ways of baloma - HAU Books

ways of baloma - HAU Books

WAYS OF BALOMA Hau Books Executive Editor Giovanni da Col Managing Editor Katharine Herman Editorial Board Carlos Fausto Ilana Gershon Michael Lemp...

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WAYS OF BALOMA

Hau Books

Executive Editor Giovanni da Col Managing Editor Katharine Herman Editorial Board Carlos Fausto Ilana Gershon Michael Lempert Stephan Palmié Jonathan Parry Joel Robbins Danilyn Rutherford Anne-Christine Taylor Jason Throop

www.haubooks.com

The Malinowski Monographs In tribute to the foundational, yet productively contentious, nature of the ethnographic imagination in anthropology, this series honors the creator of the term “ethnographic theory” himself. Monographs included in this series represent unique contributions to anthropology and showcase groundbreaking work that contributes to the emergence of new ethnographically-inspired theories or challenge the way the “ethnographic” is conceived today.

Hau Books

WAYS OF BALOMA

RETHINKING MAGIC AND KINSHIP FROM THE TROBRIANDS Mark S. Mosko

With Tabalu Pulayasi Daniel, Molubabeba Daniel, Pakalaki Tokulupai, and Yogaru Vincent

Hau Books Chicago

© 2017 Hau Books Cover, © 2008 Mark S. Mosko Foreword, © 2017 Hau Books and Eduardo Viveiros de Castro Preface, © 2017 Hau Books and Pulayasi Daniel Cover and layout design: Sheehan Moore Typesetting: Prepress Plus (www.prepressplus.in) ISBN: 978-0-9973675-6-0 LCCN: 2017945173 Hau Books Chicago Distribution Center 11030 S. Langley Chicago, IL 60628 www.haubooks.com Hau Books is marketed and distributed by The University of Chicago Press. www.press.uchicago.edu Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper.



FOR CASSIE

The cover image was taken by the author, Mark S. Mosko, in Omarakana village in 2008. The inscription reads: TOBOMA MISKAMBATI BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI 1884–1942 NOTABILITY SCIENTIST, THE SON OF THE POLISH NATION FOUNDER OF MODERN SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY FRIEND OF TROBRIAND ISLANDS PEOPLES AND THE POPULARIZER OF THEIR CULTURE

Table of Contents

Analytical table of contents List of figures

xiii xv

foreword Eduardo Viveiros de Castro

xvii

preface Tabalu Paramount Chief Pulayasi Daniel, OBE

xxv

Acknowledgments chapter 1 Introduction: On magical images, powers, and persons

xxxiii 1

chapter 2 Theoretical orientations: Partibility and participation

61

chapter 3 The magical powers of baloma

89

chapter 4 Baloma creations and procreations

133

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chapter 5 Bwekasa: The life-giving sacrificial rites of Trobriander, living and deceased

159

chapter 6 Cycles of reproduction and reincarnation as bwekasa sacrifice

213

chapter 7 Taboos, totems, and Tuma

273

chapter 8 The supreme puzzle: Suvasova incest, rank, marriage alliance, and chiefly endogamy

329

chapter 9 Conclusion: Analogy, homology, and changing ways of baloma

385

Glossary References Index of general terms Index of personal names

413 427 455 469

Analytical table of contents ch. 1 introduction: on magical images, powers, and persons (Pp. 1–60). Foreshadows and highlights (Pp. 6–19) – On methods, ethnographic theory, and the archive (Pp. 19–28) – The rhythm of fieldwork at Omarakana (Pp. 28–55) – Progression of chapters (Pp. 56–60) ch. 2 theoretical orientations: partibility and participation (Pp. 61–88). A Newborn Melanesian Ethnography: The “divine dividual” (Pp. 62–71) – Whence dividual spirits and other sacred beings? (Pp. 71–77) – Lévy-Bruhl’s participation theory (Pp. 77–80) – What participation entails: Recent theories (Pp. 80–88) ch. 3 the magical powers of baloma (Pp. 89–132). Tambiah’s participation theory of magic and Newborn Melanesian Ethnography (Pp. 92–96) – Trobriand magic, religion, and the character of personhood (Pp. 96–97) – Austronesian comparisons (Pp. 97–98) – The spirits, the spells, the words, and the puzzles (Pp. 98–118) – The structure of megwa (Pp. 101–109) – Magical agency in postMalinowski ethnography (Pp. 109–118) – Cosmology (Pp. 119–132) – Tuma and Boyowa (Pp. 120–124) – Kekwabu images and peu’ula powers (Pp. 124–132) – Human spirits, nona mind, and nanamsa thought (Pp. 127–132) ch. 4 baloma creations and procreations (Pp. 133–158). Cosmogony (Pp. 135–144) – Megwa spells as reproduction (Pp. 144–150) – Reproduction between and within dalas (Pp. 150–158) – Melanesian “virgin birth” (Pp. 152–158) ch. 5 bwekasa: the life-giving sacrificial rites of trobrianders, living and deceased (Pp. 159–211). Ula’ula: ceremonial payment (Pp. 162–169)

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– Sacrifice in anthropological theory (Pp. 170–173) – Bwekasa: sacrifice (Pp. 173–204) – Daily bwekasa meals (Pp. 177–180) – Bwekasa reported as “bubwalua” (Pp. 180–199) – Bwekasa foods and nonedibles (Pp. 199–204) – Bwekasa sacrifices of thought (nanamsa) (Pp. 204–211) – Mimi: dreams (Pp. 204–206) – Tokaisivila: seers (Pp. 206–207) – Kibobuta: personal correctness (Pp. 207–210) – Megwa: spells (Pp. 210–211) ch. 6 cycles of reproduction and reincarnation as bwekasa sacrifice (Pp. 213–271). Magic and procreation (Pp. 214–217) – Virgin birth redux: conception as bwekasa (Pp. 217–227) – Malinowski’s hints of procreative bwekasa (Pp. 223–227) – Buwala: free gifts (Pp. 227–231) – Mortuary rites as bwekasa (Pp. 231–255) – Annette Weiner on mortuary ritual (Pp. 233–249) – Lisaladabu as bwekasa (Pp. 249–255) – Lisaladabu rites celebrating bilubaloma (Pp. 255–266) – Kopoi “carrying” as bwekasa (Pp. 255–266) – Reincarnation: The keda roads (Pp. 266–269) – Lisaladabu in Tuma (Pp. 267–269) – Bwekasa, kinship, and kula (Pp. 269–271) ch. 7 taboos, totems, and tuma (Pp. 273–327). Taboo in Oceanic perspective (Pp. 276–278) – Apropos the ethnography of Trobriand taboo (Pp. 279–296) – Seligman (Pp. 279–281) – Malinowski (Pp. 281–284) – Scoditti (Pp. 285–286) – Campbell (Pp. 286–288) – Montague (Pp. 288–296) – Kikila: ritual restrictions (Pp. 297–301) – Taboo violation, suvasova incest, and magical efficacy (Pp. 301–309) – Weiner on spirit incest and dala endogamy (Pp. 309–310) – Taboo observance, suvasova avoidance, and magical efficacy (Pp. 311–316) – The supreme chiefly taboo: Libulebu theft (Pp. 312–316) – Kiklila restrictions of what people (including chiefs) should do (Pp. 316–322) – Chiefly kikila and ketota rank (Pp. 322–327) ch. 8 the supreme puzzle: suvasova incest, rank, marriage alliance, and chiefly endogamy (Pp. 329-383). Previous ethnography on marriage regulation (Pp. 333–334) – Extensions of primary kin terms versus classification (Pp. 334–343) – Polygynous marriage (Pp. 343–354) – Powell (Pp. 346–349) – Leach (Pp. 350) – Weiner (Pp. 350–354) – Litulela-tubulela relations as “same dala” (Pp. 355–361) – Magical inheritance (Pp. 361–368)– Vakalova: adoption (Pp. 364–366) – Magical inheritance as quasi-suvasova incest (Pp. 367–368) – Suvasova and quasi-suvasova (Pp. 368–383) – Ketota: rank endogamy (Pp. 369–370) – The Tabalu/Osapola-Bwaydaga chiefly alliance (Pp. 370–380) – Chiefly suvasova and quasi-suvasova (Pp. 380–382) – Chiefly quasi-endogamy (Pp. 382–383) ch. 9 conclusion: analogy, homology, and changing ways of baloma (Pp. 385–411). On change and its part(icipations) (Pp. 391–395) – Partibility, participation, and poststructuralism (Pp. 395–396) – Christianity and bilubaloma (Pp. 396–411)

List of figures

1.1. Map of Trobriand Islands 1.2. To’uluwa’s ligisa personal hut, Malinowski’s tent, and Bwenaia’s stone “house” (bwala) 1.3. Pulayasi’s ligisia personal dwellings 1.4. Fetching fresh water from Ibutaku cave 1.5. Collecting salt water 1.6. The Mogiyoisi waterhole where Malinowski obtained his water for cooking and drinking 1.7. Tabalu Pulayasi Daniel at rest 1.8. The ethnographer and Pulayasi 1.9. The Tabalu with his friend and traditional rival, Toliwaga Toguguwa Tobodeli 1.10. Kiriwina Council of Chiefs meeting 1.11. Omarakana women elders 3.1.  Ikuli “form” of wotunu “tubes” and kekwabu “images” 5.1. Making mona taro pudding 5.2. “First string” of research collaborators 5.3. Bwekasa sacrifice with pooled community contributions 5.4. Omarakana’s central liku yam storage house 5.5. Gugula heaps of taitu yams 5.6. Kuvi long yams on display 5.7. Sacred togita back portion of village pig 5.8.  Pwatai towers food display

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5.9.  Sagali kaula to end Tabalu death obligations 5.10.  Bwekasa with store-bought goods 5.11. North Mekeo atsiatsi sacrifice to ancestral spirits on peace chief ’s platform 5.12. North Mekeo pange mortuary sacrifice to ancestral spirits 5.13. Tanarere display of kula armshells (mwauli) 5.14. Nonsmokable newsprint 6.1. Kemelu doba exchange of banana-leaf bundles 6.2. Kemelu kaula food heaps 6.3. Sepwana heaps of doba 6.4. Lisaladabu inflation 6.5. Men’s and women’s doba ceremonial dancing skirts 6.6. Men’s pubic covering (napweya) 6.7. Deli procession at lisaladabu 6.8. Preparations for deli at lisaladabu in Malinowski’s time 6.9.  Deli in Malinowski’s time 6.10. Deli exchange of veguwa 6.11. Traditional kopoi “carrying” rite 6.12. Modern kopoi rite of carrying the deceased 8.1. Omarakana cross-cousin marriage 8.2. Cross-cousin marriages between Tabalu and Osapola-Bwaydaga dalas 8.3. Recent Tabalu/Osapola-Bwaydaga intermarriage 8.4.  Gubwatau affiliates bearing their gifts for the Tabalu 8.5. Wosa George Mwasaluwa presenting urigubu to the ethnographer 9.1. United Methodist Church altar at Omarakana