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Buckle Down Mississippi SATP U.S. History from 1877 International Politics, Geography, and Economics Lesson 1: Imperialism and World War I (1877–1...

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Buckle Down Mississippi SATP U.S. History from 1877 International Politics, Geography, and Economics



Lesson 1: Imperialism and World War I (1877–1919) Lesson 2: The World Goes Back to War (1920–1953) Lesson 3: The Cold War and Beyond (1953–Present)

Unit 2

Domestic Politics, Geography, and Economics



Lesson 4: Inventions in the Age of Industry Lesson 5: Industrialization and the Rise of Unions Lesson 6: Reforming America Lesson 7: The Roaring Twenties and the Great Depression Lesson 8: The Civil Rights Movement Lesson 9: Post-World War II America

Unit 3

Civic Responsibilities



Lesson 10: Civic Participation Lesson 11: Rights and Responsibilities

Unit 4

Social Studies Tools



Lesson 12: Historical Study Lesson 13: Social Studies Skills

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Catalog # 1BDMS10HT01

Buckle Down Publishing

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U.S. HISTORY from 1877

Check out our complete line of MCT and SATP materials for Grades 2–12 READING/LANGUAGE • WRITING • MATHEMATICS ALGEBRA I • BIOLOGY I • U.S. HISTORY

Mississippi

SATP

U.S. HISTORY from 1877

o k b e l o n gs t o : T his bo



Mississippi SATP

On October 28, 1886, France gave the Statue of Liberty to the United States of America as a gesture of friendship. Over the years, it has become a symbol of freedom and democracy to the American people.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction................................................................................................................. 1 General Test-Taking Tips............................................................................... 2 Unit 1 – International Politics, Geography, and Economics .................................. 5 Lesson 1: Imperialism and World War I (1877–1919) .................................. 6 Lesson 2: The World Goes Back to War (1920–1953)................................ 15 Lesson 3: The Cold War and Beyond (1953–Present) ................................ 26 Unit 2 – Domestic Politics, Geography, and Economics ....................................... 39 Lesson 4: Inventions in the Age of Industry................................................ 40 Lesson 5: Industrialization and the Rise of Unions .................................... 52 Lesson 6: Reforming America..................................................................... 61 Lesson 7: The Roaring Twenties and the Great Depression ....................... 69 Lesson 8: The Civil Rights Movement........................................................ 79 Lesson 9: Post-World War II America......................................................... 90 Unit 3 – Civic Responsibilities ............................................................................... 101 Lesson 10: Civic Participation................................................................... 102 Lesson 11: Rights and Responsibilities..................................................... 110 Unit 4 – Social Studies Tools.................................................................................. 117 © 2006 Buckle Down Publishing. COPYING IS FORBIDDEN BY LAW.

Lesson 12: Historical Study....................................................................... 118 Lesson 13: Social Studies Skills................................................................ 128 Appendix.................................................................................................................. 137 Mississippi Social Studies Framework, U.S. History from 1877.............. 138

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Unit 1 – International Politics, Geography, and Economics

The Industrial Revolution led to a new round of imperialism

Imperialism and World War I (1877–1919)

IT’S IMPORTANT: ■ Established nations of Europe sought colonies in Africa and Asia during the late 1800s, and the United States wanted similar trading rights. ■ Although the United States did not set out to establish formal colonies, it obtained some as a result of the Spanish-American War of 1898. ■ President Theodore Roosevelt modified the Monroe Doctrine to permit the United States to enforce its interests in the Western Hemisphere, including the building of the Panama Canal. ■ The United States reluctantly entered World War I, but by war’s end, President Woodrow Wilson had developed a plan to restructure the world community and prevent future destructive wars.

practiced by the world’s major industrial powers. (Imperialism involves the establishment of an empire, with one country taking control of the government or the economy of another.) The tremendous growth of industry promoted a greater demand for raw materials for use in manufacturing. Improved transportation made it possible to ship these materials from greater distances, and for the finished product to be shipped out again, thus opening new markets for manufacturers to sell their products. Leaders in American government and business feared being left out. In addition, many Americans believed that the United States had a responsibility to demonstrate its principles of democracy and freedom to the rest of the world. As a result, for the first time in its history, the United States became an active imperialist power.

European Imperialism European countries looking for new markets and sources of raw materials first turned to Africa. Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, and Portugal all raced to establish African colonies. Colonies not only meant economic power; they also meant prestige and political power for the countries holding them. The Europeans nearly went to war with one another in the 1880s as a result of the competition over land claims and economic rights. In 1885, they divided Africa among themselves—without consulting the African people they would rule. China became the Asian site of economic competition in the 1800s. Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and Russia each established spheres of influence, in which they had exclusive rights to invest in mines, railroads, and factories. The United States did not have a similar sphere, but it insisted on the same trading rights as those granted to other countries by China. This so-called Open Door Policy was supposed to keep China from being colonized, as other regions of the world had been. Although no formal colonies were created, China was clearly dominated by foreign countries.

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Lesson 1: Imperialism and World War I (1877–1919) Imperial Powers in Africa, 1914 6

Tunisia Morocco Algeria

7

10

14

4 1 Mauritania Senegal 15 Ivory Coast 32

8 2

Dahomey Niger Chad

22

13

17 34

Ubangi-shari

25

20 35

N

16 28

Atlantic Ocean

5

12

3

33

30

26 29

E

W S

19 31

11 23

0

km

1,600

36

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miles 1,000 French 1. French West Africa (Algeria, Chad, Dahomey, Guiana, Ivory Coast, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Senegal, Tunisia, Ubangi-Shari) 2. French Somaliland 3. Gabon Spanish 4. Rio de Oro 5. Spanish Guinea 6. Spanish Morocco 7. Spanish Sahara Italian 8. Eritrea 9. Italian Somaliland 10. Libya British 11. Bechuanaland 12. British East Africa 13. British Somaliland 14. Egypt 15. The Gambia 16. Gold Coast

Indian Ocean 24

18 21

27

9

17. Nigeria 18. Northern Rhodesia 19. Nyasaland 20. Sierra Leone 21. Southern Rhodesia 22. Sudan 23. Swaziland 24. Uganda 25. Togoland German 26. Cameroon 27. German East Africa 28. Southwest Africa Portuguese 29. Angola 30. Cabinda 31. Mozambique 32. Portuguese Guinea Belgian 33. Belgian Congo Independent 34. Ethiopia 35. Liberia 36. Union of South Africa

Boxer Rebellion In 1900, while China was the focus of European and American economic attention, a feeling of nationalism began to unite the Chinese people against outsiders. That year, the Boxer Rebellion targeted Europeans and Americans for death. It took an army made up of soldiers from eight countries, including the United States, to crush the Boxers. After the rebellion, Chinese leaders, who had been trying to modernize their country’s government for many years before the Rebellion, tried one last time. In 1911, however, a pro-democracy rebellion succeeded. After 2,000 years of rule by a series of emperors, China elected its first president, Sun Yixian (also known as Sun Yat-sen).

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Quick Review 1: European imperialism in Africa was different from European imperialism in China in that Europeans— A

established formal colonies in Africa.

B

generally agreed on one another’s land claims in Africa.

C

meant only to sell products in Africa, not take raw materials.

D

accepted the American Open Door Policy for African trade.

The Accidental Empire The United States government did not set out to bring the people of other countries under its direct control. An economic empire was preferable, but the course of events led to an unexpected result. Cuba, an island just 90 miles off the coast of Florida, was part of the Spanish empire. For most of the 1800s, Americans believed that Cuba would one day become part of the United States. American sugar and tobacco companies invested millions of dollars to grow their crops in Cuba. When the Cuban people sought independence from Spain in 1895, the Spanish violently crushed the rebellion. American business leaders appealed to the U.S. government to help protect their investments, while American newspapers printed stories— West Indies Atlantic Ocean

Florida

Tropic of Cancer Cuba Puerto Rico Haiti

Jamaica N

Central America

20 °

Dominican Republic

E

W S

10 ° South America

80 °

70 °

60 °

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Lesson 1: Imperialism and World War I (1877–1919) some exaggerated—about the terror faced by the Cuban people in the face of cruel treatment by the Spanish. In early 1898, the U.S. Navy sent the warship Maine to Cuba to protect American citizens there. In February, the Maine exploded and sank in Havana harbor. Most Americans blamed the Spanish, although historians today believe the explosion was an accident. In any case, the United States declared war on Spain a few weeks later. The Spanish-American War lasted throughout the summer of 1898. Spain was quickly defeated, and the U.S. Army and Navy captured Cuba and Puerto Rico. U.S. warships also destroyed the Spanish fleet anchored in the Philippine Islands. After Spain surrendered, the United States agreed to pay $20 million for the Philippines and also received the island of Puerto Rico. Both became American territories. Cuba did not become independent immediately. American troops remained in Cuba until 1909. After that, Cuba’s independence came with strings attached. The United States kept a military base on the island and insisted on the right to intervene if law and order (or independence) in Cuba were ever threatened. With the Philippines and Puerto Rico in its pocket and strong ties to Cuba, the United States became an imperialist power. The people of the Philippines resented American rule, however, and the U.S. Army spent the next three years fighting Filipino opposition. For this reason, some historians refer to the period from 1898 through 1902 as “Spanish-AmericanCuban-Filipino War.”

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Quick Review 2: List two reasons why the United States became involved in the Spanish-American War. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

FAST FACT Another Pacific island chain, Hawaii, became an American territory in 1898, after seven years of effort by Americans who controlled the sugar industry in the islands. On top of its economic importance, Hawaii became an important military base beginning just before World War I.

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Theodore Roosevelt’s Diplomacy In 1823, President James Monroe had announced the Monroe Doctrine. Monroe declared the following: • The Western Hemisphere was to be, from that time on, off-limits to further European colonization. • Any attempts at further colonization would be considered unfriendly acts against the United States. • The United States would not interfere in European affairs or with European colonies that already existed in the Western Hemisphere. For the next 70 years or so, the Monroe Doctrine was forgotten. American leaders dusted it off just before the Spanish-American War; after the war, it became an important principle of American foreign policy.

Roosevelt’s view of America’s role is often called big-stick diplomacy, from one of his favorite sayings: “Speak softly but carry a big stick.” Roosevelt wasn’t afraid to follow this advice. Here’s one example: For many years, ships sailing from Europe or the east coast of the United States to ports on the Pacific Coast had to go all the way “around the horn” at the southern tip of South America. A canal across Central America would cut weeks off of the trip. Many canal proposals had been made over the years, but Roosevelt took direct action. He helped Panama gain its independence from the South American nation of Colombia so that the United States could build the canal. The Panama Canal proved to be a major boost for American trade. In later years, Roosevelt proudly claimed, “I took the canal.”

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Theodore Roosevelt

President Theodore Roosevelt, who took office in 1901, believed in the Monroe Doctrine and even added to it. Roosevelt favored using American military power to protect the country’s interests. The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine gave the United States special rights as “policeperson” in Central and South America. As a result, American forces repeatedly went to Cuba, Haiti, Nicaragua, Honduras, and the Dominican Republic to support or remove governments, depending on the interests of the United States.

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Quick Review 3: Which of the following countries would have been most likely to oppose Theodore Roosevelt’s efforts to “take” the Panama Canal? A

Cuba

B

Panama

C

Colombia

D

Great Britain

Explain your answer to the question. ___________________________________________________

Dollar Diplomacy President William Howard Taft, who followed Roosevelt as president, extended American influence in Latin America through a method known as dollar diplomacy. Taft believed American investments would help to stabilize Latin American countries, and keep them as American allies.

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

World War I

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The nations of Europe were building up to a major war in the 1800s, as military expenditures and armies grew, and ancient hatreds continued to boil. In 1914, when the Great War began (to be known only later as World War I), the United States attempted to stay out. After all, the Monroe Doctrine promised that the United States would not interfere in European affairs, and the American people largely agreed that this particular war was not something to get involved in. Nevertheless, it was difficult for the United States to avoid getting involved. American companies did millions of dollars in business with countries on both sides, but much more with the Allied nations of Great Britain and France. The American people were generally more sympathetic to these more democratic allies—even though many more Americans had German, rather than British or French, ancestors. The Germans also angered American leaders as well as the public. According to international law, nations that are officially neutral in a war are to be left alone. In 1915, a German submarine sank the British passenger ship Lusitania, killing 128 Americans. (It was later revealed that Lusitania was carrying weapons in addition to passengers. Many other ships carrying supplies from the United States to Europe were also sunk by the Germans.) In 1917, the British intercepted a

The Lusitania

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Unit 1 – International Politics, Geography, and Economics secret message, known as the Zimmermann note (or Zimmermann telegram) from Germany to Mexico, in which Germany’s foreign minister promised Germany would help Mexico take back Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if the United States entered the war. Through these actions and others, Germany repeatedly violated American neutrality. Finally, at Woodrow Wilson’s request, Congress declared war on Germany on April 6, 1917. Early in 1918, shortly after American troops began fighting, Wilson announced his Fourteen Points, a list of American goals for the world to follow after the war. He wanted European borders and colonial claims to be adjusted fairly. He urged the victorious nations to recognize the rights of national groups to govern themselves, and requested that nations avoid making secret defense agreements with one another. (Such secret agreements had contributed to the start of the Great War.) Finally, he proposed the formation of a League of Nations to handle international disputes. It would take several months for the United States to gear up its war effort and transport soldiers to European battlefields. Nevertheless, in only a few months of fighting, 126,000 Americans died from battle, accidents, or disease. In November 1918, the combined military might of the British, French, and Americans forced the Germans to sign an armistice ending the war. The victorious nations held a peace conference in Versailles, France, which President Wilson attended. Wilson’s dreams, as expressed in the Fourteen Points, were frustrated. The victorious nations were more interested in punishing Germany and in carving up enemy territory than they were in fairness. The U.S. Senate, which must ratify all treaties, barred the United States from joining the League of Nations.

Quick Review 4: In 1916, Woodrow Wilson was reelected president with the slogan, “He kept us out of war.” Why did Wilson change his mind in 1917? A

Congress forced him to declare war on Germany.

B

Germany continued to violate American neutrality.

C

League of Nations efforts to stop the war were failing.

D

Mexico launched attacks on Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.

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MSAT Practice Directions: Read each question and choose the best answer. 1.

2.

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3.

Which of the following actions taken by the United States is an example of imperialism? A

shipping goods to a South American country

B

declaring war on Germany at the start of World War II

C

disagreeing with Britain over import taxes on British cloth

D

owning most rubber tree plantations in the Southeast Asian country of Malaysia

Which of the following events was LEAST important in leading to the SpanishAmerican War in 1898? F

the American annexation of Hawaii

G

the explosion of the battleship Maine

H

threats to American business interests in Cuba

J

Spanish aggression against the people of Cuba

Which of the following BEST describes the Open Door Policy? A

Any country trading with China should be given trading rights equal to all the others.

B

Spheres of influence grant exclusive rights to investment in African mines, railroads, and factories.

C

Countries doing business in a region should contribute troops to stop any rebellion that breaks out there.

D

Countries trading with the United States should keep an open door toward principles of freedom and democracy.

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4.

“It is not true that the United States feels any land hunger or entertains any projects as regards the other nations of the Western Hemisphere save such as are for their welfare. All that this country desires is to see the neighboring countries stable, orderly, and prosperous. Any country whose people conduct themselves well can count upon our hearty friendship. If a nation shows that it knows how to act with reasonable efficiency and decency in social and political matters, if it keeps order and pays its obligations, it need fear no interference from the United States. Chronic wrongdoing, or an impotence which results in a general loosening of the ties of civilized society, may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation. . . .” The paragraph above is MOST LIKELY taken from— F G

6.

a presidential response to the Zimmermann note.

H

Roosevelt’s corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.

J

the American plan for stopping the Philippine rebellion.

“I kept the United States out of the Great War until it was impossible for us to avoid it any longer. Then, I urged the victorious countries to make a new start in Europe in hopes of preventing future wars.” Who is speaking? A

Arthur Zimmermann

B

James Monroe

C

Woodrow Wilson

D

Theodore Roosevelt

Germany MOST LIKELY offered military aid to Mexico if the United States were to enter World War I because Germany— F

wanted to expand its imperial empire into North America.

G

owed Mexico money for raw materials it had purchased.

H

had more ancestors living in Mexico than in the United States.

J

believed military action near the United States would keep American troops out of Europe.

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5.

the treaty ending the Boxer Rebellion.