Fond du Lac. He found a young man anxious to exchange places with him, which was done. This young man was frozen to death



EARLY CHICAGO AND

12

the succeeding winter.

ILLINOIS.

Young Hubbard was transferred to man of education and

the brigade of Antoine Deschamps, a

experience; they were to operate in northern IlHnois, and left

Mackinac, Sept.

The only were of

lo, arriving in

Chicago, Oct.

i,

1818.

dwellings then outside of the garrison enclosure

logs,

one occupied by John Kinzie, one by Antoine

Ouillmette, and one at Bridgeport, then called Hardscrabblc.

After resting a few days, they proceeded up the

through Mud and thence into the Illi-

south branch of the Chicago River, and

Lake

into the Desplaines River,

and down that river to Fort Clark, now Peoria. The French settlers at Peoria had been suspected of sympathy with the British in the War of 181 2-1 5, and had been driven from their homes by the government, causing a bitter feeling, which extended to some of the Indians. Though Mr. Deschamps had informed them that he had brought this young man from Montreal, and he was his adopted son, they doubted the truth of his statement, insisting he was an American; and a' young Indian brave sought to provoke a quarrel with him. Deschamps left him in the boat in charge of one of the men, and what occurred I give in Mr. Hubbard's own language: "The nois,

Indian, using the man as interpreter, saying I was an American, took from his sack, one after another, several scalps, and showing them to me, said they were the scalps I was trembling with fear, which he obof my people. served, and drawing from his sash a long-haired scalp, he wet it and sprinkled the water in my face. In a moment my fear turned to rage, and seizing Mr. Deschamps double-barrelled gun which lay in the bottom of the boat, took deliberate aim at him and fired; the man left with me, seeing my intention, struck up the barrel and saved the Indian. Hearing the report of the gun and the con-

sequent confusion created, Mr. Deschamps and the with him

came running back

to the boats,

and

men

after a short

3

GURDON SALTONSTALL HUBBARD. consultation, ordered

them pushed out and

1

started

down

the stream."

Few

instances can be found in

daring resistance of intended

insult,

boy or man of more and which not to have

resisted

would have provoked a grosser

was the

first

courage so often exhibited

commanded

repetition.

This

exhibition of that personal bravery and steady in

his eventful

life,

the respect of friends and foes.

and which

It attracted

the notice and secured the life-long friendship of that noted

Indian chief Shau-be-na, and also of

Waba, the

chief of

the Indians in the vicinity of the trading-post where he

was stationed, who called to see the " little American brave," and Waba, who had recently lost a son, adopted him as his son. Before the hunting-season commenced he was permitted to visit his father and brother at St. Louis, who were on their way to Arkansas to locate there. He says there were then about eight hundred inhabitants in St. Louis, composed of French, British, Spaniards, and Americans. Cahokia, on the Illinois side of the river, was then the larger place, containing about one thousand people. On his return from St. Louis, he went to his tradingpost on the Illinois opposite the mouth of the Bureau River, one mile above the present town of Hennepin; it was in charge of Mr. Beebeau, and young Hubbard was the bookkeeper. His time was mostly spent in acquiring the Indian language and in hunting, at which he became expert, being able to travel forty and fifty miles a day. In the succeeding spring, the boats from all the stations having been collected, they started on their return, and passing through Chicago, coasting the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, arrived at Mackinac about the middle of May, 1 8 19. He here learned of the death of his father, and feeling it his duty to go to the relief and comfort of his mother, tendered his resignation to the company, which was refused. His skill in assorting furs doomed him to

EARLY CHICAGO AND

14

ILLINOIS.

that laborious and responsible position during this and

subsequent years.

When

the outfits

for

the succeeding winter were ar-

ranged, to his surprise and regret he was ordered to take

charge of an expedition and post about sixty miles up the

Muskegon

River, having for his aid a

Frenchman, Jacques

Dufrain, well acquainted with the Indians of that part of

The appointment

Michigan.

to such a position of a

of seventeen with only one year's experience

is

youth

the most

emphatic evidence of the high estimation entertained by his superiors of his ability, prudence, and fidelity; and, though he shrunk from assuming such a responsibility, Mr. Crooks refused to reverse his decision, and about the middle of October he started for his destination, in company with the Illinois brigade. Storms and adverse winds prevented his reaching the mouth of the Muskegon until Dec. 1

8,

when he found

it

frozen over.

ance and perilous exposures interests first

in

His wonderful endur-

protecting his employers'

of his companion in this command, proved him to have and justify me in giving some of the

and preserving the

life

test of his quality for

been a born leader, particulars.

The

rendering

ice

it

impossible to ascend the

repaired

an abandoned trading- house

above

mouth.

its

No

river,

they

a short distance

Indians had been seen, they being

absent at their hunting-grounds, and communication with

them was

a necessity.

Dufrain was dispatched with a

package of goods, with the two to seek the Indians, leaving

men under

his charge,

young Hubbard the

solitary

occupant of their cabin, his only supply of food being a little corn and flour brought from Mackinac. At first he was able to kill a few rabbits and squirrels, but the fall of Having read of a deep snow prevented further hunting. how the Indians caught fish through the ice, he prepared himself as best he could to practise their device, and after

5

GURDON SALTONSTALL HUBBARD.

1

succeeded

in acquiring the art, and redanger of starvation. He graphically describes his intense yearning after companionship, the loneliness and horror of his situation, which, coupled with the prospective failure of his first trading adventure and the ridicule he feared he would meet on his return to Mackinac, drove him nearly to distraction. When the thirtieth day had come he resolved to go in search of his absent men, but on that day, to his unspeakable joy, they

repeated

failures,

lieved himself of the

arrived with a very rich collection of furs.

He

resolved to

next day for a camp of Indians, which Dufrain, who was well acquainted with the country, thought they could reach by night. Young Hubbard being unused to start the

walking on snow-shoes, and as traveling

in the

snow

ren-

dered them necessary, Dufrain protested against his going, but the recollection of his former loneliness prevailed, and

they started with their packs, leaving one

The

man

behind.



day was one of intense misery every few moments he tripped and fell, and could only regain his feet with the aid of his companions and when they had traveled only six miles he was so exhausted they were forced The pain was so severe in his strained muscles, to camp. he slept but little, and in the morning Dufrain insisted he should return, but his indomitable resolution was unsubdued and they started on. He had caught some of the motions requisite in traveling with snow-shoes, and though first



suffering

intense

The next day

it

pain, they made nine miles that day. snowed, and being warm, the snow stuck

and increasing their day they camped with nothing to eat. The next day they reached an Indian camp, where they were treated to bear meat and corn soup, and though his feet and ankles were badly swollen, threatening inflamto their shoes, retarding their progress

fatigue,

and the

third

mation, they were relieved under the treatment of a kind-

hearted squaw.

6

EARLY CHICAGO AND

1

He

at

ILLINOIS.

once commenced practising with

his

snow-shoes,

and at the end of five days, when they departed, could keep up with his companions without weariness. One man was sent with a guide to one Indian camp, and Dufrain and Hubbard started in a different direction for another, which Dufrain thought they could reach in one The snow was deep and the traveling heavy, and at day. noon it was evident Dufrain had lost his way. They lay down at night weary and supperlcss. The storm continued the next day, and though they pressed on, they were certain they were lost. The next day Dufrain became weak and faltering, but about ten o'clock of the fourth day the clouds broke and the sun came out, which enabled them to direct their course for the river, and toward evening they reached the Muskegon, which they forded with the icy water up to their waist, and reached a deserted Indian

camp

and shivering with

with their clothes thoroughly frozen

cold.

wood

for a fire, Dufrain found he had lost and steel, and being exhausted, gave up all hope and began crossing himself and saying his prayers in prep-

Collecting

their flint

aration for death.

Though

experience in forest

life,

this veteran,

with years of

was ready without further effort the spirit of his young companion

lie down and die, was unsubdued, and he resolved to continue the fight for existence. Procuring hemlock boughs, he made a bed upon the snow, and placing on it some mats left by the Indians in their camp, he opened both packs and took out all the blankets and woolen clothing, and lying down close together and piling them over their bodies, they soon found the ice began to melt from their clothes and warmth was diffused through their chilled frames, and they soon sank to sleep, from which they did not wake till morning.

to

Though without food

for four days,

they did

not

feel

hungry, but excessive weariness and exhaustion, and that

GURDON SALTONSTALL HUBBARD. tempted them to

lie in

their

warm bed

until

17

death relieved

them.

The thoughts

of his responsibilities and the claims of

widowed mother and of his sisters upon him, aroused young Hubbard to a renewed effort for life. He arose and searched in all directions for a path, which the snow had covered all traces of; observing, however, some broken twigs and feeling the snow around them, he found the path covered by the newly-fallen snow, and following it came to a blazed tree, which indicated the direction of his

an Indian camp.

Returning, he with difficulty aroused

Dufrain, and leaving their packs they started, and about

noon struck a fresh track, which they followed back, knowing it would lead to a camp. This good fortune did not seem to arouse Dufrain he was sleepy and inclined



to stop and, unperceived,

fell

behind out of sight

— his

him and use his fast failing strength in quest of help, but went back and found him asleep upon the snow, and every effort to arouse him having failed, he dug away the snow around him and adding his own blanket to his covering, left him to make a final effort for assistance. He says: " I felt no hunger but was very weak the perspiration ran from every pore, and at times everything seemed to swim before me with momentary darkness. I seemed almost to faint, still I noved on, reeling like a drunken man. Coming to new ftracks and hearing the barking of a dog told me I was [nearing a lodge and gave me new strength to advance." In a few moments he was seated on a bear-skin in a [solitary Indian hut, in which was a middle-aged Indian [with a bandaged arm, a squaw, and three or four children. ifter sitting silent for a time, as was the custom, expect[ing to be invited to eat, he told the squaw he had not iaten for four days and was hungry; she replied they were lungry too, that her husband had broken his arm and companion was tempted



to leave

8

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

1

could not hunt; but she took from a sack a corn,

and boiling

it

little

dried

with water, gave him a small quantity.

He sipped a little, but found it difficult to swallow, at which he became frightened, and lay down and fell asleep. After some time he was awakened and given more broth, which he took with avidity and asked for more, which was refused. At short intervals he was awakened and given more

until revived.

The

knew Dufrain, and he told them of his squaw agreed to go with him when the moon arose and help bring him in; she prepared all the Indians

condition, and the

corn they had

Their son, a youth, had gone out to hunt and returned with a bear cub he had left

to take with them.

killed, and volunteered to go with him to find Dufrain. Against the protest of the squaw and her husband, though hardly able to walk, he persisted in going, for he knew if alive no one but he could induce him to move. Shortly after midnight they started and when they found him he was apparently lifeless. After great effort he was made to speak, but refused to move and dropped off to sleep

again. feet

It

required their united efforts to force

and by short stages get him

arrived about sunrise.

By

to the lodge,

administering a

him

to his

where they

little

corn broth

at intervals he revived, but his feet and limbs were so

badly swollen they had to cut the coverings to get them and the strings of his moccasins had so cut into his

off,

toes the blood oozed out through the coverings,

and worst was a week before he could sit up and would evidently be a long time before he could endure the journey home. His companion realizof

all,

he was severely ruptured.

It

ing this with the aid of the Indian

sledge on which to carry him

The country

if

boy constructed a

he should elect to go.

to be traveled over to reach the station

was

rough and hilly and much of the way covered with thick undergrowth. Though only able to sit up an hour a day,

GURDON SALTON STALL HUBBARD.

I9

he chose to go, and they laid him upon the sledge and aided by the boy reached the station in three days, drawDufrain never left their cabin until ing him all the way. carried to a canoe on their departure for Mackinac, which he never reached, having died upon the way. If in ancient Greece or Rome a youth of his years had exhibited such undaunted courage, such heroic endurance, wisdom, and resources in dangers, and such self-sacrifice at the eminent peril of his own life to save that of his companion, if not deified, his deeds and memory would have been perpetuated in bronze and marble and glorified in historic song. Yet this is only one of the many kindred acts he performed in the seclusion of the dark woods, with only the humble trapper and wild Indian as witnesses. In the closing year of his apprenticeship he was sent to conduct a trading-station on the Iroquois River in this State. He remained in the employment of the American Fur-Company as superintendent of all the posts on the Iroquois and Kankakee rivers and their tributaries until During this 1827, having his headquarters near Danville. year he was admitted to a share of the profits in the company, and in 1828 he bought out the interests of that company in Illinois, when he removed to Danville, built and run a store until his removal to Chicago in 1834. On the breaking out of the Winnebago War in 1827, he learned through Shau-be-na that Big Foot, a chief of a tribe of Indians located at Geneva Lake, intended to engage in hostilities against the whites. The soldiers had been removed from Fort Dearborn which left Chicago unprotected. Great alarm prevailed and Mr. Hubbard, who was then at Chicago, in order to meet the threatened attack, left there between four and five o'clock in the afternoon on horseback and taking what was called the

Hubbard Trace, reached

his Iroquois post at midnight, a

distance of more than sixty miles, and there changing his

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

20 horse, rode

on

until

stopped by a tree which had fallen At daylight he swam the

across the ford of Sugar Creek.

stream and at noon reached the house of Peleg Spencer,

whom

he sent to beat up volunteers to meet at Danville At the time

the next evening with five days' rations.

appointed one hundred

men

organized, chose a captain,

and started that night for Chicago, and though

it

rained

frequently and hard, on the seventh day he was back with

company of relief. I will quote the encomiums given him by H. W. Beckwith in his account* of this expedition, his

who says: "I will here say that a better man than Mr. Hubbard could not have been sent to our people; he was His generosity, his quiet well known to all the settlers. and determined courage, and

known and

his

integrity were so well

appreciated that he had the confidence and

good-will of everybody, and was a well-recognized leader

among

On

us pioneers."

the breaking out of the Black-

Hawk War

in 1832,

he induced Col. Isaac R. Moore, of the Vermilion-County militia, to call out his regiment and march at once to the scene of

hostilities,

himself furnishing provisions,

ammuni-

and transportation wagons. Three days after the news of the outbreak was received, they departed and on reaching Joliet built a stockade fort, and leaving a company there, proceeded to the east Dupage, where a similar defence was constructed and garrisoned, and the i-emainder marched to near Starved Rock, where they were disbanded tion,

company

Mr. Hubbard then joined a

of scouts for sixty

days, which was disbanded at the end of that time.

one time he was an aid derived the

title

to Gov.

At

Duncan, from which he

of colonel.

In 1832, he was elected a

member

Vermilion County, and when

it

of the legislature for

met introduced a

bill for

the construction of the Illinois-and-Michigan canal which *

"Fergus Historical Series," No.

10, p. 49.

GURDON SALTONSTALL HUBBARD. passed the house but was defeated substituted a

bill

for a railroad,

in

21

He

the senate.

which was defeated

in

the

senate by the casting-vote of the presiding-officer of that

body.

He

attended every session of the legislature after

to urge the passage of a

canal until

it

bill

for the construction of the

passed in 1835-6.

In 1834, he removed his business to Chicago and erected first large brick-building in the place, on the southwest

the

corner of South-Water and LaSalle streets.

and

In 1836, he

warehouse embarking in the forvvarding-and-commission business, he became interested in a large number of vessels forming the " Eagle Line," employed in the carrying-trade between Buffalo and the upper lakes. In 1835, he was appointed by Gov. Joseph Duncan one of the commissioners of the Illinois-andMichigan Canal, and in the location and construction of that great work so eminently promotive of the growth of Chicago he was signally active and efficient. At the celesold out his mercantile business

built a

fronting on Kinzie street and the river;

commencement of the canal, July 4, 1836, he was one deputed to excavate the first shovelfuls of earth. bration of the

In this year, as agent of the

^tna

Fire-insurance

Com-

pany of Hartford, Conn., he wrote the first fire-insurance policy ever issued in Chicago. He was a director of the Chicago branch of the State Bank of Illinois. He was one of the incorporators of the old Hydraulic Company whose works, northeast corner Lake-st. and Michigan-ave., supplied the south and part of the west side of the river with water until its works and franchises were purchased by the city in 1852. In 1848, he aided in the organization of the Board of Trade. In connection with A. T. Spencer & Co. he established a line of steamers to Lake Superior, employing the Lady Elgin, owned by himself, and several other steamers in which he was part owner. As early as 1 83 1, he brought to Chicago and slaughtered for the garri-

EARLY CHICAGO AND

22

ILLINOIS.

son a drove of hogs, and soon after his removal to Chicago in packing beef and pork, which he continued on an extensive scale until the destruction df his packinghouse by fire in 1863; after which he engaged with others in the direct importation of tea from China; he also had a bonded warehouse more especially for South -American products. The great fire of 1871 destroyed his warehouse and broke up all these interests and so crippled him that he retired from active business. There are few of the numerous veins of commerce and wealth -producing industries, that draw to this pulsating heart of the great West that boundless agricultural and mineral wealth which through iron arteries and water-craft is distributed to half a world, that have not felt the inspiration of his genius and been quickened by his enterprise and energy. The assertion that in the progress of events, one who has reached the ordinary limit of human life in

he engaged

this age,

has lived longer than the oldest antidiluvian

surely verified in the

life

of Mr. Hubbard.

velous transformations he witnessed.

Mackinac

at

scarce

sixteen

is

What mar-

When

he reached

years of age, save

the

in

vicinity of Detroit, Michigan, the northern part of Indiana

and

Illinois, all

of Wisconsin, and the limitless

West

that

beyond, except here and there a trading-post, was an unbroken wilderness, pathless except by lakes and rivers

lies

and the narrow

trails

of the Indian and trapper.

Sixty-eight years have passed, and what a change; challenges

all historic parallel.

Before the march of

it

civil-

the wild Indian has disappeared or been driven toward the setting sun; the dark forests and prairie garden-fields where he roved in undisputed dominion, have ization

been transformed into harvest-fields, dotted with villages and cities, some of them crowded with hundreds of thousands of inhabitants, where the

hum

of varied industry

is

never silent and the smoke of forges and factories darkens

GURDON SALTONSTALL HUBBARD. the sky.

25

The canoe and open boat have given

place to

thousand-ton vessels and steamers of twice that burden; the narrow trails over which the Indian trotted his pony are traversed or crossed

by roads of

iron,

on which iron This amaz-

horses rush along with the speed of the wind.

may be more strikingly realized when we remember that while within the present limits of Cook County there were then only three dwelling-houses of ing change

white

men

outside of the garrison enclosure, there

now

dwell more than eight hundred thousand people; and that the seat of political power in this great Nation has been transferred to the valley of the Mississippi; that

made

it

possible to scale the heights of the

it

has

Rocky Moun-

and bring the Atlantic and Pacific and bind the East and West together with bands of steel. History has made immortal the names and achievements of men who have subdued or founded states and empires by force and sanguinary war. Do not these early pioneers who, armed with the arts of peace, bravely met the dangers and endured the toils necessary to subjugate the great western wilderness for the abodes of peace, with blessings of education, enlightened freedom, and the elevating appliances of civilization, merit equal admiration and gratitude as lasting Those who believe that in the world's coming history its crowned heroes and benefactors are to be those who. win the bloodless victories of peace, and by acts of self-sacrifice and beneficence scatter widest the blessings of Christian civilization, will hold these men, and Gurdon S. Hubbard as a prince among them, in highest honor and tains with railroads,

Oceans

into near neighborhood,

.-•

esteem.

We

turn

now

Mr. Hubbard.

to the personal, social, and private life of While perfection can be claimed for no

man, he appears to have borne himself pertaining to these relations in a

in all

the duties

manner deserving com-

EARLY CHICAGO AND

24

ILLINOIS.

mendation and respect. In i83i,he married Miss Eleanor Berry of Ohio, who died a few days after the birth of their son, Gurdon S. Hubbard, Jr., born, Chicago, Feb. 22, 1838. November 9, 1843, he married Miss Mary Ann Hubbard of Chicago,

who through

the years of his helpless blindness

attended upon his every want with the constant devotion of a true and loving wife.

and

fraternal obligations

admiration.

As

In the discharge of his

he

set

filial

an example of highest

before stated, during his service with the

fur-company he gave $80 a year of his wages of $120 toward the maintenance of his mother and dependent sisters, and afterward, when his income was increased, enlarged their allowance and until his mother died was

main support, which was continued to his sisters and to provide against all continto his death gencies, by a deed of trust executed some twenty years ago and also by his last will provided for their support their

down

during

;

life.

he was genial, sympathetic, and affable; his life and experiences made him interesting and instructive he was thoroughly careful of the feelings and Socially,

remarkable



charitable to the faults of others

— firm

in his

convictions

and principles but never intolerant, he was always the dignified and courteous gentleman. As a neighbor he was kind; and as a friend, faithful and confiding. His heart overflowed with sympathy for the poor and unfortunate, and his hand was always open for their relief As a.husband, he was carefully tender, loving, and true; as a parent affectionate, generous, and indulgent. As a citizen, he was patriotic and earnest in the promotion of what he believed for the best interests of his country.

These worthy traits of character are the more remarkable when we remember that his youth and early manhood were spent away from parental restraints, and amid scenes of temptation and influences so adverse to strict morals

'

GURDON SALTONSTALL HUBBARD. and Christian obligations

;

,

2$

but the religious principles

imbibed from his mother's lips and the schools of those early days seem to have exercised a controlling influence over him. I think it due to him I should give the following extracts from letters of Ramsey Crooks, the active head of the fur-company, and one from Mr. Stuart, the Under date of April, 1820, Mr. secretary, to his mother. " Crooks says: Gurdon has thus far behaved himself in an exemplary manner for one of his age." In a letter of March, 1826, urging Mrs. Hubbard to visit her son, he says: "You will see him at his daily duties, and you will see what will gladden the heart of a Christian mother, how faithfully he performs his daily duties, how much he is loved and respected by his employers and friends." Aug. 3,

1

82 1, Robert Stuart writes her: "

He

spends his winters

with an old gentleman of finished education and correct,

gentlemanly manners. His account of your son is as flat* * He is strictly tering as a fond mother could wish. sober and I believe a great economist; I feel that I state I tell you I think him exempt from the which too frequently attend youth of his age." These commendations speak for themselves. In his church associations he was an Episcopalian. He was one of those who organized St. James' Episcopal Church, the first of that denomination existing in Chicago and of which he subsequently became a communicant. In January, 1883, he was taken with chills, and in the following May lost the sight of his left eye, from which time he suffered from blood-poisoning and frequent abcesses, and from almost constant pains in his eyes and ,neck. In the svfcceeding April, the eye was removed, and though eighty-two years old, without an anesthetic of any kind or any one to hold his hands, the steady nerve and

the truth when vices

him in his earlier years down and have his eye cut out.

self-control that so distinguished

enabled him simply to 3

lie

26

EARLY CHICAGO AND

ILLINOIS.

In July, 1885, the sight of his remaining eye was extin-

him in the horrors of total darkness. About one year ago his remaining eye was also removed^ guished, leaving

greatly relieving him from torturing pains.

Such a calamity and rayless darkness can neither be imagined or described. But in him the fruits of the discipline of suffering were beautifully exhibited in uncomplaining submission to the divine will and patient endurance of his affliction through all the long night of his blindness; in his grateful sense of the

and

sympathy of

friends

and attentions was manifest that while material things were excluded from his sight, his nature was more fully conformed and assimilated to that of his Divine Redeemer by the contemplation of the spiritual and unseen; and on Sept. 14, 1886, at the age of eighty- four tender thankfulness for the helpful care

of his loved ones.

It

years, he fell peacefully to sleep, with the full assurance he would awaken into supernal light with restored and immortal vision. It is to be hoped his friends will at no distant day have a life of Mr. Hubbard prepared and published. It is not only due to his memory, but the truth of history, for the history of Chicago and the Northwest can never be fully written without it; and if properly prepared it will be found more interesting than a romance.

rom a Photo, by Alex.

Hesler,

March,

Xo7'. IJ,

i8Si.

i8ij

— April 24,

Chicago Photo -'Grftvure Co.

1884.

ISAAC A

By Hon.

ARNOLD,

N.

Settler of

Chicago

in

1836.

Washburne.

E. B.

ISAAC NEWTON ARNOLD, president of the Chicago Historical Society, died at his residence in Chicago,

April 24, 1884. his death,

May

At

first

meeting of the Society after

20, 1884, the

following resolution, offered

the

by Judge Skinner, was adopted: Resolved, That Hon. E. B. Washburne be requested to prepare and deliver before this Society, at his conven-

Memorial Address, commemorative of the and character of the late Hon. Isaac N. Arnold. ience, a

life

Before the adjournment, Mr. Washburne, the actingpresident of the Society, said: 'T

am

Historical

certain that

Society,

all

and

the all

members others

of the

present,

Chicago have

will

heard with emotion the resolution in respect to our late President, first presented by Judge Mark Skinner. "The Society has met with a great and almost irreparable loss in the death of Mr. Arnold. Long identified with it, giving to it his attention and his services, he has

done much to elevate

its

character and increase

its

use-

We

can never forget with what courtesy and dignity he presided at our meetings. Dying, as it were, in the harness, he has left iis the recollection of an honest man, a cultivated gentleman, a good citizen, and an

fulness.

honored public servant. At some time in the future, the Society will pay appropriate honors to his memory." A regular monthly meeting of the Society was held at its rooms, 142 Dearborn Avenue, Tuesday even27

EARLY CHICAGO AND

28

ILLINOIS.

October 21, 1884. After the disposal of the preliminary business, Mr. Washburne delivered the following Address: ing,

Gentlemen of the Chicago Historical Society, and Ladies and Gentlemen:

The Chicago Historical Society has been called upon mourn the death of our esteemed and distinguished associate, Hon. Isaac Newton Arnold, its late president. to

On the

May

the evening of

friend

20,

1884, the Society passed

by our honored and fellow-member. Judge Skinner, the contempo-

following

resolution,

introduced

rary and almost life-long friend of Mr. Arnold: Resolved,

That

the removal

in

by death of Hon. Isaac

N. Arnold, the Chicago Historical Society mourns the

one of

one of its most members, and its honored and greatly-respected president. During all the active years of a long and well-spent life, Mr. Arnold had been a citizen of Chicago, contributing by his indefatigable industry, his unimpeachable intregrity, his patriotism, his loss of

public

spirit,

original founders, of

its

and

active, efficient,

his

reliable

rare

abilities,

his great

acquirements,

moral character, his high social qualifications, thorough gentleman to give lustre to the city of his residence and to the generation to "which he belonged; a successful lawy^er that stood in the front rank of his profession; a cautious, far-seeing, and his spotless

and

his instincts as a

wise legislator, distinguishing himself lation,

National as well as State;

in

the halls of legis-

a successful public

speaker and a writer of great power and wide-spread popularity, he

has

left to

the generations that

succeed

him the legacy of a noble example and a good name, At the same meeting, another resolution was passed requesting me to deliver before the Society a "Memorial Address commemorative of the Life and Character of -

NEWTON ARNOLD.

ISAAC

Hon. Isaac N. Arnold." could have been

It

29

would have been well

confided to

some older

if

that

resident

of

Chicago, and one better able to do justice to the memory I overcome my hesitation, however, of Mr. Arnold. when I consider the opportunity it gives me of appreciating the character of a man to whom I was allied by so many ties of friendship and whom I held in highest esteem for his private and public virtues, for his ability, his statesmanship, and his patriotism. At the threshhold of my remarks, I may perhaps be pardoned for recalling an incident which took place a few months prior to Mr. Arnold's death. About Christmas time, 1883, he sent me an elegantly-bound copy of the "Proceedings of the Royal Historical Society," which contained his admirable paper on Mr. Lincoln, and which, on the invitation of the Society, he went to London to read. In a letter written on December 20, last, I acknowledged the receipt of the address, and said: "I have re-read your paper with renewed interest, one of the most complete and most polished productions that I now recall to mind. The simple and eloquent story of Mr. Lincoln's life awakens in me some of the most pleasant as well as some of the saddest memories of that remarkable man. You know what answer Queen Katherine made to Griffith after his eulogy on Cardinal Wolsey. I would say with her, substituting Arnold for Griffith:

" After

No

my

death, I wish no other herald,

speaker of

my

living actions,

To keep mine honor from

corruption.

But such an honest chronicler as

In answering

my

note on

Griffith."

December

20,

Mr. Arnold

said: "

How

me by

strange, as I write, Lincoln's Shakespeare, given Mrs. Lincoln and Robert, with his autograph, lies

EARLY CHICAGO AND

30

ILLINOIS.

before me; the book which so famih'arized him with the

You, his friend and co-laborer, quote from it. I can only promise in reference to him that I shall But I try to be like Griffith, 'an honest chronicler'. have this great advantage: Wolsey's character was made up of good and evil, and although he was great poet.

'

A

scholar,

and a

ripe

and good

one,'

yet he had his faults; but of Lincoln, '

All the ends he aimed at were his Country's, God's,

and

Truth's.'

And to

so the 'honest chronicler' has but the simple truth

tell.

"

You

younger than I, and in the course of nature me. Whoever goes first, the survivor will speak some kind words." Mr. Arnold has preceded me to that undiscovered country from whence no traveler returns. On April 24, 1884, in peace with himself and all the world, at his residence in this city, surrounded by his sorrowing family, he Surviving him, and with a heart died, fearing God. are

will survive

filled

it now comes to me in this presence, some kind words " of my friend and our late

with sadness,

to " speak

president.

Hon. Isaac N. Arnold was born Nov. 13, 1813, in the town of Hart wick, Otsego Co., N. Y. His father was a country physician,

who

while

conscientiously attending

demands of his profession added something to his limited income by cultivating a small farm in a town to the

where

all

the people were devoted to agriculture.

In

county of Otsego, with its picturesque clear and limpid lakes, and its extensive

that beautiful

scenery,

its

amid a population made up of the best type of the American character, Mr. Arnold first saw the light of day. It was in that comparative solitude that he drew

forests,

1

NEWTON ARNOLD.

ISAAC

^

3

and laid the foundations, deep and broad, of that future life, distinguished for so much honor and illustrated by so many virtues. Thrown upon his own resources at an early age, he became the architect of his own fortune, and has furnished an example to the young men of the present day, who can see in his career that the pathway to greatness and usefulness is open to all who enter upon it in a spirit of loyal devohis earliest inspirations

tion to the great objects of

life.

Having prepared himself

commenced

crstown, N. Y., office of

for the study of law, he first under Richard Cooper of Coopand afterward continued them in the

his studies

Judge E.

B.

Morehouse of the same

he was admitted to the bar

in 1835, ^^ the

place, until

age of twenty-

one years. Taking up

his residence in Chicago in 1836, his career from that time was one of honorable success and at the time of his death no citizen of Chicago was more widely known and more highly respected and esteemed than Avas Mr. Arnold. The story of his professional life must be told by some one of his associates at the bar who had personal knowledge of his ability as a lawyer and of the distinction he acquired in the practice of his chosen pro;

fession.

Interested always in questions of great public interest,

he often stepped outside the limits of make himself heard and his influence

his profession to felt.

When

the

question of the repudiation of the State debt arose, as

was natural

for a

man

of his stamp, Mr. Arnold revolted

against the proposition, and gave the

influence of his

high character and great ability to sustain the public faith. He made himself known to the people by voice

and pen in his efforts to sustain the honor of the State and to have the people stamp out the dishonorable but insidious proposition to repudiate the public debt.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

32

ILLINOIS.

In the session of the legislature of 1842-3, Mr. Arnold rendered a great and inestimable service to the State in carrying through that Canal-Bill which laid the foundation of our State credit and which contributed so much

make

to

Illinois

what

it is

to-day, the pride of

all its

loyal

sons and the admiration of our country and the world.

On

all

questions of good-faith and public morality, Mr.

Arnold was always on the

right side;

and

for the con-

spicuous service he rendered the State and the cause of honesty, both in public and in private cal

period of our history, his

in a

life,

memory

most

criti-

deserves to be

always honored by every citizen of Illinois. As we all knew him, Mr. Arnold was a man of great independence of character, thought, and action. Making up his mind as to what was right, he always acted up tohis convictions. He never pandered to low tastes or popular prejudices. There was not the slightest tinge of the demagogue in all his composition. The quotation from Horace, made by Morris Birkbeck for the encourgement of Gov. Coles during the great slavery-struggle in 1823-4, when that great and good man was so fiercely assailed by all the worst elements in the State for his efforts to prevent slavery from defiling the soil of Illinois^ might be applied to Mr. Arnold with great force: "Justum

Non Non

et

tenacem propositi virum,

civium ardor prava jubentium, vultus instantis tyranni, quatit solida." *

Mente I

now approach

career with which

that portion of Mr. Arnold's

was most

I

familiar

and

in

life

and

which"!

have always had the greatest interest. At the same election that Mr. Lincoln was elected president, in i860, *

" Neither the ardor of

threatening tyrant, firm intentions."

nor the face of the and tenacious of principle from his

citizens ordering base things,

shakes a

man

just

ISAAC

NEWTON ARNOLD.

33

Mr. Arnold was elected a representative in the thirtyseventh congress from the Chicago district. I had known him before as a gentleman and a lawyer, meeting him frequently at the sessions of the supreme court at Springin extra session on meeting was one of the most momentous events ever recorded in the history of President Lincoln, great, magnanimous, our country. peaceful, patriotic, just, had made every effort consistent with his duty and his oath to support the constitution, and enforce the laws, to bring the rebellious states back field

That congress met

and Ottawa.

the Fourth of July, 1861.

The

to their allegiance.

Its

rebels, lawless, defiant, aggres-

sive, had spurned every proposition that might lead to an understanding between the sections. Therefore, it was that at the opening of this congress, Mr. Lincoln's administration was confronted by an open rebellion. Blood had been shed and the flames of a civil war had been lighted in the country. It was under such circumstances Mr. Lincoln had convened congress in extra session. The members of the senate and house of representatives met under this call for an extra session under a weight of responsibility which has rarely rested upon public men. At such a crisis men became naturally allied to each

other.

Intelligent, patriotic, courageous, firm of

purpose,

Mr. Arnold took his seat in that celebrated congress and then commenced an intimacy

and of undying

loyalty,

and friendship between of his death.

The

us,

existing unbroken to the

president and Mr. Arnold had

They had been

day

known

each other long and

well.

lawyers in the

of causes and had been opposite

trial

counsel in important litigation.

associated as

This long association at

had made them to know one another well, and Mr. had engendered mutual respect and mutual regard. Lincoln hailed the election to congress of Mr. Arnold with pleasure, for in him he saw the faithful friend, the the bar

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

34

wise counsellor, and the loyal and patriotic citizen.

hence to

it

him

was, during his fullest

all

his administration, that

And

he gave

confidence and extended to him so

many evidences of the high regard in which he held him. Though a new member, the consideration in which Mr. Arnold was held by his colleagues was shown by the unanimous request made to him that he should pronounce the eulogy in the house on behalf of Illinois on the occasion of the death of Stephen A. Douglas. His address was a glowing and merited tribute to the memory of that distinguished man. Trained in the arts of legislation by his service in the Illinois- legislature, conscious of his own ability and capacity, Mr. Arnold participated at once in the business of the house. On July 29, he entered into the discussion of the Internal-Revenue

and

Bill,

and apt speech which convinced the house as a debator, and what was to be his useful-

in a short

of his ability

ness as a legislator.

The

regular

session

of the thirty-seventh

met on Monday, December then been plunged into

all

21, 1861,

congress

The country had

the horrors of a bloody civil

war, and the loyal people looked forward to the opening

of this regular session of congress with the most intense interest.

had

Mr. Arnold appeared and took his

felt his

way somewhat

seat.

He

cautiously in the extra session,

but now he believed himself equal to taking a more prominent part in the legislation of the house. He participated in the discussion of nearly all the important questions which came up for action, and he soon took rank as one of the ablest members of the body. I was in the house of representatives for sixteen years, and during the most important epoch of our country's history and at a time when so many of the ablest men of the Nation were members of the house of representatives, and was in a position to estimate and judge of men;

ISAAC

NEWTON ARNOLD.

35

and I can conscientiously say that I consider that Mr. Arnold was one of the ablest, the most useful, and most conscientious members with whom I was associated. Always at his post in the house and in the committeeroom, he shunned no labor nor left any duty unperformed. He studied all questions and weighed all the arguments, pro and con, on every subject on which he was called upon to act. And then in deportment and bearing he was what every public man should be, amiable, courteous, affable, polite, and always a gentleman, making himself esteemed and respected by all who had the good fortune I have sometimes thought that Chicago to know him. never did full justice to its congressmen in those two celeIn the excitement of brated congresses during the war. the time and the whirl of events, men were often lost Mr. Arnold never dazzled by brilliant speeches, sight of made for effect and to gain popular applause and cheap glory, but he devoted himself rather to the serious subjects of legislation with assiduity and intelligence. The Congressional Globe,-d\iv\ng his term of service, is an en-

during monument to his great and useful labors, and that will remain as long as this Republic shall endure. In all matters of local importance before the congress, as in all matters in which his constituents were interested, either in the departments or in congress, Mr. Arnold was

He gave the Ship-Canal and a warm support, his speech on the subject was one of the ablest which was made. Coming from good old Revolutionary and RhodeIsland stock, born and bred among the freedom-loving people of Northern New York, it could hardly have been otherwise than that Mr. Arnold should have imbibed the

especially active and efficient. Bill

strongest feelings of hostility to all

his

political

associations,

human neither

actions on that subject ever changed.

slavery.

Through

his

opinions nor

He

always acted

36

EARLY CHICAGO AND

with the anti-slavery

when

ILLINOIS.

men wherever he found

them, and

slavery raised the standard of rebellion against the

government, he took the most radical ground on the subject. He voted for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, and as early as March, 1862, he introduced a bill, sweeping in its provisions, to prohibit slavery in every place subject to national jurisdiction. This bill was stoutly resisted, but Mr. Arnold pressed it with ability and persistence, and after some amendments, He made a speech in it became a law, June 19, 1862. the house on this bill. May 19, 1862, and from a man of his naturally calm and conservative temperament, it was not only very able, but very radical and aggressive. He denounced slavery as a monster attempting to destroy a government which it had so long controlled. He said no man who loved his country and the constitution could hold any other position toward it than one of hostility, and that every effort should be made to weaken and de" Whenever we can give it a constitutional stroy it. blow," he exclaimed, ''let Jis do it'' And it may be said to his honor, few men in congress, or out of congress, dealt harder blows at the institution than he did. The ablest and most notable speech that Mr. Arnold made while a member of congress was that on the bill to confiscate rebel property, made May 2, 1862. After passing in review the wickedness of the rebellion, and the inhuman manner in which the rebels had conducted the war, and the necessity of prompt and vigorous action, he addressed himself to the legal questions involved, in an argument of great ability and research, and which challenged the attention of the lawyers of the house. He was an able lawyer, and legal questions to which he gave his attention he treated with conspicuous ability and with a felicity of language quite rare in the discussion of points of law.

ISAAC

From

NEWTON ARNOLD.

37

the high standing of Mr. Arnold in the house,

and the advanced position he occupied on the slavery it was fitting and proper that he should take the initiative in a great measure of legislation with which his name will ever be honorably associated, and which was the foundation of an enactment of more transcendent importance than any which ever adorned the statutebook of any nation. On February 15, 1864, Mr. Arnold introduced into the house of representatives a resolution, which was passed, declaring that the constitution should be so amended as to ABOLISH SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES. This was the first step ever taken by congress in favor of the abolition and prevention of slavery in the country. The ball was set in motion the popular branch of congress had made a solemn declaration which sent a throb of joy and hope to the heart of every lover of human freedom. The senate was then so constituted that the two-thirds' majority, necessary to submit a constitutional amendment, was easily obtainable. The house having led the way by passing the declaratory resolution of Mr. Arnold in favor of a constitutional amendment, the senate passed the resolution April 8, 1864. But it failed to pass the house at that session, and it was not until the next session, on February i, 1865, that the two-third majority was obtained in the house, and in the homely language of Mr. Lincoln, " The job finished." In the debate in the house, Mr. Arnold made a pasquestion,



sionate appeal for the passage of the joint-resolution.

Warming up

in his

remarks, and

in a

tone of true elo-

"In view of the long catalogue

quence, he exclaimed:

of wrongs that slavery has inflicted upon the country,

demand today

death of slavery. while slavery

I

of the congress of the United States, the

lives.

We It

can have no permanent peace

now

reels

and staggers

in its last

EARLY CHICAGO AND

38

death-struggle.

Let us strike the

monster

this

last

blow.

Pass this joint- resolution," he contin-

"and the

thirty-eighth congress will live in history

decisive

ued,

ILLINOIS.

which consummated the great work of freeing a continent from the curse of human bondage. The great spectacle of this vote which knocks off the fetters of a whole race, will make the scene immortal." And further on he continued: "I mean to fight this cause of the war this cause of all the expenditure of blood and treasure from which my country is now suffering; this institution which has filled our whole land with sorrow^ I mean to fight it until neither desolation, and anguish. on the statute-book nor in the constitution shall there be left a single sentence or word which can be construed * * * Let us now^ to sustain the stupendous wrong. in the name of liberty, of justice, of God, consummate this grand revolution. Let us now make our country the home of the freer No member of the house of representatives who was present when this resolution passed can ever forget that scene. Mr. Arnold was full of rejoicing. In a graphic, racy, and interesting paper, entitled " Reminiscences of Lincoln and of Congress during the Rebellion," read by him in July, 1882, before the New-York Geneological and Biographical Society, he gave an account, among other things, of the passage by congress of the "jointresolution to submit to the states the amendment to the as that



After seeing the great work, so near to his heart, accomplished, he tells of the constitution abolishing slavery."

steps he took to obtain certain souvenirs conected with

When the resolution had been engrossed he procured an exact duplicate of the original, which was to go on file in the department of state, and to that obtained the signatures of all the members of both houses who had voted for it, to be treasured up as a memento of the legislation.

ISAAC

NEWTON ARNOLD.

the occasion; and with sadness he

tells

39

the story of the

which consumed that and so many other Profiting from his inspiration in this regard, I treasures. followed his example and procured precisely the same thing for myself; and looking at the names of all the members of both houses, in their own proper handwritChicago

Fire,

who voted for the resolution, there will be seen the name of Isaac N. Arnold, written in his own bold, clear hand. Now that he has passed away I never look upon ing,

it

without emotion. It is

impossible in the limits of this paper to do

justice to Mr. Arnold's congressional record.

The

full

Coti-

gressional Globe shows with what zeal and ability he en-

tered into the business of the house, and what light he all subjects to which he gave his attention. He went to congress to serve the country in its hour of peril and not for the objects of an unworthy ambition. His colleague and his friend, I know how conscientiously and laboriously, how honestly and ably he discharged his every duty. To those who knew him it goes without saying, that he was thoroughly incorruptible. There was never a lobyist or corruptionist bold enough to approach him with even the slightest suggestion as to any action on his part favoring any object for private gain, and not for the public good. Such was his. high character, his incorruptible integrity, and his elevated code of morals, that no man ever dared to approach him with an improper suggestion in respect of his official action. Mr. Arnold's congressional career ended with the thirty- eighth congress, March 3, 1865. During his whole term of service, not only from a sense of duty, but from his high personal regard for the president, he had given the administration of Mr. Lincoln a loyal, able, and an efficient support. It was a matter of great regret and disappointment to that distinguished man, as well as

shed on

EARLY CHICAGO AND

40 to

all

ILLINOIS.

of his colleagues, that he did not return to congress.

He had

served his country and his constituents so faithand with such marked ability that he had challenged the respect and confidence of all familiar with his public fully

career.

On

his return to his

home

in

Chicago, at the ad-

journment of the long session of congress in July, 1864, he was tendered a magnificent reception, and a vote was passed, giving to him the thanks of the meeting for the able and valuable services he had rendered his country and his constituents in congress. While not a candidate for re-election in 1864, he entered into the canvass for the re-election of Mr. Lincoln with great spirit, and his voice was heard in many states urging the people to sustain

him

in the great

work of suppressing the

rebellion.

After the assassination of Mr. Lincoln, Mr. Arnold being then already engaged in writing a " History of

Abraham Lincoln and

the Overthrow of Slavery in the

United States," he accepted the appointment from President Johnson of auditor of the treasury for the post-office department, as a residence in Washington afforded him a more ready access to documents necessary for him to have in preparing his work. Subsequently, differing with President Johnson in respect of the policy he had adopted, he resigned the office which he had received Returning to his home in Chicago in 1867, at his hands. he completed his " History of Abraham Lincoln and the Overthrow of Slavery." He brought to the preparation of that work the qualities of an able and conscientious historian, who wrote very largely from personal knowledge and personal observation. His long and intimate acquaintance with Mr. Lincoln had given him a thorough knowledge of his character and his mode of thought and action. As a member of that congress for four years during the war, and which had accomplished such prodigies for the country, he was from his own participation in it enabled to speak with authority.

1

NEWTON ARNOLD.

ISAAC

4

work and am more imwork of surpassing interest and of exceptional historical value. Nowhere else can be found a more just appreciation of Mr. Lincoln and a more graphic and truthful recital of events then transI

have recently read again

pressed than ever with

it

this

as a

piring in congress and on the theatre of military and political action

interesting facts to

throughout the country. Important and are to be obtained therein which are not

be found elsewhere.

Resuming

his

law-practice

Arnold continued actively

in

in

his

Chicago

in

1872,

Mr.

profession for two or

when failing health compelled him to abanFrom that time till his death, he lived the life of don it. a retired gentleman in his pleasant home on the northside, among his books and papers, where, surrounded by his interesting and amiable family and congenial friends, he dispensed an elegant and gracious hospitality. It was then he found leisure to devote himself to favorite literary With an inclination for historic research, with pursuits. that power of analysis which a long practice at the bar had given him, and with a rare felicity of composition, he three years,

devoted himself to historic themes. It was in 1880 that Mr. Arnold brought out his "Life of Benedict Arnold his Patriotism and his Treason," a most comely volume of more than four hundred pages. The book has been extensively read in the most intelli-



While

provoked a certain measure of it was generally commended for the ability, fairness, and independence shown by the author. It was perhaps a bold undertaking to write the life of a man whose name and memory were so loaded down with infamy as were those of Benedict Arnold. But the author frankly tells us in his introduction what led him to undertake to tell the story of Benedict Arnold's life, truthfully and impartially. He was

gent

circles.

criticism in

4

some

it

quarters, yet

EARLY CHICAGO AND

42

ILLINOIS.

conscious of the deep and universal prejudice existing

was aware that the American people He had no change the indignation and resentment felt

against him, and

would desire

listen

to

with impatience to his narrative.

against him, nor could he either excuse or extenuate his guilt.

He

wished

" to

make known

his patriotic services,

and the wrongs which drove him to a desperate action and induced one of the most heroic men of an heroic age to perpetrate an unpardonable crime." Influenced by such considerations, and responsible only to himself for his opinions and judgments, Mr. Arnold did not hesitate to write the " Life of Benedict his sufferings, heroism,

Arnold." It is the province of history to record facts, to pursue investigations, and narrate circumstances without To sum up, Mr. regard to the characters of individuals. Arnold has given to the world a book of exceptional historic value, and for which all the lovers of biography and students of the history of our Revolution must be grateful. It is life

not the

of a

history."

time that there has been written the

first

man who

has been set up in the

" pillory

of

Dr. Robinet never lost anything in the estima-

French people by writing the memoirs of Danton, nor Ernest Hamel for his history of Robespierre, nor Alfred Bougeart by his life the monster Marat. Everywhere, Mr. Arnold has added to his reputation among literary, thoughtful, and reading men, by his " Life tion of the

of Benedict Arnold."

In the somewhat-heated contro-

versy which arose over the question of Gen. Arnold's military services, the historian fully vindicated the positions he

had taken,

for

no man was more successful

in

marshalling facts or in presenting deductions from established premises.

But the great work of Mr. Arnold's life, and upon which his reputation as a biographer and historian must

NEWTON ARNOLD.

ISAAC rest,

is

his "Life of

Abraham

Lincoln,"

43

now

in

course

His "History of Abraham Lincoln and of publication. the Overthrow of Slavery," though an able, valuable, and interesting work, was never entirely satisfactory to He deterthe author, so far as it treated Mr. Lincoln. mined, therefore, two years since, to write anew the " Life of

Abraham

Lincoln," in the light of

material he had gathered.

and friendship self to the

all

the

new

Stimulated by his admiration

man, he devoted him-

for that illustrious

preparation of a

of one of the greatest

life



men who ever "lived in the tide of time" a man whose name is on all our lips and whose memory is in all our He entered upon the work hearts Abraham Lincoln.



con amove, and devoted to

thoughts.

and all his work occupied all his attention. So closely did he

The preparation

it

all

his efforts

of the

time and absorbed all his pursue his labors, and so intently were his thoughts occupied thereon, that his health, at no time rugged, within the last few years, began perceptibly to give way. Still he persevered, and still he labored on, till the last chapter was finished, and the last finishing touches given. Never

had with him only a few days before he died, as he lay pallid and emaciated on his bed of death. Knowing all the interest I had felt in his book, he began to speak of it in feeble and even plaintive tones, and closed by saying: "It was only when I had shall I forget the last interview I

completed the

last

chapter that

was, strengthened and

I

buoyed up

collapsed." in his.

And

so

it

purpose to com-

work of his life, when the task was finished, down to die. The hour of his earthly existence had come finally to strike. Neither the prayers of wife and children, who did so much to sooth the pangs of his plete the great

he laid

parting

life,

nor

all

their love, care,

the hopes of friends, nor the

the hand of death.

skill

and devotion; neither

of physicians could stay

His work was done, and peacefully

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

44

and calmly and

in Christian resignation

God who gave it. Arnold's "Life of Abraham

he yielded up his

soul to the

by drawn from the most reliable sources of information, will become the standard life of a man whose name, linked in glory to that of Washington, will go down to the end of all the ages. Mr.

a captivating

Of an

style, carefully

Lincoln," enriched

studied and

active mind, taking an interest in

all

passing

Arnold always found some subject to occupy Independent of the his attention and engage his pen. books he had written and published, he was the author of a great number of sketches, papers, biographies, and reviews, many of which have been published, and all of them are interesting and valuable in a personal and historical

events, Mr.

point of view.

Associated for half a century with

Illinois,

and having been long and honorably identified with the State, he was always interested in all that appertained to our history and our public men. As a member of the legal profession, and as a man in public life, he was closely allied to many of the lawyers and judges, and to many men in official stations in the State, and he was never happier than when recounting the reminiscences of his earlier professional

To

and

political

life.

everything he undertook, Mr. Arnold brought the

and a sound judgment. When at an age when most men rest, he was pursuing to its legitimate honors and rewards the career Of the produc•of a man of letters and of a historian. tions of Mr. Arnold's busy and gifted pen which have been published in pamphlet form, I may mention: His "Address before the Chicago Historical So1. ciety" of Nov, 9, 1868, giving a history of the Society, qualities of a ripe intelligence, great vigor,

etc.

"Sketch of Col. John H. Kinzie": read before the Chicago Historical Society, July 11, 1877. 2.

I

B

ISAAC

NEWTON ARNOLD.

45

"Recollections of the Early Chicago and Illinois 3. Bar": a lecture before the Chicago Bar Association, June 10,

1880.

4.

"Reminiscences of the

Illinois

Bar Forty Years

Ago": read before the Bar Association of the Illinois, at Springfield,

Jan.

7,

State of

1881.

A paper on "Abraham Lincoln": read before the 5. Royal Historical Society in London, June 16, 1881. 6. A Paper on "William B. Ogden": read before the Chicago Historical Society, Dec. 20, 188 1, on the presentation of a portrait of Mr. Ogden, by Healy, to the Historical Society.

"Reminiscences of Lincoln and of Congress durbeing the anniversary address, delivered before the New-York Geneological and Biographi7.

ing the Rebellion":

cal Society, April 15, 1882. 8.

"Benedict Arnold

the "United Service."

at

reprinted from Austin Stevens, John

Saratoga":

"Reply

to

and new evidence of Mr. Bancroft's error." A Paper on "James Fenimore Cooper": read in 9. 1883 before the Chicago Literary Society. 10. Letter of Isaac N. Arnold to Bishop Clarkson: "Was Dr. De Koven legally elected Bishop of Illinois.-*" 11. A Paper read before the Chicago Philosophical Society, Dec. 10, 1883, entitled,

"The Layman's

Faith."

Mr. Arnold has been one of the founders of the Chicago Historical Society, and served many years as one of

On Dec. 19, 1876, he was elected and held the position uninterruptedly until the day of his death a period of about seven and one-half years. So long identified with the Society, and giving to it his attention and services, he did much to elevate its character and add to its usefulness. We can never forget the regularity of his attendance upon all the meetings of

its

vice-presidents.

president,



the Society, his watchful care over

all

its interests,

nor the

EARLY CHICAGO AND

46

ILLINOIS.

dignity and courtesy with which

he presided over our

.deliberations.

With an

and finely-chiseled face, of an and gentlemanly manners, and courteous carriage and bearing, Mr. Arnold He was the was a man who always attracted attention. soul of probity and honor. Neither the purity of his private life, nor the integrity of his public conduct was ever challenged: but in every position of life he stood before the world as an honest man, a cultivated gentleman, a good citizen, and a public servant without reproach. Those of us who have known him so well in this Society and in the daily walks of his life and conversation, will always guard for him a profound souvenir of respect and intellectual

erect and well-formed

person, of quiet

affection.

Husband,

father, friend, neighbor, citizen

— his

ashes re-

pose on the shores of that lake where he had passed a long and an honored life, and its waves shall forever sing his requiem.

Tribute of Hon. Thomas Drummond. Mr. President:



I

propose only to make a few general

remarks, leaving details to others.

When

some one which would make him

Mr. Arnold came to Chicago

in 1836, if

had asked what were the qualities one of the principal men who would form and influence the elements of the growth of a great city, he would have said: that as a professional man, he must be able and true to his clients; as a public man, conscientious and faithful in the discharge of all trusts committed to his hands; and as a citizen, honorable in

that name.

Mr. Arnold

all

in

the relations which attach to his

tried in these various positions,

life,

from that time, when

proved that he possessed

ISAAC all

NEWTON ARNOLD.

4/

these qualities, and he was thus one of the leading

men

whose influence was always exerted for good. By his talents, and industry, fidelity, and conscious that success was with him a necessity for it is not those who have, but those who gain a competence who achieve great he became one of the most eminent distinction at the bar lawyers of the city and of the State. No man ever had his heart more in his cause, or more fully bent every faculty of his mind to succeed. As a public man, the sphere of his usefulness was greatly enlarged. He, as a member of the legislature and as a citizen, made the most strenuous efforts and exhibited great ability in his arguments and speeches to maintain the honor of the State in its dealings with its creditors. As a member of congress, he gave the whole energy of his mind and heart to sustain the administration of Lincoln; to uphold the rights of man; to destroy slavery; and to preserve and consolidate the union of these States. We, who were acquainted with him in those trying days, know of the

city,





with

how much

devotion he sought to accomplish these

A warm

personal friend of Lincoln, he was one of his most trusted counsellors and advisers. It would be difficult to overrate the value of his services which he rendered to his State and the Nation while in

great objects.

public

As

life.

a

man and

always exerted ment.

a citizen, his influence and efforts were

in favor

When we

existed here nearly effect

of sound moral and good govern-

look back to the condition of fifty

years ago,

produced on professional,

we can

social,

and

affairs

that

appreciate the

political life

by

the character, habits, and conduct of Mr. Arnold, and can say, as the influence of a ing, that the

world

is

man

so conspicuous

better for the

Is is fitting, therefore, that there

cord,

and especially

life

is

all-pervad-

of such a man.

should be placed on

in this Society, in

re-

which he took so

EARLY CHICAGO AND

48

ILLINOIS.

and of which he was so long the presidan enduring memorial of the estimate which has been formed of his life and public services by his condeep an ing

interest,

officer,

temporaries, in order that those

may know

who come

whom we now

that he, of

after us here

speak, was, in our

judgment, thus of record, an eminent lawyer, a true patriot, and an honorable citizen.

Tribute of Hon. VanH. Higgins.

in

Mr. President:



my

what

ability to say

I

whom

feel I

great distrust and diffidence think ought to be said of the

had known since his early manand with whom I had been on terms of great intimacy and friendship for more than thirty years. I am proud of that intimacy and friendship. I am proud of his record as a man and as an honored citizen of Chicago, and I am grateful for the example of his life and character. We owe a tribute of respect to the late Isaac N. Arnold, who devoted the best energies of his whole life to objects of benevolence and to the advancement of the cause of human freedom. His patriotism and devotion to the cause of the Union and its preservation were untiring and ceaseless. In congress and out of congress, he was ever active and zealous, watchful and conIn the beginning of the great struggle for the prestant. servation of our national existence, Isaac N. Arnold was foremost in all that could be done to preserve and perpetuChicago had no truer patriot, no better ate this Union. friend of the enslaved negro, no more sympathizing friend of the wretched and suffering everywhere and at all times, than Isaac N. Arnold. Although I had known him in all the relations of life, socially, politically, and professionally, I am here to speak only of his professional life, and of honored deceased, hood,

now more than

I

forty years,

ISAAC

NEWTON ARNOLD.

Isaac N. Arnold as a lawyer.

am

will speak, I

49.

Other friends more eloquent

sure, of the usefulness of the life of the

deceased, of the beauty and loveliness of his general char-

during a long lifetime, so gained and held our

acter, which,

They

love and affection. tic

relations

of his

life,

husband, a kind father; citizen

things,

as a true

;

and

in all

ed bondsmen. his

whole

life

speak of him a

trusty

It

was

domes-

friend,

gentleman, pure and spotless

the relations of

life.

They

He was the friend of He consecrated his

in

all

will tell

of

enslaved and wretchbest energies during

to the emancipation of the poor slave,

of the noblest objects within the range of lence.

in the

a faithful as a distinguished and honored as

Isaac N. Arnold was from his youth a

his philanthropy.

philanthropist.

will

in

one

human benevo-

the cause and interest of the poor slave

more tenderness and his purse was open more freely than in any other. They will speak of his great and untiring efforts in his early manhood in originating and organizing the Free-soil party of the They will speak of patriotic, unselfish,. United States. and untiring devotion to the Union cause during our late struggle, and of his active, constant, zealous, watchful care of the public interests and the public trusts confided tohim of his eminent and useful services throughout a long life, and of him as a citizen of whom Chicago has always been proud. I will not attempt to speak of the honored deceased save of him in his professional character as an advocate and as a lawyer. Mr. Arnold, in his early life, was not favored by fortune. He had not the advantages of a collegiate education. He had only such opportunities as were afforded by the country-schools and village academy. These he improved to such an extent as to fully prepare him for the prominent positions which he afterward occupied during his life, and which he filled so creditably to himself and sothat his heart swelled with

;

a

EARLY CHICAGO AND

50

satisfactorily to his friends.

At

ILLINOIS.

the early age of fifteen

young Arnold found himself thrown upon his own resources, and from that time began the struggle of life for success and for future usefulness. He was emphatically years,

" the

own

of his

artist

From seventeen

fortune."

to

twenty, he occupied his time in teaching half the year, to

enable him to pursue his studies the other

half.

He

di-

vided his time during this period between academic study, teaching, and reading law.

During

this period

he entered

the law-office of Richard Cooper of Cooperstown, N. Y.

He

subsequently became a student

E. B. Morehouse.

In 1835,

in

the office of Judge

when he had

scarcely attained

was admitted to the Supreme Court of New York. He immediately thereafter formed a partnership with Judge Morehouse, which continued until his removal to Chicago. In 1837, he formed a partnership with Mahlon D. Ogden of this city, which continued for several years, building up a large and lucrative business. While a member of that firm in 1841, Mr. Arnold, being then only twenty-seven years of age, commenced and carried through to a successful termination, unaided and alone, the celebrated case of Bronson vs. Kinzie, which was finally determined by the Supreme Court of the United States in the winter of 1842. I mention this case his

majority, he

because of its

its

being a leading case

in this

celebrated cases, and because of

stitutional questions

twenty-seven years of age

in

life,

the

arguing this case at

highest court

world, and contending against the ablest It

among

which Mr. Arnold was able to grapple

with at that youthful period of his

Nation.

country,

involving grave con-

its

in

the

lawyers in the

demonstrates the learning and capacity, the

courage and fixedness of purpose of the young lawyer

more

satisfactorily than

any words of eulogy.

Mr. Arnold was more than a powerful and successful

advocate and trial-lawyer.

He was

a learned lawyer



1

ISAAC.

NEWTON ARNOLD.

5

For more than thirty head of the Chicago bar. As a nisi-prins or trial-lawyer there was scarcely his equal in the State; probably it can truthfully be said that he was one of the most successful, ingenious, and powerful jurylawyers in the Western country. The records of the various courts, State and Federal, show Mr. Arnold to have had an extensive and varied practice. Few lawyers in this or any other city have had a greater number of cases before the courts that Mr. Arnold, and these cases were generally of great importance, and involved the most varied learning, and called for the application of the most intriFor a time, Mr. Arcate and abstruse questions of law. nold made a specialty of criminal practice, and such was his success for many years that no man defended by him was ever convicted. His first important criminal case was the trial of a negro named Davit, who was accused of murdering his brother. Mr. Arnold being satisfied of his innocence, volunteered to defend him, and procured his acquittal. Among other noted criminal cases in which he appeared as counsel, that of Taylor Driscoll, charged with the murder of John Campbell, the leader of a band of "regulators" in Ogle County, 111., is perhaps the most noted. He defended many other persons charged with murder in this and other counties, and, except in the case of Geo. W. Green, in this city, in 1854, who committed suicide before the final trial, it is believed he was successful

jurist, in

the just sense of that term.

years Mr. Arnold stood

in

at the

every instance.

There

is

no one of the older members of the Chicago

bar but will accord to Mr. Arnold the credit of having been

one of the best trial-lawyers that ever belonged to the Chicago bar. Mr. Arnold attained in life and in his profession all that an honorable and well-ordered ambition could hope for. He attained great eminence and distinction in his profession and as a citizen. He acquired a competency.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

52

and

his later years found

He was

wealth brings. in

ILLINOIS.

him enjoying the comforts which marked and conspicuous figure

a

the growth and development of our city, and his

will

name

long be remembered as one of the originators and

members and

as the president of this Society,

and as be-

ing connected with nearly every enterprise of benevolence, culture, refinement,

he has been among I

may

and growth developed

in

say of him as a lawyer and as a

Edmund

language of

our city since

us.

Burke: "In

all

citizen, in

the

the qualities in which

personal merit has a place, in culture, in erudition, in genius^

humanity, in every sentiment accomplishment, he was the peer of any

in honor, in generosity, in

and every man."

liberal

Wm.

Hon.

F.

DeWolf, then offered the following resolu-

tion:

Resolved,

That the thanks of the Chicago Historical

WashThomas Drummond, and Hon. VanH. Higgins for their graceful tributes to the memory of our late president, Hon. Isaac Newton Arnold, and also to Hon. John Wentworth for his tribute to the memory of our late vice-president, Hon. Thomas Hoyne and that the Society be and are hereby presented to Hon. E. B.

burne, Hon.

;

Committee on Publication of the Society cause these to be printed, pamphlet form.

tributes

for

the use of

Tribute of Hon. Wm.

F.

the

Society, in

DeWolf.

In connection with this resolution in respect of Mr.

Arnold,

may

I

be permitted to say a word expressing

my

love and admiration for our departed friend and president. It

was

my

great privilege from the time

to be able to call

him

my

friend.

We

I

came

lived

to

Chicago

many

years

NEWTON ARNOLD.

ISAAC adjoining neighbors.

Our

my

best friend outside

myself to

grew up together, lovto look upon him as

children

ing and beloved, until at last

I

my own

53

came

family.

relate his acts of kindness.

I

You

dare not trust will

pardon

me

some might think had

for thus alluding to what, perhaps,

better be sealed within the sacred precincts of individual

memory. Our doors were open to each other, and we went and out without restraint. In his family, Mr. Arnold came up to the highest standard of husband, father, and friend. He did "not dull his palm with entertainment in

of each new-hatched, unfledged comrade, but the friends he had, and their adoption tried, he grappled to his soul with hooks of

steel."

and those works testify to his

"He was

live after

the son of his

him and

worth and praise him

will

in

own

works,"

always remain to

the gates.

MARK SKINNER. By Read

MARK His

W. Blatchford.

before the Chicago Historical Society,

SKINNER

September of

E.

father,

was born

December

13,

ifi

at Manchester,

Vermont,

13, 18 13.

Richard Skinner, one of the prominent men in his day, was born in 1778 at Litch-

New England

field,

Conn., at whose celebrated law-school he was edu-

and where he was admitted to the bar in 1800. He removed to Manchester in 1802, where, at this early age his rare character was recognized, and honors were rapidly conHe was elected State's attorney for ferred upon him. Bennington County, and judge of probate; was a member of the general assembly in 1815-18; and the last term was speaker-of-the-house; was member of congress, and asHe was elected chiefsistant-judge of the supreme court. cated,

afterward, however, accepting the which he served for five years, when he deFrom 1820 to '24, he was governor of clined a reelection. the State. He was a prominent member of the CongregaAs a jurist, a statesman, a tional Church, in Manchester. He died christian gentleman, he left an enduring record. May 23, 1833. At the same time that Richard Skinner held the office of governor, his brother Roger was chiefThe grandfather of justice in the State of New York. Judge Skinner, Gen. Timothy Skinner, was a soldier of He and his ancestors for several generathe Revolution. tions, resided in Litchfield, Conn., or in its neighborhood. justice,

high

but declined;

office, in

Frances Pierpont, the mother of Judge Skinner, was

54

From

a Photo, by S.

M.

Chicago Photo - Gravure Co.

Fassett, 1874.

Stft. 13,

1813



Sept. 16, 1887.

V/^-*^'-

— —

MARK SKINNER.

55

born in New Haven, Conn., in 1782. She was descended from a long line of distinguished ancestors the family being traced from Sir Hugh de Pierrepont, of the Castle* of Pierrepont, in the south confines of Picardy, A.D. 980. His grandson, Sfr Robert de Pierrepont, came over from France to England, 1066, as a commander of the army of William the Conqueror, by whom he was ennobled for his



-f-

conduct at the battle of Hastings.

Descended from him

was John

name

who

Pierrepont, the

first

of the

was a woman of

rare character

in this country,

Mrs. Richard Skinner

settled near Boston, in 1640.+

—a

devoted mother, an

commanding influence in the community, where her memory is still revered, though christian, exercising a

earnest

nearly half a century has life

elapsed since her beneficent

ended.

In a home, presided over by such parents, united in harmonious and consecrated purpose, should we not expect the development of a character like that to which we tonight pay our tribute of honor and affection.?

Mark Skinner was

I

the only son

who grew up

brothers having died in infancy.

ity, his

;

He

to matur-

received a

thorough education. At the age of ten he was placed in a school at Bennington, and subsequently in one at Troy, New York. His preparation for college was received at the Pittsfield •

The

Academy,

place derived

its

name from a stone bridge, with which Charlemagne "The Pierpont Family. Compiled by Edward

supplied the place of a ferry. J.



New Haven, 1881." From whom he received

Marks,

+

Sussex,

among which was

Pierrepont)

Ibid,

page

Mass., then under the charge of

Page

i.

great estates in the counties of Suffolk and

the Lordship of Hurst Pierrepont, (or planting of

i.

X Hon. John Pierrepont, born in London, 1619, settled near Boston in In 1656, he purchased three hundred

1640, leaving his father in London. acres,

now

the site of

been an influential court.

Jbid, page

Roxbury and Dorchester. Died, Dec. 7, 1682, having Roxbury, and a representative of the general

citizen of

18.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

56

ILLINOIS.

Dewey, an eminent teacher of that day. In 1830, he entered the sophomore class of Middlebury College, Prof.

Vt.,

then

in

the height of

its

prosperity, under the able

presidency of Rev. Joshua Bates, D.D., and after Yale and Harvard, equal to any of the New- England colleges, a

statement abundantly verified by the graduates,

who

honor upon

list

of distinguished

in the different professions

their

alma mater and

have reflected

their native State.

Inheriting from his father a predilection for the law, im-

mediately upon his graduation,

the study of his profession.

in

1833, he entered

Two years

upon

were spent at Sara-

toga Springs, with Judge Ezek Cowan, eminent as a jurist and author, and continued his studies in the office of Nicholas Hill of Albany, one of the most accomplished lawyers of the New- York bar. One acquainted with Mr. Hill characterized him to me as "at the front of the bar of Albany, and one of the foremost lawyers of the State of New York." A third year was spent at the New-Haven Law-School, attached to Yale College, under the instruction of Judges Daggett and Hitchcock. At the completion of his term of study, he was strongly urged by Mr. Hill to join him in a co-partnership for the practice of law in New-York City; but a friend, who had spent a short time at the West and in Chicago, returned with such glowing accounts of the wondrous possibilities of this new city, with its inducements to young men of energy and enterprise, that he was led to change his partly-formed plans, and in July, 1836, came to Chicago. He was admitted to the bar immediately on his arrival, and in the autumn entered upon the active practice of the law, associated with George Anson Oliver Beaumont, as partner. In 1839-40, during the mayoralty of Alexander Loyd, he was elected city attorney, and transacted the law business of the city with eminent success. He was master-in-chancery for Cook County for many years, but

—a

MARK SKINNER.

*

57

appointment was that of Unitedby President Tyler, to succeed Justin Butterfield; the district then embracing the entire Having held the office and familiarized himself State. his

purely-political

first

States district attorney,

with

its

it was only natural that he and when Mr. Polk's administra-

routine of duties,

should desire to retain

came

it,

he sought a second term, his claim being The contest between the two applicants was a very protracted and animated one so animated, indeed, that a compromise was effected by conferring the office upon a third party but the "struggle had given Mr. Skinner an impressive view of the descents tion

in,

contested by Isaac N. Arnold.



a man must make to obtain the federal patronage, and he resolved that this struggle for federal office should be his last.

The year truest

life,

1841

by

his

was made memorable to him, in his marriage, on May 21, to Elizabeth

Magill Williams.

member

Mr. Skinner was elected a

of the Illinois legis-

lature in 1846, the session being held from the

[day in Dec. )f

(7),

1846, until

subsequent history,

we

March

i,

1847.

first

Mon-

In the light

recognize the priceless value of

and enduring work accomplished by lim during this brief period. "He was made chairman of the committee on finance, at that time the most important :ommittee in the house. During the time that he occu)ied this position, he drew up and procured the passage through the house of a bill refunding the State debt [bill which was far-reaching in its influence upon the finanIces of the State. It reduced all the multiplied forms of

jthe arduous, broad,



[State

indebtedness

'styles of State

— there being six or eight — into a convenient and manageable

different

bonds

shape, ascertained the limit of the debt, and effectually cut off the possibility of frauds in issuing

issues of bonds. 5

In

fact,

the

bill

new and unauthorized

evoked method and sys-

EARLY CHICAGO AND

58

tem out of

financial chaos,

ILLINOIS.

brought the debt of the State

into an intelligible condition, and, correspondingly, placed credit upon a healthy basis. This session was also memorable as the one calling the State convention which its

formed the second State constitution.

Upon

the question

of apportionment of delegates to this convention, Northern

and Southern

Illinois

were arrayed against each other.

The

southern members claimed that the apportionment should

be made upon the basis of the census of 1840, which would have given their section that is, the counties south of Springfield





the majority

versa, the northern

made upon

in

the convention; and, vice

members claimed

that

it

should be

the basis of the census of 1845, which, in turn,

would have given the northern counties the majority.

As

the construction of the phraseology of the old constitution could be

made

favorable to either side, the contest

was naturally a very excited and

bitter one.

The cham-

pionship of the northern side of the question in the house,

by

tacit consent,

devolved upon Mr. Skinner; and, after a

long struggle, his en.ergy and excellent management car-

was

felt in

this session, also,

payment of the

on the State indebtedness. had been in default for many with a disposition to repudiate, which had long been

partial

Up

At

Mr. Skinner's influence the passage of the measure to recommence a

ried the day.

interest

to that time the interest

years,

manifest in

some

quarters, thereby giving the State credit

a very unfavorable reputation at the financial centers of It was this same question of the State debt the country. which gave interest to the sectional contest on the appointment of delegates to the State convention, and entailed upon this apportionment the most important financial results; for, however the southern counties might stand upon the question of payment of the debt and there were grave fears as to their attitude it was very well known that the northern counties were unanimously in favor of





MARK SKINNER.

59

and of liquidating the principal

paying the interest

in full,

at maturity, or as

soon thereafter as the condition of the

State finances would admit.

"In 185 1, Mr. Skinner was elected judge of the CookCounty court of common pleas, now the superior court

Cook County.

of

account of

He

declined a reelection in 1853, on labors of the bench at that

The

ill-health.

time were almost insupportable, especially when one's strength was limited.

Judge Skinner was the

sole judge

of the court, and practically did the business appertaining to the higher' courts of the county at that time, the circuit court holding

recorder's

but two short terms annually, and the

court not yet being

in

existence.

All the

criminal and nine-tenths of the civil business of the county

was transacted in this court, and imposed an enormous burden of care and responsibility," I make the above extract from a writer familiar with those early days.

Seldom

is

it

that a professional career, so limited in

time, leaves so profound

and

lasting an impress as did these

seventeen years which included his practice at the bar, and

During this period, he was body of men who did honor to the legal profession in Chicago. Among them are the familiar names of John Dean Caton, James H. Collins, J. Young Scammon, Justin Butterfield, Buckner Smith Morris,.

his

occupancy of the bench.

associated with a

George Manierre, Ebenezer Peck, Isaac N. Arnold, Richard Hamilton, Grant Goodrich, Samuel Lisle Smith,. Norman Buel Judd, Thomas Hoyne, Edwin Channing

Jones

Larned. In the State too, Judge Skinner was brought into contact with

men whose names

are

known beyond

the limits

of State and Nation, an association brought about by the

extent of the jurisdiction of both the United-States and State judicial circuits. " Statutes

The

fifth judicial circuit

under the

of Illinois " embraced fifteen counties.

The

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

60

United-States circuit and district court trict

of

Illinois,

— called

the Dis-

held their terms at Springfield, the seat of

If I may trust the legal annals of those government. days at hand, with the testimony of men still living, who were actors, there was no state west of the Alleghanies which possessed a body of men equal to those who prac-

There were Thomas

tised law in the courts of Illinois.

Drummond, Joseph

Charles S. Hempstead, Elihu B. Washburne,

Hoge, Joseph

P.

Thompson Campbell

B. Wells,

Benjamin

Mills,

and

Of Quincy: Archibald

of Galena.

Williams, Chas. B. Lawrence, Orville H. Browning, Nehe-

miah Bushnell, Isaac N. Morris, and Wm. A. Richardson. At the Springfield bar were Stephen Trigg Logan, Abraham Lincoln, Edward Dickinson Baker, John Todd Stuart, Stephen Arnold Douglas, John J Hardin, and Lyman Trumbull; and at Peoria: Lincoln B. Knowlton, and On-

Norman H. Purple, Amos L. Merriman, Julius Manning, Thomas Ford, and William L. May. Among

slow Peters, these,

Judge Skinner stood a

peer.

In looking at his legal career, for its

own

sake, possessed for

I

may

say that litigation

him no

attractions.

could only enter the arena and deal vigorous blows

convinced that justice was his

ally.

He when

His thorough educa-

tion in the principles of law and equity, secured for him,

under bench.

all

circumstances, the respect of the bar and the

He had

unbending

a stronghold on his clients, through an

a shrewd insight into the cardinal and also a delicate sense of honor. With an unusual quickness of perception he united moderrectitude,

principles involved,

ation in action

— a rare combination.

The same cause which

led

Judge Skinner to decline rehim from resum-

election to the bench, operated to prevent

ing the general practice of his profession.

During Judge Skinner's residence been frequently consulted by Eastern

in

Chicago he had

capitalists in regard

MARK SKINNER.

6l

to investments here both in purchases of real estate

and

His comprehensive knowledge of the law, as applied to real estate, and his accurate business habits, eminently fitted him for the successful management of such business. It may be stated, on good authority, that no loans.

person in this country has invested for non-resident capitalists anything like the amount of money that has passed

through the hands of Judge Skinner; and in individual instances, single sums, ranging all the way from $5000 to Spe$600,000, have been carefully and judiciously loaned.

and honorable connection Mutual Life Insurance Company; and here, I am permitted to read a Memorial presented to the board of directors of this company, on the occasion of Judge Skinner's death, and prepared by his warmly-attached friend, the president. Col. Jacob L. Greene a docucially

prominent was

his long

with the Connecticut



ment,

I

am

quite sure, wholly unprecedented in the history

of trust relationship:

"The

directors of this

death of the Hon. thirty years

its

Mark

company having who was

Skinner,

financial

learned of the for

correspondent, and

more than their

own

upon their and to mark

trusted, confidential advisor at Chicago, entered

records this minute, desiring thereby to recall

importance and value of his the investment of :over $27,500,000, the acquistion by unavoidable foreclosure, [and the subsequent sale of large amounts of real estate, [and the personal oversight and handling of these great in[terests during all the dangerous and trying vicissitudes, iwhich fell upon the country at large, and upon his own (City in particular, during that most eventual period; the [singular intelligence, foresight, sound judgment, delicacy, [courage, fidelity, and single heartedness with which he •treated every question, faced every emergency, and discharged every duty; his untiring watchfulness of every intheir sense of the peculiar

,

services to

it

in that relation, involving

EARLY CHICAGO AND

62

terest involved

his equally wise

;

ILLINOIS.

and kindly zeal

for the

welfare of the company's debtors in times of financial distress; that unfailing courtesy

tion with their

him

which made a long associa-

a pleasure as well as a high privilege; and

deep sense of loss and their sympathy with his bea document impressive even to a stranger,

reaved family"



but of vastly increased significance to those

from

personal

acquaintance

its

absolute

who know

truthfulness.

These

duties, so conscientiously performed, and in their broadening scope making large demands upon time and strength, he was compelled, on account of increased delicacy of health to resign on June 30, 1886. There is another trust of which I would speak, to which Judge Skinner gave his best thought, and perhaps no other work of his will project itself forward with more enduring and potent influence upon our city and country I refer to his work as executor and trustee under the w'ill of the late Walter Loomis Newberry. He was, during the long years of their residence in this city, Mr. Newberry's intimate friend and confidential adviser. He drew his will, and how much we are indebted to him for the muhificent bequest which in the establishment of the Newberry Library is now being executed, we may never know. It was so clearly drawn that its validity has never been assailed. A purely collateral question, touching the time for the division of the estate, after one of the severest contests known in our State courts, was decided against



the contestants, in favor of the plain intention of the testator, as

evidenced

in

the language of the

will.

In

the simple and broad provision for the establishment and

conduct of the library, enabling those upon whom may devolve the important trust of its development, to meet the varying and unknown exigencies of the future, we see his sagacity, and his thoughtful appreciation of this grand provision for the interests of literature and sound learning.

MARK SKINNER. Thus from various sources

is

63

briefly

sketched

the

and business life of Judge Skinner. His connection in both spheres were extensive. While not entering the field of politics, which at one time opened to him, or the attractive field of authorship or journalism, for which his thorough historic studies, and distinctively professional

careful observation of current events, with his masterly

command

of the pen so rarely fitted him, his influence was yet more potent and extended than that of the polior orator, or journalist, in shaping the history of

tician,

this city;

and erecting for Chicago and the Northwest a life and morals whose influence will be felt as

standard of the years

roll on.

who knew him in the early years of his residence in Chicago, writes: "His character and education gave him a leading position Of

the political views of Judge Skinner, one

as a straightforward, reliable party, although

it

member

of the democratic

can not be said that he has ever been a

professional politician."

At

a later

date,

when

the conflict which

distinctly

involved the anti-slavery sentiment of the country had

begun, the following incident indicates Judge Skinner's ittitude: "In April 1854, a meeting of prominent Chicago

and State politicians, including democrats and whigs who were opposed to the course of Stephen A. Douglas in the ^senate, was held in room 4, Tremont House. There were

Abraham

present, ;

Lincoln,

Lyman

Trumbull, Mark Skin-

H. Browning, John T. Stuart, David Davis, Buel Judd, J. Young Scammon, Francis C. Sher-

ner, Orville

Norman

^man, and others equally well known. Those present [pledged themselves to the support of an anti-Nebraska ^

party, and appointed a committee to agitate the subject.

This led to that fusion of sentiment that revolutionized the politics of the entire northern part of the State."

Two

years

after,

on Saturday evening,

May

31, 1856,

EARLY CHICAGO AND

64

ILLINOIS.

one of the earliest and most enthusiastic Kansas meetings ever gathered in the Northwest, was held in the courthouse square. Here Norman B. Judd presided, and the following resolutions were adopted: ''Resolved, That the people of Illinois will aid the free-

dom

of Kansas.

That they

Resolved,

will

five hundred and provision them for

send a colony of

actual settlers to that Territory,

one year.

That

Resolved, rights,

but

will

these

settlers

invade no man's

That we recommend the adoption of a simi-

Resolved,

policy to the people of

lar

will

maintain their own. all

the States of the Union^

ready and willing to aid; and also, a thorough concert and cooperation among them, through committees of correspondence, on this subject. Resolved, That an executive committee of seven, viz.:

Vaughn, Mark Skinner, George W. Dole, Isaac N, Norman B. Judd, and Edward I. Tinkham, be appointed with full powers to carry into execution these

J.

C.

Arnold,

resolutions."

A

finance committee

was

also appointed to raise and'

The

resolutions were passed amidst the most enthusiastic and prolonged cheering. distribute

material

The deep

aid.

conviction thus wrought into Judge Skinner's

prepared him to take the strong position he assumed as a member of the republican party when the civil war came upon us. During a journey taken with him to life

Washington,

ment of

in the

summer

hostilities,

in

of 1861, after the

the

prosecution

of

commencethe duties

devolved upon us in connection with the needs of the army, I well remember his emphatic and clear exposition of the underlying principles of the great conflict his abhorence of the injustice and unsound philosophy of the state -rights views, advocated by the Southern leaders.



MARK SKINNER.

65

in this country and England; which his acute mind stripped off every specious pretense from their plausible reasoning. In contrast, he dwelt upon the principles of right enunciated in the then recent action of congress, and their accordance with the truths laid down by the founders of our government, of which the constitution was the legitimate and beneficent outgrowth. All this made upon my

then widely disseminated

and the

manner

mind an

indelible impression.

The

large

in

demands made upon

in the outset of

erous response.

sideration of his business

work I

^his

means

for aid

and professional career to his

as a philanthropist.

notice

first

many

ered, in



private

our war, found in Judge Skinner a genAnd here we naturally turn from a con-

that which

respects, the

Judge Skinner himself considmost valuable work of his life

connection with the United- States Sanitary ComThis is not the occasion for the statement of

mission.

the

momentous and hurrying

events,

which made neces-

sary this service, auxiliary to our military department.

From a peace basis, which gave employment to a few thousand troops, there suddenly sprang into existence an army of a hundred thousand men, finally increased to a million, utterly uninured to the trying vicissitudes of a soldier's life. Bloody battles soon followed, creating necessities on the field and in hospitals with which our recently-improvised medical bureau was unable to cope. Then came the call for aid which found quick response among

all

patriots, especially in the hearts of loyal

womea

whose dearest ones were at the front. On June 9, 1861, the secretary of war issued an order appointing certain gentlemen "a commission of enquiry and advice in respect of the sanitary interests of the United-States forces." Work for the sanitary needs of our soldiers was at once undertaken, much was accom-

EARLY CHICAGO AND

66

ILLINOIS.

plished during the months that followed, and on Oct.

the organization of the Northwestern Sanitary sion

was

17,

Commis-

effected at an enthusiastic public meeting held

A committee of seven was chosen, who at once organized by the election of officers. Judge Skinner being the unanimous choice for president. Time forbids that I should even outline the steps by which from modest beginnings, this beneficent work developed into it^ wonderful proportions. In it all, especially in securing the large benefactions from city and country, which made such success possible, we recognized our indebtedness to the influence, the words, the pen of our honored President. As an interesting illustration of his conception of the duties of the Sanitary Commission, and also of the prudence and tact which he brought to that most difficult and delicate department of work army and hospital inspection I quote from his letter of instructions to the gentlemen who made the first inspection ordered by the commission, of our suffering troops in Missouri. * * * "From Sedalia your route will naturally be, as is supposed through Warsaw to Springfield, the headquarters of the army under the command of Maj.-Gen. [David] Hunter; with whom and with Dr. [Joseph K.] Barnes, we trust you may have such conference, and from whom obtain such information and suggestions, and also such authority for yourselves, for this Commission, and for its authorized agents hereafter to be appointed, as may best conduce to the carrying out of the charitable objects we have in view. "Your special attention is called to this branch of your in

our

city.





Commission must depend in a great measure for success on the facilities which the military authorities extend to the Commission, in the way of securing prompt and safe transmission of stores, safe and proper passage of our agents and instructions, as the future operations of the

MARK SKINNER. inspectors,

and

6/

by officers of all employ of the govern-

their respectful treatment

grades, soldiers, and others in the

ment.

"You

will

inform yourselves as accurately as possible

where the places of greatest destitution on the part of the sick and suffering soldiers are, what particular points will be most proper as locations for our inspectors, what articles are most needed for the relief of the sick and the wounded, and, generally in what way our Commission can render the most efficient aid in the relief of, and prevention "It

is

of,

suffering

by our

press be furnished

by you,

come from Gen. Hunter, It

is

troops.

desired that no communications for the public

also

unless the suggestion should

or other respectable authority.

in your intercourse with the conduct of officers be avoided. however, should be made, as to the

requested that

soldiers, criticism of the

Thorough

inquiries,

causes of disease, the kinds of disease, the competency

of surgeons of all grades, and the care and conduct of officers in regard to the health and comfort of the troops under their command."

Among the many irreparable losses resulting from the Great Fire, there was perhaps none more serious to history, than that of the archives of the Northwestern Sanitary Commission, comprised in several hundred carefullyindexed volumes. Here were gathered reports, letters, documents, detailing events on the march and in camp, on the battlefield

and

in hospital, in

every department from the

valley of the Mississippi to the ocean, written without fear

or favor, by the faithful agents of the Commission; and here too were copies of the letters of Judge Skinner, correspondence, embracing the whole work of the Commission. These letters, written often under pressure, and

upon subjects requiring peculiar delicacy of treatment, were models of epistolary style. They were direct, clear,

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

68 forcible,

admirable

in diction,

and on

all

occasions char-

by that true courtesy which insured

acterized

their candid

consideration.

Until early in the year 1864, Judge Skinner remained

head of this patriotic work, whose grandeur, like mountain ranges, grows more impressive as they recede. Impaired health compelled .his resignation at this time. The blessing of thousands is the reward of such selfdenying labor. Let me here quote a characterization of this work, as presented on a recent occasion, by Judge Skinner's pastor: "We can not forget we who love these United States, we who bless that Omnipresent wisdom that went forth with our armies, that it was this man who represented the at the



heroic love of this great Northwest, as the indefatigable

head of that Sanitary Commission whose heart and hand went forth to mother those devoted legions, whose front of loyalty held the

Thermopylae of

civilization."

In recognition of these patriotic services, the Loyal

Legion of the United vision of

its

charter,

States, in

accordance with the pro-

elected

Hon. Mark Skinner and

Ezra Butler McCagg, his equally zealous successor in the presidency of the Commission, companions of the order.

By an extended 1887,

the

State

notice and resolutions adopted Oct.

Commandary

fittingly

testified

to

13,

his

character and services.

may

gift, which bestowed upon his Country in her hour Richard Skinner his only remaining son, who of need. had recently, with honor, graduated at Yale, heard the After brief and honorcall of duty and responded to it. able service he fell in the trenches before Petersburg^ I

not forbear to speak of the greatest

as a father, he

June

22, 1864.

So far as I can discover, with every philanthropic agency in the history of this city, broad, true, permanent

MARK SKINNER. in character, officially,

do we

find

69

Judge Skinner associated

or through personal influence, or

by

either

financial

aid.

From was the

the

years of his residence in Chicago, he

first

New-England

common

His early his high In 1842, he was elected one of

reliable friend of the

school.

associations naturally produced

estimate of education.

the seven school-inspectors, of

whom

J.

Young Scammon

and Grant Goodrich still survive. Upon the city schools and the conservation of the school-fund he bestowed much time and thought. His broad views during those formative years of our public-school system were shown

by

his interest in securing cooperation

among

the friends

throughout the State. This was accomby organizing school-conventions, in which the Teacher's Institute had its origin, which has continued as of education

plished

a valued educational auxiliary to the present time.

At

one of these early school-conventions held at Peoria, Oct. 8, 1854, Judge Skinner attended as delegate from this city, accompanied by such men as William H. Brown, William Jones, Richard J. Hamilton, John H. Kinzie,

Norman and

B. Judd, Isaac

others.

We

N. Arnold,

J.

Young Scammon, men who,

turn with gratitude to these

at a sacrifice of

time and money, as well as personal

convenience, laid foundations of strength after-generations have built.

upon which

In 1859, the city did itself

honor, in perpetuating the services of a faithful citizen,

most commodious school-buildings Aberdeen and West The Skinner School. To this school Jackson streets his gifts have been frequent, especially to its carefullyselected library the last bill for books, amounting to six hundred dollars, being paid by his order, while he was upon his sick-bed at Manchester, In the earliest effort made for the intellectual and in

naming one of

— erected at

its

the southeast corner of





EARLY CHICAGO AND

70 social

ILLINOIS.

improvement of the young men of

this city,

Judge

Skinner took a prominent part. On the evening of Jan. lO, 1841, a few gentleman met in the hardware-store of Seth T. Otis, to take measures for securing a readingroom and hbrary. Judge Skinner drew up a subscription paper and all present signed it. This preliminary meeting was followed by another on the 30th of the same month, held in the chamber of the common council, in which the organization was completed under the name of The Young Men's Association of Chicago, afterward changed to The Chicago Library Association the pre-



There were present at this meeting, Walter Loomis Newberry, Hugh Thompson Dickey, Peter Page, Walter Smith Gurnee, and William Linnseus Church. Mr. Newberry was elected president, Mark Skinner vice-president, and Judge Dickey corresponding-secretary. Thus was established the first decessor of the present Public

reading-room

in the city, at the

Library.

southwest corner of Lake

and Clark streets, which was furnished with the principal newspapers and periodicals of the day. The nucleus of a library was furnished by a selection of books presented to the association by Walter L. Newberry, on April 24, succeeding.

The Chicago Lyceum had been instituted on Dec. 2, which the late Thomas Hoyne stated: "It was the foremost institution in the city when he came here in 1837." At that time, he says: "Not a man of note, not a man in the city of any trade or profession, who had any taste for intellectual and social enjoyment, who loved 1834, of

and debate, but belonged to the Lyceum," of this Lyceum, Judge Skinner was a leading member. Judge Skinner was ever alive to calls for alleviation of suffering. The County Hospital was first opened March 30, 1847, and two years after, on Oct. 29, 1849, was incorbooks, conversation,

I

MARK

SKINNER.

J

porated under the name of The Illinois General Hospital of the Lake, the charter-trustees being Hon. Mark Skinner, Hon. H.T. Dickey, and Dr. John Evans. Dr. Nathan Smith Davis delivered a course of four lectures in the city hall for

the old

benefit,

its

and the hospital was opened

Lake House, with beds

in

on

for twelve patients

Nov. 23, 1852. On Nov. 30, the board of trustees met, and adopted a code of by-laws for the government of the hospital, and elected Mark Skinner president. Dr. John Evans secretary, Capt. Richard Kellogg Swift treasurer. Dr. Daniel Brainard surgeon. Dr. Nathan S. Davis physician, and Dr. John Evans physician to the female wards. On the opening of the Mercy Hospital in 1853, this general hospital was discontinued. The Chicago Home for the Friendless was organized in 1858. To this Judge Skinner gave his advice, and experience, and was one of its early presidents, in 1860-1. The Illinois Charitable Eye-and-Ear Infirmary an institution now known in two continents was opened in May, 1858, in one room, in a small wooden building, at 60 North-Clark Street, on the northeast corner of Michigan. Judge Skinner was a member of the first board of trustees, of which W. L. Newberry was president. Of that board and officers but one now remains Ezra B.







McCagg, long its treasurer. Judge Skinner was one of the incorporators of The Chicago Relief and- Aid Society, whose charter was granted in February, 1857, and in the autumn of the same year it was thoroughly organized, a board of management was elected, and the constitution, general rules, and by-laws were adopted. To its early management and -

plans he gave first,

much

attention and wise direction.

At

voluntary visitors were engaged to examine into the

wants and worthiness of applicants, but this was soon found to be an unreliable method, and paid visitors were

EARLY CHICAGO AND

72

ILLINOIS.

employed by the society, with a general superintendent, and persons in charge of its special relief. The strength and wisdom of the management thus adopted, was evidenced by the fact that ten years later, the three other organizations of relief work in the city, the Christian Union, the Citizen's Relief, and the relief department of the

Young Men's

for

consolidating their work with that of the Chicago

Christian Association, called a meeting

Relief-and-Aid Society, which was accomplished.

Little

did these founders anticipate the vast work for which

they were preparing so efficient an organization. Judge Skinner took a prominent part in the founding

many of now Ken-

of the Chicago Reform School, whose location, us remember, in the southern part of the city,

wood, and whose influence spare.

No

for

good we could

ill-afford to

institution has since filled its place in our city.

He was made

first president of the board of direcwhich he was eminently qualified, and which he held for years. To the organization and management of this excellent institution he devoted time and personal attention without stint. " He visited and inspected the reformatory institutions of the Eastern and Middle States, and carefully studied the documentary records of The similar schools in England, France, and Germany. result was a decided conviction that the family system of reforming juvenile offenders was infinitely preferable to He the congregated system in practice in this country. labored zealously to effect this change, and finally succeeded in grafting the system upon our own institution. The result of Judge Skinner's labors supplementing those of the admirable superintendent, Geo. W. Perkins, whom he secured, was a school for reform, which was truly

the

tors, a position for

considered the

Of Judge

first

of

its

Skinner's

class in this country."

intimate

connection

with

the

Chicago Historical Society, our records bear constant

MARK SKINNER. In

its

the growth of

its

testimony. before the

fire,

73

and organization, in and the building erected

original planning

collections

and

the restoration

in

since, his

wise

counsel, his active cooperation, and liberal contributions

have been recognized.

At the earliest meeting, held at the suggestion and through the efforts of Rev. William Barry, April 24. 1856, which resulted in the organization of The Chicago Historical Society. William H. Brown was elected president, William B. Ogden and J. Young Scammon vice-presidents, Samuel Dexter Ward treasurer. Rev. William Barry recording-secretary and librarian, and Dr. Charles H. Ray corresponding-secretary. In addition to the above, first on the list of members was the name of Mark Skinner. Of these first officers and members, I believe there now remain with us four J. Y, Scammon, S. D. Ward, Dr. N. S. Davis, and E. B. McCagg. On Feb. 7, 1857, the society was incorporated, Judge Skinner being one of the incorporators} and of the names



here appearing, the same

ones

living.

four, I

believe, are the

only

In a copy of the "Constitution and By-

Laws of

the Society, with a List of Officers," issued in 1856 Judge Skinner is chairman of the Committee on Library and Cabinet, with Mr. McCagg and Rev. Dr. A. (E. Smallwood associates; and also chairman of the Comlittee on Civil History, with J. Y. Scammon and E. B. [cCagg associates. In the list of* officers for 1858-9, tjudge Skinner appears on the Committee on Publica|tion with Rev. Wm. Barry and Dr. Hosmer A. Johnson issociates. In the years since then, we have all appre-



:iated his constant interest in this institution

fof his death,

he was a

member

[mittee and a trustee of

— at the time

of the Executive

Com-

both the Jonathan Burr and ..ucretia Pond Funds. His estimate of the value of the [Historical Society was high. We have often heard him 6

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

74

emphatic way, his clear conception of its in the community, as the conservator of material for the history of our city and country. In this connection it is natural to speak of Judge Skinner's love of books, and his cultivated, literary taste. His library was his chosen retreat. Its richly-laden shelves now bear witness to his scholarly taste and historic express

in

his

important function

Particularly choice

research.

is

the large collection of

whatever related to early New-England literature had for him a keen attraction. The total loss of his book and art treasures by the great fire,, was a subject on which he could not speak unmoved. From his own lips I know of the persistency with which he clung to his early-formed habit of studious reading,, even in the midst of the busy life which pressed upon Hence the enjoyment derived from this source in him. later years. He experienced the truth of Cicero's words:

Americana, history and

for

Hacc stiidia adolcscntiam alunt, scnectntein oblcctaitt." For New England, for its early history, for the development of civil and religious liberty in the mother country, for the struggles of the founders on these shores, where nature and savage man joined forces to oppose. Judge Skinner ever cherished the most profound and reverential affection. He was one of the founders of the NewEngland Society of this city, as I learn from the records, and nearly forty years since, on Dec. 22, 1848, he deliv''

ered an address before the society, which at the request of a large

number

of citizens was published.

'"A Vindi-

cation of the Character of the Pilgrim P'athers' was the

theme, and

in

close historical study of

the subject, in

and eloquence of diction, the oration was one of the most remarkable addresses delivclear convincing argument,

ered

in

u

Chicago."

In this connection should be mentioned the peculiar

attachment he cherished

for his early

home

— Manchester,

I

\

MARK SKINNER. Vermont

— a love so deep and

75

strong that

it

constituted

— drawing

him year by year, as a devoted son, with irrestible attraction, from the pressure and care of an active life to feel the renewing touch of beautiful nature, intensified by the treasured associations of childhood and youth. One of his last drives, was to the home of relatives, It was a brilliant, a short distance south of the village. August day. He rested, seated upon the piazza. Behind him stretched the Taconic Range, crowned by Mount Equinox, its king. Before him lay in incomparable beauty the valley of the Battenkill, and the GreenMountain Range beyond. In quiet thought he sat, his a part of his very

life

eye commanding the line of hills for a distance of forty miles, from north to south. Then memory awoke, of boyhood, manhood, age, and from Mount Anthony on the south overlooking the battlefield of Bennington, to Mount Tabor, which terminates the field of vision to the northward, did he point out each peak, telling its former and present name, the historical associations and traditions, with memories of men, who had among them lived and died a scene which will to many loving hearts ever



make consecrate this spot. Of Judge Skinner's religious though

in a true

and

life, I

may

lofty sense, all his life

in his allegiance to duty.

Upon

briefly speak,,

was religious

the organization of the

Second Presbyterian Church in 1842, under the pastorate Rev. Robert Wilson Patterson, D.D., he became a regular attendant, and was for several years a trustee. He united with the church on profession in May, 1858, and in 1866, was chosen a ruling-elder. After the remo-

of

val of his residence to the north side, he transferred his

church relationship to the Fourth Presbyterian Church, in which he was an elder at the date of his death, which occurred at Manchester, Vermont, on September 16, 1887. The struggle was a long and painful one, but met with

——

EARLY CHICAGO AND

"jG

ILLINOIS.

the fortitude and

submission of a christian. Into that chamber, whence the freed spirit took its- heavenward flight, and into the home thus stricken, I may not enter. On that September day, under the trees shaded with autumnal tints, all that was mortal of Mark Skinner, was carried by loving hands from the house in which he was born, to the resting-place chosen by himself beside his parents and sons. This sacred spot in the guardianship of the eternal hills, will ever speak of his loving thoughtfulness and generoys gifts, which make it a consecrated memorial. As we turn away, there comes a voice of peace and consolation suggested by the sculptured angels which guard the gate of entrance: "I am the resurrection and the life, whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die." Thus have I attempted to bring before you, with such inadequate portraiture as limited time and material have allowed, the varied activity of this earnest, useful, and consecrated

life

—a

life

which, in the formative period of

many

interests,

and

touching has transmuted perishable material to gold.

In

our city and country, has touched so

him we see exemplified what each one of to achieve, character

when obedient will



upon the noblest product of humanity us

is

called

to the gracious intimations of the divine

— character, subtle as

the fragrance of the flower, yet

pervasive as the atmosphere, and more potent than the mightiest forces of art or nature.

"The world wants men

Who Men who

— true

men

can not be bought or sold: will

Genuine

scorn to violate trust gold.

The world wants men Free from

— pure

men

the taint of sin:

Men whose lives are clean And pure within."

without,

MARK SKINNER. You who knew Judge

7/

Skinner, will recall the character-

which combined to make him the man he was delightful companion, the faithful friend and counselor, the strong reliance in the hour of exigency, the honored example. Yet it was not his conversational powers and flashing wit alone, though these he possessed preeminently; it was not his fidelity and wisdom alone, though in these, few equalled him; it was not insight into character and thoughtful consideration for the needs and the weaknesses of others, though many can testify to these traits; it was not his consistent christian life alone; but it was the harmonious blending of all these native gifts and acquirements which makes us mourners for his absence, as we meet tonight. Many and large have been the gifts of New England to the West. Her means have builded our railroads, tunneled our mountains, spanned our rivers with structures which challenge the wonder of the world. Her wealth has done more, it has furnished our school-houses and academies, it has endowed our colleges and seminaries, has given books to our libraries, and builded our churches; but greater than all these has been the gift of her sons, of men educated in New-England principles, who have brought them hither, and on prairie and in city have taught them, possibly not by pen or tongue, but by that most potent of all influences the logic of a true life. Thus today are Harvard and Yale, Amherst and Middlebury, Dartmouth and Bowdoin, speaking in living words, reiterating in the valley of the lakes and the great river, on the plains and beside the mountains, and on the istic traits

among

us

— the



Pacific

Coast, the principles of truth,

perseverance, learning, Christianity.

young

city in

utterance will

energy, integrity,

Such a

gift

days long gone was Mark Skinner, he be heard, as time rolls on.

to our in

such

ELIHU

WASH BURNE,

B.

By Gen. George W. Smith.

special meeting of the Chicago Historical Society, AT aheld rooms, Friday evening, December at L

1887,

its

its

i6,

president,

Edward G. Mason, spoke

as follows:

This special meeting of the Society has been called, its members may take appropriate action concern-

that

ing the death of

its

life

of our Country, in

macy, as well as

Hon. Elihu

eminent president,

late

Benjamin Washburne.

His prominence its

in

the political

statesmanship, and in

his relations

to this

its

Society,

diplo-

make

it

be remembered here. To this end, at the request of the Society and of friends and relatives of Mr. Washburne, a memorial address has particularly fitting that he should

been prepared, and

George W. Smith,

will

be delivered

whom

I

now

this

evening by Gen.

introduce to you.

Gen. Smith then delivered the following Address: Ladies and Gentlemen:

The speaker has

had the privilege to turn over, but not the time to examine carefully, the collection of manuscript letters addressed to the late Mr. Washburne, which consists of those that have escaped destruction, lately

although but a small portion of those received during his lifetime.

Those still preserved cover a period of some embrace letters from his family, constituents,

fifty years,

senators, congressmen, judges, diplomatic officers, officers

of

the army, and distinguished citizens and

both hemispheres.

They

constitute in

78

all

officials

of

a library of

ELIHU BENJAMIN WASHBURN^. ninety-eight volumes, and contain

much

79

that will be useful

to a future Macaulay.

With them 1856, and

rise

i860;

a vision of the past, the period of 1854, men of that time,

one remembers the

Sumner, Wilson, Hale, Collamer, Fessenden, Wade, GidAndrew, Chase, and others, who battled for free-speech, and Stevens, Toombs, Mason, Slidell, Floyd, Butler, and Brooks, with their friends and allies. They have long passed away, so long that there remains not a vivid remembrance of their personalities and characteristics. Their names are in the shadows of the past. Yet he who lately died was the companion and associate, or the opponent of these men. With thern he was a man of might, and of them the peer. The group of brothers of the Washburne family, sturdy champions as they were, of the right, must always be a picturesque feature of American history. Descendants of John Washburne, first secretary of the Council of Plymouth, on the paternal, and of Samuel Benjamin, an officer in the revolutionary army, who was of Pilgrim stock, on the maternal side. Their native town was Livermore, originally in the county of Oxford and district of Maine. Sterile in food, it has not been so in men. Its gifts have been, to Maine six governors, to other states four, and to the Nation a vice-president Hannibal Hamlin. In has furnished four senators and many members of congress, and lawyers and writers of distinction and dings, Seward,



note.

The

father,

Israel

He

ship-builder.

Washburne, was a merchant and

died in Livermore in 1876, at the age of

ninety-two years, having lived for nearly eighty years that place.

A

in

voluminous reader, with rare conversational he was, as his sons have said upon the monument erected to his memory, "a kind father and an honest man." The mother, Martha Benjamin, daughter of Samuel, was gifts,

EARLY CHICAGO AND

8o

ILLINOIS.

in 1792. She was a woman of great energy, deciand sweetness. At the dedication of the Washburne Memorial Library, in 1885, Mr. at the homestead now called Norlands

born sion,





Hamlin said: "Livermore has

truly sent into the world

men who have made

guished

many

distin-

the town historic, but the

Washburne family have towered above

all

others

in

adding^

not only to the fame of Livermore, but to the State and It was a most remarkable family, and county as well. such another could not be found in the whole history of our country. They were all born and reared in the house

raised

by

my

father,

and on the spot now occupied by the

present elegant mansion.

marvelous beauty which

It is is

a spot of that great

and

a joy forever.

"The record of the family has no precedent. There were seven brothers, one never entered public life, but was always known as a man of strict integrity and superior business habits. In the other six brothers, we find marvelous record two governors of states, four members of congress from four different states, one secretary of state of the United States, two foreign ministers, two members of state legislature, one major-general in the army, whcv was also a military governor, and a captain in the navy. Indeed could Martha Washburne be proud of her family. But that for which she might feel the highest pride was the fact that every son of hers, in whatever position, has discharged all his duties with distinguished ability and with an untarnished record, without even a stain on the



hem of his garments." To understand the development

of character that

the subject of this sketch what he became, to recall

slavery

in

in

strict

brevity the

it

is

made

necessary

narrative of the

rise

of

our country, opposition to the demands of

which grew to be

his opportunity

and pleasure.

1

ELIHU BENJAMIN WASHBURNE.

The

so-called

8

compromises of the constitution, by which

it was provided that representation and direct taxation should be in the same ratio, and in estimating them, five

slaves should

be reckoned as three freemen, and that the

importation of slaves into the states then existing, should not be prohibited before i8o8, were supported

by some of

the Northern States, and laid the basis for political con-

by the Southern States, even as against what had been the general opinion and sentiment concerning the The Missouri Compromise of 1820 institution of slavery. by which, except in the State of Missouri, slavery was prohibited north of latitude 36°3o' in territory to be newly acquired, proved to be an expedient. Nothing was gained trol

by

it

but present peace.

The new

anti-slavery

movement began

in

183

1.

In

1835 and 1836, occurred the Vermont, Ohio, New- York, and Illinois riots, and, in those years, as against the right of petition, the inviolability of slavery was formally enunciated

On

and

insisted

upon

the other hand

in congress,

in congress.

— "Elsewhere," says one

writer,

"than

events were constantly occurring at that period

and from that time forward were constantly cumulating to intensify the public excitement and to strengthen the North in the final struggle which was at some time inevitable, and it was now evident could not be long delayed. Not that such events had not happened before, but that, to the awakened observation, and conscience, * * * such events no longer passed by unheeded." In 1839, came the demand upon Gov. Seward of New

York by the governor

.of

Virginia for the rendition of

three sailors charged with aiding a slave to escape.

Seward's reply that the laws of

New York

did not recog-

advance of the thought and contravention of the action and disposition of most of

nize property in in

man, was

Gov.

his

own

party.

in

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

^2

The debates

in

congress and discussions throughout the

•country upon the fugitive-slave question and the nature of

slave-trading laws were intensified

and

by threats of secession

dissolution.

The second Seminole war, then in course of prosecution, which was waged for the possession of lands of the natives of Florida, arose out of a desire to reduce the Maroons of Florida to slavery, and the determination of South Carolina and Georgia not to have so near their borders an asylum for fugitive slaves. Had not the efforts of its senators been thwarted, the State of Illinois, admitted into the Union in i8i8, might, notwithstanding the Ordinance of 1787, have been a slavestate. Nominally free, the majority of its people were of southern sympathies; settled for the most part in its central and southern portions, its principal towns were upon its rivers; its commerce was with the South and the centres of population

felt

the influence of that section.

In the year 1840, there were but 3000 miles of railway in that year the telegraph was by the grant of a patent to the inventor Morse an apparatus for communication over areas by means

in the

United States, and

initiated for

of

electricity.

Elihu B. Washburne came to Illinois at this time.

His had preceded the admission of Maine into the Union, so that strictly he can not be called a native birth in 18 16,

of that State. His life to that time had been that of the boy and man of work in his father's store and as a printer that had, as instinct and impulse lead him, made available such

means of study and instruction as were afforded in a rural community of Maine. He had attended a course of lectures upon the law at Cambridge, and came to Illinois to practise his profession.

Chicago was then comparatively it and on to Galena by way of

unknown and he passed by

ELIHU BENJAMIN WASHBURNE.

This was the year of the

the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.

Harrison-and-Tyler campaign,

in

which, the slavery ques-

tion played no conspicuous part.

Washburne took lections,

part.

Illinois,

83

In

it

as a whig, Mr.

however, true to

its

predi-

with four or five other states, refused to be moved,

and adhered to VanBuren and the democratic party. This was the election in which the liberty party, as such, cast seven thousand votes. Mr. Washburne continued to be active in politics and in 1844 was a supporter of Henry Clay in the convention at which he was nominated. The scheme for the declaration by Texas of its independence of Mexico, and its subsequent annexation by the United States, as a measure for the recovery and preservation of power to the South, culminated in 1845, after the election of Polk over Clay. Then followed the intrigues by which the war with Mexico was precipitated, the acquisition of New Mexico and California, the discovery of gold, and the admission of California.

The Wilmot

proviso,

moved

was intended to exclude slavery in all territory acquired from Mexico, and when introduced commanded almost every northern vote. During this period, the bankrupt bill, the tariff, the Oregon boundary, and many other questions were subjects of discussion by legislatures and congress. In 1848, the whigs, disregarding the claims of Clay and Webster, who had then fallen into some disfavor at the North, nominated Taylor and Fillmore. The following letter from the original manuscript, shows the friendship, that had, at an early date, sprung up between Mr. Washburne and Abraham Lincoln, and which never ceased but grew in intensity, until the martyrdom in

1846,

of the

latter.

nor

the lofty language of diplomatic communication,

in

Written not

in the

tone of a state-paper,

exhibits the quaintness and shrewdness of Mr. Lincoln:

it

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

84

"Washington, Dear WashbuRNE:



very short note asking

and who nation

is

I

have

me

if

this

April 30, 1848.

moment

old Taylor

is

received your to be used

up

be the nominee. My hope of Taylor's nomithan it was when you a little higher as high

will





by no means out of doubt. Mr. Several Clay's letter has not advanced his interests here. not anybody were against Taylor, but particularly, who for before or since, are taking ground, some for Scott and some for McLean. Who will be nominated, neither I nor any one else can tell. Now, let me pray to you in turn. My prayer is, that you let nothing discourage or baffle you; but that, in spite of every difficulty, you send us a good Taylor delegate from yoiur circuit. Make Baker, who He is a good is now with you, I suppose, help about it. hand to raise a breeze. * * * left.

Still

the case

is

"Gen. Ashley, in the senate from Arkansas, died yesterNothing else new beyond what you see in the

day.

papers.

Yours

truly,

A. Lincoln."

"Old Taylor" will be recognized as Gen. Zachary Taylor, and Baker as the gifted orator, who afterward fell at Ball's Bluff. In 1850, the compromises were proposed by Mr. Clay, which included the new fugitive-slave law, and proposed to establish territorial governments, without legislation regarding slavery. Their proposal was followed by the famous 9th-of-March speech of Mr. Webster in support, which excited great indignation, and contrary to the intent In of its author quickened the anti-slavery movement. 1852, Mr. Washburne carried his district for congress by 286 majority against Thompson Campbell. His energy, persistence, boldness, and earnest sympathy with freestate thought gave him the victory. The death of Taylor and the accession of Fillmore

ELIHU BENJAMIN WASHBURNE. occurred, and the election of Pierce

85

was followed by the

proposal by Douglas, in January, 1854, of a bill for the admission of Nebraska, accompanied by a report questhe validity

tioning

of

the

Missouri compromise,

declaring that the compromise of 1850

left

and

the question

of slavery to the decision of the people residing

any

in

given territory.

This was the doctrine known as squatter sovereignty.

Throughout all the discussions of those years Mr. Washburne was outspoken and pronounced. A politician, he was, nevertheless, courageous and bold. In 1856, he was instrumental

in

bringing Illinois as a State into Republican

control; in 1858, he continued active, being in close

com-

munication with Mr. Lincoln, at the time of the memorable debates of that year, and in Lincoln's hearty supporters.

He

would naturally lead him to

be, in

i860 was one of Mr.

was, as his earnest nature

advance of the

latter,

as the following letter indicates:

"Centralia, Hon. E.

B.

Sept. i6, 1858.

WASHBURNE,

Dear Sir:

—Yesterday

of placing you and

at

me on

Jonesborough, Douglas, by

way

different ground, alleged that

you were everywhere, pledging yourself unconditionally against the admission of any new slave-states. "If his allegation be true, burn this without answering

be untrue, write me such a public with which to contradict him. If

it.

it

"Address to Springfield.

Time

will

letter as

Yours

I

may make

truly,

A. LINCOLN."

not permit to follow closely the events of the

year i860, but throughout Mr. Washburne was a counsellor

and

advisor, not only of Mr. Lincoln but of

many

others

of the then leaders. In the

fall

of that year, Mr, Lincoln's growth of convic-

tion as well as his determination, in

advance of what was



EARLY CHICAGO AND

86 generally

known



ILLINOIS.

of them, were shadowed

forth

in

the

following:

"Springfield, Hon. E.

B.

Dec.

III.,

13, i860.

Washburne,

Afy Dear Sir:

— Your

long letter received.

Prevent, as

any of our friends from demoralizing themselves and our cause by entertaining propositions for compromise of any sort on slavery extension. There is no possible compromise upon it, but which puts us under again, and leaves also our work to be done over again Whether it be a Mo. line or Eli Thayer's Popr. Sov., it is all the same. Let either be done, and immediately filibustering and extending slavery recommences. On that point hold firm, as with a chain of steel. Yours as ever, far as possible,

A. Lincoln." Passing Mr. Lincoln's journey to Washington and his inauguration, the details of which and of Mr. Washburne's

connection with them will never cease to entertain,

come

to the

outbreak of the

civil

we

war and the outward

manifestation of another friendship, destined to be long

continued and intimate.

Writing

Hon. E.

My

B.

in 1864,

Gen. Winfield Scott said

"West Washburne,

Point, N.

Y.,

July

2,

1864.



I heard a short time ago that some one had informed Lieut. -Gen. Grant that I had spoken slightly of him as an officer, and it is probable that your

Dear Sir:

may

I beg leave have never uttered an unkind word about him. The inquiry has frequently been Do you know Gen. Grant I have addressed to me. answered that he made the campaign of Mexico with me, and was considered by me, and I suppose by all his broth-

frank to

enable this letter to reach him.

say to him through you that

'

I

.-'

'

:

ELIHU BENJAMIN WASHBURNE.

87

good officer, and one who attained Molino del Rey. Of his more recent services, I have uniformly spoken in terms of the highest admiration, and added that in my opinion he had richly earned his present rank, and hope he may speedily put

ers in commission, a

special distinction at

down

the rebellion.

Very

truly yours,

WiNFiELD Scott." Capt. Grant, resigned from the United-States

Mr. Washburne were neighbors at Galena. three years or more before the writing of the

Army, and The latter,,

letter of

Gen.

saw signs of merit in the former; but it In a letter from is better to let Gen. Grant tell the story. Cairo, in this State, under date of September 3, 1861, this language occurs: "In conclusion, Mr. Washburne, allow me to thank you for the part you have taken in giving me my present position. I think I see your hand in it and admit that I had no personal claim for your kind office ia the matter. I can assure you, however, my whole heart in is the cause which we are fighting for, and I pledge that, if equal to the task before me, you shall never have cause to regret the course you have taken." The victory of Fort Donelson in February, 1862, thrilled the heart of the loyal North. It was the bright omen of hope after the disasters in Virginia of 1861. Gen. Grant,, Scott, believed he

after that battle, again

wrote

"Fort Donelson, Tenn., Hon. E.

B.

Washburne, Washington,

Dear Sir:

— Since receiving your

Feb. 21, 1862.

D.C.,

letter at

Fort Henry,

events have transpired so rapidly that I have scarcely time * That portion of your letter to write a private letter. *

which required immediate attention, was replied to as soon as your letter was read. I mean that I telegraphed Col. C. C. Washburne, Milwaukee, Wis., asking him to-

:

EARLY CHICAGO AND

88

accept a place on fear

my

my

As he

staff.

dispatch was not

ILLINOIS.

has not yet arrived,

received.

I

Will you be kind

enough to say to him that such a dispatch was sent, and that I will be most happy to publish the order the moment he arrives, assigning him the position you ask. •'On the 13th, 14th, and 15th, our volunteers fought a battle that would figure well with many of those fought in Europe, where large standing-armies are maintained. "I feel very grateful to you for having placed me in the position to have had the honor of commanding such an army, and at such a time.

munity here

The

very marked

is

disastrous defeat,

"Yesterday

I

only trust that

I

or will not disappoint you.

went

my be

have not

since the battle.

Defeat,

to Clarkesville with a small escort,

occupy that place, and amount- of commissary

The road

I

upon the com-

admitted.

is

of our generals having preceded

artillery.

effect

will

me.

Our

forces

two

now

take possession of a large

ammunition, and some now clear, but whether

stores,

to Nashville

is

destination will be there or further west, can not yet told.

I

want to move

early,

and no doubt

will.

"I want to call your attention to Gen. C. F. Smith.

It

is

a pity that our service should lose so fine a soldier from

a

first

command.

If

major-generals are to be made, a

better selection could not be

Yours

made than truly,

to appoint Smith.

U.

S.

GRANT."

The correspondence was continued and communications were frequent.

These only

will

be read

On July 25, 1863, after the capture of Vicksburg, Senator Henry Wilson had written from Natick, Mass., Washburne, congratulating him on the success Grant, and complimenting the fidelity of the former to him in time of trial. He suggested that the report was out that Gen. Grant, had been invited to take

to

Mr.

of

Gen.

ELIHU BENJAMIN WASHBURNE.

command satisfied

of the his

Army

success

opportunity should

This

letter

89

of the Potomac, and added "I

has excited envy and that

he would be

offer

an

sacrificed."

latter as follows:

"VicKSBURG, Miss., Aug. B.

am

Mr. Washburne sent to Gen. Grant, for we

have that of the

Hon. E.

if

30th, 1863.

Washburne,



Dear Sir: Your letter of the 8th of August, enclosing one from Senator Wilson to you, reached here during my temporary absence to the northern part of my command, hence my apparent delay in answering. I fully appreciate Senator Wilson says. Had it not been for Gen. Halleck and Dana, I think it altogether likely, I would have been ordered to the Potomac. My going could do no possible good. They have many able officers, who have been brought up with that army and to import a comall

mander

to place over others certainly could prbduce no

I would not positively disobe}- an order I have objected most vehemently to taking the command or any other, except the one I have. I can do more with this army than it would be possible for me to do with any other without time to make the same acquaintance with others, I have with this. I know that the soldiers of the Army of the Tennessee can be relied on to the fullest extent. I believe I know the exact

good.

Whilst

would

capacity of every general in

my command

to

command

troops and just where to place them to get from them the best services. This is a matter of no small importance. * * * Your letter to Gen. Thomas has been delivered to him.

I

will

make an

effort to secure a brigadiership

for Col. Chetlain with the colored troops.

position will be open, however,

Before such a

more of these troops

will

have to be raised. This work will progress rapidly. The people of the North need not quarrel over the 7

EARLY CHICAGO AND

90

ILLINOIS.

President Stephens acknowledges the corner-stone of the Confederacy is already knocked out. Slavery is already dead, and can not be resurrected. It would take a standing army tomaintain slavery in the South if we were to make peace today, granting to the South all their former constitutional institution

of

privileges.

I

while

slavery,

Vice

never was an Abolitionist, not even what

could be called anti-slavery, but honestly, and

-

became patent

it

I

to

try to judge fairly

my

mind, early

in

and the

North and South could not live at peace with each other except as one Nation and that the

rebellion, that

without

As

slavery.

reestablished,

I

would

anxious as not, therefore,

settlement until this question

is

am to see peace be willing to see any

I

forever settled.

Rawlins and Maltby have been appointed brigadier-

These are richly-deserved promotions. Rawis no ordinary man. The fact is, if he had started in this war in the line instead of in the Jlaff,. there is every possibility he would be today one of our shining lights. As it is, he is better and more favorably known than probably any other officer in the army, who generals.

lins, especially,

has

filled

only

respectability to class.

My

stafif

the

appointments. position,

Whilst others give Rawlins is in the latter

kind regard to the citizens of Galena,

Your

sincere friend,

U. S. Grant."^

Again:

"Chattanooga, Tenn., Hon. E.

Dear

B.

Dec.

2,

1863,

Washburne,



*

*

*

Yov the past three weeks I have not only been busy but have had company occupying my rooms making it impossible for me to write anything. Last week was a stirring time with us and a magnificent victory was won. I am sorry you could not be here. The spectacle was grand beyond anything that Sir:

1

ELIHU BENJAMIN WASHBURNE.

9

on this continent. It is the have ever seen where a plan could be followed, and from one place the whole field be within our

has been, or first

likely to be,

is

battlefield

At

view.

the

I

commencement

Hooker, on our

miles long.

the battle line was fifteen

right,

soon carried the point

of Lookout Mountain, and Sherman the north end of

Missionary Ridge, thus shortening the line by five or six miles and bringing the whole within one view. Our troops

behaved magnificently, and have inflicted on the enemy the hardest blow they have received during the war. "Your Galena friends with us are all well and wish to Yours truly, be remembered. U.

S.

Grant."

In the following year he had accepted the inevitable, had gone to the Potomac, and was fighting the campaign,

commencing with the Wilderness.

He

"City Point, Hon. E.

B.

wrote:

Va., Aug. i6, 1864.

Washburne,



Dear Sir: Your letter asking for autographs to send to Adams, the wife of our minister to England, was duly received. She had also sent to Mr. Dana for the same thing and his requisition, he being with me at the Mrs.

time,

was

at

send with from here.

once

filled.

I

have directed Col. Bowers to

few of the original dispatches telegraphed They have all been hastily written and not

this a

with the expectation of ever being seen afterward, but will, I

suppose, answer as well as anything

else,

or as

if

they had been written especially for the purpose of sending.

"We are progressing here slowly. The weather has been intolerably warm, so much so that marching troops is

nearly death. "I state to

all

citizens

who

visit

me

that

all

we want

now, to insure an early restoration of the Union,

is

a

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

92

The rebels have The little boys and

determined unity of sentiment North.

now old

in their

men

ranks their

are guarding

last

men.

prisoners,

railroad

-

bridges,

and

forming a good part of their garrisons for intrenched positions. man lost by them can not be replaced.

A

They have robbed

the cradle and the grave equally to

Besides what they lose in frequent

get their present force.

now losing from desertions and other causes at least one regiment per day. With this drain upon them the end is visible if we will but be Their only hope now is in a divided true to ourselves. North. This might give them reinforcements from Tennessee, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri, whilst it would weaken us. With the draft quietly enforced, the enemy would become despondent and would make but little skirmishes and battles, they are

resistance.

"I

have no doubt

but

enemy

the

are

exceeding!^

anxious to hold out until after the presidential election.

They have many hopes from its effects. They hope They hope for the election of

the

McCawber, they hope

for

a counter revolution.

peace candidate.

In fact, like

'something to turn

up.'

"Our tion, are

peace-friends,

much

if

for

they expect peace from separa-

mistaken.

It

would be but the beginning men joining the South

of war with thousands of northern

because of our disgrace allowing separation.

"To have peace 'on any terms' the South would demand the restoration of their slaves already freed. They would demand indemnity for losses sustained, and they would demand a treaty which would make the North slave-hunters for the South. They would demand pay or the

restoration

The

of

Yours

North. following

every slave truly,

also appears in

escaping to the jj

the

g Qrant."

Washburne

collec-

ELIHU BENJAMIN WASHBURNE. tion,

headed "cypher."

93

no doubt the original of a

It is

dispatch to the president:

"City Point, A. Lincoln, President: In

my

Va., July 19, 1864.



opinion there ought to be an immediate call

for say^ 300,000

men, to be put

possible time.

The presence

in

the

of this

the shortest

field in

number of

reinforce-

ments would save the annoyance of raids and would enable us to drive the enemy back from his present front, particularly from Richmond, without attacking fortifications.

"Theli'enemy now have their Every depletion of their army Desertions of

fronl"

it

large ^additions

increase.

The

are

now

to our

greater

men

last is

rapid.

an

of

field. loss.

With the prospect

force their

number

the

in

irreparable

desertions

would

men we have

the

shorter and less sanguinary will be the war.

"I give this entirely as

my

view,

and not

in

any

spirit

of dictation, always holding myself in readiness to use the materials given

me

to the best advantage

U.

I

S.

know how. Grant."

During those days when Grant was in Virginia and Sherman was making his way to Atlanta, when upon every hillock there was a rifle-pit and behind it an armed foe, when every thicket was filled with rebel-guns, when movements forward were for days and weeks more like the appearance of a siege than movements in the field, when time^was^given to reflect, it was a cause of speculation whether! or not the Union army would at its home be sustained or by its own people be compelled to turn back, but of the district which Mr. Washburne had continued to represent there was never a doubt. Illinois itself might

fail,

but Washburne's

district never!

The

leader,

EARLY CHICAGO AND

94

ILLINOIS.

and the cause were inseparably blended in and tens of thousands of anxious minds. thousands Gen. Rawlins of Galena and afterward secretary of war was also a friend of Mr. Washburne. few lines from him: the

district,

A

"Head

Qr. Mil. Div. of the Miss.,

Nashville, Tenn.,

Jan'y. 30, 1864.

Dear Washburne: —

On my return from the North, I was pleased to find your very welcome and interesting letter of the 30th tilt., and I hasten to assure you, your friendship for the general, your devotion to our common country and heroic manifestation of interest in the welfare and success of our army here, through evil as well as good report, in the dark Of the Nations's despondency as well as in the light of its victories are truly and honestly appreciated, and to you, more than any one in congress, the great heart of this army warms with gratitude as the true representative and * * * So give bold and uncompromising defender. yourself no concern in the matter of the Cavalry regiment you speak of, for the general fully understands your motives, and knows them to be prompted solely by a desire for the public service and in friendship to him. *

*

*

"I see

lieutenant-generalcy

by the papers the

Grant may be regarded that

if

undisposed

is still

he

feels

that

if

ernment in any place the

it,

creating a far as I

Gen.

only say

the conferring of the distinguished honor on him

field,

and there

is

field

or with a view

Halleck, he would not desire

to the superseding of Gen. for

As

connection with

in

would be the taking him out of the it,

bill

of.

he can be of service to the gov-

command

army in where he would remain if made a it

is

in

of the

lieutenant-general, besides he has great confidence in

friendship for the general

-

in

-

chief and

and

would, without

9

ELIHU BENJAMIN WASHBURNE.

95

regard to rank, be willing at all times to receive orders through him. "The advocacy of the New- York Herald and other papers of the general for the presidency, gives him

little

unambitious of the honor and will volunhimself in no position nor permit himself to be tarily put placed in one he can prevent that will in the slightest •concern; he

is

manner embarrass the present grand

friends of the

Union of the

restore the

government

effort to enforce its rightful

Of

states.

in their

authority and

his views

in

this

suppose he has fully acquainted you. "The presence of Longstreet in East Tennessee is much to be regretted. Had Gen. Grant's orders been energetically, and with a broader judgment, executed by Gen. Burnside, Longstreet would have been forced to have continued his retreat from Knoxville to beyond the Tennessee line. The general's official report will show the facts and orders and will be satisfactory, I have no doubt to the government. Our forces in the Holston Valley, east of Knoxville, have been compelled by Long-

matter

I

street to

fall

back toward Knoxville.

Whether he intends

to again undertake the capture of that place, or simply is not as yet known. In must be foiled. Gen. Grant, Gen. W. F. Smith, and myself go forward tomorrow to Chattanooga

to extend his forage ground, either design, he

that the general

may be

enabled to give his

personal

attention to affairs in the direction of Knoxville.

"Hoping

to hear

from you soon,

I

remain your

friend,

Jno. a. Rawlins."

"To Hon.

E. B. Washburne, M.C., Washington, D.C."

Mr, Washburne remained in congress until 1869, serving the important committees of appropriation and

upon



•commerce a recognized leader term of service, but by ability.

— not only by virtue of his

EARLY CHICAGO AND

g6 '

In the latter years he

is

ILLINOIS.

described as large, broad

shouldered, with light-gray eyes, and iron-gray hair,

long and falling on the neck, plain in

attire,

worn

without a

beard.

One

writer says of him:

in repose

is

"The expression

of his face

rendered almost untranslatable by his intense

industry, which being of a nervous sort keeps

up to a headlong

gait all the while.

He

him screwed

never listens

to-

hear his brother speak more than a few minutes, being brimful of things to do and say, and the lines across

forehead deepen and thicken as he scratches

his.

away with a

pen, tears the wrappers off newspapers, whistles for a page,

backward to talk quickly, and nervously jumps up to object or interject remarks." Another: "His voice is full and deep when he wishes it to be so. His style of oratory is easy, off-hand and more convincing to my mind than that of any other member of the house. He is earnest and forcibly decided in his expressions and goes into an argument or a debate with the honest enthusiasm and thrilling excitement, characteiistic of his section. His gestures are wild in the extreme but one soon becomes accustomed to them." He was the enemy of all schemers and the opponent of waste; and as some one has said, he had an inflexible contempt for one who sought to live by the blindness of the government. The period from 1840 to 1869, marked an epoch in the history of the United States, more important in what was attempted and accomplished, and in its results, than the thirty-years' war or the contest of parliament with the house of Stuart. Fortunate to have lived in it, more fortunate to have had a share in the work, more fortunate still to have been a promoter of thought, foremost among among great men, a factor in the strife; such was Mr. Washburne, and well might he then rest upon laurels already won. leans over

,

i

ELIHU BENJAMIN WASHBURNE.

97

Called in March, 1869, to the office of secretary of state

by Gen.

Grant, then president, he soon after resigned, for

the sake of

rest.

He

accepted the position of minister to

France, no doubt thinking

it

should prove a place of quiet

repose.

But the French - and

-

German war came, and again same regard for human-

there was a manifestation of the ity,

the same heroism, the same persistence and persever-

ance that had been his on the prairies of

Illinois

and in

the halls of congress.

The

story of his conduct prior to and during the siege

of Paris has been often told and

is a household word. His recollections lately published are an important and most interesting contribution to the annals of that time. He is remembered today as the minister who knew and dared to do the right. Since Benjamin Franklin, a printer also, no minister has drawn to himself so much renown,

none will be so remembered. This is true of a service which has included an Everett, a Bancroft, an Adams, a March, and, it is not right to omit, a Lowell. While in Europe, Mr. Washburne did much for this Society using his private purse to purchase what was rare. Through his action its collection of French and British maps was secured. His official life ceased in 1877, after which he was active Making his home at for he could not be otherwise. lectures. It he wrote, edited, and delivered Chicago, indiwould be impracticable to attempt to number or to The " Life cate the scope of his papers and addresses. of Gov. Coles" and recollections of his ministry, are perhaps the most important, although none are without interest, both in subject and style. At last, he could do no more, and we meet tonight, the Society of which he was the president, because in his life he was an honor to the Nation, to his community, and to ourselves. '



EARLY CHICAGO AND

98

Mr. Washburne was thrifty and day he appreciated the future of States and became the purchaser for which he paid as modest saving

ILLINOIS.

At an

prudent.

early-

lands in the Western

of considerable tracts,

would allow. In this he laid the basis of a considerable fortune. He was also one of the legatees of his brother, Gen. Cadwallader Washburne, who had been a successful man of business. His life was long and remarkable. As time grows, and to those who shall call him in memory or learn of him from annals, he will appear even greater than at this present period.

One blend,

feature of the man, perhaps that in which will

always

peculiar to those

shine

who

and

out,

that

all

American born but here

are

others

a quality

not

instinc-

appreciated and approved, courage courage of conviction, courage in expression, and courage in action. These were not wanting in the president who tively recognized,

was greater than language can portray him, or

in

the

general greater in war than Napoleon because he fought not for conquest, or in Washburne. united, so in death they should

As

in

life

they were

The

not be divided.

which now stands the striking statue of Lincoln, and in which that of Grant will shortly be placed, will not be complete until there also shall be erected a monument to the memory of Elihu Benjamin Washburne. beautiful park which

lies

to the north of our city, in

Tribute of William H. Bradley. Mr. President: to Gen.

we have

Smith



for the

I

desire to

move

a vote of

thanks

admirable memorial paper, to which

listened with so

much

pleasure; and that he be

requested to furnish the original, or a copy of the same, as a permanent contribution to be preserved

archives of this Society.

among

the

ELIHU BENJAMIN WASHBURNE. I

will also,

99

with your permission, Mr. President, add a

to Gen. Smith for his labor of His appreciation of the more salient points in the character of Mr. Washburne, show a discrimination which renders his tribute the more valuable. An acquaintance more or less intimate with Mr. Washburne, covering a period of nearly forty-eight years, has left an impress on my mind of a character, which stamps

word of personar thanks love in this behalf.

Mr. Washburne as a great man, and

he must,

I

in

some

respects

think, be classed as a genius.

Mr. Washburne arrived in Galena, where residing, April

i,

1840, a

young man, boyant,

and energy, and ambitious

in his

I

was then full

of

life

chosen profession of the

law. He at once settled himself to business, and very soon established a reputation for indomitable industry and perseverance. He found a bar at Galena which for ability, in proportion to its numbers, was probably as able Among whom were Charles S. as any in the State. Hempstead, subsequently a partner of Mr. Washburne, almost the Nestor of the bar in this State, having been

admitted to practise

in

the Territory of Missouri in 18

14,

and also in the Territory of Illinois in the same year. There was also John Turney, Joseph P. Hoge, Thomas Drummond, Joseph B. Wells, Thompson Campbell, and others, who achieved more or less celebrity at the bar and in political life.

Of the members

of that bar in the spring

Hon. Thomas Drummond of this City and Hon. Joseph P. Hoge of San Francisco, Cal. The population of Galena at that time did not exceed two thousand. The mining of lead ore and the furnaces for reducing or smelting it in the adjacent ridges and ravines gave employment to a large industrious and thrifty population. Galena being the centre of trade for that mining region, the port for receipt of supplies and the transshipment of the lead, made it a place of remarkable of 1840, two only survive.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

ICX>

business

The people

activity.

ILLINOIS.

there indulged

in

very-

sanguine hopes of a prosperity and growth, which perhaps unfortunately for them, has never been fully realized.

Mr. Washburne and Charles

S.

Hempstead soon formed

a co-partnership for the practice of the law, and together built

up a large and

lucrative practice.

The

old custom

of traveling the circuit and with the judge visiting the

adjoining counties, where the terms of court were held, had not ceased in the earlier years of his practice, and to Mr. Washburne, as the junior member of the firm, fell the duty of visiting the neighboring counties in Wisconsin, and also the adjoining counties in the old sixth judicial-circuit

and thus enlarging their business and reapmuch hardship and toil."' Mr. Washburne's professional duties did not hinder or deter him from an active participation in political affairs. The memorable Harrison campaign of 1840, was exciting great and increasing interest through the country, when Mr. Washburne arrived in Galena; and he entered heartily into the canvass, with so much of zeal and enthusiasm as to greatly strengthen the hope and confidence of the in this State,

ing the

people

fruit,

resulting from

— especially

in

Jo Daviess County



in

the ultimate

success and triumph of the whig party.

Mr. Washburne was a member of the national convenwhich nominated Henry Clay for the presidency in He was an enthusiastic admirer of Mr. Clay, illus1844.

tion

power of the magnetic attracwhich so strongly bound Mr. Clay's many admirers to his personal and political fortunes. During the first fifteen years of Mr. Washburne's residence in Galena, the commercial and business relations and intercourse of its citizens, were close and quite intimate with St. Louis and New Orleans, and many of its business men migrated from the Southern States, and as a consequence the pro-slavery feeling and sentiment trating in his devotion, the

tion,

I

1

among

ELIHU BENJAMIN WASHBURNE.

lOI

the people, was decided and strong.

Mr. Wash-

burne, however, for political success or otherwise, never

pandered

in

and under

avow

the slightest degree to that sentiment

On

prejudice.

all

the contrary, he never failed at

all

or

times

circumstances in unmistakable language, to

and to declare freely his both the theory and practice of a

his anti-slavery convictions,

his utter detestation of

system which recognized any human being as a chattle or property of his fellowman. It was not at the bar, neither in the turmoil and excitement growing out of any local political canvass, that Mr. Washburne achieved his greatest distinction. His quarter

of a century of public service, from 1852 to 1877, gave him a field for active and honorable usefulness more to his taste,

and

wavered

at the

He had

ambition. in

same time

in

the line of an honorable

a firmness of

character that

never

devotion to the principal or the policy that

inspired his action.

His habits of self-control and mental

discipline, largely acquired in his application-^the previous

twelve years

— to

his

professional

duties

undoubtedly

helped to qualify him for the successful discharge of the more important public duties which subsequently devolved

on him through the favor of his friends and fellowcountrymen. Throughout the struggle in our country for the preservation of the Nation's life, his patriotism was all aflame, giving occasion for the manifestation of that high-moral

courage for which he was eminently distinguished. life

In the

of Mr. Washburne, this State has a legacy, which for

fidelity to duty, for

extraordinary and indomitable cour-

age, in honorable achievements,

pare favorably with that

left,

have distinguished themselves

and in public life will comby the greatest men, who in

the formative period in

the history of this their adopted commonwealth.

PHILO CARPENTER, A

By Read

Settler of

Rev.

Chicago

Henry

in

1832.

HAMMOND.

L.

before the Chicago Historical Society, July 17, iS

PERSONAL

acquaintance of thirty years,

oflficial

con-

nection in the Chicago Theological Seminary, sketches of his

life

in

Men

the "Leading

Chicago," "United-

of

States Biographical Dictionary of Eminent and Self-Made

Men," and

in various

papers carefully compiled

W. W. Cheney, "Records

by Mrs.

of Chicago Presbytery," church-

and friends, are have not hesitated to appropriate whatever I have found that appeared essential Accuracy and to the completeness of this Memorial. fulness have been sought rather than originality. records,

and conferences with

the sources of

my

his children

information.

I

A

good and wise man is a blessing to his generation. But he dies and the generation passes away. Apparently the blessing dies with him. for his

life.

Not Chicago

which Chicago influences

Not

The world

so.

is

better

only, but every part of the land is

other than

it

would have been

but for the work of Philo Carpenter; and that though not one word more should ever be written of him, though no

show us how he looked, and no stone should tell us where he sleeps. Yet a true historical sketch of the man will be welcomed by coming generations, and this Society would not be faithful to its mission if it did not seek to perserve for them such a memorial. portrait or bust should

It is natural to

trace his lineage.

ask

first

after a

man's antecedents, and

It is pleasant to

102

note that Philo Car-

C^-t^^'^i.-'i-^^t.-C-^

I



"

PHILO CARPENTER.

IO5

New England, and frdm the Berkshire England; and looking further back, that the line runs among the heroes and patriots of the last cenBoth his grandfathers were in the army of the tury. Revolution. Nathaniel Carpenter resigned a captaincy in his majesty's service and raised a company for the Continental army, fought through the war and at its close An earlier was a major in command of West Point. pilgrim who came from ancestor was William Carpenter, a Southampton, England to Weymouth, Mass., in 1635, in penter came from Hills of

New

the ship Bevis.^

In 1787, the family

came

to western Massachusetts then

a wilderness, where the subject of this sketch was born in the town of Savoy, Feb. 27, 1805, the fifth of eight children of Abel Carpenter.

One only of Oak

living, Mrs. Emily C. Bridges of

the eight

is

Park,

who

III,

still

is

Philo lived on the farm with his he was of age. He received little money from his parents, but did receive those greater gifts, good blood, a good constitution, a good common -school education supplemented by a few terms at the academy at South Adams and habits of morality, industry, and economy. He made two trips as a commercial traveler as far south as Richmond, Va. But having had his thoughts turned toward medical studies during his stay at South Adams, he went to Troy, New York, and entered the drug-store

with us this evening. father

till



Amatus Robbins, where,

of

he continued

his studies,

interest in the business. J

in

connection with a clerkship,

and at length gained a halfHe was married there in May,

1 830, to Sarah Forbes Bridges, but she died the following November.

It

was

* Rev.

at

Troy

Edward

that

young Carpenter experienced that

Hildreth, son-in-law of Dea. Carpenter writes: "I myself

[found at Plymouth an original appraisal, dated 1664, one of the items being a pair

of leather breeches, with

name of William Carpenter

attached.

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

I04

great change which gives permanence to

and

all

the natural

on the bed-rock of Christian principle. In March, 1830, he joined the First Presbyterian Church, then under the pastoral care of Rev. Dr. Nathan S. S. Bern an. As the record shows that thirty-six virtues

fixes the character

other persons joined at the same time, there must have

been a revival then.

Perhaps

was

in

connection with

the labors of the brilliant and eloquent

young preacher

it

from Albany, Rev. Edward N. Kirk, who aided Dr. Beman in revival work about that tAne. Certain it is that not long before, that First church had fallen under the moulding power of the greatest evangelist, preacher, and theologian, which perhaps this country ever has known, Charles G. Finney, and had become noted for its fervor and religious activities.

Well was his Christian

it

for the

life in

its

man who was

to

be a pioneer, that

very beginnings was stamped with

the positiveness of such spiritual

leaders,

who

tolerated

no time-serving, no half-heartedness, no cowardice in the convert. Every spiritual child was expected to be a soldier from the day of his birth. It is not surprising that such a young man should listen to the call for missionary labor in the great opening West. There was patriotic blood in him, pioneer blood, and newborn Christian zeal. The return of a cousin, Isaac Carpenter, who had explored the West, on an Indian-pony, from Detroit to St. Louis, and his report of the land to be possessed, and especially of the favorable opening at Fort Dearborn, was the immediate occasion of young

come hither. He closed out his summer of 1832, shipped a stock of

Carpenter's decision to business early in the

drugs and medicines to Fort Dearborn, took the short railroad then built to Schenectady, thence took passage

on a line-boat on the Erie Canal to Buffalo, thence on the small steamer Enterprise, Captain Augustus Walker, to

PHILO CARPENTER. Detroit, thence

by mud-wagon,

IO5

called a stage, to Niles,

Michigan, thence on a lighter belonging to Hiram Wheeler, a well-known

afterward

merchant of

Chicago, to St.

Joseph at the mouth of the river, in company with George W. Snow; thence they had expected to sail in a schooner to Fort Dearborn, but on account of the report of cholera among the troops there, a captain, one Carver, refused to sail and had tied up his vessel. They however engaged two Indians to tow them around the head of the lake in a canoe, with an elm-bark tow-rope. At Calumet, one of the Indians was attacked with cholera, but the druggist-doctor prescribed for hirri and they kept on till, just fifty-six years ago this evening, they were within sight of the fort, at about the present location of the Douglas Monument, when the Indians refused to proceed. But Samuel Ellis lived there who-, had come from Berkshire County, Mass. They spent the night with him and he brought them the next morning in an ox-wagon to the fort, on the i8th of July, 1832.* There were then here, outside the fort, less than two hundred inhabitants, mostly Indians and half-breeds, who lived in poor log-houses, built on both sides of the river near its mouth. The cholera-f- was raging fearfully among the troops, and Mr. Carpenter engaged at once in ministries for their



* Rev. Mr. Hildreth reports this trip a little differently "At St. Joseph a Frenchman told them of a 'very nice way to go;' they hired the two Ind:

ians, left St.

where a

Calumet. Ellis.

First night stayed in a place Joseph Monday, July 16, 1832. had been beached. Tuesday night, reached a deserted house at

vessel

Wednesday morning, pushed along and

breakfasted with Samuel

After breakfast, Mr. Ellis brought them with their trunks into Chi-

Wednesday, July 18." It is interesting to Hubbard made twenty-six such canoe voyages

cago, reaching there about noon,

note that the late

Gurdon

S.

from Mackinac to Chicago, on the east shore of the lake from 1818 onward, in the service of the

t Rev. H. L.

American Fur-Company.

Hammond —Dear Sir:

Will you permit a stranger to express her grateful appreciation of the Memorial of the late Philo Carpenter, re-

EARLY CHICAGO AND

I06

Detecting

relief.

life

ILLINOIS.

one young man, supposed to be

in

dead, he saved him from a premature burial.

With a Methodist brother and an officer of the he held a prayer- meeting the first evening after

fort^

his

arrival.*

At the end of the first month, viz.: on August 19, a Sunday-school was regularly organized, of which he was chosen superintendent. That Sunday-school still lives in the First Presbyterian Churcl\ of this city, whose pastor

is

Rev. Dr. John H. Barrows.-fcently read

by yourself before the Chicago Historical Society.

ification to

hear a tribute so truthful paid

to the iriemory of

It

one

was a

grat-

who was

so-

truly a friend of humanity.

During the dread summers of 1849 and 1850 it was my privilege to be a his family, and to know how tireless were his efforts in behalf of

member of

Fearless of disease himself, he seemed to lead a the sick and suffering. charmed life among the abject poor, with all their wretched surroundings. It was impossible in many cases to obtain a physician's attendance, and here Chicago's first druggist did their work as necessity forced it upon him. His

devoted wife, while greatly fearing for her husband's

him

restrain

ment

to

whom

in his

be used

safety,

never sought to

work of mercy, but with her own hands prepared nourishin

his

daily ministrations

he was doctor, nurse, and minister.

among

the cholera-stricken to

Said the Rev. Dudley Chase, the

of the Church of the Atonement: "I never visit the stranger, the and the poor, but I find that Deacon Carpenter has been there before

rector sick,

me.

He

ought to be ordained."

unrecorded, for this

man

It

of praise more than that of pestilence.

Chicago, July

not strange that such devotion

is

in the quietness of his daily life

*

*

Yours Respectfully,

*

Sophia T. Griswold.

30, 1888.

* " Inquiring if there

was

shunned the breath

was any preaching on Sunday, he was

told there

was

preaching neither Sundays nor week-days ; and he began public service, July This was the begin22, 1832, reading a sermon in the absence of a minister.

ning of uninterrupted public worship

in

Chicago."

— Rev.

Hildreth.

+ "This school was organized one Sabbath morning in the month of The place of meeting was an unfinished building owned by

August, 1832.

Mark Beaubien east of

[a Catholic]

now

living at Naperville in this .State, situated

Michigan Avenue and south of Randolph

sons participated in the organization:

Misses Elizabeth and ent.

The

Street.

The

following per-

Luther Childs, Mrs. Seth Johnson,

Mary Noble, and myself

Thirteen children were pres-

next Sabbath the school met at the house of

Mark Noble, where

PHILO CARPENTER.

When

10/

Mr. Carpenter's goods arrived, he opened the Lake Street near the

drug-store in a log-building on

first

river,

where there was a great demand

especially his quinine.

The

for

his

drugs,

anticipated opening of the

Illinois-and-Michigan Canal, a

bill

for which, introduced

by the late Gurdon S. Hubbard, passed the Illinois' house though it did not become a of representatives in 1833 law till 1835, and the canal was not actually commenced till Mr. Hubbard removed one of the first shovelfuls of



dirt,

July

4,

1836

— turned

Fort Dearborn,

attention to

Both were conand winter of 1832-3 in various An English friend by the name of Osborn helped much in the singplaces. ing, John Wright and John Stephen Wright, his son, came and became the weekly prayer-meeting had been previously established."

tinued with slight interruptions during the

efficient

helpers in the school

kerchief the few books son.

The

we

;

fall

the latter being librarian brought in a silk hand-

had, which were a donation from Capt. Seth John-

school afterward found a

home

for awhile in the log-house of the

venerable Jesse Walker, a Methodist preacher, near the corner of Canal and

Fulton

streets

;

and

later still over the store of Philip F.

W.

Peck, southeast

There two gentlemen from New York, Charles Butler and Arthur Bronson, visited it, and seeing the meagre-

corner of South- Water and LaSalle streets.

ness of the library,

made a donation

of

fifty

dollars for

a great encouragement to both teachers and scholars.

its

increase.

This was

There Jeremiah Porter

it, and soon had an organized church. "Another incident in the early history of the school, I will mention. A, chief of one of the Indian tribes made his appearance in our school and being able to converse somewhat freely in English, he listened to the reading of ^Christ's words when he taught us to love one another and even our enemies,, [and after some remarks on the mission of Christ to this world to save sinners^ this. voluntary humiliation and death to accomplish so great an object, he profnounced it ^good' and called repeatedly at my place of business for me to read land converse with him on that interesting subject, and expressed a wish that Ebe might have a bible, that he might learn to read it himself; but a bible

found

[could not be found for sale in Chicago at that time, and a few months later I

[purchased one for him in

receive

it

New York

and presented

it

to him.

He

declined to

without paying for the same and expressed regret that he had not

Fknown more

of this divine message in his earlier days.

He

was frequently

fseen in our meetings until his tribe were required to leave this section of country,

rwhich they had ceded to the government, and enter upon lands designated for

them I

in the

Far West."

— Extracts from an address by Philo Carpenter to the

[First Presbyterian Sunday-school in 1868.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

I08 increased

the population

He

business prospered.

vacated by George

W.

ILLINOIS.

and

rapidly,

Mr. Carpenter's

soon removed to a larger store

Dole, also a log-house, and enlarged

He bought

his stock with other kinds of goods.

a lot on South-Water Street between Wells and La Salle and there built a frame-store, the lumber for which was brought from Indiana on a "prairie-schooner" drawn by ten or twelve

oxen.* 1833, he also built a t'-^^o-story frame-house

In

on

La

Salle Street opposite the court-house square, and having

been married again

Thompson

New

York, he

Seven children were the

home.

only two of whom, Mrs.

Edward

Ann

1834, to Miss

the spring of

in

of Saratoga,

fruit

made

there his

of that marriage,

W. W. Cheney and

Mrs. Rev.

Hildreth, and the children of a third, Mrs.

W. W.

Strong, survive him. 1842, he

In

removed

his business to 143

Lake

Street;

the next year he sold out to Dr. John Brinkerhoof;

some

of the fixtures are thought to have remained in use

consumed

in

the great

fire

After the

of 1871.

sale,

till

Mr.

Carpenter confined his business to the care of his real estate,

which had then become considerable, as he had

appropriated

sublime faith

He

all

in

his spare funds to its purchase.

miles up the and another quarter on the

early acquired a quarter- section, ten

north branch of the *

river, -f*

"Indiana contributed many customers, and

primitive days the Hoosiers never wanted a boots,

pay

for

it is

bill

them, carefully pocket the change,

and so on

to the

end of a

list

of a dozen or

more

ous customers, but they were a peculiar people. store

noteworthy that

in those

they would buy a pair of

;

set the

one corner, then buy perhaps a bolt of sheeting, pay

'understandings' in

for that in the

same way,

These were curiOne of them came into the articles.

one day shaking with fever and ague, which was also a peculiar western

institution,

and announced as he sat down on a candle-box, 'Say, stranger, "Leading Men of Chicago," page 8.

I'm powerful weak.'"

+

He had

the future value of Chicago real estate.



Col. Richard J. Hamilton, Capt. Seth Johnson, Lieut. Julius J.

Backus

Kingsbury, and Philo Carpenter bought each a quarter-section of timber-land

PHILO CARPENTER.

IO9

side, which he afterward subdivided as Carpenter's Addition to Chicago. It is that part of the west side now bounded by W.-Kinzie Street on the north, Halsted on

west

the east, W.-Madison on the south, and a Hne between

secured a patent for this

He went

Ann

Washington and quarter-section signed by Andrew

and EHzabeth on the west. Jackson, which his heirs

still

to

possess.*

Few

shared his

sanguine expectations when he preempted this tract as the foundation of his fortune. "It was so far from the village." "It would never be wanted except for farm purposes, and

was too low and marshy even for cultivation." "In the spring of the year it was often under water and could be crossed only by boat," and "there was little prospect that Rev. Flavel it could ever be plowed except by anchors." Bascom tells us that when he first came with his wife to Illinois and was being carried by Philo Carpenter in a two-seated buggy across the mud bottoms of West Chicago toward the interior, at one place Mr. C. stopped, pointed to a marsh and said: "Here I have preempted a quarter-section of land which I expect will make me rich some day." The young minister and his wife on the back seat exchanged significant glances at the visionary anticipations of the good deacon. About 1840, Mr. Carpenter removed his residence to the west side, built a fine house as it was then thought, in from Billy Caldwell, a half-breed, paying him two hundred dollars each, a

and a quarter per acre. This was the government price. The two lots, he bought on South- Water Street, cost him seventy-five dollars. One lot on La Salle Street, 25 x 180 feet, he bought of Mark Beaubien for

dollar

forty feet,

twenty-five dollars worth of goods.

Beaubien had won

but he carefully concealed the fact from the Deacon

this lot in

till

a

raffle,

the bargain

was

completed. * It

was probably on

that journey to

Washington, which occupied three

out at the same time with an U.-S. officer

weeks, that he

set

on the Sabbath

in his haste

who

traveled

on public business, but the deacon kept his conscience as well as holy time, and tho' he apparently lost three days, he yet rode into Washington on the same train with the official. Rev. Hildreth.





no

EARLY CHICAGO AND

ILLINOIS,

the middle of one block of his addition, which

is bounded by W.-Randolph Street on the north, Morgan on the east, W.-Washington on the south, and Carpenter on the west. There I found him when I came to Chicago in 1856 one of the earliest acquaintances I made here thirty-two years

ago. told

I

could but admire the place, for he had

me, to plant

shrub found

in this region,

by allowing them

all

and he showed

to gr-^w naturally.

he and

tried, as

that block every kind of tree

in

good taste Not one was

his

trained into any fantastic shape, or deformed with shears. That was long the most prominent house on the west side. It has lately been removed and the entire block offered It is greatly to be desired that it for sale by the heirs. should be bought by the city for a park a little breathing place of convenient access to the people amid many blocks of buildings. It should be improved after his plan and called Carpenter Park, as a perpetual memorAnd better still, if some tablet ial of the good pioneer. could tell that this was the resting-place of good men and women coming to the West for its salvation from barbarism, intemperance, and infidelity, who were refreshed by the generous hospitalities of Mr. Carpenter and his worthy wife, and sent on their way with a hearty God speed.



And for

another tablet should

the

colored

emigrant

tell

from

of

it

the

as the hiding-place

South,

whom

this

on the underground railroad piloted by night to

officer

Canada-bound vessels, as they were seeking that liberty which was then denied them under the stars and stripes,* There he lived till 1865, when with the hope of benefitting his wife's health, he removed to Aurora, 111., where she died six months afterward and for the last twenty years of his life he was alone in his pilgrimage. j^f*

* it is

Two not

hundred

known

fugitives

that one of

it is

said were thus helped to a land of liberty,

and

them was ever recaptured.

+ Only the angels know how much of the usefulness of

this

good man was

— —

PHILO CARPENTER.

Ill

He returned to the city to spend the last twelve years, but not to the historic block. His health was delicate. He was unable to undertake new business, but lived quietly with his children till Aug. 7, 1886, when he passed to his eternal home. wrought by the prayerful influence of his sainted wife, Ann Thompson Carpenter. So symmetrical was her character in all the womanly virtues, so -exalted her standard of personal piety, that one,

for years, hesitates to

who had known her

intimately

the simple truth lest the words find no credence.

tell

There was an indescribable charm

in the

house over which she presided, and the

wanderer and the wayfarer always found a place and a welcome.

In

all

the

and death of three children there was the same unmurmuring spirit, the same loving submission to the will of God. In perfect sympathy with her husband in every work of reform, she was ever feartrials

of

life,

in the sickness

ful that his zeal should find some hasty utterance that would wound the feelings of another. He was a person of strong convictions, she, of deep sympathies. While he denounced sin, her mantle of charity was covering the sinner. It is

not too

much

to say, that in her sweet spirit every Christian grace

special prominence.

As

one,

Had

who

in the press of

life,

touched the Garment-hem,

Then passed away,

To wear

as angels may,

a diadem;

As one belov'd, at whose approach, The gates wide open spring.

We dream O The

of thee, thus welcomed home,

Daughter of the King.

!

dead, departed in the Lord,

Are

blest

beyond compare;

Yea, saith the

From

all

Spirit,

their

for they rest

toilsome care.

While, one by one her works of love

The

How

angel reapers bring,

blessed her reward above,

'

This daughter of the King!

Yet long and selfishly we mourned That Heaven's high behest Had quenched the love-light in our midst,

And lulled her to her rest. The breath of song and tenderness The sweetest notes of Spring, Recall thy spirit loveliness,

O! Daughter

of the King.

-

"Paulina."

had

EARLY CHICAGO AND

112

ILLINOIS.

have briefly followed the outline of his life with the and speak more particularly of his characteristics and his labors: I

intention to go back

He was

I.

here

that

at

evening, that

His coming^ meeting the first organization of a Sunday-school have

a pioneer of the best things. early first

day, that prayer

already been mentioned.

When

-

Rev. Jeremiah Porter

considering the question of accepting a

call

was

to labor in

one good man there He came, found the man and the school, and began his labors. Mr. Carpenter and a few others, under the guidance of the young minister, formed the first church here, the First PresbyterThe date ian, of which he was chosen one of the elders. of the organization was June 26, 1833. Dea. Carpenter wrote and circulated the first temperance pledge, and A meeting had delivered the first temperance address. been arranged, and a lawyer, Col. Richard J. Hamilton, engaged to deliver the address, but at a late day, the lawyer declined to speak. Our pioneer hastily prepared himself and filled the gap.* He was one of the first officers of the Chicago BibleSociety, founded August 18, 1835. Fort Dearborn, he was told,i"There

who

is

has organized a Sunday-school."

He

early interested himself in the cause of education,

opposing the sale of the school - section in Chicago, and pleaded that only alternate blocks should be put on the market. Other counsels prevailed, and alii but four blocks of the tract, bounded north by Madison, east by State, south by 12th, and west by Halsted Streets, were sold for less than $40,000 dollars. But few years earnestly

*

"He

used to laugh about the literary quality of the address, but

house was crowded and not a few items of interest have survived."

The meeting was held

in the log -building of

Rev. Jesse Walker.

Indian chief was persuaded to practise total abstinence and appeared to

a

the-

— Hildreth.

sincere Christian while he remained under Mr. Carpenter's influence.

An be

PHILO CARPENTER.

115

138 blocks sold were worth manyFor ten years he was a member of the board His connection did not cease till his of education. removal to Aurora in 1865. On his return from Europe in 1867, he found one of the palatial school-houses of the west side, at Centre Avenue, corner West -Huron Street, named in his honor, the Carpenter School, for which he

elapsed before the millions.

gave $1000 as an endowment for text-books for indigent children.

The first "one-horse shay" that made its appearance ir> Chicago in 1834, contained Philo Carpenter and his newly-married wife. The first dray was introduced hy him; and the first platform-scales, which are now in possession of Daniel Warne of Batavia, 111., which can weigh up to 750 pounds; also the first fire-proof safe. He was one of the original members of the Third Presbyterian Church, formed July i, 1847, ^"d was one of its He was one of the first corporate members of the elders. Chicago Eye-and-Ear Infirmary, and one of the founders of the Chicago Relief-and-Aid Society. He was the leader in [the formation of the First Congregational Church in May^ And as that event gave him special prominence in [1851. that denomination and in the country, the circumstances He had long been interested in the antifare worth noting. [slavery cause. He was a patron of the Alton Obser,/er^ •

[Elijah

Parish

Lovejoy's paper;

he helped to establish

IZebina Eastman's paper, the Western Citizen, here in Chicago,

His activity

in

already mentioned.

behalf of fugitive slaves has been,

He was

a delegate to the Cincinnati

[convention, held in April, 1850, which resolved:

"That the

friends of pure Christianity

[themselves from [bodies,

all

ought to separate

slaveholding churches, ecclesiastical

and missionary organizations that are not

divorced from the sin of slave-holding; and !be

still

in

fully

we who may

connection with such bodies, pledge ourselves

"

EARLY CHICAGO AND

114 that

we

by the

will,

aid of

ILLINOIS.

Divine grace, conform our

come out

action in accordance with this resolution, and

from among them, unless such bodies shall speedily separate themselves from all support of or fellowship with slaveholding."

He

was not a man to vote

and and as the general assembly of the Presbyterian church, which met in Detroit in May forget

about

all

it

for a resolution in public

in private,

of that year, failed, in Deacr;fi Carpenter's view, to take right action, he led the church to adopt a minute that they

would not be represented in presbytery, synod, or general assembly till right action was taken. This minute* was, of •course, entirely unpresbyterial and unconstitutional. Nev•ertheless it was adopted by forty-eight out of sixty-eight resident members. The presbytery, after giving them a little time to rescind their vote, were compelled to treat the majority as seceders, and to recognize the minority as the Third Church an act supposed to be ecclesiastically right, although it involved turning the majority of the church out of the building they had in great part erected, and to which they thought themselves justly entitled.-f*



*

Minute of the majority of the Third Presbyterian Church

fellowship with slave-holders:

the language of the Scripture,

That

i.

Resolved,

God

hath

That

this

in reference to

Church holds

made of one blood

that in

nations of the

all

is blasphemous toward God, inhuand that Christians are especially called on to discoutenance it and and have no fellowship with those who participate in Resolved, That this Church are dissatisfied with the its abominations. 3. present position of our general assembly on the subject of disciplining those guilty of holding their fellow-men in bondage; that their last acts at Detroit have been construed to represent black or white as suited the different sections of the church. 4. Resolved, That this Church, so long as this vascillating policy is pursusd, hereby declare their determination to stand aloof from all meetings of presbytery, synod, and general assembly, and thus, as they •believe free, and relieve themselves of all responsibility.

•earth.

2.

man and

Resolved,

chattel slavery

cruel to our fellow-men,

+ "History of the Chicago Presbytery," pps. lo-ii. presbytery,

Church,

called

May

2,

to

185 1,

"At

a meeting of the

investigate the difficulties in the Third it

Presbyterian

appeared that a majority of that church had voted

PHILO CARPENTER.

II5

There was, however, an addition to the church which the Deacon had himself built for a session-room, which had not been turned over to the trustees. He therefore

gave notice that Divine service would be conducted as usual in the session-room.*

A council was soon called,

and the First Congregational

to stand aloof from all meetings of the presbytery, synod, and general assembly, so

long as the assembly should maintain

A

relation to slavery.

that the majority

its

then present attitude in

committee appointed to confer with the church found

would neither rescind

their resolution of withdrawal,

nor

consent to an amicable separation and an equitable division of the property,

and so reported. Therefore the presbytery appointed a committee. Rev. Henry Curtis, D.D., chairman, to consider the whole matter and report. The committee in due time reported that in their judgment the action of the majority of the church involved secession from the Presbyterian church; and that the majority

by

this action

and by refusing

to rescind their resolution,

did hereby disqualify themselves to act as members of

recommended

church, and

who

Presbyterian

and those elders

did not vote for the resolution aforesaid, be directed immediately to

inform the majority that this

the

that the session, viz: the pastor

any of them

if

still

wished to walk

in fellowship

with

church under the constitution of the Presbyterian church, their wish

who

should be granted; and that those

should not express such wish within

two weeks, be regarded as adhering to their previous action and the session be directed to strike their names from the roll of the church. " This report was, after

The strife

full

discussion, adopted.

records of the presbytery

in the

property.

show

that there

was a proposal

to

end the

Third church by an amicable division of the church and

But as the

difficulties of

its

the majority were not with the minority,

but with the whole church as represented by the general assembly, no division

of the Third church could meet the case; moreover, as the majority were
church,

have disqualified themselves

how

Fourth church does not study the things that "

first

to act as

members of

the Presbyterian

they could have been received into the presbytery as perhaps a appear.

make

They were also exhorted by presbytery to The inspired precept, however,

for peace," etc.

pure, then peaceable, " restricted such studies.

any proposition

There

is

no record of become

to divide the property after the majority decided to

congregational in polity.

In

fact

the minority retained

it all.

While the divided congregation were worshiping, a part in the audienceroom and a part in the session-room, one family at least was divided, and a young man was asked on his return: "Well how did you get along in the *

!

kitchen to-day?"

from the kitchen."

"Very

nicely," he replied.

"The

best things all

come

EARLY CHICAGO AND

Il6

ILLINOIS.

Church of Chicago was formed, May 22, 185 1. The names of Philo Carpenter and Ann Carpenter stand first and second on its roll of members. He was elected deacon, and retained the office till he removed to Aurora, and after his return was made deacon emeritus* Of two wooden church edifices erected for their accommodation, largely at the expense of Deacon Carpenter, one which was occasionally besmeared and called "Carpenter's nigger church," w"^ burned to the ground on a Sunday night after Rev. Joseph E. Roy, who had just come from an Eastern seminary, had preached in it his maiden western sermon. Whether the fire was communicated by a spark from the young man's discourse, or by an incendiary, or was purely accidental, does not appear. The other on Green Street, near West Washington, was soon outgrown Rev. Geo. W. Perkins was then the popand a permanent house of rock-faced stone ular preacher

— —

From

*

Wednesday evening, At the prayer-meeting this evening, on motion duly made and Church by a rising vote unanimously adopted the following:

records of the First Congregational Church,

July 19, 1882. seconded, the

Whereas^

Our

brother Philo Carpenter, has just completed

dence here, during which time existence,

and

that

ail

is

now

called

common

years of resi-

the history of the city has been made; and

all

Whereas, In addition to his public and private in

fifty

Chicago has come into

with

life

and

our fellow-citizens do him honor,

all

labors, for

we

which

desire to

we

make

grateful special mention of his relationship to this church: therefore.

Resolved, first

as

That we recognize

member on

its

its

founder and

Resolved,

iu

him

records, but the

its

the Father of this church, not only as

one who above

earliest benefactor

and

all

others

is

to he regarded

friend.

That we put on record our appreciation of his faithfulness to which led to the formation of this church, and our most

principles of right

hearty congratulations that his

life

has been spared, not only to see the feeble

church of thirty years ago become the strong body

it

now

ting

away of

Resolved,

but also to see

is,

the Nation adopt the principles he then labored and suffered

for,

by the put-

slavery.

That

this

church

in appreciation of its

ter

and of his long connection with

for

life,

and the clerk

action duly attested.

is

it,

regard for Deacon Carpen-

does hereby elect him Deacon Emeritus

hereby instructed to forward to him a copy of this (Attest)

J.

W. Sykes,

Clerk.



F.

PHILO CARPENTER.

11/

was put up on the corner of West- Washington and Green Deacon Carpenter advanced most of the money, streets. and waited on the society many years for its repayment without interest.*

A httle

he united with Joseph Johnston, Rev. John C. Holbrook, and Chas. Goodrich Hammond in starting the first denominational paper here, the Congregational Herald. later

In 1855, he was one of the incorporators of the Chicago

Theological Seminary, and for

many

years was one of

its

board of directors and chairman of its executive comHe afterward engaged with great zeal in opposmittee. In early life, before he had been aroused by the York, of William Morgan, for

ing secret, oath-bound societies.

came West,

indignation

his

abduction in Western

New

book revealing the secrets of Freemasonry. The abducted man was never found or heard of after, and was supposed to have been murdered. The perpetrators of the crime escaped justice, and public sentiment held the Masonic fraternity responsible for their Deacon Carpenter suggested the establishment of escape. a paper to oppose all such secret societies, and gave the publishing a

money

little

the

for

publication

of the

first

number of the

and provided headquarters for the movement at a cost of $20,000, He bought for gratuitous circulation 1000 copies of- Finney's book on Masonry, and wrote and distributed tracts of his own on the subject. Christian

Few

Cynosure,

of his colaborers

in

other reforms

partook of his

and the methods of some of the friends of the reform he could not approve, yet he continued the war undaunted while he lived, and provided in his will for its zeal in this,

continuance after his death. Surely

we have

here specifications enough to show that

* A second stone building was erected at the south-west comer of West Washington and Ann Streets in 1870; destroyed by fire January 16, 1873, rebuilt and is now occupied by the church.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

Il8

from

first

to

last

ILLINOIS.

he was a grand pioneer of the best

things. 2.

ity

Phiilo Carpenter was a wise man. With rare sagache foresaw the future of Chicago, discerning the

great city through the small trading-post; and his confidence never wavered.

He

establishment

most

of

the

wisely bent his energies to the

useful institutions for the His sagacious forecast for this trading-post is proved by its growth in a little more than half a century from two hundred souls to three-quarters of a

coming

city.

million,

and

his

judgment of the

first

institution

needed

has been confirmed by the establishment of nearly three

hundred Sunday-schools in it, and more than four hundred in Cook County; our citizens have indorsed the church by founding more than four hundred of them of all kinds. That First Congregational Church has here some fifty junior sisters. The public-school has been approved by the creation of nearly one hundred of those temples of learning, which are the pride of the city and the Meccas of the children. The need of that temperance pledge is sadly evinced by our four thousand saloons still foolishly patronized; his opinion of slavery

became the opinion of During the war.

the Nation a quarter of a century ago.

Deacon Carpenter and one of the

elders

who remained

in

the Third Church were reading together from the bulletin at the Tribune ofiice,

when

the elder, giving

him

his hand,

"Deacon, you were right and we were wrong." That Theological Seminary has sent out more tlian three hundred graduates, has more than one hundred regular students, and nine professors and teachers, some of whom have obtained a national reputation. Four or five other denominations have imitated the Congregationalists in their said:

zeal for theological education in this metropolis of the

West.

As

for secret societies,

though our brother "received in the faith;" and we may

not the promise," he yet "died



PHILO CARPENTER.

II9>

The Masonic fraternity could was accused of doing in 1826, without being swept from the land by a cyclone of public opinion. Who shall say that the good man could, on the whole, have more wisely used his time, his strength, and his say "the end not do

is

now what

not yet." it

money? The finan3. Deacon Carpenter was an honest man. indorser on paper of cial crash of 1837 found him an He made no effort, as is often done, unfortunate friends. borrowed the money and met the claims. When it became necessary to pay what he had borrowed, and money could not be procured, he spread out a full schedule of all his real estate, and allowed two disinterested men to select from any part of It is it what they deemed a fair equivalent for the debt. to evade his responsibilities, but

astonishing to note did, the

immense

how much they

selected, evincing, as

it

depreciation of western lots and lands

960 acres in Fayette County, Illinois, four and a half blocks in Carpenter's Addition, half a block in the School Section, three lots on Washington Street near the Chamber of Commerce, and a house and lot, his jhomestead on LaSalle Street, opposite the court-house )roperty that was soon prized at more than one million However excessive he lollars to pay a claim of $8600! lay have thought the award, he faithfully carried out the Probably the severest thing he ever said, [agreement. [about the award was: "I should have thought they [might have left me my home!" after 1837, viz.\



My

neighbor, the late

[nection

with the

James Ward, well known

public-school

buildings,

told

in

con-

me: "I

located in Chicago against the earnest remonstrances of

who thought

it a den of thieves, and could not any honest men here. I bought a lot Philo Carpenter and partly paid for it. My father, hesi-

imy

father,

believe there were I

fof

[tatingly, sent

me

from the East money to complete

the.

"

EARLY CHICAGO AND

120

payment.

took the amount

I

and counted

received

it,

ILLINOIS.

to

He

Mr. Carpenter.

then took out his pencil and

began to figure. I feared I had made some mistake, and asked him if there was not enough. He repUed, 'Yes; more than enough, for there is a premium on Eastern

He computed

money.'

my

wrote to

sum and passed

the

father that there

was

at least

it

back.

one honest

I

man

in Chicago."

A Milwaukee lawyer, who did not know him very well, once wrote him that through a defect in the conveyance he might recover possession of some property he had sold, which had greatly appreciated. He came out of his office holding the letter in his hand, with that look of scorn

which meanness always evoked, and said to his wife: "Hear what a shyster lawyer has written to me." "Well, you will pay no attention to it, of course.-'" she replied.

my

"This," said he, "is

answer:

'Sir,

I

made

that sale in

good faith, and in good faith it shall stand.' I do not find that Mr. Carpenter ever engaged in any of the questionable enterprises and speculations that abound

He

here.

did not lend his

name

to the baseless mining,

and other schemes. He did not dabble in stocks. He was not in any combinations to corner the market and force up the prices of the necessaries of life. He did not operate on the Board of Trade, although, as it seems to some of us, a too- lenient public sentiment tolerates there what is not thought honest in banking,

the

common walks

He

held a large

own

his

insurance,

price

—a

his fellow-citizens.

had

his

not at

ite,

life.

real estate,

on which he put

higher price often than the estimate of

But

this

remarkable faith

who had it

of

amount of

is

in the

not strange for one future

seen those values arise from nothing. all

who

of Chicago, and

We think

extravagant to point to him as an "Israel-

indeed, without guile."

Ji3

PHILO CARPENTER. 4.

121

Philo Carpenter was a benevolent man.

object of charity,

public

or private,

worthy, ever appealed to him in vain.

Probably no which he deemed It is

estimate the amount of his benefactions.

impossible to

They were a

steady and ever-increasing stream, from the organization of that

first

Sunday-school

in 1832, to

the date of his last

No computation is known of the will and testament. amounts he gave to the earlier churches with which he was connected, but it is known that he gave to the First Congregational Church, first and last, more than $50,000. To the Chicago Theological Seminary, he had given before his death more than $60,000, and in his will made it the residuary legatee of his estate, which,

amount

Home

is

expected, will

To

the American

it

to not less than $50,000 more.

Missionary Society, the American Board, and the

American Missionary Association he deeded, several years ago, each a three-story brick-house on

able after his death. tion

To

Ann

Street, avail-

the National Christian Associa-

he had given property worth $40,000 or $50,000, and

added $6000 to the objects it represented. Relaand friends had been freely aided during his life, and were provided for after his death. One-quarter of all his real estate was given to benevolent objects in his will. As the gross amount was about $400,000, this

his will tives

turned $100,000 into the channels of benevolence, 5.

He was always forward. When there

Philo Carpenter was a modest man.

unassuming. He never put himself were reproaches to meet and trials to brave, or burdens to carry he never was found in the rear; but when there were honors to gain he never crowded to the front. While a member of the board of education, he declined the presidency, and could be prevailed upon to accept only the vice-presidency. He never was elected to a civil office, and never ran for any. In the church, though

9

its

founder and wealthiest meni-

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

122

he never sought to control, never claimed any superiI can emphatically

ber,

ority over the poorest of his brethren.

say that

made

to feel

millionaire.

my

him I was never once poor that I was the man and he was the Where no principle was at stake he was

in all

intercourse with

deferential to others, polite, courteous



in short

the true

Christian gentleman. to hear me speak 6. Some of you may be surprised next of his great moral strength. quiet, modest man, who pursues the even tenor of his

A

way without

noise, without

seldom gets credit

bluster, without ostentation^

for his strength.

People often forget

power is best evinced by doing one's work easily^ In all questions of reform or calmly, and uniformly. practical morality, everybody knew where Deacon Carpenthat real

ter

would be found.

Nobody thought

yielding to the solicitations

of his

of the possibility

of the

saloon,

the

fascinations of the private wine-cup, the excitement of the

race-course, or the gamester's table.

kind would have brought

One

instance of the

busy Chicago to a standstill, what would occur next. Why

all

wonderment at did it happen that with all the temptations of this great and wicked city, and so many lamentable examples of weak yielding to the strong current. Deacon Carpenter stood often alone, unmoved as old Mackinac,, upon which the winds and waves of Lake Michigan come in perfect

so.-*

How

three hundred miles from the south and surround northeasters from Straits,

Lake Huron

it,

the

drive their floods into the

the northwesters, roaring the three hundred and

sixty miles

down Lake Superior heap

about

it,

but the

when

it

was

little

first

their waters high

rock-rooted island stands as firm as

discovered,

some three hundred years

ago!

Such examples of moral power are by no means tea common in this generation. We do well to mark and

PHILO CARPENTER.

1

23



honor them. Doubtless other citizens of Chicago Gurdon S. Hubbard, William B. Ogden, John Wentworth, J. Young Scammon, Roswell B Mason, Charles G. Ham-

mond, and others

— did

more

directly to establish business

enterprises of various kinds in this city; but in laying the

moral foundations on which so much of the real prosperity of a city depends, no man probably equalled Philo Carpenter. To do and say the right thing at the right time has ever been considered an important element of strength. The story is told that when, after a day of hard fighting and terrible suffering in the Wilderness, Gen.

Grant summoned his officers to 'receive orders for the morrow, and all were thinking by what route they should retreat, they were astounded to receive the order: "Advance all along the line by break of day to-morrow morning!" When Gen. Lee heard of it he is said to have exclaimed: "The Federal army has at last found a general."

Smaller matters can illustrate great principles.

whom

ecclesiastically

backed by

all

When

band met a presbytery to they were amenable, and who,

Philo Carpenter and his

little

the authority of the great general assem-

Church of the United States them "disqualified to act as members of the Presbyterian church, and no longer to be recognized as such," and his friends were wondering how they should avert or survive the terrible blow, they must have been astounded when he arose and calmly anbly of the

Presbyterian

of America, declared

nounced: "Divine service will be held in the session-room next Sunday at the usual hour." It might well have been said at that moment, "This little band has a great leader." For that simple notice was stronger than the whole general assembly. 7.

Yet withal he was a man of peace. Radically as he from men, and earnestly as he sought reforms, he

differed

EARLY CHICAGO AND

124

had no personal

quarrels.

tion during his long

life is

The

ILLINOIS.

entire absence of litiga-

proof of his pacific disposition.

He

never sued a man, and he was never sued but twice in

his

life.

One

of

them was about a dog, and the

plaintiff

was non-suited. Musicians

tell

us that there must always be

cords in their anthems to

theory

I

am

I

men; and

I

less success

dis-

commenda-

frankly confess to you

have sought for the needed discords

but with

some

the music effective, and in

greatly opposed to indiscriminate

tion of even the best

that

make

in this

anthem,

than usual.

Sometimes, indeed, Mr. Carpenter was supposed to be especially that he did not improve more of his property, and provide himself with a greater income. But listen a moment to his own explanation: "I can't get money enough ahead, besides paying my taxes and assessments, to erect many buildings, for as soon as anything comes in, somebody wants it for a church, for a college, or for a seminary; or some friend gets into trouble and wants help in meeting a note, or releasing a farm from mortgage; or there comes some special appeal for our benevolent societies who are in deficient in business enterprise



and the money seems imperatively needed elseIn the later years of his life he made more improvements, but still left much unimproved property. Philo Carpenter was sometimes called "a man of one idea," but the record we have rehearsed shows, we think, several ideas as many, indeed, as most men have, and all good ones. They might perhaps all be reduced to the "one idea" that grand one of loyalty to the right, loyalty to God and humanity. Oh! that we had many more such men with "one idea." He was sometimes called "an extreme man." If that means that he was in the front rank of progress, at the head of God's marching columns, we accept it as true, and no reproach, but a great honor. straits,

where."





I

PHILO CARPENTER.

125

Without such men how could there be any advance in the church or the world? Events have proved that he was only ahead of his generation. Almost every one of his positions, once thought extreme, have been reached and occupied by his brethren and his fellow-citizens. But the good man was very far from thinking himself perfect, and he would be the first to frown upon us if we should presume to represent him as without fault. We will only quote the closing sentence of the minute adopted by the First Congregational Church soon after his decease: "Without claiming perfection for our brother, we would rejoice in the invaluable legacy to this church of his faith and life, and praise our God that by His grace, No. i on our rolls, went in and out before a great and wicked city for half a century and left a record unstained." Deacon Carpenter was a man of commanding presence, in stature about six feet high; not being corpulent and continuing erect to the end of his life he seemed even taller. His normal weight was about one hundred and seventy-five pounds. He had a light complexion, darkbrown hair, a mild blue eye, a countenance singularly benignant, pure, and inspiring confidence. No one could As he never drank intoxisee him and not trust him. cants, nor used narcotics, there were no blotches to mar ^his face, which grew more serene and heavenly to the last. The afflictions which deprived him of his wife, and reIduced his seven children to two, and brought severe illiness upon him, diminished his strength and made him in He did not [his last years somewhat averse to society. [appear much in public, but as long as enough strength [remained he attended public worship and retained to the fjast his interest in "the dear old First Church," as he lovringly called it. An affection which the church recipro[cated, as we have said by making him Deacon Emeritus. The Chicago Congregational Club, the first year of its

:

EARLY CHICAGO AND

126 existence,

elected

1883,

ILLINOIS.

him an honorary member, "in more than fifty years of

recognition," as they said, "of his

residence in this city, of his leadership

in

its

early relig-

ious enterprises, of his faithfulness to the cause of freedom

when

it

cost greatly to be faithful, and especially in grate-

recognition not only of his being the

ful

first

member

of

our First Church, but of his being the father of Congregationalism in this city."*

On

the fiftieth anniversary of his arrival in Chicago,

July 18, 1882, a large number of our citizens called at his residence to do him honor. His death, August 7, 1886, resulted from a severe cold taken

terminating

in

embalmed and

some time

previously,

congestion of the lungs.

His body was

the funeral was postponed

till

August

15,

awaiting the arrival from California of his daughter, Mrs.

Rev.

Edward

Hildreth.

In the absence of Rev. Dr. Goodwin, the pastor, the funeral was conducted

by Rev.

Dr. Franklin

W.

Fisk of the

Chicago Theological Seminary, assisted by Rev. Drs. Flavel Bascom, and Joseph E. Roy, and Rev. H. L. Hammond. The deacons of the church were pall-bearers, with E. W. Blatchford, Carlisle Mason, Judge Wm. W. Farwell, Dr. John H. Hollister, and Professors Hugh M. Scott and Jas. A very large congreR. Dewey, honorary pall-bearers. gation was in attendance, including especially the old residents of Chicago. The services were short, as a further memorial service was anticipated after the return of the *

"The Chicago Congregational Club, March At the meeting of the Club

Dea. Philo Carpenter, Dear Sir:



ing, at the suggestion of the executive committee, the following

Resolved,

That

in recognition of his

more than

fifty

21, 1883. last even-

was adopted

years of residence in

this city, of his leadership in its early religious enterprises, of his faithfulness

to the cause of freedom

— when

it

grateful recognition not only of

Church but of

cost greatly to

be

faithful,

his being the first

especially in

of our First

his being the father of Congregationalism in this city

hereby elect Dea. Philo Carpenter an honorary member of J.

and

member

W. Sykes,

Secretary.

C. G.

we do

this Club.

Hammond,

President.

"

THILO CARPENTER. pastor.

They

:

12/

included, however, the reading of a very

cordial appreciative letter from the First

Presbyterian

Church,* of which Mr. Carpenter, as already told, was one of the founders and first elders, and the singing of a touching hymn that had been a favorite of Mr. Carpenter, of which a manuscript copy was found in his memorandum book after his death :

"This

my

not

is

place of resting,

Mine's a city yet to come;

Onward

On In

to

to

it all is

O'er

it

I

it

my

am

hasting,

eternal

light

and

home. glory,

shines a nightless day,

Every trace of

sin's

sad story,

All the curse hath passed away.

There the

By

On

Lamb

our Shepherd leads us

the stream of

life

along,

the freshest pastures feeds us,

Turns our sighiug into song.

Soon we pass this desert dreary, Soon we bid farewell to pain, Never more are sad or weary. Never, never, sin again." * " At our meeting in the First Presbyterian Church, last evening, notice of Deacon Carpenter's funeral was given. Eulogies were given of his grand and noble life, his spotless character as a Christian gentleman, and his great

benovelence and usefulness as a city's history It gives us

citizen,

were acknowledged by

through

all

the trying periods of our

all.

great pleasure as a church to send a committee to represent us

at his funeral, and to extend to his family and his friends our sympathy and

The following gentlemen were appointed on the committee O. D. Ranney, James Hollingsworth, B. Chamberlain, H. M. Sherwood, H. W. Dudley, and D. W. Irwin. The writer has known Deacon Carpenter more than thirty years, and were I to select an exemplary man, one whose life and character I could point to with pride, that life would be that of our dear brother Philo Carpenter. Chicago, Aug. ii, 1886. D. W. Irwin.

condolence.



"

"

EARLY CHICAGO AND

128

The appointed memorial

that occasion

was held by the pastor

September.

after his return, early in

"The memory

service

ILLINOIS.

of the just

is

Text, Prov. V.,

was extensively reported

The mortal remains superintendent,

7,

His sermon on

blessed."

in the papers.

of this pioneer,* Sunday-school

church

deacon,

founder,

abolitionist^

reformer, philanthropist, and Christian brother, sleep in

Graccland, but his

spirit,

who can

doubt,

is

with the blessed

on high.

Among

the bequests of

Deacon

Carpenter-f*

was one of

* Resolutions of Sunday-school 8,

1886:

IVhereas,

The

officers

Teachers at Farwell Hall, Chicago, Aug. and teachers of the Saturday noon-meeting,

held in Farwell Hall, have heard of the death of Deacon Philo Carpenter, at the ripe age of 82 years, therefore. Resolved,

That we place on record our appreciation of

ness in organizing the

which he was the

first

first

his zeal

Sunday-school in our city in the

and

fall

faithful-

of 1832, of

superintendent.

That we commend the example of his Christian activity and large benevolence through a long life as worthy of imitation by the young men of Resolved,

our

city.

Resolved,

That we extend our sympathies

priceless heritage in the

memory

to his

bereaved family

who have a

of his faith in and loyalty to Christ.

+ "His estate was valued at, personalities $100,000; real estate from $400,The personal estate is to be divided between his two 000 to $500,000. daughters and the children of a third; the real estate is to be divided into four equal parts, three of which are to be given to the heirs, and the fourth, after taking out some legacies, among which are $500 each to his old friends, Revs. Jeremiah Porter and Flavel Bascom, D. D., is to be devoted to religious

and educational work as follows: to Oberlin College, $2000; Ripon College, $2000; Iowa College, $2000; Berea College, Ky., $5000; Chicago Theological Seminary, $2000; the library of the Chicago Theological Seminary, $1000; New-West Education Commission, $2000; Chicago Historical Society, $1000; Chicago City Missionary Soc'y, $2000; American Congregational Union, $2000; Illinois Home Missionary Society $1000; Camp-Nelson Academy, Ky. $250; Rev. Joseph E. Roy, in trust in opposition to secret societies, $2000; American Board of Foreign Missions, $2000; American Missionary Association, $1000; American Home Missionary Society, $1000; American Christian Union, $1000; ,

to his daughters to

be used in opposition to secret

Theological Seminary, to

endow an

alcove in

societies,

Hammond

the balance to the Chicago Theological Seminary.

$4000; Chicago

Libraiy, $5000;

and

PHILO CARPENTER. $1000

to the

29

Chicago Historical Society, which has been

already paid over to the treasurer.

Wm. W. Cheney of reth of

1

The

daughters, Mrs.

Chicago, and Mrs. Rev.

Los Angeles,

California,

now have

Edward

personally presenting a bronze bust of their father. cast for this bust

was taken

after his

Hild-

the pleasure of

The

death by Lorado

Taft of this city. From it one of marble, made in Paris, has been already presented to the Chicago Theological

This of bronze was cast by the American' Seminary, Bronze Company of Grand Crossing, Hyde Park, and is certainly a creditable work of art that will be recognized If any at once by all who ever knew Deacon Carpenter. miss the benignity of his expression and the kindness of his mild blue eyes, the difficulty of

things in bronze must be remembered.

reproducing these

A

photograph of

the old Carpenter homestead will also be an object of interest

now and

hereafter.



SAMUEL STONE By Read by Belden

ON May

4,

Mrs.

William Barry.

Culver, before the Chicago

F.

Historical Society, Jan. 15. 1878.

1876, at the Grand-Pacific Hotel, Chicago,

passed away from earth one whose

had been a

life

succession of noble, disinterested deeds and generous sacrifices,

known only

near personal

He was

born

in

who had been brought

to those

relations

with him

into

— Col.

Samuel Stone. December 6, 1798.

Chesterfield, Mass.,

Left an orphan at the early age of seven years, his paternal

uncle,

Samuel Stone

Oxford,

of

home and became his he attended the Academy at to his

Mass.,

For

guardian.

When

Leicester.

course terminated, his uncle placed him sale store in Boston,

then nineteen

in

where he remained

years of

age.

took him

several years his school

a large whole-

until 18 17

About

this time,

—being he

left

Massachusetts and went to Rochester, N. Y.; his father

having possessed interests there connected with the original "Holland Purchase." When he became of age he took possession of his patrimony, and engaged in merHe soon began to cantile pursuits on his own account. take a very active interest in the military service of his State, and after passing through successive grades, he was

commissioned by Gov. DeWitt Clinton, tenant-colonel of a regiment of riflemen

he held

until

1834, when,

by

his

own

in

1830, as lieu-

— a position which

request, he

was hon-

orably discharged.

The

following extracts from "Notes and

will

Incidents of

Old Time and New, by an Old Citizen," show the estimation in which he was there held:

Rochester

in the

130

-

k

(Chicago Photo-Gravure Co.

^.^^Cc^ryn^^^^^^v^-ynue. Dec. 6,

1798.— May

4, 1876.



SAMUEL STONE.

I.31

"Sam. Stone was a jolly, good fellow. He now lives in Chicago a very old man. Years ago he was a leading merchant in this city. The writer was a long time his agent, and knew his general kindness of heart, and that many poor and needy ones had his sympathy and lived on his generosity. Though it is many years since, our intercourse has been only though correspondence, and Mr. Stone is very aged, I send him my most cordial greeting, as one of the best of my old friends and most revered. May his remnant of life be peaceful and his death, when



it

comes, radiant with hope."

The

writer adds in a foot-note:

"Since this was written Samuel Stone has taken his

among the silent sleepers of Mt. Hope. Only a few weeks ago he died in Chicago, and his faithful daughter brought his remains to be deposited among kindred gone

place

before, in our beautiful city of the dead."

His

life in

Here came

Rochester was always

him

full

of interest to him.

joy and his greatest sorrow. He married Miss Caroline Alcott, a lady spoken of by old citizens there as "one of the beautiful and accomplished young ladies of Rochester." She lived but few years after their marriage. Of four children born to them, two sons died in infancy, two daughters still survive. His great bereavements, together with financial disappointments and impaired health, led him to give up his conto

his greatest

nections there and devote

some time

to travel

and recu-

peration.

About

1843, he

ively into the

new

went life

to Detroit.

Here he entered

about him, and aided

in

act-

developing

public interests. He was chosen secretary and treasurer of the Board of Internal Improvements, which embraced among other public objects what was then

some important

in their inception,

and

is

now known

as

The Michigan-

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

132 Central

and

Michigan-Southern

railroads.

He

filled

these important and responsible trusts with the energy and

which always characterized him. But the labors proved too arduous, and his health again gave way, forcIn 1849, he removed to ing him to relinquish his post. Milwaukee, where he associated himself with the late Ezra Cornell in the telegraph enterprise, and invested somewhat extensively in telegraph and railroad stocks. He assisted in building a telegraph line between Milwaukee and Chicago which, unfortunately, involved its projectors in expensive litigation on account of disputes His enterprises in Milwaukee about the right of way. proving unsuccessful, he abandoned them, and, taking the remnant of his fortune, removed to Chicago in 1852. Here he continued to live until his decease, with a daughter, who had accompanied him with filial devotion, through all the vicissitudes of his changeful fortunes. Having no special business of his own, and always earnest and active, he at once' devoted himself here, as he had done elsewhere, in his energetic but unostentatious fidelity

way

to great

public objects of interest

—chiefly

historic,

and humane; rendering material aid when it was in his power to do so, and, when that failed him, giving counsel and personal efibrt. After the organization of the Chicago Historical Society, in 1856, he was one of the first to visit its rooms, and was the bearer of one of the first books presented to its library a valuable and rarely- obtainable work on the "Antiquities of Wisconsin," by his brother-in-law, Increase A. Lapham, published by the Smithsonian Institute. This became an introduction to long and unremitted services in various ways for the benefit of the Society and in aid of the librarian, to whom he became personally scientific,



attached in a friendship that continued during the remainder of his

life.



SAMUEL STONE.

1

In March, 1867, he was elected resident

member

33

of the

whose various interests he continued to devote Probably no one better himself actively and gratuitously. than he comprehended and appreciated the original plan, purpose, and scope of the librarian's operations. He was Society, to

especially

helpful

in

arranging

the

rapidly-increasing

material, thus relieving the details of the librarian's labors

and giving him more time tion and correspondence.

for his special

work of

collec-

In order to facilitate his labors for the Society, and to

enable him to act in the absence of Mr. Barry, the princi-

was appointed, in and from that time

pal secretary and librarian. Col. Stone

and

1858, assistant-secretary

Mr. Barry was different

librarian,

make frequent journeys to when some of the most were made to the Society's collections.

enabled

to

parts of the country,

important additions

In recognition of the long and devoted service rendered

by

Col. Stone,

15, 1859, his

by a unanimous vote of the

name was

enrolled

among

Society,

March

the associate

life-

members, exempting him from all charges and permitting him to retain his privileges a5 a resident active member. As he was one of the first to assist in laying the foundations of the Society, so was he the last to leave the burning building with

its

priceless treasures

October, 1871, swept them

The

all

when the great

fire

of

away.

following vivid account of his experience at that

time was written

in

a private letter to Mr. Barry, then in

Europe, dated March 26, 1872: "

Between one and two o'clock on the morning of the I was awakened by a violent ringing of my house-bell. On jumping out of bed I was told that the city was on fire. As soon as possible, I dressed and hastened from my house, No. 612 NorthClark Street. I went down to Clark-Street bridge, when I found that and everything to the eastward enveloped

9th of October, 1871,

EARLY CHICAGO AND

134 in flames.

I

ILLINOIS.

hastened at once to the historical rooms, Wm. Cochrane, the hbrarian at that

where I found Mr. time, and who slept

there, in the act of receiving trunks,

the basement-door for etc., through Sparks of fire were then flying all about the building, and I told Mr. Cochran of the danger of allowing any more goods to be deposited there, especially such I proceeded at once to take charge of as were ignitible. Mr. Cochran went out, and as packthe basement-door. ages and bundles were brought, and I was urgently pressed to receive them, my sense of the danger and of my duty led me stubbornly to refuse to open the door. For this I received much abuse. As I could not close and lock the door, on account of some object outside which prevented, I was obliged to stand and press against it. After a few minutes Mr. Cochran called to me from the outside, saying that the sidewalk was on fire, and the janitor wished to come in to the basement hydrant for a pail of water. He was admitted, but I have no further recollection about him. "The last person who came to the door was a Mrs. Stone, who cried to me with a loud voice, begging me to take a small box, which I did. At this time voices from without called to me that I was in danger. I then pitched a heavy trunk against the door to secure it as well as I could, and, seeing a window open in the north end of the basement, I mounted the upper shelf, on which were the newspapers, and lying on my back, I Here I observed in the rear the closed it with my feet. heavens full of flying sparks, and firebrands falling in I hurried at once up one flight of stairs to yard. the reception-room, and thence into the upper libraryAt this moment a terrible blast of wind, fire, room. filled the street, and the entire casement of smoke and the window was in a blaze, hanging like feathers on

boxes,

deposit.

bundles,

SAMUEL STONE. window.

1

35

immediately hastened and the Lincoln proclamation,* which had been deposited

every inch

down

the

of

I

to the reception-room to get the record book,

there for safe-keeping

Not

by

the Soldiers'

Home,

to

whom

it

attempted to break But the the frame of the proclamation and take it out. frame was so stout it was not easily done, and just as I was making the attempt, there came another blast of fire and smoke, filling the whole heavens, and frightfully dashI ing firebrands against the reception-room window. heard at the same time a chinking sound overhead, probably from the breaking in of the window or falling of the Believing that a minute more in trying to save the roof. proclamation would make it too late for my escape, I made for the basement- door, stamped out the fire from two bundles, pulled away the trunk, and attempted to go out, but the suffocating smoke outside prevented. I tore open a third smoldering bundle, snatched from it a shawl a camel's hair it was covered my head, and sprang out with as much speed as possible. Glancing around, I could see the steps overhead, the sidewalks, front fences, Mr. Girard's cottage, and every building south, one mass of flames, while firebrands were flying in every direction. My only way of escape was by the rear of Mr. Girard's cottage. I had no time for the gate, but with a bound sprang over the low picket-fence into North-Dearborn .Street. Just then a blaze of flre struck me with such [force I felt it to my skin. I dropped my burnt shawl and belonged.

finding the record,



I



* This, the original copy of the emancipation proclamation, with ,

,

its

interlines

and

erasions,

had been donated by President Lincoln

all

of

to the

North-western Fair, for the sanitary commission, held in Chicago, Oct. 26,

Mrs. Thomas B. Bryan, president of the Soldiers' Home, purchased 1863. [and presented it to that institution ; and "to create a fund for the erection and 'maintenance of a permanent Home for Sick and Disabled Soldiers," per[mitted facsimiles to be taken and sold.

board of managers f

'Historical Society.

it

was decided

At a subsequent meeting

to place

it

in the

of the

rooms of the Chicago



EARLY CHICAGO AND

136

ILLINOIS.

ran toward Erie Street, a poor bellowing

cow with

a

scorched back following me through North-Dearborn Street; another blast of wind and flame and the poor cow was out of sight in the dense smoke. Such was the force of the blast

hands

to

prevent

mounted some

I

down upon my

purposely dropped

being

blown

over.

After

this,

I

high, stone steps on Erie Street, in the rear

of the historical building,

to

take

a

last

look of the

destruction of our fifteen years' labor of valuable gather-

The

and everything surrounding it, the fire burning every brick apparently, as there was no woodwork on that side of the The heat building. It was a painful sight to see it. becoming too intense to bear, I was obliged to leave. There were no persons near me every house was abandoned. As I came to the corner of North-Dearborn and Erie streets from the historical building, I saw a woman running directly east into the fire. I have since been told a woman was found there burned to death. At this a blast of fire moment great wind and and smoke the blaze being apparently about two or three hundred feet in length and about one hundred and fifty feet in height went over me to the right, and passing over two entire blocks, poured the full volume into the top of the spire of the Church of the Holy Name. In an instant the top was in a blaze. There were times when I saw buildings melt down in from three to five minutes. Such sights I never saw before. Had I known the speed and the heat of the coming fire, I could have left my post at the basementdoor earlier, and could have secured the records and proclamation, but it was beyond all my experience. The fact of the Mrs. Stone, above-mentioned, calling me by name and giving her own name in the hearing of persons near her, probably gave rise to the rumor through the press that, 'Old Col. Stone and wife perished in the ings.

entire building,

was one mass of

flames,





flames,'

SAMUEL STONE.

1

37

"In regard to others having taken shelter in the buildif there they would have been seen by me, unless they were hidden in the lecture or wash-room. It is fair to presume that I was the last person that left the HistorI have given all the facts that I can ical building. remember from the time I entered the building until I I do not wish to come into any controversy with left. others, nor to have my letter appear sensational to call out sympathy, but to be credited, if thought worthy, after reading the above statement. ing,

"Very

truly yours,

"Saml. Stone."

One

of the

ravages of the

Joseph W. in the

telegraphic despatches announcing the

first

fire

Freer,

reported that Col. Stone and wife. Dr.

and others



fifteen in all

—had

flames of the Historical building.

A

perished

few days

later,

when he with

ruins,

then guarded by some of Gen. Sheridan's troops, on

went to

a party of friends

visit

the

account of the treasures that had been deposited there fire, he was asked if he had any interest there

during the



if

he were looking

for anything.

with his characteristic facetiousness, "I ghost.

They say

I

"Yes," he replied,

am

looking for

my

was burnt up here."

After leaving the burning building of the Historical

home he went at once to the Eye-and-Ear Infirmary, rescued two of the books of record, and assisted many of the blind to escape. He then went home, and, in a state of extreme exhaustion Society, instead of returning

but great excitement, cried out: is

gone!"

"The

Historical building

This was his all-absorbing thought.

Devoted as he was to the success of the Chicago Hishe was scarcely less interested in that of the Chicago Academy of Sciences. One can not more briefly or pertinently speak of his relation to that institution than by quoting from its records the tribute deservtorical Society,

lO



EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

138

edly rendered to him after his death, which

"This

Academy

is

as follows:

again called to mourn the loss of one

is

most valuable members in the death of Stone. For several years he has been one of

of

its

money

eral supporters, contributing freely of his

Samuel most lib-

Col. its

to sustain

and presenting to its collections one of its most costly and important fossil specimens. If possible, always present at its meetings, his wise counsels and apt suggestions added efficiently to the interest and the progress of this it,

institution; therefore, ''Resolved,

That the Academy gratefully recognize the

services of Col. Stone,

and that the secretary be directed memory upon the records of

to spread this tribute to his

the Academy."

After the death of Col. John W. Foster, which occurred 1873, appreciating warmly the services he had rendered

in

to the

Academy and

to science in general. Col. Stone pro-

posed that his bust should be placed

Academy; and with

in the

museum

of

accustomed liberality at once subscribed five hundred dollars toward it the amount It will be remembered required being twelve hundred. that since Col. Stone's death the bust has been completed and unveiled with interesting ceremonies. the

his



It

was through

Col. Foster's

life,

of

his generosity, also, that the sketch

with

its

accompanying engraving was

fur-

nished to the "United States Biographical Dictionary." Col, Stone

was a member of the Chicago Astronomical

Society, and a trustee of the Chicago Charitable Eye-and-

Ear Infirmary before *

From

it

became a State

the foundation of the Infirmary, in 1858,

retary of the board of trustees.

During

interest in the welfare of the institutiom

meetings of

its officers,

by

1871, he

was the

he manifested a

sec-

warm

by his regular attendance at the and by his gifts. He was ever

his wise counsels,

interested in the labors of the surgeons, patients

till

this period

He

institution.*

whenever he met them during

and expresed

his sympathies with the

his private visits to the institution.

I

SAMUEL STONE. was

also an active

1

and generous member of the

Humane Society. It may not be inappropriate

39

Illinois

to state, as an illustration

of his patriotism in advanced years, that in a published notice of his

life it is

related of

him that early

in the late

civil war "he went into Camp Douglas, and there assisted a gratuitous in organizing and drilling the regiments service, which he rendered with a skill acknowledged as



unsurpassed."

Though not interested in

a scientist in any specialty, he was

all scientific

warmly

researches and discoveries.

He

never feared any conflict between them and the higher truths of the spiritual revelation, with which he

must go hand Source.

He

in

hand



as all

felt

they

emanated from the same

was, however, particularly fond of experi-

menting with the microscope and the electric battery, and though but an amateur, he pursued his investigations with He made the lake water a the enthusiasm of an expert. frequent matter of microscopic investigation, as also the

stagnant deposits in drains and pools, so liable to affect

unfavorably the

city's health.



was a man of strong characteristics sharpcut and incisive, thus giving to each trait the appearance But, perhaps, the most marked was of a leading feature. He never forhis wonderful retentive and exact memory. knew, he ever and "what he anything knew he knew in got mind was a volume of unerring records such detail that his of facts, events, and chronological dates, always open at the right page, making him a reliable arbiter of disputed Col. Stone

Iquestions.

His geographical information was of rare extent and He often seemed to know more about places he lad never seen, in all parts of the world, than those who lad visited them, or had been born there. It is related [of him that on one occasion he was conversing with a Lonaccuracy.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

140 doner, to

whom

ILLINOIS.

he made some statements about the city

of London, the accuracy of which the former disputed in

The

a peremptory manner.

"When were you

right."

colonel said: "I

there

"I never was there, but

last.'"

know

I

am

asked the English-

have read about it, and I Returning home the Londoner investigated the matter, and discovered that the Yielding manfully, as Englishmen do colonel was correct. when they must, he wrote a letter of apology, and sent the

man.

am

positive as to

what

1

I

say."

colonel a beautiful chart of the city as a testimonal of his

regard for a man who knew more about London, a place he had never seen, than one who was born there. He was a keen observer of men, and scrutinized charWhile his soul was full of acter with rare penetration. sweet humanity, "with malice toward none and charity for all," he hated shams and pretension, and all sorts of crookedness. Too modest to assert his own claims, he was jealous of the rights of others, and loved to bring forward and aid unrecognized merit. Such is a sketch of the outward life and circumstances One always approaches the inner of this good man. realm with timidity and reverence especially that of one whose sensitive modesty so shielded it even from those nearest to him. Standing aloof from creeds and dogmas, he sought to do justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly. He visited the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and went about doing good with liberal hand. To be doing something for the world in which he lived was his delight, and the ample fortune he enjoyed during the latter part of



his

life

enabled him to indulge his benevolent impulses.

If his



in

name

is

not emblazoned on the tablets of fame

the houses of widows

tute and friendless

with Ben. Adhem's, as "one

And

and

— the angel

orphans, of the desti-

has recorded

who

it

on the page

loved his fellow-men."

while loving and blessing his fellow-men he sought

SAMUEL STONE.

141

God and His method in the works of creation. Born among the inspiring hills of Massachusetts, he early-

to find out

imbibed that love of nature which followed him to the end And whether he regarded the his earthly career. heavens and called the stars by name, or viewed the great mountains and rivers of the far West, as it was his priviof

lege to do a few years before his death, or studied the teries of a

mys-

drop of water as revealed by the microscope, he

in all the thought and method of the Creator, and pursued his researches with earnestness and enthusiasm. For many years before his death he was a great sufferer

sought

from painful physical infirmity. But this could never have been suspected by those who saw his active usefulheroic self-forgetfulness and devotion to duty. ness His most striking moral characteristics may be summar-



ized as unassailable

integrity,

humanity, steadfastness

fidelity

in friendship,

in

trusts,

intense

and absolute unsel-

fishness.

He

is

gone from

us.

friendly grasp of his hand.

We feel no more We hear no more

of his kindly, cheerful voice; but he has

left

the warm, the accents

a record with-

out spot or blemish, and though dead, he yet speaketh all

that he was and

titudes

whom

remembrance.

all

in

that he did, and the hearts of mul-

he blessed

in

his life

respond

in

grateful

PIERRE MENARD, PIERRE MENARD

was born Oct. 7, 1766, at Saint Antoine upon the river Chambly or Richelieu, in the Province of Quebec, in Lower Canada. The historians of lUinois who mention him have uniformly described him as a native of the City of Quebec, born in 1767' But these statements are shown to be erroneous by the of his baptism, still preserved in the parish church of Saint Antoine, which states that in 1766, on October 8, was baptized Pierre, born the day before of the legitimate marriage of Jean Baptiste Menard, called Brindamour, and Marie Fran^oise Ciree, called St. Michel? And the ante-nuptial contract between Pierre Menard and Therese Godin, found among his papers? as well as the register of their marriage in the Church of the Immaculate Conception at Kaskaskia, Ill.f both signed by register

him, alike describe him as a native of Saint Antoine, in

Canada.

The

village and parish of Saint Antoine are situated Seignory of Contrecceur and County of Vercheres, thirty-five miles from the City of Montreal, upon the north shore of the river Richelieu, and the place is usually in the

^ Reynolds' " Pioneer History of Illinois," page 242; Montague's "Directory and Historical Sketches of Randolph County," p. 38; "History of Randolph, Monroe, and Perry Counties, Illinois," p. 306; Davidson & Stuve's "His-

tory of Illinois, "p. 297. ^

Parish Register of Saint Antoine de Richelieu, October

"

Original contract in Chicago Historical Society's possession.

*

Parish Register of Church of Immaculate Conception, Kaskaskia,

nois,

June

13,

1792.

8,

1766.

Illi-

^fMuyV^^^^^e/Tze.

j

PIERRE MENARD,

I43

known as Saint Antoine de Richelieu.' This river, taking its name from the fort at its mouth, called after the famous cardinal, was also known as the Sorel, from M. de Sorel, who commanded at that fortf and as the Chambly, from M. de Chambly, who was once in command of a

fort built at the foot of the rapids

on

this stream.

It

has also been called the St. Louis and the St. John? Pierre Menard's father, Jean Baptiste Menard, called

Brindamour, was the son of Jean Baptiste Menard and Madeleine Reboulla, who were of the parish of Saint Hypolite in the diocese of Alisf This diocese was probably that of Alais, in France, founded in 1694, and in the Province of Narbonne, in Southern France.^ There is a village of St. Hypolite in this diocese, in the modern Department of Gard, which probably was the birth-place of Pierre Menard's father, who described himself as a native of Languedoc, in France, the ancient name of that region.^ The younger Jean Baptiste was born in 1735, and was in the French service as a soldier in the regiment of Guienne. On February 14, 1763, when he was twenty-eight years old, he was married at Saint Antoine to Marie Frangoise Ciree, then twenty-two years of age, daughter of Jean Baptiste Ciree, called Saint Michel, and of Marguerite Bonin of that parish. Of this marriage were born five sons, the two elder at Saint Antoine, Jean Marie on April 2, 1765, and Pierre on October 7, 1766. The three younger sons were born at St. Denis de Richelieu ou Chambly, opposite Saint Antoine, on the other side of the river Richelieu, to which place their parents had removed. Their names and dates ^

Bouchette's "Topographical Dictionary of

Antoine. *

*

^

Charlevoix's "History of

Lower Canada,"

New

article

St.

France," (Shea), III, 83.

Bouchette's " Topographical Dictionary, " article Richelieu. Parish Register of Saint Antoine, February 14, 1763.

•*

Letter of John Gilmary Shea, February 2, 1889.

*

Letter of Mrs. Augustine Menard, February

5,

1889.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

144

ILLINOIS.

of birth were: Hypolite on January

8,

1770, Michel

on

and Jean Francois on January 26, 1775? The family subsequently resided at Montreal, and at St. Philippe, LaTortue, and La Prairie, places in the neighborhood of that city? Jean Baptiste Menard was in several engagements, and is said to have taken part in the campaign about P'ort DuOuesne. When the Revolutionary war broke out, he joined the American forces and fought under Montgomery at Quebec? It was from Montreal that the young Pierre Menard went forth to seek his fortune, and found his way to Vincennes certainly as early as 1788. A letter to him from his father, addressed to Mr. Pierre Menard, clerk for Mr. Vigo at "Poste Vinsene," is indorsed by him as received April 28, 1788; and a letter from his mother, dated at Montreal, June 9, 1789, refers to a letter from him of July

January

11, 1772,

The mother's letter is addressed Menard, called Brindamour, at the house of Mr. Vigo at Poste de Vinsenne:* These epistles and others from his parents, treasured by him to his death,

6 of the year before. to Mr. Pierre

breathe a

spirit of the

tenderest affection for the absent

and those of his mother, especially, show the writer have been a person of superior intelligence and education. She died at LaPrairie, a village on the south shore of the river St. Lawrence, nine miles from Montreal, September 19, 1807? Pierre Menard, while living at Vincennes in 1789, accompanied Francois Vigo across the Alleghany Mountains to Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where they had an interview with President Washington in relation to the defence of the Western frontier.^ He subsequently removed from son,

to

^

Parish Register of Saint Antoine.

*

Letters from Pierre Menard's parents in Chicago Historical

Society's

possession. '

tine

Reynolds' "Pioneer History of lUinois,"

Menard, Feb.

5,

1889.

*

p.

242; letter of Mrs. Augus-

Letters ui su/>ra.

^

Ibid.

*

Ibid.

PIERRE MENARD.

145

Vincennes to Kaskaskia, where he was married, June 13, 1792, to Miss Therese Godin, then nineteen years of age, daughter of Michel Godin, called Tourangeau,. and Therese St. Gemme Beauvais.* The civil contract relating to their property matters was entered into the same day before Mr. Carbonneaux, the notary-public of the County of St. Clair in the Country of the Illinois; and the original document, preserved among his papers, is an interesting instance of the late existence of French law and custom in this region. The marriage ceremony was performed at the church of the Immaculate Conception at Kaskaskia, by the Rev. Father Saint Pierre. Among the witnesses were Gen. John Edgar and his wife Rachel Edgar, William St. Clair and his wife Jane St. Clair, and William Morrisson, all well-known names in the early history of the Illinois Territory. Mrs. Therese

Godin Menard died

On ond

in 1804,

Sept. 22, 1806, Pierre

leaving four children.

Menard was married the secsame church, to Angelique

time, at Kaskaskia, in the

Saucier, daughter of Francois Saucier

and Angelique La

Pensee, and granddaughter of Francois Saucier, once a

French

officer at

in the Illinois

by Donatien

who resigned and settled The ceremony was performed priest of the parish.-f* Mrs. An-

Fort Chartres,

Country.

Ollivier, the

Menard was born at Portage des Sioux,. and died February 12, 1839, leaving six 4, 1783, children, and was buried in the Menard burial-ground at gelique Saucier

March

Kaskaskia.]:

During

many

his long life

in

Illinois,

Pierre

Menard held

and honor, among which were the following: October 5, 1795, he was commissioned a major of the first regiment of militia of Randolph County by Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory; positions of trust

* Parish Register, Kaskaskia,

+

June

13, 1792.

Parish Register, Kaskaskia, September 22, 1806.

t Letter of Mrs. Augustine Menard, November 25, 1888.

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

146

August I, i8cx), he was again commissioned to the same by John Gibson, acting-governor of the Indiana Territory; P'ebruary 5, 1801, he was appointed one of the judges of the court of common pleas of Randolph County by William Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana Territory; September 24, 1802, he and John Edgar were associated by the same governor with John Griffin, one of the judges of the territorial supreme court, on a com-

office

mission of inquiry concerning crimes in the Territory;

December

14,

1805, he

was appointed by the commis-

sioners of the land-office for the district of Vincennes, a

commissioner to take depositions and examine witnesses within the County of Randolph; December 27, 1805, he was again appointed by Gov. Harrison one of the judges of the court of common pleas for Randolph County; July 12, 1806, Gov. Harrison appointed him lieutenantcolonel commandant of the first regiment of militia of Randolph County, a position formerly held by John Edgar; April i, 1809, Meriwether Lewis, governor of the territory of Louisiana, appointed him captain of infantry in a detachment of militia on special service; May 6th, 1809, Nathaniel Pope, secretary of the Illinois Territory

and acting governor, again appointed him lieutenantcolonel of the first regiment of Randolph County militia; April 2, 18 1 3, he was made United States sub-agent of Indian affairs by John Armstrong, secretary of war; and on May 24, 1828, he and Lewis Cass were appointed commissioners to make treaties with the Indians of the Northwest by John Quincy Adams, president of the United States.* Of his territorial and state offices, and public services, and of his life and character, an interesting account will be found in the address of Hon. Henry S. Baker, delivered at the unveiling of the statue of Pierre

Menard

Two

at Springfield,

111.,

and printed herewith.

of Pierre Menard's brothers, Hypolite and Jean

* Original commissions in possession of the Chicago Historical Society.

PIERRE MENARD. Frangois, followed kia.

him

The former was

to Illinois

I47

and settled

Kaskas-

at

a successful farmer, and the other

a famous navigator of the Mississippi. Both led useful and honored lives, lived to an advanced age, and both rest near their brother Pierre in the old cemetery at Kaskaskia.* A nephew, also, Michel Menard, having as well the family patronymic of Brindamour, who was born at LaPrairie,

December

the age of eighteen.

by

made

1805,

5,

his

P'or several years

way

to Illinois at

he was employed

obtained great influence

among them, and was

chief of the Shawnees.

It

ceeded

He

Pierre in trading with the Indians.

his uncle

is

elected

said that he almost suc-

in uniting the tribes of the

Northwest into one

great nation, of which he would have been king.

In

went to Texas, was a member of the convention which declared its independence, and of its congress. A league of land was granted to him, including most of the site of the City of Galveston, which he founded, and where he died in 1856. It is related that the 1833, Michel

Indians said of him, as of his uncle Pierre, respects he resembled,

whom

"Menard never deceived

Menard died

in

many

us."-f-

good old age of seventyseven years and eight months, on June 13, 1844, and was buried, June 14, 1844, in a vault prepared under his own supervision in the graveyard of the Church of the ImPierre

at the

maculate Conception, at Kaskaskia. And the parish says: "Thither he was accompanied by

'burial -record

an immense concourse of people."]:

His children by his first wife were: I. Odile Menard, born at Kaskaskia in 1793; married Kn 181 1 to Hugh H. Maxwell, a native of Ireland, deceased [in 1832. She died October 8, 1862. They had twelve ;hildren, of

whom two

are living.

Col. L.

* Reynolds' "Pioneer History of Illinois," 2d ed., + "Appleton's Cyclopaedia Biography," IV, 295. Parish Register, Kaskaskia, June 14, 1844. :!:

p.

294.

Maxwell of

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

148

New

Mexico, known

in

connection with the "Maxwell

land-grant," was their son. 2.

first

Peter Menard, born at Kaskaskia in 1797, married Caroline Stillman, in 1830, at Peoria, where she died

1847; and second, Emily Briggs, at Tremont, 111., in He died in 1850; she is still living with two children.

in

Tremont, November 30, 1871. Berenice Menard, born at Kaskaskia 3.

in I801,

mar-

18 19 to Frangois C. Chouteau, deceased in 1836.

ried in

She died at Kansas City, Mo., November 19, 1888, at the age of eighty-seven years, leaving grandchildren, but no children surviving her. 4.

in

Alzira Menard, born at Kaskaskia in 1802; married

1824 to George H. Kennerly; and died at Carondelet,

Mo., in 1885, leaving five children.

His children by his second wife were: 1. Francois P. Menard, born at Kaskaskia died

in

in 1809,

and

January, 1831.

Edmond Menard,

born at Kaskaskia, February 8, educated at Mount St. Mary's College, Emmetsburg, Maryland, and died at Kaskaskia in July, 1884. 3. Matthew Saucier Menard, born at Kaskaskia, April 22, 1 8 17; married at Ste. Genevieve, Mo., to Constance Detchemendy; and died September 29, 1832, at St. Louis, 2.

18

1

3,

Mo., leaving no children. 4.

Louis Cyprien Menard, born March 2, 18 19; eduMount St. Mary's College, Emmetsburg, Mary-

cated at land,

and admitted

He was

and died June 5.

to the bar at St. Louis, Mo., in 1843.

2,

Augustine

Ste.

widow and

six children.

Amedee Menard, born

Peoria,

Gemme,

15, 1845, to

1870, leaving his

married Oct.

in 1820,

and died

in

1844 at

111.

Sophie A., born November 13, 1822; married, in John D. Radford of St. Louis, deceased in 1868. She died June 22, 1848, and none of her children survive. E. G. M. 6.

July, 1843, to

i

THE FIRST

LIEUT.-GOV. OF ILLINOIS.

By Hon. Henry Read

S.

Baker, of Alton.

before the Illinois State Bar Association, at Springfield, Tuesday, Jan. lo, iS

FELLOW -CITIZENS:

Charles P. Chouteau of

St.

Louis, Mo., having presented to the State of Illinois, a

statue of Col. Pierre Menard, the

of our State, that

statue

we have met here

first

lieutenant-governor

for the

purpose of unveiling

and of paying a becoming respect to the

memory of the man whom it By a joint-resolution of our fully accepted

is

intended to commemorate.

legislature in

the generous donation, on

1885,

it

grate-

behalf of the

State, and directed that the statue be placed in the stateThis being the first historic monument house grounds. placed within those grounds, a greater degree of interest might, therefore, be taken in its erection than perhaps would otherwise attend it. In connection with the event, the duty which I have been called upon to perform, had

been assigned to the late Elihu B. Washburne of our State. His untimely death, however, not only delayed this ceremony, but disappointed us all in that behalf and deprived him of an opportunity of expressing his thoughts upon the completion of an event so dear to his heart. Why I have been called upon to supply his place, arises, I presume, from the fact that I had the good fortune of being born and raised in the old town of Kaskaskia, and in my boyhood days was personally acquainted with Col. Menard and his family, and therefore, if, perhaps, I could not perform this duty with equal ability, I could at least perform it with equal pleasure. For there is a witchery 149

EARLY CHICAGO AND

150

ILLINOIS.

attending the hallowed memories of old Kaskaskia; with it,

the dreams of romance

of

life

become

transformed into poetry.

place that, in those days, every

woman

It

realized is

and the prose

a legend of the old

man was

brave and every

beautiful.

Kaskaskia is the oldest town in the Mississippi Valley. was founded in the year 1700, although visited prior to that by Marquette and Joliet in 1673, two hundred and It

By

fifteen years ago.

the right of discovery, France, dur-

ing the reign of Louis

northwestern territory.

English

War

in

XIV, acquired At the close

our vast

title to all

of the French-and-

1763, all of that territory, with the

das included, was ceded

to Great Britain.

At

Cana-

the time

of the cession, Vincennes was the centre of authority in the Northwest Territory

when the

— and

so remained until

Territory was carved out from

180Q,

and Kaskaskia made the capital of the new Territory. If but little is known, prior to this event, of old Kaskaskia, it is to be attributed to the quiet and peaceful virtues of its people; for the faults of men, and not their virtues, Illinois

become the records

it;

of history.

when bravery was a quality be respected and virtue a beauty to be admired, education was not regarded a necessity, much less a luxury. During that early period, there were but few schools or In those rudely-refined days,

to

The priest of the mission was the prinby whom the young were taught the rudest

school-teachers. cipal teacher

fragments of learning and the sublimest articles of

faith.

In connection with this portion of our early history, and

which I

may

is

germane

to the

immediate subject of

this address,

say that during that long time, extending over a

who owned and occupied and the Canadians, who came to make their homes among them, there were no troubles; their relations were Wherever, the the relations of peace and good - will. century, as between the Indians,

the

soil,

I

PIERRE MENARD. Canadian made

his

151

appearance, the pipe of peace was

presented as a token of good -faith, and the salutation was, "the sun

come in

is

beautiful,

Frenchman!

to visit us all our tribes attend you,

peace into

all

more touching than

our cabins." this

and when you you shall enter

History affords nothing

rude and friendly salutation.

The

upon the Indian was, that the French King was their father and would care for them and protect them. Thus it was that first

lesson which the French Jesuit sought to impress

the descendants of the proud aristocracy of the days of

Louis XIV, dwelt in peace and harmony with the wild and rude Indian of our American forests. To our shame be it said, that the red man of America never knew what it was to be cruel and merciless to strangers until he came in contact with Spanish pirates and British fortune-seekers. At the close of our war of the Revolution, the confederated States of territory,

America acquired

title to

the northwestern

then claimed by Great Britain under the treaty

embrace the Can-

of Paris, 1763.

This, of course, did not

adas; they

still

remained a part of the British Empire.

Four years

after the confirmation of the treaty of 1763,

Pierre

Jean

Menard was born near Quebec.

B.

Menard, an

officer in

He was

the son of

the French-Canadian army;

would appear that Col. Menard was a was born a British subject. When he was some twenty-one years old, he left his home and went to Vincennes, then the capital of our entire northwestern territory. This was in 1787, the year of the adoption of the Constitution of the United States of America. Why he sought his home within the jurisdiction of our American Government is easily explained: next to France, he admired the people who had trampled the lion and the unicorn into the dust. While at Vincennes, he engaged in dealing in furs and pelts, and acting as an so that after

all, it

quasi-Briton, at least, that he



EARLY CHICAGO AND

152

ILLINOIS.

agent of our government, in our relations with the Indians. After remaining at Vincennes some four years, he went to Kaskaskia in 1791, where he continued to reside up to the time of his death. In making his home in our American Republic, as was most natural, he made his home among those akin to him in nationality and religious faith. At Kaskaskia, he continued his old business, of trading in furs and pelts, and subsequently established one of the most extensive trading- houses in all our western territories, in connection with Francois Valle. Their boats and barges extended north to the land of the Dakotas and south to the Gulf of Mexico. Col. Menard had resided, however, only a short time at Kaskaskia before the people began to recognize the •quality of the man, and soon demanded of him duties other than dealings in furs and trading with Indians. He was a plain and modest man. What he did not know he did not assume to know. From his knowledge of himself he believed that he knew more in regard to the quality of furs than he did respecting the qualities of legislation but the people who knew him better than he knew himself, thought quite differently, and as early as 1795, as appears among the records of Randolph County of our State, he held the

office, in

connection with others, of United-States

and member of the court of common pleas, which office he continued to hold until 1803, when he was sent as a delegate to the territorial legislature, which sat at VinIn 1809, Illinois was erected into a territory of cennes. itself, but it was not until 18 12, that it had its own territorThat legislature was composed of two ial legislature. houses a council and a house of representatives, the former consisting of five and the latter of seven members. The territorial government continued from that time until the close of the year 18 18, when Illinois was admitted During the entire as one of the states of our Union. justice



H ilHilHi

"^m

1

^'^'^1^

I^^H

1^1

PIERRE MENARD.

1

53

period of our territorial government, Col. Menard was the presiding officer of the council; that

is,

he was the second

official in our territorial government. This makes a period of twenty-three years, during all of which time in the government of our western territories. Col. Menard

occupied positions

known

among

to the law.

the highest and most honorable

During

period he proved himself a

all

man

that wild and unsettled

without a peer for the

occasion.

Up

to the admission of Illinois in 1818, as one of the

Union, and in the formation of our State government, there was no dividing sentiment as to the man who should occupy at least the second position in the formation of that government; and by universal acclamation, Col. Menard was declared to be that man. A difficulty, however, seems to have presented itself relative states of our

to his eligibility.

The

constitution of 18 18 provided, that

the governor and lieutenant-governor should each be at least, thirty years old, and thirty years a citizen of the tUnited States.

Col.

Menard was not naturalized

until the

and therefore was not eligible to the office which the voice of the people called upon him to assume, phe constitutional convention, however, was equal to the jmergency, and in the schedule to the constitution it was )rovided, that any person thirty years of age, a citizen of the United States, who had resided in the State two years )receding the election, should be eligible to the office of lieutenant-governor. This provision was, of course, ^intended for the benefit of Col. Menard, and in it the :onvention only echoed the voice of our people. Was there ever such a tribute paid to a mani* and that, too, by le voice of a free and independent people.'* There is no )recedent in history where the organic law of a free people las been changed or modified for the benefit of one not If there is anyseeking the benefit of that modification. ^ear

1816,



II

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

154

thing wanting to declare and perpetuate the high regard

which Col. Menard was held by those who knew him best, this schedule to the constitution of 1818, will remain greater and grander and more enduring as a monument to his memory, than the one we are this day unveiling. Columns, arches, and statues moulder and decay, and the memorial and the event are alike forgotten. Legislation is a memorial more enduring than either; coming ages can read it and ponder over the circumstances which gave it birth; it defies the crumbling mould of age and scorns the in

withered finger of time. In September, 18 18, Col.

Menard was

elected

lieuten-

ant-governor of Illinois on the ticket with Gov. Shadrach

Bond, and

in

the October

following, entered

upon the

office, which he held with credit to himself and honor to his State until 1822, when he was succeeded by Adolphus Frederick Hubbard of Gallatin County. Dur-

duties of his

ing the time that Col.

Menard held the

office of lieutenant-

governor, a series of laws were adopted for the government of our young State, which laws have, to a great extent, become the foundation of all subsequent legislation. That first and last legislature, held in the old town of Kaskaskia, was in session about two months, and at an expense

thousand dollars; it enacted 156 raw material, at an expense that would not laws, out of run a modern legislature over one week. The business of our legislature, in the days of Col. Menard, was to make necessary and salutary laws for the government of our people and then adjourn. The business of modern legislation would seem to be the reckless distribution of public funds and to see how long the body can remain in session to our state of only a few

without putrefaction.

During the time that Col. Menard presided over the senate of our

first

legislature,

nothing remarkable, outside of

the ordinary transaction of business, occurred until in 1821,

.

PIERRE MENARD.

when

155

the legislature created the State

Bank of

Illinois,

and sought to induce the United States government to Col. Menard had receive its notes as land-office money. more common-sense than the entire legislature upon that He was subject, and was opposed to the whole scheme. emphatically a hard-money man, and had no faith in banknote promises. Under our present system of national banks, his objection would not

lie;

for there

is

a difference

between the wild-cat money of 1821 and the notes of our present national banks, based upon the faith of our national government. The measure, however, passed over his protest and became a law. Gov. Ford, in his "History of Illinois," relates an anecdote respecting Col. Menard alleged to have occurred in the senate chamber upon the passage of the bill. The anecdote, to a great extent, must be one of Gov. Ford's own making; for no one seems to have been aware of it until related by him, and it certainly is not in keeping He was too dignified with the character of Col. Menard. and polished a gentleman to act unbecomingly while presiding over the senate. A man who had served in legisas wide as the sea,

lative

bodies consecutively for twenty-three years

years of which council

—would

scarcely be the

while in the discharge of undignified manner.

The absurdity



terv

as presiding officer over our territorial

He was

of the joke

lative bodies bills are

man

official

is

to perpetrate jokes,

business, or act in

too earnest a

patent on

passed on a

call of

its

man

an

for that.

face; in legis-

the ayes and nays

and not on a viva-voce vote. This anecdote, no doubt, has origin from a transaction which occurred, some time after the adjournment of the legislature, when in a controits

versy relative to the policy of the measure, he

by

wound up

one hundred dollars that the notes of our State Bank would never be received as landoffice money. Offering to bet in those days was much like the dispute

offering to bet

156

.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

ILLINOIS.

— the

unanswerable argument, and cut ofif in which the anecdote is all further debate. told, is equally not in keeping with Col. Menard, as he spoke the French and English languages correctly, and it

is

at present

The language

make a mongrel of it. With the close of his term of

did not

ernor, in 1822, closed the official

office as lieutenant-govlife

of Col. Menard.

For

twenty-seven years he had been a public servant of our people, faithful, honest, industrious, respected, and loved

by all; and when we reflect that his time, thus devoted, was not only detrimental to his personal affairs, but contrary to his tastes and wishes, it is not surprising that, when he sought repose in his quiet home, it was one of peace and beauty, with the blessing of our people upon him.

As

man. Col. Menard was greater than he was a poliHe knew nothing of the diplomacy of politics, he knew honesty and fair-dealing, and that is what political diplomacy seldom comprehends. *'To the victor belong the spoils," was a lesson which he never learned at the chancels of his political faith. He was not familiar with His plain and solid the liquid language of office-seekers. thoughts were expressed in plain and solid language. The people and the poor understood him, and his wisdom and his virtues went with him, hand in hand, down the silent river of time. On his retirement from public office he devoted his time not less to his own private affairs than to the good work of charit}' among the poor and the unfortunate, and if there ever was in Illinois one who did more in that direction, his name has not been written. Col. Menard was married to his second wife at St. Louis in 1806. She was Miss Angelique, daughter of Francois Saucier, a lady noted for her generous hospitality and her elegant and refined manners. Her charities were the gifts of silence; unknown to the world, they were dispensed with tician.

a

:

;

PIERRE MENARD.

1

57

A true French France nor the halo which shown around its throne. By this wife. Col. Menard was the father of five children, three sons and two daughters, all a loving hand, to the poor and unfortunate. lady, she could not forget her

of

whom

are

now

dead.

The

last

of his surviving children

was Edmund Menard. His father had taken great pains in his education, and he graduated at one of the most learned universities. He was a man not only of learning, but of refined tastes. Years ago he served a session in our legislature, as a member from Randolph County; but disgusted, he withdrew from politics, and made a hermit's

home

decaying ruins of his father's mansion. Piece roof-tree fell; a few years ago he died, and nothing now remains of the old home and its people, except the ground upon which it rested, and their silent memories. Col. Menard was a man of wonderful public enterprise, and the especial friend of schools and education. There was no movement in the direction of learning or of public morals in which he did not take an earnest interest. true and faithful Catholic, he did not confine morals to the in the

by piece the

A

dogmas of the

church, nor education to

its

teachings.

He

had a great and enduring faith in the ultimate greatness of this country, and a belief that that greatness was to rest upon the education and morals of its people; and that those qualities were not confined. Col. Menard died at his home, opposite Kaskaskia, on the eastern bank of the river, in 1844, at the age of yy years, and was buried upon the banks of that quiet river which flowed near his home. Well might it be said of him is a public fund As that abounds the State decays or thrives; Each should contribute to the general stock, And who lends most, is most his country's friend.

All private virtue

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

158

In those early days, before steamboats plied our Western waters, and

when our

traffic

upon them was carried

in

keelboats and canoes; Kaskaskia, on the western bank of

the river of that name, a few miles from where

it

joined

the Mississippi, afforded one of the safest harbors and largest markets in our entire

Northwest Territory.

The honest and simple-minded Canadian had no

con-

ception of boats being propelled by any other power than by the wind or by oars. No wonder, then, that when the first steamboat undertook to make a trip up the Kaskaskia River, the innocent Frenchman thought it was a sawmill. The only thing he had ever seen worked by steam was the sawmill at St. Vrain, a mile on the river above the residence of Col. Menard. An honest-hearted race of brave and hardy men; they did not know the difference between a steamboat and a sawmill but one thing they did know and fully understand, and that was the difference between the noble generosity of poverty and the skimping grudge of millions of meanness. They were a people modest in their virtues, but heroic in their duties; they would divide their last pone with the needy, and yet fight the aggressor ;

to the bitter end.

In their silent graves, could they but

hear the roar of our present trade,

it

is

doubtful whether

The very river they would ever pray for a resurrection. upon whose placid waters they paddled their light canoes, has become the bed of the wild currents of the Mississippi

and Missouri rivers, and that beautiful and rolling peninsula whereon the old town was located, has become a desert island. The history of the world affords no parallel to the rapid and ab.solute desolation of old Kaskaskia. Towns and cities have gone down to ruin, but yet have left

some

traces of their former greatness.

Not

so with

Kaskaskia; the very earth upon which she stood has become a desert and a desolation. Night and ignorance

old

have wrapped themselves around

her,

and she

rests alone

PIERRE MENARD. in the

now

living,

past.

It is

scarcely

place in our Western territories, the centre of trade in nois,

59

beyond the life when she was the most important

memories of the

of those

1

Illi-

the capital of our Territory, the capital of our State,

and, with a population of about 3000 people, embraced a

wisdom and learning, wealth, and 1824, more than a quarter of a century before railroads were known. Gen. Lafayette traveled over 800 miles to pay his respects to the people of that old town. No wonder that it has hallowed memories. In those halcyon days, she numbered among her people those not unknown to fame. There was Gen. John Edgar, large proportion of the

elegance of

In

Illinois.

the friend of Gen. Lafayette, and one of the largest landholders

who

Bond, the tic

and

ever resided in

first

Illinois.

There was Shadrach

governor of our State, with his

tall,

bearing, with a countenance severe, but a heart

majes-

warm

There was Pierre Menard, our first lieutenant-governor, whose virtues and whose memory we are this day seeking to perpetuate by the dedication of that statue we unveil. There was Judge Nathaniel Pope, our first delegate to congress, while we were yet a Territory, and by whose wisdom and perseverance we acquired the great city of Chicago. There was Elias Kent Kane, among the first and most illustrious of our United States senators, and who went down to the grave at his post of duty, in the early prime of his manhood. There was William Morrison, the rival of Col. Menard in mercantile enterprises and the baronial cultivator of land. There was Robert Morrison, the brother of William, who managed generous.

.

the transportation of our mails through the then almost

untrodden forests of our State. not

less

illustrious

as

There was Sidney Breese,

a senator in congress, than as a

learned and accomplished

jurist,

one who during a long

and laborious life as a justice of our supreme court, threw rays of light and beauty upon the rasping dogmas of the

EARLY CHICAGO AND

l60

ILLINOIS.

law. There was David Jewett Baker, who, by appointment from Gov. Edwards, occupied a seat in the United States senate, and who, during a long life devoted to his profession, brought to the learning of the law, the wisdom

of

accuracy.

its

There were the

St. Vrains, the elder

for years, acted as the

brother of

whom,

United-States Indian agent for

Illi-

and was so cruelly murdered by his Indian guide during the Black-Hawk war. There was Edward Humphrey and Miles Hotchkiss, the receiver and register of the land office for our entire State. There was John A. nois,

Langlois, the

financial

agent of the firm of Menard

&

There was Edward Widen, the polished gentleman and enterprising merchant. There was Hugh Maxwell, the son-in-law of Col. Menard, an' extensive merchant and a planter; the father of Lucien Maxwell, the only man who ever yet owned an estate in our government equal to the entire New-England States. There was Thomas Mather, who never could make his paper money, landoffice money; and James L. Lamb, and Roberts, and Owens, and others who abandoned the doomed old town, and removed to Springfield when it was made the capital Valle.

of our State.

There are hundreds of be named kia,

in

whose names might well

but must, upon an occasion like

They were

this,

be foregone.

the pioneers in the early history of our Terri-

tory and of our State.

who

others,

connection with the early history of Kaskas-

They were

the men, the "Illinois,"

planted the germs of our present greatness, and

it

becomes us that we should perpetuate their names in monuments and statues. The footprints which they have left behind them, should not be lost, and the memory of well

be preserved. This statue, which we and perpetuate the memory of one part like a man and a hero in the fierce

their virtues should

unveil

who

is

to represent

did his

battles of

life.

I

PIERRE MENARD.

As

l6l

have heretofore said, by a joint- resolution of our legislature, it was directed that this statue should be placed upon the grounds surrounding the capitol of our It is the first to be placed upon these grounds, but State. Monuments, and should not be allowed to be the last. statues, and columns, and arches, are the open books of civilization; with their neglect and decay, ignorance and vandalism supply their places. Here in the beautiful city of Springfield, the centre and capital of our State, a beginning has been made to perpetuate the memories of those who have been true and faithful in the battle of life. To Charles P. Chouteau of St. Louis, we are indebted for this historical statue. Let us not forget the example so nobly set before us and let us, not from our plenty, but from a love for all that is noble and generous, raise I

;

monuments

to the

future generations

memory of our illustrious dead, may read in them the wisdom

and the immortality of

its virtues.

so that

of

life

)

PIERRE MENARD PAPERS. From

the originals in the possession of the Chicago Historical Society.

Ante-Nuptial Contract between Pierre Menard AND Miss Therese Godin, called TourANGEAU, June 13, 1792: (Translated from the French.

BEFORE

the Notary Public of the County of

the country of the

Illinois.

The

St. Clair in

undersigned, residing

Immaculate Conception of Our Lady of the Kaskaskias, the place of meeting, and the undersigned witnesses were present. In person Mr. Pierre Menard, in the parish of the

bachelor, having attained his majority, legitimate son of

Mr. Jean Baptiste Menard, called Brindamour, and of Dame Marie Fran^oise Ciree Saint Michel, his father and mother, native of the

Chambli,

Parish of

Province of

Saint Antoine upon

holy diocese of

the

Canada, a trading merchant

living in the said

Kaskaskia, agreeing for himself and

one

the river

Quebec

in

his

in

Parish of

own name

for

part.

And

Miss Therese Godin, called Tourangeau, daughter

of the late Mr. Michel Godin, called Tourangeau, and of

Dame

Thesese Ste. Genie Beauvais, her father and mother,

living in this before-mentioned parish of the Kaskaskias.

The

said

Dame

Therese Ste.

Geme

Beauvais agreeing for

the said Miss Theresa, her daughter, aged nineteen years, in

her name and with her consent for the second part. Which parties, to wit, on the part of the said Mr. Pierre

Menard, Mr. Francois Janis, Esquire, Captain of a Company of Citizen militia of this parish, Messrs. Pierre BonJieau, and Pierre Latulippe his witnesses and friends: And on the part of the said Miss Therese Godin Tour162

PIERRE MENARD PAPERS. angeau,

Dame

Therese Ste.

Geme

1

63

Beauvais, her mother;

Charles Danis, her maternal uncle, as having married the

Miss Ursule Ste.

late

Geme

Beauvais; Nicholas Canada,

her maternal uncle, as having married Miss Marie Helene Ste.

Geme

Beauvais; Ambroise Dagne, her cousin; Jean

all her relatives and friends, which parties by the advice and consent of their relatives and friends herein named having knowledge of it, have agreed to have made between them the agreement and articles of marriage as follows, to wit:

Baptiste Cailliot Lachanse;

The

said

Dame Therese

Ste.

G6me

Beauvais promises to

give and deliver the said Miss Theresa Godin, her daughter,

with her consent, to the said Mr. Pierre Menard

who

promises to take her for his true and lawful wife and to cause to be celebrated and solemnized the marriage in the presence of our holy mother Church Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman, the rather that doing so would be what one of the parties would require of the other. For to be, the said future husband and wife, one and the same in all property personal and real increase and acquisitions, present and future, without being held for the debtb, the one for the other, made and incurred before the celebration of the said marriage, and if any are found, they shall be paid and discharged by him or her who shall have made and incurred them and from his own property without the other or his goods being at all held for the

same.

The their

said future

goods and

husband and wife take each other with

rights actually belonging to each, such as

have come to them through inheritances or as gifts and may fall due in the future in whatever sum they may amount, and of whatever nature and value they may be, and in whatever place they may be found located, which shall become wholly in common from the day of the marriage ceremony.

those that

EARLY CHICAGO AND

164

ILLINOIS,

In consideration of which marriage the said future hus-

band has endowed and does endow the said future wife, with a thousand Hvres of fixed dower paid at one time to have and to take out of all the property of the said future husband without being held to make demand for it in court, to be enjoyed by the said future wife and her children, according to the custom of Paris. The marriage-settlement provision shall be equal and reciprocal to the survivor of them to the amount of five hundred livres to be taken by the said survivor in personal property from their in full in' It shall

common

be lawful for the said future

husband happening it

to retake

and hold

in

renouncing it,

all

the debts of the

it

all

she will be

with her dower and

marriage settlement provision such as written free from

and her

community of goods, and

able to prove she has contributed to

if

sum

wife, the said future

to be the first to die, herself

children to renounce the present of

stock, or the said

cash at the choice or option of the said survivor.

is

hereinbefore

common

stock except

it

she was bound for any of them, or had been impleaded

or adjudged to pay any of them, in which case she and her

children shall be indemnified

by the parents of the

said

and out of his property. In consideration of which marriage and for the good true affection which the said future partners feel the one for the other, they have made and do make by these presents free gift pure and simple and for ever irrevocable, and in the most binding form in which a gift can be made to the last survivor of them, all and ever their property real and personal increase and acquisitions which the first one dying shall leave at the day and hour of decease to enjoy by the last survivor in full property, and as to whatever belongs to that one this present deed of gift is thus made for life and upon the understanding that there is no living child born or to be born of the said marriage; in which future husband,

PIERRE MENARD PAPERS.

165

case of a child the said deed or gift will be wholly null,

it

being well understood that the property of the patrimonial inheritance of the one and the other shall return to their family.

And

in

order to place on record these presents at the

registry of this district in the aforesaid place at the date

of these presents, they have constituted their procurator

the bearer of these presents.

upon.

Promising,

Done and decided Ste.

Geme

etc.,

in

Beauvais,

For thus

undertaking,

it

has been agreed renouncing,

etc.,

Dame

the house of the said

widow of the

late

etc.

Therese

Michel Godin Tou-

rangeau at the said Kaskaskias, the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety-two, and the thirteenth day of the month of June, in the afternoon; the sixteenth year of the Independence of the United States of America, in

the presence of

the relations and of

friends of

whom

some we the notary have subscribed and the others have made their ordinary mark, after reading made according to the (Two witnesses in the margin are approved.) ordinance. have signed with the future husband and wife and

FRAN901S Janls.

Pierre Menard. Therreuese Godin, ve Godin. his

Nicolas

Canada.

Pierre

Lachanse.

Pierre

x^

J.

Bte.

x'

mark

Bonneau.

x

mark

mark

Latulippe.

x^

mark

Ambroise

x^

mark

Dagnet.

1

early chicago and

66

illinois.

Pierre Menard's Commissions as Major of Militia: Arthur St. Clair Esquire Governor and ComChief of the Territory of the United States

Territory of the United States Northwest the River Ohio

)

j

mander in North West the River Ohio. To Peter Menard Esquire: You being appointed Major in the first Regiment of Militia of the County of Randolph by Virtue of the Power Vested in me I do by these presents Reposing Special Trust and Confidence in your Loyalty Courage and good Conduct, Commission You Accordingly. You are therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of a Major in



Arms

them

in

in

leading

— ordering

and exercising Said Militia

both Inferiour Officers and Soldiers and to keep

Good order and discipline. And they are hereby and you yourto Obey you as their Major



Commanded

and follow Such Orders and Instructions as you Shall from time to time receive from me or your

selfe to observe

Superiour Officers,

my

hand and the Seal of the Said fifth day of October in the year of our Lord one thous seven hundred and ninety-five and of the Independence of the United Ar. St. Clair. States the twentieth. rq

i-i

Given under

Territory of the United States this

[Endorsed:] Before me John Edgar Leut. Colonel Commandant of the first Regt. of Militia of the County of Randolph by Virtue of a Dcdimus Potcstatcm to me and

Lordner Clark directed or either of us Personly appeared Peter Menard

who being duly Sworn

did take the oaths

prescribed by an Act of the United States entitled an

Act

and maner of administring certain Oaths and the Oath of Office. In Witness Whereof I have hereunto set my hand at Kaskaskias the 25 day of Octr. to regulate the time

1792.



PIERRE MENARD PAPERS.

By John

Gibson, Esq'r, Secretary and

ernor and

Commander

in



l6j

now

acting as Gov-

Chief of the Indiana

Territory:

United States.

)

Indiana Territory.

J

You MiHtia in

me;

To

Peter Menard, Esg'r, of the County

of Randolph, Greeting:

being Appointed a Major of a Regiment of the By Virtue of the power Vested in said County. I

do by these

Confidence

in

presents, {reposing special Trust and your Loyalty; Courage and Good Conduct)

Commission you accordingly; You are therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of a Major in leading, ordering, and exercising said Regiment in Arms, both inferior officers and Soldiers; and to keep them in good order and discipline; And they are hereby commanded to obey you as their Major. And you are yourself to observe and follow such orders and Instructions as you shall from time to time receive from me or your Superior Officers:

my

hand and the seal of said Terriday of August in the Year of our Lord one Thousand Eight hundred and of the Independence of the United States of America, the Twentyfifth. Jno. Gibson. Given under

rSeall

*

'-

tory, the first

[Endorsed:] Peter Menard, Esq'r, Major. Before me, John Edgar, Lieut'-Colonel, the First

Regiment of

Militia of the

Commandant

of

County of Randolph,

by Virtue of a Dedimiis Potestatem to me directed Personappeared Peter Menard who, being duly sworn, did take the Oath prescribed by an Act of the United States entituled an Act to regulate the time & manner of administering certain Oaths & the Oath of Office. ally

In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand this Tenth day of September in the Year of our Lord one

thousand eight hundred.

J.

Edgar.

1

early chicago and illinois.

68

Pierre Menard's Commission as Judge of the Courts of Randolph County: William Henry Harrison, Esq., Governor and Commander in

Chief of Indiana Territory, Peter Menard, f To

Indiana Territory, ^

Know you your

Esquire,

of the

j/j^County ^rujiu of Randolph sends Greeting: *.•

\

that reposing Especial trust

and confidence

and judgement, I, the said William Henry Harrison have appointed, and do by these presents appoint and commission you, the said Peter Menard, to in

abilities, integrity

be one of our Judges of the court of common pleas, in for our said County, hereby giving and granting unto

and you

full

lar the

and

right

title to

have and Execute

all

and singu-

powers. Jurisdictions and authorities, and to recieve

and enjoy

all

and singular the Emoluments, of a Judge of

the court of common pleas, of a Judge of the Orphans Court,

and of a Justice of the Court of Quarter Sessions of the peace in and for the county aforesaid agreeably to the <;onstitution of the laws of this Territory to have and to hold this commission and the office hereby granted to you so long as you shall behave yourself well. Given under my hand and the seal of the TerrSeallJ ritory at Vincennes this fifth day of February in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and one and of the Independence of the United States the twenty fifth. By The Governor, J NO. Gibson, Secretary. [Endorsed:]

Commission Peter Menard, Esq,

Pierre Menard and John Edgar's Commissions as Associate Judges, Criminal Court, Randolph Co.: William Henry Harrison Esquire, Governor and Commander in Chief of the Indiana Territory, to John Edgar and Peter Menard of the County of Randolph Esquires, Greeting: Indiana Territory

\

j

PIERRE MENARD PAPERS.

169

Whereas we assigned the Honble. John Griffin Esqr. one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of the Indiana Territory, our Justice to enquire by the Oaths of Honest and Lawful Men of the County of Randolph, by whom the truth of the Matter

may be

better known, of

Insurrections and Rebellions, and of

Manslaughters, Burglaries,

all

all

Treasons,

Murders, Felonies,

Rapes of Women, unlawfull ConTrespasses, Riots, Routs, Con-

uttering of Words, unlawful assemblies, Misprisions, federacies, false allegations,

tempts,

falsities,

Negligences, Concealements, Maintainces,

Opressions, deceits and

all

other Misdeeds, Offences

&

and by whomsoever and howsoever done, had or perpetrated and Committed, and by whom, to whom, where, how and in what Manner the same have been done, perpetrated or Committed and all and singular the premises and every of them for this time to hear and determine according to Law, and to cause to be brought before him all the prisoners who shall be in the Jail of the said County together with all and singular the Warrants, attachments, Mittimuses, and other documents, touching the said prisoners, and for this time to deliver Injuries whatsoever,

the Jail of the said County of Jail, for all

all

the prisoners in the said

and every of the said offences, according to we have associated you the said John Edgar

Law. And and Peter Menard to act in the premises with the said John Griffin. Yet so, that if at certain days and places, which the same John Griffin shall appoint for this purpose, you shall happen to be present, then that he admit you a Companion, otherwise the said John Griffin (your presence not Being expected) may proceed to act in the premises, And therefore we command you and each of you that you attend to act with the said John Griffin in form aforesaid in the premises For we have Commanded the said John Griffin the admit you as a Companion for this purpose as aforesaid.

12

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

I/O

Witness: William Henry Harrison Esquire Governor and Commander of the Indiana Territory

ro II

September 1802 and of the Independence of the United States the Twenty Seventh.

at Vincennes this 24th

By

y q

the Governor,

i<^Jc^z£^

J NO. Gibson,

Secrety.

Indiana Territory

)

j

William

A^^^y^^-i^oh^

""—^ Henry Harrison Esquire Gov-

ernor of the Indiana Territory to the

Honble. John Griffin Esqr. one of the Judges in and over and John Edgar and Peter Menard Esquires Greeting: of the County of Randolph,

said Territory

Whereas, we have assigned you the aforesaid John Grifour Justice, to Inquire more fully by the Oaths of Honest and lawful men of the County of Randolph, by whom the Truth of the Matter may be Better known, of all treasons. Insurrections and Rebellions, and of all Murders, Felonies, Manslaughter, Burglaries, Rapes of Women, unlawful Uttering of Words, unlawful Assemblies, Misfin

prisons, Confederacies, Maintainances, Oppressions, deceits

and

all

other Misdeeds and offences and Injuries, whatso-

by whomsoever, and howsoever done, had, perCommitted and all and Singular the premises and every or any of them for this time, to hear and determine according to Law. And afterwards associated the said John Edgar and Peter Menard with you the aforesaid John Griffin in the premises. We Command you, that if ever and

petrated or

You

all

cannot conveniently attend to act

that you or any two of you,

who

in

the premises,

happen to be present, of which we will that you the said John Griffin be one, proceed to act in the premises according to Law. ,, Witness William Henry Harrison Esquire Govj-q ernor of the Indiana Territory at Vincennes this Twenty Fourth day of September in the Year of our Lord shall



PIERRE MENARD PAPERS.

I/I

one thousand eight hundred and two and of the Independence of the United States the Twenty Seventh.

By

the Governor,

(sd)

WiLLM. Henry HARRISON.

Jno. Gibson, Secrety.

Pierre Menard's Commission to take Testimony IN Land-Office Claims:

To

Pierre Menard, Esquire

Reposing

full

Confidence

in

your Integrity, we hereby

appoint you a Commissioner to examine witnesses and take Depositions within the County of Randolph, in support of Claims entered in the Registers Office of the District

of Vincennes.

of December 1805.

Given under our Hands

this 14th

day

John Badollet Nathl. C. Pring Commissioner of the land for the District of

office

Vincennes.

Pierre Menard's Commission as Judge of Court OF Common Pleas, Randolph County: William Henry Harrison, Governor, and Commander in Chief of the Indiana Territory, To Pierre Menard, Esquire, of the

County of Randolph, sends Greeting:

Know you. That reposing special trust and confidence in your integrity, judgment and abilities, I have appointed, and by these presents I do appoint and commission you the said Pierre Menard a JUDGE of the Court of Common Pleas, in the said County of Randolph, hereby giving and granting unto you, as judge of the common pleas, full right and title to have and execute all and singular the powers, jurisdictions and authorities, and to receive and enjoy all and singular the lawful emoluments of a judge



EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

1/2

common

pleas: to have

and to hold hereby granted to you, the said Pierre Menard, so long as you shall behave yourself of the said court of

commission, and the

this

office

well.

my

Given under rSeallJ

territory, at

•-

hand, and the seal of the said

Vincennes, this

Twenty Seventh

day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and Five, of the independence of the United States of America the thirtieth. This Commission to be in force from and after the ist day of January, 1806.

By

Command,

the Governor's

Jno. Gibson, Secrerary. [Endorsed:]

Court of

Peter Menards Commission as Judge of the

Common

pleas.

Indiana Territory

)

Randolph County

3

/'

Before me, Michael Jones (duly

,

ss.

authorized to administer the oaths

&

by Dedimus potestatem from the Governor of said Territory dated the third day of May 1806), personally appeared Peter Menard Esquire, and took the oaths of office as Judge of the Court of common pleas for said County as required by law. Given under my hand at Kaskaskia the eighteenth day of July 1806. of office to

all officers civil

Military of said County,

Pierre Menard's Commission as Lieut.-Colonel First Regiment Randolph County Militia, under the laws of indiana territory: William Henry Harrison, Governor and Commander in Chief of the Indiana Territory, to Pierre Menard, Esq'r, Greeting:

Reposing special

trust

and confidence in your fidelity, I have appointed you a Lieu-

courage and good conduct,



PIERRE MENARD PAPERS.

173

Commandant of the first regiment of the county of Randolph and you are hereby appointed accordingly. You are therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of a Lieut. Colo. Commandt. in leading, ordering and exercising the said regiment in arms, both inferior officers and soldiers, and to keep them in good order and discipline, and they are hereby commanded to obey you as their Lieutenant Colo.. Commandt. and your are yourself to observe and follow such orders and instructions as you shall from time to time receive from me or your superior officers. In testimony whereof, I have hereunto caused ^ ^ the seal of the territory to be affixed, the twelfth day of July in the year of our Lord one thousand [eight hundred and six and of the Independence of the tenant Colonel Militia of the

'United States of America the thirty

[By the

first.

WiLLM. Henry Harrison. Governor's command, Jno. Gibson, Secretary.

[Endorsed :] llndiana Territory,

I^Randolph County.

\ J

Before ized

me the subscriber by Dedimus

(author-

Potestateni

from the Governor of said Territory, dated the third day )f

May,

1806, to administer the oaths of office to all

offi-

and military of said county) personally appeared LPeter Menard Esquire, and took the oaths of office as [Colonel of the first Regiment of Militia of Randolph rCounty as required by law. Given under my hand at Kaskaskia the i8th day of July, 1806. MiCH. JONES. fcers civil

Pierre Menard's Commission as Captain of Infantry in Louisiana Territory: 'Meriwether Lewis, Governor and Commander in Chief of the Territory of Louisiana, to all who shall see these presents. Greeting:

EARLY CHICAGO AND

174

Know

ye,

ILLINOIS.

that reposing special trust and confidence

fidelity and abitities of Peter have appointed him a Captain of Infantry in a Detachmt. of Militia, on special service he is therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of Captain by doing and performing all manner of things hereunto belonging, and I do strickly charge and require all Officers and Soldiers, under his command to be obedient to his orders as Captain and he is to obey such orders and directions from time to time, as he shall receive from me, or his superior officers. This commission to continue in force during the pleasure of the Governor of the Territory for the time being. in the patriotism, valour,

Menard

I

In Testimony Whereof,

have caused the Seal of the Territory to be hereunto affixed this first day of April in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and nine and of the independence of the United States the thirty third. Meriwether Lewis. I

rSeall -

-

By Frederick Bates,

Secretary

of the Territory of Louisiana.

[Endorsed:] Territory of Louisiana, &c., Personally appeared before me, the subscriber duly authorized to administer the several oaths to Office within the Territory aforesaid, Peter

Menard who took the Oath

to

Support

the Constitution of the United States as well as the oath faithfully to discharge the duties of a Captain of Militia on special service to the best of his abilities, skill, and judgment, and in conformity to the within Commission.

Given under

my

hand

at St. Louis this

i8th of May,

1809. •

Thos.

F.

Riddick.



PIERRE MENARD PAPERS.

175

Pierre Menard's Commission as Lieut.-Colonel First Regiment Randolph County Militia, under the Laws of Illinois Territory: Nathaniel Pope, Secretary of the exercising as well the

as

To

all

Chief of the Militia thereof,

and

Illinois Territory,

Government

Commander in who shall see

these Presents, Greeting:

Know

ye, that reposing special trust

and confidence

in

the patriotism, valour, fidelity and abilities of Pierre Menard I have appointed him Lieutenant Colonel of ist

Regiment of Militia of Randolph County he is therefore carefully and diligently to, discharge the duty of Lieutenant Colonel by doing and performing all manner of things ^thereunto belonging, and I do strictly charge and require all oflficers and soldiers under his command to be obedient to his orders as Lieutenant Colonel and he is to obey such orders and directions from time to time, as he shall receive [from the

Commander

in Chief, or his superior officers.

This commission to continue in force during the pleasof the Governor of the territory, for the time being.

ire

In Testimony Whereof,

have hereunto affixed my private seal, there being no seal of office, at Kaskaskia, the Sixth day of May, in the year of our Lord lone thousand eight hundred and nine and of the Indepenidence of the United States, the thirty-third, NAT PoPE. "-

I

-•

[([Endorsed:]

Lewtenant Colo.

This day came before

me

P.

Menard.

the within

named

Piere

Men-

and took an oath to support the Constitution of the United States.

[ard

Kaskaskia

May

26th 1809.



early chicago and

1/6

illinois.

Pierre Menard's Commission as Indian Agent:

War Dept, Pierre

April 2nd, 1813.

Menard Esqr.

—You are hereby with the approbation of the Presi-

Sir

dent of the United States appointed sub agent of Indian affairs.

In discharging the duties of this appointment you will

be governed by such instructions as you shall receive from Department or from General William Clark, Agent of

this

Indian Affairs at

St. Louis,

M. Territory.

Your compensation will be at the rate of Six hundred dollars per annum, to commence on the date of your entering upon the duties of this appointment, ro

&

Given at the War Office of the United States,, this Second day of April, eighteen hundred

11

John Armstrong.

thirteen.

Lewis Cass and Pierre Menard's Commissions TO make Indian Treaties: John Quincy Adams, President of the United States of America,

To

all

who

shall see these presents,

Greeting:

Know

Ye, That

in

pursuance of the Act of Congress.

passed on the twenty-fourth day of May, 1828; entitled

"An

act to enable the President of the United States

to^

hold a treaty with the Chippewas, Ottawas, Pattawattimas,

Winnebagoes, Fox and Sacs Nations of Indians," and reposing special Trust and Confidence in the Abilities,. Prudence and Fidelity of Lewis Cass of the Territory of Michigan, and Pierre Menard of the State of Illinois, I have nominated and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, do appoint them Commissioners of the United States, with full power and authority to hold con-

PIERRE MENARD PAPERS.

1

7/

ferences and to conclude and sign a treaty or treaties with

the

Chippewas, Ottowas,

Fox and Sacs Nations

Winnebagoes,

Pattavvattimas,

of Indians, of and concerning all

matters interesting to the United States, and the said Nations of Indians, transmitting the same to the President of the United States of America, for his final ratification

by and with the consent and advice of the Senate of the This commission to continue in force during the pleasure of the President of the United States for the time being.

United States.

I have caused these Letbe made patent, and the Seal of the United States to be hereunto affixed. Given under my hand at the City of Washington, the twenty-fourth day of May, A.D. 1828; and of the Independence of the United

In Testimony whereof,

^

^^

J

ters to

States, the fifty-Second.

By

the President,

].

Q.

Adams.

H. Clay, Secretary of State.

Extracts from the Parish Registers of Saint Antoine de Richelieu ou Chambly, Province DE Quebec, Comte de Vercheres, Canada: record of marriage of PIERRE MENARD'S PARENTS: Le 14 Fevrier, 1763, J. Bte Menard dit Brindamour soldat du regiment de Guienne, age de 28 ans, fils de feu J. Bte Menard, et de Madelaine Reboulla ses pere et mere de la paroisse de St. Hypolite Diocese d'Alis, epousa Marie Frangoise Ciree, agee de 22 ans, fiUe de J. Bte Ciree dit St. Michel, et de Marguerite Bonin, de cette paroisse. (Translation:)

The

fourteenth of February, 1763, J. Baptiste Menard, called Brindamour, soldier of the regiment of Guienne,

aged 28 years, son of the

late J. Baptiste

Menard and of

EARLY CHICAGO AND

1/8

ILLINOIS.

Madelaine RebouUa, his father and mother of the parish of Saint HypoHte, diocese of Alis, married Marie Fran^oise Ciree, aged 22 years, daughter of J. Baptiste Ciree, called Saint Michel, and of Marguerite Bonin of this parish.

RECORD OF THE BAPTISM OF TIERRE MENARD: "L'an mil sept soixante

Nous

Pierre ne tiste

et six le huit d'

Octobre par

pretre soussigne cure de cette paroisse a ete baptise d'

hier au soir du legitime mariage de Jean Bap-

Menard

dit

ditte St. Michel.

Brindamour

Le

et

de Marie Frangoise Ciree

perrain a ete Pierre Vandandaigue

dit Gadbois, et la marraine Louise Ciree ditte St. Michel

tante de J.

B.

1'

enfant qui ont declare ne savoir signer.

Menard.

Gervaise,

P'tre."

(Translation:)

The year seventeen hundred and of October, by us the undersigned was baptized

sixty-six, the eighth priest, vicar

of this

born yesterday evening of the legitimate marriage of Jean Baptiste Menard, called Brindamour, and Marie Fran^oise Ciree, called St. Michel. The godfather was Pierre Vandandaigue, called Gadbois, and the godmother Louise Ciree, called St. Michel, aunt of the infant, who have declared that they do not know parish,

how

Pierre,

to write.

J. B.

Menard.

Gervaise,

Priest.

Extracts from Parish Registers of the Church OF THE Immaculate Conception at KaskasKiA, Illinois:

record of the first marriage OF PIERRE MENARD: "L'an mil sept cent quatre vingt douze, le treize de Juin apres avoir donne dispense de trois bans de mariage

PIERRE MENARD PAPERS. entre

Pierre

Menard

fils

Franqoise Cireey, natif de

legitime de Jean la

179

Menard

et

paroisse de Saint Antoine

en Canada, Commer^ant de ce poste, et Therese Gaudin Durangeau fille legitime de defunt Michel Gaudin dit Durangeau, et Therese Raphael, native de eette paroisse, ne s' etant decouvert aucun empechement, j' ai regu leur consentement mutuel, et leur ai donne la Benediction nuptiale selon les ceremoines de notre Sainte mere I'Eglise Catholique et Romaine, et ce en presence des temoins et leurs parents reciproques selon 1' ordonnance apres lecture faits. De Saint Pierre, Miss, apdst.

Therese Godin, Pierre Menard, Tardiveau, DANIS Francois Janis, B.

Jeane St. Clair,

Edgar,

Jn.

William St. Clair, w. morrisson, la

marque

+

Nicholas Canada, Elisabeth Maxwell."

de

(Translation

:)

The year seventeen hundred and

ninety-two, the thir-

teenth of June, after having dispensed with the three

bans of marriage between Pierre Menard, legitimate son of Jean Menard and Francois Ciree, native of the parish of Saint Antoine in Canada, trader at this post, and Therese Gaudin Durangeau, legitimate daughter of the deceased Michel Gaudin, called Durangeau, and Theresa Raphael, native of this parish, not having discovered any impediment, I have received their mutual consent, and have given them the nuptial benediction according to the ceremonies of our holy Mother the Catholic and Roman Church, and in the presence of the witnesses and their respective parents, according to the ordinance after reading made. By Saint Pierre, Mission Apostolic,

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS,

l80

RECORD OF THE BURIAL OF PIERRE MENARD:

"On

the fourteenth of June, 1844,

I

the undersigned

Buried the remains of Colonel Pierre Menard in

in his vault

the graveyard of this Parish, thither he

was

accompanied by an immense concourse of People.

"He

died yesterday

the

at

lyi,

having

previously received the last sacraments, he was 72 years * old. J. M. J. St. Cyr, parish Priest." *

The blanks

in the

above entry represent words

which can not now be deciphered. incorrect,

The

in the original entry

statement of his age

the original entry and has written " 6 " over the " 2 in pencil over the " 72

".

and has

manifestly

figure

This approximates to the truth, but Pierre Menard's

exact age at the time of his death, as

was seventy-seven

",

is

"2" in also written " 76 "

and some one has scratched with a lead pencil the

years, eight months,

shown by the and six days.

register of his baptism, E. G.

M,

O^c.

zs,

ns0.

Noel

le

Vasseun

NOEL LE VASSEUR, By Stephen

AT

R.

Moore

of Kankakee,

Illinois.

a meeting of the Old Settlers' Association of Iro-

/jL quois County, held on the ground where Gurdon S. Hubbard and Noel le Vasseur, in the service of the .American Fur-Company, had a stock of merchandise and established a trading-post with the Pottawatomie Indians,

Mr. Hubbard said that he first visited this site in 1822. Noel le Vasseur claimed to the writer of this sketch, that he came to this place in 1820, and at one of the old settlers' meetings, which he attended, I spoke for him and made this statement, at his request, and he pointed out the ground on the south side of the Iroquois River where Mr. Hubbard and himself built the first dry-goods store, in the territory tributary to Chicago. It will

be

difficult to reconcile

of the pioneer lives of

trading with the Indians in

the events and times as of Mr. Vasseur.

with exactness the dates

Hubbard and Vasseur I

Illinois.

I

in their first

shall briefly give

gathered them from the

It is possible that

lips

Hubbard may have

sent Vasseur to Illinois two years before he went there.*

In this connection it is well to state that Mr. Vasseur had no educational advantages, and could neither read nor write, and hence he relied wholly upon memory to fix dates.

In a log-cabin at Saint Michel d' Yamaska, Canada, on Christmas night, 1799, was born the subject of this memoir. * Since writing the above, I am positively informed that Mr. Vasseur preceded Mr. Hubbard to Illinois two years, and is therefore the pioneer merchant and trader for this part of the Northwest. S. R. Moore, Mar. 5, 1889.



181

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

l82

His parents were poor and unlettered.

They commemo-

boy Noel, which means Christmas. He led a quiet and uneventful life on the farm until May, 1817, when he astonished his parents by announcing to them that he had entered the service of one Rocheblave,* in company with eighty young men, who were hired to go into the West to trade with the rated the event

by

calling the

His parents were startled at this unexpected Indians. announcement, and sought to dissuade him from going. The love of adventure was too strong for the parental love and authority, and without a penny in money or a change of clothing, in his seventeenth year, he sought his fortune in the great and unknown West. They left Montreal, May 15, 18 17, and embarked on the St. Lawrence, with two years' supplies of food and clothing, destined to reach Mackinac. I do not think that Vasseur knows the route followed to reach the Straits of Mackinac. He was certain they did not come by way of Niagara Falls. He said the company made two fatiguing portages with their boats and supplies, and, after undergoing very great hardships they reached Lake Huron and again embarked for the Straits.-|- John Jacob Astor had established a trading-post and depot of supplies at Mackinac, and when they reached there, in the summer of 1817, Rocheblave sold all his rights to the services of his men and his outfit and supplies to the American Fur-Company» and Vasseur and his companions passed into the service of this powerful association.

These Canadian voyageurs soon learned that *

This

authority,

and

it

is

the name of the last governor of who was in Canada and in trade after

is

possible that this

is

all

was not

the lUinois under British the

war of the Kevolution,

the same person or his son.



E. G.

M.

+ This party doubtless went up the Ottawa River to the Mattawan, by this stream and a portage to Lake Nipissing, and thence down French River to the Georgian Bay of Lake Huron, a route explored by Champlain in E. g. m. 16 1 5, and often used by the early traders.



NOEL LE VASSEUR. gold that glittered.

The

1

83

labor was very severe and often-

times perilous, and the fare coarse and frequently scanty. Vasseur's love of adventure was not satisfied; he had met

an Indian

who

told

him of a

beautiful land in the

West

and the greatest river in the world, and he invited Vasseur Actuated by a spirit of adventure which to go with him. seems almost foolhardy, young Vasseur and a companion left the service of the Fur Company, and in company with their Indian friend, in a slight Indian canoe, started "to

They

go West."

followed the west shore of

Lake Michi-

Green Bay. They ascended gan Portage City now stands, made the Fox River to where portage, and embarked their little craft on the Wisconsin River, on which they floated down to the present site of The Indians claimed they were the Prairie-du-Chien. first white men who had ever made the voyage over the Fox and Wisconsin rivers.* Vasseur said he found the Indians exceedingly friendly, and he became a great favoruntil

ite

it

led

them

into

with the chief of the tribe.

many

He

taught the Indians

and hunting, and he accomannual fall hunt, when they were

useful things in fishing

panied them on. their

making provision

When

for a winter supply.

spring came, he concluded to return to Mackinac.

Here an unexpected obstacle presented itself The Indian He claimed to have to let him depart. adopted him into his tribe. The outlook was not very encouraging to a boy eighteen years old, and many thouand miles away from home, and in a country that he knew but little of Vasseur and his companion had learned much of the Indian language, but the Indians had not While appearing to be willing to learned their language. remain, they were forming plans to get away, and in the French tongue freely discussed the ways and means to

chief refused

accomplish * It

is

it.

evident that the Indians were deceiving their young white friends^

or had never heard of Joliet and Marquette, and their successors.



E. G.

M.

1

EARLY CHICAGO AND

84

ILLINOIS.

They supplied themselves with some dried venison and smoked coon meat, and seizing a favorable opportunity they started on foot for Green Bay, following the course of the Wisconsin and Fox rivers, and after many weary

days of travel they reached the bay, in an almost starved condition. The rivers abounded with fish, and they were able to secure enough to keep them from starving. Fortunately a temporary camp had been established

and naked

mouth

at the

pany, and

of

in this

Fox River by the American Fur-Comcamp they were given shelter and pro-

and sent to fur-company headquarters at Mackinac. He went to work again for the company, and was employed in assorting and packing the furs for shipment East. Frequently during this and the succeeding year he was sent out to distant posts to trade with the Indians. He had learned to talk with the Indians while at Prairiedu-Chien, and this knowledge was valuable to the company, and gave Vasseur a wider field of operations. Withvisions,

out affirming

it

he met Gurdon in

the

fall

as a positive fact, S.

Hubbard

of i8i8, and this

it

is

my

impression that

Mackinac for the first time was the beginning of a friendat

ship very dear and an intimacy lasting as long as they lived.

Mr. Hubbard did not leave Montreal

company

in

the service

and reached Mackinac, July 14, which was shortly before the time Vasseur had returned from Prairie-du-Chien. In 1820, the company determined to establish a tradof the fur

ing-post in

Illinois,

was reported

and very successful

in

furs.

started around try,

with the Pottawatomies, a tribe that

to be very strong

In the winter of 18 19 or spring of 1820, Vasseur, under the direction of Gurdon S. Hubbard,

securing

young

until April, 1818,

Lake Michigan, bound

for the Illinois

coun-

with an outfit of provisions and a stock of goods

suitable to trade with the Indians. sufficient

men

to

man

He

took with him

the boats, and they followed the

NOEL LE VASSEUR.

1

85

west shore of Lake Michigan until they reached Chicago. They proceeded up the Chicago River as far as they could go, and then made the portage to the Desplaines River, and thence down that river to its junction with the Kankakee. The descent to the Kankakee was easily accompHshed. At this point the real hardship of the voyage began. The water was high and the current very swift. They had engaged an Indian guide before they reached •Chicago.

The Kankakee River was ascended partly by rowing, sometimes by wading along the shore and dragging their boats, or getting along-side and pushing them. Frequently but a few miles could be made in a day. When they reached the Iroquois, the river was narrower and the current less swift, and its ascent was not so difficult. In the fall of 1820, they landed on the bank of the Iroquois River, at the point where the Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis & Chicago Railroad crosses the river. For many years thereafter the place was called Bunkum. It is

now

called Iroquois.

As

all

roads

now

lead to Chicago,

on the Iroquois. There was a trail running west and south from this point, following the river to Spring Creek, and then up the creek and westward toward where Paxton now stands. Another trail went north and east, following the sand ridges west of Beaver Lake in Indiana, crossing the Kankakee west of the state line, and on northward to Lake Michigan. Another trail led north and west, following the Iroquois River to the Kankakee, and along the Kankakee through Bourbonais' Grove; then to Rock Village, the home of Yellow Head, an Indian chief; then to Hickory Creek, in Will County; and then to the Desplaines River, and on to Chicago. Another trail branched off at Rock Village, going south and west near to where Ottawa is. A trail went almost due south through Danville, and

then

all trails led

13

to this crossing

EARLY CHICAGO AND

l86

then south to southern

The most important trail Wabash River, where was fought

Illinois.

ran south and east to the

Camp

ILLINOIS.

This point was in the heart of the Pottawatomie country, and was well chosen by the fur company, as an advantageous point to establish the battle of

Tippecanoe.

a trading-post.

At river

to, Vasbank of the

the old settlers' meeting, heretofore referred

seur pointed out the exact spot on the south

where they

built their storehouse,

which they comin, in the

pleted and occupied before the cold weather set

of 1820. The Indians were very friendly to the white men, and a very successful commerce was carried on. The furs were assorted and packed, and for ten years or more were carried to Chicago by the same route they had come. As early as 1823 or 1824, they packed to Chicago on Infall

dian ponies and returned with goods.

Hubbard came

From whatever

to the Iroquois, Vasseur assisted

time

him

in

conducting the American Fur-Company's business in Illinois. They feared no danger from the Indians. The white traders could have been destroyed at

any moment, but the

looked upon the traders as their best friends*. Vasseur was never threatened by them but once. In 1822, he went to Rock Village, on the Kankakee, to Indians

open a trade with the Indians congregated there. The Indians were in receipt of an indemnity from the general government, and were supplied with gold and silver. He took two men with him, and an outfit of merchandise and two kegs of "life water," as it was called by the Indians. This was his mistake, and it nearly cost him his life. He is

not the only person

of "life water."

with

it,

The

who has made

a mistake in the use

Indians discovered he was supplied

and refused to trade until they were given some He had concealed the precious stuff in the

of this water.

woods.

The

Indians refused to be comforted.

The

chief

approached him and said they had made a vow to the

I

NOEL LE VASSEUR.

187

which could not be broken, that they would he brought out the kegs. Vasseur had to yield. They formed a circle around him and praised his great qualities as a good friend, until they drank the kegs empty, and all became magnificently drunk and fiercely warlike. Yellow Head, their chief, foresaw the trouble that was coming, and helped Vasseur and his companions pack up their goods and move a dozen miles away before they camped for the night. So well were the white traders liked, that Hubbard marHer ried the daughter of one of the head men, in 1824. name was Watseka. She was a very beautiful girl, with features and form more like the Caucasian than the Indian. Hubbard maintained wifely relations with her until he left the service of the fur company, and went to Danville to After Hubbard went away, Vasseur carried on the live. business of Indian trader until the tribe removed West, after the treaty of Camp Tippecanoe, in October, 1833. Hubbard had an Indian divorce from Watseka when he went away. The year following, Vasseur married her, and Great

Spirit,

buy nothing

until

she bore him three children. Just what the ceremony of an Indian marriage and the I am not advised. But done in accordance with the customs of the Indians, and was entirely satisfactory to their chief men. Nor let it be inferred that Watseka held immoral relaShe was a true woman, and faithtions with these men. ful to her husband while he remained her husband. And she was equally faithful to Vasseur, and he ever spoke kindly of her, and when he left her he gave her a large tfund amounting to several thousand dollars. A better civilization would condemn such easy marriage and easy divorce, but when I see how easy marriage and divorce are made in Illinois, I do not think we have made the same progress in this line as we have in commerce and trade

process of an Indian divorce was, it

r

was

all

1

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

88

since the days of

Hubbard and Vasseur on the banks of

the Iroquois River.

Vasseur says that the Indians told hitn that formerly very abundant on these prairies, and that great droves of buffaloes made this valley their home. They

game was

spoke of the Storm Spirit getting very angry at the Inand sending a great snowfall and very cold weather, and this storm drove the buffaloes away, and they never returned. He locates the time of the great storm between 1770 and 1780. Vasseur made several trips to Mackinac, where he personally superintended the shipment of furs and the selection of goods suitable to the wants of his Indian friends. He had learned the Indian language, and, with Hubbard, was employed by the United-States commissioners as interpreters in the negotiations of the treaty of Camp Tippecanoe, conducted October 20, 1832, and ratified January dians,

21, 1833.

By

United States received a magnificent and the Indians were induced to give up the finest hunting and fishing ground that ever existed. The Kankakee River and its tributaries and creeks abounded with the mink, musk-rat, raccoon, otter, and beaver, while the deer were as plenty as are now the horned cattle. The river was the home of the salmon, black-bass, rockbass, and pickerel. The two leading chiefs of the Pottawatomies were Shabonee and Sha-wa-na-see. They were warm friends of Hubbard and Vasseur, and were known to be the friends of the white men. In the Black- Hawk war, the Sacs and Foxes tried to form an alliance with the Pottawatomies, and made two visits to Shabonee and Sha-wa-na-see to induce them to join in the war, but it was of no avail. There is no doubt that Hubbard and Vasseur had much Had they joined Black to do in influencing these chiefs. this treaty the

territory,

i

NOEL LE VASSEUR.

1

89

would have been prolonged would have been lost. The secret of their great influence over the Indians was the fact that they treated them fairly, gave them full value for their furs, and under no circumstances would they ever deceive them. By the treaty of Camp Tippecanoe, the Indian title was

Hawk,

it is

and many

certain the contest

lives

extinguished to

that tract of land included within the

all

Lake

following boundairy, viz.: "Beginning at a point on

Michigan, ten miles south of the mouth of the Chicago River; thence in a direct line to a point on the

above

and the

River to the mouth of the

Illinois

its

being the boundary of a cession

between

north with said line to shores of

For

Illinois

in

river

River,

1816;

of the Indian territory

and Indiana; thence

Lake Michigan; thence with the

Lake Michigan

this

Fox

made by them

thence with the southern boundary to the state line

Kankakee

mouth; thence down said

River, ten miles

to the place of beginning."

magnificent domain, this government gave the

Indians an annuity of $15,000 for the term of twenty and the further sum of $28,746 was applied to the

years,

payment of certain claims, and $45,000 in merchandise to be paid immediately, and $30,000 in merchandise was to be paid them in Chicago in 1833. Inasmuch as the party of the first part put its own price on the merchandise, and Mr. Indian did not

know

the true value thereof, the mer-

chandise does not count for very

As

much

in this trade.

a recognition of the friendly character of Indians

during the late war with the Sacs and Foxes, the treaty contains this clause:

having been faithful late contest with

"The allies

said tribe [of Pottawatomies]

of the United States during the

the Sacs and Foxes,

in

thereof the United States agree to permit

consideration

them

to hunt

and fish on the lands ceded, as also on the lands of the government on Wabash and Sangamon rivers, so long as the same shall remain the property of the United States."

EARLY CHICAGO AND

IQO

Inasmuch sissippi

as the poor Indian

ILLINOIS.

was sent west of the Mis-

River the following year, and there were no bridges

across the river, and civilization had taken possession of river, and it was quite unhealthy an Indian to travel eastward, it is not perceived that

the state bordering the for

this clause

A

was of much

much more

benefit to the tribe.

practical clause

was placed

in

the treaty,

allowing them pay "for horses stolen from them during

we find the cheapest horse stolen by the United States "during the late war" was $40, and the highest was $160, with a general average of about $80. the late war," wherein

Since the United States had obtained the land so cheap,

they could afford to be liberal

in

making

restitution for

stolen horses.

Among the moneys to be paid is an item of $55/3 to Gurdon S. Hubbard, and to Noel le Vasseur, $1800. Hubbard and Vasseur had rendered the government valuable services before and at the time of the Black-Hawk war. They learned through Shabonee and Sha-wa-na-see the plans of the hostile tribes, and Hubbard, in person, commanded a company of scouts, that went to the relief of the settlements in LaSalle, and these payments were made to them in compensation for such services, as well, also, for acting as interpreters in the negotiation of the treaty.

Vasseur was appointed the agent of the United States

remove the Indians to their reservation at Council Iowa. This work was completed in 1836. Many of them did not want to leave Illinois, and made many Who can blame them ? They had objections thereto. sold their lands for a mess of pottage, and they knew it. Vasseur accomplished this difficult uudertaking without any acts of violence and to the entire satisfaction of the government. In the meantime he had made a purchase of some land at Bourbonais Grove, where St. Viateur's to

Bluffs,

College

now

stands.

NOEL LE VASSEUR.

I91

Ruth Bull of Danville. She by this marriage, The oldest, Edward, was a mem-

In 1837, he married Miss

died

in

i860.

He had

four boys and four girls.

eight children

ber of the Twelfth Illinois Cavalry, and died in the service;

George died

in

Memphis,

in 1871,

with yellow fever; Wil-

liam died while very small; and Alfred died in 1876. girls est,

The

died after reaching woman's estate, except the youngMrs. Dr. Monast,

who now

lives in

Chicago.

Father

Perry, connected with the catholic bishop of Chicago,

is

a grandson. In 1 86 1, Vasseur married Miss Elenore Franchere of Chicago, who now survives. This remarkable man died in 1879, at his home in Bourbonais Grove, in the eightieth year of his age. He was a devout adherent to the tenets of the catholic church, and lies buried in the church-yard, but a few steps from where he made his home in 1837. Mr. le Vasseur was a man of strong individuality. Had he been an educated man, he would have been an explorer •of world-wide renown. His love of adventure was a born passion. He knew no fear, had unbounded confidence in His success with the himself, and overcame all obstacles. savage men by whom he was surrounded lay in his integrity and simplicity. He joined them in their hunts and took part in their sports. He was a second William Penn, but greater than Penn.

The

friendship of

Hubbard and Vasseur was

knit to-

gether by the hardships they had endured, and was as lasting as that of

Jonathan and David.

They died,

carrying

many adventures and historical which are now forever sealed to us. The true lives of these men in Mackinac and in Illinois will read to our children more like a romance than a reality. It is due to history, it is due to these pioneer lives, that a complete biography of Gurdon S. Hubbard and Noel le Vasseur shall be written. The writer has only touched upon a few to their graves the stories of facts,

points in the remarkable career of the

latter.

LISTS OF

EARLY ILLINOIS CITIZENS.

thirty years ago, or about the year 1858, Wm^ H. H. Terrell, afterward the secretary of the Histor-

SOME

Society of Indiana, purchased at Vincennes in that

ical

State, fifteen manuscripts relating to the early history of

what is now the State of Illinois. From him these papers were acquired in 1883 by the Chicago Historical Society^ and they proved upon examination to be of decided They comprise four lists of heads of interest and value. in Kaskaskia, families Cahokia, Prairie du Pont, Prairie du Rocher, and St. Philip in the Illinois country in or before the year 1783; three general returns or rolls of the militia in the counties of

Randolph and

Territory on August

1790, a

i,

list

St. Clair in Illinois

names of the

of the

persons returned as entitled to the donation of 100 acres of land for militia service

and and

in

the counties of

Randolph,

companies

Kaskaskia

St. Clair; five rolls of militia in

the county of St. Clair

in

at

the year 1790; a petition

of certain citizens of Vincennes, formerly of

Kaskaskia^

concerning donation lands, dated October 26, 1797; and an original proclamation with a duplicate in French, relating to public lands, dated at Kaskaskia, June issued and signed

by

Col.

John Todd,

and commandant of the county of

jr., civil

Illinois,

15,

1779^

governor

commonwealth

of Virginia.

These documents are important as showing the names of

many

of those residing in Illinois at the close of the

war of the Revolution, the probable white population of that region in the last decade of the last century, and the 192

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EARLY ILLINOIS

I95

CITIZENS.

beginnings of republican government there. They have another attraction in that they bear the autograph signa-

some of the most prominent of the early citizensof Illinois, of John Todd, jr., its first governor under the tures of

authority of Virginia, and of

the first governor of the Northwest Territory, Gen. Arthur St. Clair, in whose chirography one at least of these papers is written. These lists of heads of families and militiamen were

prepared in order to secure the benefit of certain legislation originating with the Continental congress under the Articles of little

Confederation.

That body transacted

business in the last year of

among

its

few acts during

its

that

but

feeble existence, but

we

period

find

some

now Illinois. The year after Ordinance of 1787, this congress had a memorial of one George Morgan, and his what

relating to

its

is

adop-

tion of the great

before

it

"respecting a tract of

associates

country on

the Mississippi."

committee to

among

whom

this

land

in

And on June

the

Illinois

20, 1788, the

matter had been referred reported^

other things, resolutions that "separate tracts shall

be reserved for satisfying the claims of the ancient settlers"" in the Illinois country, that "measures shall be immediately-

the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers on these lands, who on or before the year 1783, had professed themselves citizens of the United States or any of them"; and that three additional reserved tracts shall be laid off

taken for confirming

in

their possessions

and

titles,

"adjoining the several villages, Kaskaskies, La Prairie du Rochers and Kahokia," * * * "of such extent as shall contain 400 acres for each of the families either of the villages of Kaskaskies, ers,

Kahokia, Fort Chartres, or

La

now

living at

Prairie

du Roch-

The

additional

St. Philips.

reserved tract adjoining the village of the Kaskaskies shall

be for the heads of families adjoining

La

Prairie

in

du Rochers

that village; for the

the tract

heads of families

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

194

in that village; and the tract adjoining

heads of families Chartres and

Kahokia

in that village, as also for

for the

those at Ft.

and "that the governor of the western territory be instructed to repair to the French settlements on the Mississippi, at and above the Kaskaskies; that he examine the titles and possessions of the * and that he take an account of the several settlers * heads of families living within the reserved limits." * * St. Philips"

And congress resolved to agree to this report.* On August 28, 1788, the Continental congress

again

considered the Morgan memorial and resolved to change the location of the three additional tracts of land to the east side of a certain ridge of rocks instead of the west

June 20,"f and on August was resolved that measures be taken for confirming in their possessions and titles the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers at Post St. Vincents who on or before the year 1783, had settled there and professed themselves citizens of the United States or any of them; that 400 acres of land be reserved and given to every head of a family of the above description, settled at Post St. Vincents; and that the governor of the western territory cause to be laid out a tract of land, adjoining Post St. Vincents, sufficient for completing the above donations. And the governor was instructed in the same resolution to proceed without delay to the French settlements on the Mississippi in order to give dispatch to the several measures to be taken according to the acts of June 20 and August 28, 1788, to report the whole of his proceedings to congress, and to take Post St. Vincents on his return and pursue the measures directed to be taken by the act of Aug. These were 29, and report his proceedings accordingly. side as provided in the act of 29,

it

ij:

among

the latest proceedings of the congress of the con-

* Journals of Congress (of the Confederation), XIII. 30-32.

t

lb.

p.

90

t lb. pp. 91, 92.

EARLY ILLINOIS CITIZENS.

I95

federation which transacted its final piece of business October 10, 1788, and expired November i, of that year Arthur St. Clair, governor of for the want of a quorum.* the Northwest Territory pursuant to the last -mentioned resolution, and also in obedience to the instructions of President Washington of October 6, i789,-f- set out for Kaskaskia, and arrived there March 5, 1790.I On March 7, he issued a proclamation calling on the inhabitants to

prove claims as provided

for in

the act of congress of

June 20, 1788, and he directed measures to be taken to confirm the titles of the inhabitants who had professed themselves citizens of the United States, and to lay off the tracts of land to furnish the 400-acre donations pro-

vided for in said

act.

On

April

5,

the governor visited

Cahokia for the same purpose, stopping at Fort Chartres and Prairie du Rocher by the way, and appointed militia and other officers, and embarked at Kaskaskia on his return journey on June ii.§ It appeared from his report and that of Winthrop Sarthat gent, the secretary of the Northwest Territory, further legislation was needed, and on March 3, 1791, the congress of the United States passed "an act for granting lands to the inhabitants and settlers at Vincennes and the Illinois country in the territory northwest of the Ohio, and for confirming them in their possessions." This provided among other things, that 400 acres of land should be given to each of those persons who in 1783, were heads of families at Vincennes or in the Illinois country on the Mississippi, and who had since removed from one of said places to the other, and that heads of jj

* lb. 126-7.

t Governor

t St. Clair's

Report

" St. Clair

to President

Papers,"

II.

125.

Washington of

official

ings in the Illinois Country, "St. Clair Papers," II. 164. § lb. pp. 165, 166, 169, 179. II

Ibid and "American State Papers. Public Lands,"

I.

5-16.

Proceed-

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

196

families at either of said places in

removed without the

1783,

limits of the territory

who

afterward

were notwith-

standing entitled to the donation of 400 acres of land pro-

by the

August 29, 1788, and them before 1783 according to the laws and usages of the government under which they had settled. This act also gave 400 acres of land to each person who had not obtained any donation of land from the United States, and who on August 7, 1790, was vided

act of congress of

also to the lands allotted to

enrolled

in

the militia

at

Vincennes or in the Illinois And it once more changed

country, and done militia duty.

the location of

the three additional

aside for donations, and directed

tracts of

them

land

set

to be laid out as at

provided

in the act of June 20, 1785.* was to obtain the gifts of 400 acres of land to heads of families, and of 100 acres to those enrolled in the militia, provided for by one or more of these various acts, that the lists before us were compiled. Governor St. Clair

first

It

revisited

we

the Illinois country

in

the

fall

of 1795, and, as

two of these militia rolls, he was at Caho28, and at Kaskaskia, October 4, of that year. The list of Capt. James Piggott's company at the former place, and of Capt. John Edgar and Capt. Francois Janis' companies at the latter place were sworn to before him on these dates, respectively. In his report of official learn from

kia,

September

proceedings

in

the Illinois country at this time,

secretary of state in

made

1796, Gov. St. Clair says

to the

— that

the

donations to the heads of families were not yet laid out,

although ordered

in 1790,

the poverty of the people

new

owing to the lack of a surveyor^ who had no means to cultivate

and doubt as to the proper party to issue the But as to the donations to those enrolled in the militia he had no difficulty, and had ordered these to be It laid out, and enclosed a list of the persons entitled.-^ lands,

patents.

* " U.-S. Statutes at Large,"

I,

221.

+ "St. Clair Papers,"

II, 398, 400.

EARLY ILLINOIS CITIZENS.

1

9/

is probable that at this time he prepared the hst of names of the persons returned as entitled to the donation of lOO

acres of land for militia services in the counties of Ran-

dolph and St. Clair, among the documents in question, which is without date or signature, but bears an endorsement stating it to be the handwriting of Gov. St. Clair. All of these documents seem to be originals, doubtless once preserved in the archives of the Northwest Territory, and then scattered abroad by accident or official carelessness.

And

three of these papers are in the handwriting of

earliest and ablest lawyer in the Those which he wrote are: i. "The List of the Heads of Families in Kaskaskia on or before the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty three and

John Rice Jones, the Northwest Territory.

who 2.

professed themselves citizens of the State of Virginia;"

"List of the Inhabitants of Prairie du Rocher and St.

Philips

who were heads

of families therein on or before

the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty three;" 3.

"General Return of the Militia enrolled in the (now) St. Clair on the first day of August one thou-

County of

Accompanying these sand seven hundred and ninety." when they came into the possession of

three documents,

the Chicago Historical Society, was a

memorandum

stat-

ing them to be in the handwriting of John Rice Jones, and

they have since been submitted to his only surviving son, Hon. George W. Jones, formerly United - States senator

from Iowa, now residing at Dubuque in that State, who was born at Vincennes, Indiana, April 12, 1804. He has indorsed upon each of the lists last above named, a state-

ment subscribed by him, that

it

is

the handwriting of his

deceased father, Hon. John Rice Jones. In this connection it seemed appropriate that some memorial should be preserved in this volume, of a

man who

took so prominent a

part in the early history of the Illinois country.

And

at

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

198

the request of the Chicago Historical Society, a portrait

him and

of John Rice Jones and a sketch of son, Rice Jones,

W. A. Burt

have been furnished by

his eldest

his great-grandson,

Jones, of St. Paul, Minn., and will be found

at the close of these Lists of

Early

Illinois Citizens. E. G.

of the

LIST^

Heads of Families

in

M.

Kaskaskia on or

before the year one thousand seven hundred and

eighty three, and

who had

professed themselves Citizens

of the State of Virginia:

^Nicholas LaChance, Senior.

Nicholas Janis.^

Jerome Danis.

Antoine Bauvais.

Gem

rtjean Bap. St. rtiVital

Thereze Godin, widow.^

Bauvais.

Jean Baptiste Marie Louise

Bauvais.

Catherine Duplasi. widow.

Delisle.

widow.

Delisle,

Louis Delisle.

Joseph Baugi. Marie Louise Bauvais, widow.

aStanislas I.evasseur.

aMarie Louise Charleville,widow ^rNicholas Levasseur. Joseph Doza. Arcange Doza, widow.

Jean Baptiste Creli. Jacques Thuillier, [a

"

['

This

Removed list

into foreign parts. "]

is

written on eight pages of old, laid paper, water-marked

It is indorsed "List of the Heads of Families in Kaskaskia "J. S. O. G. " on or before 1 783. " The list, note, and affidavit are all in the same hand-

writing,

which

Jones.

And

lists

is

this

document now bears the

are in the handwriting of

died at

St. Louis, Missouri,

a justice of the

my

on the

[^

ist

supreme court of the

.State of Missouri.

Geo.

of the militia of Kaskaskia,

Mother of Pierre Menard's as the

be that of John Rice :

"

The

within

first

widow Tourangeau,

deceased husband, Michel Godin.]

who

of Feb'y, 1824, he being at that time

W.

May

wife.

Dated

at

Dubuque,

Jones."]

Nicholas Janis was appointed, by Col. John Todd,

company

lists

to

further indorsement

deceased father, Hon. John Rice Jones,

Iowa, this 8th day of Feb'y, 1889. [*

memorandum

stated in a pencil

Jr.,

captain of the

first

14, 1779.]

The same person name being a

the latter

described in other soubriquet of her

EARLY ILLINOIS CITIZENS.

199.

Blaize Barutel.

l^ouis Brazot.

Jean Baptiste Taumur.

Antoine Bienv.enu, Senior.

Joseph Lonval.

«Paul Deruisseau.

Louis Lonval.

*Timothe Demumbrun.'^

Marie Louise LaChapell, widow. Philip Rocheblave.-*

Magdalen AngeliqueMiot, widow. Pierre LaCoste. Francois Derousse St. Pierre. Arcange Chenier, widow. Etienne Page.

Antoine Chenier.

Daniel Blouin.^

Charles Charleville.

Joseph Marrois.

Francois Charleville.

Henry Richard.

Louis Charleville.

Nicholas LaChance, Junior.

Gabriel Obuchon, Senior.

Pierre Richard.

Paul Reaume.

Joseph Miault.

Antoine Antaya, Senior.

Pierre Langlois.

Antoine Antaya, Junior. Michel Antaya.

rtlchabod

Camp.

Michel Danis.

Anthoine Buyat.

Antoine Bienvenu, Junior.

Louis Buyat.

Jacques Mercier.

Francois Corset.

Marie Rose Fortin, widow.

Joseph Toulouse.

*Alexander Douglas.

Pierre Provot.

Baptiste Laderoute.

Antoine Cassou.

Guy

Catherine Cassou, widow.

Jarrad.

Charles Delisle.

Amable Gagne.

Marie Racine, widow.

Claude Lemieux.

Alexander Lalande.

Charles Renoue.

Peter Dumont.

Charles Dany.

Joseph Dupuy.

Jacques Conand.

aAntoine Morin.

Raymond Normand

John Baptiste Gandron.

John McEl Duff.4

[^

A

man

the Illinois.

much

of ability and

As

[*

Americans.]

Successor of John Todd, Jun'r, as county lieutenant or governor of

nois under Virginia.] [*

among the French inhabitants of he petitioned the British crown for a

influence

their representative,

better form of government.] [*

Labriere.

The

['

The

last British

governor of the

Illi-

Illinois.]

leader of the party of hunters met at Fort Massac by George Rogers

Clark on his way to the Kaskaskia. ]

Illinois,

and who gave him the

latest

news from

^

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

200 *Henry

Joseph Libberville. *Mathais Barker.

Smith.

Archibald

McNabb.

./zThomas Hughes.^

rtPierre Cure.

rtjames AViley.

rtPierre Cailloux.

^ Peter

* Daniel Murray.

Pressley.

Curry.

+ Catherine Lasource, widow. + Helen Lasource, widow.

Orr.

James Watts.

David Pagan.

James James

1

Alexis Beauvais.

Michael Derousse

Nicholas Canada.

Francoise Tonton.^

Jean Larue.

Lardner Clark.

Antoine Renaud.-

* William Wykoflf.

.^Joseph Bonvouloir.

James Piggot.^ Jacob Grotz.

^zAntoine Arkouet.

St. Pierre.

Alexis Laplante.

* Charles Valle.

Jean Baptiste Janis.

Shadrach Bond.^

Jean Baptiste Montreuil.

James Moore. James Garretson. Benjamin Joseph Byram.

Louis Germin.

Gagnon, widow.

Marie

Richard Winston's Widow, .flfjean

Baptiste Laffont.

rtTobias Brashears. djjohn Allison,

Domitilde Alary, widow.

fl-john Williams.

^John Dodge. 1

*John Montgomery. 1

Ambroise Glinel. Antoine Lavigne.

William Drury.



Francois Drouard.

McCormick. *John *James Kincaid.

Francois Barrois.

Charles

Louis Pierre Francois Carbon-

*VV^indsor Pipps.

Joseph

aGeorge Camp.^

Page'.

[neax.

Mary Rocheblave.

Gill.

Nicholas Smith.

^Charles Dulude.

* Daniel Flanary, Junior.

Ambroise Lavigne.

* Elijah

Jean Andre. Charles Woods.

*Thonias Flanary.

*Samuel Handley.

Elizabeth Labiche.

aLouis

*David Hicks.

*John Harry.

[^

[*]

One of Clark's soldiers in To receive Don[ation at]

— Flanary. Villaret.

his expedition to the Illinois.]

Vincennes.

i

EARLY ILLINOIS CITIZENS. Joseph Morensi.

Mayfield. ,

Francois Charpantier.

son in law.

his

201

^William Brocus.

Michel Danis, Senior.

* Richard Brashears.

Andre Fagot. dtAlexander McLosky.

*John Holloway. Patrick Kennedy.^ *

*Thomas
Trentham.

Joseph Gagne. Jean Beaudoin.

Bentley.^

flijoseph Maisonville.

*James Morris. Joseph Richard.

Dodge.

Henry O'Hara.

Jean Baptiste Tomur,

Bellow.

*Heaton Wells.


Jean Baptiste Perrin.

Catherine Sanba.

Joseph Chauvin Jean Baptiste

Sen'r.

Elijah Nelson.

*John Clark.

Charleville.

St.

§Jerome

Onge.

Creli.

tjacque Lasource.

Joseph Tellier. Marie Anne Taumur.

Charles LaChapelle.

II

Alexander Hilaire.

Larkin Rutherford.^

tBaptiste Lasource.

+

Jodouin, widow.

^zMartin Carney.

Elizabeth Raine, widow.

JCharles Robin.

Pierre Picard.

Those marked with

N. B.

cans and the whole as [^

is

asterisks thus * are

now

Author of a journal of an expedition

believed

now

Ameri-

residing in

from Kaskaskias

in the year 1772

village in the Illinois country to the head-waters of the Illinois River.

It is

printed as an appendix to the third edition of Imlay's " Topographical Descrip-

tion of the [*

by

A

Western Territory of North America," published

trader at Kaskaskia

his orders arrested

who

and sent to Canada, whence he escaped.

correspondence concerning this matter [*

One

in

London, 1797.]

incurred the enmity of Rocheblave, and

is

was

A voluminous

preserved in the Haldimand papers.]

of Clark's soldiers in his expedition to the Illinois. ]

+ These persons supposed by Col. [Winthrop] S [argent?] to have. died before the Country that their widow's

against their

names

came into the possession of Virginia or the U. names are inserted on the opposite page [200]

—they can't

States

—a

all

be

entitled.

same situation of Bapt. & Jacque Lasource, there opposite the widow, her name is Marie Ann Taumur, widow. J This

[§]

To

is

the

receive Don[ation at] Vincennes.

14

&

cross

|1

Error, in Prairie

is

du Rocher

a

-t-

list.

EARLV CHICAGO AND

202

ILLINOIS.

The Heir at law of Charles Vall6 one marked was brought up at Vincennes and now is and for some years past has been at Dickenson Colledge in Carlisle in the State of Pennsilvania. None of them have

the United States. so

claimed their Donation Lands, except an application on Behalf of Mr. Valle s heir at law.

made

Territory of the United States north west of the Ohio,

Randolph County, ss. Be it remembered that on the twenty- third day of September one thousand seven hundred and ninety seven before us the Subscribers two of the Justices of the peace of the said County personally came Louis Pierre Francois Carbonneaux Esquire notary public at Kaskaskia in the said County and Jean Baptiste Gendron of the same who made oath according to Law and say that they have been Settlers and Inhabitants of the village of Kaskaskia aforesaid for upwards of thirty years last past, and that the persons whose names are contained on the left side of the foregoing six pages were Settlers and Heads of families Kaskaskia aforesaid on or before the said year one thousand seven hundred and eighty three and had professed themselves Citizens of the State of Virginia And that those persons whose names are contained on the right hand side[*] of each said Page have since removed into foreign parts and have not by themselves or Heirs returned into Kaskaskia aforesaid to the Knowledge of these Deponents on or before the third day of March one thousand seven hundred and ninety six. Sworn the Day and year CARBONNEAUX above mentioned Before us i in

|

Edgar Wm. Morrison

Jn.

The mark

of

X

Jean Baptiste Gendron [* In the foregoing

list

these are indicated by an a.]

"

:

EARLY ILLINOIS CITIZENS.

203

of the Inhabitants of Prairie du Rocher and St.

LIST*

who were heads

Philips

of families therein on or

before the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty three Catherine Perier, widow.

Louis Lassonde.

Jacques Lasablonier. Charles Laforme.

Joseph Blay.

Marie Labrosse, widow.

Jean Baptiste Barbau, Senior.t

Clement Drury.

Jean Baptiste Barbau, Junr.

Charles Cadron, called

Joseph Lavoie.

Charles Aime.

Gerard Langlois.

Joseph De9elle.

Ayme Comte,

St. Pierre.

Girardot, widow.

Senior.

Antoine Louvier, Senior.

Pierre Chevalier.

Louis Dore.

Antoine Louviere, Junior.

Joseph Tangue. Margaret Cochon, widow.

Jean Flandre.

Louis Levasseur D'Espagne.

Degagne, widow.

Francois Bousseau.

Jacque Degagne.

Joseph Bellecour.

Elizabeth Cotinault, widow.

Pierre Louviere.

Jodouin, widow:

Gabriel Docochi.

Antoine Domingue.

Pierre AUard.

Jean [Baptiste erased] Dumartin. Antoine Cotinauet. Pierre

Degagnd

Jacque

Bouteillet.

Francois Camus.

Jean Baptiste

John Cochran.

Joseph Crely. Lemay.

Francois Thibault. Pierre Laroche.

Marechal, widow.

Jean Baptiste Uegagne. *

Damour.

William Drury.

upon three pages of a sheet of paper similar to that and is wholly in the handwriting of John Rice Jones, as appears from the certificate of his son, Hon. Geo. W. Jones, now appended thereto. It is indorsed " List of heads of families in Prairie du This

list

is

written

of the last

mentioned

Rocher and

St. Phillip

list,

on or before

1

783.

t Appointed commandant of Prairie du Rocher and captain of the militia. May 17, 1779, by John Todd; and later, elected one of the judges of the court of Cahokia by the people. In 1790, he was chief-justice of the court for the judicial district

of Prairie du, Rocher.

"

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

204

Catherine Ryan, widow.

Jean Baptiste Jacquemin. Catherine Tangue, widow.

Josiah Ryan.

William Jean.

Henry Golding.

Josette Dilailite, widow.

Charles Renoux.

Thereze Lajoie, widow.

Mary Louise Aubuchon, widow.

Pierre Gibault.*

Joseph Tangue, Senior.

Jean Baptiste Richard. Jean L'Allemand.

Nathaniel Hull.

I^awrence Kenyon.

Territory of the United States north west of the Ohio,

Randolph County,

ss.

Be it remembered that on the twenty fifth Day of September one thousand seven hundred and ninety seven before us the subscribers two of the Justices of the peace of the said County personally came Jean Baptiste Barbau the elder of Prairie du Rocher Esquire and Jean Baptiste Barbau the younger of the same Esquire who made oath according to Law that the several persons whose names are contained on the two sides of this sheet of paper were the heads of families in Prairie du Rocher and St. Philips aforesaid on or before the year one thousand seven and eighty three.

Sworn the day and year above mentioned Jn.

— Before us —

Barbau. Barbau, fils.

)

J

Edgar.

Wm. Morrison.

List"f of the

rons

in

Heads of Families

in

Cahokia and

the Illinois Country in the year

Seven Hundred and Eighty Three, * Priest at

Kaskaskia from 1768

to 1783,

its

envi-

One Thousand

viz:

and rendered

efficient service to

George Rogers Clark. + This 1794

in

list

is

written on a

full

water mark, and the

" Lists of

Heads of Families

sheet of

letters

crown water-marked paper, imprint

G. R. nearly cut away.

in St. Clair

County.

It

is

indorsed

EARLY ILLINOIS CITIZENS.

205

Therese Pancrasse. Jean Bap: DuBuque. Francois Le Fevre alias Courier, Louis Trotier. Louis Pilet. Senr. Francois Longval, Senr.

Louis Gaud.

Jean Bap: Bergeron.

Joseph Lambert. Charle Ducharme.

Joseph Butteau. Jean Marie Dorion.

Louis Le Compte.

Widow

Widow Turgeon. Widow Wattape.

widow of

Marie,

Beaulieu.

Jos: Allary.

Antoine Harmand.

Jean Bap: Saucier. Francois Saucier.

Isabel Bequet, widow.

Mathieu Saucier.

Jean Bap: Allary. Laurent Amelin.

Jean Bap: Dumay. Alexis Tabeau.

Joseph Le Page or

Joseph Deloge his Heirs.

Joseph Cecire. Joseph LaPensee.

alias Poirier.

Charle La Croix.

Joseph Beguiere. Pierre Martin.

Antoine Boyer.

Francois Gerome.

Joseph La Buxiere.

Louis

Gabriel Barron.

Jean La Pen see.

Joseph Michel

Jean Bap: Barron.

Phillip Engel.

Pierre La Fleur. Widow Rassette.

Michel Girardin.

Louis Le Brun.

Joseph Boisverd.

Fran9ois Trotier, Senr,

Phillip Gervais.

De Longchamps. Pelletier.

Pelletier alias Antaya.

Ardouin.

Michel La Grave.

Charle Germain.

Jean D'Hay.

Widow

Charle Le Fevre.

Antoine La Course.

Cabassier.

Paul Poupard.

Catherine Chartran.

Jean Bap: Mulote.

Joseph La Couture. Widow of George Blin.

Thomas

Brady.

Louis Chatel.

Joseph La Lancete. Jean Bap: Mercier.

Clement

Catherine Langlois, widow.

Marianne Le Boeuf, widow. Allary,

Joseph Bissonet.

Francois Turgeon.

Louis Gagnion.

William Biggs.

^

EARLY CHICAGO AND

2o6

ILLINOIS.

Pierre Gatien.

Mary Moony, widow.

Bartholomew Dumas. Raphael Gagnie. Mary Crow, widow.

Peter Zippe.

Rene

Locat.

Pierre

Roy

Joseph Vaudry. Jean Marie Le Fevre.

alias

Pierre DurBois, Senr.

Isaac Levy.

Cadien.

Rene Bouvet.

Antoine Girardin.

Joseph Andrews.

Jean Bap: Perio. Mar}',

widow

Francois Chevalier.

Mercier.

Joseph Dutremble. Michel La Gaudmiere.

Pierre Guittard.

Mary, widow Chartran.

Mary Jeane Loisie, Widow. Mary Louise Le May, alias

Charle Butteau, Senr.

Jean Bap: Boisverd.

Leon Le Page.

Theophile.

Personally appeared before me, William St. Clair, duly

by His Excellency the Governor of the Terripersons who were Heads of

authorized

tory to take proof of those

Families at Cahokia and

its

environs in the Illinois Country

year One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty Du Buque, Jean Bap: Saucier, Esquires, and Charle Ducharme, ancient Inhabitants of Cahokia, who severally made Oath that the persons on the foregoing

in the

Three, Jean Bap:

Heads

List were

of Families in the Illinois Country in the

One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty Three. In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my Hand at

year

Cahokia, this Thirtieth day of September, 1797. William St. Clair.

List* of the

Heads of Families

at

Cahokia, Prairie

dupont, and the Americane Setlements of the present

County of year 1783 *

This

St. Clair



list is

and who were heads of Families

in

the

viz:

written on

all

four pages of a large sheet of old paper, water-

marked with the crown and "G. R. 1794." of Families in 1783."

It

is

endorsed "Lists of Heads

EARLY ILLINOIS

CITIZENS.

207

Jean De May.

Jean Baptist Dubuque. Jean Baptist Saucier.

Charles Lefevre.

Phillip Engel.

Paul Poupard

Antoine Girardin.

Jean Baptiste La

Mathew

Thomas

Saucier.

alias Lafleur.

croix.

Brady.

Jean Baptiste AUari.

Widow

Charles Germain.

Louis Chatel.

of Phillip Leboeuf.

Phillip Gervais.

Clement

Francois Saucier.

Heirs of Joseph Bissonet.

Franois

Widow of August

Lefevre alias Courie.

Allari.

Rasset.

Heirs of Louis Gagnion.

Francois Longval, Senr.

Louis Gaud. Heirs of Widow Pancrass, maiden name [Pa r. blotted]. Joseph Lambert. Joseph Poupard alias Dormeur. Louis Trotier.



Charles Ducharme.

Louis

Louis LeComte.

Jean Baptist Mulote. Widow Nickolas Turgeon.

Widow

Beaulieu.*

Felicite Antalliard, Bt.

The

Widow

of

J.

Dumas.

Widow

St. Piere.

Joseph Butoe, Junr. Jean Mari Dorion.

Widow

Lapage.

of Joseph Antoine Harmand

Joseph Cecire.

The Heirs The Heirs

Heirs of Michel Charli.

Jean Baptist Bergeron.

Heirs of Alexis Tabeaux.

Charles Cadron alias

Pillet.

of Joseph Lapence. of Antoine Boyer.

Joseph Labuxiere.

l^awrent Anielin.

Joseph Poirie

alias Desloges. alias

Jean Lapence.

Joseph Biguiere.

Jean Bapt. Barron.

Piere Martin.

Le

Francois

brun.

Heirs of Francois Trotier

Michel La Grave.

Sanfacon.

Heirs of Jean Bapt. Bequet.

Widowof Gabriel Barron[erased].Charles Lacroix

Louis

Allari. alias

Gerome

Hagon.

alias Lafleur

de

Pois.

Louis Delong Champ.

The Widow Beaulieu was the daughter of a French officer once stationed at Fort Chartres, named Chouvin, who settled in the village of St. Phillippe. Here his daughter was born in 1742. She was educated at Quebec, and *

returned to Cahokia, to which place her father had removed, where she married

M. Beaulieu.

She

«ighty-four in Cahokia.

lived a long

and

useful

life,

and died

at the

age of

"

EARLY CHICAGO AND

208

ILLINOIS.

Joseph Peletier. Michel Pettier ahas Antaya.

Heirs of Joseph Dutremble.

Heirs of Ardoin.

Widow

Michel La Gaudiniere. of Louis

Widow

Joseph Vaudiere. Jean Baptist BoisVene.

Joseph LaCouture. Antoine Lamarche.

Joseph BoisVene.

of George Blain.

Joseph La

alias

Heirs of Michel Girardin.

Chartran.

Antoine Lacourse.

Widow

LeMay

Theophile.

Heirs of Joseph Cabassier.

Widow

of James Mooney.

Shadrach Bond.

lancet.

Bartholemew Dumas or his Jean Baptist Mercier. Therese Poupard Widow Lang- Widow of James Moore.

heir.

Peter Zippe.

lois.

Raphael Gagnie.

James

Widow Crow.

Nickolas Smith or his heirs.

Heirs of Renne Locat.

Heirs of Jacob Groots.

Piggot.

Roy alias Cadien. William Biggs. Widow of Jean Heirs of Belew. Chartran. Shadrach Bond [erased].

Heirs of Piere Heirs of the Bapt.

Heirs of Isaac Levi.

Elisabeth Raine.

Renne Bouvet. Leon Lepage.

James Garatson or

his heirs.

Giroux. la pope a numerous and had 1783

Claude Chenier,* proved by the oaths of Brady and Pierre to

have been

living

in

family, tho' omitted in this

St. Clair

County,

list.

ss.

Personaly appeared before me, Jean Bapt. Dubuque and Charles Ducharme, Ancient Inhabitats of the Village of Cahokia,

who being duly sworn do

List to the best of their

the erasures

made

at their Desire, in

this set my hand Seal Ch. Ducharme.

have to

J. B.

declare that the within

Knowledge this

Just and True and Testimony whereof I

is

25th Apl, 1796.

William

St. Clair.

Dubuque.

• This memorandum upon the original list is followed by this unsigned statement : " This memorandum is in the handwriting of Governor St. Clair.



EARLY ILLINOIS CITIZENS. St. Clair

County,

ss.

Personaly appeared

Mathew

209

before

me, Jean Bapt. Saucier, and Charles Germain,

Saucier, Jean Bapt. Allary,

ancient Inhabitants of the Village of Prairie

the County of St. Clair,

who being duly Sworn

du pent

in

did declare

list is Just and true to the best of their Knowledge, in Testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and Seal at Cahokia, this 25th Apl, 1796.

that the within

Mth. Saucier.

J.

B.

Saucier.

William

St. Clair.

do hereby Certify to have examined the within list it just to the best of my Knowledge and Remembrance in Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand I

and

find



at Cahokia, this

2Sthday of

apl, 1796.

A. Girardin.

Liste*

Des habitans Resident aux Kaskaskias en 1790

Savoir: Pr.

John Edgar,t Capt'n. Toimetre antaya. I

*

)

Compagni.

^^^^ ^^

^^^.j^^^

J

Antoine LaChapelle,J Gargon, Ensign. This

list

is

written on a sheet of narrow, dark-colored paper, and en-

dorsed "List of the two Companies of Militia at Kaskaskia the

first

of Augt.,

1790.

t John Edgar was a native of Ireland, and once a British naval officer. At the beginning of the Revolutionary war he resided at Detroit, and was sent a prisoner to Quebec on account of his sympathy with the colonial cause, Making his escape by the way, he which his American wife encouraged. He was joined the troops of the colonies, and in 1784 settled at Kaskaskia. for many years the wealthiest citizen of Illinois, was elected a member of the legislature of the Northwest Territory, and one of the judges of the St. Clair circuit court, and held other offices. The county of Edgar is named for him. J Antoine LaChapelle died in 1804, at Natchez, on his Orleans in charge of a consignment to William Morrison. Basil

LaChapelle, who, with his

Kaskaskia.

way from

He

New

was a son of eleven brothers, removed from Canada to-

EARLY CHICAGO AND

210

ILLINOIS.

Louis Jermain, Chef de fam. Nicola Canada,*

idem.

Michel

St. Pierre,

idem.

Mad. V

ve. Lachapelle, idem.

2 I>achapelle Bazille.

\

3 Baptiste Lachapelle.

4 Jn Lachapelle.

\-

Gar^ons.

J

John Cok, Chef de famiUe. 5 Cook,

fils,

[erased].

6

Henry Bienvenu.

7

Michel Bienvenu.

\

VOargon. .'

Etienne Page, Chef de famille a

militaire.

idem.

Baptiste alary, 8 Bazil Alary.

9 Jerom St. Pierre. 10 Philipe St. Pierre. 11 Alexi

Doza.

12 Fransois Lemieux.

Gar9on.

13 Louis Lemieux.

14 Louis Jermain, 15

fils,

[erased].

Novel Toulouse.

16 Pierre Toulouse. 17 Jn. Longvalle.

Antoin Provant.

Chef de

Labrierre.

famille.

John Rise Jons.t Bienvenu Perre.

\

Chef de

Provau Perre. Louis Louvalle.

P. Janis, [erased]. * Nicholas

famille.

'

—Transporte en L'autre

Canada was an uncle of Pierre Menard's

Part.

first

wife,

and one of

the witnesses at their marriage, on behalf of the bride.

t Properly John Rice Jones, the famous lawyer above mentioned, who removed from Vincennes to Kaskaskia in 1 790, and is borne on the militia rolls of

both places in that year.

^

EARLY ILLINOIS CITIZENS. De

Suite

211

I'autre Part.

Blaise Barutel.

Glaud Lemieux. aLexi Beauvais. fs.

Derouse, Dit

fs.

Tibeaux.

f-

Chef de

famille.

St. Pierre,

Pierre Richard.

18 Anbroise Delinel. 19

fs.

Carbonnaux.

\ I-

20 Aantoine Lavigne.

Gar9on

)

2me. Compagni. 21 Fr. Janisse,* Capt'n

Savoir;

Des

gargon.

millise,

Bpte. Lachanse,t lieutenant, Per de famille.

22 Jac Gautiaux, Enseigne, Gargon. Baptiste MontureuUe.

Jemi Core. Antoin Bienvenu,

]

j

fils.

[-

Michel Danis.

Per de

famille.

|

Jerome Danis. J

23 Jn. Danis. 24 Andre Sonn. 25 Philipe RocheBlave.J 26 Antoine Bahatte, neveux.

27 Baptiste Gendron,

[

Tous Garcon.

fils.

28 Jn. Quiquette. 29 Jerome Tibeaux.

Antoine Bayatte.

\

Jac Devaignaib.

>

Jac Moraniy. *

on

Chef de

famille.

j

Franfois Janis, one of the witnesses at Pierre Menard's

first

marriage,

his behalf.

t

One

:J:

Philipe Rocheblave

of the witnesses at the above marriage, on behalf of the bride.

Great Britain, and

was the name of the last governor of the Illinois for be the same man he must have returned to Kaskas-

if this

kia after the Revolutionary war.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

212

ILLINOIS.

Michel Antaya. Louis Laderoute. Laderoute.

Baptiste Bte. Bte.

Tomure. Gendron

Chef de

[

famille.

J

Perre.

Transporte cy Contre. Suite

De Cy

Contre.

Bhertelmi Richard. Paul Nehaume. Baptiste Degonier.

Chef de famille.

[

Made. we. Tourangaux.* Charl Danis.t

30 Vital

Ste.

J

Gemme

Bauvais.J

31 Gabriel Aubuchon.

;^;^



.

32 Jn, Calais, rezidant Sure L'autre

rive.

'

Pierre Menard.§

34 James McNabb. 35 Alexr.

McNabb. Chef de

Alaint.

famil.

Pierre Cristopher, Garcon, [erased].

Idem.

36 Jacque Laderoute, 37 Pier

le

basque, garcon.

Madame

*

Tourangeau, the widow of Michel Godin, was the mother of

Pierre Menard's

wife,

first

and

at her

house in Kaskaskia their marriage

contract was signed.

+ Charles Danis, an uncle of Pierre Menard's witnesses at their marriage in her behalf.

Charles Danis to

May

whom

first

wife,

and one of the

Doubtless a descendant of the

the first-recorded land-grant at Kaskaskia

was made,

10, 1722.

t Vitol Ste.

Geme,

Geme

Beauvais.

One

of the six sons of Jean Baptiste Ste.

called Beauvais, from his native place in France,

kaskia about 1750.

He

who

settled at

bought the property of the Jesuits there on

its

Kassale

under the decree for the suppression of that order, and became the wealthiest citizen of his time in Kaskaskia.

Vitol Ste.

Geme

Beauvais was one of the

judges of the court of Kaskaskia, elected by the people, under the governorship of Col. §

John Todd,

Afterward the

first

Jr.,

and afterward resided at

Ste. Genevieve,

lieutenant-governor of the State of Illinois.

Mo.

EARLY ILLINOIS CITIZENS. Des Personne Etable Depuis

Liste

1790.

213

.

— Savoir:

Jonatame Hauslay. Tv/T

Marque

XT

c

11 Navelle.

Antoine Navelle. Pierre Beguain.

Charleville.

fs.

Jams Dunn. Mark Tomas.

famil.

\

>

Etienne Parard.

Chef de

Garden.

;

\

>

Chef de

famille.

)

Wlliam Morisonne.* Jac Lasabloniare. ;

„ Jan Gomer. Jan Bte. Normand. fs. St. Pierre, Chef de

\ (

^,

r

,

•„

^

> Chef de famille.

t

^ famille.

Michel Lasassese.

38 Joseph Page, Garson. 39 Francois Janis.

Before me, Arthur

St. Clair,

Governor of the Territory

of the United States northwest of the Ohio, personally-

appeared Militia of

Francois Janis, Captain of a Company in the Kaskaskia and being duly sworn deposeth and

sayeth that the Persons whose names are inserted in the list, and opposite to which the word (Garson) is were all borne on the Militia Rolls of the said Village, on the first day of August, 1790. In Witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand at Kaskaskia, the 4th day of October, 1795. Ar. St. Clair.

foregoing written,

A

list^f-

of Capt. Piggot's

Companey

in the first

regiment

Day

of April,

of militia of the county of St. Clair, the 26 1790: * William

1790, and

Morrison emigrated

from Philadelphia

became a leading merchant

there.

He

to

Kaskaskia about

died and was buried in

the old graveyard at Kaskaskia in 1837.

+ This

list is

written

upon a sheet of old foolscap paper, water-marked with

"

EARLY CHICAGO AND

214

ILLINOIS.

12 Do.

1

James

2

George Atchison, Lent.

Piggot,i Captn.

13

-Junior.

Edward Todd.

3 Nathaniel Hull,^ Ensn.

14 Leonard Harness.

4 Benjamin Ogle, Sergnt. 5 Shadrik Bond,*^ Do.

15

6

Thomas Todd.

Benjaman Rogers. James Henderson. 18 James Lemmon.'^ 17

9 Jesse Waddel. ID Isaac Enix.^

19 Peter Casterlin.

20 John Moore.

John Simpson Joseph Ogle

the

word

[erased].



ROMANI

endorsed

It is

"A

Larkin [erased]. 16

7 John Mordock.* 8 Samuel Morris.

II

George Hendricks.

21

George Biggs.

22 William Piggot.

Senior. **

upon one page and on the other with the

list

letters

of those persons enrolled in the Militia in the

T. R.

Company

.St. Clair County, on the first of Augt., 1790," and in another handwriting, " Certified by Gov. St. Clair. " Below is written, appar-

of Captn. Piggott, in

ently

by Capt. Piggot,

" List of Piggot's

Company

for the year

1

790.

James Piggot was a native of Connecticut, and early in the war of the Later he removed to Pennsylvania, and Revolution engaged in privateering. commanded a company of troops from that State at the battles of Brandywine and Saratoga. He followed Clark to the West, and was for a time in com^

mand

of Fort Jefferson on the Mississippi, a few miles below the junction of

the Ohio.

He had

served under Gov. St. Clair,

who

appointed him judge

of the St. Clair County court. *

Nathaniel Hull was born in Massachusetts, and was one of the

Americans

in the Illinois.

He was

first

a noted leader in Indian warfare, and in

commanded a party of eight whites who defeated twice their number of men in a desperate conflict at the Big Spring, in what is now Monroe Co.

1793 red

soldiers, came to the Illinois in was a member of territorial legislatures, judge 0/ court of common pleas of St. Clair County, and uncle of .Shadrach Bond, first governor of the State *

Shadrach Bond, Senior, one of Clark's

1781,

of Illinois. *

John Mordoch or Murdoch, a famous Indian

ing vengeance on the red ^

^

first

in

who swore unend-

for his contests

with

convert in Illinois to the Baptist persuasion.

Joseph Ogle was one of Nathaniel Hull's party

Big Spring

at

fighter,

because of his mother's death at their hands.

Probably Isaac Enochs, a Kentuckian, celebrated

the Indians, and as the "

men

in the

Indian fight at

179 1.

James Lemen, a Virginian,

soldier of the Revolution,

Big Spring, and a leading Baptist preacher.

one of Hull's party

EARLY ILLINOIS 23 Laton White. 24 William Murry.i

Th-.-.mas

26 John ohaiTO.

Ronn

2 1 5.

Marr

[erased].

39 John Suliphon. 40 George Powers. 41 William Tobins.

25 Henerey oharo. Jesse

CITIZENS.

[erased].

27 George Wilkison Country soon



left

the

42 Elexander Denis.* William Jones [erased].



left the Coun43 Isaac brison try about a year afterwards^

after.

28 Clement Drury.

44 George Lunceford.^ 45 John Porter.

29 Ralph Drury.

30 James Scot. Thomas Bradly [erased.]

46 Charles Gill.^ 47 Robert Sybold.i

31 William Chaffin.



48 John Jack. 49 Michael Huff.^

32 Samuel Worley.

James Hard [erased]. 33 Josiah Ryan.2 34 Lawrence Kenon.

50 Ebeneazar Sovereigns.

James brian

51



35 Daniel Shoultz. 36 Daniel Raper.'^

52 Isaac West.

37 David Guice.

53 James Garison.

left

the

Coun-

try.

38 Peter Zip.^

Before me, Arthur St. Clair, Governor of the Territory

northwest of the Ohio, personally appeared James Piggot,

Captain of a

Company

of Militia in the

County of

St.

and being duly sworn, deposeth and sayeth that the List of Names above written, is the names of the Persons

Clair,

enrolled as Militia, in the

Company commanded by him

on the first day of Augustj one thousand seven hundred and ninety. In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand at Cahokia, Septr. 28th, 1795. Ar. St. Clair. '

One of

*

Killed and scalped

*

Clark's soldiers.

by the Indians

in

1

One

of Hull's party as above.

793,

on the

trail

from

New

Design

to Kaskaskia. *

Killed by the Pottawatomie Indians, returning from Cahokia to Chicago

town of Edwardsvllle, 111. by Indians in 1 794, on the road between Prairie du Rocher and Kaskaskia. Step-father of Maj. John Moredock or Murdoch.

in

1802, near present

*

Killed

^

EARLY CHICAGO AND

2l6

Company

Roll* of the of

"

the County of

Saucier, the

ILLINOIS.

of Militia of the

first

Francois Saucier, Captn.^

Jean

Bapt. Saucier, Lieut.

Jean Bte. Bargeron.

Bt.

Mullote.

Phillip Gervais, Ensgn.

Joseph Buteau.

Louis Lebrun.

Jean Marie Dorion. Antoine Lamarche.

.

Piere Lajeunesse. Sergts.

Bapt. Mercier.

Phillip

\

Andrew Bequette.

of

Louis Pansinneau.

Francois

j

^

Trotier.

Louis Trotier, Junr.

Thomas

Boeuf.

Corpls. Sons

(

Francois Trotier.

August Trotier.

Le

Francois Trotier, Son of Louis.

/

Joseph Trotier.^ Clement Trotier.

Francois

day of August, 1790:

first

Paul Poupard.

Regiment

Commanded by

St. Clair

John Ritchy. Louis Lamarche. Louis Laflame.

Brady.*

Francois Grondine.

Louis Chattel.

Joseph Grondine.

Clement

Jaque

Allary.

[Bte. erased] Mullote.

Nicholas Turgeon.

Louis Trotier. Piere Tecier.

Gabriel Marleaux.

Louis

Joseph Trotier, Son of Louis.

Pilett.

* This roll

is

written on

two pages of a

single sheet of

unusual length, bearing the water-mark of a crown and the is

narrow paper of

initials

G. R., and

endorsed " Roll of Saucier's Company. *

Fran9ois Saucier was a son of Jean Baptiste Saucier, once a French

officer at

Fort Chartres, who, after the country was ceded to Great Britain in

1763, established himself at Cahokia.

Fran9ois and his brother Matthieu

Saucier founded the village of Portage des

Sioux,

in

Missouri.

Pierre

Menard's second wife was a daughter of Francois Saucier. * *

A A

brother of the foregoing.

Canadian who

trading business with *

A

settled

New

in

Cahokia

in

1775, and

conducted a large

Orleans.

Pennsylvanian, one of the only two residents of Cahokia at this time

not of French birth or descent.

He

led a party of sixteen volunteers in

1777 to the capture of the British post at St. Joseph, and on his return was taken prisoner on the Calumet River by a pursuing force, but escaped and returned to Cahokia.

was commonly

called

Later he was made "Mr. Tom."

sheriff of St. Clair

County.

He

EARLY ILLINOIS

CITIZENS.

2 1/

Joseph Beland. Constant Loncting.

Alexis Chartran. Piere Lize.

Joseph Lachance. Jean Le Renard.

Charles

Francois L'Abbe.

Julian Nicolle.

Pilet.

Etienne Nicolle.

Dennis Valentine.

Rene Tureau.

Francois Pencrass.

Jean

Bt.

Jean Bte.Rupalais, alias Gonevile.

Chartron

— alias La

Becasse.

Gabriel Langlois.

Laurent Jeunbergere.

Juliene Mercier.

Piere Antoine Tabeau.

Louis Gervais.

Isedore La Croix.

Pascal Letang.

William Todd. John Hays.*

Louis St.Germain.

Antoine Bellecour.

Joseph Vizina. Jean Marie Comparet.

Alexis Courtois.

Personally appeared

Commandant

before me,

Wm.

St. Clair, Lieut.

Regiment of the County of St. Clair by Virtue of the powers Invested in me by his Excellency the Governor of the Territory, Jean Bt. SauCol.,

cier,

of the

first

who being duly sworn did Declare that the above is a Company of Militia under his command

[True Roll of the in

August, 1790,

In witness whereof,

I

have hereunto set

I

Imy hand and

Roll:|:

day of Apl., 1796. William St. CLAiR.f [seal]

seal at Cahokia, the 13th

of the

Company

of Militia of the

St. Clair

Dubuque, the

day of August, 1790:

first

first

Regiment

Commanded by Jean

of the County of

Baptist

I

I

* John Hays is said by Reynolds to have emigrated from New York to Cahokia in 1 793. This shows him there at least three years earlier. He was sheriff of St. Clair County from 1798 to 1818, supposed to be the longest term of office ever held in Illinois.

t A son of James St. Clair, once captain in the Irish brigade in the service of France. William St. Clair was the first clerk of the court and recorder of St. Clair

County.

t This roll

15

is

written on

two pages of an unusually long sheet of old



"

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

2l8

Jean Baptist Dubuque, Captn ^ Antoine Labuxiere. Joseph LaPencee, Lieut. Joseph Pariesien. Mathew Saucier, Ensgn.'-^ Michel Pilet. Francois Xavier

Francois Lefevre

Lapencee

alias Courier.

Joseph Lepage.

Joseph Mendoza.

}-

Joseph Chenie.

Sergts.

Piere LaPerche.

Baptist Chenie.

Michel Beaulieux.

Dennis LaVertue.

Joseph Manegre. Antoine Lepage.

Louis Gendron.

Bartholomew

Joseph Touchett. [-

Corpls

Louis Rouliard.

Prevost.

Piere Cleremont.

Francois Villareyt

August Cleremont,

William Arundel.^

Piere Picard.

Joseph Marie.

Louis Gaud, Junr.

Bazile Laflam^.

Louis Relle.

Josiah Bleakley.

Jean Beaulieux.

Francois Demet.

Bazile Beaulieux.

Hubert Delorme.

Piere Chretien.

Joseph Hymen.

Joseph Goneville.

Francois Longvall.

Joseph Perie.

Hippolite Longvall,

Joseph Laplante.

Francois Campeau.

Edward Hebert.

Jaque

St.

Aubin.

Charles Buteau.

Joseph Demarais. Piere St. Aubin.

Jean Baptist Mitot.

Louis Bergeron.

Pascal Lefevre

Louis Labuxiere.

Piere Durebois, Junr.

Louis Hermand.



alias Courier.

English paper, water-marked with the crown and "G. R. 1794."

It is

en-

dorsed " Roll of Dubuque's Company. ^

Probably a relative of Julien Dubuque,

established himself on the site of the City of

lived at Cahokia before he Dubuque, Iowa, which is named

him.

for *

at

who

A

son of Jean Baptiste Saucier, above mentioned,

who

afterward lived

Portage des Sioux in Missouri. ^

The only resident of Cahokia Thomas Brady.

except

at this time not of

French birth or descent,

EARLY ILLINOIS CITIZENS.

219

Etien Cadron.

Francois Longvall, Senr.

Charles Cadron.

Charles Ducharme.

Louis Bourassa.

Louis LeCompte.

Francois Chevalier.

Antoine Boyer.

Jean Munier. Jean Baptist

Jean Baptist Barron. Francois Turgeon.

Michel Longvall.

Joseph Poupard. Amable Macon.

Hermand. Antoine Hermand, Junr.

Henry

Gabriel Tellier.

Joseph Archambeau. Simon Lepage.

Glaude Chenie.

Louis Coste.

Piere Chartie.

Piere Pecard [erased],

Louis Gaud, Senr.

Louis Genvile.

Birron.

Personally appeared before me,

Commandant

Wm.

St. Clair,

Lieut,

Regiment of the County of St. Clair, by Virtue of the powers Invested in me by his Excellency the Governor of the Territory, Jean Bt. Dubu-

Col.,

of the

first

que who being duly sworn did Declare that the above is a True Roll of the Compy. of Militia under his Command in Augt., 1790. In Witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and Seal at Cahokia, the 13th day of Apl., 1796.

William

Roll* of the

Company

St. Clair.

of Militia of the

County of St. Clair Commanded by the first day of august, 1790: of the

PJiilip

Engel, Capt.

first

[seal]

Regiment

Phillip Engel,

Tousaint Chartran.

Jean Bapt. Allary, Lieut

Piere Martin.

Charles Germain, Ensn.

Jean Guitare. Jean Noel Godin.

Baptist Chartran

Corpls.

Jean Bapt. Lalande.

Joseph Lalancet. Sergts.

Jaque Letourneau. Raphael Daubuchon,

Piere Cabassier.

Piere Godin. * This roll

is

marked with the

written on two pages of a long sheet of old paper, waterletters T. R.

,

surrounded by

scroll

work.

:

EARLV CHICAGO AND

220

ILLINOIS.

Joseph Lambert.

Franois LMay.

Joseph Desloges, Senr.

Joseph BoisVene.

Joseph Deloges, Junr.

Francois Cabassier.

Jacque Mayiot.

Louis Bisson.

Piere Martin, Junr.

William Crow.

Francois Noize, dit L'abbe.

Ignace Grondine.

Thomas Chartran. Thomas Winn. Amant TelHer.

Jean Lapence.

Louis Grosle.

Andrew Bequet. Joseph Pettie. Lawrent Amelin. Lawrent Lefevre.

Jean Bapt. Cabassier. Michel Chartier. Franois Renousse.

Joseph LaCouture. Antoine LaCourse.

Charles LaCroix.

Charles Cabassier.

Piere Guitar, Junr.

Antoine Cabassier. Joseph Cabassier.

Louis Vadbonccur.

-Charles Gill.

Paul Desloges.

Piere Guitar, Senr.

Michel Antaya.

.Andrew Marlow.

Rock.

JVIichel Mitevur.

Piere Buteau.

Jlenne Bouvet.

Personaly appeared Col.

Commandant

St. Clair,

before me,

Wm.

St. Clair,

Lieut.

Regiment of the County of Virtue of the Powers by Invested in me by his of the

first

Excellency the Governor of the Territory, Jean Baptist now Capt. of said Company who being

Allary then Lieut.,

duly sworn did declare that the within

Company 1790.

and

then

Commanded by

In Witness Whereof

I

seal at Cahokia, this 25th

is

a just Roll of the

Phillip Engel, in august,

have hereunto set

day of

april,

William

my

hand

1796.

St. Clair.

Roll of the Militia of Kaskaskia who were duly enrolled on the 1st day of August, 1790, and had done Militia Duty, and who have not obtained any Donation from the United States

EARLY ILLINOIS

CITIZENS.

221

PYancois Janis.

Joseph Anderson. Anthoiny Buyat, Junior.

Antoine LaChapelle.

Augustin Royer.

Bazile LaChapelle.

Louis Seguin otherwise Lader-

Baptiste LaChapelle.

Jacque Laderoute.

Bartholomew Tardiveau.

[oute.

Joseph LaChapelle.

Louis Allaire.

Louis LaChapelle.

John Baptiste Gendron,

Francois Lemieux.

Joseph

Michael

Jerome Thibault.

St. Pierre.

Junior.

Thuillier.

Henry Cook.

Pierre Basque.

John Cook. Adam Cook. Philip Derousse St.pierre. Jerome Derousse St.pierre.

Gabriel Obuchon. Pierre Menard. Vital Bauvais, Junior.

Michael Lasource.

Louis Buyat, Junior. Joseph Derousse St. Pierre. Jean Baptiste Derousse St.Pierre, Charles Robin, Junior.

Henry Bienvenu.

Pedro

Michel Bienvenu.

Alexis Morris.

Bazile Alary.

Jean Baptiste Morris.

Christofal.

Jean Baptiste Alary.

Philip Galloher.

Alexis Doza.

Thomas

Nicholas Cassou.

Levy Theel.

Louis Lemieux.

Joseph

Callahan.

Calais.

John Rice Jones.

Joseph Lonval. David Gray. Jean Baptiste Thaumur, Junior.

Jean Baptiste Germain.

Antoine Labriere.

Charles Danis,

fils.

William Morrison.

Louis Germain.

Noel Toulouse

Hipolite Laforme. [erased].

Antoine Barutel, called Noel Toulouse.

Jacob Judy. Samuel Judy. Francis Clark.

Pierre Barutel Toulouse.

Louis Charleville.

Henry Barutel (Toulouse.

William Young Whiteside.

Francois Barutel Toulouse.

John Knaresborough Simpson.

Jean Baptiste LaChance.

Hugh McDonald

Jacque Gossiaux.

Joseph Fernande.

Joseph Danis.

Francois Dion.

Chissolm.



EARLY CHICAGO AND

222

ILLINOIS.

Pierre Grenier.

Alexander McNabb.

Francis Montrie.

Joseph Tellier [erased].

Ignace Lagauterie.

Joseph Chevaher.

James McNabb.

Manuel

Portugais.

Territory of the United States Northwest of the Ohio.

Randolph County,

sc.

Be it remembered that on the twenty third Day of September one thousand seven hundred and ninety seven personally came before us the subscribers two of the Jusr the peace of the said County, Antoine Peltier, Antaya, of Kaskaskia in the said County, a Capitain of militia in the said place, who made oath on the holy Evangelists of Almighty God that the several persons tices of

called

whose names are contained on the two sides of this sheet of paper were on the first Day of August one thousand seven hundred and ninety enrolled in the militia at Kaskaskia aforesaid and had done militia Duty as such and

Know-

also that the said several persons have not to the

ledge or Belief of this

Deponent obtained a Donation of

four hundred acres of land from the United States.

Sworn before us the Day

&

year above mentioned.

)

The mark

Edgar. Wm. Morrison.

Antoine

J.

Roll of the militia of Prairie du

of

X

i

Rocher

Peltier

called

Antaya.

in the

County

of St. Clair on the first Day of August, one thousand seven hundred and ninety who had done Militia Duty: Charles Laforme, junior

Jean Baptiste omier

Joseph Lavoye, junior Raphael Drury

Andre Roy

Francois Thibault, junior

Gabriel Decochy, junior

Louis Blay, junior

Joseph Blay, junior

Andre Barbau

EARLY ILLINOIS CITIZENS. Francois Julien

Jean Baptiste Perin Francois Tangue Joseph Tangue, junior Joseph Levasseur

Ambroise Levasseur

Joseph Ferrier Joseph Genereu Pierre Picard

Jean Baptiste Thibault Louis Levasseur

Joseph Comte

Camus

Pierre

223

Augustin Girard

Jean Bapte. Culmaut*

Francois Gerard

Comte*

Etienne Langlois

Pierre

Jean Baptiste Lajoye

Jean Baptiste DuClos

Pierre Lajoye

Charles Chevalier

Nicholas Witmer

Tousaint Bavarel

Augustin Allard

Simon Toiton

Antoiue DuClos

Charles Thibault

Ayme

Comte, junior

Francois Coline

George Wittmer, junior

Jean Gomes

Nicholas Olivier

Territory of the United States northwest of the Ohio.

Randolph County, ss. Be it remembered that on the Twenty Second day of October, in the year One Thousand Seven hundred and Ninety Seven, personally appeared Jean Bapt. Barbeau, Junr. Esquire, Captain of Militia at Prairie du

Rocher

who made oath according to Law that the several persons above and within named were on the first day of August, One Thousand Seven hundred and Ninety aforesaid,

duly enrolled at Prairie du Rocher aforesaid and had

done

Militia

Duty

therein,

and

also that the said Several

Persons have not received or obtained any Donation of

Lands from the United States

to the

knowledge or

belief

of this Deponent.

Sworn the Day and Year above mentioned, before said

*

me

a Justice of the Peace of the

County of Randolph. J. Edgar.

These two are on the Captain's

^

VBarbau, fils. J

list.

"

'

EARLY CHICAGO AND

224 General

County of

Return^ of the militia inrolled

on the first sand seven hundred and ninety: .rCapn. JJeutt.

ILLINOIS.

St. Clair

James Piggot. George Atchison.

Day

in

*Raphael Drury. James Scott.

;c*Ensign Nathaniel Hull.

William Chalfin.

Thomas Todd.

Samuel Worley.

John Moredoch. Samuel Morris.

*Josiah Ryan.

Jesse Wadle.

Daniel Shultz.

*Lawrence Kenyon.

Isaac Enox. [Enoch]

Daniel Raper.

Joseph Ogle, Senr.

xDavid Guise.

Joseph Ogle, Junr. Benjamin Ogle.

.s^Peter Zippe.

Edward Todd.

John Sullivan. George Powers.

Leonard Harness.

William Robins.

George Hendricks.

Alexander Dennis.

Benjamin Rodgers. James Henderson. James Lemen.

George Luntsford.^

John

Peter CasterHne.

tCharles

John Moore. George Biggs.

Robert

John Jack.

William Piggot.

Michael Huff.

Laton [Leighton] White.

Ebenezer Severns. James Bryan.

William Murray.-

Henry O'Hara,

Junr.

orClement Drury.

t

"

On

Received Donation. the Donation

Isaac Bryson.

Porter. Gill.

Seybold.'^^

Isaac West.

James Garretson. David Wadle. George Ware.

John O'Hara. George Wilkinson.

[:r]

the (now)

August one thou-

of

* In Prairie

du Rocher

list.

list.

[1 This list and accompanying affidavit cover seven pages of old crown watermarked paper. The part of the sheet which in a corresponding list contained The names are all in the handwriting the initals "G. R. " has been cut out. of John Rice Jones, and so certified by his son.]

[^

One

of George Rogers Clark's soldiers on his expedition to the Illinois.)

EARLY ILLINOIS CITIZENS. Ebenezer Bowen. James McRoberts.

Hippolite Longval.

Isaac Chalfin.

Thadious Bradley.

Jacque St. Aubin. Joseph Demaret. Claude St. Aubin.

William Jones.

Louis Bergeron.

John Worley.

Francois Campeau.

Christopher Smith.

Hubert Long

Henry McLaughlin.

I-.ouis

William Grotz.

Antoine Labusiere.

Alexander Wadle.

Joseph Parisien. Michel Pilet.

Levi Piggot.

225

Vail.

Labusiere.

Alexander Atcheson.

Francois Lefevre, alias Courie,

Timothy

Joseph Lepage.

Ballevv.

William Moore.

John Baptiste Chenie.

James Head.

Joseph Chenie. Dennis Lavertu.

Ray nor. Hardy Ware. Thomas Mars. Jesse

Louis Gendron.

Joseph Touchet.

j;Capn. Jean Baptiste Dubuque. Louis Rouliard. xLieutt. Joseph Lapence.

jcEnsign

Matthew

Saucier.

Auguste Clermont. Pierre Clermont.

Francois Lapence.

Pierre Picard.

Joseph Mendoza.

Louis Gaud, Junior.

Pierre Laperche.

Louis Rohle.

Michel Beaulieu.

Jean Beaulieu.

Joseph Manegre. Antoine Lepage.

Joseph Goneville.

Bartholomew Provost.

Joseph

Francois Villaret.

Joseph Laplante.

Pierre Chretion.

Poirie.

William Arundel.

Edward Hebert.

Joseph Marie.

Charles Buteau, Junr.

Bazile Laflamme.

Jean Baptiste Methode.

Josiah Bleakly [erased].

Louis Harmand.

Francois Demete.

Pascal Lefevre.

Hubert Delorme.

Pierre Dubois, Junior.

Joseph Hymen.

Etienne Cadron.

Francois Longval.

Pierre Bourassa.

[Junr,

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

226

Charles Cadron, Junior.

Louis Clermond.

ArFran^ois Chevalier.

Louis Pierre Levy.

Jean Munier.

Jacque Lamarche.

Jean Baptiste Harmand. Antoine Harmand, Junior.

Jean Baptiste Girard St. John Lyle. [Jean Pierre.

Michel Longval.

jtCaptain Francois Saucier.

Henry

Biron.

Jean Baptiste Saucier.

jcLieutt.

Gabriel Tellier.

A:Ensign Phillip Gervais.

Claude Chenier.

^Louis Lebrun.

Pierre Chartier.

Pierre Lajeunesse.

A-Louis Gaud, Senior.

orjean Baptiste Mercier.

:x:Francois Longval, Senior.

^Paul Poupard.

DuCharme. LeCompte.

ArCharles .xLouis

jfAntoine Boyer.

Joseph Trotier.

Clement

Trotier.

Auguste Trotier.

Arjean Baptiste Baron.

Louis Trotier, Junior.

.rFrancois Turgeon.

jvThomas Brady.

:vJoseph Poupard.

.afLouis Chatele.

Amable Magon.

.xClement AUary.

Bazile Beaulieu.

a:

Joseph Archambeau.

Pierre Texier.

Simon Lepage.

^Louis

Louis Coste.

A:Jean Baptiste Mulotte.

Louis Goneville.

;tjean Baptiste Bergeron.

Lou is

Trotier, Senior.

Pilet.

Antoine Grandbois.

:vJoseph Buteau.

Jean Baptiste Fleurant. Jean Baptiste Champlain.

xjean Marie Dorion. a' Antoine Lamarche.

Gabriel Marleaux, Junior.

Philip Leboeuf.

Jean Baptiste Marleaux.

Francois Trotier, son of Louis.

Pierre Roilhe.

Andre Boquet.

Francois Labuxiere.

Louis Panconneaux.

Sanson Canadien.

John

Alexis Brisson.

Louis Lamarche.

Louis Beaulieu.

Louis Laflamme.

Ritchie.

Pierre Jacques Foubert.

Francois Grondine.

August Biron.

Jacque MuUote.

Raphael Langlois.

Louis Giroux.

EARLY ILLINOIS CITIZENS. Joseph Grenier. Hubert Mercier.

Jean Baptiste Leblanc. Nicholas Turgeon. Gabriel Marleaux.

Etienne Pinsonneau.

Joseph Trotier, son of Louis.

Joseph Vaudry, Junr. Alphonso.

Alexis Chartran.

'

227

&

Pierre Lize.

John Brady.

Joseph LaChance. Joseph Grondine.

Antoine Gerardine,

ArCapn. Philip Engel.

Jean LeRenard. Francois Labbe.

a:Ensign Charles Germain.

jcLieutt.

Jr.

Jean Baptiste AUary.

Dennis Valentin.

Jean Baptiste Chartran.

Francois Pancrass.

:rJoseph Lalamet.

Jean Baptiste Rapelais Gabriel Langlois.

Toussaint Chartran.

Jean Noel Godin. Jean Baptiste Lalande. Jacque Letoumeau.

Julien Mercier.

Louis Gervais. Pascal Letang.

Louis

alias

[Genville. ^Pierre Martin.

St. Germain.

Raphael D'Aubuchon.

Antoine Belcour.

^.-Joseph

Alexis Courtois.

Pierre Godin.

Joseph Beland. Constant Longtemp.

.arjoseph Deloge, Senior.

Charles

Pilot.

Etienne Nicholle. Julien Nicholle.

Rene

Zureau.

Jean Bap. Chartran, alias Laurent Jean Berger, Pierre Antoine Tabeau. Isidore LaCroix.

William

Todd

John Hays

[erased].

[erased].

Joseph Vizina.

Lambert.

Joseph Deloge, Junior. Jacque Mayiot. Pierre Martin, Junior.

Francois Lubbe [erased]. Thomas Chartran. I^bou- Thomas Winn. [asse. Amant Tellier.

Jean Baptiste Cabassier. Michel Chartran [erased]. Francois Ranousse. j;Joseph LaCouture.

.rAntoine LaCource.

Jean Marie Comparet.

Pierre Cabassier.

Jean Marie Bissonet.

Charles Cabassier.

Francois Young.

Andrew Marlow.

Louis Morin.

Michel Metioier.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

228

ILLINOIS.

.rRene Bouvet.

j;Laurent Amelin.

Francois Lemay.

Laurent Lefevre.

.rjoseph Boisver.

Charles LaCroix.

Francois Cabassier.

*Jean Guittar [erased].

Joseph Cabassier. Antoine Cabassier.

^cMichel Antaya.

Louis Bisson.

Louis Vadboncceur.

Pierre Guittar, Junior.

.rWiUiam Crow.

Paul Poirier.

Ignace Grondine.

Jean Francois Perrey [erased].

Louis Grosle.

Jean Baptiste Provost.

.rjean Lapense'.

Louis Bibeaux.

Marrain Pancrass.

Pierre Locuyer dt St. Sauveur.

Michel Roche.

.xjoseph Peltier. .a;Francois

Gerome.

Jean Vandet.

Personally appeared before

me William

St. Clair

Duly

authorized by his Excellency the Governor to take proof of the Claims appertaining to the Militia of the

of St. Clair James Piggot Jean Bapt.

Saucier and Jean Bapt. Allary the Within

is

Militia in the

who

dred and ninety.

of

Bapt.

severally affirmed that

true Rolls of their respective

Month

County

Dubuque Jean

Company

of

August one thousand seven hun-

In witness whereof

have hereunto set my hand at Cahokia this thirteenth day of Septe. one thousand seven hundred and ninety seven. William St. Clair.

To

the Honorable

I

Winthrop Sargent, Esquire, Secre-

tary of the Territory of the United States Northwest of the Ohio,

now

vested with

all

the Powers of the Governor

thereof

The Most

Petition of certain

Inhabitants of

That your Petitioners were heads of Families *

On

Vincennes,

respectfully showeth:

Vincennes

list.

at

Kaskas-

EARLY ILLINOIS CITIZENS.

229

kia in the Illinois Country in 1783, where they are entitled to the Donation of the United States of Four hundred acres of land each.

That previous to the year 1791 they removed thence to this Place, where they have fixed their Residence. They therefore pray that your Honour would be pleased to cause to be laid out for them, their respective Donation lands adjoining those already laid out for the heads of Families at Vincennes, agreeable to an Act of the United States, passed the third day of March, One Thousand Seven hundred and Ninety- one. And Your Peti-

tioners will ever pray.

POSTVINCENNES, 26 Octor. 1797.

X Jerome Crely. X FrANCOISE TONTON. X Antoine Renaud. pro.

Charlote Renaud, his heir at

law

JOHN RICE JONES. A BRIEF SKETCH OF THE

AND PUBLIC CAREER OF THE LAWYER IN ILLINOIS.

I,IFE

FIRST PRACTISING

By W. A. Burt Jones *

*

"A

In action

JOHN

of St. Paul, Minnesota.

friend to truth, of soul sincere. faithful,

and

in

honor

clear."

RICE JONES

village

was born in Mallwyd, a beautiful on the "murmuring Dyfi," in that wildest and

most picturesque of all Welsh counties, Merionethshire,. February ii, 1759. He was one of fourteen children and the eldest son of John Jones, Esq., a gentleman in good circumstances and of highly respectable social standing, belonging as he did to an ancient and honorable family celebrated in the history and poetry of his native country,, "fair

Wales, the land of song."

John Rice Jones received a collegiate education at OxEngland, and afterward took a regular course in both He then established himself in the medicine and law. practice of the latter in London, where, in 1753, in St. George's Church, Hanover Square, his parents had been married, and where a number of relatives and friends In a deed dated in 1783, and conveying to him resided. ford,

certain property in Brecon, Wales, he, then a resident of

the British metropolis,

Thanet Place,

is

described as "John Rice Jones of

Clement County of Middlesex, gentleman," which

in the Strand, in the Parish of St.

Danes,

in the

locates

him pretty

closely in the great city a

hundred

years ago.

He came

to

America

in

February, 1784, and located in

Philadelphia, where he engaged in the practice of his pro-

230

— 1

JOHN RICE JONES.

23

and made the friendly acquaintance of Dr. Benj'amin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, Myers Fisher, the eminent lawyer, and other distinguished men, to some of whom he had letters of introduction. He remained here some two^ years, when, having long heard of the wonderful Far West, and evidently having strong confidence in the greatness and importance it would assume in the early future, he there decided to cast his lines, and accordingly set out on the long and tedious journey of over eight hundred miles to Louisville, Ky,, his objective point, and then the most important American settlement west of the Alleghany Mountains, the trip to which was fraught with many perils and discomforts, yet which, we are told, was in many ways extremely interesting and enjoyable in a pleasant season

fession,

of the year. It is

not

known whether he came with his family from now the city of Pittsburg, in

Philadelphia to Fort Pitt



the centre of a vastly- extended civilization, but then an

and lonely military post on the remote frontier and thence down the Ohio River by boat, or came entirely overland by the only other route to the West, which crossed the Blue-Ridge Mountains above the head-waters

isolated

of the Potomac, then led

down between

that range

and

the Alleghanies to old Fort Chissel, and thence via the

Great Wilderness road, which admitted of only horseback

and foot travel, through Kentucky by way of Cumberland Gap. He reached his destination in safety, however, as, after his departure from Philadelphia, we next meet him at .

the Falls of the Ohio, or Louisville, where, in Sept., 1786,.

he joined the army of one thousand

manded by Gen. George Rogers of Virginia, for the

men

raised

and com-

Clark, under the authority

suppression of the hostile

Wabash

Gen. Clark proceeded into their country some distance above Vincennes, when it was deemed tribes of Indians.

inexpedient

— owing to the partial loss of supplies, shipped

"

"

EARLY CHICAGO AND

232

them via the Ohio, and some of the troops

after

to the discontent

— to

tion of

ILLINOIS.

and deser-

proceed further, and the

army, abandoning the expedition, fell back to VinOwing to the exposed condition of that post at

Httle

cennes.

was considered advisable to establish there a military garrison, and the project was determined upon and carried into execution at once by a council composed the time,

it

of the field-officers of the

Wabash

expedition, the garri-



was decided, to consist of three hundred men two hundred and fifty infantry, and a company of artillery under Capt. Valentine T. Dalton. Gen. Clark assumed the supreme direction of the corps, and levied recruits, appointed officers, and impressed provisions for their supOf this garrison, John Rice Jones was appointed port.* commissary-general, in place of John Craig, Jr., who was son,

it

first

appointed but did not

At

act.-f*

were pending between the United States and the court at Madrid relative to the concession by Spain of the right to the navigation of the This privilege had Mississippi River by the Americans. always been vigorously denied the United States by the Spanish government, and had become not only a bone of diplomatic contention between the two countries, but a fruitful cause of ill-feeling between the citizens of the one and the subjects of the other living and intermingling on this time, negotiations

the borders of the western possessions of the nations concerned.

The Spaniards

there had repeatedly confiscated

property of and committed other outrages upon Ameri-

and when an unfounded but readily-credited rumor that congress had conceded everything to Spain, and that in consequence the citizens of the Far West would thenceforth have to champion their cherished cause alone and take care of themselves and their interests generally, cans,

came

* Dillon's " History of Indiana.

t Dunn's " Indiana

:

A

Redemption from Slavery.

"

JOHN RICE JONES.

233

intense excitement and resentment followed and prompted

measures of summary retaliation for the depredations committed upon them in the past. A systematic and vigorous course was adopted at Vincennes by Gen. Clark, under whose direction the garrison troops seized upon all Spanish property at the post and the

Illinois,

very considerable and valuable altogether, and

who as commissaryappointment of Gen. Clark, retained general, by regular a proper portion of the contraband property for garrison uses, and disposed of the remainder at auction* for the turned

it

over to John Rice Jones,

partial indemnification of citizens

whose possessions had

been as unceremoniously appropriated by Spanish pillagers. John Rice Jones was at this time only twentyseven years of age, and his abilities and character must have been very marked to have secured for him in a brief period his considerable local prominence and, above all, the confidence and esteem, which he undoubtedly possessed, of such a man as Gen. Clark, "the Washington of the West, whose genius, abilities, and bravery, that elevated him above his fellow-men," rendered his friendship an honor to any man upon whom it was bestowed. John Rice Jones seems to have become thoroughly imbued with the martial spirit of the period and country in which he lived. First we find him as a member of Gen. Clark's army, recruited at the Falls of the Ohio for service against the Indians of the Wabash; next as commissarygeneral of the Vincennes garrison and after an interval of four years a period in Mr. Jones' military history which the writer has no data concerning, but one in which the former no doubt continued his connection with the garrison until its dissolution in the summer of 1787, and from that time ;



with local militia organizations

—we accidentally discover

him, so to speak, as one of "the effective * Dillon's " History of Indiana, "

16

and Dunn's

men belonging

" Indiaaa.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

234

ILLINOIS.

company at Post Vincennes^ This company was a militia organization

Pierre Gamelin's

to Capt.

1790."*

July 4, designed to serve at

home who throughout the

or in the field against

the

Indians, summer of 1790 "continued to wage irregular war against emigrating families

and

mouth

settlers

spring and

along the borders of the Ohio, from

Their harassing

hostilities

occasioned Gen. Josiah Har-

mar's famous but fruitless expedition against fall

its-

to Pittsburg."

them

in

the

of this year, and called forth, under Maj. John Francis

Hamtramck, the company,

local militia, including Capt. Gamelin's

at the post, in addition to the regular United-

States garrison under him, which garrison was established in July, 1787,

of Gen.

by the then

Clark's

creation.

ordered by Gen. Harmar,

Harmar, to succeed that Hamtramck's expedition as

Col.

who himself operated against Wabash tribes. Becommand, which is known in

the Miamis, was directed against the fore the

approach of

history as the

this

"Wabash

regiment," the Indians, not stay-

ing to do battle, fled precipitately, deserting several

vil-

which were destroyed by the white troops. Mr. Jones probably took part in other campaigns against the Indians, but the writer has had access to but few manuscript records, official or otherwise, which are scattered, and has not chanced to find any published work giving further information on the point. In accordance with the act of congress of March 3, 1791^ John Rice Jones received from the United States government a grant of one hundred acres of land, located near Vincennes, Northwest Territory, for his services as militiaman, as also did three of his brothers-in-law, the Barger He had before this brothers, as will hereafter appear.-f probably acquired considerable real possessions, and in a lages

and

their contents,

*

Law's "Colonial History of Vincennes." + " American State Papers— Public Lands," Vols.

I

and

VIL

JOHN RICE JONES.

235

few years became an extensive land-owner, as the early territorial records of both Indiana and Illinois, as well as the general government archives, abundantly attest.

The

Ordinance of 1787 imposed the ownership of considerable real

estate conditional

offices, as it

to eligibility to the higher civil

did in a smaller measure to the right to hold

and even to the right of suffrage. It is likely that in those days of scarcity of money, John Rice Jones frequently had to take real property, or claims thereto, in exchange for legal services, and by that means, as well ashy purchases outright, accumulated his many thousands In 1808, he paid taxes on 16,400 acres of acres of land. in Monroe County alone; he and Pierre Menard, Gen: John Edgar, Robert and William Morrison, James O'Hara, Richard Lord, and a few others, being heavy owners. Unlike most pioneers, he did not engage in promiscuous pursuits, as trading with the Indians, hunting and trapping, cultivating the soil, merchandising, and so forth, but lesser ones,

devoted himself entirely to the practice of his profession, in which he was very able, and to politics, in which he was as accomplished as he was influential, and cut ai> important figure. He very soon acquired and always continued to enjoy an extensive and lucrative law -practice, and this professional success combined with his reputation as a classical scholar, as a man of varied and extensive learning, of practical knowledge of men and affairs, and of great ambition, coupled with a mental activity and an energy of character equally remarkable, soon placed him among the most prominent men in a country where those of his qualifications and qualities were the exception andnot the rule. As such a character he was found by John Gibson, secretary of the newly-formed Indiana Territory, on his arrival at Vincennes, in July, 1800. With Mr. Gibson he early formed a close personal and political friendship, and similar relations immediately grew up between

EARLY CHICAGO AND

236

ILLINOIS.

him and Gov. William Henry Harrison, after the arrival of the latter, in January, 1801, to assume the administration of territorial affairs.

Gov. Harrison at once recognized his

and

abilities,

in

the latter part of January or early in February, commis-

sioned him attorney-general of the Territory, the office

ever held by Mr. Jones, so far as

we

first civil

are informed.

We have it on the authority of historians that John Rice Jones not only enjoyed the political confidence of Gov. Harrison, but that their personal relations were of a very intimate nature, and that Mr. Jones exercised a by no means inconsiderable

influence as an adviser of the gov-

ernor up to the time of their rupture, in

1807-8,

He

continued attorney-general until the date of his appoint-

ment

as a

member

of the territorial legislative council, in

February or March, 1805, and therefore

filled

the former

office for a period of exactly four years.

In December, 1802, there convened at Vincennes the famous slavery convention of that year, which, outside of the general assembly, was the first public body of a universally representative character to formally discuss the deliicate question in all its bearings,

and to lay the sentiments

and wishes of the majority of the people of the territory before congress. ber,

The

were chosen by the people

delegates, twelve in in

entire

num-

a regular election, held,

pursuant to proclamation of the governor, simultaneously

and who, of course, represented the predominating sentiment among their respective constituThe members "ranked among the most intelligent ents. public-spirited men of the Territory," and were Gov. and in the several counties,

Harrison, Col. Francis Vigo,

Wm.

Prince,

Luke Decker,

Pierre Menard, Robert Reynolds, Robert Morrison, Jean

Fran9ois Perry, Shadrach Bond, Maj. John Moredock, and, it

is

now

thought, Davis Floyd and William Biggs. historic

names, and

all

All are

were strong pro-slavists except

JOHN RICE JONES.

237

the last two, or whoever were the two representatives from

Clark County.

Gov. Harrison was president and John Rice Jones secretary of this convention, which continued in session eight

December 28, agreed on a memorial and petition, probably the work of the skilful, They able, and fluent pen of their secretary, to congress. prayed for the suspension for ten years of the sixth article of the Ordinance of 1787, "the Magna Charta of the West," which prohibited, but did not prevent, slavery in the territory; and among many things, recommended Gov. Harrison for reappointment and John Rice Jones for chiefOnly two of the requests justice of the territorial court. days, and on the last day,

were granted: that for the payment of a salary to the attorney-general to which office, then held as from the first by John Rice Jones, it is presumed fees had been attached and that for the right of preemption to actual





on public lands. John Rice Jones strongly favored the advance of the territory to the second grade, or representative form, and used his influence toward the accomplishment of that end, which was achieved by a majority of one hundred and

settlers

thirty-eight of the freeholders of the territory at the elec-

September 11, 1804. Members of the house of representatives were chosen at the election of January 3 following, and that body convened at Vincennes on February I, and, in accordance with law, nominated for councillors ten men whose names were forwarded to President Jefferson, for him to select from them those of five men to compose the legislative council. The president returned five commissions with the spaces for names left blank, with

tion held

instructions to Gov. Harrison to choose out of the ten

nominees the

five best fitted, in the governor's opinion, for the responsible offices, rejecting " land-jobbers, dishonest

men, and those who, though honest, might suffer them-

'

EARLY CHICAGO AND

238

ILLINOIS.

warped by party prejudices." Those selected, one for each county, were John Rice Jones, Benjamin Chambers, Samuel Gwathmey, John Hay, and Pierre Menard, all assuredly able men, whose superiors intellectually and morally it would have been difficult to find anywhere. John Rice Jones was appointed from Knox County, the seat of government of which was also the territorial capital, Vincennes, and continued its representative in the council until October 26, 1808, when the governor, for reasons that appeared to him sufficient, permanently dissolved the general assembly an act that was premature, in that it left no authorized body to organize the first legislature of the new Indiana Territory, as contemplated by law, and rendered special congressional legislation necselves to be



essary in the matter.

During the second and

last session

of the second general

assembly, which was the last held under the old organiza-

and which second session began on September 26, 1808, and continued exactly one month, John Rice Jones was president of the legislative council, the three preceding sessions of that body having been presided over by Benjamin Chambers. Immediately after the expiration

tion,

of his service as councillor, extending over a period of

some three years and seven months, John Rice Jones removed to Kaskaskia, the seat of government of the newly-erected Illinois Territory, whither he had removed from Vincennes till

in

1790 and where he continued to reside when he returned to

about the beginning of 1801,

His son. Rice Jones, had located at Kaskas1806, and had become very prominent politically, having in the election of July, 1808, been chosen to represent Randolph County in the lower house of the general assembly, which office he continued to hold till the dissolution of the legislature in October Vincennes.

kia in the practice of law in

JOHN RICE JONES. following, as before mentioned.

ued to make

his

thither in the

some two years

home

fall

in

of 1808,

239

John Rice Jones contin-

Kaskaskia, after his removal till

his

removal to

St.

Louis

later.

In 1805, a memorial to congress in favor of domestic slavery in a modified form and against a division of the Territory was introduced into the general assembly, but

defeated; not on the slavery question, for both houses

were overwhelmingly pro-slavery, but because a majority of the representatives in the lower house were friends of division.

A

petition

embodying the slavery part of the

memorial was afterward signed by a large majority of the members of both houses, in a non-representative capacity, and duly forwarded to Delegate Benjamin Parke in congress. Among the signers was John Rice Jones, a consistent pro-slavist, whose name, it appears, was affixed to various memorials and petitions presented to congress iat different times in favor of the temporary abrogation of the much-discussed sixth article of the Ordinance of 1787, but who, so far as. the writer has discovered, was neither a fanatic on the subject nor a holder of slaves, though he was abundantly able, as a man of wealth, to be an extensive owner. it was a heinous crime to advocate the legal suspenby act of the supreme legislative body of the Nation, of the slavery-debarring provision of the ordinance under which the territories came into being, what was it to hold and traffic in negro bondsmen, in direct violation of an •existing law, though that law was questionable as in itself a violation of three antedating promises and guarantees most solemnly made } Yet a great majority of the foremost men in the territories of Indiana and Illinois were

If

sion,

slave-holders

— men

equally conspicuous for their

intelli-

gence, patriotism, and social respectability, as well as for their political prominence.

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

240

Among the leading public men besides John Rice Jones who were pronounced pro-slavists, were such characters as Gov, Wm. Henry Harrison, Secretary John Gibson, DeleBenjamin Parke, councillors Benjamin Chambers, Pierre Menard, Robert Reynolds, Samuel Gwathmey, and John Hay; Col. Francis Vigo, Judge Jesse B. Thomas, Hon. Shadrach Bond, Gen. John Edgar^ Gen. Washington Johnston, Judge John Johnson, and hungate, afterward Judge,

dreds of other eminent public characters, extending

down

and including such men as Gov. Ninian Edwards, Judge Nathaniel Pope, Hon. Sidney Breese,. Secretary-of-State Elias Kent Kane, and, in short, almost every man of public note throughout the Indiana and Illinois territorial periods, and many for long years after

to the time of

the admission of Indiana into the Union.

Such was the exalted public and private virtues of these that they were then good enough company for any-

men

body, whatever his pretensions to moral worth, intellectual attainments, or patriotism, to be

in,

company might now be esteemed by All these

men went

and however such

a more virtuous age.

to their graves honest believers in the

perfect propriety of slavery, and while the institution as a

has since been forever abolished by amendment and swallowed up in an ocean blood, shed in part by some of those men's

political establishment

constitutional

of precious

descendants, arrayed against one another in the deadly strife

of fratricidal war,

it

is

alone the province of that

Judge before whom they have been called, as all others must be, to pass judgment upon their "iniquity" as absolutely conscientious upholders of a principle and practice their opponents could not possibly more honestly condemn.

Amid

the discharge of his duties as councillor, his activ-

ity in politics, his attention to his professional business,,

always

large,

and to private

affairs,

cerns as well, John Rice Jones

and

still

his domestic con-

found the time

tO'

JOHN RICE JONES.

24I



in conj'unction with and prepare for publication Hon. John Johnson, another able lawyer and a member of

revise

the house

— the statutes of the Territory, under the follow-

ing

"Laws

title:

of the Indiana Territory, comprising those

Acts formerly in force and as Revised by John Rice Jones and John Johnson, and passed (after Amendments) by the Legislature; and the Original Acts passed by the First Session of the Second General Assembly of the said Territory, begun and held at the Borough of Vincennes on the 1 6th day of August, A.D. 1807." This revision had been adopted by the general assembly with but trifling amendment, "was a careful and thorough one," says Judge Howe,* and was long the main substance of the statute laws of both Indiana and Illinois. In an act passed by the general legislature in 1807, incorporating the Vincennes University, now represented by both the Vincennes University at Vincennes and the Indiana State University at Bloomington, "for the instruction of youth in the Latin, Greek, French, and English languages, mathematics, natural philosophy, ancient and modern history, moral philosophy, logic, rhetoric, and the law of nature and nations," John Rice Jones, who had been one of its most zealous promoters, as would be naturally expected from one of his broad education, was named as one of the first board of trustees, which was composed of William Henry Harrison, Thomas T. Davis, John Gibson, Henry Vanderburgh, Waller Taylor, Benjajamin Parke, Peter Jones, James Johnson, John Badollet,. fohn Rice Jones, George Wallace, William Bullitt, Elias

[McNamee, Henry Hurst, Gen. Washington Johnston, Franks Vigo, Jacob Kuykendall, Samuel McKee, Nathaniel [Ewing, George Leach, Luke Decker, Samuel Gwathmey, md John Johnson-f* "men who had large and liberal ideas



*

Howe's

" The

Laws and Courts of the Northwest and Indiana Territories. "

t Dillon's "History of Indiana."

242

EARLY CHICAGO AND

ILLINOIS.

of education, and who reflected the true spirit of the framers of the Ordinance of 1787." An important piece of business to come before the second session of the second general assembly, begun September 26, 1808, was the election of a successor to Hon. Benjamin Parke, who had resigned as delegate in congress to accept a seat on the territorial supreme judiciary bench. Prominent among the prospective candidates before the legislature was John Rice Jones, who had been solicited by a great many friends and admirers to enter the contest. Local politics had become many sided and decidedly mixed; there were both pro-slavists and antislavists who were opposed to division, and also members of each of those factions who were in favor of that measure; and in this state of affairs the selection of a delegate was sure to be a prolonged fight, though the divisionists' success was assured. As an able man and an ardent friend of division, John Rice Jones was "the favorite of the people of the Illinois country, but the anti-slavery people

would not support him because he had long been identified with the Harrison party, and was a pronounced proslavery man."* Among other leading candidates was Speaker-of-thehouse Jesse B. Thomas, who, though no less an out-andout pro-slavist than divisionist, was finally compromised on by the antagonistic elements of his party, and elected; but not before John Rice Jones, who as president of the council or as a controller of other men's votes, evidently

held the balance of power, had, conditional to his support

of Speaker Thomas, required and extracted from him the

most solemn pledges of

fidelity to his

true to these promises. Delegate

party.f

Remaining for and

Thomas worked

speedily secured the division of the Territory, to the hu*

Dunn's "Indiana."

t Dunn's "Indiana," and Ford's "History of

Illinois."

JOHN RICE JONES.

243

whose chagrin and rancor Vincennes to the hanging in effigy of the offending delegate. At Kaskaskia the feeling was equally bad, and miliation of the Harrisonians, led at

produced among other serious incidents the passing of a challenge between Hon. Shadrach Bond, afterward governor of Illinois, and Rice Jones, ex-representative in the territorial legislature of Indiana, and a son of ex-councillor John Rice Jones, and finally ended in the deplorable assassination of Rice Jones by a dastardly partisan, who by instant flight from the country undoubtedly saved himself from summary punishment at the hands of an enraged community.* Reference having been made heretofore to the rupture between Wm. Henry Harrison and John Rice Jones, and

deeming

several historians

it

a subject of sufficient interest

to the public of today to call for

more or

less

extended

observations on their part, a few words on the subject will

not be inappropriate in this sketch.

strong prejudices,

if

One

writer,

whose

not malicious motives, are evident,

predicating a theory upon what later and obviously more j'ust

and

careful historians consider imaginary grounds, for

they declare that there

what the *'

is

no documentary evidence as to

real cause of the

falling- out

was, refers

important event," as a judicious writerf- terms

it,

the

to dis-

appointment on the part of John Rice Jones, growing out of his failure to secure the bestowal of greater patronage of Gov. Harrison and then in the same spirit this amiable writer proceeds to say that John Rice Jones made it appear that the ostensible reason for his disagreement with and consequent opposition to Harrison was a difference of opinion as to the expediency of the advance of the Territory to the second grade of government as early as that step was consummated. ;

*

Reynolds' "Pioneer History of Illinois."

+ Dunn,

in his

"Indiana."

'

"

EARLY CHICAGO AND

244

This statement

palpably

is

false,

;

ILLINOIS.

inasmuch as

all

accounts

agree that John Rice Jones was conspicuous as an active

and zealous promoter of the second-grade cause; and if further refutation of the infamous charges,* direct and indirect, of the writer in question were needed, it would be only necessary to state the notorious fact that for years

had entered the secondary form of government, its executive and the subject of this sketch were on terms of close personal and political friendship, as reputable historians declare, and as is incontrovertibly proven by Gov. Harrison's appointment of John Rice after the Territory

Jones to high office in those later years,-|- as also by the testimony to their cordial relations up to a date so late as 1807-8, by other writers on

anything to say on the subject.

To able,

who have

Indiana history :J:

the writer of these pages, the most simple, reason-

and natural explanation of the rupture between Gov.

Harrison and Councillor Jones was the question of the *

To

asperse and misrepresent a living

insinuations

made

him by a

against

man on

the

anonymous charges and

partisan foe during the excitement of a

heated political period, or by a personal enemy at any time, but to assault the character and violate the

memory

is

bad enough

man

of a

long dead

through the mediumship of just such irresponsible and infamous attacks, infinitely worse, is the part of neither

an honorable

man nor

is

a gentleman, but

rather that of a vile traducer, and should be far beneath the dignity of anyone

making pretensions

to the claim of being

may

slanders, a man's friends

Everett, in a speech once delivered by tatives, "

can any gentleman dollars, I think

it

him

In reference to such

me how long it Thomas Jefferson

is

Edward

house of represen-

in the national

tell

creant, in the papers, accused

hundred

an historian.

pointedly ask, in the words of Hon.

since an

anonymous mis-

of having pillaged thirteen

was, from the public chest?

Has any gentleman

forgotten that pathetic complaint of George Washington, that he had been assailed in language "

Verily,

fit

only 'for a pick-pocket

Be thou chaste

Thou

— for a common

defaulter?'"

as ice, as pure as snow.

shalt not escape calumny.

+ The second grade of government was entered upon September

and four months council

enemy.

later

Harrison appointed John Rice Jones a

11,

1804,

member

of the

— a favor he would hardly have bestowed upon a political and personal t Dunn, in his "Indiana," page 361, for instance.

JOHN RICE JONES. Indiana Territory.

division of the

245

This question, as

is

well known, divided the people latterly into violently antagonistic factions,

whose clashing sentiments on

this

one

subject caused the severing of personal attachments be-

tween many individuals whose political opinions on other measures were either in perfect harmony or temporarily adj'ustable, but who were uncompromising on this; engendered wide-spread and all-pervading excitement and partisan feeling; produced in connection with the indirectlyinvolved slavery question, pro and con, strange combinations and associations of men and sentiments, and characterized the campaign preceding an election of two representatives to the general assembly, which chanced to become necessary at the time, as the most animated and bitter one that ever occurred in the Territory, before or afterward, or in that of Illinois.

The

successful candidates

were Rice Jones in Randolph County and John Messinger in St. Clair County, both of whom were zealous divisionists.* for the legislature in the election in question

As

has been intimated, the defeat of the Harrisonians

or anti-divisionists was a crushing disappointment to them, for the results of the election placed the balance of legislative power, arationists,

partisans

by a

slight majority, in the

and the

among

hands of the sep-

loss of the election drove the rabid

those

who were opposed

extravagant expressions, actions, and

acts,

to division to

among

the last

the disgraceful proceeding at Vincennes, indicative of their despair and fury.

John Rice Jones, who then

lived

at

Vincennes, the seat of the territorial government, and in the county of

Knox, the governor's

favorite

county and

the stronghold of the Harrisonians, was as a pronounced divisionist and a distinguished character, doubly conspicuous as an object of dislike and abuse on the part of •

p. 30; Address of Welcome by Citizens of Randolph Gov. Ninian Edwards, June, 1809.

Edwards' " Illinois, "

County

to

"

EARLY CHICAGO AND

246

many

ILLINOIS.

of those of opposing sentiments.

Har circumstances prevaiHng, no two

who openly avowed and

men

Under the pecucould be friends

publicly advocated conflicting

views on the burning division question, and therefore John Rice Jones necessarily experienced a rupture with Gov. Harrison, who was, as is equally a matter of record, a radical anti-divisionist, using all his personal

influence to defeat project, as

From 1801,

it

was

up

to.

official

to his selfish interest to do.

date

the

and

the friends of the Illinois-Territory of their

first

acquairttance,

early

in

the time that the question of the separation

from Indiana of the

Illinois

country and

its

an independent territory assumed importance

erection into in

the public

mind and began to be seriously agitated among the people, which was probably early in 1807, John Rice Jones and Gov. Harrison were personally and politically intimate, and they continued to be friends until probably about the middle of 1808, when their split upon the rock of territorial division became complete, and very naturally their relations afterward were not amicable; John Rice Jones, as he had the inalienable right to do, opposing, and that ably, and not alone but with thousands of his fellow-

and plans of the Harrison party, whose speedy overthrow in the latter part of 1808 may reasonably be accepted as a proof of the weakness and injustice citizens, the policy

of their cause.

John Rice Jones had not only been a personal friend of and valued counsellor of the

Harrison's, but also an able

administration, as well as a

man

sonal influence with the people. careful writer* observes, rison party.

He was

of very considerable per-

Consequently, as a recent

"he was no small

loss to the

at that time a councillor, with

Harmore

than two years to serve; he had a full knowledge of the inside workings of past political movements; he had the *

Dunn,

in his "

Indiana

:

A

Redemption from Slavery.

JOHN RICE JONES. ability to use his

247

knowledge to the best advantage; and

he was absolutely tireless in his political work." We thus see that he was qualified to make a powerful opponent of the Harrisonians, and indeed it is a matter of record that he and other leaders of the opposition "goaded their ene-, mies almost to madness," and also gathered the people in such numbers to their support as to defeat the Harrison party in the memorable election of July 25, 1808, which gained for the victors their coveted object of territorial

on February 3, 1809, by congressional enactment. early day to the time of his removal, in 18 10, to Louisiana, afterward Missouri, Territory, John Rice Jones enjoyed an extensive and lucrative practice at law^ his eminent professional ability being universally recogHis practice extended nized and in frequent demand. from Cahokia to Louisville, embracing besides those place.s Kaskaskia, Prairie du Rocher, Vincennes, Shawneetown, and Clarksville, and also trans-Mississippi points, as St. Louis and Ste. Genevieve, especially after the cession of that country to the United States, in 1803, by France.* No writer in speaking of him has failed to pay the highest division,

From an

tribute to his jurisprudential learning

ing with one

who has

and

ability, all

agree-

declared him "a scientific and pro-

jurist, and through life a sound and enlightened expounder of the law;" and his contemporary political and personal enemies, like his post-mortem defamer, all (Conceded his preeminent talents and legal attainments. He was the first English-speaking lawyer in Indiana, and

found

'the first to practise his profession in Illinois, locating at

Kaskaskia in 1790, and frequently attending court there and at other extreme western points after his return to ^Vincennes,

some

ten years later, to reside.

His knowledge of various national laws was remarkably extensive, embracing not only a familiarity with American * Reynolds, Dillon,

Dunn,

et al.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

248

ILLINOIS.

and procedure, but also a thorough acquaintance with Spanish and French laws, particularly concerning the intricate subjects of land-grants and titles in the West; principles

while as a consequence of his legal education and practice in

England and Wales, he had a clear and

full

understand-

ing of the principles and rules of law and courts of those countries, as references in

some

of his opinions as a justice

of the supreme court of Missouri in a measure bear witness.* In addition to his legal erudition, he was deeply versed

mathematics, "which he preferred to any other science," and was also an accomplished linguist, thoroughly grounded in Greek and Latin, and perfectly conversant with French and Spanish, as well as Welsh his mother-tongue and English, learned early in life. His knowledge of French and Spanish enabled him to transact business with great in



facility



with the large portion of the inhabitants of the

far-western country

who understood only those

and who did not often

tongues,

competent interpreter in their dealings with the English-speaking authorities and AmeriHis intimate and correct knowledge of cans in general. the latter two languages was not only of very great advantage to him in his law practice and private business affairs, but caused his services to be often sought as an expert translator of old documents and interpreter in courts for He was for some time non-English speaking people. official interpreter and translator of the French, by regular appointment, to the board of commissioners at Kaskaskia, appointed under act of congress of March 26, 1804, for the adjustment of land titles and claims in that district.^f* All historians also agree that he was a brilliant speaker, J and in oral debate and controversy, as also with the pen, *

find a

See "Missouri Reports," 1820-24.

+ "Annals of Congress," 15th States Statutes at Large

cong., 2d sess., Vols. I

— Private Laws,

and

II; also

"United

1789- 1845."

X Reynolds, Williams, McDonough, Dunn,


al.

«

I

"

JOHN RICE JONES.

249

One who knew **a perfect master of satire and invective." him personally declares that while "his friendships were ardent and sincere, his hatred and anger were excessively scathing for the moment," and that "when his feelings of were excited, his words burnt his victims like drops of molten lead on the naked skin."* In December, 1808, occurred that melancholy event heretofore alluded to, the assassination of Rice Jones, the talented son of John Rice Jones, at Kaskaskia. This lamentable tragedy, about which we shall have more to ire

say

a sketch of

in

its

may be easily were of such a sickening nature as to render a

father, as Illinois

was a terrible blow to his understood, and its associations in

victim,

continued residence there objectionable.

At

this time, the

upper Louisiana Territory, rapidly developing under the quickening influence of the United States government, but a few years previously extended over it, was attracting very considerable attention and emigration from the older

and

settled sections eastward;

in the

summer

of 18 10, in

response to the earnest recommendation and urgent invitation of personal friends, Mr. Jones his

family,

first

removed thither with

locating at Ste. Genevieve, thence in a

short time going to St. Louis, and after a brief residence there,

removing to and

settling at

Mine a Breton, subse-

quently incorporated as Potosi, and which became the seat of Washington County on

its

organization in 18 13.

Here he at once became largely interested and systematically engaged in the mining and smelting of lead ore, first in company with the celebrated Moses Austin and subsequently in connection with his sons. With Mr. Austin

he erected the

first

cupola or reverberatory furnace

ever constructed in the United States,* which was greatly superior to the primitive furnace that

the mines since the time they were * Reynolds' " Pioneer History of Illinois.

17

had been first

in use in

opened, about

EARLY CHICAGO AND

250

by Francis Breton,

1765,

lead-mining districts

with him from Wales, dififerent

some

in

He

probably brought

a large part of which mining of

now an important industry, on the subject.

kinds was then as

practical ideas

The

as well as throughout all the

the country.

in

ILLINOIS.

Henry R. Schoolcraft

learned

and

visited

the Potosi

an interesting work* published shortly afterward, in describing the more important mines operated by "persons of intelligence and capital," says: "John Rice Jones, Esq., is engaged in penetrating the rock in search of ore, with the most flattering prospects, and is determined, as he informs me, to sink through the upper stratum of limestone and to ascertain the character of the mines

in

18 19,

in

succeeding formations.

from geognostic

It

is

highly probable, reasoning

relations, that the lower formations will

prove metalliferous, yielding both lead and copper, and such a discovery would form a new era in the history of these mines.

The

present

mode

of promiscuous digging

on the surface would then be abandoned, and people

made

and to realize the advantages of the only system of mining which can be permanently, uniformly, and successfully pursued, viz.: by penetrating the bowels of the The success of the experiments of Mr. Jones and earth." Mr. Austin, each then operating independently and being the first to so experiment, had the effect of making deep mining popular, as predicted by Mr. Schoolcraft, and more-

to see

over rendered the entire mineral region a profitable for operations for

many

John Rice Jones' intimate and lead-mines of the

field

succeeding years.

district,

critical

knowledge of the

including their output, state,

and the subject of the industry in all its aspects and stages, from the crude ore in the mines to the commercial article of pig-lead, with the items of value, characteristics,

cost of manufacture, transportation to foreign *

"A View

of the Lead-Mines of Missouri," etc.;

New

markets,

York, 1819.

jft.1

1

JOHN RICE JONES. etc.,

of the latter,

exhaustive report

etc.,

etc.,

is

25

shown by

and "Mine a

a lengthy

made by him under date

of

Burton, 6th Nov., 18 16," to Hon. Frederick Bates, St. Louis, recorder of land-titles in Missouri, at the latter's request,

and which Mr. Bates forwarded bodily to the commissioner of the general land-office, Washington, as his own report on the subject, which had been called for by the commissioner; Mr. Bates' report proper being a brief communicaWhile I was preparing to transtion opening thus: "Sir: mit to you my own opinions in answer to your inquiries



of the 3d of July last [18 16],

Rice Jones, Esq.,

who

is

a

I

man

received a letter from John

of extensive and accurate

observation, joint claimant with Mr. Austin in the

Burton

tract,

and conversant, as

economy of mineral

operations.

I

am

told,

with

Mine a all

the

After so minute and

comprehensive a statement as he has given, nothing remains for me except a more special reply to your third This third inquiry related to the "state of the inquiry." land-titles generally," which Mr. Jones forebore to answer, "as it would be indecorous for an individual, even were he both competent to the task and possessed of the necessary information, to attempt to enter into a particular investigation of any land-titles," as he states in his letter to Mr. Bates.*

John Rice Jones became largely interested

in

mineral

Mine a "Mine a Burton,

lands and other landed property while residing at

By

Burton.

a legal instrument dated at

District of Ste. Genevieve, Territory of Louisiana, 1

8 10,"

joint

it

Nov.

8,

appears that he and Moses Austin were then

owners of "the Mine a Breton tract" of land, "three

miles square" (nine square miles, or five thousand seven

hundred and sixty acres of rich mineral lands), for an interest in which and certain lots in the town of Herculaneum they had been offered $150,000, a large sum of *

"American State Papers

— Public Lands," Vol.

Ill, pp. 700-3.

"

EARJ.Y CHICAGO

252

money

in

AND

ILLINOIS.

those days, and for the purpose of engaging in

the extensive mining and smelting business on which they at that

a

time were about to consummate the formation of

powerful

named end.

chartered

corporation

— the

document

legal

constituting an important preliminary step to that

Mr. Jones died leaving a claim before congress for

a tract of several thousand acres of valuable land in

Illi-

on an appeal from the arbitrary ruling of the Kaskaskia commissioners, which claim was allowed his legal nois,

representatives so late as 1854.

John Rice Jones, who soon became distinguished

in

Missouri for his legal acquirements, his intelligence, his

sound judgment, and his force of character, was, as one of the three representatives from Washington County and one of the forty-one that composed the body, "a wise and efficient member" of the convention that framed the first constitution of the State of Missouri.

The convention met

Louis on June 12, 1820, and completed its labors July 19 following. After its temporary organization, he was one of a committee of five appointed "to draft and in

St.

report rules and regulations for the order and government

He was

one of four candidates before permanent president, and, though defeated, he received a complimentary vote for the position, "The constitution was a model of perspicuity and statesmanship, and withstood all efforts to supplant or materially amend it until the celebrated 'Drake convenof the convention."

the convention for

its

tion' of 186.5,"* ^iid as

rnessage to the

first

Gov. McNair declared

in his first

general assembly under the

new form

of government, was "a statesmanlike instrument that did

honor to its framers and to the infant State for which it had been framed." This first general assembly met in St. Louis in September, 1820, and among its first and most important duties * Switzler's " History of Missouri.

"

JOHN RICE JONES.

253

was the election of two United- States senators. Hon. David Barton, a great and good man, was chosen on the first

ballot,

but the

filling

of the remaining senatorship

was not so easily nor in the end unanimously accomplished. For that honor there were five aspirants, namely: John Rice Jones, Col. Thomas H. Benton, Judge John B. C. Lucas, and Messrs. Henry Elliot and Nathaniel Cook. John Rice Jones received a handsome vote, as also did Messrs. Cook and Elliot; but it becoming evident that the contest would inevitably narrow down to a struggle between Judge Lucas and Col. Benton, who were mortal enemies, the latter having a few years previously slain in a duel a gifted son of the former, the other three candi-

dates withdrew, and according to their sentiments joined

the Lucas or the Benton party. finally

Though

Col.

Benton was

chosen over his able and noble adversary, by very

by a slim maj'ority of one was prolonged, spirited, phases intensely dramatic, and

considerable manoeuvring and

vote, the contest for the prize bitter,

and

in

some of

its

forms one of the most remarkable and interesting episodes of the kind in the political history of the West.

"The

balloting continued through several days without success,

and the excitement that prevailed has not been excelled by any senatorial election which has since occurred in this or any other state," says one historian.* Of the two votes that elected Col. Benton, one was that of a Frenchman, Hon. Marie P. LeDuc, who had repeatedly declared that he would suffer the loss of his right arm rather than vote for Col. Benton, and who only changed his mind after subj'ection for a prolonged period to incessant argument, persuasion, and entreaty by a powerful tombination of personal and political friends; the other vote, that gave the bare majority of one, was cast by HonDaniel Ralls, who, unable from illness to attend the joint * Switzler, in his "

History of Missouri.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

254

session of the legislature,

bed,

by

was

ILLINOIS.

finally carried

room and was

four large negroes, from his

on his death-

to the legislative

both in the same building, just able to vote, dying a short time after being returned to his chamber.* At the same session of the general assembly, John Rice Jones was appointed one of the three justices of the supreme court of the new State, Mathias McGirk and John D. Cook being the other two; and after four years of service, alike creditable to himself, the bench, and Missouri, in this exalted position, he died while in office, February i, 1824, at St. Louis, within ten days of the completion of his sixty-fifth year, at which age the constitution excluded persons from the supreme bench, and deeply lamented not only by the bench, bar, and general public of Missouri, but by a wide circle of personal friends throughout the country, among them many prominent men of the day. Conspicuous among those whose distinguished friendship he had enjoyed, were Hon. Henry Clay, Col. Richard M, Johnson, Hon. Pierre Menard, Hon. David Barton, Judge Alex. Buckner, Judges Mathias McGirk and John D. Cook his associates on the supreme bench. Col. Henry Dodge, Hon. Edward Bates, Col. Thos. H. Benton, Hon.Wm. T. Barry, Judges Jas. Haggins and Jesse Bledsoe, Judge James H. Peck, Hon. Henry S. Geyer, Hon. John F. Darby, Hon. George F. Strother, Gen. Wm. H. Ashley, Hon. John Scott, Judge Nathaniel Pope, Judge Samuel McRoberts, Gov. John Reynolds, Hon. Ninian Edwards, the distinguished Morrison and Parker families of Kaskaskia and Lexington, respectively, and a great many more, whose friendship and esteem would have honored any man on earth.-fHaving sketched Judge Jones' public career, as well as hall,



*

Daiby's "Personal Recollections."

t Letter from ex-U.-S. Senator George Wallace Jones, who personally knew all the gentlemen named, and to whom they often spoke of his father,

Judge John Rice Jones,

in

terms of respect and admiration.

JOHN RICE JONES. our imperfect data would admit,

it

255

now remains

consider his character and more personal

to briefly

from the and who, therefore, may be considered competent authorities on the Perhaps no fuller and more reliable description subj'ect. of him is available than that given by ex-Gov. John Reynstand-point of those

olds of

who knew him

in his

Illinois,

traits,

well in

life,

The

valuable "Pioneer History."

author of that work knew Judge Jones personally and also was well acquainted with many men who knew him inti-



mately Hon. Robert Reynolds, the governor's father, and and as an unquestionably an old pioneer, among them honest, truthful man, a close observer of excellent judgment, an industrious gleaner of facts, and a conscientious,



careful historian, his statements are entitled to the fullest

This work of Gov. Reynolds has been largely

credit.

drawn on by

all

subsequent western historians for bio-

graphical and other data preserved nowhere descriptions of all

that

tion of

is

all

many prominent men

knowable about them

else,

and

of early days

are, at least,

if

his

not

the founda-

biographies of them.

This authority states that Judge Jones "possessed a strong and active mind, was rather restless, and excessively * * He always employed his time in some energetic.

honorable business, and never permitted himself to be or engaged in light or frivolous amusements.

idle

Like most

of his countrymen, he possessed strong passions, and at times, although he possessed a strong mind, his passions

swept over his reason like a tornado. When his feelings of ire were excited, his words burnt his victims like drops of molten lead on the naked skin. He was mild and amiable until some injury or insult, as he supposed, was offered him,

when he

burst asunder

all restraints

and stood

out the fearless champion of his rights, bidding defiance to

all

opposition.

courage.

*

*

He

possessed a great degree of personal

The death

of Judge Jones was regretted

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

2S6

by a wide

and the public generally. His and honesty were always above doubt or suspicion. He was exemplary in his moral habits, and lived a temperate and orderly man in all things. * * He was perfectly resigned to his fate, and died with that calm composure that always attends the exit of the noblest work of God, an honest man. * * The person of Judge Jones was small, but erect and active. His complexion was dark, and his hair and eyes very black. His eye when excited was severe and piercing." We thus have a graphic moral and character portrayal and a life-like physical portrait of Judge Jones that must be gratifying to everyone interested in the distinguished circle of friends

integrity, honor,

subject of this sketch.

The

just eulogistic utterances of

Gov. Reynolds could not be enhanced by the most ardent of friends and admirers, while to the personal description

nothing

is

to be

added of particular

historical

interest

except, perhaps, that Judge Jones was very dignified in his manners, refined in his tastes, scrupulously neat in his

person, and very particular in his dress, a part of which was the old-time knee-breeches, so closely associated in the modern mind with the anticflie cue, in which style he always wore his hair; and that besides being erect and active, as age advanced he developed that style of portliness that adds so much to the dignity of presence and

manners.

John Rice Jones was twice married.

His first wife was daughter of Richard and Mary Powell, a native of London, born May 24, 1759, and married in St. Mary's Church of England, to which both families beChapel longed in Brecon, Wales, January 8, 1781. Of this union Eliza,

— —

there was the following issue: Rice, born at Brecon, Brecknockshire, Wales,

September

28, 1781.

John, born at Brecon, Feb.

10, 1783,

and died

in infancy.

JOHN RICE JONES.

2$?

Maria, born at Brecon, March 21, 1784. Myers Fisher, born at Vincennes, Northwest Territory, U.S.A., March 11, 1787, and died at an early age. The mother of these children was an accomplished and refined woman of gentle birth, and died at Vincennes, now in Indiana, March 1 1, 1787, deeply mourned by her devoted A biographical sketch of Rice husband and children. this marriage, follows in this child by the eldest Jones,

volume. Maria, the only daughter, who was at the time of the removal of the family to America, in 1784, too delicate, as declared by a medical adviser, to bear the fatigue of the long ocean voyage, was left with friends in Wales. It was the father's intention to return for her

when

older and

stronger, but the early location of the family in the

remote

West, and the death there of her mother a short time afterward, precluded the execution of this cherished pur-

and when she was old enough to make the journey alone, she had become so beloved and loving a member of the most estimable family pose while she remained a

with

child,

whom

tinue a

she made her home as to induce her to conmember of that household, though she subse-

quently paid several protracted

America, between

whom

visits to

her relatives in

and herself there ever subsisted the tenderest attachment. In 1834, her half-brother William Powell Jones, U. S. N., visited her in Wales, subsequently accompanied her on a tour in France, and thence conducted her to the United States. Her deep and fervent piety and genuine Christian spirit, combined with a charming sweetness of disposition, great nobility of character, and cultivated intellect, secured her many devoted and undying friendships wherever she was known. She never married, and died among relatives and friends in London at an advanced age. The second wife of Judge Jones was Mary, eldest

"

EARLY CHICAGO AND

258

"

ILLINOIS.

daughter of George and Margaret Barger, whom he married at Vincennes, Northwest Territory, February 11, 1791, four years after the death of his first wife. She was a woman of many virtues and of those sterling qualities of character that were developed in all women subjected to the refining and strengthening ordeal of the peculiar vicissitudes and conditions of life and society in the early West, whither her father with his wife and a large family of children emigrated from Pennsylvania and settled in the country northwest of the Ohio at a very early day.

The Bargers were

of German ancestry, whose language spoke as well as the English and French. It is likely that the German was the first learned and for years the household language of the family, as the children of Mary (Barger) Jones relate that she always, even in age, said her prayers, learned at her pious mother's knee in childhood, in that tongue, though she was thoroughly conversant with both English and French, which she commonly spoke. Her father, George Barger, with other members of the family, were among those who had their claims under French or English grants confirmed by Gov. St. Clair of the Northwest Territory, under the resolves of congress of June and August, 1788,* and later by the U.-S. commissioners, appointed for the purpose of adjusting the old colonial claims; and her brothers Frederick, Peter, and George Barger, together with her husband,

they

all

John Rice Jones, were members of Capt. Pierre Gamelin's company of militia at Vincennes, in iygo,f and as such took part in Col. Hamtramck's campaign against the Wabash tribes in the fall of that year;:|: and for these, not for other services against the Indians, they each

if

received from the general government donations of one *

"American State Papers— Public Lands," Vol.

t Law's " The Colonial History of Vincennes. J Dillon's " History of Indiana.

I,

pp. 509-10.

'

1

JOHN RICE JONES.

259

hundred acres of land, conformably to the act of congress of March 3, 1791, as "militiamen duly enrolled in the militia at Vincennes on August i, 1790, and who had done militia duty."* It is

mention married

a fact sufficiently curious and interesting to merit in this

men

connection that no two of the four

of the same

nationality or blood

sisters

— Mary

marrying a Welshman, John Rice Jones Christina a SpanMr. Roderiques; Elizabeth a Frenchman, Baptiste La Chapelle, a descendant of that Bazyl La Chapelle who settled in Kaskaskia about 17 10; and Susan, the youngest, an Irishman, William Shannon, a merchant and banker and highly- esteemed citizen of Ste. Genevieve, and the early friend and patron of the late U.S. Senator Lewis ;

iard, a

V.

Bogy of Missouri. Mary (Barger) Jones was

rather small and slight in form, and had regular features and very black hair and eyes. She was of a very gentle nature, and highly regarded by all who knew her. She was born in Pennsylvania, May 17, 1767, and died at Potosi, Missouri, at her home with her son. Gen. Augustus Jones, on Jan. 6, 1839, having lived to a good old age and survived her husband some fifteen years. Following is a list of the children of John Rice and Mary (Barger) Jones, with dates and places of birth: John Rice, born Jan. 8, 1792, at Kaskaskia, N.-W. Ty. Eliza, born Jan. 10, 1794, at Kaskaskia, Northwest Ty. Augustus, born Feb. 18, 1796, at Kaskaskia, N.-W. Ty. Harriet, born Oct. 16, 1798, at Kaskaskia, Northwest Ty. Myers Fisher, born Oct. 19, 1800, at Kaskaskia, Indiana Territory.

George Wallace, born April

12, 1804, at

Vincennes, In-

diana Territory.

Nancy, born June young.

17, 1806, at

Vincennes, Indiana Ter-

ritory; died *

"American State Papers

—Public Lands," Vols.

I

and VII.



EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

26o

William Powell, born

May

Kaskaskia,

13, 18 10, at

Illi-

nois Territory.

Of

the above children, the following are brief biographi-

cal notices that

may

not be without interest in this con-

nection:

John Rice Jones, the eldest son, served under Henry Dodge in the war of 18 12, and removing to Texas, then a Mexican state, as early as 1831, became idenGen.

Capt.

tified

with

its

struggles for independence; which gained, he

became postmaster- general under the three forms of the Republic, provisional, ad interim, and constitutional proof enough of his ability and fidelity in the cabinets of as many of its executives, namely, Gov. Henry Smith and Presidents David G. Burnet and Mirabeau B. Lamar, respectively, and was a personal friend of and fellowpatriot with those men and their compeers, Hon. Stephen



F. Austin, "the father of Texas,"

Gen. Sam. Houston, Col.

Wm.

and

his dearest of friends;

James Bowie, David Crockett, Col. Benjamin R, Milam, and the many others whose memories are justly dear to the people of Texas, and whose names are as "familiar in their mouths as household words." Gen. Jones was one of the; two executors of the will of the heroic Col. Travis, the B. Travis, Col.

Col.

Henry Smith. at San Felipe de Austin, he was one 183 settlers of that place, which, as Austin, is now

other being ex-Gov.

Locating of the

first

in

1

the capital of the great Lone-Star State, and for years

was one of

its

prosperous merchants.

He

died in Fayette

County, Tex., on his plantation, "Fairland Farm," in that eventful year in which the Republic he loved so well and

had so long and faithfully served ceased to exist on becoming a state of the American Union 1845 and having married a daughter of Maj. James Hawkins in Missouri, in 1 8 18, he left a large and respectable family of children



;

JOHN RICE JONES. to cherish the

261

memory and contemplate

with just pride

the record of a devoted father and a noble man.

Gen.

Augustus Jones,

the second son, was a private

war with Great Britain, entering the and belonging, with his elder For many years he brother, to Capt. Dodge's company. was largely interested in mining, milling, and mercantile operations, and became a wealthy slave-owner and landed proprietor in Missouri, and later in Texas. He was a personal friend of Gen. Jackson, and during both terms of the

soldier in the second

service at the age of sixteen,

latter

as president served as

United -States marshal of

Missouri, during which period his valuable services, involv-

ing the performance of

many

daring deeds, evoked the

formal acknowledgments of congress.

He was

major-general of the Missouri state militia;

for years

by a small

majority was defeated on the Calhoun, or anti- Benton,

democratic ticket for congress in his in

commanded

1844;

a

company

district, in Missouri,

of volunteer cavalry in

the Mexican war, during which he was for a time military-

governor of Santa Fe, and

in

his

younger days

partici-

number of duels. One between Lionel Brown of Potosi,

pated, as principal or second, in a

of these was the fatal affair

whom

Gen. Jones was second, and the noted Col. John Smith T.* Mr. Brown was a lawyer and a nephew of the

of

famous Col. Aaron Burr, the slayer of Hon. Alexander Hamilton. The duel took place on the Illinois shore of the Mississippi River, at a point opposite

Herculaneum,

Mo., and resulted in the death of Mr. Brown, first fire

who

at the

received a bullet in the centre of his forehead.

'

Gen. Jones died in February, 1887, at the age of nearly * John Smith T was the odd name of Col. Smith. To distinguish himself from the many of the name, and also to indicate that he was from Tennessee, he had the " T " affixed to his name as a regular part thereof, by legislative

enactment, in accordance with the laws of Missouri. killed thirteen

men

in duels,

and never

to

He

is

have missed his mark.

said to have

EARLY CHICAGO AND

262

ILLINOIS.

ninety-one, at Columbus, Texas, whither he removed in 185

He was a freemason of high rank for nearly seventy He was thrice married, and left numerous descendof great respectability. Among the sons was Augus-

1.

years.

ants tus

Dodge

Jones, an able editorial writer and the talented

author of the ingenious pamphlet

"The True Method

of

Electing the President and Vice-President of the United

which attracted considerable attention some years ago. He removed to California in 1850, where he resided some twenty years, and held various positions of trust, and edited and published a number of newspapers there and in Nevada and old Mexico, as also later in Arkansas. For some time he was deputy-surveyor of the port of San Francisco, and for many years was grand worthy patriarch of the order of Good Templars of the State of California. He died in St. Louis, Mo., in December, 1885. Another son, William Ashley Jones, is well remembered as an early Iowa and Minnesota journalist and politician, and as a principal projector and executive officer of the first Minnesota railroad, the Winona and St. Peter an enterprise in which he lost a large fortune. He was in the '50's a deputy U.-S. land-surveyor, as for years such subdividing extensive portions of Minnesota and Wisconsin; was one of two U.-S. commissioners appointed in States,"

'





1855



by President Pierce

to adjudicate the claims of the

mixed-bloods of the Sioux nation of Indians to the great Lake- Pepin reservation, in Minnesota Territory; has held a number of honorable elective public offices, and at present

is

president of the Yankton, Okobojo

&

Fort Buford

Railroad Company, a late project which has quarters at Pierre, South Dakota.

A

its

head-

daughter became the

wife of Dr. Stephen D. Mullowney, an able physician, a

lieutenant in the

Mexican war, and

at

the time of his

Annephew of Gov.

death, in 1856, U.-S. consul at Monterey, Mexico.

other daughter married John P. Dunklin, a

Daniel Dunklin of Missouri.

JOHN RICE JONES.

265

Hon. Myers Fisher Jones, the third son, named for one of his father's distinguished Philadelphia friends, was a man of excellent mind and heart, and in the '20's and '30's prominently engaged in iron-smelting, milling, stock-dealwith his slaves in Washington County, ing, and farming which county he for a period represented in the state Mo., As an enterprising business man and citizen, legislature. he was selected as one of the representatives of his county in each of the two great internal-improvement conventions that met in St. Louis in April, 1835, and June, 1836, respectively, and which were composed of delegates, many in number and conspicuous in character, from every county They were the first important public meetin the State. ings to discuss the railroad question in Missouri, and by projecting several lines of railway, " foreshadowed the system of roads now existing in the State and inaugurated the net'work of intercommunication which at this day encompasses the whole State." He was a member of the important committee appointed by the last convention "to raise means for a complete reconnoissance and survey of the routes of the two proposed roads, to secure the services of skilful and competent engineers, and to cause the work to be done with as little delay as possible" duties which the committee duly performed. Mr. Jones removed to Texas in 1839, where he became extensively engaged in farming and stock-raising on an eight-thousand-acre tract of land he had purchased, and also became locally conspicuous in defending frontier set-







tlements against the frequent pillaging incursions of Indians or Mexicans, or both,

time being absent from

he with his company at one three months in pursuing

home

and punishing a desperate band of raiders, many of whom were killed and taken prisoners. He died in Texas in Twice married, he left numerous descendants of 1846. worth and most respectable character. One of his sons,

EARLY CHICAGO AND

264

ILLINOIS.

Oscar Peery Jones, served three years in the Mexican war, and another, Andrew Thompson Jones, was a young officer in the confederate army and twice made a prisonerof-war.

Gen.

George Wallace Jones,

the fourth son,

named

esteemed friend of his father's, George Wallace, son-in-law of Hon. John Gibson, secretary of the Indiana Territory, was educated at Transylvania University, Lexington, Ky., whence he graduated on July 13, 1825. He was bred to the bar, but ill-health prevented him from for another

practising.

He was

clerk of the U.-S. district court for

Genevieve County in 1826; served as aide-de-camp to Gen. Henry Dodge in the Black-Hawk war, in several engagements in which he took a prominent part, in one having his horse shot from under him; was chosen colonel of militia in 1832, and subsequently major-general; also as judge of the county court, by appointment of Gov. George B. Porter of Michigan, at the unanimous petition Ste.

of the bar. In 1835, he was elected delegate to congress from the

and served two years as such, and two years as delegate from Wisconsin Territory. In 1839, was appointed by President VanBuren as surveyor-general of the Northwest; was removed in 1841 for his politics, but reappointed by President Polk, and remained in office Iri until 1849. 1848, was elected United-States senator from Iowa for six years, and reelected on Dec. 20, 1852, for six years more, officiating as chairman of the committee on pensions and enrolled bills and on the committee on territories. At the conclusion of his last term, he was appointed by President Buchanan as minister to New Granada, now United States of Colombia, South America. Recalled by President Lincoln in 1861, he was on his arrival in Washington most kindly received by that great territory of Michigan,

JOHN RICE JONES.

265

man, and feted and feasted by the powers that were, cluding Secretary-of-state Seward,

an order

in-

issued

for ex-Minister Jones' arrest after the latter

had Dubuque, Iowa, and had him reasons never made known, in Fort Lafay-

departed for his imprisoned, for ette,

who subsequently

home

at

where he remained,

for sixty -four days,

accession of Secretary Stanton,

until

who caused him

the

to be

immediately released. Gen. Jones was the second of the lamented Hon. Jonathan Cilley, M. C. from Maine, in his fatal duel, in 1838, "on the Marlboro road to Baltimore from Washington City," with Representative William J. Graves from Kentucky, In an article on "Senate Eras," in The Dubuque Times some years ago. Gen. M. M. Trumbull, a graphic writer, thus refers to the subject of this sketch:

"Gen. Jones is today the most historic and perhaps the most remarkable character in the West. He sat in the senate with Clay and Webster and Calhoun, with Silas Wright, Benton, Crittenden, and Jefferson Davis, with Sum-

Seward, Chase, and Douglass. In the early part of the century, when Gen. Jackson was president, he sat in the house of representatives with Henry A. Wise and ner,

John Quincy Adams.

His

district included all of

gan, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota.

It

Michi-

now has over

He left the senate, not because of personal defeat, but because his party had gone out of power in Iowa. The intimate and trusted friend of thirty representatives in congress.

Andrew members

Jackson, the partner of Daniel Webster, he reJefferson. On terms of personal acquaintance

with nearly

^

all of our celebrated warriors and statesmen, he numbered among his friends and enemies the mighty red kings, Black Hawk, Keokuk, and Poweshiek. drummer-boy in the war of 18 12, Gen. Jones is a young man yet. He walks erect without a cane, with a light and springy step, and claims none of the indulgence and im-

A

18

.

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

266

munities of old age."

The

in the possession of full

home

in

distinguished gentleman is still mental and physical vigor at his

Dubuque, and bids

to enjoy

fair

life

for

many

years to come.

Of Gen. George Wallace

Jones' sons, George Rice GraJones was a captain of artillery in the confederate army, and as such taken prisoner at the surrender of Fort

tiot

Henry and

sent as the latter to the

son's Island, in

Lake

Jones, also served

camp on the

in

staff of

Union prison on John-

Erie; another, Charles Scott

Dodge

the Southern army, as an aide-de-

Maj.-Gen. Bushrod R. Johnson, until

the former's capture in battle as a prisoner-of-war by the

who confined him in Fort Delaware for many months; while the other son, William Augustus Bodley Jones, being opposed to secession, early entered and served in the Union army. The first two were graduates of the Western Military Institute at Nashville, Tenn., in which Hon. James G. Blaine was at the time a professor, and the third named was partially educated there. Prof. Blaine there introduced to Gen. Hon. Henry was Clay, Jones by in 1 850- 1, as Mr. Blaine some years ago in Washington reminded Gen. Jones. federals,

William Powell Jones,

the

fifth

and youngest son,

date of his untimely death, in July, 1834, from cholera, which he took when crossing the Mississippi River at the

in a

canoe at Dubuque, then

in

Michigan Territory, and

died of shortly after reaching the western shore, was a

passed-midshipman in the United States navy, and very shortly would have been commissioned a lieutenant, in which capacity he had acted in regular service at sea. He had just returned from a prolonged tour on the Continent and in England and Wales, for which he had obtained leave of absence for a year, and was visiting his relatives in the West before again reporting for duty at his post. Of a

I

JOHN RICE JONES.

267

bright mind, high-toned, and very ambitious, as well as of

most engaging manners, he was a very promising young as existing testimonials of his superiors in rank declare, and, if spared, in all probability would have in time attained an enviable rank and name in the history of officer,

the naval service of his country.

Eliza Jones, the eldest daughter of Judge John Rice was married, in Missouri, to Hon. Andrew Scott, who was a native of Virginia, where he fitted himself for the law. He removed to Missouri at an early day, and Jones,

was elected clerk of the house of representatives of the first territorial general assembly, and acted in the same

body at several succeeding sessions. In he was appointed, by President Monroe, U.-S. judge Arkansas Territory, and as such officer organized that

capacity for that 1820, for

He was a man of and juridical ability, and of the highest charand throughout a long life a universally-respected

territory at "the 'Post of Arkansas."

much acter,

legal

citizen of

One was

Arkansas.

of the historical incidents in his

his killing of

Little

Rock,

in

Gen.

1827.

Hogan*

in a

Gen. Hogan,

life

in

Arkansas

personal rencontre at

who was

a large and

powerful man, while Judge Scott was only of

medium

and knocking him down with a tremendous blow of the fist, killed him it was thought by the by-standers. Recovering in a moment, however, he sprang to his feet, and drawing the blade of his swordcane, then commonly carried, quickly advanced upon Gen. Hogan and drove the long, slender, keen weapon entirely through the latter's body. Gen. Hogan received a mortal wound, from which he a minute or two later dropped dead at his antagonist's feet, but not before he, Hogan, had desperately drawn the reeking blade from his body and size,

*

attacked the

It is

latter,

believed by the writer that this was his name.

"

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

268

made

a frantic lunge at

Judge Scott, which would have instantly killed him by piercing him through the neck had not the innumerable folds of a fine Italian silk

with

it

cravat,

worn by Judge

deadly weapon from

Scott, effectually turned aside the

its

Judge Scott immewas acquitted

fatal course.

diately surrendered himself,

and on

by the jury without leaving

their

his trial

box

in

the court-room.

Among many

descendants of Judge Scott are his children: Hon. John R. Homer Scott of Russellville, Ark., an ex-state senator and a captain in the confederate army;

Mrs.

J.

under

Russell Jones, wife of the U.-S. minister to Belgium

warm

his

personal friend, President Grant; and the

Benjamin Campbell, wife of the ex-U.-S. marshal which latter gentlemen reside in Chicago. late Mrs.

for the northern district of Illinois,* both of

Harriet Jones, was twice married.

many

the second daughter of Judge Jones,

Her

who

for

ness

man

firm

of McKnight &

office;

first

husband was Thomas Brady,

years was a prominent merchant and busi-

of St. Louis, as a

was born

in

member

Brady.-f-

Ireland,

He

March

of the old

and wealthy

never held any public 17,

1781; married to

Miss Jones in Missouri in 1814; and died near St. Louis, October 11, 1821. This union was blessed with five children, one of whom became the wife of Col. George W. Campbell, deceased, late of Chicago; one the wife of Dr.

Jacob Wyeth, a native of Cambridge, Mass.; and another the wife of Mr. Ferdinand Rozier of Ste. Genevieve. * Mr. and Mrs. Campbell are the parents of Mrs. Gen. O. E. Babcock, •widow of one of Gen. Grant's

staff-officers.

were John McKnight and Thomas Brady, and Thomas McKnight and James Brady, who under the style of Brady & McKnight were a later-formed Says firm than the preceding, though latterly contemporaneous with it. Darby " The early records of deeds still show the immense amount of real estate owned by these firms in St. Louis city and county, and other counties t

The members

of this firm

are not to be confused with their respective brothers,

:

of the State.

In their day and lime they also did the largest mercantile

business in the City of St. Louis.

I

"

JOHN RICE JONES.

269

Some years after the death of Mr. Brady, his widow became the wife of the celebrated Hon. John Scott of Ste. Genevieve, an eminent lawyer and a successful politician, who as

figured prominently in the early history of Missouri

territorial

years,

delegate in

councillor,

member

a

of the

first

congress

four

for

State constitutional con-

vention, and representative in congress from 1822 to 1826.

He was

a native, as was also his brother Judge

Hanover County,

Andrew

and a graduate of Says a recent historian:* "John Princeton College. Scott, a great lawyer, would have been noticeable anywhere, with his long white cue of hair hanging gracefully down his shoulders, or else clubbed and tucked up with a comb. A man whose conversation would interest a suave, courteous, you even in a fit of the toothache peppery gentleman of the old school, who bowed and complimented and swore, as might be expected from the son Scott, of

Virginia,



of a planter of 'the slashes of Hanover,'

who always

car-

and pistol on his person, and was always ready He died at Ste. Geneto give and receive a challenge." His descendants are numerous and highly vieve in 1 861. respectable, among them the wife of Hon. Samuel Montford Wilson, the eminent lawyer of California, who for a time was influentially recommended for the position of ried dirk

secretary of the interior in President Cleveland's cabinet.

The daughters marked

of Judge Jones were high-spirited

women

and character, and, like their brothers, were "a credit to the stock from which they In concluding this imperfect memoir, we reprosprung." duce the following observations, made by a well-known writer.i* last above quoted, who in speaking of Judge Jones' of

intellectuality

• Scharf, in his " History of St.

+ Franc B. Wilkie journalist,

Louis City and County.

— "Poliuto"— the

in a biographical sketch of

Chicago Times of February 20, 1886.

talented

and

versatile author

Gen. George Wallace Jones,

in

and The

270

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

children, says:

so

many

"It

is

rare in the history of families that

sons have been born

developments, and of

whom

who were

so even in their

each was characterized by a

high order of ability both from nature and acquirement.

Each of them rose far above the average level of men, and each played a conspicuous part in the drama of life."

"

RICE JONES, A BRIEF MEMOIR OF THE LAST REPRESENTATIVE OF RANDOLPH COUNTY IN THE INDIANA TERRITORIAL GENERAL ASSEMBLY, AND THE VICTIM OF AN HISTORICAL TRAGEDY OF EARLY ILLINOIS.

By W. A. Burt Jones *

*

*

Remembrance

of St. Paul, Minnesota.

"Oft and well shall his story

tell.

Affection of his virtues speak,

With beaming eye and burning cheek."

RICE

JONES,

the gifted son and eldest child of John

Rice Jones, by his first marriage, was born at Brecon, Brecknockshire, Wales, Sept. 28, 1781. In the autumn of 1784, he

accompanied

his parents to Philadelphia,

whither

the husband and father had preceded the wife and son in the foregoing spring to

first satisfy

himself as to the advis-

United States, and a removed with the family to Vincennes. At an early age he was matriculated at Transylvania University, Lexington, Kentucky, the alma mater of so many eminent public men, and in due time graduated therefrom in letters and with much distinction. He subability of locating his family in the

few years

later

sequently took his degree in the medical department of the great University of Pennsylvania; but forming a dislike for the

abandoned

medical profession after a brief practice, he it

and entered the celebrated law-school

Litchfield, Conn., at that

kind

in the

time "the

first

at

institution of the

United States,"* and which he quitted with

increased honor after a period of intense application to *

American reprint of

"

Chambers' Encyclopaedia.

271

"

EARLY CHICAGO AND

2/2

ILLINOIS.

Returning to the West, he opened an office at Kaskaskia toward the close of 1806, and began the prac-

study.*

tice of law.

The career that opened before this extraordinary young man, intellectually brilliant, broadly educated, thoroughly equipped for his chosen profession and a life of usefulness and honor, and filled with the noblest aspirations, was indeed most promising, and moreover one that would undoubtedly have been realized in all respects but for his unfortunate active engagement in local politics, which then and for some four or five years later gave rise, in the western counties particularly, to party spirit of an intensely rancorous nature, and which raged with an unrestrained and almost incredible violence. Bitter partisanship on both sides characterized all the prominent politicians, conspicuous among whom was Rice Jones, who, though still very young, had risen by force of talents, zeal, and energy to the leadership of his party.* It

is

not absolutely clear just what

differences

between

Indiana- Illinois

the parties were, but

territorial division

all

the political

it is

sure that the

question was a leading

coupled with the long-prominent slavery question, and equally certain that in time a great deal of personal jealousy and animosity aggravated, if it did not quite issue,

supercede, the political feeling.

citement reached

its

The

long-continued ex-

greatest height in

and immediately

succeeding the memorable election of July 25, 1808, in Randolph and St. Clair counties, which was recognized as a life-and-death struggle between the pro-divisionists and

opponents throughout the territory of Indiana, and in which, as has been stated in the biographical sketch of John Rice Jones, victory perched upon the banner of the

their

divisionists

or

anti-Harrisonians in

both counties.

In

Randolph County, Rice Jones was triumphantly elected *

Reynolds' " Pioneer History of

Illinois.

RICE JONES.

273

representative in the lower house of the general assembly,

and John Messinger, a member of the State constitutional convention of 18 18 and otherwise prominent, was chosen to represent St. Clair County in the same body.

was a self-evident

It

fact, in

view of the then composi-

tion of the legislature, that the triumph of the Illinois

party would result in the final overthrow of the Harrison-

hence the

ians,

bitter fight

summated by the

and

feeling;

election, at

and

this

was con-

the next session of the

general assembly, as delegate in congress of -Hon. Jesse

Thomas, speaker of the house, afterward president of first State constitutional convention, and a judge of

B.

the

the

first

territorial court

of

Illinois,

who

speedily secured

the separation of Illinois from Indiana Territory and erection

into

independent autonomy.

its

This fidelity to

and also to his plighted word and written bond John Rice Jones, then a councillor, to make assurance doubly sure, is said to have required both from him before agreeing to his election* brought upon his devoted head the execration of the anti-division party throughout the Territory, who, while they justly recognized him as the final agent in their defeat, very unreasonably and irrationally charged him, a notoriously avowed and foresworn divisionist, with perfidy, and in one community, Vincennes, principle,



for



carried their malevolence to such an excess as to

him

hang

in effigy.

At Kaskaskia,

the Harrisonians' chagrin and keen dis-

appointment, both personal and

political, at defeat in the county election and that of Delegate Thomas, assumed

the character of deep-seated hate in

some whose rage

could scarcely be contained, and personal conflicts between

gentlemen on either side were constantly imminent. This state of affairs continued to grow from bad to worse, until it culminated in the assassination of Rice Jones, a leading *

Dunn's "Indiana," and Ford's "History of

Illinois."

EARLY CHICAGO AND

274

member

ILLINOIS.

of one of the parties, which in a measure satisfied

the mahgnity of the one side, warned the other as to what

they might reasonably expect from their unscrupulous enemies if the antagonistic conditions between them were maintained, and "quieted the party feuds for a time,"

if

not practically permanently. In order to review all the circumstances immediately connected with the killing of Rice Jones, we must turn back to an hour in the past period of the heated political

canvass preceding the election named, in which a challenge to mortal combat under the rules of the code duello passed

between Rice Jones and the Hon. Shadrach Bond, an exrepresentative in

the

territorial

legislature,

afterward a

delegate in congress from Illinois Territory, and the

governor of the State of the challenge,

named

first

Rice Jones accepted

Illinois.

pistols as the

weapons, and at the

appointed time the principals, with their attendants,

Wm.

Morrison as Jones' second and Dr. James Dunlap as Bond's second, and their surgeons, met on an island in the Mississippi River

between Kaskaskia and

Ste. Genevieve.

In those days, pistols and guns were provided with the

now obsolete hair-trigger, which, as defined by Webster, was "so constructed as to discharge a fire-arm by a very slight pressure, as by the touch of a hair," and when the parties had taken their respective positions and were preparing to be in readiness for the word "fire," Rice Jones inadvertently touched the sensitive trigger of his weapon,

which instantly exploded. The fact that the bullet from the exploded pistol entered the ground a few feet from Rice Jones and not in the direction of Mr. Bond, perfectly satisfied the latter that the shot was totally accidental, and, high-toned gentleman that he was, he so unhesitatingly declared it when his second, the infamous Dr. James Dunlap, exclaimed that the accidental explosion was Jones' fire, and that Bond might and should fire at his adversary

RICE JONES. in return.

The contemptible

275

proposition was scorned

by-

Mr. Bond, and the difficulty between the principals was settled on the spot on terms equally honorable to both.

The

difficulty

political

between them had been entirely of a

nature, or at least not resultant from a deep-

seated personal enmity, and therefore was susceptible of

comparatively easy adjustment; but such was not true with regard to the ill-feeling which had long existed be-

tween Rice Jones and Dr. Dunlap, and which became more intense as a result of the latter's unmanly position on the subject of the unfortunate accident on the duelling ground. There ensued between them a bitter controversy, which was taken up by their respective friends, and that extended to an angry newspaper contention, in which the scathing and acrimonious pen of Rice Jones, particularly as employed in the composition of a certain satirical poem, drove his adversaries to a pitch of fury closely bordering on mania, and evoked from them dire threats of personal violence upon the object of their rancor. The ill-feeling of older standing, above referred to, had its

origin in the arbitrary official conduct of Michael Jones*

and Elijah Backus, land-commissioners at Kaskaskia, to which they were appointed in 1804; conduct which was deliberately pursued with the purpose to militate, as

it

greatly, against the interests of not only Rice Jones his father, but

many

numbers of whom, as

did

and

of the people of the district, large their personal

and

political

enemies

the commissioners, especially Jones, taking advantage of their official position to

wreck vengeance upon the objects

of their dislike, years subsequently "branded Wx'dx perjury

and forgery

to

an alarming extent

— many of the best

citi-

zens in the county being stigmatized with those crimes,

without cause, and

when they had

neither

means nor man-

ner of defending themselves "•!• against the infamous and *

No

relation of Rice Jones.

t Reynolds' "Pioneer History of

Illinois," pp. 297-8.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

276

ILLINOIS.

unfounded charges. Such men as Michael Jones* and Elijah Backus were the friends of Dr. Dunlap and other mortal enemies of Rice Jones. The arbitrary conduct first referred to was justly strongly resented by many, among them John Rice Jones and his son Rice, who were not the men to tamely submit to the gross impositions of the commissioners or any one else, and who in consequence were thereafter made the special victims of the official despotism of the commissioners in question, so far as it was possible for them to exercise it; and the later political popularity and triumph, in July, 1808, of Rice Jones tended still more to make him the particular object of the dislike of his political and personal enemies, prominently among whom were the abovenamed Michael Jones and Elijah Backus, who, as is a matter of record, deliberately "urged Dr. Dunlap and others to persecute Rice Jones in every way imaginable."-!* A part of this persecution was a newspaper attack by them upon him, who, as has been stated, got the better of them in his replies and retorts. Their threats then made against his life became, in November, 1808, so open and loud, and rumors of the existence of a plot to kill him so definite, as to no longer be endured with the silence with which they had up to that time been treated. John Rice Jones, who had just removed with his family from Vincennes to Kaskaskia, accordingly addressed the following note to Elijah Backus:

"Kaskaskia, 25th Nov., "Sir: that

if

* It



my

have just heard of your threats of yesterday,

I

son did not go out of the country he should

in

should be noted that Michael Jones was the Harrisonian candidate for

delegate to congress, in October,

more

1808.

greatly incense

so unfortunate as to

him

fall

1808,

and

that his defeat only tended to

against his political opponents

and those who were

under the ban of his vicious displeasure.

t McDonough's "History of Randolph County,"

p. 105.

RICE JONES.

277

a few days be put out of existence shall be done'

I

now inform you



'//

will be done,

it

that he will remain here,

and if he should be murdered, either by you or through your instigation, I shall know where to apply. I must, however, confess that the threats of poltroons can be considered in no other light than as those of assassins.

John Rice Jones."

"Yours,

not known what immediate effect this communicahad upon the conspirators, but it did not prevent them

It is

tion

from carrying into execution to the letter their diabolical on December 7, following, Rice Jones was shot down in cold blood in a public thoroughfare of Kaskaskia, by James Dunlap, the cat's-paw of his co-conspirators, none of whom had the nerve to assume the responsibility

plot, for

of the enactment of the bloody deed they were capable of conceiving in the wickedness of their hearts.

The

following particulars of the deplorable event are

taken from a detailed account of the murder and circumstances attending

ago

in

it,

contained in a book found some years

the old mansion of Judge John Morrison, in Water-

loo, Monroe County, Illinois, when that structure was being demolished to make room for other improvements. Extracts from "Judge Morrison's old musty record of the killing" were published in The Belleville News-Democrat of February 18, 1887, and are here reproduced. This

singularly-preserved, detailed, and authentic account, evi-

dently in

made

not a great while after the assassination, and

the place of

its

occurrence, from oral accounts of eye-

witnesses of the tragedy, and

by

on the subject, possesses a great

new

light

man minutely informed

a

historic value

upon the sad occurrence.

and sheds

It testifies that:

"Rice Jones was shot down by Dunlap about six yards above the old elm tree. Dunlap came out of E. Backus' house about ten minutes before he shot Jones. He (Dunlap)

EARLY CHICAGO AND

2/8

was there at

in

ILLINOIS.

company with Backus.

Dunlap's when he came galloping

John Menard was

home from

killing

John Menard, Jones, and that he had 'killed the rascal Jones.' John Clino, living with James Gilbreath, and Robert Morrison saw Dunlap McCall was talking at the picket fence of shoot Jones. James Gilbreath's yard, McCall on the inside and Dunlap on the outside of the pickets, when Rice Jones passed out of Robert Morrison's yard, going down to J. Edgar's, when, after he had passed Dunlap and McCall down the further side of the street, Dunlap jumped off his horse and hitched his bridle on the pickets where he and McCall were talking, and started after Jones, who was walking down the street, when he crossed the street up behind him, a distance of one yard, and Dunlap told him to stop. Jones immediately turned around, and Dunlap said: 'I am going to revenge myself,' and instantly fired his pistol, about The ball entered his three feet from the body of Jones. body on the right side, just below the collar-bone, and came out behind, about five inches below the top of his William Morrison and shoulder, close by the backbone. McCall ran to Jones, and several persons asked him what was the matter, and he replied: 'That rascal, Dunlap, has shot me.' And Morrison asked him for what reason, and Jones answered: T don't know;' and said: T am gone,' and expired in about five minutes. "The moment Dunlap shot Jones, he ran back to his horse where McCall had stood,. jumped on him, and galloped off as fast as possible to his house, where he told his wife, in presence of John Menard, that he had 'shot that rascal Jones,' and immediately loaded his pistols and started off down the road toward the Point, in company with R. Porter, and has never been seen since." Here the account goes on to say: told his wife, in the presence of

"It

is

well

known

that

Backus, Robinson, Gilbreath,

"

RICE JONES. Finney, Michael Jones, and

holding counsel to

kill

this

279

Langlois were

man Rice

Jones.

in

Cahise's

The day

Dunlap sent a challenge to William Morrison, Backus, Robinson, and Gilbreath were at Dunlap's, with T. Smith holding the door

fast,

while Capt. Bilderback stood at the

door a long time and could not get

in, although his daughwas at the point of death. At last Dunlap opened the door, and said 'the men were in council for that purpose^ intimating the killing of young Jones, and Gilbreath answered Bilderback and said his daughter would not die for one hour. J. Edgar saw these men go down to Dunlap's that day and remain nearly two hours, and from the movements of these men back and forward from Dunlap's house for some time before that day and on the very day Jones was shot, [there was no doubt] that these men were

ter

accessories to the death of Rice Jones."

were lacking anything to thoroughly convince who compassed the death of Rice Jones were actuated by the most virulent passions, the measure of proof would be filled to overflowing by the following blasphemous and altogether unparalleled utterances, quoted from the Morrison record, of one of them, whose spirit may be presumed to have characterized all of the conspirators: "James Finney* said in Folk's 'that if he met Jesus Christ in the street he would give his hand in preference to Dunlap, and if Dunlap went to hell he would go to hell also in preference to going to heaven; and if Dunlap was to go to heaven, he would get a higher seat in heaven than Jesus Christ, and be set at the right hand of God for killing Rice Jones.' If there

the world that the persons

The * This

friends of Dr. James Finney

is

Dunlap

farcically

pretended to claim

presumed to be the one of that name who from

*79S to 1803 was one of the twelve men who constituted the Randolph County court of common pleas, other prominent members of which were Justices

John Edgar, Pierre Menard, and Robert Reynolds.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

280

ILLINOIS.

that he did the killing in self-defence, but eye-witnesses it, as do all historians, a deliberate and coldblooded murder, by the law of both God and man a fact of which Dunlap was perfectly well aware and knew would be easily proven, as is evidenced by his immediate abandonment of wife and children and flight to far-off Texas, as was subsequently learned, whence he never returned to answer for his crime in the temporal courts of Illinois. It was no doubt a part of the prearranged plan for Dunlap to flee the country, that he could not be brought to trial, in which his evidence would have hopelessly implicated his companions in crime as immediate accessories to the The case was brought to the attention of assassination. the grand jury, which, after bringing in an indictment against Dunlap for murder, also indicted Michael Jones, because "he did, on the 6th day of December, 1808, incite, move, aid, and abet, feloneously and with malice aforethought, the said James Dunlap to commit the crime of

declared



murder."

When

the case of The United States versus Michael was reached on the calendar of the territorial circuit Jones in September, court, 1809, Judges Alexander Stuart, Obadiah Jones, and Jesse B. Thomas presiding, the prosecuting-attorney, B. H. Doyle, presenting an affidavit of Archibald McKnabb, "an important witness," to the effect that he was too sick to attend court, asked for a continuance of the trial, which being granted, Michael Jones was admitted to bail in the sum of $3000, his sureties being John McFerron, Shadrach Bond, jr., Thomas Leavens, Henry Leavens, Henry Connor, and Samuel Cochran. The postponed case came up for trial on April 10, 18 10, before a

Wm. Rector, Paul Harralson, Thomas McBride, John Anderson, George FrankDavid Anderson, John McFerron, Henry Connor, Geo.

jury consisting of

Wideman, lin,

Wm.

Creath, Jacob Funk, and James Fulton,

who brought

in

a

"

RICE JONES. verdict of acquittal.

As

281

"there were probable grounds for

preferring the indictment," the court "exonerated the prose-

cutor

—John Rice Jones —from paying the costs!"*

The

?

among

fact that

the jurors were two of the accused

man's bondsmen and sympathetic personal

friends,

and

other peculiar circumstances of the conduct of the case

and

may not have any significance; but it is fair to men who would be so far influenced by "hate

trial,

infer that

that sins" and rank envy as to coolly plot the deliberate

murder of a fellowman, would not scruple to avail themany foul means that could be employed toward the acquittal of one on trial for complicity in a crime to the committing of which they all contributed and in the perpetration of which they gloried the death of one whose selves of



brilliancy,

virtues,

personal popularity with the people,

and promise of great political and professional success, filled his enemies with a jealousy which, with the disappointment of political defeat and the pruriency of personal enmity, simply made the matter of his removal imperatively necessary to their peace of mind. These are the conclusions that force themselves upon the mind when the facts and circumstances preceding and attending the murder are studied

While

it is

in their true relations.

a matter of historical record that "the whole

community mourned the death of this fine young man, cut off in his prime by an assassin," it is equally certain that the finding of the jury was not in accord with the popular verdict; for familiar as they must have been, from the notoriously open threats and malevolent actions of the enemies of the murdered man, with the circumstances

leading up to the killing, the people knew, however a jury

might decide, that James Dunlap was guilty of murder in the first degree, and that Michael Jones, Elijah Backus, James Gilbreath, James Finney, and their worthy confrtres *

McDonough's

19

"

History of Randolph County,

111.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

282

ILLINOIS.

were immediate accessories to the atrocious crime; and as gloriously to them, in such they will go down in history their own estimation, be it said, if they died entertaining the shocking sentiments heretofore quoted as expressed by the blasphemous Finney, one of the immortal band. Of the abilities and qualities of Rice Jones, it is here and now unnecessary to speak at length, as all writers



concede

and

extraordinary capacity, his brilliant talents,

his

his varied

mental attainments; while his noble per-

sonal characteristics were such as to greatly endear

him

to the mass of the people, whose hearts were not of that

unhappy kind that beat in the However preeminent

enemies. ally,

if

breasts of his implacable ^

man may be

intellectu-

detestable traits and odious conduct distinguish

him, "the entire- community" in which he dwells never

and the county of Randolph for Rice Jones. While they abhorred his slayers and their bloody deed, they mourned his death and his tragic fate, because grieves for him, as did the people of Kaskaskia

"

His

life

So mixed

And

was noble, and the elements

in him, that

say to

all

Nature might stand up

the world, This was a man."

Ex-Gov. Reynolds of Illinois, who knew him personally and was intimate with many public men and others who knew him well, writing so late as 1852, declares that "judging from the character he acquired at school and from what was known of him at Kaskaskia, it is not improbable that his superior was not in the country before or after his death.

*

*

He

possessed a .strong intellect

endowed with an excessive ambition, together with an ardent and impetuous disposition that showed the Welsh temperament more than his father," and that, altogether, "he was a young man of exceedingly great promAnother historian, in concluding a notice of him, ise." and was

also

RICE JONES.

283

declares that in his untimely death "the bar of Illinois

was deprived of one of politics of

its

most promising members and

a bright particular star;" and

all

writers

who

have occasion to speak of him, without exception, express similar glowing opinions of him.

One of his classmates at the Transylvania who afterward became nationally eminent as a tor

University, U.-S. sena-

from Kentucky and as vice-president of the United and brilliant Col. Richard Mentor John-

States, the learned son, often

spoke of him to Gen. Geo. Wallace Jones,

who

sat

with Johnson in the national senate and was a half-brother of Rice Jones, and declared him, the latter, one of the most gifted case,

men he had ever known. Such having been the who can help but think that had he not fallen a

victim to the deadly hatred of assassins he would have

become one of the most distinguished sons of his adopted State, and left a name that she would have proudly cherished forever

made

among

those of the illustrious

her history so glorious.

Yet she

will

men who have not forget him

whose able and zealous advocacy of her claims to recognition as a territory was largely instrumental in defeating the machinations of her enemies and speedily placing her on the way to early admission and that proud place among the sisterhood of states which she soon achieved, has ever maintained, and will continue to grace.* * The address of welcome of the citizens of Randolph County to Gov. Ninian Edwards on his arrival in Kaskaskia in June, 1809, opens thus: "Presuming that you may be in some degree unacquainted with the feelings and

sentiments of the citizens at this important

crisis,

we can

not forbear to

express our hopes that you will take into consideration that the majority,

whose incessant exertions effectuated a division of the territory, have a claim on your excellency for the calumnies, indignities, and other enormities which those who opposed that measure never ceased to heap upon the friends and advocates of the present system of our government. In announcing these truths, while we deplore that the gentleman [JSsse B. Thomas] who was elected to congress and ultimately succeeded in obtaining justice for us, was hung in effigy at Vincennes, by the oppoeers of the division, and that one

EARLY CHICA(;0 AND

284

H-LINQIS.

he died neither unwept nor unsung, and chroniclers of early Illinois history will continue to pay that just Still

tribute to his talents, his character, and his patriotic services

first

contained

in

the writings of that impartial histo-

and nobleman, the late ex-Gov. John Reynolds. Well may each one who has honorably figured in the history of his country, his state, or his community, rian

"Wish no

No

other herald,

other speaker of his living actions.

To keep

honor from corruption,

his

Than such an honest

chronicler."

To this day, the spot near "the old elm tree," where Rice Jones fell mortally wounded and a moment afterward expired, on that memorable December day, full four score years ago,

is

pointed out to visitors by the people of Kas-

kaskia, where "

The

memory

soft

Lingers, like twilight hues

of his virtues yet

when

the bright sun

is

set."

of the warmest friends and ablest advocates of the measure [Rice Jones] was assassinated at Kaskaskia, in consequence of their machinations, we derive great consolation from a firm belief that your excellency will gratify the virtu-

ous majority, to vi'hose patriotic exertions the citizens are indebted for the

government of

their choice,

honorable indemnity which

them

and your excellency your high is

in

your

gift,

as a remuneration for all those indignities,

support to your administration."

Note

to

be read

after

station, with that

and which would be considered by and a pledge of

— Edwards' "History of

their future

Illinois," pp. 29-30.

second paragraph on page 239:

Since writing the above, the author has learned from a reliable source that

John Rice Jones owned

slaves at Vincennes, Kaskaskia, Ste. Genevieve, and

Potosi, or during the entire period dating from shortly after his

Northwest Territory, Missouri, in 1824.

in

1786,

if

coming

to the

not before, to the time of his death, in

All of his children were likewise slave-owners.

I

JOHN TODD. JOHN

TODD,

the

first

civil

governor under the laws

of Virginia of the region of which the State of IIHa part, was born in Montgomery County, Pennsylon March 27, 1750. He was a son of David Todd and Hannah Owen, and was early left an orphan. He and his brother Levi came under the care of their uncle. Rev. John Todd, in distinction from whom the subject of this sketch was known as John Todd, Junior. He received nois

is

vania,

his early education at the classical

academy of

this uncle,

This county adjoined that of Hanover, where Patrick Henry spent his early life. Mr. Henry was elected to the house of burgesses, by Louisa County, and he afterward removed there. In its courts he practised law, and it is probable that he thus became acquainted with John Todd in his youth, and his early impressions of him may have had something to do with in

Louisa County, Virginia.

his after-selection of

Todd

county- lieutenant of

Illinois.

Todd tised

his

for the

studied law with Gen.

important position of

Andrew

Lewis, and prac-

profession for a short time in the counties of

Botetourt and Bedford, in Virginia.

He

served as aid to

Gen. Lewis at the battle of Point Pleasant and in the

campaign of 1774 against the Scioto towns. In the following year he removed to Kentucky, and joined in the establishment of St. Asaph Station. He was one of those who met at Boonesboro' on May 23, 1775, "under the great elm tree near the fort," to establish the proprietary government of the so-called colony of Transylvania, comprising more than half of the present State of Kentucky; and 285

286

,

EARLY CHICAGO AND

ILLINOIS.

was a leading member of its assembly, the body organized west of the Alleghanies.

first

He

legislative

established

himself at Todd's Station, near Lexington, Kentucky, in 1776, and in December of that year, with nine others, went through the wilderness to bring the powder which Virginia had granted for the defence of the frontier, from Limestone Creek to the Kentucky forts. His party was defeated on Christmas day by the Indians at the Blue Licks, and he narrowly escaped death near the very place at which he was destined to fall a (ew years later. In the spring of 1777, he and Richard Calloway were chosen the first burgesbss from Kentucky to the general

assembly of Virginia, and made the perilous journey to Williamsburg to perform their public duties. He rendered bringing about the expedition of George Rogers Clark to the Illinois, in 1778, and was with that famous soldier at the capture of Kaskaskia and of VinThis has been doubted, but the fact is estabcennes. lished by family papers that Todd accompanied Clark in this campaign, and there is a tradition that he was the first man to enter the fort at Kaskaskia when it was taken from the British. In October, 1778, the general assembly of Virginia passed "an act for establishing the County of Illinois, and It for the more effectual protection and defence thereof" provides that all the citizens of Virginia settled on the western side of the Ohio shall be included in a distinct This practically county, to be called Illinois County. included the whole region afterward known as the Northwest Territory. Of this county, the governor of the State was authorized to appoint a county-lieutenant or commandant, who could appoint and commission deputy commandants, militia officers, and commissaries, and pardon all offences except murdisr and treason. On December 12, 1778, Patrick Henry, as governor of efficient aid in

JOHN TODD. Virginia,

Todd

by

287

virtue of the aforesaid act, appointed

commandant his new post

county-lieutenant or

He

Illinois.

repaired to

spring, arriving at

Kaskaskia

in

May,

John

of the County of

the following

in

1779.

He was

ex-

ceedingly busy with the duties of his government during the greater part of that year, and evidently found his position distasteful, for in a letter to the governor of Vir-

dated Kaskaskias, August

ginia,

18, 1779,

he asked per-

mission to attend the session of the legislature in the following spring, and "get a discharge from an office which

an unwholesome air, a distance from my connexions, a language not familiar to me, and an impossibility of pro-

many

curing

of the conveniences of

life

suitable, all

tend

to render uncomfortable." Col. Todd, however, does not

appear to have been granted have availed himself of it, and during the few remaining years of his short life,, although he seems not to have been in Illinois after 1779, his correspondence shows that he was earnestly attentive to its interests. In 1780, he was elected a delegate from the County of Kentucky to the legislature of Virginia, and was married while attending its session of that year, to Miss Jane Hawkins. this permission, or to

In the

Todd

summer

of 1781, Gov.

Thomas

Jefferson appointed

colonel of Fayette County, Kentucky; and in May,

1782, he

was made one of the trustees of Lexington,

that State,

by

act of Virginia.

In the

summer

in

of that

he commanded the little force of one hundred and eighty men who went in pursuit of the Indians retreating from Simon Girty's famous raid on the settlements south of the Ohio, and on August 19, 1782, he died heroically at the disastrous battle of the Blue Licks. His only child, Mary Owen Todd, was married first to a Mr. Russell, and afterward became the second wife of Robert Wickliffe of Lexington, Kentucky, and year, as senior colonel,

died childless.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

288

The

original record-book kept

residence in the

County of

ILLINOIS.

by

Illinois

our time by the merest chance.

Col.

Todd during

his

has been preserved to

November, 1879, a

In

a visitor "at Kaskaskia learned that the old documents

formerly kept there had been removed to the neighboring town of Chester, when it became the county-seat of Ran-

dolph County, Illinois. Upon inquiry at the latter place, he was informed that several chests of these papers had stood for years

the hall of the court-house, until the

in

greater part of their contents had been lost or destroyed,

A small

box had been filled with those that remained a few years before, and placed in one of the rooms of the building. These also had disappeared, and it was finally ascertained that they had been distributed among the be used as kindling, and all had been burned exceptone old book, which was found in a recep-

different offices to

tacle for fuel in the county-clerk's apartment.

And

this

upon examination proved to be Col. John Todd's RecordBook, which subsequently, by vote of the commissioners of Randolph County, was deposited with the Chicago Historical Society for safe-keeping.

cient

interest

and

value,

in

history of Illinois, to justify

volume.

And

in

Its

contents are of

suffi-

connection with the early

its

publication in full in this

connection with

it,

such letters of Col.

John Todd and those associated with him as could be found in the Canadian and Virginian archives are also published herein.* E, G. M. * Authorities

:

— Reynolds'

"Pioneer History of

Illinois,"

second edition;

John Mason Brown's "Address at the Centennial Commemoration of the Battle of the Blue Licks"; and letters from John Mason Brown and William Wirt Henry.

JOHN TODD'S RECORD-BOOK. [Written on the inside of the front cover of the book:]

Kaskaskias in the Ih'nois 29th april 1782. Eighty and touce. This day 10 oClock A:M Je vas Taken out of my house by Isreal Dodge on an order Given by J no. Dodge in despite of the Civil authoroty Disregardled the Laws

and on ther MaHtious acusation of Jas. WiUiams and nicheul pevante as may appear by their deposition Je vas Confined By Tyranick mihtary force without making any Legal apHcation to the Civil Magistrates 30th the attorney the State

for

La

to the

Buiniere presented a petition

Court against Richard Winston State prisonner in their Custody the Contents of which he (the attorney for the State) ought to heave Communicated to me or my attor-

ney

if

any

[Gov.

J had.-f

Patrick Henry to John Todd, pages W^^BURG, Dec'r

To John Todd, Esqr By virtue of the act *

of Gen^

",

2th,

Assembly which

This book contains thirty-nine pages of lox

with water-marked " crown

1

1-6:] 1

778.

estab-

15, laid, ledger-ruled

paper,

enclosed in paste-board covers.

+ This memorandum has no connection with the other contents of the Richard its cover. Winston, by whom it was written, was living in the Illinois Country as early as July, 1773. He was appointed by John Todd captain and commandant at Kaskaskia, May 14, 1779; was also sheriff-in-chief of that district, elected by the people, and was left in command at Kaskaskia by Todd, during his absence in June, 1779. In January, 1781, Winston was still commandant at Kaskaskia. This memorandum contains the only information we have concerning the revolution in his affairs which made him a State prisoner in 1 782. E. g. m. Record- Book, and was apparently inscribed by accident on



289

EARLY CHICAGO AND

2gO

County of

ILLINOIS.

you are appointed County and for the genrall tennour of your Conduct I refur you to the law. The Grand Objects which are disclosed to the View of your countrymen will prove Benificial or otherwise according to the Valine and Abilities of those who are called to Direct the affairs of that remote Country. The present

lishes the Liut. or

crisis

Command^

Ilinoies,

there,

Good may be Improv'd

rendered so favourable by the

the French and Indians

Disposition of

to Great purShould be lost, a returne of the Same attachments to us may never happen. Considering, therefore, that earley Prejudices are so hard to weare Out, you will Take Care to Cultivate and concilate the affections of the French and Indians. Altho Great reliance is placed on your prudence in managing the people you are to reside amoung, yet consider'g you as unacquainted in some Degree with their Genius, usages, and maners, as well as the Geography of the Cuntry, I recommend it to you to consult and advise w^ith the most inteligable and upright persons who may fall in your way. You are to give perticklar Attention to Colo Clark and his Corps, to whome the State has Great Obligations. You are to cooperate with him on any military undertaking when necessary, and to Give the military every Aid which the circumstance of the people will admit of. the Inhabitints of the Ilinoiss must not expect setled peace and safety while theire and Our enimyes have footing at Detroit and can Intercept or Stop the Trade of the Mississippi. If the English have not the Strength or or. Courage to come to warr against us Themselves, there practice has been and Will be to hire the savages to commit murders and depredations. Ilinoiss must expect to pay in these a large price for her freedom unless the the means of liinglish can be Expelled from Detroit,

poses, but

if

unhapily

it

1

JOHN TODDS RECORD-BOOK.

29I

Effecting this will not perhaps be found in your or Colo Clark's power, but the French inhabiting the neighbour-

hood of see

it

that place,

Done with

it

is

prosumed,

Enterprize with pleasure,

you

are on the Spot

of

is

this

if

to be the Object,

is

but conjecture,

the former appeares. if

the latter or a

I hope the Frenchmen & Indians shew a Zeal for the affaire eaquel

it,

will

to

when

you and Colo Clark may Discover

fallacey or reallity

its

only

may be brought

indiferrence or perhaps Joyne in the

at

defence

good prospect your Disposial

to the Benefits to

be Derived from Establishing Liberty and permanent peace.

One Great Good expected from Holding to

the Ilinoiss

is

overaw the Indians from warring on our Settlers on

this side the Ohio,

a close attention to the Disposition,

and movments of the Hostile Tribes is therefore nessary for you the forces and militia at Ilinoiss by being placed on the back of them may inflict timly Chasetizement on these enemies, whose Towns are an easy prey in absince of their Warriors. You perceive by these hints that something in the military line may be Expected from you so farr as the Occasion calls for the assistance of the people composing the militia it will be necessory to cooperate with the Troops sent from here, and I know of no better Genl Direction to Give than this, that you Consider yourself at the head of the Civill department, and as Such having the Comm^ of the militia, who are not to be under the Comm^ of the military untill ordred out by the Civil Authority, and to carector,

Act

in

conjunction with them.

You are on all Accatons to inculcate on the people the Value of liberty and the Differrence between the State of free Citizens of this Comonwelth and that Slavery to which the Ilinoiss was Destined. A free & equal representation may be Expected by them in a little Time, to-

EARLY CHICAGO AND

292

ILLINOIS.

all the improvm's in Jurisprudence and police which the Other parts of the State enjoy. It is necessary for the Hapiness, increase, and prosperity of that Cuntrey that the Greaveances that obstruct these blessings be known in order to their removall, let it therefore be your Care to obtain information on that subject, that proper plans may be formed for the Generall Utillity. Let it be your Constant Attention to see that the inhabitints have Justice administred to them for any Injury rec^ from the Troops, the omission of this may be fatall. Colo Clark has Instructions on this Head, and will, I Doubt not, exert himself to curb all licentious practises of the Soldiery, which if unrestrained would produce the most banefuU effects. You will also Discountinence & punish every attempt to Violate the property of the Indians, perticularly in their lands. Our enemys have alarmed them much on that score, but I hope from your prudence and Justice that no grounds of CompU will be administred on this

gether with

Subject.

You

will

embrace every opertunity

to manifest the high

reguard and frendly sentiments of

towards

all

the

this

Commonwelth

Subjects of his Catholic Majesty, for

whose safity, prosperity, and advantage you will give every possible advantage. You will make a Tender of the Frendship and Services of y"" people to the Spanish Commandant neare Kaskaskia, and Cultivate the Strictest Connection with him and his people. I deliver you you a letter which you will hand to him in person.* The Ditaile of your Duty in the civil Department I need not give you, its best Direction will be found in * At this time the whole region west of the Mississippi was under the dominion of Spain, and "the Spanish commandant neare Kaskaskia" was

stationed at Ste. Genevieve, in

what

is

now

Missouri, a few miles southwest

of Kaskaskia, and on the other side of the Mississippi River. at this date

was occupied by Monsieur Cartabonne.

— E. G. M.

The

position

JOHN TODD yi"

RECORD-BOOK.

S

293

innate love of Justice and Zeal, to be intencively use-

full to your fellow- men. according to the best of

A general Direction y Judgment in cases

to act

where

these Instructions are Silent and the laws have not Otheris given to you from the necessity of the Great Distance from Govermt will not permit you to wait for Orders in many Cases of Great Importance. in your negociations with the Indians confine the stip-

Avise

Directed

Case, for

ulan as

y

much

as possible to the single object of obtaining

Touch not the subject of land or peace from them. bounderies till pertick^ Orders are rec^; where necessity requi's it, presents may be made, but be as frugall in that matter as possible and let them know that Goods at present is Scarce with us, but we expect soon to Trade freely with all the world, and they shall not want when we can get them. The matters given you in Charge are Singular in their Nature and Weighty in their Consequences to the people imediately concerned and to the whole State, they require the fullest exertion of

yr Abillitys

&

Unwearied

Dili-

gence.

from matters of Genrall Consearn

you must Turn

Occasionally to Others of less Consequence.

Mr. Rose-

want of that property of which they were bereft by Our Troops; it is to be Restored to them if possible, if this cannot be Done the Publick must Support them. I think it proper for you to send me an Express once in three months with a Genl Accot of affaires with you & any perticklars you wish to communicate. blave's* wife and Family must not Suffer for

It is in

contemplation to appoint an agent to mannage

* Rocheblave, the last British

commandant

at

Kaskaskia,

who

surrendered

the post to George Rogers Clark and was sent a prisoner to Virginia. '

wife and family remained at Kaskaskia.



E. g. m.

His

EARLY CHICAGO AND

294

ILLINOIS.

Trade on Publick Accounts to Supply Ilinoiss and the Indians with Goods; if such an appointment takes place> you will give it every posible aid. The people with you should not intermit their endeavours to procure Supplys on the expectation of this, and you may act accordingly. P.

and

[List of Commissions, Military

Made

May

14th, 1779.

Richd Winston

Commandant,

Nicholas Janis

first

Baptiste Charlevill

I

Co. Capt.

Leut.

Charles Charleville

2 Lieut.

Michael Godin

Ensign.

Joseph Duplassy

2nd Capt.

Chance Charles Danee

2 Leut.

Batiste Janis

Ensign.

Nicholas

kia to

The

le

May

17th

&

J.

sent a

I

Leut.

Com.

as Capt.



u

]

\

)

X

)

""

I \

)

X

Commandt

of

of Prairie du

Capt. of the Militia in the District of Kaskas-

B. Barbeau.

District of

Kohokia. ^

Francois Trotter

Commt

Tourangeau

Capt.

I.

Beaulieu

Capt.

2.

Gerradin P.

Civil, pp. 6-10:]

out the Military Commissions for the District of

Kaskaskia, dated

Rocher

Henry.*

Marthen

Sansfacon

Lieut.

Comns Dated

14th t^May, 1779; 3rd year of the Comnwth.

Leutt.

Ensign. Ensign.

*

This

is

Ijclieved to be the

genuine signature of Patrick Henry,

apparently identical with other autographs

known

to

be

his.

— E. g, m.

it

being

JOHN TODD'S RECORD-BOOK. List of the Court of Kaskaskia as Elected 1

2 3

2^$.

by the

People:.

Gabriel Cerre

Joseph Duplasy Jaques Lesource

4

Nicholas Janis

5

J.

7 8

Charles Charleville

Barbeau

B.

6

Nicholas

Le Chance

Antoine Duchasfourt de Louvieres Girradot

9

Carboneau

Clerk.

Rich^i

Winston

Sheriff..

Le Croix

Sheriff

Court of Kohokias: Touranjeau (Godin)

1

2

Francois Trottier

3

Chas. Gratiot Girradin

4

B. Saucier

5

6 7

Mr. Beaulieu P. Marthin

Francois Saucier

The Court

.

P.

Francois Bosseron Perrot

3

Cardinal (refused to serve)

5

Guery La Tulippe

6

P,

Gamelin

7

Edeline

8

Degenest Barron

9 [ilitia

F.

B.

Legras

1

P.

J.

of St. Vincennes:

2

4

.

Clerk.

Officers of St. Vincennes:

Legras Bosseron

L. Col.

Major.

( (

Legrand

Clerk. Sheriff..

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

296

LatuHppe

i

Edeline

2

M. Brouilet Gamelin I P.

Capt.

n /

3

)

rank not

4

.)

settled

^Capt.

I

2

Goden

3

Godin

Lieut

4 I

2

Joseph Rougas

3

Richerville (erased)

4

Richerville

Liste de

La Cour

I

des

Kaskaskias

En

1787.

Le

25

Juiliet, savoir: 1

Antoine Beauvais

2

Corsette

3

St.

4

Lachance

5

Vital Bauvais

6

Louis Brazeau

Geme

u m n

License for Trade: [page

To

11]

whom

these presents shall come, Greeting. whereas Rich^ McCarty, Gentleman, hath produced a Recommendation from the Court of District

Know

all

to

ye, that

of Kohokia certifying his patriotism, Integrity,

&

Knowl-

edge in Trade & Merchandizing, These are therefore to license & permit the said R. Mc. to traffick & Merchandize with all the liege Subjects & Friends of the United States of America of what Nation soever they be, & to erect Factories & Stores at any convenient place or places he shall think proper within Provided that by virtue the Commonwealth aforesaid.

JOHN TODD'S RECORD-BOOK.

297

hereof no pretence shall be made to trespass upon the Effects or property of Individuals. Given under my hand

&

seal at Kaskaskia, the 5th June, 1779, in the 3rd

year

of the Commonwealth.*

Letter to the Court of Kaskaskia: [page 12] nth June, 1779. Gentlemen: The only method America has to support





the present just

present

is

her

War

Bills

is

by her

Credit.

That Credit

at

emitted from the different Treasuries

to pay the Bearer at a certain time Gold & Silver in Exchange. There is no friend to American Independance who has any Judgment but soon exSome disaffected pects to see it equal to Gold & Silver. persons & designing Speculators discredit it through Enemity or Interest; the ignorant multitude have not Sagacity enough to examine into this matter, & merely from its uncommon Quantity & in proportion to it arises the Complaint of its want of Credit.

by which she engages

of

This has for some years been the Case near the Seat War; the disorder has spread at last as far as the

Ilinois

&

* Richard control,

and

calls

loudly for a

McCarty was a

resident of

in February, 1777,

Remedy. Cahokia while

wrote an humble

In the interior it

was under British commandant,

letter to the

Rocheblave, apparently to defend himself against even the suspicion of dis-

But when Clark levied the force

to march from Kaskaskia against McCarty led a company of volunteers, who were nearly all of French descent, from Cahokia to join that expedition, and rendered good service. In August, 1779, he was appointed commandant at Cahokia under the authority of Virginia, and in November, 1780, Todd, writing to Gov. Jefferson, says " McCarty, a captain in the Illinois Regiment who has long since rendered himself disagreeable by endeavoring to enforce Military law upon the Civil Department at Kohos. " He appears to have had a tract of land at Cahokia, and is one of those named in the report made in loyalty.

the British post at Vincennes,

:

1809,

by the commissioners appointed by congress, as a claimant under

"Ancient Grants ".in the

20

district of

Kaskaskia.



E. G. M.

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

298

Counties this Remedy is a heavy Tax, now operating from which an indulgent government has exempted us one only remedy remains which is lodged within my power that is by recieving on behalf of Government such sums as the people shall be induced to lend upon a sure fund & thereby decreasing the Quantity the mode of doing this is already planned & shall be always open to your Inspection & Examination with the proceedings, & I must request your Concurrence & Assistance. I am, Gentlemen, your most obedient servant, &c.

Plan for Borrowing 33,3333^ Dollars of Treasury Notes, both belonging to this State & THE United States: [pages 14-5] Whereas, owing to no other reason than the prodigious quantity of Treasury notes of almost every Prices, the

Comody

now

in Circulation,

the valine

has risen to most enormeous

Preserving the Credit of the Said

bills

by

Reduceing the Quantity requires Some immediate remedy,

it is

therefore Declaried:

That 21,000 acres of Land belonging to This Commonwelth shall be laid of as Soon as may be. Bounded thus: Beginning on the bank of the Missisippe, In the 1

District of Kohokia, at Richd McCartey's Cornor, thence

runing up the said river 3500 poles, when reduced to a Straight line, from the Extremities of which at right

Angles with the former on the Virginia side 2 lines of equal Length shall run so far, that with another line paralel with the Course of the River, the Plat Shall containe the Quantity afouresaid. That the said 21,000 (except one thousand to be 2 Hereafter laid off by Government for a Town in the most Convenient part Thereof with In and Out Lotts) shall be a fund for the purpose afoursaid.

JOHN TODD S RECORD-BOOK.

299

Provided that every adventurer be Subject to all Laws regulations in Cultivating & Setling to which Settlers in the County of Ilinoiss shall hereafter be Subjected. 3rd That the lender of money take a certificate from the Comissioners, for that Purpose appointed, for the sum but not being less than 100 Dollars, for which he, his heirs, Exe"", Adm"", or assigns Shall be entitled to Demand within 2 years a Title to his propotion of the land in the Said Fund or the Sum originally advanced, in Gold or Silver with 5 p ct. Interest p anum at the Option of the

&

State. first that no assignment of such certifycate be made or Conveyance but in open Court by Deed

Provied shall

to be recorded. (2)

4

shall be made for be Counterfeited.

That a Deduction

after discovered to

That

all

persons

may have

all

reaso-nable

money

here-

Inducements

to lend, the lender shall have assurance that no greater

Sum

shall be received than 33,333/^ Dollars on said Fund, That Government shall Comply with the above Engagements, & this Plan be Recorded in the Recorder's

Office of Kaskaskie.

t ,.t ^r^^^ Todd. John

French Translation: [The three following

lines are erased.]

Plan Pour Emprunter cent trente trois

de cet Etat

ainsi

la

somme

de trente trois mil trois

&

un tiere piastres monoiss du tresoier que des Etats unies.

Copy of the Instructions, &c., on the Borrowing Fund: [page 15] Sir: You are hereby appointed a Commissionor for Borrowing money upon the Kohoskia Fund. Inclosed is a Coppy of the Plan, the Design you'll Observe is to abridge the Quantity in Circulation the money paid in





EARLY CHICAGO AND

300

ILLINOIS.

will preserve untill you Shall be Caled upon for it. Let every man's Money be kept apart with his nam and Quantity Indorsid thereon, keep a book to Register the No., the Person's names, the Quantity of Money, the date your Receipt, thus: Kohoskia Fund (No. i). I do certify that I have received of the Dollars, which intiles the said Sum of to a propotionable quantity of land in the Kohoskia Fund or Gold & Silver, according to the Plan Recordid in the Recorder's Office of Kaskaskia. Witness my Hand RY Crutcher, Comr. this Day of 17:^9.

you

[Bond of Commissioner, page 16:] Know all men by these presence that we, Henry Crutcher, George Slaughter & John Roberts, are held and firmly bound Unto Jno Todd, Esqr, Commander in Chief of the County of Ilinois, in the Sum of Thirty three Thousand three hundred & thirty three Dollars & one third to be paid to the said John Todd or his successors, to which payment, will & truly to be maid, we do bind

Ourselves

by

&

each of each of Our heirs, executors, firmly Sealed & Datid this 14th Day of

These Presence.

June, in the year 1779. The Condition of the above Obligation

is

such

if

the

above named Henry Crutcher, Commissioner for the Fund for borrowing certaine Sums of Continentall & State Currency, shall at all Times when Required pay and Account for all Sums so received, and in all things Comport himself agreable to Such Rules and Regulations as Shall be Adopted for prosecuting the same, then the

Above

Obligation to be Void, Otherwise In

Test:

RicHi^ Harrison. RicHi) Winston.

full force.

Hv Crutcher. Geo. Slaughter. John Roberts.

(Seal) (Seal) (Seal)

JOHN TODDS RECORD-BOOK. Proclamation: [page

3OI

17]

Whereas & beautiLands bordering upon the Missisippy, Ohio, Ihnois, & Wabash rivers, the Taking up the usual quantity heretofore allowed for a Setlement by the Governmnt of Virginia, would injure both the Strength & from the Furtilety

Ilinois, to wit:

ful!

Situation of the

Commerce I

all

of this Country in Future,

do therefore

issue this

Proclamation

strictly enjoining

persons whatsoever from making any

upon the Flat lands of the

said

New

Settlements

Rivers or within one

manor and form of Settlemt as heretofore made by the French Inhabitints untill Further Orders given hereon.

league of said lands, unless Tn

And

order that

in

Said Country

all

may be

the Claims to

fully

Lands within the

known & some method pro-

vided for perpetuating by records the just Claimes, every Inhabit^

required, as soon as conveniently

is

may

be, to

lay before the persons in each District appointed for that

purpose a all

theire

Memmedo Vouchers

given or are

Tend

to

lost,

of his or her Land, with

&

such Depositions

Support there Claims.

the Quantity of land, to

by whome

Settled,

Coppys of

where vouchers have never been

whome

&

Certif=^

as will best

Such memdo

to

mention

Origonally granted, or

and when; deducing the Title thro

the Various Occupants to the Present possessor.

The

number of Adventurers who will Soon Over run This Country renders the above method necessesary, as well to Assertain the Vacant Land as to Guard against Trespasses, which will probably be Committed upon Land not of Record.

Given under my Hand day of June, 1779.

&

Seal at Kaskaskia, the 14th

John Todd.

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

302

Warrant for Execution: Ilinois, to wit:

To Richard

[erased,

page

Winston, Esq., Sheriff

i8]

Chief

in

of the District of Kaskaskia:

Negro Manuel, a Slave, in your Custody, is condemned by the Court of Kaskaskia, after having made honorable Fine at the Door of the Church, to be chained to a post water side

at the

&

there to be burnt alive,

scattered, as appears to

me by

you are hereby required

to put in

&

his ashes

This Sentence Execution on tuesday

Record.

and this shall be your Given under my hand & seal at Kaskaskia, the 13th day of June, in the third year of the Commonnext, at 9 o'Clock in the morning;

Warrant. wealth.

[John Todd to Richard Winston, page



18:]

During my absence the Command will devolve Sir: upon you as Commander of Kaskaskia if Colo Clark should want anything m.ore for his Expodition, consult the members of the Court upon the best mode of proceeding,



if

the people will not Spare wilingly,

power, you must press

it,

by Two men upon Oath

if

in there

valueing valluing the Property



the Millitary have no pre-

let

test for forcing property.

When you Order

it,

&

the

be Time for them to Interfere by all means keep up a Good Understanding with Colo Clark and the Officers if this is not the Case I am, sir, Hble Servt, you will be Unhapy.

people

will

not find

it,

then

it



will



y

John Todd,

To

Richd Winston, Esqf.

[John

To

June

Todd to Nicholas

Capt. Nichoi-AS Janis:

15, 1779.

Janis, page 19:]

—You

are hereby required

JOHN TODDS RECORD-BOOK.

303

upon a partey of your Militia to guard Morace, a Slave condemed to execution, up to the Town of Kohos. put them under an Officer they shall be intitled pay,

to call

Rashtions, & Refreshment dureing the Time they be upon Duty, to be certifyed hereafter by you. I

am,

sir,

your Hble Servant,

JnO Todd, I

recommend 4

or

5

shall

from your Compy

15th June, 1779.

&

as

many from Time

Capt. Placey's, and consult Mr. Lacroix about the necessary.

J.

[Proclamation, pages Ilinoiss, to wit:

T.

19, 20:]

Whereas the emissions of Continentall

the 20th May, 1777, and Apl nth, 1778, were required to be paid into some Continental Treasury

money Dated by the

first

People of I

of June, which was a day imposible with the

Ilinoiss,

do therefore notifye

all

persons

who have money

of

the said emissions, that unless they shall as soon as posi-

Comply with the said Resolution of Congress and Produce Vouchers of such there imposibility, the mony must Sink in there Hands; the Vouchers must be certifyed by myself or some Deputy Commandant of this County and have Reference to the Bundle of mony numbred and seald. ble

Signd by order of the Commandant kaskia, July 27th, 1779.

in Chief, at

Kas-

JOHN TODD.

Coppy, H^' Crutcher, Secy.

Monnoye Ameriquaine en

datte du 20 du 1 1 Avril, 1778, ont ete requises pour etre remises a Quelque tresorier du Continent au premier des Juin, dernier chose impossible pour les gens des Ilinois.

D'autant que

May,

la

1777, et celle

EARLY CHICAGO AND

304

Le present

est

ILLINOIS.

pour avertir toutes personnes qui ont

des cartes des susdits quantiemes de sc conformer au sus-

du Congres et produire des certificats de non I'argent sera perdu pour eux. Les certificats serons signe de moy ou de quelque Deputd Commandant de cette Comtee ayant toujours recours aux liesses de Monnoye numerotee et :achettee. Signe par ordre du Commandant en chef, July 27, 1779. ditte Resolution

la ditte impossibility, si

[Order to hold Court, page

To Gabriel Cerre,

&c., Esqrs,

21:]

Judges of the Court for

the District of Kaskaskia:

You

are

Hereby Authorized & required

to

Hold and

Constitute a Court on Satterday, the 21st of July, at the Usiall place of Holding Court, within y»' District, any adjournment to the Contrary notwithstanting. Provided that no Suitor or partey be compeled to answare any prosess upon said Day unless properly sumoned

by the Clark

&

Given under

Shirriff.

my Hand &

Seal at Kaskaskia, July 31st,

John Todd.

1779.

[Letter to Spanish Commandant at Ste. Genevieve, page 2 :] 1

Aux

Kaskaskas, 9 d'Aout,

Monsieur Cartabonne, Comdt II

St.

sera a I'advantage de chaque

voitures en

commerce partant des

1779.

Genevieve:

Gouvernment que tout Illinois,

seront oblige a

ou Carguaisons dans le Ports de Sa Majeste Catholique qui sont situe enbas de ce Poste, et qui les Proprictaires donne leurs obligations cautione dans les Offices respectives, avant quils auront permission pour

livrer leur

effets

JOHN TODD'S RECORD-BOOK.

305

arangement avec le Gourpour en demander des explanations, en sort que tout commerce de notre Bord se jetterai parmis nos Amis. L'advantage a I'Etat de Virginie sera que nos Enmis de Natchez et Manchac seront deprive de tout provisions decendons de notre Posts. leurs depart, I'advantage d'un tel

vernment Espagnole

et trop clair

Je soit d'avoir votre reponse a cet convention par le Porteur si ca sera possible. Comme de quasi sert til que

nos Inhabitants, quand les Garrisons des Anglais peuve etre fournis dans leurs besoins par vos

je contraindre

Sujets.

aucune nouvelles a vous communique hors que

Jai

le le

Colonel Clark n'a pas encore parti du Post Vincennes. Si

en cas quelques Ennemis vous interrompe et que nos peuve vous rendu Service, Je suis ordonne depart

forces

du Gouverneur de

la

Virginie de vous envoyer des Secours. Jai I'honneur d'etre tout parfait.

[Proclamation, page

The

22:]

Inhabitants of Kaskaskia are for the last time

invited to contract with the persons appointed for pro-

Flower, for the Troops who will shortly hope they'll use properly the Indulgeance of a mild Government. If I shall be obliged to give the military permission to press, it will be a disadvantage, and what ought more to influence Freemen it will be a vision, especially

be here.

I

dishonor to the people.

Published by order of the nth Augt, 1779.

Commit

in chief at

Kaskas-

kia,

Sent to Mons^ Leyba a Letter to the rec^ an

Answer.

Same

Effect

&

EARLY CHICAGO AND

306

ILLINOIS.

[Form of Draft on Governor of Virginia,

To

his

Excellency the Governor of Virginia:

C D or Order the sum of due to him from the State of Virginia

Please to pay to

which dries

p. 23:]

is

furnished the

Militia

£'

Indians,

as

Dollars for sun-

appears by

Vouchers to me rendered. Given under my hand at Kaskaskia, the nth August, 1779.

Mr.

J.

B. Z.

LaCroix,

Dol. 7S,

Augt

11, 1779.

[Proclamation, pages 23-4:] Illinois,

Whereas the Demands of the State

to wit:

require that a Stock of Provision be immediately laid for

the use of the Troops of the Common-Wealth, and that

an Embargo be

laid

upon such Provision

for a limited

time.

do therefore issue this Proclamation stritely enjoining all Inhabitants and others in the County of Illinois from exporting either by Land or Water any Provisions whatsoever for the space of Sixty days, unless I shall have I

assurance before that time that a sufficient Stock

up

for the

Troops or

Contractors for

its

sufficient Security

is

is

laid

given to the

delivery whenever required.

The Offender herein shall be subjected to Imprisonment for One Month and more over forfeit the value of such exported Provision.

Given under August, 1779.

my

hand and

seal

at

Kaskaskias, 22nd

Les Demandes de L'Etat requerant qu'une quantite de Provisions soyent immediatement serree pour L'usage des

des Troupes de

la

Republique, Et qu'un

sur toutes Provisions pour un

Tems

Embargo

limite.

soit

mis

JOHN TODD

S

RECORD-BOOK.

307

En consequence de quay Je public cette proclamation pour defendre strictement a tous les Habitants et autres dans les Compte des Illinois, d'Exporter par Terre ou par Eau, aucunne Espece de Provisions que ce Soit, a commencer immediatement et durer I'Espace de Soixante Jours, amoin qu'une quantite suffisant pour les Troupes ne soit remise, ou que Surete soit donne aux Contracteurs pour la delivree des dittes Provisions a leur demande. Touttes Personnes qui Contreviendront a Proclamation, seront Sujits a

a

la

Un

la

presente

mois d'Emprisonment,

et

Confiscation des Provisions qu'ils auront exporte ou

la Valeur.

Donne

sous

ma Main

et

Sceau aux Kaskaskias,

le

22

d'Aout, 1779.

[Notice concerning Called-in Currency, Illinois,

The

p. 24:]

to wit:

publick are notified that after tomorrow no more

Certificates will be

ducing the called

Granted at Kaskaskia to Persons proEmmissions.

in

Published by Order, Augt. 22nd, 1779.

Le

public est Notifie qua'pr^s demain,

donne de

Certificat

il

ne sera plus

aux Kaskaskia, aux Personnes qui pro-

duirent des Argents des dattes lappeller. Public par Ordre,

Le 22 d'Aout,

[Record of Order on Governor of Virginia,

1779.

p.

25

:]

Order given pat. Mc Crosky on the Govt, for 140 Dollars, dated at Kasa 7th Oct. 1779 (No. 2) (140), by certificate from Mr. Helm. October

7th, 1779.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

308

ILLINOIS.

[Condemnation Proceeding, pages

25, 26:]

Advertised by notifying at the Door of the Church of Kaskaskia the Half a lot above the Church, Joing Picard on the East & Langlois on the West, that unless some person should appear & support their Claim to the said Lot within three Days it should be condemned to the Use of the

Commonwealth.

was dated 4th

notification

S
Oct., 1779. Ilinois, to wit: Whereas after publickly calling upon any peron or persons to shew & make appear any Claim which they might have to a certain Lot of Land containing one half acre be the same more or less lying in the Town of Kaskaskia near the Church, adjoining Mons. Picard on the East & Mons. Langlois on the West, & after delaying & waiting the appointed time & no person yet appearing to claim the same against the Commonwealth of Virginia, I do declare & adjudge the said Lot to belong to the said commonwealth, & that all persons whatsoever be thenceforth debarred & precluded forever from any Claim thereto. Given under my Hand at Kaskaskia the 13th day of October in the fourth year of the Commonwealth, Annog Domani 1779. JNO ToDD, Jr.

Copy

of a Grant to Col. Montgomery.

[Page

26.]

[Remainder of the page containing the Grant torn

[Court Record, page

La Cour

a ete ouverte

vingt sept. Et

au Kaskaskias,

le

27:]

cinq juin Mil sept cent quatre-

La renvoye au le 5 juin,

out.]

cinq du mois juiliet prochain

1787.

Henry Smith.

JOHN TODD'S RECORD-BOOK.

[Oath of Allegiance, page

309

28

:]

do swear on the Holy evangelists of almighty god that I Renounce all Fidelity to george the third, King of Great Brittan, his Heirs and Sucessors, and that I will bear true allegiance to the united States of America, as free and Independant, as declared by Congress, and that I will not do, nor cause to be done, any matter or thing that I

may be

injurious or Prejudicial to the independ^e of said

and that I will make Known to some one Justice of the Peace for the united States all Treasonous, all Treatorous, conspiracies, which may come to my Knowledge to be formed against said united States or any one So help me God. of them. Sworn at Kaskaskias, 10 July, 1782. J AMES MoORE.

states;

[Court Record, pages La cour

ce tien le 25 e

juiliet,

29-36:]

Du

1787, a neuf heure

matin.

I

La

cour est envoye au ventdeux du mois d'aous au Kas-

[kaskias, le 25 e juiliet, 1787.

Antoine Bauvais.

Fr. Corset.

ViTALE Bauvais.

La Chanse.

J. S.

G. Bauvais.

Brazaux.

L.

1787.

La cour

est ouverte ajourdhui vingt sept

de Septem-

bre mil sept cent quatre vingt et sept.

I

Present,

M""-

Antoine Beauvais, president

et

St.

geme

[Beauvais, et Vital Beauvais et fran^ois Corset et Louis '

Brazeau. J. S.

G. Bauvais.

Vitale Bauvais.

Antoine Bauvais. La cour [le

est

L.

Brazaux.

Fr. Corset.

renvoye au quinze du mois Octobre au Kas.,

27 7bre, 1787.

Vitale Bauvais. T.

S. G.

Antoine Bauvais.

Bauvais.

L.

Fr. Corset.

Brazaux.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

3IO

ILLINOIS.

Aujourd'hui quinzieme jour du mois octobre mil sept La cour tenant a neuf heurs du-

cent quatre vingt sept. matin.

La cour

est

La

hui.

renvoye a deux heurs apre midi ajourd Chans/,. Vitale Bauvais.

Fr. Corset.

G. Bauvais.

J. S.

La cour est ouvert a heur dits deux heures apremidi. La cour est renvoye le quinze dumois Novembre, prochain 1

au Kaskaskias, vingt sept

(la

le

quinzieme Octobre Mil sept cent quatre

cour tenante).

La Chanse.

J. S.

Fr. Corset.

Vitale Bauvais.

Aujourd'hui vingt

cinquieme Octobre mil

La cour par extra

quatre vingt sept.

G. Bauvais.

sept

cent

hordinaire a la de-

mande, de Mr. demunbrunt, et frangois Carbonaux, defendAntoine Bauvais, prezidan. Vitale Bauvais. Fr. Corset. L. Brazaux. Bauvais. La Chanse. S. G. J.

eur.

La cour est ouverte cejourd'hui quinzieme jour dumois Novembre Mil sept cent quatrevingt sept. La cour est renvoye a un heure apremidi.

Antoine Bauvais. Vitale Bauvais.

La

15 Qbre.

La Chanse.

Fr. Corset. J. S.

G. Bauvais.

cour est ouverte a un heure apremidi ajourdui.

cour est renvoye demain pour un affaires

Antoine Bauvais. J.

La

S. G.

Fr. Corset.

Bauvais.

le

La

i6e Qbre 1787.

Vitale Bauvais.

La Chanse.

cour est ouverte a neuf heure dumatin

le seize

Novem-

Et renvoye a mercredi Antoine Bauvais, prezidan. L. Brazaux. J. S. G. Bauvais.

bre Mil sept cent quatrevingt sept. le

2ie Qbre 1787.

Vitale Bauvais.

La

cour ajumee jus qua Samedi

le

vingt quatrieme jour

JOHN TODD'S RECORD-BOOK.

3II

du moi Novemble, Mil sept cent quatre vingt et sept. ouverte adeux heurs apremidi le jour et ans susdit.

Antoine Bauvais,

JSGB La

ViTALE Bauvais.

prezidan.

Fr. Corset.

Brazaux.

L.

cour est renvoye au vingt Decembre prochain au

Kaskaskias

le

24e gbre 1787.

Antoine Bauvais, L.

La

Est

Brazaux.

p:z.

J. S.

Fr. Corset.

G. Bauvais.

Vitale Bauvais.

cour est ouverte par Extrat ordinere ala

de Mr. hugt hunard, L.

le

demande

26e Qbre, L'an 1787.

Brazaux.

Fr. Corset.

Antoine Bauvais.

Vitale Bauvais.

N.

7,

apartenant a M. hugt hunard.

N.

4,

apartenant a

La

Cour.

La cour est ouverte par extra ordinaire le onzieme Decembre pour repandre ala presentation De M. hugt hunard. Antoine Bauvais, p z L'an 1787. Vitale Bauvais. L. Brazaux. Fr. Corset. La cour

est ouvert ajourdhui vingt

Decembre

l'an

mil

sept cent quatrevingt sept, aneuf heurs dumatin.

La cour

est

Vitale Bauvais.

L.

Antoine Bauvais.

Fr. Corset.

La cour tenant Antoine Bauvais.

renvoye au vint huit de mois.

20 xbre 1787. Vitale Bauvais.

ajourd'.hui

La

Brazaux.

L.

Brazaux.

Fr. Corset.

cour en renvoye au cinq de Janvier prochain au 15 Kas le 28 xbre 1787, par le president.

Janvier prochain au

Antoine Bauvais,

prezidan.

1788.

L'an mil sept cent quatrevingt et huit, le quinzieme jour

1

EARLY CHICAGO AND

312

ILLINOIS.

Dumatin, La Cour est que chacque jure qui viendrai de la prairi du roche auront chacquun vingt cinq livre; avons renvoye la cour adeux heur apremidi, ajour dhui et pour cause dans le village dix livre. L. BRAZAUX. VlTALE BaUVAIS. Bauvais. Fr, Corset. Antoine

dumois de ouverte;

La

Janvier, a neuf heurs

La Cour

a termine

cour est ouverte adeux heur a pres midi au Kas. ce

15 Janvier, 1788. 1

2 3

4 5

6 7 8

9 10 1

12

M. George Atchison, Foreman James Lomon George Bigges

— — — — — — — — — — — La

'^

John Edgar

Thomas

Thomas Bigges Michael Huff

De

&

Taitt

agt

Pit,

Green, Deft

faux de Compa-

Francis Clerk

rection.

Wm.

Bayly Joseph Worley Joseph Ogle Samuel Stevenson

Also a Jury wherein Daniel

McEl

Duff, Pit

and

John Clark James Orr

Thomas

Green, Deft

cour a termine qui chacque jure qui viendront de

Labelle

fontaine,

en

cette

qualite

qui

I'auront

chacun

La somme de quarante cinq livre chacun, au Kas le 15 La somme a chacque jure de quarant cinqJanvier, 1788. livre au Kas lejours et ans, aprouve si moi jur charge de quarante cinqlivre.

Antoine Bauvais,

p nt

Est comparu par nos ordres Monsieur Jean Edgar, ala requition de M. jean DufT, pour declarer cequil a'tendu

lent

M. jean Dodge, a dit amondet lui, Edgar a meparamoi meme. Cinq jours apres mon arive, en cette

ville

des Cas.

dire par

Je suis capable de vous instruit des carater des gens de

JOHN TODDS RECORD-BOOK.

313

ce payees. Monsieur Enri Smith

il a la une bonne habitaun grand villin coquin, M, Dodge ma dit quil ete capable de le faire venire sure un peau d'an pour Consernant des Marchandisse roti au fort le faire fouette. gefersonne;* M. Dodge lui a dit que M. Smith soutenoit ce le contraire jusqua ceque M. Dodge, lui a fait voir. Ces fautes alors M. Dodge laquitte. M. Dodge, a dit bon pour rester amis avec les gens la, par ceque Leurs argent est aussi bonne Comme celle d'un autres Et le dit jure a persite a sa declaration que c'etait la verite a la cour tenant ce

tion,

25

M. Smits,

est

JNO. Edgar,

1787, et assigne,

juiliet,

Antoine Bauvais,

Vu Les L'affaire

Dufif

Magistra.

deposition des opinions de jures qui ont termine entre

M. Tomas

Green defendeur

Daniel

et

Lesquelle sont reconnu que M. green et

plentif.

Comptable, pour les dommages de M. Daniel Miche Duff la somme de vingt piastre, avec les frais qui enver resulte de la dite affaire au Kaskaskias, le quinze Janvier, mil sept cent quatre-vingt huit, et suivant L'ordonnance. ANTOINE Bauvais, p. nt.

La Cour

est

renvoye au quinz de fevrie mil sept cent

quatre-vingt huit.

fr.

Corset,

L. Brazaux. ViTALE Bauvais. ANTOINE Bauvais.

La Cour heure

Du

est ouverte le

A neuf

quinzieme fevrie 1788.

matin, Messire antoine Beauvais president, et St.

gene Bauvais

et Vital Beauvais,

Louis Brazaux, et fran^ois

ViTALE Bauvais.

ANTOINE Bauvais. L. Brazaux.

St. G. Bauvais.

fr. corset.

Corsette, tous magistrat,

* Fort Jefferson

was established

in

1

780 by Virginia, upon the recommen-

dation of Clark and Todd, at the Iron Banks on the east bank of the Mississippi, just

below the junction of the Ohio.

21

It

was evacuated June

8,

1781.



E. G.

M.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

314

ILLINOIS.

La Cour est renvoye jusqu'a qu'il Le public; Au Kaskias, le

soite fait

bleee par

une assemque La

15^ fevrie et

Cour soit Complette ie son magistrat, et qu'il soit convoque par M. Barbau, Lt. de Courte, de jour et ans,

ANTOINE BaUVAIS, m. VlTALE BEAUVAIS.

BRAZAUX.

L.

Peltry Account,

Dr.

To Government Beaurgarde

my

for

P^R.

CORSET.

[pages ij, 38.]

Drafts in favor of Monsieur

for 3CX)00 Dollars value thereof received

as pr his Acct. dated St. Louis, 14th Sept. 1779, Vizt;

amount of

Peltrys gr. to the

Paper Currency

Dlls.

^21000

loooo

Contra.

Per

Cr.

By m/a for Sundries 4 charges By Colo. John Montgomery paid p

2

297 10 at

— —

Kaskaskias furnished

r

them p Order Colonel Montgomery, Viz^:

Hhds

Taffia

150 lb Sugar 75 lb Coffee

@ @

7 Bear Skins

2

as

his order

By the Garrison for

;^349 10

340;^

35s 35s



£6%o

\

262 10 131

5

18

Charges Vizt: Bags £7

Cart hire Taffia

&

2

Bread to

the Soldiers

By

6

15

II06 15



the Garrison at Cahokias purchased for and de-

livered Capt.

McCarty

as receipt, Vizt:

JOHN TODD'S record-book. 1

Hhd

100 lb

300

lb

Taffia

315

;^340

Gunpowder Lead

@ 6£ 600 @ los 154

75 lb Sugar 30 lb Coffee

35

35

131

5

52 10

Charges Vizt: 2

Bags

Cart hire

£7 2

1286 15

9



By assumd to Capt. Janis 200 lb for Moses Henry. By Francois Charleville 400 lb P"" Col. Montg. Ord By Baptiste Charleville 150 P"" Col. Montg.

Oct. 24th

— 25

Charles Charleville 1290

P<"

Col.

Montg.

a/c

3040 10

[Entries by Col. Todd's Successor, page



39:]

February 1782. Arrived a Small Tribe of the

Wabash

Indians Implor-

ing the paternal Succour of their Father the Bostonians

Consequence them Six Bushells Indian Corn, Fifty pounds of Bread, four Pounds of Gun Powder, Ten Pounds of Ball, and One Gallon of Taffia from Carbonneaux. heaving their Patent from Major Linctot, I

did on Behalf of the

Commonwealth

in

give

March 22d. Came here Deputy's from the Delawares, Shawanoe, and Cherokee nations of Indians, Begging that the americans wold Grant them Pease as likewise the French and Spanish and after hearing their Talk, Smoaking the pipe of peace and friendship with them, and from their Conduct while here as well as many marks they gave us of their Sincerety I could not avoid Giving them On Behalf of the Americans the Following articles. Viz,, 10 Bushells Indian Corn,

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

3l6 lOO

lb.

6

lb.

5

lb.

Flour, and lOO lb. Bisquit, Tobaco, one Gallon Tafia, wanipam and canoe which cost



[In pencil.]

Deniunbrunt

Lt.

me

20 Dollars.

"The above [was written] by Thimothe Comd. par interim, &c."

[Written on the inside of back cover of book:]

Memo. 14 June,

M. Kemp, D.

to

1779-

\%

yds. Blue Cloth for a

Cape

for Isaac.

Mrs.

to 2 lbs.

Cotton from Mad. Bent-

ley's Store, 14th June.

try,

M. Smith, Hugh, To a Bill drawn upon Mr. Gratiot.

Nota bene.

r

} (,

for 12 Dollars in pel-

Nous, TlllMOTHE

Demunbrunt, Par interim,

Lt. Comd't.

&c., &c., &c.

JOHN-TODD PAPERS Col. John Todd, Jr. to Governor of Virginia.* From "Canadian Archives" Vol.

1



"

Haldimand Papers"

Kaskaskias,

May

it

— Series

B,

84- 1, page 124.

please your Excellency:

1

8th Augt., 1779.

— By Letters which

I

had

the honour of writing to you by Col. Slaughter, dated

gave your Excellency a full account of the which nothing important has happened here. Col. Clark, I suppose, is by this time at the Falls of Ohio, and as the Expedition aginst Detroit early in July,

I

situations of this country, since

declined he, will probably wait upon you in person.

is

Rogers has arrived from Orleans & will be the Bearer hereof or send it by the earliest opportunity: I am uneasy in knowing that the accounts he will render concerning the quantity as well as the bad condition of the goods cannot The Batteau be satisfactory. Who is to blame in it Masters who brought it up } The person in whose care it Col.

.''

was

at St.

left

of them,

I

Louis or the conductor of our stores or all The taking & disposing of

cannot determine.

them was (perhaps

necessarily) planned,

&

in part

exe-

The conductor's powers & incuted, before my arrival. structions were in no part derived from me, nor was he answerable to me for any malfeasance in office. Col. Clark will, I I *

doubt

not, satisfy

you

in this matter.

wish the opp^otunity by Col. Rogers were safer: The

is among the "Haldimand Papers," and was way from Kaskaskia to Williamsburg by some one in the

original of this letter

intercepted on service of

its

I

Great Britain, and carried to Canada.



E. G.

M.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

3l8

ILLINOIS.

20 thousand dollars to send down on public have required that all the money of the called in emissions be sealed up, & stopped from circulating, of which I expect we have in the Country 20 or 30 thousand dollars more. I have recommended that the People wait some future opportunity more safe for sending it down. The Resolve of Congress bears hard upon Illinois, where

have

15 or

account.

I

Congress have not yet made I hope your Excellency will apply to Congress. I shall be cautious that none of the called-in Emissions be brought into this Country or certified which may come from any part of the States where the owners had an opportunity of exchang-

the risque

is

so great.

If

provision for the reception of the Money,

ing

it.

The

my charge has so have not had time to prepare answers

visiting the different Districts of

engaged me that

I

to the Queries delivered

Honble. Board.

As

me by some

to Indian Grants

it

Gentlen. of your

may be

necessary

immediately to inform you, that they are almost numberless,

only four of them are very considerable, the smallest

of which will be near a 1,000,000 acres, and the whole

between y

&

8 millions of acres.

The

grantees

all

reside

London, Pennsylvania, & Virginia, & are between 40 & 50, merchants chiefly. How far it may be proper to make such contracts binding upon the Indians, I cannot say. I submit it to your Excellency whether it is not necessary to prevent Indian Grants by other methods than making void the purchase. I mean by fines, and at the same time to prevent under-fines, &c. the making any settlements within the charter Bounds of this State, except under certain Permissions & Regulations: This I apprehend to be necessary immediately, as some Land jobbers from the South side of Ohio have been making improvements (as they call them) upon the purchas'd Lands on this side the River, and are beyond the reach of punishin Philadelphia,

1

JOHN-TODD PAPERS.

319



ment from me with the arrival of New adventurers this summer, the same spirit of Land jobbing begins to breathe here.

expected to have been prepared to present to your Excellency some amendments upon the form of GovernI

ment

be attended with no when I beg your permission to attend and get a Discharge from an Office, which an unwholesome air, a distance from my connexions, a Language not familiar to me, and an impossifor Illinois,

but the present

great inconveniences

bility

of procuring

able;

all

As

many

will

the Spring Session,

till

of the conveniences of Life suit-

tend to render uncomfortable.

to military affairs, Col: Clark will offer

lency observations on that Head, which

I

your Excel-

wish to defer,

being more his province.

Perhaps an additional Agent with goods

was

for

may be

necessary.

for

supplying the Indians

Mr. Lindsay's Commission

no more than 10,000 Dollars, which he will soon & our soldiers, who, I suppose

dispose of to the Indians will

expect their Clothing from him.

have given a Letter of Recommendation as an Agent Gentleman lately from New Orleans, who set off with Col. Rogers, Mons. Perrault. If an expedition should be ordered against the Natchez, there cannot be any great dependence placed on the Illinois furnishing more than 100,000 lbs. of Flour, and supporting the Troops now here, and scarcely any Beef I have not heard from Williamsburg since January. I

to a

I

am, with greatest respect,

&c.,

John Todd,

Jr.

His Excellency the Governor of Virginia. [Endorsed:] Copy of a letter from Jno. Todd, Jr., to the Governor of Virginia, dated Kaskaskias, i8th Augt, 1779.

early chicago and

320

illinois.

John Page Lieut: Govr, to John Todd, Co Lieut: &c Illinois Co. From

"

Calendar of Virginia State Papers, " Vol.

326.

I,

Williamsburg, August

i6, 1779.

— Your several Letters of the & 2nd ultimo, by Col: Slaughter, day were handed to me the Governors absence — them before the Board, who were Sir:

ist

this

in

laid

I

&

pleased with their contents

&

of your Conduct

exprefsed their approbation

of your plan for supporting the Credit

of the paper money, but this must be submitted to the consideration of the Afsembly,

who

alone can determine

on, or give Efficacy to that measure. It is to

*

*

*

be wished that more Troops had been sent into

the Illinois at

first,

however so much has been done by

&

the few there, as to redound greatly to their Credit

Commander

of their gallant

Disposition of the Canadians,

&

Northward

Southward

Clarke to Detroit

&

will

& make

that

— We hope that the favourable our late succefses to the

pave the way

the acquisition of

it

Colo.

for

easy

— and

we are now raising to be marched Country will enable him to surmount any obstacle which way be thrown into his way. The Board approve of your erecting the small Fort you propose & giving the Command to Col: Slaughter Being in haste I can only add that I am, yr: mo: obt humble Servannt.

that the Battalion which into your



Col. John Todd, Jr. to Col. From

P.

Legras.

the original in the State Capitol at Richmond, Va,

Kaskaskia, 23d Augst, Sir:

— You'ill

the called in sealed up

&

I

1779.

please to require immediately that both

Emmissions of Continental Money

stopped from Circulating,

&

to

be

give the person

JOHN-TODD PAPERS. owing them a

certificate,

The

Engh'sh.

first

order of Congress,

The

office.

no matter whether

Certificate will

because after the

if it

be necessary

I

in

French or

for this reason,

the owner by some Continental have made provision for

June it was was not paid

Congress,

321

expect,

lost to

into

on account of the Impossibility of transmitting

Ilinois

jdown by the

money be prevented from mixing

Ilinois

it

necessary that

It is therefore

1st of June.

with any other,

the whole be rejected on that account.

I inclose you by me, with the adverIt would be best to affix a day after which you tisement. Let the whole be done with will seal and certify no more.

less

a copy of the certificates granted

one

seal,

the better to prevent confusion.

the pleasure to see St. Vincenne Col. Clark's I

in

Departure

will

by

occasion

I

cannot have

the time proposed.

me

to stay longer than

Write me the news by every opportunity, and cases of Importance send me an Express.

intended.

I

am,

sir,

your mo. obed.

& humble

servant,

Jno. Todd. Col. P. St.

I

Legras, or officer commanding the Villlage of Vincenne (per favor of Capt. Gamelin).

have prohibited by proclamation the exportation of

provision from this country for a certain time, which will

Jr.

endeavour to put

Col. From Sir:

in

John Todd,

execution with you.

Jr.

J.

you

TODD,

Jr.

to Oliver Pollock.

the original in the State Capitol at Richmond, Va.

— Accompanying

this are letters to

Gov. Galvez and

by mycould inform you with more

yourself from the Virginia Board of Trade, to be sent the

way

of Kaskaskias.

A

late

have been miscarried, or I certainty whether Some Bank self

is

packet from Govt, to

not established

in

Europe

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

322

to give credit to your Draughts State. I

There

wish, as

I

is,

made on

behalf of this

or will be certainly, perhaps in Bordeaux.

before informed you, for a

list

of

all

the Bills

drawn upon you, with notes of those ans'd and protested. I could wish you had been better informed of the authority and Rank of some of the United States officers, as well as our own. I fear numbers unauthorized have drawn for private purposes. Colo. Clark's & Roger's Bills were drawn from the necessity of their situation, and will undoubtedly be approved.

Any

other Bills are voidable, tho' perhaps

The purpose

for which they were drawn you in judging therein. But observe no persons whatever in the Western Department either is or ever has been authorised by the Govt, of Virginia to draw upon any person but the Govr. or Treasurer. The State will shortly need another supply of goods for the Troops in this quarter. The private authority given Mr. Lindsay last year, with the letter to yourself and my wants, are neither out of date, and you will still oblige me by observing their contents. I hope shortly to hear that the Missisipi harbours no nations the Enemy to the commerce & Rights of America. Whether Britain be humbled by the arms of a powerful monarch or our Infant States, my Joy will be equal. Govr. Galvez' literary and military Character are much talk'd of in Virginia, amongst whom he is held in highest Estimation. I beg you would present him vyith profer of my services and thanks for the assistance he has render'd to a people who do not fail to repay him in Gratitude. (A copy.) JOHN M'DOWELL, Sec'y.

not yet void.

may

assist

Mr. Pollock, Feb. 9th, 1780. [Endorsed:] The above letter was found among Col. Todd's papers, without signature, but endorsed to Oliver Pollock, Esq., and appears to be Col. Todd's handwriting.

J.D.



:

john-todd papers.

323

Oliver Pollock to John Todd, County Lieut: OF Illinois, acknowledging receipt of his, WITHOUT date by THE HANDS OF MONS: Perrault



From "Calendar

of Virginia State Papers," Vol.

New By

I,

347.

Orleans, May

4,

1780.

he had received a bill on France for ;^65.8i4^ advances made to Virginia, but is unable to negotiate it at that place, on account of the great scarcity of specie, which would continue until a supply be gotten from Havana. This gives him great concern, because it prevents his using the bills of Gen: Clarke and other officers, and therefore from procuring the supplies of Clothing so much needed by them. Gov: Galvez had captured Mobile, and is besiging Pensacola, had been created a Field Marshall fhould he be this

for his





and return to should exert him to make use of him successful at Pensacola,

By

Post Script of

Galvez has returned to

New

Orleans, he

the 26th he regrets to say

New

—Gov:

Orleans: not hav'g been sup-

ported in time by the expected fleet from Havana, had abondoned the Seige of Pensacola He has made applica-



tion to Galvez for pecuniary affistance but without success,

as that officer required

—had

all his

managed however,

gomerys'

bills,

funds for his

own purposes

to negotiate Clarkes

and earnestly begs, that those

&

Mont-

officers Avill

be as frugal as poffible with the purchases made.

Col.

John Todd,

From "Calendar

to Gov. Jefferson.

Jnr.,

of Virginia State Papers," Vol.

1780,

May Clark,

it

please your Excellency

we found

it

June

2,

I,

page 358.

Richmond.

— On consulting

impracticable to maintain so

with Col.

many

posts

324

EARLY CHICAGO AND

ILLINOIS.

&

concluded

with so few men,

in the Illinois

it

better to

draw them all to one post. The Land at the Junction of the Ohio & Mississippi was judged best suited for the purpose as it would command the Trade of an extensive Country on both sides of each River, & might serve as a check to any Incroachments from our present Allies, the Spaniards, whose growing power might justly put us upon our guard & whose fondness for engrossing Territory might otherwise urge them higher up the River upon our side than we would wish. The Expenses in erecting this new post & victualing the men would have been obstacles insurmountable without a settlement contiguous to the Garrison to support it, where adventurers would assist the Soldiers in the heavy work of Building their fortifications. I

therefore granted to a certain

number of

families four

hundred acres to each Family, at a price to be settled by the General Assembly, with Commissions for Civil & Mili-

&

tary Officers

Copies of the

the necessary Instructions.

principal of which

I

herewith send you.

The

other being

agreable to the printed forms heretofore delivered the Governor

&

Lest the withdrawing our Troops from

might

me by

Council.

raise suspicions

among

St.

Vincenne

the Citizens, to our dis-

have sent to Major Bosseron, the then District Commandant, blank Commissions, with powers to raise one Company & put them in possession of the Garrison, with assurance that pay and rations sh'd be allowed them by the Governmnt. advantage,

When the in

I

Col. Clark left the Falls, his Officers

amount of perhaps 120 were

all

to

the article of Linens.

Mr. Isaac Bowman, with 7 or 8 off from Kaskaskia the 15th nov:

tended by another Batteau with 12 in

& Men

well cloathed except

it,

bound

to the falls of Ohio.

I

men & one

family, set

last in

a Batteau, at-

men &

3 or

judged

it

4 families

safer to send

JOHN-TODD PAPERS. to the Falls

many

articles

325

belonging to the

Common-

by Bowman, than to bring them myself by land. Bowman's Batteau fell into the hands of the Chicksaw Indians, & the other arrived in March or April at the French Lick on Cumberland, with the account that Bow-

wealth,

man and

all

the

men except one Riddle were

and

killed

taken. inclose your Excellency a

I

List of such articles as

belonged to the State, as well as

My

detached memorandums. papers being also lost.

Many

my

Books and many necessary

necessary Articles of Intelligence yet remain un-

mentioned.

I

will

enjoy no Leisure until

I

shall

have

acquainted your Excellency with the Situation of

fully

the

can make out from

I

Illinois. I

have the Honor to

be, with the greatest respect,

&

Yr. Excellency's most obt.

humble

servant.

Genl: Geo: Rogers Clark to Colo John Todd. From "Calendar

of Virginia State Papers," Vol.

I,

338.

Louisville, March, 1780.

Dr

Colo:

— By the Acts from

so nearly corresponding,

I

Regaining the Interest of

Every Post

in the Illinois

make no doubt of the English many Tribes of Indians, and

on Gov: Hamiltons' may prove fatal to Kentucky and the Total lofs of the Westrn Country on the Mifsifsippi. I am not clear but the Spaniards would

their designs agst the Illinois (Perhaps plan),

and without some speedy check

fondly suffer their Settlements in the Illinois to

fall

with

ours for the Sake of having the opertunity of Retaking Both.

I

doubt they are too fond

of Restoring

it

again.

(of)

Territory to think

Although there

Troops on the Lakes, defitiency

is

full

but few l^ritish Replaced by the

is

326

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

Immence quantity of goods they have, the Effects of which among the Savages you well know, not being aprehensive of a visit, I make no doubt of their having planed some Expedition of Importance against our Posts, which if they gain, may be attended with greater consequences than I have Hinted at, they have greater opertunities of knowing our cituation, than we have of theirs, which you know they could not deprive us of. you well know the difficulties we have laboured under with our Joint Efferts to maintain our Ground, and support our Interest among the Savages in that Dept. and the Reasons why, which is now greater than Ever, as the bad Crops and the severity of the Winter hath Rendered it Impofsible for the Towns in the Illinois to make any further supplies until next Harvest, the Troops being Intituled to a Discharge in a few weeks, Except those that have Reinlisted when Joined by Capt: Rogers, when armed will not amount to more than one hundred and fifty, which is too few under our present circumstances to think of Deffending the diferent post we now occupy. Letters from his Excellency, and a promifsing act from our Recruiting Officers may perhaps soon alter our apparent Circumstances, but as yet Receiving no advice from Either, already meeting with many disappointments in my Expectations much to the disadvantage of the Dept, a few weaks Hesitation may be productive of I think it best to act as though long future disadvantage. we had no Expectation of being afsisted Either with men Your Councell not only necefsary, but or provitions. which you know I prize, is what I want If we ware Tolerably formadable at any one post that we could subsist at, it might have a great and good Effect. As I Hinted, to lay afside all Expection of a Reinforcement, I see but the one probable method of maintang our Authority in the Illinois, which is this, by Amediately P^vacualring our present posts, and let our whole force

JOHN-TODD PAPERS.

327

at or near the Mouth of Ohio, which will be too Contemnable to answer the good effect proposed, without we fall upon some method to draw of a Considerable Reinforcement from Kentuck of Militia. Families would

Center

be of the greatest service, as they are always followed by

two or three times their numbers of young men. they would with their store of provitions be able to Victual great part of our Troops in proportion to their number, which if only one Hundred, by the Ensuing fall would be able to Victual a Ridgment. besides Establishing a post that his Excellency is very Auctions for (the Reason I imagine we are boat Acqd with) and the Interests of One Hundrd Families, all the Western Countrey call for. their followers, the Troops we have already Ingaged,. those whose time of service is or shortly will Expire, that would Remain at the place, when Join'd, would be the Report of which by the time it Reach considerable, our Enemies would be augmented perhaps to Trible our numbers, as such Intelligence is always agravated by the Indians, and I don't doubt but that it would put a stop for some time to their proceedings, as I know it would greatly Confuse the Indians they are like to win from us, as our temporary force, with the French Militia, probably counting the Spaniards, would be too Considerable for them to temper with, our only chance at present to save that Countrey is by Incouraging the Families, but I am sensible nothing but land will do it. I should be exceeding Cautious in doing any thing that would displease government, but their present Interest, in many Respects obvious to us boath, call so loud for it, that I think Sir, that you might even Venture to give a Deed for Forty or Fifty Thousand Acres of Land at said place, at the price

government may demand for it. it Interfears with no Claim of our friendly Indians, the greatest Barriour to-

that

the Inhabitants of the Illinois against the Southern Ind-

EARLY CHICAGO AND

328

ILLINOIS.

Genl: Commerce and perhaps the saving of the Countrey to the State, and probably in a few months enable us to act again on the oftensive.

lans, Security of the

should be against suffering Families to settle promisly any part of the Illinois at present, but the Establishment of the said post is so necefsary, and as it Cannot be Compleeat without the Families, I think it your Duty to give the aforesaid Incouragement and such Instructions as would confine the people for some time to a Fort, before you could consnlt Government it might be too late. Sustenance for some time will be procured with difficulty, but I cannot think of the consequences of losing poffeffion of the Countrey without a more determined Resolution to Risque every point Rather than suffer it (for they the English, cannot execute any matter of very great importance among the Savages without it. I know your concern to be Eaqual to mine, if you Concur with me in sentiment, let me know Amediately, or such Amendment as you might think more advantageous. I

in

am

I

Sir,

with Real Esteem,

Lieut. Col.

J.

M.

P.

Your very Humble

LeGras to Govenor

Servt.

oe Vir-

ginia. Translation from the original in the State Capitol at Richmond, Va.

Willia.msburg, Sir:

May

22nd, 1780.

—The integrity with which your honorable assem-

bly dispenses justice to the faithful subjects of the States

emboldens me to represent to you the wrong impression you will receive from the papers with which Mr. Simon Nathan is charged in case your goodness orders payment.

The

inhabitants of St.Vincennes

Illinois

&

the country of the

ignorant of the act of Congress have sold their

harvests to the

army of

Col.

Roger Clark and have

re-

H



JOHN-TODD PAPERS.

329

ceived in payment piastres of the Continent, upon the [footing ^in

and

for the value of the

Spanish piastres.

Persons

them as such there would be

authority (by your orders) have circulated

ind have assured us authentically that [tiothing lost.

They have even passed

counterfeits.

[the position of magistrate of this district,

me

benevolence prompt

who by

[people lost

beg you

to

this loss find

urgent necessities.

my

In

duty and

to take pity

upon a

themselves reduced to the

In addition to this there has

[been published at St. Vincennes an order

by command of

Jean Todd to oblige the residents to receive this money as Spanish piastres and many have been imprisoned for having refused. Some time later the before mentioned Col. John Todd required me, as it appears from his letter, to stop the circulation in view of the

iCol.

quantity of counterfeit orders that {or

many

are circulating

have done, to avoid confusion without lessening preventing) the value of the good. Earnestly hoping

which

I

that the States will

fully. Sir,

pay

this

money according

to the

have the honor of being very respectYour very humble and very obedient servant,

denomination.

I

J.

M.

P.

Legras,

Lt. Col.

Thos: Jefferson to the Hon: the Speaker of THE House of Delegates



From "Calendar

of Virginia State Papers," Vol.

I,

360.

In Council, June 14th, 1780. I had the Honor of addrefsing you on the meeting of the present General Afsembly, I informed you of the necefsities v/hich had led the Executive to withdraw our Western troops to the Ohio Since the date of this letter, I have received the inclosed of the Second instant from Coll: Todd, communicating the measures he had adopted in conjunction with Colo: Sir:

— In a

22

Letter which

KARLY CHICAGO AND

330

ILLINOIS.

Clarke to procure such a Settlement contiguous to the Post which shall be taken as may not only strengthen the garrison occasionally, but be able to raise provisions for as the confirmation of these measures is beyond of the Executive, it is my duty to refer them powers the it may be proper to observe to the General Afsembly. that the grant of Lands to Colo. Todd was made on a supposition that the post would be taken on the North side of the Ohio, whereas I think it more probable it will be on the north side in the Lands lying between the Tanessee, Ohio, Mifisiffippi and Carolina boundary. These lands belong to the Chickasaw Indians, who from intelligence which we think may be relied on, have entered into a war with us. The expenditures of the Illinois have been deemed from some exprefsions in the act establishing that county not subject to the examination of the board of Auditors as the Auditing these accounts is very foreign to the ordinary office of the Council of State, would employ much of that time and attention which at present is called to objects of more general importance, and as their powers would not enable them to take into consideration the justice and expediency of indemnifying Col. Todd for his lofses and services, as desired in the enclosed Letter from Him, of the thirteenth instant, they beg leave to submit the whole to the consideration of the General Assembly I have the honor to be with great respect & esteem, Sir, Your most obedient, & most hum-

them,



ble servant.

John Dodge, Indian Agent, to Gov. Jefferson: From

"

Calendar of Virginia State Papers, " Vol.

August Sir:

you



I

think

it

my

1st,

1780,

I,

page 367.

Fort Jefferson.

indispensable duty to lay before

a true state of our situation in this Country since

my

I

JOHN-TODD PAPERS. arrival,

33

I

may throw some lights on the may reach you through channels

which probably

various reports which

not so well acquainted with

On my arrival at the gave me instructions to

its

real

wants as

I

am.

Falls of the Ohio, Col.

proceed to Kaskaskies,

take charge of the goods

when

John Todd in

order to

which were purchased by M. Lindsay for this department, with farther orders to divide them into two parcels, one of which for the troops, and the other to be disposed of to our friendly Indian allies: considering it better to sell them on reasonable [terms] than dispose of them in gifts; Horses and ammunition being articles much wanted for the Troops, I contracted for and received a quantity of lead and some horses before the arrival of the gQods, and having discretionary powers, was constrained to accept of orders drawn on me for provisions which could not otherwise be obtained. Since the goods came into my hands, the troops and Inhabitants at this place not having received the expected supplies from Government, and being well assured that without some timely relief the post and settlement must be evacuated, I was also constrained at divers times to issue quantities of the goods intended to be disposed of arrived,

to our Indian Allies, in order to furnish

them with the

means of subsistence.

The few

troops that are

now

here are too inconsiderable

to guard themselves: nor are the inhabitants much better, notwithstanding they remain in great spirits in expectation of relief from government, and have with great bravery defeated a very large party of Savages who made a regular attack on the village, at daybreak on the morning of the

17th

ult.

Col. Clark has divided his few

men

possible so as to preserve the Country,

of a large

ards the

body of the enemy

falls

in

in

the best manner

the apprehension

motion from detroit tow-

of Ohio, has called him there with what

men

EARLY CHICAGO AND

332

ILLINOIS.

he could well spare from this Country, before he had well breathed after the fatigues of an expedition up the Mississippi and Col. Crockett not arriving with either men or provisions, as was expected, has really involved both the troops and settlers in much distress, and greatly damped the spirits of industry in the latter, which till lately was I see no other alternative, from the presso conspicuous. ent appearance of our affairs, but that the few goods I have left, after supplying the troops, must all go for the purchase of provisions to keep this settlement from breaking up: and how I shall ever support my credit, or acquit myself of the obligations I have bound myself under, to those of whom I have made purchases for the troops before the arrival of the Goods, I know not. Our Credit is become so weak among the French inhabitants, our own, and the Spaniards upon the opposite side of the Mississippi, that one dollar's worth of provision or other supplies cannot be had from them without prompt payment, were it to save the whole Country; by which you will perceive that without a constant and full supply of goods in this quarter to answer the exigencies of Government, nothing can ever be well affected but in a very contracted manner.



I

observe that the distance the

settlers,

who come

in

general to this Country, have to travel, impoverishes them

They come at the expense of their all, hopes and expectations of being assisted by Government. Were these hopes cherished and supplies of neces-

in

a great degree.

.

in full

saries of all kinds furnished

them

neighboring Spaniards, to be paid

might answer

the manner of the

in

in

produce, such as

for the troops or for exportation,

consequences would be attendant,

many good

emigrants, on

such encouragement, would flock to us in numbers, instead of submitting to the Spanish Yoke; the principal part of their

new settlements would in particular

join us; all those

from the Natchez

only wait the encouraging invitation to

re-

M

JOHN-TODD PAPERS. move themselves and

333

their property to

our settlement,

preferring the mildness of our laws to the rigours of the

Spanish, which they detest, notwithstanding their great

Such encouragement would be a spur to industry which would never die. The troops would, in a little time, be solely furnished in provisions by our settlers, and in process of time, a valuable trade might be opened with ofifers.

the overplus.

'

These hints

I

beg leave to

offer to

your own better

judgement, conscious that if they are worthy of notice you will direct their proper uses.

have got a party of the friendly savages of the Kaskaskie tribe to hunt and scout for us; they are of singular I

service, as the provisions in store are totally

and indeed it is

their hunting, tho'

it

may

exhausted,

afford an useful, yet

a very precarious supply.

As with

to the general disposition of these Indians in alliance us, it

poverty

is

intentions their

appears at present to be very peaceable; but as

always subject to temptation,

may

power

be seduced by those

I

good more in

fear their

who have

it

to supply their wants, being well convinced of

the necessity of having proper supplies for them, which will

not only keep them in our interest, but even afford us

a very beneficial

The wood.

traffic.

bearer of this travels to the Falls of Ohio, thro' the I

am

uncertain what the fate of

my

letter will be,

know he has a dangerous and tedious journey before him; however, by the next opportunity I shall do myself as

I

the honor of writing to your Excellency a few more of

more

my

remark the necesfull supplies of goods in this sity of keeping at all times remote quarter, in order to forward the service of Government, encourage the settlement of the frontiers, supply our troops with necessaries, provisions, &c., and finally open a very profitable and extensive trade in little time.

observations, begging leave once

to

EARLY CHICAGO AND

334

Forgive the freedom of

me

please to do I

my

ILLINOIS.

remarks, which you will

the honor to correct.

have the honor to be your Excellency's most obedient and most humble servant,

&c., &c.

Col. John Todd, Jnr., to Gov. Jefferson: From "Calendar

of Virginia^ State Papers," Vol.

I,

page 393.

Nov. 30th, 1780, Lexington. Ky.

May

it

time past

please your Excellency:

&

are

— We have been

for

some

dreading an Invasion from the neigh-

still

boring Northern Indians.

Intelligence

by the way of

St.

Vincent informs us that late in Oct. a great number of Indians & English were at the late-destroyed Shawnese Towns waiting at the rise of the water to make a Descent either against the Falls or this place.

Duty

part of the militia of this

of the most exposed

&

Corn

will

have ordered upon at three

and are purchasing up a quan-

The people seem fond

tity of Corn.

the Country,

forts,

I

County (Fayette)

at present to sell to

be almost the only article which

Government may expect from this Quarter. I expect to procure between one & two Thousand Bushels by giving Certificates to be settled by the Auditors, or agreed upon by the Commissary, for 40 or 50 £ pr. Barrell, or 2/6 hard money. altho'

session

I

I hope I have not acted amiss in this Respect, have no Instructions. As the Assembly at last

recommended

Lieutenants

next Spring, essary.

& I

there

the plan, laid by the several is

conclude that a delay for Orders

The Indians

small parties. in pursuit of

Two

are annoying

us every

is

unnec-

Week

small detachments of militia are

some who

McConnells' Station. Cargoe of Goods,

A

County

a Certainty of a vigorous attack

stole

I

in

now

Horses two nights ago from

have heard

is

arrived at Fort

JOHN-TODD PAPERS.

335

Jefferson, for the use of the State, said to

by Mr. Pollock

be consigned

Co Lieutenant of Illinois. I Dodge to store them up until

to myself as

propose writing to Capt.

further orders from [your] Excellency as soon as

I

shall

have an opportunity & the Report shall be authenticated. I hope to be excused in expressing my Desires that Your Excellency may have in contemplation an Early Expedition next Spring against our Savage neighbors. I will venture to assure you, that any Orders which may tend to that purpose will be executed with the greatest alacrity by Officers & Men. Capt: Quirk, I hear is on the the way with 30 or 40 men & I can hear nothing from Col: Crockett. I

have the Honor to be with the greatest Respect Your

Excellencys' most obedt

&

humble Servant,

&c., &c.

Col. John Todd, Jr. to Gov. Jefferson. From

"

Calendar of Virginia State Papers, " Vol,

I,

page 460.

January 24th, 1781, LEXINGTON, Kv.

May

it

please

your Excellency.



I

reed,

the enclosed

few days ago; as they contain some matters of Consequence, I transmit them just as I receive them.

letters a

They

are written with a freedom which spare no charac-

may

Letters which I expect you threw light upon our situation in Illinois. Winston is Commandt. at Kaskaskia. McCarty a Captain in the Illinois Regt, who has long since rendered himself disagreeable by endeavoring to enforce Military Law upon the Civil Department at Kohos. The peltry mentioned by Winston as purloined or embezzled by Montgomery, was committed to their joint care by me in Nov: 1779, & from the Circumstance of Col: Montgomery's taking up with an infamous Girl, leaving his wife & flying down ter,

»fe

have

rec'd,

with additional

EARLY CHICAGO AND

336 the River,

I

am

ILLINOIS.

inclined to believe the worst that can

be

Road of Business I cannot do the State that Justice I wish by sending down his case immediately to the Spanish Commandants in the said of him, being so far out of the

Mississippi.

A

late Letter

of laying

informed your Excellency of

&

some Beef

Corn

in

my

Design

store for the Expedition

planned

last year. I expect to get 30 or 40 thousand Weight of Beef & two or three thousand Bushels of Corn on Better Terms then will be got anywhere in this Country. A Prisoner, Martin Wistill taken spring was a year, at Wheeling by the Shawanese, tow weeks ago left his party

being 7 Shawanese, about half a mile from Bryants Fort He says the Shawanese

as they were stealing Horses.

have built 4 Block Houses at Logan's Town 12 miles beyond the Pickaway: that they are much distressed for

want of provisions and are keen for making an attack next Spring, upon the Kentucky settlements that Black-



fish

& Logan

are dead, &c.

I

am uneasy

should not arrive timeously at Licking,

lest

Crockett

& many

of

our

seem desirous to fly immiediately to the South * * * of Kentucky lest he should not.

settlers

side I

have the Honor to be with Greatest Respect Your Most Obedient k, humb servt.

Excellency's

Rich'd From "Calendar

McCarty "To John Todd, of Virginia State Papers," Vol.

Enclosure in John Todd's

letter,

Jan. 24, 1781,

I,

to

Esq."

page 379. Gov. Jefferson.

October 14th, 1780, Cascaskia. Sir:

—When shall

I

ent light and Oppinion, last

begin to appolagize for the DifferI

saw and had of You when hear

Year, and now, the Spirit of a free subject that you

inculcated thro' your better knowledge of things was hid

JOHN-TODD PAPERS. to me.

Honour

In short,

requires of

the Justice you desarve, and at the

you the reason of

my

altering

my

33/

me

to render

same time

You

to inform

notions of things.

I

then thought the Troops hear would be duly supported

and the Legal expense for them paid to the I had thought the Duty of an Officer who had any Command was to see Justice done his Soldiers, and that they had their Rights without wronging his I then thought it was also his Duty to foresee Country. and use all manner of economie in Laying up Provisions for these Soldiers, to carry on any Opperation that his supperiours should judge expedient to order him on,

by the

State,

people Justly.

without any regard to private interests whatever, but for the

Good of the State he served. I then never Immagined Agent would be sent hear to Trade in connection

that an

with a Private Person to Purchase the Certificates from

the people at such rates which must appear scandulous

&

Dishonorable to the State.

To

am now

convinced by become the Hated Beasts of a whole people by Pressing horses. Boats &c &c, Killing cattle, &c &c, for which no valuable consideration the contrary of

all

which

occular Demonstration: in short

is given: even many not a on as next to nothing. I

have sent Col: Clarke,

I

we

are

in

which

is

hear looked

an Extract from

my Journal,

certificate,

know, of one Col: De la Balme,* and his raising a Party to go against Detriot, Not being a Commander I cannot say whether he has proper authority so to do or not.

the proceedings

*

as

Augustin Moltin de

la

far

as

I

Balme, a French cavalry

officer of the

rank of

lieutenant-colonel, offered his services to the colonies at the outbreak of the

Revolution, and came to this country in 1776, bearing the highest testimonials and recommendations from Silas Deane and Benjamin Franklin, at Paris. He was appointed inspector-general of cavalry in the Continental army with the rank of colonel.

against Detroit,

it

In 1780, he came to the West to lead an expedition

being thought that his influence with the French in the

EARLY CHICAGO AND

338

ILLINOIS.

The people have sent by him memorials to Congress or the French envoy at Philadelphia setting forth all the evils we have done. I think Government should be informed of this, as the people are now entirely allinated Agst us: he has told Indians, french Troops will be hear in the Spring. I have no right to find fault, or Blame my Supperiours, yet I have a right to see plain, and wish for the Credit of the State, that Government had eyes to see hear as Plaine as I

k

am

Sir,

I

do.

with Esteem

hble servt ttc

»Sc

consideration

Your most obt

tS;c.

Rich'd Winston to Col. John Todd. From "Calendar

of Virginia State Papers," Vol.

I,

Kaskaskias, October

Dear Sir: the Honour

page 380.

24th, 1780.

— Yours

by Mr. Lindsay was the last I had of receiving, since which no favourable opertunity has offered wherewith you could Expect to hear from me, untill Mr. William Gelaspies' departure, by whom I wrote you as fully as I could concerning this Country, and in Particular all that regarded your Department: all which I must think you have foreseen before you went off, the disagreeableness of which every thinking man would avoid, and of which I now send you a Duplicate, Together with some additions since that time. That State of Illinois is far from being in so easy a Way as might have been expected from the declarations of the Illinois

would enable him

He

to readily enlist a sufficient force.

obtained

and Vincennes, to the number of one bunWith these he
quite voluminous, were carried by the Indians to the British Detroit, and are

now among

the

Haldimand papers

commander Museum.

at

E. G.

M.

in the British



JOHN-TODD PAPERS.

339

Genl: Assembly, or had their Officers a Little occonomy

Concerning which the majistrates did remonstrate, which Remonstrance was Treated as Insolence and Impertinence, for having dared to remonstrate against their ruinous proceedings I wish all may be looked into: in the hopes of which, all is on Record. As to the Peltries which you left with Colonel Montgomery and me, they were taken out of my hands, and I am left Behind hand for fifteen Packs how I will or may

be Indemnified that his estate

wish

may

it

know

I

not

— — Colonel Montgomery

Sufficient

is

be so)

I

to

was by force obliged to give up,

could not content with Bayonetts for a thing that

my

says

pay a great deal more is

as

I I

not

own.

you to Mr. Lindsay, concerning the Goods purchased by him at New Orleans, they are now in the Pessession of him and the Illustrious Captain Dodge. I wish Government may gett a satisfactory acct. of them, refer

I

yet

I

doubt

Government there rate

is

it



great Strides

—as to our

way

this part

of

the world

to call people to acct before

Civil

Taken

for to

Department

'tis

is it

too far from is

too late

make money

at

any

but in an Indiferent

ever since the Military has refused their prison, for

which we

pay very handsomely and since which They Stretch greatly to bring the Country under the Military rod and throw of the Civil Authority. So fond they are to be medling with what is not within their Power. There is strange things carried on in this place Colonel Montgomery is gone from here, with Brooks and Familt (thank God) Capt: Brashears if Married to Brookes' Daughter, consequently has quit the service and gone with the rest: Col: Montgomery, on the day before his Departure did Endeavor to settle the Peltrie fund with In which he failed, and Besides the Drafts by him drawn on me, and by me Accepted to the amount of Fifteen packs, offi^red to









EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

340

he has fallen short Eleven Packs, and what the rest has been Expended in, is to be looked into by Higher Powers there is no accts receipts only for so many Packs,







why

or for what Such is the proceedMontgomery, who left this 19th inst. and Carried with him Large Quantities of Provisions, Boats

without saying for ings of Col:

deeply loaden, besides Eive Black Slaves, for the Publick fund has suffered.

all

which

Since the arrival of this

Captain Bentley, there has been nothing Butt discord and disunion

in

the place

P^xtinguish the

— he

Laws

of

has

left

no stone unturned to

the State, and

to

revive the

Heathen Law, being well accustomed to Bribes and Entertainments. Government ought to regulate the Trade as there are many abuses Committed under Military sanction there Passed this way a Frenchman, called himself Colonell de la Balme,* he says, in the American Service I look upon him to be a Mai Content, must disgusted at the Virginians, yet I must say he done some good he pacified the Indians, he was received by the Inhabitants the Hebrews would receive the Masiah was conJust as ducted from the Post here, by a large Detacht of the Inhabitants as well as different Tribes of Indians he went









from here against Detroit Being well assured that the Indians were on his Side Gott at this Plase and the Kahos about fifty Volunteers and are to randezvous at Ouia. Capt: Duplasi from here, went along with him to Lay before the French Embasador all the Greivance this Country labours under by the Virginians, which is to be





strongly backed by Monsieur de la

Balme



tis

the general

Opinion, that he will take Baubin the Great Partizan at

Miamis, and from thence to Fort Pitt

— this

can say, only that he passed about one out seeing Col:

Month

that

I

here, with-

Montgomery, nor did Montgomery see

him. *

is all

See note on page 337.

:

1

JOHN-TODD PAPERS.

34

Being so long a time Since we had any news from you, we Conclude therefrom that Government has given us up to do for Ourselves the Best we can, until such time as it pleases Some other State or Power to take us under a few lines from you would give some their Protection of us great satisfaction, yett the Generality of the People are of Opinion that this Country will be given up to France Be that as it will, a Line from you, will add much It





to the happiness

Dear

Sir,

Col.

of,

Your Most Humble and Obedt Servant &c &c.

John Todd,

From "Calendar

to Gov. Jefferson.

Jr.

of Virginia State Papers," Vol.

Lexington,

I,

page 481.

Ky., February

ist,

1781.



Accounts from all QuarMay ters lead us to expect vigorous measures from our Enemies I have just received Duplicates of the next Campaign. Letters sent from our Officers of Illinois to others at Louisville, which informs that the Spanish & American Ilinois Settlements are preparing defensively for heavy it please your Excellency

attacks.

On

The

original Letters'

conferring with Col:

I

hear are sent.

Bowman's & Trigg,

We

con-

expedient to send 150 men to Garrison- the Mouth of Licking, until Crockett shall arrive, which we shall

cluded

it

expect weekly. less to

We

apprehended

the expence

wd be

government that to wait until the Enemy arrive at & better Conduce to the security of the

our settlements, people.

[Sends recommenditions for Certain Officers

some Blank Commissions, and follow.

There are vacancies

for

tive ranks are not yet settled.]

— asks

him no abuses other officers, whose

assures

for

shall rela-

early chicago and illinois.

342

John Todd,

Col.

From "Calender

Jr.

to Gov. Jefferson.

of Virginia State Papers," \'ol. II, page 44.

Lexington,

May

it

please your Excellency:

Kv., April 15th, 1781.

— Your

letter of

24 Dec:

as also that of the 19th Jany: last inclosing sundry papers

came I

safely to

hand a few days ago.

By

the last Accounts

can procure from Jefferson and Lincoln, the Militia of

the whole three Counties at present

— Fayette made

156

amount

I

have just

a Draft of 78 from this county for Col: Clark,

the other Counties draft proportionally your

be

to about 1050

— Lincolon 606 —Jefferson 300—

demand

&

if

will

fully satisfied. I

hear nothing as yet of Col: Clark, but

I

conceive

I

have just cause of expostulating with him on acunt of this County, its true state being probably unknown to your Excellency when the Draft was required to be proporExposed at every Fort, k^ weaktioned to the militia



ened by daily removals of its Strength to the South Side of Kentucky, we are scarcely able to keep our Forts. Should Colo: Clark take his Rout by the Shawnese Nation, all cause of complaint must cease, as the Enemy will thereby be drawn off fnom our Forts. Being unable just now to spare Labourers & Guards at a distance from our Forts, for making Canoes. I have sent Mr. Lindsay to Lincoln for Assistance, which I make no doubt of procuring. I fear I shall meet with some difficulties in conveying the Stores at Lexington k. Bryants to the Canoes, for want of Horses, ours being nearly all taken by the Indians friendly as

I

&

Col:

Bowman

does not prove so

think he ought to be in giving

me

necessary

Assistance.

Our circumstances have within

received so material a change

twelve months that a draft of 18 Militia for the

Continental

Army

w'd be singularly oppressive upon Fay-

:

JOHN-TODD PAPERS.

Happy

ette or Jefferson.

spare them,

if

we be

&>

readily

would we

our situation were but as the Legislature

There

expected.

sh'd

343

is

scare one fort in the county but once

month seems upon the eve of breaking for want of men to defend it. Such residents as had most property and a

Horses to remove their

One

effects,

have retreated to Lincoln.

Remove.

half of the remainder are unable to

We

have no tax Commissioner in the County k. almost nothing to tax. All which circumstances plead I hope in

Excuse

Whenever

sufficiently for the militia at present.

our circumstances

will

admit of

satisfied enlist voluntarily in the

it,

the people

will,

I'm

Continental Army, from

a genius they possess for war, as well as the greatness of *

*

you a

letter

the Bounty. I

inclose

complaints from the fear thro' the

Avarice

from Mr. Pollock

Illinois,

&

French

I

still

receive I

Prodagality of our Officers: they

vent complaints against each other

all



that department suffers

friends have the justest



grounds of

I

believe our

dissatisfaction.

have the Honor to be, with the greatest Respect Your Excellency's most obedient and very humble Servant. I

CoL. John Todd, Jr. to the From "Calendar of

Virginia State Papers," Vol. II, page 562.

Lexington, Mciy

it

Governor of Virginia.

please your Excellency

Ky., October 21st, 1781.



I

expect you

will,

long

before this reaches you, have an acct. of our proceedings this Country, by Letters from Genl: Clarke sent by Major Crittenden. After so much assistance given to our Country by Government to enable us to act either offensively or defensively: after so much money expended up on the Western Frontiers, I feel desirous and anxious toremove any censures that our little Country may possible in

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

344

labour under world.

I

in

the opinion of your Excellency

do not pretend

the intended Expedition

&

the

know, to whom the failure in owing, but the officers & men

to is

of these counties have persevered

in

rendering

all

po.ssible

from your Excellency's predecessor

we were

assistance.

By

letters

led to expect an early expedition.

500

men

with canoes

&c were required from these Counties to be at the Falls by March last. The men required were drafted & set apart

for

the

Expedition

&

during the course of the spring

the canoes chiefly made,

& summer

the Drafts nec-

At a meeting of the Field Officers at Louisville summoned on Genl: Clarke's arrival the beginning of September, we found the strength of the three Counties to amount to only 760 men. We offered the

essarily decreased.

General two thirds of them, if he chose to go an Expedition, but rather advised him to proceed in garrisoning the

Ohio upwards, agreeably to a recommendation of the Assembly, or at least to attempt nothing more than a it was our opinion, if small Expedition up the Miami, but one Garrison sd. be built, it sh'd be at the mouth of Kentucky as the most valuable post. If there sh'd be afterwards troops to spare, another sh'd be at the mouth of Licking opposite the big Miami, at Lawrence's Creek or Limestone Run: but we seemed unanimous that the mouth of Kentucky, in a war with the Western & Lake The Indians, was a post of the utmost consequence. sentiments of Genl: Clarke were different from ours

He

in

imagined the Falls to be a Post of the first Importance, being as he always expressed it, the Key of the Country. As I wish to see military service always properly husbanded, I beg leave to offer a few reasons to your excellency, to show that keeping our principal post at the Falls is injudiciously wasting of our strength.

this Respect.

JOHN-TODD PAPERS. 1st.

in the

The

situation of the

road of the

enemy

345

mouth of Kentucky is more war Excursions to any

in their

part of this Country, than any part of the Ohio below that place, a few Settlements in Jefferson County only •excepted.

The River Kentucky wd. afford a ready and 2ndly. cheap transportation of provisions which so abound in the upper Settlements, whereas if the main army staid at the Falls, an out-post at the Mouth of Kentucky wd. always kept close in Garrison, & being in continual terror could afford no protection towards transporting the provisions & rather be a trap for the exposed watermen. The Mouth of Kentucky must be much health3dly. than the Falls, being free from the stagnated pools which overspread the flat lands near the Falls & which everyyear kill or incpaacitate for service great numbers of our soldiers. To say that the Falls is the Key to this Country, seems It is a strong Rapid, which may in to me unintelligible. an age of commerce, be a considerable obstruction to the navigator, but as we have no trade, we neither need, nor have any keys to Trade. If it be understood in a Military sense, I think it a mistaken appellation, as the Enemy can & do pass with as little molestation just above the Falls & just below the Falls, as they could on any other part of ier

the River.

On

parting with Genl: Clarke

we expected to furnish Mouth of Ken-

assistance in building the Garrison at the

tucky from the

Militia,

but expected

&

it

to be built princi-

by them, which a Requisition has come to Colo: Logan and myself to furnish Tools and build the Garrison and afterwards defend it by men drawn from the Body of our militia until he sh'd have Leisure to relieve them, which we are satisfied wd. not happen in any short time.

pally

by the Regulars

since

23

wholly garrisoned



EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

346

On

Logan we concluded to defer we had no intrenching Engineers, no money & we conceived

consulting with Col:

building

the Garrison,

Tools, no professed it

to belong to

The

because

men who draw

constant pay to garrison

result of our consultation

we

it.

sent to the General,

with a promise to lay the matter before your Excellency or the General Assembly. pay,

If the State

we should have no cause

had no troops on

to remonstrate, but

when

they have troops, and those Troops kept in the more interior & secure posts: when so much has already been expended: to augment the Expence by putting the militia on duty at a place distant from 60 to 120 miles from home, conceive to be impolitick & contrary to the opinion of your Excellency, to whom we submit the matter. Recommendation for Justices will be handed your

we

.

A

Excellency by our delegates also for several militia If

is

it

I

officers.

would wish

(ew Blank Commissions to be sent to the Court.

for a

Owing ment,

not inconsistent with the practice,

to so great a distance from the Seat of

Govern-

generally half a year in the date of

officers loose

their commissions. I

have the honor to

Your Excellency's most

be, with

ob't

&

the greatest Respect

very h'ble Serv't.

*CoLO: John Todd to Gov: Jefferson. From "Calendar

of Virginia State Papers," Vol. Ill, 130.

Lexington, Fayette

Co., Ky., April isth, 1782.



The Inhabitants of Majy it please your Excellency: Fayette County have been so harrassed this spring by the *

Accompanying

this letter is a

well-drawn plan of the Fort, and account

—with description thereof as follows: "Laid down to the Inch — 80 the clear — walls 7 thick

current of cost of building

from a Scale of 20

Rammed

feet

feet in

feet

good Timbers 9 feet high only, from 4 feet upwards 5 feet thick The Top of the Wall is neatly picketed 6 feet High, proof against Small Arms Ditch 8 feet wide and between 4 & 5 feet deep. of

Dirt, inclosed with





jOHN-TODD PAPERS.

34/

I was for some time apprehensive that the whole country w'd be evacuated, as Panicks of that Kind have proved very catching, and the fate of the neighboring garrisons at Licking last year was fresh in their

Indians, that

minds

—The

only plan

I

could devise to prevent

&

it

Bryants & this place, was to build a new Fort upon a very advantageous situation at this place & make it proof against Swivels sufficiently secure the provisions laid

&

up

at

small Artillery, which so terrify our people.

I

laid off

the Fort, upon the simplest plan of a Quadrangle & divided the work equally among four of the most pushing men, with a Bastion to each authorizing them to employ workers from this & the neighboring Stations & assuring them of their pay myself On the Faith of such assurances considerable sums of money have been lent & advanced to the workmen, so that the work in about 20 Days has been nearly completed in a workmanlike manner. The Gate is nearly finished & the magazine contracted for. The whole Expence amounts to ;^ii,It 341. 1 OS, as will appear by the account herewith Sent. is in vain for me to assure your Excellency that Diligence and Economy has been used in this Business, as the Work so abundantly proves it. I believe four times the expence never before made for the Publick a work equal to this. An Emulation among the overseers, & Rewards in Liquor to the men proved powerful Incentives to Industry.

Being a charge of an uncommon nature, I thought proper it to your Excellency & the Council, being^

to present

better Judges of the Necessity

than the Auditors,

who

&

Expediency of the Work

are probably unacquainted with

By may have an

the Circumstances of this Country.

Delegates your Excellency transmitting the

money



I

either of

the

opportunity of

have the Honor to

be,

with

the greatest respect, your Excellency's mo: obedient

humble Servant.

&

earlv chicago and

348

illinois.

Board of Commissioners to Benjamin Harrison, Governor of Virginia, concerning Col. John Todd Junior's accounts, etc. From

the original in the State Capitol at Richmond,

Jefferson County, Feb.

V'a.

17th, 1783.

— The

Board of Commissrs. wrote the 23d of December in return to your Excellency's favours of Octobr. In compliance with your orders, we i6th, & Novn. 4th. have diligently searched all the papers in our possession that would throw light on the nature of the Bills in Mr. Pollock's hands, yet remain much in the dark, as Colo. Todd's books & accounts are suposed by the Executor to be some where in the Interior parts of Virginia, and he can only lay before us some detached papers, amongst which we find a letter from the Exective, dated in Council Williamsburg, August 20, 1779. In which the Honble. the Lt. Governor, acknowledges the receipt of several letters from Colo. Todd by Colo. Slaughter of the ist & 2d of July, 1779, which were laid before the council who were pleased with the contents, and approved Colo. Todd's conduct and plan for supporting the credit of the paper money, but that it must be submitted to the assembly who alone That the eight draughts Colo. Todd can give it efficacy. mentions have not been presented, but shall be duly attended to, as the gentlemen to whom they are payable are highly desirous of the grateful attention of the GovThe Board likewise found a Peltry account ernment. amongst Colo. Todd's papers, by which it appears we purchased a quantity of Peltry from Mr. Beauregard .some time in the fall of the year 1779, amounting to ;^2 1,000, The for which it is probable he drew bills to the amount. peltry by this account seems to be paid to sundry perColo. Montgomery's certificate & information to sons. the board, likewise accompanies this. On the whole as Sir:

i

JOHN-TODD PAPERS. no

bills

of Colo. Todd's drawing have appeared before us,

nor are mentioned the

bills in

in

the

list

transmitted to

Mr. Nathan's possession

the above purchase, but as the

349

we

amount or date of these

may

us,

we imagine

probably be for

are not favoured either with

bills,

and no direct

be got here, we cannot be positive.

On

light

can

the supposition

and on that account, have to observe that 210 packs of Peltry cost the state 2 livres per lb, and that at the time the purchase was made Peltry and silver were nearly on a par, as it appears. Colo. Todd is said to have given a high that the bills were given at that time

the Commissioners



lb., which is shews the purchase 50 was made with depreciated paper money, at a little more than five & a half for one, if the Bills in question were drawn on the above accounts the Commissers. think they should be taken up at the above discount, but the Board wish to refer your Excellency to Colo. Todd's letters of the I & 2d July, 1779, which we suppose lodged in the Council chamber, to elucidate the affair, as we can not meet with copies of them. The Board have finished Capt. George's draughts on

price for the Peltry, allowing three livres per p. ct.

higher than

Mr, Pollock it

in

it

generally

is,

favour of Capt. Barbour, but not thinking

prudent to trust the papers relative thereto by this conr

veyance, they hope your Excellency will dispence with the principles, they went on

till

they have an opportunity

As no invoices were produced either by Capt. George or Capt. Barbour, the Board affixed the prices to the cargo delivered at Fort of laying the papers before the executive.

Jefferson from the best lights they could get,

thousand as the

five

hundred

prime cost at

allowed two hundred

in the whole hundred and sixty one

cargo delivered at Fort Jefferson, amounting to

Twenty

four

at seven

& Eighty eight Dollars, one liver ^ New Orleans, on which the Board & twenty five p. Ct. advance for the

thousand

six

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

350

Six sous, Eight deniers including all have not yet closed Genl. Clark's accounts as we find them so connected with the other accounts, both the Quarter Master's and Commissary's as well as dollars four

livers,

expenses.

We

the

that

officers,

we could not finish them before we had we will be able to settle his

a general view of the whole,

To examine

in ten days.

all

the Accounts minutely will

more than the Executive can imagine, as double receipts have always been taken for sums paid, the vouchers require to be

take up a great deal of

listed alphabetically to

time, perhaps

prevent double entries.

None

of

he presented for payment have appeared before the board, but one, of Jan'y ist, 1781, for five thousand dollars which appears to be for part of the Mr. Pollock's

bills

same cargo Capt. George purchased from Capt. Barbour and was a second bill, and is considered as part of 24661,

5^

allowed as above.

it appears these Bills drawn by Wm. were for goods purchased by Lynn on his own acct. at Kaskaskias & Mesuri, and ought not to be It likewise appears that Robt. charged to the state.

By

Lynn,

depositions in 1778,

Elliot's

goods shiped on

draughts and the invoices of

Acct. and at the risk of the United States, but charged to the state of Virginia by Mr. Pollock was in consequence

of the cargo being lost in the Mississippi, and

some of made

the articles that were saved from the wreck being use of

by the troops

in

the Illinoise.

whole cargo and what was saved the troops are copying, but as

&

Inventories of the

applied to the use of

we have

not fully examined

it. The Board in theirs of ye Dec. Excellency your informed 23, that an had a reKaskaskias to which they sent to Express was turn last evening, informing them they might expect some of their principle inhabitants would wait on them with the

the affair

we

defer giving our opinion in

unsettled accounts, &c., in a short time.

Mr. Carbonaux

JOHN-TODD PAPERS.

who

351

one of the inhabitants of Kaskascomes to get some private affairs settled but we suppose him principally a deputy to represent the confusion that country is in, which if not settled by this state, we aprehend he will proceed to Congress. None of the post mentioned in Your Excellencys favour of the i6th will present this, is

kias and

of Octr. are yet erected. before

you

The

general

we expect

will lay

an adof Fayette praying

his reasons for defering that business,

dress from the civil and Military officers

us to report our opinion to Government accompanies

We think

could a fort be erected at or near the

Limestone

of

this.

mouth

would tend greatly to encourage the and that it should be garrisoned

it

settling of that country,

by

a

company of

regulars aided

by the

Militia,

&

fur-

nished with Flower from the neighborhood of Pitsburg.

When we

get a

little

more through the business we

will

inform your Excellence by express of our proceedings

which have been presented for payment and are not laid before us as may be necessary for the Executive to have, before we can return our whole proceedings. We are with great respect your with such remarks on these

Most obed't Humble

Excellencys.

To

bills

Servts.

His Exellence

The Hon. Benjamin Harrison,

Esq.,

Govr. of Virginia.

Willm. Fleming, T. Marshall, CALEB WALLACE.

Col. John Montgomery to the Hon. the Board OF Commissioners, for the settlement OF Western Accounts.* From "Calendar

As

—As

February 22d, 1783, I

am

the letters of Col.

Todd

Gentlemen: *

of Virginia State Papers," Vol. Ill, page 441.

sensible that

NEW HOLLAND. many

reports pre-

of Jan. 24, 1781, and of Richard Winston

of Oct. 24, 1780, enclosed therein, both printed above,

reflect severely

upon

352

EARLY CHICAGO AND

ILLINOIS.

my character hath been spread by persons of an Evil disposition, and perhaps their character not known,, may of course make some impression on you and as my accts, are now on the carpit, I take the Hberty of addressing this short narrative to you, the Contents Being an undeniable truth, I am in hopes will have the desired effect and disperse any suspitions you may have, originated by these Characters alluded to. In 1777, being ordered with my Company from Wholstons to the Kentucky Country for its defence, I remained there until the year following, when Col: Clark arrived at the falls of the Ohio with a body of Troops on his way to the Illinois. I Joined him, and on the presumption of our being Suckcessful, it was thought prudent to Establish a small Post at that place for the conveniency of a communication between the Illinois and Kentuckey Countries, after which we set out on our intended enterprise, and met with all the suckcess we could wish for, principally owing to the secrecy of our movements, after remaining in that country untill circumstances appearantly permited our Return, I came of with the volunteers, having Instructions from Col: now Genl. Clark, to wait on his Excellency the Governor as soon as possiable with Letters and verbal messages, when I received Instructions to raise three hundred men and Join

judicial to

;

Genl. Clark as soon as possiable. raising the greatest part

of the Troops,

proceeded down the tennisse

I

destroying the lower Cherokee Shelby's division.

I

Towns

proceeded on

river, after

in

concert with Col:

my

rout and arrived

Montgomery, it seems but just to print also this letter containing his John Montgomery, an Irishman, joined Col. Clark at the Falls of He comthe Ohio, and accompanied him on his expedition to the Illinois. manded the garrison of the fort at Kaskaskia after its surrender by the British, and Aug. 5, 1779, as lieutenant-colonel of the Illinois battalion, was assigned to the military command of the Illinois by George Rogers Clark, colonel of the Illinois battalion and commander-in-chief of the Virginia forces in the Col.

defence.

western department,



E. G.

M.

JOHN-TODD PAPERS.

353

Kaskaskia the 29th of May, 1779. an Expedition being already planed, or rather a manouver to prevent the Enemy's taking the Field and Distressing the Frontiers, I was ordered to conduct the Troops by water to St, Vincent on the Wabash, Genl: Clark crossing by Land to the appearance of a to that post with a small escort, design of atacking the Enemy on the Lakes being kept up untill the aprentions of all danger of their attempting anything Capital that Season Vanished, a Garrison was The body of the ordered to be left at St, Vincenne. at

marched back to the Mississippi to Garrison the Towns Kaskaskia and Kohas. Genl. Clark finding the

batalion

Public interest required that he should reside at the Falls

of the Ohio until provision should be ing Campaign,

I

made

for the Insue-

was ordered to take command of the

Troops in the Illinois; make often reports of the State of the Department to Genl. Clark, and to be carefuU to have Expences of government as moderate as possible: drawing bills of exchange on him or the Treasury of Virginia for the payment of the Expences of the Troops, studying the general Interest of the State and Tranquility of the Inhabitants of the Different posts leting sions be the last shift: this received.

I

is

all

kind of opres-

the Substance of orders

I

Kaskaskia the 14th of August, Troops according to order, drawing

set out for

and disposed of my Bills on the Treasurer for the suport of the Troops,

some time the Inhabitants

refused

to

Take

Bills

after

drawn

any other way than on Mr. Pollock of

New

the Treasurer addressed to both which

was necessitated

to

do or

suffer

nature of

my

my

I

Orleans or

troops to perish, not dareing, from the

Instructions to Impress provisions,

if

to be got

by any other mains on moderate Terms. What might have been Genl: Clark's views for giving Such orders I can't acct. for any other way than that of his views of future opperations being such that he suposed

it

to be our interest to

EARLY CHICAGO AND

354

ILLINOIS.

keep the Inhabitants attached to us by Every means in our power, knowing the influence they had over the minds of a great

number

of Savage Tribes.

My

Troops

suffered,

no payment being made for the Bills that was Drawn, and never haveing any goods, or other property in my possession to have purchased provisions, which was generally in Specie notes, which the vouchers to my accts. will best show. Bills I gave cash, as the credit of the State

for the recruiting Service all

the Industry

ourselves,

we could

fell:

was Depreciated.

possiable

by hunting &c.

threatened with an Invasion.

in the

make

it

required

use of to support

Spring 1780,

we were

Genl. Clark being informed

body of Troops mouth of the Ohio, when he receiving other expresses from the Spanish Comm'dts and myself, luckily joined me at Cohos, time enough to save the country from Impending ruin, as the Enimy appeared in great of

it

Hurreyed

his departure with a small

to the Falls of the

force within twenty four hours after his arrival,

finding

that they were likely to be disapointed in their Design,

they retired after doing some mischief on the Span'h Shore, which would have prevented, if unfortunately the the high wind had not prevented the signals being heard. in a

few days a number of prisoners and Disarters

Enimy Confirming

left

the

body of near thousand English and Indian Troops ware on their march to the Kentucky Country with a Train of artillery, and the Genl: knowing the Situation of that Country appeared to be alarmed and resolved to attempt to Get there previous to their arrival, at the same time he Thought it necessary that they Enimy was retreating up the Illinois River, a report that a

should be pursued so as to atact their

Towns about

the

time the might have been disbanded, distress them, convince them that we would retaliate and perhaps prevent their joining the British Emisarys again, previous to my knowledge of the above Resolution I had informed Genl:

JOHN-TODD PAPERS. Clarke of in

my

Desire of Leave of absence for some time,

order to return to

me

355

my

family,

it

was then he informed

of his resolution; and that the Publick Interest would

not permit of

my

command

the Expedition

request being Granted, that

I

must take

Rock River, while he would attempt to interrupt the army marching to Kentuckey, and if they got them before him Except the weakened the country too much he would raise an army and atempt to play them the same Game in the Miami of

country, as he hoped

and

if

would go towards Miskelemacknor,

I

we Should be

Tolerable sucksessfull and the busi-

ness properly arranged, five

months

in

the

fall

to

I

might absent myself for four or after Given me Instruc-

or winter,

Kohos the forth of June with a small Escort mouth of the Ohio on his rout to Kentuckey. I

tions he left for the

immediately proceeded to the Business march'd three hundred and

fifty

men

I

was order'd and Lake open on

to the

and from thence to the Rock river. Destroying the Towns and crops proposed, the Enimy not Dareing to fight me as the had so lately Been Disbanded and they could not raise a sufficient force, after returning, takeing every method in my power to regulate business, I was resolved to return home, but after Deliberating some time, was convinced that the Risque by land was Great without a Guard, which our circumstances would not admit off, and that I could posably as soon or sooner return by Water than land, what might also induce me in a great measure to Take my rout by Orleans, was the probability of Recovering some deserters from the Spanish Governor, and put a stop to that pernicious practice, which I in a great measure effected as that Gentlemen appeared willing to comply with any proposition in his power to promote our interest, finding that a passage to Virginia was not expected in a short time, I resolved to Return Emediately, and according to my resolution set

the Illinois

River,

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

356

my Com-

out on the fifteenth of March and returned to

mand

the

day of May,

first

the want of provisions

1781.

obliged us to Evacuate Fort Jefferson the Eight of June

&

my

the Genl interest required

the Ohio,

when

attention at the

falls

of

arrived the second of July a few days

I

on

before Genl: Clark,

my

return from

New

Orleans,

I

by some letters for Genl: Clark seting forth many allagations and Instructions in consequence to the Comd's of Fort Jefferson. I was Emediately convinced that some malicious person in my absence had made reports much to my prejudice asserting that I had

was alarmed to

made well

and approwhich is a palpable falsity, as it never attempted anything that could

large purchases pretendedly for the State

them

priated is

find

known

to

my

that

I

use,

give the least suspicion of such practices, reports have originated

Common

in

from

of course these

false Malitious persons

so

the Western Country and so apt to be credited

by persons that ought, and would despise them, could the know their charactar. You are sensible how fond some perticular classes of people are, of spreading reports pre-

a low character, in the Eastern part of

judicial to others,

the state, he

fits

himself out,

come

to the fronteers, sup-

poses on his rout, that although of an Inferior Class in his

own neighborhood

the Country he

is

will

be at least Equal to the

a going to push himself into

and perhaps Gets kicked

out,

first in

Company

and Emediately makes a

point of Exclaiming, not only for sake of Revenge, but in

hopes that strangers will view

quence,

but

Sirs,

you are too

him

as a

man

is

of conse-

well acquainted with the

make it necessary for me to say anything more on the Subject of such Characters. I flatter myself that you will at least find, that too great credit have been paid to party reports, and that officers zealous in the interest of their Country, that have sacrifised their all for it, have suffered by those very men, who not having virtue enough world to

JOHN-TODD PAPERS. to step forth in

the banner of

357

Defence, have maid their fortunes under

its

those officers they wish to Destroy,

no

person but those that have been witnesses can have a just idea of the adress and Fatigues that it hath required to suport this Department that have been the Salvation of all our frontiers, and saved much blood and Treasure,

always Labouring under every Kind of Difficualty, the the want of men, money and provision, and haveing not only to Counteract, the designs of a Powerful savage British Emissaries

and others Equally

Tribe, incouraged

by

Dangerous to the

State.

try require that

should give you every information in

power which call I

I

will

A duty me

always give

I

owe myself and Counpleasure,

my

whenever you

on me.

am

Gent, with every sentiment of respect

Your very

Obedient Servant.

Thomas Jefferson to Colonel Todd.* From "Canadian Archives,"

Series 2, Vol. 17, p. 125.

Williamsburg, March Sir: — Your

came not

Letter from the

safely to hand.

in a

know

falls

You mention

19th, 1780.

of Ohio, of Dec. 23d, therein that you have

twelvemonth received any Letters from hence,

not what were written before the ist of June

but since that time

The Expences

I

have written several to you.

attending the support of our Troops in

the Illinois has obliged us to call them side of

I

last,

the Ohio, where our

paper

all

to the south

money

is

current.

and one of the same date written by Thomas George Rogers Clark were intercepted on their way to the West, and sent to Major de Peyster, the British commandant at Detroit. He forwarded them to Gen. Haldimand at Quebec, who acknowledged their receipt "Canadian ArJuly 6, 1780 and forwarded them to the Home Government. *

The

originals of this letter

Jefferson to



chives,

Haldimand Collection."



E. g. m.

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

358

Hard money

is

not to be got here, and

culty of sending commodities to

The Draughts from

New

we

find the diffi-

Orleans, very great.

yourself and Colonel Clarke on Pol-

by Le Gras and

lock, those presented us

Lintot, others

about 50,000 Dollars presented by a Mr. Nathan from the Havannah, who took them up at New Orleans, being

for

money or commodities at the hard have rendered us bankrupt there for we have no means of paying them. claimed in hard

all

money



price,

Mr. Brusegard's

bill for

We

30,000 dollars will be on a foot-

Promise payment, and be able. We have no bank in France, or any other Foreign Place. There being an absolute necessity of obtaining from New Orleans supplies of clothing and military stores for Colonel Clarke's men, we shall endeavour that our Board of Trade shall send commodities there for that purpose. But to prevent the injury and disgrace of protested bills, we think that in future all bills must be drawn by them, in which ing with these.

make

will

accept

as soon as

it,

case they will take care to their

we

it.

shall

make

previous provision, for

payment.

I am therefore to desire you hereafter to notify to us your wants, which shall be provided for as far as we are able, by bills from the Board of Trade, sent to you or to

New

Orleans.

Provisions and affords, will

all

other articles, which our Country

be sent on the south side of the Ohio.

must beg the favor of you to send me a list of all the bills you have at any time drawn on us, specifying where they are drawn in dollars, whether silver or paper dollars were intended, and if paper, at what rate of depreciation they were estimated; the known price of commodities in hard money or peltry will serve you as a standard to fix I

the rate of depreciation.

We

cheerfully exert ourselves to

pay our debts,

as far

JOHN-TODD PAPERS. as they are just, but

the

rapid

means

we

progress of

— yourself

against this

alone

359

are afraid of imposition, for which

depreciation

&

by timely and

has furnished easy

Colonel Clarke can guard us full

information in what man-

ner your several draughts ought in justice to be paid.

am

sorry you think of resigning your office in the

Illinois,

the withdrawing our troops from thence will ren-

I

der the presence of

a person of

established

authority

more essential than ever. Your complaints concerning your allowance we thinktoo well grounded and will lay them before the Assembly in May, who we doubt not will remove them, the other objections, I am in hopes you can get over. It would give us much concern should any necessity oblige you to leave that Country at all, and more especially so early as you speak of. I am Sir, with great esteem your most humble servant. [Signed,] Thos. Jefferson.

To

Colonel

ToDD.

Copy of a Letter from Mr. Jefferson Todd, dated at Williamsburg, March 19th, 1780.

[Endorsed:] Col.

In Govr. Haldimand's No. 57.

tO'

BRITISH ILLINOIS. Phillippe Francois de Rastel, Chevalier de Rocheblave.

A CERTAIN region

His

known

official

name of Rochecommandant of the

interest attaches to the

blave as that of the last British a century or

more ago

as "the

Illinois/'

position and his relations to that region during

the revolutionary period, upon which his correspondence,

preserved in the Canadian archives, sheds to render a brief sketch of his

life

much

light,

an appropriate

seem intro-

duction to a selection from that correspondence. Philippe PVan^ois de Rastel, Chevalier de Rocheblave,

was born

in

of Dau[)hine, in the

the village of Savournon in the old province

now

in

the department of the

southeast of France.*

His

High Alps,

father, the seigniorial

was Jean Joseph de Rastel, Chevalier Marquis de Rocheblave.^ The son entered the army as an officer in the French service and was placed upon the half-pay list in I748.'f" A desire for active employment and for an opportunity to better his financial condition, it is probable, brought him to Canada in that year.:!: He acquired experience in Indian warfare, and was one of the officers who served under the brilliant partisan Charles de Langlade in 1755, i^ when he led his bands of western savages from the country about Lake Michigan to the rendezvous at Fort Duquesne. In the lord of Savournon,

*

Marriage Register, 1763.

— Kaskaskia Parish Records, —

t Rocheblave to Germaine, Feb. 28, 1778. "Canadian Archives." Ilaldimand M.SS., British X Rocheblave to Haldimand, Oct. 7, 17S1.



Museum.

§" Wisconsin

Historical Society's Collect'ns," III, 213; V'll, 132.

^60

BRITISH ILLINOIS

— ROCHEBLAVE.

361

memorable defeat of Braddock which followed, due more to any other man,* Rocheblave dis-

to Langlade than

tinguished himself and

One

won

the praises of his chief.

incident of that famous campaign, however, does not

upon the subject of this sketch. After the remnant of Braddock's force had fled, the French and Indians were busily engaged rifling the bodies of the dead which lay thick along the banks of the Monongahela. A 3'^oung man of Langlade's party, of much enterprise and promise named La Choisie, discovered the body of a richly-dressed English officer, and Rocheblave, almost at the same moment, claimed that he had found it. La Choisie managed first to seize the well-filled purse, of the contents of which Rocheblave stoutly demanded a share, and they parted in no friendly way. The next morning, La Choisie was found assassinated, and the purse of gold was missing. While there was no direct evidence of Rocheblave's guilt, he was strongly suspected of the crime, and its shadow rested upon his name thenceforth. It is stated that Rocheblave continued to serve in Langlade's command during most of his subsequent campaigns reflect credit

"f"

the old French

in

And

war.:J:

other service as well.

Canada

he appears to have seen

In August,

1756, the governor-

— Vaudreuil — writing

to one of the French ministers, says, that Sieur de Rocheblave with another cadet, a corporal, a militiaman, and twenty Shawnee Indians knocked at the gate of a small fort, three leagues beyond Fort Cumberland, where there remained some families and thirty militia. He killed four English-

general of

men whom

the

Indians

ers.§

And

in

wounded

scalped,

dragged themselves into the

fort,

who

the following year, Vaudreuil writes to the

*

"Wisconsin Historical Society's Collections," VII,

t

Ibid, III, 215;

§

"New-York

26

three,

and took three prison-

VII, 132.

132, 133.

% Ibid, III, 213.

Colonial Documents," X, 435.

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

362

home government

that Rocheblave had returned with a

prisoner taken on

the banks of "the Potowmak," three march from Fort Cumberland.* During these years, Rocheblave seems to have been one of the garrison of Fort Duquesne. Two years later, he was for a time one of the lieutenants of another "famous French partisan," as he is described by Sir William Johnson, Sieur Marin, who like Langlade was associated with the early history of what is now WisIn June, 1759, Marin led a party of about three consin. hundred Delaware and Shawnee Indians, with the assistance of Rocheblave and three Canadians, from Fort Niagdays'

ara "to insult Fort Pitt," as they said.

This

fortification,

then recently erected by Gen. Stanwix upon the ruins of Fort Duquesne, was found to be

in a poor condition for easily might have been captured, had more defence. in the expedition, the Indians being Frenchman taken part But there of little use in an attack upon a fortified place. It

was no time ant at

to send for reinforcements, as the

Niagara suddenly summoned

P'ort

command-

his

outlying

him against the British army under Gen. Prideaux and Sir William Johnson which was advancing

parties to aid

to the investment of his position.

turned with

all

Marin's

speed, joining on the

way

command

re-

large reinforce-

ments moving to the relief of Fort Niagara. In the battle fought under its walls, Marin shared in the French defeat and was one of the prisoners on that occasion.*}- Rocheblave had been left with one hundred and fifty men to guard the canoes and bateaux at an island above the NiagWhen the fate of the day was decided, the ara portage. Frenchmen who escaped from the field retired to this The place and the whole party proceeded to Detroit.:]: *

"New- York

Colonial Documents," X, 581.

+ "Wisconsin Historical Society's Collections," Y, iiS. *

"New-York

Colonial Documents," X, 992.

I

"

BRITISH ILLINOIS

— ROCHEBLAVE.

363

war practically ended with the defeat of Montcalm in 1759, and for a few years thereafter we can not definitely trace Rocheblave.

In 1762, there was in Louisiana an

among

the

officials

times one of the streets in

New

this person.*

On

this period,

marked on the

is

of the

oflficer

name

of the French government, and in later

a

map

Orleans was named from

of the Mississippi, left

made about

bank of that

river just

below the English Turn, not far from New Orleans, "Habitation du Chevalier de Rocheblaiie; anciemt Le Fort."+ After 1762, this officer disappears from the Louisiana records, and it is possible that he is identical with the Illinois Rocheblave, who. in 1763, was placed upon the half-pay list of the French army| in recognition, it is presumed, of his efficient services in the old French war. He probably came to Kaskaskia in the same year and established himself as a trader in that place. Here on April II, 1763, in the old parish church, he was united in marriage to Michel Marie Dufresne, daughter of Jacques Michel Dufresne, officer of militia of that parish. The original entry with the signature of the parties, the witnesses,

and the

priest

is

still

preserved

in

the marriage

And, probably, because Rocheblave was still an officer in the French service, it is recited that written permission for the marriage had been given by Monsieur Neyon de Villiers, major commandant at the Illinois. De Villiers was one of seven famous brothers, six of whom laid down their lives in the service of the French record at Kaskaskia.

king, and his graceful autograph appears at the foot of the

record.§

When

the Illinois country was surrendered

by France

* Letter of Charles Gayarre, Dec. 24, 1888.

i E. Mease's notes on

maps

§

Marriage Register,

in Pitman's "

European Settlements.

— "Canadian Archives." 1763. — Kaskaskia Parish Records.

t Rocheblave to Germaine.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

364

ILLINOIS.

fall of 1765, Rocheblave, as his opponents say, abandoned his property there, and preferred the Spanish government to the British, taking the

to Great Britain in the

At all events, he was in Genevieve on the Spanish side of the Mississippi in 1766, and engaged in certain legal proceedIn the following year, he was still Spanish ings there.-fcommandant at the same place and was most tenacious of the rights of his catholic majesty even in ecclesiastical When the good Father Meurin appeared at matters. Sainte Genevieve, acting under the Roman catholic bishop oath of allegiance thereto.*

command

at Sainte

know no English bishcommand I wish no eccle-

of Quebec, Rocheblave declared "I

op

here,

and

a post

in

siastical jurisdiction

bishop of

St.

where

I

recognized except that of the arch-

He

Domingo."

at

once

made

a decree pro-

Meurin, and orders were issued for his

scribing Father

arrest as a state criminal for recognizing a jurisdiction not

admitted by Spain.

and he

left

A

friend

warned him of

his danger,

Sainte Genevieve and crossed the river into

British territory.

:J:

In 1770, Rocheblave became engaged in an altercation with Lieut.-Col. John Wilkins, then commanding for Great Britain in the Illinois country with headquarters at Fort

The strife between the two commandants waxed and attracted the attention of Gen. Thomas Gage at New York, and of Don Alexandro O'Reilly at New Orleans, the commanders-in-chief in North America for Rocheblave forGreat Britain and Spain respectively. correspondence with Wilkins, his and a letter of warded his chief, the governor and captain-general complaint to Chartres.

hot,

for his catholic

sent

all

majesty of the province of Louisiana.

He

the papers, together with a conciliatory letter and

* Petition to Carleton, April

Archives." * Shea's "Life

+

St.

lo,

1777.

— Haldimand

Papers, "Canadian

Louis City-Records.

and Times of Archbishop CarroH,"

p.

120.

I



BRITISH ILLINOIS

— ROCHEBLAVE.

365

a copy of his orders to the commanders of the several posts within his government intended to prevent the re-

currence of such troubles, to the

commander of the

forces

of his Britannic majesty in his American colonies.

Gage

same

replied in the

spirit,

and, while he said

Gen. it

was

not possible from the letters of Rocheblave and Wilkins to discover the merits of their controversy, he agreed with

Don Alexandro these

little

in

the expediency of putting a stop to

disputes in the beginning to avoid their in-

creasing to animosities.

And

in

courtly phrase, he ex-

Don

Alexandre's example obey his commands on all occasions,* the humor of which, under all the circumstances, Don O'Reilly's Irish blood must have enabled him to enjoy. It does not appear what the precise difficulty was, but it is evident that Rocheblave was as prompt to oppose the British, in pressed his ambition to follow

and

to

behalf of Spain, in things temporal, as in things spiritual.

By what process this foe of Great Britain, who as a Frenchman had fought against her troops, and as a Spaniard had quarreled with her officials, was transformed into a subject of George the Third is a mystery. Nor is it known when the marvellous change took place. It was alleged against him that he never took the oath of allegiance and supremacy required of those who held office under the British crown.-f- However this may have been, Rocheblave returned to Kaskaskia some time between 1770 and 1776, and posed as a British subject. Lieut.-Col. John Wilkins was followed in the

command

by Capt. Hugh Lord, who had at Kaskasand a few artillery-men. Maj.-Gen. Haldimand, who succeeded Gage in command at New York in June, 1773, was rather in favor of keep-

of the Illinois

kia two companies of regulars

ing these troops in the Illinois country. *

Gage

to O'Reilly,

May

+ Petition to Carleton.

16, 1770.

Supra.

.

But Gen. Gage,

— Haldimand Papers.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

366

who resumed command on

ILLINOIS.

Boston

his arrival at

in

May,

began to increase, that the detachment might be cut off and was 1774, feared, as the troubles with the colonies

Various circumstances preinclined to order it eastward. vented the accomplishment of this design until Sir Guy Carlton, the commander-in-chief in Canada, in whose

was included, determined arms soldiers the colonies invaded when the of Canada, 1775,

jurisdiction the Illinois country

to carry in

it

And

out.

after the disasters to the royal

he issued the necessary orders.* In the spring of 1776, Capt. Lord and

Hejwas

lakes.-f-

his

departed

instructed to entrust the administration

of affairs to such person as he judged proper.

Rocheblave as

men

by the way of Detroit and the

to join the British forces

his successor,

and

it

is

He

selected

a proof of his con-

him that he left his own family in Rocheblave's and four years thereafter they were still with

fidence in charge,

Madame

Rocheblave.

Carleton

;]:

wrote

Hamilton, the

British lieutenant-governor at Detroit, that the troops were

withdrawn from the Illinois to avoid unnecessary expense, and that a salary of ^200 per year had been granted Rocheblave to have an eye to the king's interests in those parts, and to advise the government of whatever might be carrying on there against them, and that his appointment was deemed to have commenced May i, i776.§ And he wrote Lord George Germaine, the secretary of war, that he had employed Rocheblave to have an eye on the proceedings of the Spaniards and the management of the Indians on that side; that his abilities and knowledge of that part of the country recommended him as a fit person; and that he thought such a one necessary since the post which had been held upon the Mississippi had been *

Rocheblave to Germaine, Jan.

t Carleton to

*

Hugh

Lord, July

Madame de Rocheblave

§ Carleton to

to

22, 1778.

19, 1776.

Haldimand.'

Hamilton, Sept.

—"Canadian Archives."

— Haldimand

Papers.

— Haldimand MSS.

15, ITJ-J.—Ih'd.



——

BRITISH ILLINOIS

"

— ROCHEBLAVE.

367

withdrawn.* Rocheblave naturally magnified his office, and considered that Capt. Lord had appointed him judge and commander of a vast country, and had in effect instructed him to continue to bestow upon the savages the presents ordinarily given in order to avoid alienating them,

and that it was also committed to him to break up the designs and evil intentions of the Spaniards to say nothing of the rebellious colonists.

He

home

so informed the

government nearly two years after his appointment.-j- But however backward he was in advising his superiors of the extent of his authority, he lost no time in impressing it upon the people of the Illinois country. The French inhabitants were speedily taught to address him as commandant of all the British part of the Illinois, and with the most humble respect and submission, as did the residents of Peoria.J The British inhabitants were less docile, and complained by petition to Carleton, that Rocheblave trampled upon their liberties, "despised Englishmen and English laws," acted both as counsel and judge, traded with the savages against his own edicts, and was partial to the French.§

If one-half of their allegations

were

true,

he certainly carried matters with a high hand and played the part of a despot. Still it is

but

fair

to Rocheblave to say, that however

unjust to the people, he seems to have been faithful to the government. And notwithstanding his previous, frequent changes of allegiance, he served the British crown during his stay at the Illinois with a zeal and persistence which obtained from his superior officers a quasi-recognition of his right to the positions

ton

who

he claimed. Even Sir

Guy

Carle-

so carefully limited his authority at the outset, a

* Carleton to

Germaine, Aug.

13, 1777.

—"Canadian Archives.

+ Rocheblave to Germaine, Jan. 22, 1778. X Inhabitants of Peoria to Rocheblave. % Petition to Carleton.

Supra.

Supra.

Supra.



368

EARLY CHICAGO AND

few months

later

ILLINOIS.

promised him an order authorizing him

to call out the militia, which practically

made him com-

mandant,* and apparently paid no attention to the comThe home government made no plaints against him. objection to his assuming the title he coveted, and Haldimand, who succeeded Carleton as governor of Canada,. June 30, 1778, and with whom Rocheblave carried on an extensive correspondence after the capture of Fort Gage, always treated him as the former commandant at the Illinois, and in fact paid him his salary as such officer until some time in I783,"f- and also his expenses in that Certainly he was untiring in his efforts to obtain office."!" information concerning the schemes of the Spaniards and colonists, and nothing pleased him better than to hold a solemn examination in the audience room of Fort Gage at Kaskaskia, usually at

five o'clock in

trader returning from a winter

the morning, of

visit to

some

a tribe with which

the Spaniards at St. Louis had been tampering, or

some

refugee from the colonies bringing cheering but delusive tales of their probable return to their allegiance;

and to

send off an express with the depositions of such witnesses duly signed, sealed, witnessed and verified upon oath, to Lieut.-Gov. Hamilton at Detroit, or Sir

He was

Guy

Carleton at

he himself says, left in charge of a great province without troops, without money, and without resources.:]: And he accomplished much with very little means. His services were especially valuable in Montreal.

really, as

regard to the Indians

among whom

his military experience

and long association with them as a French partisan gave him influence, and he kept the tribes in his neighborhood quiet, and the routes of the Ohio and Mississippi open for a considerable time

by

his personal cftbrts alone.

* Carleton to Rocheblave, Oct. 28, 1776.

— Haldimand Papers.

+ Haldimand Papers. J Rocheblave to Germaine, Feb. 28, 1778.

Supra.

——



BRITISH ILLINOIS In

— ROCHEBLAVE.

he decidedly preferred

fact,

this

369

kind of occupation;

harmony beand British traders at Kaskaskia, intween himself and the duced him to earnestly entreat that an English lieutenantgovernor might be sent to take his place, and he be deHe was equally tailed to take charge of Indian affairs.* feehng, together with the lack of

this

anxious that at least a few troops should be sent to pro-

importance of which he seemed to more than any one else in the British service, except perhaps Gen. Haldimand who, had he succeeded Carleton in time, would probably have granted this request. For after Clark's successful expedition, Haldimand expressed the opinion that had the two companies of regulars which he left at the Illinois when he commanded in New York, been left there they would have assured possession of the country and prevented subsequent conse-

tect the country, the

realize far

quences.*f Illinois

Rocheblave

country

if

but to deaf

insisted,

ears, that the

better known, would be one of the

which his majesty possessed, and that it would soon become the centre of communication between the colonists and the Spaniards by the way of the Beautiful River.;]: Carleton wrote Hamilton that it would be impracticable to send any troops to Rocheblave§ and none were ever sent him. richest colonies

But

it

was the

to ;^200 a year

strict limitation

and the cost of

could not reconcile this petty office,

may

upon which he

financial rock

withstanding Carleton's

and came

his expenses,

sum with the

to grief accordingly.

Not-

jj

Rocheblave

dignity of his

His expenditures

not have been altogether upon government account,.

* Rocheblave to Hamilton,

t Haldimand to de Eude

May

(?),

8, 1777.

June

— "Canadian Archives." — Haldimand Papers.

17, 1779.

* Rocheblave to Germaine, Jan. 22, 1778. § Carleton to I

split.

of his allowances

Hamilton,

Ibid, Sept. 15, 1777.

May

16, 1777.

Supra.

Supra.

Supra.

——

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

370

but doubtless

in

part they were, and his surprise and grief

at the non-payment of his modest drafts for twelve and thirteen hundred pounds are almost pathetic, albeit some-

what humorous.

Carleton had notified him

in

May,

1777,

that he must not incur any further expense, but could draw for his salary only

which was

all

that

Hamilton was author-

ized to accept, but he paid no attention to this.* finding that he could extract nothing from

Carleton, he addresses himself directly to

Germaine

and assures him that

at Whitehall,

tures have always savored

his expendi-

more of the niggardliness of a

what could have been expected Great Britain; that he did receive

private individual than

from a great power

Then

Hamilton or Lord George

like

orders to incur no more expense upon government account,

but the absolute necessity of his work had obliged him to continue

it

on

to

Sir

Guy

his

own

account, expecting of course to be

This producing no

reimbursed.-f-

Carleton,

who

is

effect,

told that

he applies again grieves Roche-

it

blave to the heart to speak on the subject of finance, but

he

is

persuaded that the goodness of Carleton's heart

will

not permit him to refuse the payment of Rocheblave's rejected drafts,

and that he has strongly

felt

that the honor

of the nation would not permit his fanaticism of zeal to

be costly to him, nor that he should become the sport of his neighbors and savages. And while he confesses that he has persuaded the commandant at Vincennes to carry part of Rocheblave's expenditures in his account, he says he forced himself to this kind of deceit which the crisis alone could justify and that it troubles him all the more because

it is

foreign to his character.^

The government was

obdurate, but with undiminished

cheerfulness and energy, he continued to raise the warn* Carleton to Hamilton,

May

i6, 1777.

— Haldimand

t Rocheblave to Germaine, Jan. 22, 1778.

Supra.

X Rocheblave to Carleton, Feb. 18, 1778.

Supra.

Papers.



1

BRITISH ILLINOIS

— ROCHEBLAVE.

37

ing voice of one crying in the wilderness against the early

expeditions of the colonists along the Ohio and the Mis-

New Orleans to obtain supplies from the Spanand the danger which these threatened to the Illinois

sisippi to iards,

The daring young

posts.

Willing, descended

armed

vessel

continental

the Ohio from

and forty

soldiers,

captain,

Fort

Pitt,

James

with an

captured fur-traders going

to deal with the Indians under British permits, officers of

own pass, took bateaux and and nearly caught Rocheblave himself as he returned from a visit to Lieut.-Gov. Abbott Willing went on his way to attack the at Vincennes. British settlements on the lower Mississippi; and Rocheblave duly reported every account and rumor concerning him, giving them the darkest possible coloring, and again and again begged for the troops which such expeditions proved to be essential to the preservation of the Western militia with

cargoes

Rocheblave's

British waters,

in

countrj^* It

was

all

in vain,

his requests

for soldiers

were un-

heeded, his accounts for expenditures more or less in the public service were disallowed, and his drafts on the government representatives whether at Detroit or in Canada, went to protest. But his busy pen was still at work, and when the eventful July 4, 1778, arrived, he was corresponding as briskly as ever. He was true to his financial record to the last, for he made one more draft, and that for over $1200 and on the government treasurer at Quebec;"!*

calmly oblivious of the repeated injunctions of his superior

he should draw on Detroit only, and for no more than his annual salary. He accompanied this bill of exchange with a letter to the treasurer praying that it

officers that

* 4,

Rocheblave to Abbott, June 20, 1778.

1778.

+ Rocheblave to Thomas Dunn, 4, 1778.

Rocheblave

to Carleton,

July

— Haldimand Papers. Ibid.

treasurer,

Quebec,

Bill of

Exchange, July



EARLY CHICAGO AND

372

ILLINOIS.

might be honored, and mentioning that the uncertainty in which he was as to whether his preceding draft had been paid, had occasioned him an increase of expense. And he frankly stated that the doings of the Spaniards with the Americans required that he should do even more than before, presumably in the financial line, if his services were to be of any use to the country. These, however, he offered freely.* And on the same day, the very last of his command at the Illinois, he dispatched a long communication to Sir Guy Carleton, containing the latest news of the rebel marauders along the Mississippi, earnestly soliciting the immediate sending of a body of troops to the Illinois, and asserting that all his alarms were about to be realized and that they were upon the eve of seeing there a numerous band of brigands. And he pathetically implored the governor to order the treasurer to pay his latest draft, he .being overcome with demands. And apparently having exhausted all other arguments, he begged for assistance as the father of a family in pecuniary difficulties."!*

Before the next sunrise, George Rogers Clark and his

men were

in

possession of the old Jesuit mansion which

did duty for a fort at Kaskaskia, and the hapless Roche-

The band

blave was a prisoner of war. arrived, not those

command

under the

whose coming he had

for

of brigands had

of James Willing

some time predicted and dreaded,

but another force under another leader whose approach he

does not seem to have suspected. ular account, Rocheblave

According to the popwas captured in his bed.;J: Clark

little army he and secured the governor, Mr. Rochehas been also stated that the wife of the gov-

only says that with one division of his

broke into the blave. §

It

* Rocheblave + Rocheblave

fort

to Thos.

Dunn, July

4,

1778.

to Carleton, July 4, 1778.

— Haldimand

Ibid.

J Reynolds' "Pioneer History of Illinois," 2d ed., Campaign in the Illinois," p. 31.

§ "Clark's

p. 95.

Papers.

BRITISH ILLINOIS

— ROCHEBLAVE.

ernor concealed the public papers

and

that, as

Gov. Reynolds puts

ing of Col. Clark

made him

in

it,

373

her husband's charge,

"the gentlemanly bear-

respect female prerogative,

and the lady secured the papers

in

One

peculiar to female sagacity."*

that adroit

manner

of Clark's lieutenants,

however, Capt. Bowman, wrote to a friend shortly after the capture, that they had

all

of Rocheblave's instructions

from the several governors at Detroit, Quebec, etc., to do various things, for which he received a salary of ;^200 a year.-f-

It is evident, therefore, that

correspondence and at any Carleton on the subject of

rate his

a part of Rocheblave's

some of the

from annual compensation fell letters

into Clark's hands.

Rocheblave's letter to Carleton, announcing the arrival of Clark and his men,

August

3,

is

a pathetic epistle.

1778, or nearly a

month

It

was written

after his capture,

when

he appears to have still been a prisoner at Fort Gage. He tells what he would have done had he been supported or could aid have reached him from Vincennes, begs that his last draft may be paid, asks help for his family and Capt. Lord's, and urges his own exchange. He says his prison is worse than anything in Algiers, and that he is to depart the next day "for the congress," although quite ill. Clark sent those of his

men whom he

could not persuade

Henry at Willthem went Rocheblave across the

to reenlist to carry letters to Gov. Patrick

iamsburg and

with

In this detachment was Levi Todd, brother of John Todd the first governor of the Illinois county under Virginia.§ In the following spring, Rocheblave was joined by his former correspondent Lieut.Gov. Hamilton of Detroit, whom, after the capture of

Alleghanies in custody.^

*

Reynolds' "Pioneer History of Illinois," 2d ed.,

+

Bowman

:J:

"Clark's Campaign in the Illinois,"

§

Reynolds' "Pioneer History of Illinois," 2d ed.,

to Hite, July 30, 1778.

p. 95.

— Almon's "Remembrancer," 1779, p. 37. p.

143 n.

p. 82.

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

374

Vincennes, Clark also sent to Williamsburg as a prisoner.

Hamilton was closely confined and placed in irons for his and his connection with Indian outrages. Rochcblave appears to have had the freedom of the town on parole.* While here, according to his own account, it was proposed to him to return to the Illinois to^ cruel treatment of captives

govern that country colonel,

good

governor,

of

titles

and that

all

And

to him.

the

in

name

of congress with the

superintendent of

he had

the

lost there

Indians and

should be

made

he represents that when he resolutely

withstood these flattering temptations, the governor and council of Virginia asked the French Marquis de dreuil,

commander

was lying or the

in

West

Vau-

of a ship of seventy-four guns which

Virginia waters, to transport him to France

Indies as a traitor to his native country.

The

whom

Rocheblave went to meet with the county lieutenant, but no parole to return The officer threatened to the town was exacted of him. to send him to France or the islands but Rocheblave says he told him that the king of France having abandoned him after the last peace, he had become a British subject and that the king could exercise no jurisdiction over him. And that the council, seeing that the French officer had not succeeded sent him a parole to sign, which he evaded by pretending to be sick, and made his escape.* Thomas Jefferson gives a different account, for in writing to Gen. Washington from Richmond in September, 1778, he said Lieut. -Gov. Rocheblave had broken his parole and gone to New York, and that the authorities of Virginia would shortly trouble the commander-in-chief to demand the return of the lieutenant-governor as soon as they could marquis sent an

officer

forward the necessary *

Madame

9, 1780.

ashore

papers.^f-

de Rocheblave to Haldimand; Rocheblave to Haldimand, Oct.

— Haldimand

Papers.

Jefferson'< "Writings,"

+ JefTerson's "Writings," supra.

I,

258.

—— —

BRITISH ILLINOIS

However

this

may have

§

— ROCHEBLAVE.

375

Rocheblave arrived

been,

in

company with Schiefifelin, h'eutenant of Detroit volunteers, who had been taken prisoner with Hamilton, and had also made his escape. In October of that year, Rocheblave wrote Haldimand at length, setting forth his desire to raise some volunteers to chase

New York

in July, 1780, in

the rebels from the region of the Mississippi, the

and the Wabash, forwarding

Ohio

the bad news concerning

all

the colonists he could hear or imagine, modestly calling

would had happened in the West, months before its occurrence, and entreating some aid for his own family and that of Maj. Hugh Lord, whom he said the brigands had deprived of the last morsel of bread.* With characteristic assurance, he followed this some ten days later with a plan for carrying on the war, entering into minute details.^ In December, 1780, he wrote again from New York to Haldimand, asking that his pay might be sent to his wife, and, faithful to his attention to the fact that his letters to Carleton

show

had predicted

that he

all

charge, he asks for aid also for

that

Hugh

Lord's family, j

Lieut.-Gov. Hamilton was exchanged

Haldimand three days

March

4,

1781,

him and incidentally mentioned that Rocheblave was still in New York waiting for a convoy to Quebec. This he seems to have obtained in the fall of that year, as we find him at Quebec on Oct. 7, 1781, addressing a memorial to Haldimand on the advantage of occupying the Illinois country, and merely mentioning that Lieut.Gov. Hamilton, to whose judgment it was proposed to refer the project, was aware of the superior knowledge

and wrote

to

later to inform

of that fact,

||

*

Rocheblave to Haldimand.

— Haldimand

t Rocheblave's Plan, Oct. 20,

1

Papers.

780. —Ibid.

% Rocheblave to Haldimand, Dec. 12, 1780. % II

Hamilton

to

Haldimand

Haldimand,

to

May

7,

1781.

Hamilton, Oct. 23, 1781.

Ibid.

Ibid. Ibid.



— ——

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

376

of Rocheblave

to

whose department such a question

In February, 1782, he applied for a passport and a recommendation in his favor, and for leave to send an express to his wife,"f and in March, his importunity obtained from the government a warrant for disbursements as commandant at the Illinois.^ Notwithstanding this however, he again recalled his services to the much enduring Haldimand, suggested that his warnings, which might have saved Cornwallis, had only been laughed at, and proposing to secure the Illinois country, and with the aid of Germans and Acadians from Virginia and Maryland, to arrange the neutrality of Kentucky and the Indians at a trifling expense. But, if this comprehensive proposition was not entertained, he asked for a passport and a circular letter to the commanders of the posts, where he might desire to trade, and last, not least, for the reimbursement of his losses.^ Haldimand evidently thought the most economical plan, and the one promising the most respite for himself, was to permit this persistent individual to engage in trade. And he accordingly gave him letters to Maj. de Peyster at Mackinac, who was informed that Rocheblave had been continued on pay and was to be employed as found useful, and that he had been allowed to take up a small cargo of goods which was not to pay freight on the lakes, But before he set out on this expedition, Rocheblave sent from Quebec, Aug. 31, 1782, another petition praying for the payment of his salary and the expenditures incurred during his long captivity,*! and his salary as commandant was granted him.** The peace which Haldimand thus secured

belonged.* to Detroit

jj

*

Rocheblave to Haldimand, Oct.

+

Ibid,

Feb.

17, 1782.

§ Ibid,

7,

1781.

March

— Haldimand MSS. — Haldimand Papers.'

22, 1782.

X Warrant to Philip de Rocheblave, March, 1782. Haldimand to Peyster, April 28, 1782. Ibid.

Ibid.

II

^ Rocheblave

to

Haldimand, August

31, 1782.

Ibid.

** Warrant to Philip de Rocheblave, October, 1782.

Ibid.

— ——

BRITISH ILLINOIS



— ROCHEBLAVE.



|

377

was not of long duration, for Rocheblav^e seems to have been unable to resist the temptation while at Mackinac of engaging in his former pastime of making And Haldimand was drafts on government account. obliged to write him with some sternness, regretting that Rocheblave had been interested in bills drawn from Mackinac, contrary to orders, as they must be allowed to go to protest.* Perhaps because of the unfortunate outcome of this attempt to resume business, Rocheblave soon after departed for the Illinois, and doubtless revisited his old home at Kaskaskia in the winter of 1782-3. Maj. de Peyster, then commanding at Detroit, advised Haldimand of this, and asked what was to be done if Rocheblave returned or drew for back pay.i* Haldimand replied that Rocheblave had been drawing money for salary from Quebec, and his pay was to be continued from there, and in March, 1783, another warrant to Philip Rocheblave for his salary as commandant at the Illinois was duly issued.§ And in the same month, Rocheblave, who had returned to Quebec, confidently submitted to Haldimand a plan for uniting and strengthening the parts of America left in British possession taking in all the territory formerly owned by France, including the Mississippi, for himself

New

He

took the opportunity, however, and expenditures during captivity ;1I and also addressed Haldimand's secretary, Capt. Mathews on the subject.** Rocheblave apparently had regained the favor of Haldimand, who cheerfully granted him a pass for two batOrleans,

etc.||

to request a settlement of his claims for losses



* Haldimand to Rocheblave, Nov. 2, 1782. Haldimand Papers.' + Peyster to Haldimand, Jan. 7, 1783. Ibid. Ibid. X Haldimand to Peyster, March 12, 1783. Ibid. § Warrant to Philip de Rocheblave, March, 1783. Rocheblave to Haldimand, Mch. Ii, 1783. If Ibid, Apr. 7, 1783. ** Rocheblave to Mathews, Apr. Ibid. 7, 1783. II

27

Ibid.

————

EARLY CHICAGO AND

3/8

teaux

for

ILLINOIS.

another trading expedition, but declined to dis-

criminate in his behalf

in

the Mackinac business.*

This

favor was gratefully acknowledged to the secretary

the recipient

who announced

his intention to try to

the point which he was at before the

unhappy

by

go to

affair at

Mackinac, which he promised to long remember, and well observed that for a man of his age not to go forward was to go back, and with unwonted consideration, said he

would refrain from fatiguing Haldimand with a letter.-f" Within a fortnight, however, he sent him a plan for settling the upper country with loyalists, Germans, and Acadians, so as to secure the territory on the Mississippi to the Haldimand had to promise to do all in his British.^: power to support Rocheblave's endeavors to recover his losses ;§ and in the fall of 1783, rumors reached Canada that an act of parliament had been passed to indemnify Rocheblave promptly the loyalists for their sacrifices. sent in his claims again, and was hardly satisfied with the decision to wait until the act officially reached Quebec. He wished his demands established immediately because he said he had to go from Quebec and "find Madame Rocheblave and the rest of the family at Chikagou," and settle all affairs in the upper country before possession was given to the Americans. He seems to have remained ||

Quebec during the following year, as, in January, 1784, he besought the government to give him a situation; in at

March, he asked for a passport and circular letter to the different posts and for an advance of cloth and powder and a grant of lands on the river Rideau; and in April, sent in a formal memorial designating the one-thousandacre tract of land of which he would like a grant to hold *

Mathews

to Rocheblave, April lo, 1783.

t Rocheblave X Rocheblave § 11

Mathews

to to

— Haldimand Papers.

Mathews, April 17, 1783. Ibid. Haldimand, April 28, 1783. IbUi.

to Rocheblave, Oct. 22, 1783.

Rocheblave to Haldimand, Nov.

6,

1783.

Ibid. Ibid.

———

BRITISH ILLINOIS

379

Haldimand sent him a letter of rechim to forward his goods to the

under the crown.*

ommendation

— ROCHEBLAVE.

to enable

upper country, but he

still

applied for assistance; his wife

him with an impressive letter stating their owing to the refusal to pay her husband the money laid out for the government of the Illinois and praying for justice; and Rocheblave begged for permission to at least acquire some land from the Indians, until finally Haldimand succumbed and ordered the laying reinforced

distressed condition

out of one thousand acres of land for Philip Rocheblave

on the Grand Isle near Cataraqui or other part in that neighborhood which was ungranted.^f* The year 1785, found Rocheblave still at Quebec, whence he wrote Haldimand at London complaining that after all his services, he had received no indemnity for losses such as had been granted to every refugee loyalist, that he had even been deprived of rations, and that this had a bad effect on the Canadians. It would seem seem that about this time, Rocheblave began to turn :J:

among the subMore than one of Haldimand's correspondents informed him concerning the

his attention to increasing

disaffection

jects of Great Britain in Canada.

treasonable expressions and doubtful conduct of the once loyal

commandant

ews wrote Lord,

at

the

Illinois.§

Secretary Math-

to Rocheblave's predecessor, the

now Major

information concerning

successor's

desiring

his

conduct at the Illinois, as his behavior since Haldimand's departure had been such as to justify suspicion of his ostensible character, he having been very active in stirring up discontent

among

the Canadians.]]

And

in

the



*

Rocheblave to Haldimand, Jan. 3, Mch. 7, Apr. 12, 1784. Hald. Papers. + Haldimand to Rocheblave, Mch. 26; Rocheblave to Haldimand, Oct. 16; Marie de Rocheblave to Haldimand, Nov. ; Rocheblave to Haldimand, Nov. 2; Haldimand to Holland, Nov. 4, 1784. Ibid. Ibid. X Rocheblave to Haldiman, Jan. 21, 1785. § 11

Rouband to Haldimand, Mch. 20; Baby Mathews to Maj. Lord, Aug. 25, 1785.

to

Haldimand, June

Ibid.

4, 1785.

"

EARLY CHICAGO AND

380

ILLINOIS.

Mathews wrote from Quebec to Haldimand what he called, the odious character of Rocheblave, and commenting sarcastically upon his assurance.* With this faint praise, the name of Rochefall

of 1786,

London

in

revealing,

blave disappears from the British archives.

Among

the papers of Pierre

Menard

of the Chicago Historical Society

ment executed correct by Ph.

is

in

the possession

a copy of a docu-

at Kaskaskia, July 29, 1801, certified to

Rocheblave.-f-

And

a report of

in

be

com-

missioners on land claims in the district of Kaskaskia,

dated Dec.

31, 1809, Philip

Rocheblave

is

stated to be the

then present claimant of a tract of land, which claim was rejected

by the

commissioners.;!:

It

is

uncertain,

how-

whether the person mentioned in this document and in this report is the former commandant or a son of the same name. Of Rocheblave's family very little is known. His wife, from her letters to Gen. Haldimand, seems to have been a woman of force and education. Patrick Henry gave express instructions to John Todd, and to George Rogers Clark that she should be well treated, and her property restored or that she should be recompensed therefor.§ Augustin Grignon says he knew two of Rocheblave's nephews, Pierre and Noel de Rocheblave, both engaged in the Indian trade, and that Pierre became first a clerk and then a member of the Northwestern FurCompany. He is said to have been one of the most important personages in this company, and to have had a seat in the old legislative assembly at Quebec. No other noteworthy mention of the name of Rocheblave has been found in the annals of the West. He was ever,

j|

*!^



* Mathews to Haldimand, Sept. 7, Nov. 9, 1786. Haldimand Papers. + Chicago Historical Society's Autograph Letters, Vol. 61, p. 399. X "American State Papers; Public Lands," II, 130. ^John Todd's Record-Book, Chicago Historical Society. § Henry to Todd. Henry to Clark. "Calendar of Virginia State- Papers.

— —

;1

"Wisconsin

Plistorical Society's Collections," III, 215.

"i /ii
VII, 133.

1

BRITISH ILLINOIS

— ROCHEBLAVE.

38

not an altogether admirable character, and his feat of changing allegiance three and perhaps four times within a

space of twenty years redounds more to his versatility than his consistency.

But

has a romantic interest of

his eventful

its

own, and

and curious

life

illustrates vividly

the transitions through which the Western country passed

during the revolutionary period.

an epoch, and that

will

of the last

institutions

And

his

name marks

always have a kind of prominence as official

upon the

soil

representative

of

Illinois.

of monarchical E. G.

M.

R O C H E B L A V E PAPERS. Sir

Guv Carleton to Rocheblave.

Translation from "Canadian Archives,"

Crown Sir:



I

Haldimand Papers,

B. 39, p. 242.

Point, 28th October, 1776.

have just received your

letter of

September

which you therein can but approve the zeal which

14th, with the interesting intelligence

communicate to me. I you show for the interests of the King of whom you have become a subject, and to whom, by the proof you have just given, as well as by the favorable report which has been made to me concerning you, I do not doubt that you will render good service. I hope by your skill to find the means of defeating the designs of the rebels, of which you inform me. I submit to you whether you should not make every possible effort to engage the savages of the Beautiful River to aid you. will

I

send you as soon as possible the necessary order

you to call out the militia; in the meantime recompense the trouble which you may have in the performance of your duty, you can draw bills of exchange upon the Treasurer of the Province, Mr. Dunn, at Quebec, for the amount of your expenses in the work of which you have charge, to the amount of two hundred pounds sterling per year, beginning from the day of the departure of Captain Lord* from your post, until further order, to authorize

to

*

Hugh Lord

attained the rank of captain in the British army, Dec. 25,

1762, was assigned

Feb

was ranking captain

Army

Lists.

in

5,

1770, to the i8th Royal regiment of Ireland, and

1776.

He commanded

kia, while Lieut. -Col.

— R.

G. Thwaite's examination of British-

a detachment of soldiers stationed

at

Kaskas-

John Wilkins of the same regiment was commandant

382

BRITISH ILLINOIS

— ROCHEBLAVE

PAPERS.

383

We

have taken, burned and destroyed the greater part of the rebel fleet upon Lake Champlain, three sail only, out of the fifteen which they had, having escaped. The all the houses and all back hastily upon Fort Carillon, but the bad weather which is coming on, prevents us from pursuing them this year, and we shall be soon obliged to re-take the route to Canada for our winter

Rebels upon this event, set

to

fire

the ships at this place, and

fell

quarters.

M. ROCHEBLAVE.

Richard McCarty to Rocheblave. Translation from "Canadian Archives,"

Second

letter,



Haldimand Papers,

b.

.

122, p. 6.

important business.

have the honor to wish you good day, and to respects to Madame de Rocheblave, and courtesies to Mademoiselle Pazet and friendship to all the family, to which I would render any service in my power here; I wish to make use of you to do this. I was ill at the departure of Mr. Charleville, and so I was not able to appear to present my defence. Mr Levy has been himself to the house of Mr. Cecil to tell him that our society was separated and dispersed at the time Sty.-

present

I

my

at the Illinois.

March

Wilkins' term of office ended

30, 1772,

and he was

temporarily succeeded by acting-Maj. Robert Hamilton of the same regi-

ment who had been stationed at Fort Pitt. On June 11, 1772, Hamilton was relieved by Capt. Lord, who remained in command of the Illinois, having two companies from his

Royal

artillery

men were

own

under his charge there,

recalled

major of the 75th May 30, 1778, and

Canada.

to foot,

men from when he and

regiment and three until

May

— Haldimand

or Prince of Wales'

i,

1776,

Papers.

In

1779,

the his

he was

Own, with commission dated

was a major on half-pay. Dec. 25, 1802, he was appointed major with full pay in the 7th Royal regiment, garrison battalion, and in 1807, was a major commanding the garrison of the Island of Jersey and the last mention of him in the army lists is in 1829, which probably was in 1783,

the year of his decease.

— R.

G. Thwaite, supra.

E. G.

M.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

384

ILLINOIS.

of the circular, but in time and place

I

will

furnish

my

reply to the petition presented to you. I write you a letter concerning the news which without doubt you have heard spoken of. It appears that some one has given aid to the other shore. The news began to be forgotten, and was hardly spoken of, when the two Englishmen arrived at St. Louis. They disappeared as knowledge of without the any one. they came I have sent a mortgage which will be presented to you by Mr. Kennedy to be registered according to the custom and law here which I imagine will settle all proceedings against me on this subject. I sent to fetch an Englishman who was said to be at Misere* a man very expert in the building of mills. I pray you to have the goodness to give every assistance in your" power, so that we can have this as soon as possible. There have been, they say, two Frenchman killed near St. Joseph while coming from Detroit, and by the Pottawatamies. Also Mr. Chartranc had a finger cut off by the Renards. Four traders have abondoned their house, and

their effects in the country along the river of the Illinois.

all

By

the report of

Boison which they have had at St.

Louis during the winter, both the Pottawatomies and the

Renards say that they wish St. Joseph ravaged and deThere is nothing but war on every side. Do me the honor to give me the news which you have Sir^ with all the respect and esteem possible, your very humble Richard Mc CARTY.f and very obedient servant. stroyed.

Kahos, 6

fevr.,

1777.

[Endorsed:] Letter from Richard McCarty to M. Rocheblave, dated *

A nickname

Kahos, 6 Fevr., 1777. for Ste. Genevieve, Missouri.

+ Richard McCarty

— see note,

page 297, supra

— wrote

from

St.

Ursula at

have been another name for Cahokia, on June 7, 1778, to a correspondent at Mackinac, sending the latest information to Maj.

the

Illinois,

which seems

to



british illinois

— rocheblave

papers.

385

Petition to Carleton concerning Rocheblave. From "Canadian

Archives," Haldimand Papers, Series B., Vol. 185,

Illinois, ss/.

To

I,

p. 2.

His Excellency General Carlton, Gover-

nor of the Province at Canada,

residing

etc., etc., etc.,

at Quebec.

The tors,

Murray* Agent for the contracKennedy^ and Thomas Bentley, all of the

petition of Daniel

Patrick

de Peyster and expressing the pious hope that

God would soon

wished-for news of a union with England and her colonies,

send the

liut in

the following year, he wrote to his wife at Montreal that he had

April of

become a

captain in the Illinois battalion and aide-de-camp of the commander-in-chief

of the department of the West. British

commandant

at Detroit,

And on July 12, 1781, Maj. de Peyster, then wrote to Gen. Powell that the Wea Indians

had entered heartily into their cause, and had lately attacked a party of rebels and Indians, under Capt. Richard McCarty, near the Wabash, and had killed McCarty with some of his people. Maj. de Peyster added that he had all of McCarty's papers, but they gave no information other than that McCarty and all the inhabitants of the Illinois were heartily tired of the Virginians. McCarty to Askin, McCarty to Mrs. McCarty, Maj. de Peyster to Powell " Canadian Archives. " E. G. M.

;^



* Daniel

Murray and

his

London, England, were

brother William, of

traders residing in the Illinois country before the Revolution.

Wm.

Murray

negotiated, in 1773 and 1775, extensive purchases of lands from the Indians-

upon which were based the companies to a large

|

persistent claims of the

Illinois

art of the present states of Illinois

and Wabash

and Indiana,

finally

Wm.

Murray was a member of both companies, and Daniel of the Wabash company; and rejected

by congress

the contractors, for

government

in the early part of

whom

the present century.

he was agent, were those contracting with the British

to furnish provisions to the

Western

posts.

Wm.

Murray

the Illinois in 1776, and Daniel remained in charge of his brother's

left

affairs.

When Clark arrived, Daniel Murray took service under him as quartermaster and commissary, and supplied large quantities of provisions and merchandise to Clark and to Montgomery. When the Virginia troops were withdrawn, Murray was obliged to leave the country, descended the Mississippi to New Orleans, and was captured by the British on his sea voyage to Virginia and taken to New York as a prisoner. In December, 1781, he addressed a memorial to the Virginia delegates in congress at Philadelphia, praying them , to save him and his brother from ruin by prevailing on their State to pay the bills of exchange drawn in their favor by Col. Montgomery for supplies furnished.



E. G.

M.

+ Patrick Kennedy was a trader doing business

at

Kaskaskia under

British.

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

386

Kaskaskias in the County of the aforesaid Merchants, humbly shovveth,

Village of

That since Captain Hugh Lord's departure from this country and Mr. De Rocheblave's being vested with the Government, We your humble petitioners and His Majesty's

most

faithful subjects, find to

our liberties trampled upon all

our most bitter grief

& common

justice in almost

cases refused to us, that on our presuming to remon-

De Rocheblave

strate against such injustice the said Mr. will

not listen to

us,

informing us that such are the laws

France which he orders us to follow

of

telling

us he

knows no other, refusing the English laws proclaimed here by Colonel John VVilkins and hitherto followed by his successors to the command, that we being the only English merchants or inhabitants in this place we take the liberty to represent to you our unhappy situation, and lay our grievances before you, hoping from you a speedy and immediate Redresse for without such 'twill be impossible for an Englishman to remain in this Country as the said Mr. De Rocheblave is daily imposing upon us by refusing the appointment of our suits & denying us the justice which by Law & Equity we have a right to demand at his hands both for the security of our property as well as our persons, neither of which we look upon to be safe under his Government, as Englishmen & English Laws to our great mortification are despised by the public in general & appear to be so by the said Mr. De rule,

and

at

one time was

in partnership there

with Richard Winston.

In

July, 1773, he undertook an expedition with several coureurs de bois from

Kaskaskia to the headwaters of the

He

Illinois

explored the stream to an island, about

River in search of a copper mine. fifteen miles

below the juncture of

the Kankakee, finding coal-mines and salt-ponds but no trace of the metal

he sought

for.

His journal of

this trip gives

an interesting account, and one He was one of the

of the earliest in print of the country he passed through.

claimants under acts of congress giving four hundred acres of land in the district of

Kaskaskia to heads of families

prior to and including the year 1788.



who had

E. G. M.

cultivated land in Illinois

BRITISH ILLINOIS

— ROCHEBLAVE

PAPERS.

387

Rocheblave in particular. That with such inhabitants as happen to have any controversy respecting accounts

^ve

Demands unavoidable

or

in

business he acts in the

first

place as council for such against us and afterwards as a



judge He one day decides a matter in our favor and immediately issues out a sentence in favor of the oppoThat contrary to our wise constitution and to site party the great detriment of the merchant, he acts in the capacity of a trader, buying and selling goods both wholesale and retail and has been known to make proposals for the purchasing of a cargo (last summer) to a very considerable amount, which he would have effected had his Credit been equivalent thereto. Public advertisements with respect to property he orders in a most arbritary manner to be torn down which he has been known to do twice in one day. Protest and appeal from his sentence he pays no regard to, seizing



notwithstanding of such for the payment agreeable to his sentence refusing undeniable security.

He

forbid the trading of liquor to savages under the

severe Penalty of two thousand dollars and those very

savages notwithstanding such orders

drunk when him even to

in the village,

being constantly

upon an enquiry made accused

his face of being the person that intoxicated

them with Rum or Taffia which they said he barter'd to them for Beaver, Otters, etc. Such is his partiality in favor of the French that upon approach of savages coming to war against their enemies last

spring he sent out a party of

colours to partiality

know

is

the design of their coming.

not to be woudered at

the said Mr.

men under French

De Rocheblave on

That such

when we consider

that

country being taken possession of by the English abandoned his property here this

and preferred the Spanish government oath of allegiance thereto.

to ours taking the

EARLV CHICAGO AND

388

That

'tis

ILLINOIS.

not within the cognizance of any person in

the country so far as

we can

learn that the said Mr.

De

Rocheblave has ever been quahfied by taking the oath of allegiance and supremacy previously necessary towards the holding of such an office.

That abstracted from

all

manner of prejudice whatever,

De Rocheblave from and partiality against us on all occasions to be by any means an Englishman's friend having endeavoured to throw aspersions upon the char-

we do not look upon his

behaviour

the said Mr.

at all times

some of us without the least foundation (and merely thereby intending to veil his own iniquitous practices) openly countenancing known Villians against us and even encouraging the savages to rob our boats, whose sole motive was trading amongst them in their winter grounds. That Mr. Murray, one of your humble petitioners, acting here as agent for the contractors applied to Mr. De Rocheblave to oblige Mr. Viviat a merchant in this place (who had obtained a certificate from Captain Lord) in the said Murray's name on his the said Captain Lord's leaving this implying that he had already bought provisions sufficient for the subsistence of two companies of soldiers twelve months, to lodge the same according to the said certificate which he hitherto has refused to do and notwithstanding it was farther enforced in consequence of a Lieutenant governor's coming to Post Vincennes who might have occasion for the same yet the same application was of no effect. We humbly hope that your Excellency will be kind enough to compassionate our situation and grant us such redress and that in the most speedy manner possible as British subjects have a right to expect at the hands of an English governor and your petitioners as in duty bound acter of

will ever pray.

Dated *

Thomas

T.

Bentley.*

at Kaskaskias, loth April, 1777. Bentley was a London merchant having trading-stations in

West

british illinois

— rocheblave

papers.

389

Declaration of Gabriel Cerre. Translation from "Canadian Archives," Series II, Vol. 14, p. 59.

The year

1777, the 29th of April, at five o'clock in the

morning, there appeared before Illinois,

Commandant at the room of this fort, this country whom we

us.

the undersigned, in the audience

merchant of had summoned, for the purpose of declaring to us in legal form what he had learned, yesterday evening upon his arrival. And after having received from Sr. Carbonau, clerk, and from Sieur Maisonville, a merchant of Detroit, both here present, the oath to hold and keep secret what in the declaration we are about to receive, presently from the before mentioned Sr. Gabriel Cerre, who after legally Sr. Gabriel Cerre, a

taking the oath to

tell

Florida and the Illinois country.

us the truth as well as to keep

He

seems to have been the only one of the it, and Rocheblave's vengeance soon

parties to this petition w^ho dared to sign fell

upon him.

In May, 1777, Bentley

passport on a bussiness-trip to Canada.

left

Kaskaskia with Rocheblave's

At Mackinac,

in July of the same Major de Peyster by order of Lieut. -Gov. Hamilton, upon the accusation of Rocheblave, that Bentley had given aid to the rebels the year before. He was sent to Detroit and thence to Montreal, where he remained a prisoner without a hearing for more than two years, in spite of his frequent protestations of innocence, demands for a trial, and the intercession of powerful friends in England. During this period his property in the West and South was practically confiscated. At length, in November, 1779, he made his escape and crossed the frontier by the help of an Indian guide, and found his way to Virginia. Here he played the role of a martyr for the colonial cause, and at Williamsburg called on Lieut. -Gov. Hamilton, who had imprisoned him and was now himself a prisoner, and offered his services. The following year Bentley was at Post Vincennes and wrote thence to Major de Peyster and to General Haldimand, asserting his loyalty to Great Britain, suggesting methods for the reconquest of the Illinois and giving information concerning the plans of Col. La Balme. Yet in 1781, he appeared at Richmond, Virginia, and presented a claim for compensation, because he had sac-

year, he

was

arrested by

rificed his fortunes to

His

support the credit of that state in the Illinois country.

letters to the British

and

to the

American

authorities preserved in the

Canadian and Virginian archives, and but recently brought to ously inconsistent, and Still

show

light, are curi-

quite clearly tliat he deserved his ill-fortune.

he managed to persuade George Rogers Clark that he was a faithful and later established a claim to land at Kaskaskia as a loyal

friend of liberty,

citizen of Virginia.



E. G. M.

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

390

secret that which he

is

about to impart to

us,

has declared

and spoken that which now follows: That having been among the peorias on the River of the Illinois the above named stated that last winter, having been wintering with the Kickapoos and Mascoutens at a place called the bad land, there arrived there two savages, Kickapoos, and that these went to a person called weather" likewise chief of the said savages of the Village of the Raven on the River of the Illinois, to engage him to send hither those young men in response to my invitation. To which messengers the before mentioned "fair

"fair weather" replied that he would not stir, that he had been the winter before at St. Louis to the Spaniards to drink there and see his father, the Spaniard, who had before promised him a medal, a chief's coat, a hat, etc., that the commandant showed him all these articles, but told him he would not give them to him, until the commander sent word, that he thought the time of the arrival; of the message from the sea would be about the time of grass, adding that he would not tell him the contents because it was yet a secret known only to him; that the inhabitants of St. Louis (?) were ignorant of it, but that as soon as their father had awakened from his sleepiness he would make known to them, and would be prompt with his word, and would give him then what he had promised, advising them not to mix themselves with the

The Sr. Cerrd he knew nothing more, that the declaration told us that contained the truth, and he had nothing to change, add» or take away, and signed with us and our clerk and the troubles of the bostonians with the english.

Sieur Maisonvil.

Done written.

in

duplicate at Fort

Gage

the year and

Signed, Cerre, Maisonville,

day above

Rocheblave,

Com-

mandant, and Carbonneau, Clerk. [Endorsed:]

August, 1777.

In Sir

Guy

Carleton's (No. 32) of

nth

'

BRITISH ILLINOIS

— ROCHEBLAVE

PAPERS.

39 C

ROCHEBLAVE TO LlEUT.-GOV. HAMILTON. Translation from "Canadian Archives," Series Q, Vol. 14, p. 56.

Rocheblave, Fort Gage, the 8th of May,

Signed,

1777.-

beg Mr. Abbott to come hither where his presence will dispose of many things, and where he can give orders If he for the common safety of the two departments. him I shall try to induce to take charge comes here, of His presence is more neceseverything as did Mr. Lord. If I succeed, and if I can sary here than at St. Vincent. be of assistance to him, I will willingly remain with him, if not, I shall see if I can be of use elsewhere. I

I

was

in

command

formerly in these parts for three

years; and had not during that time to decide more than

one process a week. At present with fifty men in all, I have during this term put three or four persons in prison, and that was as little as I could do. At present one is

young men who demand them it should be followed; on another occasion the same people will the very next day demand the old French laws which have

obliged every day to imprison that

if

the English law

is

favorable to

If I were not a little crazed would cause me to become entirely If S. C. should judge it proper to employ me on the so. River of the Illinois where there are only a few Canadians who do not litigate because they own nothing, this river would need some one to watch the savages who so far will not permit the native English to penetrate there, which is an injury to commerce. I think no one can be envious of my lot, and besides I myself am become a savage from I forgot to call your constant association with them.

always been already,

I

followed.

believe they

attention to the fact that as soon as

I

learned of the death

gave letters of administration as successor to Mr. Cerre, an honest merchant, in order that having liquidated here the said succession, he could take the total

of Bartalon,

I

EARLY CHICAGO AND

392

amount

to Michilimackinac, or to

circumstances.

The

ILLINOIS.

Montreal according to

greater part of the proceeds were

under way, when I had the honor of receiving your letter. He had accompanied it himself well in advance to the Illinois River fearing the savages who have killed two men He has returned, and is about to remove the rest. there. I have ordered him to deliver it all to Mr. De Peyster to whom advices will be given. Mr. La Mothe can make What I can not do in a large application for it to him. will do in small a way for the remainder of this way, I succession, your wishes being commands for me. To day, the eleventh, my letter not having gone on account of the raising of the waters and the continual rain, I have opened it to say that the same propositions have been made to the Saukies and the Foxes on their return from war here upon the Illinois as to the Kickapoos. This afternoon those sent out in advance of the convoy have seen nothing. We have news that it had not been seen as far as eight days travel and more than sixty This causes us anxiety. leagues from here. [Endorsed:]

Copy

of a letter from Monsieur Roche-

blave to Lieut.-Gov. Hamilton. In Sir

Guy

Carleton's (No. 32) of iith August, 1777.

ROCHEBLAVE TO LlEUT.-GoV.

AbBOTT.(.?)

Translation from "Canadian Archives," Series Q, Vol.

Signed,

Rocheblave. Fort Gage, the

first

14, p. 64.

of June, 1777.



Sir: The boats have at last arrived from New Orleans where they were delayed by the loss of the powder taken away from the colonists to the amount of eleven thousand pounds. Thus has been reduced this much vaunted arma-

ment.

It is true that

the old governor according to report

loaded a boat intended for the colonists.

But the ships of

BRITISH ILLINOIS his

— ROCHEBLAVE

majesty got possession of

it.

PAPERS.

393

All appearances are for

a foreign war in the near future. I have here a party of Delawares, and a collection of Kickapoos, Mascoutens and Pottawatomies from the River of the Illinois. As these three last named nations always make war upon the subjects of Great Britain (the Spaniards having persuaded them so to do) and it being necessary to reassure you as regards that quarter, I have contrived to draw them hither and after some difficulty, all has been well arranged. The war chief of the first mentioned will go to see you. This tribe appears to me to be attached to our interests. They promise to prevent the passage of the colonists in case of any attempt on their The cannons you ask for will part upon the territory. If I can be of use to you, you can leave to morrow. always rely upon me. I have always the honor of insisting upon the advantage of your presence here, for you would then know better your weakness and your resources. Had circumstances permitted I should already have paid you a visit. They are expecting in the town sixty merchant boats. The French half pay officers who have remained here should be replaced, being in a battalion from which the Spaniards are seeking to recruit their If the Delawares wish to be of use to you, they garrison. and the Kickapoos are the most desirable. I have the honor to be with the highest consideration, Sir, etc.

[Endorsed:]

In Sir

Guy

Carleton's (No. 32) of

nth

August, 1777.

ROGHEBLAVE TO LlEUT.-GoV. AbBOTT. Translation from "Canadian Archives," Series Q, Vol. 14, page 69.

Sir:

New

— Yesterday

evening there arrived a cargo from

Orleans, the owners of which report that the Span-

28

EARLY CHICAGO AND

394

ILLINOIS.

iards have taken possession of twenty-two English ships

had made an attack upon them at this so strongly and in such detail that there can be no doubt of its truth. Thus from whatever cause it may have arisen, reprisals or otherwise,, hostilities have begun, and it remains only to decide how in this river, that these

They have

sea.

afifirmed

shall come through with it. Shall we make the first move, or shall we permit it to be made. In the first case the advantage will be for us, in the second it will be for

we

our neighbors.

we should

If

get the start of them,

should not see them again very soon; the start of us, they would to the very gates of If

stir

if

we

they should get

up much work

for us

even

Canada.

you would do well young men here, and inform me in coming. I beg you to pay thirty piastres I am in too much haste to write more at

you wish us

to anticipate them,

to send about thirty

advance of their to the express.

present.

I

have the honor,

&c..

Signed

Fort Gage,

the First July, 1777.

[Endorsed:]

Copy

of a letter from

ROCHEBLAVE. Mr. Rocheblave,

commandant, by appointment of Sir Guy Carleton, at Fort Gage, to Lt.-Gov. Abbot, dated Fort Gage, first of July, 1777.

Guy

In Sir

Sir

Carleton's (No. 33) of 13th Aug., 1777

Guy Carleton to Lord George Germaine. From "Canadian

(No.

(2).

Archives," Series Q, Vol.

14, p. 66.

Quebec, the 13th August,

33.)



1777.

from LieutenMy Lord: I have ant Governor Abbott enclosing Intelligence which he received from Monsieur Rocheblave and which, together with Mr. Abbott's letter I transmit to your Lordship. just received a letter

-

BRITISH ILLINOIS

— ROCHEBLAVE

PAPERS.

395

Canadian gentleman, formerly in I have employed to have an eye on the proceedings of the Spaniards, and the management of the Indians on that side. His abilities and knowledge of that part of the country recommended him to me as a fit person; and I thought such a one necessary, since the Post which had been held upon the Mississippi has been withdrawn. I likewise enclose you two letters I have received by the same conveyance from Lieutenant Governor Hamilton, from whom I have received at the same time a very voluminous packet; as it contained nothing very material and he is in direct correspondence with your Lordship, I do not think it advisible to detain the Boat Captain Pearson sends in hopes of overtaking the ship which sailed yesterday with another dispatch from me. I am, with all respect My Lord your Lordships most obedient humble Mr. Rocheblave

a

is

the French Service,

whom

Guy Carleton.

servt.

Lord George Germaine. [Endorsed:]

Sir

Quebec, 13th August, 1777.

Guy Carleton.

(No. 33.)

(2 Inclosures.)

Rocheblave to Lord George Germaine. Translation from "Canadian Archives," Series Q, Vol. 15, page 193.



My Lord: It is nearly two years since the troubles which agitate disastrously North America obliged his Excellency, Sir Lord,

Guy

Carleton, to request Captain

who commanded

gathering together

leave there with be nearer the center and to aid in at the

his garrison in order to

Hugh

Illinois, to

which as a skillful leader Mr, Lord had orders to leave the administration of affairs to such person as he judged proper. all

his forces,

he considered to be too distant.

EARLY CHICAGO AND

396

If there could

who had

given

ILLINOIS.

have been found a more zealous

many

officer

proofs of his capability and of his

patriotism, in all probability he

would have been given the

The commands which he left me in appointme judge and commander in a vast country were in

preference.

ing

effect

to continue to bestow

upon the savages

these

in

trying circumstances the presents ordinarily given in order to avoid alienating

them.

have felt, my Lord, how important it was, during the crisis which has forced the mother country to the most strenuous efforts, to carry the greatest moderation into Mine has always savored more of the every expenditure. niggardliness of a private individual than what should have been expected from a great power such as Great I

Britain. It

and

has been necessary for evil intentions

me

to break

up the designs

of our neighbors, the Spaniards, and to

dissipate the injurious impression they have sought to give

the savages against the present government,

in

seeking to

renew the small degree of inclination they have had for the old, and to give from time to time something to the

who

vast tribes

inhabit our boundless forests.

do not know, my Lord, what terms to make use of in having the honor of expressing to you the greatness of I

my

surprise at learning that

months which was

in

Jivres sterling has not

expenditure for thirteen

been allowed.

Carleton, in a letter of

way.

my

the neighborhood of twelve hundred

Having received

May

last

His excellency, Mr.

has checked

his letter

me

and proving

July the absolute necessity of continuing

my

in

to

work,

every

him I

in

have

would suspend matters out of respect to his continuing in my own name, subject to the condition of receiving a prompt reply. Thus far I am still waiting. It is by management of this kind my Lord, said that

I

orders, but

am

that Mr. Abbott, lieutenant governor at St. Vincennes, sees

BRITISH ILLINOIS

— ROCHEBLAVE

PAPERS.

397

himself today forced to abandon his government, to avoid

being a victim of too precipitate a plan of action; and

upon him come by the Indians who have been tampered with by our neighbors. Through him I am that he runs the risk of having the doors shut for a

long time to

In vain should any one continue

deprived of needed

aid.

to decry a country

which

if

better

known would be

haps one of the richest colonies which seses.

The

efforts

his

per-

Majesty pos-

made by our jealous neighbors to expel The fear of wearying you my

us confirm this assertion.

me

Lord prevents close

from writing at greater length, and I to redress my wrongs, and to take

by imploring you

and to peryou of the respectful consideration with have the honor to be my Lord, your very humble

into consideration the state of this country,

mit

me

to assure

which I and very obedient servant.

Fort Gage

of

Illinois,

At

[Endorsed:]

Fort

RoCHEBLAVE. the 22nd of January, 1778.

Gage of

Illinois,

Jan. 22nd, 1778,

M. Rocheblave.

Inhabitants of Peoria to Rocheblave. Translation from "Canadian Archives."



Sir: We the undersigned have the honor to assure you of our most humble respect and submission. All present have been witness to the arrival of your letter addressed to F. Maillet and of your word to be carried by him to the Mascoutin Chiefs. We certify that the said Maillet has shown great zealousness in this matter. Finding some difficulties and some coolness on the part of the savages, owing to the persuasion of the Spanish commander at St. Louis this Spring, he felt obliged to add to your word some further inducement in order to conquer their prejudices and objections which they brought forward, and has joined to this pressing reasons and urgent solici-

EARLY CHICAGO AND ILLINOIS.

398

made

tations which he

come

their irresolution.

to

them

in

our prssence to over-

In honor of which, Sir, to assure

you that we are with respect and ble and obedient servants.

fidelity

your very hum-

Joseph Venault, Louis Chatellerault, Lateau Hay, Louis Jauntetot, Eustache Lambert, Joseph Verinat, Amable Val, Bapte. Casterique.

Jyte Truteau,

Witness, at the Pees, the 26th January.

To Monsieur Rocheblave, Commandant of all the

Lionnais.

{?)

English part of the

Illinois.

French letter that came enclosed by Mr. [Endorsed:] Rocheblave to Mr. Hamilton and transmitted by him to General Carleton in his letter of the 6th August, 1778, marked Detroit No. 7.

Examination of Henry Butler before Rocheblave, AT Fort Gage. Translation from the "Canadian Archives,"

Today

Haldimand Papers, V.

122, p. 21.

the 15th of Feb. 1778, at eight o'clock in the

morning there appeared in the audience chamber of this fort upon your order a man named Henry Butler, of Irish origin,

having resided

Pennsylvania, to

whom

to speak the truth, tions.

Inquiry

for

six years

in

the province of

after administering the legal oath

we have put to him the following queshow and when he came to this

firstly,

country.

In reply, he states that he arrived several days ago having seen himself threatened, as had been the case before, with being obliged to take arms in favor of the rebels.

He

left

Fort Pitt three months ago

with three others.

He had embarked

in

company

with a Mr. Morin,

BRITISH ILLINOIS

whom

— ROCHEBLAVE

PAPERS.

399

he had met with while hunting upon the beautiful

river.

He was Fort and

He

asked what was going on at that time at the

in

the surrounding provinces.

replied, that

he had heard

it

said that the troops of

the king were spread through the villages

in

the neighbor-

hood of the said Fort and that their general was at a place White Horse. He was asked if he had heard that Philadelphia had been taken and how.-" He answered, that the people of Philadelphia had removed everything which barred the river and had given

called the

free entrance to the ships of his majesty.

He was

asked

if

there had been

any

affair

between the

troops of the King and the rebel army.?

He made

answer, that he had heard

it

said that there

had been a battle upon a small river called Schuylskill and that the rebels had lost. He was asked where Congress was.'' In reply, he stated that Congress was at Lancaster at the time he left, but that since it had retired to Carlisle. He was asked as to whether he had any knowledge of an armament being prepared for this country. He replied, that he had heard nothing of it before leaving.

He was

if

he knew George Morgan and where he

replied, that

he knew him, that Morgan had gone

asked

was.''

He

to Philadelphia in search of

money

sions of the troops of which he

to pay for the proviwas the purveyor, and that

he had not returned.

He was asked if he had any further information to give.'' He replied, that he had heard it said, that this engagement would take place this spring, that the people inclined for the party of the King and were only kept back by the

EARLY CHICAGO AND

400

ILLINOIS.

oath which had been exacted from every family to the contrary, and added that they ers

had conducted the prison-

taken from the royaUst army to a place called Win-

chester.

He

furnished his statement declaring that

only the truth, and not knowing

how

it

contained

to sign his

name he

signed thro' his clerk and the witnesses here below. his

Henry x Butler. mark

Rocheblave, Commandant.

Patt Kennedy, Charles Gogis, Carbonneau,

And

Clerk.

today the i6th of the said month, continuing the

same interrogatory which business had obliged us to interrupt. The same Butler after having again taken oath was asked what was the force of the garrison and the name of the commandant.''

He

Hand, formerly doctor to the eighteenth Regiment, commanded there and that there were in the neighborhood of one hundred men in the garrison, the greater part of them deserters from the troops of His Majesty there. The thing has not been replied,

that

the

Brigadier Gen.

clearly explained, they are deserters from the colonies.

He was asked if there was a great number of barges or bateaux prepared.-' He replied, that there were in the neighborhood of ninety barges or bateaux already made ready and that they were employed daily in constructing others. There would have been a larger number but that a storm had destroyed seventeen of them. He was asked if he was acquainted with a person called Liny.-* He replied, no. He was asked what pay they received.'' He answered, that he had received nothing

W.

three

months that he had been

at Fort Pitt.

during the

BRITISH ILLINOIS

He was

— ROCHEBLAVE

PAPERS.

4OI

asked what the people thought of this on this

side of the Apalachians?

He replied, that they had kept quiet until they should have constructed the barges, and that then it was thought that they were for the escape of the chiefs and of congress, and that the people had planned to arrest them if they sought to escape

The

in that direction.

reading of the declaration having been

him, he declared that

had nothing

it

made

to

contained the truth, and that he

augment, or diminish therein, and has made his mark not knowing how to sign his name, the year and day as below given. to change,

his

Henry x Butler. mark

Patt Kennedy,

James Morin,

Carbonneau.

Witness.

Witness.

Clerk.

[Endorsed:] Examination of Henry Butler at Post Vincennes before Mons. Rocheblave.

Rocheblave to Carleton. Translation from "Canadian Archives," Haldimand Papers, B. 122, p.



12.

have the honor of informing your excellency of last month, I went to St. Vincennes to confer there with Lieut. Gov. Abbott upon the affairs of this region. I urged him not to leave, or at least to withdraw here and assume command. I was not successful in this attempt. I took for my return route the way of the Wabash and the beautiful river, ascending the Mississippi, and arriving at this Fort. My intention was to Sir:

I

that, at the close

learn the disposition of the Indians, particularly of the

Delawares. M. Abbott and I have been informed that they have entered into engagements contrary to the interests of the crown,

and

I

wished to dissipate the impressions

EARLY CHICAGO AND

402

ILLINOIS.

to our disadvantage which our neighbors seek to inculcate daily.

the

I

learned upon

my

arrival at the beautiful river,

of the present month, that two days ago a vessel

fifth

had passed coming from Fort Pitt, which had taken two who under the passport of Mr. Abbott had gone to trade with the Indians. I learned the next day that they had also taken M. Le Chance, officer of Militia at this place who left before me, going under my passport to brothers

journey to

St.

They took

Vincennes.

with the latter his

childred, his effects and his negroes. They took likewise one of the two brothers of the first capture, with fifty packages of skins which they had, after making them understand that they should only put the blame on their passport and that they wished to take Mr. Hamilton, Abbott, and myself We discovered that, by their lan-

guage, they were seeking to inspire a

among

the people.

The

ship

is

of independence

spirit

large,

pointed and with

quarter netting having, according to some of the engages,

two cannon, and four, according to others, who say that two are masked, and forty soldiers, commanded by an from Philadelphia named Willing, who has three

officer

others under his orders.

It

is

loaded

with provisions.

Congress has written by this occasion to the Spanish Governor at New Orleans, and the Commandant of that nation in this region has received a letter of the contents

of which nothing has transpired.

As

I

had good reason to

as far as the

Illinois, I

they would proceed only

fear

decided to abandon the project of

and by travelI met at the of the two captives,

visiting the Indians at the adjoining rivers,

ing day and night to arrive before them.

entrance of the Mississippi the recruits

whom ing

they had landed stripped of everything, after hav-

required of

them

that

they would

against their pretended states.

stood

(if

one could put

faith in

I

not

take

arms

learned that they under-

what some

soldiers said to

BRITISH ILLINOIS

some engages of

— ROCHEBLAVE

PAPERS.

aim

their acquaintance) that their

403 is

to

possess themselves, with the aid of their supporters and others of their sort, of Natchez and Manchac, and to force to take arms in their favor several thousands of those

located at the foot of the Mississippi, and to return with

munitions of war. If

such

is

their plan,

must prepare a way of revolt,

I

think that in any event, they

retreat for the chiefs of this fatal

who, taking refuge

a country covered

in

with

immense

forests, surrounded by numberless rivers, and by our neighbors, could not be dispossessed of it without a severe blow, and without causing immense expense in view of the local difficulties. I would be all the more tempted to attribute this pro-

assisted

ject to them, since after the battle of

capture of

New

Long

Island, the

York, and subsequent events, when finally

things were at their worst for

them, they caused to be

and the project was proposed to the Spaniards, according to what a reliable person from their side has told me, and was only abandoned when they had taken heart again after the constructed a quantity of barges at Fort

surprise of Trenton.

Thus we can

see the Congress keep-

ing alive here the leaven of the rebellion.

lency knows better than anyone

Pitt,

Your

how important

it

excelis,

for

the interests of Great Britain, that they should not have

immediate relations with a jealous power, and one which where it can in safety foment the troubles in the colonies, subdued or to be subdued. Four months ago, after the arrival of the boats from New Orleans, the Spaniards sent off by night three men exists in a region

to carry letters to Fort Pitt.

They spread

the story that

they were going to hunt o the Beautiful River. I

assured of the fact I

Although

have only recently been by two savages who met them.

did not credit the report,

I

regret exceedingly. Monsieur, that the state of affairs

EARLY CHICAGO AND

404

ILLINOIS.

does not permit you to maintain here some troops, by means of which, and the inhabitants could give aid to all foreign relations, make the passage of the Beautiful River at least dangerous, and could plant themselves on the hills at the foot of the

them, they could cut off

and compel our neighbors to ccntribute only good wishes to the continuation of our troubles. If zeal and activity alone could procure us these advantages, as my honor is concerned, your excellency might remain without anxiety. Although stripped of everything, I would not cease to put forth every effort and would only desist from it, when there was no more hope. I place before you the declaration of a deserter from the colonies. He as well as others has asked that they might enjoy the Mississippi,

their

benefits offered

to those

who

leave the rebel army.

me

implore your excellency to give subject, as well as

directions

upon

I

this

upon the deeding of lands which num-

bers of the refugees from the colonies are soliciting, conjointly with the inhabitants of the Spanish prairie.

you a journal of

likewise sent

last

I

have

year which sets forth the

doings of the Spanish with the indians of our shore to our prejudice, and a notice by which anyone on their side

me of any evil designs of the rebels towards me. must inform you that the roof of the house of the fort which is of shingles is entirely rotten being made twenty five years ago and that it rains in everywhere can warn I

altho' I

am

continually patching

longer delay cost

be

in

more than

putting on a

it

new

up.

roof, a

If there

is

much

house which has

forty thousand piastres to the Jesui.s will

lost.

It

grieves

me

to the heart,

subject of finance.

months of

my

My

sir,

to speak with

expenditure

you on the

for the first thirteen

government, has reached about one thou-

sand pounds sterling, for which deduction should be for the

sum Mr. Hamilton w