what factors influenced the development of slavery in the colonies?

what factors influenced the development of slavery in the colonies?

OBJECTIVE: WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF SLAVERY IN THE COLONIES? Warm-Up: Read and highlight the article provided on slavery in the col...

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OBJECTIVE: WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF SLAVERY IN THE COLONIES?

Warm-Up: Read and highlight the article provided on slavery in the colonies. Begin to complete the KWL Chart provided. Reminders! Chapter 3 assignments are due tomorrow. WHAP materials for Ms. Napp! A121 Unit 1 Test: October 4, 2013

VIRGINIA: A Tobacco Colony •

Tobacco was Virginia’s “gold” and its production reached 30 million pounds by the 1680s



The expansion of tobacco led to an increased demand for field labor

• Virginian societies lacked a stable family life •

Social conditions opened the door to roles women rarely assumed in England

TOBACCO AND SLAVERY

• Englishmen and Africans

– The spread of tobacco led settlers to turn to slavery, which offered many advantages over indentured servants – In the early to mid-seventeenth century, the concepts of race and racism had not fully developed – Africans were seen as alien in their color, religion, and social practices • Slavery in History – Although slavery has a long history, slavery in the North America was markedly different from Europe – Slavery developed slowly in the Americas because slaves were expensive and their death rate was high in the seventeenth century

SLAVERY IN THE WEST INDIES •

ACCORDING TO FONER, “NO EUROPEAN NATION, INCLUDING ENGLAND, EMBARKED ON THE COLONIZATION OF THE NEW WORLD WITH THE INTENTION OF RELYING ON AFRICAN SLAVED FOR THE BULK OF ITS LABOR FORCE.” BUT THE INCESSANT DEMAND FOR WORKERS SPURRED BY THE SPREAD OF TOBACCO CULTIVATION LED TO IT EVENTUALLY.

SLAVERY AND THE LAW The line between slavery and freedom was more permeable in the seventeenth century than it would later become. Some free blacks were allowed to sue and testify in court. Anthony Johnson arrived as a slave but became a slave-owning plantation owner.

NORTH AMERICAN SLAVERY “IN THE AMERICA’S, SLAVERY WAS BASED ON THE PLANTATION, AN AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISE THAT BROUGHT TOGETHER LARGE NUMBERS OF WORKERS UNDER THE CONTROL OF A SINGLE OWNER. THIS IMBALANCE MAGNIFIED THE POSSIBILITY OF SLAVE RESISTANCE AND MADE IT NECESSARY TO POLICE THE SYSTEM RIGIDLY. IT ENCOURAGED THE CREATION OF A SHARP BOUNDARY BETWEEN SLAVERY AND FREEDOM.”

A Slave Society A number of factors made slave labor very attractive to English settlers by the end of the 17th century, and slavery began to supplant indentured servitude between 1680 and 1700 By the early eighteenth century, Virginia had transformed from a society with slaves to a slave society. In 1705, the House of Burgesses enacted strict slave codes.

NOTIONS OF FREEDOM – From the start of American slavery, blacks ran away and desired freedom.

– Settlers were well aware that the desire for freedom could ignite the slaves to rebel

It was not until the 1660s that the laws of Virginia and Maryland explicitly referred to slavery. A Virginia law of 1662 provided that in the case of a child who had one free and one enslaved parent, the status of the offspring followed that of the mother In 1667 the Virginia House of Burgesses decreed that religious conversion did not release a slave from bondage.

BACON’S REBELLION • • •

Virginia’s government ran a corrupt regime Good, free land was scarce for freed servants Taxes on tobacco rose as price fell Frontier settlers demanded: 1) that the governor remove the colony’s Indians to open up land 2) that reduction of taxes end rule by the elite Bacon spoke of traditional English liberties Aftermath left Virginia’s planter-elite to consolidate their power and try to improve their image

SLAVE CULTURE AND SLAVE RESISTANCE

A."

African-American Cultures –

In the Chesapeake, slaves learned English, were part of the Great Awakening, and were exposed to white culture



In South Carolina and Georgia, two very different black societies emerged •

Rice plantations remained distinctly African



Urban servants assimilated into Euro-American culture

CRISES OF RESISTANCE, 1739-1741 1739 – ON JAMAICA, A MAJOR BRITISH CENTER OF SUGAR PRODUCTION, COMMUNITIES OF MAROONS RESISTED PLANTERS’ AUTHORITY UNTIL BRITISH AUTHORITIES IN A TREATY RECOGNIZED THEIR FREEDOM IN EXCHANGE FOR WHICH THE MAROONS AGREED TO RETURN FUTURE ESCAPEES. 1739-40 – STONO REBELLLION IN SOUTH CAROLINA SAW AN UPRISING OF OVER 100 SLAVES WHICH LED TO A TIGHTER SLAVE CODE FOR SOUTH CAROLINA AND A PROHIBITIVE TAX ON IMPORTED SLAVES 1741 – RIOTS AND FIRES IN NEW YORK CITY WHERE SLAVES WITH WHITE ALLIES PLANNED TO BURN PART OF THE CITY,. SEIZE WEAPONS, AND MURDER THE WHITE POPULATION OR TURN OVER NEW YORK TO SPAIN. ALL THESE CRISES DISPROVE THE NOTION THAT SLAVES HAD NO CONCEPT OF “LIBERTY”

Slavery and the British Empire Slave Systems in the English Colonies – Three distinct slave systems were well entrenched in Britain’s mainland colonies • Chesapeake • South Carolina and Georgia • Non- plantation societies of New England and the Middle Colonies – Chesapeake slavery was based on tobacco – Chesapeake plantations tended to be smaller and daily interactions between masters and slaves were more extensive

15

KWL Chart Watch the following video on slavery. Continue to fill out the “L” column as we go along. Be prepared to share with a friend and the class. Slavery - Crash Course US History #13

SLAVERY AND THE EMPIRE –

Slavery transformed Chesapeake society into an elaborate hierarchy of degrees of freedom •

large planters



yeomen farmers



indentured servants; tenant farmers



slaves



With the consolidation of a slave society, race took on more and more importance as a line of social division •

Liberties of free blacks were stripped away

SLAVERY AND THE EMPIRE

• Slavery in the North – Since the economics of New England and the Middle Colonies were based on small farms, slavery was far less important – Given that slaves were few and posed little threat to the white majority, laws were less harsh than in the South – Slaves did represent a sizable percentage of urban laborers, particularly in New York and Philadelphia

WRAP-UP Share with the class either: Something you learned today that was new OR something you would still like to know about slavery.

AN EMPIRE OF FREEDOM •

British Patriotism –

Despite the centrality of slavery to its empire, eighteenthcentury Great Britain prided itself on being the world’s most advanced and freest nation



Britons shared a common law, a common language, a common devotion to Protestantism, and a common enemy in France



Britons believed that wealth, religion, and freedom went together

AN EMPIRE OF FREEDOM •



The Language of Liberty –

All eighteenth-century Britons “reveled in their worldwide reputation for freedom”



It was common for ordinary folk to evoke “liberty” when protesting “in the streets”

Republican Liberty –

Republicanism called for the virtuous elite to give themselves to public service

AN EMPIRE OF FREEDOM •

Liberal Freedom –

The leading philosopher of liberty was John Locke



Lockean ideas included individual rights, the consent of the governed, and the right of rebellion against unjust or oppressive government



Locke’s ideas excluded many from their full benefits in the eighteenth century, but they opened the door for many people to challenge later the limitations on their own freedom

THE ENLIGHTENMENT •

The American Enlightenment –

Americans sought to apply to political and social life the scientific method of careful investigation based on research and experiment



Deists and natural laws embodied the spirit of the American enlightenment •

Benjamin Franklin



Thomas Jefferson

PRECONDITIONS OF AN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY IDENTITY

1.

COLONIAL RESPONSE TO THE PLIGHT OF MERCHANT SEAMEN –

NAVIGATION ACTS



COLONIAL LAWS RE: “JACK TARS”



IMPRESSMENT

2."

THE GREAT AWAKENING

3."

EFFECTS OF FRENCH & INDIAN WAR

4."

EVOLUTION AND INFLUENCE OF COLONIAL BROADSIDES

AMERICAN MERCHANT SEAMEN • NAVIGATION ACTS MADE JACK TARS AMONG THE MOST VULNERABLE • COLONIAL LAWS TOWARD SEAMEN GENERALLY HARSH • IMPRESSMENT AND HOT PRESSES EVOKE COLONIAL SYMPATHIES

THE GREAT AWAKENING •

Religious Revivals – The Great Awakening was a series of local events united by a commitment to a more emotional and personal Christianity than that offered by existing churches – The Great Awakening was led by flamboyant preachers like Jonathan Edwards • Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

JONATHAN EDWARDS & SLAVERY



Edwards must have deemed it right and proper for a person of his station to acquire a slave.



Throughout his life, Edwards owned a succession of slaves, beginning with Venus.



By 1731, Rhode Island was well on its way to controlling a large majority of the North American trade in African slaves, with Newport as the hub.

THE GREAT AWAKENING



The Awakening’s Impact – The Great Awakening inspired criticism of many aspects of colonial society – A few preachers explicitly condemned slavery, but most masters managed to reconcile Christianity and slaveholding – The Great Awakening expanded the circulation of printed material in the colonies

BATTLE FOR THE CONTINENT



The Middle Ground – Indians were constantly being pushed from their homes into a “middle ground” between European empires and Indian sovereignty – The government of Virginia granted an immense land grant in 1749 to the Ohio Company

BATTLE FOR THE CONTINENT •

The Seven Years’ War –

The war began in 1754 as the British tried to dislodge the French from western Pennsylvania



For two years, the war went against the British



The tide of war turned in 1757 with the coming of British Prime Minister William Pitt



The Peace of Paris in 1763 resulted in the expulsion of France from North America

BATTLE FOR THE CONTINENT



Pontiac’s Rebellion – With the removal of the French, the balance of power diplomacy that had enabled groups like the Iroquois to maintain a significant degree of autonomy was eliminated – In 1763 Indians launched a revolt against British rule – Neolin spoke of a pan-Indian identity – To avoid further Indian conflicts, London issued the Proclamation of 1763

Eastern North America after the Peace of Paris, 1763

BATTLE FOR THE •



Pennsylvania and the Indians –

The war deepened the hostility of western Pennsylvania farmers toward Indians and witnessed numerous indiscriminate assaults on Indian communities



The Paxton Boys demanded that Indians be removed from Pennsylvania

Colonial Identities –

Colonists emerged from the Seven Years’ War with a heightened sense of collective identity

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