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BINDING LIST MR 151923 THE UNIVERSITY RECORD THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS CHICAGO, ILLINOIS THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS LONDON THE MARUZEN...

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BINDING LIST MR 151923

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS CHICAGO, ILLINOIS THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS LONDON

THE MARUZEN-KABUSBTKI-KAISHA TOKTO, OSAKA, KYOTO, PUKUOKA, BBNDA.I

THE MISSION BOOK COMPANY SHANGHAI

C £bc

IHnivereit^ of Chicago

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD {New

Series)

Edited by

D. A.

ROBERTSON

VOL. VI

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO CHICAGO, ILLINOIS

PRESS

Published

January, April, July, October, 1920

Composed and Printed By The University of Chicago Press Chicago,

Illinois.

U.S.A.

> TABLE OF CONTENTS JANUARY PAGI

Charles Hitchcock: Portrait

Frontispiece

The President's Charge to Graduates

i

The President's Convocation Statement

3

The Board of Trustees.

/. Spencer Dickerson

5

Mrs. Charles Hitchcock: Portrait

facing

10

facing

35

Thomas W. Goodspeed

Charles Hitchcock. Silas

B.Cobb: Portrait

Silas

Bowman Cobb.

10

Thomas W. Goodspeed

35

Events: Past and Future

59

Attendance in Autumn Quarter,

64

191 9

APRIL John Crerar: Portrait

The

The Board

of Trustees.

John Crerar.

Mrs. Mary H. Wilmarth.

John

Li Slen.

Conyers Read

J. Spencer Dickerson

:

The John

98

Marion Talbot

Portrait

Blllln'GS Fiske Prize in

65

96

Thomas W. Goodspeed

John Billlngs Fiske Tile

Frontispiece

Political Progress of the English Workingman.

120 facing

Poetry

Billings Fiske Prize Poem.

122 122

Anne Mary Lyman

126

The Quadrangle Club

136

Events: Past and Future

144

Award

148

of Fellowships, 1920-1921

Attendance

in

Winter Quarter, 1920 v

152

TABLE OF CONTENTS

vi

JULY PAGE

Joseph Bond: Portrait A Supplement to the "University Record" Is

America Responsible ?

Frontispiece

153

David Prescott Barrows

154

The President's Convocation Statement The Board of Trustees. J. Spencer Dickerson Uniting the United States.

Edwin E.

162

168

Slosson

174

W. Goodspeed The Theology Building and Bond Chapel The Theology Building and Bond Chapel: Illustrations

Joseph Bond.

T.

.

.

.

189 .•

.

.213

facing

214

The Disciples Divinity House: Illustration facing The Disciples Divinity House The Chicago Theological Seminary: Illustration facing The Chicago Theological Seminary St. Paul's on the Midway and Ryder Divinity House: Illustra-

217

.

.

.

.

.

tion

facing

Ryder Divinity House Proposed Meadville House: Illustration

The Proposed Meadville House

....

in Chicago.

217 218

218

220

220 facing

221

Rev. Richard Wilson

221

Boynton

The One Hundred and Sixteenth Convocation

224

Events: Past and Future

230

Attendance in Spring Quarter, 1920

236

OCTOBER Frederick A. Smith: Portrait

The New Past. James Henry Breasted The President's Convocation Statement The Board of Trustees. /. Spencer Dickerson Thomas W. Goodspeed University Commissions Frederick A. Smith.

Frontispiece

237 257

260 267

288

Events: Past and Future

291

Attendance in Summer Quarter, 1920 Index

299

298

CHARLES HITCHCOCK

The

University Record JANUARY

Volume VI

Number

ig20

i

THE PRESIDENT'S CHARGE TO GRADUATES

1

You have been

given parchments reciting the action of the UniverChicago in bestowing on you the respective degrees to which you In the Latin formulas you will find that you are granted are entitled. I now call your all the rights and privileges of those academic degrees. sity of

— the obligations

attention to the converse of those rights and privileges which you now incur. We hear much of rights but too

little of

the cor-

Remember

that every right, whether in accordance with the law of the land or of those still more fundamental moral laws

relative obligations.

which are vital to all political and social structure, carries with it a duty which the individual owes society, quite as much as society owes respect With each new right and privilege, therefore, you of individual rights.

come under the obligation of a new duty. virtue of your degrees you are admitted to the great body of our citizens who have enjoyed the benefit of college life or of professional

at once

Bv

In a certain sense, therefore, you belong to a body selected training. from their fellows by special opportunities. Accordingly, while you rest under all the common obligations of citizenship, you also are under all who have had such opportunities. special obligations incumbent on I charge you always to remember what you owe to Alma Mater.

This obligation still less

is

in later

not discharged by cheers in a crowd of one's fellows, by contributions from one's abundance. Loyalty

life

to Alma Mater implies obedience to its best teaching, devotion to truth, the name of using one's powers always and everywhere so as to keep the University stainless in the lives of its sons and of its dau^ht* 'First used at the

One Hundred and Fourteenth Convocation

Assembly Hall, December

2$, 1910.

in

Leon Mandel

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

2

I

charge you to remember that the safety of our free Republic depends all on the sacredness of the home, and that every graduate of

above

our higher institutions of learning should jealously guard his own life so as to cherish this essence of our civilization especially against the loose thinking of idle visionaries. I

charge you to remember that as educated men and women you especial duty to our country, not only if need be to give your

owe an

lives to it in

time of battle, but to guard its fabric from destruction whose ignorance or fanaticism makes them enemies

at the hands of those

within the gates.

The Constitution

of our land

must be defended from

changes should be permitted only under the Obedience to law is the first duty of a citizen of orderly forms of law. a free state, and our alumni should always be an embattled host in all

hostile action.

Its

allegiance to this duty.

These three others I

Alma Mater, loyalty to home, loyalty heed as among those which you above all

loyalties, loyalty to

to country, I charge

owe without

you

to

stint.

ask no pledges save such as you give spontaneously in your

own

hearts and consciences.

Only, speaking for the University, I charge you as its sons and daughters to be faithful always in the great loyalties of life.

THE PRESIDENT'S CONVOCATION STATEMENT 1

ATTENDANCE

i.

The attendance

of students during the quarter just closing is the The largest heretofore was largest in the history of the University.

Autumn Quarter of 191 6 just preceding the entry of the United States into the Great War. In that quarter there were 3,768 in that of the

the quadrangles and 1,169 in the University College, being a total of The registration for the current Autumn Quarter shows a total

4,937.

m

and 1,219 the University College, a total of 5,682, being a gain of 745 as compared with 1916. This considerable increase in attendance the University shares with of 4,463 in the quadrangles

other institutions throughout the country; and of course it is to be expected as resulting from the close of the war and the release of young men, especially from military duties. It has not been easy to provide

adequate housing or adequate instruction, but at the same time these somewhat serious problems have been solved. 2.

NEW

GIFTS

There have been several interesting gifts during the current quarter. Mr. Theodore W. Robinson, of Chicago, gives $500 for the use of the Oriental Institute of the University, to be used in purchasing material.

A

museum

contemporary authors, artists, and of London, has been important not only as a record of personal-

rare collection of portraits of

scientists lithographed

by William Rothenstein,

given to the University. It is ities but also as an exhibition of the art of lithography. From Dr. Frank Gunsaulus the University Library received a very rare book, which in turn the University gave to Cardinal Mercier for the library of the University of

Louvain on the occasion

of the Cardinal's

University, October 22, 1919. The University preferred to give to Louvain the most valuable of its rare books rather than to send material which it did not need.

visit to

i.he

Read

at

the

One Hundred and Fourteenth Convocation

Assembly Hall, December

23, 1919.

in

Leon Mandel

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

4

Mrs. Gustavus F. Swift, of Chicago, adds $8,000 to the previous of the Gustavus F. Swift Fellowship, making the income from that fellowship amount to $925. This fellowship is awarded

endowment

for the encouragement of research, and is given only to a student who has already proved his capacity for investigation. Mr. Charles R. Crane renews his gift of §13,000 for instruction and

library materials in Russian language

A

donor whose name

museum This

on

will

his

and

institutions.

withheld gives $25,000 for the purchase of material for the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. is

be used by Professor James H. Breasted,

way 3.

to

Mesopotamia

in prosecution of the

who

work

is

now

in

Egypt

of the Institute.

PENDING DEVELOPMENTS AND IMMEDIATE NEEDS OF THE UNIVERSITY

This subject is treated at length in the autumn number of the Particular University Record, which has just appeared from the press. attention is invited to the topics discussed, as they bear on the immediate

and pressing needs of the University. at this time.

They

will

not be discussed further

THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES By

J.

SPENCER DICKERSON,

Secretary

APPOINTMENTS In addition to reappointments the following appointments have been made by the Board of Trustees: Morris Kharasch, National Research Fellow in the Department of

Chemistry. J.

E. Schott, Research Associate in the Department of Chemistry. \V. Watkins, Instructor in the Department of Anatomy.

Richard

Emma Kohman,

Instructor in the Department of Physiology. Bernard Raymund, Associate in the Department of Physiology. Mary Grace Hamilton, Teacher in the Department of English

of

the University

High School. Robert David Highfill, Teacher

in the Department of English of the University High School. Ruth Turnbull, Associate in the Department of Physical Culture. Margaret Burns, Instructor in the Department of Physical Culture. Catherine Campbell, Associate in the Department of Physical

Culture.

H. M. Weeter, Associate

in the

Department

of

Hygiene and Bac-

teriology.

Vergil Claybourne Lohr, Teacher in Physics in the University High School. Harry B. Van Dyke, Associate in the Department of Pharmacology and Physiology.

Clay Judson, Instructor

in the

Law

School.

LEAVES OF ABSEN Leaves of absence have been granted to: Professor James H. Breasted, Director of Haskell Oriental Museum, one year from October i, 1919. Assistant Professor Daniel David Luckenbill, of the Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures, for the Winter, Spring, and Summer for

Quarters, 1920.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD PROMOTIONS members

have received, by action of the Board of Trustees, a promotion in rank: Assistant Professor Fred Conrad Koch to an associate professorship

The

following

of the faculties

Department of Physiological Chemistry. Charles O. Hardy, Lecturer in the School of Commerce and Administration, to an assistant professorship in the same school.

in the

James 0. McKinsey to an Commerce and Administration.

Instructor

School of

assistant professorship in the

Lyon to an assistant Commerce and Administration.

Instructor Leverett S.

School of

professorship in the

RESIGNATIONS

The Board of Trustees has accepted members of the faculties:

the resignations of the following

A. E. Hennings, Teacher of Physics in the University High School. Harold O. Rugg, Associate Professor in the Department of Education. C. S.

Duncan, Assistant Professor

in the School of

Commerce and

Administration.

Frank

H.

Knight,

Instructor

in

the

Department

of

Political

Economy. T. T. Crooks, Associate in the Department of Hygiene and Bacteriology.

Emma

A.

Kohman,

Instructor in the

Kenneth B. Hunter, Teacher University High School.

in the

Department of Physiology. Department of English of the

FELLOWSHIPS Mrs. G. F. Swift has contributed $8,000 in bonds as additional endowment of the Gustavus F. Swift Fellowship Fund in Chemistry. The fund now amounts to approximately $18,000. This fellowship,

endowed by one of the most generous of the University's friends, "is for the encouragement of research; and the qualifications of the gift are: (a) that the candidate must have proved his capacity for research; ib) that the appointee is to be freed from the requirement of University service."

The Fleischmann Company, of Peekskill, New York, has renewed Department of Physiological Chemistry for two years from July 1, 1919, under the same conditions as during the previous two years. The company provides $750 each year. its

fellowship in the

THE BOARD OF TRUST!

7

The Gypsum

Industries Association has provided two industrial fellowships in the Department of Botany with a stipend of $750 each, besides an appropriation for purchase of special material and apparatus. The fellowships are offered for the academic year, 1010-20. The fellows are to investigate the value of gypsum and other com-

sulphur various crops on various soils in the United This work will involve both plot cultures and pot cultures in

pounds as States.

fertilizers for

the greenhouse.

It will also

involve the analyses of

many

soils for

many

crops.

In the acceptance of these and similar industrial fellowships the is that the University shall appoint the fellows and that the results of their investigations shall be made public.

understanding

GIFTS

Mr. Roy D. Keehn,

of Chicago, has given

graduate fellowship in the

Law

$200 for the support of a School during the current academic

year.

The Board of Trustees accepted, at its meeting held October 14, some 130 pieces of property rugs, furniture, paintings, pottery,

ioiQ,





books, bric-a-brac, etc. bequeathed to the University under the will of La Verne Noyes for use in Ida Noyes Hall. There were also presented

by the executors of the will a portrait of Mr. N by Louis two bronzes. The portrait now hangs in Hutchinson Hall.

Betts,

and

The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company has placed at the disposal of Professor E. O. Jordan, Chairman of the Department of Hygiene and Bacteriology, the sum of $3,200 to be expended in study of influenza and its complications. The Board of Trustees has added $2, 000 to this

with

amount

investigations

to be used for a similar purpose in co-operation

being

conducted

in

Boston,

New

r

Y ork,

and

Washington.

The University has received a pledge of $25,000 from a donor whose name is not announced, the fund to be used in purchasing materials for Haskell Oriental Museum. The University also has provided $5,000 from

its funds, and there are other resources amounting to $5,000, including a recent gift of $500 from Mr. T. W. Robinson, of Chicago. Professor J. H. Breasted, Director of the Museum, is in Egypt engaged in examination and study of the exceptionally lar^e amount of suitable

Already he has objects which the war has permitted to accumulate. made a selection in Paris and in Cairo, some of which material has

been received in Chicago.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

8

ALUMNI WAR MEMORIAL The committee

committee of the alumni on the

to confer with a

question of a suitable memorial to be placed within the quadrangles of the University for alumni who gave their lives in the war with Germany and Austria-Hungary consists of Mr. Charles L. Hutchinson,

President Judson, and Mr. Harold H. Swift. The alumni committee is composed of Messrs. Frank McNair, Leo Wormser, and Emery B.

Jackson.

NEW HALLS FOR WOMEN

The Committee on Buildings and Grounds, under

instruction from

the Board of Trustees, has authorized Mr. C. A. Coolidge, architect of Ida Noyes Hall, Harper Library, and other University buildings, to prepare sketches for a group of women's halls eventually to be erected on the

north portion of the block on which Ida Noyes Hall stands.

have not yet been provided

for these

Funds

much-needed buildings.

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS

By action of the Board of Trustees a plan for reorganization of the Press has been adopted. The operations of the Press are now conducted upon the following scheme of organization: The The

functions of the Press consists of:

publication and manufacture of books and journals, the printing of official documents and other matter for the University, and of the retail sale of books and supplies for the benefit of the University community. The general administration of the Press is in the hands of a committee of the of Trustees known as the Committee on Press and Extension. The administration of the Press so far as details are concerned is in the hands an Administrative Committee consisting of the President of the University, the

Board of

Manager of the University, the Secretary of the Board of Trustees, the Auditor, the manager of each of the three departments of the Press, the General Editor, the Chairman of the Committee on Press and Extension, and the Chairman Business

of the

Subcommittee on the Bookstore.

The Administrative Committee has a subcommittee on consisting of the Managers of the Publishing the General Editor.

publications and printing and Manufacturing Departments and

The Faculty Board heretofore known as the Board of the University Press will be known hereafter as the Board of University Publications. This Board is authorrecommend the publication of books as to typographical style and usage. ized to

and

journals,

and

to

make

suggestions

THE LATE LA VERNE NOYES The Board

of Trustees at the meeting held October 14, 1919,

adopted

the following resolutions as an expression of appreciation of the notable

THE BOARD OF TRUST! gifts to the

University the previous summer:

o

made by Mr. La Verne Noyes, who

died during

Resolved, That on occasion of the death of La Verne Noyes, oi this city, the Moan! of Trustees of the University of Chicago desires to record its do the

University of so wise and generous

a friend,

and

to the stal

good a

I

iti/.en.

Hi-

large gifts to the University were planned by him with great cure, with a dear vision of results to be expected, and with profound patriotic feeling. Mr. Noj the

architect of his

own

fortunes and had in consequence a vivid sympathy with the men and women. His loyalty to his country and his

ambitions and efforts of young

conviction of the righteousness of its cause in the (ire.it War made him eager to do some lasting thing for the perpetuation of national gratitude to those who ventured the

supreme

sacrifice of life at the call of the Republic.

ture for our

women

students, Ida Xoyes Hall,

is

The beautiful and effective strucsame time a memorial to the

at the

cherished companion of Mr. Noyes for many years, and an incomparable element of help to the life of our young women for generations to come. The liberal provision

La Verne Noyes Foundation to be enjoyed by those who served American Army or Navy in the late war, or their descendant-, i- lasting expa The name of La Verne No; sion of the devotion to his country of a good citizen.

for scholarships in the in the

will

.1

be kept in Resolved,

be inscribed

memory

in the University of Chicago.

That the foregoing expression

in the

minutes of

its

of the

sentiment of the Board of Trusl

proceedings.

FORMS FOR GIFTS TO THE UNIVERSITY Following are the approved forms for use in bequests made to the University

:

and bequeath

a) I give, devise, b) I give, devise,

as an said

endowment

and bequeath

c)

to be

I give, devise,

known

Dollars,

fund, the income only to be used for

endowment fund

Thousand Dollars

to the University of Chicago to the University of Chicago

to be

known

;

as the

and bequeath

to the University of

Chicago the sum of Four

for the establishment of a scholarship at the University of Chi.

as the

Scholarship.

CHARLES HITCHCOCK By

The

study of

THOMAS W. GOODSPEED

American genealogies

is

a fascinating pursuit.

The

constantly discovering interesting and surprising things. In the University Record of October, 1914, a sketch of Sidney A. Kent

student

is

how

about 1670 the wilderness of Suffield, Charles Hitchcock was a prominent lawyer, as Mr. Kent was a prominent business man of Chicago. While Mr. Kent's related

his ancestors settled

Connecticut.

forefathers were subduing the Suffield wilderness, the ancestors of Mr. Hitchcock were hewing out homes for themselves in the same wilderness not more than five miles to the north, in the town of Springfield, Massachusetts, being allotted lands

on the border of

Suffield.

The

tract,

indeed, was so near being a part of Suffield that it was expressly stipulated that care must be taken not to encroach on that town's domain.

The ancestors were neighbors and no doubt acquaintances. Two hundred years later the two men descended from them were neighbors and acquaintances in a great city nearly a thousand miles away. writer can recall the names of only a dozen men of his native on the Hudson River. One of these men was Dwight Hitchcock,

The village

a direct descendant of the Hitchcocks of Springfield,

who

in 1853 sold

father the steam foundry of the village. He had wandered only a little more than a hundred miles from the home of his fathers. to

my

The earliest ancestor of Charles Hitchcock in America was Luke, who became temporarily a citizen of New Haven about 1644, six years after what was then the colony of New Haven was founded. After the lapse of a hundred and fifty years, a descendant put following account of Luke Hitchcock:

on record the

He had received a large tract of land lying in the eastern part of New England and came out with a view of taking possession of the same. When he arrived he found it inhabited by numerous hordes of natives determined to resist all encroachments of the English. In this situation he determined to abandon the enterprise, and settled in Wethersfield (Connecticut). He was peculiarly fortunate in cultivating the friendship of the Indians, who, in testimony of their attachment, gave him a deed to the town of Farmington. This deed was a clear and valid title to the land, but was so little thought of that it was destroyed by his wife, who used it to cover a pie in the oven. It is quite consistent first

appeared in

with this account that when Luke Hitchcock

New England

he seems to have been uncertain where 10

> MRS.

<

II

\KI.K>

III

I

<

'IIOH'K

CHARLES HITCHCOCK

i

I

settle. Matthias Hitchcock, who was probably his brother, was one of the founders of New Haven in 1638. When Luke follow him five or six years later, he took the freeman's oath, but after a few

he should

months' stay in New Haven departed for Wethersfield, thirty miles There he married into a leading family and made the to the north.

town his home. When he died in 1659 his estate was valued at $2,260, which shows him to have been a forehanded man. A year or two after his death his widow migrated thirty miles farther north to Springfield, Massachusetts, twenty-five years after the

Pynchons founded that settlement.

The widow Hitchcock brought with her two sons, John and Luke. The Hitchcock family, therefore, though not numbered among the The boys growing to founders, were very early settlers of Springfield. manhood rose to prominence and may be justly regarded as among Both the Hitchcocks were among the most the fathers of the town. substantial citizens, as were their sons after them. are concerned with Luke, the younger of the

two brother-. We Taught the shoemaker's trade, a fundamental and profitable industry of that day, he later became the proprietor of the village hotel, no doubt known in the speech of the time as Hitchcock's Tavern. He was a what captain in the militia and sheriff of the county which then included are now the counties of Hampshire, Hampden, Franklin, and BerkHe was seven times shire, about one-third of the area of the state. selectman of Springfield and nine times representative in the General Court of Massachusetts.

His wife's family, counting from her grandfather. Henry Burt, one of the most prominent of the first settlers, numbers among its descendants the late ex-President Grover Cleveland, Silas Wright, one

New York, Ethan Allen, of revolutionary fame, former president of Yale College, and Oliver Wendell Holmes, author of the Autocrat at the Breakfast Table. the sons of this second Luke was Ebenezer, born in

of the governors of

Ezra

Stiles,

Among

1

Sheldon, granddaughter of Colonel John Pynchon, the great man of early Springfield, and a direct descendant of Gilbert 9 Sheldon, archbishop of Canterbury. Their son, Gad Hitchcock, born in Springfield, February 22, 1710, and was graduated from Harvard from Colonel College in 1743. On his mother's side Gad was descended was one of He of Connecticut. and Willis, governor George Pynchon

who married Mary

the most picturesque

and distinguished clergymen of the Massachusetts He was ordained as pastor over the ConHanson, Plymouth County, in 1748. The church

of the eighteenth century.

gregational church in

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

12

him

invited

to

become

its

pastor at a salary of $500.

He

replied that

he would be glad to settle in Hanson, but would need a stipend of $2,000. His terms were immediately accepted and he continued as pastor of the church

till

He was an able and popu1803, a period of fifty-five years. being often called upon to preach on important occasions.

lar preacher,

In 1774 he preached the annual election sermon in Boston. An ardent patriot, he spoke on the text, "When the righteous are in authority the people rejoice; but when the wicked bear rule the people

mourn." General Gage, the royal governor, was present, but the courageous preacher did not hesitate to enter a strong protest against tyranny and to make an earnest plea for liberty. Later in the same year Plymouth invited him to preach the anniversary sermon on Forefathers' Day. It is stated as an established fact that "the first news-

paper printed in the Old Colony was at Plymouth in 1786." Hitchcock's sermon was preached twelve years before that date.

Dr.

But Plymouth appointed a com-

seven days later, on December 29, 1774, mittee "to wait on the Revd. Gad Hitchcock with the thanks of this

town for his ingenious & Learned discourse delivered on 22nd Instant, being the Anniversary of the landing of our Fathers in this Place, and request a Copy for the Press." For what press, if not for that of Plymouth, and was there a newspaper printed in Plymouth as early as 1774? The Reverend Gad Hitchcock served as an occasional chaplain in the patriot

army and

which framed the state

the

same

in 1780

was chosen a member

of the convention

constitution of Massachusetts, doing for that honorable service which his great-grandson did for first

Illinois

ninety years later. The only son of Dr.

from Harvard

Gad

Hitchcock, born in 1749 and graduated name, Gad, and was the Hanson physi-

in 1768, bore his

more years than the father was the Hanson pastor, living to his eighty-seventh year, 1835. He was the father of twelve children. One of these was Charles, born September 4, 1794, who became a farmer in his native town. He married Abigail L. Hall, a daughter of one of the

cian for

first

families of the adjacent

the farm

was

town

of

Pembroke, on the border of which

located.

Their son, Charles Hitchcock, with

was born on

whom

this sketch is concerned,

farm April 4, 1827. The town of Hanson is a part of Plymouth County and hardly more than ten miles northwest of Plymouth Rock. It is a town of farms, Hanson and North and South Hanson being insignificant hamlets with an aggregate population of his father's

only a few hundreds.

It is

a pleasant countryside of small groves

CHARLES HITCHCOCK and small farms, watercourses and

13

lakelets, the soil fairly fertile, the

undulating, a quietly picturesque district. The Atlantic is It eight or ten miles distant and Boston only twenty miles away. was a pleasant region in which to be born and spend one's boyhood, surface

almost within sight of the ocean, in the environs of a famous surrounded by points of great historic interest.

city,

and

The boy Charles bore a name highly honored in the community and the family was in fairly comfortable circumstances. There were three sons and two daughters, Charles being the oldest of he live. He was, therefore, his father's principal assistant on the farm as he grew toward the stature of a man. But he also availed himself of every advantage which the schools of Hanson and Pembroke could give him. So rapid was his improvement in school and such was his reputation for scholarship that, while he was still a boy, he began to be in demand as a school teacher. The way to the academy and college was open before him. The demands of the farm on his time and the inadequacy of the neighborHe ing schools had delayed his preparation, indeed, but only delayed it. had reached the age of seventeen and was pushing forward his studies t

as best he could



when

death of his father.

that great tragedy of a boy's life occurred the he died in 1844, the father was only fifty a family of young children, and Charles, the boy of

When

years old. He left seventeen, became the mother's chief dependence and was recognized as the head of the household. Fortunately he was thoughtful, mature

A very tender relation of grew up between the mother and for him and he to live for her in their

for his years, self-reliant,

and

mutual responsibility and her oldest son. She began

affection

common The

resourceful.

to live

responsibility for the family. natural and easy way for the

boy was

to step into his father's

farm and thus provide for the common support until the younger boys and girls should reach maturity. But there had been born in young Hitchcock an ambition for learning, that place in the

management

of the

extraordinary human development which the ordinary man cannot understand. This boy believed he could do more for his mother, for

and sisters, and for himself if he disciplined his mind into an instrument of power than he could possibly do by working with his hands in the cultivation of a small farm. He was by nature a student Already, as opportunity offered, he was teaching school, and he now redoubled his efforts on the farm and in teaching. In the schools of his brothers

Hanson and Pembroke and preparation for college.

in private study he sought to hasten his This was, of course, necessarily delayed by the

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

14

burdens resting on his young shoulders, but by dint of determination and perseverance he succeeded in entering Phillipps-Andover Academy in the spring of 1846,

when about nineteen years

old.

One

of his class-

mates has said of this period of his life: "He had at that time great In the academy he applied himself to all vigor of body and mind. the studies preparatory for college with indomitable industry, and it soon became manifest to the teachers and to his fellow-students that he had no superior there in ability to make solid acquisitions in learning. less than half the time prescribed by the academy for the preparatory course of study, he became admirably fitted for college." His vacations were spent in teaching school or doing what was essen-

In something

on the farm and arranging for the final disposition of that property. 1847 he entered Dartmouth College. His grandfather, the physician, and his great-grandfather, the Hanson pastor for so manyWhy did he pass by that years, were both graduates of Harvard. tial

In

famous institution to take his college course in the wilds of New Hampshire and in the little village of Hanover, which in 1847, outside the faculty and students, could not have had five hundred inhabitants? Was it because he lived almost in sight of Marshfield, the home of Daniel Webster, who was the most distinguished graduate of Dartmouth, and whose fame, during the youth of Charles Hitchcock, filled the land? Marshfield was hardly five miles from Hanson. No doubt the boy often saw the great man and knew him, as Webster was himself a farmer and cultivated exceedingly cordial terms of friendship with the farmers of that whole region. He was unaffectedly attached In his Life George Ticknor to them and they were devoted to him. Curtis says: "It was a common remark that, when Mr. Webster was at home, a stranger might discover it anywhere within ten miles of his house in the looks of the inhabitants." It is natural to suppose

that Webster, knowing that here was a promising candidate for college, encouraged young Hitchcock and commended Dartmouth to him. However this may be, the autumn of 1847 found him in that institution.

The

buildings of the college were then few in number. Many students it necessary to find rooms and board in the village. The boy

found

and

his

mother had disposed of the farm, moved to Hanover, and It was really a large family. The

opened a student boarding-house. mother made a home for boys who, thought and care.

for the time being,

needed a mother's

Daniel L. Shorey, young Hitchcock's roommate at Andover, became a member of the family and again shared his room

throughout their college course.

CHARLES BITCHi OCR

15

It was the day of small colleges. Harvard had only 300 underThe village of Hanover graduates, and there were 200 at Dartmouth. is about fifty miles north of the Massachusetts line and on the extreme

New Hampshire. It stands on a plain west oi the one hundred and eighty feet above that river. The surrounding country is diversified with bills and valle) s, with mountainlooming above the nearer hills. In commending it as a location for a college, one writer says: "The uniform temperature of the climate. western border of Connecticut,

the pleasantness of the village, the healthfulness of the situation, the beautiful and romantic scenery .... the many pleasant resorts, all contribute to render it, in every essential, a seat of literature and

The gradually rising Green Hills of Vermont, seen in At the time when the distance, furnish a picture not soon forgotten." Charles Hitchcock was a student the village was very small, and, with its faculty, students, employees, and practically, the college science



who

those

village.

other

It

was a

community

of the

mouth

served them in one

way or another— the college was the community in a sense true, probably, of no our country. The life of the college was the life

college in

community.

This

still

remains true.

In The Story of Dart-

Wilder D. Quint says: "Today there the village but is dependent in some way

College, published in 1914,

not a man, woman, or child in upon the college for a livelihood. She is the summum bonum of Hanover and without her the place would revert to nature." At Dartmouth young Hitchcock spent the four years from His class numto 185 1, from his twentieth to his twenty-fourth year. bered forty-six. Among them, as has been said, was Daniel L. Shorev, who was Hitchcock's roommate and remained his close, lifelong friend. c .-even or Mr. Shorey was himself no mean scholar, yet he says: we eight years following our meeting in Andover in the spring ot were companions in study, being in the same classes in the academy, In college he immediately at college, and at the law school took and held the highest rank. He was the unquestioned leader of Nor did he devote himself to the required his class from the beginning. is

1

studies of the college only. field

beyond



in political

His reading and study covered a wide history, and throughout

economy, philosophy,

the whole range of the English classics." The life of the student- of that day, before the era of athletics and other college activities of our time. centered, outside the classroom, very largely about the fraternity chapters. The two chums were Alpha Delts and both achieved member-hip for

high scholarship in Phi Beta Kappa.

But with

his

mother's

la.

1

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

6

family to care for the son must have had duties, outside his college work, that kept him very busily employed.

Before his graduation, probably before entering college, Mr. Hitchcock had chosen the law as his profession. Hanover being his home at the time of his graduation in 185 1, he entered the law office of Daniel Blaisdell, who was treasurer of Dartmouth College, where he spent a year in preliminary law studies. At the end of that time an opportunity came to him to go to Washington as a teacher of Greek and Latin in an academy. It was so good a chance to become acquainted with life in the national capital, and at the same time earn funds needed

made to him and with his have received a similar invitation, spent He seems also to have done the year 1852-53 in teaching in that city. some lecturing on scientific topics and gained some reputation as a for further study, that

friend Shorey,

teacher

and

he accepted the proffer

who seems

scholar.

to

Meantime he continued

his

law studies under

the guidance of the Honorable Joseph Bradley. Declining tempting invitations to continue teaching, he entered the law school of Harvard

Having been pursuing the study of law for two years or more under the guidance of very competent lawyers, and being twenty-six years old, he found no difficulty in entering the Senior class and graduatin 1853.

He had kept up his law-office ing at the end of one year, in 1854. work at the same time, having a desk during the year with Harvey Jewell, of Boston.

now twenty-seven

Charles Hitchcock was

years of age.

He had

finished the preparatory work and was ready to enter on his career. He had come face to face with that question winch many young men

Where shall I do the work of my life ? Strangely enough, he lost no time in coming to a decision. Doubtless he had decided the question long before. During his youth the miracle of Chicago had happened. When he was a boy of seven the hamlet of

find so difficult to answer,

Chicago had a population of about five hundred. Twenty years later, was a city of 66,000 people, in its extraordinary growth the wonder city of America. It was evident, moreover, that it had

in 1854, it

Ambitious young

only just begun to grow.

men

of every state felt

attractive power. None felt it more strongly than Charles Hitchcock. He hardly waited for the ink to dry on his diploma before he its

was on

his way to Chicago. with the courts and laws of

to practice, he entered the

was admitted

To

get his bearings and become acquainted and with the city in which he was

Illinois

law

office of

to the bar of the state

Williams and Woodbridge and 10, 1854, only a few

on October

CHARLES EITCaCOi K

17

weeks after leaving the Harvard Law School. Erastus L. Williams became later ''long and favorably known" as judge of the Circuit Court of Cook County. John Woodbridge had a long and successful career at the Chicago bar. Both became lasting friends and warm admirers of Mr. Hitchcock. He was not a mere clerk in their office, bill

who began at once, with the advantage of connection with a successful firm, to feel his way into practice, lie remained with this a lawyer

two years, with much profit to himself in preparing him with good hope of success into practice on his own account. In 1856 Mr. Hitchcock had become acquainted with the firm

t<»

enter

life

and

people, the methods of business and of law practice in Chicago, and deciding that the time had come to have an office of his own, he found

a partner and established the firm of Hitchcock and Goodwin. For some reason unknown to the writer the partnership continued for one year only. Mr. Hitchcock then became the partner of the well-known

and successful Benjamin E. Gallup, the firm name being Gallup and Hitchcock. Mr. Gallup was interested in real estate and real-estate law, and cases having to do with commercial law fell naturally and more and more completely to Mr. Hitchcock. He ordinarily represented the firm in court. The connection with Mr. Gallup continued with success for nine years, till 1866. It was then dissolved. Meantime Mr. Hitchcock had formed an intimate friendship with Charles A. Dupee. The latter had been in 1856-58 principal of Chicago's first high school, which had then been opened in the new high-school buildHe had later entered ing on West Madison, east of Desplaines Street. on the practice of law. Both men were of unusual scholarly tastes and attainments. Both were able lawyers. The close friendship they had formed, which was an enduring one, naturally resulted in a partnership which continued to the end of Mr. HitchcockV life. The firm was known as Hitchcock and Dupee, and was established in 1866. A young man named Evarts, who had been with Gallup and Hitchcock, came into the new office and in 1869 became a member of the firm, Mr. which then took the name of Hitchcock, Dupee, and Evarts. Evarts was interested in patent law and, being encouraged by Mr. Hitchcock to develop his talent for that line of practice, did this with such a growing clientele that he soon found it was likely to become a successful business

by

itself.

With the approval and encouragement

of the

older partners, therefore, in 1872 or 1873 he withdrew from the firm and established a patent-law business which he followed tor the rest of his

life,

more than forty

years.

Meantime another young man, Noble

1

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

8

came into the office and developed qualities which in 1875 made him a member of the firm, which then became Hitchcock, Dupee, B. Judah,

and Judah, and so continued to the end of Mr. Hitchcock's life. As Mr. Hitchcock was twenty-nine years old when he began his independent practice, he was more mature than most young lawyers He had profited by his experijust starting in business for themselves. ence in four good offices, and had been studying law in offices and law school for five or six years. He had innate gifts for success at the bar. His rise, therefore, was unusually rapid and his success great. In the third quarter of the last century Chicago had a very able bar. Many members of it were men of brilliant attainments and wide reputation. But not many years passed after Mr. Hitchcock entered their ranks before he reached a very high place

among them. Judge Williams, in two years in Chicago, said of him twentysix years later: "For this more than a quarter of a century it can be said .... Charles Hitchcock had no superior at the bar or upon the

whose

office

bench of of

him

he spent his

first

John M. Palmer, general, governer, senator, said Bench and Bar of Illinois: " Mr. Hitchcock was. in some

this city."

in the

one of the ablest lawyers who ever practiced at our bar." Mr. Hitchcock had hardly begun to practice when he won the most important suit of his career the suit for the heart and hand of Annie McClure, who became Mrs. Hitchcock in i860. She was only twentyone years old, but, though so young, was one of the "old settlers" of Chicago. The father of Mrs. Hitchcock, James McClure, was a native of the north of Ireland, of Scotch-Irish Presbyterian stock. He had come to this country to join an older brother, a Philadelphia architect, and, studying that profession, had assisted in building the Philadelphia customhouse. His health showing signs of failure, he was led by respects,



glowing accounts of the invigorating climate of northern Illinois to join the western stream of migration which was already flowing strong in 1837. Brothers had preceded him to Illinois and they chose for him a farm in

Lake County, forty miles north of Chicago' and six miles west of where Waukegan now stands, and plowed round it a deep furrow to mark its boundaries. With his wife and three children Mr. McClure proceeded by boat to Albany, thence by the Erie Canal to Buffalo, and reached Chicago by

way of the Great Lakes, fifteen years before the from the East had laid its tracks to that city. Had the young architect remained in Chicago he would not only have escaped the toils, privations, and sufferings of Illinois pioneer life of that day, but would certainly have prospered in a profession in which the young

first

railroad

CHARLES HITCHCOCK

tg

But the farm had been city offered every opportunity for success. bought and awaited him and he had learned farming in his youth, and he went forth to a harder struggle with pioneer condition- than had faced the forefathers of Mr. Hitchcock two hundred years before in the New England wilderness. Mrs. Hitchcock has written interesting

reminiscences of that struggle. She tells how the effort to subdue and tame and make productive a wild Illinois prairie farm eighty years ago A a battle where high spirit unsupported by vital strength contended with the rude forces of nature on every hand. They could not get help in any task whatever.

.... There was the ploughing and sowing of the fields, the building of fences, the cutting and hauling of firewood, the care of cattle, and the long journeys to huago for every pound of flour, or sugar, or other necessary of life, for the father, while the I

mother not only made the bread but the yeast that

raised it, not only made the soap but leached the ashes necessary for its successful manufacture. She made candles, cured hams, braided rugs, wove rag carpets, made and mended the clothing of her five children, t-. knit their stockings, even made their little shoes out of the tops of their father.... There was the fickle climate, its fierce heats, its piercing winds, the deep snows, often over the fence tops, the mud embargoes of the spring, the long jounv !

over forty miles, for every comfort, from a paper of pins to a barrel of

flour.

And

when

the father was away, the night coming on, the wolves howling on the edge of the wood, and often the Indians claiming the right to sleep by the kitchen fire as they journeyed home from their sales of the loneliness of that

furs in Chicago.

It

mother on the

hilltop

was on that lonely

hilltop,

one night

late in April

when a

snow-

The demands storm had been howling for three days, that I first saw the light on bodily endurance were too great for my father. His malady overcame him and Not once had after months of illness he died at the end of six years of pioneer life. he reaped a good harvest for what he had sown.

Mr. McClure was a rare man, high minded, capable, who would have prospered in the growing young city. He was a student and had brought a select library into the settlement which became the cirHe was also culating library of the scattered community of farmers.

man and brought the first home missionary to Lake County, and when the meetinghouse was built on a corner of his farm, bis The missionary and his wife became skilled hands made the pulpit. inmates of his family and so remained after his death. After two years Mrs. McClure sold the farm and moved with her a devout

On the corner of Jackson children, now rive in number, to Chicago. and Sherman streets she built two cottages, renting one and occupying the other. Here she remained from 1S44 till the arrival of the Michigan Southern Railroad

in 1852.

they secured the right of resisting

them when,

the very spot where

way up

in seeking

my

a

Mrs. Hitchcock aays: "From others to our homestead and there was no

site for their

depot, they decided upon for her little family

mother had made a home

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

20

It would appear from of Jackson and Sherman streets." statement that the first Michigan Southern station was one block

on the corner this

north of

its

was on the

present location and that the early home of Mrs. Hitchcock site where the Board of Trade Building now stands.

"So," continue these reminiscences of early Chicago, "once more we were pilgrims and moved, first onto La Salle Street north of Washington, where we lived a few years in a rented house, then buying on the West Side, on the corner of Monroe and Des Plaines streets, where we were one block away from the first high school that came to Chicago." This was the attractive stone structure, where Mr. Dupee was principal, of which Chicago was very proud. The very first schoolhouse owned by the city was built in 1837 for two hundred dollars on the present site of the Tribune Building and

Dearborn School No. 1. having been was sold for forty dollars, and, according " the purchaser had no occasion to congratulate to the school inspectors, himself on account of his bargain." This was District School No. 1, and in these humble quarters Mrs. Hitchcock began her education, but, continued in use built across

till

Madison

1845, when,

Street,

it

with the erection a year or so later of the seventy-five-hundred-dollar Dearborn School just across the street, continued her studies in that fine building.

It

was

so large that

be enough children in Chicago to

many

fill it.

thought there would never at the end of the first year

But

the pupils numbered 543, and after two years it was overcrowded with an attendance approaching 900. To reach the school the children walked across the open prairie in

mother for most of the half-mile. They were eager in and in their play, as well as in work to help their mother her difficult struggle. An older sister was soon teaching and the boys

sight of their their studies in

were busy out of school hours in a printing office or selling papers. West Side, Annie was prepared to enter the new

After the removal to the

high school. It was just at this time, when he had been two years in Chicago, that Charles Hitchcock was opening his law office in the partnership of

Hitchcock and Goodwin.

By

i860 he was one of the rising young

lawyers of the city and married Miss Annie McClure, now grown to womanhood, though younger than Mr. Hitchcock by twelve years. They were married July 10, i860, by the well-known Dr. R. W. Patterson, pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, of which the bride was a member. Mr. Hitchcock's family were Unitarian-Congregationalists of the

New

England type.

His wife's religious home, however, became

CHARLES HITCHCOCK

:\

Their pastor said of him: "Throughout his married life he read the Scriptures and united his heart in prayer with the heart of his his also.

The marriage was an exceptionally happy one. The man who knew him best, perhaps, Mr. Dupee, said: "Mr Hitchcock's home wife."

life

was a most happy one

His wife, to

whom

derly attached, shared in his intellectual and social

He

seems to have made

it

he was most ten-

tasti

his first concern, after his marriage, to

Ik accordingly provide for himself and his wife a permanent home. bought a large lot, nearly or quite a quarter of a block, on the corner of

Greenwood Avenue and Forty-eighth

Street.

Here

he built a commodious and comfortable house, and

in the early sixties

pleasant home more than fifty-five years. Not long after the removal to the new house an incident occurred which reflects Though far removed from his great honor on Dr. Patterson. church, Mr. and Mrs. Hitchcock continued to make it their religious home. The pastor and his family paid them occasional visit-, the

Mrs. Hitchcock

still

in this

resides after

ample grounds furnishing the pastor's children opportunities

On

one of these

visits

for play.

Dr. Patterson, after assuring Mrs. Hitchcock that

he valued most highly their constancy to the old church, said to her that they had come to a new community to which they owed duties and that perhaps she ought to transfer her membership and support to the Thus encouraged by her pastor struggling church in her neighborhood she became a member of the Hyde Park Presbyterian Church more .

than fiftv years ago. Her husband became an attendant, a liberal supporter, and a useful trustee. After his death his fellow-trust testified to "his wise counsel in all which concerned the welfare of our

church and his generous assistance in its periods of embarrassment and remembrance depression," and added, "It is a grateful and pleasant that one of his last acts was his liberal gift to relieve this society of

it-

burden of debt."

The main work of Mr. Hitchcock's life was that of a lawyer. He had few ambitions beyond his profession. But there was one period The state of Illinois of his life when his law practice was interrupted. The first was the constitutions. two had had to 1870 previous enacted in August, 1818, under which the state was admitted into the Union. Thirty years later the population had increased from less than of life having changed. 50,000 to about 800,000, and, all the conditions a new, more elaborate, and much improved constitution, framed by the convention of 1847, was adopted by the people by a vote of nearly

four to one.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

22

But the development of the state during the twenty-one years was even greater than it had been in the thirty preceding The population had increased to 2,500,000. The state had vears. become a great manufacturing community, having risen between 1850 and 1870 from the sixteenth to the sixth place in the value of manufactured products. But these years had been pre-eminently the railroad era. In 1848 no railroad had entered the state from the east and there was hardly a mile of road in actual operation except the few miles But so of the Galena and Chicago Union running west from Chicago. astonishing was the change that had taken place before 1870 that Illinois had come to have a greater railroad mileage than any other The whole fabric of business was new. This state in the Union. extraordinary development in population and in economic conditions made the constitution of 1848 an antiquated document in 1869, and a new convention was called to frame a revised constitution. In the important work of this convention Mr. Hitchcock recognized an opportunity to do an exceptional service to the state, and, accepting a nomination, was elected a member of the convention. The sessions, following 1848

beginning in December, 1869, continued through five months, thus taking the members from their business for nearly half a year. Mrs. Hitchcock accompanied her husband to Springfield, and they made

home in that city till The sessions were held in

their

were most unpromising.

the convention adjourned in May, 1870. the old state capitol. The early meetings Two rival factions not only nominated but

temporary chairmen, a proceeding worthy of ten- year-old boys. thing that saved the situation was the good sense and good nature of the rival chairmen, who agreed to preside alternately, which

elected

The only

Then three days were spent in an they did during the first day. absurd debate as to whether the members should take the oath of office the form prescribed by the legislative act which provided for the holding of the convention, requiring them to support the constitution of the state. In the end the majority decided to take the oath in a modified in

it in the form prescribed by the legisastonishing position taken by the majority was this, that they could not swear to support the constitution of the state without

form, while the minority took lature.

some

The

qualification, since they

were to form a new constitution to take

its place.

When on the fourth day the convention got down to business, there were two candidates for president Joseph Medill, editor of the ChiThe choice of the delegates cago Tribune, and Charles Hitchcock.



CHARLES HITCHCOCK

23

on Mr. Hitchcock, who was elected by a vote

of 45 to 40 for Mr. Years afterward Mr. Medill wrote: "1 do not believe that any state constitutional convention was ever more fortunate in the choice of a presiding officer. He seemed to know intuitively where to His tint- judicial place any member that he might do the most good. fell

Medill.

temperament enabled him

to keep constant control of

make everything move smoothly and achieved by the convention

is

due

The

successfully.

to his skill

and

tin-

body and sua

Lr rv;it

1

abilities a- tin- pre-

siding officer."

There were many able men among the delegates and, under the pable presidency of Mr. Hitchcock, they worked with

fidelity,

effi<

ca-

iency,

The product of their protracted labors was widely acknowledged to be the best state constitution that had, up to that time, been devised in the United States. When submitted to the people a

and wisdom.

t

formation, it had a happier fate than that prepared by the Constitutional Convention of 1862, which had been rejected by a

weeks after

its

The new constitution of 1870 was adopted in July of that year by popular vote and went into effect in August. If the present effort to form a new constitution is successful, the old one will have large majority.

served the state for half a century. The constitution revolutionized the policy of the state in regard to corporations, with its sweeping provisions against special laws, bringBills could no ing these things under the general laws of the state.

longer be passed over the governor's veto by a majority vote, but only by a two-thirds vote of all the members in both houses of the legis-

Counties, cities, and other local governments were limited in of taxes they could levy and money they could borrow. For the first time the ri^ht to judicial system was reorganized.

lature.

the

The

amount

vote and the duty of militia service were recognize* a- the same for white and colored men; and for the first time also it was made the duty 1

"a system

of free schools whereby all the children common-school education." Mr. Hitchcock had been influential in working out the new judiThe election cial system providing for additional courts and judges. of the new judges took place on the same day on which the constitution Mr. Hitchcock was nominated as one itself was voted on and adopted. of the state to provide

of the state

may

receive a good

new judges of the Supreme Court. It was, however, fatal to chances of election that Judge McAllister, well known for hi- good One of the record as judge of the Recorder's Court, ran against him.

of the his

newspapers said: "Owing to the fact that the election was held

in the

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

24

summer; that a

light vote

was

cast;

and that he himself was not as

widely known throughout the district as his competitor, the Honorable W. R. McAllister, he was defeated." It was universally recognized by the bar that Mr. Hitchcock was

eminently qualified for a seat in the Supreme Court. He had in a very unusual degree the judicial temperament. He was by nature a judge. A great judge declared that he had ''a judicial mind, that is, a mind capable of an impartial survey of both sides of the question in contenHe was a great lawyer, but tion and of arriving at a just conclusion." he would have been a greater judge. His wide legal knowledge, his penetrative intellect, his analytical mental processes, his sense of justice, It his practical wisdom, all fitted him for distinction on the bench.

was a much greater misfortune

for the state

than for him that he did

He had

a large, increasing, and lucrative practice which brought him a competency he would have sacrificed by giving up the bar for the bench. Had his years been prolonged, it is quite not attain judicial honors.

bench would ultimately have claimed him. 1871 again for a brief period brought Mr. It was felt that under the distressing cirlife. the times the wisest and most trustworthy citizens must

certain, however, that the

The

great Chicago Hitchcock into public

cumstances of be called on for

fire of

Mr. Medill was made mayor on what was Mr. Hitchcock was elected to the County Board provided for by the new constitution. He drew the short term, one year, but was a most valuable and efficient member, "his great legal experience and practical wisdom coming into admirable service at that time, when, owing to the fire and to the reorganization of the county government, everything was chaos and confusion."

known

It

service.

as the "fireproof ticket."

is;;

said that after the fire the governor called

tion as to the best

way

him

into consulta-

of granting state aid to the afflicted city

acted on his advice with large advantage to Chicago.

Some

and

three

million dollars (including interest) which Chicago had advanced for deepening the channel of the Illinois and Michigan Canal was at this time repaid to the city for rebuilding its burned bridges. William B.

A sketch of Mr. Hitchmakes the following extraordinary statement: "His remarkably retentive memory enabled him to furnish information that was regarded as so reliable and authentic that it was accepted in lieu of many deeds destroyed and thus established titles." I have seen; this statement made of only one or two other men of that Ogden and'others aided cock's

time.

life,

in bringing this about.

referring to this period,

CHARLES HITCHCOCK Mr. Hitchcock was

a

busy lawyer, but

his activities

fined to these political services nor to his office.

H<-

were not con-

was one of the

He incorporators of the Merchants Loan and Trust Company in 1857. was a member of the first board of managers of the Chicago a\n InstiI

and three times in later years served on the hoard of the Institute. He was one of the founders in 1873-74 of the Chicago Bar Assa iation, which was organized ''to maintain the honor and dignity of the profession Mr. Hitchcock was one oi the forty-two lawyers who united of law.'' in calling the meeting at which the Association was formed, and later was one of the six distinguished men who signed the articles of incorThe other five were Charles M. Sturges, James P. Root, poration. ile C. B. Lawrence, Ira 0. Wilkinson, and Robert T. Lincoln, tute,

\

a prominent member of the Chicago Historical Society, as well as of the Chicago Library Association, an institution which flourished befi

His literary tastes led him into active participation in the great fire. the Chicago Literary Club, and his social and business connections into

membership in the Chicago Club. Mr. Hitchcock was not a criminal lawyer. He confined his practit e to civil cases, and more and more to corporation and commercial law, It was said in which, it was believed, he had no superiors in Chicago. that "the practice which his firm had gained was an enormous one. in Chicago" during the seventies of the la>t century. the clients of the firm were banks, insurance companies, great

probably the largest

Among

mercantile houses, the Chicago City Railway Company, and the South Park Board. They conducted some of the most important suits follow-

Mr. Hitchcock was instrumental ing the creation of the park boards. in securing the legislation by which Michigan Avenue was made "a boulevard and drew up the act under which that improvement was

made." It was inevitable that he should be

called

upon frequently to represent He was once brought into an embarrassing situation before that court. He had won a verdict in a lower court which was in plain contradiction to decisions of the higher

clients in the

Supreme Court

of the state.

The defeated parties naturally took an appeal Supreme Court and Mr. Hitchcock found himself compelled

court in similar cases.

to

the

to

to reverse try to persuade that august tribunal necessary to say that he did not succeed.

itself.

It

is

hardly

He had many important cases. I make room for a few only. Within a year after the adoption of the new constitution he carried through the courts a case which established the rule that a city tax collet

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

26

could

not

sell

real

estate

for

the

non-payment

of

taxes, the con-

providing that the official authorized to do this must be "some general officer of the county having authority to receive state stitution

and county taxes." In 1874 the Circuit Court of Cook County rendered a decision its right to run

against the Chicago City Railway Company forfeiting cars on Indiana Avenue a judgment of ''ouster."



carried to the

Supreme Court of the

state,

The case was and Mr. Hitchcock, appear-

ing for the railway company, succeeded in having the decision reversed, and the cars still run on Indiana Avenue.

A

little later

he

won another

same court which secured on Clark Street, south from

suit in the

the construction of the street-car line

Randolph, a most important part of the street-car system.

Perhaps the greatest of his cases before the state Supreme Court was The legislature had passed an act "to regulate public

the following:

warehouses and the warehousing and inspection of grain." This was a law, as the Supreme Court phrased it, "to protect producers and

The owners of an shippers of grain against frauds in warehouses." elevator had brought suit in a lower court to have the law declared It was taken to the state unconstitutional and had won the case. Supreme Court and after a full presentation the judges, being unable Mr. Hitchcock was to decide, ordered that it should be reargued. brought in to assist the counsel for the people, and in 1873 the judgment of the lower court was reversed, the law declared constitutional, and the farmers and shippers of grain were permanently protected by an adequate inspection law. There can be no doubt that the inspection laws

have been as valuable to Chicago as to the farmers in making that city the great grain-distributing center of the world. It was high praise that Judge Lawrence of the

Supreme Court gave Mr. Hitchcock when he said: "I have known no member of our profession who has seemed to me more careful to conform his practice to

to a high standard of professional ethics He never sought to lead the court astray in a matter of fact or law. He would not endeavor to withhold from it a knowledge of any fact appearing in the record. He would not, as an advocate, express his personal belief in a legal proposition unless

he could do so with entire conscientiousness.

He would

not cite as an authority an overruled case without stating the fact that it had been overruled His ambition in life was purely professional, and was formed upon the highest conception of what a great

lawyer ought to be.

His ambition he achieved.

He won

the goal."

CHARLES HITCHCOCK

27

Chief Justice Craig said: ''His briefs were models of perfection. He never loaded down a case with lengthy printed arguments, but Inselected a few strong points and in a clear, convincing manner brought authorities to bear upon them." Although Mr. Hitchcock was an unusually busy lawyer, he found time for much reading and even study outside the law. It was a dose friend who had known him ever since they entered college together who

all of his

said of him: "Mr. Hitchcock possessed and constantly cultivated an ardent love of literature and the languages Not infrequently have I found, upon entering his office, .... that he was employed

and deeply interested in the study of some language, like Latin or French, or work of literature which he enjoyed with the keenest relish, and he has told me more than once that whenever his accumulations had reached such a point as to yield him a satisfactory income, .

.

.

!

his design

was

to the study

and devote himself .... and the languagi He was

to leave the practice of the law

and pursuit

essentially a student.

He

of literature

loved scholarly pursuits.

A

lover of books,

he accumulated a very valuable library of several thousand volum> His real life was in his home, where he found his wife and his books. It

must not be supposed, however, that he neglected

his

bush

Indeed, his love of literature found inexhaustible material in his legal studies. There is a world of interest to be found in the study of legal cases. Mr. Hitchcock was a lawyer and a student, and much more. It was Judge Williams, whose office he first entered for his books.

who more than twenty-five years later said that he "was In capable of succeeding in almost any field of intellectual labor. statesmanship or in literature he could have attained like emim

in Chicago,

His practice grew as his years increased. The firm of Hitchcock and Dupee, later Hitchcock, Dupee, and Judah, prospered. In 1877 a young man, Monroe L. Willard, came into the office and in 1883 became a member of the firm, which, after the death of the man who had so long been its head, became Dupee, Judah, and Willard. Mr. Hitchcock was still a young man with an enlarging bush* 1

a growing reputation, increasing legal abilities, with all that thi things promised of success and honor, when a latent difficulty with the

heart which had long threatened him began to give him serious trouble. He labored on, however, with heroic courage as long as his physicians said of him when approaching fifty year- of B with a large portly figure, and is, altogether, a fineHis disease soon began to increase his looking, imposing gentleman.''

would permit.

"Personally he

It

was

is tall,

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

28

weight and he became corpulent, and this became a cause of further In 1880 he went abroad with Mrs. Hitchcock disability.

physical in the hope

This hope, however, proved vain, of finding relief. and he returned home and died May 7, 1881. In speaking at his funeral his former pastor, Dr. D. S. Johnson, made the following impressive statement: "I have been told there was an incentive for his struggle It was the cord of life that ran from his heart for life and what was it ? to the heart of his aged mother that mother for whom even as a boy he seemed to feel that he must care; that mother for whom through all For her sake, these years he had had the very tenderest affection.



;



should break her heart if he should die, he resisted death he determined to keep his place and do his work. But only a week

lest it still

ago this very day, the news came to him by telegram that the dear, devoted mother had passed away." Very unusual honors for a man in private life were paid to Mr.

Hitchcock after his death.

In addition to action taken by the Bar

Association, the Historical Society, and other organizations, his death was announced in highly appreciative addresses to the Supreme Court of the state

and

five

lower courts in Chicago.

Out

of respect for his

Supreme Court adjourned. The general assembly of the state paid him the same unusual honor. Perhaps the most touching and illuminating tribute was the unconscious one of a little boy of the neighborhood. His mother found the child lying on his bed "weeping bitterly, and when she asked the cause of his grief, he said, T shall " never see Mr. Hitchcock again.' Thus honored by the strong men of the city and the state and

memory

the

lamented by the children of. his neighborhood, Charles Hitchcock passed away at the age of fifty-four, at the meridian of his life and of His independent professional activity had been restricted his powers. to twenty-five years.

He

might, not unreasonably, have looked forward Had this additional time been given,

to another twenty-five years.

he would have accomplished more during the second quarter-century than he had during the first. His faculties would have developed power. His fame would have increased. His professional triumphs would have multiplied. He would have gone far. Some months after his death Mrs. Hitchcock issued a memorial greater

volume which contained a

brief sketch of her

husband's

life

and various

appreciations of him in the addresses before the Bar Association and the courts of Chicago and the state. These appreciations were uttered

by men who had been

familiar with

him

since his

boyhood or throughout

CHARLES HITCHCOCK his life in Chicago.

They

29

reveal the extraordinary confidence, esteem,

and admiration he commanded. This is the more remarkable becau " he was not one of the "hail fellow, well met sort of men. Chief Justice John Marshall had a rollicking, good-humored camaraderie which gave him instant entrance to the hearts of men. had nothing of this about him on first acquaintance.

.Mr.

Hitchcock

He was

quiet

and perhaps seemed to hold himself aloof. At his funeral Dr. Johnson said: "Very many thought him reserved. It was not reserve, but rather a natural timidity .... which caused so many to mistake him for a man of cold demeanor. Not so. We who knew him here (in his home) knew there was nothing of coldness about him by nature. Henhe seemed to give himself just as he was to his friend-." His partner, Mr. Indeed, he had a rare capacity for friendship. Dupee, said: ''He greatly enjoyed the society of his circle of intimate friends and was especially delighted to meet them around his own lireHis wife, to whom he was most tenderly attached, shared in his side. His hospitality at his own home v. intellectual and social tastes. open handed and, to me, seemed something princely. He had a way of presenting to his guests his house and everything it contained, and this was done in so simple, unaffected, and unostentatious a manner as to

charm everyone who came under his roof."' It was said of him: "He had not those qualities which

give to

men

a wide social popularity, but he retained entire to the hour of his death D. L. Shorey, who had been all the friendships he had ever made." " I have had many enduring his close friend for nearly forty years, said: I had no friend but have truer, nobler, more worthy of friendships,

remembrance." Mr. Hitchcock was a man of extraordinary self-command. In scenes of excitement and turmoil he was undisturbed, imperturbable. This was one of the qualities that enabled him to preside so successfully over the sessions of the Constitutional Convention.

Bis friends spoke

of his "great equanimity of temper, which enabled him to i>a-s through the most heated trials of difficult cases with a calm and unruffled surf..

This was one of the elements of his power. I cannot forbear quoting the following illuminating testimony of his partner, Mr. Dupee, to his character:

Mr. Hitchcock was a most benevolent man. There was hardly a day in whii h man or worthy upon his purse and sympathy were not made, and do worthy men in thi.- ity could i*«int cause ever went away from him neglected. Hub to him as their benefactor and he gave a regular support to most of ,,ur public phi' and clean. N'o taint of dishonor or thropic institutions. His private life was pure

calls

1

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

30

dishonesty ever touched him. His word was better than his bond uncharitableness, and such qualities were wholly foreign to his nature. knew him to do a little act, or an unkind one.

Envy,

...

I

never

He was

a large-minded, large-hearted, upright man. This sketch has indicated something of Mr. Hitchcock's ability as a lawyer. He had not, perhaps, the oratorical gifts of some of his con-

He was

temporaries. of

him

not pre-eminent as a jury lawyer. It was said "He has a clear voice, a

in a sketch written before his death:

graceful style,

and an imposing presence, but he does not deal in emotions is logical, clear, and forceable, and will generally win

He

at all

who happens

the juror

to be of

an eminently

logical

temperament.

He

argues supremely: but most jurors have feelings as well as reason that must be touched and these he never touches." One other qualification

must be made, and it is perhaps a commendation, was made by Mr. Dupee: " Mr. Hitchcock was not successthe management of weak cases. He had little facility in making

of the highest praise

rather. ful in

It

the worse appear the better reason. In order to labor successfully it to thoroughly believe in his case, and then no

was necessary for him man worked harder for

his client."

This, of course,

means that he was

above the use of base cunning, trickery, or any unworthy expedients to help him to win a weak or bad case. Every man, whether his case is

good or bad, has the right and ought to have the right to be represented by counsel. Mr. Hitchcock had cases that could not be successfully defended by fair means, and he did the best he could for his clients. But

bad causes did not naturally seek him, as they do some lawyers, as

their

advocate.

Among

the

members

of the

bench and bar he had a most enviable

reputation. Judge Williams, before whom he conducted in the Circuit Court, said of him: "Primus interpares is no

at a bar,

many

reputation, but cock.

many cases mean praise

whose members have attained an enviable national was the position universally accorded" to Mr. Hitch-

of it

Melville W. Fuller, later chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, said: "Charles Hitchcock possessed a mind of singular It was in a marked degree a judicial mind, capable precision and power. of an impartial view of both sides of a question and of arriving at a just

In his practice he was absolutely fair, never indulged in concealment, never dealt in indirect methods, but won his victories, which were many, and suffered his defeats, which were few, in the open field face to face with his foe."

conclusion. artifice or

CHARLES HITCHCOCK It was high praise that was given him by a lawyer who bad known him intimately since they entered college together: ''He hud the faculty

of grasping the pivotal points of legal questions presented to him almosl intuitively and thereafter brushing aside all those surrounding questions

which cluster about a complicated case; and, therefore, perhaps no man at the bar was in the habit of devoting so little attention toao essor} points arising on the trial of a cause and confining himself bo closely to the

main

issues at stake."

In this respect he resembled Chief Justice

Marshall's Marshall, of whom his biographer, A. J. Beveridge, says: ability to extract from the confusion of the most involved question itvital elements and to state those elements in simple term- was help'

and frankly appreciated by the judg< in whose office Mr. Hitchcock began his cart in Chicago, said of him: "He was a lawyer, a man of letters, B man of affairs Men paid him an involuntary homage, such as is ever Bis career at the yielded to dignity of character and grandeur of mind. bar was an uninterrupted success. He came here a stranger, but he He had a numerous and advanced rapidly to fame and fortune wealthy clientage and was always concerned with great causes." That he was a man of affairs was shown in the business instinct which led him to make such an investment as the purchase of the northwest corner of Madison and La Salle streets, part of the ground on which ful to

the court

John Woodbridge,

He had the busithe Hotel La Salle stands, as a permanent holding. ness instinct to foresee its certain and progressive increase in value. One

Mr. Hitchcock's outstanding character-i-ii- - was the deep young men, particularly in young lawyers. There were many testimonies to this effect by those whom he had advise'!, encouraged, and helped. This was recalled by one of his partner-: "Especially did he find time to aid young men young lawyers who came to him for advice and assistance, as they very frequently did. He always aided them generously and freely, and they found in him a of

interest he took in



real friend. His thoughtful consideration for other- was shown in his treatment of the young men in the office, the clerks, and the students. He suggested their courses of reading, both legal and mi scell aneous.

advancement, and that be of service to themselves as well as to him." our Speaking before the Bar Association for "the younger members of with Mr. Hitchcock profession," F. 0. Lyman told of his first meeting

He was

solicitous for their health, for their

their labors should

when he

arrived in Chicago, a stranger: "He asked me what qualifiwhat studies I had pursued, what preparation I had made

cations I had,

TEE UNIVERSITY RECORD

32

He earnestly impressed on me not to grow my life-work discouraged with the days and years of waiting, drudgery, and toil which must be endured .... and to ever keep in mind the ideal for

lawyer every student pictures to himself while reading Blackstone, Kent, and the lives of the great lawyers." The writer has been impressed by the estimate of him expressed

by John H. Thompson at the Bar Association meeting: "As I recollect him when he came here, he presented very manifestly the same striking a mind of features of character which he always afterward displayed remarkable clearness and quickness, and a mature, vigorous and sound He had an eminently judicial mind, and he would judgment have adorned any bench upon which he might have been placed. But His glory was rather the glory of the bench was not needed for him.



needed

for the bench." Judge Blodgett happily summed up his characteristics: "As a lawyer he responded to the highest ideals of our noble profession. As a citizen he was ever patriotic, public spirited, and wise. As a friend

he was true to the noblest impulses of our nature." Since the death of her husband Mrs. Hitchcock has continued to live in the

home

It is therefore

to which they went soon after their marriage in i860. one of the old homesteads of the city. It satisfies one's

idea of a homestead.

It is

shut in by other houses.

It

not part of a brick block, nor is it closely is a pleasant and commodious frame house,

standing far back from the street in the midst of grounds two hundred and fifty feet in length. When it was built it was in the suburb of far south of the city limits. Now the city limits are many miles south of the Hitchcock homestead, so far south, indeed, as to leave it almost in the center of the town, measuring from north to south.

Kenwood,

one of the pleasantest parts of Chicago. gifts of mind and heart, Mrs. Hitchcock has always been equally at home and equally welcome in the humblest and the

It

is

With many

She was one of the organizers of the Fortnightly Club, which has numbered among its members many of the foremost women of Chicago. She has long been a member of the Kenwood Club, and highest circles.

has engaged in the multiplied activities of the Chicago Women's Club. She has taken a warm interest in Berea College, Kentucky.

The establishment

of the University of

attracted her attention

had

all

and awakened her

Chicago in 1889-92 early Mrs. Hitchcock

interest.

young men seeking a Having no family of her own, she

her husband's interest in the welfare of

preparation for the work of

life.

CHAKl.lis

HITCHCOCK

determined to satisfy this interest

grown up

embody

in her

mind

to build a

Ins devotion to

University offered

5$

in ulfilling a purpose which had memorial of her husband which should f

young men

itself to

The newjust entering into life. her as a place where her purpose could be

best carried out.

On December 12, 1899, President Harper informed the Trustees that Mrs. Hitchcock desired to build a memorial to her husband and was prepared

to give the University a considerable

On

of January,

the

first

for this purpose. University for the These purposes finally took the

purposes she had in mind $200,000. following form:

The sum

a traveling fellowship in

sum

1900, she proffered the of $25,000

Greek

is

to be

set aside for the

known

endowment

of

as the Daniel L. Shorey

Fellowship, in commemoration of the long friendship between her husband and Mr. Shorey. The sum of $150,499 was used in the construction of a dormitory for young men students of the University, to be known as the Charles Hitchcock Hall, and $25,000 was designated as a sustentation fund, the income to be used for maintaining the memorial hall "in first-class condition and repair." The plans for the Charles Hitchcock Hall were prepared by Mr. Dwight H. Perkins, architect, after he had studied student dormitory buildings in this and other countries. The corner stone was laid by Mrs. Hitchcock herself on June 15, 1901, Professor Paul Shorey, head The of the Department of Greek in the University, making the address. June, 1901, Convocation was a great celebration, marking the tenth

The exercises continue. 1 anniversary- of the founding of the University. through five days. During this time the corner stones of six buildings laid; on June 15 those of the Press Building and the Charles Hitchcock Hall, and on June 18 those of Hutchinson Commons, the Mitchell Tower, the Reynolds Clubhouse and Mandel Assembly Hall. The founder of the University, Mr. Rockefeller, was present, an inter-

were

ested participant in

all

these exercises.

The Charles Hitchcock Hall was completed and was occupied by students at the opening October

1.

in

of the

September.

Autumn

1902,

Quarter,

It is the largest of the residence halls thus far provided,

having not only rooms for ninety-three students, but.

in

addition, a

dub-

room, infirmary, breakfast-room, and a large and beautiful library. It also provides a room for the clergymen who preach every Sunday morning It in Mandel Hall, this room being known as ''the preacher^' room." has been furnished by Mrs. Hitchcock, some of the furniture having been brought by her parents when they migrated to Illinois in 1S47.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

34

the attractive features of the building is the cloister running along the south front and uniting the five divisions of the hall. One of the most interesting things connected with the building and subsequent history of the hall is the deep and increasing interest

Among

by Mrs. Hitchcock. She gave much attention to the The library was equipped by her with a large and valuable collection of books and its walls were adorned by her with Over the fireplace hangs the portrait portraits and other works of art. Much of the furniture of this room, as well as that of Mr. Hitchcock. of the University "preachers' room," was contributed by her. A manifested in

making

it

of the plans.

series of architectural photographs adorn the walls of the cloister, an added illustration of Mrs. Hitchcock's interest, taste, and munifiShe takes a great interest in the students who occupy and cence. always fill the hall, and frequently meets them at afternoon teas in

the library.

on the

The thought,

and

time, attention,

and

gifts she

has lavished

students during the past seventeen years are evidence of the large place it has had in her life and illustrate the overflowing good will and bounty of her nature. She has made the memorial of hall

its

her husband not an erection of dead stone but a living

monument

eloquent of human feeling and affection. In presenting the resolutions of the Chicago Bar Association on the

death of Mr. Hitchcock before the Appellate Court, William C. Grant said: "It has been said that the life of a lawyer who devotes himself

and its practice leads to fewer permanent which the world retains after his death than almost any other learned profession." It is not so in the case of Charles Hitchcock. When Mrs. Hitchcock put the accumulations of his quarter of a century strictly to his profession

results

of business activity into

Hitchcock Hall and the Greek Fellowship, she

transformed them into great intellectual and spiritual influences which will bless

the world

succeeding generations of young men, and through them as long as our civilization endures.

itself,

SILAS

B.

COBB

BOWMAN COBB

SILAS By Silas B.

THOMAS

Cobb was one

\V.

GOODSPEED

of the picturesque figures of

Chicago

for

nearly seventy years. He arrived in what was so insignificant a hamlet as to be hardly worthy to be called a settlement, among the earliesl comers and lived to see it grow into the inland metropolis of the nation.

with a population of nearly two millions. IK- came without education in either books or business, without a penny in his pocket, and without

any apparent prospects, and within a few years became capitalist and, ultimately,

down

to old age he

one of the wealthiest

was noticeable

men

a

Leading

in the city.

for the briskness of his walk,

Even and it

was a point with him, well understood among his acquaintances, to allow no one to pass him on the street. Mr. Cobb was born in Montpelier, the capital of Vermont, January 23, 1812, when that now thriving little city was a small village of little more than a thousand people. It was a wonderful boy's country, and no doubt this alert, vigorous, enterprising boy got his share of youthful enjoyment out of it; but it must have been done by main strength, for The father, Silas Cobb, was apparently his was not a pampered youth. In the records of Monta not altogether unprosperous business man. it is

pelier

said that in 1806, six years before the birth of Silas B., the

established

father

"an

extensive

tannery."

About 1820 Goss and

on a Long time." It was burned in 1S28 with a loss of $4,000, but was rebuilt by the two partners and later sold. These activities would seem to place the elder Cobb

Cobb

built a paper-mill

among

which they

the leading business

men

''carried

of the village, but they did not result

There was a large family of these, and The family was augmented still further Silas B. was the youngest. when the father married a second wife with children of her own. It in privileges for his children.

may

well be that all these children kept the family poor.

What

i-

young Silas had next to no educational advantages ami He early in life was bound out as an apprentice to a shoemaker. seems to have wished to learn a trade, but not that of making boot. and shoes. He was of too active a temperament to dt on a -hoemaker's bench all day, and soon found a way to break away from this certain

is

that

35

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

36

sedentary occupation and returned home.

and

He was

not welcomed there

his father again apprenticed him, against his will, to a

mason.

He

probably concluded that there was slight prospect of success for a mason in the Vermont of that day and, in some way, released himself from his It is to be inferred that his apprenticeship and again returned home. father

now washed

his

hands of his youngest son and gave him to under-

stand that he was at liberty to carve out his fortunes in his own way. Thus encouraged to choose for himself, he apprenticed himself to a harness-maker and entered with interest on the learning of that trade.

He was now

seventeen years old and worked faithfully and with daily employment which he liked. At the end of a

increasing facility in an

year, however, his master sold out his business, of his apprentice.

the transaction.

and with

it

the services

The purchaser claimed the apprentice as a part of It was then that young Cobb showed the independence

and acumen that go far to explain his later success. He was a mere boy, but he said at once to the new owner: "In this case the nigger don't go with the plantation," and insisted that if he continued with it must be for the payment of satisfactory wages. It is evident that he had so far mastered the trade that his services were valuable, for he carried his point and continued in the same shop as a paid appren-

him

and becoming master he continued to work as a journeyman harness-maker in Montpelier, South Hardwick, and other places. Wages must have been very small. Mr. Cobb was not a money spender, yet when he reached the age of twenty-one his accumulations reached tice.

Filling out the period of his apprenticeship

of his trade

and

of himself,

sum of only sixty dollars. His father and Oliver Goss had sold their paper-mill and Mr. Goss had been west and invested in lands, and, returning to Montpelier, had the

awakened such an that a

company

interest in that

of adventurers

new world

just opening to settlement to accompany him in a

was preparing

migration to the prairies of Illinois. It was, perhaps, in this very year, 1833, that the movement from the middle and eastern states to the

new west began to assume real magnitude. What caused this movement is an interesting question. Perhaps the greatest cause of all was the powerful appeal of the boundless, fertile fields of a new world to the imagination of the adventurous. It was their country, unoccupied, inviting settlement, and with unknown possibilities of material success. Indiana and Illinois had recently been admitted to the Union. The northern sections were without white inhabitants and invited pioneer settlers. The Black Hawk War had, in 1832, opened the northern half

SILAS BOW. MAX COBB

37

and unrestricted settlement Vague rumors about a hamlet called Chicago, which had a promise of possible future development, appealed with increasing power to adventurous young men. of Illinois to safe

When, therefore, his father's old partner returned from his exploring expedition in Illinois with glowing accounts of the country and of the new settlement near the foot of Lake Michigan and began to gather a

company

to

make

their

homes on the lands he had

southwest of Chicago, young Cobb caught his

way

to this

new

But

world.

it

tire

selected forty miles

and determined

was not the

fertile

to

make

prairies thai

He was not a farmer, but a harness-maker, and his eye was fixed on the village by the lake, where he believed their might be a promising opening for a man of his calling. lie Learned that Chica attracted him.

was on the main line of travel by which immigrants entered the new state, that it was the place where they refitted for their farther progress, and was already a center of trade for the surrounding country. It ought to be a good place for a man who was master of an industry so To Chicago, essential to such a town and country as harness-making. therefore, he determined to go.

but he was

now

of age, his

His father strongly opposed his purpose; master, making his own way, and he

own

would not be dissuaded from carrying out his new plan. His father refused to assist him, and sixty dollars was the total amount of his There was no time to earn more, as Mr. Goss and his company savings. were ready to start. With the recklessness of youth he decided to enter on this hazard of new fortunes'' and undertake to make his way through the thousand miles of travel and all the difficulties of starting '"

life

in a strange place with this pitifully inadequate capital.

The company must have started early in April. They made their way first to Albany. Apparently they were traveling by wagon, being At farmers who would need horses and wagons in their new home. Albany young Cobb left them and went by boat on the Erie Canal to Buffalo.

On

the

in his pocket.

money, and when he had he boat lake a on only seven dollar-; Chicago

way some

applied for passage to

thief stole part of his

He made known

his circumstances to the captain of

agreed to take him to Chicago as a deck passenger if he would board himself and, after purchasing necessary Thereupon food, turn over for his passage all the money he had left. the schooner "Atlanta,"

who

finally

he bought a small ham, six loaves of bread, and secured a bed tick which he filled with shavings and, thus provided for the voyage, turned It is over every penny he had left, being four dollars, to the captain. useful about the ship himself make to he also that probable engaged

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

38

The voyage the captain needed such help as he could give. ought to have taken about three weeks; but stormy weather came on and the ship was delayed. The voyage was prolonged to five weeks. How young Cobb survived the cold and storms in his bed on deck during the last week in April and the whole of May, it is hard to underwhen

He

stand.

deck.

It

is

could hardly have been rigidly restricted to the open upper quite impossible to understand how one small ham and

six loaves of bread, intended to last three weeks, could have kept a young fellow of twenty-one, with a healthy appetite, alive for thirtyfive days. Perhaps the explanation may be found in the fact that the ship encountered such a succession of storms that the Green Mountain landsman did not crave food. Or, there may have been more than one we know there was one good Samaritan on the "Atlanta." The ship reached Chicago on the twenty-ninth of May. There was no harbor, and a sand bar across its mouth prevented ships from entering the Chicago River. The "Atlanta" therefore came to anchor, perhaps half a mile offshore, and the passengers and their baggage were taken ashore in canoes and lighters. One can imagine the dismay of young Cobb when told by the captain that he would not be allowed to land He had already till he had paid three dollars more for his passage. given the captain his last cent, and one cannot help but wonder why he was detained. He probably could have reached shore at night by swimming. But he had in his baggage a valuable kit of tools which now formed his entire capital, the only means by which he could make





This precious possession he could doubtless told the captain that he had the tools of his trade with him. They could readily be exchanged for money.

his

way

in this wilderness country.

not leave.

He had

Perhaps the captain coveted them and offered to set the boy ashore if he would leave his tools. But this he could not do. He was held a prisoner for three days, with the promised land in sight and no way to reach it in possession of his few but invaluable goods. As he looked toward the shore during those long days, what did he ? Just two years later the Gale family, from their ship anchored about the same place, saw this: "Within sight of those on the vessel were countless numbers of Indian wigwams and their dusky occupants,

see in

while dark-skinned braves were paddling in the lake. Along the shore was to be seen a succession of low sand hills, partly covered with a

About opposite scrubby growth of cedars, junipers, and pines where the brig lay, not far from the north bank of the river," was the old Kinzie house, a small one-story building. "Near the south bank of

SILAS

BOWMAN COBB

39

the river, but a few hundred feet from the hike, stood Fort Dearborn, some half-dozen barracks, ofrker>' quarters, and other buildings, with a blockhouse in the southwest angle, all constructed of

consisting of

wood and surrounded by high, pointed pickets placed closely together, which, with the buildings, were well whitewashed Adjoining the fort, near its northwest corner, was a small, circular, stone lighthouse. Around these clustered a few cabins." Such was the far from inviting or promising view of Chicago which the prisoner saw from the deck of his prison On the third day his good Samaritan appeared. A fellowship.

passenger seems to have revisited the ship for some purpose, and. seeing him still on board and finding out what the trouble was, loaned the necessary three dollars and saw him and his baggage safely ashore. of shavings was taken along. Nothing could more convincingly

The bed

prove the poverty of the owner, his economy, his habit his purpose to get on, than the fact that this continued

of saving,

and

to be his bed,

with occasional replenishings, no doubt, for the next two years. Mr. Cobb landed in Chicago on the first day of June, 1833.

Judge John Dean Caton, who was of the same age as Mr. Cobb and who arrived in Chicago only a few weeks later, about the end of June, the town having, however, grown considerably meantime, says of the village when he first saw it: "There were then not two hundred people here. I was an old resident of six weeks' standing before two hundred and fifty inhabitants could be counted to authorize a village incorporation under the general laws of the state Chicago had no streets except on paper; the wild grass grew and the wild flowers bloomed where the courthouse square was located; the pine woods bordered

and the east sides of both branches of t hewere clothed with dense shrubbery forests to within a few hundred of their junction. Then the wolves stole from these covers by

the lake north of the river, river feet

night and prowled through the hamlet, hunting the back doors of our cabins."

A

few weeks after Mr. Cobb's arrival

way made a survey and took a census

in

I

'.round

Chicago a Mr. J. P. Batheand reported that

of the hamlet,

and less than 100 men, women, and children in Wright also took a census in 1833 and his statement During the months of June. July, agrees with that of Mr. Hatheway. and August, 1833, there was an unprecedented increase in the number there were 43 houses

them.

John

S.

and of inhabitants in anticipation of the great treaty council It i- estimated with the Indians arranged for September of that year. there that, at the date of young Cobb's arrival off the bar, June 29,

of buildings

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

40

were not 50 permanent white inhabitants in the place. There were a few soldiers, a very few, in Fort Dearborn, and many Indians and halfbreeds living in their temporary camps. Charles Fenno Hoffman was in the village during the early autumn, and he wrote to his paper, the York American, "Four -fifths of the population of this place have

New

come in since last spring: the erection of new buildings during the summer has been in the same proportion"; so that the coming of Mr. Cobb marked the beginning of the evolution from a mere frontier settlement into a growing town. He found a few log houses, three or four of which were used as stores, and in two or three of which travelers could

There were no sidewalks. On the north side of was the log house of the Kinzies, the pioneer settlers, with the huts of two half-breeds and others near by. On the west side, at the forks of the river, where some insisted the town ought to be built, were a few log structures. East of State Street was the government reservation, at the north end of which, near the river, stood Fort Dearborn. The few stores were on or near South Water Street. Madison Street was out on the prairie, and no one then lived so far from the town, which, what there was of it, clung to the river. There was not a frame building in the place, though some of the log houses had been covered with split clapboards. The lirst frame house built in Chicago seems to have been the Green Tree Tavern, and James Kinzie was just starting it when young Cobb, without a cent in his pocket, landed in the village. This was also the first hotel originally intended and planned for a hotel, and, strange to say, it was built on Lake Street a block west of the south branch of the It presented an opportunity for immediate employment, and river. find entertainment.

the river

Mark Beaubien's floating bridge He was hired to boss the job and

the impecunious stranger, crossing

at

Lake

in

Street, applied for work.

at once to earn enough to discharge his small debt to the good Samaritan who released him from imprisonment on the ship, to pay his board, and to accumulate a small fund for the next step in this

way began

many myths have grown up around this first job of Mr. now quite impossible to tell the story as it occurred.

his career.

So

Cobb's that

it is

All accounts agree that he knew nothing of carpentering, but in his dire need of a job said nothing of this to Mr. Kinzie. All agree that

Mr. Kinzie made no complaint when he paid him off. But whether he earned $1.75 a day or $2.75 and board, and whether Mr. Kinzie paid him $40 or $60, whether the building was finished under his superintendence or whether a real carpenter came along and superseded him

SILAS

BOW MAX COBB

41

that Cobb was no carpenter and offering to take his place for fifty cents a day less, these things arc uncertain. I have a suspicion that, like every other Vermont hoy, pari of whose life had been spent on a farm, he was able to wield a hammer, saw, and

by convincing the owner

plane with some

though he was not

and

all his

sub-

But hi> sequent life proved that he knew how to "boss" a job. venture proved his resourcefulness, temporarily set him on hiand gave him a little time to study his surroundings.

feet.

skill,

His second venture illustrated

a carpenter;

his unusual

talent

in

first

discovering

chances for profitable business and his courage in improving them. It must be remembered that he was a boy, just turned twenty-one, that his early advantages had been few, and that he was a working man who in business for himself. He had no mean- for setting up a harness-shop, but was intent on finding ways and means to begin that business which he saw would be profitable. Immigrants were now

had never been

Mr. Cobb beginning to pass through Chicago in increasing numbers. found that they came stocked up with articles they had been assured they could sell to the Indians at a large profit. By the time they reached Chicago, however, they needed money, were anxious to dispose of these stores, but could not afford the time to go out and look for

This was one fact in the situation. The other fact was that a great council with the Indians had been arranged for September of that year, 1833, at which the government proposed to purchase their lands and arrange for their transfer beyond the Missouri. A large gathering of Indians was in prospect. In these two facts the Indian customers.

young man saw his opportunity. As the wagons of the immigrants came in, he met them and, offering cash they greatly needed for what he had learned Indians would buy, found willing

sellers.

The Indians were already

present

in

considerable

numbers, and others came in a rapidly increasing multitude. They gathered from every point of the compass Chippewas, Ottawa}-, and Pottawatamies till thousands were assembled in and about the hamlet.





And their numbers as high as seven or eight thousand. wire they had money from the annual government payments. They further enriched by a generous distribution of the new annuities arran. in the treaty. Young Cobb, with the remarkable versatility he pos-

Some estimated

-tore- about, sessed, turned auctioneer, and, instead of peddling hiThe auctioned them off to eager crowds of native- and half-breeds.

or six weeks, and the young trader This successful venture illustrates the genius

Indians remained for a month

reaped a golden harvest.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

42 for business

with which nature endowed him.

What

his profits

were

is

not known, but they were such that he decided to build his own shop and begin business as a harness-maker. Seeing that the day of log

now growing town

(there were 153 frame buildwould have a frame store of his own. Meantime important changes had taken place in the little settlement.

was over

stores

in the

ings erected in 1833), he

In August, 1833, the citizens decided by a vote of eleven to one to incorporate the "village" of Chicago. On August 15 an election for officers of the

It

was

Gale

new

village

was held and twenty-eight votes were cast. young man, if Mr.

in this election that the twenty-one-year-old right, cast his first vote.

is

were candidates for

The

Thirteen of the twenty-eight voters

office.

nearest sawmill was at Plainfield, about forty miles southwest and there Mr. Cobb went and bought the lumber for his

of Chicago, store.

yoke

of

This was in the autumn of 1833. He hired a wagon and three oxen in Plainfield and, driving himself, started with his lumber

When night came on, he slept in the wagon under a shelter Before morning heavy rain began to pour down. It continued after he started on his way. The road became deep with mud.

for Chicago.

of boards.

He

off part of his load and went on. The rain continued. He more lumber and struggled on. The rain settled down into a three days' storm. The prairie became a morass. When on the fourth day he reached the Des Plaines, it was an impassable torrent. Here, twelve miles from Chicago, he threw off the rest of his load, turned the oxen toward home, and left them to find their way back which they did. Later he recovered his scattered lumber and built a two-story house and store on West Lake Street, opposite the Green Tree Tavern, where he had learned enough carpentering to enable him now to oversee his own construction work, if not to do most of it him-

threw

threw

off



self.

Renting the upper floor, he prepared to open his harness-shop. begin in a small way did not require much capital, but his build-

To

had cost so much that he did not have the little that was required. a rule, to which he adhered through life, not to borrow money nor go in debt. It is believed that he broke this rule only two ing

He had made

or three times in the course of his long life. Its observance helped to make him the rich man he came to be, but it was sometimes incon-

venient and costly. It was costly at this juncture. At Plainfield he had again met Oliver Goss, his father's old partner, the man with whose company he started west. The two now formed a partnership under the firm

name

of

Goss and Cobb.

Reports

differ as to the

amount

of

SILAS

BOW MAX COBB

43

money Mr. Goss invested. One story fixes it at thirty dollars. The This will indicate the very highest sum named is sixty-five dollars. humble beginning in business Mr. Cobb made. The business was really Mr. Goss, though mentioned

his.

silent partner,

living forty miles

ious about his investment. settlers

ingly

and at the end

Mr. Goss the I think

it

may

I try to tell here

Chicago.

In the

the firm name,

was

really

a

The harness-maker prospered exceed-

of a year dissolved the partnership, returning to

of his original investment and two hundred and "the best streak of luck he [Mr. Goss] ever had." be considered a part of the story of Mr. Cobb's life

sum

full

fifty dollars' profit,

if

He

increased in volume.

first in

away, near Plainfield, probably anxneed not have been. The stream of

what the year 1833, the year of his arrival, meant to place, it was the year of its incorporation as a

first

and the appointment of village officers who began to lay out and plan for the improvements of civilized life. Next, the great council with the Indians provided for their removal and the immediate opening to settlement of 20,000,000 acres of the richest land in the world, in northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin, assuring a future for the new village, the greatness of which no man then dreamed. village

streets

In this year also the general government began the improvement of the harbor, cutting through the sand bar at the mouth of the river, this

work being

that for the

first

so furthered

by a great

flood in the spring following

time lake commerce found entrance to the Chicago

River.

In 1833 the

lished.

The year was,

first

newspaper, the Chicago Democrat, was estab-

therefore, a year of unusual importance as well

as interest in the history of Chicago.

Very few men who became prominent in the future of the new community were residents of the town when Mr. Cobb arrived. Among them were Gurdon S. Hubbard, George W. Dole, P. F. W. Peck, and Philo Carpenter. Eli B. Williams preceded him by a few weeks, and John D. Caton, afterward Chief Justice of the State Supreme Court, came a few weeks after Mr. Cobb. During that busy summer came also Jabez K. Botsford, Charles Cleaver, Edward H. Haddock, Walter Kimball, and a dozen other men who rose to prominence. They found themselves in very crowded quarters. In the first old settlers' reception given by the Calumet Club in 1879, Judge Caton said: "I think I can count twenty, at least [present] who were here forty-six years ago, at There were seven beds in the attic in that memorable birth

which fourteen of us slept that summer slept with me in that attic."

knows who

Edward H. Haddock

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

44

Mr. Cobb had not been a year in business before it became apparent him that the center of trade in the new town would be on the south side; and not long after the dissolution of his first partnership, he prepared to move east across the river. But before he did so, an into

teresting incident occurred

which he has himself related:

In October of the same year I was occupying my new shop opposite the hotel, in the building of which my first dollar was earned in Chicago. Standing at my shop one afternoon talking with a neighbor, our attention was attracted by the arrival at the hotel of a settler's wagon from the With my apron on and my sleeves rolled up, I went with my neighbor to greet east. the weary travelers and to welcome them to the hospitality of Fort Dearborn, in I arrived at

Chicago in the spring of 1833.

accordance with the free and easy customs of "high society" in those days. We learned that the travelers were the Warren family, from Westfield, New York, bound for the settlement of Warrenville, Illinois, where a relative had preceded them about six

There were several young women

months previously.

twin

sisters

whom

I

thought particularly attractive, so

in the party,

much

two

of

them

so that I remarked to

friend, after they had departed, that when I was prosperous enough so that my pantaloons and brogans could be made to meet I was going to look up those twin sisters and marry one of them or die in trying.

my

The

sequel of this story is told by E. 0. Gale in his reminiscences in here as later.

and may as well come

As soon as he was able

to support a wife he married one of the twin daughters of

Jerome Beecher married the other sister. Cobb thought that he married Maria and Beecher always believed that he himself married Mary, but they only knew what the girls told them, for the sisters so closely resembled each other and dressed so exactly alike that it required intimate acquaintance to Colonel Daniel Warren

They purchased their millinery of (my) mother, and she never whether she was waiting on Mrs. Cobb or Mrs. Beecher.

distinguish them.

could

tell

latter, Beecher Hall at the University is named. was perhaps in 1835 that Mr. Cobb transferred his growing business to more commodious quarters at 171 Lake Street, which was near the business center on the South Side. He remained in the new

For the It

location for

gence and

years, devoting himself to his business with a dilithat not only attracted wide attention but commanded

many

skill

growing success.

He was

interested in the

life

of the

new community

and entered into every phase of it with all the earnestness of his alert and energetic nature. On October 7, 1835, S. B. Cobb, P. F. W. Peck, K. Botsford, and four others signed their names as the first members Hook and Ladder Company, and Mr. Cobb was always one of the first at every fire. In the first Chicago directory, issued in

J.

of the Pioneer

1839, his

171

name appears as saddle, bridle, harness, and trunk maker, He made about everything the town and country

"lake st."

SILAS BOUWfAX COBB

45

needed that could be made of leather, except boots and shoes. Among other things he made the fire buckets which every householder was required to keep in the front hall of his dwelling. There were to be two, at least, in every building. They were to be present also at every

They were

fire.

all

made by Mr. Cobb.

Gale's father took one of the

two he had

Sometime left

to one of the old settlers' receptions at the

after 1879

Mr.

from those ancient days

Calumet Club.

"Alighting

Mr. Cobb, who was one of the reception father and took it from him with the remark,

from the carriage with committee, rushed to

it,

'I am happy to present it that, Gale, and I am glad to see it.' Mr. Cobb,' said father Cobb took as much pride and satisfaction in displaying his handiwork to his friends and the guests as a young lady would in showing a pretty pattern of embroidery." The sign above his shop read: 1

1

made

to you,

SADDLE AND HARNESS MANUFACTORY Cash Paid S.

B.

for

Hides

COBB

on a post, was a white horse in a full canter, headed for the The proprietor was so full of activity and energy that young Gale "named our hustling harness-maker 'Steamboat Cobb.'

"In

front,

prairie."

'

"

Chicago celebrated the Fourth of July, 1836, by officially breaking ground"' for the digging of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. A party went down to Bridgeport on a small steamboat, Mr. Cobb being one of

On the return trip a crowd of hoodlums, disgruntled the passengers. at being refused passage on the crowded boat, attacked the excursionists with a shower of stones, breaking cabin windows and injuring some of The captain drew

the passengers.

a

number

of citizens,

some

of

as near to the shore as possible and

whom

later

became prominent men,

landed, attacked their assailants, arrested some, and dispersed the rest. Among the foremost in the counter attack were Ashbel Steele, later

made

sheriff,

S.

B.

Cobb, Gurdon

S.

Hubbard,

S.

F.

Gale,

Mark

Beaubien, and John H. Kinzie.

When there was anything doing, Mr. Cobb was usually on hand. few years later the Chicago Cavalry was organizing and he was made third lieutenant. He was indefatigable in his business, but his

A

superabundant vitality led him to throw himself ardently into the Long John Wentworth, in one of his diverting larger life of the town.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

46

addresses on early Chicago, gave the following illuminating characterization of Mr. Cobb. Answering the question whether Chicago had no society

men

in the early days,

he said:

early settlers were generally society men, but they never let society interfere I notice a gentleman here who was a model of a society with their business

Our

man. night.

He was

at his place of business promptly every day and at parties every After sunset he would go farther to attend a party, dance longer, and be back

any man in the city. He has brought nothing here; his notes never went to he has nearly means enough to pay the debts of almost all our protest; and now modern society men. If the society men of these days would but follow his example, work as well as play, save as well as earn, to use a granger phrase, they would find a at his place of business earlier the next morning than lived in pleasure

great deal

and

to profit.

more corn on

their

He

Cobb.

But Long John in another address gave quite another Cobb's life and activities, saying: Not

feeling able to sustain the expense of a

side of

whole pew, I engaged one

Mr.

in partner-

and harness-maker, S. B. Cobb, who, by a life of industry, economy, and morality, has accumulated one of the largest fortunes in our city, and still walks our streets with as little pretense as when he mended the harness of the farmers who brought the grain to this market from our prairies. The church building in those days was considered a first-class one and we had a first-class pew therein, and the annual expense of my half of the pew was only $12.50 more than it would have been in our Saviour's time. ship with an unpretending saddle-

Mr. Went worth evidently believed in a free gospel. The addresses from I have quoted leave it uncertain just where he and Mr. Cobb

which

The connection points plainly to the First Baptist Church, which Mr. Wentworth often attended and of the pastor of which, Rev. M. G. Hinton, he speaks highly. This is rendered attended church together.

still more probable by the fact that Mr. Cobb married the daughter of a Baptist family. He found means to cultivate the acquaintance of the fair Warren sisters and in 1840 married Maria, and, probably,

became with her an attendant at the Baptist Church. He was, howan adherent of the Second Presbyterian Church and, for a

ever, later

time, one of its trustees.

The hamlet which in 1833 presented "a most woebegone appearance, even as a frontier town of the lowest class," and which became an incorporated village toward the end of that year, grew so amazingly that four years later, in 1837, it was reorganized as a city. Speculation in real estate became rampant. Booms grew and flourished and burst.

Good

times,

making speculators

rich,

reduced most of them to poverty. speculative craze of that

first

were succeeded by panics which

Few men were

able to escape the

quarter of a century; but Mr.

Cobb was

SILAS BOWMA.X COBB one of that fortunate number. to go in debt stood

him

in

to

borrow money and not

He

had, by nature apparently, untrained harness-maker was being trained

good stead.

The

a keen business mind.

His rule not

47

very rapidly by what he saw about him in the meteoric rise and the sudden and usually irretrievable fall of the hordes of speculators who

crowded the

He

city.

continued to attend with growing business

skill

to his expanding trade; but

the amazing growth of the city made a profound impression on his mind. He believed in the future of Chicago, and as often as a boom burst and prices fell to the vanishing point, he

invested the growing profits of his business in what he believed to be choice pieces of property. He bought what he had the money to pay so that panics

for,

to

He came

sell.

He made

had no

terrors for him.

He

did not buy real estate

to believe in a great future value for

Chicago property

.

when the speculators were compelled and he made them as permanent investments to

his purchases, therefore,

to sell their holdings,

be improved, as he was able, with substantial blocks of buildings.

The

original school lands of Chicago, beginning at State

and Madison

ran west twelve blocks to Halsted Street, and south twelve

streets,

hundred and forty-four blocks. They are worth today more than $100,000,000, but were practically given away in 1833, when one hundred and forty blocks out of the hundred and forty-four blocks, comprising one

were sold for almost nothing, the amount realized from the sale being In 1835 the immensely valuable wharfing privileges were also "sold for a song," the leases extending till the year 2834, nine hundred

$38,865.

and ninety-nine years. These operations, which made many investors rich, took place while Mr. Cobb was still in poverty and was taking the

One of his earliest opportuinvestment came in 1839. In that year the general government subdivided the Fort Dearborn Reservation into lots, the greater part of which were immediately sold for what they

first

steps to establish himself in business.

nities for profitable real-estate

would bring. Chicago had hardly begun to recover from the disastrous panic of 1837, and real-estate values were greatly depressed. Buyers were few; but there were men who had confidence in the future of Chicago, and

on

among them was Mr. Cobb. He was beginning to get having some money in the bank, bought two of these

his feK, and,

lots

on the southwest corner

S516.

On

or

Michigan Avenue and Lake Street for first residence, and the directory of

him as living at 75 Michigan Avenue. A few years later was no longer residence property and he removed a block

1843 records this corner

of

these lots he built his

two farther south.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

48

Though devoted

to his business,

He was an

his political duties.

Mr. Cobb was not unmindful Whig in politics and

enthusiastic

of in

1840 took an active interest in the election of General Harrison to the presidency. He was appointed a delegate to the great Whig conven-

A

tion of that year at the state capital. delegation of about seventy In telling the story the journey from Chicago to Springfield.

made

Charles Cleaver,

who came

to

Chicago the same year with Mr. Cobb

(1833), says: Great preparations were made. got

new canvas

covers

made

for the



We

secured fourteen of the best teams in town, We also bor-

wagons, and bought four tents.



rowed the government yawl the largest in the city had it rigged up as a twomasted ship, set it on the strongest wagon we could find, and had it drawn by six splendid gray horses. Thus equipped, with four sailors on board and a six-pound cannon to fire occasional salutes, making quite an addition to our cavalcade of fourteen wagons, we went off with flying colors. .... Major General, then Captain, Hunter, was our marshal, and the whole delegation was chosen from our best class of citizens.

Political excitement ran very high, and it was known that the But this prospect progress of the delegation might be resisted by force. did not make the project any less attractive to men like Gurdon S. Hubbard, Mr. Cleaver, Mr. Cobb, and Captain Hunter. At the cross-

They were ing of the river south of Joliet the expected trouble came. armed, and the future major general directed every shotgun and pistol to be loaded, but also ordered that no one should Mr. Cleaver continues: the word of command.

fire

a shot

till

he gave

When we reached the ford we found a party of two hundred or three hundred men and boys assembled to dispute our passage. However, we continued our course, surrounded by a howling mob, and part of the time amid showers of stones thrown from the adjoining bluff, until we came to a spot where two stores were built one





on either side of the street and then we came to a halt, as they had tied a rope from one building to the other Seeing us brought to a stand, the mob redoubled their shouts and noise from their tin horns, kettles, etc. General Hunter, riding to the front, took in the situation at a glance. It was either forward or fight. He chose the former, and gave the word of command, knowing it would be at the loss of our masts in the vessel. And sure enough, down came the fore-and-aft topmast with a crash, inciting the crowd to increased violence, noise, and tumult. One of the party got so excited that he snatched a tin horn from a boy and struck the marshal's horse. When he reached for his pistols the fellow made a hasty retreat into his store.

we came to the open prairie, and a halt was ordered than half an hour for our sailors to go aloft, splice the masts,

After proceeding a short distance, for repairs.

It took less

and make all taut again. Then it became our turn to hurrah, which we did with a This was democracy in '40 we were will, and were molested no further



Whigs.

SILAS

BOWMAN COBB

49

However, Mr. Cleaver acknowledges

that, "with the exception above mentioned, we met with nothing but kindness the whole of our trip." But on the return journey they went by another route.

In 1847 Mr. Cobb was

men

still

a

young man.

But at that time almost

Chicago were young. Perhaps thirty-five, which was Mr. Cobb's age, would be a fair average for the whole body.

all

business

the

of

These young men, bent on the improvement of the shipping

facilities of

the city, interested themselves in arranging for the holding of the great River and Harbor Convention of 1847. It was held under a great tent in the courthouse square of Chicago. Mr. Cobb was a member of

the

Committee

of

Arrangements.

extraordinarily successful. 17,000,

it

Though

The work

of the

committee was

the city's population did not reach

was estimated that 20,000 strangers gathered

to attend the

The number of delegates alone is variously reported at from 3,000 to 10,000, and among them were many who then or later convention.

men of the nation. It was declared to be the largest body ever assembled. Its object was the improvement of of the new west and the harbors of the Great Lakes. It was

were the leading deliberative

the rivers

a

movement

of the highest

importance to a vast region and, indeed, to

the whole country.

In 1848 Mr. Cobb had been

maker.

He had

with his

own hands during

prospered.

fifteen years in business as

Whether he continued this entire period does

to

work

a harnessin his

not appear.

shop It is

probable that as his business increased he found himself more and more occupied with the management and accounting. He liked to keep his to keep his own books. At the end of an opening for bettering his fortunes, he disposed of his old business and formed a partnership with William Osbourne in a boot and shoe and hide and leather house. The only thing now known about this venture is that at the end of four years, when he was

business in his

own hands and

fifteen years, seeing

only forty years of age, he had been so successful that he retired final ly from manufacturing and merchandising with a competency. Beginning with nothing in 1833 in a miserable little frontier hamlet an inexperienced boy, nineteen years of hard work, devotion to business, avoidance of debt, strict integrity, refusal to enter into any of the orgies of speculation that repeatedly prevailed in the Chicago of these years, but as rapidly as his increasing profits permitted investing his



surplus in central real estate and promising public utilities nineteen years had made him in 1852 one of the leading capitalists of the prosperous young city of 20,000 people. This does not mean that he was

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

50

man. But it does mean that at forty years of age foundation on which to build the superstructure of had not yet lived out half his days. He looked back

in 1852 a very rich

he had laid a his fortune.

solid

He

on forty years; but had he been a seer, he would have looked forward to forty-eight which he had yet to live. But this date marked an entire change in his business activities. The reason for so radical a change does not appear. A merchant is

He

the slave of his business.

is

chained to his oar.

He must

keep

pulling ceaselessly or his boat will begin to go downstream or run ashore. Mr. Cobb had worked very hard for nineteen years and had achieved

such success that he was able to break his bonds.

become enamored of his

of liberty

and decided

He seems man for

to be a free

to

have

the rest

life.

He

did not, indeed, intend to spend his time in idleness. He purposed to continue as active a life as ever. His enterprising temperament would not permit him to be idle; but he was free and could

employ

his time as

he

liked.

One

of the first things

he did was to

dis-

charge an obligation of friendship. He accepted an appointment as executor of the estate of Joseph Matteson, the original proprietor of the Matteson House, and as guardian of his five children. Mr. Cobb continued in the duties of these positions for fourteen years, discharging them with his customary fidelity and success.

He interested himself with other leading capitalists in the first of Chicago's railroads, the Galena and Chicago Union, which, launched and got under way with extraordinary difficulty, was in the end a most successful enterprise.

William B. Ogden,

J.

Y. Scammon, John B.

Turner, Benjamin W. Raymond, and men of like character and standing were leaders in the undertaking. Mr. Cobb was one of the directors of the

were

new road and

later

merged

also of the Beloit

in the

and Madison.

These roads

Chicago and Northwestern system.

It is a

curious reflection on the foresight of ordinary business men that the merchants of Chicago, for the most part, opposed the building of rail-

roads out of that city on the ground that it would interfere with their trade by diverting it to the country stores to which the roads would It was fortunate for the early rapid development carry merchandise. of the city that there were, among its own citizens, men of vision who realized that the one great need of Chicago was railroads, railroads

running east, west, north, and south, and to every other point of the compass, men who were ready to back their views with their fortunes.

These were the men who made Chicago.

They

built the railroads,

and

BOWMAN COBB

SILAS the railroads built the city.

51

These men did not profess that

in

providing

Chicago with railroads they were moved entirely by altruism. They were farsighted men of business, but in making what they believed were good investments for themselves, they promoted at the same time

Mr. Cobb was one of these men, promoting on the public.

the public welfare.

his

own

was same farsighted business policy that led him to take a substantial interest in the Chicago Gas Light and Coke Company and the streetinterests while conferring unspeakable benefits

It

this

railway companies, which made ample returns to him, but which were, at the same time, indispensable public utilities and a boon to every Of the Gas Company he became a director in 1855 and later a citizen.

member of the board of managers, continuing in this position till 1887, when the merger took place with the Peoples Gas Light and Coke

When

Company.

various street railways were consolidated into the

Chicago City Railway Company, he was one of the principal capitalists

among

its

managers. long a director

He was

and president

of the

in the West Side Street Railway Company Chicago City Railway Company during the seven-

when

the underground cable system superseded the use of horses. the National Bank of Illinois and of one of the principal insurance companies of Chicago. A propos of his connection with the street railways he made it a point to see that passengers were treated ties

He was a director of

One who frequently saw him riding courteously, particularly women. on the cars relates that he would never permit a woman to stand. If full, he would invariably rise when a woman entered on her taking his seat. When Fort Sumter was fired on in April, 1861, the patriotic citizens of Chicago assembled in great mass meetings in Bryan and Metropolitan halls, and, in the presence of the total lack of arms and equipment in the state arsenals, determined that they would themselves arm and

the seats were

and

insist

equip the Chicago volunteers offices.

Mr. Cobb was one

who were

already besieging the recruiting who immediately raised a

of the citizens

fund of 840,000 for this purpose and sent a force of nearly a thousand men to seize and hold for the Union the one strategic point in Illinois



the city of Cairo.

He became

Home Guard and was Among the other activities

Chicago

a

member

secretary of

of the first its

company

of the

executive committee.

of Mr. Cobb, after retiring in 1852 from manufacturing and mercantile pursuits was the improvement of his

valuable business properties. On the site of his old home at the southwest corner of Lake Street and Michigan Avenue he built Cobb Block.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

52

In 1865 he erected another building on Washington Street between Dearborn and Clark streets. Just around the corner from this he put up a third block called the Cobb Building. This was 120-28 Dearborn Street,

in this building he

and

had

his private office for

many

years,

perhaps to the end of his life. I am indebted to William Bross, one of the proprietors of the Chicago Tribune, lieutenant governor of Illinois, but popularly known in Chicago as

Deacon

Bross, for a picture which vividly presents the striking con-

between the boy of 1833, just landed in the miserable hamlet without a friend in the place or a cent in his pocket, and the prosperous trast

citizen of the great city of 1870.

In a lecture,

"What

I

Remember

of

Early Chicago," delivered in 1876, Deacon Bross said: in the parlor of the Merchants' Savings, Loan, and Trust Company, years ago, talking with the president, Sol. A. Smith, E. H. Haddock, Dr. Foster [whose widow later built Foster Hall at the University of Chicago], and perhaps two or three others, in came Mr. Cobb, smiling and rubbing his hands in the

Standing

five or six

"Well, what makes you so happy?" said one. "Oh," said Cobb, greatest glee. arrival in Chicago in 1833." "Yes," "this is the first day of June, the anniversary of

my

saw you, Cobb, you were bossing a lot of Hoosiers weatherboarding a shanty-tavern for Jim Kinzie." "Well," Cobb retorted, in the best of humor, "you needn't put on any airs for the first time I saw you, you were said

Haddock, "the

first

time

I

shingling an outhouse!"

Mr. Bross then went on to tell something of the arrival in Chicago of Mr. Cobb, whom he referred to as "our solid president of the South Side Horse Railway," and continued: Mr. Haddock also came to Chicago, I think, as a small grocer; and now these gentlemen are numbered among our millionaires. Young men, the means by which they have achieved success are exceedingly simple. They have sternly avoided all mere speculation; they have attended closely to legitimate business and invested in real estate. Go ye and do likewise, and your success

any accumulating surplus will

be equally sure.

In choosing a place in which to make his home Mr. Cobb retreated southward slowly, apparently with reluctance, before the onflowing tide of business.

Perhaps the overflow of Michigan Avenue by business

may be historically traced by his successive removals. We have seen how he first made a home on the corner of Lake Street and Michigan

houses

Avenue

in 1843. Thirteen years later, in 1856, he was residing at 135 Michigan Avenue perhaps a little north of Monroe Street. In 1859, after only three years, he retreated to No. 148, just south of Monroe. Ten years later he had been driven to No. 241, just south of Congress Street.

Happily for him and

his family,

he then abandoned the struggle

SILAS to retain a

Avenue.

home by

I

53

home on Michigan Avenue and found

refuge at 979 Prairie say ''happily" for he thus escaped the destruction of his

the great

tire of

Mr. Cobb's theory

The

BOWMAN COBB

187 1.

was subjected to two supreme tests. was the avoidance of debt, the making of stocks, lands, or buildings, only as he was able

of business

basis of that theory

investments, whether in His investments in great public utilities were large to pay for them. and varied, but he was no speculator. They were made only after the

most careful consideration and were solidly based on the growth of Chicago, of which he, who had been a part of its development from the beginning, was absolutely assured.

The first test came in the panic of 1857, which was one of the most severe and disastrous in the history of the country. Great numbers of men in Chicago were irretrievably ruined. Even the failure of William B. Ogden, Chicago's ablest financier, seemed inevitable and he escaped only by the considerateness of his creditors. Mr. Cobb passed through the storm unshaken. He had no creditors, and his financial position

was strengthened rather than weakened by that great

catastrophe.

The second test came in the fire of 187 1, which destroyed entirely the business district of Chicago, as well as the whole of the north side of the city. The total losses were estimated at nearly or quite S300,Mr. Cobb's

were very great. All his buildings in the Hundreds, perhaps thousands, men were ruined; but again he was unshaken. He had no creditors. year and a half after the fire he was again in his office in the newly

000,000.

losses

business district were totally destroyed. of

A

Cobb Building at 120-28 Dearborn Street, and his other business blocks were quickly rebuilt and as quickly rented. At the time of the Great Fire Mr. Cobb was president of the Chicago constructed

City Railway Company and continued in that position several years. In 1877 the sons of Vermont formed an organization, and in 1883 made

Mr. Cobb vice-president. chairman

of the reception

He was committee

socially inclined

and was

for years

of the gatherings of the old settlers

conducted by the Calumet Club. I am indebted to a Chicago banker for the following personal glimpse The banker was of him when he was approaching eighty years of age. then a young man earning fifty dollars a month and took his daily noon lunch in a restaurant where you sat at a long counter on a high

His regular lunch cost him fifteen cents. Next to him ordinarily an old man, rather plainly dressed, who, as his neighbor noticed

stool.

sat

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

54

with some regret, seemed able to afford only a ten-cent lunch of doughMeeting almost daily, they fell into a speaking acquaintance. The young man finally got a raise in salary to seventy-

nuts and a cup of tea. five dollars

a month, and said to the old man: "I

am

afraid

we

shall

not continue to lunch together. I have received a raise in pay and I am thinking of going to a restaurant where I can sit in a chair at a table it." "Let me advise you," said the older man, "not to do it. Continue to economize; save your increased pay; live simply, and when you become an old man you may be a rich one." When the young man paid his bill he asked the cashier who his aged adviser was, and was surprised to hear, "Why, that's Silas B. Cobb."

with a table cover on

The men who knew him

He was very

will recognize the verisimilitude of this story, frugal in all his personal expenditures; but with his family

he was most

liberal.

He

did not require from

them the economies he

own person. Mr. and Mrs. Cobb almost reached

practiced in his

gether.

They were married

in

their golden anniversary to1840 and Mrs. Cobb lived till 1888. and one boy. Three of the daughters

There were six children, five girls At the time lived to be married and two of them survived their father. of Mrs. Cobb's death the family home was at 3334 Michigan Avenue.

With her

sister,

Cobb had been much Orphan Asylum and other charities. After

Mrs. Jerome Beecher, Mrs.

interested in the Chicago

her death her husband

made

his

home with

his daughter,

Mrs. William

B. Walker, at 2027 Prairie Avenue.

He was now

76 years old, but was

still

vigorous and maintained the

springy step and rapid pace of his earlier days. He still kept his office in the Cobb Building on Dearborn Street, and there continued to manage his multiplied business interests. It was in this office that I

and the circumwhich had not yet opened its doors to students, was engaged in what seemed the impossible task of raising in Chicago a million dollars in ninety days. Such a thing had never before been done or attempted in that city. It had not then more than one-third its present population or one-tenth its present first

saw Mr. Cobb,

stances.

wealth.

in 1892.

The new University

I well recall the time

of Chicago,

We

had little Sixty of the ninety days given us had passed. half the amount subscribed and seemed to be at the end of

more than

We

We

were at a loss to whom to appeal. knew that the family of Mr. Cobb wanted him to help us; but he had the reputation of liking to be self-moved in his giving, of disliking to be solicited.

our resources.

SILAS

We

BOWMAN COBB

55

if we went to him and made a direct appeal he and we should defeat ourselves. We were repeatedly

were assured that

would resent

it

His family finally told direct appeal to him. Dr. Harper, president of the University, that they feared the decision must go over to the autumn. This was in the first week in June and

warned against making a

seemed a deathblow to all hope of success in securing the million dollars, the time for doing which would expire in thirty days. I then said to Dr. Harper that we must take the matter into our

own hands, adding that we were not in the habit of giving offense to those to whom we made our appeals. He reminded me of the warnings we had received, but said we would go if I would assume the responsiI told him that since we should lose bility of our probable failure. our million dollars if Mr. Cobb did not help us, I would take the Thereupon we went and called upon him in his unpreresponsibility. tentious office.

He received us cordially, heard us w ith evident sympathy, giving us the impression that if we had not called on him he would have felt He evidently regarded it as quite that we had overlooked him. appropriate that, for so great an object and in so extreme an exigency, We had the matter should be brought to a man so well able to help. r

a long interview, going over the whole case very fully. We explained, in answer to his questions, a number of things he had not understood. We told him we needed Si 50,000 from him, and that we believed this assure our complete success. He seemed and said he had thought he would write us a letter voluntarily proffering the subscription. Know-

him would

contribution from

entirely ready to give us this great sum,

ing his decided preference for

making

encouraged him in we had succeeded

this purpose.

him on the

and

street

in

our mission. told

way, we strongly him with the assurance that days later Dr. Harper met

his gifts in this

We

left

Two

him we had not

said he hadn't yet found time to write how to go at it; and intimated that he

received his letter.

He

and, in fact, didn't know just would be glad to put the matter

it,

in the way we thought would be most helpful to us in our campaign. The president came to the office and asked me to prepare such a letter as we would like to have Mr. Cobb sign, which I lost no time in doing, trying to express also what I knew were his views. This was at once

sent to his office

the letter to alter

it

and

it

and two days

me was

later

he walked into

with his signature appended. as follows:

my office and returned He had

not cared to

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

56

Chicago, June

To

the

Board of Trustees of

the University of

9,

1892

Chicago

Gentlemen: I have watched with growing interest the progress of the institution, the care of which has been intrusted to you. As my years increase, the desire grows upon me to do something for the city which has been my home for nearly sixty years, I am persuaded that there is no more important public enterprise than the University of Chicago. It seems to me to deserve the most liberal support of our citizens, and especially does it seem important that the University should, just at this juncture, be enabled to secure the million dollars it I therefore hereby subscribe seeking for its buildings and equipment. $150,000 on the conditions of the million-dollar subscription, and put my proposed gift in this form that the securing of the full million dollars may be more certainly assured. The particular designation of this gift is

I will

make

later.

Yours

sincerely, S. B.

For

Cobb

The University was at that time building its first recitation building. this building Mr. Cobb immediately, that same day, in fact, des-

ignated his contribution, later adding to his original donation $15,000, His subscription proved the turning-point, total of $165,000.

making a perhaps

it

may

be said, in the drive for the million-dollar building and Cobb Lecture Hall was so nearly finished that within

equipment fund.

of the new University was formally opened on October has proved to be a most important building, for more than a quarter of a century the center of University life. It is eighty its walls* the 1,

1892.

feet wide,

work

It

one hundred and sixty feet long, and four stories in height. As originally constructed it provided a

It contains over sixty rooms.

chapel or assembly room for temporary use, taking for this purpose the north third of the first floor, a general lecture-room that would accommodate nearly two hundred, and offices for the president, deans, and other

officials.

With the

have taken place

in the

multiplication of buildings, great changes of the first floor and the general

arrangement Other changes

use of the building. will be made as later buildings still further relieve the congestion, and the time will come when its use will be more largely restricted to the work of instruction. It has

a record of general utility which no other University building can ever In the hall of the first floor may be seen a white marble bust of

have.

Mr. Cobb.

VAX COBB

SILAS BOW

57

Probably no act of Mr. Cobb's life, except his marriage, gave him more unalloyed happiness than the great contribution he made for the erection of

Hall. He took no He was evidently happy

Cobb Lecture

faction he felt in

it.

pains to conceal the satishaving made a contribu-

in

which had done so much for him. He had prospered in Chicago and he had been able to recognize his obligation to the city. He occasionally called at my office and once brought and left with me a tion to the city

photograph about 12X14 inches

him

ing

New

in

The

sitting in the

in size,

air at his

open

appropriately framed, representat Pride's Crossing

summer home

England, with his feet on a bowlder and a cigar in his mouth. was characteristic. He usually had one in his mouth, but

cigar

did not

signed

smoke

Underneath the picture was a

it.

brief

statement,

to the effect, as nearly as I can recall, that he

by him,

Chicago in 1833 and built the

and that every brick building

first

frame house erected

in the city

came

in the

had been constructed

to

town,

since his

coming.

Mr. Cobb for

by

good health almost to the last, tenderly cared Mrs. William B. Walker, until he reached the age

lived in

his daughter,

of eighty-eight years.

He

The funeral service was 6, 1900. The honorary pallbearers, with the

died April

conducted by President Harper.

exception of the writer of these pages, were old business friends of wealth and prominence S. M. Allerton, Albert Keep, E. T. Watkins,



J.

A. Tyrrell, and Dr. D. K. Pearsons.

The estate amounted to about $6,000,000. Bequests were made to twenty-eight nephews and nieces, amounting to $35,500; to the Home for the Friendless, $50,000; to the Chicago Orphan Asylum, $25,000; to the Old People's Home, $5,000; to the Young Men's Christian Association, $5,000;

and

to the

American Sunday School Union, $2,500.

B. Walker, Mr. Cobb's son-in-law, who had been very helpful to him in the care of his large interests, a bequest of $25,000 was made. The rest of the estate was left in trust to William B. Walker

To William

and Clarence Buckingham to be equally divided eventually between the two living daughters, Mrs. Walker and Mrs. Walter Denegre, and the children of a deceased daughter, Mrs. General G. Coleman.

A

considerable

number

large material success

of the early settlers of

have

Chicago who achieved memorials in

built for themselves enduring

These benefactions for the of charity and education. They public welfare are the things for which they will be remembered. were not unmindful of their obligations to the city which they had institutions

helped to build and which had rewarded them with prosperity.

Their

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

58 beneficence has given of helpful influence.

words on the

them an immortality of remembrance, as well as Their names are and will continue to be household

lips of

University of Chicago

As the students of the come from every quarter of the globe and later

thousands every day.

find their spheres of activity in every land, one name will be known beyond the limits of Chicago the name of Silas Bowman

familiarly far

Cobb.



EVENTS: PAST THE ONE HUNDRED AND FOURTEENTH CONVOCATION

James Carlin Crandall, Albert Clinton De Witt, Frank Lowell Dunn, Edna Helen Eisendrath, Lucile Gillespie, Kenneth Hancock Goode, Dorothea Marguerite

The One Hundred and Fourteenth Convocation was held in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, Tuesday, December 23, at 4:00 p.m. The Convocation Statement was made by President Harry Pratt Judson. The award of honors was announced.

Harjes. Elizabeth Katherine Lindquist, Ruth Lovett, Marion Catherine Lydon,

Abe Matheson, Hazel Matilda Mattick, Earl Altimont Miller. J. Shelton Raban, Minnie Reiss, Flora May Sanders, Luther Martin Sandwick, Josephine Marguerite Stroud, Robert Joseph West. Honorable mention for excellence in the work leading to the certificate of the College of Education: Cherrie Phillips. The Bachelor's degree was conferred with honors on the following students: William Robert Baker, Grace Tinker Davis, Benjamin Goldberg, Eva Louise Hyde, Agnes Jacques, Richard Anderson Jones, Leah Pearl Libman, Cyril Vincent Lundvick, Laura

The election of the following students as associate members to Sigma Xi was announced: Lyman Chalkley, Jr., Henry Leon Cox, Marie Farnsworth, Anne Braid Hepburn, Samuel Jacob Jacobsohn, Robert Stern Landauer, Clarence John Monroe, Elsie Marie Plapp, Emil Durbin Ries, Herman Duffield Swan,

Bernhard Siems, Stewart Margaret Fitch Willcox.

The election of the following students as members of Sigma Xi was announced: Theodore Hieronymus Bast, Hugo Leander Blomquist, William John

AND FUTURE

Waples McMullen, Harold William Norman, Helen Mary Xorthrop, Frederick Xymeyer, Arthur Waterman Rogers,

Crozier,

Charles William Schwede, Clara Victoria

Harold Clifford Gold thorpe. Aubrey Chester Grubb, William F. E. Gurley, Evelyn Gertrude Samuel Chester Halliday, Henn, Isadore Meyer Jacobsohn, Hilary Stanislaus Jurica, John Wayne Lasley, Louis Leiter, Mayme Irwin Logdson, Frank Paden McWhorter, Elizabeth Wilhelmina Miller, James J. Moorehead, Adolf Carl Xoe, Walter Lincoln Palmer, Lydia Jane Roberts, George Ross Robertson, Frank V. Sander, Max Sasuly, William Frederic Schroeder, Paul Joseph Sedgwick, William Allen Smiley, James

Edward Theodore Soukup, Lewis Hanford Tiffany. Honors for excellence in particular departments of the Senior Colleges were awarded to the following Severin,

Harriet Frances Glendon, Economics; Benjamin Goldberg, Earl Henry- Hall, Botany; Botany; MabeUe Alice Hay, Botany; Agnes Jacques, French; Leah Pearl Libman, Mathematics; Cyril Vineent Lundvick, Chemistry: Cyril Vincent Lundvick, Anatomy; Laura Waples McMullen, and Philosophy Psychology; Laura WaHarples McMullen, General Literatim old William Xorman, Law; Helen Mary Charles William Xorthrop, German; Schwede. Chemistry; Edward Man Soukup, Political Economy; Mabel Toles, ford Tiffany, Botany; students:

Home

Hollingsworth Smith, Warren Braman Smith, Mable Stockholm, Helen Mabel Strong, Frederick Karl Swoboda, George Addison Talbert, Harriet Williams Van Nostrand, Arthur Herman Weiland, Derwent Stainthorpe Whittlesev, Elizabeth Pauline Wolf, Sybil Woodruff. The election of the following students to the Beta of Illinois Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was announced: Arthur Cohen, Ben Herzberg, Carl Gilbert Johnson, Leah Pearl Libman, Cyril Vincent Lundvick, Esther Sable, George Dumas Stout.

;

I

Spanish.

Degrees and follow.-:

77;

titles

were conferred as certificate of

the College of Education, 8; the degree of Bachelor of Arts, 3; the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy, 43; the degree of Bachelor of Science, 29; the degn

Honorable mention for excellence in the work of the Junior Colleges: George Harold Caldwell, Harry Wesley Cartwright,

Bachelor of Philosophy in Education, 10; the degree of Bachelor of Science in 59

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

6o Education,

i;

the degree of Bachelor

of Philosophy in Commerce and Adminthe istration, 3; The Divinity School: the degree of Master of Arts, 2; of Doctor of 1; Philosophy, degree The Law School: the degree of Bachelor of Doctor of the of Laws, 2; Law, degree

The Graduate Schools of Arts, Literaand Science: the degree of Master of Arts, 9; the degree of Master of Science, 6. 6; the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 7;

ture,

The was

total

number

of degrees conferred

129.

The Convocation Prayer

Service was

held at 10:30 a.m., Sunday, December 21, At 11:00 a.m., in in the Reynolds Club. Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, the Convocation Religious Service was held. The preacher was the Reverend Theodore Gerald Soares, Ph.D., D.D., Professor of Homiletic? and Religious Education and Head of the Department of Practical

Theology, University of Chicago.

Mr. Trevor Arnett, Auditor of the University of Chicago, has been appointed an additional secretary of the General Education Board, to which a new gift of $50,000,000 has just been

made by Mr.

John

D.

Rockefeller.

Early in January Mr. Arnett will accompany other officers of the Board on a trip to educational institutions in the South. For the present Mr. Arnett will divide his time between the University of Chicago and the General Education Board.

chemicals, especially the finer organic chemicals, which in the past have been

almost monopolized by Germany. Assistant Professor Gerald L. Wendt, also of the

Use

of tion."

tration, took part in a discussion of

"The

Teaching of Economics." Dean Marshall was chairman of the committee on local arrangements.

Professor

Julius

Stieglitz,

Chairman

of the

Department of Chemistry, recently appeared before a subcommittee of the United States Senate to give evidence on the importance of establishing American independence in the manufacture of finer

Radium and Radium Emana-

The University of Chicago Post of the American Legion, recently organized at the University with some three hundred members, has as commander Norman Hart, vice-commander Royal Munger, and secretary-treasurer G. K. Bowden. Dean James Parker Hall, of the Law School, presided at the meeting of organization in Kent Theater, when a formal application was made for affiliation with Assistant the national organization. Professor Rudolph Altrocchi, of the De-

partment of Romance Languages and Literatures, who was in war service in Italy and France, is chairman of the membership committee.

A new University of Chicago alumni club was recently organized at Peoria, Illinois, by fifty-four graduates and former students, after an address on the of the University by Dean growth Nathaniel Butler, of University College.

Harry Dale Morgan, A.B.,

'06,

was

elected president; Dr. Sidney H. Easton, and Anna S.B., '10, vice-president; Jewett Le Fevre, secretary-treasurer.

The At the thirty-second meeting of the American Economic Association held in Chicago from December 29 to 31 Associate Professor Harold G. Moulton, of the Department of Political Economy, presented a paper on "The Price Question and Banking Policy"; Professor Harry A. Millis, of the same department, discussed "Immigration and Immigration Problems"; and Dean Leon. C. Marshall, of the School of Commerce and Adminis-

Chemistry Department, recently

addressed the Western Roentgen Society on "The Physical Factors Underlying the

Preachers

University

for

the

Winter Quarter, 1920, are as follows: January 4, Rev. Charles LeRoy Goodell, St. Paul's M.E. Church, New York City; January n, Dr. Goodell; January 18, Rev. John MacNeill, Walmer Road Baptist Church, Toronto; January 25, Rev. John Timothy Stone, Fourth Presbyterian Church, Chicago; February 1, President J. Ross Stevenson, Princeton Theological Seminary; February 8, Rev. Elijah Andrews Hanley, First Baptist Church, Rochester, New York; February 15, Professor Albert Parker Fitch, Amherst College, Amherst, Massachusetts; February 22, Professor Fitch; February 29, Dean Lee Sullivan MassaTufts McCollester, College, chusetts;

The

March

7,

Dean

McCollester.

Chicago Press announces for immediate publication a University

new number

of

in the Publications of the

61

EVENTS: PAST AND FUTURE under the Geographic Society of Chicago title of The Geography of the Ozark Highland of Missouri. The author, Dr. Carl 0. Sauer, of the University of Michigan, received his Doctor's degree from the

University of Chicago in 1915.

New impressions of successful books for January publication by the University of Chicago Press included the following: A Short History of der Essen, gium, by Professor Leon Van of the University of Lou vain, to which after-thea new added has the author war chapter; A Short History of Japan, Manual A for by Ernest W. Clement; M. Manly and John A. Writers,

announced

by John

Literature in the Elementary bv Porter Lander MacClintock; A. Psychology of Religion, by George An Coe; and The University of Chicago: Robertson. A. David Official Guide, by " An important new volume in the UniSeries" versity of Chicago Nature-Study

Powell;

The heartiest being assembled at Cairo. on the part of both the liritish and the French authorities has

co-operation

not only made possible but is materially of explorafacilitating the undertaking The partv will leave for the tions. about February Valley Tigro-Euphrates After reaching the port of Bosra, 10. the sites of ancient Babylonian and Assyrian civilization will be visited. The route will then be westward through the Aleppo and southward to Beirut on will be Syrian coast. Other districts studied if time permits. The members of the expedition are to be back in

Chicago by October

first.

For the large registration in the new for Church Workers at the

Scltool.

Institute

The,

University of Chicago, practical courses in Bible-study, religious education, church activities organization, and recreational are being given in Emmons Blaine Hall the every Monday evening during present quarter. Dean Shailer Mathews, of the Divinity School, Dr. J. M. P. Smith, and Dr. the courses Shirley J. Case are conducting Professor Theodore G. in Bible-study; of Soares, Head of the Department Practical Theology, and Dean Frank G. Theological the of Chicago Ward, Seminarv. have charge of the courses in

also announced for the same month— Field and Laboratory Guide in Physical

was

A

Nature-Study,

by

Two volumes

in

Elliot R. Downing. this highly successful

series have already appeared— A Field and Laboratory Guide in Biological Nature-Study and A Source Book of

Biological Nature-Study.

Four hundred and twenty men who were

in service in the recent war, either

army or navy, have been given on scholarships or partial scholarships La Verne Xoyes Foundation for the the in

the

Winter Quarter at the University of

The scholarships are disChicago. tributed among men from thirty-nine states, the largest number of assignments being to men from Illinois. Other states numbers are represented by considerable Mis Iowa, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, and Oklahoma. Most of the souri,

were present holders of the scholarships in service fourteen months or more, and the majority of them saw service in France. The chief considerations on which the awards have been made are length and character of service, need of the man, and scholarship.

was at

The number of applicants number of assign-

least twice the

Sunday-school methods; Dean Mathews, President Ozora S. Davis, of the Chicago others discuss Theological Seminary, and the relation of the church and the

community;

Associate

Professor

Training, discusses the religious development of the child. One of the important features of the Institute is the practical attention given tional

non-equipment games and recreational direction of the programs under the the to

Physical Culture University.

Department

of

"The Art and Architecture of Roumania" was the subject of an illustrated on lecture at the University of Chicago Charles Upson January 30 by Professor American the of Clark, formerly director School of Classical Studies in Rome. The lecture was given under the auspices

ments.

of the

Director James Henry Breasted, of the Oriental Institute of the University of where the Chicago, is now in Egypt members of the Institute's expedition are

logical

;

and

Director of VocaJoseph M. Artman,

Chicago Society of the ArchaeoInstitute of America, of which

(.onion J. Laing, of society Professor Univerthe Department of Latin at the is secretary. sity of Chicago,

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

6?

Professor Paul Shorey, Head of the of the Greek Language and Literature at the University of Chicago, is giving two courses of lectures at Johns

Department

Hopkins University, one a seminar Plato and the other a course on the his2 Dr. tory of Greek philosophy. In 191 Shorey was Turnbull lecturer in poetry at Johns Hopkins. in

Professor Charles H. Haskins, dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University, who was attached to the American Commission to Negotiate Peace, gave a largely attended public lecture on "The Peace Conference at Paris" at the University of Chicago on

January 28. Dean Haskins, who formerly was professor of European history in the University of Wisconsin, was American member of the Conference Commission on Belgian and Dutch Affairs and a member of the special committee on Alsace-Lorraine and the Saar Valley.

The members of the Renaissance Society of the University of Chicago were the guests of Mr. and Mrs. Martin A. Ryerson to view their art collection at their home, 4851 Drexel Boulevard, Chicago, on January 25. The collection, which is of remarkable range and interest in the history of art, was explained by Walter Sargent, Professor of Art Education at the University, and Dr. Richard Offner, of the Department of the History of Art.

The Renaissance Society, which is especially active this year, has just given an exhibition of the sculpture of Alfeo Faggi for ten days in the Classics Building,

its auspices Dr. Frank J. professor of art in Princeton lectured in January on

and under

Mather,

Jr.,

University,

"Masaccio and Realism." The president the society is Professor Gordon J. Laing, of the Department of Latin, and the secretary is Mrs. Henry Gordon Gale.

Official announcement is just made of the total registration at the University of Chicago for the Winter Quarter, 1920.

In the Graduate Schools of Arts, Literature, and Science there are 451 men and 251 women, a total of 702. In the Senior Colleges there are 512 men and 419 women, a total of 931; in the Junior Colleges, 819 men and 535 women, a total of 1,354; and Unclassified students, 120, a total for the Colleges of 2,405. In the Professional Schools there are 163 Divinity students, 212 Medical students, 304 Law students, 216 in Education,

and 545

istration,

a

Commerce and Admin-

in

total

The

total

for

the

Professional

The

registration for 1,203. registration for the Uni-

Schools of 1,440. University College

is

versity, excluding duplications,

men and

2,466

women, a grand

is

3,006

total of

5,472.

One of the pleasant incidents connected with the visit of M. Maurice Maeterlinck to the University of Chicago on February 13 was the presentation to him by President Harry Pratt Judson of A Short History of Belgium written by Professor Leon Van der Essen, of the University of Louvain, and published by the University of Chicago Press. The book has a chapter on Belgium's heroic part in the war. The same volume is to be presented in a special binding to King Albert, of Belgium, to whom the book is dedicated by the author. The binding is in full black morocco with back stamped in red and gold, representing the Belgian colors, and with the coat-of-arms of the University of Chicago stamped on the side. In the making of the book it is interesting to know that the little volume was sewed by an Englishman, bound by a Belgian, and finished by a Czecho-Slovak.

of

The remarkable interest in the rebuildnew equipment of the University Louvain in Belgium made especially

ing and of

the appearance of Professor Maurice de Wulf, of the faculty of that

timely

institution, as a lecturer at the UniverProfessor de Wulf lecsity of Chicago. tured in the Classics Building, February

on "The Social Philosophy of the Thirteenth Century: The Individual and the Collective Group." 5,

Associate Professor David D. Luckenof the Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures at the University of Chicago, who is expected to join the expedition of the Oriental Institute of the University now being conducted by Director bill,

James Henry Breasted, was delayed in Paris by the strikes in Italy but left for Trieste on January 26, whence he sailed for

Alexandria.

The date

set

for

the

party to leave Egypt for the TigroEuphrates Valley was February 10. Dr. Luckenbill, who received his Doctor's degree from the University of

PAST AXD Fl'TCRE

EVEXTS: Chicago

in

1907,

has been conm

since that time with the

work

1

in Semitics.

A graduate of the University of Chicago, Dr. Burton E. Livingston, who received his Doctor's degree from that institution in 1901, has been elected permanent secretary of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Livingston will retain his professorship of plant physiology at Johns Hopkins University, his office as secretary of the Association being at the Smithsonian Washington, D.C. Professor Livingston has been a soil in the United States Bureau of expert Soils and a member of the department Institution,

research in the Carnegie and is the inventor of scieninstruments for measuring evaporation and for automatic control of soil

of

botanical

Institution, tific

moisture.

A William

Vaughn

Moody lecture on was given in the

"Japanese Poetry" William Rainey Harper Memorial Library at the University of Chicago on February 16. The lecturer was Mr. Yone Noguchi, a Japanese poet who is professor of English literature in Keio University, Japan.

At the meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science held in St. Louis during the holiday week, the following University of Chicago doctors were among the officers of the various sections or of affiliated scientific societies: Section A (Mathematics and Astronomy),

George D. Birkhoff,

'07,

Harvard,

retir-

ing vice-president, F. R. Moulton and G. A. Bliss, University of Chicago, secretaries for one and four years respectively: Section B (Physics), Gordon F. Hull. '97, retiring vice-president; Section C (Chemistry), R. F. Bacon, '04, director of Mellon Institute, member of general executive Section E (Geology and committee; Geography), Rollin T. Chamberlin, '07,

Chicago secretary for one year, and \Y. \Y. Atwood, '03, Harvard, for five years; Section

F

secretary

('Zoology), V. E. Shelford, '07, for four years; Section

(Botany), William Crocker, 01 the general

member

G

Chicago, committee;

'06,

American Mathematical Society, Gilbert

63

A. Bliss. '00, retiring chairman of the Chicago section; Mathematical Association of America. H. E. Slaught, '98, retiring president; American Society of

C. M. Child, Univeristy of Chicago, president, \V. C. Allee, '12, Lake Forest College, secretary; Entomological Society of America, Charles \ Zoologists,

Shull, '15, section.

chairman of the Physiological

Also papers were read at the meeti follows: G.

by Chicago doctors as Birkhoff,

'07,

retiring

I>.

vice-presidential

address of Section A; G. A. Miss '00, retiring chairman address; H. E. Slaught, '98, address of meeting of the Missouri section of the Mathematical Association of America; Louis Ingold, '07, on a "Treatment of Fourier- Series"; Gordon F. Hull, '07, retiring vice-presidential address of Section B; Irwin Roman. A.M., '16, on "Defects in Centered Quodric Lenses"; A. C. Lunn, '04, on "Influence of Blowing Pressure on Pitch of Pipe Organ"; T. E. Doubt, '04, on "Charcoal

Absorptions and Cyclic Change"; C. 11. Gordon, '95, "Geology of the ave Areas of East Tennessee"; S. S. Visher, 14. (

"Geology

of the Sullivan

Countv

(In-

diana) Oil Field"; Stuart Welle r, Chicago, "The Chester Series in Illinois"; R. T. Chamberlin, '07, "Some Glacier Studies in Alaska"; Reinhardt Thiessen, '07, "Correlation of Coal Fields by Means of Their Spore-Exines"; '03,

"Educational

W. W. Atwood,

Advantages

the

of

Regional Treatment of Geography"; V. E. Shelford, 07. "Illinois Natural History Survey"; Charles Zeleny, '04, "The Mutational Series in Dropsiphila ": VY. C.

"Animal Aggregations"; C. J. Chamberlain, '97, "The Living Cycads and the Phylogeny of Seed Plants"; VY. J. G. Land, '04, "A Suspensor in Angiopteris"; C. A. Shull, '15, "Absorptions of Moisture by Gelatin in a SatuAllee. '12.

rated Atmosphere"; "Changes in \ tations of Western Kentucky"; "The Formation of a New Island in the •

River"; Helen T. Wooley, "Organization of Course of Study in

Mississippi '00.

the Elementary School"; Clara Schmitt, '14, "Reasons for Retardations in Arithmetic"; J. E. Hosic, 1'h.M., '02, "Some Results of an Empirical Study of School

Reading Hooks."

ATTENDANCE IN AUTUMN QUARTER,

1919

JOHN CRERAR

The

University Record APRIL

Volume VI

Numbers

ig20

THE POLITICAL PROGRESS OF THE ENGLISH WORKINGMAN 1

By CONYERS

READ

Professor of History, University of Chicago

In common English parlance the term workingman has for some time been monopolized by the manual industrial worker. All others who will not be classified as gentlemen of leisure have had to find some other designation for their energies. They may be ministers or servants, assistants or laborers, but unless they drive a machine or handle a tool

they are not workingmen. How the industrial worker secured

title to this simple and honorable appellation is a question which we can safely leave to the philologists. We are more concerned with the fellow which it denotes. He has an-

swered in his time to many names. Historically speaking he is the oldest kind of fellow on earth; or at least he is the kind of which we have the oldest record.

He

chipped the oldest stone implement in our mu-

seums, forged the oldest blade, molded the oldest pot. And the Lord alone knows how far behind these chance survivals of his handicraft his

To tell the whole story of his progress would involve history ascends. telling the whole story of civilization, and nothing of that sort can be attempted here. Of his political progress the recorded tale is far briefer. It carries us, in

England at any

Ages, and most of

it falls

rate,

no farther back than the Middle

well within the

compass

of the last

hundred

years.

The medieval prototype craftsman. 1

He was

is

modern

industrial worker

was the

now a townsman, though he

certainly

of the

then as he

Delivered on the occasion of the One Hundred and Fifteenth Convocation of

the University held in

Leon Mandel Assembly 65

Hall,

March

16, 1920.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

66

came from the country

in the first place

smell of the earth about him.

was

and he long preserved a

healthy-

with the government of his town that he made his debut into politics. At first he was a more or less accidental feature in an urban community mainly devoted to trade, a hewer of

It

wood and a drawer

own

in connection

of water for the

merchants who

Later as he grew in numbers he learned how to organize his strength and was able to contend with his masters for a share in the town government. In the long run he rather more than won his way, and long before the end of the Middle Ages ran the town in their

interests.

he had become in the great majority of English towns the dominating element in municipal politics. It is unfortunate that we know so little about this part of his history because it is clear from the results he achieved that he revealed early a capacity for politics of no mean dimensions. This much at least is certain that the original basis of his organization was industrial and that The Enghis political effort was directed through industrial channels. lish craft guild like the

political purposes,

but

modern English trade union was not designed

like the trade

union

also, it

could be

made

for

to serve.

In its early days the English craft guild furnished an excellent example of democracy in industry. It aimed to include everyone within the town who followed the same craft. Practically the only qualification If apfor membership which it required was that of good workmanship. prentices and journeymen were not admitted to the full privileges of the

was merely because they were regarded as not having completed Not every one of them eventually attained Not every Freshman for that matter gets to the mastery of the craft. But the assumption was that the apprentice would in time his degree. become a journeyman, and the journeyman in time a master. After all the only thing which really counted for much in medieval industry was handicraft skill. Capital was hardly necessary. The tools of the trade were few and cheap, power a matter of vigorous arms and legs, the shop a workman's bench in the front parlor and a sign above the street door. Given the technique, the equipment was easily found. And once an artisan was admitted to the guild the guild saw to it that he got his fair share of the local business. Equality of opportunity was one of the fundamental principles of its organization, and in the days when the market was limited by the town walls, when outside competition was rigorously excluded, when fashion was not the inconstant lady which she has since become, and when town populations just about held their own against plague, pestilence, and famine, equality of opportunity was not so hard guild

it

their technical education.

POLITICAL PROGRESS OF THE ENGLISH WORKINGMAN

67

The consequence was that the members of the craft stood upon almost an equal footing. Making allowances for individual variations in manual dexterity they all did much the same thing in much the same way. They purchased their raw material in the town market, manipulated it with the assistance of a few apprentices and journeymen in their little workshops, and sold the product over their counters. They were at once buyers and salesmen, shopkeepers and artisans, employers and workmen, owners and operatives. Since the prices at which they bought and the prices at which they sold, the wages they paid, the hours they worked, and even the quantity and the quality of their finished products were all strictly regulated by guild ordinance, there was little play for competition and small chance for any craftsman to forge far ahead of to manage.

likely the

system discouraged individual enterprise, and probably came as near to achieving a really democratic regime in industry as any system has ever come. When such organizations began to interest themselves in local politics it was usually with a view to winning the municipal franchise for their own members. When they succeeded, and they generally did succeed, the master craftsman became the controlling element in the town government. No doubt he frequently abused his power in that narrow class in politics. But spirit which has too often characterized the workingman

his fellows.

but

it

made

Very

for equality

very abuse of it proves how substantial his power was. Indeed it be doubted whether he has ever since played so important a part When it in local government as he played in the early Middle Ages. is recalled that a large proportion of the members of the medieval his

may

House

of

Commons were

even be asserted that

delegates from the English towns it may was not inconsiderable in national

his influence

affairs.

Had England stood still where she was in the early Middle Ages, had the English towns preserved their splendid isolation, had roads not been built and commerce developed, had America and the Cape route to the Far East never been discovered, had the Renaissance failed to awaken men's minds and arouse their temporal ambitions, then the medieval craft guild might have survived unchanged to our own day, and many of the evils incidental to what we call industrial progress might have been

But England moved before these powerful impulses along with and the medieval craft guild moved with her. We need not call it progress, but we must certainly call it change. So far as the craftsman was concerned what affected him most were the avoided. all

the rest of the Western world

increased facilities for trade.

It

enlarged his opportunities, opened to

68

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

him a market for his commodities far beyond the limits of his town walls. This was a market which he could not control as he had controlled the town market, but one in which he was eager to compete. For such comrather a hindrance than a help. petition he found the guild organization It hampered his action, restricted the free play of his individual enter-

and business acumen, limited his rate of progress to the pace of the slowest and stupidest of his confreres. Originally a fortress, it ultimately became a prison. And the consequence was that guild practices prise

had to be modified and guild restrictions ignored. For one thing the increasing complexities of the larger trade necessiIt tated the distribution of the different parts of a business operation.

was no longer possible for the same craftsman to be at once a buyer, a manufacturer, and a merchant. Some, the more alert, became entrepreneurs, others, the less alert, remained at the bench to produce what another man would sell. The latter in fact became subservient to the In such wise from the democratic bosom of the craft guild differformer. ences and distinctions were born. While some of the abler masters ascended to the position of trading employers, others descended to a position hardly to be distinguished from that of wage-earners. Furthermore, in proportion as the employer's interest in trade devel-

oped his interest in production as a guild monopoly diminished. He ceased to care much what particular group of craftsmen made his wares so long as they were made cheaply. Presently he discovered that there were workers outside the guild ranks altogether, country workers in fact, who could produce more cheaply. He began to draw upon them for his mer-

And so he was instrumental in building up outside the town walls a competing source of supply. The guilds fought hard to retain their monopoly but in the long run had to confess defeat. Indeed many chandise.

members and many of their apprentices and journeymen went over to the enemy and moved to the country in order to take advantage of the freer conditions there. And the town authorities, alarmed at this wholesale exodus, took steps to prevent it by conniving at the breach of those very guild regulations which in an earlier time they had been at such pains to enforce. The outcome was that in the towns as in the country districts a large industrial class developed who were not only not guildsmen but who ignored the guild law. It is of their poorer

true that the guilds survived.

But by the end

Some

of

them indeed survive

to

the

the seventeenth century English industry had in large measure escaped their confines and they had ceased to have more than a social significance.

present day.

of

POLITICAL PROGRESS OF THE ENGLISH WORKING.MAX

Time does not craft guilds, trial

serve to trace

all

69

the steps in the transformation of the

but long before the factory had displaced the older indusmany of the characteristics of our modern industrial

arrangements

The craft guild had become an association permanent wage-earning class had emerged, and the old solidarity of medieval industry had made way for conflicts over wages, hours, and conditions of work which differed only in degree from those of system had developed.

of employers, a

our

own day. From the point

of view of the workingman in politics the significance of all these changes lies in the fact that his political influence in the Mid-

Ages has been exerted through the medium of his craft guild. It was as a guildsman that he had come to dominate the town government and through the town government had been able to make his will felt in the deliberations of the national House of Commons. Exclusion from dle

the guild meant, therefore, exclusion from any further share either in local or in national politics. The political power which the earlv guildsmen

had won

for the

whole body of industrial workers became the monopoly

group which came to monopolize the craft organization. Town governments were converted into narrow class oligarchies and the voice of the towns in parliament became the voice of the merchant

of the small

employers.

The average

He

industrial worker

was reduced

to a political

every legitimate means of political expression. The only kind of political action left to him was rebellion. We should expect to discover that when conditions got too bad he did rebel; yet it would nonentity.

lost

be hard to point to any considerable uprising in the whole history of England before the Industrial Revolution which drew its strength from industrial discontent.

There were now and then

local strikes in particular

trades, there were apprentice riots against foreign

workmen and

there

were probably industrial elements present in such agrarian disturbances as the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 and the anti-inclosure tumults of the sixteenth century, but broadly speaking the English workingman of those times seems to have accepted his fate without violent remonstrance.

During the civil wars of the seventeenth century, when much which was hidden in normal times was made manifest, he did for a moment manage to voice his discontent. Then we hear the downtrodden London weavers expounding the social compact to their betters and the London iron founders invoking the "laws of God, of Nature, and of Nations" in support of their just rights.

Then

the Levellers, led

apprentice, denounced alike the king and the

program

of democratic reform

by a quondam London

Commons and

presented a

which would have raised the industrial

/

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

7o

worker at once to political equality with his task masters. But it all served to no purpose, at least to no immediate purpose so far as the seventeenthcentury workingman was concerned.

Two

centuries later radical labor

from the pamphlets of the Levellers, agitators were to draw inspiration and Chartists were to borrow some of their formulas. Immediately the democratic panaceas of the civil-war period left the industrial worker the prey to his masters, a supernumerary in the it found him



where

body

politic.

After

all, if

his rights.

It

he did not lack the

spirit,

he lacked the strength to assert

must not be forgotten that he constituted a small minority

of the population of seventeenth-century or

even of eighteenth-century

Notwithstanding remarkable industrial development under the Tudors, the Stuarts, and the early Hanoverians, England was still, at England.

the beginning of the last century, unmistakably an agricultural comThe average Englishman was still a tiller of the soil and though

munity.

were far more numerous than they had been they were few in numbers, and that few scattered and unorganized. The growth of country industry was in itself a disintegrating force, for it involved the destruction of that compact, urban solidarity which had been industrial workers relatively

one of the chief characteristics of medieval industry and one of political assets.

It

is

true that the

workingman

its chief

after his exclusion

from

the guild formed associations for his runners of the modern trade union.

own protection which were the foreHad these succeeded in combining

their forces as they did in

in the Gesellen-verbande or in

Germany

France

they might perhaps have asserted themselves to some As it was they were scarcely strong enough to hold their own in effect. the face of guild opposition and could rarely accomplish so much as a in the confreries

Of political action they never dreamed. then we consider as a whole the political history of the workingfrom the days when he first began to organize into craft guilds down

successful local strike. If

man

to the days of the first factories last state of that

man was

we

are forced to the conclusion that the

worse than the

first,

that he did not progress,

he went backward, that his political fortunes did not improve, they detePossibly this was inevitable. We may if we like regard it as backward preliminary to the long leap forward. Anyway the fact is undeniable. We need not attempt to assign the blame, though it must appear that by and large the man who became the exploiting employer emerged from the same class as the man who became the downriorated.

the run

trodden wage-earner.

The

earlier course of

English industrial history

on the whole supports the contention that the workingman

is

no more

POLITICAL PROGRESS OF THE ENGLISH WORKINGMAN

immune from son of Adam.

the temptations of industrial prosperity than

71

any other

About the middle of the eighteenth century there began in England that remarkable change in industrial technique which produced what we usually call the Industrial Revolution. Its general characteristics are

From

sufficiently familiar.

the point of view of the

workingman per-

haps its most significant feature was the substitution of steam power for muscle power as the motive force in industry; for it was that substitution

which made possible the introduction of labor-saving machinery and changed the whole relation of the worker to his work. For one thing it tended to reduce the demand for his labor. One man with a machine could do what ten men had done before. For another it opened the door

Women and even children could be sources of labor supply. new processes to a degree never before dreamed of. To a considerable extent this increased labor supply was absorbed by the enor-

to

new

utilized in the

mous expansion of industry occasioned by the Napoleonic Wars on the Continent. But even so there were more workers than there was work. This gave the employer the whip hand in the situation. He was able low wages and so to reduce the earning capacity Indeed, thanks to the public provision for the relief of the poor, he went even farther than that. After the so-called Speenhamland Act of 1785 the English local to exact long hours for

of the

workingman

to the level of a bare sustenance.

authorities practically guaranteed a certain workingman, based upon the size of his family

he did not receive this

up out

of public funds.

ation to

pay

their

the deficit to the

minimum income and the price

to the

of corn.

If

minimum from his labors the balance was made The employers often took advantage of this situ-

workers something

community

less

at large.

than a living wage and charged So extensive was this practice

it was estimated early in the nineteenth century that one-seventh of the population were in receipt of poor relief. This meant that the standard of living of the industrial worker was reduced to the lowest point

that

compatible with keeping body and soul together.

He was

indeed hide-

ously overworked, underfed, underclothed, and undersheltered. At the same time improper labor in the factory and in the mine was stunting The the growth of his children and weakening the fecundity of his wife.

very circumstances which made his position intolerable robbed him of combat them.

his strength to

From another point of view also the introduction of new machinery placed the workingman more completely than ever at the mercy of his employer. Under the old system the important factor in industry had

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

72

The tools of trade had been simple and cheap, skill. not inaccessible to the thrifty worker. Under the new system they were not only elaborate and expensive but they could not be run without the been handicraft

No workingman application of power which was more expensive still. could dream of furnishing himself with such equipment, nor could he on hand dream of competing against it with his old equipment. work at another man's machine or he might as well not work at all. Of course if he did not work the machine could not run. But that alternative was not in fact open to him. He had no accumulated resources upon which to subsist without working. The idleness of the the other

He had

to

machine might mean financial distress for the employer. meant nothing less than starvation.

For the worker

it

Yet from still another point of view the Industrial Revolution contributed mightily to the strength of the workingman and in the long run provided the means of his salvation. In the first place it greatly increased numbers.

his

machinery was

If

the initial effect of the introduction of labor-saving number of available jobs, its ultimate effect

to reduce the

by diminishing the costs of production was so greatly to increase the demand for manufactured commodities that English industrial activity expanded at a truly phenomenal rate. Probably the demand for industrial workers lagged behind the supply. Certainly the workingman got little of the profits from this enormous increase of business. But in any case the rapid development of industry drew to the great industrial centers a steady stream of immigrants which had the effect, in the course of of the century, of converting smiling

country England into the greatest At the beginning of the eighteenth century the industrial workers constituted a small and scattered minority of England's population. At the beginning of the twentieth century they constituted a large and a well-concentrated majority. industrial

community on

earth.

Probably the Industrial Revolution contributed as much to the strength of the

workingman by concentrating

his

numbers as

it

did

by

There was a great deal more to it than the introducincreasing them. tion of the factory system, but certainly the development of the factory was one of its conspicuous features. The old industry had been in all

With a few interesting excepworkingman 's home had been his workshop whether he worked for himself or for someone else. This arrangement had had its disadvantages even in the days when machines were driven by hand or foot its

various changes a domestic industry.

tions the

power.

way

in

The introduction of steam power made it impossible, for the only which steam power could be used economically was by employing

POLITICAL PROGRESS OF THE EXGLISII WORKINGMAN

7.3

one steam engine to drive a number of machines. That meant that machinery instead of being scattered over the countryside in peasants' cottages had to be arranged with reference to one

common

drive-shaft,

Of necessity the concentration of So we got the factory and around the the industrial workers followed. It was an ugly place, a dirty place, and an factory the factory town. under one

in fact concentrated

extremely unhealthy place. loss of clean

country

air, of

roof.

To green

it meant the and hedgerows, of primroses on midsummer skies, and all these were

the country immigrant fields

spring roadsides and skylarks in grievous losses indeed. But it offered something pretty precious in exchange. It offered, in fact, human society. For the country life, not-

charms, was a lonely and an isolated life, while the grime and misery, was teeming with social opportunity. The city brought men together who had never been together before. It provided contact between mind and mind. It made good schools poswithstanding city

life,

sible;

it

all its

for all its

made cheap newspapers

possible;

it

on front doorsteps possible. Most important and political organization possible. And the itself,

harsh though

it

accustomed to work by

They discovered

made evening conferences of all, it made industrial

discipline of the factory Men long was, contributed to the same end. themselves learned perforce how to work together.

the value

and the strength

of co-operative effort.

They

Revodeveloped esprit de corps. From this point of view the Industrial lution was a great constructive force both in society and in politics. By drawing great numbers of men together it created out of countless scattered individuals

by the proximity united above

compact communities, united by

of

their

all in their

their work, united

united in their scanty pleasures, miseries. Perhaps these results could

living,

common

have been achieved by other less painful methods. But it is doubtful whether they could have been achieved anything like so rapidly. On that account it may well be questioned whether the Industrial Revolution did the workingman as much harm as it did him good, or to state the matter more broadly, whether these seething cauldrons of social corindustrial centers have ruption and social energy which we call great been worth all that they not, in the general reckoning of human progress,

have

cost.

This

much

the Industrial Revolution assuredly did for the English

defined in unmistakable terms his grievances and it workingman: were the familiar organized his strength to redress them. The grievances ones— long hours and short wages. The organization at first naturally followed the lines laid down by the miserable wage-earners under the old it

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

74

regime

—combinations

organization because,

of

But progress was slow in these feeble trade unions appealed to the

workers by trades.

when

when they They did they provoked the enactment of a new and more

to redress their grievances they spoke to deaf ears, resorted to the alternative of the strike they broke the law.

government

worse than break the law; In 1799 the employers were able to secure the passage stringent law. of an act in Parliament forbidding the workingman to combine for higher

wages or shorter hours, forbidding him to attend any meeting designed for those purposes, forbidding him even to converse about such matters with his fellows. And that law remained on the statute books for twenty-five

During that period though

years.

it

did not altogether destroy the trade

prevented their use as an instrument for the redress of industrial grievances. Indirectly it had a great deal to do with forcing unions

it

effectually

the

workingman to him that so long as

interest himself in politics, because

it

made

clear to

power remained a monopoly of the employthe law would be ranged upon the side of his

political

ing class the whole force of exploiters. It

may seem surprising that up

of the general progress of political

to this time

no mention has been made

reform in England.

That there was

progress is undoubted, progress of the greatest importance to the workingman as well as to every other Englishman. But that the workingman it or played any very conscious part in it is more In the great seventeenth-century struggle between the crown and Parliament he was at most a helpless spectator with small pros-

as such contributed to

than doubtful.

pect of immediate gain whichever side won. The Revolution of 1688 was accomplished without reference to him and, except in so far as his The rise religious life was concerned, without direct relation to him. of the cabinet in the eighteenth century took place in the clouds above his head. All these momentous changes were indispensable preliminaries to the democratization of the English

government in the nineteenth

They formed

part of the precious political inheritance of the English workingman, but they came in the days before he entered the century.

political scene.

There was, however, another movement for political reform in England which developed contemporaneously with the Industrial Revolution

which the workingman did play a part. This movement received its impulse in part from America and in part from the writings of the French in

political philosophers.

selves,

was not at

It

proceeded from the governing classes them-

all radical in its

purposes, and

it

approached the vener-

POLITICAL PROGRESS OF THE ENGLISH WORKINGMAN

75

able edifice of the English constitution with a reverence akin to idolatry. But it did admit the possibility of improvement and even advocated moderate changes in the direction of enlarging the representative character House of Commons.

of the

With the outbreak of the French Revolution this reforming spirit was quickened and to some extent it was changed. It became rather more doctrinaire in character and lost something of its respect for preBut except in a few instances it never drifted far from scriptive right. its

ancient moorings. During the early days of the Revolution

it

expressed

organization of reform societies designed to agitate for such moderate changes in the English constitution as would bring it into itself

in

the

closer accord with the principles enunciated in the

American Declaraand the French Bill of Rights. Most of these societies were middle- and upper-class affairs recruited from among men who were already voters. But there was one of another order. Its founder was Thomas Hardy, a master-shoemaker who kept a shop in Piccadilly. Hardy's first notion was to form a society of the unrepresented masses. Later he enlarged his plan so as to exclude no one who was not physically or morally unfit. But by fixing the membership fees at a penny a week he left the door open for the workingmen, and workingmen came in in This so-called London Corresponding Society was not large numbers. the only one of its kind. There was another founded in Sheffield in 1 791 by a few mechanics, which numbered at one time 2,400 members. And there were at least twenty or thirty others. Most of what is known about tion of Independence

these popular organizations has been gathered from the testimony of their But it is clear enough that they set themselves resolutely against violent methods. Though they advocated an extension of the

enemies.

franchise to the working classes and a redistribution of parliamentary accordance with the distribution of population, they proposed

districts in

no more than could be secured by peaceful and constitutional courses. The only revolution which they desired was, in Wellington's famous phrase, "revolution by due process of law." From the point of view of the political progress of the

workingman

the interesting thing about these popular societies is that they represent practically the first organized attempt by the modern workingman to How widespread secure a place for himself in the English body politic. the

movement was

it is difficult

to say.

Hardy

at one time estimated

the total membership of the London Corresponding Society at 20,000, but it is doubtful if it ever numbered half that many. Of the other popular societies scattered

throughout England not even the wildest guess

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

76 at their

numbers

is

possible.

This much, however,

may

be said on the

authority of Francis Place, who probably knew more about the matter than anyone else, "that vast numbers of the thinking part of the working people joined the London Corresponding Society as they did other

reforming Societies in various parts of England." There is very little evidence to show any connection between the

economic grievances of industrial workers and their political activity at this time, and none at all to connect their political clubs with their

No

doubt they entertained hopes that political reform Who does not? But the impulses which directly provoked their interest in these matters appear to have been in the main the same as those which prompted their superiors. There is trade unions.

would improve

their lot.

no appreciable difference between the program of a democratic club like the London Corresponding Society and that of an aristocratic club like Both alike were stirred less by considerations the Friends of the People. of necessity or of

expediency than by principles of abstract

justice.

Both

indorsed with equal enthusiasm the French Rights of Man. Both for the time forsook their stations in the social and economic order and stood together on the broad generous platform of Liberty, Equality, and FraterIt is to the great glory of them both that this was so, and one of

nity.

the most hopeful signs of the times.

Unfortunately, however, this reform movement was destined to a At first the French Revolution had been acvery short life. claimed with enthusiasm in England. Many Englishmen regarded it as an attempt on the part of the French people to remodel their abso-

government upon the English pattern. And the course of affairs France up to June of 1791 on the whole justified that view of the matter. After that the increasing radicalism of the French movement alien-

lute in

ated English sympathy. And in something like the way in which English sentiment toward Russia during the late war changed from enthusiastic indorsement of the overthrow of Czardom to universal condemnation of the Bolshevik regime, so it changed in the 1790's toward France as the program of Mirabeau and Lafayette gave place to the program of Danton and Robespierre. Already in 1790 Edmund Burke had thundered forth his famous defense of prescriptive right against the untested innovations from across the channel, and when war broke out against France in 1793 the great mass of English people, irrespective of class, followed Burke's lead. Political reform became at once associated in the popular mind

with P'rench propaganda and received in consequence short shrift. The government began a systematic persecution of the reform clubs; but

POLITICAL PROGRESS OF THE ENGLISH WORKINGMAN

77

though government agents were active, they were no more active than One has only to recall the raging mobs which destroyed

popular fury.

Priestly's laboratory in

Norwich

to appreciate

Birmingham and

laid siege to Dr. Parr's library at

how completely

the government's policy reflected the sentiments of the vulgar multitude. The cause of parliamentary reform was in fact put hors dc combat for a whole generation to come. Of

some were let off with a warning, many were tried for treatwo were executed, a few sent to drag out the weary residue of their days at Botany Bay. By and large the working-class leaders suffered most severely. Hardy himself escaped the law, but he was not able to elude the mob. They attacked his house, broke his windows, and literally frightened his wife to death. His business was ruined and he spent the declining years of his life in abject poverty. As for the workingmen's reform clubs they all came to an inglorious end during the last As the initial effort of the English workingfive years of the century. man in modern politics they deserve more attention than they have received, but so far as any practical results were concerned they accomthe reformers

son, one or

plished nothing. It is easy to abuse the governing classes for their intolerance, during these times, toward the feeble efforts of the workingman after better

things political and industrial, but it must be remembered that they were times of war, that England was fighting for her very life against the greatest military genius that the world has perhaps ever seen, and that

any movement calculated

to distract her efforts

savored strongly of disloyalty

if

from that grim business

not of treason.

Perhaps the employ-

ing classes exploited this war spirit for their own purposes, but not make the mistake of assuming that they called it forth.

we should We know

by experience how tense and intolerant the popular mind becomes under the strain of war and how apt it is to call bad names and to do cruel We have had our modern equivalents for the opprobrious things. terms which were hurled at our democratic forefathers who dared to speak of liberty in the heat of the fight. For that reason we can perhaps understand and to some extent even sympathize with those repressive measures which the English government in Napoleon's day necessary to take. years of the nineteenth century were Aery significant years in the political progress of the workingman not so much for what he actually gained in political power he gained indeed almost nothing

thought

The

it

first fifty



—but for what he learned about So

manv

it.

They educated him

factors contributed to his education that

if

I

for citizenship.

were to consider

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

78

them

all,

I should

or even hint at

have

them all,

to trace the

I should be led too far afield.

development

of popular education

Certainly

and the

rise

But in the time at command I shall of the cheap newspaper press. have to neglect these broader cultural aspects of the question and confine myself to matters of more immediate significance.

my

The economic factor can certainly not be neglected. Probably it was the most potent of all forces which drove the modern workingman H was never much of a political thinker, and neither pointo politics. litical nor social theories appealed to him particularly strongly upon their abstract merits. He was merely a poor man trying to provide bread and butter for himself and his family in a hard world. When he was hungry and cold he was ready to support all kinds of plans for change. When he was not he was usually content to leave the mysteries of government to his betters. Consequently his progress in politics was spasmodic. It made fair headway in periods of industrial depression it came virtually But the stages of his to a standstill in periods of industrial prosperity. no means corresponded with the stages in the progpolitical progress by »

;

ress of political reform. By a strange perverseness, the times when the his greatest efforts to effect a change were, gener-

workingman put forth

which the least change was made. The ruling would not be coerced, and the arguments in favor of enfranchising the workingman lost force in proportion as he showed himself to be a violent and a turbulent fellow. During the Napoleonic Wars the English workingman was on the whole better off than he had been before them or than he was to be after in ally speaking, the times classes

them. Notwithstanding Napoleon's attempts to strangle the English shopkeeper English industry gained more than it lost by war conditions. Prices were high, the demand for commodities generally exceeded the supply, and though wages did not increase in proportion to prices there was plenty of work to be had. It cannot be said that the English work-

ingman was contented during not so great but that sive policy of the

it

this period,

but at least his discontent was

could be easily held in check by the stern, repres-

government.

there came a very decided change For one thing the crops were bad, for another the English factories anticipating an enormous demand from the Continent produced far more than impoverished Europe, eager as it was to buy, could absorb. English warehouses were in consequence glutted with goods.

With the ending of the wars in 1815

for the worse.

English factories shut down and the English workingman found himself out of a job just at the time when bad harvests and bad corn laws were

POLITICAL PROGRESS OF THE ENGUSH WORKINGS! AN conspiring together to

79

make

the cost of living higher than ever. Out of this condition of affairs was born active industrial discontent, which in the course of the next two or three years expressed itself in all sorts of

Much

violent forms. of

it

of

it

was mere hunger crying

the blind striking out of desperate

tion could be

no worse and might be

men convinced

for bread;

much

that their condi-

In general it lacked organithat account it submitted readily to the guidance of popular demagogues like Hunt the orator and Coblx 1 the journalist. Neither Hunt nor Cobbett were themselves of the induszation

and

it

lacked leadership.

better.

On

1

trial working class. Both of them were in fact country bred and both began their political careers as staunch supporters of the established order. Both also were converted to the cause of parliamentary reform

rather through contact with upper-class radicals than through more popular channels. They addressed their appeal not to the workingmen in particular but to the unrepresented classes in general,

and the

political

agitation which developed under their stimulus cannot be accurately designated a workingman's movement, though it recruited most of its

strength in the great industrial centers of the north. Of the two, Hunt was the more striking and more popular figure though Cobbett was the more influential. In their different ways they furnished the two channels through which ideas of parliamentary reform found their way from the studies of the theorists to the minds of the crowd, the channel of the public meeting and the channel of the cheap newspaper press. Their program was modest enough. It involved little more than a moderate

They were able to accomplish such spectacuperformances in its support as the assembly of 80,000 in St. Peter's Fields at Manchester. But they did not succeed even by such tremendous demonstrations in converting the governing classes. The official

extension of the franchise. lar

St. Peter's Fields was the Peterloo Massacre, and counter-check to public meetings and cheap newspapers was For these and for other reato prohibit the one and suppress the other. sons, among which improving business was not the least, the agitation

answer to the crowd in the

official

down

after 1820. Immediately it led nowhere, but it was not withvalue in the political progress of the workingman. It served much more effectually than the revolutionary societies to awaken his political

died

out

its

consciousness and

reform

among

it

gave him for

all

times to

come

his

cheap newspaper.

did serve indirectly to quicken an interest in political It is, however, probable that the the governing classes.

Perhaps also

it

peace and prosperity which followed 1820 were a great deal more effective in promoting reform than were the disturbances and distress of the years

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

80

which preceded.

Anyway, during the

1820's the cause of parliamen-

tary reform gained steadily in strength until it won for the program of the Whig opposition. Exactly what the to

do about

Sir Francis

it

was not made

The

a place in

There were radicals in the party

clear.

like

who favored

the complete enfranchisement of the leaders were not prepared to go that far. They were

Burdett

workingman.

itself

Whigs proposed

indeed rather noncommittal, but the

man in

the street got the impression

when they came into power they would amend matters. When the Whigs came into power in 1830 they brought forward a As bill to extend the franchise and to rearrange the electoral districts. a concession to the workingman this Great Reform Bill was a complete that

It gave him, in short, nothing, but it admitted at least the necessity for change and it made the way easier for further changes On these grounds he was led to support it. Of course he could later on.

disappointment.

do no more than exert pressure from the outside. he did exert. in

London

How much

it is

But some pressure

In Birmingham and Atwood and Place were able

impossible to say.

clever middle-class leaders like

to organize large political unions in support of the bill, and these unions though they were not workingmen's associations included a large working-

There was also a good deal of workingman striking and and workingman machine-smashing, though probably not much of this was consciously designed to coerce the reluctant king and the even more reluctant House of Lords. This much is clear, that the Great Reform Bill was emphatically not a concession to the demands of the workingman notwithstanding that he did exert some of his strength outside of

class element.

Parliament to

assist in its final passage.

"

shouting for the Bill, the whole Bill, and nothing but the Bill" the English workingman had persuaded himself that with the passage of the Bill all his woes would end. He soon discovered that

By long-concerted

all his efforts

had merely served to advance the

political fortunes of the

shopkeepers. His enthusiasm gave place to disillusionment, and this disillusionment was simply embittered when the first reformed Parlia-

ment met and proceeded to amend the old Poor Law in such a fashion as to rob him of the casual relief he had heretofore received from the state in hard times. No doubt there was much to be said for this measure, but to the poor man who had looked hopefully forward to redemption at the hands of the new Parliament it seemed like a piece of cold and calculated tyranny. On the whole he felt that he had lost rather than gained by intermeddling in middle-class politics. The immediate effect was to disgust him with parliamentary reform and to impel him strongly toward socialism.

POLITICAL PROGRESS OF THE ENGLISH WORKINGMAN

81

An undercurrent of socialism runs through the political course of the English workingman from the early 1820's onward. He has never tinned his faith to the nostrums of the Socialists with anything like the fervor 1

which the German workingman has, but he has been tempted to try them relief by political action seemed unusually desperate.

again and again, particularly at times when the hope of

It would take too long to trace the history of English socialism from simple communistic beginnings in the Middle Ages to the position which it had reached when Robert Owen began to preach its gospel in its

New

Lanark. Its rapid development in the 1820's was largely the product of industrial distress. The general position of the Socialists of that time was that the existing industrial evils were the inevitable result

means

of private ownership of the

of production.

merely concerned with pointing out that remedies.

The extremists The moderates

like

Thomas

Some

of

them were

Others were ready with Hodgkin frankly advocated

fact.

John Gray and William Thompson deprecated conflict, and argued strongly for a system based upon mutual aid and co-operation. The solution which Owen himself proposed was the establishment of small communities run upon a co-operative basis in which the inhabitants were to work together and to share the results class war.

like

common. Some of these men were merely closet philosophers, but some of them set out at once to win the workingman to their way of thinking. Owen, as it is well known, actually established model of their labor in

his theories and published a newspaper in expound them. Hodgkin lectured in workingmen's clubs. And there can be no doubt that even before the Great Reform Bill was

communities to demonstrate

London

to

passed their ideas were widespread among the working classes. The medium which served to best purpose in disseminating them was the trade union, from which the legal ban had been removed in 1824. During the two years following 1832 the trade unions not only grew

numbers but they also developed rapidly in organization. And they became strongly imbued with socialistic ideas, particularly of the Owenite variety. Unorganized workers organized, allied unions began rapidly in

to federate.

In the early spring of 1834 under Owen's

a Grand Consolidated Union of

all

own guidance

the trades was created in London.

still true to his pacifistic purposes, had no notion that this organiThere were others, howzation should be used to coerce the capitalists.

Owen,

William Benbow who thought differently and who saw in it an instrument by which they might violently overthrow the whole bad state of industrial society. This group preached the gospel of direct action

ever, like

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

82

and tried to draw the Grand Consolidated after was strong enough to prevent their success, though he never came anywhere near achieving his own purposes. His consolidated union had a short, a quarrelsome, and a thoroughly unpro-

and the general them. Owen's

ductive

strike,

influence

life.

But the

forces

which destroyed

it

were not so

much

the contentions

at headquarters as the general failure which attended the efforts of local There was an enormous trade unions to enforce their local demands.

amount of local striking in the years 1833 and 1834, provoked generally by the old grievances, but inspired often by hazy visions of a better industrial order. They were for the most part badly organized and badly led and notwithstanding the imposing aspect of their national federation they lacked any real unity of action or of purpose. Their widespread character frightened the employing classes and even frightened the government, but the measures which were taken against them were in excess All that was really needed was a little patience of the requirements. In the end starvation was in order that starvation might work its way. the force majeure which overcame them. As a step in the political progress of the

movement to

workingman

this trade-union

what it failed had any political

of the early 1830's deserves attention rather for

do than for what

it did.

Its political

program,

if it

program at all, was the overthrow of the existing industrial order. Its method of procedure, so far as there was any method in its madness, was the industrial strike.

In a rather ill-defined sort of

an early adventure of the English workingman calism.

And

its failure

to discredit that effect

way

way

it

represented

in revolutionary syndi-

served very effectually, in England at any rate, Immediately it had a disastrous

to the millennium.

upon the trade unions.

Many

were dissolved, and those which

survived suffered a large loss of membership. And it developed in them also a cautious and a canny attitude. Hereafter, for over a generation to

come they abandoned politics altogether, they turned their eyes resolutely away from the beatific visions of the socialists and addressed themselves to the grim business of wringing a decent living out of the world as

it

was.

But outside the narrow limits of the trade-union world hope was not yet dead, though it was chastened. The flower of that hope was the Chartist Movement. It is difficult to generalize about Chartism, so many elements went into the making of it, but the essential fact about it is that it was a workingman's movement, the first great movement to be engineered and controlled by workingmen in modern times. In its more orderly aspects

POLITICAL PROGRESS OF THE ENGLISH WORKINGMAN it

83

did not differ greatly from the modern English labor movement, though it was dealing with unfranchised workers and not with voters.

of course

were socialistic, though the socialism of its leaders Owenite not of the Marxian variety. But its immediate pur-

Its ultimate purposes

was

of the

poses were political. The Peoples Charter which embodied its program was in brief a demand that the workingman should enjoy an equal place in the body politic with every other class in the community, that he should

be able not only to vote but to sit in Parliament. The expectation of leaders was that once the workingman was able to exert his strength at the polls, the social revolution would easily and peaceably be brought

its

about by due process of law.

But they

directed their efforts toward win-

ning the vote.

The movement began with a

small group of Owenites in London who preached it. William Lovett, a cabinetmaker, and Henry Hetherington, a compositor, were the conspicuous members of the group. In 1829 they had organized a small society of still

kept the faith and

still

London workingmen for the propagation of Owenite ideas. During the agitation for the Reform Bill they stood aloof, and they took very little part in the trade-union movement which followed it. Their enthusiasm for the reorganization of society

minished and they were

by the

upon a co-operative

satisfied that the

basis remained undi-

change could only be effected

transfer of industrial control from the capitalists to the workers.

were, however, unalterably opposed to class war, not only because was inconsistent with the principle of co-operation, but also because

They it

they thought

it

unnecessary.

They had

sufficient faith in the validity

would win the support should perhaps classify Lovett and But seven years of successive disap-

of their ideas to believe that in the long run they of all classes

upon

his colleagues

their merits.

among

We

the Utopians.

pointments had taught them this much practical wisdom, that the best ideas in the world could not be realized without organized effort and a

From 1836 onward they began to concern with the proclamation of their purposes and much more with the devising of ways and means. They came to perceive that definite plan of procedure.

themselves

much

less

way to deliverance lay through the ballot box, and, though they always regarded parliamentary reform merely as a means to larger social ends, they were satisfied that once the working classes could exert So they their numerical strength at the polls the rest would be easy. undertook to prepare a program of political reform and to rally the workthe peaceful

ingmen Chartist

in

England at

Movement

large to the support of

of the late 1830's

it.

In such wise the

and the 1840's was born.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

84

It took its name, of course, from the Peoples Charter which Lovett drafted with Place's assistance and published in 1838. The contents of this famous document embodied very little that was new. Many of its

demands had been put forward by the Levellers



in the seventeenth

century. They were briefly six manhood suffrage, vote by ballot, abolition of property qualifications for membership in Parliament, equal electoral districts,

and annual parliaments.

These demands looked radical

but the best proof that they did not imply revolution lies in the fact that every one of them except the last has since been realized by the peaceful, constitutional methods which Lovett advocated.

enough

in 1838,

Indeed, in the Peoples Charter, Lovett pretty clearly defined the course

which parliamentary reform in England was subsequently to follow. In formulating their program Lovett and his coadjutors could draw upon the accumulated wisdom of at least two centuries of effort. Their

more difficult problem lay in organizing popular support behind it, for precedent there offered them no guide though it furnished many warnThe political unions of 1832 had accomplished much but their ings. strength had been recruited largely from the middle classes and their

had registered merely a middle-class triumph. Lovett's followers were determined that they would have no repetition of that performance. At the beginning anyway they were resolved to confine their organiza-

effort

tion to the

working

the trade unions

The

classes.

had already

trade unions offered an alternative, but

tried

and

failed

and were

in

no temper for

The

organization upon which Lovett and his friends finally hit was an association of workers, the objects of which, as he himself stated them, was "to draw into one bond of unity the intelligent and

a further

influential

effort.

to seek by every legal means in possession of equal political and social rights." rigidly restricted to genuine workingmen, though

working classes in town and country,

to place all classes of society

Its

membership was

a few honorary members, like Francis Place, were admitted from the middle class. It did not discriminate between industrial and agricultural workers and

it

trade unions.

clearly rested

Most

of its

upon quite a

different foundation

from the

subsequent strength was, however, drawn

from the trades.

The

organization began with the foundation of a Workingman's AssoLondon in 1836 which set about at once to encourage the

ciation in

formation of similar associations in the country at large. It issued pamphlets, it published a newspaper,in the spring of 1837 it began to send forth missionaries. cess.

And everywhere

its

propaganda met with amazing suc-

Before the end of 1837 over a hundred workingmen's associations

POLITICAL PROGRESS OF THE ENGLISH WORKINGMAN

85

modeled after its pattern and supporting its program had sprung into being. But its influence was not confined to orderly little debating societies.

In the north

its

ideas took hold like wildfire not so

much because

was seething once more The year 1836 marked the beginning of

of their reasonable appeal as because the north

with industrial discontent.

another industrial depression in the great northern manufacturing centers which grew more serious in 1837 and 1838. It was attended by its usual accompaniments, decreasing wages and increasing unemployment. industrial workers began to grow hungry from lack of food and cold

The

from lack

of firewood.

They became

desperate, violent, ready to grasp

Whatever Chartism was to thoughtful men like Lovett and Hetherington, in the north it was a cry of distress, the shout of men, women, and children drowning in deep waters. Carlyle called it the bitter discontent grown fierce and wild. Stephens, one of its own leaders, declared that it was not a political question but a knifeand-fork question. There were in fact two distinct elements in the Chartist Movement almost from the first, there was the moderate element with a well-digested program, a definite organization, and a deliberate plan of action, and there was a vast disorganized incoherent element shouting for the Charter because for very misery they had to shout for something and careless of means so long as deliverance in some form came quickly. So far as Lovett and the moderates were able to direct its course Chartism remained true to its original program and its original plan of at anything which promised relief.

Its organization reached

perhaps its highest perfection in 1840 the local associations were grouped in county units and a cenIts constitutional tral executive committee was established in London.

action.

when

all

course of action was the circulation of petitions among its members and the presentation of these petitions to the House of Commons. All this

was as

it

should be and well within the law.

The

difficulty

was that

it

buttered no bread, and though Lovett and his moderates might be willing to repeat the process indefinitely the hungry men in the north lost They became a prey in consequence to hot-headed demapatience. like Fergus O'Connor who sneered at Lovett and his "moral " philosophers and preached the gospel of physical force. How far O'Connor himself favored an actual appeal to arms is difficult to determine.

gogues

He had

a

way

of denying

on Tuesday what he had affirmed on Monday.

at all events the effect of his teaching was, on the one hand, to drive the moderates out of the movement and on the other to encourage acts

But

of violence

which brought down upon Chartism the

full

force of the law.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

86

was the influence of men like O'Connor that provoked the Newport to organize a general strike, Rising in 1839 and accounted for the attempt Both of these attempts were better known as the Plug Plot, in 1842. The fact was that though the O'Connorites were ridiculous failures. It

good stump orators, as organizers and leaders of violent revolution they lacked every essential virtue. Yet O'Connor was the commanding figure He was not a workin the movement from 1842 until almost the end. ingman, he was not even an Englishman.

and

His qualifications were

his

capacity for selfadvertisement. As a type of workingman agitator he is not unfamiliar even in these enlightened times. The chief instrument of his control, omitrollicking

Irish

personality

his

exceptional

was his newspaper, the Northern Star, which he was by astute journalism to make the one single organ of the Chartist world. There is some reason to believe that he was not above promoting Anyway he was peragitation as a means of increasing its circulation. haps the single figure in the movement who managed to make Chartism ting his glib tongue,

able

pay handsomely. His breach with Lovett and the moderates had the effect of driving them toward middle-class radicalism and for a time in 1842 it looked as though there might be a coalition of the two elements in Joseph Sturge's Complete Suffrage Movement. But middle-class contempt for workingclass leaders and the refusal of Sturge and his associates to indorse the Charter as it stood prevented. Yet the attempt was of importance, for it indicated the weakening of class antagonism on both sides and foreshadowed the alliance of labor and liberalism which came later. In view of the fact that most of what the Chartists strove for has Yet fail since been achieved it is hard to reproach them with failure. they did, for the cause which they fought for had not the slightest measThe reasons ure of success until long after they had ceased to fight.

were manifold. The inevitable incapacity of their leadand the dissensions among them had a great deal to do with it. The opposition of the middle classes, supported by the whole power of the state, had a great deal to do with it also. Probably one of the most for their failure ers

important factors was the lack of correspondency between their program their real purpose. The strength of Chartism lay in its protest

and

against social and industrial evils which the famous six points scarcely touched. It was political in its form but social in its content. On that

account

its

development and

its

decline were really determined

by what

Its strength ebbed Carlyle called the condition-of-England question. and flowed with the flow and ebb of industrial prosperity. The forces

POLITICAL PROGRESS OF THE ENGLISH WORKINGMAN

87

which gave it birth were much more the desperate state of the north than It lanthey were the reasonable principles of Lovett and his friends. guished during the relatively prosperous years between 1842 and 1845; the temporary depression of 1847 combined with the general unrest which prevailed in Europe in 1S48 revived it for a season, but it petered

out in the 1850's for lack of food to feed upon. The arguments in favor of the Charter were just as valid in the fifties as they had been in the

was lacking, or at any rate was greatly weakened. Whether it was because the repeal of the Corn Laws had cheapened bread, or because factory legislation had corrected early forties but the driving force of misery

some

of the worst abuses of the system, or because in the general prosper-

was more work to be had and better wages to be earned, the workingman was enough better off in the 1850's to lose interest in political panaceas however much they promised. Things appeared to be coming his way in the natural course of events and with bread on the table and a fire on the hearth he could afford to bide his time. Notwithstanding all of which, he was a wiser man and a better man for his experience, and if not directly yet ultimately Chartism contributed It was his first great political effort largely to his political progress. of modern times and it taught him lessons in self-government and selfcontrol which he badly needed to learn and which were to stand him in good stead later. It revealed him also in rather less lurid colors to the governing classes and showed him to be neither so stupid nor so terrible And so, although it as their untutored imaginations had painted him. ity there

was and

essentially a class to prepare the

movement

way

helped to break

it

for that

down

class barriers

mutual respect upon which modern

democracy must be based. The collapse of Chartism drove the workingman once again away from parliamentary reform and into trade unionism. And his political main exerted through his activity during the next thirty years was in the trade-union organization.

Indeed the history of his

from the 1850's to the present day litical

is

by and

progress of the English trade unions.

political progress

large the history of the po-

This

is

not altogether

so nearly so that the development of trade unionism most important factor to be considered.

it is

is

so,

but

easily the

The trade unions revealed a truly remarkable growth during the two decades following 1850, a growth not only in numbers but also in the development of their organization. For one thing they became more

A few bitter experiences revealed to them the fact that the ordinary workingman, however honest and however popular he might

business-like.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

88

be, did not necessarily financial

make a good

administrative officer or a good itself, and its educational

This was a useful lesson in

manager.

value was far-reaching.

type of trade-union

Immediately

official

who was

it

resulted in the rise of a

new

selected for the purpose by reason who was paid a salary in order that

of his superior business capacity and he might devote his whole time to the task.

This meant that trade

unions got to be better led and better organized, that their funds were

more judiciously managed and their strength more wisely exerted. For another thing, the trade unions began to amalgamate. Local unions of the same trade drew together into national confederations, unions of allied trades combined.

The

great amalgamation of this sort under the leadership of William Allan. This example was followed by the carpenters under Robert Applegarth, and this in turn by others. By i860 a number of the more important

was that

first

of the engineering trades

trades were united in great national unions with headquarters in London and branches in every important industrial center in England. One effect of this national consolidation in the same trade was to enable the national unions of different trades more readily to co-operate. Their leaders in London came into almost daily contact one with the

other and a small group of them presently emerged as the guiding spirits Of these William Allan, of the whole organized English labor world. the engineer, Robert Applegarth, the carpenter, Daniel Guile, of the iron founders,

Edmund

of the shoemakers,

men

Coulson, of the bricklayers, and George Ogden,

were the conspicuous

figures.

They were

all close

and exceptional business capacity, all men of the world, not easily to be distinguished by their dress or their manners or their educational equipment from the rank and file of the friends, all

employers

of high character

who confronted them.

In themselves as well as in their

soli-

darity they contributed greatly to the strength of the trade-union cause. Workingmen as they were, and in absolute sympathy with their untu-

tored followers, they were yet able to meet and deal with business

and

politicians

of the

on

their

own ground and

in their

own

jargon.

workingman leader with a knotted bandana about

men

The days

his throat,

who

stood fumbling his cap before his betters, was past. These new leaders were in an admirable position to direct the strength of the workingman toward political reform and they might have done so

had not the memory

of Chartist failures created in the

minds

of their

constituents a strong aversion from any further intermeddling in such matters. This aversion was strongly reflected in the local trade unions. It

was not

in fact to

any marked degree overcome before the very end

of

POLITICAL PROGRESS OF THE ENGLISH WORKINGMA

V

89

the last century. The only kind of political activity which the local trades were disposed to countenance was the kind which sought to secure legislation favorable to their own union interests. They felt strong

enough to fight their own battles. All they wanted was a free field and no favor. And this attitude was generally speaking reflected in the Allan, Applegarth, and the rest were political conduct of their leaders.

more

interested in securing the passage of laws admitting the trade unions

to legal status and conceding their right to strike than they were in promoting the extension of the franchise or a fair arrangement of electoral

Indeed the local trades even looked askance at an increase of government control or of government regulation of industrial affairs. It was not until the 1880's that they were prepared to indorse bills for districts.

shortening the hours of labor or providing for unemployment. All such matters they felt could better be arranged by free barter, supported by the boycott

and the

strike.

In fact, both in his political and

in his social

creed the organized workingman of the 1870's was as ardent a supporter of the principles of laissez faire as was the stoutest Corn Leaguer in

Manchester.

The consequence was that organized labor as such played a very small part in the promotion of the parliamentary reform bills of 1867 and of 1884. We should expect to find the industrial workers in particular

very

much

interested in the agitation for the extension of the franmain purpose was to secure the vote for them.

chise in the 1860's since its

Yet

it

was not

until Gladstone's reform bill of 1866

that they took any concerted action, and then

it

had been defeated

proceeded from a non-

descript organization which sprang up in opposition to the amalgamated And it is not recorded that even this body accomplished any trades.

more than one

single demonstration at Chelsea.

No

doubt workingmen

They even broke windows have always been a sufficient num-

gathered in crowds and shouted for reform.

and tore up fence railings. But there ber of them available to stage performances of that sort for any cause. Almost every crowd that has ever gathered has been mainly a workingman's crowd, but it has not always by any means represented a workingman's movement, though it has sometimes been convenient to describe it

as such.

may as well be admitted that the real strength behind every reform passed in the nineteenth century was middle-class strength and the sentiments which formulated them middle-class sentiments. They did not come in response to the demands of the unfranchised workers but It

bill

in response to a reasonable conviction

on the part

of those

who

already

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

00

enjoyed political power. They mark important stages in the political progress of the workingman in that they gradually elevated him to a But the gift was position in which he could exercise political power. conferred from above, not exacted from below. And it registers rather the progress of the middle classes toward democracy than any real progress of the

workingman

in politics.

the passage of Disraeli's reform bill in 1867 the rank and file of the workingmen got the vote and the opportunity which they had long demanded, of exerting their strength at the polls. In the days of the

With

Levellers or of the Chartists this would have appeared a long stride toward the millennium. But the steps which the workingman of 1867

to

new opportunity were

feeble and halting to say the confined their efforts to urging the workers sure that their names got on the voting lists. The only attempt

took to realize his

Trade-union

least.

make

officials

at an organized labor party was the creation of a Labour Representation League in London in 1869, formed mainly for the return of workingmen to Parliament. But even that did not get under way until after the first election

under the new Reform

Bill,

and

until 1874 it did not succeed in

securing the return of a single workingman's candidate to Parliament. This meager result was partly due to the League's lack of resources, but it

was mainly due

From

fellows.

workingman to support his own he showed his preference for candidates of

to the failure of the

the very

first

His class feeling, which was strong enough in his indusOther organization, he did not carry over into political action. sentiments, far older sentiments, prevailed with him there deference for social position. trial



those above of his

own

him

in social station, old traditions of a ruling class, distrust capacity to sustain the political and particularly the social

We may say if we like that he had not mind formed under a feudal regime. At no more a democrat than those above him. No

responsibilities of public office.

yet thrown off the habits of

any rate he was, in 1868, labor party was formed in that year because no labor party could be formed. Labor itself would not suffer it. And the immediate effect of giving the workingman the vote was simply to increase the constituents of the two old parties. The workingman does not seem to have dis-

much between the two. The Conservatives won almost as much support from him in the three elections following 1867 as did the criminated

Liberals.

Yet

it is

increased

by

undoubted that

his influence in politics

his securing of the franchise.

at once into existence a labor vote did.

It

was very

Though no

strikingly

labor party

would have been more

came

effective

POLITICAL PROGRESS OF THE ENGLISH WORK IXC. MAX if it

91

had been better organized, but it was there, old party leaders realized it was there and began to adjust their program accordingly. They began also to listen with more deference to the demands of

that

trade-union

In 1868 an annual congress of

officials.

all

the trade unions

met thereafter regularly in London and regularly appointed a parliamentary committee to look after the interests of the trade unions in Parliament. Allan, Applegarth, and their group dominated this committee and through it they were able to exercise a great It does not appear that they made any deal of influence on legislation.

was

established,

and

it

systematic attempt to align the labor vote in support of their parliamentary program. Nevertheless a connection existed. There is, for

example, good reason to believe that the Liberals were defeated in the elections of 1874 because of Gladstone's refusal to repeal the law against strikes.

It

has been remarked more than once that trade unionism in Eng-

land thrives in prosperous times and declines in periods of industrial We may then ascribe the remarkable growth of trade unions depression.

between 1867 and 1875 in large part to the extraordinarily favorable In 1874 this business conditions which prevailed during those years. prosperity suddenly came to an end and was followed by a long period of hard times. The effect upon the workingman was as usual very dis-

Wages went down, hours went up, unemployment increased leaps and bounds. The trade unions, which were almost all of them mutual-benefit societies, were hard put to it to provide support for their tressing.

by

members. It was futile to organize strikes when employers were only In fact too glad of an excuse to close down their factories for a season. the trade unions were helpless to cope with a situation which was rapidly

idle

becoming desperate. The politicians were equally helpless. Liberal leaders were prepared to support a further extension of the franchise, but it was pretty clear that the franchise would not feed the hungry and clothe the naked.

But the

Yet the

Socialists had.

had nothing further to suggest. Once more they appeared upon the scene,

politicians

time they brought a quiver full of arguments borrowed from the Karl Marx himself. Their new gospel was not in essentials Like Owen they insisted that the so very different from their old one.

and

this

armory

of

recurrent evils of industrial society sprang from the defects of the indusLike Owen they denounced capitalistic control of trial organization. and demanded for the workingman the whole the means of

production produce of his labor. But

in place of

Owen's co-operative communities Most of them agreed with

they proposed to substitute national control.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

92

Lovett that the means of salvation lay through the ballot box and they intended to accomplish social revolution by organizing the full voting strength of the workingman in

its

support.

Their program demanded immediate political action and it ran counter to the accepted policy of the Amalgamated Trades. Nevertheless they found stout champions in the trade-union ranks, particularly in John Burns and Tom Mann. For something like five years these ardent young socialists contended in the Trade Union Congresses with the old champions of laissez faire trade-unionism. And in 1890, thanks partly to the great victory of Burns and Mann in the dock-workers' strike of

The effect of their success was far1889, they finally won the day. It involved the definite abandonment by the trade unions of reaching. their old policy of letting general politics alone and committed them to a program of social legislation for which they could hardly expect support from either of the existing parties. It was from this new unionism of the early 1890's that the English Labour Party was born in 1899. Its birthday marks the definite re-entry of the trade

union into the

than that.

It

field of

It marks even more on the part of the trade the workingman. For the English

general politics.

marks the beginning

of

an

effort

unions to dominate the politics of Labour Party as it was originally constituted limited its membership to trade unionists and to members of .a few relatively small affiliated organizations.

Naturally

vote, but

it

it

courted the support of the whole workingman

made no

It was place for unorganized labor in its councils. in fact a party run in the interests of labor by a trade-union committee. It first began to play an active part in politics in the election of 1905.

Before that time workingmen had been elected to Parliament.

a scattered few had

won

Indeed

seats in every election since 1874, but their suc-

cess represented the result of local efforts and they stood on no common platform, though they did attempt to follow a concerted plan of action after they took their seats. Usually they went by the name of the Liberal-

Labour group.

In the election of 1906 the

new

labor party secured the

return of twenty-nine members. These, combined with the LiberalLabour group, gave the workingman a fighting strength of some fifty

House of Commons. In the election of 19 10 they lost a few seats, but by reason of the more evenly balanced strength of the two great in the

parties their parliamentary position was really stronger. From 1906 until the outbreak of the war they worked in close har-

mony with

and their influence upon liberal policy was very one considers the social legislation passed in the House

the Liberals

considerable.

If

POLITICAL PROGRESS OF THE ENGLISH WORKINGMAN

93

Commons since 1905 the strength of that influence is apparent. Oldage pensions, national insurance against sickness, disability, and unemof

ployment, child welfare acts, sweatshop regulations, minimum wage laws, and national employment bureaus all of these demanded by Labor have



been conceded by Liberalism. In fact the whole trend of social legislation during the last two decades in England has to a considerable extent

Labor was leading Liberalism by the nose. the point of view of that democratic ideal which admits no distinction between class and class the fundamental defect of the English

justified the assertion that

From

Labour Party as it existed before the war was that it did create such a distinction and sought to emphasize it. Practically the only group outside the organized labor group which it admitted to its councils was the Socialists. Though it did not indorse class war it provided the means for it and offered special privileges to the one group in the middle-class ranks which preached it. It had another grave defect in that it did not completely represent the very workingmen which it aimed to serve because it was fundamentally a federation of trade unionists and not a free-for-all

workingman's party. to its leaders both of these defects

The Great War and

set

them

at

just passed revealed

work

to correct them.

In 191 7 the Labour Party was completely reorganized. Instead of a trade-union affair it was converted into a national democratic party, which, though recognizing the unions, based its organization upon local party associations. Membership in these associations was thrown open to every hand worker and brain worker who accepted the constitution of the party

ties in

In fact the Labour Party to its program. upon the same footing as the other two great par-

and subscribed

virtually placed itself

the kingdom.

It

not only threw

oil

the shackles of the trade

Marxian principle of political For though it proposed to limit its memorganization along class lines. bership to hand workers and brain workers there were few in England who would fail technically to qualify under one or the other of these At the same time it stated its program rather more explicitly categories. Arthur Henderthan it ever had before, but with no essential change. unions but

it

also definitely rejected the

son stands today on much the same platform that William Lovett stood 80 years ago A reorganization of industrial society along socialistic lines



Lovett would accomplished gradually and by due process of law. perhaps have deleted the work gradually, but labor leaders were more hopeful of an immediate millennium in his day than they are now. to be

I have paid a great deal of attention to the evolution of the Labour Party because it is the one political movement of present-day England

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

94

which has been beyond question a workingman movement. But it never has commanded anything like the full strength of the workingman in The best showing it ever made in a parliamentary election was politics. in December, 1918, when it returned sixty-one members to the House of Commons out of a total of over six hundred. This means that the majority of the workingmen never have supported the Labour Party platform

Most of them are still to be found in the ranks of the Liband of the Conservatives. And the influence of the workingman modern English politics has been much more potent in modifying the

at the polls. erals

in

program of the old middle-class parties than it has been in promoting the program of its own. The practical consideration behind the reorganization of the Labour Party in 191 7 was probably the realization by leaders after nearly forty years of effort that class politics, successful as they were in continental Europe, could not be made to go in England. The Labour Party as a workingman's party was a failure, and it was on its

the whole well for English democracy that it was so. For democracy must build its hopes not on class distinction but on class co-operation, not on interests which conflict but on interests which conform.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE There

a great mass of literature bearing on almost every phase of this subject though there is nothing which deals with it as a whole. It may be worth while to is

suggest some of the more useful books for a more detailed study. On the early craft guilds one of the best brief accounts is in E. Lipson, An Introduction to the Economic History of England, I, chap. vii. On the decay of the craft guilds, cf G. Unwin, Industrial Organization in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, and also, for less detailed .

W. J. Ashley, The Economic Organization of England, chaps, ii, v; and J. A. Hobson, The Evolution of Modern Capitalism. For the Levellers Movement, G. P. Gooch, English Democratic Ideas in the Seventeenth Century, and T. C. Pease, The Levellers Movement, may be consulted. There is no single adequate study of the Indus-

accounts,

Revolution in English. Revolution industrielle au

trial

La

Its earlier phases are

XVIII me

admirably discussed in P. Mantoux,

en Angleterre. There are three volumes which cover well the effect of the Industrial Revolution siecle

by J. L. and Barbara Hammond upon the workingman. They are

entitled: (1) The Village Labourer, 1760-1832; The Town Labourer, 1760-1822; (3) The Skilled Labourer, 1760-1832. The effect of the French Revolution upon political reform in England is well handled in G. S. Veitch, The Geftesis of Parliamentary Reform, and in E. R. Kent, The Early English (2)

A convenient annual survey of economic conditions in England from 1800 1832 will be found in \V. Smart, Economic Annals of the Nineteenth Century.

Radicals. to

G. Slater, The Making of Modern England, chaps, i, iv, is particularly good on the situation immediately following the Napoleonic Wars. For the unrest associated with the passage of the Great Reform Bill, cf. J. R. M. Butler, The Passing of the Great Reform G. Wallas, Life of Francis Place, is easily the best thing on the Bill, chaps, i, iii, vi. political

unions of 1832.

The

rise of

English socialism and the views of the English

socialists of the 1820's are well treated in

M.

Beer,

A

History of English Socialism,

I.

POLITICAL PROGRESS OF THE ENGLISH WORKINGMAN On

95

the origin of the English trade unions and on their whole history there is m< cellent book, S. and B. Webb, History of Trade Unionism, of which a new edition has 1

just appeared. Cf. also

Leaders.

George Howell, Labour Legislation, Labour Movements and Labour

On contemporary

English trade unions the English Labour Year Hook, particu-

volume for 1916, contains a fund of excellent material. ThcChartisI Movement has been much written about in English and in German, though the best study is in French, i.e., E. Dolleans, Le Chartisme. 1830-48. In English the best single account is by Mark Hovell, The Chartist Movement; cf. also F. F. Rosenblatt, The Chartist M in Its Social and Economic Aspects, and F. \V. Slosson, The Decline of the Chartist M larly the

On

the relations of the

workingman to politics since Chartism there is very The Webbs give something in their History of Trade Unions and G. Howell rather more in his study of labor movements cited above. One phase of it is treated very superficially in A. W. Humphrey, .1 History of Labour Representation.

ment. little

of value.

Unfortunately there is no study comparable to Butler's Passing of the Great Reform Bill for the later reform bills of 1867 and 1884. Charles Seymour, Electoral Reform in England and Wales, chap, x, contains a good account of the way in which the Labor vote was cast between 1867 and 1884. The history of the modern English Labor Party has yet to be written, though there is an excellent summary of the main fai ts

Labour Year Book for 1916; cf. also, for a rather unsympathetic account, A. L. Lowell, The Government of England, II, chap, xxxiii. which brings the story

in the English

down

The program

of the Labour Party as stated in 191 7 and the reorganizavery well explained in A. Henderson, The Aims of Labour. For a sympathetic treatment of the workingman in current English politics the English weekly, the New Statesman, is perhaps the best place to look. Sidney Webb's occato 1908.

tion in that year

is

sional contributions to the

New

Republic are excellent though not always unbiased.

THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES By

J.

SPENCER DICKERSQN,

Secretary

APPOINTMENTS In addition to reappointments the following appointments have been made by the Board of Trustees: Fred Terry Rogers, Assistant Professor in the Department of Physiology.

Leonard D. White, Associate

in the

Appointment of Conyers Read Department of History.

Employment

Department

of Political Science.

to a non-resident professorship in the

of a visiting nurse to be

under the direction of the

Health Department. Professor of Military Science of the

Board

of Physical Culture

and Tactics was made ex officio member and Athletics.

RESIGNATIONS The Board of Trustees has accepted the members of the faculties

resignations of the following

:

Yoshio Ishida, Research Instructor in the Department of Physics. Elbert Clark, Associate Professor in the Department of Anatomy. R. S. Bracewell, Associate in the Department of Chemistry. Theodore B. Hinckley, Teacher in the University High School. Lillian

Cushman Brown,

Instructor in Art in the College of

Edu-

cation.

Leo

Finkelstein, Instructor in the

Conyers Read, Professor

in the

Department of Chemistry. Department of History.

GIFTS

The E.

I.

DuPont deNemours & Company Corporation renews

for the year 1920-21 the gift of

$750 for a Fellowship

in the

Department

of Chemistry.

Mr. Charles R. Crane renews

for another four-year period his sub-

scription to support the work in Russian John F. McMillan has bequeathed the

Language and

sum

Institutions.

of $1,000 as

an endow-

ment fund. Mr. Charles H. Swift provides the sum of $500

for the expenses of a Asia for scientific investigation by Assistant Professor Wellington Downing Jones of the Department of Geology. trip to

96

THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES

97

The donor gift of

of the Theology Building in addition to the previous Saoo.ooo has pledged a further gift of Si 00,000 toward the erection

of the building.

A donor

whose name

is

withheld presents a collection of lithographed

and twentieth-century authors and made by William Rothenstein of London.

portraits of nineteenth-

The National

Museum feathers.

Association of

of the School of

Audubon

scientists

Societies presents

to

the

Education a valuable collection of birds and

JOHN CRERAR By

THOMAS W. GOODSPEED

This sketch begins and ends with the last will and testament John Crerar. In more respects than one that will was unique.

of It

had the following very unusual beginning:

My father, infant, leaving

of Scotland, died in New York when I was an brother Peter and myself his only heirs. mother for a number of years and was then married to William Boyd.

John Crerar, a native

My

my mother, my

remained a widow The issue of this second marriage was one son, my half brother, George William Boyd, who died unmarried in i860. My step father died in 1864, and my mother was again

left

1873,

and

My

a widow with her two sons, Peter and myself. My mother died March my brother Peter died in 1883, a widower, leaving no children.

mother's maiden

name was Agnes

Smeallie.

28,

She was born in Scotland in

1795 and a line of relationship on her side is clearly defined. first cousins are children of my late uncles, James and John Smeallie, late of Florida and West Galway, State of N.Y., brothers of my mother. Through them

My

These cousins, first, second and third I have second cousins and third cousins. can be readily traced: some I have seen, others only heard of by the hearing of the ear.

With I

these explanations

remains with

it

me

to

make a

disposition of

my

estate.

am a bachelor and was born in New York City, but have been a citizen of Chicago

since 1862.

It will be noted that in this unique preface to the will the slightest possible mention is made of the father, and none whatever of any relatives on his father's side, while much is told of the mother and of first,

second, and even third cousins on her side. show the Crerars were a more ancient

records

than the Smeallies.

The

registers of marriages

And

yet so far as the

and numerous family

Crerars appear in the earliest Scottish parish births. These important records seem to

and

have been

instituted, at least in the country districts of Scotland, by the Presbyterian church when it displaced the Catholic church in the beginning of the seventeenth century. The register of the parish of Kenmore records the marriage on May 14, 1637, of "John Dow Crearar" in 1640 of "John Dow Crerar," evidently his second marriage. This carelessness about the spelling of family names seems to have been common in Scotland. The Crerars were a numerous family and

and again

many parishes. They belonged to the common people and appear, for the most part, to have lived in country districts and, probably, followed agriculture. were scattered through

98

JO FIX CRERAR

99

The parish register of Dull, County of Perth, from which John Crerar's father, John, migrated to the United States when a young man, records that a John Crerar, early in 1788, married Margaret McFarland.

They had

three sons, Peter, born late in 1788, Jam. and John, born July 2, 1792. Peter and James married in the same parish and each had a son named Donald. One of these Donalds will appear later in this story. The youngest brother, John,

born

in 1789,

apparently left the old home unmarried and settled in New York City. There he met and married Agnes Smeallie who had also migrated from Scotland to New York in her youth. Both were Presbyterians, and they doubtless found each other in the Scotch Presbyterian church to their son, John, remained greatly attached to the end of his life.

which

The naming

of their other son Peter

the father.

Had

shows the family attachment of there been a third son there would have been another

apostolic succession, apparently, of Peter, James, and John. Ancestors on the mother's side are not traced farther back than 1 7

10.

There are bewildering differences

in the

ways

in

which they

spelled their names, as Smeallie, Smellie, Smaill, Smeal, Smalle. Smale, These differences in spelling constantly occurred in the same etc.

In the record of the births of the three children of Alexander family. Smellie of the parish of Kirkliston the first-born was written Smeal, the second Smellie, the youngest Smeallie. The father of Mr. Crerar's mother, Andrew Smeall, born in 1748, was the son of John Smale. The daughter of Andrew Smeall was Agnes Smeallie, the mother of John Crerar. In his last will and testament he says she "was born in Scotland in 1795." The register of the parish of Kirkliston, however, records But this is only another evidence that she was born April 1, 1797. that the most devoted sons do not always retain in mind the exact

year of their parents' birth. Where and when John Crerar, the father, and Agnes Smeallie were married does not appear nor when they mi-

We are not told the father's business and grated to the United States. know nothing of his circumstances at the time of his death July 23, T e only know that he left a widow and two sons, Peter, the elder, 1827.

W

and John, an infant a few months old. As the will says the widow and the two sons were ''his only heirs," it may, perhaps, be believed that the little family was not left destitute. This is rendered still more probable by the fact that the mother a few years later married William Boyd, a business man occupying the important and no doubt lucrative position of head of the New York branch of the iron and 3teel bus iness of an English house. Whatever may have been the circumstances

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

ioo

of the family before, they were

marriage, and

New York

all

no doubt much improved

after this

the boys were given such education as the schools of

City afforded.

The mother must have been a woman of character, intelligence, and attractiveness. Her sons were taken to the Scotch Presbyterian church and certainly John early became a devout and zealous Christian. Young Crerar was a diligent student. He did not carry his education through a college course, but did continue it long enough to conceive a and a habit of reading which always remained with him. The New York of Mr. Crerar's childhood was what would now be

love of books

called a small city.

population was

When

he was born, in the early part of 1827, its While he was growing to manhood

it

than 175,000. increased to 300,000. When he

it

had become a

less

left it to

make

his

home

in

Chicago

large city of 850,000 people.

Young Crerar continued in school till his eighteenth year and then entered the service of the house of which his stepfather was the New York manager. Here he remained for several years, advancing from one position to another, and about 1850 was sent to the branch house of the He had become a bookkeeper, and was sent to Boston, firm in Boston. perhaps, to organize, or reorganize, the bookkeeping. At remained only a year or so and then returned to New York.

all

events he

It does not

appear that he became again associated with his stepfather. He found a better position than that house had for him and became bookkeeper

He continued this work, always on the lookfor another large iron firm. out for something better, for perhaps three or four years, until he was twenty-nine years old. He must have been anxious to get into business himself.

He

could not but be conscious of the possession of business

but he was always a modest man, and being without capital his way into independent business activity seemed to be hedged up. It was just at this time that a great piece of good fortune, the greatest ability,

came to him. He made the acquaintance of Morris K. Jesup. Mr. Jesup was a little more than two years younger than Mr. Crerar, but he was already in business for himself. He had of his business career,

established himself in the business of dealing in railroad supplies in 1853, and during his commercial career became a man of very large wealth. He came to be one of the leading business men of the country.

But it was his long life of philanthropy, a life devoted to the service of mankind in religion, in education, in charity, in encouraging exploration and scientific research, that made him one of the eminent men of our history.

He

lived

till

1908, but retired from business in 1884 because,

JOHN CRERAR "

as he said,

I

101

found that both business and charitable work were becom-

ing so absorbing that one or the other must suffer if I continued to do both. So, after careful consideration of the whole matter, I retired from business and have devoted my spare time to working for others

and

for the public interest."

He

Mr. Jesup was then only

tifty-four years

twenty-four years longer. He had lived during the thirty-one years of his business life for both his businc-s and the public. It may be justly said that he devoted fifty-five of the seventy-eight

old.

lived

years of his

life

to his fellow-men.

Commander Peary to

any other one man,

is

due the

summary

wideness

of

Morris K. Jesup, more than North Pole is today a

fact that the

His biographer, William Adams Brown,

trophy of this country."' gives a

"To

said in 1910:

of the official positions he held which indicates the

his

sympathies and

the

scope

of

his

philanthropic

activities:

He was president of the Chamber of Commerce of the State \ k, a position to which he was elected in 1899 and which he held until a few months before his death. For more than a quarter of a century he was president of the American 1

Museum

of

Natural History, of which he had been one of the founders.

of the founders of the

Young Men's

He was one

president from 187J Board of Trustees. For twenty-

Christian Association,

its

and at the time of his death, chairman of its two years he was president of the New York City Mission and Tract Society For more than thirty-five years he was president of the Five Points House of Industry. He was president of the American Sunday School Union, of the Peary Arctic Club, to 1875,

of the Sailors'

Xew

Snug Harbor,

of the

Audubon

Society of the State of

New

York, "f the

of the Syrian Protestant College at Beirut. He was first vice-president of the Xew York Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb, and vice-president of the Union Theological Seminary, of the American Society

England Society, and

for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals,

founders and for

and

of the Pilgrims.

He was one

of the

years vice-president of the Society for the Suppression of Vice. was treasurer of the John F. Slater Fund for the Education of Freedmen, and a

many

He member both

IK was a men of thePeabodyand of the General Education Boards. N Rapid Transit Commission, which built the first subway in the city of a York. He was one of the founders and for seven years trustee of the Presbyterian ition, of the Hospital. He was a trustee of the Hospital Saturday and Sunda Society for the Relief of Half Orphan and Destitute Children, and of the Brick Presbyterian church, and a member of many other scientific, educational and philanthropic institutions, in which he held no official position, but in the work of which he was actively interested. of the

This was the

man

with

the beginning of 1856, with

whom John Crerar became acquainted about whom he became assa iated in business, and

whose partner he remained to the end of his life. The influence of The way in which this association on Mr. Crerar's life was very great.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

102

they came together was as follows. Mr. Jesup had started in business Mr. Clark who had been a bookkeeper in a bank and

in 1853 with a

had some

capital.

Mr. Jesup had no

capital,

but he knew the railway-

The partnership continued supplies business from the bottom up. three years, during which time Mr. Clark was bookkeeper and office man, while Mr. Jesup attended to all the outside business. The firm some reason a dissolution was resolved on in 1856. Mr. Jesup would need a competent bookkeeper and office man and turned But let him tell the to his new acquaintance and friend, John Crerar.

prospered, but for

story

:

became acquainted with Mr. Crerar in 1856, then bookkeeper in the large Raymond and Fullerton in New York. I was then in business in New York under the firm name of M. K. Jesup and Co. One day, in the year 1856, seeing Mr. Crerar writing at his desk, I put this question to him, "John, would you like to His instant reply was "Yes!" I said, "Come and see me better your position?" " All this resulted in my taking him into my employ as clerk, and within at my office. In the year 1859 I a very short time making him my partner in business established a house in Chicago under the firm name of Jesup, Kennedy and Adams, J. McGregor Adams who was then a clerk for me in New York being sent to Chicago to take the management of this business. In the fall of 1862 Mr. Crerar was sent to Chicago and the firm was changed to Jesup, Kennedy & Co. Some time in the early part of 1863, Messrs. Crerar and Adams succeeded to the business and established I

iron house of

the firm of Crerar,

Adams &

Co.

long and intimate acquaintance with Mr. Crerar gave me the rare opportunity of knowing of what stuff he was made. He was a man of sterling integrity, of strong religious convictions, a kindly heart and a true friend. He loved all men and

My

so many real friends. He was social, modest and humble, and in life counting his chief pleasure the being in the society of, and intimate relations with, his friends. Mr. Crerar was a frugal man, lived without display or ostentation, and I often used to tell him that he was too much so, and that he ought to be more among men, giving his money while he lived and having the enjoyment of seeing it well admin-

all

loved him.

I

never knew a

though at the same time

man who had

retiring,

His uniform reply was, "I

istered.

much more about

this

am

satisfied

and content." ....

good man; there lived none

I could

say

better.

It is evident that young Crerar possessed such an unusual combination of qualities for success in a business which he had been studying for eleven years that his early entrance into the new firm of M. K. Jesup

& Company

was

inevitable.

The other member

of the

new house was

Kennedy. It must be remembered that the railroad-supplies business was then in its infancy in this country. The iron age and the railroad age had just begun. The firm of M. K. Jesup & Company was just beginning to get on its feet and its members were poor men. It had the advantage of starting at the outset of that period of unJohn

S.

JOIIX

CRERAR

103

precedented development which has covered the continent with railroads and made the last seventy years the Railway Age. Being men of great business ability they availed themselves to the utmost of the extraordinary opportunities of the new era, and the firm entered on a

and increasing prosperity. Mr. Crerar did not long remain in New York after becoming a partner in the company. While he did remain, however, he manifested that enlightened interest in organized efforts for the good of the community which characterized his later life. He was a deeply religious man and constantly engaged in the activities of the Scotch Presbyterian church in which he had been brought up by his devout mother. He was much interested in the Mercantile Library Association and became He was a member of the Union Club, the president of that body. Union League, and the Century Club, and continued his membership

career of great

in these organizations after leaving

The

New

York.

from the East, the Michigan Southern and the Michigan Central, entered Chicago in 1852. Immediately that period of railway development began which within a little more than fifteen first

railroads

years gave Illinois a greater railroad mileage than any other state in the Union and made Chicago the great railway center of the country. city should become the chief distributing Mr. Crerar and his partners were not slow It meant, not in recognizing what this meant for a business like theirs. merely that such a business was likely to be successful in Chicago, but that it was imperatively demanded there. Chicago became the one It

was inevitable that the

point of railroad supplies.

on the continent for a business in railroad supplies. In 1859, quoted above from Mr. Jesup, J. McGregor Adams was sent to Chicago to inaugurate the business, and became a partner in the Chicago branch, which was known as Jesup, Kennedy & Adams.

location

therefore, as

was so successful from the start that two and a half or three years later Mr. Crerar, then a member of the parent house, found it necessary to go to Chicago to care for the expanding business and the firm name

It

became Jesup, Kennedy

&

Co.

Messrs. Crerar and

Adams were

the

It will be recalled that Mr. Jesup says that "sometime junior partners. in the early part of 1863 Messrs. Crerar and Adams succeeded to the Mr. business and established the firm of Crerar, Adam-, and Co."

Jesup

is

undoubtedly correct

in this statement, but,

the

new

title,

under the name Jesup,

Kennedy & Company

city directory of 1868

was the

first

on account of the

firm continued to do busin-

business value of the old

for five years.

to contain the

name

The

of "Crerar,

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

104

Adams &

and dealers and 13 Wells St."

Co., manufacturers

tractors' materials,

n

Twenty-one years

later, in 1889,

ization of the leading business

to

Mr. Crerar, who had

men

in railroad supplies

and con-

the Commercial Club, an organ-

of Chicago, paid the following tribute

just died:

The Commercial Club has met a peculiar and irreparable loss in the death of John Crerar. The death of a man who is both strong and good must always seem But Mr. Crerar was, besides, the irreparable and probably always is irreparable. most devoted and faithful member of the organization .... and we who are his fellow-members have experienced a personal affliction such as can rarely come out of the intercourse and friendships of social life. He was not a recent friend nor one who could make a light impression upon his neighbors. We knew him intimately for many years; he was a part of ourselves, and he was such a man as must fill, by the importance of his qualities, a large place in the lives of his friends. He was remarkway in which his character combined force with geniality. His strength

able for the

and

incisiveness

seemed to

find

no contrast or opposition

in his exceeding geniality,

but these several qualities combined and mingled in him to the producing of a most His conspicuous personal attractiveness, his delightful and unique man fine and wholesome example as a gentleman, his constant, varied, most generous and yet most discriminated charities, his conspicuous business conservatism and judgjustified by success, and his steadfastness in his religious life, made him a

ment, so

man

of rare value

and usefulness

to all circles with

whom

he closely associated, and to

the large circle of the great city. Because we knew him so well

and valued him so highly, and because we bore make some expression like this which may be at least a slight evidence of the impression his life made upon us and the sorrow we And to make this expression as permanent as we can, we, the feel at his death. members of the Commercial Club, now resolve that, although any words we can use must seem inadequate and inexpressive, these be made a part of the permanent records him

so

warm an

affection

we wish

to

of our Club.

What then was the life that John Crerar lived in Chicago for twentyseven years that won for him such a tribute of admiration and affection from these hard-headed men of business who knew him so intimately? From energy. inance.

the

first

he had thrown himself into his business with great

He had

partners, but none of them ever questioned his domwere able men but they recognized his leadership.

They The terms of partnership were determined by him and accepted by them without any written contract, as just and even liberal to the other members of the firm. In his last partnership, to which the other Mr. Adams and Mr. Shepherd, he wrote out a partnership agreement, though the other partners never examined it till after his death. They were then surprised to find that no figures indicated the

parties were

extent of their interest in the business.

on

this account.

No

difficulty,

however, arose

The matter had been understood between them and

JOH .V CRERAR the estate was settled without trouble. to each of

The roads.

them as a token

of friendship

105

Moreover he had and confidence.

left

$50,000

business grew with the amazing growth of the western railsoon became known as one of the most important business

It

concerns in Chicago. The business had been originally started by Mr. Adams in a small place on Dearborn Street. In 1865 it was moved to much larger quarters at 11 and 13 Wells Street at the corner of South

Water

Street.

The

building was noted as being one of the only two it was entirely destroyed in the

iron-front structures in Chicago, but fire of 1 87 1. Immediately after the

fire business was resumed in a "mere shanty" that had been put up for temporary use at the corner of Adams Street and Michigan Avenue, and in these makeshift quarters At the end of that time the Robbins Building it remained for a year. had been completed on the old site and the business was transferred to The it and in it continued to be conducted during Mr. Crerar's life. house soon came to be the largest concern of its kind in the Middle West. Edward S. Shepherd became a partner, and after the death of Mr. Crerar he became the sole owner of the business. In a great building at 239 E. Erie Street, on the north side of Chicago, overlooking Lake Michigan, Mr. Shepherd still carries on the business under the old

name, Crerar, Adams

& Company.

The

business expanded so rapidly that a manufacturing department was soon found to be necessary. Such a department was therefore

secured

by the purchase

reorganized as

the

of

a business already existing, which was

Adams & Westlake Company, manufacturers

of

It railroad-car trimmings, lamps, lanterns, and sheet-metal specialties. came to include brass and bronze foundries of the most modern type.

company was incorporated under the laws Since 1872 the main factory and offices of the comhave been on the north side and now cover the entire block bounded

Though founded

earlier the

of Illinois in 1869.

pany by Orleans, Ontario, Franklin, and Ohio

streets.

Before the death of

Mr. Crerar, he and Mr. Adams had, to a considerable extent, divided their interests, Mr. Crerar and Mr. Shepherd retaining Crerar, Adams & Company, and Mr. Adams taking over the Adam- & Westlake Company. of

Cook's By-gone Days Mr. Crerar's coming

in Chicago, referring to the year 1802, the year

to the city,

makes the following

interesting

statement: Reference should be

made

Chicagoan today, but who,

to a group

for the

most

whose names are familiar

part, were wholly

unknown

to nearly every in 1862;

or just

in a few years were to rising into recognition within the lines of their specialties, yet

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

106

Marshall Field and dominate almost every branch of commercial activity L. Z. Leiter were merely rising junior partners. Wm. F. Coolbaugh and John Crerar were new arrivals. Lyman J. Gage had just been promoted to the cashiership of the Merchant's Savings Loan and Trust Company, and beginners with them were George Pullman, S. W. Allerton, A. M. Billings, John W. Doane, N. K. Fairbank, John C. Gault, H. N. Higginbotham, Marvin Hughitt, B. P. Hutchinson, General A. McClurg, Franklin MacVeagh .... while Chief Justice M. W. Fuller was a rising

M.

C

young lawyer.

Mr. Crerar, modest and retiring as he always was, soon recognized as one of the leading business men of the city.

came

to be

When

the

Commercial Club of Chicago was in contemplation he was invited to become one of the thirty-nine constituent members. Though not particularly addicted to clubs he was a devoted member of this one which was made up of the leaders of Chicago business. I have already indicated the admiration and affection in which he

fellow-members.

In John

J.

Glessner's

history of

was held by his the Commercial

Club he says: The Club was

who not

especially fortunate in the rare quality of its original

membership,

men who easily stood out above their fellows in the community; men only made themselves and their own businesses, but made the town they lived

composed

of

and loved it Pullman and Fairbank and Field and Doane and Stager and Crerar and Leiter and Farwell and the two Keiths and Armour, and men like these, would have made their mark anywhere and in any time. in,

.

And

again he says:

Several of the most prominent of the early members never held office, though the Field and Pullman chief executive position was at different times urged upon them



and Crerar, among those who have gone, and others who still are here. They felt honored in the choice, but distrustful of ability to give time and attention to the work. It

was inevitable

that,

with Mr. Crerar's business ability and in-

creasing prosperity, he should extend his interests beyond his immediate business. He did not make any considerable dealings in real estate.

Other forms of investment made a stronger appeal to him. speculator, but very conservative in his views and methods.

He was no

Yet he had a business instinct and an open and farseeing mind that led him to consider and enter into new and large projects, that, in his judgment, promised great development. When, therefore, Mr. Pull-

man laid before him his revolutionary palace-car plans, he listened, weighed, and, finally approving, engaged in the organization and It seems incredible financing of the Pullman Palace Car Company. fifty-five years ago Mr. Pullman's projects were so new and strange and revolutionary that few believed them practicable, least of

now, but

J Oil N

it

He had

perhaps railroad men.

all

very

little

possibilities of the

new

scheme.

and he found

He was

a young

Mr. Crerar was also a young

in 1865.

of thirty-eight, just beginning to be a

the nature of his business

107

capital himself

difficult to enlist capitalists in his

man, only thirty-four years old

man

CRERAR

man

of substance.

Perhaps — railway supplies—enabled him to grasp the

sleeping-car

and he entered so

fully into

Mr.

Pullman's plans that when the Pullman Palace Car Company was finally organized in 1867 he became one of the incorporators and a

member

of

the board of directors.

He was one

of the

men who

that great industry which has had such an extraordinary development. He continued on the board of directors from the formation of the company to the end of his life, a period of

laid

the foundations of

twenty-two years and did his full share in promoting the success of the company. Soon after beginning business in Chicago, Mr. Crerar became a director of the Chicago

&

Alton Railroad.

Hi> connection with this

company had one very

interesting result quite unrelated to business. It brought him, of course, into close business relations with the able president of the road, T. B. Blackstone, and their relations resulted in

an intimate and delightful friendship, which was characterized by a warm affection. So strong was his attachment to Mr. Blackstone that, when he made his will in 1887, though his friend was a man of large wealth he

which

will

left to

of $5,000 "to purchase some memento appreciation of his uniform and life-long

him a bequest

remind him

of

my

kindness to me."

Mr. Crerar was long the Chicago director in the Liverpool, London and Globe Insurance Company. He was one of the original stockholders and a director of the Illinois Trust and Savings Bank. He was a director in the Chicago & Joliet Railroad and for a time president of the road. He had large interests in the Joliet Steel Company. These are only indications of the wideness of his business interests which continually

reached out in

new

directions as his prosperity increased.

Mr. Crerar's independent business career was nut a long one. was restricted to less than thirty years. After becoming the head the

house of Crerar, Adams when death brought

six years,

& Company it

to

an end.

it

It

of

continued only twentylived to be only sixty-

He

conservative two years old. He had been very successful. He was but astute business man, and, had his life been prolonged, his successes would have kept pace, doubtless, with those of his most successful associates who carried their large activities on into the new century. .1

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

108

In closing the introductory paragraphs of his will Mr. Crerar said, a bachelor and was born in New York City, but have been a citizen of Chicago since 1862." Why he never married does not appear.

"I

am

He would seem

to have been eminently fitted to give and receive happiness as the head of a family. He did not escape the raillery to which all bachelors are subject. He received it good naturedly, insisting that he was not insensible to feminine charms. When rallied on the subject his usual answer was: "I am in love with all." Being a bachelor he lived in hotels, the last ten years of his

We may

be certain that one of the

life

at the

Grand

Pacific.

things he did after reaching Chicago was to identify himself actively with the church. He was deeply religious. He had been so from his youth, and in Chicago first

He was soon made an elder more than twenty years was one of the pillars of

entered the Second Presbyterian Church.

and a

trustee,

that church.

and His

for

religious interest did not

diminish as his wealth

He

regularly attended the church prayer meeting. He was a constant reader of the Bible. His favorite chapter was the eighth chapter of Romans, which he knew by heart. When the new building increased.

of the church

was erected at Michigan Avenue and Twentieth

Street,

he

contributed $10,000 toward the extinguishment of the debt. All his friends knew him as a Christian man. He was outspoken in his faith and never hesitated to defend Christianity when it was attacked in his

"He has been known to exclaim in a tone of impatient presence. disgust, at hearing some one ask if he really believed that Jonah was " swallowed by a whale, 'Oh! bosh! What has that to do with religion ?' This is an illustration of what was said of him that though he was very much of a gentleman "he was a singularly candid man and when occasion demanded could be abrupt." During the later years of his life the pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church was Dr. S. J. McPherson, between whom and Mr. Crerar a most affectionate friendship developed.

Dr. McPherson was a lovable man, and Mr. Crerar indicated his strong attachment to him by leaving him a bequest of $20,000. His will also revealed his love for the church and the depth of his doctrinal con-

He left to the Second Presbyterian Church $100,000 "so long as said church preserves and maintains the principles of the Pres-

victions.

But he also left the church without reservation byterian faith." $100,000 for its mission schools. He did not forget the church in which he had been brought up and to which all his family had belonged, the Scotch Presbyterian Church of New York to which he left City,

He

also left the Presbyterian

loyal Presbyterian.

League

of

Chicago $50,000.

$25,000.

He was

a

JOHN CRERAR But

greatly interested in the Chicago

Association and was one of in

was not confined within denominational Young Men's Christian

his religious interest

He was

lines.

He was

Chicago.

$50,000 in his

IOg

devoted adherents throughout his

its

and

vice-president of the Association

life

left

it

will.

He was for many years actively interested American Sunday School Union. Each year he gave and successful

his long

put these words in his

the

work

of

the

liberally to the support of the

work throughout he was disposing of his property by bequest he "I give and bequeath to the American Sunday School

cheerfully career. will:

and

in

When

Union, established in the City of Philadelphia, hereby requesting that said sum be employed in promoting the cause of said Sunday School Union in the Western States I should prefer that the Territories, the sum of $50,000 legacies or bequests be used so that the interest would keep missionaries in the field, or would enable good to be done as opportunities present themselves."

and

This suggestion as to the general policy of the Sunday School Union of the use to be made of legacies has been followed in the use made of Mr. Crerar's bequest with remarkable results. Every year since 1893 a report has been published showing the work done by the missionaries supported by the income of the fund. At the end of twenty-five years it appeared that three missionaries had been employed each year. About 1,600 Sunday schools had been organized in remote districts of the North and West, with nearly 60,000 scholars. These missionaries had

aided in various ways 10,000 Sunday schools in which there were 160,000 They had distributed 12,000 Bibles or portions of Scripture.

pupils.

Nearly 90 churches had been organized and about 7,000 converts had been led into a new life. These reports are documents of real human

They make these truthfully be termed live stuff. and throb with tragic interest in the incidents they detail of the new hope and joy and life carried into many remote wilderness places. John Crerar still lives and goes about our world in the interest.

They may

dry figures

live

guise of these earnest missionaries doing good. And this reminds me of what one of his partners has told me.

he sat at his desk in his

where

it

As

he kept in the upper right-hand drawer, was nearest his hand, a check book. When people came in office

asking his help for any cause he would hear them considerately and if they made a case that appealed to him he would reach for the book and write

them a check, entering on the stub what

it

was

lor.

When

his

were examined after his death these check books were found and proved to be interesting reading. For example on the stub of one check effects

was found the following: "A

woman

going about doing good."

It

was

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

no

said of him: "His philanthropy knew no bounds or limits, but was constantly active and progressive, without ostentation." Religion and religious causes did not exhaust his sympathies. He

was a

and bequeathed to it $25,000. him in life he remembered with make his will.

director of the Presbyterian Hospital

All the philanthropies that interested

great munificence

when he came

to

The

great relief organization for ministering to the destitute in He was one of its his day was the Chicago Relief and Aid Society. officers and took an active interest in its work, leaving it $50,000.

He was particularly interested in the Chicago Orphan Asylum. When writing his will and leaving the asylum $50,000, he added, "Of which I am now vice-president," as though that personal relation gave him

satisfaction.

In his early days in Chicago he was secretary of the Women and Children which then existed.

board of the Hospital for

It was only Mr. Crerar's modesty and distaste for public position that kept him from official connection with a score or more of the charitable and other institutions of the city. He was a liberal contributor to

To some of them he belonged, as the Chicago Littheir treasuries. erary Club and the Chicago Historical Society. He aided the latter in securing its first building after the great fire and left it $25,000 in and to the Literary Club he left $10,000. organizations with which he had no official connection the munificence shown in his will was only the carrying on of the interest he had manifested in repeated benefactions during his life. Here is his will,

To

the

excluding those already mentioned and others to be mentioned the Nursery and Half Orphan Asylum, $50,000; St. Luke's Free

list,

later:

Hospital, $25,000; Chicago Bible Society, $25,000; St. Andrew's Society of

New

Illinois

York, $10,000; St. Andrew's Society of Chicago, $10,000; Training School for Nurses, $50,000; Old Peoples' Home of Chi-

cago, $50,000; Chicago Home of the Friendless, $50,000. Among the many services the Commercial Club has rendered to the the least was the founding in 1882 of the Chicago Manual Training School, now a part of the high school of the University of Chicago. Mr. Crerar was much interested in the project. He was

community not

one of the subscribers to the fund of $100,000, raised by the Club to inaugurate the work of the school. He was made a member of the

committee to determine the plan of organization and was one of its board of directors to the end of his life. His belief in the work of the school

was so great that

of $50,000.

He

in

making

his will

he provided a bequest to

did not indicate in the will

how

this

sum was

it

to be

JOHN CRERAR used.

knew

His fellow-trustees, to be his preference

however,

when they

in

doubtless

followed

what

they

John Crerar Prize each graduating class, and distributed established a

to be given to the best student of the larger part of the income in free scholarships for poor boys Deeding such assistance.

Soon

after the University of

Chicago began

its

work the trustees of

Manual Training School opened

negotiations with its representatives looking to the incorporation of the school into the University system. This was finally consummated in 1902 when the Manual Training the

School became a part of the University High School, bringing to the University funds and equipment amounting to about a quarter of a A part of this was the Crerar Fund of 850,000. In million dollars. the Articles of Agreement it was provided that an annual prize of $20 should be given to one member of each class in the Manual Training

Department

to be

known

as the

John Crerar

Prize;

that a scholarship

should be given to one member of the graduating class in the Department which should entitle the holder to free tuition through a complete course in any department of the University, to be known as the John Crerar Scholarship, and that the remainder of the income should be

used in paying, either in whole,

or, in part, the tuition in the

Manual

Training Department of poor and deserving boys who would otherwise be unable to avail themselves of its privileges, to be known as the Crerar It was also provided that the principal of the John Crerar Fund should never be impaired or diminished, or the income in any v diverted from the foregoing objects or purposes.

Aid.

Thus for nearly thirty years in the School and the University between twenty and twenty-five boys have been helped every year to an eduAlreai ly cation in which the hand and the mind have both been trained. six hundred boys have been helped by Mr. Crerar to enter into life with ,

And he will, through this the advantages of this sort of training. endowment, continue to do this as long as the University endures. A little while ago we saw him as a missionary carrying light and lite to those dwelling in wilderness places.

We

here see him as an educator

litraining every year classes of boys for useful and successful Mr. Crerar was at one time a trustee of the tir.-t University of

Chicago, but distrustful of its prospects withdrew from the board. He did not live to later the institution closed its doors.

Three years

see the present University established.

The public movement

for its

founding was inaugurated in Chicago only four months before his death. He was one of the men before whom the plans for the new institution

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

H2

laid, and who would have given them sympathetic conThe University may well feel honored in having the name such a man as John Crerar enrolled among those w ho have established

would have been sideration. of

T

preparing for the business of and character place him in the front rank among the

special funds for the benefit of those life.

For

his life

men

foremost

it is

of Chicago.

was not an eventful one, except in the rapid acHe became Mr. Jesup's partner when about thirty-three years old and continued in the same line of business to the end of his life. Pie was in business for himself only about twenty-nine He was just beginning to make himself known in New York years. when he made the new departure in his business which took him to Chicago. His life in that city was restricted to twenty-seven years. Beginning at the bottom of the business ladder he climbed steadily and Mr. Crerar's

life

cumulation of wealth.

rapidly, but

position of

it

necessarily took half these twenty-seven years to gain a He was therefore a well-known

any considerable prominence.

and leading man of business for only a few years. He had no liking for prominence or desire for position; he would not accept the presidency of the Commercial Club. He was a strenuous Republican in but once only took any public place. In 1888 he accepted a nomination and was elected a presidential elector in the Harrison

politics,

campaign.

A

bachelor with no family life he might have been expected many clubs that were open to such men. But

to seek society in the

among

social clubs

of a quiet

life.



he joined but one the Calumet. He was enamored not a great traveler, going abroad but once.

He was

He

preferred the city to the country, almost never accepting invitations He was very regular in his to visit his friends in their country homes. habits.

Summer and

winter he retired and rose at the same hour.

He

and read both books and newspapers. In his newspaper reading he was always on the lookout for good stories and These he cut out and preserved. He had a keen sense of humor jokes. and would often inclose a humorous clipping in an envelope and send it anonymously to some friend who would enjoy it. He enjoyed this all the more if it had some personal application his friend would appreciate. After his death a box of these newspaper clippings was found among his effects. He always had scholarly tastes, which he did not permit the In exacting demands of a constantly expanding business to suppress. was fond

his

of

of reading,

young manhood

his interest in the Mercantile

New York made him

its

president.

It

was

Library Association

this Association that

brought Thackeray to this country on his lecturing

visits

and

it is

said

JOHN CRERAR

n

j

was largely instrumental in these invitations being It was this interest in books and literature sent to the great novelist. that made this iron merchant a member of the Chicago Literary Club, that Mr. Crerar

who

so appreciated already told.

its

work that he made

To one who knew him we

it

a bequest of S 10,000, as

are indebted for the following personal

glimpse of Mr. Crerar: His demeanor to his fellowmen was the very type and example of equable, diimiHis gaiety, good humor, kindliness and charity toward all the world favorite attitude was standing firm and erect, the lapel of his coat thrown back and fied

his thumb caught in his vest [pocket]. To see him gay welcoming and recognition for friends.

in this position

was a signal

for

And another

says of him: "His dignified yet gentle bearing attracted the eye no less than his kindliness and sympathy warmed the heart." I am told there was an air of distinction in his appearance that attracted attention in

any company. Mr. Crerar's mother did not

live to see her son's larger successes.

She died in 1873, nine years after he established himself in Chicago. He was always very tenderly attached to her. As he never married he continued to regard

New

York, where she remained, as home, as long as

Chicago became home to him, and his attachment to the church, his interest in the things thai made for a she lived.

But

after her death

and his friendships among the best and biggest Chicagoans day were such that he became devotedly attached to the city and often declared that he could not be happy permanently in any other better city,

of his

place.

Few men have had a higher compliment paid them than came to Mr. Crerar after the great Chicago fire of 1871. He immediately entered with his characteristic energy into the relief work of the Relief and Aid Society, and the New York Chamber of Commerce and other large donors sent their great contributions for the stricken city to him for distribution. He made on men the impression of unimpeachable

and of sincere and wise philanthropy. He formed intimate frienda peculiar genius for friendship. His partners were ships with some of the foremost men in Chicago. his friends. Throughout his business career in Chicago he continu integrity, of executive ability,

He had

in

the partnership which said of him:

was formed

at

the outset.

J.

McGregor

Adams

He was a

high-souled generous man, liberal in all things, and one whose friendwas a thing to be prized and to be proud of. He was a philanthropist of the noblest Tor twenty-live years he type and did a wonderful amount of good in a quiet way.

ship

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

114

have been business partners and during that long period we never had a quarrel any way. To his employes he was always the same, pleasant, genial, approachable. Frank and outspoken and decided in his views he never hesitated to express them, though it was always done in an affable manner. He had a vein of

and

I

or dispute in

quiet

humor that made him a very companionable man.

Full of fun

and anecdotes,

he dearly loved a good story.

Mr. Crerar retained

his health

till

he had passed his sixty-second

began to fail in the spring of 1889. In August of that year Dr. Frank Billings went with him to Atlantic City, it being hoped that But on September 9 he suffered a partial the sea air would do him good. It

year.

stroke of paralysis in his right side.

As soon

as

it

seemed

safe he re-

turned to Chicago and to the home of perhaps his dearest friend, Norman Williams, and there died on October 19, 1889, in the sixty-third year of his age.

He had

said in his will: "I ask that I may be buried by the side of honored mother in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, N.Y., in the I desire a plain headstone, similar to that which family lot

my

marks

my mother's grave to be raised over my head." These requests were faithfully carried out by his friends. The "plain headstone .... raised over his head" bears the following inscription: "A just man and one that feared God."

On December 22, 1889, a great memorial meeting was held in Central Music Hall, which was then the great auditorium of the city. Rarely has such a tribute been paid to the memory of a private citizen. The

great hall did not begin to accommodate the multitude who sought admission. It was found necessary to close the doors before the hour

opening the exercises. In one of the addresses it was said of Mr. Crerar that the use he

set for

made

him to rise from "a private citizen to the ranks men." And this brings us again to that remarkable document with which this sketch began, his last will and testament. Two introductory words should be said of it. In the first place, it was not made in any immediate expectation of death. It was not the hurried work of the sick bed, but the wellconsidered, fully matured work of a man little past middle age, in the of his wealth caused

of creative

vigor of health, with the possibility of many years of active life still before him. It was made in 1887, two years before Mr. Crerar's death, and was evidently the result of long reflection and final, deliberate full

purpose. In the second place, it was not devised for the purpose of making amends, in the final disposition of his wealth when he could no longer

JOII X CRF.RAR

hold on to

for the shortcomings of his

it

"5 life.

It

was the

final

and

natural expression of his character and the life he had always lived. His father, who died when he was an infant, he had never known and

apparently knew nothing of any relatives on his father's side. He had been devoted to his mother, and anyone related to her, or who had been

kind to her, was not without claims on him. The giving of monev to and charitable causes had been the habit of his life. He had been a reader of books. He loved good literature. The Literary Club religious

where books were the themes

of discussion, he

had particularly delighted

Having no family his evenings had been devoted to books. They had formed a large element in his life. One can imagine him in th< long evenings of reading and reflection, thinking of the many thousand > in the great city who would enjoy books as much as he did if they had access to them, and of the unspeakable benefit great collections of books would be to them. And one can easily conceive the glow of satisfaction that filled his whole being when the purpose to establish a great free library was formed in his heart. But, however just these remarks are, it remains true that the greatest and most significant act of Mr. Crerar's life was the mating of his will. He himself must have felt this to be true. He approached the in.

task very seriously. After the prefatory remarks quoted at the beginning of this sketch he continues. "It remains with me to make a disposition of

my

estate."

He

bequeathed, to begin with, something over $500,000 to cousins on his mother's side, to friends who had been kind to his mother, to his partners,

and

to other personal friends.

Then followed bequests

of nearly §900,000 to religious, educational,

and charitable causes as has been related

He

in preceding pages.

)f "Sioo.ooo for a colossal statue of Abraham Lincoln." bequest, Judge B. D. Magruder, speaking before the Chicago

this

left

<

Literary Club, said: With a modesty that bespeaks the greatness

of his soul, he orders a simple head stone to be placed at his own grave, but that a colossal statue be raised to the man \\ bo abolished slavery in the United States. The millionaire is content to lie 1<>w. but be

This contrasl between the that the great emancipator shall rise high edin wonis, headstone and the statue indicates, as plainly as though it had l«e< Mr. Crerar's estimate of true heroism. Doing good to others was his conception of

insists

i

greatness.

was practically the final creative work Augustus Saint Gaudens. It was placed in the hands the South Park Commission of Chicago, which proposes to place it

The

heroic statue of Lincoln

of the genius of

of

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

n6

Grant Park. It was loaned by the Commissioners to the Panama Exposition and was seen and admired by the millions of visitors to San Francisco in 1915. Grant Park is being constructed on the downtown lake front of

in

Chicago which will extend from Randolph Street to Twelfth Street, or It is being built up out of the waters of the new Roosevelt Road. It is a part of the Chicago Plan which will transform the entire lake front from the river to Jackson Park into a dream of

Lake Michigan.

beauty, giving Chicago the most wonderful water front of any city in the world. The great statue of Lincoln is to be located a little north of the center of the Park, southeast of the of the

Park there

will

north of the garden.

Art Institute.

In the center

be a garden, and the statue will be placed just The funds have finally been provided, by the

bond issue, for the completion of Grant Park, and no long delay in the placing of the statue of the great American in its permanent resting-place. The final provision of Mr. Crerar's will reads as follows:

voters' approval of a

there can be

Recognizing the fact that I have been a resident of Chicago since 1862, and that the greater part of my fortune has been accumulatd here .... I give, devise, and bequeath all the rest, remainder and residue of my estate both real and personal for the erection, creation,

maintenance and endowment of a Free Public Library

to

be

The John Crerar Library and

to be located in the city of Chicago, Illinois, a preference being given to the South Division of the city inasmuch as the Newberry I desire the building to be Library will be located in the North Division

called

tasteful, substantial

cost of

its

and

fire-proof

and that

construction to provide, maintain

sufficient

be reserved over and above the

and support a

library for all time.

I desire

that the books and periodicals be selected with a view to create and sustain a healthy moral and Christian sentiment in the community and that all nastiness and immorality be excluded. I do not mean by this that there shall be nothing but hymn books and

mean that dirty French novels and all sceptical trash and works of questionable moral tone shall never be found in this library. I want its atmosphere that of Christian refinement, and its aim and object the building up of character, and

sermons, but I

I rest content that the friends I have

named

will

carry out

my

wishes in those par-

ticulars.

The Jackson,

Norman Williams, Huntington W. the executors of the will and trustees of the estate,

friends referred to were

who were

and Marshall Field, E. W. Blatchford, T. B. Blackstone, Robert T.

Henry W. Bishop, Albert Keep, Edson Keith, S. J. McPherson (then his pastor), John M. Clark, and George A. Armour. These twelve men he requested to act as the first board of directors of the library.

Lincoln,

They formed a friends of

They were all personal distinguished body of men. Mr. Crerar and assumed the responsibilities laid upon them

as a labor of love.

JOHX CRERAR

«7

be noted that the

will makes no mention of relatives on his and bearing the Crerar name. His father had died when he was a few months old. His mother does not appear to have had any It will

father's side

acquaintance with his father's family and the boy grew to manhood without any knowledge of Crerars related to him. There were such Crerars, however, though they remained apparently ignorant of his existence until the press carried the news of his large bequests throughout the world. They were then heard from and in contesting the validity of the will their contentions confirm the view here advanced.

The attack on

the will was

made by Donald Crerar and

others

who

said

that in his will, Mr. Crerer made no mention of his next of kin on his father's side and seemed to be ignorant of the fact that there were such next of kin; that he gave divers large bequests and legacies to his cousins on his mother's side; that he left

no kin of nearer degree than first cousins and that complainants are his first cousins on his father's side and constitute all of his first cousins and next of kin, except the first cousins on his mother's side, who were named in and given certain legtn ies t>v the will; that all of the cousins to whom such legacies were given have accepted the same and have released all claims against the estate, and that complainants are entitled, as next of kin and heirs at law, to share in all property owned by Mr. Crerar at the time of his death and not legally devised by him.

The paragraphs

of the will particularly attacked were the bequests to the Second Presbyterian Church, the Chicago Bible Society, the Literarv Club, the Lincoln statue, and the John Crerar Library. A great legal

battled ensued. A considerable array of able lawyers was employed on both sides, the will being defended by Williams, Holt and Wheeler, and Lyman and Jackson, the law firms of the two executors, assisted by James L. High and John H. Mulkey. After failing in the lower courts the contestants carried the case to the

was not

It

till

Supreme Court

sustained in every particular. It was characteristic of the careful business

embodied

of the state.

1893 that the contest came to an end and then the will was

man

that Mr. Crerar

in that part of the will leaving bequests to his cousins the

following wise directions to his executors: I fancy that my cousins have but little acquaintance with business matters, and wish my executors and trustees to give them advice in regard to the legacies and For example, if a farm is mortgaged, suggest that the mortgage be paid bequests. I

off.

If their

farm

is

not mortgaged suggest that their respective legacies should be

well invested.

It was supposed that the bequest for the free public amount to about two and a half million dollars. Hut

directors

was a body

library

would

the board of

of business experts, with the highest skill in the

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

Ii8

care of funds. They applied their financial genius to the care of the public trust committed to them. They started the library without undue haste and instead of expending a large part of the capital fund in

a costly building, they rented commodious quarters and when they

opened the library to readers April i, 1897, began to create a building fund from the annual income, and in 1918, at the end of twenty-four years, had secured a valuable site and paid for it and had accumulated a building fund of $1,300,943.39. Meantime the endowment fund had increased under the management of these financial experts and faithful stewards to $3,500,000. as

first

to $5,557,544-

The

total assets, instead of being $2,500,000

amounted

estimated,

The

at the end of twenty-four years, in 1918, books in the library now number about 430,000

and there are nearly or quite 175,000 pamphlets. In 1918 more than 14,000 volumes were added to the collection, which thus increases every year.

Before the opening of the library in 1897 the directors decided to

make

"a

it

literature."

of scientific and technical Clement W. Andrews, says: the John Crerar Library may be defined as that of the natural,

free public reference library

The

librarian,

The special field of It is the purpose of the directors physical, and social sciences and their applications. to develop the library as symmetrically as possible within these limits, and to make it exceptionally rich in

files

of scientific

and

technical periodicals, both

American and

foreign.

The reading-rooms

are daily filled with readers, the

creasing every year, already aggregating

numbers

much more than

in-

100,000

annually.

In 191 2 the directors purchased a site for the library building the northwest corner of Michigan Avenue and Randolph Street, 128

on

by

135 feet, the longer front being on Michigan Avenue. That part of the building now being erected will cover something more than oneThis part is now going third, possibly about one-half the entire site.

up and

will

year.

The other

be completed and occupied by the library within the coming sections will be added as the growing demands of the

library require.

The funds managed thus

far

with consummate wisdom are suf-

develop and sustain one of the great libraries of the world. As Mr. Andrews says, the decision of the directors ficient to

to establish a free public reference library of scientific and technical literature, seemed to them to accord with the particular busness activities by which the greater part of Mr. Crerar's fortune had been accumulated, to exclude naturally certain questionable classes of

books which

his will distinctly prohibits

and

to favor the

aim and object

JOHN CRER.AR

iiq

As personal friends who had been acquainted with expressly points out. and generous purposes, and with his civic patriotism and gratitude, they believed that he would surely have wished his gift t<> supplement, in the most effective way, the existing and prospecthe library collections of Chicago, and to be of the which

it

his wise

greatest possible value to the whole city.

That wish has been

gratified,

and he has established in the heart of the and enlightenment that will radiate

city a great institution of education

ever-increasing light

down through

the ages.

was Franklin MacVeagh who said of Mr. Crerar at the great memorial meeting in the Central Music Hall: "He has set us an example It

of the right use of wealth, the great uses of wealth, the

permanent uses and the final uses of wealth." His will was the natural outcome and expression of his entire life. He was one of those men whose life and death glorify humanity and help us to understand something of the meaning of that word: "God

of wealth,

created

man

in his

own image."

MARY

MRS.

By

H.

WILMARTH

1

MARION TALBOT

Soon after the University of Chicago was opened in October, 1892, Mrs. Alice Freeman Palmer, with that breadth of sympathy and keenness of vision which many remember with admiration, recognized the need of an agency for giving financial aid to capable and promising In organizing the Students' Fund Society she found ready

students.

and generous support from

new

the

University.

First

citizens of

Chicago who were interested in

and foremost was Mrs. Wilmarth who was

I cannot tell the whole story. the moving spirit from the beginning. Under her direction sums varying from twenty-five dollars to several hundred dollars were loaned without interest. In every case recommended by the Faculty committee she had a personal interview with the candidate, and you can readily believe that the experience for the student was one of intellectual and spiritual enrichment even more than of material help. Her sagacity and penetration were marvelous. The The records of the Society show how seldom her judgment was at fault. funds loaned came back in a steady stream as life brought its successes

to these

young people. Professor J. Laurence Laughlin, who, as the representative of the Faculty, gave generous and devoted service for a long term of years, writes as follows

'

:

She was the mainstay of the Student Loan Fund, always generous, sympathetic, How many times I have gone all her giving never unwise or undiscriminating. down to the meetings at the end of a quarter with demands of five hundred to one but in

thousand dollars beyond our cash on hand;

and

silently,

unknown

to others, she

took care of every appealing case. She and Mrs. Judah were tireless in those early days, but she longest of all. In all emergencies she had a fine poise and business

Nothing was done without care and deliberation.

sense.

Yet her tact and gracious-

ness were pre-eminent.

Latter-Day Problems at the end of the chapter on "Women and Wealth" my mind when I said: "On the other hand, we also know the type a rarer one of the woman to whom a husband had left large wealth, whose pleasure is not in self-indulgence, but whose wisdom and sympathy in giving is such that the

In

I

my

had her



in



of her riches

power

is

diction to every one 1

multiplied an hundredfold and whose unselfish is privileged to know her."

life is

a bene-

who

Remarks by Dean Talbot at the memorial meeting held under the auspices and science department of the Chicago Woman's Club, Novem-

of the philosophy

ber 21, IQIQ.

I20

MRS.

its

MARY

II.

WILMARTE

121

The greatness of a university cannot be measured by the number of Its students or its faculty, its endowments, or its material resources.

and the University of Chicago has counting Mrs. Wilmarth among these. Her servWords ice to the Students' Fund Society was one of her many rich gifts. friends are its greatest possessions,

been fortunate indeed

fail

in

wholly to describe what she gave constantly, generously, sympaHer presence, a written word of cheer or counsel, intelligent

thetically.

understanding of the University's problems, made an atmosphere of We miss it daily, intellectual and spiritual values which was priceless.

but the

effect of her influence in those early

last as long

and as

far as the University



and formative years will even longer and farther.

I think

THE JOHN BILLINGS

FISKE PRIZE IN POETRY

The wide and growing interest now being taken in poetry in this country has suggested that universities might be a great influence in the production of that form of literature and so contribute something of With that pleasure and stimulus and beauty to our national life.

thought in mind Mr. Horace Spencer Fiske, of the University of Chicago Press, has established at the University, in

memory of his father, John an annual poetry prize of approximately fifty dollars, which shall be given in a competition open to all graduate and undergraduate students alike, the judges to be the Head of the Department of English, a leading American poet, and a leading American critic. Billings Fiske,

JOHN BILLINGS

FISKE

John Billings Fiske, in whose memory this poetry prize has been given, was born at Waterford on the Hudson, the son of Horace and

Mary Adams

The beauty of this region, at the junction of the Fiske. Hudson and the Mohawk, seems to have had a deep influence on the heart and imagination of the boy and he remained through life an intense and unaffected lover of nature in all her moods and changes. At twenty years of age he was graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts from Union College, Schenectady, New York, under the presidency of the

famous Dr. Eliphalet Nott. in scholarship, receiving the

He was among

the

first

seven in his class

Phi Beta Kappa key, and among his

mates was President Chester A. Arthur. Soon after graduation Mr. Fiske came under such

class-

religious influences

make

the ministry his life-work. As his father had been a Presbyterian elder for thirty years, the son naturally took some of his theological training at Princeton, and his first pastorate was at that he determined to

Amherst, Massachusetts. But the West called with a voice not to be denied, and he later took up long pastorates in Michigan, Iowa, and Missouri. His sermons, carefully thought out, written down, and revised, contained frequent poetic allusions and illustrations, and not uncommonly a humorous phrase or incident that started a smile. In fact, his great liberality of

his

view in the treatment of religious themes proved to some of listeners a stumbling-block and a rock of offense, and

more orthodox

he voluntarily retired from one or two of his pastorates, against the 122

[OHN BILLINGS FISK] At

'liiii.

'

duation

JOHN BILUNGS FISKE PRIZE IN POETRY wishes of most of his church members, on the ground that another

123

man

could better meet the desires and creeds of the minority. His greatest passion, next to reading and preaching, was that of angling, and no vacation went by that did not find him on some northern lake or river speculating on the outcome of a day's fishing or luxuriating

beauty of nature all about him. Not long before Mr. Fiske's death, after forty years in the Congregational ministry, his son, who was commonly his fishing companion, published the following sonnet in his in the

book as a tribute to the sportsman's purposes of his father and comrade: first

spirit

and the generous

life-

A FISHERMAN

"And

A lover of

I will make you fishers of men

the

woods and streams and

"

sky.

The quiet lake 'neath evening's level light And all of Nature's summer sound and sight, Thou look'st upon her with a poet's eye. And when from drifting boat thou'st cast a fly, To wait with eager heart for sudden bite Where all the depths of mystery excite, Thou still hast joy though all the fish go by. And when red summer suns have sunk to rest And thy true preacher's work has come again. With tender care thou'rt happy in the quest Of human

souls;

and with thy golden pen

Thou Still

searchest for the good in every breast, largely loving all that's best in men.

Horace Spencer Fiske, who established this prize in memory of his father, came to the University of Chicago as a lecturer on English LiteraIn 1903 he became ture in the Extension Division in the year 1894. Assistant Recorder of the University and so served until 10 12, when he entered the Publication Department of the University of Chicago Press. editor of the University Record from 1903 until 1914, and a Magazine from 1908 to 19 14. Fiske's interest in art and literature is well known to all members of

He was

ciate editor of the University of Chicago

Mr.

the University. He is a trustee of the Eagle's Nest Camp Association He is the at Oregon, Illinois, an association of artists and author-.

author of The Ballad of Manila Bay and Other Verses, Provincial Types in American Fiction, Chicago in Picture and Poetry, Poems on the Uni-

In Stratford and the Plays, and Ballads of Peace and to numerous anthologies. The establishment of the John Billings Fiske Prize in Poetry was

versity of Chicago,

War, as well as a contributor

announced

in the April, 1919,

number

of the University Record.

The

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

124

conditions of the contest are generous. The donor desires that contributions be received from a member of any school or college of the Uni-

There

versity.

is

no limitation as

to length, subject, or form.

Each

required to submit a typewritten contribution signed with a pseudonym. Sealed within an accompanying envelope is a card bearing the pseudonym, the name of the contribution, and the name

contestant

is

and address

of the contributor.

have reached

after the judges

that the

poems submitted

and the

prize

mittee of

it is proposed not have been published printed in the Report of the Com-

Committee

chairman, Professor John

In the future

in the contest shall

poem shall be first Award in the official publication

the University Record. The Report of the

is

These envelopes are not opened until

their decision.

of

of the University of Chicago,

Award, submitted through the of the Department of English,

M. Manly, Head

as follows:

As chairman ex Prize for the best

officio of

the Committee for awarding the John Billings Fiske of the University, I have the honor to

poem submitted by a member

report as follows: First of all, the committee wishes to express its pleasure in finding that the contest has produced so large a number of poems of fine quality. Not more than seven of the fifty submitted were found seriously lacking in technical competence or genuine poetic

thought. On the other hand, there were at least half a dozen, to any one of which the committee would gladly have awarded even so important a prize as this; and there were as many more which barely failed to reach the high quality of the first half-dozen. Approximately fifty poems or groups of poems were submitted for the competition. The poems were read separately by the members of the committee Mr. Henry B.





Mr. Edgar Lee Masters, and myself and a meeting was then held to compare conclusions and award the prize. On the suggestion of Mr. Masters, each member of the committee, without consultation with the others, wrote on a slip of paper the title of the poem which in When these slips were read, it was found that all his opinion best deserved the prize. Fuller,

contained the same

title.

The poem chosen " Mary Lyman. Today, March 10, the

poem

is

entitled

"Li Sien," submitted with the pseudonym "Anne

I have for the

to ascertain the true

name

first

time opened the envelope accompanying It is both amusing and a trifle

of the writer.

is Marian E. Manly. any person named Manly was among the contestants, I should have requested to be relieved from serving on the committee, but until the present moment, when I opened the envelope, I was not aware that such a person existed here or elsewhere in the world as Marian E. Manly.

embarrassing to find that this

Had

I

known

that

Although only one prize can be awarded, the committee

poems i. 2.

feels that the following

are of so high a quality as to deserve especial mention: poem entitled "A Man Walks in the Wind," by Maurice Leseman.

A A

group of poems entitled "Of Certain Days," by Janet Loxley Lewis.

JOHN BILLINGS FISKE PRIZE IN POETRY

"5

3. Four poems entitled "The Cripple," "Defiance," "Captivity," and "Hunger Inn," by Jessica North.

A poem entitled "The Mute Singer," by Carroll Y. Belknap. Three poems entitled "My Fellow-Student," "Commencement," and James Frank Burke," by Ruth R. Pearson. 4.

5.

6.

A group of poems entitled "The

Little

"

Country,

by Elizabeth Kleanor Madox

Roberts. 7.

A poem A poem

entitled

"Ambition," by Karl Kroetk.

entitled "April," by Mary E. Quayle. Respectfully submitted on behalf of the committee,

S.

John M.

M wi.y Chairman ex

ojjuio



Anne Mary Lyman is the pen name of the winner of the prize in 1920 Miss Marian Esther Manly, of Delaware, Ohio. Miss Manly was born in Chung King, Western China, where her father and mother. Mr. and Mrs.

W.

E. Manly, were and

Episcopal Board.

still

are missionaries of

Miss Manly lived

thirteen years of age,

in

Chung King

when her parents returned

tin-

Methodist

until

she was

to the United States

on

furlough and placed their daughter in the schools of Delaware, Ohio. After graduation from high school she remained in that city as a student of the Ohio Wesleyan University. In college she majored in biology but actually took more courses in English than in any other field. Twice she won the annual poetry prize of the Ohio Wesleyan University and once received the first award in the short-story contest. She revived

her degree of B.A. in 1919. In October of the same year she came to the University of Chicago as a graduate student, pursuing the regular course leading to the degree of M.D. She is a member of the Poetry

Club of the University of Chicago. The prize poem Miss Manly began day after Christmas and finished on the train when she v

to write the

returning to the University for the Winter Quarter, 1920, the date for the poems in the competition.

receipt of

LI

SIEN

THE JOHN BILLINGS FISKE PRIZE POEM By

ANNE MARY LYMAN

The story of Li Sien, a legend from the classics of China, I have tried to tell in rhythm when the old men recount approaching or suggesting the cadence of Chinese speech, many tales, bai-lung-mun-dzen, in the sleepy afternoons; a rhythm not so much made up

and fall of measure.—A. M. L.

of accent as of rise

approach to

its

tone.

A

rather free blank verse

is

our nearest

Li Sien, the courtesan (she whom men had named at the Crossroads," and by others

"The Dweller Called "The

By

Spider"), sat in the dust-flecked sunlight the window. All those days of darkness

Thus she had waited,

silent, scarcely moving, Feeling the warm sun creep across her shoulders, Hearing the rasping summer-dry bamboos



Whispering serely by the roadside listening Until, the darkness growing intolerable,



She clenched her hands, and unassuaging tears Gathered and burned beneath her heavy eyelids.

And Ching Yuen-ho a

fortnight's journey gone!

Northward, where the Temple of the Sun Stands upon seven terraces, uplifting Its gilded tower; and where the Imperial City Glows with its roofs of malachite and scarlet

Gone with the sound

When

of bells

—her heart missed time

upon a bridle jingled past. Even in such wise he had come and then

The

bells



old reiterated tale

unwound

Pitilessly.

With

His bridle rang with bells, Out of the South he rode.

bells of silver.

In deep plum-purple satin, and brocade Of saffron. And as he came that way, men spoke 126

LI SIEN

And

told

Called

him

"The

tales of

127

one Li Sien, the

Spider," she

woman

who made

her dwelling Beside the Crossroads, in a high-walled garden. As all roads met at the Crossroads, so all men

Reached at the

Came

last the center of the

v,

at last to the ginkgo tree that stood

Beside her door, with saffron-colored lea\ In autumn; came to the whispering bamboo grow. And saw, perhaps, a shadow at a window,

A hand against the lattice, white as jade That has no vein or tint of palest green,



The

a scarlet sleeve. priceless crystal jade Perhaps, or heard low laughter in the twilight.

The cherry

tree that grew in Li Sien's garden cloudy white with blossom when he came.

Was

The petals drifted down along And blew across the highroad.

the eaves,

Ching Yuen-ho, Riding into the Crossroads Inn at dusk, Felt something lightly touch his lips, as soft

As perfumed feathers of the Celestial Phoenix. And after, when the night hung low and heavy With great amazing stars, and Ching Yuen-ho Smoked in the dark outside the gate, and dreamed Again the dream that drew him out of the South The spirit kiss, the gust of cherry petals,



Dimmed The

with a sweet white mist his reverie; along the road obscured

idle tales

His lofty contemplation, and a name

Made Sang

Of

A

all of

melody

— "Li Sien, Li Sien!" —

in the dark.

Between the slender stems bamboos, a lighted window burned, yellow light behind thin paper shining, tall

Where dwelt Li Sien. And as he stared, unheeding, A shadow moved across the square of light The watcher in the darkni Returned and stood



Checked

his breath for

awe!

-

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

128

Oh Feathery slim bamboos,

Of exquisite

line!

slenderness! all

curve and joy

The upward sweep

of throat



A

song-bird soaring with a single note! And marvel held the soul of Ching Yuen-ho,

strong desire, so that he crossed and stood Before her gate, and pleaded thus, all-humble:

And

"Not

that a price of gold or emerald Might buy such beauty, nevertheless I come Of no mean ancestry, and in the South, My home, am counted rich. These things I speak,

Not to extol my insignificance, But that you may unbar your gates, perceiving That I am noble born."

A

stillness followed,

Wherein he heard the tumult of his heart, And then a woman's voice, like running water: "Traveler out of the South, I do perceive

That you are versed

in all the lore pertaining inestimable prestige." (A lilt Of laughter underran her words, he thought.) "But women, being by nature light of mind,

To your

Love other proof

of worthiness."

At

this

"Li Sien! O-mi-to-fu, But you shall open to me! I have traveled Seven days, hearing your name so often It seemed to compass me about with wings, As in the South our gray-winged sea-gulls follow Our coastwise sailing-junks. And even now I have seen shadow brighter than a flame, Unbar! Gray more beautiful than gold For I am all hot anguish of desire."

His words were loosed.

And

straining in the dark, his fingers pressed

Against the smoothness of the gates, until The bolts were softly drawn, and stumblingly

He

crossed the door-sill; and the lacquered gates

Swung

to,

behind him.

LI SI I

129

After

A moon

rose,

Embroidery

almost at the

of

many

full,

hours

and wrought

myriad slender leaves

Upon the high white wall of Li Sien's garden. And after that a long time came the wind And dawn together, and the eaves were white With winnowed cherry petals. Burned goldenly above a drift Stripping his glory of

its

Last, the sun of cloud,

clinging purple.

The secret high-walled garden at the Crossroads Seemed something made by magic, quite unflawed. The goldfish pool, the tiny lichened bridges, The latticed tea-pavilion, mimic hills,

And

rockeries for

moss and

ferns, the trees

Twisted and clipped to curious

A

crouching leopard, that a

tall

fancies, this

pagoda,



Dragons and gods and birds of leafy plumage All perfection formed in miniature! Wistaria drooped upon the latticed tindze

With pendent sprays

of palest violet, the toy lagoon the lotus lay Starlike; but all the garden's flowering seemed To come to culmination and fulfilment

And on



In very beauty made in flesh Li Sien! Clothed in an iridescent cloud of wings,

A thousand butterflies in shining silks Of jewel colors, gold ghost-butterflies Between, embroidered on the satin, black And smooth and shining, even as her hair Her hair with little lights of amethyst Under the sun, a hoop of mai-wha blossoms,



Ivory white and heavy scented, spanning Its glossiness, and over either ear

A



silken rose upon a silver pin So sat Li Sien upon the gray stone bench Beneath her cherry tree; and Ching Vuen-ho Regarding her, had need to touch her, else

Such utter beauty were beyond

belief.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

130

Her small hands lay together in her lap, Till sudden she flung them up to him, her bracelets Of jade and silver tinkling. "Make me a poem, Scholar out of the South," she said.

Gave

You

silks

and sandalwood and

"The

gold, but

others

you



make me a poem."

shall

Ching Yuen-ho, Catching her hands, spoke tense and low. "Li Sien, Even in jest we must not speak of others.

The

others are not, since I crossed your threshold forgive, beloved.

Oh, I have hurt your hands



Touching the poem, it is that I have lived it, Since aeons past I saw your slender shadow Upon the window. This pale song I bring you Is to the

poem

An image But

if

in

as your

you

Who

my

soul as

shadow

will, in this

wise goes the song:

shall look into the

And who

dim

to yourself.

sun at noon ?

shall look into the splendor

Of Li Sien's eyes ? Therefore Li Sien has veiled her eyes; Her lashes are like the branches of a willow

tree,

Drooping above a stream.

Her

eyelids are petals of the white azalea,

White and smooth. In Fu-kien by the sea I have not found One like to Li Sien.

come out of Fu-kien have come out of Fu-kien. I have possessed the five celestial happinesses In the pavilion of ever-renewed delight. I have I

All the birds of Li Sien's garden Are azure-winged Chin-niao,

Rejoicing in lovers' secrets. have told them a tale that

I

is new; have told them of Li Sien's eyes. I have told them of Li Sien's eyes, And even the heaven-born Phoenix,

I

With cinnabar-colored Shall

crest,

envy the blue Chin-niao.

!

LI SIEN

Blossom and

131

fruit the cherry tree

had borne;

The lotus-lilies on the goldfish pool Became green pods of seeds; and summer came With white, oppressive skies; and time was past For

roses. After that the ginkgo tree Beside the gate was kindled as a flame, And stood in pride of brave imperial yell.

Until the fan-shaped satiny little leaves, Freed by the wind, went gaily venturing



A

thousand thousand sulphur butterflies. Alone of the fading year's largesse remained

The turbulent-headed

tall chrysanthemums, Crimson and rose and white and gold and gold

The



!

last defiant flare of magnificence

Flung in the face of winter's gray advance.

"Have Asked

I

grown

older with the year?*' Li Sien

"For though it is acknowledged very honorable estate, and many Desire a plenitude of years fulfilled, wistfully.

A I

have so loved unblemished, shining youth!

To

feel the little

creeping net of lines

Growing into my face! To see my hair Whiten as rice in harvest, and the light Die in my eyes!"

But Ching Yuen-ho made answer, "Your hair is as a river of utter darkness; Your brows are curved like slender willow leaves; Your hands are crystal jade and ivory; Your mouth a scarlet pomegranate blossom,

A

scarlet blossom of desire! Beloved, Such youth and love as ours, how shall it end, Except by death ? For after days so many I nave not counted them, desire fails not, But now give heed; And love knows no surcease Here is a poem I have made for you:

As the moon

is

So

among

is

Li Sien

Having Li

to the stars,

Sien,

all

what

women

of the earth.

shall I desire ?

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

132

The time of falling leaves, And the flying of wild geese,

And winnowing But Li Sien

is

of grain is

come;

a black butterfly

Upon a yellow chrysanthemum; And we shall not be afraid for the passing of the year. "Poet-lover of mine," she cried, "what were you In the world, before the current bore you Into the sluggish backflow?"

"I was a nothing, Uncreated, formless, roused into being Under you eyes." "

But

tell

me

truly

—not

In flattery (for I am well aware Fu-kien knows not my name) why came you hither Out of the South ? What journey did you follow ?"



Sien, a hundred years ago, Before I found the center of desire,

"Oh, Li

My heart

was troubled with an aspiration I sought the Phoenix City, vain.

Empty and

Pekin, thinking to make myself a name, To win the imperial degree a dream



For

fools to cherish.

I

have long forgotten."

Then lowly knelt Li Sien among the leaves, And bowed her shining head upon the earth

;

"O-mi-to-fu, forgive the sin I sinned, That I have hindered from his destiny

A

scholar

who had

else inscribed his

name

the Eight Immortals! Oh unworthy! That I should circumvent the gods, who planned lord for wisdom's crown of wisdom!"

Among

My

Thus Li Sien abased herself, and wept, then pleaded, "Leave me now, and let it not be said

My lord

took pleasure in a harlot's lips, Crimsoned by artifice, when from the mouth Of sages treasure seven fold is gathered."

LI Sli

,33

Then spoke Ching Yuen-ho, "The Of our eternity

A

of love

redness in the east "

In threshing chaff

But Too

still

?

why waste our day And when she would It is

I

by mine own

cannot leave you.

Your eyes

not

rise,

not yet

he answered, "They do well, indeed,

Who name you 'Spider of the I am so bound with fetters of Albeit

morning

early

vet

"Go!

entreated,

late,"

;

is

are starlit

and

desire

Nav,

Crossroads.'

your weaving. will,

Ah, Li Sien, your eyes— water under the span

Of heaven-aspiring bridges I shall No glory in the world beyond your eyes

find

'

'

!

At

this her face grew gray and pitiful Beneath the blossom- white and gay vermilion;

Nevertheless her voice was lightly scornful:

"A wanton's eyes! A When you have paid But

it

shall not

precious bargain surely,

for it with all your dreams! be said Li Sien had part

In such unrighteousness;

The

my

lord shall

win

heritage the fates apportioned to him."

Then

she fled from him. for

Was shaken

all

her soul

with the knowledge of the thing

She had to do.

And Ching Yuen-ho

And came upon

her,

bowed

pursued,

beside her window,

Hiding her face upon her arms, her hair Uncoiled, the amber pin that held

it

clenched

Like a dagger in her hand

.... and some

Of

his

dire disaster

grew upon

presage

mind,

So that he stood within the door, and said word.

No

At Her voice

from a great way oil she spoke, and gray as though she were

last

as thin

Already dead: "So you shall leave me now, For that which held you thrall I have destroyed It was not meet a follower of Confucius Should be diverted from his destined course

For a woman's eyes

—and she a courtesan!

"

[

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

34

She hid her face, that he might have remembrance Of that Li Sien whose eyes were starlit water Under the span of heaven-aspiring bridges; And listening, heard him draw a sudden breath Sharply between his teeth; and heard him go With stumbling, hasty step, the door behind him Swinging and clattering in the wind; thereafter

A little

space, the

empty

clink of bells

Who would believe the dark could be so vivid With beauty clamoring at the gates, with life Resurgent, laying hold upon the soul, When all one asked was sleep and soothing silence, So that one might forget ?

Withdrawn,

aloof,

—that — —Nirvana—sleeppeace

Li Sien craved only death in

life

That utter loss of self But life insistent beat upon her blindness With light and movement, vivid as a play

The highroad's pageantry stage. Entered her window with a thousand sounds

Upon a



The creak of chair-poles, cry of an orange-vendor, The oddly-cadenced rhythm of the song Chanted by coffin-bearers, or the clash Of brazen marriage music. So for moons Uncounted (moons unseen are very long) Li Sien wore coarse and common blue, nor chose

To make her body beautiful with silks, Nor would she heed her handmaid when she "Lady, the seller of flowers was here but now

said,

With garlands wrought in many quaint devices, Meet to adorn your hair. Oh, give me leave To make you fair with powder and vermilion

And

butterfly-embroidered robes again.

Bells on the highroad When would passing Lose poignancy and cruel significance ? Bells on the highroad, stopping at the Inn !



Surely the bells were silver then a voice At the door and all her blood stood still!





bells

LI SI EN

135

"LiSien!

my beloved, do not hide am returned — the Imperial

Oh,

your

I

degree,

face.

Appointment as a magistrate, the seal Of office (I had it from the Emperor's hand But feel it here!) I have them all all!







Forgive my over-buoyancy, believe It is not pride, but gladness in achievement

Of that which you had prized and purchased dearly. For I was cleansed of pride and lustfulness All in a

moment, when your

spirit rose

And

stood up strong and shining, like a sword Cleaving our lesser love of flesh. Li Sien,

Humble And ask

you in my arms, come with me, and kneel

at heart, I take if

you

will

Before the tablets of

my

fathers' fathers,

In Fu-kien by the sea; and drink with

me

From wine-cups

linked together, so observing All rites whereby the blessing of High Heaven " Shall shine on lawful love

When night was come, smell of spring a promise in the air, This song he made her: The

Her Her

spirit is as

the long waves of the sea.

spirit is as

a night with

Infinite.

Who

shall

understand

The magnitude

thereof

?

stars,

THE QUADRANGLE CLUB In 19 14 overtures to buy the land under the present Quadrangle Clubhouse were made to the Club by the Trustees of the University. The University desired to own the entire block upon which the building stands, that

to

own

it

might be cleared

Furthermore it wanted and thereby the more easily secure

for the chapel.

the fee of the entire block

the vacation of the alleys which twice bisect

it.

eventuated in the contract executed in May, 1916. has obtained the desired vacation of the alleys.

The negotiations The University

The University's Committee on Buildings and Grounds and the Club's Building Committee after many joint and separate conferences received from the architect, Mr. Howard Shaw, the drawings for the These were formally approved by both comof drafting these plans began it was believed that the clubhouse could be built for the $100,000 provided for its cost by the University's offer. The proposed clubhouse by no means exceeds

proposed clubhouse. mittees.

When

the

work

in size, materials, conveniences, or necessities the requirements for such a club as this, in

such a neighborhood as

demanded

representing such cost of building it,

this,

of Chicago. The however, once estimated at $100,000, according to bids received in the autumn of 1919, will be $186,733, exclusive of architect's fees.

an institution as the University

In this emergency the Trustees of the University offered under by 50 per cent the amount of money to be

certain conditions to increase

provided for a new building.

The

exact language of this offer

is

as

follows:

The University

is ready to proceed with the erection of the clubhouse provided agreement between the University and the Club; that the University will increase its contribution for building the clubhouse from the $100,000 agreed upon to

for in the

$150,000 whenever, before April 1, 1920, the Quadrangle Club shall formally satisfy the University that it has secured in cash, or that satisfactory arrangements have been

made

to secure, an amount sufficient to cover the cost of the building over and above the $150,000 to be contributed by the University, exclusive of furnishings; or, should the foregoing arrangement not be effected, that the Club be requested to extend for

time for building the clubhouse by the University, and that the University extend for five years the period of occupancy of the present building by the Club; it being understood that at the expiration of the said period the University will

five years the

new building over stipulated in the contract a sum equal to that contributed sity's contribution in no event to exceed $50,000. contribute toward the erection of the

136

and above the $100,000 by the Club, the Univer-

THE QUADRANGLE CLUB

137

Confident of the moral and financial backing of the membership the Council recommended to the Club: That

it accept the new offer of the University, and notify its Trustees that the co-operate in erecting the new building and in raising an amount sufficient, together with the $100,000 heretofore contracted by the University of Chicago to be paid by it, and the further sum of $50,000 offered by the University of Chicago through the proposal of its Board of Trustees in their letter dated December 11, iqiq, to i.

Club

will

complete the new house on the plans approved by the University and the Club. 2. That it authorize the Council to appoint (a) a finance committee to secure the needed funds, and (b) a building committee to co-operate with the and University

the architect as the

new

building progresses.

These recommendations of the Council when presented at the meeting of members of the Club held January 29, 1920, were unanimously accepted. Subsequently a Campaign Committee was appointed under the general direction of Mr. Lucius Teter, with Professor J. H. Tufts, who later was succeeded by Professor H. G. Gale, as chairman of the Faculty group and Mr. Warren Gorrell as chairman of the neighborhood

The Faculty group undertook to raise $12,500, and the neighborhood group made the same sum its objective, the balance to be raised by Mr. Lucius Teter among other friends of the club. Apparently the sum necessary to satisfy the conditions laid down by the Trustees will be met by April 1 and the way will be open for the immediate conmembers.

new clubhouse free of debt. The new Quadrangle Clubhouse will be

struction of the

erected on the southeast

corner of Fifty-seventh Street and University Avenue, the structure being erected east of the University Avenue building line and close to the north end of the lot. South of the building the land will be graded

and four tennis courts provided.

The building and grounds will occupy the entire space at present vacant. Because of the established architectural norm of the University as

represented so beautifully on the southwest corner in the Tower Group and on the northwest corner in Bartlett Gymnasium, and because of the intention of the Trustees of the Disciples' Divinity House ultimately to build a structure which will conform to the University architectural plan, the Building Committee of the Quadrangle Club determined on Mindful of the beautiful modified Tudor-Gothic for the clubhouse. effects attained at Hampton Court and in many English manor hou

through the use of brick, mindful also of the desirability of at on* e conforming to the University norm and of securing some variety in color the Committee and the architect, Mr. Howard Shaw, agreed on a structure of colonial red brick, stone trimmings, and a graduated slate

j-SJ c >

s:

s

2 fc li

3 O

U .a

a a u

H

g

a o — 'c

o

"O 1-4

o 3 O C/i

V

-1-

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

142

roof of variegated color. The Gothic feeling will be attained less through expensive stone carving than through the masses and lines of the building, although there will be some ornamental work on the structure.

The building is one hundred and forty-five and from forty-eight feet to seventy-three feet,



feet,

nine inches long,

six inches wide.

The

clubhouse will contain 354,000 cubic feet twice as large as the present The construction is fireproof throughout. building.

The main entrance in Fifty-seventh Street is marked by a porch, flagged with New York bluestone. Through a vestibule one enters a lobby sixteen by thirty-four feet paved like the vestibule in bluestone. The

walls of the lobby are Bedford stone, the ceilings sand-finish plaster

The ladies' reception room, fourteen feet by eighteen contains a stone fireplace. The walls of this room are paneled, the floor black terrazzo. Adjacent are the other rooms of the women's

with oak beams. feet,

suite. In the lobby, south of the entrance to the ladies' rooms, is the lobby leading to the men's coatroom, lockers, and shower-rooms. The rest of this floor is given over to service-rooms including three maids'

rooms and two

janitors' rooms, a restaurant storeroom and a building Returning to the lobby one finds directly opposite the entrance the counter of the office, and behind this outer office an inner

storeroom.

one with a vault.

From

the center of the south wall of the lobby an

entrance leads past the office and telephone booths to the south door, which opens on the tennis courts. To the right of this corridor is the

cardroom, fourteen feet, six inches, by twenty- three feet. Through a door in the west wall of the lobby one enters the billiard-room, thirty-

by forty-six feet, large enough for eight tables, with a split brick fireplace in the alcove at the north end of the room and a raised oak platform in the bay window at the south. This room has a concrete

five feet

floor;

the walls are brick

and

stone,

and the

ceiling

has heavy beams

Returning to the lobby we find to the left, just outside of the billiard-room, the stone stair with wrought-iron rail leading to the second floor. Just at the head of the stair a door leads with ornamental plaster.

to the left to a private dining-room eighteen feet

by twenty-two

feet,

To

the south directly opposite the stair and south of the gallery connecting the dining-room and the lounge is the inclosed porch, in which there is a large stone fireplace. This porch overlooking the six inches.

tennis courts

and protected from sun and storm is likely to become a The lounge is at the west end of the building on this

favorite room.

same

floor.

It is a

room twenty-two by forty-nine feet, with a end and a bay window at the south and two

fireplace at the north

large large

THE QUADRANGLE

CUB

143

mullioned windows

in the west wall. The walls art- paneled in oak to the ceiling is plaster, between oak beams. A door from the lounge and a door from the gallery lead into the writing-room, twelve feet by twenty-one feet, with vaulted ceiling and terrazzo floor. The

the ceiling;

cardroom occupies the space between the lounge and the closed porch

The

to the south of the gallery.

kitchen and dining-room.

rest of this floor

In the northeast corner

adjacent pantries, cold storage, elevator, service in relation to the kitchen

but

floor

in

given over to the the kitchen with

stairs,

pastry-room,

connection with possible entertainment-

The dining-room

to be given in the Club.

The

is

The main dining-room was planned not only

and maids' dining-room.

fifty-five feet.

is

is

black terrazzo.

itself is thirty-six feet

The dining-room

is

by

wain-

scoted with oak to a height of seven feet, and the walls above the wainThe south wall has a large stone bay scot are of stone to the ceiling. window flanked by large mullioned windows. The north wall has in it

a large fireplace.

In front of the doors to the kitchens and pantries

a screen concealing the passageway between the private dining-room and kitchen but revealing a large mullioned window to the north. To is

the east of the dining-hall, really a part of

it, is

the so-called breakfast -

room, which has an oak floor raised above the floor of the dining-room. For breakfast or during the holidays the large dining-room will be shut off, and the few patrons of the dining-room will be put in the breakfastroom, which will have the south and east sun. For entertainments the breakfast-room will serve as a stage fifteen feet by twenty-seven with a proscenium eighteen feet wide. The audience can be seated not only in the dining-hall but in the inclosed porch, the gallery, and the In this way provision can be made for over four private dining-room. feet

hundred and

The

fifty seats

third floor

being provided,

all

versity guestroom.

with a good view of the stage.

given over to living quarters, twenty-one rooms with baths, including a suite to be used as a Uni-

is

AND FUTURE

EVENTS: PAST THE ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTEENTH CONVOCATION

Carl Milliken, Herman Theodore Mossberg, Henry Albert Rabe, Milton SteinEmma Elizabeth Straub, Zok berg, Tsung Wang, Ruth Elvira Westlund,

The One Hundred and Fifteenth Convocation was held in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, Tuesday, March 16, The Convocation Address, at 4:00 P.M.

"The

Edward DeWitt Wines, William Augustine Zeiler. Honorable mention for excellence in the work leading to the certificate of the College of Education:

Political Progress of the English

M.

Ethel Brown. The Bachelor's degree was conferred with honors on the following students: Simon Harry Alster, Edgar Bernhard, Blanche Beatrice Boyer, Stanley Maxwell Crowe, Irma Estevan Cushing, Kathleen Knox Foster, David Mandel Halfant, Samuel Jacob Jacob-

Working Man," was delivered by Conyers Ph.D., Professor University of Chicago.

Read,

The award Lasswell and

of

Max

of

History,

honors was: Harold Wester, Civil Govern-

ment

Prize; Marian Esther Manly, The John Billings Fiske Prize in Poetry. The election of the following students as associate members to Sigma Xi was

sohn, Carl Gilbert Johnson, Ernest Oliver Larson, Vera Bena Leibovitz, Ivy Isabel Lidman, Mary Virginia Milligan, Dewey Self Patton, Joseph Jerry Pelc, Emil Durbin Ries, Esther Ida Douges Staudt, Winfred Sabel, Marcus Wagner, Edith Carrie Wilson. Honors for excellence in particular departments of the Senior Colleges were awarded to the following students-

announced: Dorothy Marian Ashland, Ira Sprague Bowen, James Milton Elgin, Vestus Twiggs Jackson, Alfred Edward Jurist, Arthur Preston Locke, Henry Castle Albert Mead,

Ray

Will Metcalf,

Avery Adrian Morton, Eloise Parsons, Harold John Stockman, Imogene Dolores Willard. The election of the following students as members of Sigma Xi was announced Ira Garnett Barber, Clarence Ehnie Broeker, Ying Chang Cheng, Marie Dye, Warren Walter Ewing, Daniel

Simon Harry Alster, Political Science; Edgar Bernhard, Law; Blanche Beatrice Boyer, Latin and Greek; Clara Adaline Chamberlain, English and General Literature; Irma Estevan Cushing, English; David Mandel Halfant, History and Political Economy; Samuel Jacob Jacobsohn, Mathematics; Samuel Jacob Jacob-

:

Jerome Fisher, Margaret Bradley Fuller, Forrest Alva Kingsbury, Katharine Lucille McCluskey, Arthur Crane McFarlan, Motonori Matsuyama, Edison Pettit, Lillian Grace Reynolds, Garvin Dennis Shallenberger, Herman Bernhard Siems, Williams Ralph Smythe. The election of the following students to the Beta of Illinois Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was announced: Samuel King Allison, Blanche Beatrice Boyer, David Mandel Halfant, Samuel Jacob Jacobsohn (June, 1918), Carl Gilbert Johnson (December, 1919), Donald Henry King, Harold Leo Klawans, Vera Bena Leibovitz, Luella Esther Nadelhoffer, Edgar Burke Reading, Emil Durbin Ries (June, 1919), Esther Sabel (December, 1919), Ruth Emily Worthington. Honorable mention for excellence in the work of the Junior Colleges: George William Adams, Isaac Bencowitz, Carroll Lane Fenton, John Gifford, Julius Gordon, William Drumm Johnston, Jr., Carolyn Nicholas Macdonald, Victor

Carl Gilbert Johnson, Physics; Physiology; Ernest Oliver Larson, Anatomy; Vera Bena Leibovitz, Political Economy; Ivy Isabel Lidman, English; Ivy Isabel Lidman, Romance; sohn,

Anatomy and

Joseph

Durbin

Emil Jerry Pelc, Chemistry; Ries, Chemistry; Esther Sabel,

Edith Carrie Wilson, History. Degrees and titles were conferred as

English;

follows: The Colleges: the certificate of the College of Education, 6 the degree of Bachelor of Arts, 2; the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy, 41; the degree of Bachelor of Science, 20; the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy in Education, 9; the degree of Bachelor of Science in Eduthe degree of Bachelor of cation, 1; Philosophy in Commerce and AdminisThe Divinity School: the tration, 7; the degree degree of Master of Arts, 1 of Bachelor of Divinity, 2; the degree ;

;

144

EVENTS: PAST AND FUTURE The Law 2; School: the degree of Bachelor of Laws, of Law, 6, The 1; the degree of Doctor Graduate Schools of Arts, Literature, ami Science: the degree of Master of Arts, 6; the degree of Master of Science, 3; the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 5. The total number of degrees conferred was 1 1 The Convocation Prayer Service was held at 10:30A.M., Sunday, March 14. At n :oo a.m., in in the Reynolds Club. Leon Mandel Assembly Hall, the Conof

Doctor of Philosophy,

1

vocation

Religious

The preacher was

.

Service was held. the Reverend Frank

Wakeley Gunsaulus, D.D., LL.D.,

Presi-

dent of Armour Institute of Technology.

THE ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTEENTH CONVOCATION The address teenth

at the

Convocation

One Hundred will

be

145

Wyoming and chemist of the Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station from 1891 to 1903, he gave up his university work anil devoted himself to literature,

of

especially the popular exposition of scientific In 1903 he became subjects. literary editor of the Independent, of

which for many years he has peen manaIn 191a he was appointed ging editor. one of the staff of the School of Journalism of Columbia University. He is the author of Grt mericon I 'nivers. 1910; Major Propliets of Today, 1914; Six Major Prophets, 1917. Dr. Slosson s subject at the annual meeting; of the Beta of Illinois Chapter of Phi Beta " Kappa will he Americanization Uniting the United States." .'

.

I



GENERAL ITEMS

Six-

delivered

by President David Prescott Barrows, Ph.D., 1897, LL.D., of the University Dr. Barrows was born in

of California.

Chicago, June 27, 1873. He received his A.B. at Pomona College in California in 1894 and in the following year received from the University of California the degree of M.A. In 1897 he was made a doctor of philosophy of the University of Chicago, his

The

poet and playwright, William Butler a delivered Yeats, William Vaughn Moody Lecture at the University of Chicago on the evening of March 2. The subject of his address was "The Friends of My Youth/' Mr. Yeats was a guest of the University many years ago when his play The Land of

famous

Desire was presented Reynolds Club Theater.

Heart's

the

in

department being anthropology. In 1900 he went to Manila as superintendent of the schools of Manila. Subsequently he became director of education of the Philippine Islands,

of the

resigning in 1909 to become professor of education and dean of the graduate school In 191 1 of the University of California. he became professor of political science and in 191 3 dean of the faculties. In 191 7 he was a major in the American

Announcement is made that among the new members of the Divinity School

army and was on

active duty as intelligence officer in the Philippine Islands. Later he served in Siberia, especially at

Vladivostok.

The Phi Beta Kappa address

will

be

delivered by another doctor of the University of Chicago, Edwin Emery Slosson, Ph.D., 1902, Chemistry. Dr. Slosson was born in Albany, Kansas, June 7, 1865. He received the degree of B.S. from the

University of Kansas in 1890 and in 1892 the degree of M.S. From the University of Chicago he received the degree of

Ph.D. in Chemistry in 1902. He became member of Phi Beta Kappa at the

a

University of Kansas. After serving as professor of chemistry in the University

Announcement is made from Paris that Professor Albert A. Michelson, Head Department of Physics, has been made a foreign associate member of the French Academy of Sciences, to succeed the late Lord Rayleigh.

Faculty for the coming Summer Quarter will be Professor T. K. Glover, of St. John's College, Cambridge UniverEngland. Professor (Hover, who has been university lecturer in ancient history at Cambridge and Wilde Lecturer in comparative religion at Oxford, will courses in the Department of Church History during the School Term

give of

the

Summer

Quarter.

Professor

Glover rendered conspicuoi. the war in connection with the Y..M

e *

in \.

organization.

Professor Anton J. Carlson, Chairman the Department of Physiology, has recently been made an honorary M.D. by the University of Lund, Sweden. Professor Carlson has also been made a

of

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

146 corresponding

member

of

the

French

Biological Society.

of

Assistant Professor Rudolph Altrocchi, the Department of Romance Lan-

guages and Literatures, has recently been made an officer d'Academie by the French

government in recognition of his war an American liaison officer at Lyons and as commandant of the school Before going to France detachment. Professor Altrocchi was associated with

services as

Captain Charles E. Merriam in Italy in connection with the Bureau of American Propaganda, and later was awarded a diploma of merit by the Italian government.

and Poe's complete works and the lected poems of Rupert Brooke.

col-

In response to an invitation to be guests of the Japanese universities, the University of Chicago baseball team will visit Japan in the Spring Quarter, leaving Chicago at the close of the quarterly examinations at the end of March. The

team will play practice games in California for two weeks, probably with the teams of Leland Stanford Junior University and the University of California. The squad, including six Seniors, three Juniors, and three Sophomores, will be led by Clarence Volimer, captain, and

la§ek, the

The sculpture exhibit of Albin PoChicago sculptor, which was recently opened under the auspices of the Renaissance Society in the Classics Building at the University of Chicago,

on the "Tenyo Maru" from San Francisco on April 17. Games will be played with Waseda University in Tokyo and with other universities in Japan, and the players will return to Chicago in time for work in the Summer Quarter. In 1910 and again in

continued until March 5. Mr. Pola§ek, who gave the opening address on "The Art of the Sculptor," is head of the de-

1 91 5 University of Chicago teams visited Japan, and were highly successful, winning ten and twelve games respec-

partment of sculpture at the Art Institute, Chicago, and has had many honors, among them the award of the Prix de Rome at the American Academy in Rome, the Widener Gold Medal at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and the Logan Medal at the Art Institute of Chicago.

will sail

tively.

At the recent annual meeting of the American Society of Zoologists, Professor Frank R. Lillie, Chairman of the Department of Zoology at the University of Chicago, was elected member of the Division of Biology and Agriculture,

was

National Research Council, to serve three years. He was also made a member of the advisory board of the American Society of Zoologists. Professor Charles Manning Child, retiring president of the society, has been made a member of the executive committee for five years.

and Radioactivity, University of Chicago, was appointed to his present position in

fessor

Assistant Professor Gerald L. Wendt, of the Department of Chemistry, has been appointed Associate Editor of the Journal the

of

America.

Radiological

Society

Dr. Wendt,

who

of North for a year

junior chemist in radioactivity, United States Bureau of Mines, and later Instructor in Quantitative Analysis

1918.

Students of literature will be especially interested in the announcement of the coming of George Edward Woodberry, the American poet, to the University of Chicago for a lecture, May 4, on the

William Vaughn Moody Foundation. His subject will be "Longfellow." Mr. Woodberry, who for many years was professor of comparative literature at Columbia, is the author of The North Shore Watch, The Life of Edgar Allan Poe in two volumes, and The Inspiration of Poetry as well as the editor of Shelley's

The Learned Lady in England; 1650is the title of a new volume by ProMyra Reynolds, of the Depart-

1760

ment of English at the University of Chicago, which is to be issued this spring as one of the Vassar semi-centennial series. Dr. Reynolds, who is a graduate and trustee of Vassar College, has also written The Treatment of Nature in English Poetry published by the UniverShe received her sity of Chicago Press. Doctor's degree from the University of

Chicago in 1895.

Among the new and forthcoming volumes announced by the University of Chicago Press are an Introduction to the Peace Treaties, by Arthur Pearson Scott;

EVENTS: PAST AND FUTURE War Tim?-, by Impressions of Italy Charles Edward Merriam; "The Problem in

of

Democracy,"

XIV, Papers and

Vol.

Proceedings of the American Sociological The Great Awakening in the Society; Middle Colonies, by Charles H. Mazson;

The Geography of

tlte

Ozark Higldand of

Missouri, by Carl O. Sauer; .4 Field and Laboratory Guide in Physical NatureThe Study, by Elliot R. Downing; Relation between Religion and Science:

A Biological Approach, by Angus S. Woodburne; Pronunciation of the Xames of Italian Painters, by Ernest H. Wilkins; and Giacosa, Tristi Amori, edited by Rudolph Altrocchi and B. X. Woodbridge ("University of Chicago Italian

Xew

editions

include

and

A

impressions anShort History of

new chapter on Belgium War, by Leon Van der Essen, of

Belgium, with a in the

dick,

of

A Short University of Lou vain; History of Japan, by Ernest W. Clement; Outlines of Chinese Art, by John C. Ferguson; Everyday Greek: Greek Words in A English, by Horace A. Hoffman; Short History of Christianity in the the

Apostolic Age, by George H. Gilbert; and Current Economic Problems, by Walton H. Hamilton.

Joseph Pennell, the famous etcher and author, was announced to speak under the auspices of the Renaissance Society at the University of Chicago on the evening of April 21. Mr. Perinea's subject was A Xational Menace, a "Billboards: Xational Curse." The lecture which Mr. Pennell gave under this title has already made a striking impression among publicists and leaders of thought in the art world.

Margaret Deland, the widely known American novelist, author of Old Chester Tales and The Awakening of Helena Ritchie, gave a William Vaughn MoodyLecture on April 8. Mrs. Deland's subject was "The Opportunity of the Dull

Professor Harry Kmerson FosUnion Theological Seminar}-,

Vork, spoke on April 18, and Professor George A. Johnston Ross, of the same institution, on April 25. President Lynn Harold Hough, of Worthwestern University, will I* the first preacher in May, and will be folio in that month by Dean Charles R. Brown, of the Vale School of Religion, Rev. Cornelius Woelfkin. of the Fifth Avenue Baptist Church, New Vork City, and Professor Allan Hoben, of Carleton College, Minnesota.

Under the auspices of the Renaissance Society of the University of Chicago an on "Rembrandt" was

given April 14 by Dr. A. J. Barnouw, Queen Wilhelmina Lecturer at Columbia University.

Mr. Jan Garrigue Masaryk, Czechoslovak charg£ d'affaires at Washington, lecture, March 30, on the gave a public "

He is the subject of Czecho-Slovakia." son of the president of that republic, who a once was lecturer at the University of Chicago. Professor Edwin Oakes Jordan, Chairman of the Department of Hygiene and Bacteriology at the University of

Chicago, has been elected a member of the International Health Board of the Rockefeller Foundation.

The tenth annual meeting of the Association of Business Officers of Universities and Colleges of the Middle West will be held at the University of Chicago on The president of the 7 and 8.

May

association, Mr. Trevor Arnett, who is auditor of the University and a secretary of the General Education Board, will

present a paper on

"The

Present Trend

Endowed Institutions. Financing "Insurance and Annuities" will be discussed by Mr. Nathan C. Plimpton, " assistant auditor, and University Mail Moulds, UniService," by Mr. John of

!•'.

Job."

versity

The first University Preacher at the University of Chicago was Dean William Wallace Fenn, of the Harvard

in April

Divinity School,

147

New

illustrated lecture

Series").

nounced

and n.

who spoke on

April 4

cashier.

The

universities

of

Ohio. Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Missouri, Iowa, Chicago, will be represen ted at the Cincinnati

meeting.

AWARD OF FELLOWSHIPS Roy Hidemichi Akagi

1920-1921

AWARD OF FELLOWSHIPS James Byron Friauf

1920-1921

149

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

i5°

Frederick Dean McClusky A.B., Park College, 1917 Katharine Lucille McClusky

Education Chemistry

S.B., 1917

Mathematics

Cyrus Colton MacDuffee S.B., Colgate University, 191 7

Geology and Paleontology

Arthur Crane McFarlane A.B., University of Cincinnati, 1919

Andrew Merritt McMahon

Physics

A.B., State University of Iowa, 1916

S.M.,

1917

ibid.,

Hygiene and Bacteriology

Daniel Allan MacPherson Ph.B., Brown University, 1920 M.S.,

1920

ibid.,

Frank Paden McWhorter

Botany

S.B., Vanderbilt University, 1918

S.M., 1919

Household Administration

Elizabeth Wilhelmina Miller Ph.B., 1914 A.M., 1915

John Preston Minton S.B.,

Physics

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1912

Clarence John Monroe

Chemistry

S.B., 1917

Paul Grady Moorhead

Latin

A.B., University of South Carolina, 1913

A.M.,

1914

ibid.,

Robert Sanderson Mulliken

Chemistry

S.B., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1917

Ralph W. Nelson

Sociology

A.B., Phillips University, 1915

A.M., University of Kansas, 1916 B.D., Yale University, 1918

Albert Watts Newcombe A.B., D.B.,

Bowdoin

Newton

Alois Richard

Church History

College, 1914 Theological Institute, 19 17

Romance

Nykl

Ph.B., 1918

Ruth O'Brien S.B., University of

Chemistry Nebraska, 1914

A.M., 1915

Harriet McWilliams Parsons

Astronomy

A.B., Vassar College, 1915

S.M., 1916

Arthur Frederick Peine A.B., Illinois Wesleyan College, 191 A.M., University of Illinois, 1913

Donald Ayres Piatt

History 1

Philosophy

Ph.B., 1919

George Rawlings Poage

History

Ph.B., 1916 A.M., 1918

Lillian Grace Reynolds S.B., 1919

Botany

AWARD OF FELLOWSHIPS William V. Roosa

1920-li'!l

151

WINTER QUARTER End

of Quarter

1920

JOSEPH BOXD

The

University Record JULY

Volume VI

Number

ig20

3

A SUPPLEMENT TO THE "UNIVERSITY

RECORD" Members of the University of Chicago faculties, men and women who keep abreast of the latest developments in their respective fields covered by departmental journals, are frequently required to vote upon matters of educational policy which they have not had an opportunity to study. Indeed, at the present time there is in the as

United States no publication which covers the field of higher education. Certainly there does not exist a published summary of educational progress such as would be of special interest to the members of the University of Chicago. For the purpose of making easily accessible statements of fact with regard to progress in higher education

brief

in this country

ing

members

and abroad, as

well as for the purpose of

acquaint-

and adminisnow proposed to issue an

of the faculties with significant legislation

trative action within the University, it is Brief statements of occasional supplement to the University Record. such matters as the use of intelligence tests for admission of students to college, the reorganization of

Yale College, the activities of the American

Council on Education, the Association of American Universities, the Association of American Colleges, the Association of Collegiate Registrars, the



Association of Business Officers of Universities and Colleges may legitimately find place in the supplement. Its

these and other items

aim

is

to serve as a

"house organ"

for the

members

of the University

The

editor of the Record will appreciate the co-operation of all members of the faculties in making available for their colleagues information likely to be of importance to those who, in addition to being

of Chicago.

experts in their own fields of scholarship, must be called upon to determine for the University of Chicago important educational policies. 153

IS

AMERICA RESPONSIBLE?

1

By DAVID PRESCOTT BARROWS President of the University of California I ask you to consider once again the inevadable question, Is America responsible, responsible for the insecurity which envelops the world and gives eloquence to its appeals responsible for giving or withholding



the colossal power of this state from the ordering of the world's confusions and animosities ?

Assuredly we may claim that we had naught in provoking the war. were no party to the precedent intrigues. We owed neither fealty nor treaty obligation to any Ally. Yet the searching of our souls, at Has our last, made us soldiers in this war and shapers of its victory.

We

responsibility ceased

?

no surprise that now, our armies melted away, our flags encased our sacrifice sealed, the nation recoils from extra-national responsibility. The traditions of the fathers bade us be a separate people. This present generation through youth and maturity has heard few voices, but those warning it from foreign adventure. To the question, What do political It

is

owe one another beyond a scrupulous respect in leaving each ? the voice of authority again and again has replied "Nothing. The whole duty of a statesman is to keep his country's resources intact and his people jealously concerned with their own societies

others affairs alone

affairs."

Previous endeavors for foreign peoples have invoked the most respectable opposition; our sacrifices condemned as stupid; our dead deemed to have died as the fool dieth. In 1898 when Colonel Waring a victim to yellow fever, contracted in Havana, the Nation published these bitter words:

fell

The

cleaning of Spanish streets is none of our business. foolish as most of the expansionist policy.

on an errand as

New

Waring was sent

He

sacrificed in

York

to

Cuba

it

a

life

American people, and we may be sure if expansion continues, Waring will not be its last victim. If we knew the things which make for our peace and prosperity, we should regard the life of Waring as of more value to the American people than the whole island of Cuba and all that it contains. of great value to the

1

Delivered on the occasion of the One Hundred and Sixteenth Convocation of the University, held in Hutchinson Court, June 15, 1920.

154

IS A M ERICA RES POA SIBLE ?

A it

155

few years ago the Springfield Republican could say

to

its

readers:

As long as the Mexican people confine themselves to cutting one another's throats, does not appear why Americans should feel concerned; let them glut themselves their

until

enough stand

It

savage

nature

is

satiated,

or

until

them to order and submission. the Mexicans can.

to reduce

it if

some

leadei

arises

with fo

Americans ought to be able to

must be granted that this strictly narrow view of national responand consistent, but it requires a certain hardihood,

sibility is definite

to maintain

it

in the face of neighboring misery.

Only the most robust indifference can preserve it- restraint when ruin is near complete, and the conscience of the nation grows unquiet

when it sees such views erected into a national we have thought and felt and done in the

all

support such a policy

The

In the light of

policy. last four

years can we

now ?

unprecedented. Despite our American a part of Western civilization, bound to Europe by practically the whole of its inheritance, a member, almost despite itself, of the family of Western nations, a participant for twenty months situation

is

position, this country

clearly

is

of warfare in the greatest of

known

ordeals.

Alone

in

the midst of

nations that the war wasted and slew, we have more than replenished our power, as we lavishly spent and loaned. Alone among the nations

supporting the civilization which we call Christian, we possess vast resource of properties, of trained men, of political stability. Europe, for centuries the center of the globe, the source of the world's exploration

and conquest, the seat of that science which has revealed the mysteries of nature and harnessed its forces, the mother of institutions which gave liberty and enlightenment, is exhausted and broken, her blood fevered, her breasts dry. Her peril is unquestionably great. The best to be is

hoped

only a slow recuperation which will restore her to a secure role. Only a completely provincial spirit, without

though diminished

acquaintance with the world, without imagination to envisage it, can suppose that America can turn her back upon this situation with fame secure

and mind at peace. have been living the

We

last

relentless effort to induce us to

do

week

in the

this thing.

midst of a powerful and This effort has been in a

measure temporarily successful, but those who think they have settled it, have not settled it. They have not settled it because the American people are incapable of an ungenerous and cynical policy, once they understand. Those who have confederated to defeat our sharing responsibility for the political condition of Europe understand this.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

I5 6

They will seek to convince the American people that aid can be given in some charitable but non-political form. Clearly it is not charity that Europe now requires but authority and security under which adminisOther ways, tration may be reformed and existent resources utilized. I repeat, offered in place of our commitment to the use of political power are answers to the call for bread

by

offerings of stone.

which needs reshaping and re-establishing in Europe, and the state cannot be reshaped and re-established, except by a conIt is the state

cert of political power. The prospects for

American participation are not hopeless but

opposed in a combination of diverse interests united to paralyze our hand. I propose to characterize one or two of these, plainly and without apology. Among these confederated elements are, first and frankest of all,

those which do not wish the state restored in Europe because they For them the state is not a

seek the overthrow of the state everywhere. natural and necessary institution but a sham.

They preach that its place can be taken by various forms of industrial or communistic association working on an international scale. The widest extremes of theory and purpose exist in this group, from philosophical anarchists, to those who love not liberty but power, and who seek to gain power by a suppression of freedom, in the most startling and reactionary movement But all of these are united in opposing that the modern world has seen.

the political reconstruction of Europe, because the re-establishment there of the state on a representative or republican basis means their defeat and the end of their vast plans of world-aggrandizement through world-revolution.

Another group are those who rejoice to inflame American hostility and the British Empire. Again, this is a singular combination of diverse strains. It includes many who themselves or whose parentage suffered in the past from the mistakes of British policy. to Great Britain

It includes

many who by

reason of different origin are unmindful of the

common

nature of American and British political and moral conceptions, and of the general agreement of our interests in the world.

We light

be

need new knowledge of the English-speaking race and new on our behavior. The hour is past when century-old passions can

made

political capital.

War

not only finishes old scores, but

its

new compacts and new understandings. These become from the trifler and the politician. Let us view the situation as

blood seals sacred it

actually

stability of

It is the British Empire which is today maintaining the Europe and the order of a vast part of the world. Few can

is.

IS

AMERICA RESPO.XSIBLE?

157

doubt that that empire

is in process of a transformation in obedience to the justifiable preferences of the people who compose it. What is essential is that these changes come through orderly arrangement and timely concession, and not through the shock of revolution. To destroy

moment the fabric of the British Empire is to consign Western Europe to such catastrophe as has wrecked its eastern portion. Sound sense dictates to us a wise support of the British Empire and participa-

at this

tion in its mission.

To the urgings of those who would leave the task of worldreconstruction to Great Britain alone there are two objections. The first is that, by British admission, her resources are inadequate. The empire was

satiated before the war; today it is over- inflated with responsibility. is solvent but without the power to loan. Her navy is

Great Britain

intact but her armies could not be reassembled.

that

And where

is

that youth

was born

enterprise?

Somme

to carry on her brilliant traditions of governance and Alas, it lies buried in Flanders and the valley of the

!

The other reason

is

The war has

quite as serious.

left

America and

Great Britain in such a situation that they must be either allies or foes. There must be closer co-operation or inevitable estrangement.

We

have broken into the predominance of Great Britain upon the sea; is rapidly approximating hers; our navy, as its super-dreadnaughts take the water, becomes, what Great Britain has

our merchant marine

never tolerated heretofore, an actual rival in sea power. We are contestants in all parts of the world for the great unexploited sources of

world may be replensupplies from which the exhausted resources of the It is clear that we must choose between a closer understanding with Great Britain or a rivalry which will make us foes. Things canished.

not stand

still.

The

difficulties in the

way

are

all

on our

side.

Great

conscious of the peril; we are not. Great Britain is willing She offers us an alliance to concede; we are unwilling to co-operate. to guarantee both the world's stability and our common interest. Britain

is

This alliance

we

are disposed to spurn.

Yet the way

of safety is in

alliance. I

can only barely refer to other elements which have confederated the prospects of American political action abroad. They

to defeat

include those leaders of party and of Congress who, by the bitterness of a have been forced into conflict, partly personal and partly constitutional, a hostile attitude to the policy of the President. They include those

whose

interest has been first in maintaining the dignity

and position

of

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

158

Congress in relation with the Executive and

who

have, with considerable

propriety, put the Constitution above the League of Nations. They include also those whom personal bitterness has blinded to the patriotic

duties of the hour.

The

issue

is

with the people, yet so complicated, so tactically mis-

managed, that an early and definite decision may be impossible. The nation thinks slowly and occupies itself reluctantly with innovations.

We

have

first

to free ourselves

from certain

political traditions

have become fastened upon us and whose influence exaggerated. Among these

is

is

which

deceptive and

the "revolutionary" tradition, the tradition of the

inherent right of a people to rebel. Revolutions differ, some are heroic and justifiable; some are ignoble and wicked. No revolution is right that does not arise out of an intolerable political condition and a hope-

methods

lessness of legal

of reform.

If there is

any phenomenon

in

society which less warrants uncritical approval it is a political revoluYet revolutions belong in that category of things which the tion. American people, highly theoretical but deeply conservative, benevo-

We

lently regard as appropriate for all other peoples but themselves. treat them indulgently abroad and suppress them instantly at home.

This

illogical attitude reflects itself in our foreign policy, committing us prematurely and out of season to revolutionary movements which have scant justification and scant prospect of advancing the political freedom

of society.

is

Another tradition which bars our progress and paralyzes our action One hundred years ago British thought was

the "liberal" tradition.

moved by

the writings and activity of a school of which be taken as the representative. This thought based the welfare of society upon the fullest play of individual action.

powerfully

Richard Cobden

may

It limited the functions of the state

to the

most meager

activities.

Against legislative effort to improve the situation of the exploited industrial classes, it interposed the sacred doctrine of laissez faire.

Abroad

program the principles of "free trade and no of no intervention was congenial to America and has become fixed in the political thinking of the country. Liberalism long spent its strength on the continent of Europe. Reaction from its laissez faire tenets produced European socialism. it

took for

intervention."

The

its

doctrine

program of non-intervention stultified European statesmanship, prevented the liquidation of dangerous conditions, and permitted the war. Liberalism disappeared as a dominant force in British politics

Its

IS during the war.

European

AMERICA RESPONSIBLE?

159

Incapable of accepting British participation

in

the

conflict, unwilling to yield its anti-military principles to the

need for the draft, British liberalism passed from power. of that liberalism continues to prevail here. editorial writers

no others seem

and

It

is

still

But the ghost the fashion of

of political leaders to talk, in its phrases because

evoke so general a response, yet these doctrines are clearly inapplicable to the present and inadequate for the future. Liberalism

to

too closely associated with the sordid interests of

is

life;

ministers too effectively to our indulgence and ease. Liberalism never won a war, never lifted another's burden, never tired a race for it

victory or for sacrifice.

Four years ago

was admitted

memorable day into the conversaand liberals, Lord John Morley. It was one of the crises of the war; the German attack, was unbroken at Verdun; the American note on the Sussex outrage was unanswered; the issue of the war between freedom and autocracy hung True to the liberal principles which carried him out of in the balance. the cabinet at the declaration of war, Lord Morley still insisted that England should not have entered and that the conflict should be settled upon indecisive terms. He said to me: I

for a

tion of one of the greatest of British writers

My message to America is, do not crusade. Crusades never pay. Europe crusaded once and a lot of men fought to recover the sepulchre of Christ, yet the is still in possession of the infidel. [This, I may observe, was some months I have been before the cavalry of Allenby loomed on the sandy horizon of Syria.) optimistic with respect to human nature, but I shall lose hope in the good judgment

Holy Land

of

mankind

if

America enters the war.

was the counsel of liberalism. There is finally the tradition called "anti-imperialism" the tion which is invoked against the assumption of colonial power.

It



tradi-

This

tradition insists that the worst possible condition of a people left to itself is preferable to the best of governments imposed by outsid.

and

of ''free

orderly

life

invokes the sacred principles of "consenl of the governed," determination" to defeat the only prospects of secure and

It

authority.

A vast proporpossessed by numerous lands and peoples. is so little advanced in political experience that it is

tion of the world

all. Upon these latter incapable of maintaining political society at future the authority of an people there must rest for the immediate external sovereignty. For such peoples the Treaty of Versailles has proposed a somewhat From whatever source new constitution under the title of "manda;<

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

160

proposed, this conception of a mandate, a trusteeship, is an acknowledgment of the principles upon which America has sought to advance the progress of politically inexperienced peoples. tion for independence as a justifiable ideal.

It recognizes the aspira-

We

realize that the genius

government of dependencies lies in concession: that the statesman has only two alternatives, concession and repression, and we cannot go back to repression as an instrument of colonial power. We waged war on Spain to defeat the frank and brutal policy of her great monarchist statesman, Canovas del Castillo, which found its epitome in his phrase on Spanish authority over Cuba: Es cuestion de "It is a question of bayonets and nothing else." bayonetas y nada mas. We have never once been allured in relations with weaker states and dependent peoples by the old imperial dictum, "Divide and rule." We have sought to unite and to free. It is unfortunate for the future of mandates that America should have been asked to assume as her initial responsibility the undefined country of Armenia. The objection lies not alone in its distance from our general interests and experience but also because the territory of of the successful

Ottoman Empire

the

To

powers.

is

already distributed

too many mandatory would seem merely to

among

assign another portion to America

add one more element of misunderstanding and division. The genius of the mandate plan is that it intrusts a single field to a single trustee.

The

inextricable assemblage of peoples who make Turks already have too many trustees.

up the former empire

of the

duty by this initial proposal it may be increasingly America in mandates more reasonably conceived, but the institution itself would seem to be the best conception emerging from the council of Versailles and the prospects of peace in the world are closely connected with American willingness to assist in

Unconvinced

of its

difficult to interest

building

up

free peoples out of their political weakness.

So we return to the question again.

In the face of a world so

shattered, so largely incapable of independent organization, Is America responsible? After our extraordinary participation in the conflict,

can we refuse responsibility for the terms of peace and their observance ? to bear Germany down, to break the artificial structure

Having fought of the

Austrian Empire, can

we claim detachment from

the

work

of

resuscitation of both conquering and vanquished peoples? With an enormous financial interest in the recovery of Europe, can we, in good sense, refuse a support which may be essential to Europe's solvency?

The world

is

united by the bonds of commerce, of travel, of association,

75 of

The

instruction.

AMERICA RESPONSIBLE?

last

continent

is

161

explored and

the last island

Can we claim detachment from the fortunes of possessed. varied peoples and races who make up our common family ? The events week have not

of the great

convention which

settled this question.

The

\sv

witnessed

all

the

the past

political discussions of the

coming months, the national expression of will in November may not It cannot be easily settled nor quickly settled, nor, perhaps, settle it. for a long time fully settled, but the American nation in the plenitude of its prosperity, its solidarity, and its capacity is united in its fortune with the fortunes of the world,

human

race.

is

joined in

its

America has entered upon

destiny to the destiny of the from which there can

relations

be no back-turn because those relations are indispensable to the future of the world's liberty, to the harmonious life of nations, to an improved understanding between the races, to the re-establishment of the moral order, and to the triumph of those great ideas which have moved the hearts of

men and

compelled their

sacrifices for

more than two thousand

years and which alone afford mankind prospects of a better and more

generous future.

THE PRESIDENT'S CONVOCATION STATEMENT THE CONVOCATION ORATOR This Convocation to our alumni.

signalized in

is

The customary

more ways than one as belonging

reunions on Alumni

Day were

very

sig-

some ways yet to be noted. The brilliant Phi Beta Kappa address on Monday was given by Dr. Edwin E. Slosson, of the Indenificant in

pendent editorial

one of our own Doctors of Philosophy. The its Convocation orator

staff,

University has been favored today by having as

one of

its Doctors of Philosophy of 1897, one whose long record of distinguished service to education, to science, and to the nation has been crowned by his recent election to the presidency of the University of California. Before that action of the Regents of the University of

California

was taken

it

was the

distinct desire of the University of

Chicago that Dr. Barrows return to his Alma Mater here as head of an important department.

The wise

action of the California Regents,

no other way regrettable, made it impossible for the University of Chicago to claim its son, but his address today is only another evidence that he is still our own.

in

ALUMNI The Alumni Council has been active and successful during the past year. The number of alumni clubs throughout the country has increased under the wise policy of the Council from five to thirty-one.

A

large beginning has been made toward the subscription of an adequate fund to carry on alumni activities on an independent basis. Many of our alumni have already reached middle life and are doing important

parts of the world's work. winter the orator of today of California,

Wallace

Merely as typical of this I note that last was elected as President of the University

and that yesterday another

W. Atwood, who took

of our valued alumni, Dr.

his Bachelor's degree in 1897

and

his

Doctor's degree in the Department of Geology in 1903, was elected to the presidency of Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, in place of Dr. G. Stanley Hall, resigned. 162

THE PRESIDENT'S CONVOCATION STATEMER

J

163

ATTENDANCE OF STUDENTS The number of students registered during the current quarter has been 5,179 as against 3,361 for the same period lasl war, and 4,320 in the Spring Quarter of 1917. The total number of students registered during the entire year closing June 30, 1920,

is

approximately 10,400.

RECENT GIFTS TO THE UNIVERSITY There have been several interesting gifts during the current quarter. Mr. Roy D. Keehn, one of our alumni, renews his gift of S200 for a fellowship in the Law School for 1920-21. From the estate of the late Harriet B. Morse, the University has received the sum of 83,000, to create the Herbert A. and Harriet E.

Morse Fund, the income

of

which

is

for the aid of students.

Mrs. Helen Swift Neilson, of Chicago, has contribute-

1

$25,000 to

an American Book Purchase Fund. Professor James H. Breasted, of the Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures, is on leave of absence in the Near East. In establish

addition to previous purchases he has found extraordinary opportunities for enriching Haskell Oriental Museum from objects in Egypt and

Mesopotamia. this purpose.

given $25,000.

It is highly desirable to

obtain a fund of 850,000 for

Toward this fund Mr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., has The remaining $25,000 is asked from those who may be

interested in the University

and

especially in the oriental field of its

scientific activities.

OUR PLANS The plans

IN PROGRESS

for the Albert Merritt Billings Hospital are in active

process of completion and will be ready to submit to contractors some time in the winter of 1920-21. The architect is proceeding with plans for the new chapel which are assuming a very interesting shape but will

hardly be ready for soliciting bids until late in the coming early in the winter.

The plans

for the

autumn

or

Theology Building are com-

pleted and are ready to obtain bids as soon as building conditionbecome tolerable. So it may be said of the plan- for the new Quad-

rangle Club Building. These four projects, therefore, are

all in

such a condition that

if

it

at all possible to build they will proceed in the early future to coma part these buildings pletion, and it is unnecessary here to say how large is

will

play in the

life

of the University.

The University having resumed its normal life after the in ruption caused by the war it now becomes possible once more to look

1

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

64

This, it may be said, has been the habitual attitude of the University of Chicago from the beginning. War, however, centers every energy on the immediate present. This by the way is notably into the future.

which has had a war for every generation but is so never have another one that it has always stubbornly

true in a republic

sure that

it

will

neglected to be prepared. The University, however, cannot be content with a policy of drift, but must take a long look ahead. Accordingly the Board of Trustees at the last meeting adopted a five-year program

covering what seem to be the vital things for the immediate future. I take up in their order.

These plans

I.

SALARIES FOR THE PRESENT STAFF

In September, 1919, the Board appropriated the income of $2,000,000 endowment toward increasing the salaries of members of the Faculties. This was income which had been held in reserve for the innumerable

which a budget forecast is impracticable, but which, experience shows always to be inevitable. For many the University has had no deficit and there will be none this

necessities for

nevertheless,

years

now

Still it is clear that the $2,000,000 thus used for budget salary appropriations should be replaced in the general endowment. The beginning made in this matter for the present budget must be

year.

continued by a further advance in the budget for 1920-21. Having secured reasonable assurance of adequate income for two years to come and with confident expectation of capitalizing the amount by the end

Board has voted for the year beginning July 1, 1920, the income of $2,000,000 more for adding to the salaries of members of the present Faculties. This involves also a readjustment of the existing scale, so that the maximum which may be reached by a professor in of that period, the

the Faculties of Arts, Literature, and Science, and in Education, it is believed, will be equal to that provided in any American university.

The University

therefore needs to

for salary increases already II.

made

add

to its

endowment,

or authorized, the

sum

to provide

of $4,000,000.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOLS

For many reasons it has not seemed expedient for the University to organize an undergraduate school of technology. But our strong departments of pure science can render a great service to applied science research, for it is the discoveries in the laboratories which make possible the new forms of the mastery of man over the forces of nature;

by

THE PRESIDENT'S COX VOCATION STATEMENT by training students

to be experts in investigation

of sciences to the industries

and

165

in the

application — these industries must have trained minds

as well as trained hands for their progress; by aiding to solve the problems in science which the industries have to face. The only way to insure such functions of the Graduate School

as for the Graduate

is

to obtain funds designated

work

only, thus being preserved from drawing off for the imperative needs of other branches of the University. To attain this end the Board has authorized the formation of certain •

Graduate School, these institutes being devoted to conducting such research and such training in pure science as has an institutes within the

immediate bearing on the application of the sciences to the industries; and it is intended to secure funds for the suitable endowment and of the institutes.

equipment 1.

For

The

first

is the institute of Physics and Chemistry. be needed a building which with its equipment should

authorized

this there will

cost approximately $450,000,

and an endowment which

at the outset

should be $1,000,000. 2.

Another

institute will be that of Plant Agriculture,

which

will

need

at the beginning S 100,000 for equipment and $700,000 for endowment. The purpose of this institute will be, in the first place, advancement of

the fundamental science of agriculture so far as plant production and protection are concerned. In this field many important fundamental problems are as yet almost entirely untouched and they can best be

solved only in such a research institute as the University has in mind. Also the institute will train men in the fundamental science of agriculture for positions in agricultural colleges, agricultural experiment stations, and the like. Such advanced work in these fields does not exist in any

adequate way and will be cordially welcomed by those interested in the science of agriculture and in agricultural education. third institute is that of Mining, in which the 3.

A

Department

of

take the lead, reinforced by the Departments of Physics, Chemistry, and Geography. The new work will be of the same advanced nature as in the other institutes, being by no means intended to duplicate the excellent undergraduate courses in existing schools of mining engi-

Geology

neering.

will

Tfrs institute can use existing buildings but should have an

endowment

of $300,000. The fourth institute will be that of the Science of Education. primary purposes of the institute will be the training of supervisors, the conduct of research in the science of education and the training of 4.

A

students in such research.

It is

not intended to have an unwieldy body

1

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

66

of students,

ively the

but a limited number of selected persons

who can do

effect-

most advanced work.

In order to accomplish these purposes there should be a new endowof $1,000,000, and provision should be made at an early date for

ment

the three buildings which the School of Education yet lacks for its a building for the graduate department, a building for

completion



the secondary school, and a provide for these buildings.

gymnasium.

Perhaps $700,000 should

SUMMARY Endowment needed: The new endowments

I.

called for

of $7,000,000 as follows:

total

by the foregoing plan amount

(1)

to a

increase of salaries, $4,000,000;

Graduate School, Institutes of (a) (2) the $1,000,000, (b) Plant Agriculture, $700,000,

Physics and Chemistry. Science of Education,

(c)

$100,000.

Buildings needed: the foregoing

II.

To carry out

new plan a building fund of approximately $1,250,000 is desired as follows: (1) Physics and Chemistry, $450,000; (2) Plant Agriculture, $100,000; (3) Science of Education, $700,000. Buildings needed for the new plan: carry out the new plans for the Graduate Schools will call for buildings, as has been stated, the aggregate cost of which will amount to

III.

To

at east $1,250,000. Buildings needed for existing departments:

IV.

The University Library is already filled to repletion and needs two buildings, one on the east and one on the west of the Harper Memorial. The Administration of the University is inconveniently housed in many places, and at an early date a commodious and dignified Administration Building should

be erected.

a serious one, and there is a pressing demand on a large scale. The Board of Trustees has directed Committee on Buildings and Grounds to secure plans for dormitories,

The housing question

is

for dormitories its

or, to use the better

form, the University residence houses for women,

on the northern half of the block containing Ida Noyes Corresponding halls for men should go on the blocks west of

to be erected

Hall.

Cobb

Hall.

Further, funds for buildings should be accompanied by further endowment funds to provide for their care, as otherwise they immediately

THE PRESIDEXTS CONVOCATION STATEMENT drain

away endowment income which should be used

for instruction

167

and

research.

What these buildings may cost it is difficult at this time of business uncertainty to estimate. It will not be a small sum, but as soon as it is possible to proceed with building plans an adequate amount should be available.

Total new funds needed, $10,000,000: The new plans which I have mentioned call for additional endowment amounting to $7,000,000, and for buildings whose cost is estimated

V.

at $1,250,000, a total of $8,250,000.

The other building projects above noted, whose cost has not been estimated, will easily bring the amount which the University needs up to $10,000,000. It is this sum which the Board of Trustees proposes to have secured within a period of five years, fidently expects that the fund will be obtained.

and the University con-

THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES By

SPENCER DICKERSON,

J.

Secretary

APPOINTMENTS In addition to reappointments the following appointments to the have been made by the Board of Trustees:

faculties J.

Fred Rippy, Instructor in the Department of History, from

October

i,

1920.

Mildred Hart, Instructor in the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures, from October 1, 1920.

Mary King MacDonald, from October

1,

Associate in the Department of English,

1920.

Mrs. Zoe Fiske Flanagan, Associate in the Department of English, from October 1, 1920. Mrs. Myrtle C. Geyer, Associate in the Department of English, from October 1, 1920.

Marion F. Lanphier, Associate in the Department of English, from October 1, 1920.

James Henry Roberts, Associate from October

1,

in the

Department

of English,

1920.

Edward Ayers Taylor, Associate in the Department of English, from October 1, 1920.

Anna October

P. Cooper, Associate in the

1,

Department

of English,

from

1920.

Ernest Bloomfield Zeisler, Associate in the Department of Mathematics, from October

Mrs.

Mayme

1,

1902.

Logsdon, Associate in the Department of Mathematics, from October 1, 1920. Paul MacClintock, Instructor in the Department of Geology, I.

from October J.

M.

1, 1920. Retinger, Assistant Professor in the

Department

of Physio-

Chemistry, from April 1, 1920. Edward A. Duddy, Instructor in the School of Commerce and

logical

Administration, from July 1, 1920. Albert S. Keister, Lecturer in the School of istration,

from October

1,

1920. 168

Commerce and Admin-

THE BOARD OF TRUST] Jay

169

Commerce and Admin-

F. Christ, Instructor in the School of

istration,

from October

1,

1920.

Curtis N. Hitchcock, Instructor in the School of Administration, from October 1, 1920.

Florence Richardson, Assistant Professor

in the

and Administration, from October 1, 1920. Robert E. Taylor, Instructor in the School istration, from October 1, 1920.

of

Commerce and

School of

Commerce

Commerce and Admin-

Carl Frederick Taeusch, Instructor in the Department of Philosophy, from October 1, 1920. Dr. Ralph B. Seem, of Johns Hopkins University, Director-elect of the Albert Merritt

University July

1,

Billings Hospital, begins his service with

the

1920.

RESIGNATIONS

The Board of Trustees has accepted the resignations of the following members of the faculties: James Rowland Angell, Professor and Head of the Department of Psychology, to take effect June 30, 1920. Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Thomas A. Knott, to take effect

He becomes

President of the

Assistant Professor in the Department of English,

September

He

30, 1920.

accepts a professorship in Iowa

State University.

LEAVES OF ABSENCE

for

Leaves of absence have been granted to: Frederick D. Bramhall, of the Department of Political Science, the current year to June 30, 1920, on account of illness. Professor Ernest D. Burton, of the Department of New Testament

and Early Christian Literature, for five months from September 1, 1920, to act as chairman of a commission on Christian Education in China. Professor James H. Tufts, of the Department of Philosophy, from January 1, 192 1, to June 30, 192 1, in order that he may accept an invitation temporarily to teach in

Columbia University.

GIFTS

The President

of the University

announced

to the

Board a

gift of

an

additional 825,000 from Mr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., provided an of the equal amount is secured from other donors, for the purposes

Oriental Institute

and the purchase

of material in the

Near East by

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

170

now in Mesopotamia. He further reported J. H. Breasted, that he confidently expected to secure other gifts for this purpose Professor

amounting to $25,000. Mrs. Helen Swift Neilson, of Chicago, has contributed $25,000 to the University's American Book Purchase Fund. From the estate of Harriet E. Morse the University has received the sum of $3,000, to create the Herbert A. and Harriet E. Morse Fund, "to be applied to the education of worthy and needy persons desiring to attend or attending said University."

INSURANCE OF EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THE TEACHING STAFF At the meeting of the Board of Trustees held March 9, 1920, of authority was given to the Business Manager to effect the insurance employees of the University and certain members of the teaching staff not eligible to the benefits of the retiring allowance now in force. This insurance is effective after one year of continuous service, the minimum

amount

of insurance being $600,

annum up

to the

to exceed a

and increasing at the rate

$100 per

of

of the annual salary of the individual, but not It is hoped that the interest of the of $3,000.

amount

maximum

University thus manifested will not only afford protection to the families of its employees, but will also arouse a spirit of loyalty and co-operation.

MR. ROCKEFELLER'S FINAL GIFT

The University has

received the tenth and last instalment of Mr.

in December, 1910, and payable In noting the receipt of the last the portion of this notable contribution to the funds of the University, Board of Trustees instructed the President and the Secretary to address

John D. Rockefeller's "final gift" made in annual instalments of $1,000,000.

to Mr. Rockefeller a communication on behalf of the Board of Trustees of the expressing the deep feeling of gratitude and the hearty thanks its sense of appreciation and munificent his for gift crowning University of the beneficent ends secured

by means

of its use.

INCREASE IN TUITION FEES AND

The Board after the

ROOM RENTS

of Trustees has voted to increase tuition fees

Summer

from $40 to $50 from 50 to 60

Graduate tuition College tuition School of Commerce and Administration tuition, including material fees

Medical Courses tuition including laboratory Divinity School tuition School tuition

Law

from and

Quarter, 1920, as follows:

fees

.

from 50 to from 60 to from 40 to from 50 to

70 75

50 65

THE BOARD OF TRUST1

171

In the School of Education tuition fees have been increased: in the Kindergarten from $75 to $100 for the year; in the Elementary School from $135 in the first four grades and $150 in the

remaining grades to $200 in all grades for the year; in the High School from .^oo to $275 for the year. There are, however, to be no additional fees in these schools except for breakage in the laboratories and material for construction in the shops. Provision is made for free textbook- for pupils in the schools; for continuance of tuition fees of members of the University faculty at the present rates, namely, at one-half the present tuition fee plus the additional fees taken over for pupils by the increase it being understood that all of the change- herein named are

in tuition,

to

become

effective beginning with

the year July

1,

— June

1920

^o,

1921.

The

on and after October 1, 1920, basis as the fees in the Colleges of Arts, Litera-

fees in University College,

to be placed on the

same

and Science.

ture,

The charges

for

room

rents in the student residence halls have been

increased with the beginning of the Summer Quarter, sufficiently to meet the increased cost of maintenance and operation.

SALES

FROM UNIVERSITY COMMONS STOREHOUSE

The University Commons officers,

the

will issue to

members

of the faculties,

and employees

holders

Room, on

the

of the University, identification tickets giving privilege of purchasing from the Commons Store

conditions

named

cash and carry basis: (2) butter;

(3) eggs;

(1)

below, the following goods on a strictly

dry groceries

(4) bottled olives;



(5)

cocoa; —vegetables,

flour, sugar, coffee,

canned goods

fruit, fish.

Beginning July 1, Room 14, Lexington Hall, will be open daily, except Saturday, from three to five o'clock. Identification tickets will be issued to those entitled to make purchases. These tickets will be taken up and canceled if used by or for anyone other than the person whose name is written thereon. The Commons may discontinue these sales at any time and max change the list

of

goods obtainable.

"HISTORY OF BELGIUM"

A

morocco-bound copy of the second edition of Professor Leon Van der Essen s History of Belgium, published by the University of Chicago Press, was forwarded through the American Ambassador to lielgium

1

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

72

to

The

King Albert.

receipt of the

Whitlock in the following

volume was acknowledged by Mr.

letter:

American Embassy, Brussels

My

May

i,

1920

dear President Judson:

I received on April 13th last your letter dated March 26, and immediately sent the copy of Professor Van der Essen's History of Belgium to the Secretary of the King. I have now received an acknowledgment from Colonel Menschaert in which he

asks

me

to forward to

in sending the

work

you the sincere thanks of His Majesty for your thoughtfulness Thinking that it may be of interest to you, I am enclosing

to him.

a copy of Colonel Menschaert's letter. Believe me, my dear President Judson,

Very

sincerely yours,

(Signed)

Brand Whitlock

Palais de Bruxelles

Le

23 avril, 1920

Monsieur l'Ambassadeur:

En l'absence de M.le Chef du Cabinet du Roi, j'ai eu l'honneur de remettre a Sa Majeste le volume Histoire de Belgique par le Professeur Van der Essen que le President de PUniversite de Chicago, M. Harry Pratt Judson, avait prie Votre Excellence d'offrir a

mon Auguste

Souverain.

charge d'avoir l'honneur de recourir a la grande et habituelle obligeance de Votre Excellence en la priant de vouloir bien faire parvenir a M. Pratt Judson les J'ai ete

du Roi pour la gracieuse pensee qu'il a eue de cette ceuvre. Monsieur l'Ambassadeur, les assurances de ma plus haute con-

sinceres remerciements

Veuillez agreer, sideration.

Le Colonel

Secretaire

du Cabinet du Roi. (S) A.

A

Menschaert

son Excellence

Monsieur Brand Whitlock Ambassadeur Extraordinaire et Plenipotentiaire des Etats-Unis de l'Amerique du Nord Bruxelles

MISCELLANEOUS

The Board

has authorized the employment of a visiting nurse to be under the direction of the University Health Department. Marshall

of Trustees

& Fox

have been appointed architects of the Rawson It is to be erected on the West Side. plans for the Albert Merritt Billings Hospital and

Laboratory of the Medical School.

The

Max

architect's

Epstein Dispensary have been accepted.

Repairs and alterations in the Divinity dormitories together with have been authorized at an expense of $54,009. During the month of February, 1920, (twenty-nine days) the power

their refurnishing

plant burned 2,497 tons of coal, an average of 86

.3

tons per day.

THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES

173

authority of the Board the buildings at 5817 and 5831 Kenwood of them formerly used as a fraternity house and purchased in 1918 by the University, have been altered and repaired and are to

By

Avenue, one

be used as residence halls for women.

They are

to be

known

as

Kenwood

House.

The plan

for the

advance financial campaign

for

endowment and

building funds for the University as adopted by the Board of Trustees is fully described in the quarterly statement of the President of the University made at the Convocation on June 15.

UNITING THE UNITED STATES By

EDWIN

E.

1

SLOSSON

Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1902

The United

States

and the Phi Beta Kappa are

twins.

They were

born the same year, the first year of freedom, 1776. They had the same Alma Mater, the College of William and Mary. This was where the Phi Beta Kappa originated and this was where Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, was educated. What is more important than coincidence of origin

is

that the

United States and the Phi Beta Kappa have grown up together and stuck together for the one hundred and forty-four years of their common

The little brother has supported the big brother through thick and The annual Phi Beta Kappa orations form a continuous ency-

life.

thin.

It has clopedia of Americanism from the beginning to the present. lot to continue the tradition, but it is unnecessary as well

fallen to

as

my

unbecoming to introduce any new doctrine

of

my own,

so I shall use

opportunity merely to recall to mind the process by which the United States became united and to show what is the spirit of Americanism as it is revealed in our history, traditions, and social life.

this

In 1782 the mother-society, Alpha of Virginia, stretched out her hand to New England and gave the grip to Yale and Harvard. This was a more radical step than to extend the society now to Oxford. It was Samuel Hardy who first proposed to make the Phi Beta Kappa a Edward Everett, writing national society and we know his motive. in 1 83 1, says of his proposal: "He expatiated on the great advantages that would attend the binding together of the several states." His object then was Americanization, the uniting of the United States.

For when the founders of our Republic called this "the United States" they did not tell the truth. Here were thirteen distinct, antagonistic, and suspicious colonies, as quarrelsome as an entente cordiale. None

knew them make are

better so.

It

far from united they were than those who first called was a prophetic fiction, and this is the way we usually

how

political as well as

what we wish 1

to be

moral progress. By pretending that we already are most likely so to become.

we

Phi Beta Kappa address at the University of Chicago, June 174

14, 1920.

UNITING THE UNITED STATES All the wise

men

175

that gathered about the cradle of infant America

would never grow up; that its heredity was unfortuwas bad; that democracy was impossible on a large scale; that mixture of races meant ruin. But now, three hundred years since the Constitution of the first American commonwealth was drafted in the cabin of the "Mayflower," it is the most thriving and promising of nations. It is the only really said that the child

nate; that its constitution

comfortable country in the world. It is an island of the blest in a universal ocean of misery. It is the place where property is safest; where the financial system is most stable; where the standard of living is highest; where individual opportunities are greatest; where the comforts,

conveniences, and luxuries are most accessible; where the most harmony; where there is least friction between

races live in the greatest

where religions are most numerous and bigotry least; where most money and effort are spent on education; where the per capita wealth is the greatest and most widely distributed; where the foreign indebtedness is least; where government is most permanent and revolution least to be feared. These are not boasts but plain figures. We have no right to boast about them, (1) because we might do so much better, (2) because our exceptionally high relative position is due largely to the misfortunes that have fallen more heavily upon the rest of the world. classes;

Our unique position is not merely a matter of congratulation; it is a warning. If we were so selfish as to wish to keep our fortunate superiOur job of Americanization is ority for ourselves we could not do so. not confined to the limits of the country. We must make the world democracy, for our kind of democracy, our American ideals and standard of life. The Bolsheviki are accused of aiming to convert the safe for

world to their doctrines.

We

cannot blame them for that.

world to our doctrines.

Our object Every Fourth of July oration We must bring all other nations

is

to convert the

is

gospel message to the entire planet. to our level or we shall sink to theirs.

up

I

mean merely our

level in

regard to that particular group of ideals and practices that we call 'Americanism." Every foreign nation has something to teach us

which we ought to learn. Every immigrant race has brought to us some valuable factor of our national life. But Americanism is our message, our unique contribution to the civilization of the world. We must be its evangelists in every land to the ends of the earth and unto the islands of the sea.

The war has put a new course in every curriculum, Americanism. The demand of the day is that we shall consciously teach what we have

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

176

Scores of agencies have sprung

unconsciously become. ing of Americanism.

up

for the teach-

Money is pouring out lavishly for the cause. men and women, old and young, have responded

Zealous and devoted

and are training themselves for this new form There is no cause more worthy, none more needed.

to the call for volunteers of national service. It is

because the peoples of the Old World had not learned the lesson of War came upon them and it is because

Americanism that the Greatest

they will not learn it now that the Great Peace is still delayed. America has a message. It is a message of peace and good will to It is meet that we say it over to ourselves, that we may not all men.

and the despair engendered God and country, faith in our institutions and ourselves. We must study our history and learn what has made our nation strong and unified. Our name is our ideal, the United States. Our duty is to justify the prophetic title that the founders of the Republic dared to call it. We must manage to convey its meaning to the aliens who come to us with alien ideas hard to forget

by

it

in the turmoil of antagonistic voices

distress.

Faith

is

what we need,

faith in

We

must eradicate, with outlandish traditions incompatible with ours. inspire them and their children and our children as well with the true spirit of

Americanism.

What

is that spirit ? It is most succinctly expressed in our national Every American, however poor, carries in his pocket a government medal of silver or nickel with this inscription, E pluribus ununt, "Of many, making one," or to put it in other words it means, "the unification of diversity." Note that it does not mean "the obliteration " of diversity. It means many minds, one heart; many roads, one goal;

motto.

many

ways, one purpose;

many

races,

one nation.

The American

revolutionists, like the French, believed in the political trinity of liberty, But their creed should not be misread as liberty, equality, fraternity.

uniformity, fraternity. Quite the contrary, they were bent on sweeping away the artificial and traditional inequalities of men that all might be born free and have an equal chance to develop their diverse abilities in fraternal unity. The best textbook of Americanism is still the Declaration of Independence, and we might well revive the obsolete custom it once a Some of our new teachers of Americanism year. do not seem to be familiar with its Magna Charta. Our task is to train into good Americans not only the million aliens who come from over-sea but also the three million infant aliens who arrive in this country annually.

of reading

The "melting pot" metaphor

is

inattention to its grammatical form.

sometimes misconstrued through

The

participle is in the present

UNITING THE UNITED STATES tense.

A

"melting pot" means a pot that

is

177

kept melting

say, in a fluid condition so that each individual particle

— that

may

is

to

find its

proper level according to its own specific gravity, the scum to be skimmed It does not mean that sometime the off and the dregs to be discarded. contents of the pot are to be poured out to be set in a rigid mold, like the cast nations of the Old World. If America ever cools off and that

solidifies,

is

the death of Americanism.

We

Americans do not

believe that people should be pressed into the same mold, machined It was to escape such a process that many of us to the same pattern.

or our ancestors

came

to America.

America was populated by the persecuted. Puritans from England, Huguenots from France, Germans from the Rhine, Catholics from Ireland, Czecho-Slovaks from Austria-Hungary, Armenians from Turkey, Jews from Russia these are but a few of those who fled to America



freedom from the religious, economic, racial, or military oppression All these were protestants and nonconformists in the original at home. sense of these words, whether they were Catholics or Congregationalists.

for



They were a chosen people chosen to be kicked out from their native Whether our fathers came over in the "Mayflower" along with lands. a shipload of furniture and pewter ware or whether they came over later in the

more comfortable accommodations

of a steamer steerage,

it

was

mostly because they were considered undesirable citizens that they were forced or permitted to depart.

America their future

is

a chosen land

home by

native countries.

those

This

is

— selected out of

all parts of the world as desired or were obliged to leave their an honor that we should appreciate and

who

The United

States is a synthetic nation. Other Ours is the conscious and concountries "just growed," like Topsy. sidered creation of its people. European and Asiatic countries are

endeavor to deserve.

almost entirely populated by those

who were born

there

and did not

have energy enough to get away. Our population is largely composed of those who were not born here and had energy enough to come. W hat is called patriotism is sometimes not love of country but mere laziness. Our patriotism is less alloyed with this element than any other, for a r

Americans love America because they have lived here because they thought they would find it Americanism best; they stay here because they have found it best. is an elective course. Our form of government is no hand-me-down from a former gen-

large proportion of

elsewhere.

eration,

no

They came

misfit

borrowed from another land.

It is

made

to

measure

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

178

Our social system is more of a skin than a coat. is remade to fit. grows with us. Every man his own tailor is the law of democracy. The king of France said, "I am the state." It was a lie and they cut The American citizen says, "I am the state," and off his head for it. and It

it is

All men are monarchs. This develops a sense In other lands the people can complain, "Why don't In America we can only wonder, "Why don't we do it?"

the literal truth.

of responsibility.

they do it?"

Consequently the

first

lesson to be taught to

an immigrant

is

that

patriotism in the American sense is a different thing from Old World Americanism does not mean loyalty to a king; it does not patriotism. to a particular spot of ground; it does not mean conformity to a fixed code of customs it does not mean the perpetuation of traditional institutions; it does not mean the aversion to novel

mean attachment

;

and foreign ideas; it does not mean hostility toward those who differ from us. Americanism is one of the fine arts, the finest of all the fine arts, the We art of getting along peaceably with all sorts and conditions of men. Americans have had more experience in the practice of this art than other nations, and it is not undue boasting to say that we have acquired a certain proficiency in

it.

A

steel mill

may

contain twenty different

and they do not quarrel any more than so many Irishmen A city block is a map of Europe in miniaor Poles in their native land. The immigrants try to keep up their traditional antipathies, but ture. there are few Old World feuds that, if let alone, can resist the solvent nationalities

atmosphere of America. Their children when they go to school call each other names and stretch their little necks trying to look down on one another. And when they grow up they go into partnership or So scrapping and bargaining, quarreling and flirting, studying together and working together, they learn to know each other and become good Americans together, a happy family of wops, kikes, intermarry.

micks, dagoes, sheenies, Polacks, Dutchies, chinks, squareheads, niggers,

Yanks, crackers, hunkies, Heines, guinies, Japs, Canucks,

greasers, spigotties,

and

" frogs.

Saxon, Norman, and

Dane

are

we"

sang the

poet laureate in his ode to Alexandra. But our composite ancestry could not be put into any verse except free verse. Roosevelt was able

an audience of almost any nationality as kinsmen. from the rest of us more in knowledge of genealogy than

to address differed

He in

diversity of ancestry.

The greater the number of diverse races entering the United States the greater has become the unity of the country. "That blood is

UNITING THE UNITED STATES thicker than water''

is

170

trite saying. Perhaps it is true. But we that there is something thicker than blood;

a

know and have proved

that is printer> ink. Consanguinity is a weaker bond of union than community of thought and congeniality of spirit. Those who read the same journals are thinking the same thoughts. Those who think

A magazine with a million circulation is a together will act together. better bond of unity than the Constitution. Paper proves stronger than parchment whenever it comes to a tug between the two. In the light of our history and our social system we can define the distinguishing characteristics of Americanism and its opposite: Americanism

The

Anti-Americanism

Cosmopolitanism

Exclusiveness

Catholicity Eclecticism

Compulsory uniformity

Mobility

Solidification

true

Intolerance

American then

is

fond of travel and accustomed to associate

men of various nationalities; he not only tolerates views other than own but is anxious to hear them, and he selects from the ideas that

with his

come from

He

is

far or near those that

always eager to

tell

seem to him sensible and worth trying. some new thing, but it is the practical

or to hear

inquisitiveness of the Yankee, not the idle curiosity of the Athenian. The spirit of Americanism is not confined to any particular race,

language, land, creed, or form of government. Although "made in It may be exported. In fact it has been it is not patented. carried to the Old World by millions of missionaries, the immigrants

America"

who, having lived among us for a few years and imbibed something of the genius of the place, have returned to their native lands and implanted there certain of these New World notions. The traveler in Europe and Asia may happen anywhere upon Americanized individuals, Americanized homes, even Americanized towns. This reflex action of emigration is too often overlooked. In politics the American spirit finds expression in our unique comEach of our fortybination of diversity in unity, the federal system. eight states is a political experiment station whose new varieties of legislation

can be tried out on a small scale and

if

successful adopted

Where voluntary diversification is not permitted progress An effort is now being made, though not with the advice impossible.

elsewhere. is

and consent

of the Senate, to extend

to the world as a

whole

in the

form

something of our federal system of a League of Nations, but the

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

180

world does not seem ripe for

it

yet.

The anti-American

spirit

dom-

Europe and controls the making of the map. The allied powers, freed from American influence by the withdrawal of our representatives from Paris, are trying to herd the human race into separate corrals, with barbed-wire fences around each petty people, to draw boundary lines around those who claim the same ancestry, speak the same language, and profess the same creed. They aim to secure an artificial unity by inates

means

of a

crazy-quilt

compulsory uniformity. If they succeed they will restore the map of the Middle Ages before the world had been bound

together by rails and telegraph wires. All Europe seems mad with the mania of xenophobia. A dozen new nationalities have arisen, each

nation gathering her skirts about her to avoid contact with her neighbors. The smaller the

It is political sectarianism carried to the extreme.

country the more intense the nationalism. The new boundary lines Europe and Asia are being drawn in the spirit of hate.

of

The American love, not hate.

Our guiding

spirit is

would lay the foundations of a new state

in hope,

ideal is the opposite of this.

We

Holding that all men are equal we are willing to call them Our kind of nationalism is not exclusive. Our ideal of patriotism is not national selfishness; it is universal commonwealth. But all Americans are not yet Americanized, and it may be that the flood of reaction now sweeping over the world may even carry our own not fear. all

brothers.

The peace of Europe is being held back while it. and Jugo-Slavs are quarreling over the pronunciation of an " The Adriatic town, whether it should be called "Fiume" or "Rieka.

country away with Italians

point in dispute has narrowed to a strip of territory, barely twenty miles wide, between the boundary line now proposed by the supreme This strip contains forty council and that drawn by President Wilson.

thousand Slovenes and Croats who may not wish to be transferred to Italy. a curious coincidence forty thousand was the number of Slovenes

By

and Croats coming

to the

United States in a year before the war.

There

New York

City as there are in Fiume and they make themselves quite at home. Yet European statesmen waste their time over the childish puzzle of dissected maps, because they are ten times as

many

Italians in

have not discovered that

men

are not like mountains, but can move.

They say that the Balkan and to the

soil.

We

Baltic peoples are ineradicably attached in America know, on the contrary, that there are no

people more ready to move. If we consider the folks and not the land, as we should, we may say that one-third of Slovakia, one-fourth of Dalmatia, one-tenth of Greece, and one-fourth of Poland had voluntarily

UNITING THE UNITED STATES

181

annexed itself to the United States before the war. The rest might have come if they could have raised twenty-five dollars apiece to pay A few thousand dollars invested in steamer and for their passage. railroad tickets for free distribution would have solved many of the problems which brought the world into the war. If it is a question of territory, that

can be adjusted on the map. it for themselves

the people, they will settle

they

it is a question of allowed to go where

If if

like.

He can be made to stay in one place is a natural migrant. only by close confinement under a life-sentence at hard labor. As soon Run a railroad into any part of the as you release him he runs away.

Man

world where the people have been bound to the soil for centuries, say the interior of China, India, or Africa, and every train will be overpacked with natives moving to and fro. Americans have been ridiculed

and condemned because when they get rich and gain leisure they straightway become restless and roam about the world. But this migratory instinct that impulse is not an American failing but a normal human almost all men and an equal number of women display as soon as they In the halcyon days before the war a class are able to indulge in it. at the opposite end of the social scale from the millionaire, that is the common laborer, was freed from sedentary serfdom and he too became a seasonal migrant like the bird. Only the unfortunate middleman, who, chained to his plow or desk, had to have a home, was left to peruse the literature of tourism with longing eyes.

The Finnish miner divided

between the two hemispheres, spending part of the year in thousand and part in Pennsylvania or Wyoming. Our hundred Europe Italians lived under three flags: Argentinian, American, and Italian. During the five years ending with 1913 the average annual immigration The remigration was 118,058. For the into Argentina was 274,389. United States the immigration was 1,221,680 and the remigration was his time

That is, the net gain for both the United States and Argentina 516,649. was about 57 per cent of the total entrants. In 191 2 the United Kingdom lost 701,691 persons and gained 372,618, while the British colonies and dominions overseas gained 1,400,551 and lost 537,550. The flux and reflux of this liquid labor tended like the

movement

of capital to stabilize

conditions all over the world and contributed to the greater happiness

and prosperity of increasing numbers. Whenever or if ever the world settles down again friendly intercourse extensive than ever.

to peace and multitudinous migration will become more Mankind will then enter for a second time into the

this

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

182

stage, having passed some tedious centuries in attendance upon rooted vegetation. Mobility distinguishes the higher forms of Minerals are inert. Plants are stationary. creation from the lower. Animals are free. Man, having been endowed with legs instead of

nomadic

roots, should use all

them.

three dimensions

He

has

now

learned

and has already carried

how

to

move

swiftly in

his thoughts into

dreams

of a fourth.

It

That

is

American is at home wherever he hangs up his hat. when he hangs his hat on his own head. He is a true That does not mean that he loves all places equally.

said that an

true even

is

cosmopolite.

Quite the contrary, it is because he does not love all places equally that he moves about. This mobility though an American characteristic is not an American invention. We cannot get it patented, for it is merely a common, perhaps universal, human instinct that under American it has had a favorable chance to develop. However objectionable the hyphen may be we should remember

conditions

that is

it

the

indicates a process of welding, not a process of separation. It It points toward the step in the uniting of two nationalities.

first

toward the past.

The hyphenated American

is simply an no longer considered a compound word. An uncomplimentary member of Parliament recently " " alluded to Americans as a bastard race. But we glory in our multiple

future, not

American

in the

Anglo-Saxon

making.

is

We believe that every man has the right to choose his country. We have abolished hereditary nationality as we have abolished hereditary ancestry.

The European and even more the Asiatic idea was that a man's country was his fatherland, his patria, and that he could no more change it than he could renounce his parentage. The Yankee notion was that when a man came to maturity he had a right to choose a country

privilege.

as he chose a wife

and even, in case of permanent incompatibility of temper, to get a divorce. This free right of nationalization, which seems to us so natural that we call it "naturalization," was a strange and

when we

heretical notion

concede

We

it.

asserted

quarreled with

it.

them

European powers long refused all

to

through the nineteenth century

over this question and several times showed fight. Germany and Russia held out against us to the last, but now our battle is won and

probably nobody henceforth will dare dispute us when we assert that an adopted son of Uncle Sam is to be treated with as much respect as one of his

own

And

children.

we have won

it

canism from

false.

having won the battle for our own citizens That is the way we can tell true Ameri-

for the world. If

the principle

we

are fighting for can be applied

UNITING THE UNITED STATES

183

to the whole world then

it is truly American. The Kantian criterion When we won the Revolutionary applies to politics as well as ethics. War we released from British tyranny not only the thirteen colonies

but

all the British dominions beyond the seas. It is owing to George Washington that Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa are now admitted as equals to the Round Table of the Assembly of the

League of Nations. Those who hold to the antiquated idea that race determines nationality and that patriotism is a hereditary trait and can never be acquired are blinded by prejudice to the plain facts of history. It might in fact be easier to argue on the opposite side and to support the paradox that

movements in politics, war, or art are apt to The most fanatical exponent of pan-Germanism is Houston Chamberlain, an Englishman. Treitschke was of Bohemian the leaders of nationalistic

be alien ancestry.

blood, Nietzsche of Polish, and Moltke of Danish. O'Higgins, the national hero of Chile, bears anything but a Spanish name. Napoleon was from the island of Corsica and the empress Josephine from the island of Martinique.

Kossuth, the leader of Hungarian nationalism,

was not a Magyar but a Slav. Kosciusko, the Polish patriot, was born in Lithuania. Mazeppa, the father of Ukrainian nationalism, was a Pole. Bernadotte, the founder of the reigning Swedish dynasty, was a Frenchman. Alexander Hamilton, the exponent of American nationColumbus, who gave a new alism, was born in the island of Nevis. world to Spain, was an Italian. Disraeli, who originated British imperialism, was a Jew. Venizelos, to whom the expansion of Greece is due, is a Cretan by birth. Parnell, the Irish home ruler, was part Scotch and part American. Gladstone, the most typical of Englishmen, was Scotch. Wellington was Irish, so was Kitchener. Lloyd George is a Welshman if ever there was one. In the recent war we saw the British armies led by General French, the Russian by General Francois, and the German by General MackThe kings fighting against ensen, whose names suggest alien origin. Germany, except the Mikado, were largely of German blood. The French General Joffre is of Spanish descent. The Russian General Rennenkampff bears a German name. Russia has always drawn upon Alikhanoff, who planned the capture foreign talent for her generals. Nelikoff. who took of Merv, was Ali Khan before he was christened.

Kars, was a Georgian from the Caucasus. It would seem that the same rule holds in patriotism as in food, that acquired tastes are strongest.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

1 84

It is unnecessary to show how much that is characteristically American comes from other than Anglo-Saxon sources, but I will cite one instance from the field of art. Our National Academy of Design awards

every year three prizes for the promotion of American painting. These patriotic prizes are paid for by Julius Hallgarten, who directs that " they be given for three pictures painted in the United States by Ameri-

can citizens under thirty-five years of age."

The winners

of these

prizes for the last three years have been: 1918, Leopold Seyffert, Lazar Raditz, Feliz Russinann; 1919, Robert Strong Woodward, Ercole

Cartotto, Dines Carlsen; 1920, Armin Hanson, Kentaro Kato, John E. Costigan; only one of these distinctively American painters has an

Anglo-Saxon name.

am

not competent to evaluate the various contributions made in such arts as painting, music, drama, and literature, but I can speak with some authority and full appreciation on what they have contributed to culinary art. What would we do I

by our component races

without Hungarian goulash, French pastry, Irish stew, German delicatessen, Swiss cheese, Hindu curries, Spanish omelet, Mexican tamales, Italian macaroni, Indian corn, Russian tea, Turkish coffee, the English

mutton chop, and the Chinese chop suey ? Every alien who comes to us brings with him some gift to our commonwealth though often it is hidden from our gaze. His very foreignness is an advantage, for it prevents us from being provincial. It opens our eyes to the outside world. Each migrant as he moves spins out behind him like a spider an invisible thread connecting his old home with his new. Along these threads pass ideas, impulses, and trade, and so the nations are netted together in a web of common comprehension and mutual interests. At the time when the thirteen colonies became one nation about 14 per cent of the population were not of Anglo-Saxon-Irish blood. of the foreign-born in the United States has not increased

The percentage

with increasing immigration.

It has not varied 1 per cent from 14 per cent in the last sixty years. There were eighteen different languages spoken in New York when the city was incorporated in 1653. Now

more than twice as many, but the population is five thousand times as great. There are 1,575 foreign- language journals published in the United States in thirty-eight different tongues with a total circulation of more

there are

than ten million. certain suspicion

The mono-lingual American is apt to look with a upon the papers with outlandish typography that he

UNITING THE UNITED STATES

185

on the news stands in our cities. Yet those who can read the them tell us that they contain less sedition than certain Incredible as it may seem to some this spirit of our English journals. of Americanism will stand translation into another Language or transsees

strangest of

Madame de Stael said that he who learned new language acquired a new soul. But this does not necessarily mean A common language is a great bond of that he loses his own soul.

portation into another land. a

unity, but the acquisition of There are better

an uncommon language does not imply

ways of proving our patriotism than by everything that we cannot read ourselves. It is not

disloyalty.

the boycott of necessary for state legislatures to prohibit the teaching of foreign languages in our colleges, for the students do not learn enough to hurt them.

Our aim

is,

not merely to overcome the disadvantages of our com-

posite nationality, but to take advantage of it, to make the most of the immigrant by using him to spread Americanism and get a line on other

One hundred years ago, when George Tichnor of Harvard decided to go to a German university to study, he could not find anyone He heard that there was a German dictionary to teach him German. nations.

in

New Hampshire and

or

Korean you would

sent for

it.

Now

if

you wanted to study Basque But we have not availed

find a teacher at hand.

ourselves as fully as we might of our unique opportunity to learn the other half of humanity lives and thinks.

how

baffling, the most discouraging of all our problems is that where race prejudice is manifested in its most violent and Yet even here we have not wholly failed. In spite of lawless form.

The most

of the negro,

our harsh treatment of colored people they are flocking to the United States by thousands from the British West Indies, where they are neither

But I prefer to draw my proofs of the AmeriI will retell canization of the negro from fiction rather than figures. two war stories. In our Philippine war a shipload of colored troops lynched nor ostracized.

was sent

to Manila.

called out: replied:

''Hello,

As they disembarked a white soldier on the dock Sambo, what are you all doing here?" The negro

'T'se helping bear de white

mans

burden, sah."

And

so he

was.

In the late war, where black and white Americans charged the Gerlines side by side, one of our colored regiments was quartered next

man

French army. An American negro attempted with his African brother but found that he could not

to the Senegalese of the to fraternize

The Afro-American was incredulous. "Don" tell been oveh heah so long you done fohgot yuh own language!"

understand him.

me you

1

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

86

English was his own language. continent is no longer an African.

Hausa was

He

The negro on our

is

The Great War proved the unity of and to the surprise

comfiture of our enemies

not.

an American. the United States to the

too

dis-

of the pessimists within our

Never in the history of the United States did the people of this country enter a war with such unanimity of mind and give it such united support. In the days when "an Englishman named George Washington took up arms against a German king called George III" we gates.

were very far from being united. A large and influential part of the population took the Tory side and all through the Revolution the country was torn by dissensions. The War of 1812 was a sectional war.

was approved by a bare majority in Congress, and New England threatened to secede because of it. The Mexican War, which to the It

people of the Far West,

is

war

their

of liberation

from a worse than

Georgian tyranny, was regarded with abhorrence in the North. Lowell wrote the Biglow Papers to prevent recruiting. He would have been

put

in prison for

twenty years

he had done that now.

if

The popular

song of the day was: Go, go, go

Mr. Polk, you know, Bids you fight and kill and quell, Cut their throats and make them Send their spirits down to hell, Conquer Mexico

yell,

!

Webster threatened President Polk with impeachment and was thanked by the Mexican government for his favor. A Boston journal said that it would be a joy to hear that every American soldier in Mexico was swept into the next world. In the Civil War the country was not merely rent in twain, but neither side was unified at first. There were seceders from secession in the South, while in the North the abolitionists agreed for once with their enemies, the pro-slavery men, in opposing a war for the preservation of the Union. Edward Everett said: "If our sister states must leave us, in the

name

"A Word

of

heaven

let

them go

in

peace," and Whittier in his

poem

"Pity, forgive, but urge them back no more." All through the war the copperheads and pacifists were active and well organized. The disloyal order, the Knights of the Golden for the

Hour" wrote:

one time numbered nearly a million and could mobilize an men. When conscription was adopted a mob ran amuck in New York City for four days with the connivance of the

Circle, at

armed

force of 340,000

UNITING THE UNITED STATES

187

An orphan asylum was burned down, and in the streets men and women joined in torturing and hanging and dismembering

authorities.

innocent persons.

In

New York

City alone more than a thousand

people lost their lives and more than a million and a half dollars' worth of property was destroyed by the draft riots. There were no riots

anywhere when the draft was applied in the present war. The opposition to our war with Spain was furious at the time and has not yet altogether died out. Two regiments of the New York The House militia, the Seventh and Thirteenth, refused to serve. and the Senate were long deadlocked on the question of supporting the President.

Not only was the United States more united than on any previous declaration of war, but it was more united than England was when she The British Cabinet was divided and three members of the entered. Morley, Burns, and Trevelyan, resigned rather than consent to participation in the continental conflict. The question was never put to Parliament, but it is evident that there were more members

government,

in the

House

of

Commons opposed

to entering the war,

than in the House of Representatives, April

August

3,

1914,

The opposition day. The London

3, 191 7.

was outspoken up to the very last Daily Chronicle of August 3 said: "Truth to tell, the issues which have precipitated the conflict which threatens to devastate the whole of in the British press

Europe are not worth the bones of a single soldier." And on August 4 the Manchester Guardian said: "We hold it to be a patriotic duty for all good citizens to oppose to the utmost the participation of this country in the greatest crime of

our time."

The and

participation of Italy was preceded by violent political conflicts riotous demonstrations for and against the war. In the Italian

Chamber

of Deputies there were seventy-four votes against House of Representatives.

war instead

of the fifty in our

It appears, then, that America engaged in this world-war with greater unanimity than the other nations that entered of their own free will, and we fought it through with a single-mindedness never before

manifested in our history. There were fewer extreme opponents to In England there were the war in America than in other countries. 6,135 conscientious objectors to conscription; in the United States, with more than double the population, only 2,294. There were no mutinies at the front among the American troops as there were among It was not necessary the French, Italian, Austrian, and Russian troops. to intern or expel all the alien enemies as was done in Australia, Canada,

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

1 88

Germany, and France. up

There was no case of incendiarism or blowing enemy aliens in the United States,

of munition plants traced to

although our newspapers reported such crimes every day. There were no such internal disorders as occurred in the United Kingdom, Australia, Italy,

Germany, Austria, and Russia.

There was no such complete

alteration of administration in the United States as in every other had the fewest cabinet changes of any government belligerent.

We

during the war. We had no such revolution as Germany, AustriaHungary, and Russia. We had no attempted secessions, as in the

United Kingdom, the Union of South Africa, Belgium, Russia, Austria, Germany, and Turkey. No nation was ever before put to such a strain as ours in the Great War, for none ever contained so many representatives of the belligerent Our national nationalities, yet none proved more stable and strong. motto was not true when it was adopted, but it is now. At last the American people, regardless of racial diversity, can say with sincerity: United we stand.

JOSEPH BOND By

T.

W. GOODSPEED

The branch of the Bond family from which Joseph Bond was deits home in Bury St. Edmunds, in Suffolk County, England, where King Canute built his great monastery, celebrated for its "magnificence and splendor." There lived Jonas Bond three hundred and more years ago. He had three grandsons who were brothers, all of whom migrated to the New World. These were Thomas, William, and John.

scended had

The

first of

these settled in Maryland.

made

home

William, an "educated mer-

Watertown, Massachusetts. John Bond, born in England in 1624, was first mentioned in the records of Newburv, Massachusetts, in 1642, so that he must have come to America in his The records of the town show that on August 5, 1649, he early youth. chant,"

his

in

married Hester Blakely, and that among their children was John, born After 1660 the family moved to Rowley, where a farm v 1650.

in

bought, and they later settled in Haverhill, where the father died in The son John became a farmer in Beverly and with his younger 1675. brother Joseph was out fighting in King Philip's War in 1676. His son Edward was born in 17 14. Hitherto the branch of the Bond family

with which this narrative has to do had for a hundred years confined itself to the one county of Essex, the northeasternmost of the counties of Massachusetts.

Edward Bond broke away from

ment and migrated state.

place,

A

little after

and the

the

home

environ-

to the village of Leicester near the center of the

1760 we find him keeping the public house in t house by tire in January, 1767, 1

total destruction of the

was an event

of such general interest as to find a place in the record- of

the village.

He was

in

a selectman of the town.

Hi- -orn

1743, married Elizabeth Harrod, the daughter of an officer in the

Revolution.

Among

their sons

was David, who was born

in 1778.

He devo

himself as he grew up to farming in Brimfield, Hampden County, and in Hardwick, in the same county of Worcester which had been the home

and grandfather. Hi- son Benjamin was horn in BrimJune 6, 1814. He, after reaching manhood, became a farmer in the town of Ware in Hampshire County, not more than a dozen miles from his boyhood home in Hardwick. He bought hi- farm about 1833,

of his father field,

189

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

l9

when he was nineteen years

He

old,

and made

it

home

for fifty-seven

He was

twice married

his

died in 1894, at the age of eighty. and had a family of six sons and two daughters. years.

His second wife was

Louisa Eaton, a lineal descendant of Francis Eaton, who came over in the "Mayflower" in 1620. Francis Eaton was one of the signers of the

famous "agreement" entered into by the Pilgrim Fathers before they landed on Plymouth Rock. He signed for himself, his wife Sarah, and his son "Samuell." Governor Bradford records that the son was a "sucking child," from which one infers that Francis Eaton was probably one of the very youngest of that company of famous Fathers. His first wife died early and he married twice after her death, he himpassing away only thirteen years after the landing, but leaving four children. From one of them was descended Louisa Eaton, the self

mother of Joseph Bond, of whom this sketch is written. He was the second son of his mother and the fifth of his

father.

The

Mrs. Bond had three sons, and the second had three sons and two daughters. Joseph Bond was born on the Ware farm, February 13, first

He felt himself peculiarly rich in brothers. One of his early 1852. teachers asked his class one day, "What do farmers raise?" and Joseph, promptly answered, "Boys!" In the first group of boys were Nelson, Sylvester, and David; and in the second, Rufus,

raising his hand,

Joseph, and Henry.

The town of Ware is situated on the river Ware, halfway between Worcester on the east and Springfield on the southwest, about thirtyfive miles from each. It has grown to be an important manufacturing point and the state.

is

the nearest place of any considerable size to the center of on the elevated plateau east of the Berkshire Hills.

It is

This table-land has a mean altitude of 1,100 feet above the sea, though the village of Ware is 600 feet lower, an illustration of the diversities of level



of that whole region low-lying meadows along the rivers and smaller water courses, climbing, sometimes gradually, often abruptly, to lofty hills and uplands. It forms a bench between the lowlands toward the

coast and the mountainous country bordering the Hudson River. Thus, while this part of central Massachusetts is called a plateau

and lacks

some measure the charm and variety of the Berkshires and and sublimity of the Taconic Mountains of western Massachusetts, it is a most delightful country of small rivers and brooks, The farm of Benjamin Bond hills, valleys, villages, farms, and forests. lay two miles north of the village of Ware on a high table-land, so in

the ruggedness

elevated that

it

overlooked the surrounding country in

all directions,

JOSEPH BO.\D

iqi

It was a presenting views of diversified picturesqueness and beauty. Over the hill was the schoolhouse where the dairy farm of 150 acres.

Bond boys and

girls

began

their education.

The

soil of

the old

Bay

State was sandy or stony, but it was unsurpassed in richness for producing the men who have built into greatness the American CommonOn the hill farm of Ware the six boys of farmer Bond grew wealth.

manhood. The father was a man of great common sense wisdom that his counsel was often sought by his He was physically strong, stalwart, active, and none of his neighbors. six sons could ever beat him in a foot race until he had passed threescore years and ten. One of his sons says of him that he was a strong man intellectually and physically. His little finger was bigger than the thumb of any of his sons after they grew to manhood. He was a kind, thoughtful, and loving father, and his six sons all looked up to him and respected him, so that his word was always law to them. He was of a strong religious character and was a deacon in the Baptist church till the meeting-house was burned, when, the house not being into stalwart

and

of such practical

he took his family to the Congregational church. He taught a Sunday-school class for many years. He maintained the custom of family worship. Deeply religious, he was the companion and leader of rebuilt,

his sons.

He

never said

into their sports

"Go!"

and they were naturally devoted

down to old age. The mother being of

''Come!" He entered and pitched quoits with them, him. He retained his activity and

to them, but

and games, ran

races, to

vigor

like spirit

with the father, the large family was

admirably brought up under strong, wise, affectionate, Christian disciThe children were unusually fond of each other, and there were pline. of them and things enough to do to make their youth exceedThe labors of the farm with so many hands to help ingly interesting. were not too burdensome. Their number made it possible for them to avail themselves of all the schooling the country schools afforded. They

enough

were fortunate in living in a region which was a wonderful boys' country. In the In summer and autumn the woods and streams invited them. winter there was coasting on the hills and skating on the river and

There were manhood memories of a dog, the companion and and amuseplayfellow of the boys and a continuous occasion of interest used to tell with joyful remembrance of the day when ment.

ponds.

Joseph

woods for a day's fun, treed a gray Like true boys they determined to capture it alive and take home and tame it. Joseph, ten years old, climbed the tree to

he, with his brother Rufus, in the squirrel. it

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

1 92

dislodge their prey, while Rufus, the next older than himself, remained below to capture him. Joseph followed him out on a limb and succeeded in shaking him off. As he came down, Rufus, careless of consequences, caught him with his bare hands as he "would a baseball." He

was, of course, badly bitten, but held on, and the young hunters carried their captive home in triumph and made a pet of him. Brought up in the country on a farm, these brothers were not without the joy of life and the fun boys ought to have. Mr. David Bond, the second older brother of Joseph, still lives in Ware. He has drawn for me so true a picture of life on a Massachusetts farm sixty years ago that I cannot forbear giving it to my readers.

Our

lives

were so closely linked together that

I

cannot take one out by

itself.

My

In our family were six boys and two girls, who were the youngest. two older brothers were in the Civil War during those four years, and I was anxious to go but was too young. We first went to the district school. I remember it was sometimes difficult to reach the schoolhouse, as the hill down which would have to sit school would be covered with ice.

we went across lots to the down and make a hole in ice with our heel and draw ourselves down to that and then make a hole with other heel and draw ourselves down to that, and so on till we reached the foot

We

the the

of the

hill.

We

You

could hardly call it rapid transit. much time for play, for when we reached

did not have

home

there would be

In winter there would be wood to chop, but in the evenings we would crack nuts, pop corn, play checkers, etc. In the summer after our work was done we would run and see who would get first to the swimming pool, half a mile away, or we the chores to do.

We

would try high jumping, pitching quoits, the three-legged race, etc. were strong, were active boys, always ready for fun, and liked to play tricks on each other. so far from town we did not have other boys to play with, but depended on each

We

other and were happy by ourselves. [Here is another squirrel story.]

We

used to hunt grey squirrels and always had had gone ahead in the carriage to church and we boys were to follow on foot. As we were walking along through the woods we saw a squirrel run into his hole in a tree. In those days we wore high-topped boots reaching half way up to the knee. One of us took off a boot and clapped it over the hole. Another climbed the tree to a hole higher up and with a long stick we gave him managed to drive the squirrel into the boot, which we then pinched together and we had him safely. By this time it was too late to go to church. [The father, on his return from church, was placated without serious consequences.] At another time we had been reading about how Daniel Boone practiced snuffing a candle with a rifle ball so that he could hit a deer's eye in the night. In some way we got hold of an old pistol, and after father had gone to town in the evening on some errand we boys would go up to our bedroom, take the tallow candle that was in use those days, and, placing it on a chair at one side of the room, try with out pistol to snuff it out. The walls to this day bear the marks of the bullets. About that time we four younger boys formed the B.A.C. the Bond Agricultural Club. We adopted a constitution and by-laws, elected officers, and held regular

one

in the house.

One Sunday

father



JOSEPH BOND

193

monthly meetings. At these meetings we held discussions and debates. Late: made an older brother, who had returned from the war, married, and settled in Ware, an honorary member. We often met at his house and had merry times, for he and bis wife were not lacking in the spirit of fun. life on the old farm.

The above

is

a true account of our every-

day

These boys naturally developed the virtues cans.

They inherited the tendencies Thus they grew up clean, ancestors. unlike in their aptitudes and

of virile

of a long

line

young Ameriof

God-fearing

strong, high minded, but quite ambitions. Joseph, the younges

but one, early developed a taste for and a purpose to seek

He was fifteen War and began to

career.

years old

when

a business

the country emerged from the

Civil aorgather itself together for entering thai dinary business expansion in railroad building, manufacturing, inven(

and combining capital for large enterprises commerce which during the past half-century have transformed our national life. His mind responded to the new spirit of the time- and he became a part of the new age in which he found himself growing up. He was too young to enter the Civil War, but he saw his older brother, Nelson, a student in Amherst College, and Sylvester, who was tion, building great cities,

in

Monson Academy,

leave their books to fight for their country. eager to get into the world's work, he went with his uncle Darius Eaton to learn the mason's trade. The uncle lived in

When

he was

fifteen,

three miles away, but the boy, continuing to live at home, walked the work in the morning, carrying his lunch, and back

three miles to his

home

at night. It was not his purpose to remain a mason, but he wisely reasoned that a good trade to fall back upon, if necessary, would be a valuable asset. He continued in this apprenticeship between two and

three years, when he concluded that if he ever found his way into business as he fully intended to do, he must acquire a greater knowledge of

life,

books.

All his older brothers

1868 Rufus had been a student

had been in

in college or academic-.

Kimball Union Academy,

at

In

Meriden,

New Hampshire. This was one of the feeders of Dartmouth College and was located about one hundred and twenty-five miles due north Ware, the home of the Bonds. His brother brought back so good a report of Kimball that in the fall of 1869 Joseph made his way the -inIntent on a business life he gave his studies a business directii among other things the study of accounting. Returning home, the next two years, his eighteenth and nineteenth. were spent on the farm and in working at his trade, in which he had become an expert. He had, however, no intention of following his trade ning

l

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

94

permanently. He earned large wages for that day and his father urged him to be content with what was one of the best-paid trades in the country. But his heart was set on a business career. He was always a modest man, but it needed no vanity to assure him that his brain

would carry him incomparably farther than manual labor alone. He had before his eyes in the industries of his home town, Ware, growing manufacturing establishments, illustrations of the business possibilities of the new era succeeding the Great War. He was not overwhelmed by with a feeling of his own incompetence and a mere boy, brought up on a farm, a worker with his hands, but he had an irremovable conviction that what he was made for was the management of big business. He did not talk about

what he saw

of big business

He was

insignificance.

it

but

it

was always

in his

mind, as every step in his subsequent

career proves. He had the sense, however, to see that in

must

mounting that ladder he

bottom, and he was on the lookout for an opportunity to get his foot on the lowest rung, confident that if he could do this he could make his way toward the top. Of this period his brother David start at the

says: After I had bought the at home, Joseph told

me

Waltham Grain

he would

Store and before I took possession, while he did not wish to be tied to

like a business life as

Father tried to argue him out of this notion, but Joseph seemed to be set in

a trade.

Waltham I received a letter from him asking me to find some business house. I went up to Richardson Brothers' hardware store and asked for Mr. Richardson. The man I found there told me the partners were out and asked if he could do my business. I told him I had a brother who wanted a place in which he could grow up. This man was Mr. Pierce. He said that he was, just then, out of business, but was looking for a place, and if he found one would want a young man such as I had described Joseph to be. He asked me further if I knew of any stove and tin store for sale. I answered yes, and spoke of the Marsh Stove Store in Ware. He said he would go and see it, which he did, and bought it. The next time I saw him he told me he wanted my brother and after he took possession of the store he wrote me to have my brother call on him. I therefore wrote Joseph and told him to go to the Marsh store and I thought he would get a position. He went and that was when and where he first met Mr. Pierce. his plans.

a place for

life.

After I went to

him

in

This meeting was one of the most important events in Mr. Bond's He was still a boy, just arriving at his twentieth year. Mr. J. B.

Pierce

was much the

older,

but between the boy and the

man

a most

unusual attachment grew up which united them for life. This meeting changed and gave final direction to the current of the boy's life, and was

no

less

eventful for the man.

meeting that

it

made an

So important, indeed, was this first on the older man's mind

indelible impression

JOSEPH BOM)

195

and he recalled it distinctly thirty years later. For young Bond fairly To show thai this precipitated himself on the new owner of the store. is not an extravagant statement and to give the story of the extraordinary friendship that resulted I quote the words of Mr. Pierce, who. after telling

how he had

just

bought the business

for $2,800, continues:

After a week or two had passed and the people in town had become reconciled to the change, I found it was necessary for me to have assistance and in BOme way I

made

the fact known.

A

few days thereafter,

late

one afternoon, the door opened

I looked up and saw a boy, a young man, coming quickly. store toward my desk as if he had been shot out of a gun.

down

the center of the

My first impulse was to get out of the way and let him go by, but he managed to stop himself in season to avoid a collision and made himself known and stated his errand. True to his instinct, even at that early day, he was the first applicant for the place, the first on the ground. Through our conversation I learned he was at that time earning $3 00 a day, but was ready to quit if he could only obtain some opportunity to begin a business life, regard.

compensation, even in opposition to the wishes of some of his people. It did not take me long to decide that in him was the material I wanted. Monday, February 12, 1872, the day before his twentieth birthday, Joseph Hond

less of

first year was $350.00. On August began work on the books, and subsequent to that date all the posting was done by him and nearly all the day-book entries were also made by him During the few months we were together in that little store there was formed a tie, a bond of affectionate esteem, that could be severed but once and in only one way. He came to board with me and we went to business in the mornIn business ing together and came home to our boarding-place together at night. and out of business we were together. After our day's work was done and we had returned to our home we usually read the Boston paper. We could afford but one, so

began 1

his life-work with

following, he

made his

me.

His salary for the

his urgent request

by tearing it in half and exchanging sheets. During these evenings discussed various subjects and I was much interested, as well as amused,

that suffice

together

by

by

we

account of a recent

trip he

had made

to the

Hoosac Tunnel, the

farthest west

he had been up to that time. He was so enthusiastic in regard to it that everything seemed to begin and end with some account of, or some mention of, that trip. I can

and the weeks at Ware as among the happiest of my had an opportunity to sell out and quickly at epted, leaving Joseph to start off the new firm for a few weeks and to settle up some of my own matters, while I started out to find some new and more satisfactory location in a larger field, better suited to the ambition of both, intending to call him to me as soon awas able to find a location or business that would warrant it.

now life.

recall the hours, the days,

In February,

'73, I

>

I

Such was the beginning of a very exceptional friendship that continued with increasing mutual confidence and regard to the end of Mr. Bond's life. Mr. Pierce was the elder by nine or ten years, a man of Mr. Pierce nearly or quite thirty when the younger man was twenty. had some business experience and a little capital. Each recognized business abilities in the other that supplemented his own. They believed in

themselves and in each other.

Both were ambitious.

They had been

the university record

iq6

drawn together

into a unique friendship and they agreed to reunite soon as circumstances permitted. Their plans were temporarily interfered with by the changed circumstances of both the friends. Mr. Pierce failed to find the new business location he was looktheir fortunes as

ing for and Mr. Bond accepted a clerkship in Waltham, Massachusetts, in the hardware store of Richardson Brothers. In two years his un-

usual business ability

won him a

partnership and the firm became

Richardson and Bond. Air. Bond was twenty-three years old, in vigorous health, and possessed of extraordinary energy and initiative combined with unusual executive ability. The business prospered. The firm dealt principally in builders' hardware, but added to this many related lines of goods.

Waltham was becoming a manufacturing town and growing into a The business was a good one, with prospects of reasonthriving city. able and permanent success. It looked as though Waltham might be Mr. Bond's permanent home, and he entered heartily into the life of the town. It was here that his openly confessed religious life began and he connected himself with the First Baptist Church, of which, though a young man, he became a pillar during his residence of eight years in

Waltham.

He was made an

officer of

the

Sunday

school,

became a

teacher of the men's Bible class, and was active and influential in the life of the church, exhibiting in his religious life the enthusiasm and energy that from the beginning characterized him in business. It

appears to have been the members of the Waltham Fire Departset the example in our country of striking and leaving the

ment who

community unprotected. Among the citizens who volunteered to fill their places was Mr. Bond, who served for more than a year as a member of Hose Company No. 4. At the end of five years, in 1880, he found the retail hardware business too restricted to satisfy his ambition and, selling his interest in Richardson and Bond, he associated himself with the Union Manufactur-

Company of New Britain, Connecticut. He said to one of his brothers-in-law in explaining this business change, "It requires no more effort to sell a carload of goods than to sell a single bolt or lock." He ing

evidently made this change as one of the steps he must take in developing, as he was determined to do, from a retail merchant into a manufacturer and wholesaler. During his continuance in the new business

he

made his home in Waltham. The Waltham period was a very memorable one

still

there achieved the first ambition of his

life

in his

life.

He

in establishing himself in

JOSEPH BOND Thi- was no

business.

Mr. Pierce once told

less gratifying

this story,

197

than to himself.

to his father

showing the deep affection Mr. Bond's

father cherished for his son and the high hopes he entertained for his While the son was still a clerk in Waltham Mr. Pierce said: future. '

I

met

his father

on the train near Orange, Massachusetts.

Our con-

versation naturally turned toward Joseph, and among other things, and with a voice trembling with emotion, he said, 'Mr. Pierce, Joseph it"

ever has an opportunity he will

make

his

mark

in

opportunity came in Waltham. He improved three was partner in a promising busin, first

the world.' it

His

and at twenty-

Another thing that made the Waltham period memorable was his Among the young people of the church he made the acquaintance of a most attractive young woman, Miss Mary Adelia Mutual attachment was followed by an engagement, which, at Olney. marriage.

It is said the end of three years, in 1870, resulted in their marriage. that all the Olneys in the United States spring from a single family which came from England in 1635. Olney, the town which was long

the home of the family in the mother-country, situated in the northern part of the county of Buckingham, may be found in any good map of

England.

Thomas Olney, born

in the adjacent county of Hertford, came to this "Planter" in 1635 an ^ settled in Salem. Massachusetts. Sympathizing with the views of Roger Williams, he was banished with

country

in the ship

him and became one of the thirteen original "proprietors" of ProviHe was chosen the first treasurer of the new dence, Rhode Island. He was made a commissioner to form a town government for colony. Providence and a judge. He was one of the grantees of the royal He was one of the charter granted to Rhode Island by Charles II. founders of the First Baptist Church of Providence and for a time v It is evident that he was a acting pastor of that now ancient church. leading spirit in that infant colony of political and religious her The historians have called him a "manager of men." Charles Olney, of the eighth generation from Thomas, the Providence magnate, was born in Watertown, New York, in 1833, in 1858 married Julia A. Havnes. and in i860 moved to Waltham. Massachusetts, and became connected with the Waltham Watch Company, continuing with He had four children. Th that company through the rest of his life. were two sons, Lewis, now of New York, and Charles, who itry of the Waltham Watch Company, and two daughter-, one of whom married Dr. Emory W. Hunt, an eminent Baptist clergyman and

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

198

educator, now president of Bucknell University. As has already been told, the other daughter, Mary Adelia, became the wife of Mr. Bond

when he was twenty-seven years old. Another thing that made the Waltham period memorable was an acute illness that brought

complete and

all

Mr. Bond's plans

to

sudden and apparently

He was

stricken with Bright's disease. His not to exceed two more years of life. They assured

final ruin.

physicians gave him him that to prolong his

life even two years he must abandon his business and betake himself to Poland Springs, Maine, for prolonged rest and treatment. The opinions and advice were so positive and final that he could not disregard them without the fear that he would incur the guilt This overthrow of his hopes and plans occurred in 1880, of suicide. the year following his marriage. He sold his business, and having by this time accumulated sufficient means to indulge himself in the rest and treatment prescribed, went to the Springs to drink the waters and take the one chance in a thousand left him to prolong his life. What, meantime, had become of Mr. Pierce and the plans the two men had formed to become permanently associated ? They had never lost sight of each other, but Mr. Pierce had found great difficulty in reToward the end of 1873 he had made establishing himself in business.

a start in Buffalo, but the panic of that year interfered with his progress and he had, as he says, "ample occupation, physically and mentally,

keep above" the general wreck and ruin that surrounded him. "Years passed before I sufficiently recovered and was in a position to call Joseph to my aid." The time for their reunion seemed to have to

breakdown, in the summer of that a conference. The two men went together to Bradford, Pennsylvania, with a view of opening there a hardware and general supply store, but after a thorough investigation decided that the field was too small. They separated, but with the old purpose still strong in their hearts to go into business together as soon

come

year,

as the

and a little before Mr. Bond went to Buffalo

his

in 1880,

way opened.

ness friendship.

had been, "I

Theirs was,

Mr. Bond's

am

ready to

for

if

such a thing can be, a romantic busi-

word to his older friend as they parted come when you say the word." In conlast

tinuing the story Mr. Pierce said: In the summer of '81, through a little I

thought

I could detect signs that the

the clouds of business depression, we had waited years was at

In a few days he was there. Though his months to live and of this time much had already me seemed to give him new life, and he was as full of energy and

hand, and I wrote him to come to Buffalo. physician had given

rift in

time for which

him but

six

passed, his coming to enthusiasm as if in perfect health.

JOSEPH BOM) The year previous

had

IQO

on leased ground a little shop of second-hand lumber, costing, complete, about five hundred dollars, and had begun making steel I

Here we made the

boilers.

Under

this

name and

built

first

home

in these

of the Pierce

Steam Seating Company.

humble quarters the two

friends

became

partners.

Mr. Bond did not die, as the doctors predicted. The treatment he had taken and the regimen to which he had subjected himself had benefited him beyond belief and he had returned to business with a courage few men could have commanded. He willed to be well enough to work; but he was never again, during the twenty years he continued to live, a well man. He lived on a prescribed diet. He drank always and everywhere, at home and abroad, the same kind of water. Customs Europe found it quite incredible that a traveler should be carrying bottles of water about the continent, where there was wine or beer or vodka to drink. Never again well, he was often very ill, officials in

but he prosecuted his business with tremendous, quite unbelievable, energy.

In 1882 he took his family to Buffalo.

A

daughter, Elfleda, had

been born in Waltham, and later another, Louise, was born which remained the home of the family for ten years.

in Buffalo,

Mr. Bond soon recognized the new opening in Buffalo as the great opportunity of which he had long dreamed. His business gifts were of the highest order. His organizing and executive talents were of the sort that

command

success.

As has been intimated, the business

qualities of

one partner complemented those of the other. Mr. Pierce was conHe was apparently servative, perhaps slow to seize opportunities. content to allow his business to develop slowly. Mr. Bond was aggres-

He

sive.

wished to push the business to the utmost.

He was

con-

stantly on the lookout for new openings through which it might be developed. All this is perfectly apparent in the following statement made by Mr. Pierce in speaking of the extraordinary kindliness of Mr.

Bond's disposition. He said: ''Impatient at times I may have been, while striving to hold in check his almost resistless energy, or while veering this way or that, to avoid the ruts in the highway of our progress." is a most illuminating picture of the characteristics and relationtwo men: one perhaps ultra-conservative, suspicious of too rapid

This of the

development, a

little afraid,

way

of

at

first,

of tackling big business;

the other

welcoming development, afraid of nothing in the Neither had, hitherto, had anything to legitimate progress.

eager, progressive,

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

200

do with big business. Mr. Bond not only sought and welcomed it. but, as it came, grew into it easily, naturally, as men born with the inAnd large development was not slow in stinct for large affairs do.

coming to the new firm. This business led in no It began by manufacturing steel boilers. long time within a few months, in fact to the necessity for manuThe two lines of business belonged together. facturing steam radiators. Each was incomplete and was conducted at a disadvantage without the Various efforts were made to get the radiators made by outside other. manufacturers. These efforts failing, the two partners, with orders, and indeed with contracts, on hand, faced a serious situation. Finally they sat down in their office, took their pencils, and made a sketch of the radiator they wanted and took it to the best pattern-maker in Buffalo and had a pattern made. This they patented and went out to





get

it

manufactured.

At every foundry in Buffalo they their real difficulties began. were told that radiators could not be made from the pattern. "At all the

Then

largest

and best foundries

in

Boston" they were told the same thing.

Undismayed, they leased a little foundry in Westfield, Massachusetts, These were indirect radiators. and made the radiators themselves. During the next two or three years the business so increased that orders could not be filled through the small foundry at Westfield and it was found necessary to build a much larger one in Buffalo. "The union of conservative business ability and executive enterprise soon gave evidence of progress toward a wider sphere and a greater business accomplishment." This growth of business in indirect radiators soon led to a demand for direct radiators. Patterns were made and obstacles were again encountered. "A representative manufacturer, who was considered a high authority in all matters pertaining to cast-iron radiators,"

made, "as he had repeatedly tried But Mr. Bond would not be discouraged and pushed on to success where others had failed. This success in the field of direct heat radiation led to a rapid and large expansion in the business, and the firm was soon enjoying large The growth of the business was almost bewildering. The prosperity. told the partners they could not be

it

and

failed."

partners were fairly driven to one step of expansion after another. The senior partner acknowledging that a "kind Providence outlined the " way." makes this naive confession: Blindly, almost stupidly, I followed, because I was only compelled to, though contesting to the utmost every step."

One cannot help connecting

this

with that other confession as

JOSEPH BOND

201

to his impatience, while striving to held in check

Mr. Bond's "almost

resistless energy.''

Mr. Bond had charge of the outside work. He got the orders which Mr. Pierce, in charge of the manufacturing plant, tilled. Mr. Bond had an extraordinary gift for securing business. It was this gift and the driving force behind it that caused his partner so much concern.

One who knew the facts at first hand told the writer how on one occasion Mr. Bond brought in two very large orders and his partner broke out in

sudden consternation,

We

"How

can't possibly execute

could you do such a thing as that? of such magnitude on time."

two orders

These expostulations were received with serenity and with the suggestion that they look into the matter thoroughly and see what they could do. A day or two of reflection and examination and discussion

made

it clear that the works were quite equal to the demand made upon them and the orders were filled on time. Mr. Bond was constant lv reaching out after new business and pushing forward and was rec-

ognized by all who were familiar with the facts as the "money maker'' of the concern. If Mr. Pierce's conservatism held Mr. Bond's resi-t 1

energy in check to some extent, the executive genius of the latter carried In 1889 it was incorpothe concern on to larger and ever larger success. rated with Mr. Bond as treasurer and a capital of $150,000. In this year also, Mr. Bond, accompanied by Mrs. Bond, made his abroad. Always frail after his breakdown in 1880, he found

first trip

But he made this period of travel himself in imperative need of rest. It will be rest minister to his business as well as to his health.

and

recalled

by

older readers that the first steam

and hot-water radiators

were far from attractive in design and were not regarded as decorative One of the objects of Mr. Bond's first trip abroad, therefurnishings.

was the obtaining of improved designs to make the radiator more and decorative so that, instead of diminishing, it would incn the attractiveness of any room. England, France, and other count ri were visited. Several months were spent agreeably and profitably. Mr. Bond's health was improved; new and more arti>tic designs were brought back; and the conception of extending the business to foreign

fore,

artistic

countries began to take shape in his mind. Meantime the home business was growing beyond their ability to care for it, and early in the nineties steps began to be taken which resulted

Anin 1892 in the organization of the American Radiator Company. other factor also was influential in creating the new organization. Other radiator companies came into existence and began a keen competition

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

202 for business.

others.

A

cut in prices

Profits diminished

by one company

to

led to a greater

the vanishing-point.

The

one by

business of

the Pierce Steam Heating Company was large and increasing but it began to look as though it could not continue to be profitable. A The more struggle for existence between heating companies impended.

men in the radiator business began to see the necessity of a combination of companies large enough to cut down greatly the overhead charges, reduce generally the cost of production, and thus benefit far-sighted

same time increase the business. The preliminary efforts toward this end were initiated by John B. Dyar of Michigan. The first negotiation was conducted by Clarence M. Woolley with Mr. Pierce in Buffalo in the early autumn of 1891. The progressive leaders of the three leading companies, the Pierce Steam Heating Company of Buffalo, the Michigan Radiator and Iron Manufacturing Company, and the Detroit Radiator Company, the two the public and at the

then got together to consider whether these companies could not be combined into a single corporation. From this time Mr. latter of Detroit,

Bond's influence became an important element in helping the various One acquainted with all the circum-

parties to reach a final agreement.

stances says, "Mr. Bond from the very inception of the negotiations recognized the potential possibilities, and had it not been for his influence with the late John B. Pierce I do not think it would have been possible to

conclusion.

have carried the original conception through to a successful I therefore do not think it would be fulsome praise to ac-

cord to Mr.

Bond

the credit of having played the most important part which resulted in the formation of the American

in the negotiations"

Radiator Company.

The

the way of reaching an agreement were many and must have seemed almost insuperable. The Pierce Company was the largest of the three, and the interest of the president of that company was larger than that of all others. Very conservative, he was reluctant to enter into new and large schemes. But Mr. Bond was so completely confided in by him, as to be able to convince him and win him over to the proposed combination. He finally assented to the plan on one condition, that Mr. Bond should be made president of the new corporation. The spirit and practical business wisdom of Mr. Bond had so won the esteem and confidence of his fellow- negotiators that they were quite ready to meet this condition. The plan adopted was a simple one. A new corporation was organized the American Radiator Company, with Mr. Bond as president, at times



difficulties in

JOSEPH BO.\D

20;,

John B. Pierce and Edward A. Sumner as vice-presidents, Clarence M. Woolley, secretary, and Charles H. Hodges, treasurer. The company was organized under the laws of Illinois and the principal office was located in Chicago. This company "purchased all the rights, interests'' of the three companies, and the American Radiator

titles,

and

Company

was ready to begin business. It was then that the real difficulties began. Mr. Bond immediately moved to Chicago and entered on the work, of organizing the business of the new concern. Eleven years later Mr. Pierce said in an address to the board of directors:

Some

of

you do not know and cannot comprehend the chaos

thai

!

in this

organization, or rather disorganization, January 1, 1892, and perhaps it is well that you do not, for you would never believe it possible that such a beautiful whole had

been conceived and brought forth from such a confusion of parts. It was like tinbringing together of the multitudinous parts of three different machines and so adjusting each separate part to the others that all the delicate work, and all the while keeping every wheel in motion.

mechanism performed

its

1892 the American Radiator Company was formed, I believe I am state that no one of us original stockholders had any comprehension of what was before us, or of the magnitude our business would reach after ten J

When

correct

in

when

I

under the leadership of Joseph Bond. He possessed the faculty and power of imparting to others, to an astonishing degree, his own force, and his associates and even- employee of this company with whom he ever came in contact have felt the thrilling and magnetic touch of his enthusiasm.

We who

have been

his associates for years,

when

hereafter discussing

business problems, will often ask ourselves unconsciously what line of action Joseph would pursue, or what he would say if he were here to speak.

One of Mr. Bond's associates relates the following of his method of When in the early years of the American dealing with customers. Radiator Company a man would come in with a large order and say, "I suppose you will guarantee these goods?" Mr. Bond would say, "Let me tell you a story. When I was a young man in a little hardware store in Ware, Massachusetts, we used to sell axe heads to men cutting trees in the woods. They were guaranteed to us and we guaranteed

them

to the

wood choppers.

They were

often brought back split

open and we would replace them. But a company proposed to sell us a new brand of axe heads, and when we asked if they would guarantee to replace every one that split they said, 'These axe heads will not split and need no guarantee. They will cost you a little more because they

We are of so superior a quality that they will not split open or break.' decided to try them, and sold them without any guarantee on their merits.

And they never

split or broke.

That experience taught me a

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

204

— great lesson to make goods of the best quality, merits.

That

is

the kind

we

are selling you."

that will

And

sell

on

their

the customer would

give his order and go away satisfied. During the nineties Mr. Bond made several trips abroad for pleasure or for his health or in the interest of the business. The foreign demand

had foreseen, now developed. England Europe began to order heating equipment and the negotiations sometimes required the presence of some of the higher officers of the company. This foreign business continually increased until it became apparent that plants for the manufacture of heating appliances must be constructed in distant countries. An Illinois corporation was not at that time authorized to hold stock in other corporations, and in 1899 the company was reincorporated under the laws of for the

new

heating, which he

and the continent

New

Jersey.

of

In the annual report to stockholders

January, 1902, Mr.

Bond



his last

—issued in

said:

The foreign business has for some years continued to grow, until its proper care and development necessitated the construction of a plant in France, which is in successful operation, and, although steam and water-heating appliances are thus far used to but a limited extent in that country, a good beginning has been made. In Germany it has also been found desirable to construct a plant, which is nearing completion and which will be in operation within a few months, the introduction of American methods of manufacture proving to be the best policy and promising better for the future

than any other course.

This policy has been continued by the company until plants exist in

England, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Austria, and Canada, in which countries subsidiary companies have been organized.

all of

This growing foreign business, although Mr. Bond lived to see its beginnings only, took him abroad more than once. In the spring of 1898 he took his family for an extended tour through England and Sailing from New York March 26, they returned an absence of four and a half months. After spending eighteen days in London and other parts of England, they went to Paris and a week later to Switzerland. Three weeks in May were given to Rome and the other Italian cities. After ten days more in Switzerland, they visited Cologne, Hamburg, Dresden, and Berlin. From Germany they went by way of Poland to Moscow, St. Petersburg, and other cities of Russia. Sweden, Denmark, and Holland were next visited. Proceeding to London, a few days more were given to places of historic interest in England, and the last days of July and the first days of August were given to the principal cities and the highlands of Scotland. From

continental Europe.

August

12, after

JOSEPH BOND

205

Edinburgh they proceeded to Liverpool and sailed for home August 6 on the "Campania," which had taken them over. It was a memorable trip, never to be forgotten by Mr. Bond's children.

The demands

of business had, however, required a

good deal of his France and Germany were maturing for the construction of manufacturing plants, and Mr. Bond was frequently time.

called

Conditions in

to leave the family

upon

conditions,

consulting

business

and spend days or weeks men, examining possible

in

studying

sites,

and

The more negotiations which later led to large results. immediate of these results was the erection of the first foreign plants in initiating

France and Germany, the plant in France being the for Mr. Bond.

The months were very busy ones

first

one completed.

He

spent as much time as possible with his family, but while they were visiting Switzerland, Holland, and Scotland, he was engaged in laying the foundation^ of the business which has since assumed the large proportions already

But although he worked hard much

of the time, he returned benefited in health," as an associate in business wrote, to resume his intense and strenuous application to the work of which he was so fond and for which he was so peculiarly fitted.

described.

from

this tour

"much

The business meantime grew to larger and larger proportions, both home and abroad. Notwithstanding the frailty and uncertainty of his health, Mr. Bond continued for ten years to conduct it with the

at

greatest skill and efficiency, until world. And he did more than

it

became the

this.

largest of its kind in the

He might

well

have excused

labors outside the exacting demands of his busiiu but he was a devout man, deeply interested in the progress of the Kingdom of God and the welfare of young men. His pastors testified

himself from

all

that he was always in his place in the church on Sunday and at the midweek meetings. After making Chicago his home, he united with the Immanuel Baptist Church. Going into the Sunday school he took the fragment of a class of young men and built it up into a great organization of a hundred and fifty young men, which the church named the Bond Bible Class. He became a trustee of the Divinity School of the University of Chicago and here also manifested his interest in young men by giving the money to send a graduate student to Egypt and Palestine for study.

Mr. Bond was a Republican

in politics.

own

He

did not have time or

business and that of the KingHe was, however, a member of the Chicago, Union League, Quadrangle, and Onwentsia clubs. At the Quadrangle

strength to devote to club dom of God absorbing him.

life,

his

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

206

he met the University circle, and the Onwentsia gave him the exercise and recreation of golf. For more than twenty years Mr. Bond fought a heroic battle against out of ten with his bodily handicap physical infirmities. Nine men

would have regarded themselves as

invalids, unfitted for labor or business.

In 1880, given by physicians not more than two years to live, and a little later only six months, he not only survived twenty-two years but that time did the work of two of three men in vigorous health. frequent sicknesses but rallied from them by apparently supreme efforts of the will and with sublime courage grappled again with the heavy responsibilities of a new business. I say a new business, for

during

all

He had

The Pierce all these years his business was always a new one. Steam Heating Company's business was so new that he had to lay its very foundations and mark out its policies. It developed in such unforeseen directions that during the ten years of its rapid enlargement it was never the same for six consecutive months but always new, calling for new plans, new methods, and new mental resources in the director of its during

policies.

In the organization of the American Radiator Company, again everything was new, calling forth powers hitherto unused. The marvelous development of that company, so much greater than its projectors of, and the new fields it entered made the experience of every year a novel one. The experience must have been mentally exhilaratBut the president had a singularly alert and ing in the highest degree. To every fresh demand made on his powers he resourceful mind.

dreamed

responded with a facility and readiness of resource that showed a mind Nature, with experience added, innately constituted for business.

made him a great business organizer and administrator. The physicians were not entirely at fault in their diagnoses. The Dr. 0. P. Gifford, disease that prostrated him in 1880 never left him. one

of his pastors, said:

In 1880 his physiFor two and twenty years this man withstood disease He cians gave him the warning of death that he had but a few months to live. went aside and said to the Lord, "I have done nothing yet," (few men have done much at thirty), "give me twenty years that I may do a man's work." When the I final summons came he turned to his companion and said, "God has been good.



He gave twenty-two, good measure, pressed down, running over." Again and again during these twenty years he walked to the edge of the Valley of the Shadow, looked in, girt the loins of his strength by an act of will, and

asked for twenty years.

"Not yet," and came back to the land of the living. Of this man it might be Death was his constant companion, present as one's said death crouched at his door. said,

JOSEPH BOXD shadow on a sunny day.

207

ever closely followed, except at times when the shadow of its presence stepped in front of him. He knew not when the silver cord would be loosed the golden bowl broken but manfully, bravely, he toiled on. It





We know

He carried a load of disease upon one shoulder, and to balance it he took a burden of business upon the other He conquered success where most men would have been conquered by disease He lived a simple life. He lived as an athlete lives. What might have been ri^ht in perfect health became wrong when fighting disease. His self-restraint gave him power.

But

not

all

that he resisted.

power was not sufficient to carry him beyond the year seen his older daughter, Elfleda, happily married, and his younger daughter, Louise, grow to womanhood. He had seen the new business combination extraordinarily successful even in the first ten IQ02.

alas, his

He had

years he lived to administer its work, and so wisely organized and solidly founded as to insure the remarkable development that has since characterized

it.

And

then the end came.

In the spring of 1902 his health was finally broken. After an illness of three months he passed away on August 8. Dr. Gifford said, " When

came against which he could no longer struggle, he said, turning to his companion, 'God knows best. He has the wider view." But the pity of it! He was still a young man, only fifty years of the final call

'

If he were living today his powers would just be ripening. He had had only twenty years to improve the opportunity his father craved for him, but in that short time he had made his mark in the world. What would he not have done had he lived to a good age! His pastor, Dr. Johnston Myers, said of him, "He was able at the close of his life to know that he stood at the head of one of the largest and most respected He was well on the way to become business enterprises in the world. one of the great factors in finance. Had his life been spared he would no doubt have amassed a great fortune." He certainly would have participated in the prosperity of the great business over which he

age.

presided.

Mr. Bond's death was followed by many touching and tributes to his

memory.

Just before the funeral service

church Sunday morning, August

10, 1902,

in

significant his

home

one hundred and twenty-five

members of the Bond Bible Class met and pledged themselves to carry on vigorously the work of the founder and first teacher of the class. The final service was held the following day in the Delaware Avenue Baptist Church in Buffalo, in which city he was buried. One of his associates wrote of these services: Nothing could better show the fond esteem

in

which Mr. Bond

is

held than

was

manifested by the presence of the large delegation from the Company's organization

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

208

and by the tender care and the

affection with

which each individual member devoted

himself to see that in the last rites every honor was done to the man whose kindly sympathetic nature has ever been an inspiration to us all, whose aim and act had been to duplicate himself in others. So completely did Mr.

Bond project his great and comprehensive personality throughout the center and circumference of our company that if we can show our worthiness to carry on the work in which he so splendidly led we cannot help but the touch of his presence in all that we do in the years which are to follow. The joy and pride of the creative workman ever filled him with that wonderful energy and enthusiasm which so often amazed us. His duties were his pleasures. His pleasures feel

were his duties.

Few men exhibit the remarkable balance of qualities that was seen Mr. Bond. He was at the same time strong and gentle. He had none of the brusqueness that is usually found in the strong, nor any of those negative traits that so often characterize the gentle. He had a singular purity and sweetness of nature which, combined with strength and vigor, won affection and commanded respect and confidence. His partner of twenty years, who was profoundly impressed by his "almost resistless energy," felt just as deeply the nobility, goodness, and sweetHe said of him: ness of his character. in

Tender and considerate of the feelings of others, his whole nature abounded in He had a kind word for everybody, and on all occasions, and in the days He possessed of our beginning, days that try men's souls, he was at his best most remarkable self-control, if with him self-control were necessary, which I doubt. I never heard him utter an unkind word, nor did I ever hear him speak unkindly to or of any person. Apparently there was no source in his nature from which an unkind word or act could spring.

love

These were words spoken to Mr. Bond's immediate associates who knew him almost or quite as well as the speaker.

in business

His thoughtfulness for others greatly impressed his pastor, who said

"A

hours said,

T

:

who was

present in the sick room in the last have never seen a case quite like this. Here is a dying

consulting physician

"

man

He would occasionally say to the looking after my comfort.' Now I insist upon it pastor, "You are not looking well this morning. away for a few days." Then he would suggest a good place and provide the means. He loved to give to good causes. He said that he made money with the thought that he was to do good with it. His minister said, "He made thousands and gave thousands each year." Giving was the spontaneous expression of his nature. Had he but lived to our time he would have been one of the great givers to those great causes that that you go to visit

appeal to

men

of this

new day.

JOSEPH BOND

200

Mr. Bond had two daughters. The elder, Elfieda, was married in iqoi to Edgar J. Goodspeed, now professor of Biblical and Patristic Greek in the University of Chicago. The younger, Louise Pierce Bond, in 1906 bacame the wife of Joseph F. Rhodes, a young business man, and they made their home in Pasadena, California. They have growing up about them four boys Foster Bond, Robert Edgar, Kenneth Olney, and David Eaton Rhodes. Mr. Bond was the companion and ideal and idol of his children. The happiness of his family was his chief concern. When he left his Home was not disturbed bv its office he left his business behind him. There he gave himself to his family with the same devotion cares.



that he gave himself to business in business hours. When he entered the door of his house the happiness of his wife and children became his business.

He had

a keen sense of humor which there was given

full

play.

One of the most extraordinary things about him was that, although he never knew a well day during the last twenty-two years of his life and often suffered cruelly, he always brought into his home an atmosphere

of courage, cheer,

good humor, and happiness.

waited for and welcomed his return from business. flewT to greet him.

fulness

He

made

it

Sunshine flooded the house.

His family

His daughters

His love and cheer-

a happy place.

carefully trained his daughters in habits of observation.

Every

evening they were expected to give him the story of their day, in which he was sympathetically interested. In their travels together they were encouraged to observe everything of interest and at the close of the day to recount what they had seen and discuss with him every He thus sought to store their minds with interincident of interest. His esting memories and turn their education into practical channels. method of teaching, in his Bible class and at home, was the Socratic

method.

He awakened

interest

and provoked discussion by suggestive

questions. Since his death Mrs.

Bond has spent much of her time with her She has long cherished a daughters, giving part of the year to each. purpose to build some enduring memorial of Mr. Bond. As he had been a trustee of the Divinity School of the University of Chicago, her mind naturally turned to that institution. She had felt strongly in-

make the memorial in a fund for fellowships and scholarships. Funds, however, having been given the University for the erection of a Theological Lecture Hall, she listened to the proposal that she should clined to

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

2io

put the memorial into the form of a Divinity Chapel to be independent In 1917 therefore of, but connected by a cloister with, this Lecture Hall. she gave the University $50,000 for this purpose. Since that time the have increased in value and the interest has accrued so that

securities

the Bond Memorial Chapel is erected the contribution will amount a much larger sum than was originally given. The plans for the building have been made and its erection only waits for the time when

when to

construction costs so react as to be within reason.

The Divinity School Chapel is to be a typical collegiate chapel in Its interior dimensions will be: width, 28 the English Gothic style. height, 42 feet,

feet,

and length, 84

hundred people, besides having room It is to stand at right angles

more.

feet.

It will

accommodate two

in the chancel stalls for

with Haskell

twenty

Museum and

the

Divinity Halls, centered on the north side of the Graduate Quadrangle. It will be entered from a glazed cloister connecting it with the new Theological Building. Within, it will be wainscoted to a height of twelve that is, up to the base of the fourteen great traceried windows that will the upper walls and give the building, whether seen from within or without, the Gothic rhythm. The upper walls are to be finished in feet,

fill

Bedford stone, and the roof

will

be timbered.

The most richly decorated

part of the building will be the east front, as one approaches it under the bridge which is to connect the Theological Building with Haskell. of design and its carefully studied proportions will an attractive feature not only of the Graduate Quadrangle but also of the new theological group of which it is to form a part. The chief distinction of Mr. Bond's life was his intimate connection with the infancy, development, and vast expansion of one of the great industries of the modern world. Within a little more than a generation methods of heating have been revolutionized. Only forty years have passed since stoves and hot-air furnaces were the ordinary, almost the All this has been only, means of heating homes and business places. changed by the steam and hot-water radiator, which is now found everywhere. Mr. Bond was one of the principal agents in bringing about this extraordinary revolution. He helped to lay the foundations of what has now become a very great industry, drafting the models of some of the very first radiators. He was one of the introducers of hotwater heating and one of the organizers and the president of the principal

But

its

make

symmetry

it

He made this a more comfortable advanced the general happiness and health, and made himself a benefactor of mankind. radiator

company

world to live

of the world.

in, distinctly

JOSEPH BOND

211

This sketch cannot be better concluded than by quoting from two

Mr. Bond made by his successor in the presidency of the American Radiator Company, Mr. Clarence M. Woolley. Both were made before the directors of the company, who knew Mr. Bond intimately. The first was made at the first meeting of the board after tributes to

his

death Those

in 1902.

whose good fortune it has been to he his associates <>n this hoard can bear testimony to the greatness of his character, the gentleness and sweetness of his spirit, and the inestimable value of the distinguished service he has rendered the company he loved so well. of us

The merging into effective corporate existence of interests that had for years been pursuing a policy of aggressive, competitive warfare was not an easy or a simple task. The principle was then comparatively new. We could not call to our assistance the advice and counsel of those

for

it

was largely by

who had had

Mr. practical experience along these lines. the greater and his performance all the more admirable, his influence that the orignal component parts of this corporation

Bond's task was, therefore,

all

were brought together in a manner so harmonious that the splendid record with which we are all familiar was made possible.

More than any person whom we have ever known, Mr. Bond possessed to a conspicuous degree the qualities that were essential for this, his great life-work. Endowed with unusual strength and keenness of mentality, he had also what seemed to be a constitution of iron, which many of his closest associates only learned after many years was subjected to the menace of a fatal malady. He surrendered himself absolutely and completely to the well-being of our business. In all the years that we knew him he was never known to shield or withhold himself,

however great the cost

of time or strength.

Shoulder to shoulder, and in the same associates learned to honor his integrity principles

never

from which he never departed.

known

office

and

with him for a decade, his immediate

to appreciate the Christian qualities His methods were all direct. He

and was

Gifted as very few men to resort to artifice, exaggeration, or deception. and argument, he gained his points by the force of his logic and never

are for debate

resorted to methods that compelled him to compromise his high ideal-. He was one of the kindest, most gentle, most considerate men we ever

knew



qualities that very rarely blend themselves so conspicuously with the unusual strength

mind that he possessed. He was courteous to all men. He never expressed an unkind, impatient, or His power to concentrate selfish thought, and was tolerant to a remarkable degree. the entire wealth of his ability upon the thing he had to do was quite unusual, and yet he was easily approached and ever had time to listen to the most obscure person in our organization. He worked with great enthusiasm and great intensity. When he focused his powers he accomplished in a few hours what it would have taken many men days to achieve. He had that remarkable and unusual subtlety and magnetism which inspired his colleagues and associates with enthusiasm, and which extended It is to this quality, perhaps, through the length and breadth of our organization. as much as to any other single cause that he owed his success as a leader. Cautious, deliberate, and careful before acting, he never lost the main chance

of

by postponement.

He

devised the plan that seemed best to him, firmly believing

it

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

212

to be the only one to accomplish the purpose in hand. ment, nor gave heed to thought that suggested failure.

He never doubted for a moHe never retreated once he

decided to advance. He believed so enthusiastically in the efficiency of his plans He that this very element became an important factor in making for their success. essential quality of leadership. possessed to a rare degree this

To show that this generous tribute to his predecessor in office was not merely inspired by the then recent death of Mr. Bond but by the profound and enduring impression made by his great qualities I quote from remarks made by President Woolley to the directors fifteen years later, in 191 7. first president of the company, served in such capacity until August 8, 1902. A man of exceptional brilliancy and boundless energy, heart and humane in spirit, he was ever active in promoting the welfare of his

Joseph Bond, the his demise,

kindly of

fellow-associates.

He was infinitely patient, always tolerant, and never lacking in sympathetic comprehension for those who sought his counsel and advice. These qualities, however, did not enfeeble his will to do justice, nor obscure the clearness of his vision. Active in church work and fervent in his accepted faith, he did not preach his creed He therefore commanded not only the profound it in all his dealings.

but practiced

respect of his associates but won their affectionate regard. The rectitude of his conduct and the fineness of his spirit were infectious.

A

wise and just counselor, he naturally became the example and pattern which the younger men of the company have constantly held before them for emulation.

In a true sense the traditions of his service have been transmitted as a heritage company and to those on whom has fallen the duty of carrying on the work he

to the

All who were brought closely in contact with his personality, so splendidly began. in high as well as in lowly places throughout the organization, have ever sought to

perpetuate by daily application those principles which he exemplified. We think it appropriate on this occasion to pause for an instant again to record this tribute to our departed associate, Joseph Bond, whose brilliant leadership, great ability,

It

and high character is

laid the

enduring foundations of company success.

delightful to write the story of the life of a

good

man who was as

strong as he was good, in whom every spiritual, moral, and social excellence was matched by equal intellectual and practical business qualities;

who loved the Kingdom of God and was a good citizen of his country; who was active in good works and energetic in his business; who was an idealist and a practical man of affairs; who was amiable and at the same time dynamic; who was at once gentle and powerful; who spoke kindly and wrought mightily; who was unpretentious in word but efficient in action. alities

who combine

essential in

that ideal.

Such was Joseph Bond, one

making the

ideal

man.

of those rare person-

once dissimilar and yet Nearer than most he approached

in themselves qualities at

THE THEOLOGY BUILDING AND BOND CHAPEL The

history of the Divinity School may be traced in its successive It began its work in the classrooms of the Old University of In 1868 Chicago, in 1866. In its first year it enrolled twenty students.

homes.

it

entered a building of

its

Avenue and Thirty-fourth

own, which

still

stands at the corner of Rhodes

In 1877 the debt incurred in erecting this building drove the institution to new quarters in Morgan Park. In Morgan Park it remained for fifteen years, having at the end of that time a dormitory, a lecture hall and chapel, and a library building.

These

it left

Street.

become a part of the newly organized University which theological education was from the first integrated

in 1892 to

of Chicago, in

with the work of the University in a manner not precisely paralleled elsewhere in American education.

At the University, the Divinity School, as it now began to be called, was assigned lecture-rooms on the fourth floor of Cobb Lecture Hall, while

them.

its

students were housed in the dormitories especially erected for the first part of the University to have

The Divinity School was

dormitories provided especially for its students; own it was to wait almost thirty years.

but for lecture rooms

of its

The completion of Haskell Oriental Museum in 1896 made it possible work to be transferred from Cobb to the classrooms which Haskell provided. The dedication of the building was one of the for the Divinity

leading features of the Quinquennial Celebration, the Divinity students reproducing a Jewish synagogue service of the time of Christ as part of the dedicatory exercises. Haskell was not only the theological head-

quarters on the Quadrangles, but served as administration building as well, for in it President Harper and after him President Judson had bis office.

From

its

erection in 1896 until the completion of the Harper in 1912, the President's office was in the south end

Memorial Library

of the first floor of Haskell.

But Haskell was not

built for

a lecture

hall,

and the growth

of the

Divinity School, which now enrols more than four hundred students each year, and the growth of the museum collections, which now impera-

need space they did not require in 1896, have combined to make It quarters for the theological work of the University a necessity.

tively

new

213

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

214

must

however advantageous be for displaying Assyrian sculptures, is in temperature and ventilation far from suited to the uses of a reading-room and library, to it

also be said that the third floor of Haskell,

may

it has been put for the past twenty-four years. The Divinity School will in fact have occupied Haskell for quite a quarter of a century when, on the completion of the new theological group, it leaves the

which

Museum

for a home of its own. The announcement of a gift

of

two hundred thousand

dollars to

provide a building for theological education was made in connection with the University's Quarter-Centennial, which was the Divinity This was soon followed by the School's Semi-Centennial, celebration. gift of fifty

thousand dollars by Mrs. Joseph Bond to provide, in connec-

new building, a Divinity Chapel in memory of her husband, Mr. Joseph Bond, who had been a trustee of the Divinity School. While both these gifts were presently paid into the Univeristy treasury, the coming of the war and the unfavorable building conditions which tion with the

it have postponed the erection of these buildings until now. But this delay has given the architects, Coolidge and Hodgdon, time to mature their plans, until they have developed designs of really extraordinary interest and beauty. The theological building is to stand directly north of Haskell, facing north on the main quadrangle and fronting Kent Chemical Laboratory. It will thus be in line with Walker and Rosen wald, forming with those It will also complete buildings the south side of the main quadrangle.

followed

the Harper Quadrangle, already the stateliest part of the University, and both the theological building and the buildings already built in that quadrangle will probably gain considerably in effect from this completeness. The west end of the new building will be directly in front of the main entrance of Cobb, the "C" bench being perhaps halfway between the two buildings. A bridge will connect the library floor of the new building with the third floor of Haskell and so with the reading-room floor of Harper Memorial Library, thus adding one more link to the unparalleled series of library reading-rooms which are gradually being grouped about Harper and the Harper Quadrangle. The architectural style of the new group is that which the same architects have already followed so successfully in the Law School, Harper, Classics, and Ida Noyes Hall, all buildings of remarkable The same skilful adjustment of wall and beauty and distinction. window spaces, the same richness and yet restraint of treatment, the same intelligence in the use of Gothic moldings characterize the

new

group.

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THE THEOLOGY BUILDIXG AND BOND CHAPEL The

theological building will

on the main quadrangle, one hundred and twenty feet. feet

215

have a front of one hundred and thirty longest depth north and south being

its

In height it will correspond with Rosennearest neighbor on the east. Its front will be enriched with three shallow bays or oriels two stories in height, each flanked by butits

wald,

Similar oriels decorate the east and west fronts of the building. will be in the middle of the north front of the build-

tresses.

The main entrance ing,

but there

will

be other entrances, two opening from the cloister on and one at the south end just beside the The first floor will contain the dean's office, the

the west of the South wing,

Haskell

bridge.

editorial offices of the various journals edited

and other

offices

of administration.

There

by the Divinity Faculty, will be a lecture room

twenty-two feet by forty-three, and in the south wing of the building a men's common room, twenty-two feet by forty. On the second floor, the main part of the building will be devoted to class

room

of various sizes, with a women's common by twenty-four, and the south wing will be given up

and seminar rooms

sixteen feet

to library stack, designed especially to serve the theological reading

room above

it which occupies the whole upper part of that wing. This reading-room will be seventy-two feet long and thirty-two feet wide. It will be finished into the roof, with timbering reminiscent of the quaint

The main part of the third floor will be and seminar rooms, with an exhibit room for religious

college libraries of Oxford.

devoted to

offices

education materials. offices,

and rooms

On

the fourth floor

for organized play

there will be a few small

and other special purposes. the main feature of the new group,

While the theological building is three other features in it may be distinguished, the bridge, the cloister, and the chapel. The bridge which is to connect the reading-room of the

new

building with the third floor of Haskell and also with that of It contains one or two offices

Harper is really a little building by itself. and a staircase which is accessible from occasion demands, serve as a

fire

either building and may, it escape from either. The bridge is care-

fully distinguished in architectural feeling

from the new building, p

haps by way of softening the transition from the Gothic of Mr. Coolidge to that of Mr. Cobb. Certainly the new bridge is a beautiful and strik feature of tne

The

new group.

cloister serves to

logical building.

connect the Divinity Chapel with the theo-

It will inclose a little

quadrangle thirty-six

feet square,

formed by the south and west parts of the main building. While in extreme dimensions the cloister is only forty-eight by seventy feet it will be notable for the delicacv and bcautv of its tracery and will in the angle

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

2i6

It is the give the whole group an atmosphere of intimacy and charm. custom in the Divinity School for the dean and the speaker of the morn-

ing accompanied by members of the Faculty and sometimes by the choir, In the new group, this to enter and to leave chapel in procession. procession will form in the dean's anteroom, pass through the main hall-

way and

the south corridor of the theological building, proceed through the cloister to the cloister door on the north side of the chapel, enter the chapel, and pass

up the main

aisle

to the stalls

on the chancel

platform.

Chapel attendance in the Divinity School is voluntary, and is sometimes large and sometimes small. For larger meetings the University already has Mandel Hall and for great occasions it will soon have the Founder's Chapel on Woodlawn Avenue. The task of the designers of the Divinity Chapel has been to provide an appropriate place for a small group of worshipers and hearers. The room will accommodate

two hundred people, with places chancel

the floor.

for twenty-five or thirty others in the

be paneled to a height of twelve feet from Above that level they will be finished in Bedford stone. A

stalls.

Its walls will

series of tall traceried

windows

will

run completely around the room.

Those at the east and west ends of the building will be especially rich and large, measuring sixteen feet in width and twenty-one in height. The roof will be timbered. The chapel will measure eighty-four feet in length, twenty-eight feet in width, and forty-two feet in height, inside. The chapel will be a characteristic example of the English collegiate

type, and will be most advantageously situated, being practically centered on the north side of the quadrangle between Haskell and the Divinity Halls. From the south, the chapel will appear almost detached

from the higher buildings around it, and its beautifully symmetrical proportions will be seen to the greatest advantage. Its east front however is its richest feature, for here the great east window and the formal it are united by an elaborate scheme of Gothic panels and niches into one great screen of glass and stone. Standing upon the cornerstone of Haskell Museum in 1895 Dr. John Henry Barrows said: "A century hence the Haskell Oriental Museum now rising will be surrounded by groups of academic buildings that shall repeat many of the glories so dear to Oxford." Twenty-five years have

entrance below

passed and already Dr. Barrows' words are finding their fulfilment. And in none of our buildings will the Oxford atmosphere of tranquil

beauty be more evident than in the delightful group of hall and chapel, bridge and cloister, in which the manifold theological agencies of the University are to center.

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THE

DISCIPLES DIVINITY

This institution

is

of the University, its

HOUSE

organically connected with the Divinity School purpose being the promotion and organization of

graduate divinity studies for members of the Disciples communion. It was organized in 1894 and was the first of the denominational Houses allied with the University. It has not been the purpose of the Disciples Divinity House to provide a theological curriculum. It seeks rather to supply courses in the history, literature, polity, and ideals of the Disciples to members of that body and others engaged in graduate work In the course of its history more than three in the Divinity School. hundred Disciples have been registered in the Divinity School, a considerable proportion of whom have taken one or more of the courses in the Disciples Divinity House. The work of the House is conducted under the direction of a Board of Trustees who administer its funds, own its property, and select its instructional force. Up to the present time the classes of the Divinity House have been held in the classrooms of the Divinity School, and the members have occupied rooms in the Divinity Halls or elsewhere as opportunity offered. It has been the consistent purpose, however, of the trustees to provide a physical equipment for the institution as soon as sufficient funds can be secured. That plan is soon to be put into operation. The Divinity House has a property one hundred and seventy-five

on the north side of Fifty-seventh Street and University Avenue, extending one hundred and fifty feet north on the latter street. The The temporary structure of the buildings will be located on this site. Hyde Park Church of the Disciples will be removed and its permanent feet

building erected there. of the Divinity

House

On will

the east side of the site the main building This will include quarters for

be placed.

classrooms, offices, library, and other space. Along the northern side of the property and in a measure connecting This will be a the other two buildings will extend the dormitory.

valuable contribution to the housing facilities of the Divinity School for of the Divinity School single men, as it will be available for any members It is not certain that after the needs of the Disciples have been met. this building will

be erected as soon as the other two,

more imperative.

for

which the

When

these structures are completed in harmony with the general requirements of the University environment they should be an attractive and valuable addition to the complex of

need

is

buildings constituting the University 217

and

its

immediate surroundings.

THE CHICAGO THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY The group of buildings designed for the use of Chicago Theological Seminary in its new location near the University of Chicago is to be placed on the north side of Fifty-eighth Street between University and Woodlawn avenues. The two lots are separated by an alley, across which the plans show a bridge, which, while desirable, is not essential. The frontage on University Avenue is ioo feet, on Woodlawn Avenue, 50 feet. The total frontage on Fifty-eighth Street is 268 feet. The buildings have been designed in colonial style. The material It is fortunate that the to be used is red brick with stone trimmings. house which the Seminary now occupies and which was built by Professor William Gardner Hale is in the finest colonial style. This is appropriate

to the history

and purpose

of a Congregational seminary,

and the new

designs have been keyed to this dignified and useful building. The plan of the entire group naturally divides itself into three portions: the western, devoted to the purposes of residence and administration; the central, containing the library and assembly hall; the eastern, which is the house for the President. It is not the intention to imply the immediate construction of the whole group, but rather to indicate a comprehensive plan suitable to the ultimate needs of the Seminary. Both dwellings are now in use. The new buildings will be erected Besides the at the earliest moment when funds shall have been secured.

administration and a social center, the residential section will In the new buildings only furnish rooms for about seventy students. single rooms will be constructed; in the house now occupied the larger offices for

A will continue to be assigned to more than one occupant. kitchen will be provided merely to furnish facilities for the serving of refreshments on social occasions.

rooms

The central unit of the group, across the alley from the dormitories, comprises the library and assembly hall and will be called Graham Taylor Hall. The collections of Hammond Library are to be devoted to the sources of the religious history of the Middle West and especially to the development of the Congregational churches in this territory.

A

house library of reference books and current volumes in theology 218

will

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THE CHICAGO THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

219

The assembly hall will be used for gatherings under the auspices of the Seminary and will seat about one hundred and twentyhve people. It probably will be in the simple style of the colonial

also be kept here.

meeting-house. The eastern unit

is

the President's residence.

It is

designed to

group and to give satisfactory accommodation to a family of average size. It meets the building line on both streets and is separated from the library by a garden which gives all the harmonize with the

rest of the

privacy possible to a city dwelling.

RYDER DIVINITY HOUSE The Church

of St. Paul's

in

on the Midway (Universalist) was organ-

Its first building was erected 1844 near the corner of Washington and Clark streets. A second

ized as St. Paul's

edifice (1857) at

Church

in June, 1836.

Van Buren

Street

and Wabash Avenue was burned

in

the great fire (187 1). The third building was erected at Wabash Avenue and Sixteenth Street in 1872. The fourth structure was built in 1888 The present structure, the fifth used at Prairie Avenue and Thirtieth.

by the church, was dedicated January 6, 1918 and was designed by Coolidge and Hodgdon who have sought to make it somewhat reminiscent The Reverend William H. Ryder, D.D., held the of the first building. pastorate of St. Paul's longer than any other minister, and the Ryder Divinity House is named in honor of his memory. Ryder Divinity School, a Universalist organization,

is

a department

Lombard College at Galesburg, Illinois. This divinity school was moved to Chicago and allied to the University of Chicago in 191 2. In

of

1919 the present group of buildings at the corner of Sixtieth Street and Dorchester Avenue was completed and occupied. Back of the Church

on the Midway is a large building used for Sunday school and other purposes. This is a very busy community center which furnishes an excellent school for observation and practice in actual church and parish problems and opinions. Adjacent are the residence

of St. Paul's

of the

Dean and

the dormitory for students. The Swan Library occupies and the community building, which is

the space between the dormitory also used for classrooms.

The whole plant is always open for inspection by any members of the University. Ryder Divinity House desires also to render loyal service to the great institution which so generously extends her wonderful privileges to the allied organizations.

220

ST.

PAUL'S

ON THE \IIDW\Y AND RYDER IHVIMIN HOUSE

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THE PROPOSED MEADVILLE HOUSE IN

CHICAGO

By REV. RICHARD WILSON BOYNTON Chairman

of the Special

Committee

of the

Board

of Trustees of the Meadville

Theological School on the Erection of the Chicago House

The Unitarian denomination

the

in

United States depends upon

three schools of theological learning for the recruiting of its ministry. The oldest of these is the Divinity School of Harvard University. This

was founded

in 1816

and endowed by Unitarians, though

for the past has been a part of the University and nonsectarian. It receives students of all Protestant denominations, chiefly for postgraduate study, but each year a number of its graduates still

thirty years or

more

it

enter Unitarian pulpits. The youngest of the three schools is the Pacific Unitarian School for the Ministry, established in 1904 at Berkeley, California, and, like the schools of other denominations there,

working

in

California. isters is

close

The

harmony and co-operation with

the University of Unitarian min-

third institution for the training of

the Meadville Theological School.

This school was founded

in

1844 at

Meadville,

in

northwestern

Pennsylvania. Its buildings, set in an ample and beautiful campus, crown a hill toward the eastern edge of the city of twenty thousand It has always had an able and scholarly faculty, never more so than at the present time. The school received students of all denominations on equal terms, a provision of its charter being that "no doctrinal test shall ever be made a condition of enjoying any of

inhabitants.

the opportunities of instruction.

"'

Planned originally

West

to furnish

mis-

years students of the Christian connection shared its privileges; but for the last half-century The school or more practically all its graduates have been Unitarians. has just been celebrating, on June 1,2. and 3, with appropriate academic sionaries for the then pioneer

in its earlier

historical exercises, its seventy-fifth anniversary, postponed from 1919 because of conditions growing out of the world-war. As a small and comparatively isolated institution, with Allegheny

and

hill, but apart from the larger centers of learning, Meadville has long done effective work. To its theological courses it

College on a neighboring

221

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

222

has added provision for Junior students, of undergraduate rank, and more recently courses for parish assistants and leaders in religious edu-

Women

have always been received on a complete equality In recent years, however, the need has been urgently felt of giving its students the wider contacts with learning and with life that can be found only in a great university and a metropolitan city. It was obvious that Chicago and the University of Chicago offered cation.

with men.

what Meadville lacked, and the generous cordiality and hospitality of the University authorities paved the way for a co-operative arrangement whereby Meadville professors should lecture during the Summer Quarter in the University lecture-rooms, and a group of Meadville students should avail themselves for a few weeks annually of the facilities and dormitories. This arrangement, now to be

of the University halls

carried out for the sixth

summer,

led directly to the project for building district, which is now in course of

a Meadville House in the University realization.

The Board

gift,

by Hon. Morton D. Hull

of Trustees of the

building

lot,

of Chicago, chairman of the Meadville Theological School, of an ample

Woodlawn Avenue and Fifty-seventh from the First Unitarian Church, was the committee, appointed to secure funds and

at the corner of

Street, diagonally across

A

first

important step. erect the building, procured suitable plans

from Mr. Harold L. Olmsted, York, whose perspective drawing of the proposed Meadville House accompanies this article. It is estimated that the House will cost, furnished, between $100,000 and 8125,000. In design it will be congruous with the church diagonally opposite and architect, of Buffalo,

New

with the buildings of the University. The front portion, first and second story, is planned as a home for the Meadville professor residing permanently in Chicago and in charge of the

work

of the house.

In the rear on the

first floor will

be a handsome

a place for social gatherings, not only for the Meadville group but also for Unitarian students in all departments of the University. On the first floor, also, will be a lecture-room and

library, intended to serve as

office.

Above,

in the rear,

will

be the dormitory for students; the In all between

entire third floor also being given over to this purpose.

twenty and twenty-five students can be accommodated. sion is made for bathrooms and shower baths.

Ample

provi-

It is confidently hoped that building operations may begin in the The spring of 192 1, and the house be pushed rapidly to completion. United Unitarian Drive, for several million dollars, now in process of

THE PROPOSED MEADVILLE HOUSE IN CHICAGO

223

organization, will provide for the Meadville House in Chicago as one of its foremost objects. The friends of Meadville rejoice in the prospect,

not only that its students will enjoy the great advantage of spending a portion of each year in Chicago all its collegiate work being done there, and its graduates urged to take their postgraduate courses at



the University of Chicago, but also that the Meadville group, with its open-minded spirit, may more and more make a place

earnest, loyal, for itself as

one of the

allied institutions that are coming to gather and far-shining seat of humane learning. The work at Meadville itself will be in no way curtailed but rather supplemented and expanded by the larger opportunities which the Meadville House in Chicago will be able to offer.

about

many

this truly great

THE ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTEENTH CONVOCATION The One Hundred and Sixteenth Convocation

of the University of

Chicago was held in Hutchinson Court at four o'clock on the afternoon The Convocation Address by David Prescott of June the fifteenth. Barrows, Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1897, President of the University of California, is printed in this issue of the University Record. The President's Convocation Statement is also included in this issue.

The award of honors was as follows: Honorable Mention for excelwork of the Junior Colleges: Theodore Krehbiel Ahrens, Frank Howard Anderson, Louise Bonstedt Apt, Dorothy Beatrice Augur, Phyllis Baker, Foster King Ballard, Robert McLaren Barnes, lence in the

Charles Albert Beckwith, Harry Lewis Bird, Jr., Donald Frederic Bond, Gordon Willson Bonner, Burtis Arthur Bradley, James Cekan, Robert

Edward Collins, Blair Coursen, Edith Pearl Crawshaw, Paul Edgar Crowder, Frances Elaine Crozier, Miles Edward Cunat, Paul Albon Davis, Harold De Baun, Ruth Nellie Drake, Cedric George Dredge, Edith Corinne Eberhart, Edmond Isaac Eger, Arthur Theodore Fathauer, Carroll

Lane Fenton, Richard Foster

Flint,

Hermann Gasch, John Joseph Gunther,

Harry Friedman, Robert

Amy

Marjorie Gustafson, William Charles Harder, III, John George Harms, Ray Nelson Haskell, Wilbur Jackson Hatch, Virginia Hibben, Emanuel Henry Hildebrandt, Alex Lester Hillman, Mary Josephine Hoke, Carolyn Stokes Hoyt,

Harry Victor Hume, Pao-Chun I, Carl Helge, Mauritz Janson, Frieda Kaplowitz, Leonard Field Kellogg, Jr., Harold Dwight Lasswell, Charles Ernest Lee, Meyer Leo Leventhal, George Helenus Lust, Elizabeth Louise Martin, Charles James Merriam, Helen Isabelle Mills, George Edward Morris, Donald Christopher Morrison, Alfred Livingston McCartney, Samuel Henry Nerlove, Marie Vivian Niergarth, Harry Nevins Omer, Miriam Ormsby, Valeska Pfeiffer, Mila lone Pierce, Israel Rappoport, Elwood Goodrich Ratciiff, Louis Philip River, Jr., Theodore Rosenak, Mary Arnie Ruminer, Heyworth Naylor Sanford, Amanda Charlotte Schultz, Karl Edwin Seyfarth, Lorraine Lucas Sin ton, Ruth Marian Skinner, Ralph Laverne Small, Mariam June Stadelmann, Brenton Wallace Stevenson, Helen Graff Strauss, Dorothy Victoria Sugden,

Thane Taylor Swartz, Carolyn Elizabeth Thompson, 224

THE ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTEENTH COK

VOi

\l

l"\

225

Otmar Thurlimann, Sarah Sheldon Tower, Adelaide Marie Werner, Effie

Mae

Wills,

Alexander Wolf. Arnold Lewis Yates. Honorable in the work leading to the Certificate of the

.Mention for excellence

Greta Benedict, Edith Marguerite Colwell, College of Education: Florence Althea Foxwell, Genevieve Fern Michell, Adelia Enez Mullen. Scholarships in the Senior Colleges for excellence in the work of the Junior Colleges: Frank Howard Anderson, Political Economy; Dorothy Beatrice Augur, Household Administration; Robert McLaren Barnes, Physics; Charles Albert Beckwith, Chemistry; Margery Alice Ellis,

Romance; Richard Foster

Flint, Geology; John Joseph Gunther, English; Marjorie Gustafson, History; Ray Nelson Haskell, Mathematics; Emanuel Henry Hildebrandt, German; Leora Adeline Jannsen, Sociology; Sibyl Eleanor Kemp, Education; Harold D wight Lasswell, Political

Amy

Science;

Louise

Elizabeth

Martin,

Geography;

Israel

Rappoport.

Romance; Dorothy Victoria Sugden, Greek; Enid Townley, Geology; Robert Joseph West, Botany; Thomas Winfrey Woodman, Physiology.

The Joseph Triner

Scholarship in Chemistry:

Rosen w ald Prize r

Julius

Half ant,

first;

George

for

excellence

Dewey

Mills,

in

second.

The Mandel

Adrian Rezny.

Oratory:

David

The Florence James

Adams

Prize for excellence in Artistic Reading: Ernest Robert Trattner, The Milo P. Jewett Prize for excellence first; Eve Marie Kohl, second. The David Blair McLaughin Bible Reading: Ralph Warren Hoffman. lin

Prize for excellence in the Writing of English Prose: Margaret Lenora The Conference Medal for excellence in Athletics and

Runbcck.

Charles Graham Higgins. Scholarships in the Senior Colleges for excellence in the work of the first three years of the College course: Isabel Allen, Latin; Samuel King Allison, Chemistry; Maurice Scholarship:

DeKoven, Philosophy; Mary Amanda Gingrich, Sociology; Joseph Bates Hall, Political Economy; Harold Lewis Hanisch, Political Sclent Ben Herzberg, Geology; Dorothy Evelynne Huebner, Botany; Leila Loretto Lydon, Physiology; Louise MacNeal, Household Administration; Esther Frances Marhofer, Romance; Sydney Kaufman Schiff, History; Isaac Schour, Mathematics; Mary The Bachelor's Degree with Honors: Lillian Stevenson, Education.

Lloyd Schmiedeskamp, Physics;

Arthur Maurice Abraham, Herman Harbor Allen, Leona Celeste Bachrach, Lillian Dorothy Bargquist, Emmei Blackburn Bay, Martha

Nash Behrendt, Ramona

Brown, Fred Temple Burling, Arthur Cohen, Madeleine Isabel Cohn, Lillian Grove Davis, Thomas Parker Dudley, Jr.. Frank Lowell Dunn, Iva Maud Dunn, Margaret Durkin, Nicholas Augustine

Mary

Lucile Carney,

Bressie, Edith

Lyman

Chalkley,

Jr.,

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

226

Ray Finkelstein, Edythe Louise Flack, Lloyd Ramoan August French, Katharine Elizabeth Gerhart, Margaret Cecil Haggott, Mary Drew Hardy, Anna Louise Henne, Arnold John Hoffmann, Mildred Julia Janovsky, Helen Anna Jirak, J. Kenneth Kemp, Rose Jones Kessing, Daniel John Korn, Leonie Gertrude Krocker, Genieve Amelia Whitcomb Lamson, Eleanor Lyne, Grace Susan Mason, Fegen, Ruth Flora,

Irene

Raymond Marsh, Grant Stanard Mears,

Stuart

Irvin Charles Mollison, Sara Elinor Moore, Florence

Putnam Meech, MacNeal, Bessie

McCoy, Marjorie Louise Neill, James Mount Nicely, Matthew Thomas Margaret Lucy Park, Effie Louise Pratt, Robert Redneld, Jr., Anne Critchell Rimington, Isabel Jordan Robinson, Joseph Rosofsky Rose, Hazel Emily Schmidt, George Joseph Serck, Eloise Ruth Shaw, Edward Sherry, Ella Thea Smith, Arthur H. Steinhaus, George Dumas O'Neill,

Stout, Joseph

Raymond Thomas, Gladys

Blanche

Tower,

Carlisle

Troeger,

Titsworth, Lucia Elizabeth

Simon Harry Tulchin, Dorothy

Van Pelt, Marian Schuyler Vogdes, Nona Jessie Walker, M. Weick, Milton Louis Weiskopf, Arthur Wolf, Wallace Worthley, Hertha Anna Wyman, Margaret Duff Yates, Agnes

Elizabeth Elizabeth Florin

Clare Yutzey,

Maria Zichova.

Honors

for

excellence

in

particular

departments of the Senior Colleges: Arthur Maurice Abraham, History and Political Science; Arthur Maurice Abraham, Law; Herman Harbor Allen,

Romance; Herman Harbor Allen, German; Leona Celeste BachEconomy; Emmet Blackburn Bay, Anatomy; Martha

rach, Political

Nash Behrendt, French; Ramona

Bressie, History;

Ramona

Bressie,

Fred Temple Burling, Anatomy; Sister Mary Alberto Carbery, English; Mary Lucile Carney, Mathematics; Lyman Chalkley, Jr., Chemistry; Arthur Cohen, Chemistry; Lillian Grove Davis, English; Frank Lowell Dunn, Chemistry; Margaret

English;

Edith Brown, English;

Durkin, English;

Nicholas

Augustine

Fegen,

Ruth Ray

English;

Romance; Lloyd Ramoan Flora, Political Economy; Mary Ellen Freeman, Home Economics and Household Art; August French, Chemistry; Katharine Elizabeth Gerhart, Romance; Margaret Cecil Haggott, English; Anna Louise Henne, History; Arnold John Hoffmann, Political Economy; Mildred Julia Janovsky, Political Economy; Helen Finkelstein,

Anna

Jirak, History; Rose Jones Kessing, Mathematics; Daniel John Korn, Law; Harry Kraus, General Literature; Genieve Amelia Whitcomb Lamson, English; Adah Lucile Lee, Political Economy; Eleanor Lyne,

Raymond Marsh, Kindergarten and Primary Education; Grace Susan Mason, History; Grant Stanard Mears, Political Economy; Stuart Putnam Meech, Political Economy; Ray Will Metcalf Chemistry;

English; Irene

,

THE ONE

III

NDRED AND SIXTEENTH COA VOCATION

Irvin Charles Mollison, History;

Lola Belle McCollough, English;

MacNeal,

Mount

Political

Economy;

Nicely, English;

227

Robert Latour Muckley, Philosophy; Bessie McCoy, English; Florence

Marjorie Louise Wall, Spanish;

Matthew Thomas

O'Neill,

James Romance; Margaret

Lucy Park, Russian; Effie Louise Pratt, German; Robert Redfield, Jr., Law; Frances Reinmann, English; Joseph Rosofsky Rose, History; George Joseph Serck, Political Economy; Ella Thea Smith, Botany; George Dumas Stout, Latin; Gladys Titsworth, Home Economics and Household Art; Blanche Carlisle Troeger, History and Geography;

Simon Harry Tulchin, Psychology; Simon Harry Tulchin, Sociology; Dorothy Elizabeth \'an Pelt, Botany; Marian Schuyler Vodges, Latin; Elizabeth M. Weick, History; Arthur Wolf, Law; Wallace Florin Worthier, Botany and Zoology; Hertha Anna Wyman, Home Economics; Margaret Duff Yates, English; Chi-Sun Yeh, Physics; I) wight Brookie Yoder, Political Economy; Maria Zichova, German: Maria Zichova, History.

work

Scholarships in the Graduate Schools for excellence in the Leona Celeste Bachrach, Sociology; Blanche

of the Senior Colleges:

Beatrice Boyer, Greek; Arthur Cohen, Chemistry; Samuel Jacob Jacobsohn, Mathematics;

Richard Anderson Jones, Geology; Genieve Amelia

Whitcomb Lamson, Geography; Walter Ferdinand Loehwing, Botany; Helen Beatrice Rislow, Physiology; James John Toigo, History; Mabel Toles, to the

Romance; Marion White, Household Administration. Election Chicago Chapter of the Order of the Coif on nomination by the

Law School for high distinction in the professional work School: Harry Blitzsten, Samuel Chutkow, William Turney Fox, Esther Harrie Jaffe, Katherine Biggins Magill, Roswell Foster

Faculty of the of the

Law

Magill, James Allen associate members to

Miller,

Harold William Norman.

Sigma Xi on nomination

Election

as

two Departments of research work in Science: of

Science, for evidence of promise of ability in Samuel King Allison, Arthur Cohen; election of

members of Sigma Xi: John Morris Arthur, Fred William Geise, James Nelson Gowanlock, Earl Henry Hall, John Hobart Hoskins, Horace Clifford Levinson, John Robert Magness, John Preston Minton, Harry Wyatt Richey, Janet Elizabeth Robertson, Pranis Baltras Sivickis, Constance Wiener, John Woodard. Election of members to the Beta of Dlinois Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa: Josephine Haswell Ardrey, Leona Celeste Bachrach U\nv. '19), Arthur (June, '19), Emmet Blackburn Bay, Ramona Br* Cohen (December, '19), Madeleine Isabel Cohn (June. '19), Frank Lowell Dunn, Katharine Elizabeth Gerhart, Margaret Cecil Haggott, Arnold

John Hoffmann, Dorothy Evelynne Huebner, Mildred

Julia

Janovsky,

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

228

Elizabeth Link, Eleanor Lyne, Grace Susan Mason, Stuart Putnam Meech, Irvin Charles Mollison, Sara Elinor Moore, Bertha Beatrice Needham, Marjorie Louise Neill, Harold Elliott Nicely, James Mount Nicely, Walter Cade Reckless, Robert Redfield, Jr., Sydney Kaufman

Mary

George Joseph Serck, Ella Thea Smith, Mary Lillian Stevenson, Dumas Stout (December, '19), Blanche Carlisle Troeger, Marian Schuyler Vogdes (June, '19), Margaret Duff Yates, Maria Zichova. Schiff,

George

The Howard Taylor Ricketts Prize for research in Pathology: Ivan The Mr. and Mrs. Frank G. Logan Research Fellowship Clifford Hall. Robert Spalding Spray. The National Research in Bacteriology: Fellowship in Physics, provided by the Rockefeller Foundation: Leonard Benedict Loeb. The National Research Fellowship in Chemistry, provided by the Rockefeller Foundation: Morris Kharasch.

Degrees were conferred as follows: Bachelor of Arts,

8;

Bachelor of

Philosophy, 288; Bachelor of Science, 92; Bachelor of Divinity, 5; Bachelor of Laws, 6; Doctor of Law (J.D.), 46; Master of Arts, 67; of Science, 18; Doctor of Philosophy, 21. During the academic year 1919-20 the following and degrees have been conferred:

Master

The The The The The The The The The The

Certificate of the

Two

titles, certificates,

Years' Course in the college of Education

Bachelor of Arts, Philosophy, or Science Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Philosophy, or Science, in Education Degree of Bachelor of Laws

Degree

of

Degree

of

Degree Degree

of

Master Master

31

582 105 9

of Arts in the Divinity School of Arts or Science in the

Graduate Schools

of Bachelor of Divinity

32 1

54 7

Doctor of Law (J.D.) Degree Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Divinity School Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate Schools of

65 5

60

The Convocation Prayer Service was held in the Reynolds Club Sunday morning, June 13, at 10:30. The Convocation Religious Service was held in Mandel Hall at 1 1 00 a.m., the sermon being preached by the Reverend James Gore King McClure, D.D., LL.D., President :

McCormick Theological Seminary. The Convocation Reception was held Monday evening, June 14, Those in the receiving line were in the Tower Group of Buildings. President and Mrs. Harry Pratt Judson, President and Mrs. David Prescott Barrows, Dean and Mrs. James Rowland Angell. The Beta of Illinois Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa held its annual meeting at four o'clock Thursday, June 10, in the assembly room of the of

After the report of the Secretary and Executive Committee had been received the President, Professor David Allan Classics Building.

THE ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTE1 Mil CONVOCATION Robertson initiated the following candidates: Josephine Hasell Ardrey, Leona Celeste Bachrach, Emmet Blackburn Bay, Ramona Bressie, Arthur Cohen, Madeleine Isabel Colin, Frank Lowell Dunn, Katharine Elizabeth Gerhart. Margaret Cecil Haggott. Arnold John Hoffmann, Dorothy Evelynne Heubner, Mildred Julia Janovsky, Mary Elizabeth Link, Eleanor Lyne, Grace Susan Mason, Stuart Putnam Mcech, Irvin Charles Mollison, Sara Klinor Moore, Bertha Beatrice Xeedham.

Marjorie Louise Neill, Harold Elliott Nicely, James Mount Nicely, Walter Cade Reckless, Robert Redfield, Jr., Sydney Kaufman Schiff,

George Joseph Serck, Ella Thea Smith, Mary Lillian Stevenson, George Dumas Stout, Blanche Carlisle Troeger, Marian Schuyler Vogdes, Margaret Duff Yates, Maria Zichova. The officers for the ensuing y< ar are elected as follows: President, Professor

Andrew Cunningham M<

-

Laughlin; Vice-President. Professor Henry Chandler Cowles; Secretary, Dr. Harvey B. Lemon. Additional members of the Executive Committee are George

W.

Sherburn, Mrs. Irene Tufts Mead.

The annual

dinner of the chapter was held in the Quadrangle Club at 6:30 p.m., Monday, June 14. Immediately after the dinner, which was attended sixty persons, the chapter reassembled in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall to hear the Phi Beta Kappa oration, which was delivered by Edwin

by

Emery

Slosson, Ph.D., University of Chicago, 1902, Managing Editor of Dr. Slosson's address is printed on page 174 of the

The Independent.

University Record. Even the Republican Convention in session in Chicago did not interfere with the success of the several features of the Alumni Reunion

The University Sing on Friday The Alumni Dinner on Saturday night was the usual great success. evening was attended by three hundred sixty-eight persons. A new feature of the program was a School of Education alumni dinner Friday, on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday.

June n.

On

the evening of Convocation Day, Tuesday, June 15, members honor of Dean and Mr>. James

of the University joined in a dinner in

Rowland

Professor Angell, having accepted the presidency of Angell. the Carnegie Corporation, has resigned his position as Dean of the Faculties of Arts, Literature, and Science and Head of the Department of Psychology.

The dinner was

held at

34

vcn-thirty

in

the leie. tory of

On behalf President Harry Pratt Judson presided. of the scientific Faculties an address was made by Professor A. A. Ida Noyes Hall. Michelson.

For the Faculties

of

Arts and Literature Professor Jan

Haydon Tufts was spokesman. After a tribute from Dean Angell spoke in response to the addresses of the

President Jud

evening.

AND FUTURE

EVENTS: PAST THE RENAISSANCE SOCIETY

presidents,

W. A. Nitze, Miss Elizabeth Wallace, Mr. G. A. Bliss, Mr. Shailer Mathews, Mr. C. W. Wright; secretary, Mrs. C. H. Beeson; treasurer, Mr. J. A. Field; executive committee: Miss Helen Gardner, Miss Antoinette B. Hollister, Mr. G. J. Laing, Mr. Walter Sargent,

J.

Mr. Ferdinand

Renaissance Society for the year 1919-20 were elected at the meeting November n, 19 19, as follows: president, Mr. Gordon J. Laing; viceOfficers

of

the

Mr. Horace S. Fiske, Mr. C. M. Hanson, Mr. Lorado Taft, Mr. Charles L. Hutchinson, Mr. David Robertson; secretary, Mrs. Henry Gordon Gale; treasurer, Mr. Walter A. Payne; executive committee, Mr. Walter Sargent, Mr. James A. Field, Miss Antoinette Hollister, Miss Elizabeth Wallace, Mr. Barrett Spach. The activities of the Society have been these: November 11, lecture on Hindu painting by Dr. Ananda Coomeraswamy, curator of Indian art, Boston Museum; December 8, private view of the work of George Bellows on exhibition at the Art Institute; private view of the exhibition of American paintings and with a talk by Professor sculpture Sargent; January 15, lecture on "Masaccio and Realism," by Professor Frank J. Mather, of Princeton University; January 19-30, exhibition of the sculpture of Alfeo Faggi, with an explanatory talk on the opening day by Mr. Richard Offner; January 25, a visit to the Ryerson collection at Mr. Ryerson's residence; February 25 to March 5, exhibition of the sculpture of Albin Polasek, with a talk by Mr. Polasek on the opening day; March 8-20, exhibition of a group of five

Italian

primitives,

with a lecture

by Mr. Offner on the opening day; March 12, President and Mrs. Judson opened their house to the Society for an illustrated lecture by Dr. Frank W. Gunsaulus on "The Gospel According to on lecture Rembrandt"; 14, April "Rembrandt," by Dr. A. J. Barnouw, Queen Wilhelmina Lecturer at Columbia University; April 26, lecture on "Bill Boards, a National Menace and a National Curse," by Joseph Pennell. On June 8 the annual meeting was held and officers for the year 1920-21 were elected as follows: president, Mr. Edgar J. Goodspeed; vice-presidents,

Mrs.

Schevill.

GENERAL ITEMS Mr. and Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and members of their family visited President and Mrs. Harry Pratt Judson

May 31. After luncheon at the President's house the guests were entertained by members of the Women's Athletic Association by a baseball game and by a swimming meet.

Monday,

Ernest

Hatch Wilkins, Professor

Romance Languages,

of

received the degree

Doctor of Letters from his Alma Mater, Amherst College, at the recent

of

Commencement. Announcement is just made from New York that President Harry Pratt Judson, of the University of Chicago, and Professor Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin, Head of the Department of History in the same institution, have accepted invitations to serve on the Board of Electors to the Hall of Fame, New York University. As electors they will aid in selecting the men who through their contributions to society have been deemed worthy of permanent remembrance.

On May

4 the American poet, George

Edward Woodberry, gave a William Vaughn Moody Lecture at the University of

Chicago, his subject being "Long-

fellow."

Mr. Woodberry, who

for

many

years was professor of comparative literature at Columbia University, has written a two-volume life of Edgar Allen Poe and a volume on The Inspiration of Poetry, and is the editor of the collected poems of Rupert Brooke.

230

EVENTS: PAST AXD FUTURE Count Vincent de Wierzbicki, of the French High Commission, lectured at the University of Chicago on June : The subject of the lecture which was given in the Harper Memorial Library. was "La litterature de guerre en Fran

One hundred and seventy-four high >ols

the last

A

lxx)k of

Albert Feuillerat, of the University of Rennes. France, who is professor at Vale this year. gave two lectures at the University of

is

just

announced

Chicago on

was

May on

5

and

"Some

7.

The

of

The Thirty-second Educational Conference of the Academies and High Schools in relations with the Unive: of Chicago was held at the University on May 13 and 14. Among the speakers at the general sessions were Dr. Marion L. Burton, the new president of the University of Michigan, and Director Charles Hubbard Judd, of the School of Education at the University of Chicago. The general topics discussed were

"Adaptation of School Work to Pupils of Varying Abilities," "Selection of Teachand Training in Service," "The

ers

Present

Status of the Junior High " " School, and "Public-School Textbooks. President Harry Pratt Judson presided on the evening of May 14, when President Burton, of the University of Michigan, gave the address on "The of

Democracy."

Departmental conferences were held on Art, Biology, Commercial Education, English, Geography, Greek and Latin, History, Home Economics, Manual Arts. Mathematics, Oral Expression, Physics and Chemistry, and Romance; and among those participating were Charles Hutchinson, president of the Art Institute, Chicago; Henry C. Morrison, Superintendent of the Laboratory Schools, Franklin B. University- of Chicago; Snyder, professor of English, Northwestern University; Leon C. Marshall, Dean of the School of Commerce and Administration, University of Chicago; William S. Gray, Dean of the College of Education; and Albert A. Michelson, L.

Head

of the

Department

of Physics.

Illustration,

m

memorial edition

by Lud

and

lated

:lant, tr

revis

first

Principles

Construction in Shakspere's Plays." and the second, which was in French, had as its subject "Tad FrenchAmerican Poets." Professor Feuillerat is an authority on the history of the English theater in Shaksperes time.

Demands

.



.

visiting

lecture Artistic

.nee for ted in the h.that of by the University of

particularly

Chicago Pi the

in

remarkable

all

science,

Professor

and col! presented Annual Conference at Chi'

.

Mortimer

I>r.

>r. Fra.nl. Frank, of Chicago. and turned the manuscript I

his task

the publishers just before his untie in April, kjiq. A committee of

death



his friends b

memorial

fitting

to

1

volume as a Frank because

his

>r.

of its intrinsic value as a contrib medical science and becaus< !eep personal interest in making it available to his profession.

Dr. Frank's life-long study of medical history

and

-eur

his inter

h

medical engravings and rare

in

peculiarly qualified him for this underHe has made many %aluable taking. additions to the work, including supplementary sections on "Sculpture and Painting as .V Anatomic Illustration," and "Anatomic Illustra" tion since the Time of Choulant. The volume, of four hundred and fifty

pages, enriched with one hundred

illu

tions, is expected to be of unique value to anatomists, medical hi.-'. art students. The Frank Memorial Committee consists of more than twenty leading physicians of the country.

md

At the annual meeting of the University Orchestral A .rper mbry Room at the University of .

Chicago, April 27, office were elected as 1920-21 Chester W. Wright Mr-. Harry Pratt

President, President.

Secretary-Treasurer. David A. RobertMrs. Err. son; Directors: -rs. C. D. Buck, Wallace Heckman, and Walter A. Payne.

The Executive Committee for the following

program

1

for the

>

inuary

ruary

and



1

and

15, itals

March

S

;

and

by Fannie mber 14, and

rison, April 21.

ensuing Chi'

the

Fight concerts by year: Symphony Orchestra on

I

.V

.

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

232

The new Alumni Directory of the UniChicago contains an alphabeti-

versity of

of list, addresses, and occupations a complete nearly 12,000 graduates; geographical list, and a special class list of Bachelors, as well as interesting statisThis is the first alumni tical tables. directory of the University to be pubseven lished in years. cal

The Howard Taylor Ricketts Prize of $250, which is awarded annually at the University of Chicago on the anniversary of Dr. Ricketts' death, was given on May 3 to Ivan C. Hall for his work entitled "Studies in Anaerobiology." The prize is awarded to the student who presents the best results in research in pathology or bacteriology. Dr. Ricketts, who was Assistant Professor of Pathology at the University, died in Mexico from a contagion he was investigating.

Thomas C. Chamberlin, until Head of the Department of

Professor recently

Geology at the University of Chicago and formerly president of the University of Wisconsin, gave an address at the latter institution in April on "The Founding of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, The address was Arts, and Letters." part of the commemorative exercises fiftieth the anniversary of the celebrating Academy, of which Professor Chamberof the lin was one incorporators and later president.

Professor John M. Coulter, Head of the Department of Botany at the University of Chicago, was also one of the speakers at the celebration.

At the third annual meeting of the American Council on Education in Washington, May 7 and 8, President Harry Pratt Judson, of the University of Chicago, presided at the conference on the participation of the federal governin education. Among the speakers were President John H. MacCracken, Dr. Samuel P. of Lafayette College; Capen, director of the American Council and Director Charles H. on Education; Judd, of the School of Education, UniAt the annual versity of Chicago. business meeting President Judson was

ment

re-elected

James Henry Breasted, Chairman of the Department of Oriental and Literatures at the UniLanguages versity of Chicago, has been appointed

a member of the National Research Council on the Division of Anthropology and Psychology for a period of three Professor years, beginning July 1, 1920. Breasted, who is Director of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, is now in the Near East conducting an archaeological survey of that region. The expedition has already visited Egypt and Mesopotamia and is expected to reach Damascus by June in the course of the survey of Syria. to sail from Naples for part of August.

in recognition of his services to the nation and to the Allies as head of the Persian Mission of 1918.

Judson

The party hopes home by the latter

Alfred Ernest Garvie, M.A., D.D., president of New College, Hampstead, England, gave an address before the Divinity School of the University of Chicago on June 1. President Garvie,

a graduate of Oxford and Glasgow, has been president of the Congregational

Union

of Scotland, professor of

compara-

and Christian ethics in Hackney and New Colleges, London, and is the author of many religious Commentary on including a books, Romans, The Gospel for Today, and tive

President Harry Pratt Judson, of the University of Chicago, was recently honored by the Prince Regent of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, who created him a Commander of the Order of St. Sava and conferred upon him the star of the order. At the recent meeting of the National Institute of Social Sciences held in New York City the Institute conferred gold medals upon President Harry Pratt Judson, Dr. Wilfred Grenfell of Labrador, and Dr. Alexis Carrel. The gold medal was awarded to President

chairman for 1920-21.

Professor

religion

Religious Education:

A

Guide to Preachers.

Interest in the Italian language literature has

the

and

been much quickened by

and to meet the increasing for new textbooks and new edimodern Italian novels and plays

war,

demand tions of

the University of Chicago Press is to issue shortly the first volumes in a new series,

"The University of Chicago Italian Series," which will be under the editorship of Ernest Hatch Wilkins, a wellknown authority on Italian literature.

EVENTS: PAST AND FUTURE Announcement is made of the publi tion in July, in time for use in summer schools, of Giacosa's Tristi Amort, edited by Rudolph Altrocchi and Benjamin M. VVoodbridge, with an introduction by Stanley A. Smith; and in September, of A First Italian Book, by Professoi

The latter is a very simple Wilkins. introduction to the study of Italian, novel It will be followed in October in plan. by An Italian Reader, by the same scholar in co-operation with Antonio Marinoni. The reader will consist of short sketches written by the editors, dealing with and Italian life. Announcements for the same

series in

Farina's Fra le corde di tin contrabasso, Giacosa's i'na partita a scacchi, and Pellico's Francesco da Rimini. A striking feature in the

1921

include

series will

those of

be // risorgimento, a collection

expressions of the Italian the struggle for independence spirit and unity, including the first act of Rovetta's Romanticismo and Carducci's oration on the death of Garibaldi.

of

literary in

A letter from Baghdad, Persia, contains news that Director James Henry Breasted, of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, who is now conducting an archaeological survey in the Near East, accepted an invitation to give the commencement address at the Syrian Protestant College at Beirut on June 17. The dean of the college is Dr. Harold Haydon Nelson, professor of history, who received his Doctor's degree from the University of the

Chicago in 1913 It

is

for

work

in

Egyptology. peculiarly appropriate that Pro-

fessor Breasted, who is chairman of the Department of Oriental Languages and

Literatures at Chicago and has given so many years to the study of ancient

should bring a commencement message to the young men of the Near East gathered in the college at

civilizations,

Beirut.

Leon

in

Mandcl

the series Assembly Hall. this year opened with a concert by My ma Shadow, prima donna soprano, of the ion, on Chicago Grand opera June 25. On July J a concert given by Monica Graham Stults, soprano, and Walter Allen Stults. baritone. On July q Stephen Leacock, Ph.D.. diseconomist and humorist, tinguished lectured on "Frenzied Fiction"; ami

Lorado

the Chicago sculptor, an illustrated lecture, July 16, in a Sculptor's Studio;

Taft,

will give

"An Hour

on

other

View

striking

Proo

of

features

Among of

the

CO

be an author's reading by MacKaye, dramatist, and one by

will

I'

Amy

Lowell, poet.

Professor Paul Shores. Head of the of the Greek Language and Literature at the University of Chicago, the commencement adgave recently dress at Bryn Mawr College, his subject

Department

being "The Things That Are More Excellent." Professor Shorty was for several years professor of Greek at Bryn Mawr, being called from that institution to the University of Chicago in 1892.

On June

15 Princeton University conferred the honorary degree of Doctor of

on Professor Shorey.

Letters

Three alumni Chicago have

the

University of made been important educational presidents David Prescott Barr institutions Ph.D., 1897, now president of the Uniof

recently-

of



Wallace Walter California; Atwood, S.B. '97, Ph.D. '03, prof, in Harvard University, physiography of

versity of

president-elect

of

Clark

University,

Massachusetts; and Clifton l>. Gray, D.B. 1900, Ph.D. '01, the new president of Bates College, Maine.

The

University

Preacher-

the

for

Summer

Dr. William E. Dodd, Professor of in the University of Chicago, received the honorary degree from Emory Uniof Laws of Doctor

American History

versity,

and readings

concerts, lectures,

General

Italian history

550

Atlanta,

Georgia,

on June

Among the most popular Summer Quarter at the

the

of Chicago

is

8.

features of

University the series of Friday evening

Quarter at the University of Chicago have been announced, as follows

:

On June

Professor Gerald

Birney University of Chi Divinity School; July 4, President Frank Wakeley Gunsaulus, of the Armour :th,

of

27,

the

Institute of Technology; July 11, Professor Theodore Gerald Soar,-, Hea the Department of Prai til al I

University of Chicago;

July

iS,

D

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

234

Shailer Mathews, of the Divinity School; and July 25, Dr. Frank Shannon, of

Central Church, Chicago. In the month of August the University Preachers will be Professor Robert Macintosh, of Lancashire Independent College, Manchester, England; Terrot Raeveley Glover, Classical Lecturer at St.

John's College, Cambridge, England;

Dean

Herbert

Lockwood

Willett,

of

Ninety members of the faculties of other institutions will give instruction at the University of Chicago during the Summer Quarter. There will be more than two hundred and fifty in the Faculty,

tatives

from

including

represenYale, Cambridge University, England, the University of Pisa, and the Russell Sage

Harvard

and

Foundation. Other institutions represented are Dartmouth, Williams, and Union colleges, the Universities of

Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Kansas, Texas, Wyoming, California, and Leland Stanford Junior University.

A research assistant in chemistry at the University of Chicago, Mr. Clarence E. Broeker, died at the Presbyterian Hospital in Chicago on May 29. Mr. Broeker had done important work under Professor William D. Harkins, of the Department of Chemistry, and in

recognition of his ability and work had been appointed to the Swift Fellowship in Chemistry for 1920-21, the highest honor in the Department.

Dr. Leonard E. Dickson, Professor Mathematics, has recently been Corresponding Member of the French Academy of Sciences. After taking his doctorate in 1896, the first year in which doctorates in Mathematics were conferred by the University of Chicago, Dr. Dickson spent a year in study in Leipzig and Paris; after teaching in the University of California and the University of Texas he has been a member of the staff in Mathematics here since

of

elected

1900, being full professor since 1910. Besides publishing a number of texts on advanced subjects he has contributed steadily to the leading mathematical

Europe and America in departments of pure mathe-

periodicals of

various matics,

especially

in

group

theory,

algebra, geometry, and number theory.

is

now

publishing under the auspices

of the Carnegie Institution of Washington a monumental History of the Theory of Numbers in three volumes, in which

the extensive literature of this subject from the earliest times to date is carefully analyzed; this history is certain to be of permanent value not only to later historians but to all workers in the

numbers. The Department Mathematics and the University of

theory of of

the University of Chicago.

Summer

He

Chicago are highly honored by the election of Dr. Dickson as Corresponding Member of the French Academy of Dr. A. A. Michelson, as the Sciences. only preceding Corresponding Member in the University, presided at a compli-

mentary luncheon to Dr. Dickson at the Quadrangle Club, June 23, 1920. In all

in

twenty-eight were present, the staff

Mathematics with Professors M. W.

Haskell of the University of California

and E. W. Chittenden of the University of Iowa, on the staff for the summer, and a number of Chicago doctors and other guests of the University, representatives of Mathematical Astronomy, Physics, and Chemistry, and Dean R. D. Salisbury and Professors T. C. Chamberlin and J. M. Coulter representing the science

departments in general. In welcoming Dr. Dickson to the French Academy of Sciences, Dr. Michelson gave a brief sketch of the history of the Academy in particular in reading the list of corresponding members in pure mathematics called attention to the fact that Dr. Dickson is the first corresponding member from America. After brief remarks by Professors E. H. Moore, T. C. Chamberlin, and F. R. Moulton, Dr. Dickson responded felicitously.

and

The President's Report covers the years 191 7-19, no report having been issued in The present volume contains the 1918. reports of all University officers for the two years and is especially interesting in that it covers the war period. The Dean of the Faculties, for instance, reports fully on the S.A.T.C. and there is an appendix containing a brief account of the University War Service. In this latter will be found a brief record of the activities of the men and women of the University faculties.

The

building plans of the University of will continue to be one of the subjects covered in future numbers of the

Chicago

EVENTS: PAST AM) 11TLRE University

The

Record.

April

number

contained an account of the projected Quadrangle Club. The present number has drawings of the buildings proposed or already erected by the several Divinity groups related to the University of ChiIt is hoped that plans and drawcago. ings for the Billings Memorial Hospital and the Epstein Dispensary and the

University Chapel

may

soon be ready for

At the meeting of the Association of American Universities at Columbia University, November 17, r.8, i<>. papers will be presented as follows: Firsl Session, November 18, "Co operation in Research with Private institutions." Tapers will be presented by Professor John Johnson, of Vale University and l>r. Frank B. Jewett, Ph.D.. Chicago 100:, Chief Engineer of the Western Electric Company.

Second

publication.

Session.

The

increase

is

Graduate and colleges

chiefly in the

Schools, although show gains.

all

schools

ties."

November

18,

"Co-

Research in the HumaniDean Charles Homer Haskins of

operation

Early reports of attendance during the Summer Quarter indicate an increase over the attendance in the Summer Quarter, iqiq, and a possible increase over that of the largest on record, the attendance in the Summer Quarter, 1916.

235

in

Harvard University will present the paper. Third Session, November 10, "Fellowships*' will be presented by Dean Alfred Henry Lloyd of the Uni-

Dean I'. J. E. versity of Mirtiigan. Woodbridge, Columbia University, will present a paper, "The Social Environment of the Graduate Student."

ATTENDANCE

IN SPRING QUARTER,

1920

FREDERICK

A.

SMITH

The

University Record OCTOBIlR

Volume VI

THE NEW By

N.viu^

IQ20

PAST

JAMES HENRY BREASTED,

1

PhJD.,

I.

!..!>.

her inventiveness and her numerous innovations, America is largely dominated by the past; but notwithstanding this fact there is an extraordinary lack of consciousness of the There past in America. In spite of

all

are plentiful evidences about us of our geological past, and such thii as the moraines of northern Illinois or the Grand Canyon of the Colorado

But man m<

inevitably remind us of vast lapses of geological time. easily grasps the fact of the

him

human

past

when he

sees

it

embodied before

human handiwork, and

he most vividly discerns its measured by the surviving material achievement-, of men in utensils, buildings, or works of art. For the most part such things can be found only in Europe and the Orient. There are spots in Europe today where chance has brought strangely near together and left lying side by side the relics of the earliest prein survivals of

when he

length

finds

historic savages

it

and the evidences

of so-called

modern

civilization



the earliest and latest points in the traceable human career. The soil of the battle-scarred hills overlooking the river Smime in northern is thickly sown with fragments of steel shells which have penetrated deeply into the slopes and natural terraces made by the river ages ago. Today, when the great guns are silent a few minutes' work with

France

,

a shovel

will

uncover lying together

in the gravels

along the brow of the

valley the Hint list hatchet, the earliest surviving weap >n of man, and the jagged fragments of the modern explosive steel shell. There hext

lie,

as 1

you unearth them,

side

by

side, the Hint fist

Address delivered on the occasion

cation of the University held in Leon

hatchet and the steel

One Bandied and Seventeenth ConvoMandel Assembly Hall. September ;. [920.

of the

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

238 shell

fragment, and the whole sweep of human history lies between them least fifty and perhaps a hundred and fifty thousand years

—a story of at

human endeavor

leading us age by age from one to the other. Although not a few English historians still follow Freeman, his definition of history as "past politics" has been quite truthfully characterized by Frederick Harrison's remark that it leaves out nine-tenths of the facts of



necessary to understand the past that is, nine-tenths of the essential content of history. To no small extent history is a story of the conquest of material resources by means of highly varied devices, tools, imple-

ments, and machinery,

if

we include

industrial, social, political, artistic,

also in these things the consequences,

and

religious,

which resulted from their

The steam

or gasoline cylinder is as truly the symbol of the present age as the stone fist hatchet is the sign manual of the Stone

introduction.

life

Age

of fifty

thousand years ago.

The recovery type of historian

of the

in this

past larger —a cosmopolitan student

pologist, archaeologist, ethnologist,

and

is demanding a new man, who is alike anthro-

sense

of

comparative

religionist,

versed in art

and acquainted both with the classical and the leading languages of antiquity. With this equipment he must com-

literature

oriental

bine a

magnanimous readiness to consider the disquieting possibility that civilization appeared in the eastern Mediterranean long before the Greeks themselves ever lived there, and he must cultivate a becoming

fortitude of spirit to face with equanimity even the disclosure, so horrifying to some classicists among us, that the most sacred shrines of Greek

culture were profaned by many foreign influences which furnished the primitive barbarism of the archaic Greeks with all the ordinary

material processes of civilized

life,

and restored

after the barbarian invasions of the earliest

civilization in

Europe

Greeks had destroyed

it,

and branch.

Notwithstanding the laborious years necessary to produce a historian with an equipment like this, men of this type are already at work and their devoted labors are now recovering the impres-

root

sive story of that age-long process by which the primitive forest of the Stone Age hunter has given way to the modern forest of factory chimneys.

The imposing task of recovering the story of the human past has, however, hardly more than begun. It is a little over two generations ago that Boucher de Perthes, the pioneer investigator in prehistoric archaeology, discovered lying together in the high glacial gravels of northern France along the river Somme the stone fist hatchet of the earliest European savage, together with the bones of colossal and long

extinct

mammals, which De Perthes declared

to be

contemporary with

NEW

Tin:

the

list

hatchet.

scientists

Somme Perthes.

It is less

are

\m

239

than two generations ago that the English Sir Charles Lyell, and others visited the

Huxley, Prestwich,

Valley and substantiated the facts observed by Boucher de As a result of this visit Lyell published his

volume on The Antiquity

We

r

of

epoch-making Civil War.

Man, which appeared during our

familiar with Huxley's discomfiture of the Anglican bishops which followed this final recognition of the enormous age of man, for

some

all

of us read the debate in our

younger days

in the

current magazines.

The

revelation of thousands of years of oriental history, lying back of anything before known of the Ancient East, is Rollin's equally recent.

Ancient History, in English translation, though its author had more than Herodotus and the Old Testament as sources for the

little

history

of the

Ancient East, is still offered for sale in the windows of our downtown bookshops; and in my boyhood it was still widely read. My father's copy of Layard's Nineveh and Babylon, the marvel of my boyhood, with its mysterious winged and human-headed bulls on the cover, went into his library, as shown by the date on the flyleaf, in 1869; while the title-page is dated 1859. It was only a few years earlier that the decipherment of Babylonian and Assyrian cuneiform was achieved, and the first inscriptions in Egyptian hieroglyphic were read only a quarter of a century

earlier.

these systems of writing

is

still

Our knowledge far

of these languages

from complete and

is

and

making daily

progress.

Thus with

startling suddenness

curtain has been

drawn

and

practically in our

own

time the

back into the deeps of a past so appallingly remote that neither thought nor education have as yet become adjusted to it. Let us for a moment look back into this imposing vista of tion of prehistoric

aside, permitting us to look

human development, disclosed to us by the investigaman in Europe on the one hand ami of the once lost

on the other. Almost everyone is aware that we can now trace the forward movement of earliest man in Europe through many thousands <>i years of civilizations in the Orient

The great polar ice cap descending struggle with the material world. on the north side of the Mediterranean for the fourth time, driving the European savages of the Early Stone Age southward and then slowly retreating northward again, has become for us a vast geological clock, the fourfold rhythmic swing of whose colossal ice pendulum

dim intimations of an enormous lapse of time, during which the gradual improvement of man'> stone weapon-, and implements discloses his slow advance on the long road upward from savagery toward

furnishes

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

240

The imagination is thrilled by these revelations of the agecivilization. long struggle of our savage ancestor, as we discern in his slow conquest of the forces about him a secular aspect filling us with the same cosmic emotion which we

feel in the

presence of some imposing

phenomenon

of nature.

While we

may assume

that

many

educated people of today are is not commonly

familiar with the outstanding facts thus far set forth, it known, on the other hand, that the Late Stone Age

life,

like that of

Europe eight or ten thousand years ago, undoubtedly entirely surrounded the Mediterranean and fringed its shores much as did the government

Roman Empire thousands of years later. Nor is it commonly understood that, while this was the character of human existence all around the Mediterranean, we are unable to discover the least evidence of the

that

man had anywhere

else

on earth attained a mode

of

life

in

any

respect superior to that in the Mediterranean basin of eight or ten thousand years ago. Everywhere man was still without metals, sea-

going ships, writing, domestic animals, domestic grains, agriculture, and textile clothing. Without these fundamentals of civilization the life of

man at

throughout the globe inevitably remained crude and barbarous. At this juncture, however, geological forces had already been long work preparing a new and much more favorably situated home for

the Late Stone

Age hunters

at the southeast corner of the Mediterranean.

Here

tropical Africa stretched forth across the Sahara to the southeastern corner of the midland sea, a fertile and sheltered corridor teeming

with luxuriant vegetable and animal life from inner Africa, and offering Age hunters a home of inexhaustible resources in a

to the Late Stone

unexampled safety and protection from hostile intruders. Into this paradise of the lower Nile Valley, which we now call Egypt, the Stone Age hunters of the North African plateau had inevitably situation of

been lured by the chase from the beginning. I have found their Nile boats carved on the rocks far out in the wastes of the Nubian Sahara behind

Abu

Simbel.

Elsewhere

in

the

whole Mediterranean world

was no situation where the hunting life would be so stimulated to advance to a higher stage as it was along the Nile. Europe meanwhile had seemingly been retarded by the rigors of an Ice Age climate, while on the other hand long before 5000 B.C. the favored hunters of the Nile jungle had advanced far beyond their European contemporaries in the great prehistoric world around the Mediterranean. Today we excavate along the margin of the Egyptian alluvium on the edge of the desert the graves of the oldest known cemeteries in the world, and find there

THE MAY PAST

241

lying in these graves the descendants of the Nile hunters of the Stone Age, just beginning the transition to metal. They had already acquired all the leading domestic animals, and, having domesticated likewise the

wild cereal grasses, had made the transition to the settled agricultural life. All the evidence would now indicate that these prehistoric Egyptians of the early cemeteries, or their ancestors, were the earlie.-t

on earth who were able

men

to insure themselves an uninterrupted food

supply by the domestication of the wild sources, vegetable and animal, while their subsequent conquest of metal and their development of the earliest

known system

gave them the leadership in the rest of the world still lagged

of phonetic writing

the long advance to civilization

when

all

behind in Stone Age barbarism.

Upon

these great conquests, chiefly in the material world, followed

an impressive development,

social,

governmental, and religious.

This

jungle valley lying athwart the eastern Sahara had gathered between its contracted rocky walls the prehistoric hunters scattered along the North

African coast and held them together in the possession of necessary for the unhampered development of human

all

the resources

life

under con-

ditions so favorable that they were slowly consolidated into the first great society of several million souls swayed by one sovereign hand and in possession of the leading

fundamentals of

civilization.

Thus

in the

centuries between 5000 and 3000 B.C. arose the first great civilized stale at a time when the Mediterranean elsewhere was still fringed with

scattered communities of Stone

The

prehistoric hunter

Age

hunters.

whose self-expression was quite content

to

ply the flint graving tool in carving symmetrical lines of game bea-talong the ivory handle of a stone dagger was thus transformed by fifty generations of social evolution into a royal architect launching great bodies of organized craftsmen upon the quarries of the Nile cliffs, and summoning thence stately and rhythmic colonnades, imposing temple-, and a vast rampart of pyramids, the greatest tombs ever erected by the

hand

of

man.

advancing

social

unfolding inner

by which

the

Such outward, often purely material, expressions of and governmental organization, with which man's

life

new

has kept even pace, furnish the unwritten evidence must trace the successive transitions which

historian

lifted man from savagery to civilization; and it is the study of such human documents which has revealed to us the outlines of the marvelous story as we now possess it. Now whv are these developments, in the life of an age so remote and

have

a land so distant, of any consequence to us of modern America

?

We

of

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

242

America are especially

fitted to visualize

and

to understand the

transformation of a wilderness into a land of splendid

ful

wonder-

cities.

But

our fathers, whose efforts have planted great and prosperous cities along the once lonely trails of our own broad land, received art and architecture, industry and commerce, social and governmental traditions, as an There was an age, however, when the inheritance from earlier times. transition

from barbarism

to civilization, with all its impressive

manifestations in art and architecture, had to be

The lie

made for

outward

the first time.

not significance of the appearance of civilization along the Nile does but in the fact that it was rising for

in the splendor of its buildings,

the first time

on

earth.

on the Nile enters a wonderland at whose gates the colossal pyramids of which he has had visions from earliest childhood. As he ascends the river he sees expanding behind palmlead fringed shores vast temple precincts, to which avenues of sphinxes

Today the

traveler

rise

up from the

shore,

stately colonnades.

dominated by the mighty shafts of

But

it

tall

obelisks

and

does not occur to the traveler that, just as

America, so there on the Nile the wilderness preceded all this. Where monuments of stone now rise once stretched the tangled where jungle of the Nile canyon, pathless for thousands of years save

in

those vast

the hunter's narrow trail led through the reeds to the water's edge. Rarely does the modern pilgrim in Egypt realize that there was no civilized ancestry

from

whom

the prehistoric Nile-dweller might receive

own deepening experience and broadening vision we must find the magic which transformed these a great primitive hunters and their little settlements of wattle huts into

an inheritance of culture.

In their

by masterful men of grandly spacious imagination, imposing monumental vision, whose prodigal hands, untrammeled by tradition, stretched out over the one-time jungle, scattered these gigantic

society dominated of

He who knows the story of far up and down the river. the transition from the prehistoric hunters of the Nile jungle to the craftsmen of a sovereigns and statesmen, the architects, engineers, and monuments

wonders along great organized society, which wrought these monumental the Nile at a time when all Europe was still living in Stone Age barbarism



and there was none to teach a civilization of the past he who knows all this knows the story of the first rise of civilization anywhere on the globe. Civilization was thus born at the southeast corner of the Mediterranean. The Stone Age villagers on the northern coasts of the same sea, that

is,

in

sea-going

Southern Europe, looked wonderingly out upon the earliest ever equipped with sails issuing from the mouths

craft

THE NEW PAS! and bringing the works of civilized man for the tirst time to the shores of Europe, precisely as the West Indian oativ later marveled to see the first ships of Europe approaching the shores

of the Nile

of America.

For just as European

civilization

was brought across

tin-

Atlantic to the savages of the Western World, so oriental civilization crossed the Mediterranean to the barbarians of Europe. In view of his

remarkable discoveries in Crete, the southeastern outpost of Europe, where it approaches most nearly to Eg3 pt, Sir Arthur Evans states with evident conviction, "Ancient Egypt

itself can no longer be regarded as something apart from general human history." While this is true and it is an undoubted fact that Egypt's position

on the Mediterranean gave

it

Europe than was possible was from the Mediterranean nevertheless we must not forget that

easier access to

in the case of Babylonia, separated as

it

by hundreds of miles of desert, somewhat later than in Egypt there arose civilization, characterized

Babylonia a remarkable

in

persistent progress in practical, legal, and at the same time so devoted to the belief that

by

commercial matters, and human destiny might be read

in the stars that its extraordinary skill in the study of the celestial bodies furnished the data which became in t hehands of the Greeks the foundations of the science of astronomy. The

communication between the Babylonians and Europe lay through Asia Minor, as that of Egypt led across the Mediterranean. At the same time the interfusion of civilizations in the Near Orient led to the line of

creation of

what we may

it,

call

an Egypto-Babylonian or Near-Oriental

lay behind Europe from our point of view, and from especially later from the harbors of Phoenicia, came the culture

culture nucleus.

forces which set

It

European

of oriental influences,

of

civilization going.

Not only

which Christianity

is

so,

but a current

the most

noticeable,

continuing to set toward Europe, eventually transformed the Roman State at Constantinople into an oriental despotism and continued to be felt until long after the Crusades.

The

recognition that the earliest center of civilization in the Eastern in the eastern Mediterranean region, whence it was

Hemisphere was diffused in

all

directions, especially toward

Europe, makes possible a

great generalization regarding the developing life of man on earth, which I think has remained unnoticed. It is now evident that there are

only two regions on the globe in which man has risen from Stone Age savagery to the possession of agriculture, metals, and writing, the indispensable fundamentals of civilization. The complete independence of these two regions in making these cultural conquests is evident. They

TIIE

244

UNIVERSITY RECORD

One of them is in the New World them lies along or on both sides of a great intercontinental bridge, one joining the two Americas, the other connecting Africa and Eurasia. In both the Old World and the New, the bridge between the continents formed the center around which took place the development and diffusion of the highest civilization at first are geographically widely separated. in the Old, and each of

and the other

1 attained in either hemisphere. We speak with reason of the Old World and the

Eastern Hemisphere was

New;

for the develop-

thousand years earlier than in the Western. The European conquest of the Americas found the abori-

ment

in the

six

gines of the central region just beginning the use of metal, employing picture-writing about to become phonetic, in full possession of agriculThat is ture and irrigation, but still without domestic animals.

Columbus found the aboriginal Americans at a level of culture already attained by the Near Orient well back of 4000 B.C. Considerations like these disclose at once an impressive degree of unity in the career of man. The recognition of the Orient as lying behind the history of Europe, just as the history of Europe lies behind that of America, and the further possibility of pushing back behind the historic Orient to the ages of man's prehistoric development and linking these up in their turn with the history of the Orient, thus giving us the ever remoter stages, America, Europe, the Near Orient, prethese latest reconstructions of the new historic man, the geological ages



historian disclose to us the career of

man for the first

time as one whole, to

be regarded as a consecutive development from the stone fist hatchet to the shell fragments of 19 14 buried side by side on the battlefields of

Somme. A comprehensive study of the ancient Orient, carried on with open eyes and with larger objects in view than the statistics of the dative case, reveals to us the well-known and long familiar historic

the

epochs of the career of European man for the first time set in a background of several hundred thousand years. In this vast synthesis, which only a study of oriental history makes possible, there is thus disclosed to us an imposing panorama of the human career in a vista of successive ages such as no earlier generation has ever been able to survey. the New Past. far

This

is

However it may be with science and philosophy, history has thus made little account of this tremendous synthesis. And this brings

1 Much of thfc paragraph is quoted from the author's presidential address before the American Oriental Society, published in the Journal of the American Oriental

Society,

XXXIX,

161.

THE NEW PAST

245

up the important question why modem education and research should be expected to take account of the New Past these ages which seem so



remote from modern

These things all happened so long ago! Yes, the law of gravitation was set in operation a long time ago, and the coal measures and the iron deposits were laid down ages ago; hut life.

they are all modern forces still affecting our lives every daw Physics and geology deal with them in education, and our economic life could iiv>t go on without them. Just so the discovery of Southeastern Europe civilization live thousand wars ago. It brought things into the life Europe which today are force- as constantly and insistently touching our lives in all that we do as the force of gravitation, the energy of How far coal, or the myriad modern applications of iron and steel. would the average citizen go in his day's program if he were to eliminate as of no more use the things which he has inherited from the early Orient ? When he rises in the morning and clothes his body in textile garments, when he sits down to the breakfast table spread with spotless linen, set with vessels of glazed pottery and with drinking goblets of glass, when he puts forth his hand to any implement of metal on that table except aluminum, when he eats his morning roll or cereal and drinks bis glass of milk, or perhaps eats his morning chop cut from the flesh of a domesticated animal, when he rolls downtown in a vehicle supported on

by

of

wheels,

when he

enters his office building through a porticus supported sits down at his desk, spreads out a sheet of paper,

on columns, when he

grasps his pen, dips it in ink, puts a date at the head of the sheet, writes a check or a promissory note, or dictates a lease or a contract to his secretary, when he looks at his watch with the sixty-fold division of the circle on its face, in all these

and

in

an

infinite

number of ether commonplaces

of

life



could not go on for a single hour, the average man of today is using items of an inheritance which began to pass across the eastern Mediterranean from the Orient when Europe was things without which

modern

life

discovered by civilization five thousand years ago. Even in the world it is found, for example, that in the modern study of the moon the observations of the Babylonians furnishing the earliest known data

of science

are of great value. Similarly the processes of smelting metallic ores devised by the Egyptians some six thousand years ago, when they

became the lirst smelters of metal, have been employed with little change ever since, until in quite recent years modern chemistry has introduced improvements and chang<

.

however, quite possible to misunderstand the value of ancient One of the commonest and most regrettable oriental achievement. It

is,

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

246

modern life, especially in America and England, is that of enraptured femininity contemplating the lofty truths fondly believed to be enshrined in some ancient oriental faith, and forgetting all that ages of social experience have contributed in developing, elevating, and spectacles of

enriching

all

the surviving religions of ancient origin.

To

ignore these

later centuries of ennobling

development and, turning backward, to adopt without change the germinal stages of some ancient faith is as reasonable as it would be for the thirsty individual seeking refreshment on a hot day to go and lie down under an acorn and regale himself on a water-

melon seed!

any value that may

Is there, then,

Past other than the intrinsic worth of are

still

in

common

use

to the discovery of the

among

us

?

still

come

to us

from the

New

surviving achievements which Lord Acton has well said that "next its

New

World, the recovery of the ancient world is the second landmark that divides us from the Middle Ages and marks the transition to

modern

life."

In this distinguished historian's judg-

ment, therefore, the two great forces which led men out of the Middle Ages into modern life were a vision which looked both forward and backward, and which not only caught the limitless possibilities of the future in the New World after 1492, but also drew the profoundest inspiration

from the newly recovered

past, as

they learned to

know it in the surviving What was the The only past

writings and other important works of its greatest men. ancient world, the past, to which Lord Acton refers ?

known to the men who were emerging from the Middle Ages was, as we all know, the past of Greece and Rome. Now we have just been considering the fact that the process of recovering the ancient world which began at the dawn of the Renaissance, did not cease with the Renaissance, but has gone on through all the centuries since then, and with quicken-

ing strides, especially during the last two generations. not only to the voices of Cicero and Socrates, of Isaiah

did the

men

of the Renaissance,

We

listen

now

and David, as

but also to the voice of Sennacherib in

the proud story of his victories, to the voice of Cheops telling in terms of colossal masonry architecture the triumphs of the first great organized state, to the voice of the earliest smelter of

metals singing in the tinkle

song of man's coming conquest of the earth, to the voice of remote and long-forgotten aeons heard now only in the

of his primitive anvil the

message of ever more carefully wrought stone implements, to the voice of geological ages muttering in the savage gutturals of incipient human speech which

we seem

re-echoing to the

first

to hear resounding through prehistoric forests inarticulate utterances of those now hardly dis-

THE NEW PAST cernible creatures, about to

become men.

247

Back, through the aeons into

and

prehistoric deeps like these we now look, and listen to the echoes that come to us out of the vista of the ages. It was with such a historic

a vision before him that Tennyson looked down into the cradle of his firstborn and said, "Out of the deeps, my child"; and such a vision

New Past, just beginning to dawn upon the minds of modern men, has values as yet all unproved. He who really discerns it has begun to read the glorious Odyssey 0! human kind, disclosing to us man push-

of the

ing out

upon the ocean

of time to

make conquest



of treasure unspeakable,

dreams the supreme adventure of the Such a vision must have high moral value, for who can see it and ages. fail to feel the call to follow and to achieve in high endeavor the ultimate destiny of which the vision gives unequivocal promise ? In these days of worlds surpassing all his

when emotional

religion

has so often given

way

to sober

and even prosaic

resolution, I see in the picture of man's past achievements and progress a powerful stimulus to continue the great adventure on the highest plane. I

am

first

convinced that this \Y\v Past, which we of this generation are the may be made a great moral power among the youth of

to behold,

our land.

Again perhaps the most evident element of power resulting from the recovery of the New Past is the demonstration of amazing progress which If we may trust the oracular London Titties, as I have no doubt it reveals.

we may, a bishop of the Anglican church, while delivering the last Romanes lecture at Oxford University a few weeks ago, emphatically denied that history discloses any human progress. I hope I may be pardoned the suspicion that the bishop has not yet banished Archbishop Ussher's dust-covered chronology from the margin of his Bible, where it probably occupies an impregnable position along with the imprecatory Psalms. For it is inconceivable that anyone acquainted with the facts of man's career as at present known to us can doubt the amazing reach and sweep of human progress; a progress in the face of which even the events of the last six years seem hardly more than a casual episode, is dwarfed into insignificance as we contemplate the

and one which

effect of the Glacial

Age or

of the subsequent retreat of the ice

on the

human career. An invaluable corollary of this progress, always evident to anyone who studies it as a whole, is its demonstration of the value of conservatism, a word which is slowly recovering its respectability among us at present.

We

are rooted in the past and unconsciously every hour we of its inexorable voice. We still wear buttons on

submit to the dictates

THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

248

our coat sleeves and at the top of our coat tails, although we no longer button to them the satin-lined cuffs and coat flaps of our fathers as they did when they mounted their horses. Everybody knows his is a survival of a once useful but now very troublesome organ

appendix which he I

am

told

is

glad to part with even at considerable hospital charges, and the physiologists that our interiors are infested with scores

by

of such survivals.

Most

of us are also afflicted

with serious mental

appendixes, of which we may be largely unconscious. Nevertheless any nation which considers the past a troublesome appendix to be discarded as quickly as possible will find itself in the position of Russia at the present moment, relapsing rapidly into a barbarism which temporary successes in war will only render the more terrible.

we are to make safe and sane progress, it can only be made valuand enduring by the conservation of much of the past. The New Past as we have come to know it in the last two generations will unIf

able

questionably prove of the greatest value to our young people in displaying clearly how every conquest of progress has carried along with it the germs of the old, and in showing unmistakably

how

the old surviving

new has

The present, with its usually never wholly disappeared. revolutionary innovations and its seemingly almost instantaneous transiEven the most novel of modern mechanical tions, is very misleading.

in the

devices

may

reach back into a past far remoter than we fancy, and the which it has seemed to emerge and take its

startling suddenness with

A good example is the land which was so abruptly introduced long after the beginning of the Great War. Yet we might step over into Haskell Oriental Museum and find there in Assyrian reliefs sculptured in the ninth century before Christ a wheeled and armored battle car moving across the field of battle, propelled by power from within and guided by place

among

us completely disappears.

battleship, the tank,

commander protected by a domed and circular turret with peepholes all around under the eaves of the dome. There it is in actual use nearly twenty-eight hundred years ago a modern tank but for the lack of gunpowder and gasoline power. Our McCormicks and other inventors of farm machinery would probably be interested to know that a Babya



lonian seal bears a little engraving showing a machine seeder drawn by oxen engaged in sowing grain. As a symbol of the fruitful life that feeds an empire the Assyrian kings placed a representation of this seeder in brilliantly colored glazed bricks on the palace walls. For the mind of a young person who may have become interested in the vagaries of some

soap-box purveyor of universal social panaceas, who would wipe out the past, I do not know of any better cure than a knowledge of the New Past.

THE SEW PAST

is

249

One of the things which early strikes the student of the New Past the conflict between this newly discerned unity of the human career

and the exclusiveness of modern nationalism, a> it has grown up during the brief five thousand years of the career >f cilivization. This contrast properly appreciated

much we may of the world,

may have

it-

now understand

that

Most

uses.

long for conditions which it

is

of us,

1

however

think,

permit a peaceful federation of little use to put a League of

will

Nations on paper. We now see that the peoples of the earth must each be educated to a point where public feeling will demand some form of league, and before that point is reached it is useless to endeavor to force through a paper league, not yet imperiously demanded by the people of every civilized nation of importance. It may take generations to create such a public feeling among the leading peoples of civilization.

In the process of education which will build up such a public sentiment, am convinced that the vision of the unity of man arising in the mind of

I

every young person who has gained some knowledge of the New Past will not remain a mere academic conception, but as one of the supreme facts of modern knowledge may become and will become a compelling influence

toward a future federation of the world and an eventual brotherhood men.

of

But how shall the

we

New Past find its proper place

in

education

?

Shall

modern novelist and outspoken critic of the universities ? One of the most delightful experiences during my recent long absence from the University was a week's end at Easton Glebe, Dunmow, the Essex home of H. G. Welts, whom we may not inappropriately recognize as an apostle of the New Past. Long drives, vivacious teas, and contemplative walks, interspersed with games and dances in Mr. Britling's barn, gave ample opportunity tor
  • cussion of these things. Mr. Wells's new Outline 0/ History, now appearing serially and then almost ready for the press, furnished an inexhaustible storehouse of themes for these discussions, which wish some of our own historians and educators might have heard. It was very refreshof the universities leave

    it

    to a brilliant

    I

    ing not to be called upon to argue for the treatment of man's career as a whole, or to defend the thesis that history must expand to include the

    New

    Past.

    It

    history Past.

    evident, indeed, that no modern university department of complete which does not include at least one course on the New We have special courses on the history of mammals, in which the

    is

    is

    student if

    any

    today.

    may

    follow the development of the horse from a creature lilt It a rabbit up to the mammoth draught horses of

    larger than

    Without conceit man may

    fairly consider himself as a

    mammal

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    250

    comparable in importance with the horse; but what university

    offers a

    course following evolution at its culminating stage, tracing its supreme achievement in bringing forth the life of modern man, from the pre-man of the

    Maurer Sands by Heidelberg

    civilized

    to the earliest great societies of are told these things

    man from whom we are all descended ?

    We

    do not belong to history. But the geologists offer courses in the history of the earth, and the paleobotanists offer courses in the history of many forms of plant life. Natural science uses the word "history" quite properly to designate developments in which written documents play no part whatever, and we may fairly ask by what authority the history of

    man

    is limited to the period since written documents began. These considerations might bring up the whole question of the correlation of the New Past with the great body cf science, natural and humanistic. As I had the opportunity of saying in the William Ellery Hale 1 lectures, I have often wondered what there is unnatural about man. Is he unnatural because he lives in groups and builds houses? Many birds do the same, and some beasts also, like the beaver. Nevertheless both in education and in the organization of research we have strangely isolated man from the natural order where Linnaeus long ago found a place for him; and there is a very unfortunate chasm both in education and research between natural and so-called humanistic science a chasm for which there is no justification. That this unfortunate cleavage will disappear eventually I have no doubt. It blinds us to larger correlations in education which the



    New

    Past makes obviously possible.

    We

    arrange the curriculum of a

    department chronologically, because it is a matter of course that medieval should follow ancient history, and American should

    historical

    follow European.

    and perfectly

    Since the recovery of the

    New Past

    it is

    feasible to carry this chronological arrangement

    now

    possible

    much farther

    back into the career of the universe and thus to include also the naturalscience departments and arrange a series of courses presenting an outline history of the universe, from the fundamental constitution of

    and history upward progress through ever vegetable and animal life until the appearance of man,

    matter through the formation of of our globe, the emergence of higher forms of where the history of the

    New

    epochs of European history.

    celestial systems, the origin life, its

    Past

    now

    In this

    carries us over to the familiar

    way

    man

    the

    New

    Past would enable

    with that of the physical universe out of which he seems to have emerged. The outline history of the universe

    us to link up the career of

    1

    The

    Scientific

    Monthly, October, 1910, p. 289.

    THE NEW PAST which

    251

    have suggested already exists in the -eries of lecture courses on evolution, known as the William EUery Hale Lectures, though some of these courses still remain unpublished, and what was done in those I

    lectures before the National

    Academy of Sciences at Washington might every university in the form of a series of courses under the general title "Evolution," or '•Summary of Evolution." ries might well dominate the whole curriculum, and through the courses on history, with which it would be concluded, lead naturally over to studies done

    also be

    in

    in literature and art as the final culture courses in a curriculum which would furnish a broader type of education than any now offered by our

    universities here or abroad.

    In such a historical correlation of the career of processes of our earth, and the universe about

    it,

    man the

    with the secular

    New

    Past, as

    we

    have already observed, forms an indispensable link; but it is a link of which we have recovered thus far only scanty fragments. An enormous amount of laborious exploration and research still remains to be done. Last winter while in Cairo I had the privilege of studying some new



    fragments of the earliest known royal annals in any language a black which a fragment had long been known in the museum of

    diorite slab, of

    Palermo. Although the new Cairo fragments had been recently twice published, an exhaustive examination disclosed a hitherto unnoticed dynasty or group of ten Pharaohs ruling over predynastic ^ypt a dynasty before the dynasties. The black stone slab on which these 1

    oldest

    known



    royal annals were written some forty-five hundred years in some temple, perhaps at Memphis

    ago had originally been set up

    When

    the building perished, the block had been re-used in another building as a threshold, and generations of human feet had gradually worn down the inscribed records until in many places only the faintest

    glimmerings of the disappearing signs were discernible.

    It is

    no

    reflec-

    upon the two successive editors and publishers that important now facts were still to be wrung from it, and that a third publication is necessary; but I have referred to the incident because it so well illustion

    trates the situation throughout the range of study of the New Past, whether in the held or in the museums. Many a block like that, with

    precious message from the ancient life of man, lies out yonder in I ha ve the Near Orient awaiting discovery and rescue from destruction.

    its

    stood in the gates of an ancient city of Assyria, which was flourishing in the days when the Hebrews of the eighth century B.C. were still to repel the Assyrian yoke, and I have seen the modern natives

    fighting

    scrape

    away with

    little

    more than

    their

    hands a

    of slight covering

    earth

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    252

    which concealed a vast block

    of alabaster bearing magnificently carved

    royal annals marching in imposing lines of large and stately cuneiform thrust back the earth across the up-turned face of the block.

    We

    again to cover and protect the venerable document, and there it still lies, undoubtedly along with many of its kind in the other city gates,

    awaiting recovery to enrich the halls of some modern museum and to some one of the many gaps in our knowledge of the New Past. As we look out over the Eastern Hemisphere, with its great central

    fill

    nucleus of Egypto-Babylonian culture on each side of the interconand realize that these birth-lands of civilization are now

    tinental bridge,

    opened to unrestricted investigation by the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, it is evident that there rises before us an opportunity unprecedented in the history of humanistic research. There He the documents which w ill enable us to complete the vast synthesis first erected by Darwin, by which we may eventually completely link up the historic r

    past of man with the geological ages that he behind the human career. In the whole length and breadth of humanistic research there is no other field of investigation which so kindles the imagination, or may

    be compared with it in imposing range and far-reaching importance. With few exceptions the men engaged in such researches in America

    have been university teachers in a department organized to teach languages, like the traditional departments of Greek and Latin. But the lure which has drawn most of us into this field has been the opportunity of aiding in the inspiring task of recovering a great tions.

    It is

    obvious that the orientalist

    who

    is

    group

    of lost civiliza-

    also a university teacher

    as unable single-handed to meet the requirements of a situation like would be the astronomer if he were obliged to undertake the study of the celestial world without his observatory or his staff of is

    this as

    assistants.

    The response

    of the University of

    Chicago to

    this situation

    has been

    the establishment of a laboratory for historical research in the early The career of man, which has been called the Oriental Institute.

    documents indispensable to the researches of the Institute he lands and far-away museums. One of the purposes of the Oriental Institute, therefore, was to provide for occasional journeys to the Near Orient for the study or copying of new documents acquired by other museums and the acquisition of new and original monuments for

    original

    in distant

    our

    own collections.

    Returning from nearly a year's absence in the Near East on the first expedition of our Oriental Institute, it is more than a pleasure on this

    THE NEW PAST Convocation

    Day

    set forth the place

    to

    occupy

    in the

    which

    sum

    253

    be accorded

    to

    of

    I

    the opportunity thus publicly to believe the field of oriental reseaJN h is destined

    human knowledge, ami

    to suggest that the

    work

    of the University of

    Chicago in this field has perhaps outgrown indulgent toleration at the hands of facetious colleagues who have sometimes referred to it as the ''mummy department." For it is a source 0! great pride to be able to report that the University of Chicago has already

    made a

    large place for herself in the ancient lands of the Near Orient. due primarily to the visit of our honored president to Baghdad and Persia, and the administrative efficiency and diplomatic skill with

    This

    is

    which he discharged

    his difficult task of distributing

    American bounty

    for the relief of the starving multitudes of Persia.

    I will spare his proverbial modesty the repetition of any of the frequent expressions of regard for him and admiration for his work which I heard from the lips

    of the leading British administrators

    and commanders

    in the

    Near Orient.

    a gratification also to be able to report that our Oriental Institute expedition has been able to establish connections which insure to the

    It is

    University of Chicago, if she desires it, an important share of scientific research in the Near Orient.

    in

    the future

    Co-operation with both British and French will be easily arranged. This is especially true in the case of the British, now in control of Mesopotamia and Palestine, a very large portion of the Near Orient. Unexpected reasons have contributed to this result. The University of first group of white men or non-Moslems to

    Chicago expedition was the cross the

    Arab

    state of

    King

    Faisal from

    Baghdad

    to the Mediterranean.

    Since the proclamation of the new Arab dominions, our expedition was privileged to be the first to bear the American flag across them from the

    Persian Gulf to Aleppo, Damascus, and Beyrut. The observat tns made by the expedition on the modern conditions were considered of such i<

    value by Lord Allenby that he informed the British government of the facts we had gathered among the Arabs and asked that they be Mfice. personally reported to the Prime Minister and the Foreign <

    Although we were not expecting to return to America by way of London, this was done, and a purely archaeological and historical expedition of this University was thus able to render service to the British govern-

    We

    ntinuance of the have therefore every reason to expo any of our future effort- in these regions. Indeed, if the necessary means to carry on the work can be made available, the foundation has been laid and the opportunity is open before us for the achievement of a vast body of results in the study of

    ment.

    cordial support of the British in

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    254

    the human career, and the acquisition of an unparalleled body of infinitely precious records of the New Past such as few American institutions can hope to rival. It remains only for us tc "go up and possess the land."

    The

    expedition brings back

    and works

    w ith T

    it

    a great collection of ancient

    which had been accumulating monuments, records, in the hands of native antiquity dealers during the war. Valuable as this collection is, and it contains a number of monuments of which the like has never before been brought to America, and in some cases even to Europe, nevertheless all this is but a suggestion of what may be recovered and brought back to enrich our collections and the archives of the Oriental Institute, if its work expands as it should and it is enabled to strike the

    of art,

    spade deep into those great treasuries of ancient

    human

    life,

    mounds which cover the ancient cities of the Near East. The obstruction of such work on the part of the Ottoman Empire, once in control in

    the

    these regions, has given way, except in portions of Asia Minor, to cordial co-operation on the part of enlightened European governments, chiefly British and French.

    Upon the shoulders of American orientalists must largely fall the responsibility for the recovery of the lost chapters in the career of man. profound sense of this obligation makes it far more than a pleasure to

    A

    be able thus publicly to express the keen appreciation and the compelling inspiration to new achievement felt by the Department of Oriental

    Languages

    now expanding

    in

    before

    the presence of the it.

    We

    owe

    all

    this

    new to

    vista of usefulness

    the sympathetic

    never-failing support of the plans of the department

    by our

    and

    far-seeing

    President and our broad-minded Board of Trustees in approving and furthering the organization of the Oriental Institute, made possible by the generosity of a long-proved friend of the University, Mr. John D. Such enlightened support is equipping the University

    Rockefeller, Jr.

    of Chicago to carry her full share of American responsibility in recovering the lost chapters of the New Past, which the impoverished condition of the European peoples and governments throws upon us as a result of

    the Great War.

    No more

    noticeable example of the lack of resources

    to support this work could be cited than the empty treasury of the British School of Archaeology at Jerusalem, an institution established at a place

    and in a land hallowed by such associations that it was believed great sums would be easily obtainable for its support. Imagine our surprise on reaching Jerusalem to find the British School almost without funds, several years after its organization. Sir Arthur Evans, perhaps the leading British archaeologist, recently president of the British Associa-

    Till:

    tion for the

    Advancement

    SEW PAST

    255

    and for five years president of the Society of Antiquaries, has publicly announced the failure of an effort to secure the funds for the establishment of a permanent British 1 Institute of Archaeology in Egypt, maintained the of Science,

    London

    by government. This announcement by the illustrious British scientist of the failure of his effort, although supported by all the great learned societies of Great Britain, finally quenches every hope of British governmental support of scientific researches in the Near Orient for many year- to come. What is true of Great Britain is likewise true of the continental

    governments, though not for lack of interest and willingness to aid, hut because of depleted treasuries. I have found officials of some of the leading scientific institutions of Europe almost pathetically eager to of combination with American efforts in the Near

    make some form

    Orient, by which their meager resources might be supplemented bv our supposably more ample funds, in order to compass -ome of the larger enterprises which they refuse to relinquish to us, but to achieve

    which they have neither the men nor the money. It is needless t<> add that we cannot expect any support of such work by the government of the United States. We can look solely to our American men of means for the funds to carry on these researches. The great centers of human life in the ancient world, the mighty cities and capitals of Babylonia, Assyria, Persia, Palestine, Syria, Asia

    Minor, and Egypt, the region where the earliest civilized societies arose out of savagery and barbarism to bring civilization bo barbarian Europe all these treasuries of human records which are rapidly perish-



    ing in the whole region about the eastern end of the Mediterranean lie I have seen the there silently awaiting the spade of the excavator.

    ruined capitals of the ancient East slumbering under their gloomy at sunset, and many a time as the sun arose and dispelled the

    mounds

    shadows

    it

    has seemed as

    through those

    now

    if

    the banished

    life

    that once ebbed and (lowed

    rubbish-covered and dismantled street- must -tart

    till with a regret so poignant that it was almost physical pain have realized the years that must elapse before these silent mounds can be made to speak again and reveal all the splendid pageant of the New Past which transformed our father-man from savagery in some remote

    forth again, I

    cavern where at most he could count godlike creature

    who reached

    live

    by

    the aid of his fingers into a

    out to the star- on those Babylonian

    plains and made the first computation- which have at length enabled us to plumb the vast deeps of the universe. 1

    Proceedings of the Society of Antiqu

    Ser.,

    XXXI

    (1919), 190.

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    2 56

    Before the whole recoverable story drawn out of every available but after is in our hands, it may indeed be a century or two; a survey of most of the important buried cities of the Near Orient, I am confident that with sufficient funds and adequate personnel it will be

    mound

    or thirty years, or let us say within a possible in the next twenty-five of Western Asia and to generation, to clear up the leading ancient cities recover and preserve for future study the vast body of human records

    which they contain. In this way the main lines of the development can be followed in the larger sites, marking the leading homes of ancient men and governments. I cannot but see in the recovery and study of incomparable body of evidence America's greatest opportunity in humanistic research and discovery. On a day like this, in the presence of a large group of our young

    this

    people

    who

    and take up the more serious responsiwe have made is the more fitting in of research which it presents is so vast

    are about to leave us

    bilities of life,

    such a retrospect as

    view of the fact that the field and the investigators so limited in numbers. great, but the laborers are few" and we need

    man

    —yes,

    and

    young woman too

    for the

    humanistic research, no

    "The

    harvest indeed

    recruits.

    —who

    field of investigation is

    may

    more

    is

    For the young be interested in inviting or offers

    The inspiring task which confronts America in greater opportunities. the Near East cannot be achieved without the aid of a new generation young Americans who are willing to spend the years necessary to work cannot be gain the training and equipment without which the done. Such young people may look forward to a life-work of absorbing interest and of ideal usefulness to science, coupled with a living return

    of

    Great opportunities await the young scholars and Those who It will be a life of some sacrifices.

    for labor achieved.

    scientists in this field. elect to

    undertake

    reverence for the their all to this

    dwell life

    must

    it

    life

    new

    of

    set their faces to the East, feeling a

    man on

    crusade.

    deep

    the earth, and highly resolving to devote

    To

    such

    spirits it will

    not be irksome to

    the past; to them the recovery of the unfolding will not be a toilsome task, but rather a joyful quest, the

    among memories of

    of

    man

    from which arduous journeys and weary For in this crusade of modern endeavor in the Near Orient we know, what the first crusaders

    modern quest

    for the Grail,

    exile in distant lands will scientific

    not deter us.

    could not yet discern, that we are returning to ancestral shores. And in the splendor of that buoyant life of the human soul which has somehow of the impenetrable deeps of past ages and risen so high, they shall find a glorious prophecy of its supreme future.

    come up out

    THE PRESIDENTS CONVOCATION STATEMENT THE CONVOCATION OB \I"K

    The address with which we have been favored today has been given by one of our own Faculty who for the pasl year has Itch engaged in a very interesting and important investigation in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Arabia, and Syria. We rejoice that he has returned safely from his arduous journey and congratulate him on the success which has attended his efforts in the interests of

    Oriental

    We

    Museum.

    and look forward

    Department

    to

    Archaeology and especially <>f the Baskell thank Professor Breasted for his service today

    still

    greater attainment from him in the Oriental and for the world.

    for the University

    THE SUMMER QUARTER

    The quarter just closing has been on the whole perhaps the mosl successful summer in the history of the University. It is only fair to say that the Summer Quarter asa regular part of university work was initialed by the University of Chicago in 1894, and has proved so successful and reasonable a method of using university facilities as to have been adopted by a number

    of other institutions.

    existed elsewhere for

    many years.

    Summer

    schools, of course, have is not a summer

    Our Summer Quarter

    school.

    The attendance this summer has readied and somewhat surpassed At thai time the total the phenomenal record of the summer of iqi6. attendance of different students for the Summer Quarter was 5.404The exceptionally large attendance of n,io it is 5,406. to special circumstances which it was not anticipated would It is of interest to note that of the ^,400 circumstances.

    This summer

    was due unusual

    The attendance this year is due to no students in attendance 2,080 are graduate students and 2,150 are in the professional schools of Divinity, Law, Medicine, Education, and Commerce and Administration. It may be added that all of the depart-

    recur in the immediate future.

    ments speak of the exceptional quality of the students, who, in fact, comprise a large number of teachers, including many from college faculties. It is believed that the Summer Quarter of the University is rendering a large benefit to the educational work of the country. 257

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    258

    THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SERVICE ADMINISTRATION

    An ment

    interesting feature of the past summer has been the establishby the Board of Trustees of a new curriculum of graduate work

    under the head

    of the School of Social Service Administration,

    which

    is

    Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy, for many years maintained as an independent organization in Chicago, and which under the unselfish direction of Dr. Graham Taylor and of his able in succession to the

    staff

    has rendered an excellent service.

    special

    committee

    of the

    The

    following letter from a

    Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy,

    formally approved by the Trustees of that School will explain the situation.

    August

    4,

    1920

    Board of Trustees University or Chicago Acting

    in behalf of the

    we whose names

    Trustees of the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy,

    are undersigned are authorized to submit for your consideration the

    following statement and proposals: For several years the Chicago School of Civics

    and Philanthropy has existed

    for

    the purpose of providing facilities for the training of students who desire to enter the field of social work and civic service. The work has in the past been experimental and there have been many groups of students received and cared for.

    The most important part college graduates,

    of the training,

    and the Trustees

    however, has been that provided for convinced that the methods and

    of the School are

    work have been so well developed that it would now be wise to have this graduate training carried on under University auspices rather than under those of a separate organization.

    principles applicable to this portion of their

    They therefore propose: 1. That the University of Chicago establish a graduate professional curriculum for training students who desire to enter this field; in so doing they desire to make it a matter of record that in their judgment such a curriculum can fulfil the demands of the situation only

    if it

    be given under conditions of administrative unity characteristic if the classroom work is supplemented by "field work" and

    of professional schools,

    placement of graduates, and if the high quality of the student body is assured by the provision of scholarships and fellowships. 2. That the Trustees of the University of Chicago are to regard these proposals as contingent upon the receipt of guaranties of not less than $25,000 a year for the skilled

    periofi of five

    years to be paid to the University of Chicago as

    may

    be stipulated.

    Julius Rosen wald, Trustee Sophonisba Breckinridge

    Graham Taylor, Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy Committee

    The fund of $25,000 per year was subscribed by Mrs.

    Emmons

    Blaine,

    the following persons:

    Mr. Charles R. Crane, Mr. Morton B. Hull,

    THE PRESIDENTS CONVOt ATION STATEMENT

    259

    Mr. Edward L. Ryerson, Mr. Julius Rosenwald, .Mr. Harold H. Swift. The American Red Cross, The Jewish Charities of Chicago, The United Charities of Chicago.

    The balance remaining

    if

    any

    is

    underwritten by Mrs.

    Edward

    Blaine, Mrs. Arthur T. Aldis, Mr.

    L.

    Emmons

    Ryerson, and Mr. Julius

    Rosenwald.

    The University has for many years maintained as a branch <>f the School of Commerce and Administration what has been called the Philanthropic Service Division, which has had a similar purpose to that of the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy. At the same time the School has not been provided with sufficient funds to carry it

    on as a graduate school with adequate professional training and fieldwork. On the other hand the departments of the University open a

    beyond the capacity of the Chicago School of Civics It seemed therefore to the Board of Trustees of the University of Chicago that the very generous and humane suggestion of the Trustees of the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy and field of instruction

    and Philanthropy.

    of the financial guarantors should be accepted. It was believed that, under the direction of the University and with the aid of the funds and experience provided by the friends of the School, this excellent service should

    be rendered even better than has heretofore

    been the case either with the University or with the School. ingly at the

    August meeting

    of the

    Accord-

    Board the plan was adopted

    for the

    establishment of a graduate professional curriculum for students in Civics and Philanthropy to be known as the School of Social Service Admin-

    Under the Deanship

    istration.

    Dean

    of the School of

    has been organized and

    The University

    in

    of

    Professor

    Leon Carrol Marshall,

    Commerce and Administration,

    the

    new School

    be fully in operation by the first of October. undertaking this new and extended task for the will

    humanity is indebted, not only to those whose financial gifts made the work possible, but to the generous spirit of those connected with the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy, and extends to service of

    them

    its

    thanks as well as to the guarantors. The purpose of the is to serve mankind in education and in the advancement

    University of

    knowledge and the Board

    new School

    will

    of Trustees confidently believes that the

    render a service worthy of the University and worthy

    of the city of Chicago.

    THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES By

    J.

    SPENCER DICKERSON,

    Secretary

    APPOINTMENTS In addition to reappointments the following appointments have been made by the Board of Trustees:

    Edgar J. Goodspeed, Secretary to the President. David Allan Robertson, Dean of the Colleges of

    and

    Arts, Literature,

    Science.

    Leon Carroll Marshall, Dean

    of

    the

    School

    of

    Social

    Service

    Administration.

    Charles H. Judd, Chairman of the Department of Psychology. F. A. Kingsbury, Assistant Professor in the Department of

    Psychology. S. Robinson, Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology. William Berry, Instructor in the Department of Psychology.

    E.

    G. T. Buswell, Assistant Professor in the Department of Education. in the Department of Education.

    N. B. Henry, Instructor

    Frances Gillespie, Associate in the Department of History. F. Woodring, Associate in the Department of History.

    Warren

    W. Mints, Instructor in the Department of Political Economy. Gildo Masso, Instructor in Spanish in the Junior College. John C. Ransmeier, Instructor in Spanish in the Junior College.

    L.

    Henry B. Siems, Lecture Associate

    in the Department of Chemistry. Department of Chemistry. Lillian Eichelberger, Associate in the Department of Chemistry. Lester R. Dragstedt, Assistant Professor in the Department of

    Zonja E. Wallen, Associate

    in the

    Physiology.

    Otto F. Bond, Assistant Professor in the Junior College. Robert Winter, Assistant Professor in the Junior College.

    W.

    the

    E. Gouwens, Associate in

    Bacteriology. N. P. Hudson,

    Associate

    in

    the

    Bacteriology. Florence McArdle, Instructor in the

    Amelia Wylie, Instructor

    in the 260

    Department Department

    of

    Hygiene and

    of

    Hygiene and

    Department of Physical Culture. Department of Physical Culture.

    THE BOARD Of TRUSTEES

    26]

    Mary M. Melcher, on the Library Staff with rank of Associate. Ernest W. Puttkammer, Instructor in the Law School. Albert M. Kales, Professorial Lecturer in the Law School. John B. Ellis, Instructor in the College of Education. L. H. Sandhusen, Instructor in the School of Education. Ella C.

    McKenney,

    Instructor in the Department of

    nomics, School of Education. Mary Koll, Instructor in the Department of School of Education. Inez Boyce, Instructor

    the

    in

    the College of Education. Ethel Coe, Instructor in the

    Department

    Home

    Home

    of

    Department

    Home

    Eco-

    Economics,

    Economics

    in

    of Art in the College of

    Education.

    Paul M. Atkins, Instructor

    School of

    in the

    Commerce and Admin-

    istration.

    Garfield

    V.

    Cox,

    Instructor

    the

    in

    School

    Commenv

    of

    and

    Administration.

    Commerce and

    P. H. Douglas, Assistant Professor in the School of Administration.

    Willard E. Atkins, Instructor in

    the

    Commerce and

    School of

    Administration.

    Edith Abbott, Associate Professor in the School of Social Service Administration.

    Sophonisba Preston Breckinridge, Associate Professor

    the School

    in

    of Social Service Administration.

    Erie F. Young, Instructor in the School of Social Service

    Admin-

    istration.

    Elizabeth F. Dixon, Supervisor of Field

    Sendee Administration. Harrison B. Ash, Teacher

    in the

    High School. J. Earl Conn, Teacher

    the

    versity

    in

    Work

    in the

    Department

    Department

    School of Social

    of Latin, University

    of Social Science, L'ni-

    High School.

    H. Beatrice Krum, Teacher University High School. Elmer C. Stauffer, Teacher

    in

    in

    the

    Department

    of

    Mathematics,

    the Department of English, University

    High School. Jane E. Hyde, Teacher

    in

    the

    Department

    of

    Home

    Economics,

    University High School. Ernest F. Hanes, Teacher in the University High School.

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    262

    S. Belden, Teacher in the University High School. Winifred O. Jones, Teacher in the Elementary School.

    Abbie

    M.

    Ethel Brown, Teacher in the Elementary School.

    Isabel Robinson, Teacher in the Elementary School. Helen S. Harris, Teacher in the Elementary School.

    Helen F. Cook, Teacher in the Elementary School. Delia Kibbe, Teacher in the Elementary School. Helen Nicklaus, Teacher

    in the

    Elementary School.

    LEAVE OF ABSENCE Leave

    of absence has

    Professor in the

    been granted to Emery T. Filbey, Assistant of Industrial Education in the School of

    Department

    Education, for three quarters, from October i, 1920. He will serve as traveling inspector of vocational schools under the United States

    Department

    of Labor, Junior Division.

    PROMOTIONS

    the

    The following members of the Faculties have received, by action of Board of Trustees, a promotion in rank: Associate Professor Frank N. Freeman, to a professorship in the

    Department

    of

    Educational Psychology.

    Marcus W. Jernegan,

    Associate Professor

    Department

    E.

    Instructor Albert the

    in

    to a professorship in the

    of History.

    Haydon,

    to

    an assistant professorship

    in

    of

    Comparative Religion. Assistant Professor Theodore L. Neff, to an associate professorship the Department of Romance. Associate Benjamin H. Willier, to an instructorship in the Depart-

    Department

    ment

    of Zoology. Assistant Professor

    David

    J.

    Lingle, to

    an associate professorship

    Department of Physiology. Associate H. M. Weeter, to an instructorship Hygiene and Bacteriology. in the

    in the

    Department

    of

    Instructor Margaret Burns, to an assistant professorship in the of Physical Culture.

    Department

    Assistant Lillian R. Marshall, to an instructorship in the Department of Physical Culture.

    Instructor Gertrude E. Halliday, to an assistant professorship in the

    Department

    of

    Home

    Economics, College of Education.

    THE HOAR!) OF TRUSTEES RESIGNATIONS

    The Board of Trustees has accepted the resignations members of the Faculties: Robert M. Lovett, as Dean of the Junior Colleges.

    W. J. Crozier, Assistant Professor He becomes head of the department of

    in

    the

    of the following

    Department

    of Zoology.

    zoology in Rutgers College. F. T. Rogers, Assistant Professor in the Department of Physiology. He becomes head of the department of physiology in Ba> lor University Medical School, Waco, Texas.

    STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE BOARD At the meeting of the Board of Trustees held July 13, 1920, the President of the Board appointed the following standing commitfr which were subsequently confirmed by the Board:

    Committee on Finance and Investment:

    Messrs.

    Howard

    (1.

    Chairman, Julius Rosen wald, Vice-Chairman, A. C. Hutchinson, Jesse A. Baldwin. Committee on Buildings and Grounds: Messrs. C.

    Bartlett,

    Chairman, Jesse A. Baldwin, Vice-Chairman, Harold

    F.

    Howard G. Grey,

    L.

    Grey, C.

    L.

    Hutchinson,

    McCormickj

    T. E. Donnelley.

    Committee on Instruction and Equipment:

    Messrs. Charles

    R.

    Holden, Chairman, Harold H. Swift, Vice-Chairman, A. C. Bartlett, F. W. Parker, Charles W. Gilkey.

    Committee on Press and Extension: Messrs. T. K. Donnelley, Chairman, F. W. Parker, Vice-Chairman, Willard A. Smith, E. B. Felsenthal, R. L. Scott.

    Committee on Audit and

    Messrs. R. I.. Scott, Chairman, A. Smith, C. R. Holden, Wither

    Securities:

    E. B. Felsenthal, Vice-Chairman, E. Post.

    W.

    THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SERVICE ADMINISTRATION In response to the request of the Trustees of the Chicago & boo! of Civics and Philanthropy, who had come to the conclusion that its work could be better perpetuated under university supervision and in a university environment, the Board of Trustees has voted to establish at the University a graduate professional curriculum for students in This school will be known as the Graduate civics and philanthropy.

    School of Social Service Administration.

    Philanthropy has existed

    in

    The School

    Chicago for a number

    of

    of

    Civics and

    years for the

    264

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    purpose of providing

    facilities for

    to enter the field of social

    the training of students who desire civic service. It ceases now to

    work and

    and the University will provide for the training of students in specialized field under University auspices and with University The Trustees of the School of Civics and Philanthropy have standards.

    exist,

    this

    generously guaranteed funds for the continuance of the work. The Committee on Instruction and Equipment was given power to proceed with the organization of the new curriculum, and at the meeting

    Board held September 14, 1920, a budget for its expenses was adopted and members of its Faculty were appointed. Professor Leon Carroll Marshall was appointed to the deanship of the School. of the

    DEAN OF COLLEGES At the meeting of the Trustees held July 13, 1920, the University amended so as to provide for a Dean of the Colleges, which

    Statutes were

    action represents not only the appointment of a new administrative officer but the inauguration of a new policy with reference to a muchneeded supervision of work in the Colleges. The new Dean, elected

    July 13, 1920,

    is

    David Allan Robertson, who

    since 1906 has served as

    Secretary to the President of the University.

    UNIVERSITY COMMISSIONS of Trustees at its meeting held July 13, 1920, adopted a University statute which creates what are to be known as University Commissions. The statute is as follows:

    The Board

    Section

    1.

    The University Commissions

    shall include

    commissions

    for the follow-

    ing departments or groups of the University: a) b) c)

    d) e)

    /)

    The Law School The Undergraduate Medical School The Graduate Medical School The Divinity School The School of Education The School of Commerce and Administration

    g) Colleges of Arts, Literature,

    h)

    Women's

    Interests

    *)

    Historical

    Group

    (Political

    and Science

    Economy,

    Political Science, History, Sociology.,

    and Anthropology). j) Modern Language Group k) Classical Language Group /) Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics m) Geology and Geography «) Biological

    Group

    Hygiene and Bacteriology)

    (Zoology,

    Anatomy,

    Physiology,

    Botany,

    Pathology,

    THE BOARD Section

    2.

    Object:

    To promote

    01

    FRUSTl

    the interests of the University by

    a) Fostering a closer relationship between the alumni and the Univerait) b) Developing a closer relationship between the Faculties and Trust c)

    Developing more actively the

    interest

    of representative

    in

    Chicagoana

    the

    University.

    Duties: It shall be the duty of each commission to study the work of its school or group, and from time to time to make suggestions to the board of to manner and means of improving the work of the school <>r group. These sugI

    gestions shall be sent to the Board of Trustees through the President of the University who shall transmit them to the Board with his recommendations

    Section a) b)

    Two Two

    3.

    Membership:

    Each commission

    shall be

    ,

    composed

    alumni or

    more residents

    of

    Chicago or vicinity

    not

    connected

    an

    in

    official

    capacity with the University c)

    Two members

    of the Faculty (except as provided for in not of the Board of Trust res. and an alternate Tru-'

    One member Note. Where one commission d)



    member is

    of the

    composed

    of

    is provided for two departments, one faculty commission shall be appointed from each department. If the gr more than two departments, then one member shall be added from

    the faculty to represent each additional department. Section 4. Method of appointing members and term of office: a) One alumnus member shall be elected by the Alumni Council and one shall be appointed by the President of the Board of Trustees, upon recommendation of the

    President of the University. b) Resident-of- Chicago members shall be appointed by the President of the Board upon recommendation of the President of the University. c) Faculty members shall be appointed by the President of the Hoard of Trust

    of Trustees,

    upon recommendation of the President of the University, and whenever practical shall be the head of a department or Dean closely associated with one of the depart ments. d)

    The Trustee member and

    his alternate shall be

    appointed by the President

    ol

    the Board of Trustees.

    alumni e) Upon the inauguration of the commissions, the faculty members, the members, and the resident members shall be appointed alternately for one year ami till and to elections, except two years; thereafter, all appointments unexpired terms, shall be for the term of two years. /) When vacancies occur, a member shall be appointed or elected to unexpired term in the same manner as his predecessor.

    Section

    5.

    till

    the

    Meetings:

    Each commission shall meet at least once each quarter, except the Summer of all Quarter, and at least one meeting each year shall be with the teaching force a)

    of all departments or groups represented. There shall be at least one joint meeting commissions and the Board of Trustees of the University during the Spring Quarter of each year.

    as may b) Special meetings may be called in accordance with such regulations be provided by the commissions or upon the call of the chairman of the ommiwrion secretary Section 6. Officers: Each commission shall dot a chairman and

    .

    1

    .1

    annually, during the Spring Quarter. Section 7. Members ex officio: The President of the University shall be ex member of each commission.

    The members as yet.

    of the several

    offi< io

    commissions have not been appointed

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    266

    DINNERS TO COMMISSIONS AND FACULTIES

    The Board of Trustees hereafter will give a dinner annually to members of the Faculties during the Autumn Quarter. The first of these dinners, which takes the place of the customary annual "homecoming" dinner of the Faculties, was held October 4. The Trustees, during the Spring Quarter each year, will give a dinner to the members of the University

    Commissions recently created.

    UNIVERSITY JOURNALS

    The Board

    view of the steadily increasing cost of publishing the several University journals, and in view of the limited amount of funds available as subsidy for their publication, at its meeting of Trustees, in

    held July 13, 1920, voted to reduce the number of issues of certain journals during the year, to reduce the number of pages in each issue of others,

    and

    in certain instances to increase the subscription price.

    details of these

    The

    changes are printed respectively in each journal.

    MISCELLANEOUS

    The Board

    view of the extraordinary opportunities in Egypt and Mesopotamia for securing rare material for Haskell Oriental Museum, authorized Mr. J. H. Breasted, Director of the Oriental of Trustees, in

    Institute of the University of Chicago, to purchase suitable objects to the amount of $50,000, half of this amount being provided by a liberal

    Mr. Breasted, who has returned to the Universupervising the installation of material which has already arrived

    friend of the University. sity, is

    Museum. The Board of Trustees has appropriated $5,000

    at the

    for purchase of France through the librarian of Northwestern University, who is now in Europe, and $5,000 for the purchase of material in Europe and Asia for the University Libraries.

    books

    in

    to the largely increased amount of work now centering in the the Secretary of the Board of Trustees, the office of Assistant Secretary has been created. Mr. John F. Moulds, the University

    Owing

    office of

    on September 14, 1920, was elected Assistant Secretary. Mr. Mather has been appointed Assistant Cashier. Mr. Ira Melville Smith, for the past eleven years Assistant Registrar and Examiner at the University of Illinois, has been appointed Assistant Examiner of the University. Mr. Smith entered upon his new duties Cashier,

    W.

    J.

    at the University

    August

    1.

    FRKDKRICK By

    THOMAS

    W.

    A.

    SMITH

    GOODSPEED

    I first became acquainted with Fred A. Smith sixty year- ago when he was a boy of sixteen. From i860 to 1862 we were students together in the first University of Chicago. Ten years later he was one ol my \ few years parishioners in the Second Baptist Church of Chicago

    later,

    and thereafter

    for the rest of his

    life,

    a period of forty years, we

    were associates on four boards of trustees, first of the Baptist Union Theological Seminary, and later of Rush Medical College, the Chicago

    Manual Training School Association, and the present University of Chicago. It was only because I was four hundred miles away in the wilderness of northern Wisconsin at the time of his death that

    I

    could

    It will not, as he desired, speak at the funeral of my long-time friend. therefore be easily understood that the preparation of this sketch of

    Judge Smith's life is a labor of love. autumn day in i860 when we first met

    He and until the

    I

    were friends from that

    day

    of his death in 10 19,

    a period of fifty-nine years. It was a member of the great Smith family who planted the first colony of white men in the new world. Ever since the days of Captain

    John Smith there have been Smiths in America in ever-growing number.-. More than fifty thousand of them represented our country in the recent world-war. That branch of this great family to which Judge Smith belonged came to the West from Washington County, New York, one of the easternmost counties of the state, lying east of Lake George and the Hudson.

    They were among

    the pioneer farmers of

    Cook County,

    Illinois.

    The wooded regions of southern Illinois were settled Long before the prairies of the north. One of the chief reason- for this was the late They did lingering of hostile Indians in the northern part of the state. till 1835 and 1836, and even after the For nearly large migration many scattered families remained behind. twenty years after Illinois was admitted into the Union as a state the

    not take their departure

    1

    Indians possessed the northern half of it. But there were two other why the settlement of the prairies of the north lagged behind The that of the forest-covered areas of the southern part of the state.

    reasons

    267

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    268 first

    was the curious hallucination that the

    soil of

    the prairies

    was not

    How, men demanded, could a soil that would not grow trees be expected to produce crops ? The other reason was that the sod of the prairies was so thick and tough that it could not be broken up by the It was not till long after the opening light plow of a hundred years ago. fertile.

    plow was devised strong enough up the soil of a wild prairie farm. As soon, however, as that was done and the extraordinary fertility of the soil demonstrated, the rumor of its richness was spread abroad and the farmers of the east of the nineteenth century that a steel

    to break

    began to flock to the prairies of northern Both because of this migration and

    Illinois.

    in order to

    encourage

    it,

    the

    general government established a land office in Chicago and a great sale of public lands was advertised throughout the country to be held in

    and summer of 1835. Chicago about 2,000 people, built along the forks and Fort Dearborn, which was still a

    that frontier settlement in the spring

    was then an

    insignificant village of

    Chicago River, between its and which quite cut the small hamlet

    military post,

    off

    from Lake

    Half the buildings or more were still built of logs. It was a forlorn, straggling frontier settlement, with almost no well-defined streets or sidewalks, the level of the land so little above that of the river Michigan.

    that in the spring floods, the water of the muddy stream filled the drainage and made the village site little better than a swamp.

    ditches

    But citizens,

    had some enterprising Hubbard, P. F. W. Peck, Eli B.

    in the early thirties the little village

    among whom were Gurdon

    S.

    Williams, Silas B. Cobb, and Philo Carpenter. The year 1835 is a most important one in the early history of the town. During that year the population more than doubled, increasing

    from

    less

    than 2,000 in January to more than 3,000 in December.

    men who

    Prob-

    became prominent in the growing city made it their home in 1835. Among them were William B. Ogden, Arthur G. Burley, Thomas (Judge) Drummond, Abram and Stephen F. Gale, ably

    fifty

    later

    M. Haines, Tuthill King, Edward Manierre, Julian Young Scammon, John Turner, Seth Wadhams, and

    Elijah

    S.

    J.

    others

    Rumsey,

    who

    long remained leading citizens in the rising metropolis. But the great events of 1835 in the history of Chicago were the sale

    farm lands by the government and the birth of the real estate boom in The land office was opened on the first of June. itself. Immigrants intending to settle in any part of the district of northern There was "an Illinois had to buy their farms at the Chicago office. of

    the village

    immediate and immense influx

    of

    people desiring to enter lands."

    FREDERICK From June

    .1.

    SMITH

    269

    to the end of the year $70,043 acre- of farm land- were at Si. 25 an acre. There were more than 20,000 purchasers. Among these was Gustavus V. Smith, the first representative of the Smiths of Washington County. New York, who entered land on the 1

    sold

    in Jefferson

    "Ridge,"

    at that time

    — now a parttownship, the of

    Gustavus sent hack

    new country that

    only ten miles northwest

    i<

    ago

    city itself.

    to the family such. Favorable account- of the

    March. 1836, two brothers, Esrael (i. and Marcellus, packed their few belongings (they were young and unmarried) into a primitive sort of sleigh known as a pung or jumper, drawn by two bora and started on the thousand-mile journey for the new world of the in

    West. They traveled from thirty to forty miles a day and, taking their way from Buffalo through Canada, though the winter was ending, the sleighing continued good. As they were Hearing Detroit, however, the pung which had lasted astonishingly well, finally gave out. abandoned, the baggage loaded on the horses, and the last third journey was made on horseback.

    The two boys reached

    their destination on April 10. 1836.

    It

    v.

    of the

    When

    they came in sight of their brother's home they were astonished to find the whole country east of the ''Ridge" under water as far as they ould see. »

    A

    great spring freshet was on.

    had overflowed

    The north branch

    of the

    Chicago River

    banks and the whole country was inundated; that

    its

    is,

    "

    the whole country east of the Ridge." The "Ridge" itself stood fifteen It must have been a welcome sight to the or twenty feet above the flood. travelers.

    weary

    Many

    miles in length, covered with groves of oak,

    It a most attractive feature in that prairie country. that Israel Smith decided that his farm must run across

    it is

    iit

    uol strange

    and include

    of those groves. The great sale of farm lands was -till on. In Everyone bought as near Chit ago .1- he 1836, 202,364 acres were sold. could, and thus Cook County, after a start was once made, was soon

    some

    tilled

    with farmer.-.

    Israel G. Smith,

    one

    of the brothers

    who made

    Born

    in

    the journey just of this sketch.

    was the father of Judge Smith, the subject 1816, he was twenty year- old when he settled

    described,

    in

    Qlinois,

    and

    perhaps twenty-one when he secured his farm. Buying it at the Chicago land office, he held it by a warrant from the government, and the title transferred but is one of the few titles in Cook County that ha

    once during the last eighty-four year The Smith brothers were very fortunate farms.

    They came

    early

    enough

    to

    in

    the Location of their

    buy near Chi

    md

    enjoy

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    270

    the enhancement in values attending proximity to the future great city.

    No

    one, indeed, then

    though a small town settled near, raise

    and

    escaped

    it

    dreamed

    what Chicago has

    of

    But

    since become.

    in the thirties of the last century, to the farmers

    who

    supplied a convenient market for whatever they could buy whatever they needed. They thus

    in its stores they could

    many

    of the privations

    and hardships

    of those pioneers

    who

    away from markets and centers of supply. They had another advantage. They were near neighbors, and other farmers soon occupied the surrounding country. Their father quickly followed them to their new home. In 1837 John Pennoyer and the following year his sons, Stephen and James Pennoyer, became part of the community. Mancel Talcott, later well known in Chicago, was also one of this pioneer group. settled far

    In 1838 the Smith brothers, Mr. Talcott, and others held a meeting John Pennoyer to consider their need of a school and

    at the house of

    after a full discussion voted that "all adult male citizens, including bachelors, should each contribute five dollars to purchase lumber for a schoolhouse." The assessment was paid, the lumber bought, and all

    the able-bodied

    and

    members

    of the

    community assembled with

    built the schoolhouse, one of the first,

    their tools

    not the very first, erected sooner was it finished than a if

    county outside of Chicago. No was opened, the first teacher being Susan, a daughter of John Pennoyer, who was thus one of the earliest country school teachers of northern Illinois. She did not, however, long remain with the school, in the

    school

    leaving

    it

    to

    become the wife

    of Israel Smith.

    The Pennoyers were an English family some members

    men

    of

    which

    William Pennoyer, a merchant of London nearly three hundred years ago, is said to have been a liberal contributor to the funds of Harvard College. His brother Robert

    were

    came

    of wealth in the old country.

    to the

    new world

    in 1635

    and from him descended the branch

    of

    In the family to which Susan, the mother of Judge Smith, belonged. 1648 Robert Pennoyer made his home in Stamford, in the southwest corner of Connecticut, and that place long remained the principal home But a hundred years ago John, the father of Susan

    of the family.

    He had within left the old home for the western frontier. him the urge of the pioneer and in 181 8 took his family to Cayuga County in central New York. But this did not prove to be near enough the frontier, and nineteen years later, in 1837, he joined the colony of farmers in Cook County, Illinois, and there tasted the joys and experienced some of the privations of life on the real frontier. He and his sons were men of intelligence and public spirit, apparently leading the Pennoyer,

    FREDERIi h A SMITH

    community his

    in the

    movement

    to provide the

    daughter Susan taught the first school. At about the time the schoolhouse was

    first

    built,

    was purchased and the first burial in it was of the Smith boys, who survived his arrival

    271

    schoolhouse

    which

    in

    for a cemetery Henry, the lather

    ground

    that 0! in his

    new home only

    t

    or three years. Israel Smith entered early into the public life of the new community. He was elected justice of the peace at the first election held in Jefferson

    He and his brother-in-law. Stephen Pennoyer, were promimany years. In 1873, in connection with other citizens, they secured with much difficulty the organization of the new township of Norwood Park, now a part of Chicago. I say with much difficulty, township.

    men

    nent

    for

    townships out of which it was carved carried their opposition to the legislature of the state; Stephen Pennoyer was made supervisor of the new township and Israel Smith one of the commissioners of highway -

    for the

    and

    treasurer of the board.

    Smith and Susan Pennoyer were married April 13, 1S4;, b) Rev. C. Billings Smith, a well-known clergyman of that day, and pastor of the Tabernacle Baptist Church of Chicago. There was no church near Israel

    them in the country and they became and remained for many yearmembers of this church. Mr. Smith had a strong leaning toward business, and three or four times during the thirty years following his marAt one time he conducted a groo riage yielded to this inclination. store on State Street and at another a boot and shoestore on Lake Si reet

    These ventures brought his family for brief periods to the the children were both country and city bred. The great brought the Mr. Smith's all of

    last of these excursions in final return to the farm.

    .

    city, so that fire of

    1871

    merchandising to an end and led to These adventure- in business were

    short duration and the farm was the real

    home

    of the family for

    sixty years.

    Mr. and Mrs. Smith had seven children, four sons and three dau| whom one son and one daughter are now living. Edwin 1). Smith still makes his home in Norwood Park, near the plai e of his birth. One of the daughter^ Emma I., married Mr. Henry K. Clissold, 8 Chicago publisher and editor and one of the most prominent and useful ters, of

    Baptist laymen of

    Illinois.

    The first of this large family of children, the subject of this -ketch, 9 born February 11, 1844. He was named Frederick Augustus, but Israel Smith had accomplished generally known as Fred A. Smith. his

    purpose of making the "Ridge"

    a part of his farm,

    and

    it

    added

    272

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    wonderfully to the picturesque beauty of his hundred and fifty-odd acres.

    Owing, doubtless, to discrepancies "

    in old surveys, the "

    farm was

    a scant quarter-section. The Ridge," long known as Smith's Ridge," ran through the farm north and south a few rods from the east line. It

    was the outstanding feature of a wide region, as, of course, it continues Covered with groves, mostly of oak, but with here and there to be. stately elms and big cottonwoods, it transformed what would otherwise have been a flat, treeless prairie into a diversified and attractive countryThe " Ridge " made a fine site for the family home, which was surside. rounded by stately trees and commanded east and west, through the oak openings, extensive views only limited by the distant forests. The surrounding country, except for the ridge itself, was destitute of those natural features in which a boy delights and which so minister to the joy of youth. There were no mountains or hills, no forests, lakes, or streams near at hand. The nearest water was the north branch of the Chicago River and this was three or four miles away. The Des Plaines River on the west was more distant still. The new country was thinly settled in Fred Smith's youth and there were few boys of his age. Their only common meeting place was the schoolhouse. There they found a way, The schoolhouse, after the manner of boys, to amuse themselves. the same in which Mrs. Smith taught before her marriage, was something more than a mile from the home. In the winter the small boy, who had come into the ownership of a pair of skates, often made his way to and from school by the "ditch route" which followed the improved roads, lengthening the distance by half a mile or more but making the journey a lark instead of a labor. Over the door of the 20X30 schoolhouse the boys inscribed in charcoal this legend: "Temple of Knowledge." Two things unfamiliar to boys of this generation gave interest and variety to Fred's boyhood. Only a short distance north of the farm

    were the "reservations" assigned by the treaties of 1821 and 1833 to a number of Indian chiefs and their families, and many of the red men fingered in the neighborhood or occasionally returned to visit their former hunting grounds. They sometimes appeared at the farmhouses and were familiar to the boy in his earlier years. still

    Prairie chickens and in game. number, as were ducks along the North Branch to the east and the Des Plaines to the west. There were many deer, occasional bears, and the wolves, both prairie and timber wolves, were very numerous. The boy learned the use of a gun. He early developed enterprise and courage, and these experiences of his youth helped to make him the virile man he became.

    Then too, the country quail were almost without

    abounded

    FREDERICK

    A.

    SMITH

    273

    Being the oldest of the sewn children, Fred was the first to become on the farm. All the farmwork became familiar

    his father's helper

    to him.

    It

    for horses, in

    was not altogether drudgery. which he never

    which he became very

    back

    lost.

    He

    skilful.

    He early developed a fondness took great delight in breaking colts,

    He was

    very

    of a horse and, naturally, fond of riding.

    much

    at

    home on

    the

    His father raised stock

    and Fred became familiar with the care of all the animals about the farm. As he grew up, the plow and the mowing machine, planting, sowing, cultivating, and harvesting unfolded their mysteries to him. He was in a fair way to become a full- fledged farmer when an event occurred which gave a new direction to his life. When he was fourteen years old the father took his family to Chicago, perhaps for one of his business ventures in that city. This was in the autumn of 1858. They found a home on the West Side on Jackson Street, between Des Plaines and Halsted streets, a part of the city which, now entirely overrun by business, was then a pleasant district in which to live. Only two blocks away was the old Scammon School, and there Fred had his first experience in a regularly graded school. Chicago's first and at that time only high school was less than a block away from the Scammon, and was an object of such interest and pride to the entire city that the boy, who had reached the age of youthful idealism, began to feel the stirrings of scholarly ambition.

    Another event

    of

    parents were Baptists.

    that

    period

    deepened

    these

    aspirations.

    The Tabernacle Baptist Church

    to

    Hi^

    which they

    belonged was only three or four blocks north of their place of residence. The Baptists during those years were engaged in founding the first University of Chicago. In 1856 Senator Stephen A. Douglas had given

    them a site of ten acres on the South Side at Cottage Grove Avenue and Thirty-fourth Street, and in 1858-59 they were erecting the UniThe churches of the city and country were deeply versity building. interested in the movement. A great subscription, for that day, was being Israel Smith, raised and every public-spirited Baptist was subscribing. Fred's father, was among these. The mother had been a teacher and was deeply interested in her oldest son's education. The new UniFred was was a frequent subject of conversation in the family. more and more deeply stirred by an ambition for an education and it came to be understood that he was to be a student in the new institution. He pursued his studies with new interest and about the first of Septem-

    versity

    ber, i860, in his seventeenth year, he entered the preparatcry

    of the University of Chicago.

    and a

    half years his senior in

    department was then that I first met him. Two age, I had entered the University as a It

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    274

    Freshman just a year before. The south wing of the University building had been completed in 1859 and the work of instruction in it began the first week in September of that year. This south wing, later known as Jones Hall, was a four-story and basement structure of rough-faced limestone, designed for a dormitory, with an extension northward two stories lower. This north extension contained the chapel, three or four recitation rooms, the president's and apartments in which President Burroughs and his family Some of the professors and their wives also lived in the building, lived. office,

    giving

    room

    it

    something of the atmosphere of a home. There was a diningbasement which was entirely above the surface of the

    in the

    ground, well lighted, and spacious. When young Smith entered the University he found the country.

    Avenue only

    The

    street cars, then horse cars, ran

    it

    very

    much

    in

    on Cottage Grove

    as far south as Thirty-first Street, nearly half a mile north of On Thirty-fifth street, just west of the Avenue, was a

    the University.

    small, dingy saloon, appropriately

    named "The Shades."

    There was

    but one building, a small one-story cottage, on Thirty-fifth Street between "The Shades" and State Street, nearly a mile west. There

    were a few houses to the southeast

    — Cleaverville—but none to the south

    or southwest, and only two or three between the University and Thirtyfirst Street. Across the Avenue from the University was "Okenwald,"

    the Chicago home of Senator Douglas. A fine oak grove covered the ground for several hundred feet on both sides of the Avenue and the whole country south of the University was a region of oak openings, every slight ridge being covered with trees. in 1859 in its new building with twenty men in Sophomores and twelve Freshmen and one hundred and ten preparatory students. The following year when young Smith entered he found himself one among a hundred and thirty-six There were thirty-seven men in college in the preparatory department. Fred entered college as a Freshman in 1862 in a class of twentyclasses. two. Meantime the Civil War had broken out and every year the army claimed more and more of his classmates, until in 1864 the class was reduced to six. Smith was one of the younger members of the class, having just passed his seventeenth birthday when Fort Sumter was fired on and the war began. Records of his college life are meager, but they are sufficient to indicate the serious way in which he went about it and his standing with his fellow-students. It was during the early years of his college course that he joined the church of which his parents were members. That great pulpit orator, Dr. Nathaniel Colver, was pastor

    The University opened

    its college classes

    —eight



    FREDERICK

    .1.

    SMITH

    and welcomed the young

    The religious and collegian into the church. missionary organization of the University was the Berean Society and he became an active member. Athenaeum, and he was made

    of this

    the

    The

    largest literary society

    •••

    ar. president in hi Honors, indeed, clustered thick upon him and he was chosen presidenl of the Freshman class. College athletics were almost unknown and its

    students had to content themselves with A primitive baseball. spirits, tin- Neptune Club, maintained a boal on Lake Michigan. But there was a military company the Universit) Cadets, the first captain of which lost his life in the war. Fred Smith in his Freshman year was second lieutenant of the company. f<

    adventurous

    In the spring of 1864 Grant began the campaign which resulted capture of Richmond and the surrender of Lee, and at the same

    in the

    time Sherman began his advance which culminated in the fall of Atlanta and the march to the sea. All the veterans in the northern armie

    needed in these great campaigns, which were intended to end the war and did end it by winning it. To relieve them for this service the governors of Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois tendered \<< President Lincoln a force of 100,000

    and

    men

    to serve for a

    hundred days

    to garrison necessary posts, repress guerrillas, and maintain order

    in the

    occupied areas of the South.

    teered in this force and on

    May

    Fred Smith immediately volunwas sworn into the service

    20, 1864.

    Camp Fry in the North Division of Chicago. It would appear that most of the Cniversity Cadets volunteered at the same time. Among them were five of the eleven members of Smith's class. The company they entered was so largely composed of college men that it was called Smith was mustered in on May 27 a- a memthe L'niversity Guards.

    at

    ber of the

    One Hundred Thirty-fourth Regiment,

    Illinois

    Infantry,

    and on June 3 the regiment took the train for Cairo. Remaining there only a few hours, it went down the Mississippi to Columbus, Kentucky, where it remained on duty eight weeks, or more than halt its term Smith was made a member of the provost guard, which kept service. order in the town, arrested disturbers of the peace, and guarded rebel This was regarded a- a distim tion, prisoners captured on Island No. 5. the members of the guard being carefully chosen from the most reliable and intelligent men. While at Columbu- the young soldier learned

    swim

    in the great river, thus correcting

    one

    of the detect- of hi-

    education

    as a boy. of August the regiment was transferred by river to Paducah, a week later marched twenty-five mile- directly south and Kentucky, Thus by a journey of perhaps two hundred mile- on the to Mayfield.

    The

    first

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    276

    Mississippi and Ohio rivers and a short march by land they reached a point less than thirty miles directly east of Columbus, which they had Here they remained during the next five weeks of left a week before. their service.

    trouble with guerrillas, who were repressed In these fourteen weeks of service their work

    They had some

    with a strong hand.

    had been to garrison and keep in order the western border of Kentucky while Grant was battling his way toward Richmond, and Sherman was driving the Confederate Army out of Atlanta in what his chief characterized as "one of the most memorable campaigns in history." The hundred-day men had fought no great battles, but they had well performed the task assigned to them, which was considered an essential part of the grand strategy of the general campaign. But the progress of the war showed that they were needed for a much longer period than a hundred days. The genius of Lee and the valor of his troops delayed the final triumph of the Union armies for nearly a year. Every veteran was needed to fill up the depleted ranks. A new army had to be created to drive the Confederates out of Tennessee. It was found impossible to dismiss the hundred-day men at the end of that period.

    Even

    after the return of Smith's

    company

    to

    Chicago alarming

    was threatening St. Louis took them posthaste to Missouri for another two weeks of service. As late as October 25 they had not been mustered out, but on that day Smith re-entered the UniHis hundred days of service became versity and resumed his studies. before his final release nearly two hundred. The University of Chicago men who went into the army were not raw recruits. Before the war began, a military company had been organized. Its captain had drilled his command with the greatest zeal, and the students who entered the army were well trained and were prepared from the day of their mustering in for efficient service; many of them became commissioned officers. As has been told, Fred Smith had been a lieutenant of the University Cadets. He was, however, only twenty years old when he became a soldier. He was too young and his service too short to allow him to aspire to a commission in active service in the field. But brief as his experience in the army was, it both tested and benefited him. One of his friends and close associates in the service, now an aged clergyman, has assured me that he was recognized as one of the reliable, upright, Christian men of his company. As the oldest of a large family of brothers and sisters he had already developed selfdependence, manliness, initiative, and all these qualities his military service encouraged and developed. He had lost about three months reports that Price

    FREDERICR

    I

    SMITH

    out of his university course, but in consideration oi his patriotic service was readmitted to his class. He was a good student and was able to go on with his classmates without serious difficulty. The class, which originally eight,

    numbered twenty-two, had been

    and

    all

    the classes

    cut

    down by

    the

    the University had been cut

    in

    war

    down

    to

    pro-

    portionately.

    Smith was graduated writing up the

    in

    The reporter of the daily paper in reveals the changes wrought since that He wrote that the chapel was filled to

    1866.

    Commencement

    day in graduating exercise-. overflowing and that "the oration on 'The Influence of Climate upon Thought,' delivered by Mr. F. A. Smith. Jefferson, was a truly original

    \t the conclusion of this gentleman's remark- he received the most violent applause and was literally showered with bouquets." Since that day the orations by the graduate- and the

    production

    bouquets have disappeared. Smith did not belong to that

    class of ingrates who remember their instructors with nothing better than criticism and belittle the benefits received from their college studies. He looked back on hi- coll

    course .with grateful interest and was one of the most loyal of the alumni Long after 1886, when it ceased to exist, he con-

    of the old University.

    tinued to be a faithful attendant at the annual reunion- oi

    students and was more than once elected president Association

    of

    it-

    former

    Alumni

    the

    .

    At the time

    of his graduation

    had already chosen the law as entered the

    was dean.

    Smith was twenty-two years old. He and in the autumn of 1866

    his profession

    Law School of the University, <>f which Judge Henry booth He received his degree of LL.B. in 1868, but all the record-

    was admitted to the bar on August 20, 1867, and opened and began practice at that time. His partner was Christian Kohlsaat, who later became a judge of the United State- Circuit Court. The two young men had been students together in the University, wh< they had contracted a warm friendship. They had orresponded during Smith's service in the army. They were of the same age, member- of affirm that he

    an

    office

    I

    1

    -

    the

    The

    same church, and friends

    Kohlsaat.

    little

    later

    Kohlsaat married Smith

    formed a partnership under the firm name They remained together five year

    of

    -

    cousin.

    Smith and

    Meantime, during the year- of this lir-t partner-hip. events ol and importance to Smith outside his business had occurred. When in 1864 by a union of the Tabernacle Church and a number members of the First Church the Second Baptisl Church was formed

    interest

    of

    a

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    278

    my brother, Dr. Edgar J. Goodspeed, as pastor, both Smith and Kohlsaat had become members of the new organization. Both entered vigorously into the remarkable activities of what grew rapidly into a

    with

    Both were highly valued helpers of the pastor. great and strong church. Both were members of the great Union Band Bible Class and active in

    work which made that class notable. In this class and its and mission activities and in the great chorus choir of the church Smith became associated with Miss Frances B. Morey. She was a cultivated and attractive young woman of an excellent family. Her father, Rev. Reuben B. Morey, was at that time pastor of the Baptist Church the mission

    social

    at Merton, Wisconsin.

    A

    professor of history in his

    brother, William Carey Morey, has been the University of Rochester,

    Alma Mater,

    for thirty-seven years, retiring, as this sketch is being written, at the age of seventy-seven. He is an author of distinction, a student of rare

    scholarly attainments, a

    and admired His

    most

    successful teacher, a

    man

    greatly loved

    every period and activity and relation of his long life. Frances was worthy of her brother. All who knew her

    in

    sister

    Fred Smith found her very attractive. Their associaand mission work resulted in mutual affection. They were married by Miss Morey's father in Merton, Wisconsin, in July, The bridegroom was twenty-seven years old. It was a marriage 1 87 1. of affection and continued to be a happy one. They had no children. Mrs. Smith was devoted to good works. She was a member of many She was active in the Daughters clubs and organizations of charity. She was presiof the American Revolution and the Fortnightly Club. felt

    her charm.

    tion in musical

    dent of the board of Managers of the Illinois Training School for Nurses and a member of the boards of the School of Domestic Arts and Sciences

    and the Chicago Home for the Friendless. In 1872 Mr. and Mrs. Smith were my parishioners in the Second Baptist Church of Chicago. In the autumn of that year, the year after the great fire, they moved to the south division of the city and transSmith and ferred their membership to the First Baptist Church. Kohlsaat married in the same year, said,

    later

    1871,

    Kohlsaat, as has been

    marrying Smith's cousin, so that the two young lawyers, both to become judges, were related in manifold ways by marriage,



    as partners, as members of the same church, as earnest advocates of the policies of the Republican party, and in all religious and political activiI had renewed my early acquaintance with both of them during nine months of a student pastorate in Chicago in 1865. This acquaintance now ripened into a friendship that continued throughout the ties.

    FREDERICK

    A.

    SMITH

    both these exceptional men. We recalled and lived over again our experiences in the old University. From 1873 Mr. Smith conducted his law practice without a partner for twelve years. It was during this period that he began a kind of public service for which he developed exceptional gifts, in which he became highly useful and influential, and which in an increasing degi lives of

    he continued to the end

    of his

    a period of forty years.

    life,

    This sen

    was his trusteeship in educational institutions. It began in 1879 when he became a trustee of the Baptist Theological I oion, located at Chica] This corporation was struggling to maintain and endow the Baptist Union Theological Seminary. The institution was passing through a Its future was uncertain. To be one of its period of grave difficulty. trustees required a spirit of devotion and sacrifice and faith. Yet the foremost

    men

    in the

    denomination

    in

    Chicago were

    its

    trust

    ich

    men

    Mr. Smith was only only were sought for its managing board. thirty-five years old, but such was his weight of character even at that age, and such recognition had his abilities won, that he was elected a

    trustee of the institution.

    The

    position

    was an honor as

    well as a

    responsibility.

    All that has been said of the Theological Seminars was equally true The trustees of that institution followed the had

    of the old University.

    of the Seminary only two months later and appointed the same rising young lawyer a member of its board. He welcomed the latter appointment as a loyal alumnus who was devoted to his Alma Mater. The

    election to the trusteeship of the Theological Seminary he accepted as an obligation he owed to his denomination. With the University he remained sLx years. In 1885, recognizing the hopelessness of rescuing it from its overwhelming difficulties, he retired from the board and heWith the Seminary following year saw the end of its educational work. t

    he remained forty years, his connection with it ending only with death. He was one of its most faithful and efficient trustees and had.

    ;

    |

    it gradually emerge from its difficulties, multiply resources and attendance, and finally become the Divinity School oi

    satisfaction of seeing its

    the present University of Chicago and one of the great theological schools of the world. the Seminary hoard that he and was a trustee and the unani ial agent and secretary of the board and I had every reason to become acquainted with his faithfulness to duty, his wisdom in counsel, his courage through I his abounding liberality. long years of discouraging struggle, and It

    was when Mr. Smith entered

    again became closely associated.

    I

    1

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    280

    was often compelled failed to

    to call

    on him

    for contributions,

    and he never

    respond with cheerful and, to me, cheering generosity.

    In June, 1889,

    the service of the Theological Seminary to engage founding of the present University of Chicago, of devotion he always manifested, Mr. Smith assumed

    1 left

    in the effort for the

    In the same spirit

    the duties of recording secretary of the Seminary board and performed them for nearly three years, until, the University having been founded

    and the Seminary united with

    it as its Divinity School, I resumed the duties of secretary of the Divinity Board and relieved him, he meantime having become a member of the Board of Trustees of the new University

    of Chicago.

    This record of trusteeships has covered thirteen years. During that period Mr. Smith had continued to advance in his profession and in general reputation. In 1887 he had been president of the Law Club In 1890 he had received the high honor of election to the presidency of the Chicago Bar Association. As a good Republican active in politics he early became a member of the Hamilton Club and in of Chicago.

    1 89 1 and 1892 was a partnership with

    its

    S.

    president. P. Millard

    During this period also he had formed which continued for three years or more

    following 1885. It was in 1890 that his most important partnership began. Together with Frank A. Helmer and Frank I. Moulton, both of whom were his

    juniors in age, he organized the well-known firm of Smith, Helmer, and Moulton, with offices for some years at 132 Clark Street. This partner-

    In 1895, by the admission of ship continued for above twelve years. Henry W. Price, the firm became Smith, Helmer, Moulton, and Price. The combination was a strong one and prospered. The election of

    Mr. Smith to the judgeship in 1903 led to his retirement from the firm, but Messrs. Helmer and Moulton are still associated after a partnership of thirty years.

    Mr. Smith was not what is commonly known One who knew him well says of him

    as a "jury lawyer."

    :

    He did not seek open court work, except in chancery matters, but did not seem to shun it, and was always thoroughly prepared in entering upon a trial. And, in a way, he was strong with a jury, as his plain common sense way of presenting his side of a and sincerity, his straightforward analysis and deductions from the evidence, often proved more convincing and effective with a jury than a more

    case, his evident frankness

    rhetorical effort.

    The evident high character vincing.

    of

    the advocate

    was eloquent and con-

    FREDERICK One

    of his partners

    makes

    A.

    SMITH

    jSi

    the following revealing statemenl

    :

    Judge Smith was imperturbable, patient, and courteous in bis intercourse with men and attorneys and not easily disturbed under greal provocation. can recall but one instance in thirteen years of assot i.ttion with him in which be displayed anger or 1

    resentment.

    In that case he believed that the

    demands made upon

    hi>

    i

    lient

    were

    in

    the nature of blackmail, and he (ailed the attorney for the claimant to bis office and said to him in very plain language that he considered the demand blackmail, that it tin-

    threatened suit was riled, he, the attorney, would immediately be served with a warrant of arrest and prosecuted [or blackmail; and then rising from bis desk in anger he showed the attorney the door and told him never to show his face in the office needless to state that the

    demands were dropped and

    again.

    It is

    He had

    eminently the judicial temperament.

    He

    suit

    was not brought.

    found on the bench

    bis real place.

    In confirmation of this last statement Mr. Smith's unusual quali-

    bench were early recognized by the Republicans of he was nominated for the position of judge of the Superior Court. It was, however, a Democratic year and he failed of election. In 1903 he was nominated for judge of the Circuit Court of Cook County. His election was recommended by a large majority in fications for the

    Chicago and

    in 1898

    the Bar Association primary, a most flattering indication of the favorable opinion of the lawyers of the city. Once more it was a Democratic Mr. year, all but three of the candidates of that party being elected. Smith was one of the three successful Republicans.

    An

    incident of the campaign illustrates the positive qualities and the It was the period of the Lorimer

    independent character of the man.

    regime and Judge Elbridge Hanecy was one of the nominee- lor tinCircuit Court who was regarded as specially representing Lorimer. Feeling ran high and personal vituperation was freely indulged in by newspapers and candidates. In one of his speeches Hanecy lambasted the independent newspaper which was opposing him, and particularly its

    The meeting was composed of his warm adherents, who gave him enthusiastic applause. Another candidate followed indicating his agreement with and approval of Hanecy. But this did not move Smith, who said, "I am not here to attack the newspapers. To indulge in editor.

    He then went on to impress on is far from my purpose." the audience the importance of the business of electing competent His immediate hearers shouted for Hanecy, but on election judges. such criticism

    day the people voted

    for

    Smith and relegated Judge Hanecy

    to private

    life.

    That Judge Smith had exceptional qualifications for the bench was made evident. In December, 1004, eighteen months after his election, the Supreme Court of the state conferred on him the honor of soon

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    282

    an assignment to the Appellate Court of the Chicago district. In 1906 he was reassigned to that position and was later made Presiding Justice of the Court.

    At the end of his first term in 1909 Judge Smith was re-elected, and again in 19 15 was elected for a third six-year term. It is significant of the excellence of his record as a judge and the growing approval of the community that

    in his third election he received a

    much

    larger vote

    than ever before, his majority approaching fifty thousand. He continued his public service as a judge of the Circuit Court for sixteen years, the closing years of his life. In looking up cases brought before our judges, the ordinary citizen is astonished to find how many trivial cases are carried up by appeal to

    the

    Supreme Court

    when he remembers

    of the state.

    that he

    is

    He may

    be pardoned for some disgust

    being taxed to permit litigants to carry to

    the highest judicial tribunal of the state insignificant quarrels that

    ought never to be permitted to go beyond the jurisdiction of a justice of the peace. Another thing that astonishes the ordinary citizen is the fact that in half the cases, perhaps more than half the cases, carried by appeal to the state Supreme Court, the decrees of the lower courts are reversed or the cases remanded for a new trial. No stronger argument

    than this can be urged for choosing competent judges. Highly intelligent men, indeed, often differ in their opinions, and the most intelligent and conscientious judges have their decisions reversed. But this has

    become

    so

    common

    in our courts as to

    be almost a scandal.

    Judge Smith was more fortunate in having his decrees approved by the Supreme Court than many of his fellow-judges. In one of his campaigns, perhaps in both of those which resulted in his re-election, this fact was advanced in the press in his favor. One of the interesting and important cases in which the decree of Judge Smith was sustained by the Supreme Court decided the question of the right of holders of real estate along the lake shore to accretions to

    thrown up by the waves. In 1909 the legislature passed a resolution reciting that the rights of the state to land along the shore of Lake Michigan had been usurped by private individuals and an investitheir property

    and the gating commission was appointed. The commission reported and institute attorney-general was instructed to pursue the investigation proceedings to regain possession for the state of shore lands rightly in belonging to it. A test case was brought as to a tract of ground Evanston where an acre or more of new land had been added to a lot on the lake shore

    by the construction

    of

    breakwaters and piers by other

    FREDERIC parties than the owner of the Supreme courts agreed in

    A

    lot.

    SMITH

    .1

    The decisions oi the Circuit and

    determining the following point

    The

    which the water usually stands when free from disturbing line. conveyance calling for the Is The shore owner has the undisputed right ind to This right cannot be taken from him without just compensation. The whole doctrine of accretions rests upon the right »to the must be convenient access. The right to preserve bis contact with tl line at

    boundary

    the

    of land in a

    tl



    one of the most valuable

    i

    it

    of a riparian owner.

    Such owner cannot himself bring about ac< retions by artifii ial means and thus add to his lawful holdings; but the courts decreed that "tinowner of land bordering on Lake Michigarj has title to laud formed adjacent to his property by accretion-, even though the formation such accretions is brought about, in part, by artificial conditions created by third parties." In the case in question it had been brought about

    by

    third parties

    and the

    state failed to gain possession of the accreti

    thus formed.

    Another case establishing an important principle was the following: wife of a drunkard had secured a judgment against a saloonkeeper selling intoxicating liquor to her husband and tints injuring her means

    The for

    of support.

    Findingthe judgment could not be collected from the saloon-

    keeper, she sued the owner of the building in which the saloon was located, to subject the premises owned by him to the payment of the judgment.

    Judge Smith gave a decision and entered a decree in her favor. The case was carried to the Supreme Court and the decree of Judge Smith was affirmed, that court deciding that the judgment recovered against the owner of the building was "a personal judgment, tor the payment of which all of his property is subject.' The abilities and character of Judge Smith were so highly appreciated of the Supreme Court that they kept him. during a lai urt part of his judicial service, "in the Brsl branch of the rVppell of Illinois for the First District." During the closing period of bis life he was the Chief Justice of the Circuit Court of Cook County. After

    by the judges

    I

    his death his fellow-judges of that Court united in the following estin of him.

    Judge Smith's outstanding

    characteri.-ti

    tlemanrj

    n. his unswerving tot his patience in hearing, his firmness and ind friends. the bench, his urbanity with hi rity, his dignified bearing on held the scales of justi He was a tower of strength in times of stress. 1

    1

    «

    He was a light to the bar and an example emulation. He was well grounded in the theory

    poise.

    to

    hi.-

    judii i.d

    of law,

    and

    al

    aHOl

    iatrs worth;

    the

    284

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    He was a learned and scholarly man and his opinions in the decisions of the day. Appellate Court are monuments to his learning and legal erudition. Judge Smith was a lovable, kindly character with a keen sense of justice and right.

    No

    maudlin sentimentality or sinister influence affected his judgments; they reflected Friend and foe alike received justice the law of the land impartially administered. at his hands, measured and circumscribed only by the law. His reputation as a safe, reliable,

    and sound judge was universally conceded by bench and bar

    alike.

    Judge Charles M. Thomson, who succeeded Judge Smith as Chief Justice of the Circuit Court, said of him: "He was one of the ablest judges who ever sat on the bench of our county. His fine temperament

    and genial disposition were never absent and made it a pleasure either to be associated with him or to appear before him as an advocate." The following statement by a successful lawyer will be recognized by those who knew him as a true characterization of the man: "As a judge he became noted among the trial lawyers for his thorough independence and promptness in rulings according to his convictions of the law, regardless of individuals or interests before him." The founding of the new and greater University of Chicago brought me into a new intimacy with Judge Smith. He was grieved and humiliated over the destruction of the old University. He lamented it as an alumnus, as a Baptist, as a citizen, as a friend of learning. No one rejoiced more sincerely when it began to appear that a new University of Chicago might be founded on a broader foundation and with larger promise. It gave him particular satisfaction that the alumni of the first University were to be recognized as alumni of the new one. He was among the early subscribers to the first million-dollar fund raised in 1889-90. Such was his interest, ability, and standing that as a matter I of course he was selected as a member of the first Board of Trustees. was secretary of the Board and of its committees and he became vice-president of the Board and chairman of the standing Committee on Instruction and Equipment, positions of importance and influence which he occupied continuously to the end of his life. Through his committee, appointments of all members of the Faculties were recommended to the Trustees. As chairman of the committee he worked efficiently, first with President Harper and then with President Judson, for nearly thirty years, from 1890 to 1919. He was not a man of large means, but was a frequent and liberal contributor to the funds. Faithful in attendance at the frequent meetings of the Board and the various committees of which he was a member (the Board itself

    meeting regularly once a month), as well as in the performance of every service required of him, deeply interested in all the new questions con-

    FREDERICK

    A.

    SMITH

    stantly arising, strung in his own convictions and frank in their expn sion, and at the same time considerate of the opinions of other-, and

    supporting loyally every policy finally agreed upon; conservative in all matters relating to the great trust committed to him and his fellowtrustees, contributing freely the large resources of his special

    and experience,

    fitted

    by

    and sympathies

    his training

    knowledge

    to consider intelli-

    gently the educational plans and policies of the presidents, accuston to do his own thinking but at the same time having a mind

    singularly

    hospitable to new views; devoted with never-waning zeal to the intcn of the University, an excellent presiding officer, contributing the full

    weight of his large influence to the unity and harmony which has alws characterized the University Board, it may be truthfully said that Judge Smith was an ideal trustee in one of the most remarkable educational

    He had the satisfai tion origins and developments of any age or any land. of seeing the University he helped to found accumulate gating above 846,000,000, and enrol more than 10,000 student- a year, taking its place in the twenty-nine years of his trusteeship among the leading universities of the world. Judge Smith's relation to the University made him a trustee in t

    other

    institutions.

    When Rush

    Medical College and

    the

    Chicago

    Manual Training School became a part of the University sj stem, he p elected to the boards of both schools and served them continuously from 1897-98 for more than twenty years, as they gradually developed into work in the Medical School and the School of Edu-

    the University's larger cation.

    Other positions of trust and honor came to him. In 1893 he vice-president of the Chicago Law In-titute and in 1013 was elected He was vice-president of the Union League Club. He its president. .

    became an annual governing member in the affairs of

    of the Chicago

    which he took a deep

    1

    1

    Among

    interest.

    ty,

    hi- club-

    w

    the Marquette and the Chicago Literary Club. The mother of Judge Smith lived to see the old farmhouse replai a by fine brick mansion with wide veranda-, whi< h -till stands embowered in trees

    on the

    '

    Ridge."

    She died

    in 1893,

    three years after the son she

    sent to the old University as a preparatory student trustee of the

    advanced age

    new University

    of

    The

    Chicago.

    of eighty-eight, dying

    in

    in

    i860 had become a

    father lived

    to the

    1004, a year after his son's

    firsl

    election as judge.

    The crowning wife in 1910.

    affliction of

    As he had no

    Judge Smith's

    children he was

    life

    left

    was the death

    of his

    quite alone for the

    last

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    286

    nine years of his life, except for the brother and two sisters who survived him, and the friends he had made. The year before Mrs. Smith's death he had been re-elected judge of the Circuit Court.

    Sometime after the death of his father, acting for himself and the other heirs, he sold the old farm, and it became the home of the Ridgemoor Country Club. The Smith mansion, as has been said, still stands, " and south of it farther along the Ridge" a very attractive clubhouse has been built and the fine natural advantages of the location have been happily adapted to the purposes of a golf club. Judge Smith was himself a lover of golf and during the closing decade of his life was accusto spend a month or more each winter with some congenial on the shores of the Gulf in Mississippi, at Summerville, South Carolina, Birmingham, Alabama, and other golfing resorts of the

    tomed friend

    South.

    The malady which ended

    his life

    was a slow and

    distressing one

    developing into cancer and probably was, from the first, incurable. When death finally came, he welcomed it as a relief from suffering. He died July 31, 1919, in the seventy-sixth year of his age. He did not leave a large estate, but testified that his interest in the University, of which he had been a trustee for twenty-nine years, was real and profound by making the following provisions in his will:

    My

    set of the Illinois Supreme Court Reports and my partial set of the Illinois Appellate Court Reports to be placed in and become a part of the Law Library of the

    University of Chicago. I give to the said University of Chicago the sum of $25,000 to be used by the Trustees of said University as a scholarship endowment fund and administered by the said Trustees in their discretion for the welfare of said University and the assistance of needy and deserving students of said University in obtaining an education.

    The terms of the scholarship bequest, leaving large discretion to the Trustees in administering the bequest for the "welfare of the University," were evidently dictated by his long experience as a member of The books were early placed in the Law Library after his death the scholarship fund was paid into the Uni-

    the governing board.

    and a year

    versity treasury. In the memorial which the Trustees of the University entered on their records immediately after the death of Judge Smith they paid him this well-deserved tribute:

    Our

    sense of bereavement relates not only to the kindly, courteous, and patient marked him in the long period of service on the Board, but perhaps

    qualities that

    more so

    and and problems.

    to the conspicuous gifts of wisdom, prudence, conservatism, fidelity,

    vision that he brought to the consideration of the University's affairs

    FREDERICK His funeral was attended and

    Thomas Post

    of the

    A.

    jS 7

    part conducted by the George EL which he was a

    in

    Grand Army

    SMITH

    of the Republic, of

    member.

    The judges of the Circuit Court, whose estimate has been already given, also said of him:

    A

    him

    o!

    as a jurist

    kindly Christian gentleman has gone from our midst. We revere hia his passing away. He will be greatly missed 1>> b

    memoiy

    and mourn

    sage counsel, his inspiring presence, and manly virtues. his noble and exemplary life.

    An

    We

    thank

    <

    k)d

    f>>r

    fof

    hia

    the gift oi

    ''What manner of man is Judge His answer was extraordinarily apt: "A physical portrayal of substantial justice." Of medium height, heavily built, his head bitf and bald, his face clean shaven except for a heavy mustache, broad of attorney was once asked:

    Smith?"

    chin and firm of mouth, his appearance without the slightest air of pretention was dignified and impressive and his He was every inch a judge.

    title fitted

    him perfectly.

    If I should attempt a further estimate of Judge Smith I should only He repeat what has already been said on some page of this sketch. rendered an important service to the great city by Ins sixteen years on

    He once

    the bench as a just and able judge.

    said: "It

    is

    my

    ambition to

    be a good judge rather than a great one." And as one of the best judges, he was exceptionally useful to the community he served.

    But he rendered a vastly wider

    service than

    to

    the

    of

    community

    of the great city, a service that carried his influence far abroad and will perpetuate it through many generations to come. By his influential

    relation to the University of Chicago he ably assisted in the beginnings and the development of a movement that we may well believe will

    continue with increasing power to bless, not a single community, but the world as long as civilization endures. He aided efficiently in foundwill train the minds ing and shaping the policies of an institution that

    and mold the extend

    its

    fives of succeeding generations

    of

    students

    who

    will

    Such Long-continuing and power as it continues and expands,

    influence to the ends of the earth.

    wide-extending influence, growing in attaches inevitably to those who become by their services or their gifts a part of the life of a great institution of education. This is doubly true of those who, like Smith, by both services and gifts become

    Judge

    a part of that expanding life. of Chicago the letters of his

    On

    the foundation

    name

    are cut deep.

    of the

    University

    UNIVERSITY COMMISSIONS To replace the University Congregation, which was established at the annual meeting of the Board of Trustees in June, 1896, and which has long ceased to function, the Board of Trustees has established fourteen University Commissions. The Congregation was a large body comprising all officers of administration and instructors above the rank of Associate, all

    Doctors of Philosophy of the University,

    when

    officers in

    by the Congregation, and representatives of the Doctors and Bachelors of Law, Bachelors of Divinity, Masters and Bachelors of Arts, Literature, and Science. This large body was to consider subjects referred to it and to make recommendations to governing bodies. It had the power to interpose a temporary veto of an action of the Faculty. The Quarterly Congregation Dinner through lack of interest became an annual dinner. Even this was not well affiliated colleges

    attended.

    elected

    Soon the Congregation ceased

    to function.

    The Congregation, however, had one Goodspeed has pointed out

    in his

    History

    responsibility

    may become

    that as Dr.

    vitally

    important

    to the welfare of the University. things go well the Congregation may be said to have no functions the time ever comes when things go wrong, when the "governing bodies"

    As long as

    But

    if

    to guide the policies of the institution wisely, the Congregation can

    make

    its

    fail

    voice

    it can only recommend. But it will represent such a constituency well-considered recommendations urged and perhaps insisted on, with the University and fifty or a hundred thousand alumni behind them, would reach a

    heard. that

    True,

    its

    governing body with something very perhaps a very remote possibility. It

    like authority.

    This,

    it is true,

    is

    a far cry;

    however, the one thing that may make the institution of the Congregation an important event in the history of the University.

    On recommendation

    is,

    of the President of the University the president

    Board of Trustees at a meeting October 14, 19 19, appointed a committee to consider the advisability of creating a body to take the place of the University Congregation. This committee comprised Harold H. Swift, chairman, T. E. Donnelley, and C. W. Gilkey. This committee reported at the June meeting, 1920, and at the meeting July 13, the Board adopted a plan for University Commissions. Feeling that one of the primary needs of the University is a more active participation in its affairs by the alumni and the development among them of a keener sense of responsibility for its well-being, believ-

    of the

    UNIVERSITY COMMISSIONS ing also that with the rapid growth of the University points of contact between the Trustees and the members of the Faculties need to be multiplied in order that each

    may better understand the point of view and purposes of the other, confident, moreover, thai the future prosperity of the University must depend to qo small in degree upon itenlisting the intelligent interesl of leading citizens of Chi< ad the who do not happen to be among its alumni and Trusti

    Central West

    i

    the

    Committee

    briefly formulated the objects of the

    Commissi)

    follows:

    to promote the interest of the University of Chicago by fostering a closer relationship between the alumni and the University; (2) developing a closer relationship between the Faculties and Board

    of Trustees;

    Chicagoans

    (3)

    developing more actively the interest of representative

    in the University.

    The duty of each Commission is to study the work of its school or group and from time to time to make suggestions to the Hoard of Trustees as to the manner and means of improving the work of the school or group.

    These suggestions are

    to be sent

    through the President of the University who Board with his recommendations.

    to the

    Board

    shall transmit

    of Trust.

    them

    to the

    There will be fourteen University Commissions, one for each of the centers of interest in the University life: The Law School, Medical School, The Graduate Medical School, The- Divinity School, I

    The School of Education, The School of Commerce and Administration, The Colleges of Arts, Literature, and Science, Women's I

    Historical

    Economy, Political Science, History, Sociology and Anthropology), Modern Language Group, Classical Langua

    Group

    (Political

    Group, Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics, Geology and Geogra hy,

    Group (Zoology, Anatomy, Physiology, Botany, Pathology, Hygiene and Bacteriology). Of each of these Commissions the President On each Commission there of the University is ex officio member. will be two alumni, one of whom is to be elected by the Alumni Coun<

    Biological

    the other to be appointed by the president of the Board of Trustees on two or moreof the President of the University; residents of Chicago or vicinity not connected in an official capacity

    recommendation

    with the University who will be appointed by the president of the Board of Trustees upon recommendation by the President of the Uniwhenever practicable, will versity; two members of the Faculty who,

    be heads of departments or Deans closely associated with given departments and will be appointed by the Board of Trustees on recommendation by the President of the University; one member of the Board

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    2QO

    and an alternate member to be appointed by the president Board of Trustees. It is to be noted that when one Commission is appointed for two departments one Faculty member of the Commission shall be appointed from each department. If the group is composed of more than two departments then one member shall be added from the Faculty to represent each additional department. The term of office is to be two years. One-half of the membership immediof Trustees of the

    ately to be appointed will be named for one year. Each Commission is to meet at least once each quarter excepting during the Summer Quarter, and at least one meeting each year is to be

    with the teaching force of all departments of groups represented. There to be at least one joint meeting of all the Commissions and the Board

    is

    of Trustees of the University during the Spring Quarter of each year. Special meetings may be called in accordance with such regulations as

    may

    be provided by the Commissions or upon the call of the chairman Commissions. At these meetings the work of the group is to be

    of the

    considered from

    ments

    may

    all points of view represented. Suggestions for improvebe made at any time by the Commission to the Board of

    Trustees through the President of the University. A further effort of the members of the Board of Trustees to come into closer contact with the members of the Faculties appears in a new by-law of the Board of Trustees establishing an annual dinner in honor of members of the Faculties. The first of these will be held October 4,

    1920, taking the place of the usual Faculty dinner. The establishment of the University Commissions affords an interesting device for constructive criticism of the several parts of the UniIt is to be hoped that the Commissions will perform versity organism. a real service in improving the University of Chicago.

    EVENTS: PAST THE ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTEENTH CONVOCATION

    Moore, Herman Theodore Mossberg, it. dr.. Jean M Poorbaugh, Mary Louisa Robin Marjorie Lora Royce, Luther Martin Sandwick, Anna Catherine Shine, Metha Louise Wulf. llon,,rs for excellence in

    The One Hundred and Seventeenth Convocation was held in Leon Mandd Assembly Hall, Friday, September 3, at 4:00 p.m.

    AND FUTURE

    The Convocation Address,

    particular departments of the Senior Colleges were awarded to the following students: Carroll York Belknap, English; Gertrude Stanton Bennett, Latin;

    "The New Past," was delivered by James Henry Breasted, Ph.D., Professor of Egyptology and Oriental History, Director of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. The award of honors was announced: Mary Ann Benson, the Lillian Gertrude

    Howard Clark Brown, t'lark

    Scholarship. The election of the following students to the Beta of Illinois Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was announced: Erik Anderson, Carroll York Belknap, Guy Thomas Buswell, Elsie Deane Canan, Hazel May Cornell, Florence Marguerite Edler, Emmcline Fricke, Faith Gamble, Harald Groth Selz

    Brown, Botany;

    Education;

    mam

    Her

    It

    e;

    Carvajal,

    Pen Hazel May

    Literature;

    Gt

    ijal,

    m ral G

    Cornell.

    and

    Arthur B< Geology; Cummins, Chemistry; Morei ite Edler, History; Florence Marguerite Ethel Edler, Romance; Peldkirchner, Home Economies; Harriett Huldah lillinger, Chemistry; Faith Gamble, Botany; Corinne Laney, Latin; Leola Lillian raphy

    Oxholm Hoick, Herman Theodore Moss-

    Lasell.

    berg, Marjorie Lora Royce (June, 10 19), Luther Martin Sandwick, William Dud-

    Economy;

    ley

    English; Howard \l Ethel Brown,

    Esther Per

    Olga Law, Robert Wallace Economy; Lydia

    Political

    English;

    Political

    Woodhead.



    Edit ation;

    Montgomery,

    Mackie,

    Duncan

    Viola

    Ellison

    Herman Theodore Moore, Botany; ElizaMossberg, my; beth Catherine Oettersha^en, German; Grace Margaret Poorbaugh, Educai Grace Margarel Poorbaugh, Art Edu-

    Honorable mention for excellence in the work of the Junior Colleges: Ruland Wetherby Barber, Samuel Sol Caplan, Dorothy Jane Church, Harry Clayton

    /

    Fisher, Justus Miles Hull, Mary Louise Hutchinson, Hyman, Harry Julius Perl Klier, Beatrice Marks, Rutli Anna Charlotte Miller, Mattie J. McCoy, Selma Agatha Reidt, Richard Biddle Richter, William Shapiro, Barrett LeRoy Spach, Raymond Hiilman Starr, Robert Thome, William Hall Trout, Harry Winkler, Ethel Foster Wyley. Honorable mention for excellence in the work

    Mary Louisa Robinson, Botany; Metha /.'.' Marjorie Lora Royi Louise Wulf, Geography. Degrees and titles were conferred cation;

    The Colleges: the eertili follows: tinof the College of Education, 9; degree of Bachelor of Arts, 4; tfa Bachelor of Philosophy, 71; the the degree of Bachelor of Saem degree of Bachelor of Philosophy in elor Education, 38; the degree of Philosophy in Commerce and AdminThe 11; School: Divinity istration,

    of

    leading to the Certificate of the College of Education: Olga Jane Davies, Helen was Laurie. The Bachelor's degree conferred with honors on the following students: Carroll York Belknap, Sarah

    ree of

    Gibson Brinkley, Howard Clark Brown, Ethel Brown, Elsie Deane Canan, Esther Perez Carvajal. Hazel May Florence Edler, Cornell, Marguerite Harriett Huldah Fillinger, Faith Gamble, Nellie Emma Jones, Corinne Lai Olga Law, Robert Wallace Markie, Lydia Duncan Montgomery, Viola Ellison

    M

    [5;

    degree of Bachelor degree of Doctor

    M.

    hool:

    of

    Laws. 4; ,

    10;

    "i"

    of

    Divinity,

    of Science,

    291

    .



    -.

    1;

    Doctor of

    Gradit

    Tiii

    of Arl

    the the !or

    th(

    tl

    \rts,

    the

    Master

    j;

    Philosophy,

    di

    M Doctor of

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    292

    Philosophy, 31. The total degrees conferred was 327.

    number

    of

    The Convocation Prayer Service was held at 10:30 a.m., Sunday, August 29, Harper Assembly Room. At 1 1 00 in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall,

    in

    :

    a.m.,

    Virginia, to give an exhibition of this course before a Committee of Congress. He also made a presentation of the work in general education before a dinner of over a hundred Senators and Representatives at the Army and Navy Club in

    the Convocation Religious Service was The preacher was the Reverend held.

    Washington.

    William Coleman Bitting, D.D., Second Baptist Church, St. Louis, Missouri.

    the War Department to study the work in training for citizenship offered by the larger unofficial organizations in the United States and to make suggestions on Americanization and citizenship training to all the departments and most of the bureaus of the federal government. He has also been sent to several of the largest cities to explain the army education to recruiting officers, chambers of

    GENERAL ITEMS On

    July 30 Percy MacKaye, dramatist, author of The Canterbury Pilgrims, Caliban, and many other masques, gave an author's reading in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall at the University of Chicago. On August 2 he lectured on "Community Drama," on which he is the leading American authority; and August 3 he gave an author's reading from his drama George Washington.

    Two of

    of the best-known literary women the country lectured at the Univer-

    On sity of Chicago in July and August. July 26 Miss Harriet Monroe, editor of Poetry, spoke on "Recent Poetry in The Conservatives," and English, I: July 27 on "Recent Poetry in English, Miss Monroe is II: The Radicals." co-editor of The New Poetry, an anand of author You and I and thology, The Passing Show, the latter a volume of plays in verse.

    Miss Amy Lowell gave an author's reading on August 13, and on the evening

    August 17 gave in Leon Mandel Assembly Hall a lecture on" "Walt Whitman and the New Poetry.

    of

    Announcement

    made by

    the University of Chicago Trustees that David Allan Robertson, Associate Professor of English and Secretary to the President, is

    has been appointed to a the University, that of

    new

    office in

    Dean of the Colleges of Arts, Literature, and Science. For

    six

    months Dr. Scott E. W. Bed-

    ford, Associate Professor of Sociology in the University of Chicago and secretary of the American Sociological Society, has

    been with the

    War Department,

    assisting

    the educational work among the soldiers. He has assisted in writing the textbooks used in the basic course in citizenship and was sent to Camp Lee, in starting

    Professor Bedford has been sent

    commerce, and Bedford's

    development

    Dr.

    civic organizations.

    position

    has

    been

    by

    that

    of

    expert in general education.

    The army educational work

    is

    now

    regarded as the most important in adult education in modern times. It is directed

    by some Grant,

    fifty

    experts gathered at Camp in the Service School.

    Illinois,

    The teachers who are to teach in the army next year were brought together at Camp Grant this summer for instruction in their tasks. It is expected that next year the United States Army Schools will have at least 200,000 students in them.

    An alumnus of the University of Chicago, Dr. Wallace Walter Atwood, S.B. '97, Ph.D. '03, professor of physiography in Harvard University and presidentelect of Clark University to succeed Dr. G. Stanley Hall, is the author of a recent volume issued under the title of New Geography. It contains colored maps and

    is

    fully illustrated,

    and

    will

    form a part of a new geographical series. Dr. Atwood, who was connected with the University of Chicago for fourteen years, is a member of the United States and Illinois Geological Surveys and of the National Research Council, and the author of Glaciation of the Uinta and Wasatch Mountains, and of Geology and Mineral Resources of the Alaska Peninsula.

    The Alumni Council of the University of Chicago has been particularly active and successful the past year. The number of alumni clubs throughout the country has increased under the wise policy of the Council from five to thirtyone. A large beginning has been made

    /

    17.\ is-

    PAST AND FUTURE

    toward the subscription of an adeq fund to carry on alumni activities on an independent basis. Announcement was made at the recent Convocation that a total of $88,841 had already been subscribed to the fund by 054 alumni. The contributions on hand have been increased

    by favorable purchase

    combined; and to what extent genitives, in different ablatives, and ir> authors and

    development sions and oi

    Some

    of the University of Chi-

    cago, Dr. John H. Reynolds, who took his Master's degree from the University in 1897 and is now president of Hendrix College. Arkansas, has been selected as director-general of the $25,000,000 educational campaign of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. This is regarded as the greatest educational movement ever attempted in that part of the Dr. Reynolds will have a country. year's leave of absence to conduct the

    campaign,

    his

    headquarters Nashville, Tennessee.

    being

    at

    the recent publications issued by the University of Chicago Press is one on Teaching in the Army, by James C. Lewis, Jr., Major of Field Artillery, who is now Assistant Professor of Military Science and Tactics in the University of Chicago. Major Lewis, who received the Master's degree and the School

    Among

    Superintendent's certificate from Columbia University, has emphasized the principles of teaching that are accepted by practically all educators, and the book is the result of a broad contact with army instruction. In his introduction Director Charles H. Judd, of the University of

    Chicago School of Education, says: "The book is a most encouraging symptom of the movement to improve teaching technique in the army. It ought to get a very wide use." In his monograph on The Genitive of e in Latin and Other Constructions with Verbs of Rating. Professor Gordon J. Laing, chairman of the Department of Latin at the University of Chicago, says that his purpose is twofold: (1) to determine the origin of the genitive of value, and (2) to ascertain the limits of the different combinations: what genitives and ablatives are used in expressions of valuation and with what verbs they are

    to

    show

    the

    of

    the

    historical

    individual

    |

    of the sections of the

    Professor

    has

    If,

    i

    have been reprinted

    of Liberty

    Bonds. It is expected that by the time the fund is a year old, by next January, it will have reached $100,000 in subscriptions, and about $50,000 in funds on hand.

    An alumnus

    -

    i

    «

    also endeavored

    Laing's

    monograph

    permission from

    l>y

    art*

    in

    le

    Si

    Johns

    Hopkins Pn '

    \

    Baltimon



    untitle publii atioD from the

    University of the

    I

    1

    ;

    ',..

    Ralph W. Chaney,

    of

    I

    ir.

    ti

    Iowa. The author had n considerable collections of fossil plant material in the Gorge of the Columbia River, in Oregon and Washington, and from these he has drawn regarding the age of the formation, the general character of the flora, and the physical conditions during the epoch. of

    sity

    Professor

    Ph.D..

    ment

    I.I.

    Jan* I)..

    -

    ll<

    Breasted,

    nrj

    Chairman <-f the DepartLanguages and I.i

    of Oriental

    tures and Dire, lor of 1 Institute of the Universit) the ( !on\ 01 ation Orator at

    ntal

    Hundred and &

    tion

    <

    be University, Frida Bn Professor who has returned after a year's work as Dip of the Oriental Institute in conducting an archaeological survey of the N ful in findEast, has been high' ing extraordinary opportunities oriental Museum from riching Haskell j

    objects in Egypt and Mesopotan In Professor Breasted iQoo

    appointed by

    thi

    Germany

    copy

    to

    I

    and

    the

    .

    Egyptian inscriptions in for an Egyptian dictionary; in tian tor of 1005-7 he v I

    urns

    1

    Expedition of the Univei '

    •1

    the

    rk, thi

    I

    California, and the 11 lecturer the Ami of Science at Washington. ciate editor St

    at

    irer

    m Theol

    1

    the Earl lecturer at

    ndation

    my He

    i

    ..'

    m

    sponding of S

    dent of the Ami Among his nun

    Orienl pt, in five

    y.

    volur:

    of

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    294

    A

    History of Egypt, which has gone into German, Russian, French, and English Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt; and Ancient

    editions;

    Times: A History of the Early World. Before leaving the Near East, Director Breasted gave the commencement address at the Syrian Protestant College at Beirut.

    Announcement is just made by the University of Chicago Trustees that Director Charles Hubbard Judd of the School of Education, who is also Head of the Department of Education in the University, has been made Chairman of the Department of Psychology to succeed Professor James R. Angell, who resigned to accept the presidency of the

    Carnegie Corporation of New York. Director Judd, who formerly was pro-

    fessor and director of the psychological laboratory at Yale University, has been president of the American Psychological Association and editor of the monograph supplements of the Psychological Review. He has written a general introduction to psychology, as well as a recent volume on

    The Psychology of High-School

    Subjects.

    Dean

    Shailer Mathews, of the University of Chicago Divinity School, has recently become a contributing editor to

    the

    New York

    Independent,

    giving

    especial attention to the religious phases Dean Mathews, of social questions. who is now the editor of the Biblical World, published by the University of Chicago Press, was formerly editor of The World Today. He is also director religious work at the Chautauqua Institution, and for four years was presi-

    of

    dent of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America. Professor Mathews is the author of many books, including The Church and the Changing Order, The Gospel and the Modern Man, and The Spiritual Interpretation of History.

    New impressions of successful books printed in July include those of Materials for the Study of Elementary Economics, edited by L. C. Marshall, Chester W. Wright, and James A. Field; SecondYear Mathematics for Secondary Schools, by Ernst R. Breslich; The Evolution of Early Christianity, by Shirley J. Case; Literature in the Elementary School, by Porter Lander MacClintock, and American Poems, by Walter C. Bronson. For August new impressions of the following books were announced: The

    Place of Industries in Elementary Educaby Katharine E. Dopp; Heroes of The Israel, by Theodore G. Soares;

    tion,

    Revelation of John,

    by Shirley J. Case; Current Economic Problems, by Walton H. Hamilton; Readings in Industrial and Society, by Leon C. Marshall; General Sociology, by Albion Woodbury Small. Professor Charles J. Chamberlain, of the Department of Botany at the University of Chicago, sailed August 12 on "The Imperator" to be a guest of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, which met this year at Dr. Chamberlain was invited Cardiff. to give the annual semipopular lecture before the botany section of the Association, an honor extended only to

    His subject was prominent" botanists. "Cycads, plants with which he has been working for sixteen years and on which he wrote a volume for the "Uni" versity of Chicago Science Series. Dr. Chamberlain sailed for home on "The Aquitania" September 11 and resumed his regular work at the University with the opening of the Autumn Quarter.

    The University Autumn Quarter,

    Preachers for the 1920, at the Univer-

    sity of Chicago, are as follows:

    For the month of October the first University Preacher is President Frank Wakeley Gunsaulus, of the Armour Institute of Technology, Chicago, who speaks on October 3. On October 10 Dr. Robert E. Speer, of New York City, will Francis Greenwood speak. Professor Peabody, of the Harvard Divinity School, Octowill be the speaker on October 17. ber 24 will be Settlement Sunday.

    The

    last

    preacher for October will be

    Bishop Francis

    J.

    McConnell, of

    Pitts-

    burgh, Pennsylvania. Bishop McConnell will also be the first preacher in November. Bishop Thomas F. Gailor, of Sewanee, Tennessee, will preach on November 28. For December the University Preachers are Professor Albert Parker Fitch, of

    Amherst College, and Rev. James Gordon Gilkey, of the South Congregational Church, Springfield, Massachusetts. Professor Leonard Eugene Dickson, of the Department of Mathematics at the University of Chicago, who recently received the high honor of election as corresponding member of the French

    EVENTS: PAST AND FUTURE Academy

    of

    Sciences,

    has

    visited Europe as the official representative of the National Academy of Sciences at

    the

    London Conference on

    International

    Scientific Literature, meetings of which began September 28, at the offices of the Royal Society of London.

    Professor Dickson also went as a delegate of the American Section of the International Mathematical Union, of which he is chairman, to the meetings of the Union at Strasbourg on September 20 and 21. At the International Mathematical Congress at Strasbourg

    tember 22-26, he gave by special invitation of the directors of the congress

    one of the four general addresses, as well

    as

    a

    more

    technical

    scientific

    paper.

    Before sailing Dr. Dickson met in New York representatives of several scientific institutions to discuss recommendations to the Royal Society of London in regard to its future policies concerning the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature.

    The officers of the University Orchestral Association announce the following for the coming season at the University of Chicago: Eight concerts by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra on October 19, November 9 and 23, January 11, February

    program

    1

    and

    15,

    Two

    March

    S.

    and April

    19.

    be given during the one by Fannie Bloomfieldseason, Zeisler on December 14, and one by Mabel Garrison on April 12. recitals will

    The new

    president of the Orchestral Association is Professor Chester W. Wright, of the Department of Political Economy; the vice-president is Mrs. Harry Pratt Judson; and the secretarytreasurer, David Allan Robertson.

    The Summer Quarter

    work was initiated by Chicago in 1893. Summer schools have existed elsewhere for many years. At Chicago the Summer University

    Quarter

    is

    of

    not a

    summer

    school;

    the

    same quality of work is required and the same credit given as in the other quarters of the school year.

    The attendance

    this

    year surpassed the remarkable record of 1916 which was due to special circumstances. The attendance this year was due to no unusual circumstances. Of the 5,406 students enrolled, 2,080 were graduate

    and

    29 S

    2,150

    were

    Education, Administration.

    The meeting

    and

    of the

    the

    in

    ional schools of Divinity, cine,

    pro-

    Law, Medi-

    Commerce and

    American Chemical

    which was held in Chi Septemln-r 6 10, brought together thou sands of chemists from all parti of the intry. Many of those in attendance spent Wednesday and Thursday "ii the quadrangles ,,f the University where all the divisional meetings of the were held.

    The

    s.

    Divinity

    of Chicago

    hool of the University

    announces that the Instr Church Workers will open tober 10 and that courses will lie given by Professors J. M. Artman, I., h. Burton, G. B. Smith, and other members..!' the for

    <

    >,

    Faculty.

    The Institut. initiated by the Divinity Si hool last winter and proved highly successful, nearly three hundred church workers being enrolled. Continued demand

    for

    .1// /

    tioH

    Peace Trcitirs, by Arthur Po makes a new impression of this notable book necessary. The author ,who

    to the

    tt,

    is Assistan t r of History in the University of Chicago, has made a valuable contribution to the lil dealing with the aims of the war, the of the Treat and framing the reasons whi. h guided the 1'. I

    Conference

    Some

    in its decisions.

    oments "n the b

    t

    as follows:

    "The

    simplest, clear

    most intelligent book on the r Conference published bo far"; "It concise and impartial ". book is one to be read right DOW "A book of value at this time of polil

    clear,

    discussion."

    as a regular part

    of the University

    the

    students

    A new and

    enlarged edition

    oi

    Albert

    tian

    This |w>pular lx>..k Cook, is in press. which presents the modern construct of view in religion is adapt. i

    as a textbook "r general reader. u ial announcement has been by the Board of Trustees of tin

    m tty

    I

    of

    Q

    .1

    I

    by th

    School of Civil

    I

    s

    the

    plan

    i

    Chi.

    and Philanthropy whe

    the Uni'. ball take over the functions of the School and establish a

    by

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    296

    graduate professional curriculum for students in civics and philanthropy, to be known as the School of Social Service Administration. The maintenance of the plan is guaranteed by a fund of $25,000 a year for a period of five years from October 1, 1920. Among the guarantors of the fund are Mrs. Emmons Blaine, Mr. Charles R.

    Professor Ernest DeWitt Burton, Head of the Department of New Testament and Early Christian Literature

    Crane, Mr. Morton D. Hull, Mr. Edward L. Ryerson, Mr. Julius Rosenwald, Mr. Harold H. Swift, Mrs. Arthur Aldis, the American Red Cross, the Jewish Charities, and the United Charities. The Chicago School of Civics and

    many

    Philanthropy was founded eighteen years ago by Professor Graham Taylor, and

    among

    those

    who

    assisted in its early

    work was the late Professor Charles R. Henderson, of the University of Chicago. Among its later faculty have been Dr. Sophonisba P. Breckinridge, Assistant Professor of Social Economy, and Dr. Edith Abbott, Lecturer in Sociology, at the University of Chicago, who have had charge of the special work in social investigation.

    Nearly 3,000 men and

    women

    in the school, and it many investigators for exFor the last five years the pert service. school has been located in the former residence of Mr. Charles R. Crane on Michi-

    have been trained has furnished

    gan Avenue.

    The Dean of the new school is Dean Leon C. Marshall, of the School of Commerce and Administration of the University of Chicago.

    The King of Italy has recently conupon Professor Ernest Hatch Wilkins, of the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures at the University of Chicago, the title and insignia of Chevalier of the Order of the Crown ferred

    of Italy.

    Professor Wilkins has long been active in the development of the study of Italian in this country, and has published a number of books and articles dealing with Italian literature. For some time during the war he had general direction of the recruiting of men for Y.M.C.A. service with the Italian army.

    Dr. Wilkins, who recently received the honorary degree of Doctor of Letters from Amherst College, has been vice-president of the Modern Language Association of the Dante League of the editor of the new Chicago Italian Series" being published by the University

    America and America, and

    of is

    "University of

    now

    of Chicago Press.

    at the University of Chicago and Director of the University Libraries, was given the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity by Harvard University at its recent com-

    Dr. Burton, who is widely as a biblical scholar, has written books, among them being A Handbook of the Life of Paul, Spirit, Soul, and Flesh in Greek Writings from the Earliest Period to 180 A.D., and A Harmony of the Synoptic Gospels in Greek (with Edgar J.

    mencement.

    known

    Goodspeed). Professor Burton, who was recently appointed Chairman of the Commission on Christian Education in China, is already familiar with educational conditions in that country, having been a member of the Oriental Educational Investigation Commission sent out by the University of Chicago in 1908.

    The total number of degrees conferred to date by the University of Chicago is Exclusive of names repeated, 13,721. the total number of men receiving degrees is 6,867, and of women 5,452, a grand The degree total of 12,319 graduates. of Doctor of Philosophy has been conferred on 1,225, almost exactly 10 per cent of the total alumni. The University of Chicago Press has just issued a remarkable list of new fall books, which include the following: The Financial Organization of Society, by Harold G. Moulton; Principles of by A. C. Hodge and J. O. McKinsey; Introduction to the Science of by Robert E. Park and Ernest W. Burgess; and The Origin and Development of the Nervous System from a Physiological Viewpoint, by Charles Manning Accounting, Sociology,

    Child.

    Joseph Pennell, the famous etcher, Lorado Taft, the widely known Chicago sculptor, have finished manubooks scripts of two especially significant in the field of art, which are to be issued

    and

    in

    the early

    of

    Chicago

    autumn by Press.

    the University

    Both volumes are

    Scammon

    Lectures delivered at the Art Institute of Chicago. Mr. Pennell's new book on The Graphic Arts deals with the modern development of all the graphic arts and is richly illusblack with reproductions in trated Under "Illustration" Mr. and white. Pennell discusses Wood-Cutting, Wood-

    in the series of

    EVENTS: PAST AND FUTURE and Modern Meth Engraving, under "Etching," the Etchers and the Methods; and under "lithography," the Artists and the Methi Because of .Mr. PennelTs own artistic achievement and his definite, aggressive future of art, this new volume is likely to cause widespi discussion among artists and those who are interested in the national development of art. Lorado Taft's new book on Modern

    ideas for

    the

    Tendencies in Sculpture, which will havefive hundred illustrations, discusses the work of Rodin and other French sculptors, German and other European sculpture,

    Augustus

    St.

    Gaudens and

    American

    In speaksculpture since St. Gaudens. ing of the last-named sculptor Mr. Taft remarks that St. Gaudens' influence cannot be overestimated. "Vet no man's leadership is sufficient to bring us into the promised land. The myriad ways in which American sculptors are seeking " artistic salvation is an appealing theme. Especial interest is given to Mr. Taft's

    new book on sculpture because of monumental group, "The Fountain

    his

    of

    the full-size model of which has recently been placed near the Uni-

    Time,"

    Washington Park facing the is an impressive, waveprocession of more than eighty

    versity in

    Midway. like

    figures

    human

    It

    symbolizing the passing of the immovable before the race

    figure of Time and illustrating the couplet of Austin Dobson

    famous

    :

    Time

    Ah.no, goes, you say ? Alas, time stays; we go.

    297

    Dr. Allien A. Michel 01 Head of the irtment of Physics at the Univei Chicago, who has already received many tt ientific honors, baa been awarded the Alliert Medal of the Arts for io-'o, according dispatch from London. It is a n n of the Mil he!

    «>f

    I

    I

    optica] inventions, which have provided the mean- of carrying out measurem

    with a minute precision hitherto u tainable. Professor Michelson has from British si ientifn sodeti umford Medal, and the Copley Medal of the Ko\ a> well a-> the ty, London, •••I Prize for Physics from Ai ademy ol Hi publical are chiefly on researches in Light has been president of the American \ darion for the Advancement oi and of the American Physical Sod and is a corresponding member of French Academy of Scien

    ii>h

    He

    The Renaissance sity

    Society of the Univerarranged an exhibit of war po I

    the Museum of the dasBuilding at the University August so hundred post 10-20. exhibited, selected from the collections of the University, Dr. Jam.- \\ Walker, Dr. Arthur P. Scott, and Mr. Harold R. Willoughby. Addresses interpreting the exhibit were given by Dr. Walker, Dr.

    of

    ail

    nations

    in

    .

    Scott,

    and Mr. Willoughby on

    nings of August 17, iS and

    19.

    the



    The

    hibit was made the subjet tof an illustrated W.itkin- in article signed by 11. Poster magazine for September, lyjo.

    L

    HI

    Pi

    w H Pi < P

    C w

    oi

    O w Pi

    w

    a

    INDEX Attendance: Autumn, 64; Spring, 236;

    Summer,

    Winter, 152;

    Barrows, David Prescott, Responsible? 154.

    Board

    of Trustees:

    The One

    Convocation,

    Hundred

    and

    298. Is

    Alumni

    \\

    America ar

    (Thomas W.

    Crerar, John 98.

    1 !

    Memoiples

    rial, 8;

    appointments, 5, 96, 168, 260; of the Colleges, 264; dinners to Commissions and Faculties, 266; fellowships, 6; forms for gifts to the Uni-

    Divinity House, The, 117.

    Dean

    versity, 9; gifts, 7, 96, 169; School of Social Service

    ni-. Pasl

    60.

    <

    Fellowships,

    cock,

    10;

    Mrs. Charles Hit

    John

    Cnrar,

    Fourteenth ConThe President's Charge to

    p. 214;

    1.

    f.u

    Conyers Read, The

    th.-

    Political

    B.

    .

    1

    W. Good-

    ing

    fa. ink'

    facing Eat

    b

    n^

    Colih,

    J>.

    05;

    ft.

    J,

    i;

    The

    1

    1

    \ I-

    Is

    America Responsible ? 154. Hundred and Seventeenth Convocation: James Hen ry Brea ted,

    —One

    .

    and

    Ryd<

    299

    r

    i\\

    on

    Divinity ad-

    Hou-

    Smith, Facing

    p.

    .

    Vmerii a R. sponsible —), 154.

    John

    Past, 237.

    Hot

    uvinity

    1

    Midway

    ville

    man, 65. — One Hundred and Sixteenth Convo-

    t,h

    being

    The Chi. i-

    Hi

    Working-

    David Prescott Barrows,

    Silas

    in- p. 217; miliary, f.u

    Graduates, — One Hundred and Fifteenth Convo-

    The New

    Smith,

    Quadrangle Cluhh.. Bond, fa< ing, j>. 153; Building and Bona Chapel,

    —One Hundred and

    English

    Charles Hit.

    p. 1; p. 10;

    Billings Fiske.

    speed), 35.

    Convocation Addresses:

    the

    A.

    Frederii k

    Illustrations:

    of

    1

    Goodspeed, Thomas w., Charles Hitch-

    Chicago Theological Seminary, The, 218. Cobb, Silas Bowman (Thomas W. Good-

    Progress

    1930-21, 14X.

    Past,

    237-

    cation:

    of,

    Hitchcock, Charles (Thomas speed), 10.

    221.

    cation:

    Award

    John Crerar, 98; Joseph Bond, Silas Bowman Cobb, 35.

    Boynton, Rev. Richard Wilson, The Proposed Meadville House in Chicago,

    vocation:

    Hundred and

    Gifts to the University, 3, 7,96, 170.

    Goodspeed),

    The New

    on,-

    (set

    Seventeenth Convocation, 291 isr-ciilso v 237); Renaissance .-30.

    189.

    Breasted, James Henry,

    also



    <

    in tuition fees and room rents, 170; insurance of employees and members of the teaching staff, 170; late La Verne Noyes, 9; leaves of absence, 5, 169, 262; Mr. Rockefeller's final gift, 170; new halls for women, 8; promotions, 6, 262; resignations, 6, 96, 169, 263; sales from University Commons Storehouse, 171; standing committees of the Board, 263; University of Chicago Press, 8; University Commissions, 264; University journals, 266.

    W.

    and Future: general items. Oni Hundred and

    tae Hundred and Fifteenth 1,3); invocation, 144 [see also 65); One Hundred and Sixteenth Convocation. 145

    Administration, 263; History of Belgium, 171; increase

    Bond, Joseph (Thomas

    .

    Fourteenth Convocation

    Graduate

    Bi'

    ?

    I

    in

    lavid P

    Poetry, The,

    THE UNIVERSITY RECORD

    3oo Leaves of absence, Li Sien.

    5, 169, 262.

    Resignations, 6, 96, 169, 263.

    The John

    Poem (Anne

    Billings Fiske Prize Mary Lyman), 126.

    Lyman, Anne Mary, Li Sien. The John Billings Fiske Prize Poem, 1 26.

    New

    Past,

    The (James Henry Breasted),

    Ryder Divinity House,

    220.

    Slosson, Edwin E., Uniting the United States, 174.

    Smith, Frederick A. (Thomas

    W. Good-

    speed), 267.

    237-

    Supplement to the University Record, A, Political Progress of the English

    man, The (Conyers Read),

    Working1.

    President's Convocation Statement, The: at the One Hundred and Fourteenth Convocation, 3; at the One Hundred and Sixteenth Convocation, 162; at

    the One Hundred Convocation, 257.

    153-

    65.

    President's Charge to Graduates, The,

    Talbot, Marion, Mrs.

    Mary H. Wilmarth,

    120.

    Theology Building and Bond Chapel, The, 213.

    and Seventeenth

    Promotions, 6, 262. Proposed Meadville House in Chicago, The (Rev. Richard Wilson Boynton),

    Uniting the United States (Edwin E. Slosson), 174.

    University Commissions, 288.

    Quadrangle Club, The, 136.

    University Preachers: for Winter Quarter, 60; for Spring Quarter, 147; for Summer Quarter, 233; for Autumn Quarter, 294.

    Read, Conyers, The

    Wilmarth, Mrs. Mary H. (Marion Talbot)

    221.

    Political Progress of the English Workingman, 65.

    120.

    ,